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Daniel. Funeral Poem upon the Death of the late Nohle Earl uf 
Devmishire. — " Well-languaged Daniel," as Browne calls 
him in his " Britannia's Pastorals," was one of Soull[>tw'? 
favourite Poets. 




N EXPECTED and accidental circumstances have entailed 
^- upon me the publication of the lamented ^OUtl)Cp'0 Com- 
mon-Place Book. Had it been committed to my hands 
in the first instance, I should probably have made an 
arrangement somewhat different ; — as it is, I carry out, as far as I am 
enabled to do, the arrangement which is detailed in the publisher's 

I am the Editor of the present volume, complete in itself, from 
p. 310; — and those who are conversant in literary investigation, will 
make allowance for such errors as have escaped me. As far as my 
limited reading, and the resources of a private library, permitted, I have 
investigated doubtful passages, and have corrected imperfect references. 
Nothing but reverence for the honoured name of »)OUtl)0p would have 
induced me, with my clerical calls and studies, to have entered upon the 
work. The difficulty of carrying it out only, shows the wonderful stores, 
the accumulated learning, and the unlimited research, of the excellently 
single-hearted, the devout, and gifted Collector. Most truly may it 
be said of him, in the v/ords of Stephen Hawes, in his " Pastime of 
Pleasure," — speaking of Master Ltdgate, — 

" And wlio his bokes list to hear or see, 
In them he shall find Elocution 
With as good order as may be, 
Keeping full close the moralization 
Of the trouthe of his great intencion. 
WTiose name is registered in remembraunce, 
For to endure by long continuance." 


The headings of such passages as are not bracketed are the lamented 
Collector's; — for the rest, (in the quaint Words of old Fuller, in his 
Abel Redivivus,) " my own meanness " is responsible. I had likewise, 
in preparing the sheets for the press, added a few notes on difficult and 
doubtful passages or expressions — but on consideration I crossed them 
out. One or two inadvertently remain, pp. 444. 515. 523. which may 
serve as a sample of others. The Index I have taken such pains with 
as I might. 

The lines quoted on the fly leaf from Daniel, I have quoted in the 
new edition of The Doctor, &c, in one volume; — but they seem, if 
possible, more to the purpose here. The purity of his English weighs 
with me, as it did with the lamented ^OUtljCy. 


Vicarage, West Tahri^g, Rissex, 
ApRii 10, 1849. 

g)OUtt)ep's Common place Booft. 






S to the thing itself," says 
Jeremy Taylor, " the 
truth is, it is better in con- 
templation than practice : 
for reckon all that is got 
by it when you come to handle it, and it 
can never satisfy for the infinite disorders 
happening in the government, the scandal 
to religion, the secret dangers to public 
societies, the growth of heresy, the nurs- 
ing up of parties to a grandeur so con- 
siderable as to be able in their own lime to 
change the laws and the government. So 
that if the question be, whether mere opi- 
nions are to be prosecuted, it is certainly 
true they ought not. But if it be con- 
sidered how by opinions men rifle the affairs 
of kingdoms, it is also as certain, they ought 
not to be made public and permitted." 

HI Religion. 
" That is no good religion," says Jeremy 
Taylor, "whose principles desti'oy any duty 
of religion. He that shall maintain it to 
be lawful to make a war for the defence 
of his opinion, be it what it will, his doc- 
trine is against godliness. Any thing that 

is proud, any thing that is peevish and 
scornful, any thing that is uncharitable, is 
against the vyiaivaaa cicaaKCtXia, that 
form of sound doctrine which the Apostle 
speaks of." 

Faith and Opinion. 

" Faith," says the ' Public Friend,' Sa- 
muel FoTHERGiLL, " overcomcs the World : 
Opinion is overcome by the World. Faith 
is triumphant in its power and in its effects ; 
it is of divine tendency to renew the heart, 
and to produce those fruits of purity and 
holiness which demonstrate the dignity of 
its original : Opinion has filled the world, 
enlarged the field of speculation, and been 
the cause of pi-oducing fruits dii-ectly oppo- 
site to the nature of faith. Opinion has 
terminated in schism : Faith is productive 
of unity." 

Quaker Dress. 

SamuelFothergill says to a young man 
who had laid aside the dress of the Society, 
and with it some of the moral restrictions 
which it imposed, " If thou hadst appeared 
like a religious, sober Friend, those com- 
panions who have exceedingly wounded 
thee, durst not have attempted to frequent 


thy comjiany. If thou hadst no other in- 
ducement to alter thy dress, I beseech thee 
to do it to keep the distinction our prin- 
ciples lead to, and to separate thee from 
fools and fops. At the same time that by 
a prudent distinction in appearance thou 
scatterest away those that are the bane of 
youth, thou wilt engage the attention of 
those whose company will be profitable 
and honoui'able to thee." 


"LAvraie philosophic respecte les formes 
autant que Torgueil les dedaigne. II faut 
une discipline pour la conduite, comme il 
faut un ordre pour les idees. Nier I'uti- 
lite des rits et des pratiqiies religieuses en 
matiere de morale, ce serait nier Tempu-e 
des notions sensibles sur des etres qui ne 
sont pas de purs esprits ; ce serait nier la 
force de I'habitude." — PoBTAiis. {Louis 
Goldsmith — Recueil, torn. 1, p. 277.) 

Religious Truths. 

" La verite est comme un rayon du soleil ; 
si nous voulons la fixer en elle-meme, elle 
nous eblouit et nous aveugle : mais si nous 
ne considerons que les objets qu'elle nous 
rend sensibles, elle eclarre "k la fois notre 
esprit et rechauffe notre cceur." — Saint- 
Pierre. — Harmonies de la Nature, tom. 3, 
p. 2. 

The Two Gates of Heaven. 

" DiEU a mis sur la terre deux portes qui 
menent an ciel : il les a placees aux deux 
extremites de la vie ; I'une a I'entree, 1' au- 
tre a la sortie. La premiere est celle de 
I'innocence, la derniere est celle du repen- 
tir." — Saint - Pierre. — Harmonies de la 
Nature, tom. 3, p. 150. 


" For certain it is, Christianity is nothing 
else but the most perfect design that ever 
was, to make a man be happy in his whole 

capacity : and as the law was to the Jews, 
so was philosophy to the Gentiles, a school- 
master to bring them to Christ, to teach 
them the rudiments of happiness, and the 
first and lowest things of reason ; that when 
Christ was come all mankind might become 
perfect, — that is, be made regular in their 
appetites, wise in their understandings, as- 
sisted in then- duties, directed to, and in- 
structed in, their great ends. And this is 
that which the Apostle calls ' being perfect 
men in Christ Jesus ;' perfect in all the in- 
tendments of nature, and in all the designs 
of God. And this was brought to pass by 
discovering, and restoring, and improving 
the law of Nature, and by turning it all into 
religion." — Jeremy Tatlor, Preface to the 
Life of Christ. 


The Jesuit P. Richeome says of the 
law, that " entre toutes les parties de ceste 
faculte la preud-hommie et bonne con- 
science est la plus rare, et la plus requise a 
un advocat Chrestien. C'est pour elle que 
les Advocats renouvellent tons les ans leur 
serment a la Saint Martin, ceremonie qui 
monstre que c'est la qualite la plus neces- 
saire de toutes au jugement des bons juges." 
— Plainte Apologetique, p. 69. 

Bonum and Bene. 

It was well said by the Scotch Jesuit, 
Wllliam Critton (Crichton?) '■'■Deum ma- 
gis amare adverhia qiuam nnmina : quia in 
additionihus (actioiiihus f) magis ei placent 
BENE et u:gitime quam bonum et legiti- 
mum. Ita ut nullum bonum liceat facer e 
nisi bene et legitime feri possit." 

Hume's Opinion of the Stability of American 
IIuME says, speaking of our first plan- 
tations in America, " Speculative reasoners 
during that age, raised many objections 
to the planting of those remote colonies. 


and foretold that after draining their mo- 
ther country of inhabitants, they would 
soon shake off her yoke, and erect an in- 
dependent Government in America. But 
time has shewn, that the views entertained 
by those who encouraged such generous un- 
dertakings were more just and solid. A 
mild government and great naval force have 
preserved, and may still preserve during 
some time, the dominion of England over 
her colonies." 

This was wi-itten in 1758. 

New Opinions, how treated in Macaria. 

The Traveller in the old Dialogue, who 
gives an account of the " famous kingdom 
of Macaria," says, " they have such rules, 
that they need no considerable study to 
accomplish all knowledge fit for divines, 
by reason that there is no diversity of opi- 
nions amongst them." Upon which the 
Scholar with whom he is conversing asks, 
" How can that be ?" 

" Trav. Very easily : for they have a law, 
that if any divine shall publish a new opinion 
to the common people, he shall be account- 
ed a distui'ber of the public peace, and 
shall suffer death for it. 

" Schol. But that is the way to keep them 
in error perpetvially, if they be once in it. 

" Trav. You are deceived : for, if any one 
hath conceived a new opinion, he is allowed 
every year freely to dispute it before the 
great Council. If he overcome his adversa- 
ries, or such as are appointed to be oppo- 
nents, then it is generally received for 
truth ; if it be overcome, then it is declared 
to be false." — Harleian Miscellany (8vo. 
edit.) vol. 6, p. 383. 


In the " famous kingdom of Macaria," 
"there are established laws, so that there are 
not too many tradesmen, nor too few, by en- 
joining longer or shorter times of appren- 
ticeship." — Harleian Miscellany (8vo. edit.) 
vol. 6. 

Periodical Emigrations, 

The speculative politician who at the 
meeting of the Long Parliament recom- 
mended for their adoption the laws of his 
ideal kingdom of Macaria, as a panacea for 
the disturbances of the state, mentions 
among other institutions, " a law for New 
Plantations, that every year a certain num- 
ber shall be sent out, strongly fortified, and 
provided for at the public charge, till such 
time as they may subsist by their own en- 
deavours. And this number is set down by 
the Council for New Plantations, wherein 
they take diligent notice of the surplusage 
of people that may be spared." — Harleian 
Miscellany (8vo. edit.) vol. 6, p. 382. 

Abolition of Offices and Privileges. 

" He that thinks the King gives away 
nothing that is worth the keeping, when he 
suffers an office, which keeps and main- 
tains many officers to be abolished, and taken 
away, does not consider that so much of his 
train is abated ; and that he is less spoken 
of, and consequently less esteemed in those 
places where that power formerly extended : 
nor observes how private men value them- 
selves upon those lesser franchises and roy- 
alties, which especially keeiJ up the power, 
distinction, and degrees of men." — Claren- 
don, vol. 1, p. 444. 

Difference between Craft and Wisdom. 

Speaking of the Parliamentary Leaders 
in Charles I.'s time, Hobbes says, " If craft 
be wisdom, they were wise enough : but 
wise, as I define it, is he that knows how 
to bring his business to pass (without the 
assistance of knavery and ignoble shifts) by 
the sole strength of his good contrivance. 
A fool may win from a better gamester by 
the advantage of false dice, and packing of 
cards." — Behemoth. 


Aristocracy of Trade. Proneness of Trades- 
men to Disaffection. 

" Great capital Cities wlien rebellion is 
upon pretence of grievances, must needs 
be of the rebel party, because the griev- 
ances are but taxes, to which citizens, that 
is, merchants, whose profession is their 
private gain, ai'e naturally mortal enemies; 
their only glory being to grow excessively 
rich by buying and selling. 

" B. But they are said to be of all callings 
the most beneficial to the Commonwealth, 
by setting the poorer sort of people to work. 

'•'■A. That is to say, by making poor people 
sell theii' laboui' to them at their own prices. 
So that poor people, for the most part, might 
get a better living by working in Bridewell, 
than by spinning, weaving, and other such 
labovu- as they can do ; saving that by work- 
ing slightly they may help themselves a 
little, to the disgrace of our manufacture. 
And as most commonly they are the first 
encouragers of rebellion presuming of then- 
strength, so also are they for the most part, 
the first to repent, deceived by them that 
command their strength." — Hobbes, Behe- 

Leagues and Covenants. 

" Solemn Leagues and Covenants," says 
Charles I. " are the common road used in 
all factions and powerful perturbations of 
State or Church : where formalities of ex- 
traordinary zeal and piety are never more 
studied and elaborate, than when Politicians 
most agitate desperate designs against all 
that is settled or sacred in religion and laws ; 
which by such screws are cunningly, yet 
forcibly, wrested by secret steps and less 
sensible degrees from their known rule and 
wonted practice, to comply Avith the hu- 
mours of those men, who ami to subdue all 
to their own will and power under the dis- 
guises of holy Combinations. Which cords 
and withes will hold men's consciences no 
longer than Force attends and twists them : 
for every man soon grows his own Pope, and 

easily absolves himself of those ties, which, 
not the commands of God's word, or the 
Laws of the Land, but only the subtlety and 
terror of a Party casts upon him ; either 
superfluous and vain,, when they were suffi- 
ciently tyed before ; or fraudulent and in- 
jurious, if by such after ligaments they find 
the imposers really aiming to dissolve or 
susjjend their former just and necessary 
obligations." — EJ/vWj' Bc(«7iXi»c>/, p. 106. 

Church Dignities. 

" For those secular additaments and or- 
naments of authority, civil honour and 
estate, which my predecessors, and Christian 
Princes in all countries have annexed to 
Bishops and Churchmen, I look upon them 
but as just rewards of their learning and 
piety who are fit to be in any degree of 
Chm-ch Government : also enablements to 
works of charity and hospitality, meet 
strengthenings of their authority in point 
of respect and observance, which in peace- 
ful times is hardly payed to any Governors 
by the measure of theii* virtues so much as 
by that of their estates ; poverty and mean- 
ness exposing them and their authority to 
the contempt of licentious minds and man- 
ners, which persecuting times much re- 

" I would have such men Bishops as are 
most worthy of those encouragements, and 
best able to use them. If at any time my 
judgement of men foiled, my good intention 
made my error venial : and some Bishops I 
am sure I had, whose learning, gravity and 
piety, no men of any worth or forehead can 
deny. But of all men, I would have Church- 
men, especially the Governors, to be re- 
deemed from that vulgar neglect, which 
(besides an innate principle of vicious oppo- 
sition, which is in all men against those that 
seem to reprove or restrain them) will ne- 
cessarily follow both the Presbyterian Party, 
which makes all ministers equal, and the 
Independent Inferiority, which sets tlieu" 
Pastors below the People." — Ek-wj' Boo-cX- 
a//, p. 149. 


Cottagers by the Way-side. 

" The Lords of the soil do unite their 
small occupying, only to increase a greater 
proportion of rent ; and therefore they 
either remove, or give license to erect small 
tenements by the high ways' sides and 
commons ; whereunto in truth, they have 
no right, and yet out of them also do raise 
a new commodity." Harrison in the De- 
scription of Britain, describes this encroach- 
ing upon the way side as " a fault to be 
found almost in every place, even in the 
time of our most gracious and sovereign 
Lady Elizabeth." — Holinshed's Chroni- 
cles, vol. 1, p. 189. 

Toleration of the Reformed Churches. 

" We find that all Christian Churches kept 
this rule ; they kept themselves and others 
close to the Rule of Faith, and peaceably 
suffered one another to differ in ceremo- 
nies, but suffered no difference amongst 
their own- They gave liberty to other 
Churches ; and gave laws and no liberty 
to their own subjects. And at this day 
the Churches of Geneva, France, Switz- 
erland, Germany, Low Countries, tie all 
their people to their own laws, but tie up 
no man's conscience : if he be not persuaded 
as they are, let him charitably dissent, and 
leave that Government and adhere to his 
own communion. If you be not of their 
mind, they will be served by them that are ; 
they will not ti'ouble your conscience, and 
you shall not disturb theii' govei'nment."' — 
Jekemt Tati,ob. 

Weak Consciences. 
" As for them who have weak and tender 
consciences, they are in the state of child- 
hood and minority : but then you know 
that a child is never happy by having his 
own humour : if you chuse for him, and 
make him to use it, he hath but one thing 
to do : but if you pvit him to please Ifim- 

self, he is troubled with every thing, and 
satisfied with nothing." — Jeremy Tayloe. 

Liberty of Preaching. 

" tfDEED," says Jeremy Taylor, " if I 
may freely declare my opinion, I think it 
were not amiss, if the liberty of making ser- 
mons were something more restrained than 
it is ; and that either such persons only 
were entrusted with the liberty, for whom 
the church herself may safely be respon- 
sive, that is to men learned and pious, 
and that the other part, the vulgus cleri, 
should instruct the people out of the foun- 
tains of the church and the public stock, 
till by so long exercise and discipline in the 
schools of the prophets, they may also be 
entrusted to minister of their own unto the 
people. This, I am sure, was the jiractice 
of the primitive church, when preaching 
was as ably and religiovisly performed as 
now it is." — Vol. 7, p. 785. 

3Ien who would preach. 
" Such a scabbed ytche of vaynglory 
catche they in theyr prechynge, that though 
all the worlde were the worse for it, and 
theyr owne lyfe lye thereon, yet wolde they 
longe to be pulpetyd." — Sir Thomas More's 
Dialoge, ff. 39. 

" Touchtnge such textes as these here- 
tyques allege agaynst the worshyppyng of 
Ymages, very sure am I that St. Austyn, 
St. Hyerome, St. Basyle, St. Gregory, with 
so many a godly connynge man as hath 
ben in Crystes chyrche from the begyn- 
nyug hytherto, understode those textes 
as well as dyd those heretyques ; namely, 
havyng as good wyttes, beyng farre better 
lerned, usynge in study more dylygence, 
beynge an hepe to an handfull, and (which 
most is of all) havyng (as God by many 
myracles bereth wytnes) besyde theyr lern- 
yng, the lyght and clerenes of his espe- 


«\yan {rriu'o, by whiclio tlioy were in- 
wardly tiiuj:;lit. of his ()iK>ly Spyrvd' to i»'r- 
ci'VVC tlmt llii' wordcs spoUi-ii in (lie oldc 
liiwo (i) llic .li'wys ])iM)|)l(> prone to ydola- 
ti'y, — and yet not. (o all IIumii lu'ytiii'r, (lor 
till' pi'i'slos llii'ii had tlu^ yinaif('s oC llu' iiiiii- 
^•(•11 I'lKTultyii in llu' .si'fi'i'l plai'e ol' llu' 
liMiipIc) slioldc liavo no iilacc (o iorbyd 
vniajj;(',-i aniontt his ci'vsIimi llocUi' ; whcri' 
his ph-asui'i- woldo In- lo li:i\c I lie vniai;c 
of his hh'ssyd Imdv, lian^vni^- oii his holy 
iTossi", had in honour and ri-vcriMil riMni'in- 
hrauncc ; whort- he woldo vonchsall' (o 
scMide uulo the kvn;^ Aliia;;arns the ymajic 
ol' his own liii-c ; whori' he lyki'd lo li'vo 
till' liolv \ crnMcio - liic expri'sso ynia^'i' also 
ol his lih'ssvd vysano, as a loktMi lo riMuavnt- 
ill liononr anionjj siudu' as loved hyni, fi-om 
llu" Ivnio of his hytlor passion hytherlo. 
Which as il was hy the uiyrai'le of his Mes- 
syd holy hande expressed and lefte in I he 
sndari, so hatii il lien hv Ivke nn rai'le in 
the Ihvn eorniptalile elotlie, keple and pre- 
sei\ed uneorrnpled this w.e. ^e^e, lVes>Iii' 
and well jiereiMved, to the iiiwarde eom- 
I'orle, spyrytnall rejoysynn'e, and ;;reate eii- 
ereaee ot" lervonre and dexoeymi in I lie 
hartes of n'ood erystiMi |u'ople. ^.'^^^l also 
taught his holy I'van^clyst St. l.nke to 
have anothei' inaner mynde (owarde ynia- 
j;es, than have these heretyipu's, whan he 
pnt in his n>yndi> to eonnterfete and e\- 
jiresse in a taMe the lovely vysage of onr 
lilessyd lady his niotlu-r." — Sill Thomas 
Moue's 7),'<//..i;r, If. 7. 

" I woi.i>i: also fayne wytte whyther these 
hovotyques wyll lie ei>ntente that the liles- 
syd name ol' Jesus be had in hononre and 
reverenee, or not. If not, then uede we 
no more to shewe what wretehes thev be, 
whieh dare dyspyse that holy name that 
the devyll fren\bleth to liere y>i'. And en 
the other syde, yf they a-^re that the name 
of .lesns is to be revereneed and had in 
hononre, then syth that name ol' , lesns is 
nothyntj els but a wonlo, whieh by wryt- 
ynjj or by voyeo ivprosenteth unto the ht>rer 
tlio person of imr savyour C'rvste. tayne 

woldo I wytto of these herotyipios, yf they 
!;vve honour to the name of our Lorde, 
whiehe name is but an ymafijo represent- 
ynjri' his person to mannes mynde and yma- 
fiynaeyon, why anil with what reason can 
I hey dyspyse a fyj;iire of hyin earved or 
pavided, whiehe representeth hym and his 
aeti's, farre more playne and more ox- 
pressely." — Siii 'i'lioMAs Moiie's Dialogr, 
IV. «. 

f M'A/ r.>j>i'ii(/c(/ on Ifilics. 

"l,rrni;u wyssheth in a sermon of hys, 
I hat he had in his hande all the peeys 
1)1' (he holv 1 ro:-se, and sayth that yf he so 
had, 111- wolde throw them there as never 
Sonne shold shyne on I hem. And for Avhat 
worshvpfnil reason wolde the wreteho do 
siiehe vvlanye lo the erosse of CrysteP Hy- 
eanse, as he saylh, that there is so nioelie 
{••olde nowe bestowed aboiite the garnyssh- 
viiL^-e of the peeys of the orosse, that there 
is none lel'te for ])ore fblke. Is not this an 
hv^h reason ? as thoni;h all the {xolde that 
is now liesldwed alunile the peeys of the 
iioly erosse, wolde not ha\e I'ayled to have 
lien jjfyven to pore men, vf I hey had not bon 
bestowed about the jvarnysshynji^e of the 
erosse. .\nd as thon<;h there were nothing 
lost, but that is bestowed about Crystys 

"Take all the gold that is spent about all 
the pei'vs of (."rystys erosse, thorowe Crys- 
tendome (albe it many a gooderysten ju-yneo 
and other godly people hath honourably 
g.arnysshed many ])eeys tliereof) yet yf nil 
the gold were gathereil togyder, it wolde 
ap|>ere a pore poieyon in eomparyson of the 
gold that is bestowed upon euppes ; what 
speke we el" eupjies P in wdiieh the gold, 
allu- i( ihai it be not gyven to pore men, 
N et it is savivl, and may be gyven in alnies 
whan men wyll, — whiehe they never wyll: 
howe small a poreyou weno we were the 
golde about all the peeys of orj'stes erosse, 
yf it were eon\pared with the gold that is 
quyte oast away, about the gyltyngo of 
knyvos, swordes, sporros, lUTace autl paynt- 

Milt 'I'llOMAK MOKK 

• "I i'ImIIixh : iilnl (im llimifdi llit'oi< iiiyimi'H 
< imiIiIk im(I )'<(iii]||iii<' {/"''I '""' >'"""k'"'() ''"' 
i'y'i,y"K <»( |»im(i'« tiinl ImiIm »'<»H'b, mil. umi'I/ 

ill lllil )lllllir«« llC \H'yili'fi» IIImI IJI'i'Hl- pl'i'- 
IiiIhN, ImiI, uImm fllHIiy lyu^lf llti'lIM lllt'lMli'H 

liuiiaMti, Aii'l )"<l iiiii'iii.u nil IIk'ok lli|iitJ(«M 
' Miilili" |,iillif|' Kji^i' ii'i (/iiIiIm Unit, y)'v\iiiia\y 
;r|yll<|r(| ill llllt lili'l**'!! «<^»'H, llll( oii'ly 
iili'iiili' III" iroMHc ii('(!i'yBi, l''iil' (III* (/'iM 
yC il win- (lniia, ||(i< wyo'* •iiiiii w«'in'(li, ll' 
wi»|i|i< |ic< ohcyj/lil {/yv»»i( (ii ji'ii'i' iin'ii 1 immI 
llllll, wIk'KI I|« illiyl^ tst'l'lll lliiil, niirlx' MH 

liiivM tiit'yr jHiroi' lull ni' yn\iU', iiyvf in (Jin 
|i«iit' hill iilM' |it'('i' lln'ii'iiC, lull yt' lli<7 (/y v«' 
'iKj/lil, llii'y Imiii»iiI»«' 1Ih< IiuIiiiim' iiiii<iii{(<i 

nil IIk* (/iiIi|«, Im M('I(« iMtl. ll'To MM llllll" 

|i«'iiy, nr In liU ruinilri'y ii liniom' )(<'iiy, 
wIiki'ikI' rmir" iiinln' ii rorlliyiiu", Hmli 
lininWy ritUBi'X lymln (licy lliiil/ (ir<'l<')|i|i( 
linlyiii'BS t'lir llii' ckIi/h) dI' 1I1171 1 IxIkiI Im- 
ii'Byi'B," Him 'I ikimao Mi»M>.'a /tm/nf/i', II, 

I''tlllll III lllr \'u//lll IMlllJI llllllll' III mil' hull', 

('iiiiiBT «li<iw«'<l f<i Hi, I'«'I"I' "llllll. Mb 
liiylli, llllll, in In w<'l<i lliM I'ltylli liy liiiii 
('o»)r»'B8i'<|, bIii«|iji< ni'vi'i' riiyl" III liiv rliyrrli, 
nor (irtvi-r il^d )!., ii<»l, willi Blonilyiij/ Mb 

• I'-liyc'iH/, Kur yvi Bloili* bI||| iIii- \yyUl 
"i( Infill ill our l(inly, willi'iiil, ll<7iij( <ii' 
(lyHyiiji;, Aii<l in nil olli<'i' wk ('y/iili' cyllii'i' 
ll"yil(^ ri'uiii li^K) ()iM« (yiiM' <ir nllii'i, i/r «'||ya 

• I'liilii (if Ilia r«'BUir«'(M'y(/») nlti'i' Iiib ili-lli, )iib 
<l<'r«' iiMilliir oiK'ly i')(i'i«j(lM ; for llic ay^py^ 
('yi'iM'ioii nml r<'iiii'iiilir«tiiir« wlii'i'oC ijn- 
('liynlii- yiii\y in Ilic 'l','i)t\)ii' Ii'bboiib I<'- 
v|l,li licr i'nii<l''ll liiiriiyiipr Biyll, wli"ii nil 

• III' ri'iiK'iiniiiil, iliul, eyt^iiylyi-lli Itia hjh/bIIi-b 
ninj ilysrijJi'H, I/k oih< \iy oin' |ii)l oiil," 

Mitt TiroMAB MoMK'ii Ihiihi^K, fl', ;j;j, 

Hi iiptini< I h II III' til 

" I »uv»', known," anilli Hiii Thomas 
MoM>',, " »7k)iI, t/oo'l W^IU'B llinl, linlli bi'1, 
mII «»f)i«jr li'rn/n((«t f«'A(«'«')il, Uci bMi'I/ of 
•MfJplurM) »wy«li', pttH^'ly for nIowIIi, »'♦*/'»- 

oyn^it' llii' Inlionr nml Jinyin' lo In' Biiali'yn- 
I'll in llml l<i iiyii|iii, |inilly lor |iryi|(', liy 
wliii'li llii'y I'onM iiol t<n<liii>< iIk' ri'ilni|/n- 
17011 llinl, aliolilt' aomlyni'' (nil lo llidr |iiu'l,<4 
ill i|yB|iy|«i7oiiB, wliyi'lu' nlli'ii yon«, (lii^r 
inwiiri|t< Hi'i'i'i'l, liivonr lownnla llicinai'lvyM 
i'ov«*rv<l mill i'lol»yil iiml«'r lln< |ii«'l,ii»l of 
Byiii|i(yi'yl« nii'l t/ooil Clryali'ii i|i'VO(7irt» 
lioriM' lo iIm' Iovk oC lioly Bi'ry|ilni'» mIoiiKi 
Mill in lyli'll wliyli' nlN'r lli<' i|niii|innMi' i!|iy- 
i7l<oi('pry<li' ilinl Kiiwnx' lo IIu'iiibkII liiilnil 
III IJM^r linrlya, linlli In'i^tonm' lo |inl iinl liia 
IiomiIb nml hIm'w liymacHi', I'or linn Jinvi< 
llii7 loni^i'il, iinili r iIh' |irnyB»< ol'liol^ 6i'ri)i- 
liiM', I'l Bi'l onl. lo bIicw llicyr own alinly 
Willi l( lij^rnilBK llii'y wol'li' IniVM ai'iim llii< 
nior«< Ml III' Bi'l, liy, 1I117 liitvi' I'yral, fiilli'n 1,0 
III" ilyB|(rnyB nni| ilir^ayon ol' nil oiIhi 
ilyai7)ilym'B, Ami li^i niiai' in b|ii'Ii ynj/i' or 
)iH'i'liynK ol' Binli ronininnn lliynt/i-a rw nil 
( '1 yalcn nii'ii know, II117 ionli| nol b< I'ln i'«- 
<i'll<iil, nor ninliK il, n)i|ii'r<' nml bi'iim' llinl. 
in Ilii7r alinly lli«7 IiihI <lonn nny ((r«'(il, 
imiyotry lo aln-w lli«'iiis«'l('«', (||nrl'or«i »n«*r- 
vyloiial^ l.ln'y ad, onl, |inrn.<lo»la nnij 
Blrnnnj/M o|ij)^nyon» «(/n)'iiBl, llm <'.<imimtn 
Cnylli ol' iJiyBliiB liol«t dliyri'ln', Ami \iy- 
I'liUBK |,|i«<^ InivM l,li<'r«<in lli«< oMk lioly i|im'- 
loi'B nj/n^'nal, l.l(i'in,Ui«'y 1(111 U> lli'-ionli'iiijiln 
nml ilyajirn^Bi^ ol' IIk'Iii ( I'^llnr iinl'irr^ynj/ 
llii'yr owm* ron<l<! i/Iobi'b nj/nynsl- Ilii* oM 
lonnyiitii^ uml IiIi-bb^'I Tnllnia inli'rj/rnlH' 
lyons ( or «'lly» N'm- to oomi- woi i|<'b ol lioly 
B<'i7|ilnr>', llinl a«'niM 1,0 any lor ll«'ni,M{ynynal, 
iiinny ino I.<hI.<'b llinl, plnynly iniil«<', n(/nynBl. 
llii'in ; willionl ri'i'yvynf/, or i'ri'|/yvynj/ l,o 
nny ri'naon or nnlliorylf of nny mnii, ijiiyi Im 
or il»'<|i', or ol ill'' liol" I liyn III' ol' <'ryBl l»» 
l|i«' I'onlrnry, Ao'l IIikb om-B )/r</iiilly |;"r- 
bwiult'il II w/'oii{/i' wny, liny Ink" lln' Iny- 
'lyll in III!' IHlii', nii'l r<'iim' I'oilli lyk" uii 
In'il 8lion(/i< liorBi', llinl, nil lln- world*' rnn 
nol, jilin fc<' lln'in lin^ k<', iJnl. wllli aowJnj^ 
Hc'lyfyon, ai'llynu" loi lli ol i't\'iM\'t\ tunl Im'- 
ri'syi's, nml ajiyyiij/*' lln 7»' |""' liynt{« wif1» 
ri'lnikynt/" o/' j/r«"'alli<*'l<' nn'l \)rAwyt< for 
IIm' iii'Oj/li'a |/|i'nanr)', lli«'y (,<»nrriK nmny \i 
ninii U> rnync, 0ml tMt'MllItt vXmt" hio- 
liitfi<, ft', »'JH, 


Thirst for Persecution. 

" One of this sorte of this new kynde of 
prechers beyng demaundyd why that he 
usyd to saye in his sermons about, that 
now adayes men jirechyd not well the gos- 
pell, answered that he thought so, bycause 
he saw not the prechers persecutyd, nor no 
stryfe nor busynes aryse upon theyr prech- 
yng. Whiche thynges, he sayd and wrote, 
was the fruyte of the gospell, bycause 
Cryste said Non veni pacem mittere sed gla- 
diuin : I am not come to sende peace into 
the world, but the sworde. Was not this 
a worshvpfuU understandyng, that bycause 
Cryst wolde make a devycyon amonge in- 
fydels, from the remenaunt of them to 
Wynne some, therfore these ajDOstels wolde 
sowe some code of dyssensyon amonge the 
Crysten peple, wherby Cryst myght lese 
some of them ? For the frute of stryfe 
amonge the lierers, and persecucyon of the 
prechor, can not lyghtly growe amonge 
Crysten men, but by the prechynge of some 
straunge neweltyes, and bryngynge up of 
some new fangell heresyes to the infeccyon 
of our olde fayth." — Si3 Thomas More's 
Dialoge, ff. 39, 

Defiance of Authority. 

" Some have I sene whiche when they 
have for theyr paryllous prechynge ben 
by theyr prelates prohybyted to preche, 
have (that notwithstandyng) proceded on 
styll. And for the mayntenaunce of theyr 
disobedyence, have amended the matter 
with an heresy, boldely and stubburnly de- 
fendjTige, that syth they had connynge to 
preche, they were by God bounden to 
preche. And that no man, nor no lawe 
that was made, or coulde be made, had any 
authoryte to forbede them. And this they 
thought suifycyently proved by the wordes 
of the appostle, Oportet magis obedire Deo 
quam hominibus. As though these men 
were appostles now specyally sent by God to 
preche heresyes and sow sedycyon amonge 
Crysten men, as the very appostles were in 

dede sente and commaundyd by God to 
preche his very faythe to the Jeves." — Sib 
Thomas More's Dialoge, S. 38. 

Scripture' not needful. 

" The fayth came in to Saynt Peter his 
harte as to the prynce of the appostles, 
without herynge, by secrete inspyracyon, 
and into the remenaunt by his confessyon 
and Crystes holy mouthe ; and by theym 
in lyke maner, fyrste without wrytynge 
by onely wordes and prechynge, so was 
it spredde abrode in the worlde, that his 
fayth was by the mouthes of his holy mes- 
sengers put in to mennes eres, and by his 
holy hande wrytten in mennes hartes, or 
ever any worde therof almost was wryt- 
ten in the boke. And so was it conveny- 
ent for the laue of lyfe, rather to be wrytten 
in the lyvely myndes of men, than in the 
dede skynnes of bestes: And I nothynge 
doubte, but all had it so ben, that never 
gospell hadde ben wrytten, yet sholde the 
substaunce of this fayth never have fallen 
out of Crysten folkes hartes, but the same 
spyryte that planted it, the same sholde 
have watered it, the same shold have kepte 
it, the same shold have encreased it." — Sib 
Thomas Moke's Dialoge, f. 46. 

Dinner Hour. 

" By my trouthe, quod he, I have ano- 
ther tale to tell you, thftt all thys gere 
graunted, tournyth us yet into as moche 
uncertayntye as were in before. Ye, quod 
I, then have we well walked after the 
balade, 'the further I go, the more be- 
hynde.' I pray you what thynge is that ? 
For that longe I to here ere yet we go. 
Nay, quod he, it were better ye dyne fyrste. 
My lady wyll I wene be angry with me 
that I kepe you so longe therfro, for I holde 
it now well towai'de twelve. And yet more 
angry wolde waxe wyth me, yf I sholde 
make you syt and muse at your mete, as ye 
wolde I wote well muse on the matter, yf 
ye wysta what it were. If I were, quod 


I, lyke my wyfe, I sholde muse more 
theron nowe, and ete no mete for longynge 
to knowe. But come on than, and let us 
dyne fyrst, and ye shall tell us after." — Sir 
Thomas M.ob.e.'' s Dialoge, ff. 61. 

Holiday Spo7-ts. 
" In some countries they go on himting 
commonly on Good Friday in the moi'n- 
ing, for a common custom. Will ye break 
the evil custom, or cast away Good Friday ? 
There be cathedral churches into which 
the country cometh with procession at 
Whitsuntide, and the women following the 
cross with many an unwomanly song, and 
that such honest wives as out of that pro- 
cession ye could not hyre to speck one 
such foul rybaudry word as they there sing 
for God's sake hole rebaudous songs as loud 
as their throat can cry. Will you mend that 
lewde manner, or put away Whitsuntide ? 
Ye speak of lewdness used at pylgrymages ; 
is there, trow ye, none used on holy days ? 
And why do you not then advise us to put 
them clean away, Sundays and all? Some 
wax dronke in Lent of wygges and crack- 
nels ; and yet ye wolde not, I trust, that 
Lent were fordone." — Sir Thomas Moee's 
Dialoge, ff. 79. 

A Reforming Itinerant. 
" Mat ye not tell his name, quod he. 
Which of them, quod I ; for he had mo 
names than half a lefe can hold. Where 
dwellyd he, quod your frend. Every where 
and no where, quod I : for he walked about 
as an apostle of the Devyll from shyre to 
shyre and towne to towne, thorowe the 
realme, and had in every diocyse a dyverse 
name : by reason whereof he did many years 
moche harm or he coulde be found out." — 
Sir Thomas More's Dialoge, ff. 90. 

Too many Priests. 

"Were I Pope," says Sir Thomas More 
in his Dialoge with the Messenger. " By 
my soul, quod he, I wolde ye were, an/^l my 

lady, your wife, Popess too. Well, quod I, 
then sholde she devyse for nuns. And as 
for me, touchyng the choyce of prestys, I 
could not well devyse better provysyons 
than are by the laws of the Chyrche pro- 
vyded allredy, if they were as wel kept as 
they be well made. But for the nomber, I 
wolde surely see such a way therin that we 
sholde not have such a rabbell, that every 
mean man must have a preste in his house 
to wayte vipon his wyfe, which no man al- 
most lackett now, to the contempt of prest- 
hed, in as vyle offyce as his horse-kee^jer. 
That is, quod he, trouth in dede, and in 
worse too, for they keephawkes and dogges : 
and yet me semeth surely a more honest 
servyce to wayte on an horse than on a 
dogge. And yet I suppose, quod I, yfthe 
laws of the Chyrch which Luther and Tyn- 
dall wolde have all broken, were all well 
observed and kept this gere sholde not be 
thus, but the nomber of prestes wolde be 
moche mynyshed, and the remenaunt moche 
the better. For it is by the laws of the 
Chyrch provyded, to the entent no preste 
sholde unto the slaunder of presthed, be 
dryven to lyve in such lewd nianer, or 
worse, there sholde none be admytted unto 
presthed, untyll he have a tytell of a suffy- 
cyent yerely lyvyng, eyther of his own pa- 
trymony, or other wyse. Nor at this day 
they be none other wyse accepted. Why, 
quod he, wherefore go there then so many 
of them a begging ? Marry, cpiod I, for 
they delude the law and themself also. For 
they never have graunt of a lyvyng that 
may serve them in syght for that purpose, 
but they secretly dyscharge it, ere they have 
it, or els they could not gete it. And thus 
the Bysshop is blynded by the syght of the 
wrytyng, and the prest goth a beggynge 
for all his graunt of a good lyvynge ; and 
the laue is deluded and the order is rebuked 
by the prestes beggynge and lewd lyvynge, 
which eyther is fayne to walke at rovers, 
and lyve upon trentalles, or worse ; or ellys 
to serve in a secular mannes house, which 
sholde not nede yf this gappe were stop- 
ped."— ff. 103. 


The Bible. Sir Thomas Morels Opinion. 

" Where as many thynges be layde 
against it, yet is there in my mynde not 
one thyng that more putteth good men of 
the clergy in doubte to sufFre it, than this 
that they se somtyme nioche of the worse 
sorte more fervent in the callyng for it, than 
them whom we fynde far better. Which 
maketh them to fere lest suche men desyre 
it for no good, and lest if it were had in 
every mannes hande, there wold grete pa- 
rell aryse, and that sedycyous peopl sholde 
do more harme therwith, than good and 
honest folke sholde take fruyte thereby. 
Which fere I promyse you nothynge fereth 
me ; but that who so ever wolde of theyr 
raalyce or foly take harme of that thynge 
that is of itselfe ordeyned to do all men 
good, I wold never for the avoydynge of 
theyr harme, take frome other the profyte 
whiche they myght take, and nothynge de- 
serve to lese. For els, yf the abuse of a 
good thynge sholde cause the takynge awaye 
therof from other that wolde use it well, 
Cryst sholde hymself never have been borne, 
nor brought his fayth into the worlde, nor 
God sholde never have made it neyther, yf 
he sholde for the losse of those that wolde 
be dampned wretches, have kept away the 
occasyon of rewarde from them that wolde 
with helpe of his grace, endevoure them to 
deserve it." — Sir Thomas More's Dialoge, 
fF. 114-5. 

Luther s Declaration against War. 

" Luther and his followers among their 
other heresies hold for a plain conclusion, 
that it is not lefuU for any Crysten man to 
fight against the Turk, or to make against 
him any resystance though he come into 
Crystendome with a great army, and la- 
bour to destroy all. For they say that all 
Crysten men are bounden to the coun- 
sayle of Cryst, by whiche they saye that 
we be forboden to defende ourselfe ; and 
that St. Peter was reproved of our Savy- 
our when he strake of Malchus ere, all be 

it that he did it in the defence of his own 
master, and the most innocent man that 
ever was. And unto this they lay, that 
syth the time that Christen men first fell to 
fyghting, it hath never encreased, but alway 
mynyshed and decayed. So that at this 
day the Turk hath estrayted us very nere, 
and brought it within a right narrow com- 
pass, and narrower shall do, say they, as 
long as we go about to defend Crystendome 
by the sword : which, they say, sholde be 
as it was in the beginning encreased, so be 
contyuued and preserved, only by pacyence 
and martyrdome." — Sir Thomas More's 
Dialoge, ff. 145. 

Readiness of Belief in the Beformed People . 

" Surely for the most part such as be 
ledde out of the ryght way, do rather fall 
thereto of a lewde lyghtnesse of theyr owne 
mynde, than for any grete thynge that 
moveth theym in theyr mayster that techeth 
theym. For we se theym as redy to by- 
leve a purser, a glover, or a wever, that 
nothynge can do but scantely rede En- 
glysshe, as well as they wolde by lev e the 
wysest and the best lerned doctor in the 
realme." — Sir Thomas More's Dialoge, ff. 

Sectaries at Chelmsford. 

" There was but one church at Chelms- 
ford, "the Parishioners w^re so many that 
there were 2000 communicants, and Dr. 
JMichelson the Parson was an able and 
godly man. Before this parliament was 
called of this numerous congregation there 
was not one to be named, man or woman, 
that boggled at the Common Prayers, or 
refused to receive the sacrament kneeling, 
the posture which the Church of England 
(walking in the footsteps of venerable an- 
tiquity) hath by act of Parliament enjoined 
aU those which account it their happiness 
to be called her children. But since this 
magnified reformation was set on foot this 
town (as indeed most Corporations, as we 



find by experience, are nurseries of faction 
and rebellion) is so filled with sectaries, 
especially Brownists and Anabaptists, that 
a third part of the people refuse to com- 
municate in the Church Liturgy, and half 
refuse to receive the blessed sacrament, 
unless they may receive it what posture 
they please to take it." — Mercurius Rustictis, 
p. 22. 

Dr. Featleys Sermon against Sectaries. 

" The Scripture," said Dr. Featley, 
preaching in those days at Lambeth, " sets 
tbrth the true visible Church of Christ upon 
earth, under the emblem of a great field, a 
'j^veat fioor, a gi'eat house, a great sheet, a 
great dratv-net, a great and large foundation, 
iVe. The church shadowed out under these 
similitudes caiinot be their congregation, or 
rather conventicles. For, as they brag and 
commend themselves, wanting good neigh- 
bours, in their field there are no tares, in 
their fioor there is no chaff, in their house 
no vessels of dishonour, in their sheet no U7i- 
clean beasts, in theii' net no trash, on their 
foundation nothing built, but gold, silver, 
and precious stones. They have not sate 
with vain persons, nor kejit company with 
dissemblers : they have hated the assem- 
bly of malignants, and have not accom- 
panied with the ungodly : they have not, 
and will not christen in the same font ; nor 
sit at the holy table, (for to kneel at the 
Sacrament is Idolatry) nor drink spiritually 
the blood of our Redeemer in the same 
chalice with the wicked. Get ye pack- 
ing then out of our Churches with your 
bags and baggages, hoyse up sail for New 
England, or the Isle of Providence, or ra- 
ther Sir Thomas More's Eutopia, where 
Plato's Commoner, and Oforius his No- 
bleman, and Castillio his Courtier, and Ve- 
getius his Soldier, and Tully his Orator, 
and Aiistotles Felix, and the Jews Benco- 
hab, and the Manachees Paraclete, and the 
Gnosticks Illuminate Ones, and the Mon- 
tanist's Spii'itual Ones, and the Pelagians 
Perfect Ones, and the Catharests Pure Ones, 

and their Precise and Holy Ones, are all 
met at Prince Arthurs Round Table, where 
every guest like the table is totus, teres atque 
rotundus." — Mercurius Rusticus, p. 167. 

" There are three heads of Catechism and 
grounds of Christianity, the Apostles Creed, 
the Lord's Prayer and Ten Commandments. 
These may be more truly than Gorran his 
Postills termed aurea fundamenta, which 
they go about to overthrow and cast down, 
and Avhen they have done it, no place re- 
maineth for them to build their synagogues 
or Maria Rotundas, but the sand in the saw- 
pit where their Apostle Brown first taught 
most profoundly. The Lord's Prayer they 
have excluded out of their Liturgy, the 
Apostles' Creed out of their Confession, and 
the Ten Commandments by the Antino- 
mians their disciples out of their rule of 
life. They are too good to say the Lord's- 
prayer, better taught than to rehearse the 
Apostles' Creed, better-lived than to hear 
the Decalogue read at their service, for 
God can see no sin in them, — nor man ho- 
nesty." — ^Dr. Featley, Mercurius Rusticus, 
p. 170. 

Testimony of our own Lives to the Spirit. 

" If the Spirit be obeyed, if it reigns in 
us, if we live in it, if we walk after it, if 
it dwells in us, then we are sure that we 
are the sons of God. There is no other 
testimony to be expected, but the doing of 
our duty. All things else (unless an ex- 
tra-regular light spring from Heaven and 
tell us of it) are but fancies and deceptions, 
or uncertainties at the best." — Jekemy 
Taylor, vol. 9, p. 158. 

Covenant and the Xumher G66. 
" It will not," says the Querela Cantahri- 
giensis, " be more than what upon trial will 
be found true, if we here mention a mys- 
tery which many (we conceive) will not a 
little wonder at, viz., that the Covenant for 
which all this persecution hath been con- 



sists of six articles, and those articles of 
666 words. This is not the first time that 
persecution hath risen in England upon six 
articles. Witness those in the reign of 
king Henry YIII. But as for the numhei' 
of the Beast, to answer directly to the words 
of those six articles, it is a thing which 
(considering God's blessed Providence in 
every particular thing) hath made many of 
us and others seriously and often to reflect 
upon it, though we were never so superstiti- 
ously caballistical as to ascribe much to 
numbers. This discovery, we confess, was 
not made by any of us, but by a very 
judicious and worthy divine (M. Geast) 
formerly of our university, and then a 
prisoner (for his conscience) within the 
precincts of it, and not yet restored to his 
liberty, but removed to London. And 
therefore we shall forbear to insist any far- 
ther, either upon it, or the occasion of it." — 
p. 24. 

Presbyterians win the Women. 

" Madam," says Jeremy Taylor (vol. 9, 
314) in a Dedication to the Countess Dow- 
ager of Devonshire, " I know the arts of 
these men ; and they often put me in mind 
of what was told me by Mr. Sackville, 
the late Earl of Dorset's uncle ; that the 
cunning sects of the world (he named the 
Jesuits and the Presbyterians) did more 
prevail by whispering to ladies, than all 
the church of England and the more sober 
Protestants could do by fine, force and 
strength of argument. For they, by pre- 
judice or fears, terrible things and zealous 
nothings, confident sayings and little sto- 
ries, governing the ladies consciences, who 
can persuade their lords, their lords will 
convert their tenants, and so the world is 
all their own." 

Prophecy against Elizabeth. 

Archbishop Parker concluded the last 
letter which he ever wrote to Burleigh, 
" with an old prophetic verse, that often as 

he said, recurred to his head, though he was 
not much led, he said, by worldly prophe- 
cies : namely this, 

" Foemina morte cadet, postquam terram mala 

Hereby hinting his fears of the Queen's life, 
occasioned by those that now so neglected 
her authority, (he was speaking of the sec- 
taries ;) and his apprehensions of formidable 
evils that might fall upon the nation after- 

" This old prophecy," continues Strype, 
" (whereof the Archbishop repeated only 
the first verse, and had it seems some weight 
with it in those times, among the better 
sort that dreaded the issue of the Queens 
death,) I have met with in the Cotton Li- 
brary, as pretending some disaster to befall 
the Queen, and the invasion and conquest 
of the kingdom by the king of Spain, or 
some other king. They are an hexastich 
of old rhiming verses, with an old transla- 
tion of them into English : as follow. 

Foemina morte cadet, postquam terram mala 

Trans vada rex veniet ; postquam populi 

cito plangent. 
Trans freta tendentes, nil proficiendo la- 

Gentes, deplorent illustres morte cadentes. 
Ecce repentina validos mors atque ruina 
Toilet, prosternet, nee Genstua taliacernet. 

The translation foUoweth. 

The common stroke of death shall stop a 

womans breath. 
Great grief shall then ensue ; and battle 

gin to brew. 
A king shall oer the stream. The people 

of this Reame 
Shall then complayne and moui'ne, and all 

in dueyl sojourne. 
The saylers oi-e the flood shall do them- 
selves no good. 
Ne profyt, nor yet avayl, when Death doth 

them assayl. 
The sore stroke repentine of Death and 

great ruine. 



The stalworthy men of strength shall lye 

down at the length 
In field and eke in strete. Thy Folk yet 

shall not see't." 

Life of Archbishop Par-kcr, p. 493. 

Degeneracy of Theological Stmlies in War- 
burton's Age. 

" The system of man, that is of ethics 
and theology, received almost as many im- 
provements from the English divine, dur- 
ing the course of the Reformation, as the 
system of nature, amongst the same people 
hath done since. It would have received 
more, but for the evil influence which the 
corrupt and mistaken politics of those times 
have had upon it. For politics have ever 
had fixed elFects on science. And this is 
natural. AVhat is strange in the story is 
that these studies gradually decay under an 
improved constitution. Insomuch that there 
is now neither force enough in the public 
genius to emulate their forefathers, nor 
sense enough to understand the use of their 
discoveries. It would be an invidious task 
to enquire into the causes of this degene- 
racy. It is sufficient, for our himiiliation, 
that we feel the effects. Not that we must 
suppose, there was nothing to dishonour 
the happier times which went before : there 
were too many ; but then the mischiefs were 
well repaired by the abundance of the sur- 
rounding blessings. This Church, like a 
fair and vigorous tree, once teemed with the 
richest and noblest burthen. And though, 
together with its best fruits, it j^ushed out 
some hurtful suckers, receding every way 
from the mother plant ; crooked and mis- 
shapen if you will, and obscuring and 
eclipsing the beauty of its stem ; yet still 
there was something in their height and 
verdure which bespoke the generosity of 
the stock they rose from. She is now seen 
under all the marks of a total decay : her 
top scorched and blasted, her chief branches 
bare and barren, and nothing remaining of 
that comeliness which once invited the whole 
continent to her shade. The chief sign of 

life she now gives is the exuding from her 
sickly trunk a number of deformed fun- 
gus's, which call themselves of her, because 
they stick upon her surface, and suck out 
the little remains of her sap and spirits." — 
AVarburton, Introduction to Julian. 

Alliance between Church and State. 

" If," says Warburton, " the reader 
should ask where this chai'ter, or treaty of 
convention for the union of the two socie- 
ties, on the terms here delivered, is to be 
found ? we are enabled to give him a satis- 
factory answer. It may be found, we say, 
in the same archive with the famous origi- 
NAx COMPACT bctwcen magistrate and peo- 
ple, so much insisted on, in vindication of 
the common rights of subjects. Now when 
a sight of this compact hath been required 
of the defenders of civil liberty, they held 
it sufficient to say, that it is enough for all 
the purposes of fact and right, that such 
original compact is the only legitimate 
foundation of civil society ; that if there 
were no such thing formally executed, there 
was virtitally ; that all differences between 
magistrate and people ought to be regu- 
lated on the sujaposition of such a compact, 
and all government reduced to the princi- 
ples therein laid down ; for that the hap- 
piness of which civil society is productive, 
can only be attained by it, when formed on 
those principles. Now something like this 
we say of our Alliance between Church 
and State." — Vol. 4, p. 140. 

Elton Hammond's Belief! 

" I BELIEVE that man requires religion. I 
believe that there is no true religion now 
existing. I believe that there wiU be one. 
It will not, after 1800 years of existence, 
be of questionable truth and utility, but 
perhaps in eighteen years be entirely spread 
over the earth, an effectual remedy for all 
human suffering, and a source of perpetual 
joy. It will not need immense learning to 



be understood. It will be subject to uo 
controversy. — E. H." 

Safety only in Peter's Ship. 
" Extra enim Petri naviculum perseve- 
rantes, cite submergunt : ipsius vero duc- 
tu atque vehiculo homines perveniunt ad 
portum salutis. Tutius profecto est na- 
vigare quam natare ; duci a nautis peritissi- 
mis, quam poni solitarie inter maris pro- 
cellas et aquarum undas." — Balthasar, 
Contra Bohemorum Err ores. 1494. 

Preshjterian Exultations. — 1 644. 
" By the good hand of our God upon us, 
there is a beautiM fabric of his House 
(as near as we can according to the Apos- 
tolical pattern) preparing amongst us ; and 
some such things as are already done to- 
wards it, as will be of singular concernment 
both in reference to the honour of the Lord 
himself, and also to the comfort of the In- 
habitants. Instead of the High Commission, 
which was a sore scourge to many godly 
and faithful ministers, we have an honour- 
able Committee, that turns the wheel upon 
such as are scandalous and unworthy. In 
the room of Jeroboam's Priests, burning and 
shining lights are multiplied, in some dark 
places of the land, which were full of the 
habitations of cruelty. In the place of a 
long Liturgy, we are in hope of a pithy 
Directory. Instead of prelatical Rails about 
the table, we have the Scripture Rails of 
Church Discipline in good forwardness. 
Where Popish Altars and Crucifixes did 
abound, we begin to see more of Christ 
crucified in the simplicity and purity of his 
ordinances. Instead of the Prelates Oath, 
to establish their own exoi'bitant power 
with the appurtenances, we have a Solemn 
Covenant with God, engaging us to endea- 
vour Reformation, according to his Word, 
yea, and the extirpation of Popery, and Pre- 
lacy itself. Who could expect that such 
g] eat matters should be easily and suddenly 
effected?" — Hill's Sermon. 1644. 

Effect of the War in making Good People 
willing to give up any thing for Peace. 
"All our delays and difSculties may prove 
the Lord's method to fetch off people's spi- 
rits, to close more fully with his own work. 
The business of Church Reformation stuck 
here most of all, even in the reluctancy of 
the people's minds against it, and their in- 
disposedness to comjily with it, as in good 
Jehosophat's days. The high places icere 
not taken aicay, for as yet the people had 
not prepared their hearts unto the God of 
their Father. Our Temple-work was no 
more forward, because the hearts of the 
most of England have been so backward to 
it. Behold here the admirable providence 
of God, how he hath improved the length- 
ening of our Troubles ! Hereby he hath by 
little and little moulded people's spirits to 
a more pliable disposition, and made many 
much more ready to concur in the building 
of the Temple, in the advancing of Refor- 

" When the wars began, thousands in Eng- 
land who in a humour would have taken up 
arms to fight for the Prelacy and the Service 
Book, have been so hammered and hewed 
by the continuance of God's judgements 
upon us, that now they are come to this, 
Let the Parliament and Assembly do ichat they 
ivill icith Prelacy and Liturgy, so the sicoi-d 
may be sheathed. Now truth shall be wel- 
come so they may have P(?ace. — The Lord 
hath hereby facilitated the rebuilding of his 
own house. There are wise men who think 
our Reformation would have been very low, 
had not God raised the spirits of our Re- 
formers by the length of these multiplied 
Troubles." — Hlll's Sermon. 1644. 

Exultation at this, and Call for clearing away 
all Rubbish. 

" you read in Isaiah, Before Zion shall 
be redeemed with judgement, he icill purely 
purge away her dross, and take aicay all her 
tin. Here was much dross in England, 
both of persons and things. Wonder not 



if they be not suddenly or easily removed. 
Many drossy persons and things have been 
taken away by the length of these trou- 
bles, which otherwise in all probability 
would still have clogged us. As in mat- 
ters of state, the civil Sword, being so 
indulgent, would not take off Delinquents, 
therefore the Lord still renews the com- 
mission of the military Sword to do justice 
till his counsel be fulfilled. So in the affairs 
of the Church, many poor deluded people 
in England were fond of their needless cere- 
monies and ready to dote on some Baby- 
lonish trinkets, who probably would not 
have been weaned from them, had not God 
whipped them off by the continuance of 
these troubles." — Hill's Sermon. 1644. 

" When you have pulled down the old 
building, leave no nibbish upon the place. 
It was an unhappy defect in former refor- 
mations, though some of the grand Idols 
were removed, yet still there was much 
Babylonish stuff left behind, which now hath 
occasioned great trouble. Away with cere- 
monies, altars, and crucifixes ! Away with 
the Pope's Canon Law, or whatsoever may 
give any occasion to Samaritan builders to 
make such a mixture in the Church as is 
contrary to the simplicity in Christ." — 
Hill's Sermon. 1644. 

Wine-press Jbr squeezing Delinquents. 

" This vineyard, whereof God hath made 
you keepers, cannot but see that nothing 
is wanting on your j^art. For you have 
endeavoured to fence it by a settled mi- 
litia ; to gather out malignants as stones; 
to plant it with men of piety and trust as 
choice vines ; to build the tower of a power- 
ful ministry in the midst of it, and also to 
make a wine-press therein for the squeezing 
of delinquents." — John Arrowsmith. Ser- 
mon. 1643. Dedicated to the House of 

Eushwortk's Account of the Tricks of his 
" PosTERiTT," says Rushworth, in the 
preface to his first volume, " should know 
that some durst write the truth, whilst other 
men's fancies were more busy than their 
hands, forging relations, building and bat- 
tering castles in the aii- ; publishing speeches 
as sfjoken in Parliament which were never 
spoken there ; printing declarations which 
were never passed ; relating battles which 
were never fought, and victories which 
were never obtained ; dispersing letters 
which were never writ by the authors, to- 
gether with many such contrivance, to abet 
a pai'ty, or interest. Pudet hcec opprobria. 
Such practices, and the experience I had 
thereof, and the impossibility for any man 
in after ages to ground a true history, by 
relying on the printed pamphlets in our 
days, which passed the press whilst it was 
without controid, obliged me to all the pains 
and charge I have been at for many years 
together, to make a great Collection ; and 
whilst things were fresh in memory, to sepa- 
rate truth from falsehood, things real from 
things fictitious or imaginary." 

Comet 0/1618. 

" At this time there appeared a Comet, 
which gave occasion of much discourse to 
all sorts of men : amongst others a learned 
Knight, our countryman (Sir John Hey- 
don), confidently and boldly afiirmed, that 
such persons were but abusers, and did 
but flatter greatness, who gave their ver- 
dict, that that Comet was effectual, as some 
would have it, or signal, as others judge 
it, only to Africa, whereby they laid it far 
enough from England : when this Knight, 
out of the consideration of the space of the 
Zodiac which this Comet measured, the 
inclination of his sword and blade, and to 
what place both the head and tail became 
vertical, together with other secrets, said, 
that not only all Eurojie to the elevation of 
fifty-two degrees was liable to its threaten- 



ings, but England especially : yea, that Per- 
son besides, in Avhose fortune we are all no 
less embarked than the Passenger with the 
ship is in the Pilot that guided the same, the 
truth whereof, said he, a few years will 
manifest to all men." — Rushworth, vol. 1, 
p. 8. 

" Queen Anne died this year at Hamp- 
ton Court. The common people, who were 
great admirers of princes, were of opinion 
that the Blazing Star rather betokened the 
death of the Queen, than that cruel and 
bloody war which shortly after happened 
in Bohemia and other parts of Germany." — 
Rushworth, vol. 1, ji. 10. 

James's Confession of Abuses, 1621. 

" I CONFESS," said James to his Parliament 
in 1621, " that when I looked before upon 
the face of the Government, I thought ('as 
every man would have done) that the peo- 
ple were never so happy as in my time. 
For even as at divers times, I have looked 
upon many of my coppicesy riding about 
them, and they appeared on the outside 
very thick and well grown, unto me ; but 
when I turned into the midst of them, I 
found them all bitten within, and full of 
plains, and bare spots, like the apple or pear, 
fair and smooth without, but when you 
cleave it asunder, you find it rotten at heart. 
Even so this kingdom. The External Go- 
vernment being as good as ever it was, and 
I am sure as learned Judges as ever it had, 
and, I hope, as honest administering jus- 
tice within it ; and for peace, both at home 
and abroad, I may truly say, more settled 
and longer lasting than ever any before, 
together with as great plenty as ever ; so 
as it was to be thought, that every man 
might sit in safety under his own vine and 
fig-tree. Yet I am ashamed, and it makes 
my hair stand upright, to consider, how in 
this time my people have been vexed and 
polled by the vile execution of projects, 
patents, bills of conformity, and such like ; 
which besides the trouble of my people. 

have more exhausted their purses than many 
subsidies Avould have done." — Rushworth, 
vol. 1, p. 26. 

Jesuits acting the Puritan. This the strongest 
fact upon the subject, if the date be cor- 

A LETTER, said to have been found among 
the papers of some Jesuits at Clerkenwell 
in 1627, has these passages. " 'WTien. K. 
James lived (you know) he was very vio- 
lent against Arminianism, and interrujited, 
with his pestilent wit and deep learning, 
our strong designs in Holland. Now we 
have planted that sovereign drug Armi- 
nianism, which we hope will purge the 
Protestants from their heresy ; and it flou- 
risheth, and bears fi'uit in due season. The 
materials which build up our bulwark are 
the Projectors and Beggars of all ranks and 
qualities. Howsoever both these Factions 
cooperate to destroy the Parliament, and to 
introduce a new species and form of Govern- 
ment, which is Oligarchy. These serve as 
direct mediums and instruments to our end, 
which is the Universal Catholic Monarchy. 
Our foundation must be mutation. — I can- 
not choose but laugh to see how some of our 
own coat have accoutred themselves ; you 
would scarce know them, if you saw them : 
and it is admirable how in speech and fea- 
ture they act the Puritan. The Cambridge 
scholars, to their woful experience, shall see 
we can act the Puritans a' little better than 
they have done the Jesuits. They have 
abused our sacred patron, St. Ignatius, in 
jest, but we will make them smart for it in 
earnest." — Rushworth, vol. 1, p. 475. 

Sir Benjamin Itudyurd, upon Reasons of 

" The King," said Sir Benjamin Rudyard, 
" is a good man ; and it is no diminution 
to a King to be called so. He hath already 
intimated unto ns by a message, that he 
doth willingly give way to have the abuse 
of power reformed ; by which I do verily 



believe, lie doth very well understand wliat 
a miserable Power it is which hath produced 
so much weakness to himself and to the 
kingdom : and it is our happiness that he is 
so ready to redress it. — For mine own part 
I shall be very glad to see that old decrepit 
law, Magna Charta, which hath been kept 
so long, and lieu bed-rid, as it were, I shall 
be glad to see it walk abroad again with 
new vigour and lustre, attended and fol- 
lowed with the other six statutes : question- 
loss it will be a great heartening to all the 
People. — As for intrinsical power and reason 
of state, they are matters in the clouds, 
where I desire we may leave them, and not 
meddle with them at all, lest by the way of 
admittance we may lose somewhat of that 
which is our own ah-eady. Yet this by the 
way I will say of Reason of State, that in the 
latitude by which 'tis used, it hath eaten out 
almost, not only the Laws, but all the Reli- 
gion of Christendom." — Rushwokth, part 
1, p. 552. 

Sir Benjamin Iludyard upon Moderation. 

" I WILL remember you of one precejit," 
said Sir Benjamin Rudyard, " and that of 
the wisest man. Be not over wise ; be not over 
just: and he gives his reason, ybr whi/ wilt 
thou be desolate ? — If Justice and Wisdom 
may be stretchedto desolation, let us thereby 
learn that Moderation is the Vii'tue of Vir- 
tues, and Wisdom of Wisdoms. Let it be 
our master-piece so to carry the business, 
that we may keep Parliaments on foot ; for 
as long as they be frequent, there will be 
no irregular Power, which, though it cannot 
be broken at once, yet in short time it will 
be made and mouldered away. There can 
be no total or final loss of liberties as long as 
they last : what we cannot get at one time, 
we shall have at another." — Rushworth, 
part 1, p. 552. 

Goad, against Unifortnitij. 
" External forms are the rudiments 
and elements of children, with which srtate 
there is no uniformity consistent, there be- 

ing in it so many several statures and ages. 
And the design of Uniformity is from none 
but Satan, to kill Christ whilst he is a 
child, and stifle him in his swadling clothes, 
though the pretence be, with Herod, to give 
him honour and worship." — Christopher 
Goad, Preface to William DelVs Works. 


" I DESIRE," said INIr.Rous, "that we may 
consider the increase of Arminianism, an 
error that makes the Grace of God lackey 
it after the AVill of Man, that makes the 
sheep to keep the shepherd, and makes a 
mortal seed of an immortal God. Yea, I 
desire that we may look into the very belly 
and bowels of this Trojan Horse, to see if 
there be not men in it ready to open the 
gates to Romish tyranny, and Spanish mo- 
narchy. For an Arminian is the spawn of 
a Papist ; and if there come the warmth 
of favour upon him, you shall see him turn 
into one of those Frogs that rise out of the 
bottomless pit. And if you mark it well, 
you shall see an Arminian reaching out his 
hand to a Pa^iist, a Papist to a Jesuit, a 
Jesuit gives one hand to the Pope, another 
to the King of Spain ; and these men hav- 
ing kindled a fire in our neighbour coun- 
try, now they have brought oA'er some of it 
hither, to set on flame this kingdom also." — 
Rushworth, part 1, p. 645. 

Sale of Arms to the Savages. 
The sale of swords, jiikes, muskets, 
match, powder, shot, &c., to the savages of 
Xew England, had been forbidden both by 
James and Chai'les I. as an insuflerable 
abuse. — Rushworth, part 2, vol. 1, p. 75. 

Covenant proposed., 1628. 
"If," said Rous, "a man meet a dog alone, 
the dog is fearful, though never so fierce by 
nature ; but if that dog have his master 
by him, he wUl set upon that man from 
whom he fled before. This shows that lower 


natures being backetl with the higher, in- 
crease in courage and strength ; and cer- 
tainly man being backed with Omnipotency, 
is a kind of Omnipotency. All things are 
possible to him that believeth ; and where 
all things are possible, there is a kind of 
Omnipotence. Wherefore let us now, by 
the unanimous consent and resolution of us 
all, make a vow and covenant henceforth to 
hold fast, I say, to hold fiist our God and 
our Religion, and then may we from hence- 
forth certainly expect prosperity on this 
kingdom and nation. And to this Covenant 
let every man say Amen." — Rushworth, 
part 1, p. 646. 

Books to he superseded hy Faith. 

" We ai'e almost at the end of Books," says 
Christopher Goad in the Preface to Wil- 
liam Dell's Works : — "these paper-works are 
now preaching their own funerals. Whilst 
they are holding forth the spirit, the letter 
is grown old, and is dying into the newness 
of the si)irit, into which all things shall be 

Birth of Charles the Second. 

" On the 29th of May, Prince Charles was 
born, a little before one of the clock in the 
afternoon; andthe Bishop of London had the 
honour to see him, before he was an hour 
old. At his birth there appeared a Star 
visible that very time of the day, when the 
King rode to St. Paul's Church to give 
thanks to God for the Queen's safe delivery 
of a Son. But this Star then appearing, 
some say was the Planet Venus, others 
Mercury, the sign of Merlin's prophecy : 
' the splendour of the Sun shall languish 
by the paleness of Mercury, and it shall be 
dreadful to the beholders.' Any Planet, 
says the Astrologer, within its degrees of 
the Sun, is very unfortunate ; and Mercury 
being the Lord of the Ascendant and Mid- 
Heaven, was a chief significator of the Prince 
his person, who being afflicted by the pre- 
sence of the Sun, yet miraculously God did 

by his power make this Star shine bright 
in a clear sun-shine day, which was contrary 
to Nature." — Rushworth, part 2, vol. 1, 
p. 50, 

Taking of Bristol. 

" I CAN truly and particularly say," says 
William Dell, — " (let them that will needs 
be offended, stumble and fall at it) — that 
Bristol was conquered by faith, more than 
by force : it was conquered in the hearts of 
the Godly by faith, before they stretched 
forth a hand against it ; and they went not 
so much to storm it, as to take it, in the 
assurance of Faith." — P. 73. 

Declaration concerning Sports. 

King James in his Declaration concern- 
ing Lawful Sports (1618) states "that in his 
progress through Lancashire he did justly 
rebuke some Puritans and Precise people, 
and took order that the like unlawful car- 
riage should not be used by any of them 
hereafter, in the prohibiting and unlawful 
punishment of his good people for using 
their lawful recreations and honest exercises 
upon Sundays and other holydays, after the 
afternoon sermon or service. — With his own 
ears he heard the general comjalaint of his 
people that they were barred from all law- 
ful recreations and exercise upon the Sun- 
days after noon, after the ending of all divine 
service ; which, he said, could not but pro- 
duce two evils : the one, the hindering the 
conversion of many, whom their Priests will 
take occasion hereby to vex, persuading 
them that no honest mirth or recreation is 
lawful or tolerable in the religion which 
the King professeth, and which cannot but 
breed a great discontentment in his people's 
hearts, especially of such as are peradven- 
ture upon the point of turning : the other 
inconvenience is, that this prohibition bar- 
reth the common and meaner sort of people 
from using such exercises as may make 
their bodies more able for war when his Ma- 
jesty, or his successors, shall have occasion 



to use them ; and in place thereof sets up 
tippling and filthy di'unkenness, and breeds 
a number of idle and discontented speeches 
in their Alehouses. For when shall the com- 
mon people have leave to exercise, if not upon 
the Sundays and holydays, seeing they must 
apply their labour, and win their living, on 
all working days ? Therefore, the King said, 
his express pleasure was that no lawful re- 
creation should be barred to his good people 
which did not tend to the breach of the 
laws of this kingdom and canons of the 
Church : that after the end of divine service 
his good people be not disturbed, letted, or 
discouraged from any lawful recreation, 
such as dancing, either men or women ; 
archery for men ; leaping, vaulting, or any 
other such harmless recreation ; nor from 
having of May Games, Whitson-Ales, and 
Morice-Dances ; and the setting upof j\Iay- 
poles, and other sports therewith used : so 
as the same be had in due and convenient 
time, without impedunent or neglect of 
divine service. And that women should 
have leave to carry rushes to the church 
for the decoring of it, according to their old 
custom. But withall he prohibited all un- 
lawful games to be used upon Sundays only, 
as Bear and Bull-baitings, Interludes, and 
at all times in the meaner sort of people, by 
law prohibited, Bowling. And he barred 
from this liberty all known recusants who 
abstained from coming to divine service, 
being therefore unworthy of any lav/ful re- 
creation after the service, that would not 
first come to the church and serve God : 
and in like sort he prohibited them to any 
who, though conform in religion, had not 
been present in the church, at the service of 
God, before their going to the said recre- 
ations. His pleasure likewise was, that they 
to whom it belonged in office, should present 
and sharply punish all such as, in abuse of 
this his liberty, would use these exercises 
before the end of all divine services for 
that day. He commanded that every per- 
son should resort to his own parish church, 
and each parish use these recreatioi>s by 
itself, and prohibited any offensive weapons 

to be carried or used in the said times of 
recreation." — Rushworth, part 2, vol. 1, 
p. 193. 

Authority in Matter of Religion denied. 

" No Princes or INIagistrates in the world," 
says William Dell, " have any power to 
forbid the preaching of the everlasting Gos- 
pel, — or of any one truth of it, though never 
so cross to their designs. And if they should, 
yet hereon ought we to know no more obe- 
dience than Peter and John did here. We 
ought to obey God and not them, and to 
make known the whole mind of God, though 
it be never so contrary to their mind ; after 
the example of Peter and John, who having 
received this power of the Holy Spirit, held 
on their ministry against all the counter- 
mands and threatenings and punishments of 
the magistrates." — P. 26. 

Holliss Trumps. 
This figure of speech seems to have been 
a favourite one with HoUis. Speaking with 
well-merited eulogium of Sir Eandal Crew, 
" He kept his innocency," said he, " when 
others let theii's go, when himself and com- 
monwealth were alike deserted, which raises 
his merit to a higher pitch. For to be ho- 
nest when every body else is honest, when 
honesty is in fashion, and is Trump (as I 
may say), is nothing so meritorious : but to 
stand alone in the breach, to own honesty 
when others dare not do it, cannot be sufii- 
ciently applauded, nor sufficiently rewarded. 
And that did this good old man do ; in a 
time of general desertion he jjreserved him- 
self pure and untainted." — Rush worth, 
part 2, vol. 2, p. 1359. 

The Spirit empties its Vessels. 

" The works of the Spirit, whereby he 
first prepares us for himself, and then enter- 
tains himself in us, are these two especially : 
1st, he empties us ; and 2nd, he fills us with 
himself, whom he hath made empty. 

" 1 . He empties us : and this emptying is 



the first and chief work of the Spirit upon 
the Elect, whereby he prepares them to re- 
ceive himself. For the more empty a man 
is of other things, the more capable he is of 
the Spirit. If you would fill a vessel with 
any other lic[uor than it holds, you must 
first empty it of all that is in it before : if 
you would fill it with wine you must empty 
it of beer, or water, if any such liquor be in 
it. For two material things cannot possibly 
subsist in the same place, at the same time, 
the substances of each being safe and sound. 
And so if the Holy Spirit, who is God, 
must come into us, all mortal and unstable 
creatures, together with sin, and ourselves, 
and whatever else is In us, must go forth. 
Human reason, and human wisdom, and 
righteousness and power and knowledge, 
cannot receive the Holy Spirit ; but we 
must be emptied of these, if ever we would 
receive him." — Wllliam Deli-, p. 44. 

Naseby loon by Faith. 
" Through Faith," says William Dell, 
" one of them [the Godly] hath chased ten, 
and ten put an hundi-ed to flight, and an hun- 
dred a thousand. And this was performed 
in the very letter of it, at that famous and 
memorable battle at Naseby." — P. 74. 

Majority of Young Saints. 

" One thing that is remarkable touching 
the increase of the Church at this day, is 
this : That where Christ sends the minis- 
tration of the Spirit, there many young 
people are brought in to Christ, as being 
most free from the forms of the former age, 
and from the doctrines and traditions of 
men, taught and received instead of the 
pure and unmixed word of God ; whereas 
many old professors, who are wholly in the 
form, prove the greatest enemies to the 
power of Godliness ; and thus the first ai'e 
the last, and the last first." — AVllliam 
Dell, p. 79. 


" INIant men," says Ben Jonson, " be- 
lieve not themselves what they would per- 
suade others ; and less do the things which 
they would impose on others : but least of 
all know what they themselves most con- 
fidently boast. Only they set the sign of 
the cross over their outer doors, and sacri- 
fice to their gut and their groin in their 
secret closets." — Discoveries. 

RushwortKs Mains Animus against the Con- 

1636. "About this time the New Statutes 
for the University of Oxford were finished 
and published in Convocation. 

" The Preface to those Statutes disparaged 
King Edward's tunes and government, de- 
claring that the discipline of the University 
was then discomposed and troubled by that 
King's injunctions, and the flattering no- 
velty of the age ; and that it did revive and 
flourish again in Queen Mary's days, under 
the government of Cardinal Pole ; when, 
by the much-to-be-desired felicity of those 
times, an in-bred candour supplied the de- 
fect of statutes." — Rushwoeth, part 2, vol. 
1, p. 324. 

This is a specimen of the mains animus 
with which Rushworth's Collections are 


" Mr. Speaker, I have but one grievance 
more to offer unto you, but this one com- 
prizeth many. It is a nest of wasps, or 
swarm of vermin which have overcrept the 
land. I mean the Monopolies and Pollers 
of the people : these, like the Frogs of Egypt, 
have gotten possession of our dwellings, and 
we have scarce a room free from them. 
They sujj in our cup. They dip in our dish. 
They sit by our fire. We find them in the 
dye-fat, wash-bowl, and powdering tub. 
They share with the butler in his box. They 
have marked and sealed us from head to 



foot. !Mi'. Speaker, they will not bate us a 
pin. We may not buy our own cloaths 
without their brokage. These are the leeches 
that have sucked the commonwealth so 
hard, that it is almost become hectical. And, 
j\Ir. Speaker, some of these are ashamed of 
their right names. They have a vizard to 
hide the brand made by that good law in 
the last Parliament of King James : they 
shelter themselves under the name of a cor- 
poration : they make bye-laAvs which serve 
their turn to squeeze us, and fill their 
purses. Unface these, and they will prove 
as bad cards as any in the pack. These 
are not petty-chapmen, but wholesale men. 
Mr. Speaker, I have echoed to you the cries 
of the kingdom." — Sir John Culpeper^ 1639. 
— Rdshworth, part 2, vol. 2, p. 917. 

Corruption of the Judges. 

" There cannot," said Hide, speaking 
against the Judges in the case of Ship-money, 
" be a greater instance of a sick and languish- 
ing commonwealth than the business of 
this day. — 'Tis no marvel that an irregular, 
extravagant, arbitrary Power, like a tor- 
rent, hath broke in upon us, when oui' banks 
and our bulwarks, the Laws, were in the 
custody of such persons. Men who had 
lost their innocence could not preserve their 
courage ; nor could we look that they who 
had so visibly undone us themselves, should 
have the virtue or credit to rescue us from 
the oppression of other men. 'Twas said 
by one who always spoke excellently, that 
the Twelve Judges were like the Twelve 
Lions under the throne of Solomon, — under 
the throne in obedience, but yet lions. 
Your Lordships shall this day hear of six, 
who (be they what they will be else) were 
no Lions ; but who upon vulgar fears de- 
livered up the precious forts they were 
trusted with, almost without assault, and in 
a tame easy trance of flattery and servitude, 
lost and forfeited, shamefidly foi-feited, that 
reputation, awe and reverence, which the 
wisdom, courage and gravity of their vener- 

able predecessors had contracted and fast- 
ened to the places they now hold." — Hush- 
woKTH, part 2, vol. 2, p. 1340. 

Cry of Puritanism. 

1640. " A Romanist hath bragged and 
congratulated in print, that the face of our 
Church begins to alter, the language of our 
Religion to change. And Sancta Clara hath 
published, that if a synod were held non 
intermixtis Puritanis, setting Puritans aside, 
our Articles and their Religion would soon 
be agreed. They have so brought it to pass 
that under the name of Puritans all our re- 
ligion is branded ; and under a few hard 
words against Jesuits, all Popery is counte- 

" Whosoever squares his actions by any 
rule, either divine or human, he is a Puri- 
tan ; whosoever would be governed by the 
King's Laws, he is a Puritan. 

" Their great work, their masterpiece now 
is, to make all those of the religion to be 
the suspected party of the kingdom. If we 
secure our religion, we shall cut off and de- 
feat many plots that are now on foot, by 
them and others. Believe it. Sir, religion 
hath been for a long time, and still is, the 
great design upon this kingdom. It is a 
known and practised principle, that they 
Avho would introduce another religion into 
the Church must first trouble and disorder 
the government of the State, that so they 
may work theu' ends in the confusion which 
now lies at the door." — Sir Benjamin Bud- 
yard. — RusHwoHTH, part 2, vol.2, p. 1355. 

Puritan Insfjilence. 
1629. " The Lady Laurence, for turning 
up the back parts of a child at the font, 
when the Plaintiff would and should have 
signed it with the sign of the cross, which 
was proved, but not charged by the Bill, 
was recommended to the High Commission 
Court." — RusHWORTH, part 2, vol. 2, ap- 
pendix, p. 27. 


Independent Intolerance. 

" His first master was one ]\Ir. Willis that 
kept a school at Isleworth. That man was 
a rigid Presbyterian, and his wife a furious 
Indepeudant. Those two sects at that tiuie 
contended for preeminence in tyranny, and 
reaping the fruits of too successful rebellion; 
which conjured up a spirit of opposition be- 
twixt them, so that they hated each other 
more than either the Bishops or even Papists 
themselves. Such is the ordinary curse of 
God upon men permitted to prosper in 
wickedness. And this woman was so zealous 
in her way, that thinking it a sin, she would 
scarce let her carnal husband have conjugal 
intimacy with her." — Roger North, Life 
of Lord Keeper Guildford, vol. 1, p. 11. 


" The arms of a pikeman are, gorget, cu- 
rats, head-piece, sword, girdle and hangers. 

" The arms of a muskettier are, a musket, 
a rest, bandeliers, head-piece, sword, gii-dle 
and hangers. 

" The arms of horsemen, cuirassiers, are 
a gorget, curats, entases, pouldrons, vam- 
braces, a left hand gauntlet, taces, cuisses, a 
cask, a sword, girdle and hangers, a case of 
pistols, firelocks, saddle, bridle, bit, petrel, 
ci'upper, with the leathers belonging to 
fasten his pistols, and his necessary sack of 
carriage, and a good horse to mount on. 

"The arms of a harquebusier, or di'agoon, 
which hath succeeded in the place of light- 
horsemen (and are indeed of singular use 
almost in all actions of war) the arms are a 
good harquebuss or dragoon, fitted with an 
iron work, to be carried in a belt, a belt 
with a flask, priming-box, key, and bullet- 
bag, an open head jaiece with cheeks, a good 
buflf-coat with deep skirts, sword, girdle and 
hangers, a saddle, bridle, bit, petrel, crup- 
per, with straps for his sack of necessaries, 
and a horse of less force and less price than 
the cuirassier." — Instructions for Musters 
ami Arms, 1631. — Rushworth, part 2, vol. 
2, ajjpendix, p. 137. 

" It is required that the muskets be all 
of a bore, the pikes of a length. But to the 
end this course may not by a sudden alter- 
ation turn to a general charge and burthen 
upon the people, the Lords Lieutenants 
and the Deputy Lieutenants are rather to 
use the way of advice and encouragement, 
as a matter which will be very acceptable 
to his Majesty, who Avill take notice of the 
affection of such as shall most readily pro- 
vide arms according to this order, than to 
enforce a present general observation there- 
of. But in case where the arms shall be 
decayed and must be renewed, this order is 
to be strictly observed. — A principal care 
is to be taken for the provision of the arms, 
that they may be provided at such rates as 
they are truly worth, that the people be not 
subject to the abuse of undertakers for 
those businesses." — Instructions for Musters 
and Arms, 1631. — Rushwokth, part 2, vol. 
2, appendix, pp. 137, 138. 


" In the exercise of the Foot-troops, the 
Comjaanies are to be of huntlreds only, be- 
sides Officers, that they may be so much the 
nearer together, to be trained and exercised 
with less pains to the soldiers, and less loss 
of time when they shall be called together 
by their Captain. 

" The Company is to be divided into Files 
of ten in a File. The file is to be distin- 
guished into a Leader, a Bringer-up, two 
Middle-men, and three between the Leader 
and his Middle-man, and three between the 
Bringer-up and his Middle-man. When the 
Companies come together, they are to be 
exercised ten in depth (as the proportion 
best fitted to receive all charges, and per- 
form all executions). But in cases of ne- 
cessity in service, and for exercise, it will 
be requisite to reduce them into five in 
file; and then those two Middle-men become 
Bi'ingers-up, and then have a kind of charge 
over those three between the Leader and 



the Bringer-up, and will be of great use in 
preparing and exercising of the soldiers in 
the practice of their arms and order. For 
it is not intended that the whole Companies 
should be drawn together to be exercised. 
But that upon Sundays after evening prayer 
and upon holy days (as it hath been for- 
merly used for the Bow) the Leader, Bring- 
er-up, or Middle-men should exercise to- 
gether with the whole file, or such a part as 
dwells most convenient for him. And fur- 
ther that once in a month or six weeks, the 
Captain, Lieutenant, or Ancient may (with 
the knowledge of the Dej)uty Lieutenant 
that dwells next him) upon a holy day 
exercise a squatb'on of his Company, or the 
whole, as shall seem good to the Deputy 

" The like form for the Horse : But it is 
to be observed that the files of horse are 
never to be above six, but distinguished by 
the names of Leader, Bringcr-up, and two 
Middle-men ; and to be doubled to three 
deep upon occasion." — Instructions for Mus- 
ters and Arms, 163L — Rushwokth, part 2, 
vol. 2, appendix, pp. 137, 138. 

Hugh Peters. 
" There was not any thing," says Roger 
North of the Lord Keeper Guildford, 
" which he did not, if he might, visit, for 
his information as well as diversion ; as en- 
gines, shews, lectures, and even so low as to 
hear Hugh Peters preach." — Vol. 1, p. 47. 

Horse Soldiers. 
" A SPECIAL care and order must be taken 
that all those that find a man to serve on 
horseback, whether they find the horse or 
the man, or both, must not change the horse 
or man, at their pleasure : for so it would 
be every day to practise a new man, or a 
new horse, and the exercise be made vain. 
But they must take into consideration, that 
the man and horse designed to the service 
of the King, hath (by the intention of the 
law) been dedicated so to the inteuest of 

the King, as they must always be in readi- 
ness at the call of the King's officers, and 
may not be changed without the knowledge 
and consent of the Captain, or De))uty 
Lieutenant next adjoining, or by warrant 
of the Lord Lieutenant. And this with 
this only limitation, that another sufficient 
man or horse be supjdied in the room of the 
man or horse made deficient, for a just cause 
well approved of." — Instructions for Musters 
and Arms, 1631. — Rushwortu, part 2. vol, 
2, appendix, p. 138. 


" Alliances," said Sir Benjamin Rud- 
yard, " do serve well to make up a present 
breach, or mutually to strengthen those 
states who have the same ends. But politic 
bodies have no natural affections ; they are 
guided by particular interest ; and beyond 
that are not to be trusted." — Rushworth, 
part 3, vol. 1, p. 381. 


" Amongst the Papists there is one ac- 
knowledged supreme Pope ; supreme in ho- 
nour, order, and in power, from whose 
judgement there is no appeal. I confess, 
]\Ir. Chairman, I cannot altogether match a 
Pope with a Pope (yet one of the ancient 
titles of our English Primate was, Altcrius 
Orhis Papa), but thus far I can go, ex ore 
sun, — it is in print ; he pleads fan' for a 
Patriarchate ; and for such a one whose 
judgement he (beforehand) professeth ought 
to he final, — and then I am sure it ought to 
be unerring. Put these together, and you 
shall find that the final determination of a 
Patriarch will want very little of a Pope, — 
and then we may say, 

nnitato nomine de te 
Fabula imrraiur. 

He pleads Popeship under the name of a 
Patriarch ; and I much fear lest the end 
and top of his patriarchal plea, may be as 
that of Cardinal Pole his predecessor, who 



would have two heads, one Caput Regale, 
another Caput Succrdotale ; a proud parallel, 
to set up the INIitre as high as the Crown. 
But herein I shall be free and clear : if one 
there must be (be it a Pope, be it a Patri- 
arch,) this I resolve upon for my own choice, 
jvocul a Jove, procul a fulmine : I had 
rather serve one as far off as Tiber, than to 
have him come so near as the Thames. A 
Pope at Rome will do me less hurt than a 
Patriarch may do at Lambeth." — Sir Ed- 
loai-d Deruig. — Rushworth, part 3, vol. 1, 
p. 55. 

Rigiy against Mercy. — 1640. 
" Mr. Speaker, it hath been objected 
unto us that in judgement we should think 
of mercy ; and ' be ye merciful as your 
Heavenly Father is merciful.' Now God 
Almighty grant that we may be so ; and 
that our hearts and judgements may be 
truly rectified to know truly what is mercy : 
I say, to know what is mercy, for there is 
the point, ]\Ir. Speaker. I have heard of 
foolish pity : foolish pity ! Do we not all 
know the effects of it? And! have met 
with this epithet to mercy, crudelis miseri- 
cordia : and in some kind I think there may 
be a cruel mercy. I am sure that the Spirit 
of God said. Be not pityful in judgement ; 
nay it saith. Be not pityful of the Poor in 
judgement ; if not of the Poor, then a lati- 
ori, not of the Rich ; there's the emphasis." 
— 3Ir. Right/, 1640. — Rushworth, part 3, 
vol. 1, p. 129. 

Irish Soldiers for Spain. — 1641. 

1641. "As for sending the Irish into 
Spain, truly. Sir, I have been long of opinion, 
that it was never fit to suffer the Irish to be 
promiscuously made soldiers abroad, be- 
cause it may make them abler to trouble 
the State when they come home ; their in- 
telligence and practise with the Princes 
whom they shall serve may prove dangerous 
to that kingdom of Ireland. — Besides it will 
be exceedingly prejudicial to us, and to our 

religion, if the Spaniard should prevail 
against the Portugueze. It were better for 
us he should be broken into lesser pieces, — 
his power shivered. If the King of Portu- 
gal bad desired the L-ish soldiers, I shoidd 
rather have given my vote for him than for 
the King of Spain, because it woidd keep 
the balance more even. Spain hath had too 
much of our assistance and connivance here- 
tofore. I am sure it lost us the Palatinate. 
Now that it is come to our turn to advise, 
I hope we shall not do other men's faults 
over again." — Sir Benjamin Rudyard. — 
Rushworth, part 3, vol. 1, p. 382. 

Denng against the Remonstrance. 

" This Remonstrance," said Sir Edward 
Dering, " is now in progress upon its last 
foot in this house. I must give a vote unto 
it, one way or other. My conscience bids 
me not to dare to be affirmative. So sings 
the bird in my breast ; and I do cheerfully 
believe the tune to be good. 

" This Remonstrance whensoever it pass- 
eth will make such an impression, and leave 
such a character behind, both of his Majesty, 
the People, the Parliament, and of this pre- 
sent Church and State, as no time shall ever 
eat it out whilst histories ai"e written, and 
men have eyes to read them. — IMr. Speaker, 
this Remonstrance is in some kind greater 
and more extensive than an act of Pai'lia- 
ment : That reacheth only to England and 
Wales ; "but in this the thre^ kingdoms will 
be your immediate supervisors ; and the 
greatest part of Christendom will quickly 
borrow the glass to see our deformities 

" To what end do we decline thus to 
them that look not for it ? Wherefore is 
this descension from a Parliament to a Peo- 
ple ? They look not up for this so extra- 
ordinary courtesy. The better sort think 
best of us : and why are we told that the 
people are expectant for a declaration ? I 
did never look for it of my predecessors in. 
this place, nor shall do from my successors 
I do here profess that I do not know any 


one soul in all that county for wliicli I have 
the honour to serve, who looks for this at 
your hands. 

" IVIi-. Speaker, when I first heard of a 
Remonstrance, I presently imagined that 
like faithful counsellors, we should hold up 
a glass unto his Majesty : I thought to re- 
present unto the King the wicked counsels 
of pernicious counsellors ; the restless tur- 
bulency of jiractical Papists ; the tx-eachery 
of false Judges; the bold innovations and 
some superstition brought in by some prag- 
matical Bishops and the rotten part of the 
clergy. I did not dream that we should 
remonstrate downward, tell stories to the 
People, and talk of the King as of a third 
person. The use and end of such Remon- 
strance I understand not : at least I hope I 
do not." — RusHwoETH, part 3, vol. 1, p. 425. 

Deriiig, for an Endowed and Learned 

" It is, I dare say, the unanimous wish, 
the concurrent sense of this whole house, to 
go such a way as may best settle and secure 
an able, learned, and fully sufficient minis- 
try among us. This ability, this sufficiency, 
must be of two several sorts. — It is one 
thing to be able to preach and to fill the 
pulpit well ; it is another ability to confute 
the perverse adversaries of truth, and to 
stand in that breach. The first of these 
gives you the wholesome food of sound doc- 
trine ; the other maintains it for you, and 
defends it from such harpies as would de- 
vour, or else pollute it. Both of these are 
supremely necessary for us and for our re- 
ligion. Both are of divine institution. The 
holy Apostle requireth both, both irapaKa- 
Xiiv and tXey)(^eiy ; first to preach, that he 
be able with sound doctrine to exhort; and 
then KUL r«c a.yTiXeyui'Tag iXiyx^Eii', and 
to convince the gainsayers, for saith he, there 
are many deceivers whose mouths must be 

" Now, Sir, to my piirpose : These double 
abilities, these several sufficiencies, may lier- 

haps sometimes meet together in one and 
the same man ; but seldom, very seldom, so 
seldom, that you scarce can find a very few 
among thousands rightly qualified in both. 
Nor is this so much the infelicity of om-, or 
any times, as it is generally the incapacity 
of man, who cannot easily raise himself up 
to double excellencies. Knowledge in re- 
ligion doth extend itself into so large, so 
vast a sphere, that many, for haste, do cut 
across the diameter and find weight enough 
in half their work : very few do or can 
travel the whole circle round. — The reason 
is evident. For whilst one man doth chiefly 
intend the pulpit exercise, he is thereby 
disabled for polemic discourses ; and whilst 
another indulgeth to himself the faculty of 
his pen, he thereby renders himself the 
weaker for the pulpit. — Now, Sh-, such a 
way, such a temjier of Church government 
and of Church revenue I must wish, as may 
best secure unto us both ; both for preach- 
ing to us at home, and for convincing such 
as are abroad. Let us be always sure of 
some Champions in our Israel, such as may 
be ready and able to fight the Lord's battle 
against the Philistines of Rome, the Soci- 
nians of the North, the Arminians and 
Semi-Pelagians of the West, and generally 
against Heretics and Atheists everywhere. 
God increase the number of his labovu-ers 
within his vineyai'd, such as may plentifully 
and powerfully preach faith and good life 
among us. But never let us want some of 
these Watchmen also about our Israel, such 
as may from the everlasting Hills (so the 
ScrijJtures are called) watch for us and 
descry the common enemy, which way so- 
ever he shall approach. Let us maintain 
both pen and pulpit. Let no Ammonite 
persuade the Gileadite to fool out his right 
eye ; unless we be willing to make a league 
with destruction, and to wink at ruin 
whilst it comes upon us." — *S'(> Edicard 
Bering, 10th Nov. 1641. — Rushworth, 
part 3, vol. 1, p. 427. 


Origin of the term Roundheads. 
" Dec. 27th, 1641. — There was a great 
and unusual concourse of people at and 
about Westminster, many of them crying 
out No Bishops ! no Bishops ! And the 
Bishop of Lincoln coming along with the 
Earl of Dover towards the House of Peers, 
observing a youth to cry out against the 
Bishops, the rest of the citizens being silent, 
stept from the Earl of Dover, and laid 
hands on him ; whereupon the citizens with- 
held the youth from him, and about one 
hundred of them coming about his Lordship 
hemmed him in, so that he could not stir, 
and then all of them with a loud voice cried 
out No Bishops ! and so let his Lordship 
the Bishop go. But there being three or 
four gentlemen walking near, one of them 
named David Hide, a Reformado in the 
late army against the Scots, and now ap- 
pointed to go in some command into Ire- 
land, began to bustle, and said he would cut 
the th"oats of those round-headed dogs 
that btiwled against Bishops (which pas- 
sionate expression of his, as far as I could 
ever learn, was the first minting of that 
term or compellation of Roundheads, which 
afterwards grew so general), and saying so, 
drew his sword, and desired the other gen- 
tlemen to second him : but they refusing, 
he was apprehended by the citizens, and 
brought before the House of Commons, and 
committed, and afterwards cashiered from 
all employment into Ireland." — Rush- 
worth, part 3, vol. 1, p. 463. 

Abuses in Law. 
" For it is impossible," says Roger 
North, " but in process of time, as well 
from the nature of things changing, as cor- 
ruption of agents, abuses will grow up ; for 
which reason, the law must be kejjt as a 
garden, with frequent digging, weeding, 
turning, &c. That which in one age was 
convenient, and perhaps necessary, in ano- 
ther becomes an intolerable nuisance." — 
-^'/^ of Lord Keeper Guildford, vol. 1, p. 

The Border in Charles the Second's Beign. 

" This country," says Roger North, 
speaking of the Border in Charles the Se- 
cond's reign, "was then much troubled with 
Bedlamers. One was tried before his Lord- 
ship, for killing another of his own trade, 
whom he surprized asleep, and with his 
great staff knocked on the head ; and then 
bragged that he had given him a sark full 
of sere benes, that is a shirt full of sore 
bones. He would not plead to the country, 
because there were Horsecopers amongst 
them, till the press was ready ; and then he 
pleaded, and was at last hanged. They 
were a great nuisance in the counti'y, fright- 
ing the people in their houses, and taking 
what they listed : so that a small matter 
with the countrymen would do such a fel- 
low's business." — Life of Lord Keeper 
Guildford, vol. 1, p. 271. 

" Here his Lordship saw the true image 
of a border country [between Newcastle 
and Hexham]. The tenants of the several 
manors are bound to guard the judges 
through their precinct : and out of it they 
would not go, no, not an inch, to save the 
souls of them. They were a comical sort 
of people, riding upon negs, as they call 
then* small horses, with long beards, cloaks, 
and long broad swords, with basket hilts, 
hanging in broad belts, that their legs and 
swords almost touched the ground : and 
every one in his turn, with his short cloak 
and other equipage, came up cheek by joul, 
and talked with my Lord Judge. His 
Lordship was very well pleased with their 
discourse ; for they were great antiquarians 
in their own bounds." — Roger North, Life 
of Lord Keeper Guildford, vol. 1, p. 272. 

Conspiracy against the Gentry in Cuniher- 


" In Cumberland the people had joined 

in a sort of confederacy to undermine the 

estates of the gentry, by pretending a tenant 

right; which there is a customary estate. 



not unlike our copyholds ; and the verdict 
was sure for the tenant's right, whatever 
the case was. The gentlemen finding that 
all was going, resolved to put a stop to it, 
by serving on common juries. I could not 
but wonder to see pantaloons and shoulder- 
knots crowding among the common clowns, 
but this accoimt was a satisfaction." — Ro- 
ger North, Life of Lord Keeper Guild- 
ford, vol. 1, p. 273. 

Clergy in Craven during the Behellion. 

" One circumstance in the ecclesiastical 
history of Craven," says Dr. Whitaker, 
" deserves to be remembered. There never 
was a period when the consciences of eccle- 
siastics were more harassed by impositions 
than in the civil wars of the last [the 17th] 
century ; yet such was the flexibility of 
principle displayed by the incumbents of 
this Deanery, under all their trials, that not 
a name in the whole number appears in the 
catalogue of sufferers exhibited on the two 
opposite sides by Calamy and AValker. The 
surplice or the gown ; the Liturgy or Direc- 
tory ; Episcopal, Presbyterian or Congre- 
gational government ; a King, a Common- 
wealth or an Usurper ; all these changes, 
and all the contradictory engagements which 
they imposed, were deemed trifling incon- 
veniences in comparison of the loss of a 
benefice. A century before, ft-om the time 
of the Six Articles to the final establishment 
of Protestantism under Queen Elizabeth, I 
have reason to think that the predecessors 
of these men were no less interested and 
compliant." — History of Craven, p. 7. 

Few Beggars. — 1381. 

In the Compotus of Sallay for the year 
1381, the item Pauperibus et Mendicantihus 
is " five shillings and three pence, less than 
a thousandth part of the income of the 
House." — Whitaker's History of Craven, 
p. 52. Not that charity was wanting at 
Sallay, but that paupers and mendicants 
were few. ' 

Teimntry in the Sixteenth Century. 

In enquiring " into the particular causes 
of that influence which, independently on 
the general submission of the times to titles 
and station, the great nobles of the 16th 
century continued to possess over their vas- 
sals," Dr. Whitaker says, " much atten- 
tion to the policy of the Cliffords in the 
management of their estates enables me to 
pronounce that the first and principal of 
these causes was low rents and short leases. 
Their pecuniary receipts were trifling. They 
did not require in specie more than an 
eighth part even of what was then the value 
of their farms : the remainder they were 
contented to forego, partly for personal ser- 
vice, and partly for that servile homage 
which a mixed sense of obligation and de- 
pendance will always produce. 

" Besides, a farmhold was then an estate 
in a fiunily. If the tenants were dutiful 
and submissive, their leases were renewed 
of course : if otherwise, they were turned 
out, not, as at present, to a lucrative trade, 
or a tenement equally profitable on some 
neighbouring estate, but to the certain pros- 
pect of poverty and utter destitution. The 
tenantry of the present day neither enjoy 
the same advantages by retaining, nor suffer 
the same distress from quitting their tene- 
ments. A landlord, though the word has 
something of a feudal sound, is now con- 
sidered merely as a dealer in land ; and the 
occupier at rack-rent, when he has made 
his half-yearly payment, thinks himself as 
good as the owner." — History of Craven, 
p. 75. 

" The consequence of the extreme low- 
ness of rents was, that the landlords were 
poor and domineering, the tenants obliged 
and obsequious. It was also undoubtedly a 
principal inducement with the lords to re- 
tain such vast tracts of land in demesne." 
— Whitaker's History of Craven, p. 76-7. 



Tyramiy of the Seqiiestrators. — 1650. 

" Good Mr. Graham, 

" This ;Monday the tenants are very 
sad, for they cannot procure this £150 to 
pay on Wednesday next, at York ; they are 
gone to other places to try what they can 
do. For God's sake send some speedy stop 
from Goldsmiths' Hall to the Committee at 
York, for they are so very fierce that they 
will strain every third day, till they have 
the £800 and the use ; and as they order 
the matter, every straining comes to twenty 
pound, with charges and fees. And soon as 
you get any stop, send it by the very next 
post, for we send every Monday to Cave, to 
see for some relief from you. The Doctor 
writ to you last night, what ill case my 
Lord's estate is in. If my Lord's fine be 
not paid, there is no mercy with these men ; 
though Plaxton is gone to-day to Sir Henry 
Chamley and ]\Ii-. Stockdale, to procure the 
Committee to give some time, till we hear 
from Goldsmiths' Hall, and to get their 
hands, that the money that is paid here may 
be allowed above as part of payment : if we 
get any such note for this £150, you shall 
be sure to have it next post after. The 
Sequestrators came on Thursday last, and 
they and their soldiers lay here till Monday. 
I never saw so great distraction in house 
and town in my life : little rest taken by 
any but chikben, neither night nor day. 
The soldiers came into the house to carry 
Doctor prisoner to London, because he 
would not be bound to pay £300 in two 
days ; and threatened to sequester him too ; 
which they had done if he had not had his 
discharge to shew out of Goldsmiths' Hall. 
All the tenants are so frightened that they 
will keep their rents in their hands to loose 
their own cattle when they are strained : 
which way then can I set meat before my 
Lord's children ? The 7th of June ]\lr. 
Lane threatens to be here again, the very 
next post after my Lady is come. Her 
Honour should be pleased to send orders 
to Mr. Gary to pay that fourscore and 17 
pound, or else the straining will come to 

twenty pound charges, as this hath done, 
and make the tenants stark mad. The 
bearer being in haste, I can say no more, 
but that I am your very loving friend, 

" May the 27th, 1-650. S. Ball. 

" Why doth nobody go to Colonel Mathy 
Alured ? The Secpiestrators say they will 
let out all the deer out of the park when 
the first of June is past ; for then, they 
say, half the estate is confiscate and they 
will enter on it. So if we have no order 
from you on next Friday, what will be- 
come of us on Saturday?" — Whitaker's 
History of Craven, p. 303. 

Dress in Elizahetlis Reign. 

" The ordinary habit of a nobleman, at 
that time [Elizabeth's reign] consisted of a 
doublet and hose, a cloak, or sometimes a 
long, sometimes a short gown, with sleeves. 
It must be remembered that the gown was 
originally a common, not a pi'ofessional 
habit only ; but that as state and gravity 
yielded to convenience in ordinary dress, 
it was exchanged for a short cloak, which, 
about the reign of Charles II., gave way in 
its turn to the coat, as that is nothing more 
than the ancient sleeved doublet prolonged. 
In the meantime ecclesiastics, and other 
members of the learned professions, whose 
habits varying little at fii'st from the com- 
mon dress of the times, had those little dis- 
tinctioxis fixed by canons apd statutes, per- 
severed in the use of their old costume ; in 
consequence of which they retain the gown, 
under various modifications, to the present 

" The same observation may be made 
with respect to the hood, which however 
ill adapted to common use, was the ancient 
covering for the head in ordinary clothing. 
The different orders of monks, the different 
degrees in the L^niversities, only varied the 
cut or the material of the hood for distinc- 
tion's sake. But, for common use, the hood 
was supplanted by the round citizen's cap, 
yet retained by the yeomen of the guard, 
such as is seen, though much contracted, 



and of meaner materials, in the engravings 
to tlie old editions of Fox's Martyrs. This 
was succeeded by the hat, which, I think, 
first became general in Queen Elizabeth's 
time, nearly of the shape of the modern 
round hat, though turned up on one side." 
— Whitaker's History of Craven, p. 325. 

" It will be remarked, that in a noble- 
man's wardrobe at that time [Elizabeth's] 
every thing was shewy and costly ; velvet, 
sattin, sarcenet, gold lace and fur. At the 
same time it is curious to observe how many 
articles are described as old and far worn. 
A wardrobe at that time lasted for life, or 
more ; for I am persuaded that many articles 
here enumerated, had belonged to the first 
Earl. How much more rational is a plain 
broad-cloth suit, frequently renewed, and 
accompanied with daily changes of very fine 
linen, &c., in which alone a nobleman now 
differs from a tradesman." — Whitaker's 
History of Craven, p. 325. 

Dodd's Argument against the Subjection of 
our Clergy to a Lay Head. 

" 'Tis certain that in practice the Clergy 
of England are not allowed to enjoy any 
independent power or jurisdiction, either 
temporal or spiritual. So that from the 
whole it appears to me that though the See 
of Rome is a loser by this Act of Parliament 
[the Act of Supremacy] the Protestant 
Clergy have gained nothing by it. They 
have only changed masters ; and instead of 
paying obedience to those of their own 
character, have put themselves entirely un- 
der the power of the laity ; and, considering 
the uncertainty of human affairs, and the 
revolutions that kingdoms and civil govern- 
ments are subject to, their creed may ring 
the changes of the state ; and if Providence 
is disposed to punish their crimes by such 
a defection. Deism or Atheism may obtain 
an establishment, and the Thirty-Nine Ar- 
ticles be jostled out by the Alcoran." — 
Doud's Church Histoi-y of England, vol. 1, 
p. 97. 

Queen of Bohemias Second Husband. 

" William Craven was born at Apple- 
trewick, in the parish of Burusall [in Cra- 
ven], of poor parents, who are said to have 
consigned him to a common carrier for his 
conveyance to London, where he entered 
into the service of a mercer, or draper. In 
that situation nothing more is known of his 
history, till by diligence and frugality, the 
old virtues of a citizen, he had raised him- 
self to wealth and honour. In 1607 he is 
described by Camden as equestri dignitate, 
et senator Londinensis. In 1611 he was 
chosen Lord INIayor. In him the commer- 
cial spirit of the family ended as it had 
begun. "William Craven his eldest son, 
having been trained in the armies of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus and William Prince of 
Orange, became one of the' most distin- 
guished soldiers of his time. He was in 
the number of those gallant Englishmen 
who served the unfortunate King of Bo- 
hemia from a spirit of romantic attachment 
to his beautiful consort ; and his services 
are generally supposed to have been pri- 
vately rewarded with the hand of that Prin- 
cess, after her return in widowhood to her 
native country. 

" Thus the son of a Wharfdale peasant 
matched with the sister of Charles I. — He 
was created Baron of Hamstead Marshall 
2 Charles I., and Earl Craven 16 Charles II." 
— Whitakeb's History of Craven, p. 437-8. 

Sir John Hotham. 

Sir Hexrt Si-ingsby says, " I have often 
heard my Lord of Cumberland say, that he 
[Hotham] would be often talking to him 
many years before, when we were happy in 
knowing nothing, and secure in believing 
never to find the effects of it here, that if 
he had Hull, he would bring all Yorkshire 
under contribution. But it seems my Lord 
of Newcastle knew how to work upon his 
distemper when he once found his pulse. 
But I rather think it was his son's journey, 
and disagreeing with my Lord Fairfax, that 



made him weary of being of one side, and 
more easily drawn to hearken to reason. 
He was one that was not easily drawn to 
believe as another doth, or hold an opinion 
for the author's sake, not out of judgement, 
but faction ; for what he held was clearly 
his own, which made him but one half the 
Parliament's ; he was mainly for the liberty 
of the subject, and privilege of Parliament ; 
but not at all for their new opinions in 
Church Government." 

Baxter, against the Quaker Assertion that 
there was no true Church before George 

" Is not that man," says Baxter, " either 
an infidel and enemy to Christ, or stark mad 
with pride, that can believe that Christ had 
no Church till now, and that all the minis- 
ters of the Gospel for 1 600 years were the 
ministers of the Devil (as they say of us that 
tread in their steps), and that all the Chris- 
tians of that 1600 years are damned (as 
now they dare denounce against those that 
succeed them), and that God made the 
world, and Christ died for it, with a purpose 
to save none but a few Quakers, that the 
world never knew till a few years ago, or 
at least a few heretics that were their pre- 
decessors of old !" — Epistle prefixed to his 
Quaker^s Catechism. 

Absurd Scruples. 
" For there are in actions, besides the 
proper ingredients of their intrinsical law- 
fulness or consonancy to reason, a great 
many outsides and adherencies, that are 
considerable beyond the speculation. The 
want of this consideration hath done much 
evil in many ages ; and amongst us nothing 
hath been more usual, than to dispute con- 
cerning a rite or sacramental, or a consti- 
tution, whether it be necessary, and whether 
the contrary be not lawful ; and if it be 
found probably so as the inquirers would 
have it, immediately they reduced it to prac- 
tice, and caused disorder and scandal, schism 
and uncharitableness amongst men, whilst 

they thought that Christian liberty could 
not be preserved in the understanding, un- 
less they disorder all things by a practical 
conclusion." — Jeremy Taylor, vol. 12, p. 

" It is a strange pertness and boldness of 
spirit, so to trust every fancy of my own, as 
to put the greatest interest upon it ; so to 
be in love with every opinion and trifling 
conceit, as to value it beyond the peace of 
the Church, and the wiser customs of the 
world, or the laws and practices of a wise 
and well-instructed community of men." — 
Jeremy Taylor, vol. 12, p. 73. 

The War in the Netherlands produced our 

" Queen Elizabeth had all along sup- 
ported the rebels in the Netherlands, be- 
fore England had declared war with Spain ; 
and many of her best subjects did not relish 
such proceedings ; in so much that Dr. Bil- 
son was put upon writing a book by way of 
justification, intituled True Difference be- 
tween Christian Subjection and Unchristian 
Rebellion, Oxford, 4to, 1585, which neither 
satisfied the scrujiles of a great many, and 
proved fatal to England in King Charles 
I.'s reign, when the rebels made use of Dr. 
Bilson's arguments in favour of popular in- 
surrection." — Dodd's Church History of 
England, vol. 2, p. 54. 

Mails Free-will circumscribed by God's 

" For a man is circumscribed in all his 
ways by the providence of God, just as he is 
in a ship ; for although the man may walk 
freely upon the decks, or pass up and down 
in the little continent, yet he must be car- 
ried whither the ship bears him. A man 
hath nothing free but his will, and that in- 
deed is guided by laws and reasons ; but al- 
though by this he walks freely, yet the divine 
Providence is the ship, and God is the pi- 
lot, and the contingencies of the world are 



sometimes like the fierce winds, which car- 
ry the whole event of things whither God 
pleases." — Jeremy Taylor, vol. 12, p. 454. 

Quakers formed chiefly from the Separatists 

Baxter says to the Separatists and Ana- 
baptists — " Yoii may see you do but pre- 
pare too many for a further progress : Seek- 
ers, Ranters, Familists, and now Quakers, 
and too many professed Infidels, do spring 
up from among you, as if this were your 
journey's end and the perfection of your 
revolt. — I have heard yet from the several 
parts of the land but of very few that have 
drunk in this venom of the Ranters or 
Quakers, but such as have first been of 
your opinions and gone out at that door." — 
Epistle prefixed to his Quakers Catechism. 

Antiqua7'ian Studies. 

" I AM sensible there be some who slight 
and despise this sort of learning, and re- 
present it to be a dry, barren, monkish 
study. I leave such to their dear enjoy- 
ments of ignorance and ease. But I dare 
assure any wise and sober man, that histo- 
rical antiquities, especially a search into the 
notices of our own nation, do deserve and 
will reward the pains of any English stu- 
dent ; will make him understand the state 
of former ages, the constitution of govern- 
ments, the fundamental reasons of equity 
and law, the rise and succession of doctrines 
and opinions, the original of ancient and 
the composition of modern tongues, the te- 
nures of property, the maxims of policy, 
the rites of religion, the characters of vir- 
tue and vice, and indeed the nature of 
mankind." — Kennett's Preface tohis Paro- 
chial Antiquities. 

Credulity of Professors. 

" I MUST needs profess," says Baxter, 

" that it is a very grievous thing in mine 

eyes, that after all our pains with^ men's 

souls, and after the rejoicings which we had 

in their seeming conversion and zealous 
lives, we should yet see so much ignorance, 
levity and giddiness of professors, as that 
tliey are ready to entertain the most hor- 
rid abominations ! That the Devil can no 
sooner bait his hook, but they greedily catch 
at it, and swallow it without chewing ; yea, 
nothing seems too gross for them, but so 
it seems novelty, all goes down. I am 
afraid, if they go a little further, they will 
believe him that shall say the Devil is God 
and to be worshipped and obeyed. Shall I 
freely tell you whence all this comes ? Even 
from hellish pride of heart." — Epistle pre- 
fixed to his Quaker s Catechism. 

Baxter thinks an Anahaptist better than a 

" It will be said, it is but the Churches 
of the Separatists and Anabaptists that are 
emptied by these seducers ; and it's best 
even let them alone to keep their own 
flocks, and secure their Churches ; or if 
they fall off, it may show others the ten- 
dency of their ways, and so prevent their 
turning aside: To which I answer: 1st. 
Though the stream of apostates be such as 
first were Anabaptists or Separatists,y et here 
and there one of the young unsettled sort do 
fall into that stream that were not before of 
them, but perhaps inclining to them; and so 
do some few that had no religiousness. 2d. 
I had far rather that men continued Separa- 
tists and Anabaptists, than turned Quakers 
or plain apostates ; and therefore would do 
all that I can to hinder such an emptying 
of their Churches as tendeth to the more 
certain filling of Hell. It's better to stop 
them in a condition where we may have 
some hope of their salvation, than to let 
them run into certain perdition." — Baxter, 
Preface to the Quaker'' s Catechism. 

Baxter bids a new Quaker compare himself 
with his Teacher. 

" You know," says Baxter addressing 
a young unsettled friend who had fallen in 



with the Quakers, — " you know you are a 
young man, and have had little opportunity 
to be ac(|uainted with the Word of God, in 
comparison with what your Teacher hath 
had. If you presume that you are so much 
more beloved of God than he, that God 
will reveal that to you without seeking and 
study, which upon the greatest diligence he 
will not reveal to him, what can this conceit 
proceed from but pride ? God commandeth 
study, and meditating day and night in his 
laws. Your Teacher hath spent twenty, if 
not an hundred hours m such meditation, 
where you have spent one. He hath spent 
twenty, if not an himdred hours in prayer 
to God for his Spu'it of Truth and Grace, 
where you have spent one. His prayers 
are as earnest as yours : his life is much 
more holy and heavenly than yours. His 
office is to teach ; and therefore God is, as 
it were, more engaged to be his Teacher, 
and to make known his truth to Him, than 
to you. Is it not then apparent pride for you 
to be confident that you are so much wiser 
than he, and that you are so much more 
lovely in God's eyes, that he will admit you 
more into the knowledge of his mysteries, 
than those that have better used his own 
appointed means to know them ? and for 
j-ou in ignorance to run about with the 
shell on your head, exclaiming to the world 
of the ignorance of yovir late Teachers ? — I 
say not that you do so : but the Quakers 
whom you approve of do so, and much 
more." — Ejnstle prefixed to his Quakei's 

Faith makes no Heresies. 

" For, as Tertullian said well, heretics 
make disputes, and disputes make heretics; 
but faith makes none. If upon the faith 
of this creed [the Apostles'] all the church 
of God went to Heaven, all I mean that 
lived good lives, I am sure Christ only 
hath the keys of Hell and Heaven ; and no 
man can open or shut either, but according 
to his word and his law. So that to him 
that will make his way harder by putting 

more conditions to his salvation and more 
articles to his ci'eed, I may use the words of 
St. Gregory Nazianzen, "What dost thou 
seek greater than salvation ? (meaning, by 
nice inquiries and disputes of articles be- 
yond the simple and plain faith of the 
Apostles' Creed). It may be thou lookest 
for glory and splendour : it is enough for 
me, yea and the greatest thing in the world, 
that I be saved. — Thou goest on a hard and 
an untrodden path : I go the king's high 
way." — Jeremy Tateor, vol. 13, p. 169. 

No Presbyterian suffered for Conscience 
alone after the Restoration. 

" I KNOW not if the Presbyterians can 
instance one single person of them all, since 
the late revolution, that have suffered, or 
do at present suffer, for conscience' sake, in 
a pure and cleanly way ; I mean for mat- 
ters purely evangelical, and out of pui-e 
conscience ; for such of them who did suf- 
fer, had not kept their hands clean from too 
much encroaching ujion affau's of the State 
and power of the magistrate, so that they 
had little cause to glory in those suffer- 
ings."' — George Keith's Way Cast up, p. 

Epistles read in the Quakers Meetings. 

" We also do read at tones in our As- 
semblies, what our Friends at a distance 
have been moved of the Lord to write unto 
us ; in which reading and hearing we have 
felt life and living refreshment to flow 
among us in a large measure, through the in- 
breathing or inspiration of the blessed Spi- 
rit of truth." — Keith's Rector Corrected, \). 

" Such kind of reading," he adds, " the 
reader doth read with life, through the in- 
sjiiration of Life, which giveth him a living 
voice to read with, and maketh the words 
which he pronounceth (even when he read- 
eth) living words, livingly to reach unto 
the hearers."— P. 106. 


Why Infants ought to he Damned! 

" Certain it is from the whole tenor of 
the Scriptures, and in special Revelation 
xxii, 25, that those who in the sight of God 
are dogs, are guilty persons, and to be ex- 
cluded from Heaven, and therefore to be 
thrust into Hell : but whole nations with- 
out any exception are such — Matthew xv, 
26. Therefore, Infants being a part of these 
nations, deserve to be excluded from Hea- 
ven and sent to Hell. — 

" None can enter into the kingdom of 
Heaven except they be born again — John 
iii, 7. But surely this new birth is the gift 
of God, and a privilege which he may with- 
hold from whom he will ; and therefore 
without prejudice to his justice may ex- 
clude whosoever hath it not from the king- 
dom of Heaven : but none are excluded 
from it but guilty persons, which I believe 
none will deny ; therefore Infants may well 
be accounted guilty persons." — Jameson's 
Verus Patroclus, p. 147-8. 

A Good Defence of the Clerg7j.—\676. 

" I WISH some of our most zealous Se- 
I^aratists would consider, that we must not 
esteem that most powerful and profitable, 
which produceth only sensible consolations, 
working upon the tender inferior faculties 
of the soul : whereas the strong, grown 
Christian (such as the English ministry de- 
signs to make men) hath his religion seated 
in the rational powers ; and measures not 
the goodness of the ministry from those 
little warmths, heats and flashes (which 
weak heads admire as divine fires), but 
from its tendency to uniform, thorough, 
conscientious obedience, that is, the per- 
formance of all duty in its latitude, both to 
God and man, together with ourselves. 
Real profit is obedience, and holiness of 
life ; not talkativeness, censoriousness, sin- 
gularity, some little warmth of affection, or 
hasty conceits of God's favour. So that 
if you state the question right it will be 
this : not whether you have profited' by 

our ministry, but whether you might not 
have profited, had not the fault been in 
yourselves. Alas, It's our hearts' grief that 
our people should come into the Church as 
the beasts into Noah's ark, and go out 
beasts as they came in ; or like unto Pha- 
raoh's lean kine, no fatter for all their feed- 
ing ! — We are embassadors for Christ : 
now embassadors are not to be judged by 
the success of their embassy, but by their 
integrity and a due regard to their instruc- 
tions. It will not be asked us at the great 
day what souls we have gained, but what 
faithfulness we have used in our ministra- 
tion ; and our reward shall be according to 
our labours, and not according to the suc- 
cess of them," — Friendly Conference, pp. 
5, 6.— 1676. 

BaroiUs Toast, which Hollis circulated. 

The biographer of Thomas Hollis pub- 
lishes in the Appendix to his Memoirs this 
" Toast for the 30th of January, by the late 
Rev. Richard Baron, author and editor of 
many publications in behalf of civil and reli- 
gious liberty." He adds that it was " ele- 
gantly printed upon a little paper, perhaps 
by the care of Mr. Hollis." 

" May all Statesmen that would raise the 
King's prerogative upon the ruins of public 
liberty, meet the fate of Lord Strafford." 

" May all Priests that would advance 
Church Power upon the belly of conscience, 
go to the block like Archbishop Laud. 

" And may all Kings that would hearken 
to such Statesmen and such Priests, have 
their heads chopt off like Charles the First." 

Painted Glass injured by a hind of 3Ioss. 

" As painted glass is generally protected 
by grating, it cannot be cleaned on the 
outside : in consequence of which, long con- 
tinued damp produces a diminutive moss, 
or lichen, which absolutely decomposes the 
substance of the glass in vermicular lines. 
This evil would in a great measure be pre- 
vented by removing the grating annually, 
and carefully wiping away the mouldy moss 



■wherever it begins to appear. It is remarka- 
ble that this disease prevails in some situa- 
tions more than others. I have specimens 
ofpainted glass, which has stood unimpaired 
in a dry situation for centuries, so injured 
by being removed into a moist and fogo;y 
atmosphere as to have lost almost all their 
beauty in thirty years." — Whitakeb's Loi- 
dis et Elmete., p. 322, note. 

Charles's Promise of Favour to the Catho- 
lics— 1644. 
" March 5, 1644. 

" — But it being presumption and no piety, 
so to trust to a good cause, as not to use all 
lawful means to maintain it, I have thought 
of one means more to furnish thee with for 
my assistance, than hitherto thou hast had ; 
it is that I give thee power in my name (to 
whom thou thinkest most fit) that I will 
take away all the penal laws against the 
Roman Catholics in England, as soon as 
God shall make me able to do it, so as by 
their means, or in their favours, I may have 
so powerful assistance as may deserve so 
great a favour, and enable me to do it. 
But if thou ask what I call that assistance, 
I answer, that when thou knowest what 
may be done for it, it may easily be seen if 
it deserves to be so esteemed. I need not 
tell thee what secresy the business requires ; 
yet this I will say, that this is the greatest 
point of confidence I can express to thee; 
for it is no thanks to me to trust thee 
in any thing else but in this, which is the 
only thing of difference in opinion between 
us. And yet I know thou wilt make a good 
bargain for me even in this, I trusting thee 
(though it concerns religion) as if thou wert 
a Protestant, the visible good of my affairs 
so much depending on it." — Rushwokth, 
part 3, vol. 2, p. 947. 

Yew Tree renewing itself by its own Decom- 
" It is a vulgar error that the duration 
of a tree is to be divided between growth, 

decay, and a period consisting of neither. 
On the contrary there is in the longer lived 
species, a period sometimes of centuries, in 
which the processes of growth and decay 
are going on together. The principle of 
decay, commencing from the heart, has no 
effect on the external surface ; and so long 
as any bark remains, green spray will con- 
tinue to be produced, and a small quantity 
of carbon will be returned from the extre- 
mities, which will form a lamina of new 
alburnum, however slender, beneath the 
bark. But in the yew this is not all. The 
decayed wood in the centre is gradually 
formed into rich vegetable mould ; and I 
once saw an instance in a yew tree of my 
own, casually blown down, in which mul- 
titudes of young roots had struck from the 
external crust, and had long maintained the 
tree in health from its own decomposition, 
besides which a new internal boll would 
have been gradually formed. This has ac- 
tually taken place at Kirkheaton, where the 
roots thus struck out into the decayed ca- 
vity of the original trunk have twined 
themselves fantastically together, so as com- 
pleatly to incorporate with each other, and 
partially to unite with the interior decayed 
surface, yet so as to be perfectly distin- 
guishable from it. Such an anomalous pro- 
duction resembles Claudian's Phoenix — 

Parens prolesque sui." 

Whitakeb's Loidis et Elmete, p. 337. 

Christmas made a Fast. — 1644. 

" An Ordinance of the Lords and Com- 
mons Assembled in Parliament, for the bet- 
ter Observation of the Feast of the Nativity 
of Christ. 

" Die Jovis, 19 Decern bris, 1644. 

" Whereas some doubts have been raised 
whether the next Fast shall be celebrated, 
because it falleth on the day which hereto- 
fore was usually called the Feast of the 
Nativity of our Saviour : The Lords and 
Commons in Parliament assembled, do or- 



dor and ordain, that public notice be given 
that the Fast appointed to be kept the last 
Wednesday in every month, onght to be 
observed until it be otherwise ordered by 
Ijoth Houses of Parliament ; and that this 
day in particular is to be kept with the 
more solemn humiliation, because it may 
call to remembrance our sins, and the sins 
of our forefathers, who have turned this 
Feast pretending the memory of Christ into 
an extreme forgetfulness of him, by giving 
liberty to carnal and sensual delights, being 
contrary to the life which Christ led here 
on earth, and to the spiritual life of Christ 
in our souls, for the sanctifying and saving 
whereof Christ was pleased both to take a 
human life, and to lay it down again." — 
RusHWOBTH, part 3, vol. 2, p. 817. 

A Quaker buried Erect. 

"In Oliver Heywood's Register is the fol- 
lowing entry. ' Oct. 28, 1684. Capt. Tay- 
lor's wife, of Brighouse, buried in her gar- 
den, with head upwards, standing upright, 
by her husband, daughter, &c., Quakers.' " 
— Watson's History of Halifax, p. 233. 


" The chant not merely assists the voice, 
and gives it a larger volume of sound for 
an extensive chui'ch ; but, what is of much 
more conseciuence, augments the devout- 
ness by the modulation of its tones, by the 
rapid flow at one time, by the solemn slow- 
ness at another, by the rise, the fall and the 
swell, much more strongly marked than any 
of these can be in reading, much more 
expressive of devoutness in the officiating 
Clergyman, and much more jwipressive of 
devoutness upon the attending congrega- 
tion. A chanted prayer is thus the poetry 
of devotion, while a prayer read is merely 
the prose of it. So at least thought the 
wisest and the best of our ancestors ; men 
peculiarly qualified to judge, because their 
intellects were exalted, and their spirits 
were very devout ; who therefore carried 

the chanted prayer from our churches into 
their closets." — AVhitakek's Life of St. 
Neat, p. 117. 

Necessity of following a good Guide in things 
not ivithin reach of ordimiry Capacities. 

" It is plainly reasonable," says Babrow, 
"to follow our guides in all matters wherein 
we have no other very clear and certain 
light of reason or revelation to conduct us : 
the doing so is indeed not only wise in it- 
self, but safe in way of prevention, that we 
be not seduced by other treacherous guides ; 
it will not only secure us from our own 
weak judgements, but from the frauds of 
those who lie in wait to deceive. The simjiler 
sort of men will in effect be always led, not 
by their own judgement, but by the autho- 
rity of others ; and if they be not fairly 
guided by those whom God hath constituted 
and assigned to that end, they will be led 
by the nose by those who are concerned to 
seduce them : so reason dictateth that it 
must be, so experience sheweth it ever to 
have been ; that the people whenever they 
have deserted their true guides, have soon 
been hurried by impostors into most dan- 
gerous errors and extravagant follies ; be- 
ing carried about with divers and strange 
doctrines ; being like children, tossed to and 
fro with every wind of doctrine." — Bar- 
how, vol. 3, p. 161. 

Extempore Plays in France and Italy. 
" There is a way 
Which the Italians and the Frenchmen use. 
That is, on a word given, or some slight plot, 
The actors will extempore fashion out 
Scenes neat and witty." 

The Spanish Gypsey, by Middleton 
aiul Rowley. 

Division of the Forenoon in Elizabeth's 

" We wake at six and look about us, 
that's eye-hour ; at seven we should pray, 



that's knee-hour ; at eight walk, that's leg- 
hour ; at nine, gather flowers and pluck a 
rose, that's nose-hour ; at ten we drink, 
that's inouth-hour ; at eleven, lay about us 
for victuals, that's hand-hour ; at twelve, 
go to dinner, that's belly-hour." — [Middle- 
ton and Rowley's Changeling. 

Mdhommed converted all Animals except the 
Boar and the Buffalo. 

" It is a common saying and belief among 
the Turks, that all the animal kingdom was 
converted by their Prophet to the true 
faith, except the wild boar and bufialo, 
which remained unbelievers : it is on this 
account that both these animals are often 
called Christians." — Bueckhakdt's Travels 
in Syria, p. 135. 

Montaigne — Hoiv he had outgrown the Incre- 
dulity of Presumptuous Ignorance. 
" C'est une sotte presomption, d'aller 
desdaignant et condamnant pour faux, ce 
qui ne nous semble pas vraysemblable ; qui 
est un vice ordinaire de ceux qui pensent 
avoir quelque suffisance outre la commune. 
J'en faisois ainsi autrefois ; et si j'oyois 
parler ou des esprits qui reviennent, ovi du 
prognostique des choses futures, des en- 
chantemens, des sorcelleries, ou faire quel- 
que autre conte, oii je ne peusse pasmordre, 

Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, 
Nocturnos lemures, portentaque Thessala ; 

il me venoit compassion du pauvre peuple 
abuse de ces folies. Et a present je treuve, 
que j'estois pour le moins autant aplaindre 
moy-mesme : Non que I'experience m'aye 
depuis rien faict voir au-dessus de mes 
premieres creances ; et si n'a pas tenu a 
ma curiosite : mais la raison m'a instruit, 
que de condamner ainsi resolument une 
chose pour fausse et impossible, c'est se 
donner I'advantage d'avoir dans la teste 
les bornes et limites de la volonte de Dieu, 
et de la puissance de nostre mere Nature : 
et qu'il n'y a point de plus notable folic an 

monde, que de les ramener a la mesure de 
nostre capacite et suffisance. — 11 faut juger 
avec plus de reverence de cette infinie puis- 
sance de nature, et plus de recognoissance 
de nostre ignorance et' foiblesse. Combien 
y a-il de choses peu vray-semblables, tes- 
moignees par gens dignes de foy, desquelles 
si nous ne pouvons estre persuadez, au 
moins les faut-il laisser en suspens : car de 
les condamner impossibles, c'est se faire 
fort, par une temeraire presomption, de 
sqavoir jusques oii va la possibility. Si Ton 
entendoit bien la difference qu'il y a entre 
I'impossible et I'inusite, et entre ce qui est 
contre I'ordre du cours de nature, et contre 
la commune opinion des hommes ; en ne 
croyant pas temerairement, ny aussi ne des- 
croyant pas facilement, on observeroit la 
reigle de Rien trop, commandee par Chilon." 
— Montaigne, liv. 1, chap. 26. 

Cromivell to Fairfax, preparatory to the 
King's T7'ial. 

" My Lord — I find a very great sense in 
the officers of the Regiments, of the suffer- 
ings and the ruin of this poor kingdom, and 
in them all a very great zeal to have im- 
partial justice done upon offenders : and I 
must confess I do in all from my heart con- 
cur with them, and I verily think and am 
persuaded they are things which God puts 
into our hearts. I shall not need to offer 
any thing to your Excellency ; I know God 
teaches you, and that he hath manifested 
his presence so to you, as that you will give 
glory to hun in the eyes of all the world. 
I held it my duty, having received these 
petitions and letters, and being desired by 
the framers thereof, to present them to 
you ; the Good Lord work his will upon 
your heart, enabling you to it, and the pre- 
sence of Almighty God go along with you. 
Thus prays, my Lord, your most humble 
and faithful servant, O. Cromwell. 
" Knottingsley, 20 Nov. 1648." 

Cromwell seems to have thought that 
Fairfax would take a leading part in the 


tragedy which was now preparmg. The 
conduct of Fairfax toward Lisle, Lucas, and 
Lord Capel, gave him reason for thinking so. 

Dangerous Error of representing the King 
as one of the Three Estates. 

" It is a known maxim in logic, and of 
undoubted verity, that coordinatu se invicem 
supplent ; and whoever endeavours to make 
the King of England one of the Three 
Estates in Parliament, does at the same time 
alter and subvert the Monarchy, which con- 
sists in sovereignty, supremacy and supe- 
riority. And, by rendering the King only a 
member, robs him of the greatest preroga- 
tive of his crown, which is, to be, over all 
persons, and in all matters as well ecclesi- 
astical as civil. Supreme Governor, which 
he is declared to be in the Oath of Supre- 
macy, by Act of Parliament 5 Eliz. cap. L 
And the dangei'ous consequence of this 
opinion was sufficiently made appear by that 
slip of his late Majesty's pen in a declara- 
tion sent from York, June 17, 1642, where, 
after the Bishops being expelled the House, 
he seems to accounthimself oneof the Three 
Estates ; which being once dropt from him, 
fell not to the ground, but was immediately 
taken up by some of the leading men of the 
Parliament, who made use of it as a foun- 
dation for their usurped coordinacy of au- 
thority, till at the last, having ruined him 
by force of arms, which they justified on 
that supposition, they advanced from coor- 
dinate to inordinate power, making the King 
subordinate to themselves." — Nai-son's Col- 
lection. — Introduction, p. xv. 

Sir Benjamin Rudyard in Defence of the 

" Sir Benjamin Rudyard, 21 June, 164L 

" We are now upon a very great business, 
so great indeed that it requires our soundest, 
our saddest consideration ; our best jud"-e- 
ment for the present, our utmost foresight 
for the future. 

" But, Sir, one thing doth exceedingly 
trouble me, it turns me round about, it 
makes my whole reason vertiginous ; which 
is, that so many do believe, against the wis- 
dom of all ages, that now there can be no 
reformation without destruction, as if every 
sick body must be presently knocked on the 
head as past hope of cure. 

" — If we pull down Bishopricks, and 
pull down Cathedral Churches, in a short 
time we must be forced to pull Colleges 
too ; for Scholars wUl live and die there as 
in cells, if there be not considerable prefer- 
ment to invite them abroad. And the ex- 
ample we are malving now, will be an easy 
temptation to the less pressing necessities of 
future times. 

" This is the next way to bring in barba- 
rism ; to make the Clergy an unlearned 
contemptible vocation, not to be desired 
but by the basest of the people. And then 
where shall we find men able to convince 
an adversary ? 

"A Clergyman ought to have afar greater 
proportion to live upon, than any other man 
of an equal condition. He is not bred to 
multiply three-pences ; it becomes him not 
to live mechanically and sordidly ; he must 
be given to hospitality. I do know myself 
a Clergyman, no dignitary, whose books 
have cost him a thousand pounds, which 
when he dies, may be worth to his wife and 
children about two hundred, 

" It will be a shameful reproach to so 
flourishing a kingdom as this to have a 
poor beggarly Clergy. For my part, I think 
nothing too much, nothing too good, for a 
good Minister, a good Clergyman. They 
ought least to want, who best know how to 
abound. Burning and shining lights do well 
deserve to be set in good candlesticks." — 
Nalson, vol. 2, pp. 298, 300. 

Sir Benjamin Rudyard on the Spoiling the 


" I HAVE often," says Sir Benjamin Rud- 
yard, " seriously considered with myself, 
what strong concurrent motives and causes 



(lid meet together in that time when Abbies 
and ]\Ionasteries were overthrown. Certain- 
ly God's hand was the gi-eatest, for he was 
most offended. The profane superstitions, 
the abominable idolatries, the filthy ncfand- 
ous wickedness of their lives, did stink in 
God's nostrils, did call for vengeance, for 
reformation. A good party of religious 
men were zealous instruments in that great 
work ; as likewise many covetous ambitious 
persons, gaping for fat morsels, did lustily 
drive it on. 

" But, IMi". Hide, there was a principal 
Ptu'liameutary motive which did facilitate 
the rest ; for it was propounded in Parlia- 
ment that the accession of Abbey Lands 
would so enrich the Ci'own, as the people 
should never be put to pay subsidies again. 
This was plausible both to Court and Coun- 
try. Besides, with the overplus, there shoidd 
be maintained a standing army of 40,000 
men, for a perpetual defence of the king- 
dom. This was safety at home, terror and 
honour abroad. The Parliament would 
make all sure. 

" God's part, religion, by his blessing, 
hath been reasonably well preserved ; bvit 
it hath been saved as by fire, for the rest is 
consumed and vanished : the people have 
paid subsidies ever since, and we are now 
in no very good case to pay an army." — 
Naxson, vol. 2, p. 299. 

Lecturers Established, 1641. 

" Sept. 6, 1641. 

" It was ordered that it shall be lawful 
for the Parishioners of any parish in the 
kingdom of England, or dominion of Wales, 
to set up a Lecture, and to maintain an 
orthodox minister at their own charge, to 
preach every Lord's day where there is no 
preaching, and to preach one day in every 
week when there is no weekly lecture. 

" Thus did they set up a spiritual militia 
of these Lecturers, who were to muster 
their troops ; and however it only appeared 
a religious and pious design, yet it must go 
for one of their pia; frcaides, politick arts, to 

gain an estimate of tlieii* numbers and the 
strength of their party. These Lecturers 
were neither Parsons, Vicars, nor Curates, 
but like the Order of the Friars Predicants 
among the Papists, who run about tickling 
the people's ears with stories of legends and 
miracles, in the meantime picking their 
pockets ; which were the very faculties of 
these men. For they were all the Parlia- 
ment's, or rather the Presbyterian faction's 
creatui'es ; and were therefore ready in all 
places to preach up their votes and orders, 
to extol their actions, and applaud their 
intentions. These were the men that de- 
bauched the people with principles of dis- 
loyalty, and taught them to worship Jero- 
boam's Golden Calves, the pretended Liberty 
of the Subject, and the glorious reformation 
that was coming, which the common people 
adored even the imaginary idea of, like the 
wild Ephesians, as if it were a government 
falling down from heaven, and as they used 
to cant it, the Pattern in the Mount, the 
New Jerusalem and Mount Zion. And in 
short, the succeeding tragedies of murder, 
rapine, sacrilege and rebellion, were in a 
great measure the dismal harvest of these 
seeds of fears, jealousies, the lawfulness of 
resisting the King's authority in assistance 
of the Parliament, their long prayers and 
disloyal sermons, their Curse ye Meroz's, 
and exhorting to help the Lord against the 
mighty ; which with such diligence they 
sowed, and with such unwearied pains, by 
preaching, as they said, in season, and most 
certainly out of season, they took care to 
cultivate and improve. And whoever will 
take the pains to observe, shall find in the 
thread of this history, that these hirelings 
were so far from laying down their lives 
for the sheep, that they preached many de- 
luded souls out of their lives by a flagrant 
rebellion ; and were so far from advancing 
the gospel of peace, that they sounded the 
trumpet for war ; and always their pulpit 
harangues to the people were the repeated 
echoes of the votes, orders, remonstrances 
and declarations of Westminster." — Nal- 
soN, vol. 2, p. 478. 



Cheshire Petition. 
The Cheshire Petition — for which Sir 
Thomas Ashton, when he presented it to the 
Lords, " received a smart rebuke, and nar- 
rowly escaped a prison." 

" — "WHien we consider that Bishops were 
instituted in the time of the Apostles ; that 
they were the great lights of the Church in 
all the first General Councils ; that so many 
of them sowed the seeds of religion in their 
blood, and rescued Christianity from utter 
extirpation in the primitive Heathen perse- 
cutions ; that to them we owe the redemp- 
tion of the purity of the Gospel we now jiro- 
fess from Romish corruption ; that many of 
them for the propagation of the truth became 
such glorious martyrs ; that divers of them 
lately, and yet living with us, have been so 
great assertors of religion against the com- 
mon enemy of Rome; and that their govern- 
ment hath been so long approved, so oft 
established, by the Common and Statute 
Laws of this kingdom ; and as yet nothing 
in their doctrine, generally taught, disso- 
nant from the will of God, or the Articles 
ratified by law ; — in this case, to call their 
government a perpetual vassallage, an in- 
tolerable bondage, and, prima facie et inau- 
dita altera parte, to pray the present removal 
of them : or, as in some of their petitions, to 
seek the utter dissolution and ruin of their 
ofiices as anti-christian ; we cannot conceive 
to relish of justice or charity, nor can we 
join with them. 

" — On the contrary — we cannot but ex- 
press our just fears that their desire is to 
introduce an absolute Innovation of Pres- 
byterial Government, whereby we who are 
now governed by the Canon and Civil Laws 
dispensed by twenty-six Ordinaries, easily 
responsible to Parliaments for any deviation 
from the rule of the law, conceive we should 
become exposed to the mere arbitrary go- 
vernment of a numerous presbytery, who 
together with their Ruling Elders will arise 
to near forty thousand Church Governors, 
and with their adherents must needs bear 
so great a sway in the Commonwealth, that 

if future inconvenience shall be found in 
that government, we humbly offer to con- 
sideration, how these shall be reducible by 
Parliaments, how consistent with Monarchy, 
and how dangerously conducible to anar- 
chy." — Xalson, vol. 2, p. 759. 

Remonstrating Ministers. 

Upon the petition of the Remonstrating 
Ministers, Dec. 20, 1641, Nalson says (vol. 
2, p. 766), " Were I to give instructions to 
<lraw the exact pourtraicture of a Noncon- 
forming-conforming Church riypocrite,with 
peace in one hand, and fire and sword in the 
other ; with a conscience like a cockle-shell, 
that can shut so close when he is under the 
fear of the law, or losing his living, that you 
cannot croud the smallest scruple into it : 
but when a tide of liberty wets him, can lay 
himself open, and display all his resentments 
against that government in the Church to 
whose laws he had sworn obedience, and by 
that horrid sin of perjury must confess him- 
self a villain of no manner of conscience, to 
swear without due consideration, and to 
break his oath without a lawful determi- 
nation that it was unlawful ; I would re- 
commend this petition as a rare original to 
cojjy after." 

The Church plundered hy Churchmen. 

" Well, — here's my scholar's course : first 

get a school, 
And then a ten-pound cure ; keep both ; 

then buy — 
(Stay, marry — ay, marry) — then a farm or 

Serve God and Mammon : to the Devil go. 
Affect some sect ; ay, 'tis the sect is it ! 
So thou canst seem, 'tis held the precious 

And oh, if thou canst get some higher seat. 
Where thou mayst sell your holy portion 
(Which charitable providence ordained 
In sacred bounty for a blessed use). 
Alien the glebe ; entail it to thy loins ; 


Entomb it in thy grave, 

Past resurrection to its native use. 

Now if there be a hell, and such swine saved, 

Heaven take all ! " 

Marston, What You Will. 

Montaigne iconldjix Society where it is, fo 
fear of Deterioration. 

" Et pourtant, selou mon humeur, es 
affaires publiques il n'est aucun si mauvais 
train, pourveu qu'il aye de I'aage et de la 
Constance, qu'il ne vaille mieux que le 
changement et le remuement. Nos moeurs 
sont extremement cofrorapues, et panchent 
d'une merveilleuse inclination vers I'empire- 
ment : do nos loix et usances, il y en a 
plusieurs barbares et monstrueuses ; toutes- 
fois i^our la difficulte de nous mettre en meil- 
leur estat, et le danger de ce croullement, si 
je pouvoy planter une cheville a nostre roue, 
et I'arrester en ce poinct, je le ferois de bon 
cceur." — Montaigne, liv. 2, chap. 17, — torn. 
6, p. 109. 

His Dread of Innovation. — His Opinion of 

" Il est bien ayse d' accuser d'imperfec- 
tion une police, car toutes choses mortelles 
en sont pleines ; il est bien ayse d'engen- 
drer a un peuple le mespris de ses anci- 
ennes observances; jamais homme n'entre- 
print cela qui n'en vinst a boust : mais d'y 
restablir un meilleur estat en place de 
celuy qu'on a ruine, a cecy plusieurs se sont 
morfondus, de ceux qui I'avoyent entre- 
prins. Je fay peu de part a ma prudence, 
de ma conduite ; je me laisse volontiers 
mener a I'ordre public du monde. Heureux 
peuple, qui fait ce qu'on commande, mieux 
que ceux qui commandent, sans se tour- 
menter des causes ; qui se laissent mollement 
rouller apres le rouUement celeste! L'obeis- 
sance n'est jamais pure ny tranquille en 
celuy qui raisonne et qui plaide." — Mon- 
taigne, liv. 2, chap. 17, — torn. 6, p. 110. 

Forms of Prayer fit only for Children. 

" Parties in their infancy or ignorance 
may use forms of prayer, well and whol- 
somely set, for helps and props of their im- 
becillity ; yea, riper Christians may do well 
to read such profitable forms, the matter 
whereof may, by setting their affections on 
edge, prepare and fit them, as matter of 
meditation, the better for prayer : but for 
those parties so to continue without pro- 
gress to conceived prayer, were as if chil- 
dren should still be poring upon spelling, 
and never learn to read ; or as if children, 
or weak ones, should still go by hold, or 
upon crutches, and never go right out." — 
Anatomy of the Service Book, p. 101. 

Service-Book Savages worse than Mohawks. 

" The cruellest of the American savages, 
called the Mohaukes, though they fattened 
their captive Christians to the slaughter, 
yet they eat them up at once ; but the Ser- 
vice-book savages eat the Servants of God 
by piece-meal, keeping them alive (if it may 
be called a life) ut sentiant se mori, that 
they may be the more sensible of their dy- 
ing." — Anatomy of the Service Book, p. 56. 

Milton against the Bishops. 

" Episcopacy before all our eyes worsens 
and sluggs the most learned and seeming 
religious of our ministers, who no sooner 
advanced to it, but, like a seething pot set 
to cool, sensibly exhale and reek out the 
greatest part of that zeal and those gifts 
which were formerly in them, settling in a 
skinny congealment of ease and sloth at the 
top ; and if they keep their learning by 
some potent sway of nature, 'tis a rare 
chance ; but their devotion most commonly 
comes to that queazy temper of luke-warm- 
ness, that gives a vomit to God himself." — 
Milton, Of Reformation, p. 13. 



On the Denial of the Creed. 

" Our Creed, the holy Apostles' Creed, 
is now disputed, denied, inverted and ex- 
ploded, by some who would be thought the 
best Christians among us. I started with 
wonder and with anger to hear a bold me- 
chanic tell me that my Creed is not my 
Creed. He wondered at my wonder, and 
said, ' I hope your worship is too wise to 
believe that which you call your creed.' — 
O Deus hone, in qua tempora reservasti nos ! ^ 
Thus troQ aroTTM Bodivrog Kal t aXXa 
(Tv^ftairei? One absurdity leads in a 
thousand ; and when you are down the hill 
of error, there is no bottom but in Hell, — 
and that is bottomless too." — Sir Edward 

The Parliament courts the People, icho are 
less to be relied on than the Gentry. 

" The ground of such a war as this is 
the affections of the people ; and upon this 
both armies are built and kept up ; we 
will therefore guess which of them hath the 
surest foundation. It hath been observed 
the Parliament hath made little difference 
(or not the right) between the Gentry and 
Yeomanry, rather complying and winning 
upon the latter, than regarding or applying 
themselves at all to the former. And they 
may be thus excused ; they did not think it 
justice to look upon any man according to 
his quality, but as he was a subject : I hope 
this was all the reason : but howsoever it 
appears not that they yet have, or are likely 
to gain by this policy. The common people, 
could they be fixed, were only worth the 
courting, at such a time ; but they are al- 
most always heady and violent, seldom are 
lasting and constant in their opinions ; they 
that are to humour them must serve many 
masters, who though they seem, and indeed 
are, their inferiors, yet grow imperious upon 
many occasions. Many actions of merit, 

' Polycarp. 

* AristotJw 

how eminent soever, shall not prevail with 
them to excuse one mistake ; want of suc- 
cess (though that be all the crime) makes 
them angry, murmuring and jealous : where- 
as a gentleman is better spirited and more 
resolute ; and though he suffereth by it, had 
rather stick to that power that will counte- 
nance him, than to that which makes no 
difference betwixt him and a peasant. The 
gentleman follows his resolution close, and 
wins of his silly neighbours many times, 
either by his power, by his example, or his 
discourse ; whenas they have an easy faith, 
quickly wrought upon, and upon the next 
turn will fall off in shoals. They are a body 
certainly of great consequence when they 
are headed and ribbed by the gentry : but 
they have a craven, or an unruly courage 
(which at best may rather be called obsti- 
nacy than resolution), and are far less con- 
siderable when the most part of the gentry, 
or chief citizens, divide themselves from 
them." — The Moderator, p. 15. 

Danger of After Tyranny. 

" Do we believe that the nature and dis- 
position of the people will not be altered, 
who being tired and almost worn out with 
the contentions of the King and Parliament, 
win more easily undergo such things as 
they would heretofore have called slavery. 
And although the prince have no aim at it, 
yet before he shall be aware, he shall find 
himself engaged (by the concurrencies of so 
many circumstances that conduce to it) in 
a higher and more absolute government ; 
so that the constitution of this state will 
become a little unlike itself. And then we 
must know that princes, and all such as 
have the government of a commonwealth, 
are compelled sometimes by a kind of ne- 
cessity, to dispense with the settled rules 
of law, for reasons of state : and it cannot 
be expected that a prince, if he be wise as 
well as pious, shall be so superstitious to 
the strict sense of any protestations, as to 
neglect his interest, and the present con- 


dition of his state ; which may, as it may 
happen, suffer very much whilst he makes 
a conscience to do things fit and requisite : 
and there will not then want men of both 
gowns, that will prove that conveniency 
and necessity shall excuse the conscience in 
such a case." — The Moderator, p. 21. 

Consequences should the Parliament be 

Suppose the Parliament victorious, — 
The Moderator says — " What must we then 
expect ? 

" — It will seem requisite then that Mo- 
narchy, or that which is called prerogative, 
should be circumscribed within more popu- 
lar limits ; that some wiser, some honester, 
some more pious men, some that are un- 
byased with private respects or opinions, 
some that have hazarded themselves (and 
more) for the common good, should be su- 
pervisors of the State, and settle it in such 
an order as should better please and benefit 
the people. (Such rare men as these, the 
State hath had needs of: I pray God a 
competent number of them may be found, 
if such an occasion should call for them !) 
And who knows whether they will be able to 
stay here ? For it may perhaps so fall out, 
that some other politic security (not to be 
guessed at) may seem necessary to be in- 
novated, which this State hath wanted, yet 
perhaps not needed, for many hundred years. 
And innovations come not alone. Rules of 
government are like links in a chain ; they 
hang one by another, and requii'e propor- 
tion and evenness : if a new one be added, 
it must be warily fitted to the rest, or the 
rest reduced as near as can be to the re- 
semblance of the other. And what do we 
believe will satisfy the numerous victors the 
People ? Will not their ends and desires 
be as various as their humours are now ? 
Will they submit in their opinions to that 
which the judgements of those in the Par- 
liament (as many as the war and the con- 
sequences of it will leave) shall agree ujion ? 

Or will it lie in the power of the Parliament, 
when the State shall be in so general a con- 
fusion as an expiring war must leave it in, 
to order the Government so that the King 
may rule, and the People obey, as beseems 
them ? I would fain assure myself that 
they might be able to perform all the good 
that they intend and promise, but some- 
thing like reason will not give me leave. 
I have considered that those that undertake 
to stand at the stern, though then* wills and 
their ends direct them a straight course, yet 
they must be contented to steer according 
to the weather, the wind, and the temper 
which they shall find the seas in." — P. 21. 

Robert Rich. 

Robert Rich hearing when abroad of 
the Fire of London, instructed a corres- 
pondent in London to dispose of certain 
money in his hands, in sums of ^30 to the 
Roman Catholics, Episcopal Protestants, the 
Presbyterians, Independents, Anabaptists, 
Quakers, and " the Church of the First 
Born, who worship God in spirit and have 
their conversation in Heaven." These in- 
structions are given in a letter entitled 
" Love without dissimulation," — sprinted in 
a little tract of seven pages. The style is 
that of a happy enthusiast : he says, " Un- 
der the Vine, or Divine Teaching and Ex- 
perience, resteth in peace, as in Abraham's 
Bosom,- the soul of Robert Rich." And 
again, " Let the whole earth rejoice in God's 
salvation, as doth Robert Rich." 

Erberys Triumph over the Fallen Sects. 

" Popery is fallen. Prelacy fallen, Pres- 
bytery and Independency are fallen like- 
wise : nothing stands now but the last of 
Anabaptism, and that is falling too. Thus 
they are all fallen to those already who 
stand in God alone, who see God in spirit ; 
and to spiritual Saints in this nation the 
Churches are nothing." — William Erbe- 
rt's Children of the West. 



Edii'ardss Description of the Army. 
" Of that army called by the sectaries 
Independent, and of that part of it which 
truly is so, I do not think there are fifty 
pure Independents, but higher flown, more 
seraphical (as a chaplain who knows well 
the state of that army expressed it), made 
up and compounded of Anabaptism, Anti- 
nomianism, Enthusiasm, Arminianism, Fa- 
milism ; all these errors, and more too, some- 
times meeting in the same persons ; strange 
monsters, having their heads of Enthusiasm, 
their bodies of Antinomianism, their thighs 
of Familism, their legs and feet of Anabap- 
tism, their hands of Arminianism, and Li- 
bertinism as the great vein going through 
the whole : in one word, the great religion 
of that sort of men in the army, is liberty 
of conscience, and liberty of preaching." — 
Edwards's Gangrami., p. 16. 

Hieroglyphic of Henry the Eighth. 

In the Irish or Baby Prophecy, pub- 
lished by Lilly, the hieroglyphic of Henry 
VIII. is said to represent " a man-killer : 
persecution per gallows." 

Edwards^ s Complaint of the Effects of 

" Should any man seven years ago have 
said (which now all men see) that many of 
the professors and people in England shall 
be Arians, Anti-Trinitarians, Anti-Scrip- 
turists, — nay blaspheme, deride the Scrip- 
tui'es, give over all prayer, hearing sermons, 
and other holy duties, — be for toleration of 
all religions, popery, blasphemy, atheism, — 
it would have been said, it cannot be ; and 
the persons who now are fallen would have 
said as Hazael, Are we dogs that we should 
do such things ? And yet we see it is so. 
And what may we thank for this, but li- 
berty, impunity, and want of government ? 
We have the plague of Egypt upon us, — 
frogs out of the bottomless pit covering our 
land, coming into our houses, bed-chambers, 
beds, churches ; — a man can hardly tome 

into any place, but some croaking frog or 
other will be coming up upon him." — Ed- 
wards's Gangrcena, p. 121. 

Edwards on Toleration. 
" A Toleration is the grand design of 
the Devil, his masterpiece and chief engine 
he works by at this time to uphold his tot- 
tering kingdom ; it is the most compendi- 
ous, ready, sure way to destroy all religion, 
lay all waste, and bring in all evil : it is a 
most transcendent, catholic and fundamen- 
tal evil for this kingdom of any that can be 
imagined. As original sin is the most fun- 
damental sin, all sin, having the seed and 
spawn of all in it ; so a Toleration hath all 
errors in it, and all evils. It is against the 
whole stream and current of scripture both 
in the Old and New Testament, both in 
matters of faith and manners, both general 
and particular commands. It overthrows 
all relations, both political, ecclesiastical, 
and (Economical. And whereas other evils, 
whether errors of judgement or practice, 
be but against some one or few places of 
scripture or revelation, this is against all : 
this is the Abaddon, Apollyon, the destroyer 
of all religion, the Abomination of Desola- 
tion and Astonishment, the Liberty of Per- 
dition (as Austine calls it), and therefore 
the Devil follows it night and day, working 
mightily in many by writing books for it, 
and other ways ; all the devils in Hell and 
their instruments being at work to promote 
a Toleration." — Edwards's Gangrana, p. 

Conduct of the Parliamentarian Army — 1642. 

" Lord, how these men are touched to 
the quick, when any man but themselves 
dare offer to plunder ; as if they desired, 
not only the free trade, but even the mo- 
nopoly of plundering to themselves. — But 
do they think with such clamours and out- 
cries to deaf the ears of men, and drown 
the ejulations of poor people whom they 
have harrowed ? They have spared no 
age ; neither the venerable old man, nor 



the innocent child : No orders of men ; the 
long robe as well as the short hath felt their 
fury : No sex, — not women, no, not women 
in childbed, whom common humanity should 
protect : No condition ; neither father nor 
friends. They have spared no places : the 
churches of Christians which the Heathens 
durst not violate, are by them profaned. 
Their ornaments have been made either the 
supply of their necessities, or the subject of 
their scurrilities. Their chalices, or com- 
munion cups (let them call them what they 
will, so they would hold their fingers from 
them) have become the objects of their sa- 
crilege. The badges and monuments of 
ancient gentry in windows and pedigrees 
have been by them defaced. Old evi- 
dences, the records of private families, the 
pledges of possessions, the boundaries of 
men's properties, have been by them burn- 
ed, torn in pieces, and the seals trampled 
under their feet. Ceilings and wainscot have 
been broken in pieces ; walls demolished (a 
thing Avhich a brave Roman spirit would 
scorn to tyrannize over), walls and houses. 
And all this by a company of men crept now 
at last out of the bottom of Pandora's box ! 
The poor Indians found out by experience 
that Gold was the Spaniards' God: And the 
Country finds to their loss what is the re- 
formation which these men seek ! " — Earl 
OF Newcastle's Declaration, printed at 
York, 1642. 

On Bowing at the Name of Jesus. 

" Hear me with patience," said Sir Ed- 
ward Dering ; " and refute me with rea- 
son. Your command is that all corporal 
bowing at the name Jesus be henceforth 

" I have often wished that we might de- 
cline these dogmatical resolutions in divinity. 
I say it again and again,that we are not ido- 
nei et competentes judices in doctrinal deter- 
minations. The theme we are now upon is 
a sad point : I pray, consider severely on it. 

" You know there is no other name un- 
der Heaven given among men whereby we 

must be saved. You know that this is a 
Name above every name. Oleum effusum 
nomen ejus; — it is the carrol of his own 
spouse. This Name is by a Father stiled 
Mel in ore, melos in aure, jubilum in corde. 
This, it is the sweetest and the fullest of 
comfort of all the Names and Attributes of 
God, God my Saviour. If Christ were not 
our Jesus, Heaven were then our envy, 
which is now our blessed hope. 

" And must I, Sir, hereafter do no exte- 
rior reverence, none at all, to God my Sa- 
viour, at the mention of his saving name 
Jesus ? Why, Sir, not to do it, to omit it, 
and to leave it imdone, it is questionable ; 
it is controvertible ; it is at least a moot 
point in divinity. But to deny it, to for- 
bid it to be done ; — take heed, Sir ! God 
will never own you, if you forbid his ho- 
nour. Truly, Sir, it horrors me to think of 

" For my part I do humbly ask pardon 
of this House, and thereupon I take leave 
and liberty to give you my resolute resolu- 
tion. I may, I must, I will do bodily re- 
verence unto my Saviour ; and that upon 
occasion taken at the mention of his saving 
name Jesus. And if I should do it also as 
oft as the Name of God, or Jehovah, or 
Christ, is named in our solemn devotions, 
I do not know any argument in divinity to 
control me. 

" Mr. Speaker, I shall never be fright- 
ed from this with that fond shallow argu- 
ment," Oh you make an idol of a name. I 
beseech you, Sir, paint me a voice ; make a 
sound visible if you can. When you have 
taught mine ears to see, and mine eyes to 
hear, I may then perhaps understand this 
subtle argument. In the mean time reduce 
this dainty species of new idolatry under 
its proper head, the second commandment, 
if you can ; and if I find it there, I will fly 
from it ultra Sauromatas, any whither with 

" — Was it ever heard before, that any 
men, of any religion, in any age, did ever cut 
short and abridge any worship, upon any 
occasion, to theu- God ? Take heed. Sir, 



and let us all take heed whither we are 
going ! If Christ be Jesus, if Jesus be 
God, all reverence, exterior as well as in- 
terior, is too little for him. I hope we are 
not going up the back-stairs to Socinianism. 
" In a word, certainly, Sir, I shall never 
obey your order, so long as I have a hand 
to lift up to Heaven, so long as I have an 
eye to lift up to Heaven. For these are 
corporal bowings, and my Saviour shall 
have them at his name Jesus." 

Defence of the Clergy. 

" I CANNOT think of half the happiness 
we might hope for, so long as the rewards 
of Wisdom are held forth to invite and en- 
courage industry. Riches and honour are 
ivith me, saith Wisdom, that knew how to 
invite. Take then none of the reward away, 
either of profit, or of honour. So much 
reward as you abate, so much industry you 
lose. ^\lio ever went unto the Hesperides 
only to fight with the Dragon ? only for 
that? for victory, and for nothing else? No, 
Sir, but there was the fruit of Gold (profit 
as well as honour) to be gained, to be at- 
chieved ; and for that the Dragon shall be 
fought withal." — Sir Edward Dering. 

" The Lawyer, the Physician, the Mer- 
chant, through cheaper pains do usually ar- 
rive at richer fortunes. And, but that it 
pleaseth God to work inwardly, I should 
wonder that so many able heads, ingenious 
spirits and industrious souls, should joy in 
the continual life-long pains and care of a 
parish cure, about 1 OOl. per annum stipend for 
life ; when with easier bi'ows, fewer watch- 
ings and lesser charge, they might in ano- 
ther profession (as every day we see it 
done) fasten a steady inheritance to them 
and their children of a far larger income." 
— Sir Edward Dering. 

Defence of the Bishops. 

The Bishops' Bill. 

" This Bill indeed doth seem to me an 
uncouth wilderness, a dismal vastness„and 

a solitude wherein to wander, and to lose 
ourselves and our Church, never to be 
found again. Methinks we are come to the 
brink of a fatal precipice ; and here we 
stand ready to dare one another, who shall 
first leap down. 

" — Truly, Sir, for my part I do look upon 
this Bill as upon the gasping period of all 
good order. It will prove the mother of 
absolute anarchism. It is with me as the 
passing bell to toll on the funeral of our 
Religion, which when it goes will leave this 
dismal shriek behind — 

'E^a Qavoi'TOi; •yala fiiydrjTio nvp'i. 

When Religion dies, let the world be made 
a bonfire." — Sir Edward Dering. 

Fear of a Democracy. 

" These things thus pressed and pur- 
sued, I do not see but on that rise of the 
Kingship and Priestship of every particidar 
man, the wicked sweetness of a popular 
parity may hereafter laboiu" to bring the 
King down to be but as the first among the 
Lords : and then if (as a gentleman of the 
House professed his desire to me) we can 
but bring the Lords down into our House 
among us again, eJ'pTjca — all's done. No 
rather, all's undone, by breaking asunder 
that well ordered chain of government, 
which from the chair of Jupiter reacheth 
down by several golden links, even to the 
protection of the poorest creature that now 
lives among us." — Sir Edward Dering. 

Difficulty of Satisfying the People. 

" What will the issue be, when hopes 
grow still on hopes, and one aim still riseth 
upon another, as one wave follows another, 
I cannot divine. In the mean time you of 
that party have made the work of Refor- 
mation far more difficult than it was at the 
day of our meeting ; and the vulgar mind, 
now fond with imaginary hopes, is more 
"•reedy of new achievements than thankful 
for what they have received. Satisfaction 



will not now be satisfactory. They and 
you are just in Seneca's description. Non 
patitur aviditas quenquam esse gratum. Nun- 
quam enim improhce spci, quod datiir, satis 
est. Eo mnjora cupimus, quo majora vene- 
runt. — ^qne amhitio non patitur quenquam in 
ea mensurd conquiescei^e, qua quondam fuit 
ejus impudens votum. — Ultra se cupiditas 
porrigit, et felicitatem suam non intelligit." — 
SiK Edwabd Dering. 

Upstarts Jit for High Offices — good irony. 

" How fit would these men be for State 
employment ! " says Ajitibroumistus Puri- 
tanomastix — " Would not How the Cobler 
make a special Keeper of the Great Seal, 
in regard of his experience in wax ? Or 
Walkei-, the Spiritual Ballad-writer, become 
the office of Secretary of State ? Or the 
Lock-smith that preached in Crooked Lane 
make an excellent Master of the Wards ? 
And the Taylor at Bridewell Dock might 
be Master of the Liveries. Who fitter to be 
Master of the Horse than my Lord 'Wliat- 
chicallum's Groom ? I tell you plainly, he 
is able to do more service in the stable 
(besides what he can do in the pulpit) than 
he that enjoys the place. And would not 
Brown the Upholster make a proper Groom 
of the Bed-chamber ?" 

Hugh Peters. 

" It was once my lot to be a member of 
that famous ancient glorious work of buy- 
ing in Impropriations, by which work 40 or 
50 preachers were maintained in the dark 
parts of this kingdom. Divers knights 
and gentlemen in the country contributed 
to this work, and I hope they have not 
lost that spirit. I wish exceeding well to 
preaching above many things in this world, 
and wish my brethren were not under these 
tithing temptations, but that the State had 
itinerant preachers in all parts of the king- 
dom, by which you may reach most of the 
good ends for this State designed by you. 
Let poor people first know there is a God, 

and then teach them the way of worship. 
The Prophet says, when the husbandman 
hath ploughed, harrowed, and broken the 
clods, then sow your timely seed, when the 
face of the earth is made plain. Indeed I 
think our work lies much among clods : I 
wish the face of the earth were even'd." — 
Hugh Peters, 2nd Apr. 1646. 

Conquests in the East and West Indies. 

" Tant de villes rasees, tant de nations 
exterminees, tant de millions de peuples 
passez au fil de I'espee, et la plus riche et 
belle partie du monde bouleversee, pour la 
negociation des perles et du poivre ! Me- 
chanic^ues victoires. Jamais I'ambition, ja- 
mais les inimitiez publiques, ne pousserent 
les hommes les uns contre les autres, a si 
horribles hostilitez, et calamitez si misera- 
bles." — Montaigne, liv. 3, chap. 6. 

Cry of Religion by the h-religious. 

" We have had sad experience," says 
Brian Walton, " of the fruits of causeless 
fears and jealousies, which the more unjust 
they are, the more violent usually they are, 
and less capable of satisfaction. It hath 
been, and is, usual with some, who that 
they may create fears in the credulous igno- 
rant multitude, and raise clamours against 
others, pretend great fears of that which 
they themselves no more fear than the fall- 
ing of the skies ; and to ' cry out Tcmplum 
Domini., when they scarce believe Dominum 
TempUr — The Considerator Considered, p. 

Law versus Justice. 

The best case which I have seen of 
Law versus Justice and Common Sense, is 
one which Montaigne relates as having 
happened in his own days. Some men 
were condemned to death for murder : the 
Judges were then informed by the officers 
of an inferior court, that certain persons in 
their custody had confessed themselves 
guilty of the murder in question, and had 


told so circumstantial a tale that the fact 
was placed beyond all doubt. Nevertheless 
it was deemed so bad a precedent, to revoke 
a sentence and shew that the Law could 
err, that the innocent men were delivered 
over to execution. — Liv. 3, chap. 17, — torn. 
9, p. 128. 

Quaker Railing. 

" None that ever were born," says Les- 
lie, " vented their rage and madness against 
their opponents with so much venom, nas- 
tiness and diabolical fury as the Quakers 
have done. Such words as they have found 
out of spite and inveterate rancour never 
came into the heads of any either at Bed- 
lam or Billingsgate, or were never so put 
together by any that I ever heard ; and I 
have had the curiosity to see Mother Dam- 
nable, whose rhetorick was honey to the 
passion with which the Quaker books are 
stuffed." — Defence of the Snake in the Grass, 
second part, p. 329. 

Roman Houses, hoiv heated. 

" Que n'imitons-nous 1 'architecture Ro- 
maine ? Car on dit, qu'anciennement, le 
feu ne se faisoit en leurs maisons que par 
le dehors, et au pied d'icelles : d'oii s'in- 
spiroit la chaleur a tout le logis, par les 
tuyaux practiquez dans I'espais du mur, 
lesquels alloient embrassant les lieux qui en 
devoient estre eschauifez : ce que j 'ay veu 
clairement signifie, je ne sQay ou, en Se- 
neque." — Montaigne, liv. 3, chap. 13, — 
torn. 9. 

The passage from Seneca is thus given 
by the editor, M. Coste. " Quadam nostra 
demum prodisse memoria scimus, ut — im- 
pressos parietibus tubos per quos circum- 
funderetur calor, qui ima simul et summa 
foveret aequaliter." — Epist. 90. 

Xgars irreclaimable. 

" Je s^ay avoir retire de I'aumosne des 
enfants pour in' en servir, qui bientost apres 
m'ont quitte et ma cuisine et leiy liv- 

ree, seulement pour se rendre a leur pre- 
miere vie. Et en trouvay un amassant 
depuis des monies emmy la voirie pom* son 
disner, que par priere, ny par menasse, je 
ne sccu distraire de la saveur et douceur 
qu'il trouvoit en 1 'indigence. Les gueux 
out leurs magnificences, et leurs voluptez, 
comme les riches ; et, dit-on, leurs dignitez 
et ordi-es politiques." — Montaigne, liv. 3, 
chap. 13, — torn. 9, p. 164. 

Quakers against the Rich. 

" Woe unto you that are called Lords, 
Ladies, Knights, Gentlemen, and Gentle- 
women, in respect to your persons ; who 
are called of men Master and Sir, and Mis- 
tress and Madam. — And you must have 
your wine and ale, and all your dainty 
dishes ! and you have your fine attire, silk, 
velvet and purple, gold and silver ; and you 
have your waiting men and waiting maids 
under you to wait upon you, and your 
coaches to ride in, and your high and lofty 
horses. And here you are Lords over your 
fellow-creatures, and they must bow and 
crouch to you, — and you will be called 
Masters, upholding that which Christ in 
his doctrine forbids, who says. Be not ye 
called masters. — The Lord abhors all your 
profession ! Your works are the works of 
the Devil, — in your dainty dishes, — in your 
lofty horses, — in your curious buildings, — in 
your earthly honour, — which is all but the 
fruits of the Devil. You are too high and 
fine, and too lofty to enter in at the strait 
gate." — The Trumpet of the Lord blown, — 

Saints and Diseases. 

" II ne faut pas douter que les femmes 
qui ont mal au sein ne se soient mises sous 
la protection de Saint Mammard, plutot 
que sous la protection d'un autre, a cause 
du nom qu'il porte. 11 ne faut pas douter 
que ce ne soit pour la meme raison que 
ceux qui ont mal aux yeux, les vitriers 
et les falseurs de lanterne, se recomman- 



dent h, Saint Clair ; ceux qui ont mal aux 
oreilles, a Saint Ou'in ; ceux qui sont gou- 
teux,a Saint Genoii; ceux qui ont la teigne, 
k Saint Aignan ; ceux qui sont aux liens ou 
en prison, a Saint Lienard ; et ainsi de plu- 
sieurs autrcs. Quoique cette remarque 
se trouve dans I'Apologie pour Ilerodote, 
qui est un livre tres-injurieux a I'Eglise 
Catliolique, elle ne laisse pas d'etre vraie, 
comme I'ont reconnu M. de la Mothe le 
Vaver dans son Hexameron Rustique, et 
M. IMenage dans ses Origines de la Langue 
Franqoise. Ces messieurs egalement savans 
et respectueux pour les choses saintes, 
n'ont pas pretendu, en avouant cela, con- 
damner I'invocation des Saints : car dans le 
fond, si Saint Clair n'est pas plus propre 
qu'un autre a guerb le mal des yeux, il ne 
Test pas moins aussi; de sorte qu'il vaut 
autant s'adresser a lui qu'a un autre. lis 
ont seulement voulu reconnoitre que la 
moindi'e chose est capable de determiner 
les peuples a faire un choix, et que la con- 
t'ormite des noms est un puissant motif pour 
eux." — Bayle, Pensees sur la Comete, torn. 
1, p. 53. 

Change in the Quakers' after Penn joined 

" Many of them have really gone off from 
that height of blasphemy and madness which 
was professed among them at their first set- 
ting up in the year 1650, and so continued 
till after the Restoration, since which time 
they have been coming off by degrees; es- 
pecially of late, some of them have made 
nearer advances towards Christianity than 
ever before. And among them the ingeni- 
ous Mr. Penn has of late refined some of 
their gross notions, and brought them into 
some form ; has made them speak sense and 
English, of both which George Fox, their 
first and great apostle, was totally ignorant. 
— But so wretched is their state, that though 
they have in a great measure reformed from 
the errors of the primitive Quakers, yet they 
will not own this, because, as they think, it 
would reflect upon their whole profession ; 

as indeed it does, and argues that their doc- 
trine was erroneous from the beginning, 
and their pretence false and impious, upon 
which they first left the Church and run into 
schism. Therefore they endeavour all they 
can to make it appear that their doctrine 
was uniform from the beginning, and that 
there has been no alteration ; and therefore 
they take upon them to defend all the wi-i- 
tings of George Fox, and others of the first 
Quakers, and turn and wind them, to make 
them (but it is impossible) agree with what 
they teach now at this day." — Leslie, The 
Snake in the Grass, p. 18. 

Parallel between the Quakers and Muggleton. 

" Mr. Penn in his Winding Sheet, p. 6, 
calls Muggleton the Sorcerer of our days. 

" Now I would beseech Mr. Penn (who 
has more wit than all the rest of his party) 
to let us know what ground he had for 
leaving the Church of England, more than 
Muggleton ? 

" Or why we should trust the Light 
within him, or George Fox, rather than 
the Light within Lodowick Muggleton ? 

" Has Lodowick wrought no miracles to 
prove his mission ? No more have George 
Fox or William Penn. 

" Are they very sure that they are in the 
right ? So is he. Are they schismatics ? 
So is he. Are they above ordinances ? 
Have they thrown off the Sacraments ? 
Muggleton has done more': he has dis- 
carded preaching and praying too, for these 
are Ordinances. Is he against distinct per- 
sons in the Godhead ? So are they. Is he 
against all creeds ? So are they. Does he 
deny all Church authority ? So do they. 
Yet does he require the most absolute sub- 
mission to what himself teaches ? So do 
they. Does he make a dead letter of the 
holy Scriptures, and resolve all into his 
own private spirit ? So do they. Does he 
damn all the world, and all since the Apos- 
tles ? So do they. — These are twin enthu- 
siasts, both born in the year 1650 (for then 
it was, Muggleton says, he got his inspira- 



tion), and have proceeded since vipon the 
same main principle, though in some par- 
ticulars they have out-stript one another, 
and persecute one another, as if they were 
not brethren. But though, like Sampson's 
foxes, they draw two ways, their tails are 
joined with 6re-brands to set the Church in 
a Hame." — Leslie, The Snake in the Grass, 
p. 19. 

Quakers become Wealthy, 
" Yet now, none are more high and fine 
grown than the Quakers ! None have more 
dainty dishes and curious buildings ! None 
wear finer silk and velvet ! They have their 
wine and ale too, their lofty horses ; yea 
verily, and their coaches to boot ! They 
have their waiting men and waiting maids, 
and are Master'd and Mistress'd by them, 
without fear of that command Be not ye 
called masters ! For the case is altered,quoth. 
Plouden. They had then, poor souls, none 
of these tentations. George Fox was known 
by the name of the Man with the Leathern 
Breeches; which he tells full oft in his Jour- 
nal. And his first followers had, few of them, 
a tatter to their tail ; though they came 
after to upbraid others by the name of 
threadbare tatterdemallions. They were their 
own waiting men and waiting maids, and 
rode upon their own hobby horses. None 
of them had been in the inside of a coach ; 
that was an exaltation far above their 
thoughts; as were fine houses and fm^niture 
to those who piggM in barns or stables, and 
under hedges. Therefore they railed at 
all these fine things, because they had none 
of them, or ever hoped to have. Silly, 
dirty draggle-tails, and nasty slovens, but 
now grown fine and rampant ! Yet still 
pretend to keep to their ancient testimonies, 
— to be the same poor in spirit and self- 
denied lambs they were at the beginning, 
though they now strive to outdo their neigh- 
bours both in fine houses and furniture. 
They have got coaches too. Ay marry ! 
but you must not call them coaches ; for 
that name they had vilified and given it 
for a mark of the Beast. But as orfe of 

them said when his coach was objected to 
him, as contrary to their ancient testimonies, 
he replied that it was not a coach, only a 
leathern conveniency: — like the traveller 
who told that they had no knives in France, 
and being asked how they cut their meat? 
said, with a certain thing they call a couteau." 

— Leslie, Second Defence of The Snake in 
the Grass, jj. 356. 

William Pemis Wig. 
" There was nothing they inveighed 
against more severely than the use of perri- 
wigs. George Fox had a mind to be a Naza- 
rite, like Sampson, and wore long strait hair, 
like rat's-tails, just as Muggleton did. But 
AVilliam Penn coming in among the nasty 
herd, could not so easily forget his genteel 
education. He first began with borders ; 
at last came to plain wigs : and after his 
example it is now become a general fashion 
among the Quakers to wear wigs. George 
Whitehead himself is come into it." — Les- 
lie, Defence of The Snake in the G7-ass, 
second part, p. 357. 

Qvakers against Wigs. 

" They abused the clergy for wearing 
wigs, ay, and of a light colour too ! that 
was abomination, especially if the hair was 
crisped or curled ; that they made a severe 
aggravation. They should have put in cleaii 
too ; for George Fox's heart-breakers were 
long, slank, and greasy. 

" It has been observed of great enthusi- 
asts that their hair is generally slank, with- 
out any cuid ; which proceeds from a mois- 
ture of brain that inclines to folly. It was 
thus with Fox and Muggleton. But the 
Quakers' wigs now hinder us from the obser- 
vation. And William Penn, George White- 
head, &c., wear not only fair but curled wigs; 
for none other are made. They should set 
up some Quaker wig-makers, to make 
them wigs of downright plain hair, without 
the prophane curl of the world's people." 

— Leslie, Defence of The Snake in the 
Grass, second part, p. 357. 



" I HAVE a collection of several Ranters' 
books iu a thick quarto," says Leslie: "and 
though I am pretty well versed with the Qua- 
ker strain, I took all these authors to be Qua- 
kers, and had marked some quotations out of 
them, to shew the agreement of the former 
Quakers with the doctrine which their later 
authors do hold forth: till shewing this book 
to a friend who knew some of them and had 
heard of the rest, he told me they were 
Ranters, and that I could not make use of 
these quotations against the Quakers. But 
though I cannot do it in the sense I intended, 
yet it may serve to better purpose, viz. to 
shew the agreement 'twixt the Ranters and 
the Quakers." — Answer to the Switch, p. 609. 


" I HAVE now before me," says Leslie, 
" the Works, or part of them, of Henry 
Nicholas, the Father of the Family of Love. 
They were given to a friend of mine by a 
Quaker, with this encomium, that he be- 
lieved he would not find one word amiss, or 
one superfluous, in the whole book; and 
commended it as an excellent piece. It is 
not unlikely that he took it for a Quaker 
book ; for there is not his name at length, 
only 11. X. to it ; and it has quite through the 
Quaker phyz and mien, that twins are not 
more alike. And though he directs it to the 
Family of Love, yet an ignorant Quaker 
might take that for his own family and apply 
it to the Quakers." — Answer to the Switch, 
p. 609. 

Quakerism the last Extreme. 

" The latter of these vile Sects," says 
Leslie, " still borrowed from the former; 
— the latest the worst of all, that is the 
Quakers, who have inherited and improved 
the wicked doctrines of those before them. 
— William Penn boasts that George Fox was 
an original and no man's copy. He must not 

be allowed the credit of being an hereslarch, 
nor the Quakers of being a new sect ; only 
thus fiir, that as in the progress of wicked- 
ness the last does still exceed, the Quakers 
are the faces, the dregs and lees, of all the 
monstrous sects and heresies of Forty-One, 
thickened and soured into a tenfold more 
poisonous consistency. They are all cen- 
tered in Quakerism, as the beams of the 
sun contracted In a burning glass meet in 
a point, and there throw in their united 
force." — Answer to the Switch, p. 612. 

George Fox's Lear-father. 

" We can tell the man who was called 
George Fox's Lear Father, that Is, who first 
taught and founded him in his blasphemous 
principles. It was John HInks, a Ranter, 
with whom George Fox kept sheep for some 
time, whence William Penn makes him a 
shepherd, a just figure, says he, of his 
after ministry and service. But this he was 
not brought up to. His trade was a shoe- 
maker, and he arrived no higher than a 
journeyman : but William Penn could not 
make such a piece of wit of this : therefore 
he kept that under his thumb. Nor was he 
a shepherd ; only a boy hired to look after 
the sheep with his fellow Hinks. The 
Quakers would fain make something of 
him : but Hinks made him a Ranter ; and 
he had afterwards a mind tp set up for him- 
self." — Leslie's Answer to the Switch. 

Holland the Officina of Heresies. 

" As the principles of Quakerism," says 
Leslie, " were none of the invention of Fox, 
or any of his cubs, so can it not be imagined 
that all those sects of Forty-One came from 
the silly ringleaders of them that started up 
here in England. They were but vaumpt 
here. The cargo came from Holland, which 
always found kind hospitality at our hands." 
— Answer to the Switch, p. 612. 



Change in Quakerism effected by Controversy 
and Exposure. 

" I DISTINGUISH," says Leslik (writing in 
1 700), " betwixt those who have publicly 
renouncetl Quakerism, and been baptized 
in our Churches (which are many, and 
daily increasing both in the city and coun- 
try), and those who still keep in the unity 
of the Quakers, but have forsaken their an- 
cient testimonies and doctrine. And these 
again I divide into two sorts : first, those 
who downright disown these ancient testi- 
monies, and the books and authors of these 
anti-christian heresies which have been 
proved upon them, and say they will not 
be concluded by Fox, Burroughs, ^^^lite- 
head, Penn, or any of their writers, but 
stand to the Light within themselves. Of 
these I know several. Secondly, those who 
will not deny their ancient testimonies, be- 
cause of the consequence they see must 
come upon them, viz. that it was a false 
and erroneous spirit which first set up 
Quakerism, and possessed theii" chief lead- 
ers to give forth such monstrous heresies 
and blasphemies in the name of the Lord 
God. Therefore they dare not, while they 
retain the name of Quakers, throw off the 
authority of their first and celebrated Rab- 
bies ; but endeavour to colour and gloss 
their words to make them bear a christian 
sense. Both these two last sorts I reckon 
among the converted, but that they will not 
own it. They own the christian doctrine, 
which they did not before. And these are 
so many, that whereas five or six years ago 
I met with almost no Quakers who were 
not Quakers indeed, and bare-faced asserted 
and maintained all whole Quakerism, I can 
hardly now in all London find one of them. 
They are become Christians, at least in 
profession ; and that in time will have its 
effect, at least upon their posterity. And 
if it be the same with them in the several 
counties of England, as I hear it is in great 
part ; — and some to my own knowledge, of 
their most eminent preachers, who have 
given that to me as the reason of their not 

breaking off publicly from them, but to 
continue to preach as formerly among them, 
that they may thus insensibly instill the 
christian doctrine into their heai-ers ; and 
they have told me the very great numbers 
who by this means are brought off from 
Quakerism without their own knowing of 
it; — I say, if it be thus in the remoter coun- 
ties, as it is in Loudon and parts adjacent, 
then we may fiiirly compute eight or nine 
parts in ten of the Quakers in England to 
be converted. 

"I must add that the answers of White- 
head and Wyeth to the Snake in the Grass 
have contributed very much towards this. 
For therein, as likewise in several other of 
their late apologies, they endeavour to put a 
christian meaning upon their ancient testimo- 
nies ; which though it may deceive strangers, 
yet cannot those Quakers who know what 
they have taught and have believed : inso- 
much that some of them have been offended, 
and said. What, is George Whitehead and 
Joseph Wyeth, too, gone from the truth ?" 
— Preface to The Present Stale of Quaher ism. 
Leslie's Theological Works, vol. 2, p. G4'2. 

George Foxs Marriage. 
" George Fox made a great mystery, or 
figure, of his marriage, which he said was 
above the state of the first Adam in his inno- 
cency; in the state of the second Adam that 
never fell. He wrote in one of his general 
Epistles to the Churches (which were read 
and valued by the Quakers more than St. 
Paul's) that his luarriagewas a figure of the 
Church comingoutof the Wilderness, This 
if denyed I can vouch undeniably ; but it 
will not be denyed, though it be not printed 
with the rest of his Epistles, but I have it 
from some that read it often. But why was 
it not printed ? That was a sad story. — But 
take it thus. He married one Margaret 
Fell, a widow, of about threescore years of 
age, and this figure of the Church must not be 
barren : therefore though she was past child- 
bearing, it was expected that, as Sarah, she 
should miraculously conceive, and bring 



forth an Isaac, which George Fox promised 
and boasted of; and some that I know have 
heard hini do it more than once. She was 
called the Lamb's icife : and it was said 
amongst the Quakers that the Lamb had 
not taken his wife, and she would bring 
forth an holy seed. And big she grew, and 
all things were provided for the lying-in ; 
and he being persuaded of it, gave notice to 
the Churches as above observed. But after 
long waiting, all proved abortive, and the 
figure was spoilt. And now you may guess 
the reason why that Epistle which men- 
tioned this figure was not printed." — Les- 
lie's Discourse on Water Baptism, vol. 2, 
p. 707. 

Leslie's Appeal to Penn upon Separation. 

"Remembeh," says Leslie in his friendly 
expostulation with INIi". Penn, — " remember 
what you said to your own Separatists of 
Harp Lane, when they desired to put up 
past quarrels ; you bid them then to return 
from their Separation. Take the good ad- 
vice you have given. Sure the cause is 
more important ; and om* Church can plead 
more authority over you, than you could 
over them : And if you think that she has 
errors and defects (wherein I will join with 
you), yet consider that no errors can justify 
a breach of communion, but those which 
are imposed as conditions of commmiion. 

" We shall have many things to bear 
with, to bemoan, to amend, to struggle with, 
while we are upon this eai'th. And he that 
will make a separation for every error, will 
fall into much greater error and sin than 
that which he would seek to cure. It is 
like tearing Christ's seamless coat, because 
we like not the colour, or to mend the 
fashion of a sleeve." 

Poor, when supported by the Clergy. 

" Before the Reformation, the Poor 
were maintained by the Clergy, besides 
what was contributed by the voluntary 
charity of well-disposed people. But there 

was no such thing as poor-rates, or a tax 
for the poor. The Bishops and Clergy, as 
well secidar as regular, kept open hospita- 
lity for the benefit of strangers and travel- 
lers, and the poor of the neighbourhood : 
and were so obliged to do by their founda- 
tions. They had amberies for the daily re- 
lief of the poor, and infirmaries for the sick, 
maimed, or superannuate, with officers ap- 
pointed to attend them. They employed 
the poor in work, which is the most cha- 
ritable way of maintaining them. It wa.s 
they who built most of all the great ca- 
thedrals and churches of the nation ; be- 
sides the building and endowing of colleges, 
and other public works of charity and com- 
mon good. They bound out to trades mul- 
titudes of youths who were left destitute ; 
bred others to learning, of whom some grew 
very eminent ; and gave portions to many 
orphan young women every year. They 
vied with one another in these things. 
AVhat superstition, or conceit of merit, 
there was in it, we are not now to enquire ; 
I am only telling matter of fact. And God 
did bless these means to that degree, that 
the Poor were no burthen to the nation ; 
not a penny imposed ujjon any layman for 
the maintaining of them ; the Clergy did 
that among themselves ; they looked upon 
the Poor as then- charge, as part of their 
family, and laid down rules and funds for 
their support." — Leslie's Divine Right of 
Tithes,— vol. 2, p. 873. 

Proposal that the Clergy should receive the 
full Tythe and support the Poor. 

" The Poor-rates in England come now 
(as I am informed) to about a million in 
the year. All this we may to boot, betwixt 
having the Clergy or the Impropriators to 
our landlords ; for the Clergy, iU as they 
were, kept this charge from off us. And if 
their revenues were taken from them be- 
cause they did not make the best use of 
them, those to whom they were given should 
be obliged not to mend the matter from bad 
to worse. 



" \\'Iiiit benefit has the farmer for the 
lithes being taken from the Clergy ? Do 
ihe people then pay no more tithe? That 
would be an ease indeed ; but they are still 
paid, only with this difference, that tlie Im- 
propriator generally through England sets 
his tithes a shilling or eighteen-pence in 
the iicre dearer than the Incumbent. 

" Would it then be an unreasonable pro- 
j)osal, to put all the Poor in the nation upon 
the Church lands and tithes, which main- 
tained them before ; and let the Clergy 
bear their share for as much of them as are 
left in their hands ? 

" If the Impropriators will not be pleased 
with this, then let them have a valuable 
consideration given them for these lands 
and tithes by a tax raised for that purpose, 
and return the Poor to the Clergy, together 
with their lands and tithes. 

" And that the tax may not be thought 
too grievous, let it be only three years of 
the present poor-rates through England ; 
and if that will not do, the Clergy shall 
purchase the rest themselves. Three years' 
purchase is a very good bargain to get off 
a rent-charge which is perpetual, and more 
probability of its increasing than growing 

" 'What man in England would not wil- 
lingly give three years of his poor-rate at 
once, to be freed from it for ever ? 

" And for the poorer sort, who may not 
be able, or if any be not willing, then let 
them have the same time to pay it in as 

" Let the Clergy have three years of the 
Poor-rates, payable in three years, and a 
value put at which the Impropriators should 
be obliged to sell ; and after that the Clergy 
shall be obliged to maintain the Poor as 
formerly. And this will cost no more than 
to double the Poor-rates for three years, 
and so be rid of them for ever. 

" But if those who have swallowed the 
patrimony of the Church will neither main- 
tain the Poor themselves, nor let others do 
it who are willing, let them reflect, — lef the 
nation consider it, all who have any sense 

of God or Religion left, — that since they 
have robbed God, the Church, and the 
Poor, by seizing upon their pati-imony, the 
Poor are encreased to that prodigious rate 
upon them, that they are forced to pay now 
yearly for their maintenance more than all 
their sacrilege amounts to. So little have 
they gained at God's hand by their inva- 
ding of what was dedicated to his service." 
— Leslie {Divine Right of Tithes), vol. 2, 
p. 873. 

Argument that the Impropriators have suc- 
ceeded to this Charge. 

" I MUST tell our Impropriators," says 
Leslie, " that in truth, in reason, and in 
law too, as well of God as man, they have 
taken these lands and tithes of the Church 
cum onere, with that charge that was put 
upon them by the donors of the lands, and 
by God upon the tithes, that is, of main- 
taining and providing for the poor. A 
lessee can forfeit no more than his lease ; 
he cannot alter the tenure ; and whoever 
comes into that lease, comes under all the 
covenants of the lease. Therefore the Im- 
propriators stand chargeable, even in law, 
to keep up that hospitality, the amberies 
and infirmaries for the poor, the sick and 
the stranger, that the Clergy were obliged 
to do while they had their possessions ; and 
in some sort performed, at least so far as to 
keep the poor from being any tax upon the 

" And at the beginning of the Reforma- 
tion, when the Laity were first put in pos- 
session of these lands and tithes, they un- 
derstood it so to be, and were content to 
take them with all that followed them (any 
thing to get them !) ; and did for a while 
make a shew of keeping up the former hos- 
pitality, &c. better than the Clergy had 
done ; that being the pretence why they 
took them from the Clergy. But when the 
fish was caught, they soon laid aside the 
net." — Leslie {Divine Right of Tithes), vol. 
2, p. 874. 



Praise of War. 

" Peu de chose me retieiit, que je n'entre 
en ropiiiion du bon Heraclitus, affermiint 
guerre estre de touts bieiis pere ; et croye 
que guerre soit en Latin ditte belle, non 
par antiplirase, aiusi comme ont cuide cer- 
tains repetasseurs de vieilles ferracles La- 
tines, parce qu'en guerre, gueres de beaute 
ne voyent ; mais absolument et simplement ; 
par raison qu'en guerre apparoisse toute es- 
pece de bien et beau, et soit decelee toute 
espece de mal et laidure." — Rabelais, torn. 
4, p. 16. 

Fitness of letting Soldiers know the whole 
" Ne trouvez estrange, Capitaines, mes 
compagnons, si presageant la perte d'une 
bataille, je I'asseurois ainsi oms. Siennois. 
Ce n'estoit pas pour leur desrober le cceur, 
ains pour les asseurer, afin que la nouvelle 
venant tout a coup, ne mist une espouvante 
generale par toute la ville. Cela les fait re- 
soudre, cela les fait adviser a §e pourvoir. 
Et me semble que preuaut les choses au 
pis, vous ferez mieux que non pas vous 
asseurer par trop." — Montluc, tom. 2, p. 

Folly of Costly Funerals. — So2ils brought 
from Purgatory to see their own Obsequies. 
Sir Thomas More makes the Souls in 
Purgatory say, " Some hath there of us whyle 
we were in helthe, not so mych studyed 
how we myght dye penytent and in good 
crysten plyght, as how we myght be so- 
lempnely borne owte to beryeng, have gay 
and goodly funeralles, wy th herawdys, at our 
hersys, and oifryuge up oure helmettys, set- 
ting up ovir skouchynge and cote armours 
on the wall, though there never cam har- 
neyse on our bakkys, nor never auncestour 
of ours ever bare armys byfore. Then de- 
vysed we some doctour to make a sermon 
at our masse in our monthis mynde, and 
there preche to our prayse with some fond 
fantesy devysed of our name ; and after 
masse mych festyng ryotouse and costly; 

and fynally lyke madde men made men 
mery at our dethe, and take our beryeng 
for a brydeale. For specyall punyshement 
whereof, some of us have bene by our evyll 
aungels brought forth full hevyly in full 
great despyght to byholde our owne bery- 
eng, and so standen in great payne invysy- 
ble among the preace, and made to loke on 
our caryen corps caryed owte wyth great 
pompe, whei'of our lorde knoweth we have 
taken hevy pleasure." — Supplycacyon of 
Soulys, fol. 42. 

Wome7i punished in Purgatory for Excess in 

" Ah swete husbandys," say the female 

souls in Purgatory in the Supplication made 

for them by Sir Thomas More, ' whyle 

we ly ved there in that wreched world wyth 

you, whyle ye were glad to please us, ye 

bestowed mych upjDon us, and put yourselfe 

to greate coste, and dyd us great harme 

therwyth ; wyth gay gownys, and gay kyr- 

tles, and mych waste in apparell, ryngys 

and owchys, wyth partelettys and pastys 

garneshed wyth perle, wyth whych proude 

pykynge up, both ye toke hurte and we to, 

many mo ways then one, though we told 

you not so than. But two thynges were 

there specyall, of whych yourselfe felt then 

the tone, and we fele now the tother. For 

ye had us the hygher harted and the more 

stoburn to you, and God had us in lesse 

favour, and this alak we fele. For now 

that gay gere burneth uppon our bakkes ; 

and those prowd perled pastis hang hote 

about our chekys ; those partelettes and 

those owchis hang hevy about our nekkes, 

and cleve fast fyrehote ; that wo be we 

there, and wyshe that whyle we lyved, ye 

never had folowed our fantasyes, nor never 

had so kokered us, nor made us so wanton, 

nor had geven us other ouchys than yn- 

yons, or gret garlyk heddes, nor other pcrles 

for our partelettys and our pastys then fayre 

oryent peason. But now for as mych as 

that ys passed and cannot be called agayn, 

we besech you syth ye gave them us, let us 



have them styll ; let them hurt none other 
woman, but help to do us good ; sell them 
for our sakjs to set in sayntis copys, and 
send the money hether by masse pennys, 
and by pore men that may pray for our 
soulys." — Fol. 43. 

Sir Tuomas Moke was one of those 
men who practised as he preached. " His 
Sonne John's wife often had requested her 
father-in-law Su' Thomas, to huj her a bil- 
liment sett with pearls. He had often put 
her off, with many pretty slights ; but at 
last, for her importunity, he provided her 
one. Instead of pearles, he caused wliite 
peaze to be sett ; so at his next coming 
home, his daughter demanded her jewel. 
' Ay, marry, daughter, I have not forgot- 
ten thee ! " So out of his studie he sent 
for a box, and solemnlie delivered it to her. 
When she with great joy lookt for her bil- 
liment, she found, far from her expectation, 
a billiment of peaze ; and so she allmost 
wept for verie griefe. But her father gave 
her so good a lesson, that never after she 
had any great desire to weare anie new 
toye." — Dr. Wordsworth, Ecclesiastical 
Biography, vol. 2, p. 136. 

TindaVs odd Argument to sheiv that Wo- 
men may minister the Sacraments ; and Sir 
Thomas More''s odd Ansvjer. 

" Then goth he forth and sheweth us a 
solemne processe that God and necessyte is 
lawlesse ; and all this he bryngeth in to 
prove that not only yonge men, but women 
also, may for necessyte mynyster all the 
sacramentes ; and that as they maye crysteii 
for necessyte, so they may for necessyte 
preache, and for necessyte consecrate also 
the blessed bodye of Cryste. And for to 
make this mater lykely, he is fayne to yma- 
gyne an unlykely case, that a woman were 
dreven alone in to an ilande where Crj'ste 
was never preached ; as though thynges 
that we call chaunce and happs, happed to 
come so to passe wythout any provydence 
of God. Tyndale may make hym selfe sure, 

that syth there falleth not a sparow uppon 
the ground wythout our father that is in 
heven, there shall no woman fall a lande 
in any so farre an ilande, where he will 
have his name preached and his sacra- 
mentes mynystred, but that God can and 
wyll well inough provyde a man or twayne 
to come to lande wyth her; whereof we have 
had allredy metely good experyence, and 
that wythin few yeers. 

" For I am sure there have ben mo 
ilandes and more parte of the ferme lande 
and contynent dyscovered and founden out 
wythin this fourty yeres last passed, than 
was new founden, as farre as any man may 
perceyve, this thre thousand yere afore ; 
and in many of these places the name of 
Cryste now new knowen to, and preachynges 
had, and sacramentes mynysti'ed, wythout 
any woman fallen a land alone. But God 
hath provyded that his name is preched by 
such good crysten folke as Tyndale now 
moste rayleth uppon, that is, good relygyous 
freres, and specyally the freres observauntes, 
honeste, godly, chaste, vertuose people ; not 
by such as frere Luther is, that is runne 
out of religyon, nor by castyng a lande 
alone any suche holy nonne as his harlot 
is." — Sir Thomas More, Confutacyon of 
Tyndalys Answer, p. 141. 

Monastic Reformers. 

" I DOUBT not," says Fuller, speaking 
of " the family of Benedictines, with their 
children and grandchildren of under-orders 
springing from them" in England, before 
the Reformation, — " I doubt not but since 
these Benedictines have had their crudities 
deconcocted, and have been drawn out into 
more slender threads of subdivision. For 
commonly once in a hundred years, starts 
up some pragmatical person in an Order, 
who out of novelty alters their old Rules 
(there is as much variety and vanity in 
monks' cowls as in courtier's cloaks), and 
out of his fancy adds some observances 
thereunto. To cry quits with whom after 
the same distance of time, ariseth another, 



and under some new name reformetli his 
Reformation, and then his hite new (now 
old) Order is looked on as an almanack 
out of date, wanting the perfection of new 
and necessary alterations." — Hintor-y of Ab- 
beys, p. 2G7. 

Dange?' of tempting Men by imwise 
" A LEGISLATOR who would act pru- 
dently," says MicHAELis, "can hardly be too 
tender to the consciences of his people in 
the imposition of taxes : for if they once 
learn to tamj^er with conscience, they carry 
it always farther and farther, till the moral 
character of the whole nation becomes cor- 
rupted to a certain pitch ; and then the 
collection of the taxes requires so many 
overseers, comptrollers, and other officers, 
that not only is the freedom of every indi- 
vidual, however honest, laid under irksome 
restraints, but the greater part of the re- 
venue raised, is actually exhausted in the 
payment of harpies of these descriptions, 
instead of going to the public service." — 
Commentaries on the Laws of Moses, vol. 3, 
p. 145. 

Men not to he excused for Good Meaning 
when their Acts are Evil. 

" To them that bid me speak well of 
these," said Archbishop Williams of the 
Sectaries, " and pity them because they 
are ignorant and mean well, I report that 
of St. Bernard to it, ut liberius peccent, li~ 
benter ignorant; they are willingly igno- 
rant, that they may be wilfully factious. 
And through what loop-hole doth their good 
meaning appear ? In railings, or blasphe- 
mies ? I will never impute a good mean- 
ing unto them, so long as I see no such 
thing in their fruits." — Racket's Life of 
Williams, part 2, p. 166. 

Lord Exeter's White Rabbits. 

" At Wimbledon, not far from me," says 
Bi-hop IIacket, " a warrcner propounded 

to Thomas Earl of Exeter, that he should 
have a burrough of rabbits of what colour 
he pleased. Let them be all white-skin- 
ned, says that good Earl. The undertaker 
killed up all the rest, and sold them away, 
but the white lair, and left not enough to 
serve the Earl's table. The application 
runs full upon a worthy Clergy, who were 
destroyed to make room for white-skinn'd 
polecats, that came in with a strike [qy. 
stink ?] and so will go out." — Life of Arch- 
bishop Williams, part 2, p. 166. 

Conscience — of the Sectaries. 

" The Houses stand not upon Reasons," 
says Bishop Hacket, " but Legislative 
Votes. Reasons ! no, God wot : as Ca- 
merarius says of sorry writers, Miseri ho- 
mines mendicant argumenta ; nam si merca- 
rentur profectb meliora afferrent ; they beg 
the cause, for if they purchased it with ar- 
guments, they would bring better. If they 
have no other proofs, there were many in 
the pack tliat could fetch them from inspi- 
ration ; or obtrude a point of conscience, 
and then there is no disputing ; for it can- 
not live, no more than a longing woman, if 
it have not all it gapes for. They ask it 
for a great-bellied Conscience, to which in 
humanity you must deny nothing." — Life 
of Archbishop Williams, part 2, p. 167. 

Parliament'' s Distinction between the Office of 
Charles the F'i7-st and his Person. 

" The sophistry in which they gloried 
most, was extracted out of the Jesuits' learn- 
ing, — that they were faithful to the Regal 
Office (which remained in the two Houses, 
albeit his departure), but contrary to the 
man in his personal errors ; and if they 
obey in his kingly capacity and legal com- 
mands against his person, they obey him- 
self. All this, beside words, is a subtle no- 
thing. For what is himself, but his person ? 
Shall we against all logic make Authority 
the subject, and the Person enforcing it a 
bare accident ? It sounds very like the 


paradox of Transubstantiation, wherein the 
qualities of bread and wine are fain to sub- 
sist without the inherence of a substance. 
With these metaphysics and abstractions 
they were not legal but personal traitors. 
If an under-sheriff had arrested Harry 
Martin for debt, and pleaded that he did 
not imprison his membership but his Mar- 
tinship, would the Committee for Privileges 
be fobbed off with that distinction ? " — 
Hacket's Life of Archbishop Williams, pai't 
■2, p. 193. 

Quakers in Favour at James's Court. 

" The Quakers," says Lord Halifax 
(alluding to William Penn), " from being 
declared by the Papists not to be Christians, 
are now made favourites, and taken into 
their particular protection ; they are on a 
sudden grown the most accomplished men 
of the kingdom in good-breeding, and give 
thanks with the best grace, in double-refined 
language. So that I should not wonder 
though a man of that persuasion, in spite 
of his hat, should be a master of the cere- 
monies." — Somers Tracts, vol. 9, p. 52. 

NeaVs Roguery. 

Here is a specimen of Daniel Neal's 
honesty, in his History of the Puritans. 

Speaking of Sandys Archbishop of York, 
he says he was " a zealous defender of the 
laws against Nonconformists of all sorts : 
when arguments failed he would earnestly 
implore the secular arm ; though he had no 
great opinion either of the discipline or 
ceremonies of the Church, as appears by his 
last Will and Testament, in which are these 
remarkable expressions. ' I am persuaded 
that the Rites and Ceremonies by political 
institution appointed in the Church are not 
ungodly nor unlawful, but may for order 
and obedience sake be used by a good 
Christian. — But I am now and ever have 
been persuaded, that some of these rites and 
ceremo7iies are not expedient for this Church 
noiv ; but that in the Church reforme^, and 
in all this time of the Gospel, they may 

better be disused by little and little, than more 
and more urged.^ Such a Testimony from 
the dying lips of one that had been a severe 
persecutor of honest men for things which 
he always thought had better be disused 
than urged, deserves to be remembered." — 
Vol. 1, p. 502. 

For his authority Neal refers in the mar- 
gin to Strype's Life of Whitgift, p. 287. 
There in fact the passage occurs, and it ap- 
pears by Strype that not long after Sandys' 
death, some Puritan not more scrupulous 
than Daniel Neal, quoted it for the same 
purpose. To expose the falsehood which 
was thus practised, Strype gives the very 
words of the Will, which follow immedi- 
ately thus. " Howbeit as I do easily ac- 
knowledge our Ecclesiastical policy in some 
points may be bettered, so do I utterly dis- 
like, even in my conscience, all such rude 
and indigested platforms, as have been more 
lately and boldly than either learnedly or 
wisely preferred ; tending not to the refor- 
mation, but to the destruction of this Church 
of England. The particularities of both 
sorts reserved to the discretion of the godly 
wise, of the latter I only say thus ; that the 
state of a small private Church, and the 
form of a larger Christian kingdom, neither 
would long like, nor can at all brook one 
and the same ecclesiastical government. 
Thus much I thought good to testify con- 
cerning these ecclesiastical matters, to clear 
me of all suspicion of double and indirect 
dealing in the House of God." 

And with these words before him, Daniel 
Neal, the Historian of the Puritans, pre- 
sents in his histor}' the mutilated passage 
for the sake of fixing upon one whom even 
he allows to be a venerable man, a charge 
of double and indirect dealing. 

Anecdote of the Triers. 
" There came a learned man and one of 
the weak brethren, and contended for a 
place. Saith our deceased brother to him 
that was learned, ' what is faith ? ' Who 
answered him discretely, according to the 


learning of the schools. Then he demanded 
the same question of the other, who re- 
plied, that faith was a sweet lullaby in the 
lap of Jesus. At which words our deceased 
brother, lifting up his hands to heaven, cried, 
' Blessed be the Lord, who hath revealed 
these things unto the simple. Friend, thou, 
according to thy deserts, shall have the 
living.' " — Peter's Pottery, — Harleian Mis- 
cellany, vol. 7, p. 79. 

ShadwelVs Morality!^ 

" I'll tell you one thing, IVIr. Trim," says 
one of Shadwell's gentlemen of wit and 
honour, — " that any woman you keep com- 
pany with, who does not think you have a 
mind to He with her, will never forgive you. 
— I'll tell you one thing more, that you 
must never be alone with a woman, but 
you must offer, or she knows you care not 
for her. Five to one but she grants : but 
if she does not care for you, but denies, 
she's certain by that you care for her, and 
will esteem you the better ever after." — 
Bury Fair, p. 126. 

Loyalists, how used at the Restoration. 

" "We have had mercies indeed great and 
glorious," says South, " in his majesty's 
restoration : but have those been any gainers 
by the deliverance, who were the greatest 
losers by the war ? No, (in a far different 
sense from that of the scripture), to him 
only that has shall be given, arid he shall have 
more abundantly. But if a man's loyalty 
has stript him of his estate, his interest, or 
his relations, then, like the lame man at the 
pool of Bethesda, every one steps in before 
him."— Vol. 4, p. 93. 

Peculiarities of Quakers gratifying to the 
Pride of the Ignorant. 

" Were it not," says Jonathan Boucher, 
" that mankind in forming themselves into 

' This is just such morality as appears by 
the Chinese Novel to prevail in China. 

sects, parties, and factions, very generally 
renounce the exercise of their reason, why 
should their leaders so often have found it 
necessary to distinguish men so associated, 
not by any circumstances characteristical 
of good sense and sober judgment, but by 
some low and ridiculous names, some silly 
peculiarity of dress, or other senseless badge 
of distinction ? — If Quakerism, notwith- 
standing the inoffenslveness of its tenets, 
be now on the decline (as many think It Is) 
I can attribute it to no cause so probable as 
this, that some of the most distinguished of 
Its members, ashamed of being any longer 
so strongly marked by some extremely un- 
meaning, if not absurd peculiarities, have, 
like the rest of their countrymen, lately 
ceased to make It a part of their religion 
not to cock their hats, or put buttons on 
them, and have ventured to say you, though 
speaking only to one person. Had it not 
been for the ostentatious display of such 
childish singularities, so flattering to low 
pride, it may well be questioned whether 
even opposition and persecution could have 
di'Iven so many to attach themselves to a 
system so unalluring." — View of the Causes 
and Consequences of the American Revolu- 
tion, Preface, p. li. 

Why the Plague has disappeared here. 

" It was the observation of Sydenham, 
that in the course of three successive cen- 
turies, the plague uniformly appeared after 
an interval of 30 or 40 years. Almost a cen- 
tury and half however have now elapsed since 
England experienced this dreadful visita- 
tion. Without derogating from oiu' obli- 
gations of gratitude to the merciful kindness 
of Providence, this fortunate circumstance, 
as well as the comparative rarity and mild- 
ness of contagious fevers, may In a secondary 
view be ascribed to the prudent regulations 
of the legislature ; to the general practise 
of occupying more airy houses, and more 
spacious streets ; to the nicer proportion of 
our vegetable to our animal diet ; to the 
more frequent use of tea, sugar, hopped 



beer, wine and spii-itiious liquors, which cor- 
rect the putrid tendency or alkalescent qua- 
lities of our food ; to the introduction of 
carriages ; to the reduced consumption of 
salt provisions ; and to the advantages Avhich 
the present possesses over former genera- 
tions in a stricter attention to cleanliness, 
in the superior excellency of the pavements, 
and in agricultural improvements." — Db. 
Dixon's Life of Dr. Brownrig-g, p. 235. 

SoiitKs Remark on the Quaker Principle of 
" As for those," says South (vol. 7, p. 79), 
" who by taking from mankind all right of 
self-preservation, would have them still live 
in the world as naked as they came into it ; 
I shall not wish them any hurt ; but if I 
would, I could scarce wish them a greater, 
tlian that they might feel the full effect and 
influence of their own opinion." 

John Howe's Notion of the Kingdom of 

the Saints. 
" The notion of the Saints' reign, because 
we find it in the Holy Bible, is not to be 
torn out, but must have its true sense 
assigned it. And if there be a time yet to 
come wherein it shall have place, it must 
mean that a more general pouring forth of 
tlie Spirit shall introduce a supervening 
sanctity upon Rulers, as well as others : not 
to give every man a right to rule (for who 
shoidd then be ruled ?), but to enable and 
incline them that shall duly have a right, to 
rule better. And so the kingdom will be 
the Saints', when it is administered by some, 
and/or others, who are so." — John Howe. 

Little Things of the Church. 
" For my own part," says South, " I can 
account nothing little in any Church, which 
has the stamp of undoubted authority, and 
the practice of primitive antiquity, as weU 
as the reason and decency of the thing itself, 
to warrant and support it. Though jf the 
supposed littleness of these matters should 

be a sufficient reason for the laying of them 
aside, I fear our Church will be found to 
have more little men to spare, than little 
things." — Dedication to the Second Volume of 
his Sermons. 

Owen's Primei — ordered by the Parliament. 

" I HAD almost forgot J. O (wen)'s Pri- 
mer, that would never suffer the letters to 
be ranged under the conduct of a Cris-cross. 
For having of his own head disbanded the 
Lord's Prayer, he was commissioned by 
authority of Parliament to cashier, or at 
least new-model the Cris-cross-row ; and 
what reformation he wrought in the several 
squadrons of vowels, mutes, semivowels, &c., 
I shall not here relate. But as for the poor 
Cross, that was without any mercy turned 
out of all service; not becaiise it kept always 
so close to the Loyal or Malignant party ; 
but because it was a mere symbolical cere- 
mony, set there on purpose to transform a 
plain English alphabet into a Popish Cris- 
cross-row. A great and pious work ! worthy 
the jiainsof so great a divine, and the wisdom 
of so long a Parliament." — Bishop Parker's 
Reproof to The Rehearsal Transformed, p. 


" Assurance," says South, " is properly 
that persuasion, or confidence, which a man 
takes up of the pardon of his sins, and his 
interest in God's favour, upon such grounds 
and terms as the scripture lays down. But 
now, since the scripture promises eternal 
happiness and par'don of sin, upon the sole 
condition of faith and sincere obedience, it 
is evident, that he only can plead a title to 
such a pardon, whose conscience impartially 
tells him that he has performed the re- 
quired condition. And this is the only 
rational assurance, which a man can with 
any safety rely or rest himself upon. 

" He who in this case would believe 
surely, must fii'st walk surely ; and to do so 
is to walk uprightly. And what that is, we 




have sufficiently marked out to us in those 
phiin and legible lines of duty, requiring 
us to demean ourselves to God humbly and 
devoutly, to our Governors obediently ; and 
to our neighbours justly ; and to ourselves 
soberly and temperately. All other pre- 
tences being infinitely vaiu in themselves, 
and fatal in their consequences." — Vol. 1, 
p. 376. 

Arbitrary Power under Cromwell. 

" What a noise was there of arbitrary 
power in the reign of the two last kings," 
says South, " and scarce any at all during 
the usurpation of Cromwell ! Of which I 
know no reason in the world that can be 
given but this, — that under those two princes 
there was no such thing, and under Crom- 
well there was nothing else. For when 
arbitrary power is really and indeed used, 
men feel it, but dare not coni23lain of it." — 
Vol. 4, p. 246. 

Conscience often to be set right by the 

" It is not to be questioned," says South, 
" but many repair to the divine, whose best 
casuist were an apothecary ; and endeavour 
to cure and carry off their despair with a 
promise, or perhaps a prophecy, which might 
better be done with a purge. Poor self- 
deluding souls ! often misapplying the blood 
of Christ, under those circumstances in which 
a little effusion of their own would more 
effectually work the cure ; and Luke as a 
physician give them a much speedier relief, 
than Luke as an evangelist." — Vol. 3, p. 455. 

Ki7ig and Country. 

" King and Country" says South, " are 
hardly terms of distinction, and much less 
of opposition ; since no man can serve his 
country without assisting his king, nor love 
his king without being concerned for his 
country. One involves the other, and both 
tonrether make but one entire, single, undi- 

vided interest. God has joined them to- 
gether, and cursed be that man, or faction 
of men, which would disjoin, or put them 
asunder." — Vol. 4, p. 252. 

Hypocrisy of the Puritan Fasts. 

" They talk of reforming," says South, 
" and of coming out of Egypt (as they call it) ; 
but still, though they leave Egypt, they will 
be sure to hold fast to their flesh-pots. And 
the truth is, their very fasts and humiliations 
have been observed to be nothing else but 
a religious epicurism, and a neat contri- 
vance of luxury ; while they forbear din- 
ner, only that they may treble their supper ; 
and fast in the day, like the evening wolves, 
to whet their stomachs against night." — 
Vol. 6, p. 219. 

Employmerds of Women. 

" IcH praye thou for zoure profit, quath 

Pears to the Ladyes, 
That somme sewe the sak, for shedynge of 

the wete ; 
And ze worthly women wit zoure longe 

That ze on selk and sendel to sewen, wenne 

tyme ys, 
Chesybles for Chapelayns, churches to ho- 

nure ; 
Wyves and widowes, wolle jind flax spyn- 

neth : 
Conscience consaileth zou, cloth for to make 
For profit of the poure and plesaunce of zow 

Whitaker's Pears Plovlman, p. 128. 

The Catholic Heaven open to the Rich. 

" Fear not the guilt if you can pay for't well ; 
There is no Dives in the Roman Hell. 
Gold opens the strait gate and lets him in ; 
But want of money is a mortal sin : 
For all besides you may discoimt to Heaven, 
And dro]! a bead to keep the tallies even." 




Quick and Slow Writers. 

" The divei'sity of brains in devisinir," 
saith William Baldwtn to the Reader, 
" is like the sundryness of beasts in engen- 
dering : for some wits are ready and dispatch 
many matters speedily, like the coney which 
littereth every month ; some other are slow 
like the olyfaunt, scarce delivering any mat- 
ter in ten years. I dispraise neither of these 
birlhs, for both be natural; but I commend 
most the mean, which is neither too slow 
nor too swift, for that is lion-like and there- 
fore most noble. For the right poet doth 
neither through haste bring forth swift feeble 
rabbits, neither doth he weary men in look- 
ing for his strong jointless olyphants : but 
in reasonable time he bringeth forth a per- 
fect and lively lion, not a bear-whelp that 
must be longer in licking than in breeding. 
And yet I know many that do highly like 
that lumpish delivery. But every man hath 
his gift." — Mirror for Magistrates, vol. 2, 
p. 247. 

ElizabetKs Eye upon the Universities. 

" I CAN never forget with what a gusto 
that brave Sir William Boswell was wont 
to relate this among the infinite more ob- 
servable passages in the happy reign of 
Queen Elizabeth ; that she gave a strict 
charge and command to both the Chancel- 
lors of both her Universities, to bring her 
a just, true and impartial list of all the 
eminent and hopeful students (that were 
graduates) in each University ; to set down 
punctually their names, their colleges, their 
standings, their faculties wherein they did 
eminere, or were likely so to do. Therein 
her Majesty was exactly obeyed, the Chan- 
cellors durst not do otherwise ; and the use 
she made of it was, that if she had an Am- 
bassador to send abroad, then she of her- 
self would nominate such a man of such an 
House to be his Chaplain, and another of 
another House to be his Secretary, &c. 
When she had any places to dispose /of, fit 
for persons of an academical education, she 

would herself consign such persons as she 
judged to be pa7-es negotiis. Sir William 
had gotten the very individual papers 
wherein these names were listed and mark- 
ed with the Queen's own hand, which he 
carefully laid up among his Ktijj^'iXta." — 
Appendix to the Life of Joseph Mede, p. 76. 


" To that old complaint (now newly 
dressed up and followed with such noises 
and hubbubs). Is it not great pity that men 
should be silenced and laid aside only for 
their not subscribing? — the answer of that 
moderate, learned and wise man Joseph 
Mede was. So it is great pity that some 
goodly fair houses in the midst of a popu- 
lous city should take fire, and therefore 
must of necessity be pulled down, unless 
you will suffer the whole town to be on a 
flame and consume to ashes." — Appendix to 
the Life of Joseph Mede, p. 74. 

Discouragement of Learning during our 

" Who is there that in this interstitiian 
will dispose a son to a college life, in 
whom he sees any nobility of wit and after 
hopes, whenas but bare commons, and per- 
haps a country cure, or a petty mastership 
of a House, is the top of that ladder which 
he may climb to ? " — Waterhous's Apology 
for Learning, 1653, p. 91. 

Dominion of the Saints. 

" There was one in Cambridge to whom 
Mr. Mede had shewn favour, in lending 
him money at a time of need ; but he being 
put in mind of his engagement, instead of 
making due payment, repaid Mr. Mede 
only with undue words to this effect, that 
upon a strict and exact account he had no 
right to what he claimed. No right ? an- 
swered he. No ; no right, it was told him, 
because he was none of God's children ; for 
that they only have right, who are gracious 



in God's sight. The story was related by 
Mr. Mede upon the occasion of some intel- 
ligence received from London, that there 
was at that time a more strict examination 
there of those who came to take orders, 
concerning that strange position. Dominium 
temporale fundatur in gratia ; at which one 
then in company being astonished, as sup- 
posing none would be so Impudent as to 
assert it, Mv. Mede replied that he had par- 
ticular experience of the evil effect and 
consequence of such doctrine, as in the 
fore-mentioned story." — Life of Joseph 
Mede prefixed to his Works, p. 40. 


" El principal de los exercicios que per- 
tenecen a un senor, es la razon de mandar 
un cavallo; porque en la paz es gallardia 
y deleite, y en la guerra provecho y nece- 
sidad. El ponerse bien en qualquiera de 
las dos sillas, causa gusto y respeto ; el po- 
nerse mal, desprecio y risa. A los que na- 
cen con sangre muy ilustre, y mucha ri- 
queza, antes (si pudiera ser) los avian de 
enseiiar a andar a cavallo, que a andar; 
pues se han de servir mas de los pies del 
bruto, que de los suyos. Pero, pues no es 
posible, en pudiendolo aprender, se les deve 
ensenar ; porque lo que se ha de hazer 
siempre, seria grande mengua estarlo er- 
rando siempre. Y en esta materia qual- 
quiera imperfeccion es muy de enmendar, 
porque como es accion c{ue se pone en alto, 
ningun defecto se le encubra." — Zavaleta, 
Teatro del Hombre, — El Homire, p. 9. 

Inspiration of Sermons. 
" En la celda del religioso que ha de 
predicar de alli a un mes, esta Dios preve- 
niendo remedios contra los vicios de los 
que desde alli a un mes han de oirle. El 
predicador no sabe con quiie ha de hablar, 
quando piensa el sermon ; pero Dios, que 
lo sabe, le govierna de suerte el pensami- 
ento, que dispone doctrinas individuales 
para los que han de oirle. Para qualquiera 

de los que le oyen, se hizo el sermon, y no 
piense nadie que es acaso lo que se le dize." 
— Zavaleta, El Dia de Fiesta, p. 266. 

Arbitration in Parishes. 

In Norway " there is in every parish a 
Commission of Conciliation, before which 
every cause must be stated previous to its 
going into a court of justice; and It Is the 
office of the Commissioners to mediate be- 
tween the parties, and. If possible, to com- 
promise matters. The party refusing to 
abide by their opinion is condemned to all 
the costs, If it do not afterwards appear 
upon trial that he was In the right." — 
Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. 10, p. 393. 

Rents in Kind in Russia. 

" ' I NEVER put my hands Into my purse 
for any thing,' said a Russian nobleman, 
' but to purchase foreign wines, and articles 
for my wife's dress.' He was provided with 
every thing he wanted from his estate and 
his slaves." — Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. 11, 
p. 394, note. 

Wliat the Pope is. 

" El Papa, pues, es nuestro visible Mo- 
narcha, y Emperador en lo espiritual y tem- 
poral; el Dios vivo en la Tierra, o Vicar io 
de Dios, con quien en la Tierra constituye un 
solo Tribunal ; y como dijo 'agudamente un 

Papa stupor mundi, qui maxima rerum 
Nee Deus est, nee homo, quasi neuter Inter 

P. Fr. Juan Francisco de San Antonio, 

Chronicas de Religiosos Descalzos de N. 

S. P. S. Francisco en las Islas Philipinas, 

&c.— Manila, 1738, torn. 1, p. 259. 

Corruption of Justice. 
" We laugh at the Indians," says Db. 
Featley (Claris Mystica, p. 46), "for cast- 
ing in great store of gold yearly into the 
river Ganges, as if the stream would not 



run currently without It. Yet when the 
current of justice is stopt in many couvts, 
the wisest solicitor of suits can find no bet- 
ter means than such as the Indians use, by 
dropping in early in the morning gold and 
silver into Ganges to make it run." 

Corruption of Manners. 

" Doth any desire to know how it Com- 
eth to pass that our gold is not so pure, 
our silver so bright, oin- brass and iron so 
strong as heretofore? that is, the honour of 
our Nobility, the riches of our Gentry, the 
virtue and strength of our Commonalty, is 
much empaired. If I and all Preachers 
should be silent, our loud sins would pro- 
claim it ; Blasi)hemy would speak it, Pro- 
faiicncss srcear it, Pride and Vanity paint 
and jirint it, Usury and Bribery tell it. 
Luxury vent it, Gluttony and Drunken- 
ness belch it out. St. Peter's argument 
were now of no force, these men are not 
di'unk, seeing that it is hut the third hour of 
the day ; for all hours of day, yea and night 
too, are alike to many of our di-unkards." — 
Featley's Clavis Mystica, p. 89. 

The Pope called God at Rome at this time. 

" — AVhen I heard them one day call the 
Pope God, and heard this title defended 
by the most learned men of Rome, who 
told me that he merits such a title, because 
he has power not only upon the earth, but 
likewise over purgatory, and in heaven, and 
because whatever the Pope absolves in the 
earth is absolved in heaven, and that they 
call the Pope God upon earth., on account of 
his power to sanctify and to beatify, — when 
I heard such arguments as these I under- 
stood Paul's words, ' He as God sitteth in 
the temple of God, shewing himself that he 
is God:' and I could no longer abstain from 
protesting against an idolatrous opinion, 
and exclaimed. The Pope is a man as I am ; 
the Pope is dust of the earth as I am ! " — 
Missionary Journal and Memoir of The Rev. 
Joseph Wolff, p. 30. 

Church of Rome founded upon Traditions. 

" The argument from a scriptural reason 
is this : that church that is built more on 
traditions and doctrines of men, than on the 
word of God, is no true church, nor reli- 
gion. But the Church of Rome is built 
more upon traditions and doctrines of men, 
than on the word of God. Ergo, the foun- 
dations of the true church of God is Scrip- 
ture ; and are built upon the foundation of 
the apostles and prophets.^ But if you look 
upon what the whole frame of Popery is 
built, you will find it upon a sand of human 
tradition. That the Pope is head of the 
church ; that he pardons sin ; rules over 
princes : where find you this in Scripture ? 
they are but points of the cursed inventions 
of men. That priests can sing souls out of 
purgatory ; that the service of God should be 
in an unknown tongue ; that the priests can 
change the bread into God; and generally 
the whole rabble of their Romish religion, 
hath not so much as any one underpinning 
of Scripture warrant, but all founded upon 
the rotten trash of hiunan inventions, and 
self ends." — LiGHTFOOT, vol. 6, p. 45. 

Self- ignorance well illustrated. 

" I REMEMBER it was a woudcr to me, 
before I knew this city, to hear of families 
living so near together all their lives, as but 
one chimney back between them, and yet 
their doors opening into several streets, 
and the persons of those families never 
knowing one another, or who they were. 
And methought that passage of Martial was 
a strange one, when I first met with it, — 
Nemo est tarn prope tarn p7-oculque nobis : and 
that observation of the Jews remarkable, — 
that sometimes two verses in Scripture be 
joined as close together for place as close 
can be, and yet as distant for sense and 
matter as distant may be : and that relation 

Eph. ii. 20. 



of Seneca Avondrous, if I miss not my au- 
thor, — that a man through sickness did 
forget his own name : and that of the natu- 
ralist, as wondi'ous, — that tliere is a beast, 
that as he was eating his meat if he did but 
once turn his head from it, he forgets it. 
But now a sad experience within mine own 
self hath lessened these wonders, and doth 
make a thousand of such strangenesses as 
these seem nothing ; for I and my heart 
were born together, grew up together, have 
Iain together, have always been together, — 
and yet have had so little acquaintance to- 
gether, as that we never talked together 
nor conversed together ; nay, I know not 
my heart, I have forgotten my heart. Ah! 
my bowels, my bowels, that I could be 
grieved at the very heart, that my poor 
heart and I have been so unacquainted ! 
And is not the same case yoiu-s too ? I ap- 
peal to your own hearts, if they but speak ; 
and I beseech you to put them to it." — 

LiGHTFOOT, vol. 6, p. 112. 

Boast of what the Clci'gy have done in aid 
of the Rebellion. 

" ' Commune with your own hearts' what 
the ministry of England hath done for you. 
]My warrant for the moving of this unto 
you, besides your gratitude, I may show 
from divers of your own orders and expres- 
sions. For in how many of your addresses 
and desires to the City or Country for the 
raising of moneys, men, and horses, have 
you still laid much upon the hands and fide- 
lity of the Ministers to promote the work, 
and to stir up their several congregations 
to it ? And I beseech you now ' commune 
with your own hearts,' how they have dis- 
charged that trust, and performed your in- 
junctions : and in your thoughts take vip 
an account, how they have behaved them- 
selves in that matter, and whether they 
have not been exceeding faithful. 

Have not these trumpets and these poor 
pitchers had their share, and a good share 
too, in Vjringing down the walls of Jericho, 

and the camp of Midian ? Have not they, 
like that story in Ezekiel xxxvii. 10, if I 
may so express it, prophesied you up an 
army?" — Lightfoot, vol. 6, p. 121. 

Confession that they have given occasion for 
innumerable Heresies. 

" We vowed against error, heresy, and 
schism, and swore to the God of truth and 
peace, to the utmost of our power to extir- 
pate them, and to root them out. These 
stones, and walls, and pillars, were witnesses 
of our solemn engagement. And now, if 
the Lord should come to enquire what Ave 
have done according to this vow and cove- 
nant, I am amazed to think what the Lord 
would find amongst us : would he not find 
ten schisms now for one then ; twenty here- 
sies now for one at that time ; and forty 
errors now for one when we swore against 
them ? Was there ever more palpable 
walking contrary to God, or more desperate 
crossing of a covenant ? If we had sworn, 
to the utmost of our power, to have pro- 
moted and advanced error, heresy, and 
schism, could these then have gi'own and 
come foi'ward more than now they have 
done, though we swore against them ?" — 
Lightfoot, vol. 6, p. 123. 

The Cloud ivhich led the Israelites cleared 
the Way. , 

" The Jews fancy concerning the cloud 
that conducted Israel through the wilder- 
ness, that it did not only show them the 
way, but also plane it ; that it did not only 
lead them in the way which they must go, 
but also fit them the way to go upon ; that 
it cleared all the mountains, and smoothed 
all the rocks ; that it cleared all the bushes, 
and removed all the rubs. No less prepa- 
ratives were required for our Saviour's 
coming, to make way for him in the enter- 
tainment of men, or to make way for men 
to the entertaining of him." — Lightfoot, 
vol. 6, p. 137. 



The Law successively abridged, till brozight 
into one Precept. 

" The Jews, in the Talmud, have this 
saying : ' The whole law was given to Moses 
at Sinai, in six hmidred and thirteen pre- 
cepts. David, in the fifteenth Psalm, brings 
them all within the compass of eleven. 
Isaiah brings them to six, Isa. xxxiii. 15. 
]\licah to three, Micah vi. 8. Isaiah, again, 
to two, Isa. Ivi. Habakkuk to this one, 
The just shall live by faith, Hab. ii. 4.' " — 

LiGHTFOOT, vol. 6, p. 201. 

Good of the Civil War — in Light/oofs 

" I MIGHT show you how the Church 
hath been increased, the gospel propagated, 
God glorified, atheists converted and the 
enemies confounded, even by the devil's 
persecution: but I need not go far for ex- 
amples and experiences in this kind : look 
at home, in these times and distractions, 
where the devil is so busy ; and as we may 
sadly see him raging, and let loose in these 
doleful wars, so may we as visibly see Christ 
doing good to this poor kingdom out of this 
evil. For, 

"First : How many rotten hearts, and how 
many rotten members, hath the devil — or 
God rather, out of the devil's activity — disco- 
vered in this nation in these troubles, which, 
like a moth and corruption, were devouring 
a poor kingdom, and she knew not who hurt 
her. "\Miat juntas of hell have been found 
out, what plots discovered, what cabinets 
of letters detected, what actions described, 
what hearts anatomized ! Popery, preroga- 
tive protestations, plotters, prelates, — all 
come to light, and found desperate and de- 
vilish, and all this done by the great busi- 
ness of the devil ; God overpowering him 
and making him to prove a tell-tale of his 
own counsels, and, as it were, a false bro- 
ther to his own hell and fraternity. 

" Secondly : How have these troubles 
beaten men and the kingdom out of their 
fooleries and superstitions, their trumperies 

and ceremonies, customs and traditions ! 
which how hard it would have been to have 
got off from them, if they had not been thus 
brayed in this mortar, the great tenacious- 
ness of them with divers, even in this mor- 
tar, is evidence sufficient : this dross would 
never have been got away, if it had not 
passed such a furnace ; and our Israel would 
never have shaken hands with Egyptian 
idolatry, if it had not been beaten out of it 
by Egyptian affliction. So that let me take 
up the manner of speech of our Saviour, 
with some inversion : O England ! Eng- 
land ! Satan hath desired to winnow thee 
as wheat, and he hath winnowed away a 
world of his own chaff. 

" Thirdly : How many profane and un- 
godly wretches hath this war cut off. Pa- 
pists, atheists, epicures, devils incarnate, 
that would not only have lain in the way, 
as so much rubbish to hinder the work of 
the temple, but that would have proved San- 
ballats, Tobiahs, Geshems, and such Sama- 
ritans, utterly to oppose it with all their 
might ! It is a sad thing to see so many of 
Israel perish in the matter of Baal-peor ! 
yet there is this comfort in it, — that the 
entering into the land of promise will be 
the speedier, when these untowardly and 
ungracious ones are taken away." — Light- 
foot, vol. 6, p. 180-1. 

The Civil Power to effect what the Ministry 
" Christ's power, which he hath com- 
mitted to ministers and magistrates ; the 
two hands of Christ, whereby he visibly 
conquers the devU in the sight of men ; the 
Jonathan and his armour-bearer ; the priests 
with trumpets, and the gathering host, that 
one after another destroy those Philistines, 
and that both together help to lay the walls 
of the city of hell flat. Upon this subject 
do I especially look in the exercise of these 
two offices ; that they have not to fight 
against flesh and blood, but principalities 
and powers. And this consideration is some 
satisfaction to me, and helpeth to settle me 



about that matter which is now so much 
controverted, namely, about church-power : 
for to me it seemeth, the acting of these two 
offices to be thus : the ministry to cast the 
devil out where it may be done, and the 
magistrate to bind the devil where he can- 
not be cast out ; and ' ubi desinit philoso- 
phus, ibi incipit medicus ;' where the power 
of the one ceaseth, the other taketh at it, 
and finisheth the work. The ministry, by 
the preaching of the word and by prayer, 
striveth to cast the devil out ; and, if it do 
it, well ; — but, if it cannot do it, it can go 
no farther ; and then the magistracy cometh 
in, and bindeth him, that he trouble not 
others, though the ministi'y cannot cast him 
out from vexing the party himself. It is 
needless to show how Christ overpowereth 
the devil by both these ; the matter is so 
apparent and conspicuous, I shall not need 
to go about to show it : it is enough to say, 
that the ministry of the gospel overthrew 
the idolatry of the heathen, and that the 
magistracy can hang a witch." — Lightfoot, 
vol. 6, p. 185. 

Misconduct of their own Party. 

" But it is not the enemy only that hath 
done us this displeasure that we feel, for then 
we could better have borne it, or hid our- 
selves from him ; but it is some of our own 
party, some of our friends, of our familiars, 
with whom we have taken council together, 
and have gone with them to the house of 
God as friends, which do prove devils to us, 
or at least raise up devils among us, that 
ruin and undo us, that help on our sorrows, 
augment our miseries, bind on those plagues 
that the desert of our sins hath brought 
upon us. Our own quarters are become as 
the lan.d of Gadarenes, where two possessed 
parties, as I may so say, or rather two pos- 
sessing devils, are so exceeding fierce, that 
none may pass by them, none can be quiet 
near them. And these two are, injustice in 
oppression and erroneousness in opinion. 

" These are they that lose you friends, 
procure you enemies, and keep off neuters. 

— that undo at home, and exasperate abroad, 
— that lose you more hearts than all your 
armies can subdue persons, and do more 
mischief to your holy and honourable cause, 
than all the other devils of hell can do, than 
all your enemies on earth have done. Our 
sad case at this time, is like the case of the 
four lepers under the walls of Samaria in the 
Book of Kings ; if they went into the city 
they went upon famine ; if they went from 
the city they went upon the enemy : if we 
go to the enemy's quarters, there the devil 
of their cruelty devours us ; if we abide 
among our own, one or other of these devils 
is ready to destroy us ; so that as it was 
with them of old, it is with us at this day, 
' Abroad the sword devoureth, and at home 
is death.' 

" First, ' We looked for justice, but, be- 
hold, a cry' (for give me leave to use the 
words of the prophet, and to speak of bitter 
things in the bitterness of my spirit) : the 
people of your own party expected judge- 
ment, equity, and comfort, from your sit- 
ting, and from your councils ; and they 
concluded with themselves, mucK like as 
Micah did, in another case, — ' Now, will it 
be well with us, now we have such a par- 
liament to take care for us, to defend us, 
and to advise in our behalf : but, behold, 
instead of their expectation, injuries, op- 
pressions, wrongs, injustice, violence, and 
such complainings and cryings out in all 
quarters and parts even o'f your own party, 
that ' let it not be told in Gath nor pub- 
lished in the streets of Ascalon, lest the 
uncircumcised triumph, and exult over us 
in it.' JVIistake me not, it is far from me to 
charge your honourable Court with any 
such thing ; for I may say in this as he or 
she did in another case,' — ' My lord David 
knows it not ' ; but it is too many that act 
under you that cause this complaining, and 
that do this mischief ; yet I cannot but say 
withal, that the injustice will become yours, 
if it be not remedied. 

" Now, O, that England's grief, in this 

' 1 Kings, i. 11, 18. 



particular, were tlioroujrlily weighed, and 
her calamity and complaints were laid in 
the balances together ! Oh ! that the cries 
of all the oppressed, in this kind, might 
meet here this day together in your ears, 
as we desire our cries and prayers might 
meet this day in the ears of the Lord! What 
sad complahiings, lamentings, grievings and 
cryings out would come almost from all 
parts and places in your own quarters ! I 
will not take upon me to particularize in 
any ; only, might I have but the quarter of 
that time and patience at your bar, that I 
have here, and but some preparation for it, 
as Iliad for this exercise, — to do the message 
of mine own country as I now do the mes- 
sage of the Lord, — I doubt I could tell you 
so sad a story, as would make your ears to 
tingle." — LiGHTFooT, vol. 6, p. 190-1, 

Groictk of Heresies. 

" How sad and doleful is it to consider, 
— and for God's sake take it seriously to 
heart, — that so glorious a Church as this 
was but a while ago, should now be so over- 
grown with these cursed weeds as it is, and 
is more and more every day, as is no re- 
formed church under heaven. That God 
should be so blasphemed, his truth so pol- 
luted, the moral law so despised, repentance 
and begging pardon for sin so pleaded 
against, the immortality of the soul written 
against, duty cried down, and I know not 
what so cried up, as is in the erroneous 
opinions that are among us, — what a misery 
is this in the midst of other miseries ! 

" A canker, a gangreen, hath seized upon 
the land and devours insensibly, but it de- 
vours desperately and devilishly : and ' Ant 
tu ilium aut ille te^ either bind this devil, or 
this devil will have all in his power and 
kingdom of darkness, before we are aware. 
How he gets ground, and grows, and de- 
vours, and destroys, — who is there that sees 
not? And for Sion's sake, who can hold 
his peace ? Souls lie a bleeding by this as 
well as bodies by the enemy ; the churcB is 
undone by this as the land by them ; this 

spoils our truth, as they do our peace ; and 
when these are gone whither shall we go?" 
— LiGHTFOoT, vol. 6, p. 193, 

A Torpid Conscience. 

" That inward peace in the conscience, 
doth not infer having peace with God. — By 
inward peace in the conscience I mean the 
opposite to pangs, troubles, storms of con- 
science. And this peace is the common tem- 
per of the most consciences in the world ; 
they have no disquiet at all. Who hath used 
to visit the sick on their dying beds, — hath 
he not found it too common, that conscience 
hath been in this temper ? ' I thank God, no- 
thing troubles me ; all is quiet in my con- 
science.' — As Elisha over Hazael, upon foi-e- 
sight of his mischievousness to come, so 
could I weep over such a poor soul, to see 
it get out of the world with such a delu- 
sion as this in its right hand. 

" Ah ! say not ' Peace, peace,' when there 
is no peace. For here, indeed, is neither 
peace with God, nor peace of conscience, 
properly so called. But if you will have 
the Spirit of God to word it, it is ' the spirit 
of slumber' ; it is an impenitent heart ; it is 
(lirriXyTjKuie, past feeling ; in a word, it is a 
Xabal's heart, dead within him. And that 
such a conscience should be quiet it is no 
wonder ; for ' mortui nan mordent.^ But it 
would be a wonder, if such a peace in the 
conscience should be a sign of peace with 
God. Into such a peace let not my soul, 
my conscience, enter. 

" It was a strange request of him that 
said to his father, ' Smite me, I pray thee,' 
But I hardly know a more pertinent re- 
quest that a sinner can put up to God, and 
it must be mine continually ; and I know, 
that all that know what belongs to the right 
frame of conscience, will pray with me, 
' Lord, smite me, I pray thee ; wound me, 
lash my conscience, and spare it not, rather 
than suffer me to lie and die and perish 
under such peace of conscience as this is'; 
if such stupidity may be called peace." — 
LiGHTFOOT, vol. 6, p. 251. 



Likeness between the Jew and Romanist. 
" Yoke-fellows, indeed, are the Jew 
and Romanist above all people of the world, 
in a deluded fimcying their own bravery 
and privilege above all the world besides. 
He that comes to read the Jewish writings, 
especially those that are of the nature of 
sermons, wiU find this to be the main stuf- 
fing of them, almost in every leaf and page : 
' How choice a people is Israel ! how dearly 
God is in love with Israel ! what a happy 
thing it is to be the seed of Abraham! how 
blessed the nation of the Jews above all 
nations !' And such stuff as this all along. 
And is not the style of the Romanists the 
very same tune ? ' How holy the Church 
of Rome ! what superiority and pre-emi- 
nence hath the Church above all churches ! 
and all the men in the world are hereticks 
and apostates and cast-aways if they be not 
Romanists.' AVhereas if both the nations 
would but impartially look upon themselves, 
they would see that there are such brands 
upon them two, as are upon no nation under 
heaven, now extant." — Lightfoot, vol. 6, 
p. 366. 

Party Statements in History. 

" TitE worst is, that in matters of fact, 
all relations in these times are relations ; I 
mean, much resent of party and interest to 
the prejudice of truth. Let me mind the 
reader to reflect his eye on our quotations 
(the margin in such cases being as material 
as the text, as containing the authors), and 
his judgement may, according to the credit 
or reference of the author aUedged, believe, 
or abate from tiie reputation of the report. 
Let me add, that though it be a lie in the 
clock, it's but a falsehood in the hand of 
the dial, when pointing at a wrong hour, if 
rightly following the direction of the wheel 
which moveth it. And the fault is not 
mine if I truly cite what is false on the 
credit of another." — Fuller, Church His- 
tory, book 9, p. 195. 

Erasmus and Augustine upon Celibacy. 

Erasmus in vindicating his Colloquies 
says, " Mirum verb si.procus amans laudat 
nuptias, dicitque castum conjugium non mul- 
tuni abesse a laude virginitatis, quum Augus- 
tinu^ patriurcharum polygamiam anteponat 
nostra ccelibatui.'" — Epistola?, lib. 29, epist. 
19,— p. 1736. 

Cardinal Ti uchses' Device of the Pelican.^ 
" II Cardinale d' Augusta, Mons. Otto 
Truehses, nobilissimo barone, porta anch' 
egli una honorata impresa, ch' e il Pelicano : 
il motto liberamente confesso di non sa- 
perlo, per non haverlo veduto, ne udito 
mai dire ; ma si dee credere, che sia inge- 
gnoso, e conveniente al suo sottUissimo in- 
telletto. La intentione di cosi virtuoso e 
ottimo prelato credo che sia questa : ch' 
essendo la natura del Pelicano tanto amo- 
revole e pietosa verso i suoi figliuoli, che 
trovandogli morti da fiera, o da alcuno altro 
uccello, col becco s'apre il proprio petto, e 
spruzzandogli del suo sangue gli ritorna 
in vita; esso ha voluto mostrare anchora, 
che tale e I'amore e la carita di lui verso 
i suoi figliuoli spLritoali commessi al go- 
verno di lui, che per salvazza loro volon- 
tariamente spenderebbe la propria vita. 
Santissimo invero, e pio proponunento di 
pastore e prelato." — DoxMenichi, Dialoghi, 
p. 161.- 

Sir Thomas More not scrupulously veracious. 

Sir Thomas More may have been de- 
ceived concerning Bilney's death, or he may 
have thought it a pious fraud, and therefore 
meritorious, to spread a false account of 
his recantation. That he was not scrupu- 
lous concerning veracity in little things we 
know from one of his own letters : "Postea 
quam a nobis digressus es Erasme charis- 
sime, ter omnino literas abs te recepi : si to- 
ties dicam rescripsisse, Jidem fortasse mihi 
non es habiturus, ctiamsi sanctissiine mentiar; 

' Craumcr 



prcEsertim cum ipse me tarn probe ?ioscas, et 
ad scrihcndas epistolaa piffrian, neque tarn 
supcrstitiose veruccin, ut mendaciolutii iisque 
quoquo velut parricidium abominerr — Eras- 
mi JEpistolcE, lib. 2, epist. 16, — p. 117. 

Luther s Complaint of his Friends for pub- 
lishing his Crude Thoughts. 

In the Preface to Conciunculee Queedam, 
Luther good-naturedly complains of his 
friends for having published those little ef- 
fusions without his leave. jRogo tamen (he 
says) per Christum., pios meos fures (scio 
enim id eos fucere candido et sincero animoj 
ne facile s sint ad ede?idum, neque me vivo, 
neque mortuo, siquid, vel per insidias me 
vivo furati fuerint mearum cogitationum, vel 
me mortno habuerint jam antea communica- 
tnm. Quando enim sustinere cogor personam 
talem ac tanfam, preesertim tali tempore., ne- 
cesse est me dies et nodes cestuare et abundare 
cogitationibus mirubilibus, qiias memories im- 
becillitas (infinite enim sunt) cogit in cur- 
iam duobiis aut tribus verbis signare., velut 
inde chaos, aliquando., si opus esset, forman- 
dum. Has autem, fwto aliquo vel dono ab- 
laias, edere, certe ingrati et inhumani in- 
genii esset. Sunt in eis, ut sumus homines., 
quce humaiia, imu et carnem sapiunt. Dum 
enim soli sumus et disputamus, scepius etiam 
irascimur. Deus ridet nostras istas egre- 
gias sapientias, quibus coram eo gesticulamur, 
crede quod et delectetur istis suis morionibus 
eum regere doce?itibus, id quad ego non rarb 
feci, et adhuc facio scepe. Sed si in publi- 
cum proderentur, nee ego fabula pulcherrima 
Jierem omnium fubularum totius mundi. Non 
quod impia et mala sint quce sic ardens co- 
gito, sed quod prce nimia sapientia stulta 
sunt, etiam me ipso judice, post refrigeratum 
calorem inventionis, qualia sunt mxdta quce in 
principio causce m.ece fervens scripsi. Quare 
iterum oro, ut sine me nihil meum edat nllus 
amicus, aut ipse subeat onus et pericidum 
operis, testimonio aperto. Hoc et Caritas et 
Justitia requirit. Dei enim gratia, ego per 
me ipsum, etiam optimis scriptis, potui^et 
possum me oherare periculis, invidia oneri- 

bus, plusqmim satis, ut tndlo mihi in hdc re 
sit opus adjutore. Christum Jesus tuleret nos, 
et liberet nos, tandem etiam a nobis ipsis quo- 
que. Amen! — Luther, vol. 7, p. 248. 

Luther s Reply to Henry. 

" Quod autem ad me attinet prlvatim, 
agnosco ingenii viriumque mearum modu- 
lum, agnosco quam sim miser, quam multis 
peccatis et infirmitati sira obnoxius. In- 
terea, sint hostes mei vel ipsis Angelis sanc- 
tiores (bene quidem ipsis, si esse poterunt), 
non impedio. Ego verb ut Christo et piis 
Ecclesias membris me, ut debeo, peccatorem 
profiteer ; ita contra impiis me esse pecca- 
torem plane pernego, adebque, si civilis 
vitse innocentiam spectes, ut illos vix dig- 
nos censeam qui mihi calceamenti corrigiam 
solvant. Hanc civilis probitatis sestima- 
tionem audacter et bona conseientia mihi 
ausim arrogare ; neque ipsos hostes mihi 
quidquam objicere posse (si candide vellent 
judicare) quod aut charitatis officii aut 
privatae vitte puritatem desideret, quod ego 
tamen illis, sine injuria, possim objicere." — 
Ad Maledici et Contumeliosi Scripti Regis 
Anglice Titulum, Responsio Martini Lutheri, 
— Luther, vol. 2, p. 494. 

Crimes of the Monks. 
These ugly works — 
Mark from what hearts they rise, and where 

they bide : 
Violent, despair'd ; where Honour broken is. 
Fear lord, Time death ; where Hope is 

Doubt having stopt all honest ways to bliss, 
And Custom shut the windows up of shame. 
Lord Brooke's Mu^tapha. 

Romish Gynophobia. 
HiERONTMus Vervesius left an injunc- 
tion that no woman should be allowed to 
touch his corpse. Upon which Erasmus, 
writing to the brother of the deceased, ob- 
serves, " Si sibimetuebat, plane fuitalesQ ceoQ ; 
si mulieribus, plurimum fragilitatis tribuit illi 


seiid.'^ He adds, " Ahsit autem ut cxistiinemus 
iUam fiiisse jiKToyvyf], qimm Dominus pcc- 
catricis fcemince contachim non horruerit." — 
Epistolse, lib. 27, epist. 4, — p. 1493. 

Prohibited Degrees. 

Four reasons are assigned for the pro- 
hibition of marriage on the score of con- 
sanguinity. " La premiere raison est Vhon- 
neiir de nostre sang. La secoride, lafrequente 
occasion que nous avons avec nos proches. 
La iroisieme, que si ces conjonctions-ld es- 
toicnt permises, on seroit prive des alliances 
et amitiez des estra?ige7-s. La quatrieme, que 
r affection du sang dans le mariage feroit 
trap d'exces d' amour, qui hltsseroit la chas- 
tete qui doit etre entre les conjoints, comme a 
voidu Saint Thomas en sa Secunda Secundae, 
quest. 154, art. 1. 

The third of these reasons must have 
had considerable weight in the age of private 
wars. The fourth savours of the cloister, 
and arose in that pruriency of imagination 
which monkish morality pi'oduces. 

I find them in a curious book entitled 
Les Manieres Admirables j^our decouvrir 
Unites sortes de Crimes et Sortileges. Avec 
r Instruction solide pour hienjuger unprocez 
criminel. Ensemble VEspece des Crimes, et 
la punition d'iceux, suivant les Loix, Ordon- 
nances. Canons et Arrests. Briefvement 
traitepar le Sieur Bouvet, Prevost General 
des Armees du Roy en Italic, et de son Al- 
tesse Roy ale de Savoy e. — Paris, 1659. The 
author continues thus. " Aussi la confisca- 
tion est toiijows faite des biens de ceux qtd 
contractent Nopces incestueuses. Et la peine 
de cet infame crime est tousjours suivie de 
la mort." — P. 277. Marriages between cou- 
sins-german, or of sponsor with god-child, 
are included by him under the head of Licest 
as thus punishable with confiscation and 

The Gabelle and the Jubilee. 

Madame de Sevigne tells a good story 
of the Bretons. " M. Boucherat me contoit 

r autre Jour qiiun cure avoit requ devant ses 
paroissiens une pendule qiCon lui envoyoit 
de France, car c'est ainsi quits disent : ils se 
mirent tous a crier en leur langage que c^etoit 
la Gabelle, et qiCils le voyoient fort bien. 
Le cure habile leur dit sur le meme ton; Point 
du tout mes enfans, qe nest point la Gabelle, 
voxis ne vous y connoissez pas, c'est le Jubile : 
en meme temps les voild a genoux" — Tom. 
3, p. 334. 

AugiLstin^s Caution ivith regard to Women. 

Thus Erasmus says of St. Augustine. 
Jam sobrietatis et vigilantice comes est cas- 
titas, qua prcecipuum est Episcoporum decus 
et ornamentum. Hujus illi tanta curafuit, 
ut nee sororem, licet Deo dicatam, nee pro- 
pinquo gradu cognatas fceminas, ad domesti- 
cum admitteret contidjernium : et collegia mu- 
lierum, cjua instituerat, rarb admodum invi- 
seret ; nee omnino cum ulla fcemina misceret 
colloquium, nisi prasentibus clericis, aut aliis 
matronis, nisi forte quid esset arcani, quod 
unius auribus esset committendum. — Erasmi 
Epistola?, lib. 28, epist, 1,— p. 1573. 

Sir Thomas More's Hatred of Heretics. 

Sib Thomas More describes himself in 
his own epitaph as neque nobilibus invisus, nee 
injucundus popido ; furibus aidem, homicidis, 
hcereti.cisque molestus : and of the latter part 
of this self-commendation, he speaks thus 
to Erasmus : Qiwd in Epitaphio profteor 
hcereticis me fuisse molestum, hoc ambitiose 
feci. Nam omnino sic illud hominum genus 
odi, id illis ni resipiscant tam invisus esse ve- 
lim quam cui maxime, quippe qxios indies 
magis ac magis experior tales, ut mundo ah 
illis vehementer metuam. — Erasmi Epistolte, 
lib. 27, epist. 10,— p. 1511, 

Augtistine^s Concubine, awl Erasmus's Re- 
mark upon the Clergy of his day. 

When Erasmus in his prefatory Epis- 
tle to the Archbishop of Toledo sketches 
the life of St. Augustine, he says, " Ado- 



Icsanis hahuit concubinam, quod humance per- 
luittunt leges, et hoc non repiuUata sed erepta, 
ascicit alteram. Verum utrique servavit con- 
'ugii^deiii, ([viiim probitatem hodie non te- 
mere reperias in sacerdotibus vel abbati- 
bus-" — l£.RAS^i Epistolce, lib. 28, cpist. 1, — 
p. 1572. 

J^rasmus''s Defence of Sir Thomas More for 
Erasmus thus endeavours to excuse Sir 
Thomas More for his conduct toward the 
reformers. " Quod juctant de carceribus an 
verum sit nescio. Illiid constat, virum na- 
tura mitissimum nulli fuisse molestum, qui 
monitus voluerit d sectarian contagio resipis- 
cere. An isti postulant, ut summus tanti regni 
Judex nidlos habeat carceres ? Odit ille se- 
ditiosa dogmata, quibus nunc misere concuti- 
tur orbis. Hoc ille non dissimulat, nee cvpit 
esse clam, sic addictus pietati, id si in alteru- 
tram partem aliquantidum inclinet momentum, 
superstitioni quum impietati vicinior esse vi- 
deatur. Illud tamen eximice cnjusdam de- 
mentia satis magnum est argumentum, quod 
sub illo Cancellario nullus ob improbata dog- 
mata capitis pwnam dedit, quum in utruque 
Germania, GalUuque tam multi slut affecti 
supplicio. An non clementer odit impios, 
qui quum habeat jus occidendi, ita studet 
mederi vitiis, ut homines ipsi sint incolu- 
mes ? Num. illud postulant, ut Regis vices 
gcrens adversus Regis et Episcoporum sen- 
tentiam faveat seditiosce novitati ? Finga- 
mus ilium non prorsus abhorruisse d novis 
dogmatibus, quod longe secus est: tamen aut 
munus quod susceperat erat deponendum, 
aut dissimulandus ille favor. Postremb, ut 
omittamus hie contentionem de dogmatibus, 
quis nescit, qudm multi leves ac seditiosi sub 
hue umbra parati sint ad omnium scelerum 
licentiam, nisi gliscentem temeritatem cohibeat 
magistratuum se Veritas ? Et indignantur hoc 
d siunmo regni Jiulice factum in Anglid, 
quod in civitatibus qua religionem innovdrunt, 
interdum facere cogitur senutus f Quod in 
factum esset, jamdudum pseudoevangelici in 
cellas et in scrinia divitum irrupissent, et 
papista fuisset quisquis haberet aliquid. At 

jilurimorum tanta est audacia, tam effrenis 
malitia, ut ipsi quoque qui novorum dogma- 
tum sunt autores ac propugnatores, acriter in 
istos stringant calamum. Et suprcmurn An- 
glicB Judicem valebant connivere, donee im- 
piine talis colluvies inundaret in regnum, et 
opibus, et ingeniis, et religione cum primisflo- 
rens." — Epistola?, lib. 27, epist. 8, p. 1505. 

Churchyard'' s Praise of English Poetry. 

" Nor scorn not mother-tongue, O babes 

of English breed ! 
I have of other language seen, and you at 

fuU may read. 
Fine verses trimly wrought and couch'd in 

comely sort. 
But never I, nor you, I trow, in sentence 

plain and short. 
Did yet behold with eye, in any foreign 

A higher verse, a statelier style, that may 

be read or sung. 
Than in this day indeed our English verse 

and rhyme. 
The grace whereof doth touch the Gods and 

reach the clouds sometime." 


Soldier- Adventurers. 

" I CANNOT blame them I, 
If they at bar have once held up their hand. 
And smelt the smoke which might have 

made them fry. 
Or learn'd the leap out of their native land ; 
Methinks if then their cause be rightly 

That they should more delight to follow 

Than bide at home to come in hangmen's 


" But holla yet, and lay a straw thereby ! 
For whiles they scape for one offence or 

They go so long to school with felony, 
And learn such lessons in the soldier's train, 
That all delays are dalied but in vain ; 


For commonly at their home-come they pay 
The debt wliich hangman clalm'd erst many 
a day." 
Gascoigne, Fruits of War, stan. 82-3. 

Pay atid Fine of the Assembly of Divines. 

" TuERE was a motion about forfeiture 
of six or twelve-pence, or the whole day's 
pay, for absence. This I spake against, in 
regard of my constant necessity of ab- 
sence every Monday : but this I conde- 
scended to, that at the payment of our 
wages, the whole should be subducted, so 
that the like course may be taken in return 
of those that have been absent hitherto. At 
last, it was ordered, that the absent should 
have twelve-pence subducted at the pay- 
ment of our monies ; and the late comer, 
and the goer before we rise, should lose 
also six-pence." — LiGHTroox, vol. 13, p. 

Sins enumerated by the Assembly. 

" The first work this day was, the com- 
mittee a2>pointed yesterday brought in what 
they conceived the causes of our present 
misery : — as, 1 . The sins of the Assembly ; 
as, neglect of the service, — as in slackness 
in coming, and departing at pleasure : 2. 
By absenting from prayers : 3. Manifesting 
a neglect in the time of debate, and neg- 
lecting committees : 4. Some speaking too 
much, some too little : 5. By irreverent 
carriage : 6. By heats in debating : 7. Driv- 
ing on parties : 8. Not serious examination 
of ministers. II. Of the Armies : I. Emu- 
lation ; 2. Want of ministers: 3. Swearing, 
gaming, drinking, &c. : 4. Want of disci- 
pline in the army. III. Of Parliament : 
1. Not tendering the covenant to all in 
their power : 2. Not active in suppressing 
Anabaptists and Antinomians : 3. Not seek- 
ing religion in the first place : 4. Not sup- 
pressing stage-^^lays, taverns, profaneness, 
and scoffing of ministers : 5. Not a free 
publishing of tniths, for fear of losing a 
party : 6. Oppression by committees : 7. 

Not debts paid : 8. Remissness in punish- 
ing delinquents : 9. Private end aimed at : 
10. Delays in relieving the army: 11. 
Church lands not sold for the maintenance 
of ministers. When this was read over, we 
fell upon debate of them : and, first, INIr. 
Henderson moved, that our private failings 
here might not be published to the world : 
which was thought most rational by divers ; 
only we sadly convinced oui-selves of them 
here amongst ourselves : and while we were 
about this, Mr. Bows came in, and told us 
of a clause in a diurnal, which is said there 
to be a vote of the House of Commons, 
against imposition of hands ; which the 
House, he said, never made, and desired 
we would not believe it, till we heard from 
the House. Then went we on the sins of 
the Armies ; which held us a good while in 
canvassing : which being finished, the chair- 
man of the committee reported the sins of 
the People : — 1 . Profaneness, scorn of God's 
hand on us : 2. Dvities of humiliation dis- 
figurated : 3. Our hearts not humbled upon 
humiliation : 4. Divisions in opinion and af- 
fection among professors : 5. Jealoiisies and 
sidings : 6. Unthankfulness for God's mer- 
cies : 7. Neglect of personal and family re- 
formation : 8. Carnal confidence and ge- 
neral security. Then went we on with the 
sins of the Parliament ; which before we 
had gone through, it was grown late, and 
so we f^djourned till afternoon." — Light- 
foot, vol. 13, p. 309. 

Their Debates concerning Burial. 

" Desired, that our Directory for bu- 
rial might be hastened. ^Yhereupon we 
fell upon that business : and, first, there 
was some motion made for consideration of 
the place where to bury : and some moved 
against burial In the Church: but Mr. 
Vines., Mr. Marshal., and divers others, were 
of another mind : but It was thought fit not 
to meddle with this. Then fell we upon 
the question. Whether we should have fu- 
neral sermons ? The Scots commissioners 
mightily opposed it ; but the most of the 



Assembly held for them, and that upon 
these two grounds : — 1. Because it cannot 
be proved that they are unlawful : 2. Be- 
cause the laying down of them may breed 
a dangerous effect in this land by so great 
an alteration. When we had done all, we 
were glad to lay it by again till Monday. 

" We speedily fell upon the business 
about burial, as soon as we were set ; and 
the matter was. Whether to have any thing 
spoken at the burial of the dead. Dr. 
Temple moved, that ' something might be 
said at the very interment of the body : ' 
but this was thought not fit to give any 
rule for, but rather to pass it over in si- 
lence, and so the minister left something 
to his liberty. Dr. Temple moved again, 
^Vhether a minister, at putting the body in 
the ground, may not say, ' W^e commit the 
body to the ground,' &c. And it was con- 
ceived by the Assembly that he might, and 
the words ' without any ceremony more,' 
do not tie him up from this. Then fell 
our great controversy about funeral ser- 
mons : and here was our difficulty, how to 
keep funeral sermons in England for fear 
of danger by alteration, and yet to give 
content to Scotland, that are averse from 
them. It was the sense of the Assembly 
in general, that funeral sermons may be 
made, if a minister be called on for it ; 
and the debate was, how to find terms to 
fit and suit with both parties. At last we 
fixed on this ; — ' That the people shoiild take 
up thoughts and conferences concerning 
death, mortality, &c., and the minister, if he 
be present, shall put them in mind of that 
duty.' Here I excepted at the last word 
' duty ; ' for that a little speech would put 
them in mind of the duty of meditating and 
conferring spiritually : therefore, I moved 
an alteration, which was much backed by 
divers, and it was changed ' of their duty.' 
The mind of the Assembly was, that these 
words give liberty for funeral sermons. 
And thus had we done the Du-ectory for 
burial." — LiGHTFOOT, vol. 13, p. 339. 

A Wild Vineyard. 

" The small elms along this valley were 
bending under the weight of innumerable 
grape vines, now loaded with ripe fruit, the 
purple clusters crowded in such profusion 
as almost to give a colouring to the land- 
scape. On the opposite side of the river 
was a range of low sand hills, fringed with 
vines, rising not more than a foot or eigh- 
teen inches from the surface. On exami- 
nation, we found these hillocks had been 
produced exclusively by the agency of the 
grape vines arresting the sand as it was 
borne along by the wind, until such quan- 
tities had been accumulated as to bury 
every part of the plant, except the end of 
the branches. Many of these were so load- 
ed with fruit, as to present nothing to the 
eye but a series of clusters, so closely ar- 
ranged as to conceal every part of the stem. 
The fruit of these vines is incomparably 
finer than that of any other, native or ex- 
otic, which we have met with in the United 
States. The bmying of the greater part 
of the trunk, with its larger branches, pro- 
duces the effect of pruning, inasmuch as it 
prevents the unfolding of leaves and flowers 
on the parts below the surface, while the 
protruded ends of the branches enjoy an 
increased degree of light and heat from the 
reflection of the sand. It is owing un- 
doubtedly to these causes, that the grapes 
in question are so far superior to the fruit 
of the same vine in ordinary circumstances. 
The treatment here employed by nature to 
bring to perfection the fruit of the vine, may 
be imitated ; but without the same pecu- 
liarities of soil and exposure, can with diffi- 
culty be carried to the same magnificent 
extent. Here are hundreds of acres, co- 
vered with a moveable surface of sand, and 
abounding in vines, which left to the agency 
of the sun and the winds, are by their 
operation placed in more favourable cir- 
cumstances than it is in the power of man, 
to so great an extent, to afford." — Edwin 
James, Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, 
vol. 2, p. 316. 


Migration of the Arclea Canadensis. 

"The migrations of the Ardea Canaden- 
sis afford one of the most beautiful instances 
of animal motion we can anywhere meet 
with. These birds fly at a great height and 
never in a direct line ; but wheeling in cir- 
cles, they appear to float without effort on 
the surface of an aerial current, by whose 
eddies they are borne about in an endless 
series of revolutions. Though larger than 
a goose, they rise to so great an elevation 
as to appear like pomts, sometimes lumi- 
nous and sometimes opaque, as they hap- 
pen to intercept or reflect the rays of the 
sun : but never so high but their shrill and 
incessant clamours may be heard." — Edwin 
James, Expedition to the Rochy Mountains, 
vol. 3, p. 186. 

Angelic Militia. 
Ladt Morgan in 1819 saw a procession 
of the Milizia Angelica at Vereelli, which 
she says, " considerably added to the bustle 
of its streets. This confraternity, insti- 
tuted in honour of St. Thomas the Angelic 
Doctor, is one of great reverence and cele- 
brity ; and the Sagro Cingolo, or girdle of 
the Saint (which appears not to have been 
the cestus of Venus) is among the most 
precious relics in the treasury of the cathe- 
dral of Vereelli." — Italy, vol. 1, p. 69. 

University Dresses derived from the Pagans. 

Peiresk, " being upon one day to re- 
ceive the doctorall ornaments from his uncle 
(in the University of Aix), and resolving to 
confer them himself the next day upon his 
brother, searched for such things as might 
be requisite to explain the original and anti- 
quity of these doctorall ensigns and badges. 
— It would peradventure be tedious, if I 
should but briefly run over the heads of 
the things which, with large testimony of 
his learning, he discoursed in those several 

acts which he performed for his degree. 
Let it suftice to say, that he carried himself 
with so much alacrity and vigour, that he 
did not only ravish all the by-standers with 
admiration, but he seemed also to Pacius 
even very much to exceed himself. Two 
days after, when he was to confer the doc- 
torall ornaments upon his brother, it can- 
not be expressed with what sweet content 
he filled the minds of his hearers. For, 
from a certain statue of Metrodorus with 
his hat. Arcadian cap and labells, with his 
philosopher's cloak, and ring on his left 
hand; also from certain statues of Hippo- 
crates with the like cloak, and an hood upon 
it ; from a certain inscription of Eubulus 
Marathonius ; and a statue with labels not 
about his neck, but his head ; from the like 
statues of Plato, Theophrastus, Phavorinus, 
and others ; out of certain Gothic pieces, 
upon which there were mitres not much 
unlike caps ; in a word, out of innumerable 
other monuments ; he shewed how the use 
of these ornaments came from the Greeks 
to the Latins, and so down to us ; and how 
from the Philosophers and ancient Priests, 
it was by degrees introduced among the 
Professors of several sciences in our modern 
Universities : all which he confu-med by fre- 
quent citations of Councils, Fathers, Poets, 
Historians, and Orators." — Life of Peiresk 
by Gassendus, translated by W. Rand, 1657, 
p. 77. 

Peiresk' s Dream. 

Peiresk " happened to dream a dream, 
which as often as he related to me," says 
Gassendus, " which was divers times, he 
would always premise, that if another should 
have related it unto him, he could not have 
believed it. There was in his company 
Jacobus Rainerius, a citizen of Aix, who 
was wont to lodge in the same chamber with 
him, and their lodging was at the White 
Inn, between Monpellier and Nismes. Now 
Peireskius was in a dream, and talked to 
himself obscurely of I know not what 
strange business, whereupon Rainerius 



awaked him, asking him what was the 
matter ? To whom he replied, Alas and 
well away, what a sweet and pleasant 
dream have you robbed me of! I dreamt 
I was at Nismes, and that the goldsmith 
offered to sell me a golden piece of Julius 
Cajsar's coin for four cardecues : and I 
was just ready to give him the money that 
I might have the piece ; whereas by your 
unseasonable waking of me, the goldsmith 
vanished out of my sight, and the jiiece of 
coin out of my hands. Soon after, not 
thinking of the dream, he went to Nismes, 
and while dinner was making ready, he 
walked about the town. 

" Now it happened wonderfully that he 
hit upon a goldsmith, and asking him if he 
had any rarities, he answered that he had 
a Julius Ca?sar in gold. He asked him 
what he would take for it ; he said, four 
cardecues. Whereupon he presently gave 
him the money, took his Julius Ctesar, and 
so was his dream wonderfully and most 
happily fulfilled. Wonderfully, I say : for 
he might easily think upon Nismes, whither 
he was to go the following day ; he might 
well dream of that piece of coin of Julius 
Cffisar, which waking he had often desired, 
and that he might meet with it in that city 
wherein there were so many reli(|ues of 
Roman antiquity ; and he might dream of 
a goldsmith, for to men of that trade such 
pieces are commonly brought by them which 
dig them up. He might dream of an indif- 
ferent price, such as goldsmiths rather than 
antiquaries are wont to set upon such com- 
modities : he might have thought of four 
cardecues, with which as a moderate price 
a goldsmith might be content. Finally, a 
goldsmith, and at Nismes, might have such 
a piece at such a price. But that all these 
should concur, and that the event should 
answer to the dream, is altogether wonder- 
ful. Yet Peii'eskius was not the man that 
would conclude that this dream did there- 
fore proceed from any preternatural cause. 
If such dreams had often happened, he 
might peradventure have thought so*: but 
knowing the sport which fortune is wont to 

make, he reckoned this accident only among 
those rare cases which are wont to amaze 
the vulgar." — Life of Peiresk by Gassen- 
Dus, translated by W. Rand, 1657, p. 139. 

Whitaker on Building and Repairing 

" But how, it may be asked, are our di- 
lapidating churches to be rebuilt, or how 
restored ? — Certainly not with a puerile af- 
fectation of what is called Gothicism, while 
it really consists in nothing more than piked 
sash windows, which every other feature of 
the place belies. This, as it costs little, and 
makes one step to meet ancient prejudice, 
is perpetually attempted in the most frugal 
ecclesiastical works. 

" But I am no advocate for what is called 
modern Gothic of a more expensive and 
elaborate kind. — The cloven foot will ap- 
pear ; for modern architects have an in- 
curable propensity to mix their own absurd 
and unauthorized fancies with the genuine 
models of antiquity. They want alike taste 
to invent, and modesty to copy. Neither 
am I so superstitiously addicted to what 
however I extremely venerate, the forms 
of our ancient churches, as to maintain that 
they ought not in any case to be abandoned. 
No modern, even though a good Catholic, 
perhaps, would go all the lengths of Du- 
rand, who can discover a spu-itual sense in 
nave, side-ailes, choir, columns, and arches ; 
nay who can find types in muUions, and 
mystei'ies in the weather-cock.^ But so 
much is surely due to ancient prejudice, 
that where there is no powerful reason to 
the contrary, the old distribution of parts 

' This is no exaggeration. " Gallus supra 
ecclesiam positus praedicatores significat. Virga 
ferrea in qua gallus sedet rectum representat 
prfedicantis sermonem, ut non loquatur ex spiritu 
hominis, sed Dei." But this is nothing to Du- 
rand's account of sand and gravel used in church- 
building. " Calx charit as fervens est, quse sibi 
conjungit sabulum — id est terrenum opus," &c. 
Yet is his work styled a Rationale ! 



ought to be adhered to. How many from 
the want of these have found then- piety 
damped, and have contracted an incurable 
aversion to modern churches ! 

" But to be more distinct : — 

" "What I recommend upon a small scale 
is precisely what was done upon a large one 
at the rebuilding of St. Paul's, which by 
the judicious adoption of the form of a 
cross, instead of becoming an Heathen tem- 
ple remained a Christian cathedral. And 
whoever wishes to see the same reverence 
for antiquity in the form, united with un- 
avoidable modernism in the manner, and 
that upon an imitable scale, may turn to 
Dr. Plott's two views of the churches of 
Ingestree and Okeover, in Staffordshire, 
restored in the reign of Charles the Second. 
In such erections how much of the old ef- 
fect is preserved by round arches, broken 
surfaces, and variety of light and shade ! 

" The case of repairs is next to be con- 

" Awakened by the remonstrances of their 
ecclesiastical superior, a parish, discover 
that, by long neglect, the roof of their 
church is half rotten, the lead full of cracks, 
the pews falling down, the windows broken, 
the muUions decayed, the walls damp and 
mouldy. Here it is well if the next dis- 
covery be not the value of the lead. No 
matter whether this covering have or have 
not given an air of dignity and venerable 
peculiai'ity to the church for centuries. It 
will save a parish assessment. 

" However, the work of renovation pro- 
ceeds — the stone tracery of the windows 
which had long shed their dim religious 
light is displaced, and with it all the armo- 
rial achievements of antiquity, the written 
memorials of benefactors, the rich tints and 
glowing di-apery of Saints and Angels. In 
short another Dowsing seems to have arisen. 
But to console our eyes for these losses, the 
smart luminous modern sash is introduced : 
and if this be only pointed at top, all is 
well ; for all is Gothic still. Next are con- 
demned the massy oaken stalls, many of 
which are capable of repair, and as many 

want none. These are replaced by narrow, 
slender deal pews, admirably contrived to 
cramp the tall, and break down under the 
bidky. Next, the fluted woodwork of the 
roof, with all its carved enrichments, is plas- 
tered over. It looked dull, and nourished 
cobwebs. Lastly, the screens and lattices, 
which, from a period antecedent to the Re- 
formation, had spread their light and per- 
forated surfaces from arch to arch, are sawn 
away ; and, in the true spirit of modern 
equality, one undistinguishing blank is sub- 
stituted to separations which are yet ca- 
nonical, and to distmctions which ought yet 
to be revered. 

" Whereas, if these works were conducted 
with a proper regard for antiquity, the fail- 
ing parts restored on the same model, and 
with the same materials, as those which re- 
main, and no feature of either concealed or 
removed, posterity would thank us, not 
only for transmitting to them with fidelity 
many venerable remains of ancient art, but 
those in a state more durable, and less 
likely to become burdensome to themselves, 
than the frail and imskilful substitutions of 
the present day." — Whitakek's History of 
Craven^ p. 500. 

Legend concerning the Bisoiis JRevivescence . 

" Many of the IMinnatareas believe that 
the bones' of those bisons whi'ch they have 
slain and divested of flesh, rise again, cloth- 
ed with renewed flesh and quickened with 
life, and become fat and fit for slaughter 
the succeeding June. They assert that 
some of their nation, who were formerly on 
a hunting excursion, lost one of their party, 
a boy, and returned to the village lament- 
ing his loss, and believing him to have been 
killed by the Sioux nation, with whom they 
were then at war. Sometime afterwards a 
war-party assembled, and departed to re- 
venge the supposed murder of the boy. 
During their journey they espied a bison, 
which they pursued and killed. When lo ! 
on opening the abdomen of the animal. 


what was their astonishment to observe the 
long-lost boy alive and well, after having 
been imprisoned there one entire year. 
Relieved from his animated prison-house, 
he informed them, that when he left his 
hunting companions, he proceeded onward 
a considerable distance, until he was so for- 
tunate as to kill this bison. He removed 
the flesh from one side of the animal ; and 
as a rainy inclement night was approach- 
ing, he concluded to take shelter within the 
body of the animal in place of the viscera 
which he had taken out. But during the 
night whilst he slept, the flesh of the bison 
that he had cut off grew over the side 
again, and effectually prevented his getting 
out ; and the animal being restored to life, 
he had thus been pent up ever since." — 
Edwin James, Expedition to the Rocky 
Mountains., vol. 1, p. 257. 

Peiresk's Enquiry concerning the Position of 
Churches toward the East. 

Peiresk desired Selden " that, if but for 
his sake, he would observe the situation of 
the English churches, whether, to such as 
entered, they stood East, and whether they 
look towards the Equinoctial, or either 
Solstice. For he accounted it a thing 
worth the encj^uiry, that he might find out 
(as I suppose) whether our ancestors wor- 
shipped towards the winter sun-rise, or 
some other way : because according to the 
ancient tradition of the Church, our Lord 
Christ, who is termed the East or Sunrise, 
was born when the sun was in the winter 
tropic. He had already sped well at Paris 
in this enquiry ; for Jacobus AUealmus, a 
famous mathematician, having examined 
the matter, found that all the ancient 
churches did decline from the aequinoctial 
to the winter sun-rise, that of St. Victorina 
only excepted, which declined toward the 
summer sun-rise. As for the St. Benedic- 
tine church he made no reckoning thereof, 
which he conceived was termed bistarnata 
because it had been twice turned, or ill- 

turned." — Life of Peiresk by Gassendus, 
translated by W. Rand., 1657, p. 207. 

Bishop Watson (Landaff) against Trusting 
the Catholics with Political Power. 

" No man," says Bishop Watson (Me- 
moirs, vol. 1, p. 253), " will suspect me of a 
want of toleration in religious matters ; yet 
I own I have looked upon the concessions 
which have been made to the Catholics, 
both here and in Ireland, with a jealous 
eye ; and I shall ever continue to think that 
Protestant Government is unAvise which 
trusts power to the Catholics, till it shall 
be clearly proved, that if they had the op- 
portunity they would not use it to the op- 
pression of the Protestants. There are 
some enlightened gentlemen among the 
Catholics ; but the persecuting spirit of the 
Roman Church remains in the hearts of the 
generality of its members ; and whilst it does 
remain. Popery must be watched, intimi- 
dated, restrained." 

Sir George Mackenzie's Theory that Pro- 
phecy may belong to the Soul of Man. 

" From this divine principle, that Man's 
soul is made after God's image, I am al- 
most induced to believe, that Prophecy is 
no miracidous gift bestowed upon the soul 
at extraordinary occasions only, but is a 
natural (though the highest) perfection of 
our Human Nature. For if it be natural 
for the stamp to have impressed upon it 
all the traits that dwell upon the face of 
the seal, then it must be natural to the 
soul, which is God's impressa, to have a 
faculty of foreseeing ; since that is one of 
God's excellencies. Albeit I confess, that 
that stamp is here infinitely bedimmed and 
worn off; as also we know by experience, 
that men upon a death-bed, when the soul 
begins (being detached by sickness from 
the body's slavery) to act like itself, do 
foresee and foretell many remote and im- 
probable events. And for the same rea- 



son, I do think predictions by dreams, not 
to be extraordinary revelations, but ra- 
ther the products natural of a rational 
soul. And if sagacious men can be so 
sharpsighted in this state of glimmering, as 
to foresee many events which fall out ; 
■why may we not say, that Man, if he were 
rehabilitated in the former state of pure na- 
ture, might, without any extraortlinary as- 
sistance, foresee and prophesy ? For there 
is not such a distance betwixt that fore- 
sight and prophecy, as is betwixt the two 
states of Innocency and Corruption, ac- 
cording to the received notions which men 
have settled to themselves of that primitive 
state of Innocency." — Sir George Mac- 
kenzie, The Virtuoso, p. 66. 

Fanatics and the Old Testament. 

" The bigots in the second place pro- 
ceed to fancy, that they who differ from 
them are enemies to God, because they 
differ from God's people ; and then the Old 
Testament is consulted for expressions de- 
nouncing vengeance against them ; all 
murders become sacrifices by the example 
of Phineas and Ehud; all rapines are hal- 
lowed by the Israelites borrowing the ear- 
rings of the Egyptians; and rebellions 
have an hundred forc'd texts of Scripture 
brought to patronize them. But I often- 
times wonder where they find precedents 
in the Old Testament for murdering and 
robbing men's reputation, or for lying so 
impudently for what they think the good 
old cause ; which God foreseeing, has com- 
manded us not to lie, even for his sake." — 
Sir George IMackenzie, Essay on Rea- 
son, p. 430. 

Arts of Factiont} 

" They who enter into a Faction, do not 
properly reason weakly; but desert rea- 
son altogether, as one does who leaves his 
own to go into another country, whereof 

' Excellently applicable at this time— July, 1827. 

the laws, customs and language are dif- 
ferent. The design and centre of Faction 
is to drive on such a project, and adhere 
to those who prosecute it. And therefore 
nothing must be allowed or argued but 
with respect to these. Hence it is, that in 
vain you reason with them ; for one may 
transubstantiate as soon as convert them : 
all that their friends say is unanswerable, 
and they contemn and scorn what is said by 
their adversaries when they cannot answer 
it ; there is no crime they dare not commit, 
for the guilt seems but small when divided 
amongst so many bearers ; they warm 
themselves by clubbing into a kind of be- 
lief, and they vote themselves into a sha- 
dow of infallibility ; whilst they cry out 
against others as slaves to the Government, 
they become really slaves to the Faction, 
their liveries and chains being seen by all, 
except themselves. But the great salary 
with which their bondage is to be rewarded, 
is applause from their friends, or it may 
be the mob, to whom naturally their ap- 
peal lies ; and the getting into the Govern- 
ment, where they will be abhorred for prac- 
tising everything they formerly decryed, 
and so have that reputation for which they 
toiled, blasted by their own old argu- 
ments." — Sir George Mackexzle, Essay 
on Reason, p. 441. 

Heresies Swarming like Vermin. 

" Invasit prajsertim animos invasurae 
gentem effigies barbariei, et monstri infandi 
horrenda facies, in pra;dia nostra et nos 
prtedam avide inhiantis et assidue. Mon- 
strum illud certe, cui academia cibus, atque 
esca dilaniatorum cadavera collegiorum. 
Bellua multorum capitum, at certe nuUius. 
Fasx tota erratica, ha?retica, vertiginosa, 
blasphema ; qua; nihil novit nisi ignorare, 
nihil valet nisi male velle. Monstra, quae 
olim non credet Anglia sibi se peperisse. 
At non partus tuus hsec reptilia, 6 dulce 
natale solum, sed tua phthiriasis ; nam non 
tam ex utero genita, quam ex ulceribus, ex 
statu tuo languido, exsangui, et decolore 



Prout e corpore tabescente ebulliunt ver- 
mes, et squalor sorditiesque pediculescunt." 
— LiGHTFOOT, vol. 5, p. 392. 

Danger to the Universities. 

" iSToN finjiere nobis, idqiie moestis tre- 
mulisque aniinis, non potuimus, qualis fu- 
tura Anglia erutis oculis, Academiis et 
Clero : qualis lutura Cantabrigia absque 
Cantabrigia ; quale spectrum emortua; aca- 
demiaj, sceleton excarnificatorum coUegio- 
rum, jMusarum funus, et defunctse cadaver 
literatura3." — Lightfoot, vol. 5, p. 391. 

" — sciAMus nobile et Academicum esse, 
ab ignobili fasce hominum, a Isesi cerebri 
turba, impeti, odio haberi, periclitari. Ego 
te non amarem, alma mater, ni odissem 
tales ; et speciosa non esses, si non sorderes 
apud sordidos, si non esses odiosa odiosis." 
— Lightfoot, vol. 5, p. 393. 

Danger to Religion. 

"En quibus ab his nos laboramus para- 
doxorum paroxismis ! ToUantur, inquiunt, 
ecclesiae, ut floreat religio ; et ut vigeat 
Veritas, tollantur htereses. Ut crescat Con- 
cordia gentis, crescant schismata ; et ut 
augeatur communio sacra, reprimatur sac- 
ramentum communionis. Diruantur aca- 
demiae, ut oriantur idonei concionatores ; et 
exstinguantur bona? liters at que eruditio, 
ut apti fiant homines ad populum erudien- 
dum. O aenigmata Orci, atque oracula In- 
ferorum." — Lightfoot, vol. 5, p. 393. 

A Papist's Faith. 
" A Papist's faith ujjon this article," says 
Lightfoot (vol. 6, p. 37), " comes to this. 
Credo in ecclesiam sanctam Romanam Catko- 
licam — I believe in the holy Roman Catholic 
church. In which they speak impiety., to 
believe in men ; falsehood., to call the Roman 
church holy ; and nonsense, to call that par- 
ticular church the church Catholic oi; uni- 

Joy at the Restoration. 

" It is a gospel mercy, that Christians 
are set up to be kings, rulers and judges 
among Christians. — We need not go far for 
proof of this ; for the flourishing condition 
of England both in church and state, under 
such government and governors, gives evi- 
dence and example suflicient in this case. 
And vox popidi, the universal joy and accla- 
mations of all the nation upon the happy 
restoring of his sacred Majesty, speaketh 
sense and attestation of the whole nation, 
nay, of the three nations, unto the truth, 
and their sensibleness, of this mercy. ' The 
shout of a king,' of a most Christian king, 
was among them." — Lightfoot, vol. 6, p. 

Festival of the Assumption in Heaven and 

" Si vera loquitur Hildephonsus, festivi- 
tas ilia in terra, ca?lo et inferno celebratur. 
Sic enim in quinto de Assumtione sermone 
ejus anniversariam festivitatem deprtedicat : 
' Universus mundus hunc diem festum ce- 
lebrat. Die enim qui Matris Dei assumtae 
honori dicatus est, Angeli gaudent, virgines 
ipsi gratulantur, patriarchae et prophetae 
Deum coUaudant, apostoli et evangelistae 
salutant, matres gloriantiir, papae, confes- 
sores, et doctores Catholici exultant. Si 
licitum est, plus dicam ; et dicam id ex 
certii praesumtione ; dicam id cum sancta 
stultitia ; universus mundus laetatur, et 
debito jvibilo gaudet, inferno excepto, qui 
ejulat, murmurat et lamentatur, quod hujus 
diei festivitas et laetitia iis, qui infernalibus 
claustris detinentur, aliquod solamen ap- 
portet. Censeo enim inferni potestatibus 
eo die illicitum esse captivos suos ullo modo 
vexare.'" — Lightfoot, vol. 8, p. 307. 

The Bone Luz. 

" Hadrian (whose bones may they be 
ground, and his name blotted out !) asked 
R. Joshua Ben Hananiah, How doth a man 



revive again in the world to come ? He 
answerecf and said, From Luz, in the back- 
bone. Saith he to him, Demonstrate this to 
me. Then he took Luz, a little bone out 
of the back-bone, and put it in water, and 
it was not steeped ; he put it into the fire, 
and it was not burnt ; he brought it to the 
mill, and that could not gi'ind it ; he laid it 
on the anvil, and knocked it with a hammer, 
but the anvil was cleft, and the hammer 
broken."— LiGHTFOoT, vol. 12, p. 352. 

Selden on Episcopal Ordination. 
« Mr. Selden : 'By the laws of England 
none can ordain but only a Bishop, with 
some presbyters. In Edward VI.'s time 
an act did so enable : being repealed in 
Queen Mary's time : in the 1st, 8th, and 
13th of Queen Elizabeth it was revived 
acrain : and this law is neither against the 
law of God, nor nulled yet in our state. 
And whereas our Covenant swears out the 
regimen Ecdesia;, this that we have in hand 
is not regimen Ecclesim ; and we have 
sworn to preserve the laws of the kingdom, 
of which this is one.'— This speech of his 
cost a great deal of debate, and had many 
answers given it : and among other things, 
]SIr. Henderson, and the Lord Macland after 
him, took it to heart, and expressed theu- 
resenting of it, that there had been too 
much boldness with the Covenant."— Light- 
Foot's Journal of the Assembly— w\. 13, p. 

T. L. upon 1666. 
Dr. Worthington says in a letter to 
Li-htfoot (Feby. 13, 166-5-6), " I suppose 
you have seen, or heard of, some small 
pieces of one T. L., as The Voice out of the 
Wilderness, and An Exposition of Revela- 
tion C. 12 and 13, with other tracts about 
the downfall of Rome in 1666 (though I 
think he will prove to be mistaken therein). 
He lived in Queen Elizabeth's reign, and 
at last he took himself to a shepherd's lite. 
It is said that he was a Shropshire man by 

birth, and that T. L. stands for Toby Lit- 
tleton." — Lightfoot's Works^ vol. 13, p. 
434. ____^...^^ 

All Devotion False that does not rest upon 
" TouTE devotion est fausse, qui n'est 
point fondee sur I'humilite chretienne, et la 
charite envers le prochain : ce n'est souvent 
qu'un orgueil de philosophe chagrin, qui 
croit, en meprisant le monde, se venger des 
mepris et des mecontentemens qu'il en a 
regus." — Rochefoucauld. 

An Argument for Virtue from the Esteem in 
ivhich those are held who practise it. 
" An excess in bodily pleasures," says 
Dean Sherlock, " as fond as most men are 
of them, is universally infamous, which 
proves that they are not our last and highest 
happiness, wherein there can be no excess. 
Who was ever reproached for being too 
wise and good ? Who ever thought it pos- 
sible to exceed in these things, or that it 
was infamous to do so? Nay, who was 
ever reproached for despising bodily plea- 
sures, for great abstinency and continency, 
and almost an utter disregard of the body ? 
Not only Superstition is apt to saint such 
men, but the wiser part of mankind do as 
much reverence such a perfect conquest 
over the body, as they despise and abhor 
the slavery and servitude of- brutish lusts. 
It would be impossible for a soul which is 
nothing but body and matter itself, thus to 
raise itself above the body, and to contra- 
dict and subdue its bodily appetites and 
inclinations. And were not mankind con- 
scious to themselves of some diviner prin- 
ciple in them than matter, and of some 
diviner pleasures, more honourable and be- 
coming than the pleasures of the body, it is 
impossible they should so universally admire 
those men who despise the body and all its 
delights. And yet thus it hath been, not 
only among Christian ascetics, but even 
among Pagan philosophers themselves : not 
as a part of their Pagan superstition, but 


for the love of wisdom, which gave them a 
true contempt of bodily pleasures." — Of the 
Immortality of the Soul, p. 97. 

Brutes give no indication of Immortality. 
The unbeliever's argument from the mor- 
tality of the souls of brutes, is well confuted 
by Dean Sherlock. " For though we 
allow them to be immaterial, they have no 
natural indications of immortality ; they 
have no happiness or pleasures but what 
result from, and depend on, their bodies : 
and therefore however God disposes of them 
after death, as fai- as we can judge, they 
are not capable of any life or sensation 
when they are separated from this body." 
—Of the Immortality of the Soul, p. 112. 

Happiness and Prosperity compatible tvith 

" Excepting the case of persecution, a 
good man may be very rich and honourable, 
and enjoy all the delights and pleasures of 
this life, as much as it becomes a man to 
enjoy them. For the world was made to 
be enjoyed ; and a good man who observes 
the rules of virtue, may enjoy this world 
as far as God made it to be enjoyed ; and 
therefore may be as happy as this world 
was intended to make him. Which is very 
fit to be observed, to prevent any unrea- 
sonable prejudices against the laws of our 
Saviour, as if we could not save our souls 
without renouncing all the ease and plea- 
sures and comforts of this life ; whereas in 
ordinary cases, we may enjoy all the happi- 
ness this world was made for, and all the 
happiness which we were made to enjoy In 
this world, and go to Heaven when we 
die." — Dean Sherlock, Of the Immor- 
tality of the Soul, p. 574. 

Liturgy not duly impressed upon the People 
in its Use. 

The writer of that life of George Herfcert 
which is prefixed to his Remains says, " The 

chief aim of Master Ferrar and this Author 
was, to win those that disliked our Liturgy, 
Catechism, &c., by the constant, reverent 
and holy use of them : which surely had 
we all imitated, having first Imprinted the 
virtue of these prayers In our own hearts, 
and then studied with passionate and affec- 
tionate celebration (for voice, gesture, &c.) 
as in God's presence, to Imprint them In the 
minds of this people (as this book teaches), 
our prayers had been generally as well be • 
loved as they were scorned. And for my 
23art I am ajit to think, that our prayers 
stood so long was a favour by God granted 
us at the prayers of these men (who prayed 
for these prayers as well as in them) ; and 
that they fell so soon was a punishment of 
our negligence (and other sins), who had 
not taught even those that liked them well 
to use them aright, but that the good old 
women would absolve, though not so lovul, 
yet as confidently as the minister himself." 

Liturgy to he the more liked because taken 
from the Mass-book. 

" The sophism used to make people hate 
our church prayers," says the author of 
George Herbert's Life, " was a solid reason 
to make men of understanding love them, 
— namely, because taken out of the Mass- 
book ; — taken out, but as gold from di-oss, 
the precious from the vUe." 

Stapletons Examples of Christian Zeal. 

Stapleton tells us that the Emperor 
Justlnus defended the Council of Chalcedon 
" with such Christian zeal, that he caused 
Severus the schlsmatlcal Bishop of Antioch 
to have his tongue cut out, for the daily 
blasphemies he uttered against that Council. 
Justinian also, his successor, caused all the 
heretical books and writings of the said 
Severus and others to be burned, and made 
It death to any that kept or used any such 
books." — Epistle Dedicatory to his T?-ans- 
lation of Bede's History of the Church of 
England, 1622, p. 18. 



Stapleton ascribes Henry's Victories to the 
Persecution of the Lollards. 

Stapleton ascribes Henry V.'s victories 
to his appeasing what he calls the rebellion 
of Sir John Oldcastle. " By this speedy 
diligence of that gracions prince, both that 
heresy was then quailed, and (as Polidore 
noteth) the noble victories of that valiant 
prince ensued ; God xindoubtedly prosper- 
ing his affairs, who had preferred the quar- 
rell of him before his own prepared voyage." 
— Epistle Dedicatory to his Translation of 
Bede's History of the Church of England, 
1622, p. 24. 

Infallibility ultimately referred to the Pope. 

" When they have said all, and set it out 
with great pomp and ostentation of Avords, 
for the infallibility of the Church and Coun- 
cil, it is all but a mere collusion, a very 
mask, under which they cover and convey 
the Pope's Infallibility into the hearts of the 
simple. Try them seriously who list, sound 
the depth of their meaning, and it will 
appear, that when they say, the Church is 
infallible. General Councils are infoUible, 
the Pope is infallible, they never mean to 
make three distinct infallible judges in 
matters of faith, but one only Infallible, 
and that one is the Pope. 

" This to be their meaning, sometimes 
they will not let to profess. ' When we 
teach,' said Gretzer,^ ' that the Church is 
the (infallible) judge in causes of faith, per 
Ecclesiam intelligimus Pontificem Romanum, 
we by the Church do mean the Pope for 
the time being, or him with a Council.' 
Again,^ ' They object unto us, that by the 
Church we understand the Pope ; non abnno, 
I confess we mean so indeed.' This is plain 
dealing ; by the Church they mean the Pope. 

' Def. Ca. 10, lib. 3, De Verb. Dei, § Jam, 
pa. 1450. 

2 Ibid. § Ait, pa. 1451. 

So Gregory de Valentia,^ ' By the name of 
the Church we understand the Head of the 
Church, that is, the Pope.' So Bozius, ' The 
Pope universorum personam sustinet, sus- 
taineth the person of all Bishops, of all 
Councils, of all the whole Church; he is in- 
stead of them all. As the whole multitude 
of the faithful is the Church formally., and 
the general Council is the Church repre- 
sentatively, so the Pope also is the Church 
virtually, as sustaining the person of all, and 
having the power, virtue and authority of 
all, both the formal and representative 
Church ; and so the Church's or Council's 
judgement is the Pope's judgement ; and the 
Church's or Council's infallibility is, in plain 
speech, the Pope's infallibility.' " — Craican- 
THORp's Vigilius Dormitans, p. 173. 

This system brought to its height by the La- 
teran Council under Leo the Tenth. 

" Under Leo X. they held the same doc- 
trines which they did before, but they held 
them now upon another foundation. For 
then they cast away the old and sure foun- 
dation, and laid a new one of their own in 
the room thereof, the Pope's word instead of 
God's, and Antichrist's instead of Christ's. 
For although the Pope long before that time 
had made no small progress in Antichris- 
tianism, first in usurping an universal au- 
thority over all Bishops, next in upholding 
their impious doctrines of 'Adoration of 
Images and the like, and after that in ex- 
alting himself above all Kings and Empe- 
rors, giving and taking away their crowns 
at his pleasure ; yet the height of the Anti- 
christian mystery consisted in none of these ; 
nor did he ever attain unto it, till by virtue 
of that Lateran decree he had jostled out 
Christ and his word, and laid himself and 
his own word in the stead thereof, for the 
Rock and Foundation of the Catholic faith. 
In the first the Pope was but Antichrist 
nascent, in the second Antichrist crescent, 
in the third Antichrist regnant ; but in this 

3 In Lib. 2, Disp. 1, q. 1. 



foui'th he is made Lord of the Catholic 
faith, and Antichrist triumphant, set up as 
God in the Church of God, ruling, nay 
tyrannizing, not only in the external and 
temporal estates, but even in the faith and 
consciences of all men, so that they may 
believe neither more, nor less, nor other- 
wise than he prescribeth, nay that they may 
not believe the very Scriptures themselves, 
and word of God, or that there are any scrip- 
tures at all, or that there is a God, but for 
this reason, ipse dixit, because he saith so : 
and his saying, being a transcendent prin- 
ciple of faith, they must believe for itself, 
quia ipse dixit, because he saith so. In the 
first and second he usurj^ed the authority 
and place but of Bishops ; in the third, but 
of Kings ; but in making himself the Rock 
and Foundation of faith, he intrudes him- 
self into the most proper office and pre- 
rogative of Jesus Christ. For other foun- 
dation can no man lay than that ivhich is laid, 
Jesus Christy — Crakanthoep's Vigilius 
Dormitans, p. 185. 

Origin and Projyriety of the word Papist. 

" Bellarmine ^ glorieth of this very name 
of Papists, that it doth attestari veritati, give 
testimony to that truth which they proi'ess. 
Truly we envy not so apt a name unto 
them : only the Cardinal shows himself a 
very unskilful herald in the blazonry of 
this coat, and the descent of this title unto 
them. He fetcheth- it forsooth from Pope 
Clement, Pope Peter, and Pope Christ ! Phy, 
it is of no such antiquity, nor of so honour- 
able a race. Their own Bristow^ will assure 
him that this name was never heard of till 
the da^s of Leo X. Neither are they so 
called, as the Cardinal fancieth, because 
they hold communion in faith with the Pojie, 
which for six hundred years and more all 

1 Lib. de Not. Ecc, c. 4. 

^ Papista dediicitiir a Papa, qiialis fuit Petrus, 
et Christus ipse. Ibid. 
^ Demand. 8. 

Christians did, and yet were not Papists, 
nor ever so called ; but because they hold 
the Pope's judgement to be supreme and 
infallible, and so build their faith on him, 
as on the foundation thereof, which their 
own Church never did till the time of Leo 
X. It is not, then, the Lion of the Tribe of 
Judah, but the Lion of that Laterane synod, 
who is the first godfather of that name 
unto them, when he had once laid the Pope 
as t\\Q foundation of faith instead of Christ : 
they who then builded their faith upon this 
new foundation, were fitly christened with 
this name of Papists, to distinguish them 
and their present Roman Church from all 
others who held the old, good and sure 
foundation." — Crakanthorp's Vigilius 
Dormitans, p. 188. 

What the Fathers did not hnoiv and did 
not do. 

" If you please to believe it, all the doc- 
trines of the Romish Church are no other 
than such as have been handed to them from 
the Apostles by all the ancient Fathers in 
an uninterrupted succession. I believe I 
could instance in twenty several articles of 
the Romish Church for which they have no 
colour of authority from any of the Fathers. 
But this may suffice for a specimen of that 
respect which the Papists have for the Fa- 
thers, when they do not comply with their 
humours. The Fathers were so ignorant for 
a thousand years together that they did not 
understand, or so negligent that they did not 
instruct their people in, that great mystery 
of Transubstantiation (than which none was 
more necessary to be taught, because none 
more difficult to believe). The Fathers 
were so hard-hearted and cruel that they 
would suffer souls to fry in Purgatory for 
hundreds of years together, whom they might 
certainly have released by the help of In- 
dulgences. The Fathers were so indiscreet 
that they allowed their hearers to read the 
Scrijjtures, and have them in a vulgar 
tongue ; but now it is not fit to be granted. 



saith SLxtus Senensis. The Church of Rome 
hath got a monopoly of all knowledge, fide- 
lity, tender-heartedness (which you will 
wonder at), discretion, and all good quali- 
ties, and Infallibility into the bargain." — 
Poole's Nullity of the Romish Faith, p. 52. 

Bellarmine's Passage. 

" 'If the people owe an absolute subjec- 
tion of their faith to their teachers, the 
teachers have an absolute dominion over 
the faith of the people.' ^ — This sottish doc- 
trine of an imjjlicit faith must needs be 
apocrypihal so long as the Epistle to the 
Galatians is canonical, and especially Gal. 
i. 8, ' Though he or an angel from Heaven 
preach any other gospel — let him be ac- 
cursed.' And he is not contented with a 
single assertion, but adds, as we said before 
so say it over again. Let him be accursed. 
Which if the reader compare with that 
abominable passage of Bellarmine's, ' If the 
Pope should err, in commanding vices and 
forbidding virtues, the Church were bound 
to believe vices to be good and virtues to 
be evil ;' he will be able to judge whether 
the faith of the present Romish Church be 
the same with that of the Apostle's days or 
not ; and whether they who are so liberal in 
dispensing their anathemas to all that differ 
from their sentiments, do not justly fall 
under the anathema here denounced." — 
Poole's Nullity of the Romish Faith, p. 93. 

" When Bellarmine delivers that despe- 
rate doctrine that if the Pope should com- 
mand us to sin we are bound to obey him ; 
and when others have said that if the Pope 
should lead thousands to Hell we must not 
reprove him ; their followers mollify the 
harshness of those assertions with this fa- 
vourable construction, that the propositions 
are only hypothetical, depending upon such 
conditions as by reason of the promise of 

' He has just quoted St. Paul, Not that we 
have dominion over your faith. 2 Cor. i. 24. 

Infallibility can never be fulfilled ; for, say 
they, the Pope cannot command sin, and 
cannot lead men to Hell : and this, if true, 
were a plausible evasion." — Poole's Nullity 
of the Romish Faith, p. 243. 

Variations of the Romish Church. 

" As for the points between the Jesuits 
and Dominicans, how material they are we 
will take their own judgements : if we may 
believe either one or other of them, the 
points are of great moment. If you ask the 
Jansenists or Dominicans their opinion of 
the Jesuitical doctrine, they tell you that it 
is ' the very poison of the Pelagian heresy, 
yea it is worse than Pelagianism ; that 
they are contemners of Grace, — such as rob 
God of his honour, taking half of it to them- 
selves ; that it is here disputed whether God 
alone be God, or whether the will of man 
be a kind of inferior, yet in fact an indepen- 
dent Deity.' ^ And for the Jesiiits, they are 
not one jot behind-hand with them in their 
censure of the Dominican doctrine, which 
(say the Jesuits) brings back the stoical 
paradox, robs God of the glory of his good- 
ness, makes God a liar and the author of 
sin. And yet when we tell them of these 
divisions, the breach is presently healed ; 
these savages are grown tame, their differ- 
ences trivial, and only some school niceties 
wherein faith is not concerned. And now 
both Stoics and Pelagians are grown ortho- 
dox ; and the grace, glory, sovereignty and 
holiness of God, are matters but of small 
concernment ; and so it seems they are to 
them, else they durst not so shamelessly 
dally with them. But it is usual with them 
to make the greatest points of faith like 
counters, which in computation sometimes 
stand for pounds, sometimes for pence, as 
interest and occasion require. And it is 
worth observation, these very points of dif- 

^ These are Mr. White's words in his Somis 
Buccina", Qua^st. Theolog. in Epis., and in pa- 



fereuce when they fall out among Protes- 
tants, between Calvin and Arminius, are 
represented by our adversaries as very ma- 
terial and weighty diflferences ; but when 
they come to their share they are of no 
moment." — Poole's Nidliti/ oj" the Romish 
Faith, p. 161. 

Growth of her Corruptions. 

" As Jason's ship was wasted, so Truth 
was lost one piece after another. Nemo 
repentefit turpissimus. We know very well, 
posito uno absurdo sequuntur multa, one error 
will breed an hundred, yet all its childi'en 
are not born in one day. St. Paul tells us, 
the mystery of iniquity began to work in his 
days ; — he tells us that heresy eats like a 
canker or gangrene^ by degrees, and is not 
worst at first, but increaseth to more ungod- 
liness (2 Tim. ii. 16, 17). As that cloud 
which, at first appearance, was no bigger 
than a man's hand, did gradually outspread 
the whole face of the heavens, so those 
opinions which at first were only the senti- 
ments of the lesser part, might by degrees 
improve and become the greater, or at least 
by the favour of princes, or power and 
learning of their advocates, become the 
stronger, until at last, like Moses's rod, they 
devoured the other rods ; and monopolizing 
to themselves the liberty of writing and 
professing their doctrines, and suppressing 
all contrary discourses and treatises, their 
doctrines being proposed 'oy them as Catholic 
doctrines, and the doctrines of their own 
and former ages (which are frequently pre- 
tended by several heretics), and this propo- 
sition not contradicted by considerable jier- 
sons (which in some ages were few, and 
those easily biassed), or the contradiction 
being speedily suppressed (which is very 
possible, and hath been usual), it could not 
probably fall out otherwise but that their 
opinion should be transmitted to their suc- 
cessors for the Faith of their age : Rome 
was not built in a day, neither in a civil, nor 
in a spiritiial notion." — Toole's Nullity of 
the Romish Faith, p. 165. 

Relics of Transuhstance. 

" A SYNOD of bishops in Italy decreed 
that when the true flesh of Christ and his 
true blood appears at the celebration of the 
Sacraments in their proper kind, both the 
flesh and the blood should be reserved in 
the midst of the altar for especial relics. 
Now I would know of you, sir priest, what 
rhyme or reason you have to make a relic 
of your God ? Of the relics of Saints I 
have heard some talk ; but of the relics of 
God, or rather that God himself should be 
kept for a relic, I think never man heard 
but out of a Papist's mouth." — Work for a 
Mass Priest, § 8. 

Fasting, how explained by the Casuists. 

" Their casuists, as far as I can find, are 
agreed in these things. 

" 1. That a man may eat a full meal of 
what is not forbidden, and yet not break 
the Church's precept of Fasting, provided 
vespers be first said. And the later casu- 
ists blame Coverruvias for making any 
scruple about it. If a man's excess comes 
to be a mortal sin, yet for all that, saith 
Reginaldus,^ he shall not be judged as a 
breaker of his fast. Nay Lessius^ goes 
farther, and saith, He doth not lose the 
merit of fasting. Quamvis aliqids imdturn 
excedetnon solvit jejunium, saith Card. To- 
let.'^ And Pavdus Zacchias "^ saith this is the 
common ojiinion ; and he thinks the inten- 
tion of the Church is sufliciently answered. 
And so doth Pasqualigus^ in his Praxis of 

" 2. A man may drink wine, or other di-ink, 
as often as he pleaseth, without breaking 
his fiist. He may toties quoties bibere, saith 

> Reginald. Praxis 1. 4, c. 14, n. 163. 

2 Less, do Justit. 1. 4, c. 2, dub. 2, n. 10. 

3 Instruct. Sacerd. 1. 6, c. 2, n. 4. 

'' P. Zacch. Qu. Medico-legales, 1. 5, tit. 1 , qu. 
1, pp. 29, 30, 31. 
* Pasqual. Decis. 120, n. 5. 



Diana.^ Zacli. Pasqualigus" who hath 
■written most fully on this subject, shews, 
that it is the general opinion that no quan- 
tity of wine or other di-ink, though taken 
without any necessity, is a violation of the 
precept of fasting ; no, not although the 
wine be taken for nourishment, because the 
Church doth not forbid it. But this last, 
he saith, is not the general, but the more 
probable opinion. 

" 3. A man may eat something when he 
drinks, to prevent its doing him hurt. Be- 
sides his good meals, he may take what 
quantity he pleases of sweetmeats or fruit; 
he may have a good refection at night, and 
yet not break this strict precept of fasting. 
For the eating as often as one drinks, it is 
the common opinion, saith the same casuist' 
(who was no Jesuit), that it is not forbidden, 
because it is taken by way of a medicine ; 
and he quotes a great number of their casu- 
ists for it. A collation at evening is al- 
lowed, saith he.* And Lessius^ saith, there 
is no certain rule for the quantity of it. 
And Card. Tolet'' saith, very large ones are 
allowed at Rome by the Pope's connivance ; 
even in the court of Rome, saith Regi- 
naldus.' And now I leave the reader to 
judge of the severity of fasting required 
in the Church of Rome." — Doctrines and 
Practices of the Church of Rome truly Re- 
presented, 1686, p. 128, 

Titles of the Pope. 

" I HAVE read in your books that your 
Pope is called Caput universalis Ecclesice, 
Pater Ecclesi(S, Filius Ecclesice, Sporisus 
Ecclesice, Mater Ecclesia : the Head of the 
Catholic Church, the Father of the Church, 

' Dian. Sam. v. .Jejun. n. 7. 
' Praxis Jejunii Eccles. Decis. 1 16, n. 3, Dec. 
117, n. 1, 2, 3. 
3 Decis. 119, n. 2. 

* Decis. 86, n. 3, 4. 

* Ubi supra, n. 11. 
^ Ubi supra. 

'' Ubi supra, n. 185. 

the Son of the Church, the Spouse of the 
Cliurch, the Church our Mother. Now I 
would know of you, how he can be the 
Church herself, and yet Head of the Church, 
and the Church's Husband ? how he can 
be Father to the Church, and yet Son of the 
Chm'ch ? how the Father may marry his 
daughter, the brother may marry his sister, 
the son may marry his mother." — Work for 
a Mass Priest, § 14. 

Purgatory. — Cruelty of the Pope to leave 
any Soul there. 

" § 16. I READ in your books that your 
Pope, for delivering of souls out of Purga- 
tory, prescribes sometimes no more but the 
saying of a mass at such an altar in such 
a church, or the saying of a Pater-noster 
twice or thrice, &c. Now I would know 
with what justice God could keep him in 
such horrible torments as are in Purgatory 
for want of the saying of a mass, or two or 
three Pater-nosters, whom in mercy he 
meant to deliver upon the saying of a mass 
or two or three Pater-nosters ? 

" § 17. And seeing I read in your books 
that your Pope hath power to empty Pur- 
gatory at once, and if the saying of a mass 
and a Pater-noster will help to empty it, I 
would know, how you can excuse your Pope 
from unspeakable un charitableness and 
hard-heartedness, in that he himself saith 
no more masses nor Pater-nosters for Chris- 
tian souls than he doth, nor setteth more of 
his priests on that work?" — Work for a 
Mass Priest. 

A Papist playing the Puritan. 

" I REMEMBEE," says Crakanthorp, " a 
narration, not unworthy observing, which 
long since a man of great gravity and judge- 
ment in law, and now one of the chief 
Judges in this realm, related unto me ; how 
one of the most notorious traitors in the 
time of our late Queen of hajipy memory, 
having by solemn vow, by. oath, by receiv- 



ing the holy sacrament, bound himself to 
niui'der his sovereign, returned home from 
Italy, but with such a share of zeal towards 
our religion, our state, and his sovereign — 
that in open Parliament (being chosen a 
Burgess) he made a very spiteful and violent 
invective against Recusants, and especially 
against Jesuits. His paymasters and friends 
of Rome expostulating with him then about 
the matter, Oh, quoth he, it was needful I 
should thus do ; now all fear, all suspicion 
of me is quite removed; I have by this my 
open speech gained trust and credit with 
the Prince, with the Council, and the whole 
State. I have now made an easy and free 
access to perform that holy work.' And if 
God had not watched over Israel and his 
anointed, many times without suspicion and 
danger he might have done, and had done it 
indeed." — Vigilhts Dormitans, p. 488. 

Effects of the Doctrine of Infallihility. 

" Having once set down this transcendant 
principle, the foundation of all which they 
believe, that the Pope's judgement in causes 
of faith is infallible, they do by this exclude 
and utterly shut out all manifestation of the 
truth that can possibly be made unto them. 
Oppose whatever you will against their 
error, Scriptures, Fathers, Councils, reason 
and sense itself, it is all refuted before it 
be proposed : seeing the Pope, who is in- 
fallible, saith the contrary to that which 
you would prove, you in disputing from 
those places do either mis-cite them, or 
mis-interpret the scriptui'es, fathers, and 
councils ; or your reason from them is so- 
phistical ; and your sense of sight, of touch- 
ing, of tasting, is deceived ; some one defect 
or other there is in your opposition : but an 
error in that which they hold, there is, nay 
there can be none, because the Pope teacheth 
that, and the Pope in his teaching is in- 
fallible. Here is a charm which causeth 
one to hear with a deaf ear whatever ig oji- 
posed : the very head of Medusa if you 
come against it, it stuns you at the first, 
and turns both your reason, your sense, 

and yourself also, into a very stone. By 
holding this one fundamental position, they 
are pertinacious in all theii- error, and 
that in the highest degree of pertinacy 
which the art of man can devise ; yea and 
pertinacious before all conviction, and that 
also though the truth shovdd never by any 
means be manifested unto them. For by 
setting this down, they are so far from 
being prepared to embrace the truth, though 
it should be manifested unto them, that 
hereby they have made a fundamental law 
for themselves, that they never will be cor- 
rected nor ever have the truth manifested 
unto them. The only means in likelihood 
to persuade them that the doctrines which 
they maintain are heresies, were, first to 
persuade the Pope who hath decreed them 
to be orthodoxal, to make a contrary decree 
that they are heretical. Now although this 
may be morally judged to be a matter of 
impossibility, yet if his Holiness could be 
induced hereunto, and would so far stoop to 
God's truth as to make such a decree, even 
this also could not persuade them, so long 
as they hold that foundation. They would 
say either the Pope were not the true Pope ; 
or that he defined it not as Pope, and ex 
cathedra ; or that by consenting to such an 
heretical decree, he ceased ipso facto to be 
Pope ; or the like ; some one or other evasion 
they would have still : but grant the Pope's 
sentence to be fallible, or heretical, whose 
infallihility they hold as a doctrine of faith, 
yea as the foundation of their faith, they 
would not. Such and so imconquerable 
pertinacy is annexed, and that essentially, 
to that one position, that so long as one 
holds it (and whensoever he ceaseth to hold 
it he ceaseth to be a member of this Church) 
there is no possible means in the world to 
convict him, or convert him to the truth." — 
Cbakanthorp's Vigilius Dormitans, p. 21 1. 

Consequences of the Pope's shaking off the 
Imperial Authority. 

" So long as the Emperor, being Chi-is- 
tian, retained his dignity and imperial au- 



tliority, no heresy could long take place, 
but was by the synodal judgement of oecu- 
menical Councils maturely suppressed ; the 
faction of no bishop, no, not of the Pope, 
being able to prevail against that sovereign 
remedy. But when once Gregory II., 
Zachary, and their succeeding Popes to Leo 
III., bad by most admirable and unexpli- 
cable fraud and subtlety dipt the wings and 
cut the sinews of the Eastern Empu-e ; 
themselves first seizing upon the gi'eatest 
parts of Italy by the means of Pipin, and 
then erecting a new empire in the West ; 
the imperial authority being thus infringed, 
the Eastern Emperor not daring, the West- 
ern, in regard of the late courtesy received 
from the Pope, being not willing, and neither 
of them both being able now to match and 
justle with the Pope; this which was the 
great let and impediment to the Pope's 
faction, and the discovering of the Man of 
Sin, being now removed, there was no means 
to keep out of the Church the heresies 
which the Pope affected. Then the cata- 
racts of heresies being set open, and the 
depths of the earth, nay of the infernal pit 
being burst up, heresies rushed in, and 
came with a strong hand Into the Church ; 
and those heretical doctrines which in six 
hundred years and more could never get 
head,passing as doubtful and private opinions 
among a few, and falling but as a few little 
drops of rain, gi'ew now unto such an height 
and outrage, that they became the public and 
decreed doctrines in the Western Church. 
The Pope once having found his strength 
in the cause of Images (wherein the first 
trial was made thereof), no fancy nor 
dotage was so absurd for which he could 
not after that command, when he listed, the 
judgement of a General Council. Tran- 
substantiation, Proper Sacrifices, the Idol 
of the Mass (to which not IMoloch nor 
Baal is to be compared), their Purgatorian 
fire, their five new-found proper sacra- 
ments, Condignity of Works, yea Super- 
erogation, and an army of like heresies, 
assailed, and prevailed against the truth. 
The Imperial authority being laid in the 

dust, and trampled under the sole of the 
Pope's foot, no means was left to restrain 
his enormous designs, or hinder him in 
Councils to do and define ever what he 
listed." — Ceakanthorp's Vigilius Dormi- 
taris, p. 313. 

Pw'itans increased by Injvxlicious Opponents. 

" As Ave could wish our brethren and 
their lay followers, by their uncouth and 
sometimes ridiculous behaviour, had not 
given profane persons too much advantage 
to play ujjon them, and through their sides 
to wound even Religion itself; so we could 
wish also that some men by unreasonable 
and imjust, other some by unseasonable 
and indiscreet scofiing at them, had not 
given them advantage to triumph in their 
own innocency, and persist in their affected 
obstinacy. It cannot but be some confir- 
mation to men in error, to see men of dis- 
solute and loose behaviour, with much 
eagerness and petulancy and virulence to 
speak against them. We all know how 
much scandal and prejudice it Is to a right 
good cause, to be either followed by per- 
sons open to just exceptions, or maintained 
with slender and unsufficlent reasons, or 
prosecuted with unseasonable and indis- 
creet violence. And I am verily persuaded 
that as the increase of Papists in some parts 
of the land hath occasionally sprung (by a 
kind of antiperistasis) from the intemperate 
courses of their neighbour Puritans ; so 
the increase of Puritans in many ^larts of 
the land, oweth not so much to any suffici- 
ency themselves conceive in their own 
grounds, as to the disadvantages of some 
profane, or scandalous, or idle, or igno- 
rant, or indiscreet opposers." — Sander- 
son's Fourteen Sermons, p. 20. 

Advocates pleading a had Cause. 

Bishop Sanderson in one of his Ser- 
mons, (vol. 1, p. 361) touches upon "the 
great advantage or disadvantage that may 
be given to a cause, in the pleading, by the 



artificial insinuations of a powerful orator. 
That same /lexani mis Pitfio" he says, " and 
suadcB medulla, as some of the old Heathens 
termed it, that winning and persuasive fa- 
culty which dwelleth in the tongues of 
some men, whereby they are able not only 
to work strongly upon the affections of men, 
but to arrest their judgments also, and to 
incline them whether way they please, is an 
excellent endowment of nature, or rather 
(to speak more properly) an excellent gift 
of God. WTiich whosoever hath received, 
is by so much the more bound to be truly 
thankful to him that gave it, and to do 
him the best service he can with it, by how 
much he is enabled thereby to gain more 
glory to God, and to do more good to hu- 
man society than most of his bretliren are. 
And the good blessing of God be upon the 
heads of all those, be they few or many, 
that use their eloquence aright, and employ 
their talent in that kind for the advance- 
ment of justice, the quelling of oppression, 
the repressing and discountenancing of 
insolency, and the encouraging and pro- 
tecting of innocency. But what shall I 
say then of those, be they many or few, 
that abuse the gracefulness of their elocu- 
tion (good speakers, but to ill purposes) to 
enchant the ears of an easy magistrate with 
the charms of a fluent tongue, or to cast 
a mist before the eyes of a weak jury, as 
jugglers make sport with country people ; 
to make white seem black, or black seem 
white ; or setting a fair varnish upon a rot- 
ten post, and a smooth gloss upon a coarse 
cloth ; as Protagoras sometimes boasted that 
he could make a bad cause good when he 
listed? By which means judgement is per- 
verted, the hands of violence and robbery 
strengthened, the edge of the sword of jus- 
tice abated, great offenders acquitted, gra- 
cious and A'irtuous men molested and in- 
jured. I know not what fitter reward to 
wish them for their pernicious eloquence, 
as their best deserved fee, than to remit 
them over to what David hath assigned 
them (Ps. 120) : ' What reward shall be 
given, or done, unto thee, O thou false 

tongue ? Even mighty and sharp arrows, 
with hot burning coals ! ' " 

Why so much was retainedatthe Reformation. 

" I BELIEVE," says Sanderson, " all those 
men will be found much mistaken, who 
either measure the Protestant religion by 
an opposition to Popery, or account all Po- 
pery that is taught or practised in the 
Church of Rome. Our godly forefathers 
to whom (under God) we owe the purity 
of our religion, and some of whom laid 
down their lives for the defence of the 
same, were, sure, of another mind, if we 
may from what they did, judge what they 
thought. They had no purpose (nor had 
they any warrant) to set up a new religion, 
but to reform the old, by purging it from 
those innovations which on tract of time 
(some sooner, some later) had mingled with 
it, and corrupted it both in the doctrine 
and worship. According to this purpose 
they produced, without constraint or preci- 
pitancy, freely and advisedly, as in peace- 
able times, and brought their intentions to 
a happy end, as by the result thereof con- 
tained in the articles and liturgy of our 
Church, and the prefaces thereunto, doth 
fully appear. From hence chiefly, as I con- 
ceive, we are to take our best scantling, 
whereby to judge what is, and what is not, 
to be esteemed popery. All those doctrines 
then held by the modern Church of Rome, 
which ai'e either contrary to the written 
word of God, or but superadded thereunto, 
as necessary points of faith to be of all 
Christians believed under pain of damna- 
tion ; and all those superstitions used in 
the worship of God, which either are un- 
lawfid as being contrary to the Word ; or 
being not contrary, and therefore arbitrary 
and indifferent, are made essentials, and im- 
posed as necessary parts of worship : these 
are, as I take it, the things whereunto the 
name of popery doth properly and peculi- 
arly belong. But as for the ceremonies 
used in the Church of Rome which the 
Church of England at the Reformation 



thought fit to retain, not as essential or ne- 
cessary parts of God's service, but only as 
accidental and mutable circumstances at- 
tending the same, for order, comeliness and 
edification's sake ; how these should deserve 
the name of popish I so little understand, 
that I profess I do not yet see any reason 
why, if the Church had then thought fit to 
have retained some other of those which 
were then laid aside, she might not have 
lawfully so done ; or why the things so re- 
tained shoidd have been accounted popish. 
The plain truth is this : the Church of 
England meant to make use of her liberty 
and the lawful power she had (as all the 
churches of Christ have, or ought to have) 
of ordering ecclesiastical affairs here ; yet 
to do it with so much prudence and mo- 
deration, that the world might see by what 
was laid aside that she acknowledged no 
subjection to the See of Rome ; and by 
what was retained, that she did not secede 
from the Church of Rome out of any spirit 
of contradiction, but as necessitated there- 
unto for the maintenance of her just liberty. 
The number of ceremonies was also then 
very great, and thereby burdensome, and 
so the number thought fit to be lessened. 
But for the choice which should be kept and 
which not, that was wholly in her power and 
at her discretion." — Preface to Fourteen 

The Worthless Poor. 
" Not every one that begs is poor ; not 
every one that wanteth is poor ; not every 
one that is poor, is poor indeed. They are 
the poor whom we private men in charity, 
and you that are magistrates in justice, 
stand bound to relieve, who are old, or im- 
potent and unable to work ; or in these 
hard and depopulating times [1623] are 
willing, but cannot be set on work ; or have 
a greater charge upon them than can be 
maintained by their work. These and such 
as these are the poor indeed : let us all be 
good to such as these. Be we that are pri- 
vate men as brethren to these poor ones, 
and shew them mercy ; be you that are 

magistrates as fathers to these poor ones, 
and do them justice. But as for those idle 
stubborn professed wanderers, that can and 
may and will not work, and under the name 
and habit of poverty rob the poor indeed of 
our alms and their maintenance, let us hard- 
en our hearts against them, and not give to 
them ; do you execute the severity of the 
law upon them, and not spare them. It is 
St. Paul's order, — nay it is the ordinance 
of the Holy Ghost, and we should all put 
to an helping hand to see it kept, he that 
will not labour let hiin not eat. These ulcers 
and drones of the commonwealth are ill 
worthy of any honest man's alms, of any 
good magistrate's protection." — Sander- 
son's Fourteen Sermons, p. 107. 

Dissenters and James the Second. 

" — The late King, for reasons obvious 
and evident enough, was pleased to issue 
out a free toleration to all his loving sub- 
jects of what persuasion soever; and though 
the Dissenters, if they had but half the un- 
derstanding of a humble-bee, might have 
easily perceived the drift and meaning of 
that indulgence, yet they either really were, 
or what is full as stupid, pretended to be 
altogether insensible of the design. You 
cannot imagine how dutifully they swallow- 
ed this bait, though it scarce' served to co- 
ver the hook. Every Gazette was so crowd- 
ed with the fulsome adcb'esses, that a man, 
unless he had a particular interest at court, 
could scarce prevail to get a strayed horse, 
or a deserting prentice, into the adver- 
tisements. You'd almost have sworn it 
had rained compliments for a twelvemonth 
together, as Livy says it rained stones be- 
fore the Punic war ; and such indeed these 
compliments were, for they proved as fatal 
to the deluded prince, as the brickbats did 
to St. Stephen. No young flattering cox- 
comb ever desired his mistress after so pro- 
digal a rate ; no hungry poet ever squan- 
dered away so much nauseous flattery and 
rhetoric upon a liberal patron, as they did 
upon the liberal monarch for his no-gift of 



toleration. In short, if they had had all 
Arabia in their hands, it would not have 
furnished them with incense enough upon 
this occasion. By their frequent corres- 
pondence with the other party, they were 
got into their dialect, and so talked of no- 
thing else but oblations and sacrifices. And 
what were those sacrifices ? Even those 
goodly things called Lives and Fortunes." 
— Thomas Brown's Dialogues, p. 287. 

Consequence of requiring Scripture Autho- 
rity for Everything. 
" When this gap was once opened, ' What 
command have you in scrijiture, or what 
example, for this or that ? ' una Eu7'usque 
Notusque ; it was like the opening of Pan- 
dora's box, or the Trojan horse. As if all 
had been let loose, swarms of sectaries of 
all sorts broke in, and as the frogs and 
lice in Egypt, overspread the face of the 
land. Not so only, but (as often it hap- 
peneth) these young striplings soon out- 
stript their leaders, and that upon their own 
ground ; leaving those many parasangs be- 
hind them, who had first showed them the 
way and made entrance for them. For as 
those said to others, ^^Tiat command or ex- 
amj^le have you for kneeling at the com- 
munion ? for wearing a surplice, &c. ? for 
Lord Bishops ? for a penned Liturgy ? for 
keeping holy days, &c. ? and there stopt ; 
so these to them, A\Tiere are your Lay 
Presbyters, your Classes, &c. to be found in 
scripture ? where your Steeple Houses ? 
your National Church ? your Tithes and 
Mortuaries ? your Infant Sprinklings ? nay, 
where your jMetre Psalms ? your two Sa- 
craments ? your observing a weekly Sab- 
bath ? (for so far, I find, they are gone, and 
how much farther I know not, already, and 
how much farther they will hereafter, for 
erranti nullus terminus, God only knoweth). 
Sliew us, say they, a command or example 
for them in scripture. 

Fugerunt trepidi vera et manife^ta lo- 

Stoicidfe. Juv. Sat. 2. 

Thus do these pay them home in their 
own metal ; and how the pay can be ho- 
nestly refused, till they order their mintage 
better, I yet understand not." — Sander- 
son's Preface to his Sermons. 

Want of Charity in Puritans and Papists. 

" Marvel not that I call them brethren, 
though they will by no means own us as 
such ; the more unjust and uncharitable 
they. And in this uncharitableness (such 
a coincidence there is sometimes of ex- 
tremes) the Separatists and the Romanists, 
consequently to their otherwise most dis- 
tant principles, do fully agree ; like Sam- 
son's foxes tied together by the tails to set 
all on fire, although their flices look quite 
contrary ways. But we envy not either 
these or those their uncharitableness, nor 
may we imitate them therein. But as the Or- 
thodox Fathers did the wayward Donatists 
then, so we hold it our duty now, to account 
these our uncharitable brethren (as well of 
the one sort as of the other) our brethren 
still, whether they will thank us for it or no ; 
velijit, nolint, fratres sunt. These our bre- 
thren, I say, of the Separation are so vio- 
lent and peremptory in imchurching all 
the world bvit themselves, that they thrust 
and pen up the whole flock of Christ in a 
far narrower pingle than ever the Donatists 
did ; concluding the Communion of Saints 
within the compass of a private parlour or 
two in Amsterdam. 

" And it were much to be wished, that 
some in our own Church, who have not yet 
directly denied us to be their brethren, had 
not some of the leaven of this partiality 
hidden in their breasts. They would hardly 
else be so much swelled up with an high 
opinion of themselves, nor so much soured 
in their affections towards their brethren, 
as they bewray themselves to be, by using 
the terms of brotherhood, of profession, of 
Christianity, the Communion of Saints, the 
Godly Party, and the like, as titles of dis- 
tinction to difference some few in the Church 
(a disaffected party to the government and 


ceremonies) from the rest. As if all but 
themselves were scarce to be owned either 
as brethren, or professors, or Christians, or 
Stwits, or Godly men. AVlio knoweth of 
what ill consequence the usage of such ap- 
propriating and distinctive titles (that sound 
so like the Pharisee's ' I am holier than 
thou,' and warp so much towards a sepa- 
ration) may prove, and what evil effects 
they may produce in future ? But how- 
ever it is not well done in any of us in 
the meantime, to take uji new forms and 
phrases, and to accustom ourselves to a 
garb of speaking in Scripture language, but 
in a different notion from that wherein the 
Scriptures understand it. I may not, I 
cannot judge any man's heart ; but truly to 
me it seemeth scarce a possible thing for 
any man that appropriateth the name of 
brethren (or any of those other titles of the 
same extent) to some part only of the 
Christian Church, to fulfil our Apostle's 
precept here of loving the brotherhood, ac- 
cording to the true meaning thereof; for 
whom he taketh not in, he must needs leave 
out.'' — Sandekson's Sermons, p. 63, preach- 
ed in 1633. 

Conforming Puritans. 
" Those of the Separation," says San- 
derson (Sermons, vol. 1, p. ]67), " must 
needs think very jollily of themselves, and 
their own singular way, when they shall 
find those very grounds whereon they have 
raised their schism, to be so stoutly j^lead- 
ed for by some who are yet content to 
hold a kind of communion with us. Truly 
I could wish it were sufficiently considered 
by those whom it so nearly concerneth (for 
my own part, I must confess, I could never 
be able to comprehend it), with what sa- 
tisfaction to the conscience any man can 
hold those principles without the mainte- 
nance whereof there can be nothing co- 
lourably pretended for inconformity in 
point of Ceremony and Church Govern- 
ment, and yet not admit of such conclu- 
sions naturally issuing thence, as will ne- 
cessarily enforce an utter separation. Va 

mundo, saith our Saviour, Woe unto the 
world because of offences ! It is one of 
the great trials wherewith it is the good 
pleasure of God to exercise the fiiith and 
jjatience of his servants whilst they live on 
the earth, that there wiil be divisions and 
offences ; and they must abide it. But vce 
homini though ; — without rejjentance, woe 
to the man by whom the occasion cometh ! 
Much have they to answer for the while, 
that cannot keep themselves quiet when 
they ought and might ; but by restless pro- 
vocations trouble both themselves and 
others, to the great prejudice and grief of 
their brethren, but advantage and rejoicing 
of the common enemy." 

Use of Dreams. 

" There is to be made," says Bishop 
Sanderson, " a lawful, yea and a very pro- 
fitable use, even of our ordinary dreams, 
and of the observing thereof; and that both 
in physic and divinity. Not at all by fore- 
telling particulars of things to come ; but 
by taking from them, among other things, 
some reasonable conjectures in the gene- 
ral, of the present estate both of our bodies 
and souls. Of our bodies first : for since 
the predominancy of choler, blood, phlegm, 
and melancholy, as also the differences of 
strength and health, and diseases and dis- 
tempers, either by diet or passion, or other- 
wise, do cause impressions of different forms 
in the fancy, our ordinary dreams may be 
a good help to lead us into those discove- 
ries ; both in time of health, what our na- 
tural constitution, complection and tem- 
perature is ; and in times of sickness, from 
the rankness and tyranny of which of the 
humours the malady springeth. And as of 
our bodies, so of our souls too. For since 
our dreams, for the most part, look the same 
way which our freest thoughts incline ; as 
the voluptuous beast dreameth most of plea- 
sures, the covetous wretch most of profits, 
and the proud or ambitious most of praises, 
preferments, or revenge ; the observing of 
our ordinary dreams may be of good use for 



us unto that discovery, which of these three 
is our Master Sin (for unto one of the 
three every other sin is reduced), the lust of 
the fk^sh, the lust of the eyes, or the pride 
of life." — Fourteen Sermons, p. 324. 

Papist and Puritan Doctrines. 

" — Upon this point we dare bohlly join 
issue with our clamorous adversaries on 
either hand. Papists I mean, and Discij)li- 
narians, who do both, so loudly, but un- 
justly, accuse us and our religion ; they, as 
carnal and licentious ; these, as popish and 
superstitious. As Elijah once said to the 
Baalites, ' That God that answereth by fire, 
let him be God,' so may we say to either of 
both, and when we have said it, not fear to 
put it to a fair trial, ' That church whose 
doctrine, confession and worship is most 
according to Godliness, let that be the 
Church.' As for our accusers, if there were 
no more to be instanced in but that one 
cursed position alone wherein (notwith- 
standing their disagreements otherwise) 
they both consent ; that lawful sovereigns 
may be by theii' subjects resisted, and arms 
taken up against them, for the cause of re- 
ligion ; it were enough to make good the 
challenge against them both. Which is 
such a notorious piece of ungodliness as no 
man, that either feareth God or king as he 
ought to do, can speak of, or think of, with- 
out detestation ; and is certainly (if either 
St. Peter or St. Paul, those two great 
apostles, understood themselves) a branch 
rather of that other great mystery (2 Thes. 
ii.), the mystery of Iniquity, than of the 
great mystery here in the text, the mystery 
of Godliness. There is not that point in 
all Poj^ery besides (to my understanding) 
that maketh it savour so strongly of Anti- 
christ, as this one dangerous and desperate 
point of Jesuitism doth : wherein yet those 
men that are ever bawling against our cere- 
monies and service as Antichristian, ,do so 
deeply arid wretchedly symbolize with them. 
The Lord be judge between them and 
us, whether our Service or their Doctrine 

be the more Antichristian ! " — Sanderson's 
Sermons, vol. 1, p. 189. 

Advantage given to Irreligious Scoffers by 
the Puritans. 

" — ]\Ien that have wit enough, and to 
spare, but no more religion than will serve 
to keep them out of the reach of the laws, 
when they see such men as pretend most to 
holiness, to run mto such extravagant opi- 
nions and practises as in the judgment of 
any imderstanding men are manifestly ri- 
diculous, they cannot hold but their wits 
will be working ; and whilst they play upon 
them, and make themselves sport enough 
therewithal, it shall go hard but they will 
have one fling among, even at the power of 
religion too. Even as the Stoics of old, 
though they stood mainly for virtue, yet 
because they did it in such an uncouth and 
rigid way as seemed to be repiignant not 
only to the manners of men, but almost to 
common sense also, they gave occasion to 
the wits of those times, under a colour of 
making themselves merry with the para- 
doxes of the Stoics, to laugh even true vir- 
tue itself out of countenance." — Sander- 
son's Sermons, vol. 1, p. 221. 

Itinerant Puritans. 
" The consciousness of an ill cause," says 
Sanderson, " unable to support itself by 
the strength of its own goodness, driveth 
the worldling to seek to hold it up by 
his art, industry, and such like other as- 
sistances ; like a ruinous house, ready to 
di-op down, if it be not shored up with 
props, or stayed with buttresses. You may 
observe it in law-suits ; the worser cause 
ever the better solicited. An honest man 
that desireth but to keep his own, trusteth 
to the equity of his cause, hopeth that will 
carry when it cometh to hearing ; and so he 
retaineth council, giveth them information 
and instructions in the case, getteth his 
witnesses ready, and then thinketh he need 
trouble himself no farther. But a crafty 



companion that thinketli to put another be- 
sitle his right, will not rest so content ; but 
he will be dealing with the jury (perhaps get 
one packt for his turn), tampering with the 
witnesses, tempting the judge himself, it 
may be, with a letter, or a bribe ; he will 
leave no stone unmoved, no likely means, 
how indirect soever, unattempted, to get 
the better of the day, and to cast his ad- 
versary. You may observe it likewise in 
church affairs. A regular minister sitteth 
(juietly at home, followeth his study, doth 
his duty in his own cure, and teacheth his 
people truly and fiiithfuUy to do theirs ; 
keepeth himself within his own station, and 
meddleth no farther. But schismatical spi- 
rits are more pragmatical ; they will not 
be contained within their own circle, but 
must be dying out ; aXXoTpioairLaKoiroi, they 
must have an oar in every boat ; offering, 
yea thrusting themselves into every pulpit, 
before they be sent for ; running from town 
to town, from house to house, that they may 
scatter the seeds of sedition and supersti- 
tion at every table and in every corner. 
And all this (so wise are they in their ge- 
neration) to serve their own belly, and to 
make a prey of their poor seduced prose- 
lytes ; for by this means the people fall unto 
them, and thereout suck they no small ad- 
vantage." — Sanderson's Sermons, vol. 1, p. 

Sanderson on Physic, Laiv, and Divinity. 
" We may puzzle ourselves," says San- 
derson, " in the pursuit of knowledge, dive 
into the mysteries of all arts and sciences, 
especially ingulph ourselves deep in the 
studies of those three highest professions of 
Physic, Law, and Divinity ; for Physic, 
search into the writings of Hippocrates, 
Galen and the Methodists, of Avicen and the 
Emperics, of Paracelsus and the Chemists ; 
for Law, wrestle through the large bodies 
of both laws civil and canon, with the vast 
tomes of Glosses, Repertories, Responses 
and Commentaries thereon, and take in the 
Reports and Year-books of our Common 
Law to boot ; for Divinity, get through a 

course of Councils, Fathers, Schoolmen, 
Casuists, Expositors, Controversers of all 
sorts and sects : when all is done, after 
much weariness to the flesh, and (in com- 
parison hereof) little satisfaction to the 
mind (for the more knowledge we gain by 
all this travel, the more we discern our own 
ignorance, and thereby but increase our 
own sorrow), the short of all is this ; and 
when I have said it, I have done ; you shall 
evermore find, try it when you will. 

Temperance tlie best Physic, 
Patience the best Law, 

A Good Conscience the best Divinity." 
Sanderson's Sermons, vol. 1, p. 189. 

Change in the Dissenters. 

" There are none of the Dissenters," says 
Thomas Brown, " that make any tolerable 
pretence to their ancient austerity but the 
Quakers, and even they begin to decline by 
degrees from their primitive institution. 
They still make a shift to retain their dis- 
tinguishing garb, theii" little cravats, broad- 
brimm'd hats, short hair, and coats without 
pockets before. But as for the rest of the 
Separatists, they have clearly lost all their 
ear-marks. You may meet with twenty 
and twenty of 'em in the streets, and yet 
not be able to distinguish 'em from the 
profane part of mankind by any exterior 
apjjearances. And to say the truth, their 
forefathers are to be blamed for it : they 
wore their hypocrisy, as they say a Welsh- 
man wears a shirt, till it dropt off from their 
shoulders. They did not leave hypocrisy, but 
hyj^ocrisy left them." — Dialogues. 

Differences in Religious Opinion no ground 
for Irreligion. 

" There are men in the world (who 
think themselves no babes neither) so 
deeply possest with a spirit of Atheism, 
that though they will be of any religion 
(in shew) to serve their .turns and comply 



with the times, yet they are resolved to be 
(indeed) of none, till all men be agreed of 
one ; which yet never was, nor is ever like 
to be. A resolution no less desperate for 
the soul, if not rather much more, than it 
would be for the body, if a man should vow 
he would never eat till all the clocks in the 
city should strike twelve together. If we 
look into the large volumes that have been 
written by Philosophers, Lawyers, and Phy- 
sicians, we shall find the greatest part of 
them spent in disputations, and in the re- 
citing and confuting of one another's opi- 
nions. And we allow them so to do, with- 
out prejudice to their respective profes- 
sions ; albeit they be conversant about 
things measurable by sense, or reason. 
Only in Divinity great offence is taken at 
the multitude of controversies ; wherein 
yet difference of opinions is by so much 
more tolerable than in other sciences, by 
how much the things about which we are 
conversant are of a more sublime, mysteri- 
ous, and incomprehensible nature than are 
those of other sciences." — Sanderson's 
Sermons^ vol. 1, p. 182. 

Abuse of Scripture hy those who require there 
a Warrant for Everything . 

" All Errors, Sects, and Heresies, as 
they are mixed with some inferior truths to 
make them the more passable to others, so 
do they usually owe their original to some 
eminent truths either misunderstood or mis- 
applied, whereby they become the less dis- 
cernible to their own teachers : whence it 
is that such teachers both deceive and are 
deceived. To apply this, then, to the busi- 
ness in hand. There is a most sound and 
eminent truth, justly maintained in our 
own, and other Reformed Churches, con- 
cerning the perfection and sufficiency of the 
holy Scriptures ; which is to be understood 
of the revelation of supernatural truths, 
and the substant'als of God's worship, and 
the advancing of moral and civil duties to 
a more sublime and spiritual height by di- 
recting them to a more noble end, and ex- 

acting performance of them in a holy man- 
ner ; but without any purpose thereby to 
exclude the belief of what is otherwise 
reasonable, or the practise of what is pru- 
dential. This orthodox truth hath, by an 
unhajipy misunderstanding, j^i'oved that 
great stone of offence, whereat all our late 
Sectaries have stumbled. Upon this foun- 
dation (as they had laid it) began our An- 
ti-Ceremonians first to raise their so often 
renewed models of reformation: but they 
had first transformed it Into quite another 
thing; by them perhaps mistaken for the 
same, but really as distant from It as false- 
hood from truth ; to wit this, that nothing 
might laivfully he done or used in the Churches 
of Christ, unless there were either command or 
example for it in the Scriptures : whence they 
inferred that whatsoever had been otherwise 
done or used, was to be cast out as popish, 
antichristlan, and superstitious. This is that 
unsound corrupt principle whereof I spake ; 
that root of bitterness, whose stem in pro- 
cess of time hath brought forth all these 
numerous branches of sects and heresies, 
wherewith this sinfid nation is now so much 
pestered." — Sanderson's Preface to his Ser- 

Advantage given hy the Puritans to the 

" I BESEECH them," says Sanderson, " to 
consider, whither that dfiErpia ttjq cit'doX- 
/cj/c which many times marreth a good busi- 
ness, hath carried them ; and how mightily 
(though unwittingly, and I verily believe, 
most of them unwillingly) they promote 
the interest of Rome, whilst they do with 
very great violence (but not with equal 
prudence) oppose against it ; so verifying 
that of the historian poet spoken in another 

Omnia dat qui justa negat. — Lucan. 
I mean in casting out not Ceremonies only, 
but Episcopacy also, and Liturgy and Fes- 
tivals, out of the Church, as Popish and An- 
tichristlan, — Hoc Ithacus velit. If any of 
these things be otherwise guilty, and de- 



serve such a relegation upon any other ac- 
count (which yet is more than I know), 
forewell they ! But to be sent away pack- 
ing barely upon this score, that they are 
Pojiish and Antichristian, this bringeth in 
such a plentiful harvest of proselytes to the 
Jesuit, that he doth not now, as formerly, 
gaudere iiittts et in sinu, laugh in his sleeve, 
as we say, but] ri] KetpaXij, openly 
and in the face of the sun triumph glo- 
riously, and in every pamphlet 2:)roclaim his 
victories to the world. If you shall say 
that the scandal is taheii by him, not given 
by you, it is, to all but yourselves, as much 
as nothing, whilst the contrary is demon- 
strable, and that there is in these very pre- 
tensions, a proper, and as I may say, a na- 
tural tendency to produce such effects as 
we see to have ensued thereupon." — San- 
derson's Preface to his Sermons. 

Organs in Ale-houses. — Proposal for Fining 

" One Mr. Stephens,^ a Poultry author, 
very lately proposed to the Parliament, to 
have the beginning or pledging of a health, 
punished with the same penalty which he 
sets upon swearing, which is the precise 
sum of twenty shillings ; and in case of dis- 
ability, to have those notorious offenders 
put in the stocks and whipt. So likewise, 
for any one that should presume to keep an 
organ in a public house, to be fined 201. and 
made uncapable of being an Aledraper for 
the future. But ISir. Stephens did not 
think this punishment was sufficient for 
'em ; so he humbly requested to have them 
excommunicated into the bargain, and not 
to be absolved without doing public pe- 
nance." — Thomas Brown's Dialogues, p. 

Armada and Gunpowder Plot. 

" Two great deliverances in the memory 
of many of us," says Sanderson, preaching 

• Eeflections upon the Miscarriages of the 
Navy. — I'rinted by J. Harris. 

in 1624, " hath God in his singular mercy 
wrought for us of this land ; such as I think, 
take both together, no Christian age or 
land can parallel : one formerly from a fo- 
reign invasion abroad ; another since that 
from a hellish conspiracy at home ; both 
such as we woiild all have thought, when 
they were done, should never have been 
forgotten. And yet, as if this were Terra 
Oblimonis, the land where all things are 
forgotten, how doth the memory of them 
fade away, and they by little and little grow 
into forgetfulness ! We have lived to see 
88 almost quite forgotten, and buried in a 
perpetual amnesty (God be bless'd who 
hath graciously prevented what we feared 
herein !). God grant that we, nor ours, 
ever live to see November's fifth forgotten, 
or the solemnity of that day silenced!" — 
Sanderson's Fourteen Sermons, p. 307. 

Obedience of the Episcopal Clergy to the 

" — Many of the Episcopal, that is to 
say the true English Protestant divines, 
who sadly resent the voting down of the 
Liturgy, festivals, and ceremonies of the 
Church, by so many former laws established, 
heartily desired heretofore the continuance, 
and as heartUy still wish the restitution, 
and are (by God's help) ready with their 
tongues, pens, and sufferings, to maintain 
and justify the lawful use of the same ; do 
yet so far yield to the sway of the times, 
and are persuaded they may with a good 
conscience so do, as to forbear the use 
thereof in the public worship, till it shall 
seem good to those that are in place of au- 
thority, either to restore them to their for- 
mer state (as it is well hoped, when they 
shall have duly considered the ill conse- 
quents of that vote, they will), or at least- 
wise and in the meantime to leave them ar- 
bitrary, for men according to their several 
different judgements, to use or not to use, — 
which seemeth but reasonable, the like fa- 
vour and liberty in other kinds having been 
long allowed to almost all other sorts of 



men, though of never so distant persuasions 
one from another." — Sanderson's Preface 
to his Fourteen Sci'mons. 

Practises of the Romish Church. 

" IVIethinks," says Sanderson, " the 
Church of Rome should blush (if her fore- 
head, died red with the blood of God's 
Saints, were capable of any tincture of 
shame) at the discovery of her manifold im- 
postures, in counterfeiting of relics, in coin- 
ing of miracles, in compiling of legends, in 
gelding of good authors by expurgatory 
indexes, in juggling with magistrates by 
lewd equivocations, &c. ; practises war- 
rantable by no pretence ; yet in their ac- 
count but pice fraudes, for so they term 
them, no less ridiculously than falsely, for 
the one word contradicteth the other. But 
what do I speak of these, but petty things, 
in comparison of those her louder impie- 
ties ? breaking covenants of truce and 
peace ; dissolving of lawful, and disj^ensing 
for unlawful marriages ; assoiling subjects 
from their oaths and allegiance ; plotting 
treasons and practising rebellions ; excom- 
municating and dethroning kings ; arbitrary 
disposing of kingdoms ; stabbing and mur- 
thering of princes ; warranting unjust in- 
vasions ; and blowing up of Parliament 
Houses. For all which and divers other 
foul attempts, their Catholic defence is, the 
advancement (forsooth) of the Catholic 
cause : like his in the Poet, quocunque modo 
rem, is their resolution : by right or wrong, 
the state of the Papacy must be upheld. This 
is their iinum necessarium ; and if Heaven fa- 
vour not, rather than fail, help must be had 
from Hell to keep Antichrist on his throne." 
— Fourteen Sermons, p. 38. 

Judaism and Popery alihe. 

" Were there ever two nations, two 
churches, under heaven, so besotted with 
traditions, and the doctrines of men, as the 
Jew and Roman ? Weigh them well toge- 
ther ,• and is not that as true of the Roman 

to every tittle, that our Saviour speaks of 
the Jew ; That they made the command- 
ment of God of none effect by their tradi- 
tions, and that they taught for doctrines the 
commandments of men. 

" He that shall seriously compare their 
doctrines together, about ' opus operatum,^ 
' sin venial,' ' the merit of works,' ' purga- 
tory,' 'freewill,' ' the point of justification,' 
— and multitudes of other points in religion 
and divine worship, — will see the Romanist 
has gone to school to the Jew : and indeed, 
the scholar is not a whit behind the master." 
LiGHTFooT, vol. 6, p. 367. 

Romanists catching at Straws. 
" When I read these men's annotations 
on the Scripture, they often mind me of 
Benhadad's servants with ropes about their 
necks, catching at any word that fell from 
the king of Israel's mouth, that might be 
for any advantage to their forlorn and lost 
cause and condition. These men's Poi^ish 
cause hath had the rope about its neck now 
a long time, and been in a lost and forlorn 
case ; and I cannot tell whether I should 
laugh or frown to see what pitiful shifts and 
shameful scrambling they make for it by 
catching at any word or syllable in the 
Scripture or Fathers, and wresting and twi- 
ning it to any seeming or colourable advan- 
tage to their condemned cause, to save it 
from execution." — Lightfoot, vol. 6, p. 33. 

Saints manufactured from the mere Names 
in Scripture. 

" There is hardly one named in the New 
Testament with any credit, or without a 
brand, — but in ecclesiastical story, he is 
made either a planter of religion in some 
country, or a bishop, or a martyr, or all. 
See Dorotheus' Synopsis, and other his- 
tories of those times ; and you will find this 
so. Now this is not true ; neither is it ig- 
norance, nor indeed from their believing it 
was so, who first asserted it ; but from offi- 
ciousness to do these men honour, that they 



might have more than bare naming in the 
New Testament. There is a particuhir fa- 
bulousness in ecclesiastical history, that I 
know not whether to refer to ignorance or 
this, or to make it a mongrel of both. Such 
as that, that Christ laid iu a manger betwixt 
an ox and an ass, because it is said (Isa. i. 
3.), ' The ox knoweth his owner, and the 
ass his mastei-'s crib.' And that, that the 
wise men (Matt, ii.) were three kings, — be- 
cause it is said (Psal. Ixxii. 10.), ' The kings 
of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring pre- 
sents : the kings Sheba and Seba shall 
offer gifts.' Whether this was the effect of 
ignorance, or officiousness, or both, its father 
was an Amorite, and its mother a Hittite." 

LiGHTFOOT, vol. 7, p. 4. 

Tutelary Gods and Saints. 

" Thousands of such relations, thus 
tainted, might be produced. Hence are 
more martyrs in the calendar; than ever 
were in the world ; and more miracles than 
ever men of reason, esjaecially that knew 
Scripture, did or well can believe. But to 
pitch near the case in hand : How hath it 
ever been a partiality and studium sui, in 
countries and cities, to father their original 
iipon some transcendant person or other, — 
the heathens on some deity. So Livy : 
Datur hcec venia antiquitati, ut miscendo hu- 
mana dininis, primordia urbium avgustiora 
fiant. Christian cities or countries have 
the like ambition to refer their religion to 
some chief apostle, saint, or martyr." — 
LiGUTFOoT, vol.7, 11.5. 


" ' To reform that nation,' said Sir Wal- 
ter Mildmay [Elizabeth's Chancellor of the 
Exchequer], ' by planting therein religion 
and justice, which the enemies labour to in- 
terrupt, is most godly and necessary ; the 
neglecting whereof hath and will continue 
that people in all irreligion and flisorder, to 
the great offence of God, and to the infinite 

charge of this realm.' "- 
torij., vol. 1, p. 818. 

-Parliamentary His- 

Philosopliy of Psalm-singing. 

" As God requires outward and inward 
worship, so a spiritual frame for inward 
worship may be forwarded by the outward 
composure. Gazing drowsiness hinders the 
activity of the soul, but the contrary tem- 
per farthers and helps it. Singing calls up 
the soul into such a posture, and doth, as it 
were, awaken it : it is a lively rousing up 
of the heart. Secondly ; This is a work of 
the most meditation of any we perform in 
public. It keeps the heart longest upon the 
thing spoken. Prayer and hearing pass 
quick from one sentence to another; this 
sticks long upon it. Meditation must fol- 
low after hearing the word, and praying 
with the minister — for new sentences, still 
succeeding, give not liberty, in the instant, 
well to muse and consider upon what is 
spoken : but in this you pray and meditate. 
God hath so ordered this duty, that, while 
we are employed in it, we feed and chew the 
cud together. ' Higgaion,' or ' Meditation,' 
is set upon some passages of the Psalms, as 
Psal. ix. 16. The same may be writ upon 
the whole duty, and all parts of it, — viz. 
' Meditation.' Set before you one in the 
posture- to sing to the best advantage : eyes 
lifted to heaven, denote his desire that his 
heart may be there too : he hath before 
him a line or verse of prayer, mourning, 
praise, mention of God's works ; how fairly 
now may his heart spread itself in medita- 
tion on the thing, while he is singing it over ! 
Our singing is measured in deliberate time, 
not more for music than meditation. He 
that seeks not, finds not, this advantage in 
singing psalms, — hath not yet learned what 
it means." — Lightfoot, vol. 7, p. 37. 

Gunpowder Traitors. 

" I HAVE heard it, more than once and 
again, from the sheriffs that took all the 
powder traitors, and brought them \ip to 



London, that, every night, when they came 
to their lodging by the way, they had their 
music and dancing a good part of the night. 
One would think it strange, that men in 
their case should be so merry. And was it, 
think you, because God had prevented their 
shedding so much innocent blood, as David 
once rejoiced for such a prevention by the 
council of Abigail ? Xo, it was because they 
were to suffer for such an undertaking, ac- 
counting they should die as martyrs In such 
a cause." — Lightfoot, vol. 7, p. 88. 

Regard to a Vow excmpUJied in Irreligious 
" Men generally think there is some 
weight and awe and terror in a vow ; and 
even the profenest of men stand in fear of 
breaking of foolish and rash vows : Prov. 
vii. 14, the whore there speaks. This day 
have I paid my vows. I have known, v, here 
a wicked fellow having made a vow, that he 
woidd never go in at his neighbour's door, 
durst not, for his vow's sake, go in at the 
door ; but would be content to creep in at 
the window. And another, that having 
made a vow, he would not go into such an 
alehouse of so long a time, durst not, for his 
vow's sake, go into it ; but coidd be content 
to be carried in. Now, however these 
wretches dallied with God and trifled with 
their vows, and their own souls, — yet they 
showed that there is some awe of a vow, 
even upon an ungodly heart, and that that 
stands over them, as with a whip and 
scourge." — Ligutfoot, vol. 7, p. 162. 

Di^icidty of the Scriptures. 

" The difficulty of Scripture doth so 
much require study, that none but by se- 
rious sludy can perceive Its difficulty : — as 
the philosopher could not so much as ima- 
gine how hard it was to define God, till he 
set seriously to study upon the matter ; and 
then he found it. The farther you go in 
Ezekiel's waters, the deeper you go ; and 
the more you study the Scriptures seriously. 

the more cause you will still find to study 
them seriously. And it is not the least cause 
of their error, that hold the explaining of 
Scripture is so very easy, that they have not 
attained to so much skill in the study of the 
Scriptures as to see their hardness. And I 
doubt not, but I could show them scores, nay 
hundreds, of very hard and obscure places, 
which they had never the eyes to see : and 
I doubt as little, that they would find as 
little eyesight to resolve them, if they saw 
them." — Lightfoot, vol. 7, p. 208. 

This no reason why they should not he studied. 

" Men indeed have made an obscure 
Bible, but God never did. As Solomon 
speaks, God made man righteous, but they 
found out sundry inventions : so God made 
the Bible plain as to the main of it ; but 
men have found out inventions of allego- 
rizing, scepticizing, cavilling, that would 
turn light into darkness, but that ' the 
light shineth in darkness, and the darkness 
comprehends it not.' ' That which God 
hath sanctified, do not thou call conunon ; ' 
and that which God hath made plain, do 
not thou darken ; nay do not thou say, it 
is dark. How plain, as to the general, is 
the history in Scripture ! How plain the 
commands, exhortations, threatenings, pro- 
mises, comforts, that are written there. 
Take a sunbeam and write, and is it pos- 
sible to write clearer ? And what ! must 
not the laity and unlearned meddle witli 
Scripture, because it is too obscure ? I 
doubt their meaning indeed is, Because it 
is too clear, and will discover too much. 

" 2. These difficulties that are in Scrip- 
ture, which indeed are not few, — are not a 
' noli me tangere,^ to drive us from the study 
of the Scriptures, as the inference would be 
made, — but they are of another kind of aim 
and tendency. They are not unriddleable 
riddles, and tiring-irons never to be untied, 
but they are divine and majestical sublimi- 
ties; not to check our study of Scripture, 
or of them, but to check our self-confidence 
of our own Avit or wisdom. They are not to 
drive us from the holy ground, where God 



sliiues in majesty in the flaming bush, — but 
to teach us to put off our shoes at the holy 
ground ; not to stand upon our OAvn skill or 
wisdom, but strike sail to the divine Avisdom 
and mysteriousness that shineth there ; not 
to dishearten us from study of the myste- 
ries of God, but to teach us, in all humility, 
to study them the more." — Lightfoot, vol. 
7, p. 214. 

Drayton concerning Dedications. 

Drayton says in his Dedication to his 
worthy and dearly esteemed friend. Master 
James Huish, " It is seated by custome 
(from which we are now bold to assume au- 
thoritie) to bear the names of our friends 
upon the fronts of our bookes, as gentle- 
men use to set their armes over their gate. 
Some say this use began by the heroes and 
brave spirits of the old world, which were 
desh'ous to be thought to patronize learn- 
ing ; and men in requitall honor the names 
of those brave princes. But I think some 
after put the names of great men in their 
bookes, for that men shovdd say there was 
something good, onely because indeed their 
names stood there. But for mine owne 
part (not to dissemble) I find no such ver- 
tue in any of their great titles to do so much 
for any thing of mine, and so let them 

Drayton, of his own Poetry. 

" Our interchanged and deliberate choice, 
Is with more firm and true election sorted 
Than stands in censure of the common voice, 
That with light humour fondly is trans- 
Xor take I pattern of another praise 
Than what my pen may constantly avow, 
Nor walk more public, nor obscurer ways 
Than virtue bids, and judgement will allow." 
Drayton, Dedication of The Barons' 
Wars to Sir Walter Aston. 

" My wanton verse ne'er keeps one certain 

But now at hand, then seeks invention far. 
And with each little motion runs astray. 
Wild, madding, jocund and irregular: 
Like me that list ; my honest merry rhymes 
Nor care for critic, nor regard the times." 
Drayton, Second Sonnet to the Reader. 

" Into these Loves who but for passion 

At this first sight here let him lay them by. 
And seeke elsewhere in turning other 

Which better may his labour satisfie. 
No far-fetched sigh shall ever wound my 

Love from mine eye a teare shall never 

Nor in ah-mees my whyning sonnets drest ; 
(A libertine) fantastickely I sing : 
My verse is the true image of my minde, 
Ever in motion, still desiring change. 
To choice of all varietie inclinde ; 
And in all humours sportively I range ; 
My active muse is of the world's right 

That cannot long one fashion entertaine." 

DraytoiUs Schooling in Love. 

" Thine eyes taught me the aljihabet of 

To kon my cros-rowe ere I learn'd to spell, 
For I was apt, a scholar like to prove ; 
Gave me sweet lookes when as I learned 

well : 
Vowes were my vowels, when I then be- 

At my first lesson in thy sacred name ; 
My consonants the next when I had done, 
Words consonant, and sounding to thy 

fame ; 
My liquids then, were liquide christall 

teares ; 
My cares my mutes, so mute to crave re- 

liefe ; 
My dolefuU diphthongs were, my life's des- 

paires ; 



Redoubling siglies the accents of my griefe ; 
My love's scliole-mistresse now hath taught 

me so, 
That I can read a story of my woe." 


Capital employed in Trade in Queen Anne's 

" Our foreign trade for forty years last 
past, in the judgement of the most intelli- 
gent persons, has been managed by a stock 
not less than four, and not exceeding eight 
millions, with which last sum they think it 
is driven at this time, and that it cannot be 
carried much farther, unless our merchants 
shall endeavour to open a trade to Terra 
Australis Incognita, or some place that 
would be equivalent." — Guardian, No. 76. 

Honesty of African Traders. 

" If a tobe or turkadee purchased here, is 
carried to Bornou or any other distant 
place without being opened, and is there 
discovered to be of inferior quality, it is 
immediately sent back as a matter of course, 
the name of the dylala, or broker, being 
written inside every parcel. In this case 
the dyhda must find out the seller, who, by 
the laws of Kano, is forthwith obliged to 
refund the purchase money." — Captain 
Clapperton's Discoveries, p. 53. 


" There is a generation among us, that 
talk of their perfection, Pharisaically boast 
that they are perfect : in which you can 
hardly tell, whether they bewray more ig- 
norance or folly : folly, — in that they 
think they pay such absolute perfection, 
which it is impossible for poor sinfid man 
to pay; and ignorance, — in that they do 
not know that God does not require such 
perfection as they dream of, and talk of in 
their dreams." — Lightfoot, vol. 5, p. 361. 

Sand of the Sabbatical River. 

" As to the Sabbatical River, I heard it 
from my father, saith Menasseh Ben Israel 
(and fathers do not use to impose upon 
their sons), that there was an Arabian at 
Lisbon in Portugal, who had an hour-glass 
filled with the sand taken out of the bottom 
of this River, which ran all the week till 
the Sabbath, and then ceased ; and that 
every Friday in the evening, this Arabian 
would walk through the streets of tliat city, 
and shew this glass to the Jews who coun- 
terfeited Christianity, saying, Ye Jews, shut 
up your shops, for now the Sabbath comes ! 
— I should not speak of these glasses, saith 
he, but that the authority of my father has 
great power over me, and induces me to 
believe that the miracle is from God." — 
R. B.'s Memorable Remarks concerning the 
Jews, p. 46. 

Agitators begin with the Church. 

" ' They that desire innovations in the 
State,' said the Lord Chancellor Finch, 
' most commonly begin the attempt upon 
the Church. And by this means it comes 
to pass that the peace of the Church is so 
often disturbed, not only by those poor 
mistaken souls who deserve to be pitied, 
but by malicious and designing men who 
deserve to be punished.'" — Parliamentary 
History, vol. 4, p. 808. 

What Popery has taken from the Pharisees. 

" The Jews," says Lightfoot (vol. 3, 
p. 404), " partly the unbelieving, and partly 
the apostatized, were the first part of Anti- 
christ, ' the mystery of iniquity ' that was 
then working when the Apostle wrote ; and 
we may observe how they continued bodied 
together, as a corporation of iniquity in 
Judea, till the times of Constantine the 
Great, where the succession of their schools 
is plainly to be read. And when they 
wanted there, then did they flourish in their 
three universities in Babylonia, and the 



siiccessiou of the schools and names of the 
learned men known there, not only till the 
signing of this Babylon Talmud (which 
was about the year of Christ 500), but even 
till the other part of ' the mystery of ini- 
(juity,' the papal Antichrist, arose at Ba- 
bylon in the West. And as these two parts 
make one entire body of Antichrist, and as 
the latter took at the iirst to do the work 
that they had done, to deface the truth and 
oppose it, and that under the colour of re- 
ligion, — so did it, in great measure, take 
his pandect of errors from these his prede- 
cessors. Traditions, false miracles, legends, 
ceremonies, merit, purgatory, implicit faith, 
and divers other things, are so derived from 
this source, as if left by legacy from the 
one to the other." 

Traditions, Jewish and Papal. 

" ' Amongst all the commandments, there 
is not one commandment that is parallel to 
the learning and teaching of the law ; but 
that is equal to all the commandments put 
together.' — ' The written law is narrow ; but 
the traditional is longer than the earth, and 
broader than the sea.' — ' The words of the 
scribes are lovely, above the words of the 
law : for the words of the law are weighty 
and light ; but the words of the scribes are 
all weighty.' — ' The Bible is like water ; the 
Mishua, like wine : he that has learned the 
Scripture, and not the Mishna, is a block- 
head.' — ' Whosoever scorns the words of the 
wise men, shall be cast into boiling dung in 
hell.'" — Lightfoot's Works, vol. 1, p. xlix. 

"The Papist saith. Scripture is not suffi- 
cient to instruct all things of religion. True ; 
not of the Romish religion. For the rags 
that patch that, you must go to some broker ; 
for the divine wardrobe of Scripture hath 
none such ; viz. the orders of monks and 
friars, pilgrimages, single life of the clergy, 
salt, oil, spittle in baptism, tapers at the 
communion, processions, praying to and for 
the dead, and a thousand other trinkle- 
nients and trumperies. — Scripture never 

knew such base ware ; we must go to some 
other kind of shop for it. And that pedler, 
with them, is Tradition." — Lightfoot's 
Works, vol. 6, p. 55. 

Objectors to our Church Worship. 
" TiiEY that will pay nothing to our 
churches, — that will not come to our 
churches, — nay, will not abide to be buried 
in our churchyards, — do they see any abo- 
minable thing in the service of our churches, 
worse than the corruptions that were crept 
into the Jewish religion ; worse supersti- 
tions, worse will-worship, worse corrup- 
tions ? If they do, let them show it : if 
they do not, why do they so despise our 
church, and the worship there, when Christ 
himself refused not to be present at the 
temple, and to contribute to maintain the 
service there ? Let me ask them and the 
negligent comers to church (though they 
do not quite refuse it), do they think, that 
our Saviour ever let a sabbath-day pass in 
all his time while hei'e but he was present 
at the public service, either in the temple 
or in the synagogue ? Look the gospel 
through, and see, by the current of the 
story there, whether ever he absented him- 
self from the public congregation on the 
sabbath-day." — Lightfoot's Works, vol. 5, 
p. 343. 


" I CANNOT but admire the impudency 
as well as abhor the wickedness of the Je- 
suits' doctrine of equivocation : a doctrine 
that hath put on a whore's forehead, a 
brazen face, and the devil's impiidency it- 
self, before men, as well as it hath clothed 
itself with horrid abominableness before 
God. It is a doctrine that teacheth men 
to lie, and yet will maintain they lie not. 
And by their doctrine there can be no lying, 
forswearing, or deceiving in the world, 
though they lie, forswear, and deceive 
never so deeply. A trick beyond the de- 
vil's : he turns truth into a lie : these can 



turn a lie into a truth. A Popish priest or 
Jesuit is brought before a Protestant ma- 
gistrate. He puts him to his oath ; Are 
you a Popish priest or a Jesuit ? They 
will swear Xo roundly, and make no bones 
of it ; having this reserve in their mind, I 
am not a priest to you, or I am not a 
priest of the English Church ; or I am not 
a Jesuit to tell you, or be your confessor ; — 
or some such lui'king reserved thought in 
his mind. This man hath not told a lie, 
though he speaks not a word true : he hath 
not taken a false oath, though he has sworn 
falsely." — Lightfoot, vol. 1, p. 191. 

Jewish Hepentance. 

" "What a kind of repentance they mean, 
we may observe by such-like passages as 
these : ' All the commandments of the law, 
be they preceptive or prohibitive, if a man 
transgress against any of them, either erring 
or presuming, when he repents and turns 
from his sin, he is bound to make confession. 
Whosoever brings a sin or trespass-offer- 
ing for his error, or presumjition, his sin is 
not expiated by his offering, until he make 
a verbal confession. And whosoever is 
guilty of death, or of whipping, by the San- 
hedrim, his sin is not expiated by his whip- 
ping, or his death, unless he repent and 
make a confession. And because the scape- 
goat is an atonement for all Israel, the 
high-priest maketh confession for all Israel 
over him. The scape-goat expiateth for 
all transgressions mentioned in the law, be 
they great or little.' 

" This their wild doctrine, about repent- 
ance and pardon, being considered in which 
they place so much of the one and the other 
in such things, as that the true affectedness 
of the heart for sin, or in seeking of pardon, 
is but little spoken of, or regarded, — we 
may well observe, how singularly pertinent 
to the holding out of the true doctrine of 
repentance, this word is, which is used by 
the Holy Ghost, which calleth for ' <Dhange 
of mind' in the penitent, and an alteration 
in the inward temper, as wherein consisteth 

the proper nature and virtue of repentance ; 
and not in any outward actions or applica- 
tions, if the mind be not thus changed." — 
Lightfoot, vol. 5, p. 158. 

Harrington upon a National Religion. 

" Man," says Harrington, in his Politi- 
cal Aphorisms, " may rather be defined a 
religious, than a rational creature, in re- 
gard that in other creatures there may be 
something of reason, but there is nothing 
of religion. 

" The prudence, or government, that is 
regardless of religion, is not adequate or 
satisfactory to man'ji nature. 

" While the government is not adequate 
or satisfactory to man's nature. It can never 
be ([uiet, nor perfect. 

" The major part of mankind gives itself 
up in the matter of religion to the jmblic 

" That there may be a public leading 
there must be a national religion." 

He goes on to show how " that there 
may be liberty of conscience, there must be 
a national religion ; and that there may be 
a national religion, there must be an en- 
dowed clergy." 

Harrington upon a Landed Clergy. 

The following positions of the republican 
Harrington will not be disputed by those 
who understand the British Constitution, 
and regard it with due veneration. 

"Absolute monarchy, being sole proprie- 
tor, may admit of liberty of conscience to 
such as are not capable of civU or military 
employment, and yet not admit of the means 
to assert civil liberty : as the Greek Chris- 
tians under the Turk, who, though they 
enjoy liberty of conscience, cannot assert 
civU liberty, because they have neither 
property, nor any civil or military employ- 

" Regulated monarchy, being not sole 
proprietor, may not admit naturally of 
liberty of conscience, lest it admit of the 



means to assert civil liberty ; as was lately 
seen in England by pulling down the Bish- 
ops, who, for the most part, are one halt' of 
the foundation of regulated monarchy, 

" A landed clergy attaining to one third 
of the territory, is aristocracy, and there- 
fore equally incompatible with absolute mo- 
narchy and with democracy ; but to regu- 
lated monarchy for the most part is such a 
supporter, as in that case it may be truly 
enough said that No bishop, no king. 

" A clergy well landed is to regulated 
monarchy a very great glory ; and a clergy 
not well stipendiated is to absolute mo- 
narchy, or to democracy, as great an in- 
famy." — System of Politics. — Harrington's 
Works, p. 474-5, edit. 1771. 


*' They are called Therapeuta; and The- 
rapeutides (saith Philo), either because they 
profess a physic better than that professed 
in cities, — for that healeth bodies only, but 
this diseased souls ; or because they have 
learned from nature, and the holy laws, to 
serve ' him that is.' Those that betake 
themselves to this course, do it not out of 
fashion, or upon any one's exhortation ; but 
ravished with a heavenly love (even as the 
Bacchantes and Corybantes have their rap- 
ture), until they behold what they desire. 

" Then, through the desire of an immortal 
and blessed life, reputing themselves to die 
to this mortal life, they leave their estates 
to sons and daughters, or to other kindred, 
voluntarily making them theu' heirs ; and 
to their friends and familiars, if they have 
no kindred. When they are thus parted from 
their goods, being taken now by no bait, thoy 
fly irrevocably, leaving brethren, children, 
wives, parents, numerous kindreds, socie- 
ties, and countries, where they were born 
and bred. They flit, not into other cities ; 
but they make their abode without the 
walls, in gardens or solitary villages, affect- 
ing the wilderness, not for any hatred of 
men, but because of being mixed with men 
of different conditions ; wliich thing they 

know is unprofitable and hurtful. This 
kind of people are in many parts of the 
world ; but it abounds in Egypt, through 
every one of those places, that are called 
' Nomi,' — especially about Alexandria. 
Now, out of all places, the chief or best of 
the Therapeutaj are sent into a colony (as 
it were into their country), into a most con- 
venient region, beside the Marian lake, 
upon a low, gentle rising bank, very fit 
both for safety and the wholesome air. 
The houses of the company are very mean, 
affording shelter in two most necessary re- 
spects, — against the heat of the sun, and 
the coldness of the air. Nor are they near 
together like houses in a city, for such vici- 
nity is trouble and displeasing to such as love 
and affect solitude. Nor yet far asunder; 
because of that communion which they em- 
brace, and that they may help one another, 
if there be any incursion of thieves. Every 
one of them hath a holy house, which is 
called a chapel and monastery ; in which 
they, being solitary, do perform the myste- 
ries of a religious life ; bringing in thither 
neither drink nor meat, nor any other ne- 
cessaries for the use of the body ; but the 
law and the oracles given by the prophets, 
and hymns, and other things whereby know- 
ledge and religion are increased and per- 
fected. Therefore, they have God per- 
petually in their mind ; insomuch, that in 
their di-eams, they see nothing but the 
beauty of the divine powers ; and there 
some of them, by dreaming, do vent excel- 
lent matters of philosophy. They used to 
pray twice every day, morning and evening, 
at sun-rising and sun-setting ; and all the 
time between, they meditate and study the 
Scriptures ; allegorizing them, because they 
believe, that mystical things are hid under 
the plain letter : they have also many com- 
mentaries of theli" predecessors of this sect 
to this purpose. They also make psalms 
and hymns to the ])raise of God. Thus 
spend they the six days of the week, every 
one in his cell, not so much as looking out 
of it. But on the seventh day, they meet 
together, and sit down, according to their 



age, demurely, with their hands within their 
coats, — the right hand betwixt their breast 
and their skin — and the left on their side. 
Then steps forth one of the gravest and 
skilfuUest in their profession, and preacheth 
to them ; and the rest hearken with all 
silence, only nodding their heads, or moving 
their eyes. Their place of worship is parted 
into two rooms, one for the men, and the 
other for the women. All the week long 
they never taste meat, nor di"ink, any day 
before sun-setting, — because they think the 
study of wisdom to be lit for the light, and 
the taking ease of their bodies for the dark. 
Some hardly eat above once in three days, 
some in six; or on the seventh day, after 
they have taken care of the soul they refresh 
the body. Their diet is only bread and 
salt, and some add a little hyssop ; their 
drink, spring water ; their clothes mean, 
and only fit to keep out heat and cold. At 
the end of every seven weeks they feast 
together, honouring much the number seven. 
Old women are present at their feasts ; but 
they are such as are virgins upon devotion. 
When they first meet together, they first 
stand and pray that the feast may be blessed 
to them : then sit they down, the men on 
one side, and the women on the other. 
Some of theii' young scholars wait on them ; 
their diet is but as at other times, bread 
and salt for their meat, hyssop for sauce, 
and water for drink. There is a general 
silence all the meal ; save that one or other 
asketh or resolveth questions, the rest hold- 
ing their peace; and they show, by their 
several gestures, that they understand, or 
approve, or doubt. Their interpretations of 
scripture are all allegories. When the pre- 
sident hath satisfied the things proposed, 
they give a general applause ; and then he 
singeth a psalm, either of his own making, 
or of some of the ancients. And thus do 
the rest in their course. When all have 
done, the young men take away the table : 
and then they rise and fall to a dance, the 
men apart, and the women apart,, for a 
while; but, at last, they join and dance all 
together: and this is in representation of the 

dance upon the shore of the Red Sea. Thus 
spend they the night : when sun riseth, 
they all turn their faces that way, and pray 
for a happy day, and for truth and under- 
standing ; and so they depart every one to 
their cells." — Lightfoot, vol. 8, p. 266-9. 

Whether Peter were at Rome. 

" If Peter were at Rome in the sense 
and extent that the Romanists will have it, 
then hath the scripture omitted one of the 
greatest points of salvation that belongeth 
to Christianity. For how many main points 
of faith hath Popery drawn out of this one 
conclusion, that Peter was bishop of Rome ; 
as, the primacy of the pope ; the infallibility 
of his chair ; his absolute power of binding 
and loosing; no salvation out of the church 
of Rome; and divers other things, which 
all hang upon the pin fore-named. And it 
is utterly incredible : 1 . That the Holy 
Ghost, that wrote the Scriptures for man's 
salvation, should not express or mention a 
thing that containeth so many points of 
salvation. 2. That Luke, that undertook 
to write the Acts of the Apostles, should 
omit this one act of Peter, which is made 
of more consequence than all the actions of 
all the Apostles beside. It is above all 
belief, that he that would tell of Philip's 
being at Azotus, and going to Ca^sarea, 
chap. viii. 40 ; Saul's going to Tarsus, chap. 
ix. .30; and Bai'nabas's going thither to 
him ; and divers other things of small im - 
port in comparison, — should omit the great- 
est and most material, and of the infinitest 
import that ever mortal man's journey was 
(tor to that height is the journey of Peter 
to Rome now come), if there had ever been 
such a thing at all." — Lightfoot, vol. 8, 
p. 274. 

Worship of the Heavenly Bodies. 

Mr. Wood says, that when travelling in 
the deserts, he found himself so struck with 
the beauty of the starry firmament, that he 



could hai'dly suppress a notion that these 
bright objects were animated beings of some 
high order, and were shedding important 
inlluence on this earth. From this effect 
upon himself, he was sure that in all times 
the minds of men in those countries must 
have had a tendency to that species of su- 

Laws — their Mean. 

" ' Ix making of laws,' said the Lord 
Keeper Finch, ' it will unport us to con- 
sider, that too many laws are a snare, too 
few are a weakness in the government : too 
gentle are seldom obeyed, too severe are 
as seldom executed ; and sanguinary laws 
are, for the most part, either the cause, or 
the effect, of a distemper in the state.' " — 
Parliamentary History, vol. 4, p. 676. 

Lord Chancellor Finch, on the Mischief of 
agitating Questions. 

The speech of Lord Keeper Finch on 
opening the Session of 1675 contains pas- 
sages which are as worthy of attention now 
as they were when they were delivered. 
" We are newly gotten out of an expensive 
war," said he, " and gotten out of it upon 
terms more honourable than ever. The 
whole world is now in peace with us, all 
ports are open to us and we exercise a free 
and uninterrupted traffic through the ocean. 
— Our Constitution seems to be so vigorous 
and so strong, that nothing can disorder it 
but ourselves. Xo influences of the stars, 
no configurations of the heavens are to be 
feared, so long as these two houses stand in 
a good disposition to each other, and both of 
them in a happy conjunction with their 
Lord and Sovereign. Why should we doubt 
it ? Never was discord more unseasonable. 
A difference in matters of the Church would 
gratify the enemies of our religion, and do 
them more service than the best of their 
auxiliaries. A difference in matters of state 
would gratify our enemies too, the enemies 

of our peace, the enemies of this parliament ; 
even all those, both at home and abroad, 
that hope to see, and practise to bring about, 
new changes and revolutions in the govern- 
ment. They understand well enough that 
the best health may be destroyed by too 
much care of it ; an anxious scrupulous 
care, a care that is always tampering, a care 
that labours so long to purge all ill humours 
out of the body, that at last it leaves neither 
good blood nor spii'its behind. In like man- 
ner there are two symptoms which are dan- 
gerous in every state, and of which the 
historian hath long since given us warning. 
One is where men do quicta movere, when 
they stir those things or questions which 
are, and ought to be, in peace : and like un- 
skilful architects think to mend the building, 
by removing all the materials which are not 
placed as they would have them. Another 
is, ' ciim res parvee magnis motihiis aguntur^ 
when things that are not of the greatest 
moment are agitated with the greatest heat, 
and as much weight is laid upon a new, and 
not always very necessary proposition, as if 
the whole sum of affairs depended upon it. 
AVho doth not see that there are in all go- 
vernments difficulties more than enough, 
though they meet with no intestine divi- 
sions ; difficulties of such a nature that the 
united endeavours of the state can hardly 
struggle with ? But after all is done that 
can be, ' they will still remain insuperable. 
This is that which makes the crowns of 
princes, when they are worn by the clearest 
and the noblest title, and supported with 
the mightiest aids, yet at the best but 
wreaths of glorious thorns. He that would 
go about to add to the cares and solicitudes 
of his prince, does what in him lies to make 
those thorns pierce deeper, and sit closer to 
the royal diadem than ever they did before. 
No zeal can excuse it ; for as there may be a 
religious zeal, a zeal for God, which is not 
according to knowledge, so there may be a 
state-zeal, a zeal for the public, which is 
not according to prudence, at least not ac- 
cording to the degree of prudence which 
the same men have when they are not under 



the transport of such a fervent passion." — 
Parliamentary History, vol. 4, p. 676-7. 

WJiat is Peace in a State. 
" ' It is a great and a dangerous mistake,' 
said Lord Chancellor Finch, ' in those who 
think that peace at home is well enough 
preserved, so long as the sword is not di-awn; 
whereas in truth nothing deserves the name 
of peace but unity ; such an unity as flows 
from an unshaken trust and confidence be- 
tween the king and his people ; from a due 
reverence and obedience to his laws and to 
his government ; from a religious and an 
aweful care not to remove the ancient land- 
marks, not to disturb those constitutions 
which time and public convenience hath 
settled ; from a zeal to preserve the whole 
frame and order of the government upon 
the old foundations ; and from a perfect 
detestation and abhorrency of all such as 
are given to change : whatever falls short 
of this, falls short of peace too. If, there- 
tore, there be any endeavours to renew, nay 
if there be not all the endeavours that can 
be to extinguish the memory of all former 
provocations and offences, and the occasions 
of the like for the future ; if there be such 
divisions as beget great thoughts of heart ; 
shall we call this peace, because it is not 
war, or because men do not yet take the 
field ? As well we may call it health, when 
there is a dangerous fermentation in the 
blood and spirits, because the patient hath 
not yet taken his bed.'" — ParliameiUary 
History, vol. 4, p. 309. 

Religion not easy. 
" Trose that aver Religion to be in all 
respects an easy thing, know not what they 
say. Did they know what it were to be under 
the sense of God's displeasure, and under 
violent, painful distempers for many months 
together, and yet to wait and to be satisfied 
with that Providence that thinks fit to con- 
tinue on them long pains, and terrible 
fears, they would find it is not such an easy 

matter to be truly religious." — Timothy 
Rogers, A Discou?-se concerning Trouble of 
Mind, p. 119. 

Care everyivhere. 

" Look into the country fields, there you 
see toiling at the plow and scythe ; look 
into the waters, there you see tugging at 
oars and cables ; look into the city, there 
you see a throng of cares, and hear sor- 
rowful complaints of bad times and the de- 
cay of trade ; look into studies, and there 
you see paleness and infirmities, and fixed 
eyes ; look into the court, and there are 
defeated hopes, envyings, underminings, 
and tedious attendance : all things are full 
of labour, and labour is full of sorrow ; 
and these two are inseparably joined with 
the miserable life of man." — Timothy Ro- 
gers, A Discourse concerning Trouble of 
Mind, p. 322. 

Cares of Knowledge. 

" Knowledge is the greatest ornament 
of a rational soul ; and yet that hath its 
troubles, Eccles. i. 18. For in much wisdo7n 
there is much grief, and he that increaseth 
wisdom increaseth sorroiv. It is not to be 
attained without great pains and difficul- 
ties, without laborious and diligent search, 
and vast perplexities; — whether we con- 
sider the blindness of our understandings, 
or the intricacy of things themselves, the 
many dark recesses of Nature, the impli- 
cation of causes and effects, besides those 
accidental difficulties which are occasioned 
by the subtilty and intanglement of error ; 
— the variety of mtricate opinions, the many 
involutions of controversies and disputes, 
which are apt to whiil a man about with a 
vertigo of contradictory probabilities ; and 
instead of settling, to amuse and distract 
the mind ; — so that much study is a weari- 
someness to the flesh ; — and besides, it makes 
a further trouble to the soul, in regard the 
more a man knows, the more he sees there 



is yet to be known ; as a man, the higher 
he climbs, sees more and more of the jour- 
ney that he is to go : and then, he that is 
versed in the knowledge of the world sees 
abundance of mistakes and disorders which 
he cannot remedy, and which to behold is 
very sad ; and by knowing a great deal, is 
liable to abundance of contradiction and 
opposition from the more peevish and self- 
willed and ignorant part of mankind, that 
are vexed because he will not think and 
say as they do, and they are very prone to 
censure and condemn the things they do 
not understand, for it is most easy so to do ; 
whereas to pierce into the reasons of things, 
requires a mighty labour, and a succession 
of deliberate and serious thoughts, to which 
the nature of man is averse ; and lazily 
and hastily to judge, requu'es no trouble: 
and were it not that it is a man's duty to 
know, and that his soul, if it have any- 
thing of greatness and amplitude in its 
faculties, cannot be satisfied without it, it 
were a much safer and quieter .course to be 
ignorant. Study and painful enquiries after 
knowledge do oftentimes exhaust and break 
our spirits, and prejudice our health, and 
bring upon us those diseases to which the 
careless and unthinking seldom are obnoxi- 
ous. Eccles. \. 13, 14, 15. / have seen all 
the works that are done under the sun, and 
behold, all is vanity and vexation of spirit; 
that which is crooked cannot he made straight, 
and that which is icanting cannot be mini- 
beredy — Timothy Rogers, A Discourse 
concerning Trouble of Mind, p. 329. 

Use of the Literal Superstition of the Jews 
concerning the Scripture Text. 
" In the tenth of Numbers, and the thir- 
ty-fifth verse, in these words, ' And when 
the ark went forward,' the letter Nun is 
written wrong way, or turned back, to ' show 
(say the Hebrews) the loving turning of 
God to the people.' And in the eleventh 
chapter, and first verse, in these words, 
' And the people became as murmurers,' 
&c., the letter Xim is asain written wrong. 

or turned back, to show (say they) the 
perverse turning of the people from God : ' 
and thus are these two places written in 
every true Bible in the world. If the Jews 
do not here give any one satisfaction, yet 
do they (as Erasmus speaks of Origen) set 
students on work to look for that which, 
else, they would scarce have sought for. 
Such strange passages as these, in writing 
some words in the Bible out of ordinary 
way (as, some letters above the word, some 
letters less, and some bigger than other), 
observed constantly by all copies and books, 
cannot sure be for nothing : if they show 
nothing else, yet this they show us, — that 
the text is punctually kept, and not de- 
cayed ; when these things (that, to a hasty, 
ignorant beholder, might seem errors) are 
thus precisely observed in all Bibles." — 

LiGHTFOOT, vol. 4, p. 19. 

" Admirable is their pains, to prove the 
text uncorrupt, against a gainsaying Papist. 
For they have summed up all the letters in 
the Bible to show, that one hair of that 
sacred head is not perished. Eight hun- 
dred eight-and-forty marginal notes are ob- 
served and preserved, for the more facility 
of the text : the middle verse of every book 
noted ; the number of the verses in every 
book reckoned : and (as I said before) not 
a vowel that misseth ordinary grammar, 
which is not marked. So, that, if we had 
no other surety for the truth of the Old Tes- 
tament text, these men's pains, methinks, 
should be enough to stop the mouth of a 
dai'iug Papist." — Lightfoot, vol. 4, p. 20. 

Text of the Keys explained. 
" Here I spake, and granted that in all 
ages the learned have held that the keys do 
mean the government of the Church ; but 
that for mine own part I held the keys were 
only given to Peter, viz. to open the gospel 
to the Gentiles, which is meant by the king- 
dom of heaven : and to this Peter speaks. 
Acts XV. 7, that is, from this promise given 
to him ; but admitting the phrase in a com- 
mon sense. I said, the phrase 'to bind and 



to loose ' is a Jewish plirase, and most fre- 
quent in their writers ; and that it belonged 
only to the teachers among the Jews ' to 
bind and to loose,' and that it is to be 
showed that when the Jews admitted any 
one to be a preacher, they used these words, 
' Take thou liberty to teach what is bound 
and loose.' Then Dr. Temple gave many 
arguments to prove the same thing in hand, 
viz. that the keys were not given to the 
Church, but to the Apostles. The like did 
Mr. Gattakcr." — Lightfoot, vol. 13, p. 31. 

A Fast Day. 
" Tins day we kept solemn fast in the 
2>lace where our sitting is, and no one with 
us but ourselves, the Scotch commissioners, 
and some parliament-men. First Mr. Wil- 
son gave a picked psalm, or selected verses 
of several psalms, agreeing to the time and 
occasion. Then Dr. Burgess prayed about 
an hour : after he had done, IVIi'. Whittacre 
preached upon Isa. xxxvii. 3, ' This day is 
a day of trouble,' &c. Then having had 
another chosen psalm, Mr. Goodwin prayed ; 
and after he had done, Mr. Palmer preached 
upon Psal. XXV. 12. After whose sermon, 
we had another psalm, and Doctor Stan- 
ton prayed about an hour ; and with ano- 
ther psalm, and a prayer of the prolocutor, 
and a collection for the maimed soldiers, 
which arose to about <£3 15.s., we adjourned 
till the morrow morning." — Lightfoot, 
vol. 13, p. 19. 

Traditions. — Conformity hetween the Jew 
and Papist. 

" "Whoso nameth the Talmud, nameth all 
Judaism, — and whoso nameth Misna and 
Gemara, he nameth all the Talmud : and so 
saith Levita, 'nattalmudnehhlak,'&c. 'The 
Talmud is divided into two parts ; the one 
part is called Misna, and the other part is 
called Gemara ; and these two together are 
called the Talmud.' This is the Jews' 
Council of Trent; — the foundation/ and 
ground-work of their religion. For they 
believe the Scripture, as the Talmud be- 

lieves ; for they hold them of equal autho- 
rity : ' Rabbi Tanchum, the son of Hamlai, 
saith, Let a man always part his life into 
three parts : a third part for the Scriptures, 
a third part for Misna, and a third part for 
Gemara.' Two for one, — two p.arts for the 
Talmud, for one for the Scripture. So 
highly do they, Papist-like, prize the vain 
traditions of men. This great library of 
the Jews is much alike such another work 
upon the Old Testament, as Thomas Aqui- 
nas's ' Catena Aurea ' is upon the New. For 
this is the sum of all these doctors' conceits 
and descants upon the Law, as his is a col- 
lection of all the fathers' explications and 
comments upon the Gospels. For matter, 
it is much like Origen's books of old, ' ubi 
bene, nemo melius,' &c., where they write 
well, none better, — and where ill, none 

" The word ' Talmud' is the same in He- 
brew, that ' doctrine' is in Latin, and ' doc- 
trinal' in our usual speech. It is (say the 
Jews) a commentary upon the written law 
of God. And both the law and this (say 
they) God gave to Moses ; the law by day, 
and by writing, — and this, by night, and 
by word of mouth. The law was kept by 
writing still, — this still by tradition. Hence 
comes the distinction so frequent in Rab- 
bins, of ' Torah she baccatubh,' and ' Torah 
she begnal peh,' ' the law in writing, and the 
law that comes by word of mouth' : ' Moses', 
say they, ' received the law from Sinai ' 
(this traditional law, I think they mean), 
' and delivered it to Joshua, Joshua to the 
elders, the elders to the prophets, and the 
prophets to the men of the great syna- 
gogue.' And thus, like Fame in Virgil, 
' crevit eundo,' — like a snow -ball it grew 
bigger with going. Thus do they father 
their fooleries upon Moses, and elders, and 
prophets, who (good men) never thought of 
such fancies ; as the Romanists, for their 
traditions, can find books of Clemens, Dio- 
nysius, and others, who never dreamed of 
such matters. Against this their traditional, 
our Saviour makes i^art of his sermon in 
the Mount, Matt. v. But he touched the 



Jews' freehold, when he touched their Tal- 
mud ; for greater ti-easuro, in their conceits, 
thev had none : like Cleopatra in Plutarch, 
making much of the viper that destroyed 
them." — LiGHTFOOT, vol. 4, p. 15. 

The Virgin Mary. 

" Superstition is ever too officious ; hut 
it hath allowed itself more so to the Virgin 
Mary, than to any other. For as it hatli 
deified her now she is in heaven, so hath it 
magnified her in all her actions while she 
was upon the earth : so that no relation, or 
story, that concerneth her, but it hath 
strained it to the utmost extremity, to wring 
out of it her praises, though very often to a 
senseless, and too often to a blasphemous, 
issue ; as in this story of the Annimciation, 
there is not a word nor tittle that it thinketh 
will, with all its shaping, serve for such a 
purpose, — but it taketh advantage to patch 
up her encomiums, where there is no use nor 
need, — nor, indeed, any truth of,and in, such 
a thing. This word that is under hand, Ktya- 
piruj^iei'ti, bears the bell thatringeth loudest 
with them to such a tune. For having 
translated it in their Vulgar Latin, ' Gratia 
plena,' or full of grace ; they hence infer, 
that she had all the seven gifts of the Spirit, 
and all the theological and moral virtues, 
and such a fulness of the grace of the Holy 
Ghost, as none ever had the like. 

" Whereas, 1. The use of Scripture is, 
when it speaketh of fulness of grace, to ex- 
press it by another phrase. 2. The angel 
himself explaineth this word, in the sense 
of our translation, for favour received, and 
not for grace inherent ; ver. 30, ' Thou hast 
found favour with God.' 3. And so doth 
the Virgin herself also descant upon the 
same thing, throughout her song. 4. Jo- 
seph, her husband, suspected her for an 
adulteress; which he could never have done 
if he had ever seen so infinite fulness of 
grace in her as the Romanists have spied, 
— and he was the likelier to have espied it 
of the two. 5. Compare her with other re- 
nowned women ; and what difference, but 

only this great favour of being the mother 
of the Messias ? They had the spirit of 
prophecy, as well as she : — they had the 
spirit of sanctification, as well as she :- — and 
she no more immunity from sin and death, 
than they. 6. She was one of the number 
of those that would have taken oflf Christ 
from preaching; and this argued not such 
a fulness of grace. 7. See Jansenius, one 
of their own side, expounding this word 
according to our reading of it. 

" This, among other things, showeth how 
senseless Popery is, in its ' Ave Marias,' — 
using these woi'ds for a prayer, and, if oc- 
casion serve for it, for a charm. As, first. 
Turning a salutation into a prayer. Second- 
ly, In fitting these words of an angel that 
was sent, and that spake them upon a spe- 
cial message, to the mouth of every person, 
and for every occasion. Thirdly, In apply- 
ing these words to her now she is in heaven, 
which suited with her only while she was 
upon earth : as, first, to say, ' full of grace,' 
to her that is full of glory ; and, secondly, 
to say, ' the Lord is with thee,' to her that 
is with the Lord." — LiGHxrooT, vol. 4, p. 

Burial Sej-vice. 
" But it is said, that this encourages his 
wicked companions, who attend his fune- 
ral, to hope they may be saved too, though 
they persist in their wickedness to the last, 
as he did. Now indeed, what little matters 
may encourage such men in sin, I cannot 
say ; but there is no reason that a faint and 
charitable wish should do this : If they 
know the Gospel of Christ, they know that 
he has threatened eternal damnation against 
all impenitent sinners ; if they know the 
doctrine of the Church, they know she 
teaches the very same thing ; if they saw 
their wicked companion die, they saw his 
dying horrors and agonies too, which few 
of them die without, if they have any time 
to consider their state : and when they 
know and see all this, is there any reason 
to hope they shall be saved in their wicked- 
ness, only because the Church will not 



damn them, but reserves them to the Judge- 
ment of God, and sends her charitable 
wishes after them ? At least this can be 
no encouragement, wlicn they are fore- 
warned beforehand of it, which is the chief 
reason why I take notice of it at this time." 
Sherlock on Judgement, p. 115. 

Effect of the Speculative Intolerance of 

" I CANNOT but take notice of some great 
and visible mischiefs of this judging men's 
final state, whether we damn or save them. 
As, first, for Damning, especially when 
we damn them by wholesale, as the Church 
of Home damns all hereticks, and as others 
with as much charity damn all Papists and 
Malignants, or whoever they are pleased to 
vote for hereticks. Now what the eflfect 
of this is, is visible to all the world : It 
destroys not only Christian love and cha- 
rity, but even common humanity : when 
men have voted one another damned, and 
believe God will damn those whom they 
have adjudged to damnation, then they are 
the enemies of God, and they think they 
do God good service to destroy them : God 
hates them ; and therefore they think it a sin 
in them, to love those whom God hates, or to 
have any pity or compassion for those whom 
God will damn. And thus they burn he- 
reticks, or cut their throats, or confiscate 
their estates, and drive them out from 
among them, and treat them with all the 
barbarity and indignities which a damning 
zeal and fury can invent. All other vil- 
lanies may meet with some pity and cha- 
rity ; but charity is lukewarmness and 
want of zeal, in God's cause ; there is no 
fire burns so furiously, nor so outrageously 
consumes, as that which is kindled at God's 
altar. And thus the Christian Church is 
turned into a great shambles, and stained 
with the blood of humane, nay of Chris- 
tian sacrifices : though were they in the 
right, that God would damn those* men 
whom they have damned, why should they 
think patience and forbearance a greater 

fault in them than it is in God, who beareth, 
ivifh much long - suffering, the vessels of 
wrath fitted for destruction? Why are they 
so unmerciful as to hurry away these poor 
wretches immediately to Hell, when God 
is contented to let them live on ; to let the 
tares and the wheat grow up together till 
the harvest ? Why do they envy them the 
short and perishing contentments of this 
life, when they are to suffer an eternity 
of misery ? Methinks it should satisfie the 
most implacable hatred, to know that they 
must be miserable for ever, though their 
miseries should be adjourned for some few 
years : but if this be the effect of damning 
men, you may guess that the cause is not 
very good : though an uncharitable judge- 
ment will hurt nobody but themselves, yet 
it is of dangerous consequence, when such 
rash judges will be as hasty executioners 
too." — Sherlock on Judgement, p. 119. 

Intermediate State. 
" This has greatly imposed upon un- 
learned men, that the advocates of Popery 
have proved from the ancient Fathers, 
that they owned a middle state which was 
neither Heaven nor Hell ; and then pre- 
sently conclude, that this must be Purga- 
tory. Now it is very true, the ancient 
Christians did own a middle state between 
Death and Judgement, which was neither 
Heaven nor Hell, but yet never dreamt of 
a Popish Purgatory : they believed bad 
men were in a state of punishment as 
soon as they left these bodies, but not in 
Hell ; and that good men were in a state 
of rest and happiness, but not in Heaven : 
but they never thought of a place of tor- 
ment to expiate the temporal pvmishment 
due to sin, when the eternal punishment 
is remitted ; which is the Popish Purgatory, 
and the most barbarous representation of 
the Christian religion, though the most 
profitable too, to the Church of Rome, that 
ever was invented." — Sherlock on Judge- 
meid, p. 169. 


Exclusive Salvation. 

" Though tlie effects of saving men, and 
voting them to Heaven, be not so tragical 
as those of damning them, yet this has Its 
mischiefs too : when any party of men have 
voted themselves the only true Church 
wherein salvation is to be had, or the only 
saints and elect people of God, then all 
who will be saved must herd with them ; 
and most men think it enough to secure 
their salvation, to get Into their number. 
Thus the Church of Rome frightens men 
mto her communion, by threatening dam- 
nation against all who are out of that 
Church ; and this reconciles men to all their 
superstitions and idolatries, for fear of 
damnation ; and encourages them In all 
manner of looseness and debauchery, when 
they are got into a Church which can save 
them : and it has much the same effect, 
when men list themselves with any party 
where they hope to be saved for company, 
while all the rest of mankind, even those 
who profess the Faith of Christ, are no bet- 
ter than the woi'ld, and the ungodly and 
reprobates, who though they may have 
more moral vertues than some other, yet 
have no Grace." — Sherlock on Judgement, 
p. 120. 

Possession in Madness — how far. 

" I DO verily believe, that people do 
very much icrong both the Devil and melan- 
choly people, in calling the unavoidable 
effects of their disease the temjitations of 
Satan, and the language of that disease a 
compliance with them. They do both as- 
cribe to the Devil a greater power than he 
hath, and vex the diseased person more 
than they need to do : For though I do not 
question, but that Evil Spirit, through the 
permission of God, is the cause of many 
painful sicknesses that come upon our bo- 
dies ; yet there are also many such that are 
the result of a disordered motion of the 
natural spirits, and in which he hath no- 
thing at all to do. But as 'tis the common 

custom of cruel and barbarous persons, to 
set upon the weak, and to trample on those 
that are already thrown down ; so 'tis very 
frequent for the Devil to take occasion from 
our bodily Indispositions, to attack and mo- 
lest our spirits, which are bereaved even of 
that fence which they used to have, when 
the house in which they dwelt was at ease, 
and free from those disabilities that they 
are always under at such seasons : For 'tis 
then night with us, and in the night, those 
beasts of prey do range abroad, which kept 
their dens during the brightness of the 
day. But however it be, whatsoever agency 
there is of evil spirits in our Troubles, 
either upon our understandings, our pas- 
sions, or our imaginations, this grace of Faith 
will unveil their designs, and baffle all then- 
stratagems. Ephes. vi. 16. Above all, take 
the shield of Faith, wherewith ye shall be able 
to quench all the fiery darts of Satan." — 
Timothy Rogers, A Discourse concerning 
Ti'ouble of Mind, p. 1 04. 


" Une certaine inegalite dans les condi- 
tions qui entretient Torcbe et la subordi- 
nation, est I'ouvrage de Dieu, ou suppose 
une loi divine : une trop grande dispropor- 
tion, et telle qu'elle se remarque parmi les 
hommes, est leur ouvrage, ou la loi des plus 
forts." — ^La Bruyere, torn. 2, p. 313. 

Men evil if not good. 

" II est rare de trouver des terres qui 
ne produisent lien ; si elles ne sont pas 
chargees de fleurs, d'arbres frultiers, et de 
grains, elles produisent des ronces et des 
epines : 11 en est de menie de Thomme ; s'il 
n'est pas vertueux, il devient vicieux." — 
La Bruyere, tom. 2, p. 330. 

Meii who are determined to succeed. 

" Un homme fortement appli(jue a une 
chose, oublie toutes les autres, elles sont 
pour lui comme si elles n'etoient pas : il ne 


faut point a im tel homme une grande su- 
periority pour exceller, niais une volonte 
pleine et partaite ; le cheniin de la fortune 
lui est aisc ; mais malheur a qui se rencon- 
tre sur ses pas." — La Bruyerb, torn. 2, p. 

What a perfect Hypocrite must be. 

" Un fourbe dont le fond est bon, qui 
contraint son naturel pour mettre Thipocri- 
sie et la malice en usage, ne sauroit etre 
qu'un fourbe mediocre dans le succes : mais 
un bipocritc qui se croit I'equite et la justice 
meme, — voila un bomme propre a aller loin ; 
e'est de quoi faire \\\\ Cromwel." — La Bru- 
YERE, tom. 2, p. 308. 

" Before I bad read tbis Autbor," says 
Oley, speaking of the excellent Jackson, 
" I measured hypocrisy by the gross and 
vulgar standard, thinking the hypocrite had 
been one that bad deceived men like him- 
self: but in this Author I found him to be 
a man that had attained the Mugisterium 
SatancB, even the art of deluding his own 
soul, with unsound but high and immature 
l)ersuasions of sanctity and certainty ; and 
that not by the cubcia, or cogging of un- 
righteousness, but by AU'tue of some one 
or more excellent qualities wherein he out- 
strips the very Saints of God." 

"By Superstitions," says the elder Sher- 
lock, " I mean all those hypocritical arts of 
appeasing God and procuring his favour 
without obeying bis laws or reforming our 
sins : infinite such superstitions have been 
invented by Heathens, by Jews, by Chris- 
tians themselves, especially by the Church 
of Rome, which abounds with them." — Con- 
cerning a Future Judgement, p. 41. 

" I HAD swallowed," says Oley ^n his 
Preface to the Works of that most admirable 
Christian philosopher. Dr. Jackson, " I had 

swallowed, and as I thought concocted the 
common definition of Faith, by a full par- 
ticular assurance. But when I read this 
Author, I perceived that Plerophory was the 
golden fruit that grew on the top branch, 
not the first seed, no, nor the spreading root, 
of that Tree of Life by feeding on which 
' the just do live ;' and that trueFiducia can 
grow no faster than, but shoots up just pa- 
rallel with Fidelitas: I mean, that true con- 
fidence towards God is adaaquate to sincere 
and consclencious obedience to his holy 

Calumniators of Lidher. 

'■'' niis CBS triplex circa frontem fuit : their 
foreheads are fenced doubtless with a triple 
shield of brass, that can without blushing 
object iutemperancy to Luther, or infamy 
to Calvin, (both, in respect of most of their 
great prelates, saints for good life and con- 
versation), and urge their forged blemishes 
to the prejudice of reformed religion ; which 
no way dependeth upon Luther's life, death, 
or doctrine, as their Catholic religion doth 
continually upon their Popes. If Luther's 
life (though we should grant it bad) might 
any way prejudice ours, the impiety of their 
Popes (from whom their faith is essentially 
derived) must of necessity utterly disgrace 
their religion." — Jackson, vol. 1, p. 284, 

Dreams in the Early World. 

" Not the Poets only, but many great 
Philosophers of the old world, have taken 
nocturnal presages for no dreams or fan- 
cies. Hence did Homer usurp bis liberty, 
in feigning his kings and heroicks so often 
admonished of their future estate by the 
Gods; be presumed at least that these fic- 
tions might carry a shew of truth in that 
age wherein such admonitions by night were 
not unusual. And his conceit is not disso- 
nant unto the sacred story, which bears re- 
cord of like effects in ancient times, and 
gives the true cause of their expiration in 
later. . . These allegations sufficiently prove 



that niglit-drcams and visions were fre- 
quent, and theii- observation (if taken in 
sobriety) to good use, in ancient times, even 
amongst the Nations, until they forgot, as 
Joseph said, that interpretations ivere from 
God, and sought to find out an ai-t of inter- 
preting them. Then night-visions did either 
cease, or were so mixt with delusions, that 
they could not be discerned ; or if their 
events were in some sort foreseen, yet men 
being ignorant of God's providence, com- 
monly made choice of such means for their 
avoidance, as proved the necessary occa- 
sions or jirovocations of the events they 
feai-cd. . . All those kinds of predictions had 
been in use amongst the Heathens, as they 
were amongst the Israelites : albeit in later 
times they grew rare in both : for the in- 
crease of icickedness throughout the world, 
the multiplicity of business and solicitude of 
human affairs, and men's too much miiuling 
of politic means and other second causes of 
their own good, did cause the defect of triie 
dreams and other divine admonitions for 
the welfare of mankind." — Jackson, vol. 
1, pp. 32, 33. 

" This is the misery of miseries, that these 
apostates should so bewitch the world, as 
to make it think they believe the Church 
because God speaks by it ; when it is evi- 
dent they do not believe God but for the 
Church's testimony, — well content to pre- 
tend his authority, that her own may 
seem more sovereign. Thus make they 
their superstitious, groundless, magical faith, 
but as a wrench to wrest that principle of 
nature, whatsoever God saith is true, to coun- 
tenance any villany they can imagine." — 
Jackson, vol. 1, p. 545. 

" — Those flouting hj-j^ocrites would fain 
believe the Pope saith nothing but what 
God saith, that God may be thought to say 
all he says ; which is the most abominable 
blasphemy that ever Hell broached." — 
Jackson, vol. 1, p. 551. 

Reproach of Puritanism. 

" — Honest and religious men, especially 
if poor, even all that make a conscience of 
their ways, have in these days much ado to 
be absolved from disgraceful censures of 
Puritanism, or Anabaptism ; as if, because 
they share with the favourers or authors of 
these sects in zealous profession of the 
truth, they shoidd therefore with loss of 
their estimation help to pay such arrear- 
ages as the Christian world may justly ex- 
act of the other for hypocrisy." — Jackson, 
vol. 1, p. 698. 

Spoilers of the Church. 

" — Buying and selling of temples with 
the appurtenances, is the readiest means 
with us to compass greatest places in the 
Church : and oft-times because we see no 
means of prevailing against the wolves, we 
hope to have some share or offals of the 
prey, or for our silence to be at length ad- 
mitted into the association. But O my 
sold, come not thou into their secrets ! Unto 
their assembly, mine honour (though honour 
should be thy reward), be not thou united." 
— Jackson, vol. 1, p. 721. 

"I mat not," says Jackson (vol. 1, p. 
907), " condemn all wariness, or serious ob- 
servation of ominous significations, which 
time or place, with their circumstances, may 
afford. This is a mean, though not easy to 
find, and harder to hold, between supersti- 
tious fear and pi-esumptuous boldness in 
this kind. That natural inclination which 
in many degenerates into impious devotion, 
requires as well a skilful moderator as a 
boisterous collector. But this is an ar- 
gument wherein I had rather be taught 
than teach." 

Number of Benedictine Saints. 
" The Order of St. Bennet, as may ap- 
pear liy a begging brief sent some few years 



a^o out of Spain, here into England, by the 
Provincial or General of that Order, doth 
brag of 50,000 Saints, all Bennet's disciples. 
The number is more by 10,000 than we 
read sealed of anj' Tribe of Israel." — Jack- 
son, vol. 1, p. 937, note. 

Worship of departed Spirits. 

" The Augilae, a people of Africa, had 
no gods besides the ghosts of men de- 
ceased. This error, though gross, was 
linked in a double chain of truth ; the one, 
that souls of men deceased did not altoge- 
ther cease to be ; the other, that the things 
which are seen, were ordered and governed 
])y unseen powers : yet loath they were to 
believe anything which in some sort they 
had not seen, or perceived by some sense. 
Hence did their general notion miscarry in 
the descent unto particulars, prostrating it- 
self before sepidclires filled with dead bones, 
and consulting souls departed." — Jackson, 
vol. 1, p. 927. 

" Impotent desires of still enjoying their 
companies to whom we have fiistened our 
dearest affections, will hardly take a de- 
nial by death. But as some, longing to be 
delivered of a well-conceited argument, 
have set up their cajDS for respondents, and 
disputed with them as with live antago- 
nists ; so we go on still (as in a waking 
dream) to frame a capacity in the dead of 
accepting our respect and love in greater 
measure than, without envy of others, or of- 
fence to them, it could have been tendered 
wliilst they were living. Did not the spirit 
of God awake us, the idolatry issuing from 
this spring would steal upon us like a de- 
luge in a slumber." — Jackson, vol. 1, p. 

Season regulable by the Deserts of Men. 

" The seasons of seed-time, harvest, and 
the disposition of these lower regions (in 
which Fortune may have seemed to place 
her wheel, and Chance erected his tottering 
throne), may become certain and constant to 

such as constantly observe his holy cove- 
nants : If you walk in my Statutes, then will 
I give you rain in due season. — Levit. xxvi. 
4." — Jackson, vol. 2, p. 190. 

State Diseases. 

" — Mortality must needs be rife, where 
variety of diseases and multitudes of un- 
skilful empirics do meet. The common 
transgressions of the people, are the epide- 
mical diseases of States ; and such projects 
as princes or statesmen, without the pre- 
script of God's Word, or suggestion of his 
Providence, use for their recovery, are like 
unseasonable ministration of empirical or 
old wives' medicines, to crazed bodies. 
They usually invite or entertain the de- 
struction or ruin of kingdoms otherwise 
ready to depart." — Jackson, vol. 2, p. 200. 

The Elect. 

" Many prophecies there be," says Jack- 
son (vol. 2, p. 609), " concerning the glory 
of Christ's Church and the happy estate of 
his elect, which are even in this life literally 
fulfilled, or verified, by way of pledge or 
earnest, but shall not be exactly fulfilled 
save only in the life to come. Ignorance 
of this rule, or non-observance of it, hath 
been the nurse of dangerous and supersti- 
tious error, as well in the Roman Church 
as in her extreme opposites ; in such, I 
mean, as begin their faith and anchor theii- 
hopes at the absolute infallibility of their 
personal election, with no less zeal or pas- 
sion than the Romanist relies upon the ab- 
solute infallibility of the visible Church." 

Opposition to Error. 

" Take heed you measure not your love 
to truth by your opposition unto error. If 
hatred of error and superstition spring from 
sincere love of triith and true religion, the 
root is good and the branch is good. But 
if your love to truth and true religion spring 



from hatred to others' error and supersti- 
tion, the root is naught and the branch is 
naught : then can no other fruit be ex- 
pected, but hypocrisy, hardness of heart, 
and uncharitable censuring of others." — 
Jackson, vol. 3, p. 685. 

Luther and the Friars. 
" God," said Luthjeb, " in the beginning 
made but only one human creature, -which 
was a wise council : afterwards he created 
also a woman ; then came the mischief. The 
Friars follow God's first council, for they 
live alone, without marrying ; wherefore, ac- 
cording to their rule and judgement, it had 
been good, nay better, that God had re- 
mained by his first determination and coun- 
cil, namely, that one man alone had lived." 
— CoUoquia Meiisalia, p. 370. 

Sectarian Pride. 

" — La fierte suit ordinairement les de- 
votions particulieres. EUes inspirent un 
orgueil secret qui nous enfle, et nous cleve 
au-dessus de nos prochains : on s'en separe ; 
et a meme terns qu' on viole deux des plus 
rmportans devoirs de la piete, et c^u'on foule 
aux pieds I'humilitc et la charite, on ne 
laisse pas de se croire plus religieux que le 
reste des hommes." — Basnage, Histoire des 
Juifs, tom. 1, p. 537. 

St. Jamuxrius. 
" YiGET ibi insigne illud et perenne mi- 
raculum sanguinis ejusdem martyris, qui in 
vitrea ampulla asservatur. Xam ciim alias 
idem sanguis concretus atque durus semper 
maneat, tamen ciim primiim ad caput mar- 
tyris admovetur, quasi vicino illius corona 
martyrii decori latetur adspectu, et fontem 
unde manavit intelligens, eo recurrere, unde 
fluxit, exoptet, illudque iterum animare fcs- 
tinet, moraj resurrectionis impatiens ; pro- 
tinus liquefieri, mox fluere et ebullire, 
maxima omnium admiratione conspicitiir. 
C'ujus tantae rei non unum aut alteram tes- 

tem producam, cum tota Italia, et totus 
(ut ita dicam) Christianus orbis testis sit 
locupletissimus ; ciim hasc in regia et am- 
plissima assidue fiant civitate, ad quam ex 
totius Orbis partibus confluere hominum 
multitudo soleat." — Bakonius, Antverpia?, 
1591, tom. 2, p. 869. 

Vestiges of Places deserted hy the Saxons 
when they removed to Britain. 

" — De hisce temporibus vide Helmold, 
atque obiter de silva^ ab urbe Lucilenburg 
Sleswicum pertingente, ubi, ait, inter maxi- 
mas quercus jugera sulcis divisa exstare, 
urbesque ibidem conditas fuisse, idque ex 
ruderibus vallorum reliquiis, et rivis iu 
quibus aggeres aquis coUigendis congesti, 
colligi posse, quem saltiun a Saxonibus 
olim habitatum ait. Nimirum hoc factum, 
quando in Britanniam transeuntes hi populi 
hasce oras ante habitatas et bene cidtas de- 
seruerunt, et vacuas reliquerunt." — Fi-ag- 
mentiim Historic Slesvicensis., apud West- 
phalen, tom. 3, p. 261. 

\^Bag Wigs."] 
A magazine writer in the year 1737 
forgives the youth of our nation, he says, 
for " the unnatural scantiness of their wigs, 
and the uumoderate dimensions of their 
bags, in" consideration that the fashion has 
prevailed, and that the opposition of a few 
to it would be the greater affectation of the 
two. Though by the way," he adds, " I 
very much doubt whether they are any of 
them gainers by shewing their ears ; for 'tis 
said that INIidas, after a certain accident, 
was the judicious inventor of long wigs." — 
London Magazine., March 1737, p. 131. 

\_IIuman Imperfection.'] 

" I don't know," says Lady ^NTary 
WoRTLEY Montagu, " what comfort other 

' Silva ilia incipit Kilonio (vulgo der Da- 
nischc AVald). ot transit Iliitten, Biistorp Bole 
(I'uk'), et ulterius. 



people find in considering the weakness of 
great men — (because, perhaps, it brings 
them nearer to their level) — but 'tis always 
a mortification to me to observe that there 
is no perfection in humanity." — Vol. 2, p. 

Inconvenience of ordering ignorant Men. 

" The inconvenience of admitting lay- 
men of mechanical trades and occupations 
into the ministry, was soon esjiied ; many 
of them by reason either of their igno- 
rance, or want of grave behaviour, ren- 
dering themselves despised or hated by 
the people. The Archbishop therefore re- 
solved, that no more of this sort should be 
received into Orders : and thereupon sent 
his directions and commandment to the 
Bishop of London, and the rest of the 
IJishops of his Province, to forbear it for 
the future, till a Convocation should be 
called, further to consider of it. His letter 
to the Bishop of London ran to this tenor : 

" That whereas, occasioned by a great 
want of ministers, both he and they, for 
tolerable supply thereof, had heretofore 
admitted unto the ministry sundry artifi- 
cers, and others, not traded and brought 
up in Learning ; and as it happened in a 
multitude, some that were of base occupa- 
tions : Forasmuch as now by experience it 
was seen, that such manner of men, partly 
by reason of their former prophane arts, 
partly by their light behaviour otherwise, 
and trade of life, were very oiFensive unto 
the people ; yea, and to the wise of this 
realm they were thought to do a great deal 
more hurt than good ; the Gospel thereby 
sustaining slander : These therefore were 
to desire and requu-e them hereafter to be 
more circumspect in admitting any to the 
ministry : and only to allow such as, having 
good testimonyof their honest conversation, 
had been traded and exercised in Learn- 
ino- ; or at the least had spent their time in 
teaching of children : excluding f^l others 
which had been brought up and sustained 
themselves, either by Occupations or other 

kinds of life, alienated from Learning. 
This he prayed him diligently to look to, 
and to observe not only in his own per- 
son, but also to signify this his advertise- 
ment to others of theii* brethren, Bishops 
of his Province, in as good speed as he 
might. So that he and they might stay 
from collating such Orders to so unmeet 
persons ; until such time as in a Convoca- 
tion they might meet together, and have 
further conference thereof. Dated at Lam- 
beth the 15th of August." — Strype's Life 
of Parker, p. 90. 

The Women of Henry s Age. 
" Op the women in King Edward's 
reign, we may judge and wonder, compa- 
ring them with that sex in this present age, 
by observing what Nicolas Udal writ in 
his Epistle to Queen Katharine, before the 
English Paraphrase upon the Gospel of St. 
John. ' But now in this gracious and bliss- 
ful time of knowledge, in which it hath 
pleased God Almighty to reveal and show 
abroad the light of his most holy Gospel, 
what a number is there of noble women, 
especially here in this realm of England; 
yea, and how many in the years of tender 
virginity ; not only as well seen, and as 
familiarly traded in the Latin and Greek 
tongues, as in their own mother lan- 
guage ; but also both in all kinds of pro- 
phane literature, and liberal arts, ex- 
acted, studied, and exercised ; and in the 
Holy Scriptui'e and Theology so ripe, that 
they are able aptly, cunningly, and with 
much grace, either to indite or translate 
into the vulgar tongue, for the publick 
instruction and edifying of the unlearned 
multitude ? Neither is it now a strange 
thing to hear gentlewomen, instead of most 
vain communication about the moon shi- 
ning in the water, to use grave and sub- 
stantial talk in Latin or Greek with their 
husbands, of godly matters. It is now no 
news in England, for young damsels in 
noble houses, and in the courts of princes, 
instead of cards, and other instruments of 


idle triflmg, to have continually in their 
bauds either psalms, homilies, and other 
devout meditations, or else Paul's Epis- 
tles, or some book of Iloly Scripture mat- 
ters ; and as familiarly to read or reason 
thereof in Greek, Latin, French, or Italian, 
as in English. It is now a common thing- 
to see young virgins so nursed and trained 
in the study of Letters, that they willingly 
set all other vain pastimes at nought for 
Learning's sake. It is now no news at all, 
to see queens and ladies of most high 
state and j^rogeny, instead of courtly dal- 
liance, to embrace virtuous exercises of 
reading and writing, and with most ear- 
nest study both early and late, to apply 
themselves to the acquiring of knowledge, 
as well in all other liberal arts and dis- 
ciplines, as also most especially of God and 
his most holy Word.'" — Strype's Life of 
Parker, p. 180. 

Efforts to prevent the T7nal of Charles the 
" There was by some, who durst to do 
anything against these cruel and power- 
ful men, certain papers scattered about, in 
which were several queries ; as. Whether a 
king of three kingdoms could be con- 
demned by one kingdom alone, without 
the consent or concurrence of the other 
kingdoms ? Whether a king, if try'd, 
ought not to be try'd by his peers ? and 
whether he could be said to have any such 
in his kingdom ? Whether, if a king were 
tryable, he ought not to be tryed in full 
Parliament, of Lords and Commons ? Whe- 
ther the eighth part of the members of the 
Commons meeting in the House, under the 
force of the Army, the rest being forcibly 
restrained fi'om sitting, can by any pretext 
of law or justice erect a court for the 
tryal of the king ? and whether this could 
be properly called a court of justice, with- 
out the Great Seal of England? Whe- 
ther that those men who by several re- 
monstrances, speeches, and actions, have 
publickly declared themselves enemies to 

the King, can either in law or conscience 
be his judges ; when it is exception enough 
for the basest felon to any juryman, to 
hinder him from being his judge ? Whe- 
ther this most illegal and arbitrary tryal 
of the King, by an high Court of Justice, 
may not prove a most dangerous inlet, to 
absolute tyranny, and bloody butchery, 
and every man's life be at the arbitrary 
will of his enemies, erected into a Court of 
Conscience without limits or bounds?" — 
Ahitrary Government Displayed to the Life., 
p. 36. 

Female Preshyterian Preachers. 

" But have not there been women among 
the Presbyterians, who have spoke in the 
presence of many both men and women, of 
their experiences of the things of God ? I 
suppose T. M. may have heard of Margaret 
Mitchelson, who spoke to the admiration of 
many hearers at Edinburgh as concerning 
her experience, in the time of Henry Rogue, 
preacher there, who is said to have come 
and heard her himself, and to have given 
her this testimony (being desired to speak 
himself), that he was to be silent when his 
IMaster was silent (meaning Christ in that 
Presbyterian woman). There is a relation 
of her speeches going about from hand to 
hand among professors at this day ; and I 
myself have heard a Presbyterian woman 
speak in a meeting of Presbyterians, which 
were a Church or convention of men and 
women. Yea hath not T. M. in such meet- 
ings, and consequently in assemblies of 
Churches, invited some women to speak and 
pray, and declared solemnly (whether he 
did it merely in his ordinary customary 
way of complimenting, that is best known 
to himself) that he was edified thereby ? 
And if some of those women formerly in 
that respect so much applauded by T. ISI. 
be of those that now open their mouths in 
the (iuakers' meetings, how comes it now to 
be lV)pish and hereticall, more than in the 
dayes of old when T. ]\I. did use to frecjuent 
the Chamber Conventicles, unless that he 



now hath forgotten these, because fear hath 
made them out of fashion with him?" — 
Gkouge Keith's Quakerism no Popery^ p. 

' //rti Ebn Yolidan'' set forth for its 

" I FOUND a great freedom in mmd to 
put it into English for a more general ser- 
vice, as believing it might be profitable 
unto many ; but my particular motive 
■which engaged me hereunto was, that I 
found some good things in it, which were 
both very savoury and refreshing unto me : 
and indeed there are some sentences in it 
that I highly approve, as where he saith, 
' Preach not thou the sweet savour of a thing 
thou hast not tasted ;' and again where he 
saith, ' In the rising of the Sun is that which 
maketh, that thou hast not need of Saturn.' 
Also, he slieweth excellently how far the 
knowledge of a man Avhose eyes are spu'i- 
tually opened, differeth from that know- 
ledge that men acquire simply by hearing 
or reading : and what he speaks of a degree 
of knowledge attainable, that is not by pre- 
misses premised and conclusions deduced, 
is a certain truth ; the which is enjoyed in 
the conjunction of the mind of man with 
the supreme Intellect, after the mind is pu- 
rified from its corruptions, and is sej^arated 
from all bodily images, and is gathered into 
a profound stillness. These with many 
other profitable things, agreeable to Chris- 
tian principles, ai'e to be found here." — 
Preface to Hai Ebn Yokdan. 

Keith's Defence of himself for taking 

" Not only many of the people called 
Quakers, but others, cry out against me for 
joining with the Church of England, which 
I thank God I have done with great inward 
satisfaction, and peace of conscience ; and 
I think I can give to any that are impartial, 
and M'ithout prejudice, a reasonable account 
of my so doing. It is suggested against 

me. That I have received Ordination into 
the Church of f^ngland for a worldly liv- 
ing ; like some that said, ' Put me into the 
priest's oflice, that I may eat a piece of 
bread.' But I pray God forgive them for 
theii' uncharitableness. The searcher of 
hearts knows, that no worldly thing hath 
been my motive or end in what I have 
done ; but finding that God hath been gra- 
ciously pleased to bless my poor endeavours 
with some success, even to some here in 
England, as well as to others in America, 
to have been an Instrument to bring them 
off from the vile errors of Quakerism, I 
found myself further concerned, and I hope 
I can and dare say, moved and inclined by 
the blessed Spirit of God, to endeavour to 
bring them further onwards ; that is to say, 
not only to be convinced that Baptism and 
the Supper are the Institutions of Christ, 
which many of them are well convinced of, 
but to submit to them in practice ; and di- 
vers of them have desired me to administer 
Baptism unto them ; which I told them I 
could not do without External Ordination ; 
for that there ought to be an outward Or- 
der and Government in the Church of 
Christ, as well as the inward of the Spirit. 

" The Faith and Hope which God had 
given me, that as he had blessed my la- 
bours with some success for some years 
past, in exercising my gift as a catechist 
among some people, in seducing them from 
their grossest errors, that he would further 
bless my endeavours, not only to them, but 
to others, in a more general Service, — toge- 
ther with the inward clearness and satisfac- 
tion I found m my Conscience, — and not any 
worklly respect, — was the motive and en- 
couragement that inclin'd me to receive Or- 
dination in the Church of England, which I 
knew not where to find so regular anywhere 

" I thank God, I am not put so hard to 
it for bread, but that I have sufficient at 
present, by Divine Providence, without that 
they call a Living ; and I seek and aim at 
no great things in the world." — George 
Keith's Second Sermon, p. 27. 



Two Caps worn under the Hat^ for gradmit- 
iiig the civility of Uncovering — in Ger- 

" Dost thou not know in thy conscience, 
that there are many in Enghuid (as well as 
in other places) that bow and uncover the 
head to the rich, giving them titles of 
Lords, Masters, Sirs, but do not so to 
the poor, who are in vile rayment. And 
suppose thou didst never observe this par- 
tiality in any person (which is hard to be- 
lieve), yet I can tell thee, how I have seen 
it in some of thy brethren : And the Eng- 
lish merchants or others, that travel in 
some places in Germany, can tell thee, that 
the preachers there, and especially at Ham- 
burgh (which I have seen with my eyes), 
use such gross partiality in their saluta- 
tions, that commonly they have two caps 
under their hat ; and the poor, except ex- 
traordinarily, they pass by, without any 
notice : to others they doff the hat : others 
more rich in the world, they salute with 
doffing the hat and one of the caps : and 
to those whom they most honor, or rather 
flatter, they give the hat and both caps. 
What degrees of partiality are here ! But 
tell me, in good earnest, Dost thou put off 
thy hat unto all whom thou meetest in the 
street, if they put iiot oif unto thee ? And 
dost thou not make some difference at 
least in the manner of thy salutations ; as 
the way of many is, to give the half cap 
unto some, and the whole unto others ; and 
to others, both the cap and the knee?" — 
George Keith's Rector Corrected, p. 182. 

Scotch Farmer's daily Bill of Fare. 

" I SHALL give you a farmer's bill of fare 
for a day, which is just equal to giving one 
for a twelvemonth, merry-making times and 
the two festivals only excepted. 
" Breakfast. 

" Pottage, made with boiling water, thick- 
ened with oatmeal, and eat with milk or ale. 
Or brose, made of shorn cabbage, or cole- 
worts, left over nitfht. After either of wliich 

dishes they eat oat-cakes and milk ; and 
where they have not milk, kale, or small 

" Dinner. 

" Sowens, eat with milk. Second course, 
oat-cakes, eat with mUk, or kale. Sowens 
are prepared in this manner. The mealy 
sid, or hull of the ground oat, is steeped in 
blood-warm water for about two days, 
when it is wrung out, and the liquor put 
through a search ; if it is too thick, they add 
a little fresh cold water to it, and then put 
it on the fire to boU, constantly stirring it, 
till it thickens, and continuing the boiling 
till it becomes tough like a paste. In the 
stu'ring they niLx a little salt, and dish it up 
for table. 

" Supper. 

" First course, during the winter season, 
kale-brose, eat about seven at night, while, 
at the fire side, the tale goes round, among 
the men and maid servants. Second course, 
kale, eat with oat-cakes, about nine. During 
the summer season, there is generally but 
one course, pottage and milk, or oat-cakes 
and kale or milk. Kale is thus prepared. 
Red cabbage or cole-worts are cut down, 
and shorn small, then boiled with salt and 
water, thickened with a little oatmeal, and 
so served up to table. Brose, is oatmeal 
put into a bowl or wooden dish, where the 
boiling liquor of the cabbage or cole-worts 
is stirred with it, till the m6al is all wet. 
This is the principal dish upon the festival 
of Fasten-even, which is emphatically called 
Beef brose day. 

" In harvest they sometimes have a thick 
brotli made of barley and turnip, in place 
of sowens ; and if near a sea-port, frequently 
some kind of fish, which they eat with but- 
ter and mustard. I should have added to 
the number of their festivals, what they call 
the Clyak feast, or, as it is called in the 
south and west, the Kim. This is celebrated 
a few days after the last of their corns are 
cut down ; when it is an established rule 
that there must be meat, both roasted and 
boiled." — Douglas's East Coast of Scot- 
land, A.i>. 1782, p. 169. 



Guilt of the Presbyterian Church. 

" In very truth, the Presbyterian Church 
will never be able to purge herself of the 
iniquity of the killing of many thousands, 
in the three Xations, by the occasion of a 
most bloody war, raised up by the instiga- 
tion of the Presljyterian teachers. I am 
fully persuaded of it, that the Presbyterian 
Church hath as much blood-guiltiness lie- 
ing on her head, unwashed off, as any peo- 
ple called a Church, that I know of in the 
world, next unto the bloody Church of 
Rome. And as she hath drunk the blood 
of many, so blood hath been given her to 
tlrink ; and it is to be feared, that more will 
be given to her, as a just judgement from 
the hand of God, except she repent, and 
condemn that blood-thii-sty spirit, that hath 
too much led and influenced her. And I 
am well assured of it, that a bloody Church 
is no true Church of Christ." — Geokge 
Keith's Way Cast Up, p. 54. 

Quahers View of the Difference between a 
Liturgy and a Directory. 

" All praying by the real movings of the 
Spirit of Christ, being once denyed, and a 
Worship without the Spirit being set up, it 
is a meer circumstance, whether it be in a 
set forme of words, yea or nay : onely that 
which is f(n' a set forme of words and a 
stinted Liturgy (the Spii'it being once ex- 
cluded by both partys) seemeth to be less 
sinfull, and also scandalous ; for he that 
prayeth by his set forme, is out of all ha- 
zard to use words of nonsense and blas- 
phemy, providing the set forme contain no- 
thing but sound words ; whereas he that 
prayeth onely out of his imagination (for 
out of what else doth he pray, seeing he 
doth not so much as pretend to receive his 
words from the Spirit ?) is really in this 
hazard. And it is well known, how oft some 
have really sj^oke nonsense and blasphemy, 
who had no better guide than thei? own 
roa.ving imagination, when they said their 
prayers ; and many times the people, instead 

of being moved to seriousness by such pray- 
ers, were moved to laugh at the ignorance 
and folly of such speakers : and certainly 
of two evils it is the lesser, to have a Li- 
turgy or stinted forme, than to suffer such 
abuses as have been committed by some 
both Presbyterian and Episcopal preach- 
ers in their pulpits, in their prayers." — 
George Keitu's Way Cast Up, p. 65. 

Protestation of the Puritans in Elizabeth's 

" 'Being thorow persuaded in my Con- 
science by the Working and by the A\'ord 
of the Almighty, that these Relicks of Anti- 
christ be abominable before the Lord our 
God ; And also, for that by the Power, 
Mercy, Strength and Goodness of the Lord 
our God only, I am escaped from the 
Filthiness and Pollution of these detesta- 
ble Traditions, through the Knowledge of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ ; And 
last of all, inasmuch as by the Working also 
of the Lord Jesus his holy Spirit, I have 
joyned, in Prayer and Hearing God's Word 
with those that have not yielded to this 
Idolatrous Trash, notwithstanding the Dan- 
ger for not coming to my Parish Church, 
&c. Therefore I come not back again to 
the Preaching, &c. of them that have re- 
ceived these marks of the Romish Beast. 

" ' I. Because of God's Commandment to 
go forward to Perfection. Heb. vi. 1. 2. Cor. 
vii. 1. Psal. Ixxxiv. 1. Eph. iv. 15. Also 
to avoid them. Rom. xvi. 17. Eph. v. 11. 

1 Thes. V. 22. 

" ' II. Because they are Abomination be- 
fore the Lord our God. Deut. vii. 25, 26. 
And xiii. 17. Ezek. xiv. 6. 

" ' III. I will not beautify with my Pre- 
sence those filthy Rags, which bring the 
heavenly Word of the Eternal our Lord 
God into Bondage, Subjection and Slavery. 

" ' IV. Because I would not Communicate 
with other Men's Sins. Job ii. 9, 10, 11. 

2 Cor. vi. 17. Touch no unclean Thing, 
&c. Sirach xiii. 1. 

'" Y. They give Offences,both the Preach- 



er and the Hearers. Kom. xvi. 17. Luke 
xvii. 1. 

" ' VI. They glad and strengthen the Pa- 
pists in theh- Errors, and grieve the Godly. 
Ezek. xiii. 21, 22. Note this 21st Verse. 

" ' VII. They do persecute our Saviour 
Jesus Christ in his Members. Acts ix. 4, 5. 
2 Cor. i. 5. Also they reject and despise 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Luke 
X. 16. Moreover, those Labourers, who at 
the Prayer of the Faithful the Lord hath 
sent forth into his Harvest, they refuse and 
also reject. Mat. ix. 38. 

" ' VIII. These Popish Garments are now- 
become very Idols indeed, because they are 
exalted above the Word of the Almighty. 

" ' IX. I come not to them, because they 
would be ashamed, and so leave their Idola- 
trous Garments, &c. 2 Thes. iii. 14. If any 
Man obey not our Sayings, Note him. 

" ' Moreover, I have now joyned my self 
to the Church of Christ. Wherein I have 
yeilded my self Subject to the Disciplin of 
God's Word, as I promised at my Baptism. 
Which if I should now again forsake, and 
joyn my self Vt^ith their Traditions, I should 
forsake the Union wherein I am knit to the 
Body of Christ, and joyn my self to the 
Disciplin of Antichrist. For in the Church 
of the Traditioners, there is no other Dis- 
ciplin than that which hath been main- 
tained by the Antichristian Pope of Rome ; 
whereby the Church of God hath always 
been afflicted, and is until this day. For 
the which Cause I refuse them. 

" ' God give us Grace still to thrive in 
suffering under the Cross, that the blessed 
Word of our God may only rule, and have 
the highest place, to cast down strong Holds, 
to destroy or overthrow Policy, or Imagi- 
nations, and every high Thing that is ex- 
alted against the Knowledge of God ; and 
to bring into Captivity or Subjection every 
Thought to the Obedience of Christ, &c. 
2 Cor. X. 4, 5. That the Name and Word 
of the Eternal, our Lord God, may be ex- 
alted, or magnified above all Things. Psal. 
viii. 2. Finis.' 

" ' To this Protestation the Congregation 

singularly did swear, and after took the 
Communion for Ratification of their Assent.' 
" This last paragraph is writ by Arch- 
bishop Parkei*'s own hand." — Strype's Life 
of Pa7-kci\ p. 435. 

Conversion of the Barbarous Nations. 

" Was it, then, natural policy or skill in 
war, which did seat all or most of these 
barbarous nations in these Western coun- 
tries ? Vertues they had not many amongst 
them, yet each of them some one or other 
commendable quality, which did manifest 
the contrary predominant vice or out- 
crying sin in the Christian people, which 
God had appointed them to plague, as Sal- 
vianus hath excellently observed. Howbeit 
this great power was not given them alto- 
gether to destroy others, but withal to edify 
themselves in the Faith, and to be made 
partakers of God's Vineyard, which he had 
now in a manner taken from these ungrate- 
ful ILisbandmen, whom they conquered. 
The Fra?iks became Christians through fear 
of the Ahnaines; dread of the Hunnes did 
drive the Su7-gimdians to seek sanctuary in 
the same profession. And no question, but 
such of the ancient Christian inhabitants 
as outlived these stortns, did believe God 
and his Servants better afterward than 
they had done before. Never were there 
any times more apt or more powerful to 
kindle devotion in such as were not alto- 
gether frozen in unbelief, or benummed 
with the custom of sinning, than these 
times were. Borne, which had been the 
ivatch-tower of politick wisdom, became 
more stupid than Babylon had been, when 
the day of her visitation did come upon her. 
Her Citizens (were a meer politician to be 
their judge) deserved to be buried in their 
City's ruins, for not awaking upon such 
and so many dreadful warnings as she had. 
Extraordinai-y Prophets the Christian world 
at that time had none, because it needed 
none : the Prophecies of ancient tuues did 
so well befit them, as if they had been made 



of purpose only for them." ■ 
Works, vol. 2, p. 225. 

■ Jackson's 

Providence now a better Proof than Miracles 
zvotdd be. 
" And if we would diligently consider 
the works of God in our days, they are as 
apt to establish true belief unto the Rules 
of Christianity, set down in Scripture, as 
were the Miracles of former ages, wherein 
God's extraordinary power was most seen : 
yea, the ordinary events of our times, are 
more apt for this purpose, in this age, than 
use of Miracles could be. For the mani- 
festations of God's most extraordinary pow- 
er, cease, by very frequency, to be miracu- 
lous ; and men (such is the ciu-iosity of 
corrupted nature) would suspect, that such 
events (were they frequent or continual) 
did pi-occed from some alteration in the 
course of Nature, rather than from any vo- 
luntary exercise of extraordinary power in 
the God of Nature. But the continuance 
of these ordinary events, which the All- 
seeing AVisdom of our God daily and 
hourly brings to pass, is most apt to con- 
firm the Faith of such as rightly consider 
them. For their successive variety, the 
amplitude of his unsearchable wisdom is 
daily more and more discovered; and by 
their frequency, the hidden fountain of his 
counsel, whence this multiplicity flows, 
appears more clearly to be inexhaustible. 
Only the right observation, or live appre- 
hension, of these his works of wisdom, is 
not so easy and obvious unto such as mind 
earthly things, as his works of extraordi- 
nary power are. For such works amate 
the sense, and make entrance into the Soul, 
as it were by force ; whereas the effects of 
his wisdom or coimsels make no impres- 
sion upon the sense, but upon the under- 
standing only, nor upon it save only in 
quiet and deliberate thoughts. For this 
reason, true Faith was first to be planted 
and ingrafted in the Church by INlirftcles, 
but to be nourished and strengthened in 
succeeding ages by contemplation of his 

Providence." — Jackson's Works, vol. 

Human Capacity of Happiness. 

" This excess of Entitative goodness, by 
which one creatm-e excelleth another, ac- 
creweth partly from the excellency of the 
gpecifical nature of Entity which it accom- 
panyeth ; as there is more Entitative good- 
ness in being a Man than in being a Lion ; 
and more in being a Lion than in being 
some inferior ignoble beast : it partly ac- 
creweth according to the greater or lesser 
measure wherein several creatures enjoy 
their specifical nature. Men though by 
nature equal, are not equally happy, either 
in body or mind. Bodily life in itself is 
sweet, and is so apprehended by most ; yet 
is loathsome to some ; who (as we say) do 
not enjoy themselves, as none of us fully 
do. Sensitive appetites may be in some 
measure satisfied by course, not all at once. 
The compleat fruition of goodness inci- 
dent to one, defeats another (though capa- 
ble of greater pleastire) for the time, of 
what it most desires. Venter non habet 
aures, the Belly pinched with hunger must 
be satisfied with meat, so must the thirsty 
Throat be with drink, before the Ears can 
suck in the pleasant sound of music, or the 
Eye feed itself with fresh colours or pro- 
portions. Too much pampering bodily 
senses, starves the mind; and deep contem- 
plation feeds the mind, but pines the body ; 
Of making many books (saith Solomon) there 
is no end ; and much study is a weariness of 
the flesh. The more Knowledge we get, 
the greater capacity we have unsatisfied ; 
so that we can never seize upon the entire 
possession of our own selves : and contempla- 
tion (as the wise King speaketh) were vanity, 
did we use the pleasures of it any other- 
wise than as pledges or earnests of a better 
life to come. And albeit Man in this life 
coidd possess himself as entirely as the An- 
gels do their angelical natures, yet could 
not his Entitative goodness or felicity be so 
great as theirs is ; because the proper pa- 



trimony which he pdssesseth, is neither so 
ample nor s;o fruitful. God alone is infinite, 
in laeing infinitdy perfect ; and he alone in- 
finitely enjoys his entire being or perfection. 
The tenure of his infinite joy or hap- 
piness, is infinitely firm, infinitely secured 
of being always what it is ; never wanting 
so much as a moment of time, to enlarge or 
perfect it by continuance; incapable of any 
enlargement or increase for the present. 
But this Entitative or transcendental good- 
ness, is not that which we now seek ; 
whereto notwithstanding it may lead us. 
For even amongst visible creatures, the 
better every one is in its kind, or according 
to its Entitative perfection, the more good 
it doth to others. The truest measure of 
their internal or proper excellencies, is 
their beneficial use or service in this great 
Universe whereof they are parts. What 
creature is there almost in this whole vi- 
sible Sphere, but especially in this inferior 
part, which is not beholden to the Sun ? 
from whose comfortable heat 'Nothing (as 
the Psalmist speaks) can he hid. It is, at 
least of liveless or meer bodies, in itself the 
best and fairest ; and far the best to others. 
And God (as it seems) for this purjjose, 
sends forth this his most conspicuous and 
goodly messenger, every morning like a 
bridegroom, bedeckt with light and come- 
liness, to invite our eyes to look up unto 
the Hills whence cometh oui* Help ; upon 
whose tops he hath pitched his Glorious 
Throne, at whose right hand is fulness of 
pleasures everlasting. And from the bound- 
less Ocean of his internal or trauscendant 
Joy and Happiness, sweet streams of per- 
petual Joy and Comfort more uncessantly 
issue, than light from the Sun ; to refresh 
this vale of misery. That of Men, the chief 
inhabitants of this great Vale, many are not 
so hajipy as they might be, the chief causes 
are ; That, either they do not fii-mly believe 
the internal Happiness of their Creator to be 
absolutely infinite, as his other attributes 
are ; or else consider not in their hearts, 
that the absolute infinity of this his internal 
happiness, is an essential cause of goodness 

(in its kind, infinite) unto all others, so far 
as they are capable of it ; and capable of it 
all reasonable creatures, by creation, are ; 
none but themselves can make them un- 
capable of happiness, at least in succession 
or duration, infinite. Goodness is the na- 
ture of God ; and it is the nature of good- 
ness to communicate itself imto others, 
unto all that are not overgrown with evil ; 
of which goodness itself can be no cause or 
author." — Jackson's Works, vol. 2, jj. 58. 

Love of God the sole Means of advancing 
Human Nature. 
"As this article, of his goodness and love, 
Is to be prest before any other, so the first 
and most natural deduction that can be 
made from this or any other sacred princi- 
ple, and that which every one when he 
first comes to enjoy the use of reason 
shoidd be taught to make by heart, is this : 
He that gave me life indued with sense, and 
beautified my sense ivith reason, before I 
could desire one or other of them, or know what 
being meant ; hath doubtless a purpose to give 
me with them whatsoever good things my 
heart, my sense, or reason can desire ; even 
life or being as far surpassing all goodness 
flesh and blood can conceive or desire, as this 
present life, I now enjoy, doth my former not 
being, or my desireless ivant of being what 
now I am. These are principles, which 
elsewhere (by God's assistance) shall be 
more at large extended : yet would I have 
the Eeader ever to remember, that the in- 
finite love, wherewith God sought us when 
we were not, by which he found out a be- 
ginning for mankind, fitted as a foundation 
for endless life, can never be indissolubly 
betrothed unto the bare being which he be- 
stowed upon us. The final contract be- 
twixt hun and us, necessarily pi'esupposeth 
a bond or link of mutual love. There is no 
means possible for us to be made better or 
happier than we are, but by unfeigned 
loving him which out of love hath made 
us what we are. Nor are we what we 
are, because he is, or from his Esseiwe oidy. 



but because he was loving to us. And after 
oui" love to him enclasped with his uu- 
speakable and unchangeable love to us, 
whose a})prehension must beget it ; the 
faith by which it is begotten in us, assures 
our souls of all the good means the infinity 
(if goodness may vouchsafe to grant, the in- 
finity of wisdom can contrive, or power om- 
nipotent is able to jjractice, for attaining 
the end whereto his infinite love from all 
Eternities doth ordain us. And who could 
desire better encouragement or assurance 
more strong than this, for the recompense 
of all his labours ? Or if all this cannot suf- 
fice to allure us, he hath set fear behind us 
to impel us unto goodness, or rather before 
us to turn us back from evil." — Jackson's 
Works, vol. 2, p. 92. 

States to he Iteformed only with reference to 
their Fundamental Laws and Ancient Cus- 

" For so a great master of the art of po- 
licy tells VIS, that when any state or king- 
dom is either weakened by means internal, 
as by the sloth, the negligence or careless- 
ness of the Governors (as diseases grow in 
men's bodies by degrees insensible, for want 
of exercise or good diet), or whether they 
be wounded by causes external, the only 
method for recovering their former strength 
and dignity is, id omnia ad smi principia re- 
vocentur, hy gw'm^ life unto the fundamental 
Laws and ancient Customs. As for new 
inventions, what depth or subtleties soever 
they carry, unless they suit with the fun- 
damental Laws or Customs of the state 
wherein they practise, they prove in the 
issue but like Empyrical Physick, which 
agrees not with the natural disposition or 
customary diet of the party to whom it is 
miriistred. Of the former aphorism you. 
have many probations in the ancient Roman 
state ; So have ye of the latter in the state 
of Italy, about the time wherein Machiavel 
wrote (if we may believe him) in hi» own 
profession." — Jackson's Works, vol. 2, p. 

Consequence of the full Belief in Election, 
upon those who think themselves Elect. 

" Satan may instill other erroneous opi- 
nions into his scholars, and yet must be 
inforced to play the Sophister before he 
can draw them to admit of his intended 
conclusions, that is, lewd or wicked prac- 
tises ; but if he can once insinuate imma- 
ture persuasions, or strong presumptions, of 
their irreversible estate in God's favour, he 
needs no help of Sophistry to infer his in- 
tended conclusions. This antecedent being 
swallowed, he can inforce the conclusion by 
good Logick, by I'ules of reason, more clear 
than any syllogism can make it, than any 
Philos®phical or Mathematical demonstra- 
tion. For it is an unquestionable rule of 
reason, presupposed to all rules of syllo- 
gisms, or argumentations, that an universal 
negative may be simply converted (as, if 
no man can be a stone, then no stone can 
be a man.) The rule is as firm in Divinity, 
that if no hypocrite, no envious or uncha- 
ritable man, can enter into the Kingdom of 
Heaven, then no man that must enter into 
the Kingdom of Heaven, that is ii-reversibly 
ordained to eternal life, can be an hypo- 
crite, can be an envious or uncharitable 
man. Whence again it will clearly follow, 
that if the former opinion concerning men's 
personal or national irreversible estate in 
God's favour have possessed men's souls 
and brains before its due time, albeit they 
do the self-same things that rebels do, that 
hypocrites, that envious or uncharitable 
men do, yet so long as this opinion stands 
unshaken, they can never suspect them- 
selves to be rebellious, to be hypocrites, 
or uncharitable : that which indeed, and in 
the language of the Holy Ghost, is rebel- 
lion, will be favourably interpreted to be 
the liberty of conscience in defence of 
God's laws ; envy, hatred and uncharita- 
bleness towards men, will go current for 
zeal towards God and true religion." — 
Jackson, vol. 2, p. 379. 



Requisites for a Theologian. 
" Such qualifications, whether for learn- 
ing or life, as Tully and Quintilian require 
in a compleat Orator, Galen in a Physician, 
or other encomiasts of any liberal science, 
profession, or faculty, may require in a per- 
fect professor of it, is but a part of those 
endowments which ought to be in a true 
Divme or professor of Divinity. The pro- 
fessors of every other faculty may, without 
much skill in any profession besides their 
own, truly understand the genuine rules or 
precepts of it. All the learning which he 
hath besides, serves but for ornament, is no 
constitutive part of the faculty which he 
professeth. But the very literal sense of 
many j^recepts, or of many fundamental 
rules and Maxims in Divinity, can neither 
be rightly understood, nor justly valued, 
without variety of reading, and observa- 
tions, in most faculties and sciences that 
be ; besides the collation of Scripture with 
Scripture, in which search alone more in- 
dustrious sagacity is required than in any 
other science there can be use of." — Jack- 
son's Works, vol. 2, p. 637. 

Scruplers at the Litany. 
" And for these reasons, ever since I 
took them into consideration, and as often 
as I i-esume the meditations of our Saviour's 
Death, I have ever wondered and still do 
wonder at the peevishness, or rather pa- 
thetical prophaneness, of men who scoff at 
those sacred passages in our Liturgy, By 
thy Agony and bloody sweat, by thy Cross and 
Passion, ^-c. Good Lord deliver ris ; as if 
they had more alliance with spells, ov forms 
of conjuring, than with the spirit of Prayer 
or true Devotion. Certainly they could 
never have fallen into such irreverent and 
uncharitable quarrels with the Church our 
iNIother, unless they had first fallen out, and 
that foully, with Pater Noster, with the 
Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the ten Com- 
mandments. For I dare undertake to make 
good that there is not either branch or fruit, 
blossom or leaf, in that sacred Garden of 

devotions, which doth not naturally spring 
and draw its life and nourishment from one 
or other of the three former roots, to wit, 
from the Lord's Prayer, or from the Creed 
set prayer-wise, or from the ten Command- 
ments. And he that is disposed to read 
that most Divine part of our Liturgy with 
a sober mind and dutiful respect, shall find 
not only more pure devotion, but more pro- 
found Orthodoxal Divinity, both for matter 
and form, than can be found in all the En- 
glish writers which have either carped or 
nibbled at it. Not one ejaculation is there 
in it, which hath the least relish of that 
leaven, wherewith their prolix extemporary 
devotions who distaste it, are for the most 
part deeply soured." — Jackson's Woi-ks, 
vol. 2, p. 834. 

Death of a Believer. 
" Oi>D Mr. Lyford being desu'ed, a little 
before his death, to let his friends know in 
what condition his soul was, and what his 
thoughts were about that Eternity to which 
he seemed very near, he answered with a 
cheerfulness suitable to a Believer and a 
Minister, I ivill let you knoio how it is with 
me ; and then stretching out an hand that 
was withered and consumed with age and 
sickness, ' Here is,'' says he, ' the Grave, the 
Wi-ath qf God, and devowiiig Flames, the 
just punishment of Sin, on the one side ; and 
here am I, a poor sinfid Soul, on the other 
side : hut this is iny comfort; the Covenant of 
Grace which is established on so many sure 
P>\)mises, hath saved all. There is an Act 
of Oblivion passed in Heaven, I will forgive 
their iniquities, and their sins will I re- 
member no more. This is the blessed Privi- 
lege of all u'ithin the Covenant, among whom 
I am one.'" — Timothy Rogers, A Dis- 
course concerning Trouble of Mind, p. 286. 

Pleasure in Heaven to see the Damned! 
" Sir David Ltndsat makes it one of the 
enjoyments of the righteous in Heaven, to 
see the torments of the dannied ! — 



" They sail rejoyis to se the great dolour 
Of daiiipiiit folk in Hell, and thair torment, 
Because ol" God it is the juste jugement." 

Contortions of Inspiration. 

Bayle says, " there may be, and some- 
times is, imposture in ecstatic grimaces : 
but those who boast of being inspired, with- 
out evincing by the countenance, or expres- 
sions, that their brain is disordered, and 
without doing any act that is lumatural, 
ought to be infinitely more suspected of 
fraud, than those who from time to time 
fall into strong convulsions, as the Sibyls 
did in a greater or less degree." — Nichols's 
Calvinism and Arminianisni Compared, p. 

Projligacy of Lady Mary Worthy Mon- 
tagus Times. 

" The world improves in one virtue to a 
violent degree ; I mean, plain-dealing. Hy- 
pocrisy being, as the Scripture declares, a 
(lamnal)le sin, I hope our publicans and 
sinners will be saved by the open profession 
of tlie contrary virtue. I was told by a 
very good author, who is deep in the secret, 
that at this very minute there is a bill 
cooking-up at a hunting-seat in Norfolk, to 
liave not taken out of the Commandments, 
and clapped into the Creed, tbe ensuing 
session of Parliament. This bold attempt 
for the liberty of the subject is wholly pro- 
jected by ]Mr. Vt'alpole, who proposed it to 
the secret committee in his parlour. William 
Young seconded it, and ans\vered for all 
his acquaintance voting right to a man. 
Doddington very gravely objected that the 
obstinacy of human nature Avas such, that 
he feared when they had positive commands 
to do so, perhaps people would not commit 
adultery and bear false witness against 
their neighbours with the readiness and 
cheerfulness they do at present. This ob- 
jection seemed to sink deep into the fiiinds 
of the greatest politicians at the board, 
and I don't know whether the bill won't 

be dropped ; though it is certain it luight 
be carried on with great ease, the world 
being entirely ' revenu de bagatelle,'' and 
honour, virtue, reputation, &c., which we 
used to hear of in our nursery, are as 
much laid aside and forgotten as crumpled 
ribands." — Lady Mary Wortley Mon- 
tagu, vol. 3, p. 143. 

Murderers deterred in Italy by Hanging 
them ivithovt Confession. 

" The Duke of Vendosme, during the last 
wars in Italy, had put to death a multi- 
tude of banditti and assassins, without be- 
ing able to exterminate them ; and there 
came daily tidings of fresh nnirders. At 
length, that general bethought himself of 
taking the Italians on their weak side, viz. 
superstition. He therefore gave orders, 
that all those who were apprehended for 
assassinations, should be trussed up in- 
stantly, without the least talk with their 
priests, or furnishing themselves with the 
necessary pass-ports for their voyage into 
the other world. This punishment made 
more impression on those murdering vil- 
lains, than did the dread of death itself: 
they would willingly have ventured hang- 
ing, but they would not run the risque of 
being hang'd without Confession." — London 
Magazine 1737, p. 152. 

Horace Walpole on the L-ish Volunteers. 

1783, Volunteers in L-eland. 

" I don't like a reformation begun by a 
Popish army," says Horace Walpole. — 
" I shall not easily believe that any radical 
alteration of a constitution that preserved 
lis so long, and carried us to so great a 
height, will recover our afTalrs. There is a 
wide ditference between correcting abuses 
and removing landmarks. Nobody disliked 
more than I the strides that were attempted 
towards increasing the Prerogative ; but as 
the excellence of our Constitution above all 
others, consists in the balance established 



between the three powers of King, Lords, 
and Commons, I wish to see that equili- 
brium preserved. No single man, nor any 
private junto, has a right to dictate laws to 
all three. In Ireland, truly, a still worse 
spirit I apprehend to be at bottom. Li 
short, it is phrensy or folly, to suppose that 
an army composed of three parts of Catho- 
lics can be intended for any good jiurposes." 
— Letters, vol. 4, p. 355. 

Dispose of your Wealth in time. 

" Leave the world as you found it ; and 
seeing you must go naked as you came, do 
not stay for Death to pluck off your cloathes ; 
but strip yourself, and owe your liberty to 
your own hands. It will not be long, you 
are well assured, ere that debt to nature 
must be paid ; and then there cannot be a 
greater contentment, than to feel that you 
are your own at that hour ; that you can 
dispose of yourself to God without any let 
or hindrance, and that you can die in the 
freedom wherein you were born. If you 
stand engaged to the world, it will be sure 
to put in its claim and chr-llenge an interest 
in you at that time. It will let you know 
that it is your mistress, and still requires 
your service. And therefore, follow your 
resolution, and forsake it betime ; that so it 
may not give you any trouble then, but 
suffer you to go out of it as quietly and 
with as little care as you came into it." — 
Patkick's Parable of the Pilgrim, p. 54. 

Love of God. 

" Love is the most natural and pleasant 
thing in the world, which will certainly bring 
us thither ; and God being so lovely, and 
having loved us so much, one woidd think 
it should be an easy thing to beget it in our 
hearts. Do you not mark how a dog loves 
you, if you do but throw him a bone or 
some such thing, which to you is of no use 
or worth at all ? For this he fawns upon 
you, for this he stays in your house, and 

keeps your door, and defends your goods ; 
this makes him follow you at the heels 
if you please, to travel with you long 
journeys, to forsake all other masters for 
your service, and many times to die with 
you ; though it be a poor thing, which you 
know not what to do with at all, unless you 
cast it unto him. How can you chuse, then, 
but love Jesus, and be at his command, and 
follow his steps, and leave all others for his 
sake, and even give your life to him, which 
hath given you not a thing of no value, not 
that which cost him nothing, or that which 
he could not tell what to do withall, but 
himself, his holy blood, his pix'cious pro- 
mises, which it cost an infinite deal of pain 
to seal and ratifie unto you. Are you still 
insensible of his favoui's when you think of 
this ? Are you still to learn to love, when 
such a weight of love as this doth press 
your heart ? If such a thought could enter 
my mind, I would send you to the brutes 
to be their scholar ; I would call you Spa- 
niel, and bid him teach you ; I would cease 
to be your instructor any longer, and put 
you there to learn the affection you owe to 
your deai'est Lord aud Master. But your 
blushes bid me spare this language, and 
seem to assure me both that you are ashamed 
to owe your virtue to such examples, and 
that you feel already this flame enkindled 
in your heart. Feed it, I beseech you, con- 
tinually," and let it increasd unto greater 
ardour of love ; as it will infallibly, if you 
do but consider what great things your 
Saviour hath done for you, and that he is 
still busy in procuring your good ; and in 
short, that there is not an hour, not a mo- 
ment, wherein you do not stand indebted 
to him for eternal blessings, or for the means 
of them, or for the grace to help you to 
attain them." — Patrick's Parable of the 
Pilgrim, p. 79. 

Defence of the Body. 
" AVe accuse very much the weakness of 
our nature; we complainheavily of the body 
of flesii and blood which continually betrays 



us ; we conceit that we should do rare things 
were we but once quit of this load of earth, 
and suffered to move in the free and yiekl- 
ing air. But let me tell you, and believe 
it i'or a truth : though we had no society 
with a terrestrial nature ; nay, though our 
minds were free and clear from all mortal 
concretion ; though we had no cloathes at 
all to hinder our motion ; yet our ruin 
might arise out of our spirits, and by pride 
and self-confidence we might throw our- 
selves down into utter destruction. For 
what commerce, I pray you, had the Apos- 
tate Angels with our corporeal nature ? 
what familiarity with a body ? Do we not 
conceive them to have been pure spirits 
separated from all earthly contagion ? And 
yet, by placing all in themselves, by being 
puffed up in their own thoughts, and not 
acknowledging their need of the Divine 
presence and assistance, we conclude that 
they tumbled themselves mto an abyss of 
misery and woe irrecoverable. Now they 
are in a worse condition than if they were 
spirits of a smaller size : Now the torment 
they suffer is proportionable to the noble- 
ness of their nature. For the sharper and 
quicker the mind is, and the greater its en- 
dowments are which it hath received, the 
greater mischief doth it bring upon itself, 
and the sadder are its perplexities, when it 
is destitute of the special help and presence 
of God. As a great giant being blinded, 
must needs tumble more grievously, and 
give himself sorer knocks than he would 
have done if he had not been of so huge a 
bulk ; So a mind and reason elevated to an 
higher pitch than others, is carried headlong 
into an heavier ruin, when it is deprived of 
that Divine light which is necessary for its 
guidance and preservation. Excellency of 
nature therefore little profits, if God be not 
present with it ; and he absents himself from 
all that place not their strength, sufiiciency 
and safeguard in him, but in themselves. 
And on the other side, fragility of nature 
is not that which will undo us, if the Pivine 
presence do not withdraw itself, which it 
never doth from humble and lowly minds 

that confide in him and not in their own 
power, which were it a thousand times 
greater than it is, would not be sufiicient to 
conserve itself. Our pride, and vanity, and 
forgetfulness of God, then, is that which we 
must accuse ; not the infirmity and crazi- 
ness of our flesh : for as the excellency of 
the Angelical nature could not save them 
when they disjoined themselves from their 
Creator ; so the weakness of ours shall not 
harm us if we keep close to him, and never 
sever ourselves from that heavenly power 
which worketh mightily in us." — Patkick's 
Parable of the Pilgrim, p. 64. 

Beasts, Sj'c. in Yew. 

" One day as they went through a certain 
place, which was more like a garden than 
an highway, he asked him if he was not 
afraid of those strange beasts in green skins, 
and those armed men with weapons of the 
same colour in their hands. At which he 
smiling said ; ' Though you have been con- 
scious too much of my weakness, yet I have 
so much courage as not to be affrighted at 
the images of things which I see cut in 
hedges. You shall see how confidently I 
will walk naked by that lion, and that the 
bear in the other thicket shall strike no 
terror into me. And it pleases me very 
much, to think that the trouble which my 
often-infirmities have given you, is not so 
great but that you can makeyour-sclf merry 
with them : and I am willing to recreate 
you a little more, by bragging thus of my 
present boldness.' ' Indeed,'said the Father, 
' you could not have well gratified me more 
than you do, in sporting with that which 
others more morose would have taken for a 
reproach. But let us seriously, I pray you, 
consider ; Is there much more harm in many 
of those things at which the world is wont 
to tremble ? Do they not fly from terrible 
nothings, wherewith they see the ways of 
Piety are beset ? The reproaches which tear 
our names in pieces like a lion ; the bitter 
words which men's tongues shoot like arrows 



in our faces; nay that great bear, Poverty, 
which turns so many out of the way ; A\Tiat 
are they ? If you view them and all their 
fellows well, you will find they are as inno- 
cent, nay as profitable too, as those peace- 
able creatures which you here behold. They 
are but like those bows which are made of 
bayes and can do no hurt. Or lUce those 
guns which you see wrought in rosemary 
and sweet briar, and such like things, which 
shoot flowers, and dart forth musk. Or 
like those beasts of hyssop and thyme, which 
are very medicinal to those who know how 
to use them.' " — Patrick's Parable of the 
Pilgrim, p. 348. 

Security from the Papists. 
" ' We are as innocent people,' continued 
he, ' as any in all the world ; and if you 
would let us travel together, I would bring 
you to more good comjDany, who shall give 
you all the assurance imaginable of our 
harmless intentions. Do but tell what se- 
curity you desire, and I will undertake it 
shall not be refused. I know them all so 
well, that I dare engage my soul for their 
fidelity to their word.' ' Undertake nothing, 
I beseech you,' replied the Father, 'for other 
folks. If you had engaged that pawn only 
for yourself, it might be taken, because you 
seem a gentleman, and a person of good 
nature : but as for the most of your com- 
pany, they can never give me the assurance 
which I shall desu'e. There is but one 
security which I can confide in, and that is 
the same which the iac«te?Kon?flp« demanded 
of one who otfered to seal him his faithful 
friendship, viz. that if they have any will to 
do us any mischief they shall never have any 
power. There is none but this that is worth 
a rush : The rest are all so vain and infirm, 
that none but fools will trust unto them.' " — 
Patrick's Parable of the Pilgrim, p. 421, 

Churches like Ships. 
" The Bishops and Pastors in the Church, 
after the Gospel had in the Primitive times 

passed through the storms of persecutions, 
and begun to shine forth in more peaceable 
ages, did build Churches which they dedi- 
cated to God, as most fit places for publick 
Worship, which in memory of their former 
troubles, and their great and wonderful 
Deliverances out of them, they fashioned 
in the form of a ship, which is subject to 
be tossed to and fro with impetuous waves, 
and uncertainly forced up and down in the 
sea of this world by the tempestuous 
winds of persecution. Being very well 
acquainted with that text in Saint Luke, 
speaking of Christ standing by the Lake of 
Gennesaret, Chap. 5, v. 2. He saiv two ships 
stand by the Lakes side, and the fishermen 
loere gone out of them, and were washing 
their nets : Ami He entered into one of the 
ships, ivhich was Simoyi's, and required him 
that he would thrust off a little from the 
land : And He sat down, and taught the 
people out of the ship. The ship is the 
Church ; Christ, the Priest and Bishop of 
our Souls ; the Prease of People upon the 
shore, are Christians, the Followers of his 
Doctrine. Nor were such churches unlike 
a ship in many kinds, if supposed to be 
transversed or turned with the bottom or 
foundation upward. The Roof is the Keel ; 
the Walls, the Sides ; the Foundation, the 
upper Deck, or Shroud ; the East End, the 
Prow, or Forecastle ; the Pinnacle in the 
midst, the Mast ; and the West End, the 
Poop, or Steerage." — Sir Wixxiam Den- 
ny's PelicaTdcidium, p. 121, 

Rome and Geneva. 

" Prodigality is always asleep, and Co- 
vetousness is ever waking : Prodigality 
knows not when to spare, nor Covctousness 
how to spend. Prodigality is all lace, and 
Covctousness no clothes. Liberality's con- 
demned by both. Her bounty is too pro- 
digal in the greedy eye of Covctousness; 
her discreet parsimony is too narrow for 
the humour of Prodigality. Covctousness 
terms Liberality a spendthrift, and Prodi- 
gality calls her a churlu. She seems bv 



turns the contrary to either, as they are to 
her extremes both. It is even so with 
Opinions to Truth, and Sects to the True 
Religion. Truth is aoeus'd, Religion is de- 
spised by all sides, condemned by all fac- 
tions. The Conclave of Rome, and the 
Consistory of Geneva, agree Eodem tertio, 
though there be a hot and seeming quarrel 
betwixt them. Both may be blamed herein : 
It were to be wished that Geneva had some- 
what of Rome's charity and religious de- 
cency. I cannot wish Rome's Genevas, 
though I pray for their reformation. Upon 
the present these err, both falling into the 
extreme on the either hand. The one makes 
it a great way about to Heaven, by Inter- 
cession of Saints ; And the other goes so 
near the Gates of Hell, that many a poor 
soul drops in by despair. The one puts a 
great efficacy upon the numerous repetition 
of Ave Marias and Pater Nosters ; And the 
other no less confidence in indigested Long 
Prayers. The one is for IMerit by AVorks ; 
the other is for Salvation by a naked Faith. 
Auricular Confession is holden absolutely 
necessary by the one, to the Priest. Au- 
ricular Confession is holden as necessary to 
the Classical Elders. In this they differ 
therein. The one accounts it a sacred 
thing to keep a secret, which the other sets 
at naught to violate. The one sets up 
Images ; the other, Imaginations : the one 
placeth Summary Appeal ?k Cathedra ; the 
other, in the Consistory or Assembly ; The 
one makes the Eucharist a Transubstantia- 
tion ; the other, merely a Sign. The one puts 
Excommunication into Bulls ; the other, 
into Pulpits. The one conceives Religion 
to be all Ear ; the other, all Hand. I might 
mention many more parallels, but my charity 
will not permit it. I rather desire and wish 
that faults were mended, and errors cured, 
by an humble seeking, and a meek sub- 
mission to the Revealed Truth, and a re- 
turning into the right way ; that Christians 
might have charity to one another, and 
putting off animosities, might worship the 
Lord in purity of heart, in the beauty of 
holiness ; and that our adoration might he 

with outward and inward reverence, as 
becomes us to the IMajesty and Holiness of 
God. Let all things he done decently, and in 
order." — Sir William Denny's Pelicani- 
cidium, p. 151. 

Opinion easily deceived. 

" Opinion deceives us more than things. 
So comes our Sense to be more certain than 
our Reason. Men differ more about cir- 
cumstances than matter. The corruption 
of our Affections misguides the result of our 
Reason. We put a fallacy, by a false ar- 
gument, upon our understandings. If the 
vitiosity of humor doth oft put a cozenage 
upon the radiancy of sight, so that it sees 
through deceiving eyes the false colours 
of things, not as they are, but as they 
seem — (peradventure choler hath given a 
percolation to the chrystalline hvmior of 
the eye, or phlegme hath made an uneven 
commixture or thickness in the optick 
organ, or the like, by which means all is 
represented yellow, or all seems black, or 
of the darker dye, that the sight returns 
to the common sense) — why may not men's 
understandings be likewise so deceived? As 
sure they are abused. For most men, yea 
many of the higher form of brain, being in 
love with their own parts, or theu- credit, 
commit first the error, then undertake, 
make it a part of their resolution (rather 
than to recede from misapprehended or 
delivered untruths), to account it as a con- 
cernment of honour, and maintenance of 
affected reputation, either to proceed to 
further obliquity, or at least to take up the 
stand with obstinacy. By this means have 
we not only lost much of our peace, but 
even the clear evidence of truth. How 
comes else such a gladiatory in the Schools 
(to omit the Pulpits), such challenges of 
the Pen, such animosities in Discourse, as 
if our natures were less inclinable to Con- 
versation than to Combat. 

"Nor have things indifferent been hereby 
made the only occasion of the quarrel, of such 
division ; But overrun with misprision, and 



overcome by pertinacity, they set sail to the 
AnticyrfB, go beside themselves ; not only 
in falling from, but by putting the question 
upon the principles of Reason, and the very 
fundamentals of Religion. Whereby some 
unwisely thinking to add to their stature, 
to become Giants among Men, have fiillen 
less than the least of Beasts ; not retaining 
so much as the prudence of the Bee ; yea, 
coming short of the providence of the Pis- 
mire ; not arriving at the knowledge of 
the Ox, for he knows his master's crilj." — 
Sir William Denny's Pelicanicidium, p. 

Rack Rents. 

" These are not the days of peace, that 
tuni sicords into sickles ; but the days of 
pride, wherein the iron is knocked off from 
the plough, and by a new kind of Alchj- 
mistrie converted into plate. The Farmer's 
painfulness runs into the Mercer's shop, and 
the toiling Ox is a sacrifice and prey to rhe 
cunning Fox ; all the racked rents in the 
Country will not discharge the books in the 

" Great men are unmerciful to their Te- 
nants, that they may be over-merciful to 
their Tendents, that stretch them as fast 
as they retch the others. The sweat of the 
labourer's brows is made an ointment to 
supple the joints of Pride. These two ma- 
lignant planets reign at once, and in one 
heart ; costive covetousness, and loose la- 
vishness; like the serpent A7nphisbcena, -with 
a head at each end of the body, who, whiles 
they strive which should be the master- 
head, afflict the whole carcase : whiles Co- 
vetise and Pride wrestle, the estate catcheth 
the fall. They eat men alive in the Coun- 
try, and are themselves eaten alive m the 
City : what they get in the Hundredth they 
lose in the Sheer : Sic prcedce patet esca sui, 
they make themselves plump for the prey ; 
for there are that play the rob-thief with 
them : Unius compendium, alterius dispcn- 
dium ; if there be a winner, there must be 
a loser : Serpens serpentcm devorundo Jit 

draco : INIany landlords are serpents to de- 
vour the poor, but what are they that de- 
vour those serpents ? Dragons. You see 
what monsters, then, usurious citizens are. 
Thus, whiles the Gentleman and the Citizen 
shuffle the cards together, they deal the 
poor Commons but a very ill game." — Tho- 
mas Adams, DeviVs Banquet, p. 24. 

" The decoration of the body is the de- 
voration of the substance : the back Avears 
the silver that woidd do better in the purse. 
Armenta vertuntur in ornamenta : the grounds 
are unstocked to make the back glister. 
Adam and Eve had coats of beasts' skins ; 
but now many beasts, flesh, skins and all, 
will scarce furnish a prodigal younger son 
of Adam with a suit. And, as many sell 
their tame beasts in the Country, to enrich 
theii" wild beasts in the City ; so you have 
others, that to revel at a Christmas, will 
ravel out their patrimonies. Pride and 
Good Husbandry are neither kith nor kin : 
but Juhal and Jubal are brethren : Jabal 
that dwelt in tents, and tended the Herds, 
had Juhal to his brother, who was the father 
of Music ; to shew that Jabal and Juhal, 
Frugality and Music, Good Husbandry and 
Content, are brothers, and dwell together. 
But Pride and Opulency may kiss in the 
morning, as a married couple ; but will be 
divorced before sun-set. They whose fa- 
thers could sit and tell their Michaelmas 
hundreths, have brought December on their 
estates, by wearing May on their backs all 
the year. 

" This is the plague and clog o? ihe fashion, 
that it is never unhampered ofDebets. Pride 
begins with Habeo, ends with Dcbco ; and 
sometimes makes good every syllable gra- 
datim. Debeo, I owe more than I am worth. 
Beo, I bless my creditors ; or rather, bless 
myself from my creditors. Eo, I betake 
me to my heels. Thus Englanfl was ho- 
nored with them whiles they were Gallants ; 
Gernmny or Roine must take them, and 
keep them, being Beggars. Oh that men 



would break their fasts with Frugality, that 
they might never sup with Want. What 
folly is it to begin with ^ Plaudite,Who doth 
not mark my bravery ? ' and end with ' Plan- 
g'jYe,Good pas.senger, a penny ! ' Oh that they 
could from the high promontory of their 
rich estates foresee how near Pride and Riot 
dwell to the Spittle -house! — not but that God 
alloweth both garments for necessity and 
ornaments for comeliness, according to tliy 
degree ; but such must not wear silks, that 
are not able to buy cloth. Many women 
are propter venustatem invenustm (saith 
Chrysostome), so fine, that they are the worse 
again. Fashions far fetched, and dear bought, 
fill the eye with content, but empty the purse. 
Christ's reproof to the Jeivs may fitly be 
turned on us : Why do ye kill the Prophets, 
and build up their tomhs ? Why do ye kill 
your souls with sins, and garnish your bo- 
dies with braveries ? The maid is finer than 
the mistress ; which. Saint Jei'om saith, would 
make a man laugh, a Christian weep, to see. 
Hagar is tricked uji, and Sarah put into 
rags : the soul goes every day in her worky- 
day clothes, undighted with graces ; whiles 
the body keeps perpetual holy-day in gay- 
ness. The house of Said is set up, the Flesh 
is graced ; the house oi David is persecuted 
and kept down, the Spirit is neglected. 

" I know, that Pride is never without her 
own pain, though she will not feel it : be 
her garments what they will, yet she will 
never be too hot, nor too cold. There is 
no time to pray, read, hear, meditate ; all 
goes away in trimming. There is so much 
rigging about the ship, that as Ovid wittily, 
pars minima est ipsa puclla sin ; a woman, 
for the most part, is the least part of her self. 
Fwmina cidta nimis, famiiia casta minus; too 
gaudy bravery, argues too slender chastity. 
The garmeiit of Salvation is slighted, and 
the long ivhite robe of glory scorned : the 
Lord Jesus Christ, a garment not the worse 
but the better for wearing, is thrown by ; 
and the ridiculous chain of Pride is put on : 
but ornamentiim est, quod oniat ; orjLat, quod 
honestiorem facit: that alone doth beautify, 
which doth beatify or make the soul happy ; 

no ornament doth so gi'ace us, as that we 
are gratious. Thus the substance is emptied 
for a shew ; and many rob themselves of all 
they have, to put a good siut on their backs." 
— Thomas Adams, DeviVs Banquet, p. 72. 

The World Old and Sick. 

" This is a world to make Physicians 
rich, if men loved not their purse better 
than their health. For the world waxeth 
old, and old age is weak and sickly. As 
when death begins to seize upon a man, his 
brain by little and little groweth out of 
order ; his mind becomes cloudy and trou- 
bled with fantasies ; the channels of his 
blood, and the radical moisture (the oil that 
feeds the lamp of his life), begin to di'y up : 
all his limbs lose their former agility. As 
the little world thus decays in the great, so 
the great decays in itself; that Nature is 
fain to lean on the staff of Art, and to be 
held up by man's industry. The signs 
which Christ hath given to fore-run the 
world's ruin, are called by a Father, cegri- 
tudines Mundi, the diseases or sicknesses of 
the World, as sickness naturally goes before 
death. Wars dying the earth into a san- 
guine hue ; dead carcases infecting the airs ; 
and the infected airs breathing about plagues 
and pestilences, and sore contagions. Where- 
of, saith the same Father, nidli magis qudm 
nos testes sumus, quos mumli finis invenit, 
none can be more certain witnesses than we 
upo7i ichom the ends of the world are come. 
That sometimes the influences of Heaven 
spoil the fruits of the earth, and the fogs 
of earth soil the virtues of the Heavenly 
bodies ; that neither planets above, nor 
plants below, yield us expected comforts. 
So God, for our sins, brings the heaven, the 
earth, the air, and whatsoever was created 
for man's use, to be his enemy, and to war 
against him. And all because, omina quae 
ad usum vitce accipimus, ad usum vitii conver- 
timus ; we turn all things to vice's corrup- 
tion, which were given for nature's protec- 
tion. Therefore, what we have diverted to 



wickedness, God Lath reverted to our re- 
venge. We are sick of sin, and therefore 
the world is sick of us. 

" Our lives shorten, as if the book of our 
days were by God's knife of Judgement cut 
less ; and brought from Folio, as in the 
Patriarchs before the Flood, to Quarto in 
the Fathers after the Flood ; nay to Octavo, 
as with the Prophets of the Law ; nay even 
to Decimosexto, as with us in the days of the 
Gospel. The Elements are more mixed, 
drossy, and confused : the airs are infected : 
neither wants our intemperance to second 
all the rest. We hasten that we would not 
have, Death ; and run so to riot in the 
April of our early vanities, that our May 
shall not scape the fall of our leaf. Our 
great Landlord hath let us a fair house, and 
we suffer it quickly to run to ruin. That 
whereas the Soul might dwell in the body 
as a palace of delight, she finds it a crazy, 
sickish, rotten cabinet, in danger, every 
gust, of dropping down, 

" How few shalt thou meet, if their 
tongues would be true to their griefs, with- 
out some disturbance or affliction ! There 
lies one gi-oaning of a sick heart : another 
shakes his aching head : a third roars fur 
the torments of his reins : a fourth for the 
racking of his gouty joints : a fifth grovels 
with the falling-sickness : a last lies half 
dead of a palsy. Here is work for the 
Physicians, They ruffle in the robes of 
preferment, and ride in the foot-clothes of 
reverence. Early and devout suppliants 
stand at their study doors, quaking with 
ready money in their hands, and glad it will 
be accepted. The body, if it be sick, is 
content sometimes to buy unguentum (ereum, 
with unguentum aureum ; leaden trash, with 
golden cash. But it is sick, and needs 
physic; let it have it." — Thomas Adams, 
Devil's Banquet, p. 295, 

Church Property how dealt with. 

" Haman was not more mad for Mordc' 
caVs cup, than the great one is that as much 

observance ariseth not to him from the black 
coat as from his own blue coat. The Church 
is beholden to him, that he will turn one of 
his cast servitors out of his own into her ser- 
vice; out of his Chamber into the Chancel; 
from the Buttery-hatch to the Pulpit. He 
that was not worthy enough to wait on his 
tvorship, is good enough for God, Yield 
this sore almost healed ; yet the honour of 
the ISIinistry thrives like trees in autumn. 
Even their best estimate is but a shadow, 
and that a preposterous one ; for it goes 
back faster than the shadow in the dial of 
Ahaz. If a rich man have four sons, the 
youngest or con temnedest must be thePriest. 
Perhaps the eldest shall be committed to 
his lauds ; for if his lands should be com- 
mitted to him, his father fears, he woidd 
carry them all up to London : he dares not 
venture it, without binding it sure. For 
which purpose he makes his second son a 
Lawyer: a good rising profession ; foranian 
may by that (which I neither envy nor tax) 
run up, like Jonas gourd, to preferment ; 
and for wealth, a cluster of Law is worth a 
whole vintage of Gospel. If he study means 
for his third, lo ! Physic smells well. That 
as the other may keep the estate from run- 
ning, so this the body from ruining. For 
his youngest son, he cares not if he puts 
him into God's service; and make him ca- 
pable of the Church-goods, though not pli- 
able to the Church's good. Thus having 
provided for the estate of his Inheritance, 
of his Advancement, of his Carcase, he comes 
last to think of his Conscience, 

" I would to God, this wei'e not too fre- 
quently the woi-ld's fashion. Whereas hei-e- 
tofore, Primogeniti eo jure Sacerdotes, the 
first-born had the right of Priesthood; now 
the younger son, if he fit for nothing else, 
lights upon that privilege. That as a reve- 
rend Divine saith. Younger Brothers are 
made Priests, and Priests are made Younger 
Brothers," — Thomas Adams, DeviVs Ban- 
quet, p, 206, 



Against the Union of Physic and Divinity. 

" Physic and Divinity are professions of 
a near aflinity ; both intending the cure and 
recovery, one of our bodies, the other and 
better of our souls. Not that I would have 
them conjoined in one person (as one spake 
merrily of him that was both a Physician 
and a Minister ; that when he took money 
to kill by his physic, he had also money 
again to bury by his priesthood). Neither, 
if God had poured both these gifts into one 
man, do I censure their union, or persuade 
their separation. Only, let the hound that 
runs after two hares at once, take heed 
lest he catch neither. Ad duo qui tcndit, rion 
unum nee duo prendit. And let him that is 
called into God's Vineyard, hocagere, attend 
on his office ; and beware, lest to keep 
his parish on sound legs, he let them walk 
with sickly consciences. Whiles Galen and 
Avicen take the wall of Paul and Peter. I 
do not here tax, but rather praise the works 
of mercy in those Ministers that give ajl 
possible comforts to the distressed bodies of 
their brethren. 

" Let the professions be heterogenea., dif- 
ferent in their kinds ; only respondentia, 
semblable in their proceedings. The Lord 
created the Physician, so hath he ordained 
the Minister. The Lord hath put into him 
the knowledge of Nature, into this the 
knowledge of Grace. All knowledge is de- 
rived from the fountain of God's wisdom. 
The Lord hath created medicines oid oj" the 
earth. The Lord hath inspired his holy 
word from heaven. The good Physician 
acts the part of the Divine. They shall pray 
unto the Lord, that he would prosper that 
v)hich they give, for ease and remedy, to pro- 
long life. The good ]\Iinister, after a sort, 
is a Physician. Only it is enough for the 
Son of God to give both natural and spiritual 
physic. But as Plato spake of Philosophy, 
that It covets the imitation of God, within 
the limits of possibility and sobriety^; so we 
may say of Physic, it is conterminate to 
Divinity, so far as a handmaid may follow 

her mistress." — Thomas Adams, Devil's 
Banquet, p. 221. 

The Church how spoiled — ami Usury be- 
coming common, 
" Nimrod and Achitophell lay their heads 
and hands together ; and whiles the one 
forageth the Park of the Church, the other 
pleads it from his Book, with a statutum est. 
The Giheonites are suffered in our Camp, 
though we never clap'd them the hand of 
covenant ; and are not set to draw water 
and chop ivood, do us any service, except to 
cut our throats. The Receipt (I had almost 
said the Deceit) of Custom stands open, 
making the Law's toleration a warrant: that 
many now sell their Lands, and live on the 
use of their Monies ; which none would do, 
if Usury was not an easier, securer and more 
gainful trade." — Thomas Adams, Devil's 
Banquet, p. 247. 

Mercies bestowed upon England. 
" If I should set the mercies of our land 
to run along with Israel's, we should gain 
cope of them, and out-run them. And 
though in God's actual and outward mercies 
they might outstrip us, yet in his spiritual 
and saving health they come short of us. 
They had the shadow, we the substance : 
they candle-light, we noon-day : they the 
breakfast of the Law, fit for the morning 
of the world ; we the dinner of the Gospel, 
fit for the high-noon thereof. They had a 
glimpse of the Sun, we have him in the full 
strength : they saw per fenestram, we sine 
medio. They had the Paschall-Lamb, to 
expiate sins ceremonially ; we the Lamb of 
God, to satisfy for us really ; not a typical 
sacrifice for the sins of the Jews only ; but 
an evangelical, taking away the sins of the 
world. For this is that secret opposition, 
which that Voice of a Crier intimates. Now 
what could God do more for us ? Israel is 
stung with fiery serpents ; behold the erec- 
tion of a (strangely medicinal) Serpent of 
brass. So (besides the spiritual application 



of it) tlie Plague liath stricken us, that have 
stricken God by our sins ; his mercy hath 
healed us. Rumours of War hath hummed 
in our ears the murmurs of terror ; behold, 
he could not set his bloody foot in our coasts. 
The rod of Famine hath been shaken over 
us ; we have not smarted with the deadly 
lashes of it. Even that we have not been 
thus miserable, God hath done much for us. 
" Look round about you, and whiles you 
quake at the plagues so natural to our neigh- 
bours, bless your own safety, and our God 
for it. Behold the confines of Christendom, 
Hungai-y and Bohemia, infested and wasted 
with the Turks. Italy groaning under the 
slavery o? Antichrist; which infects the soul, 
worse than the Turk infects the body. Be- 
hold the pride of Spain curbed with a 
bloody Inquisition. France, a fair and flou- 
rishing kingdom, made wretched by her 
civil uncivil wars. Germany knew not of 
long time, what Peace meant : neither is 
their war ended, but suspended. Ireland 
hath felt the perpetual plague of her rebel- 
lions. And Scotland hath not wanted her 
fatal disasters. Only England hath lain, 
like Gedeoiis fleece, dry and secure, when 
the rain of Judgments have wetted the 
whole earth. When God hath tossed the 
Nations, and made them like a wheel, and 
as the stubble before the wind, only England 
hath stood like Mount Sion, with unmoved 
firmness." — Thomas Adams, Devil's Ban- 
quet, p. 248. 

Generosity a Virtue of Health. 

" If it was necessary here, or there was 
time to refine upon this doctrine, one might 
further maintain, exclusive of the happiness 
which the mind itself feels in the exercise 
of this virtue, that the very body of man is 
never in a better state than when he is most 
inclined to do good offices : — that as nothing 
more contributes to health than a benevo- 
lence of temper, so nothing generally was a 
stronger indication of it. 

*' And what seems to confirm this opinion, 
is an observation, the truth of which must be 

submitted to every one's reflection — namely 
— that a disinclination and backwardness 
to good, is often attended, if not produced, 
by an indisposition of the animal as well as 
rational part of us : — so naturally do the soul 
and body, as in other cases so in this, mu- 
tually befriend, or prey upon each other. 
And indeed, setting aside all abstruser rea- 
soning upon the point, I cannot conceive, 
but that the very mechanical motions which 
maintain life, must be performed with more 
equal vigour and freedom in that man whom 
a great and good soul perpetually inclines 
to shew mercy to the miserable, than they 
can be in a poor, sordid, selfish wretch, 
whose little, contracted heart, melts at no 
man's affliction ; but sits brooding so in- 
tently over its own plots and concerns, as 
to see and feel nothing ; and, in truth, en- 
joying nothing beyond himself." — Sterne's 
Sermons, vol. 1, p. 80. 

Fans and Umbrellas. — Parasols. 

" Here will I mention a thing that, al- 
though perhaps it will seem but frivolous to 
divers readers that have already travelled 
in Italy, yet because unto many that neither 
have been there, nor ever intend to go 
thither while they live, it will be a mere 
novelty, I will not let it pass uumentioned. 
The first- Italian fans that I' saw in Italy 
did I observe in this space between Pizi- 
ghiton and Cremona ; but afterwards I ob- 
served them common in most places of Italy 
where I travelled. These fans both men 
and women of the country do carry, to cool 
themselves withal in the time of heat, by the 
often fanning of their faces. Most of them 
are very elegant and pretty things. For 
whereas the fan consisteth of a painted 
piece of paper and a little wooden handle ; 
the paper which is fastened into the top, is 
on both sides most curiously adorned with 
excellent pictures, either of amorous things 
tending to dalliance, having some witty 
Italian verses or fine emblems written un- 
der them ; or of some notable Italian city 



with a brief description thereof added there- 
unto. These fans are of a mean price ; for a 
man may buy one of the fairest of them for so 
much money as countervaileth one English 
groat. Also many of them do carry other 
fine things of a far greater price, that will 
cost at the least a ducat, which they com- 
monly call in the Italian tongue timbrellaes, 
that is, things that minister shadow unto 
them for shelter against the scorching heat 
of the sun. These are made of leather, 
something answerable to the form of a little 
canopy, and hooped in the inside with di- 
verse little wooden hoops that extend the 
umbrella in a pretty large compass. They 
are used especially by horsemen, who carry 
them in their hands when they ride, fasten- 
ing the end of the handle upon one of their 
thighs ; and they impart so long a shadow 
unto them, that it keepeth the heat of the 
sun from the upper parts of their bodies." 
— Coktat's Crudities, vol. 1, p. 134. 

Husbands^ Breeding-sickness. 

" Did you never hear of fathers which 
breed and bear their own children ? Tlieir 
wives conceive ; and the husbands, who 
should be the only comfort in the time of 
theii' weakness, first begin to comjilain of 
the sorrow. Juno Luciua fer opem ! I 
pray send for the midwives, and let us see 
what this great mountain will bring forth : 
forsooth his teeth ache; his bones are crazy; 
his eyesight fails him : he is troubled with 
rheums ; sometimes with the megrim : phy- 
sic will not help him ; the times of the year 
will not avail him ; but the poor man must 
expect his wife's delivery. Hath God or- 
dained this to shew the entire league and 
compassionate heart that should pass be- 
tween man and wife, and how they are both 
equally engaged in the issue ? — Strange it 
were, and wonderful in nature, were it not 
that the husband is the son of a woman, and 
therefore partakes of her weakness and im- 
perfection : partus sequitur ventrem, and is in 
some sort liable to her curse. 

" Here you would expect of me that I 
should assign and point out the causes of 
this fellow-feeling and strange affLCtion be- 
tween man and wife. Happily I could guess 
at some of them ; for, for certainty, I know 
none : rather I would fly to the divine Pro- 
vidence, beyond the reach and compass of 
nature ; who for assuring man that He him- 
self hath coupled them together, and that 
both persons are but one flesh, thei'cfore 
he hath given them but one sense and feel- 
ing of the same sorrow. That as in their 
estate one and the same calamity doth 
equally befall them, so in their persons one 
and the same misery doth equally attack 
them, which God hath ordained by secret 
and hidden causes best known to himself. — 

" — It is not unknown to all skilful mu- 
sicians, the great concord which is between 
the eighths ; not only for the sweet har- 
mony of music ; but if the instrument shall 
be thus set, and disposed for the purpose, 
the one string being easily touched, the 
other will likewise move for company. As- 
suredly between man and wife, their love 
and their aflections concurring together, 
there is likewise a greater sympathy and 
agi*eement in theii* natural temper and con- 
stitution ; and therefore are fitter disposed 
to work upon each other's body ; as kindred 
descended from one stock are ajiter to in- 
fect and annoy each other, in a pestilent 
disease. Besides their constitution, man 
and wife, living together, feeding on the 
same meats, resting together, and convers- 
ing together, as at all times, so sometimes 
when their bodies are more apt to be tainted, 
no marvel, then, if some husbands (and yet 
but a few, for God gave man his wife lor 
his help, and not for his sorrow) do partake 
in their passions." — Goodman's Fall of 
Man, pp. 317, 320. 

Grievances of the Clergy. 

" — I FORBEAR to spcak of the grievances 

and complaints of the Clergy ; they are 

many, instead of the ancient privileges and 

liberties of the Church, which seem to be 



jrroiinded in nature, in regard of the high 
excellency of their profession, and there- 
fore have been practised among all nations, 
but principally expressed in the Levitical 
law, and so, translated from the Synagogue 
to the Church, observed in all ancient times, 
and in the primitive Church. It were to 
be wished that they had but the common 
liberty of subjects : for all others, they have 
their voices and suffrages in making their 
own laws ; the husbandmen in the choice 
of their Knights ; the tradesmen in the 
choice of their Burgesses : it were to be 
wished that the Clergy were not wholly 
excluded ; being, indeed, more subject to 
penal laws than any other state in the 
kingdom." — Goodman's Fall of Man, p. 

No Spiders in Westminster-Hall ! ! 

" Thus it hath been the complaint of 
all ages, leges esse telas araneajnim, vel quia 
juridici sunt aranece, vel quia muscas capiunt, 
et vespas dimittunt. But I am not of their 
mind ; for I think that God in his provi- 
dence hath so fitly ordained it, as prophe- 
cying or prescribing a lesson, that the tim- 
ber in Westminster Hall should neither 
admit cobweb nor spider : and God make 
us thankful for the free course of our jus- 
tice." — Goodman's Fall of Man, p. 169. 

Bottom Winds, and Theory of the Wind. 

" Because AVind is the usual fore-runner 
of Rain, and the distributer of it over the 
Earth, we shall make it our first endeavour 
to find out its original, as well as its natural 
uses ; and notwithstanding the difiiculty of 
the discovery, we may venture to assert 
that, in the greatest probability, it proceeds 
from vast swarms of nitrous particles, aris- 
ing from the bottom of the sea ; which being 
put into motion, either by the central fire, 
or by that heat and fermentation which 
abound in this great body of the earth : and 
therefore this first commotion, created by 

the said fermentation, we call a Bottom 
Wind : which is presently discovered by 
porpoises and other sea fish, which delight 
to sport and play upon the waves of the 
sea ; who by their playing, give the mari- 
ners the first notice of an approaching storm. 
When these nitrous swarms are risen toward 
the surface of the sea, in a dark night, they 
cause such a shining light upon the waves, 
as if the sea were on fire : and being de- 
livered from the brackish water and re- 
ceived into the open air, those fiery and 
shining meteors which fix upon the masts 
and sides of ships, and are only nitrous 
particles condensed by the circumambient 
cold, and like that which the Chymists call 
Phosphorus, or Glow-worm, shine and cast 
a light, but have no heat. This gives to 
mariners the second notice, that the storm 
is rising ; for upon the first breaking out of 
the wind the sea begins to be rough, the 
waves swell and rise, when at the same time 
the air is calm and clear. 

" This boiling fermentation of the sea 
causeth the vapours to arise, which by the 
intenseness of the circumambient cold is 
condensed into thick clouds, and falls down 
in storms of wind and rain ; fii'st upon the 
sea from whence they rose ; and then the 
attractive power of the mountain -cold, by 
a secret magnetism between vapour and 
cold, attracts the waterish vapours, inter- 
mixed with nitrous particles, to the high 
tops of movmtains and hills, where they 
hang, hovering in thick fogs and waterish 
mists, until the atmosjAerial heat rarifies 
the nitrous part of the fog (which is always 
uppermost, and appears white and trans- 
lucent) into brisk gales of wind ; and the 
intenseness of atmospherial cold having at- 
tracted the vapours into the colder regions 
of the ail", where being condensed into 
clouds, the wind breaks, dissipates and drives 
them before it, until they fall down in rain, 
and water the surface of the earth." — Ro- 
binson's Natural History of Westmoreland 
and Cumberland, p. 7-9. 



Difference of Races in Men. 

" I DO not doubt," says Goodman, " but 
as there are several kinds of creatures, so 
in the same kind there may be a great dif- 
ference for the virtues and good qualities; 
and therefore, as in the earth there are 
mines and veins of metal, a difference of 
mould. And as it is most manifest in all 
other kinds of dumb creatures, so in the 
bodies of men there may be a difference of 
blood : fortes creantur foi-tihus et bonis; not 
oidy In regard that the posterity doth natu- 
rally affect to follow the steps of their an- 
cestors, as likewise in regard to God's pro- 
mise, who will be a father of his elect and 
of their seed ; and according to the truth 
and certainty of his own nature, will con- 
tinue his gracious mercies from generation 
to generation ; but likewise in regard of the 
natural and inbred qualities arising from 
the temper and constitution of the seed. 
Thus God intending to take our manhood 
upon himself, he made choice of his own 
stock and family, even the tribe of Judah, 
the royal race, for his parentage ; and this 
doth make much for the dignity and honour 
of noble descents ; though otherwise we 
must not herein presume too far, for the 
tribes are now confounded, and we are all 
the sons of Abraham. The father's virtues 
are not always intailed to his seed ; the blood 
full often is tainted ; and God's mercy in 
these days is inlarged, making no difference 
or acceptation of persons ; for the last age 
brought forth a butcher's son of as brave 
and as maguificent a spirit as if he had 
been the son of Cajsar." — Fall of Man, p. 

Intermarriage thought hy Sir Thomas More 
a Bond of Peace. 

When Richard the Third proposed a 
marriage between his niece and the King 
of Scotland's eldest son, the King of Scot- 
land, says Sib Thomas More, " gjadly 
accepted a,nd joyously consented to King 
Richard's device and conjunction of amity ; 

perfectly remembering that amongst all 
bonds and obligations of love and amity, 
there is neither a surer nor a more perfect 
lock, than the knot of conjunction in the 
Sacrament of matrimony, wliich was, in the 
very beginning of the first age of man, or- 
dained and instituted in the holy place of 
Paradise terrestrial, by God himself: by 
reason whereof, the propagation and suc- 
cession of the human nature, stablishedupon 
the sure seat of lawful matrimony between 
princes, may nourish peace, concord, and 
unity, assuage and break the furious rage 
of truculent Mars and terrible battle, and 
increase love, favour, and familiarity." — 
History of Richard the Third, p. 242. 

Swine's Dung taken fur the Dysentery in 

Dysentery was commonly termed the 
Country disease in Ireland, " and well it 
may," says Borlase, " for it reigns nowhere 
so epidemically, tainting strangers as well as 
natives. — Of late an extremely great use hath 
been made of swine's dung drunk in a con- 
venient vehicle. Nor is it a medicine wholly 
emperical ; it having, from the nature of the 
creature to eject it always moist, an anodyne 
quality, highly conducing to dulcorate the 
humour apt to ferment with so much viru- 
lency ; not to enlarge on other qualities 
wherewith it may be thought to be endued." 
— Reduction of Ireland, p. 174. 

Formalities of Hunting and Haivking. 

" Huntsmen and falconers . . . are well 
mounted and horsed, as if they were ap- 
l^ointed for some service of war ; all ap- 
parelled in green, like the sons of May: 
they can talk and discourse of their forest 
laws, of state matters, and news at court : 
they have their words of art, their rules and 
certain notions belonging to their profes- 
sion : and were it not for such formality and 
ceremonies, the sport would be little re- 
spected." — Goodman's Fall of Man, p. 149. 



Pride the main Cause of Non-conformity in 
the first Race. 

" Why did many of them deliberate so 
long whether they should accept of dignities 
in the Church, if they did not believe it 
lawful to hear the prayers, and to put even 
the Babylonish garment (as you will needs 
call the surplice) upon their backs, and 
more than that, to wear the very rags of the 
whore, the lawn sleeves ? If it was so plain 
a business that their conscience and their 
covenant would not let them conform, one 
would think they should have professed it 
openly without any more ado. A-ud there- 
fore I conclude that pause and deliberation 
was about something else, not about matters 
of conscience, but of interest and policy. 
As, whether the people would take it well, 
and not laugh at them as so many magpyes 
got upon a perch ; whether it would not be 
a scandalous thing, that is, not for their 
credit and reputation ; whether they could 
not hold such a party with them in non- 
conformity, as would balance the episcopal, 
and so force them at least to a toleration : 
in short, whether they should not lose the 
affections of their own party, which they 
had already made, and win very little upon 
the affections of others, whom they had so 
much disobliged in the late troubles. These 
were their secret debates in their cabals, 
the weighty pomts that were to be stated in 
those consultations. You, good-man, think 
perhaps that they spent their time in fasting 
and seeking God to direct theii- consciences. 
No, no ! it was not theii' conscience, but 
their credit, which then lay at stake. — I 
have heard some of them acknowledge they 
did not scruple what we do, but thought it 
unhandsome for them to do it." — Patrick's 
Frieiulhj Debute between a Conformist and a 
Non-conformist, p. 83. 

Effect of the Overthrow of the Church. 
" — As soon as you had cast out of doors 
all that was old among us, if any fellow did 
but light upon some new and pretty fancy 

in religion, or some odd unusual expression, 
or perhaps some swelling words of vanity, 
presently he set up for a preacher, and cried 
up himself for a man that had made some 
new discovery. And such was the confi- 
dence of these men, both in inventing 
strange language, and proclaiming their 
great discoveries everywhere, that the poor 
people were persuaded the Nation never 
knew what communion with God meant till 
this time. Now they thought the happy 
days were come when the Spirit was poured 
out, the mysteries of the Gospel unfolded. 
Free Grace held forth, the Anointings and 
Sealings of the Spirit vouchsafed, Christ 
advanced to his throne ; and when they 
should have such incomes, indwellings, and 
I know not how many other fine things, as 
never was the like heard of before. For one 
man comes and tells them of the stream- 
ings of Christ's blood freely to sinners ; ano- 
ther bids them put themselves upon the 
stream of Free Grace, without having any 
foot on their own bottom ; a third tells them 
how they must apply promises, absolute 
promises ; a fourth tells them there is a 
special mystery in looking at the testa- 
mentalness of Christ's sufferings. And be- 
cause he found that everybody had got into 
their mouths Gospel Truths, Hidden Trea- 
sures, and such like words, he presented 
them with sips of sweetness, and told them 
he was come to shew them bow the Saints 
might pry into the Father's Glory ; and in 
short, bad them not be afraid of New Light, 
but ' set open their windows for any light 
that God should make known to them :' — 
it being a thing peculiar to such men, to 
please the people with some new-found 
words and phrases, which if they should lay 
aside, together with all their abused scrip- 
ture exjiression, they would look just like 
other men, only not so well. — Consider what 
followed all these glorious discoveries, as 
they called them. Since the people were 
so much in love with new-minted words in 
which they thought there were great myste- 
ries concealed, those men who would excel 
all the rest of these new teachers, set forth 



themselves In more pompous language, and 
made a shew of a more glorious appearance 
of" God in them. For they told the people 
of being Godded with God, and Christed 
with Christ, &c. ; which strangely amused 
silly souls, and made them gaze and stare, 
as if the Holy Gliost were come down 
again from Heaven upon men." — Patrick's 
Friendly Debate beticeen a Conformist and 
a Non-conformist, p. 25-7. 

Puritanic Conversions. 

" Non-Conformist. Say what you will, 
your Preachers never had such a seal to 
their ministry as God hath given ours by 
converting thousands through their means. 

" Coiformist. More phrases still ? You 
mean, God hath shewn they are rightly 
called, or sent by him. 

''N.C. Yes. 

" C. Then all those men who turn people 
may say that they have a seal of God to 
their ministry. See, say the Popish Priests, 
what multitudes we convert ! therefore we 
are sent of God. Behold, say the Quakers, 
we have a seal from Heaven, for ever so 
many of your people have forsaken you, 
and follow us. 

" N. C. But you mistake me, Sir : they 
do not only convert men to our party, but 
to be good. They really turn them from 
sin to God. 

" C. I am glad to hear it. But may not 
a question be made, whether they are not 
converted only from some, not from all 
sins ; nay, whether they are not converted 
from one sin to another ? So I am sure 
you confess it is with the Quakers, who 
make men sometime more civil in one re- 
gard, but more uncivil than ever in others. 

" N. C. Sure you cannot suspect us to 
1 e like them. 

" C. It will be fit for you to examine 
yourselves thoroughly on this point : whe- 
ther, for instance, many among you jire not 
converted from loving the world to hate 
their nelghlwurs; from cold devotion at our 

churches, to a fiery zeal against our minis- 
ters ; from undutifulness to natural parents, 
to the greatest contempt of civil and sj^iri- 
tual. Nay, is this never made a note of a 
man converted, that though he have a great 
many faults, yet he is wrought to antipathy 
to Bishops, Common-Prayer, an innocent 
cassock, and a surcingle, as you are pleased 
in derision to call our ministers' girdles?" — 
Patrick's Friendly Debate between a Con- 
formist and a Non-conformist, p. 41. 

Insects better governed thaii Men. 
" — He that shall well consider the com- 
monwealth of the Bees ; how strict they are 
within the territories of their own hives ; 
how just they are in putting those statutes 
in execution concerning idle persons and 
vagabonds, and likewise the employment of 
day-labourers ; what an excellent order there 
appears between them; how great the obedi- 
ence is from the inferior to the superior ; 
he will easily confess that the greatest tem- 
poral happiness of man, which consists in 
a good government, whereby he is secured 
of his person and state, is much more 
eminently discerned amongst beasts than 
amongst men. I will not only insist on the 
Bee, who seems to teach us a platform and 
precedent of a perfect monarchy : it is long 
since agreed and concluded in philosophy, 
that such disorder, such difference and dis- 
agreement, such hate and enmity, as is be- 
tween man and man, cannot be found in 
the rest of the creatures, nisi inter dispares 
feras, unless it be in beasts of a different 
kind, and in the deserts and wilderness 
where ravenous creatures do together in- 
habit. Such is the providence and govern- 
ment of nature, that they live as peaceably 
as we do in our best walled fortresses and 
towns : the city gates, though shut, yet 
sometimes threaten as dangerous home-bred 
conspiracies, as they do secure us of out- 
ward foreign invasions." — Goodman's Fall 
of Man, p. 100. 



Misei-y of the Poor. 

" For the common sort of men, I might 
well reckon them among beasts, vulg-iui ho- 
inimtm, inter vidgus animalhim. They are 
always carried with shews, and never ap- 
prehend the truth ; their delights are all 
beastly ; they seem not to have the least 
spark of a spirit. This common sort is like- 
wise the poorest sort ; so that generally man 
is very needy and poor, though otherwise he 
is ashamed of his poverty ; and seeing that 
man requires more helps than the rest of 
the creatures, as clothes for his nakedness, 
physic for his health, a house for his habi- 
tation, therefore the wants of men are far 
greater than the wants of the creatures. 
For I have often seen in the streets an old, 
blind, decrepit man, full of sores and in- 
ward grief; hungry, naked, cold, comfort- 
less and harbourless ; without patience to 
sustain his grief, without any help to relieve 
him, without any counsel to comfort him ; 
without fear of God's justice, without hope 
of God's mercy, which as at all times, so 
most especially in such distress, should be 
the sole comfort of a Christian man. I 
protest before God, that were it not for the 
hope of my happiness, and that I did truly 
believe the miseries of this life to be the 
just punishments of sin, I should much pre- 
fer the condition of dumb creatures, before 
the state of man." — Goodman's Fall of 
Man, p. 161. 

Jesuits promote Schism. 

" — Ir there be any of the Jesuits in 
laymen's clothes, they do not persuade you 
to our Church, but from it ; knowing that 
it is the surest way to gain you, if they can 
once unsettle your minds, and fill you with 
fancies ; of which they will at last persuade 
you there is no end, till you rest yourself 
in the bosom of that Harlot which you so 
much abhor." — Patrick's Friendly Debate 
between a Conformist and a Non-conformist., 
p. 77. 


" When I remember how the young 
chickens, though ^continually fed in the 
channel without respect, should now at 
length be served up in a silver dish, upon 
a damask table-cloth, with much pomp and 
solemnity, to be food for their masters ; 
neatly handled, curiously carved, and safely 
laid up in their bowels ; certainly I com- 
mend their funerals before man's, who is 
wrapt in a sheet, buried in a pit where his 
carcass corrupts, and is made meat for the 
worms." — Goodman's Fall of Man, p. 107. 

Irreverence introduced by* Puritanism. 

" You first taught the people to forbear 
all expression of devotion when they came 
into the church, and decried the reverence 
of uncovering the head there as superstitious 
and abominable. And so they soon took 
the liberty to come talking into the church, 
and not only to walk with their hats on to 
their seats (even when the minister was 
reading the Holy Scriptures), but keep them 
half on when he was at prayer. And then, 
because others were wont to kneel, or at 
least stand, in that holy duty, they would 
show their liberty, or their opposition (I 
know not whether), in sitting, nay in lolling, 
after a lazy fashion, as if the minister were 
telling a" sleepy tale, not praying to our 
Creator. In short there were no bounds 
could be set to their extravagancies : but 
they found out as many new gestures and 
odd phrantic expressions in their prayers 
as before they had done in their preaching." 
— Fxtrick's Frietidly Debate betiveena Con- 
formist and a Non-cojformist, p. 29. 

Experience in Religion no safe Grade. 

" Conformist. When you tell us you find 
by experience that you are in the right way, 
it is a thing that may be entertained with a 
smUe. It is in truth no better than to say, 

' Gcoflman's argument would have pleased 
the Tapuyas. 



You may take my word for it. For whether 
you be in the right or no, is not to be known 
by experience, but by reason. In like 
manner if you tell me you find by experi- 
ence your minister is a good man, because 
he doth you good, it is a frivolous argu- 
ment, and I may be allowed to slight it ; 
for it cannot be known by your experience 
what he is. You can only know by your 
experience that you are made better, but 
he may be bad enough notwithstanding ; as 
the Quakers were reformed of cheating and 
cousenage in some places by those who, 
there is great reason to suspect, were cheat- 
ing knaves themselves. 

" Non-C. But I may know by experience 
whether the things he preaches be true or 

" C. It will deceive you if you rely 
upon that proof. For you may have some 
good done you by false principles. Nay, 
those very principles may make you do some 
things well, which shall make you do other 
things ill. 

" N. C. That's strange. 

" C Not so strange as true. For what 
principle was it that led the Quakers to be 
just in their dealings ? 

" N. C. That they ought to follow the 
Light within them. 

" C. This led them also to be rude and 
clownish and disresjjectful to governors. 
For all is not reason that is in us : there is 
a world of fancy also ; and the flashes of this 
now and then are very sudden and amazing, 
just like lightning out of a cloud. By this 
they find they were misled in many things 
which they have now forsaken ; being con- 
tent to wear hatbands and ribbons too, 
which they so much at the first abomi- 

" N. C. I take them to be a deluded 

" C. And yet they are led, they will tell 
you, by experience. For they found them- 
selves amended by entering into that reli- 
gion, whereas they cheated and co^sened 
in all other forms wherein they were before. 
And therefore do not tell me any more of 

the good you have got by your private 
meetings, nor make it an argument of their 
lawfulness ; for the same argument will be 
used against yourselves by the Quakers, 
who will tell you God is in no private meet- 
ings but only theirs, for otherwhere they 
could never find him. Take your choice ; 
and either let it alone yourselves, or else 
allow it them. It will either serve both, or 
neither." — Patrick's Friendly Debate be- 
tween a Conformist and a Non-conformist^ 
p. 130. 

Italian Scheme for a Balloon, circiter 1679. 

In the first Number of the Philosophical 
Collections (1679) is " a Demonstration 
how it is practically possible to make a ship 
which shall be sustained by the air, and may 
be moved either by sails or oars," from a 
work entitled Prodj-oma, published in Ita- 
lian by P. Francesco Lana. The scheme 
was that of making a brazen vessel, which 
should weigh less than the air it contained, 
and consequently float in the air, when that 
which was within it was pumpt out. He cal- 
culated everything — except the pressure nl 
the atmosphere; and the only objection to 
his discovery which he could not obviate, 
was a moral one, like what the elder and 
greater Bacon felt with regard to gun- 
powder. " Other difliculties," he says, " I 
see not which may be objected against this 
invention, besides one, which to me seems 
greater than all the rest ; and that is, that 
it maybe thought that God will never suffer 
this invention to take effect, because of the 
many consequences which may disturb the 
civil government of men. For who sees not 
that no city can be secure against attack, 
since our ship may at any time be placed 
directly over it, and descending down may 
discharge soldiers ? The same would hap- 
pen to private houses and ships on the sea; 
for our ship descending out of the air to the 
sails of sea-ships, it may cut their ropes; yea 
without descending, by casting grapples it 
may overset them, kill their men, burn their 
ships by artificial fire works and fire balls. 



And this they may do not only to ships, but 
to great buildings, castles, cities, with such 
security, that they which cast these things 
down, from a height out of gun-shot, can- 
not on the other side be offended by those 
from below." — P. 27. 

Slavery to which Fallen Man is horn. 

" All the honest vocations and callings 
of men, what are they in verity and truth, 
but only services and slaveries ? Every 
seat\u-ing man seems to be a galley-slave. 
Every occupation seems a mere drudgery, 
the very beasts themselves do not suffer the 
like. What a dangerous and painful labour 
it is to work in repairing of sea banks ; some 
are overwhelmed with waters ; others die 
surfeited with cold ; the very night must 
give no rest to their labours. How many 
have miscarried under vaults, in working 
of mines, in digging of coal-pits, casting up 
of sand or of gravel, how many have been 
buried up quick and alive ! How many 
have fallen from the tops of high buildings, 
from scaffolds and ladders : if some carpen- 
ters and masons prove old men, yet how 
many shall you find not decrepid or trou- 
bled with bruises, with aches and sores ? 
How many trades are noysome, unfit for 
man's health ! I have known a student in 
Cambridge, only in the course of his pro- 
fession, troubled with five dangerous dis- 
eases at once. How many trades are base 
and ignoble, not befitting the dignity of 
man's condition, as coblers, tinkers, carters, 
chimney-sweepers. But hearkye, hearkye, 
methinks all the cries of London do not so 
truly inform me what they sell, or what I 
should buy, as they do proclaim and cry 
their own misery. Consider, consider, whe- 
ther any other creature could endure the 
like service. And yet this is no prentice- 
ship, that ever we should expect any better 
condition, but the whole term of our life 
must be spent in this slavery. It is a truth 
wliicli will admit no exce2ition,and therefore 
I will f( )rbear to make any further complaint ; 

only, man's nature is corrupted, man's na- 
ture is corrupted, and therefore with pa- 
tience we must endure the yoke ; no longer 
sons of a loving mother, but servants and 
slaves to a step-dame." — Goodman's Fall of 
Man, p. 61. 


" I OBSERVED a custom in all those Italian 
cities and towns through the which I passed, 
that is not used in any other country that I 
saw in my travels, neither do I think that 
any other nation of Christendom doth use 
it, but only Italy. The Italian, and also 
most strangers that are commorant in Italy, 
do always at their meals use a little fork 
when they cut their meat. For while with 
their knife which they hold in one hand 
they cut the meat out of the dish, they 
fasten their fork, which they hold in their 
other hand, upon the same dish : so that 
whatsoever he be that, sitting in the com- 
pany of any others at meal, should unad- 
visedly touch the dish of meat with his fin- 
gers from which all at the table do cut, he 
will give occasion of offence to the company, 
as having transgressed the laws of good 
manners ; insomuch that for his error, he 
shall be for the least browbeaten, if not 
reprehended in words. This form of feed- 
ing I understand is generally used in all 
places of Italy, their forks being made for 
the most part of iron or steel, and some of 
silver, but those are used only by gentle- 
men. The reason of this their curiosity is, 
because the Italian cannot by any means 
endure to have his dish touched with fin- 
gers, seeing all men's fingers are not alike 
clean. Hereupon I myself thought good to 
imitate the Italian fashion by this forked 
cutting of meat, not only while I was- in 
Italy, but also in Germany, and oftentimes 
in England since I came home ; being once 
cpiippcd for that frequent using of my fork, 
by a certain learned gentleman, a familiar 
friend of mine, one Mr. Laurence Whitaker, 
who in his merry humour doubted not to 
call me at table furcifer, only for using a 



fork at feeding, but for no other cause." — 
Cokyat's Crudities, vol. 1, p. 106. 

First Uses of the Black Lead. 

Robinson says of the Wadd, or Black 
Lead, " this ore is of more value than either 
Copper, Lead, or Iron. 

" Its natural uses are both medicinal and 
mechanical. It's a present remedy for the 
cholick : it easeth the pain of gravel, stone 
and strangury : and for these and the like 
uses, it's much bought up by Apothecaries 
and Physicians, who understand more of its 
medicinal uses than I am able to give ac- 
count of. 

" The manner of the Country people's 
using it is thus ; first they beat it small into 
meal, and then take as much of it in white 
wine, or ale, as will lie upon a sixpence, 
or more, if the distemper require it. 

" It operates by urine, sweat, and vomit- 
ing. This account I had from those who 
had frequently used it in these distempers 
with good success. Besides those uses that 
are medicinal, it hath many other uses which 
increase the value of it. 

" At the first discovering of it, the neigh- 
bours made no other use of it, but for mark- 
ing their sheep: but it's now made use of to 
glazen and harden crucibles, and other ves- 
sels made of earth or clay, that are to en- 
dure the hottest fire ; and to that end it's 
wonderfully effectual, which much enhaun- 
ceth the price of such vessels. 

"By rubbing it upon iron-arms, as guns, 
pistols, and the like, and tinging of them 
with its colour, it preserves them from 

" It's made use of by Dyers of cloth, 
making their blues to stand unalterable : for 
these and other uses it's bought vip at great 
prices by the Hollanders and others. 

" The Lords of this Vein are, the Lord 
Banks, and one I\Ir. Sendson. This Vein 
is but opened once in seven years ; but then 
such quantities of it are got, that are suffi- 
cient to serve the country." — Natural His- 

tory of Westmoreland and Cutnberland, p. 


Grounds of Machiavellism. 
" I WOULD gladly know what is the ground 
of all Machiavelian policy, but only this ; that, 
supposing the inward corruption of man's 
nature, it suspects and prevents the worst, 
— desiring to secure itself, though by the 
worst means ; and to purchase its own safety 
though it must be inforced to wade through 
a bath of man's blood : and proposing cer- 
tain ends to itself, answerable to the cor- 
rupt inclination thereof, as honour, wealth, 
pleasure, &c., it respects not the goodness 
or the lawfulness of the means to attain it, 
but only how they are fitted and accommo- 
dated to the present use and occasion." — 
Goodman's Fall of Man, j). 212. 

A Bishop of Durham! s Bounty. 

" RicHAKD DE BuRiE, Sometime Bishop 
of Diu-ham in the year 1333, bestowed 
weekly for the relief of the poor, eight c[uar- 
ters of wheat made mto bread, besides the 
fragments of his house, the offals of his 
slaughterhouse, and yearly much clothing. 
In his journey between Newcastle and Dur- 
ham, he gave always by his own appointed 
order, eight pounds in alms ; from Durham 
to Stockton, five pounds ; from Durham to 
Auckland, five marks ; from Durham to 
INIiddleham, five pounds." — Goodman's Fall 
of Man, p. 377. 

Labour neglected for higher occupations — 
yet Labour the Lot of Man. 

Labour is part of the punishment ap- 
pointed for the primal sin : " now man, in- 
stead of patience in bearing this yoke, and 
obedience in undertaking this task, and con- 
forming himself to God's law, desires nothing 
so much as to frustrate the sentence of God, 
and to avoid the punishment ; esi^ecially in 
these last days, which is the old age of the 
World, we intend nothing more than our 




idleness and sloth, sometimes under the fair 
shew of sanctity. Whereas certain it is that 
all honest callings and vocations of men, they 
are God's own ordinance ; in performing 
them we do God service ; bis orat qui bene 
laborat; the works have the force of a 
prayer, as implicitly desiring God to concur 
with his own means. They are ILkcAvise in 
the nature of sacrifices, as being actions 
well pleasing and commanded by God him- 
self. Think them not base ; do not neglect 
them with any foolish fancy and conceit of 
thine own purity ; for God hath appointed 
them, and he shall one day take the accounts 
of thy labour in this kind. But the general 
practise of this world is to give over all 
painful, manual and laborious professions, 
and to desire to live by their wits ; as if the 
state of man were wholly angelical, and that 
his hunger could be satisfied with know- 
ledge, his thirst quenched with sweet medi- 
tation, and his back clothed with good pre- 
cepts ; or as if every part should ambitiously 
aspire to the perfection of an eye. For 
scholars are infinite ; lawyers, innumerable ; 
cities swarm and abound with multitudes, 
and every company complains of company : 
but tillage, husbandry, and manual labour, 
were never more neglected. We do not 
desire to gain from nature, so to benefit 
ourselves and to enrich the whole kingdom : 
but we desire, with the fineness and quiddi- 
ties of our own wits, to gain from others ; 
and we must breed up our children as clerks 
in some office. And hence it is, that our 
wants were never so great; the tricks and 
shifts of many were never so shameful and 
dishonest ; for they that know best to live 
riotously in a wasteful course of expence, 
know least what belongs to the labour and 
difficulty in getting." — Goodman's Full of 
Man, p. 246. 

Mare Drunkenness in England than in 

The Germans, "though they will not offer 
any vilhiny or injury to him that refuseth 
to pl<'<l;re him the whole (which I have often 

seen in England to my great grief), jet 
they will so little regard him, that they will 
scarce vouchsafe to converse with him. 
Truly I have heard Germany much dis- 
praised for drunkenness before I saw it; 
but that vice reigneth no more there, that 
I could perceive, than in other coimtries. 
For I saw no man drunk in any place of 
Germany, though I was in many goodly 
cities, and in much notable company. I 
would God the imputation of that vice 
could not be almost as truly cast upon mine 
own nation, as upon Germany. Besides I 
observed that they imposed not such an in- 
evitable necessity of drinking a whole health, 
especially those of the greater size, as many 
of our English gallants do; a custom, in my 
opinion, most barbarous, and fitter to be 
used among the rude Scythians and Goths 
than civil Christians ; yet so frequently 
practised in England, that I have often most 
heartily wished it were clean abolished out 
of our land, as being no small blemish to so 
renowned and well governed a kingdom as 
England is." — Coktat's Crudities, vol. 2, 
p. 288. 

Feic Books recommended by Dona Oliva. 

" De la Sapiencia te digo que puedes ser 
felice sin ella, que poco saber te basta. Con 
estc librito, y Fray Luys de Granada, y la 
Vanidad de Fstela, y Contemptus ^lundi, 
sin mas libros puedes ser felice ; haziendo pa- 
radas en la vida, contemplando tu ser, y en- 
tendiendote a ti mismo; y mirando al camino 
que llevas, y adonde vas a parar, y contem- 
plando este muiido, y sus maravillas, y elfin 
del ; y leyendo un rata coda dia en los dichos 
libros, que es buen genero de oracion. " — 
DoxA Oliva Sabuco, Coloquio de la Na- 
tui-uleza del Hoinbre, fol. 103. 

Words — what they ought to be. 

Words. — " Ds doivent porter leur sens 
et leur signification, et jamais ils ne doivent 
estre obscurs. Le mot n'est qu'un habit 
qu'on donne a rimagination, jinur en re- 



vestir la pensee, et la mieux faire connoistre 
par les couleurs dont elle est depeinte : mais 
c'est un habit qui ne la doit point couvrir; 
c'est une coifure, et non pas un masque ; 
elle doit la parei* et luy servir d'orneinent, 
et non pas la caclier aux yeux, ot I'enve- 
loper d'un deguisement." — La Preiieiise, 
torn. 2, p. 444. 

A Reformer s Notion of the Uses of Go- 
" Out of Britain most people conceive it 
to be one of the duties of government, — 
one which individuals cannot exercise, — to 
make roads. Remembering this, led me to 
speculate, as the snow fell, as to the real 
extent to which governments — considered 
as some individuals different from, and se- 
parate from the mass of society, regulating 
the whole — are necessary for its good. I 
remembered, that what was considered for- 
merly as one of their most important duties, 
the creation of a proper currency, had re- 
cently been performed in a much more com- 
modious manner by individuals, as bankers, 
and that paper circulation had only become 
inconvenient through governments inter- 
fering with it ; that, probably, all the now 
hateful duties of a police might be better 
performed by the individuals of the society 
taking on themselves, as every man now 
partially does, the duty of learning what his 
neighbour's conduct is, and speaking of it 
freely and openly, and treating him accord- 
ing to his behaviour. It is very evident 
that everything regulated by the opinion 
of the whole society, not directed by the 
previously formed opinions of some few 
men, must be always regulated, in the best 
possible manner, agreeable to the wisdom 
and knowledge of the whole society. What 
is directed by a few men, can only be regu- 
lated by the wisdom and knowledge they 
possess ; and it must be better every society 
should be regulated by all its wisdom and 
knowledge, rather than by a part of/ these 
estimable qualities. I can hardly tell with 
what narrow bounds this speculation led 

me to circumscribe the duties of govern- 
ments ; nor how much the reverence which 
I, in common with every man, had been 
taught to pay them, dwindled in my imagi- 
nation." — Ti'avels in the North of Germany., 
by Thomas IIodgskin, p. 73. 

English Blackguards the Worst. 

" In truth, a riotous and a drunken wo- 
man is abuost an unknown character except 
in the sea-ports and among the lower classes 
of Britain. There is something either in 
the greater inequality of the different classes 
of our people, or in the force of our moral 
opinions, which condemns the sinning part 
of our population to a state of rough bru- 
tality, — of profligate and boisterous licenti- 
ousness, — of active and devilish vice, — which 
glances in rags, in filth, and drunkenness, 
on the eye, and sounds, in imprecations, on 
the ear, and which I have never seen in any 
other jDart of the world but in Britain. 
Single specuuens of this sort of character 
may be seen in Paris, but it is found in 
masses only in the neighbourhood of Wap" 
ping, of St. Giles, and of our sea-ports. 
Our activity is conspicuous, not only in 
virtue, but in vice ; and the latter is carried 
to loathsome excess. Licentiousness, and 
perhaps cruelty and revenge, may be the 
characteristics of other people ; but it is only 
in our country that hard and disgusting 
brutality is combined with profligacy. This 
sort of character may be owing, in both 
countries, to commerce, or to activity of 
mind ; but much of it is to be attributed to 
a severity of opinion, which not only con- 
demns the sin, but has no charity for the 
sinner. Calvinism is the predominant re- 
ligion of Friezland ; and it too frequently 
classes enjoyment as vice, and pushes those 
who have made one false step into the abyss 
of misery. In other countries frailties are 
reci'arded with more tenderness, and those 
who are addicted to any one vice are not 
compelled to be utterly vicious. To what- 
ever causes the difference of character which 



has been mentioned may be owing, it is, I 
think, certain, that one reprobated vice 
brings after it, in our country, many other 
vices, and more misery than in other coun- 
tries." — Travels in the Noi-th of Germany, hy 
Thomas Hodgskin, p. 282. 

Journeymen living with their Employers in 
Germany. — Once a custom here. 

" The fact that many of the journeymen 
ti'adesmen still live with their employers, is 
a specimen of the equality and homely state 
of society in Germany. The progress of 
refinement, if such an alteration can be 
called refinement, seems to be, to banish 
this homely state. It once existed in Eng- 
land. Both masters and journeymen, I be- 
lieve, like our present mode better ; and an 
individual cannot decide that their judge- 
ment is wrong. I can but remark, however, 
that when masters describe the former state 
as a 'grovelling situation,' they like the pre- 
sent one better, chiefly because it ministers 
to their pride ; and, while they boast their 
democratic feelings, it lessens the distinction 
between them and their employers, and 
makes a more marked boundary between 
them and their journeymen. It renders 
more perfect that aristocracy of wealth, 
which is already stronger in our country 
than in any other. It can only be known 
from the experience of future ages, if this 
aristocracy, now first coming to its full 
growth, be not more pernicious than that 
aristocracy of birth which is sinking to de- 
cay, and which has so long been the plague 
of the world." — Travels in the North ofGer- 
»«an^,% Thomas Hodgskin, vol. 2, p. 162. 

Bunyan on Ex-tempore Prayer. 

" It is at this day wonderful common, 
for men to pray Ex-tempore also : To pray 
by a Book, by a premeditated set Form, is 
now out of fashion. He is counted nobody 
now, that cannot at any time, at a minute's 
warning, make a Praver of half an hour 

long. I am not against Ex-tempore Prayer, 
for I believe it to be the best kind of pray- 
ing ; but yet I am jealous, that there are a 
great many such prayers made, especially 
in pulpits and public meetings, without the 
breathing of the Holy Ghost in them : For 
if a Pharisee of old could do so, why may 
not a Pharisee do the same now ? Wit, 
and reason, and notion, is not screwed up 
to a very great height ; nor do men want 
words, or fancies, or pi'ide, to make them 
do this thing. Groat is the formality of 
Religion this day, and little the power 
thereof. Now Avhen there is a great form 
and little power (and such there was also 
among the Jews, in the time of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ), then men are most 
strangely under the temptation to be hy- 
pocrites ; for nothing doth so properly and 
directly oppose hypocrisy, as the power and 
glory of the things we profess. And so on 
the contrary, nothing is a greater tempt- 
ation to hypocrisy, than a form of know- 
ledge of things without the savour thereof. 
Nor can much of the power and savour of 
the things of the Gospel be seen at this day 
upon professors (I speak not now of all) If 
theli' actions and conversations be com- 
pared together. How proud, how covetous, 
how like the World in garb and guise, in 
words and actions, are most of the great 
professors of this our day ! I^ut when they 
come to Divine Worship, especially to pray, 
by theu' words and carriage there one 
woiild almost judge them to be Angels in 
Heaven." — Bunyan's Worhs,\o\. 2, p. 677. 

Prayer with Devotion. 

" The Pharisee is said to pray with him- 
self; God and the Pharisee were not to- 
gether, there was only the Pharisee and 
himself. Paul knew not what to pray for 
without the Holy Ghost joined himself with 
him, and helped him with groans unutter- 
able ; but the Pharisee had no need of that ; 
'twas enough that HE and himself were 
together at this work' for lie thought with- 



out doubting that HE and Id msdf iogeihcv 
could do. How many times have I heard 
ancient men, and ancient women, at it, with 
themselves, when all alone in some private 
room, or in some solitary path ; and in 
their chat, they have been sometimes rea- 
soning, sometimes chiding, sometimes plead- 
ing, sometimes praying, and sometimes sing- 
ing ; but yet all has been done by themselves 
when all alone . but yet so done, as one 
that had not seen them must needs have 
concluded that they were talking, singing, 
and praying, with company ; when all that 
they had said, they did it with themselves, 
and had neither auditor nor regarder. 

" So the Pharifsee was at it with himself; 
he and A/mse^/" performed, at this time, the 
Duty of Prayer." — Bunyan's Works, \o\. 2, 
p. 678. 

All Mischief commences in the Name of God, 
says Luther. 

" I REMEMBER that Luthcr usei\. to say. In 
the name of God begins all Mischief All 
must be father'd upon God ; the Pharisee's 
Conversion must be father'd upon God ; the 
right or rather the villany of the outrageous 
Persecution against God's People, must be 
father'd upon God. God, I thank thee, and 
Blessed be God, must be the burthen of 
the Ileretick's song. So again, the Free- 
wilier, he will ascribe all to God ; the 
Quaker, the Ranter, the Socinian, &c. will 
ascribe all to God, God, I thank thee, is in 
every man's mouth, and must be intailed 
to every error, delusion, and damnable 
doctrine that is in the world : But the 
name of God, and their doctrine, worship, 
and way, hangeth together, and the Phari- 
see's doctrine ; that is to say, nothing at 
all : for God hath not proposed their prin- 
ciples, nor doth he own them, nor hath he 
commanded them, nor doth he convey by 
them the least grace or mercy to them ; 
but rather rejecteth them, and holdeth^them 
for his enemies, and for the destroyers of 
the world." — Bunyan's Works, vol. 2, ]). 

A Man hanged npon his own Self-ac- 

" Since you are entered upon stories, I 
also will tell you one, the which, though I 
heard it not with mine own ears, yet my 
author I dare believe : It is concerning one 
old Tod, that was hanged about twenty 
years ago, or more, at Hartford, for being 
a thief. The story is this : At a Smnmer 
Assize holden at Hartford, while the Judge 
was sitting ujjon the Bench, comes this old 
Tod into the Court, cloathed in a green 
suit, with his leathern girdle in his hand, 
his bosom open, and all in a dung sweat as 
if he had run for his life ; and being come 
in, he spake aloud as follows : Mrj Lord, said 
he, here is the veryest rogue that breathes 
upon the face of the earth : I have been a 
thief from a child: When I was but a little 
one, I gave myself to rob orchards, and to 
do other such like tvicked things ; and I have 
continued a thief ever since. My Lord, there 
has not been a i-obbery committed this many 
years, icithin so many miles of this place, but 
I have either been at it, or privy to it. The 
Judge thought the fellow was mad : but 
after some conference with some of the 
Justices, they agreed to indict him, and so 
they did, of several felonious actions : to all 
which he heartily confessed guilty, and so 
was hanged with his wife at the same time." 
— Bunyan's Wo7-ks, vol, 2, p. 737. 

Spirits haunt precious Mines. 

" Modern authors," says Fuller, " avouch 
that malignant spirits haunt the places where 
the precious metals are found : as if the 
Devil did there sit abrood to hatch them, 
cunningly pretending an unwillingness to 
part with them ; whereas indeed he gains 
more by one mine minted out into money, 
than by a thousand concealed in the earth." 
— Pisgah Vieiv, p. 8. 



The World'' s round Dance. 

" — The Uniform Spirit through compas- 
sion sends his servants or ministers to the 
Humanity, both at evening and morning, 
and also sometimes in the night ; and de- 
mands of her whether she have not yet 
danced herself a-weary in the confused 
Roiuid Dance (that is, whether she yet sees 
not the blind imquietness of the AVorld) : 
but if the Humanity hath still her chiefest 
lust or desu'e to the earthly Round Dance, 
then she can give no answer to the Mes- 
sengers of the Uniform Spirit, because she 
understands not the language of the Mes- 
sengers ; and the reason is this, because the 
Messengers of the Uniform Spirit speak the 
Hebrew tongue. 

" (The which signifies a passover out of 
the flesh into the spirit ; and that the Hu- 
manity also should turn from the flesh to 
the spirit, and pass over from her wild rest- 
less heathenish Round Dance into the true 
quiet uniform spirit.) 

" Which Hebrew language is not spoken 
at the heathenish wild Round Dance. There- 
fore the brutish Humanity cannot speak 
this language in her heathenish confusion, 
unless she apply herself to learn the Hebrew 

" But if she will not pay for her schooling 
to learn the Hebrew language, then she 
shall never be able to give the messengers 
of the uniform speech any answer : for they 
know not the heathenish speech, and the 
Humanity imderstands not the Hebrew lan- 
guage ; therefore there can be no confer- 
ence held to imiformity." — Spiritual Jour- 
ney of a Young Man, Sj-c, 1659, p. 164, 

Sow Hemp-seed. 
" Soiv hempseed among them, and nettles will 
So Taylor the Water-Poet, in his Praise 
of Hempseed : 

" Besides, this much I of my knowledge know. 
That where Hemp grows no stinking weed 
can grow ; 

No cockle, darnel, henbane, tai-e, or nettle. 
Near where it is can prosper, spring, or settle ; 
For such antipathy is in this seed 
Against each fruitless undeserving weed, 
That it with fear and terror strikes them 

Or makes them that they dare not show their 

And as in growing it all weeds doth kill, 
So, being grown, it keeps its nature still ; 
For good men's uses serves, and still relieves, 
And yields good whips and ropes for rogues 

and thieves," 

Etymology of Pretieuse. 
" Une Pretieuse donne un prix partlculier 
a toute chose, quand elle juge, ou quand elle 
loue, ou quand elle censure : comme par ex- 
emple, les choses les plus communes et les 
plus triviales qui ramperoient dans un dis- 
coursjou du moins n'iroient tout au plus qu' 
a la superficie du goust, et ne donneroient 
qu'un tendre et foible plaisir, ou a celuy qui 
le liroit, ou qui I'ecouteroit, augmenteroient 
de prix par le seul debit de la Pretieuse, a 
qui I'art est familier d'elever les choses, et 
de les faire valoir. C'est sans doute la rai- 
son de ce mot que Ton a donne h, nostre 
societe," — La Pretieuse, torn. 2, p. 467, 

The Footman Ship. 

" The Foot-man Ship, with her Regiment : 
— The sailors, the most part and best of 
them, are bred in a kingdom of much fer- 
tility and plenty, called Realdine, where, 
after they have all their youth been accus- 
tomed to wear brogues and truzes, their 
fare being many times shamrocks, oaten- 
bread, beans, and butter-milk, armed upon 
stark naked, with a dart, or a skcane, steeled 
with the spirit Usquebaugh, then they cross 
a ditch of eight hours sail, and land in the 
most flourishing kingdom of Triubjiie, -where 
by their good Foot-man- Ship they are turned 
out of then* old habits, into jackets of good 
])roter])luperfect velvet, plstcd with silver, 



or Argentum vivum (for the quickness), and 
all to be embroidered back and side with 
the best gokl twist, and the best of the silk- 
worm, sometimes with a Court (a Coat of 
Guard I should say), or a Coat of Regard, 
being well guarded, unregarded, with such 
a deal of feather, ribbons, and points, that 
he seems to be a running Haberdasher's 
shop of small wares. 

" Yet are those men free from pride : for 
their greatest ambition is, not to ride, but 
to foot it, or else to sweep chimnies, or to 
turn Costermongers ; this is the altitude of 
their aim, and the jjrofundity of their feli- 
city : nevertheless they know themselves to 
be great men's Trappings,courageous Torch- 
bearers, illustrious Fire-drakes, glorious and 
sumptuous Turmoilers : they are far from 
the griping sins of Usury and Extortion ; 
and are such philosophical contemners of 
the world, that every day they tread it 
under their feet and trample on it ; and 
they are such haters of wickedness, that 
they leave it in all places where they come : 
they are not covetous of other men's land, 
for they make all the haste they can every 
day to leave it behind them : they are so 
much to be trusted, that their words are as 
good as their bonds : yet in this their hu- 
mility they may compare with Emperors, 
for they are as brave as Nero, and can drink 
with Tiberius: To conclude, the Foot-man- 
Ship is mann'd with well-breath'd mariners, 
who after all their long, painful, and faith- 
ful service, are shipped in the bark Beg- 
garly, and brought to an anchor in the 
haven of Cripplegate." — Taylor the Wa- 
ter-Poet's Works, p. 86. 

Taylor s Entertainment in the Highlands. 
" He brought me to a place called Coher- 
spath, where we lodged at an inn, the like 
of which, I dare say, is not in any of his 
Majesty's dominions. And for to shew my 
thankfulness to ISIaster William Arn^et and 
his wife, the owners thereof, I must explain 
their bountiful entertainment of guests, 
which is this : 

" Suppose ten, fifteen, or twenty men and 
horses come to lodge at their house, the 
men shall have flesh, tame and wild-fowl, 
fish, with all vai'iety of good cheer, good 
lodging, and welcome ; and the horses shall 
want neither hay nor provender ; and at 
the morning at their departure the reckon- 
ing is just nothing. This is the worthy 
gentleman's use, his chief delight being only 
to give sti'angers entertainment gratis : And 
I am sure, that in Scotland beyond Edin- 
borough, I have been at houses like castles 
for building ; the master of the house his 
beaver being his blue bonnet ; one that 
will wear no other shirts but of the flax 
that grows on his own ground, and of his 
wives, daughters,' or servants' spinning ; 
that hath his stockings, hose, and jerkin of 
the wool of his own sheep's backs ; tliat 
never (by his pride of apparel) caused Mer- 
cer, Draper, Silkman, Embroiderer, or Ha- 
berdasher to break and turn bankrupt : and 
yet this plain home-spun fellow keeps and 
maintains thirty, forty, fifty servants, or 
perhaps more, every day relieving three or 
four score poor people at his gate ; and be- 
sides all this, can give noble entertainment 
for four or five days together to five or six 
Earls and Lords, besides Knights, Gentle- 
men, and their followers, if they be three or 
four hundred men and horse of them; where 
they shall not only feed but feast, and not 
feast but banquet : this is a man that desires 
to know nothing so much as his duty to 
God and his King; whose greatest cares are, 
to practice the works of Piety, Charity, and 
Hospitality : he never studies the consu- 
ming art of fashionless fashions ; he never 
tries his strength to bear foui- or five hun- 
dred acres on his back at once ; his legs are 
always at liberty, not being fettered with 
golden garters, and manacled with artificial 
roses, whose weight (sometime) is the relics 
of some decayed lordship : Many of these 
worthy house-keepei's there are in Scot- 
land : amongst some of them I was enter- 
tained ; from whence I did tndy gather 
these aforesaid observations." — Taylor the 
Water-Poet's Works, p. 138. 




" If the Norfolk DunipUng and the De- 
vonshire Wliite-pot be at variance, he will 
atone them : the Bag-puddings of Glouces- 
tershire, the Black-puddings of Worcester- 
shi>-e, the Pan-puddings of Shropshire, the 
White-puddings oi Soiuersetshire, the Hasty- 
puddings of Hampshii-e, and the Pudding- 
pyes of any shire, all is one to him, nothing 
comes amiss, a contented mind is worth all ; 
and let anything come in the shape of fod- 
der, or eating stuff, it is welcome, whether 
it be Sausage, or Custard, or Egg-pye, or 
Cheese-cake, or Flaum, or Fool, or Froyze, 
or Tanzy, or Pan-cake, or Fritter, or Flap- 
jack, or Posset, Gallcy-mawfrey, Macaroane, 
Kickshaw, or Tantablin." — Taylor the 
Water-Poet's Works, p. 146. 

Gardens at Wilton. 
" Amongst the rest, the pains and in- 
dustry of an ancient gentleman, IVtr. AdriaJi 
Gilbert, must not be forgotten : for there 
hath he (much to my Lord's cost and his 
own pains) used such a deal of intricate 
setting, grafting, planting, inoculating, rail- 
ing, hedging, plashing, turning, winding, 
and returning, circular, triangular, quad- 
rangular, orbicular, oval, and every way 
curiously and chargeably conceited : There 
hath he made walks, hedges, and arbours, 
of all manner of most delicate fruit-trees, 
planting and placing them in such admir- 
able art-like fashions, resembling both divine 
and moral remembrances ; as three arbours 
standing in a triangle, having each a re- 
course to a greater arbour in the midst, 
resembling three in one, and one in three : 
and he hath there planted certain walks 
and arbours all with fruit-trees, so pleas- 
ing and ravishing to the sense, that he 
calls it Paradise, in which he plays the 
part of a true Adamist, continually toiling 
and tilling. Moreover, he hath made his 
walks most rarely round and spacious, one 
walk without another (as the rinds of an 
onion are greatest without, and less towards 

the centre), and withall, the hedges betwixt 
each walk are so thickly set that one cannot 
see through from the one walk, who walks 
in the other : that, in conclusion, the work 
seems endless ; and I think that in England 
it is not to be fellowed, or will in haste be 
followed. And in love which I bear to the 
memory of so industrious and ingenious a 
gentleman, I have written these following- 

Adriian ) . ( A?'t readilii he^an 

^.,y ^ >■ Anagrams ■! . , 7-^7, 
Gilbert. ) ° ( yl breeding tryall. 

Art readily began a breeding ti'yall. 
When she inspird this worthy Gentleman : 
For Nature's eye of him took fidl espiall, 
And taught him Art ; Art readily began. 
That though Dame Nature lous his Tutress, he 
Outworks her, as his works apparent be : 

For Nature brings but ea?-th, and seeds and 

Which Art, like Tailors, cuts and puts in 
fashion : 

As Nature ?-udely doth supply our wants, 

Art is deformed Nature's refoi'mation. 

So Adryan Gilbert mendeth Nature's fea- 

By Art ; that what she makes, doth seem his 
Taylor the Water-Poet's Works, 
part 2, p. 31. 

\_A Lay Impropriator?^ 

" This one thing which I now declare, is 
most lamentable and remarkable ; which is, 
that Ewell being a market town, not much 
above ten miles from London, in a Christian 
kingdom, and such a kingdom, where the 
all saving AVord of the overliving God is 
most diligently, sincerely, and plentifully 
preached ; and yet amidst this diligence, as 
it were in the circle or centre of this sin- 
cerity, and in the flood of this plenty, the 
town of Ewell hath neither preacher nor 
pastor : for although the parsonage be able 
to maintain a suflicient preacher, yet the 
living being in a lay-man's hand, is rented 
out to another for a great sum, and yet no 



preacher maintained there. Now the chief 
landlord out of his portion doth allow but 
seven pounds yearly for a Reader ; and the 
other that doth hire the parsonage at a 
great rent, doth give the said Reader four 
pound the year more out of his means and 
courtesie : and by this means the town is 
served with a poor old man that is half 
blind, and by reason of liis age can scarcely 
read : for all the world knows, that so small 
a stijiend cannot find a good preacher books, 
and very hardly bread to live on ; so that 
the 2^oor souls dwelling there, are in danger 
of fimiishing, for want of a good preacher 
to break the bread of life unto them : for a 
sermon amongst them, is as rare as warm 
weather in December, or ice in July, both 
which I have seen in England, though but 
seldom." — Taylor the Water-Poet's 
Works, part 2, p. 139. 

" Now up aloft I mount unto the Ruff, 
Which into foolish mortals pride doth puff: 
Yet Ruffs' antiquity is here but small. 
Within this eighty years not one at all ; 
For the eighth Henry (as I understand) 
Was the first King that ever wore a Band, 
And but a falling Band, plain with a hem, 
AH other people knew no use of them. 
Yet imitation in small time began 
To grow, that it the Kingdom over-ran : 
The little falling-bands encreased to Rufis ; 
Ruffs (growing great) were waited on by 

And though our frailties should awake our 

We make our Ruffs as careless as we are; 
Our Ruffs unto our faults compare I may. 
Both careless, and grown greater every day. 
A SpaniarcVs Ruff in folio, large and wide, 
Is th' abstract of ambition's boundless pride. 
For roundness 'tis the emblem, as you see. 
Of the terrestrial Globe's rotundity, 
And all the world is like a Ruff to Spain, 
Which doth encircle his aspiring bi'ain. 
And his unbounded pride doth still persist. 
To have it set, and poaked as he list. 

The sets to organ-pipes compare 1 can. 
Because they do offend the Puritan, 
Whose zeal doth call it superstition, 
And badges of the Beast of Babylon. 
Ruffs only at the first were in request 
With such as of ability were best ; 
But now the plain, the stitch' d, the lac'd, 

and shag. 
Are at all prices worn by tag and rag. 
So Spain (who all the world would wear) 

shall see, 
Like Rviffis, the world from him shall scat- 

t'red be. 
As for the Ciff, 'tis prettily encreast 
(Since it began, two handfuls at the least) : 
At first 'twas but a girdle for the wrist. 
Or a small circle to enclose the fist, 
^Vliich hath by little and by little crept. 
And from the wrist unto the elbow leapt ; 
Which doth resemble saucy persons well. 
For give a knave an inch, he'll take an ell. 
Riffs are to Cuffs, as 'twere the breeding 

mothers ; 
And Cuff's are twins in pride, or two proud 


Taylor tue Water-Poet's Woj-ks, 
part 2, p. 167. 

Upstarts who crowded London. 
" The last Proclamations concerning the 
retiring of the Gentry out of the City into 
their countries, although myself with many 
thousands more were much imj^overished 
and hindered of our livings by their depar- 
ture, yet on the other side, how it cleared 
the streets of these way-stopping whirli- 
gigs ! for a man now might walk without 
bidding Stand up ho, by a fellow that scarce- 
ly can either go or stand himself. Princes, 
Nobility, and Gentlemen of worth, offices 
and quality, have therein their privilege, 
and are exempt, may ride as their occasions 
or pleasures shall invite them, as most meet 
they should. But when every Gill Txirn- 
tripe. Mistress Fumkins, Madam Polecat, 
and my Lady Trash, Froth the Tapster, 
Bill the Tailor, Lavemler the Broker, Wliiff 
the Tobacco-seller, with their companion 



Trugs, must be coacli'd to Saint Alhaiies, 
Biu'ntioood, Hockley in the Hole, Croydon, 
Windsor, Uxhridge, and many other places, 
like Avild haggards prancing up and down ; 
that what they get by cheating, swearing 
and lying at home, they spend in riot, 
whoring and drunkenness abroad ; I say 
by my hallidome, it is a burning shame : I 
did lately write a pamphlet called a Thief, 
wherein I did a little touch upon this point ; 
that seeing the herd of hireling Coaches 
are more than the Wherries on the Thames, 
and that they make leather so excessive 
dear, that it were good the order in Bo- 
hemia were observed here, which is, that 
every hired Coach should be drawn with 
ropes, and that all their harness should be 
hemp and cordage : besides, if the cover 
and boots of them were of good resined or 
pitched canvass, it would bring down the 
price of leather ; and by that means a hired 
Coach would be known from a Prince's, a 
Nobleman's, Lady's, or people of note, ac- 
count, respect and quality." — Taylor the 
Water-Poet's Works, part 2, p. 238. 

" When I frame to myself a martyrologe 
of all which have perished by their own 
means, for religion, country, fame, love, 
ease, fear, shame ; I blush to see how naked 
of followers all vertues are in respect of 
this fortitude ; and that all histories afford 
not so many examples either of cunning and 
subtile devices, or of forcible and violent 
actions, for the safeguard of life, as for de- 
stroying." — Donne's Biathanatos, p. 5L 

Curse of ill-gotten Wealth. 
" There is such a curse goes along with 
an ill gotten estate, that he that leaves such 
a one to his child, doth but cheat and de- 
ceive him, makes him believe he has left 
him wealth, but has withal put such a 
canker in the bowels of it, that is sure to 
eat it out. Would to God it were as gene- 
rally laid to heart, as it seems to be gene- 

rally taken notice of ! Then surely parents 
would not account it a reasonable motive to 
unjust dealing, that they may thereby pro- 
vide for their children ; for this is not a way 
of providing for them : nay, 'tis the way to 
spoil them of whatever they have lawfully 
gathered for them ; the least mite of un- 
lawful gain being of the nature of leaven, 
which sours the whole lump, bringing down 
curses upon all a man possesseth." — Whole 
Duty of Man, \Ath Sunday. 

James's Feeling about Holydays and Sports. 
" But unto one fault is all the common 
people of this kingdom subject, as well 
burgh as land ; which is, to judge and sj^eak 
rashly of their Prince, setting the common- 
weal upon four props, as we call it ; ever 
wearying of the present estate, and desirous 
of novelties. For remedy whereof (besides 
the execution of laws that are to be used 
against unreverent speakers) I know no 
better mean, than so to rule, as may justly 
stop their mouths from all such idle and 
imreverent speeches ; and so to prop the 
weal of your people, with provident care 
for their good government, that justly Mo- 
mus himself may have no ground to grudge 
at ; and yet so to temper and mix your 
severity with mildness, that as the unjust 
railers m-ay be restrained with a reverent 
awe, so the good and loving subjects may 
not only live in surety and wealth, but be 
stirred up and invited by your benign cour- 
tesies to open their mouths in the just praise 
of your so well moderated regiment. Li 
respect whereof, and therewith the more to 
allure them to a common amity among them- 
selves, certain days in the year would be 
appointed, for delighting the people with 
public spectacles of all honest games and 
exercise of arms ; as also for convening of 
neighbours, for entertaining friendship and 
heartliness, by honest feasting and merri- 
ness. For I cannot see what greater super- 
stition can be in making plays and lawful 
games in May and good cheer at Christmas, 
than In eating fish in Lent iind upon Fri- 



(lays, the Papists as well using the one as 
the other ; so that always the sabbaths be 
kept holy, and no unlawful jiastinie be used. 
And as this form of contenting the people's 
minds hath been used in all well-governed 
republics, so will it make you to perform in 
your government that good old sentence, 

Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utili dulce." 

Basilihon Doron^ p. 104. 

His Character of the Nobles} 
" The natural sickness that I have per- 
ceived this Estate [the Nobility] subject to 
in my time, hath been, a featless arrogant 
conceit of their greatness and power ; drink- 
ing in with their very nourish milk that 
their honour stood in committing three 
points of iniquity ; to thrall by oppression 
the meaner sort that dwelleth near them, to 
their service and following, although they 
hold nothingof them ; to maintain their ser- 
vants and dependers in any wrong, although 
they're not answerable to the laws (for 
anybody will maintain his man in a right 
cause), and for any displeasure that they 
apprehend to be done unto them by their 
neighbour, to take up a plain feud against 
him, and (without respect to God, King, or 
Commonweal) to bang it out bravely, he 
and all his kin against him and all his ; yea 
they will think the King far in their com- 
mon, in case they agree to grant an assur- 
ance to a short day for keeping of the 
peace, where by their natural duty they are 
oblished to obey the law, and keep the peace 
all the days of their life, upon the peril of 
their very craiggs." — Basilihon Doron^ p. 

His Opinion of Tradesmen. — His Advice 
that Government should fix the Price of 
all things yearly. 

" The Merchants think the whole com- 
monweal ordained for making them up ; 
and accounting it their lawful gain and 
trade to enrich themselves upon the loss of ■ 
all the rest of the people, they transport 

• Scotch, I suppose. 

from us things necessary, bringing back 
sometimes unnecessary things, and at other 
times nothing at all. They buy for us the 
worst wares, and sell them at the dearest 
prices : and albeit the victuals fall or rise of 
their prices, according to the abundance or 
scantness thereof, yet the prices of their 
wares ever rise, but never fall ; being as 
constant in that their evil custom as if it 
were a settled law for them. They are also 
the special cause of the corruption of the 
coin, transporting all our own, and bringing 
in foreign, upon what price they please to 
set on it. For order putting to them, put 
the good laws in exectxtion that are already 
made anent these abuses ; but especially do 
three things. Establish honest, diligent, but 
few searchers, for many hands make slight 
work ; and have an honest and diligent 
Thesaurer to take count of them. Permit 
and allure foreign merchants to trade here ; 
so shall ye have best and best cheap wares, 
not buying them at the third hand. And 
set every year down a certain price of all 
things ; considering iirst, how it is in other 
countries ; and the price being set reason- 
ably down, if the merchants will not bring 
them home on the price, cry foreigners free 
to bring them." — Basilihon Doron. 

Selfish and Christian Ethics compared. 

In the " New Commandment " given by 
our Lord to his disciples, " that ye love one 
another ; as I have loved you, that ye also 
love one another," Mr. Hook says, " we 
may trace the grand distinction between the 
divine ethics of the Gosjjel, and the various 
codes of philosophy framed by mere worldly 
philosophers. By the latter, whether in an- 
cient or in modern times, an appeal is con- 
tinually made to the selfish feeliugs of oiu- 
nature : while the whole tendency of the 
Gospel, with respect to our duty to others, 
is, so far as possible, to keep self altogether 
out of sight. 

" With respect to the virtue of philan- 
thropy, the philosopher argues in its favour, 
by proving what is indisputably true, that 



0111- own good is involved iu that of others ; 
and that whatever advances the happiness 
of the whole body, must include the happi- 
ness of every particular member : or that 
the exercise of the benevolent affections is 
a source of satisfaction to oiu'selves, and 
has a tendency to conciliate the esteem of 
others. But the Gospel, in its simplicity 
and fulness, exhorts us to seek the good of 
our neighbour, as an end in itself : it tells 
us, as in other respects, so also in this, to 
love him, in the same manner as we love 
ourselves ; that is, to seek his advantage 
without any ulterior aim or object. 

" On the wisdom of this system, the event 
may be permitted to pronounce. He who 
takes the secular jahilosophy for his guide, 
invariably increases in selfishness as he ad- 
vances in years. Disapjiointed in not hav- 
ing always met with the return which he 
was led to expect, the man of this world 
learns to regard his neighbours with sus- 
picion ; and ascribing the few disinterested 
acts which he may chance to have per- 
formed, to the enthusiasm of youthful spirits, 
or the inconsiderateness of boyish impe- 
tuosity, he thinks to display his knowledge 
of the world, and his superior experience, 
by discarding all care for others ; or at 
least by becoming more and more wrapped 
up in self, or in things directly or indi- 
rectly belonging to self. But the heart of 
the true Christian is warm, and his affec- 
tions no less generous in age than in youth, 
while his virtuous prmciples having ripened 
into virtuous habits, he continues to diffuse 
on all around him the beams of that peace, 
tranquillity, and joy, which the Holy Ghost 
has kindled in his own breast." — Lectures 
on the Last Days of Our Loi-cVs Ministry, 
p. 27-29. 

Princes in Germany neglecting War. — 

Effect of smh impolicy in Italy. 
" S^PK miratus sum, quo consilio fiat \ 
Germanicis Principibus, ut fere omnes rei 
militaris studium deponant, ciun tamen sci- 
ant se imperare hominiljus ferocibus et ad 
arma natis. Paulatim j^otentiam et autho- 

ritatem amittent, nisi caveaut ; eaque tota 
ipsis inscientibus devolvetur ad eos qui se 
pra^bent duces militibus, qui jam arte res 
eo deduxerunt, ut ipsi Germanici Principes 
vix possint sine eorum opera conscribere 
exercitum. Si quis diligenter consideret 
qualis fuerit status Italite ante centum an- 
nos, videbit earn talibus fere artibus periisse. 
Nam principibus otio et voluptatibus, civi- 
tatibus autem mercaturae se dedentibus, to- 
tam rei militaris authoritatem in se trans- 
tulerunt pi'sefecti militum ; quam quum 
viderent se non posse tueri nisi rebus tur- 
batis, vai'iis artibus principes et civitates 
inter se commiserunt, et bella ex bellis se- 
rentes, et prout suis rebus conducere exis- 
timabant, impudenter ab una parte ad al- 
teram deficientes ac inter se conspirantes, 
tandem perfecerunt ut soli essent pacis et 
belli arbitri in Italia. Ubi vero ejusmodi 
artibus ita attritfe fuerunt opes Italia?, ut 
jam non sufficerent eorimi cupiditatibus, de- 
mum adjunxerunt se exteris gentibus eam 
invadentibus, a quibus et ipsi et eorum 
jiosteri sunt oppressi, et patria in eam ser- 
vitutem redacta est qua jam miserrime pre- 
mitur." A. D. 1564. — Hubert Languet, 
EpistolcB ad Camerarium, pp. 28-30. 

Taylor''s Diatribe against Coaches, 

"If the curses of people that arewrongVl 
by them might have prevailed, sure I think 
the most part of them had been at the Devil 
many years ago. Butchers cannot pass with 
their cattle for them ; market folks which 
bring provision of victuals to the City, are 
stop'd, staid, and hindered. Carts or waines 
with then* necessary ladings, are debarred 
and letted : the milk-maids' ware is often 
spilt in the dirt, and jjeople's guts like to 
be crushed out, being crowded and shrowded 
up against stalls and stoopes : Whilst Mis- 
tress Silverpin with her pander, and a pair 
of crammed pullets, ride grinning and de- 
riding in their hell-cart, at their miseries 
who go on foot : I myself have been so 
served, when I have wished them all in the 
great Breach, or on a light fire upon Houns- 



low Heath or Salisbury Plain : and their 
damming of the streets in this manner, 
where people are wedged together that 
they can hardly stir, is a main and great 
advantage to the most virtuotis Mysterie of 
purse-cutting ; and for anything I know, 
the hired or hackney Coachman may join in 
confederacy and share with the Cut-purse, 
one to stop up the way, and the other to 
shift in the crowd. 

" The superfluous use of Coaches hath 
been the occasion of many vile and odious 
crimes, as murder, theft, cheating, hangings, 
whippings, pillories, stocks, and cages; for 
housekeeping never decayed till Coaches 
came into England, till which time those 
were accounted the best men, who had most 
followei's and retainers; then laud about or 
near London, was thought dear enough at 
a noble the acre yearly ; and a ten-pound 
house-rent now, was scarce twenty shillings 
then : but the witchcraft of the Coach, 
quickly mounted the price of all things (ex- 
cept poor men's labour), and withal trans- 
formed, in some places, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 
60, or 100 proper servingmen, into two or 
three animals, videlicet, a butterfly Page, a 
trotting Foot-man, a stifl'-drinking Coach- 
man, a Cook, a Clark, a Steward, and a 
Butlei ; which hath enforced many a dis- 
carded tall fellow (through want of means 
to live, and grace to guide him in his po- 
verty) to fall into such mischievous actions 
before-named ; for which I think the gal- 
lowses in England have devoured as many 
lusty valiant men within these thirty or 
forty years, as would have been a suflicient 
army to beat the foes of Christ oxit of Chris- 
tendome, and marching to Constantinople, 
have plucked the Great Turk by the beard: 
but as is aforesaid, this is the age wherein 
The World runs on ivheels." — Taylor the 
Water-Poet's Works, part 2, p. 242. 

A Folly among many English of supposing 
they were of Jewish Extraction. 

" A BRAIN-SICK opinion hath possessed 
many English now-a-days, that they are 

descended from Ji?»v'.s/i extraction ; and some 
pretend to derive their pedigree (but out of 
what Hei'ulds'' office I know not) iromJewish 
parentage. Here a mystical truth may be 
wrapped up in a literal lie : Old- Jury is a 
street of large extent ; and too much of 
Jewish blood, spirits, marrow, fill, move, 
fraught our veins, nerves, bones ; pressing 
God under the weight of our sins, who daily 
loadeth us icith his benefits ; who, besitles 
other favours, in the day-time of prosperity 
is a pillar of a cloiid to cool, check, and 
counsel ; in the night of adversity a pillar 
of fire to cheer, comfort, and conduct us ; 
and yet neither effectually works our serious 
amendment." — Fuller's Palestine, p. 58. 

Egyptian Notion that the Sold reinained in 
the Mummies.{?^ — Pyi-amids. 

" The Egyptians fondly conceived 
(Reader, pity them, and praise God that 
thou art better informed) that the soul even 
after death, like a grateful guest, dwelt in 
the body so long as the same was kept 
swept and garnished, but finally forsook it, 
and sought out a new body, if once the 
corpse were either carelessly neglected, or 
despitefully abused ; and therefore to woo 
the soul to constant residence in their bo- 
dies (at least-wise to give it no wilful dis- 
taste, or cause of alienation) they were so 
prodigiously expensive, both in embalming 
their dead, and erecting stately places for 
their monuments. 

" The long lasting of these Pyramids, is 
not the least of admiration belonging unto 
them. They were born the first, and do 
live the last, of all the severi wonders in the 
world. Strange, that in three thousand 
years and upwards, no avaritious prince was 
found to destroy them, to make profit of their 
marble and rich materials ; no hvimorous or 
spiteful prince offered to overthrow them, 
merely to get a greater name for his peevish- 
ness in confounding, than their pride in first 
founding them ; no zelote-reformer (whilst 
Egypt was Christian) demolished them un- 
der the notion of Pagan monuments. But, 


surviving such casualties, strange, that after 
so long continuance, they have not fallen 
like Copy-holds, into the hand of the Grand 
Signior (as Lord of the Manor) for want of 
repairing. Yea, at the present, they are 
rather ancient than ruinous ; and, though 
weather-beaten in their tops, have lively 
looks under a grey head, likely to abide 
these many years in the same condition, as 
being too great for any throat to swalloAV 
whole, and too hard for any teeth to bite 
asunder." — Fuller's Palestine, p. 83. 

Epidemics of the Mind. 

" L'esprit est sujet aux maladies epi- 
demiques tout comme le corps ; il n'y a 
qu'a commencer sous de favorables auspices, 
et lorsque la matiere est bien preparee. La 
difference qu'il y a entre ces maladies et la 
peste, ou la petite verole, c'est que celles-ci 
sont incomparablement plus frequentes." — 
Bayle, under the tvord Abdere. 

Savage Manners worth recording. 

Batle thought it instructive that the 
history of savage manners should be pre- 
served : " il est bon," he says, " de repre- 
senter a ceux qui ne voient que des peuples 
civilises, qu'il y en a d'autres si feroces, 
qu'on a plus de sujet de les prendre pour 
des betes brutes, que pour une partie du 
genre humain. Cela pent fournir bien des 
reflexions tant physiques que morales ; et 
faire admirer les plis infinis dont notre 
nature est susceptible, et dont pour un bon 
Ton pent compter plus de cent mille mau- 
vais." — Under the word Alains. 

Want of Clergy in India, a peculiar Reproach 
of the English. 

" The miserable defect of Ecclesiastical 
institutions of every kind in this central re- 
gion, renders even the casual hasty passage 
of an unknown clergyman of more import- 
ance than can readily be conceived in Eu- 

rope. The multitudes who, within a few 
hours, applied to me for baptism, &c. in the 
cantonments of Nusseirabad and Nemuch, 
were enough to mark what must be the 
want in the other stations (equally abound- 
ing in European troops) of Mhew, Asseir- 
gurh, Saugor, Husseinabad, ISTagpore, &c. 
&c., all 500 miles or more distant from the 
nearest place where there is a chaplain, in 
either of the three surrounding Presiden- 
cies. The Commander at the first-men- 
tioned military station, who had applied 
twice in vain for a remedy of this evil, had 
passed, as he told me, sixteen years of his 
life without seeing a Clergyman, — was 
obliged to perform several properly clerical 
offices himself, and this in some of the most 
populous of our stations in India. All the 
officers to whom I have spoken upon this 
subject have appeared even astonished at a 
neglect, from which the Dutch, the Portu- 
guese, the French and Danes in India, are 
so markedly free, and which I believe to be 
without parallel in the Colonial history of 
any Christian nation. The prejudices of 
the natives have been strangely alleged at 
home in excuse for this ; when it is known 
to all who have most conversed with them 
(as may be said without fear of contradic- 
tion) that in proportion to their fear of 
interference with their own modes of re- 
ligion, is their disposition to condemn and 
even despise those who have no religious 
institutions themselves. Thrfr esteem for 
the British nation seems to have increased 
from the happy and decided, but yet very 
partial, approaches to a better state that 
have taken place already : from the public 
opinion which is now even loud upon the 
subject, we should be happy to augur more." 
— Report of the Society for the Foreign Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel, in the year 1822, 
p. 198. 

Character of a Moderate Man. — 1682. 

" By a INIoderate Man, considered in a 
lay capacity, is commonly understood, one 
who will frequent the public Churches, and 



Conventicles too; one who will seem devout 
at Divine Service, and appear for the Church 
of England on a Sunday, and the other six 
days work hard against it ; one who talks 
much of Union and wishes for it, but yet 
sees no harm at all in Schism ; one who 
thinks he doth God good service, and takes 
a good course to promote Peace, by fre- 
quenting unlawful meetings, and yet he is 
clearly too for the Religion establish'd by 
Law ; one wlio is in with all Parties, and 
vigorously assists them in all their designs 
against the Government, but yet crys, God 
forbid that there should be any alteration 
in it : one who looks upon the Bishops as 
necessary evils, and the Ceremonies as 
heavy intolerable yokes, under which their 
necks and consciences ache and groan ; 
and had much rather be without them all, 
if he could, though at the same time he 
professes liiinself, and would be thought to 
be, a Son of the Church of England. And 
the truth of it is, these are Moderate 
Church-men in one sense, that is, they have 
a very moderate esteem of, and a very 
moderate love for that Chui'ch, in whose 
communion they pretend to live, and resolve 
to die, so long as she is uji : but if she were 
down, they could contentedly enough sur- 
vive her ruin, and perhaps they might live 
the longer. This is a just and true Charac- 
ter of a JModerate Man as the world now 
goes. I assure you this is no fiction of 
mine, it's not the creature of my own 
fancy ; but matter of fact, visible to every 
eye, and confirmed by daily experience. 
Now this Moderation is so far from being a 
Vertue, that it's the quite contrary, a great 
Vice, and of very mischievous consequence 
to the Public. Moderation, as it is a Ver- 
tue, teaches a man to maintain his Principles 
and Opinions, whose truth he is persuaded 
of, with temper : but this either leads to 
Scepticism, creates in men loose and vagrant 
minds, acted by no steady and fixed Prin- 
ciples and Opinions, renders them indifiereut 
to, and unconcerned about all truths, care- 
less whether anything be certain and/esta- 
blished or no ; or else (which is as bad or 

worse, a most undecent and unreasonable 
thing) teaches them to act contrary to their 
Principles and Profession, and the inward 
persuasion of their minds. And then, as to 
that good temper wherewith a moderate 
man ought to manage all debates, that's 
not at all considered in the common accept- 
ation of the phrase : for by how much the 
more fiercely and vehemently any man 
stands up for toleration, liberty of con- 
science, and fanaticism ; by so much he is 
accounted the more moderate, provided he 
be but very cold and remiss In asserting 
the cause of the Church whereof he pro- 
fesses himself a member. — — — — 
— — — As for the Clergy, the common 
notion of a Moderate Minister is this : One 
who will marry upon occasion without the 
Ring; christen without the Cross, Godfathers 
and Godmothers, in compliance with weak 
and tender consciences; give the Sacrament 
kneeling or sitting or standing ; bury with 
an exhortation of his own ; permit a man to 
convey his dead Into the grave without 
any Common Prayer at all : one that will 
be out of the way, and in the way, as men 
please, how they will : one that will comply 
with the humours and fancies of all parties, 
and oblige them by condescensions of this 
nature. And If this be moderation, the old 
Vicar of Bray was the most moderate man 
that ever breathed." — Moderation Stated, in 
a Sermon preached hefore the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen by John Evans, 1682, pp. 36, 

Camerarius' s Old Age. 

" — Ingenue fateor, nunc in provectd, sed 
leni ac placida estate., quam ad annum usque 
LXXIV. misericordis Dei gratia j)roduxi, 
mihi videor primum ccepisse vive?-e, cum pro - 
cul a negotiis ac turbis, unice rebus divinis, et 
de morte meditationibus, et libris meis, id 
amicis qui mihi non adukudur, libere mihi 
vacare et frid licet; et interdum in vicino 
rure, inter Jlores et arbores recreare senilcm 
animum. Totum enim reliquum anteactce vitce 
me(B tempus in perpetuis curis, molestiis, labo- 



ribtis, a}igoribus, peregrinationihus ac ci'ehi'is 
pcricidis consumpsi" — Ludovicus Camera - 
uius, in Epistola Deilicatoria ad lluberti 
Langueti Epistolas. 

Printers actuated by Cupidity. 

Speaking of the precious collection of 
Letters of eminent men which were in his 
possession, LuDovicrs Camerarius says, 
" Sed vix reperiuiitur nunc Typographi qui 
ejusmodi scripta vclint excudcrc. Verissime 
alicuhi ipse Philippus Melanchthon in quadam 
ad amicum Epistola scripsit, ferreum hoc 
hominum genus esse, nee puhlicis commodis 
71CC dignitate rei litterarine moveri, sed jnd- 
cherrimum artijicium turpissimi queestus stu- 
dio contaminare." — Epistola Dedicatoria ad 
Hubert! Langueti Epistolas. 

Comparative Wealth of different Classes in 
James the First's Time. 

" I SHOULD not think my labour or travel 
ill spent," says Godfrey Goodman (who 
was one of the Chaplains to our Queen Anne 
of Denmark), " if I might but only and 
barely know what is wealth : for as yet I 
coidd never be resolved what it was to be 
rich ; or what competent estate were requi- 
site, which might properly be called wealth. 
For here in the counti-y with us, if a man's 
stock of a few beasts be his own, and that 
he lives out of debt, and pays his rent duly 
and quarterly, we hold him a very rich and 
a sufficient man ; one that is able to do the 
king and the country good service : we 
make him a Constable, a Sidesman, a Head- 
boroUgh, and at length a Churchwarden : 
thus we raise him by degrees ; we prolong 
his ambitious hopes, and at last we heap all 
our honours upon him. Here is the great 
governor amongst us, and we wonder that 
all others do not respect him accordingly. 
But it should seem that since the dissolution 
of Abbeys, all wealth is flown to the towns. 
The husbandman sits at a rackt rent : he 
fights with distracted forces, and knows not 

how to raise the price of the market : only 
the tradesman hath his corporation ; he can 
join his wits and his labours together ; and 
professing the one, he thrives by the other : 
and therefore they are not unfitly called 
Handi-crafts. Now in the next market 
town there are great rich men indeed : for I 
hear it reported (but I dare not speak it for 
a truth) that there are certain tanners, 
chandlers, and other tradesmen, some worth 
£.50, some £60, some £100 a-piece. This is 
wonderful, for we cannot possibly conceive 
how men by honest and direct means should 
attain to such sums. Indeed the poor peo- 
ple say that one got his wealth by the black 
art ; another found a pot of money in a 
garden which did sometime belong to a 
Priory ; and the third grew rich by burying 
many wives : for here are all the possible 
means which we can imagine of em'iching 

" But now we are in the road, we have 
but a iaw hours' riding; I pray let us hasten 
to London. There is the mart, there is the 
mint : all waters flow from the sea, all 
waters return to the sea : there dwell our 
landlords : the country sends up their pro- 
vision ; the country must send up their rents 
to buy their provision. Now here in Lon- 
don, unless a man's credit be good upon the 
Exchange to take up £500 upon his own 
bond, and that he be of the Livery, and 
hath borrie oflice in his Company, we do not 
esteem him. If an Alderman be worth but 
£12,000, we pity him for a very poor man, 
and begin to suspect and to fear his estate, 
lest his over-hasty aspiring to honour may 
break his back. K a nobleman have great 
royalties and may dispend £10,000 by the 
year, yet we hold him nobody in respect of 
the ancient rents of the Dutchy. The 
Dutchy, notwithstanding the augmentation, 
yet is far inferior to the revenues of the 
Crown. These northern kingdoms come 
short of the southern : the southern princes 
are stark beggars in respect of the Indian. 
Whither shall I fly, in the pursuit of wealth ? 
— I will rather thus conclude in reason, if 
there be wealth in this world, it is either 



upon the face of the earth, or else in the 
bowels of the earth, like treasure concealed 
and safely locked up in nature's coffers. I 
will therefore here stay myself, and foil flat 
on the earth : and here I will solemnly pro- 
claim it, tluit the whole earth is an indi- 
visible point, and carries no sensible quan- 
tity in respect of the heavens. Thus at 
length I will return home, not loaded with 
ore, but being much pacified in mind ; and 
fully resolved that all wealth consists only in 
comparison. Now if it shall please God to 
supply the necessities of my nature, as he in 
his mercy already hath done (God make 
me thankfull unto Him ! neither do I de- 
spair of his providence), I will not compare 
myself with others, but deem myself suffi- 
ciently rich." — Fall of Man, p. 139-141. 

Singing Birds. 

" — IIeahke, hearke, the excellent notes 
of singing birds ! what variety of voices ! how 
are they fitted to every passion ! The little 
chirping birds (the wren and the robin) 
they sing a mean : the goldfinch, the night- 
ingale, they join in the treble : the black- 
bird, the thrush, they bear the tenour : while 
the four-footed beasts with their bleating 
and bellowing, they sing a base. How other 
birds sing in their order, I refer you to 
the skilful musicians : some of them keep 
their due times ; others have their continued 
notes, that all might please with variety ; 
while the woods, the groves, and the rocks, 
with a hollowness of their sound like a mu- 
sical instrument, send forth an echo, and 
seem to unite their song." — Goodman's ivj;ZZ 
of Man, p. 78. 

Intrigues for Loio Office. 

" Histories are daily written which dis- 
cover the subtleties and tricks of state : but 
sure it is that there is as much false dealing, 
close practises, cunning suggestions, dissi- 
mulation, breach of promises, and ever^ way 
as much dishonesty, in a petty, poor, base. 

paltry Corporation, for the choice of their 
Town-Clerk, their Bailiff, or some such 
Officer, as you shall find among the great 
Bashaws, for the upholding and supporting 
of the Turkish Empire." — Goodman's i^2^ 
of Man, p. 207. 

Invention of Stringed Instruments. 

" 'Tis true the finding of a dead horse-head 

Was the first invention of string-instru- 

Wlience rose the gittern, vial, and the lute ; 

Though others think the lute was first devised 

In imitation of a tortoise' back. 

Whose sinews, parched by Apollo's beams. 

Echoed about the concave of the shell ; 

And seeing the shortest and smallest gave 
shrillest sound. 

They found out frets, whose sweet diversity 

(Well couched by the skill-full learned fin- 

Raiseth so strange a multitude of cords : 

Which their opinion many do confirm 

Because testudo signifies a lute." 



" From the Physician, let us come to the 
Apothecaries. When I see their shops so 
well stored and furnished with their painted 
boxes and pots, instead of commending the 
owner, or taking delight and pleasure in the 
shop, I begin to pity poor miserable and 
wretched man, that should be subject to so 
many diseases, and should want so many 
helps to his cure. I could wish that his 
pots were only for ornament, or naked and 
empty ; or that they did but only serve for 
his credit, for he is the happy man that can 
live without them. But here I can do no 
less than take some notice of their physic. 
Most commonly the medicines are more 
fearful than the disease itself; I call the 
sick patient to witness, who hath the trial 
and experience of both ! As for example, 
long fastings and abstinence ; a whole pint 
of bitter potion ; pills that cannot be swal- 



lowed ; noisome, distasteful and unsavoury 
vomits ; the cutting of veins ; the launcing 
of sores ; the seering up of members ; the 
pulling out of teeth : here are strange cures 
to teach a man cruelty ! The surgeon shall 
never be of my jury." — Goodman's Fall 
of Man, p. 98. 

Toil of Country Sports. 

" — In om' pastimes and games, you shall 
observe as great labour, though otherwise it 
pass under the name of an honest recre- 
ation, or exercise, as you shall find in the 
ordinary callings and vocations of men ; and 
as soon you shall attain to the learning 
and perfection of their trades, as you shall 
grow cunning and skilful in these sports. 
To set aside all other pleasures, I will only 
insist in Hawking and Hunting. 

" Consider, I pray, their great trouble 
and pains ; such violent labour ; such dan- 
gerous riding ; the high ways cannot always 
contain them, but over the hedges and 
ditches; here begins the cry and the curse 
of the poor tenant, who sits at a hard rent, 
and sees his corn spoiled. Then immedi- 
ately follows the renting of garments, the 
tearing of flesh, the breaking of legs, the 
cracking of bones ; their lives are not always 
secured ; and thus they continue the whole 
day, sometimes through storms and tem- 
pests, sometimes enforced to wade through 
rivers and brooks, fasting, sweating, and 
wearied, only with a conceit of theii' booty. 
Here is excellent sport indeed! If they 
were to be hired they would never undertake 
such troublesome and dangerous courses : 
then it would seem to be a mere slavery, as 
indeed it doth to their servants and follow- 
ers, who must attend their Lordships and 
partake with them in their whole sport, but 
not in any part of their pleasure. In truth, 
according to right reason, I should prefer 
the life of a Carrier, or a Post, far before 
theirs. With what speed do they gallop ! 
I could wish they would give me leave to 
ask them one question : wherein consists 
the sport and delight in hunting ? Some 

say, in the noise and cry of the hounds ; 
others, in their careful curiosity and search 
in the pursuit ; others, in the exercise of 
their own bodies, and in their hope of the 
booty. I do not like this variety of opinions : 
shall I resolve you this one point ? The 
pleasure which you so hotly and eagerly 
pursue in the chase, consists in the phancy, 
and in your own apprehension. Wliat a 
vain thing is it to seek for that in the woods, 
which indeed consists in your brain ! Ye 
carry it about you, and run to overtake 
your own shadow. This is a pleasure be- 
cause you conceive it so : persuade your- 
selves alike of any labour or travail, and 
you shall find a like case and contentment. 
If the world were so persuaded ; if it were 
the course and fashion of the times to delight 
in religious exercises, and in the actions of 
piety and devotion ; to lift up our hearts and 
our voices to God in a melodious quire ; to 
temper our passions according to the sweet 
harmony of the organ-pipe ; to practis'e the 
works of charity ; and instead of the cry of 
the hounds, to hearken to the cries, to the 
blessings and prayers of poor people ; as- 
suredly we should find far greater joy and 
contentment (I speak according to the car- 
nal and natural man, without reference to 
the inward comfort of God's spirit, which is 
a blessing unvaluable) than now we reap in 
these outrageous, troublesome, dangerous 
and bloody sports, which wlwlly savour of 
cruelty." — Goodman's Fall of Man, p. 148. 

Worldly Cares at Death. 

" Suppose a rich man of this world were 
now upon the point of death ; how often 
should this man be moved to make his last 
will and testament, to leave all things in 
quiet and peaceable possession ! What wri- 
tings, what sealings, what witnesses, how 
many scriveners, bow many lawyers should 
be employed ! when all this time they seem 
to neglect that unum necessarium, the prepa- 
ration of his soul for God ; that in his death 
he might be a true Christian sacrifice, an 



oblation freely offered up uato God. Sup- 
pose (I pray) that a few hours were past, 
and this rich man dead ; and that I could 
by some strange enchantment raise up his 
spirit, or make this dead man speak : then 
I would demand of him what he thought of 
the greatness and glory of this world. As- 
suredly he would less esteem of all the 
kingdoms, empires, wealth and worldly ho- 
nour, than we do at this time of the toys 
and trifles of children ; and certainly as it is 
with the dead in respect of us, so shall it be 
witli us in respect of our posterity : we for- 
get them, and our posterity shall forget us : 
we look only to the present ; and therein, 
losing the dignity of the reasonable soul, 
which consists in the foresight, we are car- 
ried like beasts in the strength of our own 
apprehension." — Goodman's Fall of Man, 
p. 186. 

Evil Consequences of aholishing Sports. 

" The whole world is distracted with 
factions ; and therefore sure the old time 
was much to be commended, in tolerating, 
or rather giving occasion to, some country 
maygames, or sports, as dancing, piping, 
pageants, all which did serve to assuage the 
cruelty of man's nature, that, giving him 
some little ease and recreation, they might 
withhold him from worser attempts, and so 
preserve amity between men. Upon the 
abolishing of these, you could not conceive 
in reason, were it not that we find it true by 
experience (for sometimes things which are 
small in the consideration, are great in the 
practise), what dissolute and riotous courses, 
what unlawful games, what drunkenness, 
what envy, hatred, malice and quarrelling 
have succeeded in lieu of these harmless 
sports ! And these are the fruits which our 
strict professors have brought into the 
world ! I know not how they may boast of 
their faith (for indeed they are pure pro- 
fessors!) but sure I am, they have banished 
all charity." — Goodman's Fall of Man, p. 
207. ' 

Lawyers Lives. 

" Their practice [the Lawyers'] may 
truly be called practice, and nothing but 
practice, for no state of life is so troublesome 
and laborious as theirs; such days of essoyn, 
such days of appearance ; so many writs, so 
many actions, so many offices, so many 
courts, so many motions, such judgements, 
such orders : — What throngs and multitudes 
of clients daily attend them ! I commend 
the wisdom of our forefathers, who close by 
the Hall erected a Church, where they might 
take the open air, and find it as empty as 
they left the other peopled and furnished. 
How are they continually busied ! I could 
heartily wish that there were more minutes 
in the hoiir, more hours in the day, more 
days In the week, more weeks in the year, 
more years in their age, that at length they 
might find out some spare time to serve God, 
to intend the actions of nature, to take their 
own ease and recreation. For now they are 
over-busied in their bricks and their straw, 
to lay the foundation of their own names 
and gentility; that, teaching other men their 
land-marks and bounds, they may likewise 
intend their own private inclosures. Well 
fare the Scholar's contentment, who if he 
enjoy nothing else, yet surely he doth enjoy 
himself." — Goodman's -F«/^ q/" il/a?j, p. 171. 

Foreign Drugs. — Foreign to our Consti- 

" In fetching this physic, these Indian 
drugs, thousands do yearly endanger their 
lives, through the diversity of the climate ; 
going to a new-found world, they go indeed 
to another world : whereas, I suppose that 
the physical herb of every country is most 
proper and fit for the inhabitants of that 
country, according to the course of God's 
Providence, and according to the Physicians' 
own aphorism, that a cure gently performed 
according to natural degrees, is always most 
commendable. These herbs do not agree 
with our constitution. Yet such is our wan- 
tonness, that sometimes with taking their 



physic we overthrow the state of our bodies ; 
and instead of natural, we make ourselves 
artificial stomachs, when our English bodies 
must prove the storehouses of Indian di'ugs. 
There is a great distance in the climate ; and 
therefore we should not rashly undertake 
such a journey, to join together things so far 
sepai-ated in nature. — Goodman's Fall of 
Man, p. 98. 

Inclosures — their Ecil in James the First's 
" A PRACTISE is now grown common and 
usual, and hath been hatched in these days, 
altogether unknown, or else utterly detested 
and abhorred, by the former and better times 
of our forefathers ; namely the inclosing of 
common fields; when the land leeseth his 
own proper and natural use ; God having 
ordained it for tillage, we must convert it to 
pasture ; whereas corn is such a sovereign 
and precious commodity, being indeed the 
groundwork of a kingdom, whereupon all 
our plenty consists ; insomuch that other 
wise and politic states (as the Florentines) 
will sufier no corn to be at any time trans- 
ported. Shall kingdoms bereave themselves 
of their weajjons, and sell them to strangers? 
Here is the staff of life, the staff of bread. 
(Levit. xxvi. 26.) Plere is our best weapon : 
shall we leave ourselves destitute of this 
weapon only through our own sloth ? Where- 
fore serve the inclosures, but only to the 
inhauncing of the Lord's rent, and for the 
idleness of the tenant ? Whereas certain it 
is, that better it were, in a state, for men to 
be wholly unprofitably employed, than for 
want of employment they should be left to 
their own disjwsing ; wherein you shall find 
not only the loss of their time, but other 
vicious and dissolute courses, as drinking, 
gaming, riot, quarrelling, and sometimes se- 
ditious timiults. Most certain it is that the 
kingdom is hereby greatly impoverished : 
for those lands inclosed are not able to main- 
tain such numbers of men, so many horses 
fit for the service of war, such provision for 
our plenty in a fourfold proportion, as for- 

merly they did, lying open and in tillage. 
"Where is the ancient strength of England ? 
how easily may she be vanquisht, if, in the 
best soil, towns shall be thus iinpeopled ! 
Why doth our law so much intend tillage ? 
Why doth our law prevent inmates and cot- 
tages ? if, on the other hand, notwithstand- 
ing the increase and multiplying of people, 
ye villages shall be ruinated, and all must 
serve for the shepherd. Infinite are the 
inconveniences which I could speak of inclo- 
sures ; but I will conclude all with this one 
rule in law. Interest reipublica, ut ne quis re 
sua male utatwrT — Goodman's Fall of Man, 
p. 248. 

Uncertainty of Physic. 

" In prescribing their physic, observe how 
curious they are ! It appears by their dosis, 
their weights, ounces, drachms, scruples, 
grains, as Lf they were able to square out 
and to proportion nature to a just rule and 
level, to poise and to balance her to the 
inch. Consider their innumerable recipes, 
their compositions consisting of various and 
infinite ingredients ; whereas certain it is 
that there are but four first qualities, and 
every one of them may be allayed by his 
contrary. Wherefore, I pray, serves so great 
variety ? I had thought that it had been to 
hide and cover the mysteries and secrets of 
their art"; to make it seem wonderful and 
incomprehensible ; or else to raise the price 
of their physic ; to make their own wares 
saleable. But shall I tell you the reason? 
In truth I fear they do but guess at their 
physic. Philosophy, whose search is deeper 
in nature, seems ingeniously to confess as 
much, whenas in every creature she placeth 
certain hidden and secret qualities, which 
the reason of man cannot find out, as like- 
wise not the degrees of those qualities : and 
therefore every Physician is an emperick ; 
his learning is gotten by experience, and 
not by reason, or discourse." — Goodman's 
Fall of Man, p. 97. 



Sir Christopher Hattons Tomb — a Morali- 
sation on its Vanity. 

" I NEVER see Sir Christopher Hatton's 
tomb," says Goodman, — " (and because I 
have named the gentleman," he adds, " and 
that I desire all things may be spoken with 
out offence, I will give him his due praise 
and commendation : in his time he was a 
very honourable-minded man ; no practising 
statesman, first contriving and then very 
wisely discovering his own plots ; but of 
fair and ingenious conditions, highly fa- 
voured of his Prince, and generally beloved 
of the people ; and one to whom the present 
Church of England is as much indebted in 
true love and thankfulness, as to any lay 
subject that ever lived in this kingdom.) 
When I see his tomb, methinks he should 
not be like the ordinary sort of our men ; 
such huge commendations, such titles, such 
pillars, such gilding, such carving, such a 
huge monument, to cover so small a body as 
ours, — it cannot be ! Send for the masons ; 
will them to bring hither their instruments 
and tools, their mattocks, spades, hammers, 
&c. : let us pull down this tomb ; see his ex- 
cellency and greatness : let us take his pro- 
portion ! But stay your hands : I will save 
you all that labour ; for I will tell you in 
brief (if my tale were worth the telling) 
what you shall find : — a few rotten bones, 
and a handfull of dust, and some crawling 
worms which have devoured this great little 
man, whom we supposed to have been as 
great under the earth, as we see his monu- 
ment stately mounted above ground. Is 
there deceit and cosenage among the dead ? 
or rather, do the living heirs and survivors 
Intend their own glory in the tomb of their 
ancestors?" — Fall of Man, p. 145. 

BvdcEitss Account of his Studies. 
BddxEus In one of his letters to Sir Tho- 
mas More has given an account of his own 
devotenient to literature. The balance is 
greatly in favour of his happiness, though 

his studies seem to have been ill re(iuited, 
and were, even by his own shewing, intem- 
perately pursued. lie says : " Nequc ego, ut 
opinor, usque adeb vel pertinaciter, vel con- 
stanter, susceptum hoc vita institutum, annis 
jam ferme duodetriginta pertulissem, nisi me 
vis quadam major et fatalis ab rei factitandce 
curd flagrantibusque municipum meorum stu- 
diis, ad literaria studia detorsisset; id est 
(ut nunc sunt mores Principum etpublici) in 
egestatis officiimm, patrimoniorumque inter- 
nicionem, ab census augeruli disciplind obtru- 
sisset. Ex quo tempore tantd alaci'itate ope- 
ram literarum studio dedi, tam prono pectore 
incubui in earn spem qiiam etiam nunc fovea, 
tantd omnium sensuum industrid ab omni ex- 
terna curd feriatorum, propositum finem stu- 
diorum persecutus sum, id nihil unquam hide 
voto prcevertendum esse duxerim ; nullam rem 
antiquiorem habuerim ; nuJli vel spei, vel 
voluptati, tantum tribuere visus sim, duntaxat 
secuiulum Dei cultum, et ceteimce felicitatis 
desiderium ; non parentum cognatorumque 
autoritati mihi, si in instituto persisterem, in- 
opiam, ignominiam, corporis infrmitatemprcB- 
dicentium atque denunciantium ; non curce rei 
amplifcandce, et fasti gii familiaris attollcndi, 
(quod commune et fervens studium esse vide- 
bam eorum qui frugi homines prudentesque 
moribus nostris existimantur) ; non conjugis 
precibus, quce meam Philologiam vehd suam 
j)ellicem sibi prceferri dolebat, et fremebat ; 
non rei in universum uxoricB lenociniis ; non 
prolis numeroscB blandimentis festive ludi- 
bundcE ; denique non tuendce prospers, non 
curandcB adversce valetudini. Quarum rerum 
incurid quum in fraudem luculentum sciens 
prudensque inciderim bonorum corporis et 
externorum, ut scepiuscule animo lahefactatus, 
sic nunquam ita fractus sum, quin aliqiuintum 
qiddem in spe et cogitatione acqinescerem 
Biulceorum nominis illustraruli, quod nulla re 
minus olim qudm literarum peritid innotuerat. 
Sed tamen locupletiorem semper, ampliorem- 
que spem illam esse censebam, per tranquilli- 
tatem ac securitatem transigeiuloe senectutis ; 
qtudenus quidem ferret hutrmna conditio : si- 
mrd mortis cequius ac jilacidiOs obeuiultp. in 
hoc studioso et meditato vitce genere, bondque 



indidem spe in atermim hausta atque concppta. 
Atqiie haec sunt veluti pignora qumlam idonea, 
qitibus fretus anitmim bona Jide in iis rebus 
meditand'is commentandisque occupavi et ad- 
dixi penitHs, quce in vulgus non probabantur, 
ad primarios ordines qffendebant, in consessu 
procenim, in senatuque^ frigebant, a Regibus 
Principibusque ne agnoscebantur qnidem. 
Nunc verb rei dignitas et uutoritas hactenus 
sese protulit, ut admirationem sui apud om- 
nes ordines aid plcrosqne dicendi famdtas 
reriim scientid instructa, excitasse videatur : 
non etiam id inde studiosi ejus et docti magno- 
pere crescere possint, aid ab ordinum ductori- 
bus in ordines cooptari ; earn demum ob cau- 
sam (ut midti opinantur) quod doctis cum 
imperitis, ut studia., sic mores opinionesque non 
ciinvcniunt, quce sunt amicitice glutinum." — 
BuD.Ei Lucubrationes Vai'iae, Basil, 1557, 
— Epistolffi LatioEB, lib. 1, p. 247. 

Immorality of States. 
" The truth is, there is naturally that 
absence of the chief elements of Christian 
religion, charity, humility, justice, and bro- 
therly compassion, in the very policy and 
institution of Princes and Sovereign States, 
that as we have long found the civil obli- 
gations of alliance and marriage to be but 
trivial circumstances of formality towards 
concord and friendship, so those of religion 
and justice, if urged for conscience' sake, 
are equally ridiculous ; as if only the indi- 
viduals, not any State itself, were perfect 
Christian. And I assure you, I have not 
been without many melancholy thoughts, 
that this justice of God which of late years 
hath seemed to be directed against Empire 
itself, hath proceeded from the divine in- 
dignation against those principles of Empire, 
which have looked upon conscience and re- 
ligion itself, as more private, subordinate, 
and subservient faculties, to conveniency 
and the interest of Kingdoms, than duties 
requisite to the purchase of the Kingdom of 
Heaven. And therefore God hath stirred 
up and applied the people, in whom Princes 
thought it only necessary to plant religion, 

to the destruction of Principalities, in the in- 
stitution whereof religion hath been thought 
unnecessary." — Clarendon's State Papers, 
p. 318. 

Necessity of Church Dignity. 

" You say, you wish we Avould have a 
very humble opinion of that which I call the 
dignity and lustre of our Church, compared 
with the inward beauty. Trust me, that 
which I call the dignity and lustre of our 
Church, is in my humble opinion so neces- 
sary for the preserving and propagating the 
inward beauty, that the one will decay and 
fall to nothing, if the other be not upheld ; 
nor can I imagine what inward beauty you 
can expect in the Church, when the dignity 
and lustre of it is trodden down by profaue- 
ness, and destroyed by sacrilege. AVould not 
you be a little merry with the man that 
should tell you, that the Court is at Caris- 
brook Castle ? and yet, you know the resi- 
dence of the King's person and his presence 
makes the Court anywhere, because it is 
supposed that the King can be nowhere 
without the exercise of his Kingly power 
and without his Insignia of Majesty. The 
inward beauty of the Court is, a true and 
hearty and conscientious submission and 
reverence in all Subjects, and all Servants, 
to the King, as appointed by God to govern 
over them'. But do you think this inward 
beauty, this pious reverence to his Majesty, 
can be easily preserved, if all his officers of 
State be taken away, and his family reduced 
to a Clerk, a Bailiff, and a Cook ? The Church 
is God's Court upon Earth, and he looks to 
be attended with those Ministers he hath 
chosen, and that those Ministers should be 
in the Equipage as he hath appointed ; for 
the support whereof he hath assigned a libe- 
ral maintenance ; And the inward beauty 
of this Court will be no better preserved by 
your Presbytery and your Eldership, than 
St. George's day would be celebrated with 
no other attendance upon the King than the 
Common Council of London, at Whitehall or 
Windsor. Indeed, as you say, this glorious 



outside will not so well endure the fiery 
trial ; which is an argument of the heat of 
the fire, not the illness or unusefulness of 
the outside. I doubt not the heart may 
continue entire, where the body is plundered, 
stripped, and left naked to the mercy of the 
winter ; yet you do not think the heart in as 
good case, or as long-lived, as it would be if 
the body were cherished and kept warm." — 
Clarendon's State Papers, p. 568. 

Wild Dogs in Puerto Rico. 
" This scant of sheep, says Aglionby, 
speaking of Puerto Rico, " is not to be laid 
upon the nature of the soil, as being unfit, 
or unwilling, to feed that sober, harmless 
creature ; but it proceedeth rather of the 
wolvish kind of dogs which are here in mul- 
titudes : and who knows not that when they 
that should be friends, become enemies, there 
is no cruelty compared with theirs ? Thei'e 
have been in this island far greater flocks, 
the cause of whose decay when I enquired 
of them that had been long dwellers here, 
they told us the reason was that which I 
mentioned ; namely, wild dogs which are 
bred in the woods, and there go in great com- 
panies together. These wild dogs, whereas 
they should be protectors, through want of 
man's voice and presence to direct them 
better, become wolvish in their nature, and 
now make pityful havoc of the poor silly 
sheep. Now this strange alteration of these 
dogs proceedeth not of any mixture of theii' 
kind with wolves, or any other ravenous 
beast (for I have not heard, nor could learn 
that the Island breedeth any such, though 
I have asked many ;) but they tell me this 
Cometh to pass by reason that these dogs 
find in the woods suflicient sustenance, and 
prefer wild liberty before domestical, and to 
themselves much more profitable, service. 
A notable instruction to man, the natural 
reasonable beast, how easily he may grow 
wild, if once he begin to like better of licen- 
tious anarchy than of wholesome obedi- 
ence. And withal a strong motive it is to 
drive us to thankfulness, that Christ will not 

suffer us to be our own, or at our own choice 
(who certainly should chuse the woods and 
deserts of our likings, before dwelling in the 
city of God) but hath bought us with a 
price, that we might be his. In which great- 
est good, that we might find better and 
greater contentment, he hath graciously de- 
livered us to the keeping of civil and spiritual 
shepherds ; by the sword of one, and tlie 
voice of the other, we are kept from being 
wild and worse than wolves, by reason of 
our acquaintance with them from our youth 
and tender years." — Account of the Earl of 
Cumhei'land^ s Expedition to Puerto Rico, 

— Where they live upon Land Crabs. 

" Here if any desire (as I think all that 
hear hereof will desire) to know how these 
dogs can live in these woods, the answer, 
although very true, will seem happily as 
strange as anything that hitherto hath been 
reported. For they live of crabs ; I mean 
not fruits of trees, though every tree hang- 
ing laded with strange fruits might per- 
chance yield nourishment to that beast 
specially, which Nature above the rest hath 
enabled with a distinguishing and perceiving 
faculty of what is good or HI for them to 
eat : but by crabs I mean an animal, a 
living and sensible creature, in feeding 
whereupon even men find a delight, not only 
contentedness. For it is not in these south- 
erly parts of the world as in England and 
the like countries, that these crabs can live 
only and are to be found in the sea : but 
these woods are full of these crabs, in quan- 
tity bigger than ever I saw any sea crabs in 
England, and in such multitudes that they 
have burrowed like conies in English war- 
rens. They are in shape not different from 
sea crabs, for aught I can perceive : I have 
seen multitudes of them both here and at 
Dominica ; the whitest whereof (for some 
are ugly black) some of our men did eat 
with good liking, and without any harm that 
ever I heard complaint of. This is the meat 
which these wild dogs live of: which I do 
the rather believe, because at Dominica we 



did indeed see dogs in the woods, so far 
from any man's dwelling, that we wondered 
whereof they lived. — The remembrance of 
what we had seen at Dominica, brought us 
to a more assenting of what was told us of 
the dogs and crabs of Puerto Rico : and 
then that leads us to another point looking 
the same way. For at our first coming to 
Puerto Rico, the dogs of the city every night 
kept a fearful howling, and in the daytime 
you should see them go in flocks into the 
woods along the sea side. This we took at 
first for a kind bemoaning of their masters' 
absence and leaving of them ; but when 
within a while they were acquainted with us 
who at first were strangers to them, and so 
began to leave their howling by night, yet 
still they continued their daily resort to the 
woods, and that in companies : we under- 
stood by asking, that their resort thither 
was to hunt and eat crabs, whereof in the 
woods they should find store." — Aglionby's 
Account of the Earl of Cumberland's Expe- 
dition to Puerto Rico, MS. 

The Still-vext Bermudas, 

" AVe hojied to weather the infamous 
island of Bermudas, notorious for incredible 
storms of fearful thunder and lightning. It 
was the sixth day after our departure from 
Puerto Rico, being Saturday the 19th of 
August, when I writ out this note ; then 
were we a great way from the height of 
Bermudas, which lyeth in thirty-three de- 
grees, so that yet I can say nothing of that 
place so much spoken of; and I know not 
whether I should dare to wish myself any 
experimental knowledge of it, for it may be 
I should think it cost too dear, and other 
books are full of it." — Aglionby's Account 
of the Earl of Cumberland's Expedition to 
Puerto Rico, MS. 

Money depreciated by the Discovery of 

" Avant les voyages du Perou on pouvoit 
serrer heaucoup de richesses en pen de place; 

au lieu qu'uujourd'hui Vor et Vargeid estans 
avillis par Vabondance, il faut des grandz 
coffres pour retirer ce qui se pouvoit mettre 
en une petite bovge. On pouvoit faire un 
long trait de chemin avec une bourse dans la 
manche, au lieu qu'aujourd'hui il faut une 
valize et un cheval expres." — Lescakbot, 
Histoire de la Nouvelle France — chap. 33, 
p. 482. 

This lively and pleasant writer accounts 
this among the evil consequences of the dis- 
covery. " Et pouvons," he says, " d bon 
droit maudire Vheure quand jamais Vavarice 
a porte VHespanhol en V Occident, pour les 
malheurs qui sen sont ensuivis. Car quandje 
considere que par son avarice il a allume et 
entretenu la guerre en toute la Chretiente, et 
s'est estudie d miner ses voisins, et non point 
le Turc, je ne puis penser qu'autre que le 
diable ait este autheur de leurs voyages" 

Colonists too proud to labour. 

" — S'ils ont eu de la famine " says Les- 
cakbot of the early French colonists, " ily 
a eu de la grande faute de leur part de ri avoir 
nullement cultivc la terre, laquelle ils avoient 
trouvee decouverte. Ce qui est un prealahle 
de faire avant toute chose a qui veut smaller 
percher si loin de secours. Mais les Fran- 
qois, etpresque toutes les nations dujour d 'hui 
(fentens de ceux qui ne sont nais au labour- 
age) ont cette mauvaise nature, qu'ils esti- 
ment deroger beaucoup a leur qualite de s'ad- 
donner a la culture de la terre, qui neantmoins 
est a peu pres la seule vacation ou reside 
V innocence. Et de la vient que chacunfui- 
ant ce noble traimil, exercice de noz premiers 
peres, des Rois anciens, et des plus grands 
Capitaines du monde, et cherchant de se faire 
Gentil-hommeaux depens d'autrui, ou voidant 
apprendre tant seulement le metier de tromper 
les hommes, ou se gratter au soleil, Dieu ote 
sa benediction de nous, et nous bat aujourd'hui, 
et des long-temps, en verge de fer; si bien 
que le peuple languit miserablement en toutes 
parts ; et voyons la France remplie de gucus, 
et mendiuns de toutes especes, sans compremlre 



un nomhre infini qui gemit souz son toict, et 
7iose /aire paroitre sa pauvrete." — Ilistoire 
de la Nouvelle France, p. 540. 

Game Laws derived from Noak. 
Lescarbot derives the game laws from 
the authority given to Noah over every 
beast of the earth and every fowl of the air ! 
" Sitr ce privilege void le droit de la Chasse 
forme ; droit le phis noble de tons les droits 
qui soient en I'usage de Vhomme, puis que 
Dieu en est Vautheur. Et pour ce ne se faut 
emerveiller si les Roys et leur Noblesse se le 
sont reserve par une raison bien concluante, 
que s'ils commandent aux hommes, a trop 
meilleure raison peuvent-ilz commander aux 
betes. Et s'ils ont r administration de la 
justice pour juger les mal-faicteurs, domter les 
rebelles, et amener a la societe humaine les 
hommes furouches et sauvages ; a beaucoup 
meilleure raison Vauront-ils pour faire le 
meme envers les animaux de Vair, des champs 
et des campagnes. — Et puis que les Rois ont 
este du commencement eleuz par les peuples 
pour les garder et defendre de leurs ennemis 
tandis qu'ilz sont aux manoeuvres, et faire la 
guerre en tant que besoin est pour la repara- 
tion de r injure, et repetition de ce qui a este 
mat usurpe, ou ravi; il est bien scant et rai- 
sonnable que tant eux que la Noblesse qui les 
assiste et sert en ces choses, ayent Vexercice 
de la Chasse, qui est un image de la guerre, 
afin de se degourdir Vesprit, et estre toujours 
a Verte pret a. monter d cheval, allcr au devant 
de V ennemi,lui faire des embuches, Vassaillir, 
lui donner la chasse, lui marcher sur le ven- 
treT — Histoire de la Nouvelle France, p. 

Saivctorum Cod-fish. 

" Nos ditz bons Religieux, comme les Cor- 
deliers de Saiiict Malo, et autres des villcs 
maritimes, eiisemble les Curez, peurent dire 
qxCen mangeant quelquefois du poisson ilz 
nmngerd de la viande consacree a Dieu. Car 
qwind les Terre-neuviers rencontrent quelque 
Moriie exorbitamment belle, ils en font un 

Sanctorum (ainsi V appellent-ilz ) et la voilent 
et consacrent d Monsieur Sainct Frangois, 
Suinct Nicolas, Sainct Lienart, et autres, avec 
la tete, comme ainsi soil que pour leur pe- 
cherie ilz jetteid les tetes dedaits le nier.'' — 
Lescakbot, Histoire de la Nouvelle France, 
p. 83L 

Our Practice should answer to our Prayers. 
" Ls a word, let our practice answer to 
our prayers, let us live like Christians, and 
as becomes the members of so excellent a 
Church. And if we do so, our prayers will 
be acceptable to God, and bring down a 
blessing not only upon ourselves, but upon 
our Church and State too, and we shall see 
peace in Sion, and prosperity in our Israel." 
— Bishop Bull, vol. 1, p. 345. 

Subsistence of the Poor. — 1721. 

" I HAVE not known anywhere in the 
country, that a husband, his wife and three 
or four children, have asked any relief from 
the parish, if the whole labour of such a 
family could procure £20 per annum. So 
that £4 per head is the common annual sub- 
sistence of working people in the country." 
1721.— British Merchant, vol. 1, p. 263. 

BrougharfLS Rant about Juries. 
" In his mind," said Mr. Brougham 
(Times, Friday, 8 Feb. 1828), " that man 
was guilty of no error, — he was a party to no 
exaggeration, — he was led by his fancy into 
no extravagance, — who had said that all 
they saw about them, Lords and Commons, 
the whole machinery of the State, was de- 
signed to bring twelve men into the Jury- 
box, to decide on questions connected with 
liberty and property. Such was the cause 
of the establishment of Government ; such 
was the use of Government. It was that 
purpose which could alone justify restraints 
on general liberty, — it was that alone which 
could justify any interference with the free- 
dom of the subject." 



Why Enthusiasm succeeds better than sober 
" Enthusiasm fills tlie conventicle and 
empties the church ; silly people dance after 
its pipe, and are lured by it from their 
lawful, orthodox teachers, to run they know 
not whither, to hear they know not whom, 
and to learn they know not what. And till 
the minds of men are better informed,^ and 
possessed with righter notions of things, 
it is impossible they should ever be brought 
to any regular and sober religion."— Bishop 
Bull, vol. 1, p. 255. 

Morality of Protestantism. 
" The Protestant Religion seems to have 
an unquestioned title to the first introdu- 
cing a strict Morality among us ; and 'tis but 
just to give the honour of it where 'tis so 
eminently due. Reformation of Manners 
has something of a natural consequence m 
it from Reformation in Religion. For since 
the principles of the Protestant Religion 
disown the Indulgencies of the Roman Pon- 
tiff, by which a thousand Sins are, as venial 
crimes, bought off", and the Priest, to save 
God Almighty the trouble, can blot them out 
of the Account before it comes to his hand; 
common Vices lost their charter, and men 
could not sin at so cheap a rate as before. 
The Protestant Religion has in itself a na- 
tural tendency to Virtue, as a standing 
testimony of its own Divine Original ; and 
accordingly it has suppressed Vice and Im- 
morality'^in all the countries where it has 
had a footing; it has civilized Nations, 
and reformed the very tempers of its pro- 
fessors ; Christianity and Humanity have 
gone hand in hand in the world ; and there 
is so visible a difference between the other 
civilized Governments in the world, and 
those who now are under the Protestant 
Powers, that it carries its evidence in itself." 
—Defoe's Poor Mans Plea, p. 111. 

Defoe on Dissent.— When justifkd)le} 
" He who dissents from an Established 
Church on any account but from a real Prin- 
ciple of Conscience, is a Politick, not a Reli- 
gious Dissenter. To explain myself : He 
who dissents from any other reasons but 
such as these ; that he firmly believes the 
said Established Church is not of the purest 
institution, but that he can really serve 
God more agreeable to his Will, and that 
accordingly 'tis his duty to do it so, and no 
otherwise. Nay, he that cannot die, or at 
least desire to do so, rather than conform, 
ought to conform. Schism from the Church 
of Christ is, doubtless, a great Sin ; and if 
T can avoid it, I ought to avoid it ; but if 
not, the Cause of that Sin carries the 
Guilt with it."— Defoe's Discourse upon 
Occasional Conformity, p. 143. 

Defoe on the Irish Papists. 
" The Popish Irish by a bloody Massacre 
of two hundred thousand Protestants in 1 641 , 
—by little less intended, and as much as 
they were able executed this late War,— 
have deserved, no doubt, to have been used 
at the discretion of the English ; and Oliver 
Cromwell was more than once consulting 
to transplant the whole Nation from that 
Island. If he had done it, or if it had now 
been done, I am of the opinion, no nation 
in the world would have taxed us with In- 
justice ; and I do verily think Oliver acted 
with more Generosity than Discretion in 
omitting it ; for this is certain, that if he had 
done itrthis last War and the expence of 
so much Treasure as it cost this Nation, and 
the Ruin of so many thousand Protestant 
Families who were driven from thence by 
King James, all the Destruction at London- 
derry, the Sickness at Dundalk, and the 
Blood of 150,000 people, who at least, one 
way or other, on both sides, perished in it, 
had been prevented. It may be enquired 

A notable passage. 



whither Oliver designed to transplant them. 
I could answer directly to that also ; but 
'tis sufHcient to my purpose to say, had he 
cleared the Island of them, it had been no 
matter at all to us whither they had gone. 
" I have also seen among the Letters of 
State written by Mr. Milton, who was his 
Secretary for the Foreign Dispatches a 
Letter written to the States of Holland, 
wherein by way of argument to prevail for 
some ease to the Protestants of Piedmont, 
he proposes a Confederacy with the Dutch, 
and all their Reformed friends, to reduce 
the Duke of Savoy to a necessity of giving 
better Conditions to the Vaudois ; and seems 
to threaten to expel all the Roman Ca- 
tholicks in England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
out of his Dominions." — Defoe's Lex Ta- 
lionis, p. 259. 

Cornish Notions of Cattle. 
" ' Give me,' says the still prejudiced 
farmer, ' a snug tight bullock, with a stout 
frame of bone to build my flesh and fat 
upon, and a good thick hide to keep out 
the cold and wet : they be strong and hardy, 
Sir, cost little or nothing in keep, range 
the moors, live and thrive on furze and 
heath in summer, and in winter too, with a 
little straw ; get as fat as moles when put 
on turnips ; the butcher likes 'mun (them) ; 
they tallow well, and hide tells in the tan- 
ner's scale.' Such is the colloquial infor- 
mation you will get from the more rustic 
sons of agriculture, who form a pretty nu- 
merous class in Cornwall. As to Leices- 
tershire lines of beauty, they tell you in 
homestead plainness, ' they won't do here ;' 
and to argue with them would be taking the 
bull by the horns." — Wokgan's Cornwall, 
p. 139 

Garden Fruits, — and Walks. 

" Wife, into thy garden, and set me a plot 

With strawberry roots, of the best to be^ot ; 

Such growing abroad, among thorns in the 


Well chosen and picked, prove excellent 

" The barberry, respis, and gooseberry too, 
Look now to be planted as other things do ; 
The gooseberry, respis, and roses all three. 
With strawberries under them, truly agree." 
TussEE, September's Husbandry. 

" Save saw-dust, and brick-dust, and ashes 

so fine, 
For alley to walk in with neighbour of 

thine." Tusseb. 


" If frost do continue, take this for a law, 
The strawberries look to be covered with 

Laid overly, trim, upon crotches and bows, 
And after uncovered, as weather allows. 

" The gillyflower also, the skilful do know. 
Doth look to be covered in frost and in snow ; 
The knot and the border, and rosemary gay, 
Do crave the like succour, for dying away." 
TussEE, December s Husbandry. 

" In March and in April, from morning to 

In sowing and setting good housewives de- 
light ; 

To have in a garden, or other like plot, 

To trim up their house, and to furnish their 
pot." TussER. 

Error, whence in different Classes. 

" L'erreur est detoutes les conditions, de 
tous les ages ; mais parmi le peuple elle est 
le produit de I'ignorance ; dans les classes 
elevees elle est I'effet de I'imagination. Les 
uns n'etendent pas assez le domaine de la 
pensee ; les autres I'etendent au-dela de ses 
justes bornes. On s'egare, parcequ'on ne 
veut pas se renfermer dans le cercle mo- 
deste de la raison et du jugement." — Sax,- 
GUES, Des Erreurs et des Prejuges, Pre- 



]\[ore Crime in Villages than in Toivns. 

" VouLEZ-vous savoir si les mceurs de la 
campagne sont plus douces, plus genereuses 
que celles de la ville ? consultez les gens de 
loi, et demandez-leur quelle est, daus la so- 
cietc, la classe la plus disposee aux que- 
relles, a la mauvaise foi, a la cupidite ; ils 
vous repondront que dix villages valent 
mieux pour enrichir un avocat que toute 
la clientelle d'une grande ville. Quand le 
peuple frangais est devenu souverain, son 
sceptre fut-il plus redoutable dans les villes 
que dans les campagnes ? Oii trouverez- 
vous des incendies plus frequens, des de- 
vastations de proprietes plus nombreuses 
qu'a la campagne ? J'ai fait, sur les regis- 
tres d'un tribunal de province, le releve 
des proces juges pendant dix ans, et je puis 
assurer que j'ai constammeut tronve que 
Thumeur querelleuse des campagnards est a 
celle des habitans de la ville comme vingt- 
cinq a un, toutes choses egales." — Sal- 
GUES, Des Erreurs et des Prejvges, p. 374. 

All Heresies founded on Scripture. 

" II n'y eiit jamais aucune heresie pour si 
profane qu'elle fut, qui ne se soit appuyee 
sur des paroles formelles de I'Escriture 
saincte. C'est un pays de conqueste que 
la Bible ; une forest esgalement ouverte 
aux larrons et aux buscherons ; une prerie 
comme aux faucheurs pour y trouver de 
I'herbe, aux cicoignes pour y trouver des 
serpens, et aux asnes pour y trouver des 
chardons." — Gaeasse, Doctrine Curieuse, 
p. 184. 

Unbelievers of his Age. 

" A VOIR les deportemens de nos nouveaux 
dogmatisans, et entendre leurs discours, il 
est certain qu'ils ne sont pas heretiques, a 
tout le moins ne sont-ils ny Huguenots ny 
Lutheriens ; car ils vont quelquesfois a la 
Messe quand ils s'en souviennent ; quelques- 
fois ils se confessent, Dieu sgait comment; 
quelquesfois ils frequentent les Religieux, 

pour leur demander a I'oreille s'ils croyent 
en Dieu ; ils entendent quelquesfois les 
predications pour les traduire en risee, lors 
qu'ils sont eschauffez de vin ; ils disent mal 
des Huguenots, et soustiennent qu'il ne 
leur faut parler que par la bouche des ca- 
nons : ils les estiment des bestes, et je croy 
qu'ils ne s'abusent point." — Gabasse, Doc- 
trine Curieuse, p. 215. 


" Rent-corn whoso payeth as worldlings 

would have. 
So much for an acre, must live like a slave ; 
Rent-corn to be paid for a reas'nable rent 
At reas'nable prices, is not to lament." 
TussEB, Good Husbandly Lessons. 

Husbandly Fare. 

" Now leeks are in season, for pottage full 

And spareth the milch cow, and purgeth the 

blood ; 
These having with peason for pottage in 

Thou sparest both oatmeal and bread to be 


" Tho' never so much a good housewife doth 

That such as do labour have husbandly fai'e ; 
Yet feed them and cram them till purse do 

lack chink. 
No spoonmeat no bellyfull, labourers 


TussER, Marclis Husbandry. 

Character of the Irish in Spain. 

" Es justo se repare, en que aunque los Ir- 
landeses es gente muy Catolica, y de no da- 
fiadas costumbres, son muchos los que han 
venido d Espana, si7i que en tanto nuniero se 
halle uno que se aya apUcado a, las artes, o al 
trabajo de la labranza, ni d otra alguna ocu- 
pacion, mas que d mendigar ; siendo grava- 



men y carga de la Repuhlica. Justissimo es 
ampurar d los que por causa de la Fe han 
dexado su patria; pero ta?nbien lo es, que 
ellos se apliqucn a exercer en Espafia las 
7nismas artes y oficios que tenian en su tierra, 
siendo impossible que en tanto numero de 
gente fuessen todos nobles y holgazanes, coma 
lo quieren ser acd." — Navakkete, Conser- 
vacion de Monarquias, disc. 7, p. 57. 

Listeners scarce in France. 

It is no rare thing to be a good listener in 
England, but it appears to have been so in 
France when Brissot began his endeavours 
to republicanize the French nation. De- 
scribing the character of Franklin, he says : 
" Franklin eut du genie ; mais il eut des 
vertus, mais il etoit simple, ban, modeste sur- 
tout. Ah, quel talent pent se passer de mo- 
destie f II iiavoit pas cette orgtieilleuse 
aprete dans la dispute qui repousse dedai- 
gnciuicment toutes les idees desautres ; il ecou- 
toit. II ecoutoit, entendez-vous, lecteur ? Et 
pourquoi Tie nous a-t-il pas laisse quelques 
idee ssurV art d^econterf — Nouveau Voyage 
dans les Etats-Unis, torn. 1, p. 331. 

Cows'' Disease in the Tail. 

Cows are liable to a disease which in the 
North of England is called the worm in the 
tail, wherefore I have never heard ; and the 
cause of the disease is now considered as 
inexplicable as the cure. The animal is 
observed not to feed ; the teeth are found 
very loose ; and in some part of the tail, for 
the length of three or four inches, the bone 
seems to be softened and becomes as flexible 
as flesh. When this is ascertained, a circu- 
lar incision is made in the middle of the 
softened part, through all the integuments, 
quite down to the place of the bone, and 
sometimes a longitudinal one, the whole 
length of the softened part ; tar and salt 
are put into the wound, which is then ban- 
daged up ; in a few days the teeth become 
fast, the animal takes to its food again, and 

when the bandage is removed the tail is as 
bony as ever. The friend by whom I was 
informed of this singuhir fact, tells me that 
he has never seen it noticed in any book of 
Natural History or Physiology. Yet both 
the disease and the mode of cure have been 
known from time immemorial in England, 
for they are thus noticed by Tusser, in his 
January's Husbandry : 

" Poor bullock with browsing and naughtily 

Scarce feedeth, her teeth be so loose in her 

head ; 
Then slice ye the tail where ye feel it so 

With soot and with garlic bound to it 


Tusser's Advice. 

" IMake Money thy drudge, for to follow thy 

work ; 
Make Wisdom comptroller, and Order thy 

clerk ; 
Provision cater, and Skill to be cook ; 
Make steward of all, pen, ink, and thy 


" Make hunger thy sauce, as a med'cine for 

Make thirst to be butler, as physic for 

wealth ; 
Make eye to be usher, good usage to have; 
]\Iake bolt to be porter, to keep out a knave. 

" Make husbandry bailifl", abroad to pro- 
vide ; 

Make huswifery daily, at home for to guide ; 

Make coffer, fast locked, thy treasure to 

Make house to be suer, the safer to sleep. 

" Make bandog thy scoutwatch, to bark at 

a thief; 
Make courage for life, to be capitain chief; 
Make trap-door thy bulwark, make bell to 

be gin. 
Make gunstone and arrow shew who is 

within." TussEB, p. xxiv. 



Com Harvest divided. 
" Corn Harvest, equally divided into ten 
parts : 

" One part cast forth, for rent due out of 

One other part, for seed to sow thy land. 
Another part, leave parson for his tithe. 
Another part, for harvest sickle and scythe. 
One part, for plough-wright, cai't-wright, 

knacker, and smith. 
One part, to uphold thy teams that draw 

One part, for servant, and workmen's wages, 

One part likewise, for fill-belly, day by day. 
One part thy wife, for needful things, doth 

Thyself and child, the last one part would 


" "Who minds to quote 
Upon this note. 

May easily find enough 
What charge and pain, 
To little gain, 

Doth follow toiling plough. 

" Yet farmer may 
Thank God and say. 

For yearly such good hap, 
"Well fare the plough. 
That sends enow 

To stop so many a gap." 

TussEK, p. 195. 

Literature effeminating the Germans and 

" At jam in Gerraania omnia propalantur 
et divulgantur ; unde factum est inibi, ut 
quUibet sibi nova biblia cudat, Imperium 
in ruinam abeat, et luxu omnia diffluant. 
Nisi etiam metus ex Catholicis Belgas in 
armis detinuisset, tarn effceminati hodie es- 
sent quam sunt Germani : idem et accideret 
Anglis ; ut sperandum sit, illos, ni bello 
forsan orto exerceantur, citb interituros 
omnes, postquam moUes, imbelles et dis- 

cordes facti fuerint, — tantoque magis quod 
hferesis illorum, liberum arbitrium negans, 
omni rationi politicfe repugnet." — Campa- 
NELLA, De Monorchia Hispanicd, p. 273. 

Size of Farms. 

Generally speaking, a farm may be 
deemed too large if it be beyond the power 
of one man to attend to the whole of its 
details. A middle man cuts off the sym- 
pathy and connection between the labourer 
and the master : and where a master and an 
overseer are both required, one is engross- 
ing what might suffice for giving indepen- 
dent employment to two. This however 
should not be insisted on too strictly ; be- 
cause a few large farmers give respectability 
to the profession, form a link between the 
proprietors and occupiers, and keep open 
the chances of learning and introducing far- 
ther improvements. 

On the other hand, a farm ought not to 
be less than will keep a man in full employ- 
ment ; for he who pursues two professions, 
seldom does either well. But so much de- 
pends upon circumstances, that on good 
land a rent of £200 might be paid without 
employing half a man's time ; and on a poor 
grass farm, two thousand acres, and £1000 
rent, might not give too much employment. 

Corn Laws. 

In equitable compensation, the grower be protected against inqwi't when corn is 

Against this the Political Economist 
reasons thus. "When a tax is laid on foreign 
corn, it is paid by all, but the profit is ex- 
clusively reaped by the landed interest. 
"When a bounty is paid on foreign imported 
corn (as in 1801) it is paid equally by all 
who want the commodity, and not by the 
landed interest more than by others, though 
they alone had reaped advantage by the 
duty. Where then is the equitable com- 
pensation ? 



The fallacy here lies in supposing that 
the landed interest alone reaps the benefit. 
When a tax is laid on foreign corn, or even 
a bounty paid on exportation, the steady 
application of Capital to Agriculture is en- 
couraged, and that application improves the 
land already cultivated and brings more 
into culture. The high prices from 1795 
to the end of the war produced about 2000 
Inclosure Acts. (At 250 acres each, 500,000 
acres reclaimed from waste land, or laid into 
severalty.) The tax on foreign corn there- 
fore, and the bounty on exportation, pro- 
duce more corn, increase the agricultural 
prosperity of the nation, and benefit all 
other classes, not by that prosperity alone 
(though without it no other class can be 
prosperous), but by keeping provisions at 
a steady price, which is the greatest of all 
blessings to all, especially in a manufactur- 
ing nation. At present, riot and insurrec- 
tion are but just avoided, and continually 
threatened. And the discouragement of 
agriculture during the last four or five 
years,' has already diminished the state of 
tillage by more than all the seed corn of 
the next year ; four bushels minus per acre 
is the worsened estimate. 

Irrigation — when introduced. 

The system of watering meadows was 
said soon after the Restoration to have 
" become one of the most universal and ad- 
vantageous improvements in England within 
few years." One of the objections to it at 
that time was, that as farmers " from a 
greedy and covetous principle suffered the 
grass to stand so long on the watered mea- 
dows," it became "miich discoloured, and 
grew hawny^ and neither so toothsome nor 
wholesome as that on unwatered meadows; 
which brought an ill name on the hay." — 
Mystery of Husbandry, p. 17. 

' This, from its place in the MSS., appears 
to have been written in 1828. Ed. » 

2 Perhaps haumu, i. e. stalky. 

Wool coarsened by rich Pasture. 

A STATEMENT wliich coutradicts this con- 
clusion occurs in Carew's Survey of Corn- 
wall : there it is said : " What time the shire, 
for want of good manurance, lay waste and 
open, the sheep had generally little bodies, 
and coarse fleeces, so as their wool bare no 
better name than of Cornish hair, and for 
such hath (from all auncienty) been trans- 
ported without paying custom. But since 
the grounds began to receive inclosure and 
dressing for tillage, the nature of the soil 
hath altered to a better grain, and yieldeth 
nourishment in greater abundance and 
goodness to the beasts that pasture there- 
upon : so as by this means (and let not 
the owners' commendable industry turn to 
their surchargious prejudice, lest too soon 
they grow weary of well doing) Cornish 
sheep come but little behind the eastern 
flocks for bigness of mould, fineness of 
wool, often breeding, speedy fatting, and 
price of sale ; and in my conceit, equal if 
not exceed them, in sweetness of taste, and 
freedom from rottenness and such other 
contagions." — Fol. 23, edition of 1769. 

It must be suspected that there had been 
a gradual change of breed of which Carew 
was not aware, and which his countrymen 
kept as secret as they could, that they might 
escape the tax on exportation. It appears 
by his farther account that there were three 
breeds in Cornwall : " Most of the Cornish 
sheep," he says, " have no horns, whose 
wool is finer in quality, as that of the 
horned more in quantity ; yet in some 
places of the county there are that carry 
four horns." 

Church Leases. 

A church lease contains not in it that temp- 
tation to sluggish7iess resulting from very low 
rents, which a tenant suspects may be raised 
upon him if he improves the appearance of 
the farm. 

It has been observed that with regard 



to Church lands now, whatever it may for- 
merly have been, this is not suspicion, but 
a knowledge or calculation. At every seven 
years' end, an agent values, and the fine for 
renewal is exactly in proportion to the im- 
provement in value, whether that improve- 
ment has been produced by market or cul- 
tivation. When short leases are granted 
by lay proprietors, they keep in repair, and 
generally contribute to any great improve- 
ment, as drains, &c. Church proprietors 
never do either. 

In reply to this it is admitted that 
Church property increases in value to the 
Church, as it improves ; but this is magno 
intervallo, and little touches the unprover, 
who is sure of enjoying his improvements 
for one-and-twenty years if he pleases, and 
who cannot be injured by compromise, at 
his own pleasure, every seven years, — when 
he pays half a year's purchase for seven 
years future, at the end of fourteen. Thus 
he possesses half the value of the freehold. 
Repairs are of course taken into account in 
the septennial fine, for the Church lessee 
must not be considered as a tenant at will. 

Kittens, how kept clean. 

A FRIEND has noticed to me a remarkable 
fact, which I do not remember anywhere 
to have read of, though it must have been 
popularly known ever since the cat has 
been domesticated. Kittens have no evacu- 
ation whatever, till they are old enough to 
run about ; nature having thus provided 
for cleanliness, in a case where it is neces- 
sary, and could in no other way be pre- 
served. Farther observations may be ex- 
pected to shew that the same provision is 
extended to all creatures the young of 
which are incapable of locomotion, if this 
excretion was offensive, and if it would be 
impossible for the dam to keep them and 
their beds clean. 

Heresy takes a Course through Atheism to 
the true Faith. 

" Omnis autem hceresis cum ad atheis- 
mum delapsa est, per sapientem prophetam 
(qnales in Italia fuerunt Thomas, Dominicus, 
Scotus et alii) in veritatis viam reducitur. 
Habent enim hareses periodum suam ad mo- 
dum Rerumpuhlicariim, qu<B a regihus in 
tyrannidem, a tyraiuiide in statum optima- 
tium, et inde in oligarchiam, atque tandem in 
democratiam, et in fine rwsus in statum re- 
gium, aut etiam tyrannicum, circumaguntur 
ac revoh'untur.'^ — Campaxella, De Mo- 
narchia Hispanica, p. 274. 

Universities decried. 

"Whenever," says Carte (Introduction 
to the Life of Ormond, p. xxxviii), " a set 
of proud fellows that will suffer nobody to 
know more, or think otherwise, than them- 
selves ; or of young and vain ones, that 
fancy themselves to be finely accomplished, 
because they have learned to chatter a 
foreign language, and have seen some fine 
building abroad in countries with regard 
to the commerce, laws, police, and consti- 
tution whereof they perhaps never asked a 
question, nor made an observation ; shall 
so far prevail, as to put an University edu- 
cation out of countenance, and cause it to 
be generally disused ; their lay posterity 
will probably owe it to them, that they are 
necessitated to be as illiterate, and withal 
full as insignificant, as any of their ances- 

Mountjoy in Ireland. 

Lord ^Iountjoy's army, says Sir John 
Davies, "did consist of such good men 
of war, and of such numbers, being well 
nigh 20,000 by the poll, and was so roy- 
ally supplied and paid, and continued in 
full strength so long a time, as that it brake 
and absolutely subdued all the lords and 
chieftains of the Irishry, and degenerate or 


rebellious English. Whereupon the multi- 
tude, who ever loved to be followers of 
such as could master and defend them, ad- 
miring the power of the crown of England, 
being brayed, as it were, in a mortar, with 
the sword, famine and pestilence altogether, 
submitted themselves to the English go- 
vernment, received the laws and magistrates, 
and most gladly embraced the king's pardon 
and peace in all parts of the realm, with 
demonstration of joy and comfort, which 
made indeed an entire, perfect and final 
conquest of Ireland. And though upon the 
finishing of the war, this great army was 
reduced to less niunbers, yet hath his ma- 
jesty in his wisdom thought it fit still to 
maintain such competent forces here, as the 
Law may make her progress and circuit 
about the realm, under the protection of 
the Sword (as I7r^'-o the figure of Justice 
is by Leo in the Zodiack), until the people 
have perfectly learned the lesson of obedi- 
ence, and the conquest be established in the 
hearts of all men." — P. 53. 

Prophecy of its complete Conquest — a little 
before Doo7nsday. 

" The conquest at this time doth perhaps 
fulfill that prophecy wherein the four great 
Prophets of Ireland do concur, as it is re- 
corded by Giraldus Cambrensis, to this 
effect : That after the first invasion of the 
English, they should spend many ages in 
crehris covflictibiis, longoque cei'tamine et 
multis cadibiis. And that Omnes fert An- 
glici ah Hibernia tiirbabuntur ; nihilominus 
orientalia maritima semper obtinebunt. Sed 
vix paidb ante diem Judicii, pleruim Anglorum 
populo victoriam compromittunt, Instdu Hi- 
bernica de mari usque ad mare de toto sub- 
acta et incastellatu." — Sir John Davies, p. 

Effect of suckling Sheep by Goats, upon 
the Wool. 

" Cosa es muravillosa lo que se experi- 
menta cada dia, que ai el cordero mam<»leche 
de cabra, le sale la luna aspera y intratable, 

y al reves, si al cubrito crian con leche de 
ovejas, se le ablanda el pelo." — Yepes, Coro- 
nica General de S. Benito, — Valladolid, 
1621, torn. 7, fol. 134. 

BoucHET, in like manner says, " on voit 
les aigneaiix nourris de laid de chevre avoir 
la laine plus rude que ceux qui sont alaictez 
d'une brebis, qui out le poil plus moL" — 
Serees, liv. 2, ser. 24, p. 619. 

BoththegraveBenedictine and thewliim- 
sical Sieur de Brocourt deduce the same 
conclusion from the assumed fact; and be- 
cause disease may be communicated in the 
nurse's milk, argue that the moral as well 
as the physical nature is affected by it. 
BoucHET says that dogs, if suckled by a 
wolf, become ferocious; and that lions, when 
fed with milk either of the cow or the 
goat, become tame (p. 518); and that les 
enfans nourris par une chevre sont habiles 
et legers ; s'ils sont alaictez d\ine brebis, ils 
seront plus mollets, delicats et douillets que les 
autres; ct ceux qui sont nourris de Utict de 
vache, seront plus forts que les uns ct les 
autres (p. 536). And Yepes, after relating 
the effects which, according to him, are 
produced upon lambs and kids by having 
foster-mothers of a different kind, says, 
Pues no tiene menos fuerza la leche de las 
amas en los nihos, y se ve de ordinario, que 
qual han sido las inclinaciones y costumb7-es 
de las amas que crian, estas conservan siempre 
las criaturas a quien dieron el pecho. 

CAMPANELLA,in his curious directions for 
providing the Universal ^lonarchy of Spain 
with a proper heir, advises thus : '•'■Filio re- 
cens nato generosa mulier admovenda est, 
qua mammas illi det ; imo etiam sapiens, et 
virago aliqua ; nam mores una cum nutricis 
lacte i7nbibuntur." — De Monarchia Hispa- 
nica, cap. 9. 


Mks.Eadcliffe "everywhere met gush- 
ing springs ;" but her whole description 
of the ascent must have been worked up 



from recollection, and miglit have been 
more fitly introduced in one of her ro- 
mances than in the relation of an actual 

" Sometimes," she says, " we looked into 
tremendous chasms, where the torrent, 
heard roaring long before it was seen, had 
worked itself a deep channel, and fell from 
ledge to ledge, foaming and shining amidst 
the dark rock. These streams are sublime 
from the length and jirecipitancy of their 
course, which, hurrying the sight with them 
into the abyss, acts as it were in sympathy 
upon the nerves, and to save ourselves fi-om 
following, we recoil from the view with in- 
voluntary horror. Of such however Ave saw 
onlv two, and those by some departure 
from the usual course up the mountain." — 
It must have been by a wide departure, 
and by a course which no person since has 
been so fortunate as to discover. 

" About a mile from the summit," says 
Mrs. Radcliffe, " the way was indeed 
dreadfully sublime, lying, for neal-ly half a 
mile, along the ledge of a precipice, that 
passed with a swift descent, for probably 
near a mile, into a glen within the heart of 
Skiddaw ; and not a bush or a hillock in- 
terrupted its vast length, or by offering a 
midway check in the descent, diminished 
the fear it inspired. The ridgy steeps of 
Saddleback formed the opposite boundary 
of the glen, and though really at a con- 
siderable distance, had, from the height of 
the two mountains, such an appearance of 
nearness, that it almost seemed as if we 
could S2:)ring to its side. How much too 
did simplicity increase the sublime of this 
scenery, in which nothing but mountain, 
heath, and sky, appeared. But our situation 
was too critical, or too unusual, to permit 
the just impressions of such sublimity. The 
hill rose so closely above the precipice as 
scarcely to allow a ledge wide enough for a 
single horse. We followed the guide in 
silence, and till we regained the more open 
wild, had no leisure for exclamation." 

Thus this authoress describes what is lite- 

rally the easiest part of the whole ascent, a 
part where there is neither precipice nor 
danger, nor appearance of danger. Pre- 
sently she makes the Solway fifty miles 
distant, and tells us that she " spanned the 
narrowest part of England, looking from 
the L'ish Channel on one side, to the Ger- 
man Ocean on the other, which latter was, 
however, so far off as to be discernible only 
like a mist !" 

" — Under the lea of an heaped-up pile 
of slates, formed by the customary contri- 
bution of one by every visitor, we found an 
old man sheltered, whom we took to be a 
shepherd, but afterwards learned he was a 
farmer, and, as people in this neighbour- 
hood say, a states-man, that is, had land of 
his own. He was a native and still an in- 
habitant of an adjoining vale ; but so labo- 
rious is the enterprize reckoned, that though 
he had passed his life within view of the 
mountain, this was his first ascent." 

It is possible that ]\Irs. Radcliffe's guide 
might have thought it became him to see 
the German Ocean, if she expected to 
see it ; and for the same reason he might 
have seen the Isle of ^Mght also, if it had 
been asked for. But the notion that the 
ascent of Skiddaw Is esteemed by the people 
of the country a laborious enterprize, must 
have been her own ; and her account of the 
torrents and the precipices is as purely 
fictitious as anything in the .Mysteries of 
Udolpho. Yet I have little doubt that she 
imposed upon herself, by magnifying every- 
thing through the mists of memory. 

Breakfast abolished in Ilolinshed's days. 

" II-EKETOFOKE there hath been much 
more time spent in eating and drinking 
than commonly is in these days ; for whereas 
of old we had breakfasts in the forenoon, 
beverages or nuntions after dinner, and 
thereto rear suppers generally when it was 
time to go to bed, — now these odd repasts, 
thanked be God, are very well left, and 



each one in mannei- (except here and there 
some young hungry stomach that cannot 
fast till dinner time) contenteth himself 
with dinner and supper only." — Harrison 
in HoLiNSHED, vol. 1, p. 287. 

Excursive Readers. 

" The analogy between body and mind," 
says Bos WELL, when speaking of Johnson's 
excursive reading, " is very general ; and 
the parallel wUl hold as to their food, as 
well as any other particular. The flesh of 
animals who feed excursively is allowed to 
have a higher flavour than that of those 
who are cooped up. May there not be the 
same difference between men who read as 
their taste prompts, and men who are con- 
fined in cells and colleges to stated tasks ? " 
— Crokers Boswell, vol. 1, p. 28. 

Thames Wafer. 

Those persons who ascribe the superi- 
ority of the London porter over that which 
is brewed in any other part of the kingdom, 
to the Thames water, have not perhaps 
asked themselves what occasions this differ- 
ence in the quality of the water. 

The fact however was known, and applied 
as far as it could be, in former times. 
" Our brewers," says Harrison, " observe 
very diligently the nature of the water 
which they daily occupy, and soil through 
which it passeth ; for all waters are not of 
like goodness, and the fattest standing 
water is always the best. For although 
the waters that run by chalk or cledgy 
soils be good, and next unto the Thames 
water (which is most excellent), yet the 
water that standeth in either of these is the 
best for us that dwell in the country, as 
whereon the sun lieth longest, and fattest 
fish is bred." — Holinshed, vol. 1, p. 286. 

Metheglin and Mead. 

" The Welsh," says Harrison, " make no 
less account of metheglin (and not without 
cause if it be well handled) than the Greeks 
did of their ambrosia or nectar, which for 
the pleasantness thereof, was supposed to 
be such as the gods themselves did delight 
in. There is a kind of swish-swash made 
also in Essex and divers other places, with 
honeycombs and water, which the homely 
country wives, putting some pepper and a 
little other spice among, call mead ; very 
good in mine opinion for such as love to be 
loose-bodied at large, or a little eased of the 
cough ; otherwise it differeth so much from 
the true metheglin, as chalk from cheese. 
Truly it is nothing else but the washing of 
the combs when the honey is wrung out ; 
and one of the best things that I know be- 
longing thereto is, that they spend but little 
labour and less cost in making of the same, 
and therefore no great loss if it were never 
occupied." — Holinshed, vol. 1, p. 286. 

Effect of the Discovery of Ameinca, through 
the Wealth that it introduced. 

" Verb affirmare possumus, mundum 
novum quodammodo perdidisse mundum 
veterem : nam mentibus nostris avaritiam 
insevit, et mutuum amorem inter homines 
extinxit. Quilibet enim solo auri amore 
flagrat ; hinc facti sunt fraudulenti, fidem- 
que saepe pretio vendiderunt et revendide- 
runt, videntes pecuniam passim prsevalere 
et in admiratione haberi ; et scientias sa- 
crasque conciones nummis postposuerunt, 
agriculturteque cum ca^teris artibus vale- 
dixerunt, mancipantes seipsos fertilitati pe- 
cuniae et divitum domibus. Produxit pari- 
ter magnani inajqualitatem inter homines, 
reddens illos aut nimis divites, unde in- 
solentia, vel nimis pauperes, unde invidia, 
latrocinia et aggressiones. Hinc pretia 
frumenti, vini, carnium, olei, et vestimen- 
torum, supra modum adaueta sunt, quia 
nemo ill arum rerum mercaturam exercet. 



uncle penuria. Et pecuniaj interim expen- 
duntur ; adeo ut inopes, tantis expensis 
baud sufficientes, in servitutem se praecipi- 
tant, vel etiam profugiunt aliquo latrocina- 
tum aut militatum, inipulsi paiipertatc, non 
amore regis aut religionis ; saepeque etiam 
signa deserunt, aut commutant ; nee dant 
operam liberis per legitima matrimonia, 
cum tributa exolvere nequeant ; aut certe 
omnem movent lapidcm, ut in coenobia pro 
raonaoliis aut concionatoribus recipiantur." 
— Campanella, De Monarchia Hispanica, 
cap. 16, p. 113-4. 

Change in the Mnimgement of Estates 
after Wat Tyler. 

" This Lord continued the practice of his 
ancestors in farming his own demesnes, and 
stocking them with his own cattle, ser- 
vants, &c. under oversight of reeves, who 
were chosen at the Halimot Court of the 
manor, and were bound to the collection 
of the lord's rents, by the tenure of their 
copyholds, till the eighth of Richard II. ; 
when, chiefly through the insurrection of 
Wat Tyler, and generally of all the Com- 
mons of the land, he began to tack other 
men's cattle in his grounds, by the week, 
month, or quarter, and to all his meadow- 
grounds by the acre ; and so this land con- 
tinued, part let out and joysted for the 
rest of that King's reign, and after in the 
time of Henry IV. let out by the year, 
still more and more by the acre, as he 
found chapmen and price to his liking ; and 
so left his estate, 5 Henry Y., when he 

" But in the next reign his nephew and 
heir male, the Lord James, in the times of 
Henry VI. and Edward IV., as did all the 
other great lords and lords of manors 
through the whole kingdom, and after to 
this day, did let out their manor-houses 
and demesne lands, sometimes at rack- 
rents, improved rents, according to the 
estimate of the times, and sometimes at 
smaller rents, taking a fine of their tenants. 

as they agreed, which is the general course 
of husbandry in this present day. The 
plague and trouble of toyle and hind ser- 
vants was very great." — Smyth's Lives of 
the Berkeley s., &c., p. 144. 

Ntanber of Churches founded hy the 

" It is an eminent ensign of the great- 
ness and pious merits of this family, that 
one no more travelled than myself shoidd 
have seen above one hundred churches and 
oratories in the counties of Gloucester and 
Somerset, and in the cities of Gloucester, 
Bristol, and Bath (besides as many more in 
other counties and places, as mine acquaint- 
ance have faithfully related to me), having 
theu' coats of arms and escutcheons, yea 
some their pictures, set up in their windows 
and walls, in and before this Lord's days, 
and their crosses formees in their true bear- 
ings." — Smyth's Lives of the Berkeleys^ &c., 
p. 148. 

[ Gray, against Materialism.'] 

" I AM as sorry as you seem to be, that 
our acquaintance harped so much on the 
subject of materialism, when I saw him with 
you in Town, because it was plain to which 
side of the long-debated question he in- 
clined. That we are indeed mechanical and 
dependent beings, I need no other proof 
than my own feelings ; and from the same 
feelings I learn, with equal conviction, that 
we are not merely such : that there is a 
power within that struggles against the 
force and bias of that mechanism, commands 
its motion, and, by frequent practice, re- 
duces it to that ready obedience which we 
call habit; and all this in conformity to a 
preconceived ojiinion (no matter whether 
right or wrong), to that least material of all 
agents, a Thought. I have known many 
in his case who, while they thought they 
were conquering an old prejudice, did not 
perceive they were under the influence of 
one far more dangerous ; one that furnishes 



us with a ready apology for all our worst 
actions, and opens to us a full licence for 
doing whatever we please : and yet these 
very people were not at all the more indul- 
gent to other men (as they naturally should 
have been) ; their indignation to such as 
oifonded them, their desire of revenge on 
anybody that hurt them, was nothing miti- 
gated : in short, the truth is, they wished to 
be persuaded of that opinion for the sake of 
its convenience, but were not so in their 
heart ; and they would have been glad (as 
they ought in common prudence) that no- 
body else should think the same, for fear of 
the mischief that might ensue to themselves. 
His French author I never saw, bvit have 
read fifty in the same strain, and shall read 
no more. I can be wretched enough with- 
out them. They put me in mind of the 
Greek sophist that got immortal honour by 
discoursing so feelingly on the miseries of 
our condition, that fifty of his audience 
went home and hanged themselves ; yet he 
lived himself (I suppose) many years after 
in very good plight." — The Works o/Tuo- 
MAs Gray, vol. 2, p, 312. 

Farmers open to Conviction, hut necessarily 
and wisely cautious. 

" With regard to a farther dissemination 
of knowledge among the farmers, however 
fashionable it may be to stigmatize them as 
ignorant and obstinate, because they do not 
adopt the wild theories and hypothetical 
opinions of modern writers on husbandry, 
still, so far as the observation of the Sur- 
veyor extends generally, he has met with 
but few instances of that invincible igno- 
rance so commonly asserted, or of any judi- 
cious and actual improvement being made 
clear to the judgement of the farmer, that 
he has not gradually and ultimately adopted. 
In truth, the farmer has by far too much 
at stake, to be easily seduced from the course 
of husbandry pursued by his forefathers, 
and which, by his own practice, has yielded 
to him the means of raising his family, pay- 

ing his rent, tradesmen's bills, and meeting 
the parochial payments, to forego the cer- 
tain means of procuring these supplies, in 
order to pursue a different system of ma- 
nagement dressed up in all the parade of 
science, and altogether in a language he 
does not comprehend ; but let the advan- 
tages of a superior management be once 
demonstrated to his understanding by a 
series of beneficial results, and there is an 
absolute certainty of his soon becoming a 
convert to the better practice. But he well 
knows, that in addition to the ordinary 
risks and casualties of stocks and seasons, 
and to which upon all occasions he must 
patiently be resigned, the miscarriage of 
one crop only, conducted on a new and 
imtried system in the neighbourhood, would 
not only involve him in ruin, but the cala- 
mity would be augmented by the mortify- 
ing scorn and unfeeling triumph of his 
neighbours, for being, or pretending to be, 
so much wiser than themselves. It is there- 
fore of the utmost importance that attention 
should be paid by country gentlemen in 
furnishing examples of superior manage- 
ment to their tenantry and neighbours, and 
which, whenever proved to be such, will 
never fail of being ultimately adopted by 
them." — Vancouver's Survey of Devon, p. 


" We cast about by St. Bees to Der- 
wentset haven, whose water is truly written 
Dargwent or Derwent. It riseth in the 
hills about Borrodale, from whence it goeth 
into the Grange, thence into a lake, in 
which are certain islands, and so unto Kes- 
wljc, where it falleth into the Bure, whereof 
the said lake is called Bursemere, or the 
Burthmere pool. In like sort the Bure or 
Burthmere water, rising among the hills, 
goeth to Tegburthesworth, Forneslde, St. 
John's, and Threlcote, and there meeting 
with a water from Grlsdale by Wakethwate, 
called Grise, It runneth to Burnesse, Kes- 
wljc, and there receiveth the Darwent. 



From Kcswijc in like sort it goeth to 
Thorneswate, and (there making a plash) to 
Armanswate, Isell, Huthwate, and Coker- 
mouth, and here It receiveth the Cokar, 
which rising among the hills comcth by 
Lowsewater, Brakenthwate, Lorton, and so 
to Cokarmouth town, from whence it hasteth 
to Bridgeham, and receiving a rill called 
the Wire, on the south side, that rmineth 
byDein, it leavetli Samburne and Wirketon 
behind it, and entoreth into the sea. 

" Lelaud saith that the Wire is a creek 
where shijas lie off at rode, and that Wu'keton 
or Wii'kington town doth take his name 
thereof. He addeth also that there is iron 
and coals, beside lead ore, in Wiredale. Ne- 
vertheless the water of this river is for the 
most part sore troubled, as coming through 
a suddy or soddy moor, so that little good 
fish is said to live therein." — Holinshed's 
Chronicles, — England, vol. 1, p. 147. 

Flooded Meadoivs producing had Grass. 
" Our meadows are either bottoms 
(whereof we have great store, and those 
very large, because our soil is hilly) or else 
such as we call land-meads, and borrowed 
from the best and fattest pasturages. The 
first of them are yearly and often over- 
flown by the rising of such streams as pass 
through the same, or violent falls of land 
waters, that descend from the hills about 
them. The other are seldom or never over- 
flown, and that is the cause wherefore their 
grass is shorter than that of the bottoms, 
and yet is it far more fine, wholesome, and 
bateable, sith the hay of our low meadows 
is not only full of sandy cinder, which 
breedeth sundry diseases in our cattle, but 
also more rooty, foggy and full of flags, 
and therefore not so profitable for stover 
and forage as the higher meads be. The 
difference furthermore in their commodities 
is great ; for whereas in our land meadows 
we have not often above one good load of 
hay, or peradventure a little more, in an 
acre of ground (I use the word Carrucata 
or Carruca, which is a wain load, and, as 

I remember, used by Pliny, lib. 33, cap. 1 1), 
in low meadows we have sometimes three, 
but commonly two or upward, as experi- 
ence hath oft confirmed. 

" Of such as are twice mowed I speak 
not, sith their latter math is not so whole- 
some for cattle as the first, although in the 
mouth more pleasant for the time ; for 
thereby they become oftentimes to be rot- 
ten, or to increase so fast in blood, that the 
garget and other diseases do consume many 
of them before the owners can seek out any 
remedy, by phlebotomy or otherwise. Some 
superstitious fools suppose that they which 
die of the garget are ridden with the night 
mare ; and therefore they hang up stones 
which naturally have holes in them, and 
must be found unlooked for ; as if such a 
stone were an apt cock-shot for the devil 
to run through and solace himself withal, 
whilst the cattle go scot-free and are not mo- 
lested by him. But if I should set down but 
half the toys that superstition hath brought 
into our husbandmen's heads in this and 
other behalfs, it would ask a gi-eater volume 
than is convenient for such a purpose, 
wherefore it shall suffice to have said thus 
much of these things." — Holinshed's Chro- 
nicles, — England, vol. 1, p. 185. 


" What the foolish people dream of the 
Hell Kettles, it is not worthy the rehearsal ; 
yet to the end the lewd opinion conceived 
of them may grow into contempt, I will say 
thus much also of those pits. There are 
certain pits, or rather three little pools, a 
mile from Darlington, and a quarter of a 
mile distant from the These banks, which 
the people call the Kettles of Hell, or the 
Devil's Kettles, as if he should seethe souls 
of sinful men and women in them. They 
add also, that the spirits have oft been 
heard to cry and yell about them, with 
other liketalk, savouring altogether of pagan 
infidelity. The truth is, and of this opinion 
also was Cuthbert Tunstall late Bishop of 
Durham, a man (notwithstanding the base- 



ness of his birtli, being begotten by one 
Tunstall upon a daughter of the house of the 
Commers, as Lelaiul saith) of great learning 
and judgement, that the coal-mines in those 
places are kindled, or if there be no coals, 
there may a mine of some other unctuous 
matter be set on fire, which being here and 
there consumed, the earth falleth in and so 
doth leave a i)it. Indeed the water is now 
and then warm (as they say), and beside 
that, it is not clear : the people suppose 
them to be an hundred fathom deep. The 
biggest of them also hath an issue into the 
These, as experience hath confirmed. For 
Doctor Bellowes alias Belzis made report, 
how a duck marked after the fashion of the 
ducks of the bishopric of Durham, was put 
into the same betwixt Darlington and These 
l>ank, and afterward seen at a bridge not 
tar from Master Clereaux' house." — IIo- 
linshed's Chronicles, — England, vol. 1, p. 

Tricks with a Jury. 
" It is also very often seen, that such as 
are nominated to be of these inquests, do, 
after their charge received, seldom or never 
eat or drink, until they have agreed upon 
their verdict, and yielded it up unto the 
judge of whom they received the charge ; 
by means whereof sometimes it cometh to 
pass that divers of the inquest have been 
well near famished, or at least taken such 
a sickness thereby, as they have hardly 
avoided. And this cometh by practice, 
when the one side feareth the sequel, and 
therefore conveyeth some one or more into 
the jury, that will in his behalf never yield 
unto the rest, but of set purpose put them 
to this trouble." — IIolinshed's Chronicles, 
— England, vol. 1, p. 262. 

" Cektes it is a common practice (if the 
under-sheriff be not the better man) for the 
craftier or stronger side to procure and 
pack such a c[uest as he himself shall like 
of, whereby he is sure of the issue before 
the charge be given : and beside this, if the 

matter do justly proceed against him, it is a 
world to see, now and then, how the honest 
yeomen that have bona-fide discharged their 
consciences shall be sued of an atteinct, 
and bound to appear at the Star Ch:uiiber; 
with what rigour they shall be carried from 
place to place, county to county, yea and 
sometime in carts ; which hath and doth 
cause a great number of them to abstain 
from the assizes, and yield to pay their 
issues, rather than they would for their 
good meaning be thus disturbed and dealt 
withal. Sometimes also they bribe the bai- 
liffs to be kept at home; whereupon poor 
men, not having in their purses wherewith 
to bear their costs, are impanelled upon 
juries, who very often have neither reason 
nor judgement to perform the charge they 
come for. Neither was this kind of service 
at any time half so painful as at this pre- 
sent : for until of late years (that the num- 
ber of lawyers and attorneys hath so ex- 
ceedingly increased, that some shifts must 
needs be found and matters sought out, 
whereby they may be set on work) a man 
should not have heard at one assize of more 
than two or three Nisi-pritis, but very sel- 
dom of an atteinct, whereas now an hundred 
and more of the first and one or two of the 
latter are very often perceived, and some of 
them for a cause arising of sixpence or 
twelvepence. Which declareth that men 
are grown to be far more contentious than 
they have been in time past, and readier to 
revenge their quarrels of small importance ; 
whereof the lawyers complain not." — Ho- 
I,I^'SHED's Chronicles, — England, vol. 1, p. 

The Loss of Free Trade lamented. 

" In this place also are our merchants 
to be installed, as amongst the citizens 
(although they often change estate with 
gentlemen, as gentlemen do with them, by 
a mutual conversion of the one into the 
other), whose number is so increased in these 
our days, that their only maintenance is the 
cause of the exceeding prices of foreign 



wares, which otherwise, when every nation 
was permitted to bring in her own commo- 
dities, Avore far better cheap and more 
plentifully to be had. Of the want of our 
commodities here at home, by their great 
transportation of them into other countries, 
I speak not, sith the matter will easily 
bewray itself, Certes among the Lacedae- 
monians it was found out, that great num- 
bers of merchants were nothing to the fur- 
therance of the state of the commonwealth : 
wherefore it is to be wished that the huge 
heap of them were somewhat restrained, as 
also of our lawyers ; so should the rest live 
more easily upon their own, and few honest 
chapmen be brought to decay by breaking 
of the bankrupt. I do not deny but that 
the navy of the land is in part maintained 
by their traffic ; and so are the high prices 
of wares kept up, now they have gotten the 
only sale of things, upon pretence of better 
furtherance of the commonwealth, Into their 
own hands : whereas in times past when the 
strange bottoms were suffered to come in, 
we had sugar for four pence the pound, 
that now at the writing of this treatise, is 
well worth half a crown; raisuis or currants 
for a penny, that now are holden at six- 
pence, and sometimes at eight pence and 
ten pence the pound; nutmegs at two pence 
halfpenny the ounce ; ginger at a penny an 
ounce ; prunes at halfpenny farthing ; great 
raisins three pound for a penny ; cinnamon 
at four pence the ounce; cloves at twopence; 
and pepper at twelve and sixteen pence the 
pound. "Wliereby we may see the sequel 
of things not always but very seldom to be 
such as is pretended in the beginning. The 
wares that they carry out of the realm, are 
for the most part broad cloths, and carsies 
of all colours; likewise cottons, frieses, rugs, 
tin, wool, our best beer, baize, bustlan, 
mockadoes tufted and plain, rush, lead, 
fells, &c., which being shipped at sundry 
ports of our coasts, are borne from thence 
into all quarters of the world, and there 
either exchanged for other wares or ready 
money, to the great gain and commodity 
of our merchants. And whereas in times 

past their chief trade was into Spain, Por- 
tugal, France, Flanders, Dansk, Norway, 
Scotland, and Iceland, only; now in these 
days, as men not contented with these jour- 
nies, they have sought the East and West 
Indies; and made now and then suspicious 
voyages not only into the Canaries, and 
New Spain, but likewise into Cathaia, Mos- 
covia, Tartaria, and the regions thereabout, 
from whence (as they say) they bring home 
great commodities. But alas, I see not by 
all their travel that the prices of things are 
any whit abated. Certes this enormity (for 
so I do account of it) was sufficiently pro- 
vided for, An. 9 Edward. III., by a noble 
estatute made in that behalf; but upon what 
occasion the general execution thereof is 
stayed or not called on, in good sooth I 
cannot tell. This only I know; that every 
function and several vocation striveth with 
other, which of them should have all the 
water of commodity run into her own cis- 
tern." — Holinshed's Chronicles, — Eng- 
land, vol. 1, p. 274. 

Luxury in Dress. 

" Certes the commonwealth cannot be 
said to flourish where these abuses reign ; 
but is rather oppressed by unreasonable 
exactions made upon rich farmers, and of 
poor tenants, wherewith to maintain the 
same. Neither was it ever merrier with 
England, than when an Englishman was 
known abroad by his own cloth, and con- 
tented himself at home with his fine carsie 
hosen, and a mean slop ; his coat, gown, 
and cloak of brown, blue, or puke, with 
some pretty furniture of velvet or fur, and 
a doublet of sad tawney, or black velvet, or 
other comely silk, without such cuts and 
gawrish colours as are worn in these days, 
and never brought in but by the consent of 
the French, who think themselves the gayest 
men when they have most diversities of 
jags and change of colours about them. 
Certes of all estates our merchants do least 
alter their attire, and therefore are most to 




be commeudocl : for albeit that which they 
wear be very fine and costly, yet in form 
and colour it representeth a great piece of 
the ancient gravity appertaining to citizens 
and burgesses ; albeit the younger sort of 
their wives, both in attu-e and costly house- 
keeping, cannot tell when and how to make 
an end, as being women indeed in whom 
all kind of curiosity is to be found and 
seen, and in far greater measure than in 
wonien of higher calling. I might here 
name a sort of hues devised for the nonce, 
wherewith to please fantastical heads, as 
gooseturd green, pease -porridge tawney, 
popinjay blue, lusty gallant, the devil in 
the head (I should say the hedge), and such 
like : but I pass them over, thinking it 
sufficient to have said thus much of apparel 
generally, when nothing can particularly 
be spoken of any constancy thereof." — 
IIolinshed's Chronicles, — England, vol. 1, 
p. 290. 

Luxury in Furniture. 

" The furniture of our houses also ex- 
ceedeth, and is grown in manner even to 
delicacy : and herein I do not speak of the 
nobility and gentry only, but likewise of 
the lowest sort in most places of our south 
country, that have anything at all to take 
to. Certes in noblemen's houses it is not 
rare to see abundance of arras, rich hang- 
ings of tapestry, silver vessel and so much 
other plate as may furnish sundry cup- 
boards, to the sum oftentimes of a thousand 
or two thousand pounds at the least ; whereby 
the value of this and the rest of their stuff 
doth grow to be almost inestimable. Like- 
jvise in the houses of knights, gentlemen, 
merchantmen, and some other wealthy citi- 
2ens, it is not geson to behold generally 
their great provision of tapestry, Turkey 
work, pewtei', brass, fine linen, and thereto 
costly cupboards of plate, worth five or six 
hundred or a thousand pounds, to be deemed 
by estimation. But as herein all these sorts 
do far exceed their eklers and predecessors, 
and in neatness and curiosity the merchant 

all other ; so in time past, the costly furni- 
ture stayed there ; whereas now it is de- 
scended yet lower, even unto the inferior 
artificers, and many farmers, who by virtue 
of their old and not of their new leases 
have for the most part learned also to gar- 
nish their cupboards with plate, their joined 
beds with tapestry and silk hangings, and 
their tables with carjiets and fine napery ; 
whereby the wealth of our country (God 
be praised therefore, and give us grace to 
employ it well) doth infinitely appear. 
Neither do I speak this in reproach of any 
man, God is my judge, but to shew that 
I do rejoice rather, to see how God hath 
blessed us with his good gifts ; and whilst 
I behold how that in a time wherein all 
things are grown to most excessive prices, 
and what commodity soever is to be had is 
daily plucked from the commonalty by such 
as looked into every trade, we do yet find 
the means to obtain and atchieve such fur- 
niture as heretofore hath been impossible." 
— IIolinshed's Chronicles, — England, vol. 
1, p. 317. 

Lands in Cormccdl, how held in Carew's 

" Evert tenement is parcel of the de- 
mesnes or services of some manor. Com- 
monly thirty acres make a farthing land, 
nine farthings a Cornish acre, and four 
Cornish acres a knight's fee. But this 
rule is overruled to a greater or lesser 
quantity according to the fruitfulness or 
barrenness of the soil. That part of the 
domains which appertaineth to the lord's 
dwelling house, they call his barten, or 
berton. The tenants to the rest hold the 
same either by sufferance, will, or custom, 
or by convention. The customary tenant 
holdeth at will, either for years, or for 
lives, or to them and their heirs, in divers 
manners according to the custom of the 
manor. Customary tenants for life, take 
for one, two, or three more lives in posses- 
sion, or reversion, as their custom will bear. 
Somewhere the wives hold by widow's estate ; 



and in many places, when the estate is 
determined by the tenant's death, and either 
to descend to the next in reversion, or to 
return to the lord, yet will his executor or 
administrator detain the land, by the cus- 
tom, imtil the next Michaelmas after, which 
is not altogether destitute of a reasonable 

" Amongst other of this customary land, 
there are seventeen manors, appertaining 
to the Duchj' of Comically who do every 
seventh year take their holdings (so they 
term them) of certain Commissioners sent 
for the purpose, and have continued this 
use, for the best part of three hundred 
years, through which they reckon a kind of 
inheritable estate accrued unto them. But 
this long prescription notwithstanding, a 
more busy than well occupied person, not 
long sithence, by getting a Chequer lease 
of one or two such tenements, called the 
whole right in question : and albeit God 
denied his bad mind any good success, yet 
another taking up this broken title, to salve 
himself of a desperate debt, prosecuted the 
same so far forth, as he brought it to the 
jutty of a Nisi prius. Herein certain 
gentlemen were chosen and requested by 
the tenants, to become suitors for stopping 
this gap, before it had made an irremedi- 
able breach. They repaired to London ac- 
cordingly, and preferred a petition to the 
then Lord Treasurer Burleigh. Ilis Lord- 
ship called unto him the Chancellor, and 
Coif Barons of the Exchequer, and took a 
private hearing of the cause. It was there 
manifestly proved before them that besides 
this long continuance, and the importance 
(as that which touched the undoing of more 
than a thousand persons), her Highness pos- 
sessed no other lands that yielded her so 
large a benefit in rents, fines, heriots, and 
other perquisites. These reasons found 
favorable allowance, but could obtain no 
thorough discharge, until the gentlemen 
became supplicants to her Majesty's own 
person ; who with her native and super- 
natural bounty, vouchsafed us gracious au- 
dience, testified her great dislike of the 

attempter, and gave express order for stay 
of the attempt ; since which time, this bark- 
ing dog hath been muzzled. May it please 
God to award him an utter choaking, that 
he never have power to bite again. Herein 
we were beholden to Sir Walter RaleigKs 
earnest writing (who was then in the coun- 
try), to Sir Henry Killlgreivs sound ad- 
vice, and to Master William Killigreiv's 
painful soliciting (being the most kind pa- 
tron of all his country and countrymen's 
affairs at Court)." — Carew's Survey of 
Cornwall, fol. 36. 

Formerly Tenants scarce., hut noiv many 
Applicants for every Farm. 

" In times past, and that not long ago, 
holdings were so plentiful and holders so 
scarce, as well was the landlord who could 
get one to be his tenant, and they used to 
take assurance for the rent by two pledges 
of the same manor. But now the case is 
altered ; for a farm, or (as we call it) a 
bargain, can no sooner fall in hand, than 
the Survey Court shall be waited on with 
many officers, vieing and revieing each on 
others ; nay they are taken mostly at a 
ground-hop, before they fall, for fear of 
coming too late. And over and above the 
old yearly rent, they will give a hundred 
or two hundred years' piirchase and upward 
at that rate, for a fine to have' an estate of 
three lives ; which sum commonly amount- 
eth to ten or twelve years' just value of the 
land. As for the old rent, it carrieth at 
the most the proportion but of a tenth 
part, to that whereat the tenement may be 
presently improved, and somewhere much 
less ; so as the parson of the parish can in 
most places dispeud as much by his tithe, 
as the lord of the manor by his rents. Yet 
is not this dear setting everywhere alike ; 
for the western half of Cornwall cometh 
far short of the eastern, and the land about 
towns exceedeth that lying farther in the 
country. The reason of this enhanced price 
may prove (as I guess) partly for that the 
late great trade into both the Indies hath 



rej)lenished these parts of the world with 
a larger store of the coin-current metals 
tlian our ancestors enjoyed ; partly because 
the banishment of single-living votaries, 
younger marriages than of okl, and our 
long freedom from any sore wasting war, 
or plague, hath made our country very 
populous ; and partly in that this popu- 
lousness hath enforced an industry in them, 
and our blessed quietness given scope and 
means to this industry. But howsoever I 
aim right or wide at this, once certain it is 
that for these husbandry matters the Cor- 
nish inhabitants are in sundry points swayed 
by a divers opinion from those of some 
other shires. One, that they will rather 
take bargains at these excessive fines, than 
a tolerable improved rent ; being in no sort 
willing to over a penny ; for they reckon 
that but once smarting, and this a con- 
tinual aking. Besides, though the price 
seem very high, yet mostly, four years' til- 
lage, with the husbandman's pain and charge, 
goeth near to defray it. Another, that they 
fall everywhere from commons to inclosiu'e, 
and partake not of some eastern tenants' 
envious dispositions, who will sooner pre- 
judice theii' own present thrift, by con- 
tinuing this mingle-mangle, than advance 
the lord's expectant benefit after their 
term expired. The third, that they always 
prefer lives before years, as both presuming 
upon the country's healthfulness, and also 
accounting their family best provided for, 
when the husband, wife, and child, are 
sure of a living. Neither may I (without 
wrong) conceal the just commendation of 
most such wives, in this behalf: namely, 
when a bargain is so taken to these three, 
it often falleth out, that afterwards the son 
marrieth, and delivereth his yerving-goods 
(as they term it) to his father, who in lieu 
thereof, by his wife's assent (which in many 
ancient deeds was formal) departeth to him 
and his daughter-in-law, with the one half 
of his holding in hand. Now, though after 
the father's decease the mother may, during 
her life-time, turn them both out of doors, 
as not bound by her own word, and much 

less by lier husband's ; yet I have seldom 
or never known the same put in practice, 
but true and just meaning hath ever taken 
place." — Carew's Survey of Cornwall, fol. 

Cornwall overrun with Irish Vagabonds. 
" We must also spare a room in this 
Survey, to the poor, of whom fkivf shires 
can shew more, or own fewer, than Corn- 
ivall. /re/a/ir/ prescribeth to be the nursery, 
which sendeth over yearly, yea and daily, 
whole ship-loads of these crooked slips, 
and the dishabited towns afford them rest- 
ing : so upon the matter, the whole county 
maketh a contribution, to pay these lords 
their rent. Many good statutes have been 
enacted for redress of these abuses, and 
upon the first publishing heedfully and dili- 
gently put in practice : but after the nine 
days' wonder expired, the law is forgotten, 
the care abandoned, and these vermin swarm 
again in every corner : yet these peevish 
charitable cannot be ignorant, that here- 
through, to the high offence of God and 
good order, they maintain idleness, drunk- 
enness, theft, lechery, blasphemy, atheism, 
and in a word, all impiety ; for a worse 
kind of people than these vagabonds, the 
realm is not pestered withal : what they con- 
sume in a day, will sufiice to relieve an honest 
poor parishioner for a week, of whose work 
you may also make some use : their starving 
is not to be feared, for they may be pro- 
vided for at home, if they list : no alms there- 
fore should be cast away upon them, to the 
robbery of the needy impotent ; but money 
least of all ; for in giving him silver, you 
do him wrong, by changing his vocation, 
while you metamorphize him from a beggar 
to a buyer. Lacks he meat, drink, or ap- 
parel (and nothing else he ought to be 
owner of) he must procure them of the 
worst by free gift, and not make choice, 
for a just price, of the best. Well, though 
the rogue laugh you to scorn at night, the 
alewife hath reason the next day to pray for 
you." — Carew's Survey of Cornioall, fol. 67. 



Successful Industry in a Cornish Labourer . 

" To bring humble merit, and examples 
worthy of imitation, to light, I conceive to 
be among the objects of the County Re- 
ports. I therefore record the following in- 
stance of the effect of patient labour and 
persevering industry. — William Pierce, of 
Turf House, in the parish of Landewed- 
nack, near the Lizard, a day labourer earn- 
ing only one shilling a day, and supporting 
a family of seven children, when he was 
fifty years of age, began after his daily 
labour was finished, to drain and cultivate 
twelve acres of swampy ground, which after 
eighteen years' labour, produced in 1803 
ten bushels of wheat, ninety bushels of 
barley, besides six bushels of oats, Cornish 
measure, and nine trusses of hay, besides 
pasture for cattle. This he effected him- 
self, with only an old man to assist him in 
carrying of manure from a considerable 
distance. He also built his own dwelling- 
house and out-buildings, covered and finish- 
ed them himself, although he was only bred 
to husbandry, and had a natural infirmity in 
one of his hands." — Worgan's Cornwall, 
p. 116. 

John Hunter's Collection of Animals. 

" The variety of birds and beasts to be 
met with at Earl's-court (the villa of the 
celebrated Mr. John Hunter), is matter of 
great entertainment. In the same ground 
you are surprized to find so many living 
animals, in one herd, from the most oppo- 
site parts of the habitable globe. Buffaloes, 
rams and sheep from Turkey, and a shawl 
goat from the East Indies, are among the 
most remarkable of these that meet the 
eye ; and as they feed together in the great- 
est harmony, it is natural to enquire, what 
means are taken to make them so famQiar 
and well acquainted with each other. Mr. 
Hunter told me, that when he has a stranger 
to introduce, he does it by ordering the 
whole herd to be taken to a strange place, 
either a field, an empty stable, or any other 

large outhouse, with which they are all 
alike unaccustomed. The strangeness of 
the place so totally engages their attention, 
as to prevent them from running at, and 
fighting with, the new-comer, as they most 
probably would do in their own field (in 
regard to which they entertain very high 
notions of their exclusive right of property); 
and here they are confined for some hours, 
till they appear reconciled to the stranger, 
who is then turned out with his new friends, 
and is generally afterwards well treated." 
— Middleton's Survey of Middlesex, p. 

Mischief of Pnhlic -houses. 

" The increase of public-houses is more 
ruinous to the lowest orders of society than 
all other evils put together. The depravity 
of morals, and the frequent distress of poor 
families, if traced to their true source, 
would generally be found to originate in 
the public-house. On the contrary, where 
there is not such a house in the parish (and 
some such parishes there still are, though 
in distant counties), the wife and children 
of the labourer, generally speaking, enjoy 
happiness, compared with those where many 
public-houses are seen. They are also less 
disposed to deceive and pilfer ; are better 
clothed, more cleanly in their persons, and 
agreeable in their manners. 

" The labourers of this county are ruined 
in morals and constitution by the public- 
houses. It is a general rule, that, the higher 
their wages, the less they carry home, and 
consequently, the greater is the wretched- 
ness of themselves and their families. Com- 
forts in a cottage are mostly found where 
the man's wages are low, at least so low as 
to require him to labour six days in every 
week. For instance, a good workman, at 
nine shillings per week, if advanced to 
twelve, will spend a day in the week at the 
alehouse, which reduces his labour to five 
days or ten shillings ; and as he will spend 
two shillings in the public-house, it leaves 
but eight for his family ; which is one less 



than they had when he earned only nine 

" If by any means he be pnt into a situ- 
ation of earning eighteen shillings in six 
days, he will get drunk on Sunday and 
Monday, and go to his work stupid on 
Tuesday ; and, should he be a mechanical 
journeyman of some genius, who by con- 
stant labour could earn twenty-four shil- 
lings or thirty shillings per week, as some 
of them can, he will be drunk half the week, 
insolent to his employer, and to every per- 
son about him. 

" If his master has business in hand that 
requires particular dispatch, he will then 
more than at any other time be absent from 
his work, and his wife and children will 
experience the extreme of hunger, rags, 
and cold. 

" The low inns on the sides of the turnpike 
roads are, in general, receiving-houses for 
the corn, hay, straw, poultry, eggs, &c. 
which the farmers' men pilfer from their 
master." — Middleton's Survey of Mid- 
dlesex, p. 499. 

" Many small country villages can date 
the commencement of poor-rates from the 
introduction of public-houses, which cor- 
rupt the morals, impair the health, impo- 
verish and reduce the poor to the greatest 
penury and distress : ' they also encourage 
idleness, promote begging and pilfering, 
and are the remote cause of murders and 
executions more or less every year.' Pa- 
triotism may make the most fanciful designs, 
and liberality support institutions of the 
highest expense, for ' bettering the condition 
of the poor ; ' and when these friends of man- 
kind are nearly on the point of persuading 
themselves that ' poverty shall sigh no more,' 
some fiend will open a public-house among 
the persons apparently rescued from dis- 
tress ; this will undo in two or three years 
all the good that the best men could bring 
about in twenty." — IMiddleton's Survey 
of Middlesex^ p. 628. 

Different Training of the Children of 
Squatters, and small Farmers. 

" The poor children who are brought up 
on the borders of commons and copses, are 
accustomed to little labour, but to much 
idleness and pilfering. Having grown up, 
and these latter qualities having become a 
part of their nature, they are then intro- 
duced to the farmers as servants or labour- 
ers, and very bad ones they make. 

" The children of small farmers, on the 
contrary, have the picture of industry, hard 
labour, and honesty, hourly before them, 
in the persons of their parents, and daily 
hear the complaints which they make against 
idle and pilfering servants, and comparisons 
drawn in favour of honesty. In this man- 
ner honesty and industry become, as it 
were, a part of the nature of such young 
folks. The father's property is small, and 
his means few ; he is therefore unable to 
hire and stock a farm for each of his chil- 
dren ; consequently they become servants 
on large farms, or in gentlemen's families, 
and in either situation are the most faith- 
ful part of such establishments." — INIiddle- 
ton's Survey of Middlesex, p. 500. 

Vinegar and Water a most wholesome 

" During the American War, (says Sir 
William Pulteney), the interruption given 
by our cruizers to the trade of that country, 
and other circumstances, prevented the 
Americans from procuring supplies of mo- 
lasses for their distilleries, and a distress was 
experienced, particularly in harvest time, 
for the want of rum to mix with water, 
which was the drink of their labourers. 

" It is known that cold water is danger- 
ous, when used by persons heated with 
labour, or by any severe exercise, and yet 
it is necessary to supply the waste by per- 
spiration in some mode or other. When 
rum or wine is added in small quantity to 
water, it may be used, even if cold, with 
little danger ; it would, however, be safer 
if a little warm water were mixed. 



" Dr. Rush, of America, after making 
experiments, recommended in a publica- 
tion, that instead of rum, which could not 
be had, the labourers in harvest should mix 
a very small proportion of vinegar with their 
water. Some years after, in a second pub- 
lication, he mentioned that the practice had 
been adopted, and had succeeded even be- 
yond his expectations ; indeed so much so, 
that in many places vinegar was continued 
to be used, though rum could easily be had. 

" He accounts for the preference of vine- 
gar to rum in this manner. Severe labour 
or exercise excites a degree of fever ; and 
the fever is increased by spirits, or fer- 
mented liquor of any sort ; but vinegai', at 
the same time that it prevents mischief 
from drinking of cold water during the heat 
and perspiration occasioned by exercise, 
allays the fever ; and the labourers found 
themselves more refreshed, and less ex- 
hausted at night, when vinegar was used 
instead of rum. 

" I have forgot the proportion of vinegar, 
but I think it was not more than a tea- 
spoonful to half a pint of water. 

" I dare say the works of Dr. Rush may 
be found in London, from which a more 
correct account of this very important mat- 
ter may be extracted. 

" The discovery was not altogether new, 
for the Romans used vinegar to mix with 
water, for the drink of their soldiers." — 
Middleton's Survey of Middlesex, p. 501. 

Proof that the Peasantry were much hetter 
clad in the Fifteenth Century than notv. 

"The Legislature, in 1436, enacted that 
no servant in husbandry, or common la- 
bourer, should wear any cloth of above the 
price of 2.s. per yard : that sum was nearly 
equivalent to the value of two bushels and 
a half of wheat, or 1.5s. of our money. By 
the same law they were restrained from 
exceeding the price of 14c?. a pair for hose : 
tliat sum was nearly equal to the value of 
one bushel and a half of wheat, or 9s. of our 

" It is obvious, that this law was intended 
to restrain them from wearing their former 
more expensive dress of cloth at 16s. or 
18s. a yard, and hose at. half a guinea a 

" The case of these persons is so much 
altered for the worse since the third of 
Edward IV., that at this time about one 
half of their whole number have neither 
cloth nor coat of any kind. Their hose 
cost them about 2s. a pair, and a dirty 
smock frock covers the few rags they wear." 
— Middleton's Survey of Middlesex, p. 

Process of Corruption among the Poor in 
Toivns ; and Effect of this upon Agricul- 
ture, in making the Farmer seek hy all 
means to reduce the Number of his La- 
bourers, because of their ill Conduct. 

" In the great towns every poor man's 
dwelling is encircled by chandler's-shops, 
porter-houses, gin-shops, pawn-brokers, 
buyers of stolen goods, and prostitutes : 
from these he hardly can escape ; from 
these aided by the contaminating effects of 
crowded manufactories, he never does es- 
cape ; they certainly ruin the morals of his 
whole fixmily. The contagion spreads from 
families to cities, and from cities to the 
empire. Our labourers being reduced, by 
these means, to their present wretched con- 
dition, are become, as might have been ex- 
pected, dangerous to their employers ; which 
induces the farmer to convert his arable 
land into pasture, iii order to do with as 
little of their assistance as he possibly can : 
this drives them more and more into the 
towns in search of work ; and in that man- 
ner, manufactories and vicious habits suc- 
cessively increase each other. By a system 
like this, the people of this nation are pro- 
gressively advancing into large manufoc- 
turing towns, which have the baneful effect 
of destroying the moral principle, as well 
as the lives, of the inhabitants." — JNIiddle- 
ton's Survey of Middlesex, p. 503. 



JE very thing Jrotn the Soil. 
" All the artists, manufacturers, and 
comuiercialists of the world, are employed 
on the produce of the soil, and on that only. 
The watch-maker and the anchor-smith, 
the clothier and the lace-maker, the gold- 
smith and the lapidary, are all, and each of 
them, equally engaged in one object, namely, 
that of rendering the productions of the 
earth subservient to the use and conveni- 
ence of man. The stock of every ware- 
house and shop, the furniture of every 
mansion and cottage, all implements and 
utensils, may easily be traced to the same 
origin. Even the books of the scholar, and 
the ink and quill through Avhose means he 
communicates his thoughts to others, are 
derived from the same source as the mate- 
rial on which the naval and civil architect 
exercises his ingenuity and skill. The 
loftiest spu-e and the smallest needle are 
both the effects of labour and skill exercised 
on the soil." — Middleton's Sia-vcy of 
Middlesex, p. 574. 

Robbery on Farms — to what enormous 

" I HAVE seen upwards of twenty thieves 
at one time in a ten-acre field of turnips, 
each of whom carried away as many as he 
could stand under. On another occasion, one 
man staying longer than several others, 
stealing pears, was secured and taken be- 
fore a magistrate, who ordered him to pay 
the value of the fruit found on him (viz. Is.), 
which he paid and was discharged. 

" A miller near London being questioned 
as to small parcels of wheat brought to his 
mill to be ground, by a suspected person, 
soon after several barns had been robbed, 
answered, that any explanation on that head 
Avould put his mills in danger of being 
burnt. AVell may the farmers say, ' their 
property is not protected like that of other 
men ;' which is the more extraordinary, as 
all the depredations to which I have con- 

fined my observations, are committed on 
the landed interest, and probably amount 
to 2s. an acre on all the cultivated lands of 
England, or to four millions of ])0unds 
sterling per annum." — Middleton's Sur- 
vey of Middlesex, p. 614. 

Every Charge [against the People'] charge- 
able upon Government, for its Sins either 
of Commission or of Omission. 

" It is in every respect useless to com- 
plain of the manners of any people, and of 
their vices ; for they are everywhere merely 
machines, or the creatures of government; 
they are educated according to its dogmas, 
and trained by its institutions ; these en- 
slave and chain down their minds by jjre- 
judice, which enfeebles their intellectual 
vigour, and bears down their rational facul- 
ties. Government has the principal share 
in exciting or depressing mental energy, in 
establishing general industry or indolence, 
in promoting public happiness or misery. 
Are the people of any nation possessed of 
great mental energy, industrious, virtuous 
and hapjjy ; the government has produced 
these effects, and consequently it is excel- 
lent. Are they ignorant, idle, wicked and 
wretched ; they are counterparts of a bad 
government, which could produce so much 
misery. Government makes the laws, and 
they are the express image of their maker : 
these mould the people into their own like- 
ness ; therefore subjects are everywhere 
such as the ruling powers have made them : 
are the latter pious, just, and good ; the 
former will consequently become of the 
same description." — Middleton's Survey 
of Middlesex, p. 616. 

Small Farms in Jersey. 

" In consequence of this minute division 

of pi'operty, the influence 'jf a large capital 

on an extensive area is here unknown. 

Little progress, exertion, or improvement. 



can be expected in small holdings. The 
adherence of the Jersey farmer to his fore- 
fathers' practises, is generally remarked, 
but ought by no means to incur blame. 
His first object is not so much gain, or to 
raise disposable produce, as it is to manage 
his small domain in such a mode as to 
secure through the year a supply of those 
articles which his family exigencies require. 
When pursuing the track which his fore- 
fathers' experience has proved to be best 
calculated to attain that end, he is on safe 
ground. Experiments which farmers of 
greater experience, capital, and extent of 
holding might make, it would be unsafe 
for him to repeat." — Quayle's Jersey, p. 

Poor Lau's in Jersey. 

" In these Islands, the English policy has 
been adopted, in imposing by law on those 
in good circumstances the necessity of main- 
taining the indigent. In the several parishes 
the Connetables with their oflicerS, and the 
principal inhabitants, are enjoined to pro- 
vide subsistence weekly for the poor in- 
capable of labour, and to procure work for 
those capable of it. In order to defray 
the expense, the vestries are authorized to 
impose taxes on the parishioners. In each 
parish are officers called Surveillans, named 
in vestry ; who appear to exercise the func- 
tions both of churchwardens and overseers, 
and who have under their immediate direc- 
tion the Tresor de I'Eglise, and La Charite. 

" The minister, connetable and surveil- 
lans of each parish, are authorized to give 
to paupers incapable of labour, a written 
permission to ask charity, but solely within 
the bounds of their own parish. In case 
of any person giving alms to beggars not 
in possession of this written permission, he 
incurs a penalty of 60 sous for each offence; 
one-third to the informer, and two-thirds 
to the poor. 

" In fulfilling the last object of the duty 
imposed on the parish-officers, there is at 
present no difficulty : persons willing and 

able to work need not apply to the con- 
netable to point out an employer. And 
happily, in executing the remaining part of 
their duty with regard to the poor, the 
trouble incumbent on them is not consider- 
able. Among the lower classes, it is held 
disgraceful to be subsisted on charity. In- 
dustry does not relax from a reliance on 
parochial relief; but every effort is made 
to preserve themselves and their nearest 
connexions from that necessity. In some 
parishes, there are not at present any per- 
sons receiving relief : in others, the charit- 
able donation of rents bestowed in former 
times, and forming a perpetual fund for the 
maintenance of the poor, under the term 
of la Charite, or Tresor des Pauvres, toge- 
ther with the amount of sums received at the 
church-doors, and by legacies, are sufficient 
to meet their exigencies. 

" It is usual in almost all wills, to make 
some bequest in favour of the poor : if this 
be omitted by persons in good circum- 
stances, it is noticed as remarkable : even 
by those in th& humblest classes, the poor 
are then rarely forgotten. A legacy of half- 
a-crown is often given, and accepted." — 
Quayle's Jersey, p. 59. 

Use of Kail Stalks in Jersey. 

" After reserving for seed the best 
plants, the remainder are rooted dut in 
spring ; but by no means cease to be use- 
ful. They have then attained the height 
of six feet and above ; part are chopped 
up, dried, and used as fuel ; the taller stalks 
are carefully preserved. Those of a slen- 
der form are used as supporters for scarlet 
runners, and for other purposes : the stout 
and tall stems have sufficient solidity to 
serve as rafters under thatching of out- 
houses. On demolishing, during the pre- 
sent year, a shed standing in the parish of 
Grouville, which was ascertained by the 
proprietor to have been erected at least 
80 years, a rude ceiling of clay-daubing 
was demolished, which was found to be 



l;iid on these kail-stalks, not then wholly in 
decay." — Quatle's Jersey, p. 96. 

Manure ivasted in Guernsey. 

" The Botteur or public scavenger of the 
town, after relieving the inhabitants from 
the various substances which it is his em- 
ployment to take away (every one of which 
would be found useful on a heavy soil, and 
some of them, for instance coal-ashes and 
bones, are among the most valuable), after 
collecting and carrying them out, throws 
them into the sea. In the neighbourhood 
of one of the barracks, the emptying and 
removal of the night-soil having become 
necessary, carts were observed carrying it 
on the lands of a neighbouring farmer. On 
enquiry, it appeared that he did the con- 
tractors the favour of accepting it, on being 
conveyed to his land gratis." — Quayle's 
Guernsey, p. 276. 


" Throat. And how think'st thou of Law ? 
" Dash. ]Most reverently : 
Law is the world's great light ; a second sun 
To this terrestrial globe, by which all things 
Have life and being, and without the which 
Confusion and disorder soon would seize 
The general state of men : war's outrages. 
The ulcerous deeds of peace, it curbs and 

cures : 
It is the Kingdom's eye, by which she sees 
The acts and thouglits of men. 

" Throat. The Kingdom's eye ! 
I teU thee, fool, it is the Kingdom's nose, 
By which she smells out all these rich trans- 
Nor is't of flesh, but merely made of wax ; 
And 'tis within the power of us lawyers 
To Avrest this nose of wax which way we 

Or it may be, as thou say'st, an eyi in- 
deed ; 

But if it be, 'tis sure a woman's eye, 
That's ever rolling. 

LoDowicK Baurt, Ram Alley. — Old 
Plays, vol. 5, p. 381-2. 

Mahommedon Saints. 

" The Lord, who is the object of worship, 
has, in the revelation, made the proof of 
Mohammed's mission permanent ; and to 
shew this have the saints been constituted, 
and that this proof should be constantly 
apparent. These he has in the Scripture 
appointed to be Lords of the Woi-ld, so 
that they are set apart entirely for his ser- 
vice, and for following up the requirements 
of the soul. It is to bless their tracks that 
the rains of heaven descend, and to purify 
their state that the herbs of the earth spring 
up ; and it is from their care, that the 
Moslems obtain victory over idolaters. Now 
these, which are invisible, are four thousand ; 
of each other they know nothing, nor are 
they aware of the dignity of their own state. 
In every case, too, they are concealed from 
one another and from mortals. To this 
effect have relations been given, and to the 
same have various saints spoken ; and for 
this, to the praise of God, have sages in- 
structed. But of those who have this power 
of loosing and binding, and are ofhcers of 
the court of the true God, there are three 
hundred whom they style Akhyar. Forty 
others of them they call Abdal, seven others 
Abrar, four others Awtad, three others 
Nokaba, and one whom they name Kotb 
and Ghauth .... The author of the Fatu- 
huti Mecca, chap. 198, sect. 31, calls the 
seven-stated men Abdal ; and goes on to shew, 
that the Almighty has made the earth con- 
sisting of seven climates, and that seven of 
his choice servants he has named Abdal ; 
and, fui-ther, that he takes care of these 
climates by one or other of these seven 
persons. He has also stated, that he met 
them all in the temple at Mecca ; that he 
saluted them, and they retiirned the salute ; 
and conversed with them, and that he never 



witnessed anything more excellent or more 
devoted to God's service." — Ibn Batuta's 
Travels, — Hindustan, p. 153. 

Maliommedan Tree. 
" We next came to Dadkaunan, which 
is a large city abounding with gardens, and 
situated upon a mouth of the sea. In this 
are found the betel leaf and nut, the cocoa- 
nut and colocassia. Without the city is a 
large pond for retaining water ; about which 
are gardens. The kmg is an infidel. His 
grandfather, who has become Mohamme- 
dan, built its mosque and made the pond. 
The cause of the grandfather's receiving 
Islamism was a tree, over which he had built 
the mosque. This tree is a very gi'eat won- 
der ; its leaves are green, and like those of 
the fig, except only that they are soft. The 
tree is called Darakhti Shahudet (the tree 
of testimony), darahht meaning tree. I was 
told in these parts, that this tree does not 
generally drojj its leaves ; but, at the season 
of autumn in every year, one of them 
changes its colour, first to yellow, then to 
red ; and that upon this is written, with the 
pen of power, ' There is no God but God ; 
Mohammed is the Prophet of God ;' and 
that this leaf alone falls. Very many Mo- 
hammedans, who were worthy of belief, 
told me this ; and said, that they had wit- 
nessed its fall, and had read the writing ; 
and further, that every year, at the time of 
the fall, credible persons among the Mo- 
hammedans, as well as others of the infidels, 
sat beneath the tree waiting for the fall of 
the leaf; and when this took place, that the 
one half was taken by the Mohammedans, 
as a blessing, and for the pui-pose of curing 
their diseases ; and the other by the king 
of the infidel city, and laid up in his trea- 
sury as a blessing ; and that this is con- 
stantly received among them. Now the 
grandfather of the present king could read 
the Arabic ; he witnessed, therefore, the 
fall of the leaf, read the inscription, and, 
understanding its import, became a Mo- 

hammedan accordingly. At the time of 
his death he appointed his son, who was a 
violent infidel, to succeed him. This man 
adhered to his own religion, cut down the 
tree, tore up its roots, and effaced every 
vestige of it. After two years the tree 
grew, and regamed its original state, and 
in this it now is. This king died suddenly ; 
and none of his infidel descendants, since 
his time, has done anything to the tree." — 
Ibn Batuta's Travels, — Hindustan, p. 170. 

Gold Ingots and Paper Money in India. 

" It is a custom with their merchants, 
for one to melt down all the gold and silver 
he may have into pieces, each of which will 
weigh a talent or more, and to lay this up 
over the door of his house. Any one Avho 
happens to have five such pieces, will put a 
ring upon his finger ; if he have ten, he will 
put on two. He who possesses fifteen such, 
is named El Sashi; and the piece itself 
they call a Rakala. Their transactions are 
carried on with paper ; they do not buy 
or sell either with the dirhem or the dinar; 
but should any one get any of these into 
his possession, he would melt them down 
into pieces. As to the paper, every piece 
of it is in extent about the measure of the 
palm of the hand, and is stamped with the 
King's stamp. Five-and-twenty of such 
notes are termed a Shat ; which means the 
same thing as a dinar with us. But when 
these papers happen to be torn, or worn 
out by use, they are carried to their house, 
which is just like the mint with us, and 
new ones are given in place of them by the 
King. This is done without interest, the 
profit arising from their circulation accru- 
ing to the King. When any one goes to 
the market with a dmar or dirhem in his 
hand, no one will take it until it has been 
changed for these notes." — Ibn Batuta'^s 
Travels,— China, p. 209, 



Good Effects of a resilient Landlo7-cL 

" No estates are better managed and no 
tenantry are more happy, than where the 
proprietor at once possesses the knowledge 
and the inclination to inspect his own 
aflfiiirs. AMien estates are left •wholly to 
the controul of agents, the connection be- 
tween the owner and the occupier is dis- 
solved or interrupted : it is the object of 
the representative to diminish all expenses 
but his own, and of the tenant to remain 
passive and inactive, provided he can gain 
a living, and avoid giving oifence. It was 
observed to me by a tenant of a detached 
estate, belonging to the late Richard Pal- 
mer, Esq. of Hurst, a man whose premature 
death is a loss to his family, his friends, his 
de23endants, and the public, that the prin- 
cipal request he ever made to his landlord 
was, ' that he might always be allowed to 
pay his rent to him in person.' He knew 
the value of this intercourse, and I am con- 
vinced he spoke the general feeling of re- 
spectable tenants. 

" On the other hand, it is the proudest 
rank a country gentleman can hold, to live 
on his estates, and to diffuse happiness 
around him, by example, by encourage- 
ment, and by advice ; to be the friend, the 
father of his dependants, and to grow old 
among those whom he has known from the 
earliest dawn of recollection. In cities and 
at public places, the land-owner is frequently 
eclipsed by the successful votaries of trade 
and commerce ; but on his native domains, 
he resumes his consequence, and feels the 
importance of his situation." — IVIavor's ^wr- 
vey of Berkshire, p. 51. 

JMavor's Opinion of small Farms. 

" It will be allowed, indeed, by every 
candid observer, that in the present state of 
agricultui'e, a man who is to depend solely 
on farming can have little prospect of s^ip- 
porting a family, and of contributing in any 
considerable degree to the public supply. 

who occupies less land than will employ a 
team of three or four horses; but at the 
same time I cannot help thinking, that five 
farmers of that description would raise more 
marketable produce than one who monopo- 
lized the same quantity of land, and who 
could derive a handsome income merely 
from superintendence and judgement. A 
labouring farmer, or a man who is obliged 
personally to work, is not less useful in 
the scale of human society than he whose 
capital enables him to occupy half a parish, 
and to live in a degree of style and affluence 
suitable to his means. I have heard it 
maintained, indeed, that the former must 
work harder than a day labourer, and it 
probably is the case ; but then his toils are 
sweetened by the reflection, that he is to 
reap the fruits of his own industry, and 
that he has no occasion to apply for paro- 
chial relief, either for himself or his lamily. 
This important consideration should not be 
overlooked in such discussions. Voluntary 
labour is no hardship; and living on humble 
fare is no privation, to him who feels that 
he is providing against the contingencies of 
fortune, and laying up something against 
the approach of age. It is incontcstibly the 
man of property alone who can afford to 
make essential improvements, and to such 
we owe the present flourishing state of 
agriculture ; but still I contend, that a 
mixture of all sizes of farms is best for the 
public, as bringing men of different capitals 
and talents into action, and giving that scope 
for indej^endence which is the pride and 
the glory of any country." — Mavor's Sur- 
vey of Berkshire, p. 79. 

History of the Heart Trefoil. 

" Heart Trefoil, or snail-shell medick 
(medicago aruhica). This plant, though in- 
digenous, has probably never been culti- 
vated except in Berkshire, and its history 
is remarkable. In his voyage round the 
world, Captain Vancouver found some seeds 
in a vessel which had been wrecked on a 



desert island, and on his return he presented 
some of them to his brother, John Yan- 
conver, Esq. then residing near Newbury. 
Mr. Yancouver gave some of the seeds to 
Mr. James Webb, of Well-house, in the 
parish of Frilsham, who imparted his trea- 
sure to his brother, ]Mr. Robert Wells, of 
Calcott, in the parish of Tylehurst, between 
Reading and Xewbury. The seeds were 
sown ; expectation was raised ; Dr. Lamb 
and JNIr. Bichono, of Newbury, with the 
vigilance of botanists, examined their pro- 
gress, and were in hopes to have been able 
to announce to the agricultural world a 
valuable plant from the remotest islands in 
the Pacific, when lo ! it turned out to be 
the medicago arabica, which is a native 
Berkshire plant. This fortuitous introduc- 
tion, however, of the heart trefoil is likely 
to be advantageous. The two brothers have 
cultivated it with success; say it produces 
a luxuriant herbage, and that cattle are 
excessively fond of it. 'It stands the winter 
well, and a crop may be obtained at any 
time. It has the advantage of lucern, in 
not being easily choaked, and in growing on 
a light soil, but without doubt produces the 
greatest abundance in a good soil.' They 
have hitherto sown it broad-cast, and are 
determined to persevere, having now col- 
lected a sufficient quantity of seed to ex- 
tend their experiments to some acres of 
land." — Mavor's Survey of Berkshire, p. 

Oxen versus Horses. — The King's Experi- 

" The comparative advantages of the 
labour of horses and oxen have been for 
some time under the consideration of the 
public. His Majesty has unquestionably 
tried the latter upon a larger scale than 
any other person, as he does not work less 
than 180 oxen upon his different farms, 
parks, and gardens, and has found them to 
answer so well, that there is not now a 
horse kept. Upon the two farms and the 
Great Park, 200 are kept, including those 

coming on and going oil". Forty are bought 
in every year, rising three years, and are 
kept as succession oxen in the Park ; 120 
are under work ; and 40 evei-y year are 
fatted off, rising seven years. 

" The working oxen are mostly divided 
into teams of six, and one of the number is 
every day rested, so that no ox works more 
than five days out of the seven. This day of 
case in every week besides Sunday isof great 
advantage to the animal, as he is found to 
do better with ordinary keep and moderate 
labour, than he would do with high keep 
and harder labour. In short, this is the 
first secret to learn concerning him ; for an 
ox will not admit of being kept in condition 
like a horse, artificially, by proportionate 
food to proportionate labour. 

" These oxen are never allowed any corn, 
as it would prevent their fatting so kindly 
afterwards. Their food in summer is only 
a few vetches by way of a bait, and the run 
of coarse meadows, or what are called lea- 
sows, being rough woody pastures. In 
winter they have nothing but cut food, con- 
sisting of two-thirds hay and one-third 
wheat-straw; and the quantity they eat in 
twenty-four houi-s is about twenty-four 
pounds of hay and twelve of straw ; and on 
the days of rest, they range as they like in 
the straw-yards ; for it is to be observed, 
that they are not confined to hot stables, 
but have open sheds, under which they eat 
their cut provender, and are generally left 
to theu" choice to go in and out. Under 
this management, as four oxen generally 
plough an acre a day, and do other work in 
proportion, there can be no doubt but their 
advantage is very great over horses, and 
the result to the public highly beneficial." 
— Mayor's Survey of Bej-hshire, p. 339. 

Good Servants becoming scarce, as small 
Farms have disappeared. 

" It is greatly to be lamented, that good 
servants evei'y year become more scarce 
and difficult to be found. The best domes- 



tics used to be found .among the sons and 
daughters of little fiirmers ; they were 
brought up in good principles, and in habits 
of industry ; but since that valuable order 
of men has been so generally reduced in 
every county, and almost annihilated in 
some, servants are of necessity taken from 
a lower description of persons, and the con- 
sequences are felt in most families. This 
is one of the m.any ill effects arising from 
a monopoly of land." — Mavor's Survey of 
Berkshire, p. 416. 

A Family supported by a small Garden. 

" It is wonderful how much m.ay be pro- 
duced from a small spot of ground, well 
managed, both for the use of families and 
for sale. The family of Anus, residing in 
the village of Steventon, consisting of a 
brother and two sisters, between eighty and 
ninety years of age, lately or now, with the 
addition of a very small independent pro- 
perty, maintained themselves by raising 
flower roots and small shrubs in their little 
garden, which they sold round the country. 
With less Industry and Ingenuity, In various 
parishes, I have found that the produce of 
the orchard, In favourable seasons, has paid 
the rent of the premises ; and sometimes that 
geese or pigs, where there was an oppor- 
tunity of keeping the former, have yielded 
the same advantages. A certain quantity 
of land attached to cottages is therefore in- 
dispensable, and In country parishes It might 
always be att.iinable.' — JMavor's Survey of 
Berkshii'e, p. 475. 

Taxation descending too loiv, in its direct 

" I HAVE known two families, consisting 
together of thirteen persons, brought to the 
workhouse, and maintained by the parish 
at an expense of about two hundred pounds 
a year, owing to an imprudent collectipn of 
taxes having distrained about twenty shil- 
lings on each family. But a still greater 

number of poor arise from various classes 
just above want, who arc able to support 
themselves so long as their several concerns 
go on with success. The least reverse Is 
ruinous : a bad debt of a few pounds, the 
long sickness or deatli of the man or his 
wife, and a thousand other causes, are the 
ruin of numbers." — Middleton's Survey 
of Middlesex, p. 78. 

Evil of Commons in Middlesex. 

" On estimating the value of the Com- 
mons In this county, including every advan- 
tage that can be derived from them, in 
pasturage, locality of situation, and the bar- 
barous system of turbary, it appears that 
they do not jyroduce to the community, in their 
present state, more than four shillings per 
acre! On the other hand, they are, In many 
Instances, of real injury to the public, by 
holding out a lure to the poor man, — I 
mean of materials wherewith to build his 
cottage, and ground to erect it upon, to- 
gether with firing and the run of his poultry 
and pigs for nothing. This is, of course, 
temptation sufficient to induce a great num- 
ber of poor persons to settle on the borders 
of such commons. But the mischief does 
not end here ; for, havlnggained these trifling 
advantages, through the neglect or conniv- 
ance of the Lord of the Manor, it unfortu- 
nately gives their minds an improper bias, 
and inculcates a desire to live, from that 
time forward, with little labour. The ani- 
mals kept by this description of persons, it 
is soon discovered by their owners, are not 
likely to afford them much revenue, without 
better feed than the scanty herbage of a 
common ; hence they are tempted to pilfer 
corn, hay, and roots, towards their support ; 
and as they are still dependant on such a 
deceptions sujiply, to answer the demands 
of their consumption, they are in some mea- 
sure constrained to resort to various dis- 
honest means, to make up the deficiency. 

" Another very serious evil which the 
public suffers from commons, is, that they 



are the coustaut rendezvous of gypseys, 
strollers, and other loose persons, living 
under tents which they carry with them 
from place to place. Most of these persons 
have asses, many of them horses, nay, some 
of them have even covered carts, which 
answer the double purpose of a caravan for 
concealing and carrying off the property 
they have stolen, and also of a house for 
sleeping in at night. They usually stay 
two or three nights at a place ; and the 
cattle which they keep, serve to transport 
their few articles of furniture from one 
common to another. These, during the 
stay of their owners, are turned adrift to 
procure what food they can find in the 
neighboui'hood of their tents, and the defi- 
ciency is made up from the adjacent hay- 
stacks, barns, and granaries. They are not 
known to buy any hay or corn, and yet 
their cattle are supplied with these articles, 
of good quality. The women and children 
beg and pilfer, and the men commit greater 
acts of dishonesty : 171 short, the Cominons of 
this county are ivcll hioicn to be the constant 
resort of foot-pads and highway-men, and are 
literally and prove?-biaUy a public nuisance." 
— MiDDLETOJi's Survey of Middlesex, p. 1 17. 

Fish like the Cock and Hen of La Calzada. 

" At the distance of a quarter of a mile 
from the walls, is Balukli, or the Church of 
Fishes. The church is so called from a 
legend that has rendered it very celebrated 
among the Greeks. There stood on this 
place a small monastery of Greek Calayers, 
when Mahomet laid siege to Constantinople ; 
who, it seems, were not molested by his 
army. On the day of the decisive attack, a 
monk was frying some fish, when news was 
suddenly brought to the convent, that the 
Turks had entered the town, through the 
l)reacli in the walls. ' I would as soon be- 
lieve,' said he, ' that these fried fish would 
spring from the pan, and become again 
alive.' To reprove the incredulous monk, 
the fish did spring from the pan, into a 

vessel of water which stood near, and swam 
about as if they had never been taken out 
of it. In commemoration of this miracle, a 
church was erected over the spot, contain- 
ing a reservoir of water, into which the fish, 
which still continued alive, were placed. 
The twenty-ninth of April was appointed, 
in the Greek Calendar, as a festival to com- 
memorate the circumstance ; and a vast 
concourse of people used to assemble here 
on every anniversary-day, to see the mira- 
culous and everlasting fishes swim about the 
reservoir." — Dr. Walsh. — Travels of Ma- 
carius, p. 32. 

Character of the Moldavians. — Fourteen 
Thousand Robbers put to Death. 

" God Axmighty has not created upon 
the face of the earth a more vicious people 
than the Moldavian ; for the men are all of 
them murderers and robbers. It is calcu- 
lated, that since the time that Vasili became 
Beg, about twenty-three years, he has put 
to death more than fourteen thousand rob- 
bers, by register of judgement. And yet 
he condemned not to death for the first 
crime ; but used to flog, and torture, and 
pillory the criminal ; afterwards setting him 
at liberty. For the second perpetration 
he would cut off" an ear ; and for the third, 
the other : it was only for the fourth com- 
mission that he jiut to death. We ourselves 
saw a circumstance, in the conduct of those 
people, that strikes one with horror ; viz. 
that their priests are carried out to execu- 
tion. Yet the Beg, with all this severity, 
is unable to reform them. 

" As to their wives and daughters, they 
are utterly destitute of modesty and cha- 
racter ; and though the Beg cuts ofi" their 
noses, and puts them in the pillory, and 
drowns many of them, so as to have caused 
some thousands of them to perish, yet he 
proves too weak to correct their manners." 
— Travels of Macarius, p. 62. 



Moldavia in the same Physical State as when 
the Vcncdi inhabited it. — An Aquatic Po- 

" The aspect of Moldavia is very singu- 
lar ; perlia])S, at this an'a, unique. There 
are two other districts in Europe which 
probably once resembled it greatly ; but 
the progress of civilization and agricul- 
ture, (luring the course of a few centu- 
ries, has altered them ; whilst Moldavia 
remains in its primitive state. It is inter- 
sected with marshes and small lakes, in 
a degree curious beyond all description. 
Mecklenburgh Strelitz, and La Vendee in 
France, were formerly in the same state. 
La Vendee is now nearly drained ; and the 
lakes of Mecklenburg are filling up. All 
these tlu'ee countries were inhabited by the 
Venedic nations, or the people who dwelt 
on fens ; the same tribes who first inhabited 
that part of England now called Cambridge- 
shire. The ancient Venedi appear to hare 
been, like the Dutch of the present day, the 
beavers of the human race — all their settle- 
ments were upon the banks of small lakes, 
or by the sides of fens. What instincts 
could have led them to choose such situa- 
tions, it is difficidt to conjecture : but it is 
probable that their diet was fish, and the 
llesh of water-bu'ds ; and finding, probably, 
that the noxious efiluvia from the marshes 
were best obviated by covering them with 
water, they constructed dams across the 
narrows and rapids of the small rivers, 
and filled the marshy hollows with water ; 
around which they dwelt in security, and 
lived upon the salmon and wild-fowl which 
fattened in these artificial lakes. Most of 
the rivers in Moldavia are, at this hour, in- 
tersected with weirs, which dam the waters, 
and form ponds : mills are built on these 
weirs, and the villages are placed around 
them. The face of the country consists of 
undulating steppes, of vast extent, covered 
with the most luxuriant crops of grass. 
Their monotonous aspect is only interrupted, 
from time to time, by these small ^ound 
lakes, frino-cd with villages of the most 

pi-imeval chiu-acter." — Dr. Xeale's Travels. 
— Travels of Macurius, p. 65. 

V/oi-khonse Experiment in Hertfordshire. 

" ' The state of my parish workhouse was 
such as must be truly unsatisfactory to a 
mind of the least consideration or humanity ; 
it was let by contract from year to year, 
and was not sufiiciently large even to con- 
tain the persons claiming shelter under its 
miserable roof! What arrangement then 
for comfort and convenience could be ex- 
pected from such an habitation ? I found 
the aged and infirm ; the dying and even 
the dead ; the young and able, the aban- 
doned, and the well disposed ; modest want 
and indigent j^rofllgacy ; all confounded in 
one wretched mass ! I attempted to form 
a committee, to superintend the manage- 
ment of the poor, Instead of farming them by 
contract ; and to regulate the expenditure 
of the money raised for their relief. I was 
outvoted In the vestry, and the contract 
system was accordingly carried. This cir- 
cumstance (from what I had already too 
plainly seen) convinced me that my fellow- 
creatures called most loudly for some assist- 
ance ; and since the contract system ivas to 
be pursued, I thought I could not meet the 
evils belonging to it so eflTectually as by 
engaging myself to be the contractor. I had 
not much difficulty In obtaining that ap- 
pointment, as my terms were the most mode- 
rate. I expected, in such an undertaking, 
little gratitude, less praise, and no gain ; 
but I was sure my mental gratification 
would pay me amply, if I succeeded in bet- 
tering, In any degree, the sad condition of 
so many miserable objects. 

" ' jNIy first point was, to divide and sepa- 
rate the different objects for relief and assist- 
ance which presented themselves before me. 
The lunatics to Bethlem ; the sick and aged 
to comforts and medical assistance ; the 
children to occupations by which they might 
hereafter obtain a livelihood ; and, lastly, 
though not the least object of my consider- 



ation, to force as few as possible into the 
workhouse, aud to use my utmost endea- 
vours to encourage those ah'eady in, to have 
recourse to their own liberty and industry 
for their support. It is now nearly three 
years since I have undertaken the manage- 
ment of the poor of my parish ; and though, 
from the high price of provision, I have 
been a very considerable loser, yet I have 
the satisfoction of seeing my plans for 
amending theii* condition, and idtimatcly, 
and indeed very shortly, reducing the poor's 
rates, promise success equal to my most 
sanguine wishes. The slothful drones dare 
not apply to me : the orphan and illegiti- 
mate children are daily working their own 
way by industry to be by degrees no bur- 
den to their parish ; and surely the best 
Avay of teaching them the value of theii- 
labour, is to give them the whole amount 
of theii" earnings, aud reqirire them, as far 
as they can, to maintain themselves out of 
it. I shall perhaps be told, that boys and 
girls of tender years cannot earn sufficient 
to enable them to contribute much to their 
own maintenance ; to which I have only to 
reply, that however small their remunera- 
tion may be, provided they are allowed to 
join those whom I will call free people 
when compared with the slavery of a com- 
mon contract workhouse, I find their emu- 
lation and spirit so much raised, that every 
month produces fresh and rapid improve- 
ment in the quality and quantity of their 
labour. I have the instances of three large 
families, subsisting on parish relief, who 
had been born aud bred up in the work- 
house, and were totally ignorant of every 
kind of work, except making a little mop- 
yarn for the contractor (which was no great 
object to him, as he had probably made a 
safe bargain for clothing and victualling 
per head), and who now are most of them 
capable of sujjporting themselves ; and be- 
ing once allowed to know the value of their 
earnings, they will not, we may presume, 
very readily retui-n to the abject state of 
labour and confinement which a workhouse 

" ' Lest I should be carried to too great a 
length on this subject, I will only add, that 
the earnings I allude to are obtained in a 
woollen manufactory which I have esta- 
blished, and in agriculture. Attention to 
religious duties, warm and clean clothing, 
and as much wholesome food as can be 
eaten without waste, is the basis of my 
treatment of those under my protection.'" — 
Agricultural View of Hertfordshire, by the 
Secretary of the Board of Agriculture [Ar- 
thur Young], p. 227. 

Godfrey Higgins on Isaac and Ishmael. 

" The lot of the unfortunate Ishmael and 
his unofiending mother, have always been 
to me peculiarly interesting. An infant 
expelled his father's house for no ofl^ence, 
thrown under a tree to starve, the victim 
of an old man's dotage and a termagant's 
jealousy. God forgive the wicked thought 
(if it be wicked) ; but, speaking in a tem- 
poral sense, and knowing the histories of 
the two families, I would rather be the out- 
cast Ishmael than the pampered Isaac, the 
father of the favoured people of God. I 
know not what divines may see, but I see 
nothing contrary to the divine attributes in 
supposing, that when in the one, God 
thought proper to give a grand example of 
mercy and benevolence, he sTiould think 
proper to give in the other a grand ex- 
ample of retributive justice. The descend- 
ants of the panqDered Isaac have known 
little but misery, have become a by-word 
of contempt, the slaves of slaves : but the 
descendants of the outcast Ishmael, in their 
healthy counti-y, proverbial for its luxuries 
and haiipiness (Felix), have walked with 
heads erect. The world has bowed beneath 
their yoke, or trembled at their name ; but 
they never have either bowed or trembled, 
and I hope and trust they never will." — 
Godfrey IIiggins's Celtic Druids, p. 68. 


Godfrey Higgins on the Progress of Popery 
among us. 
" It is curious to observe how the Cross 
is regaining its old place in this country. 
A hundred years ago our Protestant females 
would have been shocked at the idea of 
wearing a cross. Now they all have crosses 
dangling from their necks ; and our priests 
generally prevail to have it elevated on the 
tops of our new churches. They say it is 
not an object of adoration. True : but all 
in its proper time. It will not be elevated 
on the church and the altar for nothing. 
A prudent Pope, availing himself of the 
powers given to him by the Council of 
Trent, would not find it difficvilt to eflect a 
reconciliation between the Papal See and 
the Protestant Church of England. The 
extremes are beginning to bend to the cir- 
cular form." — Godfrey Higgins's Celtic 
Druids, p. 131. 

Human Bodies in the Foundations of 
Druidical Temples. 

" There is a curious tradition both of 
St. Patrick in Ireland, and of St. Columba 
in lona, that when they attempted to found 
churches, they were impeded by an evil 
sjiirit, who threw down the walls as fast as 
they were built, vmtil a human victim was 
sacrificed and buried under the foundation, 
which being done, they stood firm. — 

" I very much fear there is too much 
truth in this story. Not that I mean that 
8uch a thing was done by either a Christian 
Patrick or Columba, but by the Druids, 
from whom the story got fathered upon the 
former. Under each of the twelve pillars 
of one of the cu-cular temples in lona, a 
human body was foimd to have been bu- 
ried." — Godfrey Higgins's Celtic Druids, 
p. 202. 

Midtiplication of Authors a cause of Decay 
in Literature. 
" The manner in which literatvu-e is con- 
ducted in an advanced and corrupt age," 

says Sir Egerton Brydges, " makes ori- 
ginality every day more and more rare. 
So much mechanical book-making is in- 
troduced, so many inducements are held 
out to mercenary writers, and superficial 
knowledge is so widely spread, that innu- 
merable persons neither of native force, 
nor of any true qualifications, engage in 
this vocation. The consequent degradation 
of authorship, and the world's confusion of 
genius with false pretence, is inevitable.'' — 
Pecollections of Foreign Travel, &c., vol. 1, 
p. 293. 

Fertilizing Process of Nature upon the 

" That a fertilizing and enriching pro- 
cess of nature is continually going on, we 
have the evidence of our senses in every 
situation to demonstrate, and that in all 
places where the putrefactive process has 
not been restrained through the want of 
warmth, or by a redundancy of moisture. 
Hence the increased and mcreasing value 
of all old pastures which lie upon a warm 
and open subsoil : hence the incalculable 
value of the old maiden downs in the chalk 
countries of this kingdom : and hence also 
the madness, extravagance, and folly of 
breaking up such downs for tillage, — but of 
all things, of paring, burning and destroy- 
ing their native green-sward." — Vancou- 
ver's Survey of Hampshire, p. 455. 

Norris versus Antiqidty and Deference to 
old Authorities. 

" Men are resolved never to outshoot 
their forefathers' mark ; but write one after 
another ; and so the dance goes round in a 
circle, and the world is never the jviser for 
being older. Take an instance of this in 
the School-men, and in the best of them, 
Aqidnas. 'Tis pleasant to see how that 
great wit is oftentimes put to't to maintain 
some unlucky authorities, for the salving 
of which he is forced to such shifts and ex- 



pedients, which he must needs (shouhl he 
dare to thhik freely) see through and dis- 
cern to be false ; and yet such a slave was 
he, that he would rather lose truth, than go 
out of the road to find it. This also makes 
men otherwise senseful and ingenious, quote 
such things many times out of an old dull 
author, and with a peculiar emphasis of 
commendation too, as would never pass even 
in ordinary conversation ; and which they 
themselves would never have took notice 
of, had not such an author said it. But 
now, no sooner does a man give himself 
leave to think, but he perceives how absurd 
and unreasonable 'tis, that one man should 
prescribe to all posterity ; that men, like 
beasts, should follow the foremost of the 
herd ; and that venerable non-sense should 
be preferred before neio sense. He con- 
siders, that that which we call Antiquity, is 
properly the nonage of the world ; that the 
sagest of his authorities were once new ; 
and that there is no other difference be- 
tween an ancient author and himself, but 
only that of time ; which, if of any advan- 
tage, 'tis rather on his side, as living in a 
more refined and mature age of the world. 
And thus having cast off this Intellectual 
Slavery, like one of the brave 'EkrXfcrtK'ot, 
mentioned by Laertius, he addicts himself 
to no author, sect, or party ; but freely 
picks up Truth where-ever he can find it ; 
puts to sea upon his own bottom ; holds the 
stern himself; and now, if ever, we may 
expect new discoveries." — A Collection of 
Miscellanies, by John Norris, ^. 149. 

Universal Benevolence the Political 

" XoR is the second great commandment 
less reasonable than the first. The truest 
and most effectual way a man can take to 
love himself, is to love his neighbour as 
himself. For since man is a necessitous 
and indigent creature (of all creatures the 
most indigent), and since he cannot upon 
his own solitary stock supply the necessities 

of his nature (the want of society being one 
of them), and since of all creatures here be- 
low none is capable of doing him either so 
much good or so much harm as those of his 
own species ; as 'twill be his best security 
to have as many friends and as few ene- 
mies as he can ; so, as a means to this, to 
hate and injure none, but to love and oblige 
all, will be his best policy. So far is the 
stfite of nature from being (according to 
the Elements of the Leviathan) a state of 
hostility and war, that there is no one thing 
that makes more apparently for the interest 
of mankind than universal charity and be- 
nevolence. And indeed, would all men but 
once agree to espouse one another's inte- 
rests, and 211'osecute the public good ti-uly 
and faithfully, nothing would be wanting 
to verify and realize the dreams of the 
Golden Age, to antici])ate the Millennial 
happiness, and bring down heaven upon 
earth. Society would stand fii'm jind com- 
pact, like a mathematical frame of architec- 
ture, supported by mutual dependencies and 
coherencies ; and every man's kindnesses 
would return again upon himself, in the 
circle and reciprocation of love." — A Col- 
lection of Miscellanies., hy John Norris, p. 

Evil of returning Injuries. 

" To do another man a diskindness merely 
because he has done me one, serves to no 
good purpose, and to many ill ones. For 
it contributes nothing to the reparation of 
the first injury (it being impossible that 
the act of any wrong should be rescinded, 
though the permanent effect may), but in- 
stead of making up the breach of my happi- 
ness, it encreases the objects of my pity, by 
bringing in a neiv misery into the world 
more than was before ; and occasions fresh 
returns of malice, one begetting another, 
like the encirclings of disturbed water, till 
the evil becomes fruitful and multiplies 
into a long succession, a genealogy of mis- 
chiefs." — A Collection of Miscellanies, by 
John Norris, p. 238. 



Use of our Passions. 

" Our passions wei'e given us to perfect 
and accomplish our natures, thougli by 
accidental misapplications to unworthy ob- 
jects they may turn to our degradation and 
dishonour. We may indeed be debased as 
well as ennobled by them ; but then the fault 
is not in the large sails, but in the ill conduct 
of the pilot, if our vessel miss the haven. 
The tide of our love can never run too high, 
provided it take a right channel.^'' — A Col- 
lection of Miscellanies, by John Norris, p. 

Proud Humility. 

" There are 2i generation of men who use 
to be very eloquent, in setting out the de- 
generacy of human nature in general, and 
particularly in decyphering the shortness of 
our intellectual sight, and the defects of our 
now diminish'' d understanding ; yet should a 
man take them at their word, and apply 
that verdict to themselves in particular 
which they so freely bestow upon the whole 
species, no man in the world so full of re- 
sentment and impatience as they ; and I 
dare affirm, notwithstanding their harangues 
upon the corruption of human nature, could 
all mankind lay a true claim to that estimate 
which they pass upon themselves, there would 
be little or no difference betwixt laps' d and 
perfect humanity, and God might again 
review his image with patermd compla- 
cency, and still pronounce it good.'^ — A Col- 
lection of Miscellanies, by John Norris, p. 

Platonic and Rabbiniccd Notion of voluntary 
Dissolution, or Death by mere Intensity of 

" Plato defines Contemplation to be Xvaic 
kOi ^wpKTjutit TJji: i^uj^jjc diro awjiaroQ, a so- 
lution and a separation of the Soul from the 
Body. And some of the severer Platonists 
have been of opinion, that 'tis possil^e for 
a man, by mere intention of thought, not only 
to withcbaw the soul from all commerce 

with the senses, but even really to separate 
it from the body, to untwist the ligaments 
of his frame, and by degrees to resolve him- 
self into the state of the Dead. And thus 
the Jeivs express the manner of the death 
of Moses, calling it Osculum Oris Dei, the 
Kiss of God's Mouth. That is, that he 
breathed out his soul by the mere strength 
and energy of contemplation, and expired in 
the embraces of his Maker. A happy way 
of dying ! How ambitious should I be of 
such a conveyance, were it practicable ! 
How passionately should I join with the 
Church in the Canticles : ^i\i](tutw yite airo 
(btXtjparwv arojiaTOi our«, Let him kiss me 
ivith the hisses of his mouth. Cant. i. 2." — 
A Collection of Miscellanies, by John Nor- 
Ris, p. 422. 

Cultivation for Need, or for Lucre. 

Maximus Tykius considers men to cul- 
tivate the ground with good or ill motives, 
according to their object, whether it be for 
the sake of the produce itself, or for lucre : 
airtovrai ardpwTroi yrJQ, o'l fxev aw hiKy), 
01 he avtv ZiKriQ' aw CnKi]fjLf.v Kara ■)(^peiay 
capTTH, dtKijg ?£ cii'ev tVl yjii^^uTiajibi. — 
Dissertatio xiv. 

Uncertainty of Antiquarian Studies. 

" The study of antiquity," says Pinker- 
ton (Correspondence, vol. 1, p. 38), " is the 
most uncertain in the world; and those most 
versant in it are the least apt to pronounce 
rashly : for to conclude, for instance, from 
the remains of a few castles, or from de- 
scriptions of a battle or two in old chroni- 
cles, that every battle and evei'y castle in 
that period were like these, were extrava- 
gance itself ; for fashion, caprice, and acci- 
dent, are as ancient as any antiquities in the 

Bayle on the Public Weal. 

Speaking of that public policy which 
pays no regard to former benefits, but looks 
wholly to present or future interest, Bayle 


says : '■'' De savoir comment cette politique s ac- 
cords avec les lois eternelles de la morale, et 
comment une telle opposition entre les devoirs 
dcs particuUc7's et les devoirs des souverains 
ne fait point breche d la certitude immuahle 
des idees de Vhonnete homme et de la vertzi, 
c'est une autre question. II suffit de di?'e que, 
dans I'etat oil se trouvent les socictes, Vinteret 
public est un soleil d Vegard d'une partie 
considei'oble des vertus. Ccs vertus sont des 
etoiles qui disparoissent, qui s'evanouisse?it, a 
la presence de cet inter et. Sal us popul i supre- 
ma lex csto." — Tom. 6, p. 127, sub voce 
Elizabeth, note H. 

Advantage of having a dishonest Foe in 

" A roE who misquotes you," says Ho- 
race Waljjole, " ought to be a welcome an- 
tagonist. He is so humble as to confess 
when he censures what you have not said, 
that he cannot confute what you have said ; 
and he is so kind as to furnish you with an 
opportunity of j^roving him a liar, as you 
may refer to your book to detect him." — 
Pinicerton's Correspondence, vol. 1, p. 87. 

Aptitvdes in Men} 

" It is very certain that no man is fit for 
everything ; but it is almost as certain too, 
that there is scarce any one man who is not 
fit for something, which something nature 
plainly points out to him by giving him a 
tendency and propensity to it. — Every man 
finds in himself, either from nature or edu- 
cation (for they are hard to distinguish), a 
peculiar bent and disposition to some par- 
ticidar character; and his struggling against 
it is the fruitless and endless labour of 
Sisyjjhus. Let him follow and cultivate 
that vocation, he will succeed in it, and be 
considerable in one way at least ; whereas 
if he departs from it he will, at best, be in- 

' Yet Chesterfield is wrong in thinking that 
men always understand their own. 

considerable, probably ridiculous." — Lord 
Chesterfield's Miscellaneous Works, vol. 
1, p. 65. 

' Gaiulentio di Lucca.^ — Lord Charlemont 
believed the book. 

Mr. J. C. Walker, [author of Historical 
Memoirs of the Irish Bards, &c.] desired 
Pinkerton, in a letter, to learn what Browne 
the traveller thought of ' Gaudentio di Luc- 
ca '; and he proceeds to say : " Lord Charle- 
mont thinks it is founded in fact ; for when 
his Lordship was in Cairo, a caravan which 
had employed five months in travelling 
across the deserts, arrived ; and they de- 
scribed the city from which they came as 
elegant in its buildings, polished in its man- 
ners, and wise in its government. Now, his 
Lordship thinks it very probable that Bishop 
Berkeley, who also visited Cairo, conversed 
with some of the people who attended this 
caravan ; and only related in 'Gaudentio di 
Lucca' what he had learned from them, 
giving at the same time the air and form 
of a romance to his relation." — Pinkeb- 
ton's Correspondence, vol. 2, pp.41, 46. 

To struggle in the World is like Swim- 
mi jig. 

An old rogue in Beaumont and Fletch- 
er says : 

" Before twenty 
I rushed into the world, which is indeed 
jMucli like 

The Art of Swimming ; he that will attain to't 
Must fall in plump, and duck himself at first, 
And that will make him hardy and adven- 
And not stand putting in one foot, and shiver. 
And then draw t'other after, like a Quake- 
buttock : 
Well, he may make a padler in the world 
From hand to mouth, but never a brave 

Borne up by the chin, as I bore up myself 
With my strong industry that never failed 



For he that lies borne up with patrimonies, 
Looks like a long great ass that swims with 

bladders ; 
Come but one prick of adverse fortune to 

He sinks, — because he never tried to swim." 
Wit at sevei-al Weapons, p. 244. 

Languefs Letters to Sydney. 

" — Hoc unura cum indicio grati ac de- 
voti erga ipsum animi prseterire nequeo, 
(|uod in Comitiis Imperii anui 1603. Le- 
gationis Palatinaj Princeps, singular! me 
gratia et favore complexus, multa mihi ultro 
salutaria mouita suggessit, quas expertus 
fui in mea functione mihi fuisse utilissima. 
Sod Languetus ingenui pectoris, et erga 
libcralia ingenia intrinseco afl'ectus, pro- 
pensa sua studia inprimis efFudit in Philip- 
pum Sydna?um, Equitem Anglum, tandem 
Vlissingensem Gubernatorem ; ad quern 
complures Epistolas scripsit tanta doctrina; 
copia, et tot honestae institutionis prajcejjtis 
refertas, ut vix putem in eo genere aliquid 
extare simile. Scribit Cicero se Cyri pa3- 
diam et contrivisse legendo, et Seipionem 
Africanum nunquam deposuisse de mani- 
bus, non ad historian fidem, sed ad effigiem 
j iisti imperii compositam. Ego hanc pa3diam 
qua Languetus Sydna'um, tam pie, erudite, 
et paterno prorsiis afFectu, ad virtutis et 
honoris gradus instruxit, fere ausim com- 
parare cum Pythagorje aut Socratis since- 
ritate et sollicitudine, qua discipidos suos 
ad veram philosophiam et beatam vitam, ut 
illi putabant, duxerunt." — Ludovicus Ca- 
MERARius, Epistola DecUcatoriu ad Langueti 

Sermon-Hearers classed. 

" Now to our hearers. As there were 
wise Virgins and foolish Virgins, so there 
are wise hearers and foolish hearers. Some 
are so nice that they had rather pir^e than 
take their food of any which is licensed by 
a bishop, as if Elias should refuse his food 

because a raven brought it to him and not an 
angel. Some come unto the service to save 
forfeiture, and then they stay the sermon 
for shame. Some come because they woidd 
not be counted Atheists. Some come be- 
cause theywould avoid the name of Papists. 
Some come to please their friends. One 
hath a good man to his friend ; and lest he 
should offend him he frequents the Preach- 
ers, that his friend may think well of him. 
Some come with their masters and mis- 
tresses for attendance. Some come with a 
fame ; they have heard great speech of the 
man, and therefore they wiU spend one hour 
to hear him once, but to see whether it be 
so as they say. Some come because they 
are idle, to pass the time ; they go to a 
sermon lest they should be weary of doing 
nothing. Some come with their fellows ; 
one saith, ' Let us go to the sermon ! ' 'Con- 
tent,' saith he, and he goeth for company. 
Some hear the sound of a voice as they pass 
by the church, and step in before they be 
aware. Another hath some occasion of busi- 
ness, and he appoints his friends to meet 
him at such a sermon, as they do at Paul's. 
All these are accidental hearers, like chil- 
dren which sit in the market and neither 
buy nor sell. But as many foxes have been 
taken when they came to take, so they 
which come to spy, or wonder, or gaze, or 
scoff, have changed their minds before they 
went home, like one who finds when he doth 
not seek." — Henry Smith's Sermons, p. 

" As ye come with divers motions, so ye 
hear in divers manners. One is like an 
Athenian, and he hearkeneth after news ; 
if the preacher say anything of our ar- 
mies beyond the sea, or council at home, or 
matters of court, that is his lure. Ano- 
ther is like the Pharisee, and he watcheth 
if anything be said that may be wrested 
to be spoken against persons in high place, 
that he may play the Devil in accusing of 
his brethren : let him write that in his 
tables too ! Another smacks of eloquence, 
and he gapes for a phrase, that when he 



fometh to his ordinary, he may have one 
figure more to grace and worship his tale. 
Another is malecontent, and he never prick- 
eth lip his ears till the preacher come to gird 
against some whom he spiteth ; and when 
the sermon is done, he remembereth nothing 
which was said to him, but that which was 
spoken against others. Another cometh to 
gaze abovit the church ; he hath an evil eye, 
which is still looking upon that from which 
Job did avert his eye. Another cometh to 
muse ; so soon as he is set, he falleth into a 
brown study; sometimes his mind runs on 
his market, sometimes on his journey, some- 
times of his suit, sometimes of his dinner, 
sometimes of his sport after dinner ; and 
the sermon is done before the man thinks 
where he is. Another cometh to hear ; but 
so soon as the preacher hath said his prayer, 
he falls fast asleeji, as though he had been 
broiight in for a corpse, and the preacher 
should i^reach at his funeral." — Henry 
Smith's Sermons, p. 308. 

Sermon- Studiers. 

"You must use another help, that is, re- 
cord every note in thy mind as the preacher 
goeth ; and after, before thou dost eat or 
drink or talk, or do anything else, repeat 
all to thyself. I do know some in the Uni- 
versity, which did never hear good sermon, 
but as soon as they were gone they re- 
hearsed it thus, and learned more by this, 
as they said, than by their reading and study ; 
for, recording that which they had heai'd 
when it was fresh, they covild remember 
all, and hereby got a better facility in 
preaching than they could learn in books. 
The like profit I remember I gained when 
I was a scholar, by the like practice." — 
Henky Smith's Sermons, p. 317. 

Soldiers and Preachers. 

"There be two trades in this land with- 
out the which the realm cannot stand ; the 
one is the King's soldiers, and the other is 

the Lord's soldiers ; and the Lord's soldiers 
are handled like the King's soldiers ; for 
from the merchant to the porter, no calling 
is so despised, so contemned, so derided, — 
that they may beg for their service, for 
their living is turned into an alms. One 
saith that Moses is Quis, that is, the magis- 
trate is somebody ; but Aaron is Quasi quis, 
that is, the minister is nobody, because no- 
body is despised like him." — Henry Smith's 
Sermons, p. 139, edition of 1657. 

Clergy despised. 

" Hath not this desjiising of the Preachers 
almost made the Preachers despise preach- 
ing ? The people's neglect of the projihets 
hath made the prophets neglect prophesy- 
ing. The non-resident keeps himself away, 
because he thinks the jieople like him better 
because he doth not trouble them. And 
the drone never studieth to preach, for he 
saith that an homily is better liked of than 
a sermon. And they which would study 
Divinity, above all, when they look ujion 
our contempt and beggary and vexation, 
turn to Law, to Physic, to trades, or any- 
thing rather than they will enter this con- 
temptible calling. And is not the Ark then 
ready to depart fi'om Israel ? " — Henry 
Smith's Sermons, p. 142. 

Simple Preach e7'S. 

" There is a kind of Preachers risen up 
but of late, which shroud and cover every 
rustical and unsavoury and childish and 
absurd sermon, under the name of ' the 
simple kind of teaching,' like the popish 
priest's, which makes ignorance the mother 
of devotion. But indeed, to preach simply 
is not to preach rudely, nor unlearnedl}', 
nor confusedly, but to preach plainly and 
perspicuously, that the simplest man may 
understand what is taught, as if he did hear 
his name. Therefore if you will know what 
makes many preachers preach so barely and 
loosely and simply, it is your own sim- 



pliclty ■which makes them think that if they 
go on and say something, all is one, and no 
fault will be found, because you are not 
able to judge in or out. And so because 
they give no attendance to doctrine as Paul 
teacheth them, it is almost come to pass, 
that in a whole sermon the hearer cannot 
pick out one note more than he could gather 
himself. Wheat is good ; but they which 
sell the refuse of wheat are reproved. (Amos 
viii. 6.) So, preaching is good ; but this 
refuse of preaching is but like swearing ; 
for one takes the name of God in vain, and 
the other takes the word of God in vain. 
As every sound is not music, so every ser- 
mon is not preaching, but worse than if he 
should read an homily." — Henry Smith's 
Sermons, p. 143. 

Luxwy in Dress. 

" If God were in love with fashions, he 
were never better served than in this age ; 
for our world is like a pageant, where every 
man's apparel is better than himself. Once 
Christ said that soft clothing is in kings' 
courts ; but now it is crept into every house. 
Then the rich glutton jetted in purple every 
day ; but now the poor unthrift jets as 
brave as the glutton, with so many cir- 
cumstances about him, that if ye could see 
how Pride would walk herself, if she did 
wear apparel, she would even go like many 
in the streets ; for she could not go braver, 
nor look stouter, nor mince finer, nor set on 
more laces, nor make larger cuts, nor carry 
more trappings about her, than our ruffians 
and wantons do at this day. How far are 
these fashions altered from those leather 
coats which God made in Paradise ! If their 
bodies did change forms so often as their 
apparel changeth fashions, they shoidd have 
more shapes than they have fingers and 
toes. As Jeroboam's wife disguised herself 
that the Prophet might not know her, so we 
may think that they disguise themselves 
that God might not know them. Nayf they 
disguise their bodies so, till they know not 

themselves ; for the servant goeth like the 
master ; the handmaid like her mistress ; 
the subject like the prince ; as though he 
had forgotten his calling, and mistook him- 
self, like a man in the dark, which puts on 
another man's coat for his own that is too 
wide, or too side, for his body : so their 
attires are so unfit for their bodies, so un- 
meet for their calling, so contrary to nature, 
that I cannot call them fitter than the mon- 
sters of apparel. For the Giants were not 
so monstrous in nature as their attires are 
in fashion ; that if they could see their ap- 
parel but with the glance of a spiritual eye, 
how monstrous it makes them, like apes and 
puppets and Vices, they would fling away 
their attire as David flung away Saul's 
armour, and be as much ashamed of their 
clothes as Adam was of his nakedness." — 
Henry Smith's Sermons, p. 208. 

All Land-measiwe taken from the Plough. 

" All measures of the country have been 
taken from the Plough, as long as any me- 
moi'ials of such things are extant : for a 
Family, or Manse, or Hide with the Saxons, 
or Cariicat with the Normans, are of the 
same signification, which is that we call a 
Plough-land, and was as much arable as 
with one plough, and beasts suflicient be- 
longing to it, could be tilled and ordered 
the whole year about ; having also meadow 
and pasture for the cattle, and houses also 
for them, and for the men and their house- 
holds, who managed it. This is the great 
measure so often repeated in Doomsday 
Book, in most counties by the name of Hide; 
but in ours (Nottinghamshire), Derliyshire, 
and Lincolnshire, only Carucats are found, 
which are the very same with the other, 
and esteemed to contain an hundred acres, 
viz. six score to the hundred ; but assuredly 
were more or less, according to the lightness 
or stiffness of the soil, whereof one plough 
might dispatch more or less accordingly. 
Thus unequal also were the Virgats, whereof 
four made a Canicat ; and so were the 



BovatSi 01* as we call them, Ox-gangs, of 
which most commonly eight went to a 
Carucat or Plough-land, one of them being 
defined to be as much land as one ox might 
till through the year ; which, for the reason 
before, could not be equal in all places, 
but in some places was twelve, in some six- 
teen, in some eighteen or more acres. Nay, 
the acres were not equal ; for some had 
sixteen, some eighteen, some twenty, and 
some more feet to the perch, of which 
forty make a rood, and four of them an 
acre ; but the foot itself was also customary, 
in some places twelve inches, in some 
eighteen, more or less. — By these kind of 
measures were the ancient surveys made of 
every manner and part thereof; and by these 
were regulated all manner of taxes, as well 
before the Conquest as after. For though 
the Knight'' s fees, then first brought in, with 
their incidents, ward and marriage, &c., be- 
came a measure for divers aids or taxes af- 
terwards, yet even they consisted, or were 
made up, of five or eight Curucafs or Plough- 
lands a-piece ; and the respective tenants 
paid for so many whole Fees, or parts of 
one or more, as they agreed with them who 
first enfeoffed them, according to such pro- 
portions of Carucats or Bovats as were the 
subject or ground of such agreements : so 
that still the Plough upheld all." — Thoro- 
ton's Antiquities of Nottinghamshire, Pre- 
face, p. V. 

Inclosures. — A Shepherd who hept Ale to 
sell in the Church, the only Inhabitant in a 
once populous Village. 

Thorpe, in Notts. — " Inclosing the lord- 
ship (as it doth in all places where the soU 
is anything good in this county, for cer- 
tain) hath so ruined and depopulated the 
town, that in my time there was not a house 
left inhabited of this notaVjle lordship (ex- 
cept some part of the Hall, INIi'. Armstrong's 
house), but a shepherd only kept ale to sell 
in the church." — Tno^oro^^s, Nottingham- 
shire, p. 39. 

Lord 's Tax on Beer brcived for sale. Young- 
lings that were sold, and Pigs when killed. 

FlSKERTON, Notts. 

" If any braciatrix braciaverit cereviciam, 
ale-wife brew ale to sell, she must satisfy 
the Lord for tollester. If any native or 
cottager sold a male youngling after it was 
weaned, he was to give four pence to the 
Lord. If any native or cottager, having a 
swine above a year old, should kill him, he 
was to give the Lord one penny, and it was 
called Thistelcak." — Thoroton's Notting- 
hamshire, p. 308. 

Epitaph of Whalley's Grandfather. 

Richard Whallet, grandfather of the 
regicide, died in 1583, at the age of 84, and 
these verses were inscribed on his monu- 

" Behold his Wives were number three ; 

Two of them died in right good fame ; 
The third this Tomb erected she 

For him who well deserved the same, 
Both for his life and goodly end. 
Which all that knows must needs commend. 
And they that knows not, yet may see 
A worthy Whalley lo was he. 

" Since time brings all things to an end. 

Let us "ourselves apply, 
And learn by this our faithful friend, 

That here in tomb doth lie, 
To fear the Lord, and eke behold 
The faii'est is but dust and mold : 
For as we are, so once was he ; 
And as he is, so must we be." 

Thoroton's Nottinghamshire. 

Duke of Newcastle, and the old Chapel at 

Speaking of the House, and site of the 
]\Ionastery of Welbeck, "now," saysTnoRO- 
TON, Nov. 11, 1674, "the mansion-house of 
his Grace the Duke of Newcastle," the old 



antiquary, after noticing the Duke's " most 
excellent pieces concerning Horsemanship, 
both in French and English," proceeds to 
say, " whereof he is so great a master, that 
though he be above eighty years of age, he 
very constantly diverts himself with it still ; 
insomuch that he is thought to have taken 
as great pleasure in beholding his great 
store of choice well-managed horses (where- 
with his fine stables are continually fur- 
nished) appear, to exercise their gifts in his 
magnificent riding-house, which he long since 
built there of brick, as in elder time any 
one could take to see the religious per- 
formances of the jNIonks in the quire of the 
great church of St. James, now utterly 
vanished, except the chapel for the house 
was any part of it, which of late years also 
hath lain buried in the ruins of its roof, the 
want whereof doth a little diminish the 
glory of this brave palace. Yet seeing that 
neither the wisdom, nor piety, nor charity 
of those formerly concerned here, nor their 
right, title, nor propriety, nor indeed of God 
himself, could in this place secure or pre- 
serve a church against a King and Parlia- 
ment professing the same God and the same 
religion, I cannot perceive how the most 
obstinate and zealous pretenders to religion 
and property of this time can justly wonder 
if his Grace be not much concerned for this 
ruinous chapel. The woods, especially those 
nigh the House, are better preserved." — 
Thoroton's Nottiiighamshire, p. 453. 

Privilege of the Order of Sempringham. 

The Prior of IVIathersey, of the Order 
of Sempringham, 3 Edward III. claimed to 
have, "for himself and his men, quittance, in 
city and borough, in markets and fairs, in 
passage of bridges and ports of the sea, and 
in all places through England, from toll 
and pontage." — Thoroton's Nottinghum- 
shire, p. 480. 

Sherwood wasted ; and the Bilberries in 
danger of being destroyed^ that used to he 
a great Profit and Pleasure to the Poor. 

Thoroton complains that the Duke of 
Newcastle's deputies and lieutenants as 
Justice in Eyre of all His Majesty's forests, 
&c. north of the Trent, " have allowed such 
and so many claims [in Sherwood] that 
there will not, very shortly, be wood enough 
left to cover the bilberries, which every 
summer were wont to be an extraordinary 
great profit and pleasure to poor people, 
who gathered them, and carried them all 
about the country to sell. I shall there- 
fore at this time say no more. May 24, 
1675." And with these words he concludes 
his Antiquities of Nottinghamshii-e. 

Sir William Sutton's Epitaph. 
In Aram or Averham church, Notts. — 

" Sir William Sutton's corpse here tombed 

Whose happy soul in better mansion keeps. 

Thrice nine years lived he with his Lady fair, 

A lovely, noble, and like virtuous pair. 

Their generous offspring, parents' joy of 

Eight of each sex : of each an equal part 

Ushered to Heaven their Father ; and the 

Remained behind him to attend their Mo- 
Thoroton's Nottinghamshire., p. 328. 

Staple Merchant's Gratitude to the Wool 

One ]VIr. Barton, " a merchant of the 
Staple, built a fair stone house at Holme, 
in Nottinghamshire, and a fair chapel like a 
parish church. In the wmdows of his house 
was this posie, 

I thank God, and ever shall. 
It is the sheep hath paid for all. 

A thankful and humble acknowledgnaent 



of the means whereby he got his estate, 
which now remains to the Lord BeHasis, 
sometime Governor of Newark, as I take 
it." — Tuoroton's Nottinghamshii-e, p. 349. 

Etymology of the jRiver Idle. 

" Id or Yd, in the British Language, signi- 
fies seges, corn ; and ydlan, area ubi reponun- 
tur collects segetes, — which in these parts 
we call a stack yai'd : so that it seems the 
river Idle had its name from corn, with which 
the neighbouring fields ever abounded ; and 
Adelocum was intended by the Romans for 
the place upon Ydel, after the broad pro- 
nunciation of Ai for I, which is still frequent 
in this country ; as Segelocum [as it is 
otherwise called] after the signification, 
ydle signifying a granary amongst the Bri- 
tons." — Thoroton's Nottinghamshire, p. 

Inclosures multiplied hy the Dissohction. 

" The Plough upheld all, as the Laws did 
it indifferently well, till that stupendous 
Act which swept away the Monasteries ; 
whose lands and ty thes being presently after 
made the possessions and inheritances of 
private men, gave more frequent encou- 
ragement and opportunities to such men as 
had got competent shares of them, further 
to improve and augment their own revenues 
by greater loss to the commonwealth, viz. 
by enclosing and converting arable to pas- 
ture, which as certainly diminisheth the 
yearly fruits, as it doth the people ; for we 
may observe that a lordship in tillage, every 
year affords more than double the profits 
which it can in pasture, and yet the latter 
way the landlord may perhaps have double 
the rent he had before : the reason whereof 
is, that in pasture he hath the whole profit, 
there being required neither men nor charge 
worth speaking of; whereas in tillage, the 
people and their families necessarily em- 
ployed upon it (which surely in respect of 
God or ^lan. Church or King, make a more 

considijrable part of the commonwealth 
than a little unlawful increase of a private 
person's rent) must be maintained, and their 
public duties discharged, before the land- 
lord's rent can be raised or ascertained. 
But this improvement of rent certainly 
caused the decay of tillage, and that depo- 
pulation, which hath much impaired our 
county [Notts.] and some of our neigh- 
bours, and which divers laws and statutes 
have in vain attempted to hinder. 

" The statutes of Eliz. 39 against the de- 
caying of towns and houses of husbandry, 
and for maintenance of husbancby and til- 
lage, are both expired ; but if they had not 
they would have been repealed, as divers 
of like sort have been } so that we cannot 
expect a stop for this great evil till it stay 
itself ; that is, till depopulating a lordship 
will not imjDrove or encrease the owner's 
rent ; some examples v/hereof I have seen 
already, and more may do, because pasture 
already begins to exceed the vent for the 
commodities which 't yields. But other 
restraint, till the Lords, and such gentle- 
men as are usually members of the House 
of Commons, who have been the chief and 
almost only authors of, and gainers by, this 
false-named improvement of their lands 
amongst us, think fit to make a self-denying 
act in this particular, would be as vain to 
think of, as that any law which hinders the 
profit of -a powerful man should be effec- 
tually executed. This prevailing mischief, 
in some parts of this shire, hath taken away 
and destroyed more private families of good 
accomit, than time itself within the compass 
of my observations." — Thokoton's Notting- 
hamshire, Preface, p. 5-Q. 

The DeviVs Doings at Sermon-time. 

"There is no sentence in scripture which 
the Devil had rather you should not regard 
than this lesson of hearing ; for if you take 
heed how you hear, you shall not only profit 
by this sermon, but every sermon after this 
shall leave such instruction and peace and 



comfort with you, as you never thought the 
Word contained for you ; therefore no mar- 
vel if the tempter do trouble you when you 
should hear, as the fowls cumbered Abra- 
ham when he should offer sacrifice. For 
be ye well assured that this is an unfallible 
sign that some excellent and notable good 
is toward you, when the Devil is so busy 
to hinder your hearing of the Word, which 
of all other things he doth most envy unto 
you : therefore as he pointed Adam to ano- 
ther tree lest he should go to the Tree of 
Life, so knowing the Word to be like the 
Tree of Life, he appointeth you to other 
business, to other exercises, to other works, 
and to other studies, lest you should hear 
it and be converted to God, whereby the 
tribute and revenue of his kingdom should 
be impaired. Therefore mark how many 
forces he hath bent against one little scrip- 
ture, to frustrate this counsel of Christ, 
Take heed hoiv you hear ! First, he labours 
all that he can to stay us from hearing : to 
effect this he keeps us at taverns, at plays, 
in our shops, and appoints us some other 
business at the same time ; that when the 
bell calls to the sermon, we say like the 
churlish guests, we cannot come. K he 
cannot stay us away with any business or 
exercise, then he casts fancies into our 
minds, and drowsiness into our heads, and 
sounds into our ears, and sets temptations 
before our eyes ; that though we hear, yet 
we should not mark, like the bii-ds which 
fly about the church. If he cannot stay 
our ears, nor slack our attention as he 
would, then he tickleth us to mislike some- 
thing which was said, and by that makes 
us reject all the rest. If we cannot mis- 
like any thing which is said, then he in- 
fecteth us with some prejudice of the 
preacher ; he doth not as he teacheth, and 
therefore we less regard what he saith. If 
there be no fault in the man, nor in the 
doctrine, then, lest it would convert us ajid 
reclaim us, he courseth all means to keep us 
from the consideration of it, until we have 
forgot it. To compass this, so soon a» we 
have heard, he takes us to dinner, or to 

company, or to pastime to relieve our 
minds, that we should think no more of it. 
If it stay in our thoughts, and like us well, 
then he hath this trick : instead of applying 
the doctrine which we should follow, he 
turns us to praise and extol the preacher ; 
' he made an excellent sermon ; he hath a 
notable gift ; I never heard any like him.' 
He which can say so, hath heard enough ; 
this is the repetition which you make of our 
sermons when you come home, and so to 
your business again till the next sermon 
come : a breath goeth from us, and a sound 
Cometh to you, and so the matter is ended." 
— Henry Smith's Sermons, p. 300, 

Stroriters, or Dandies of Henry Smith's 

" They which will be Strouters, shall not 
want flatterers which will praise every thing 
that they do, and every thing that they 
speak, and every thing that they wear, and 
say it becomes them well to wear long hair ; 
that it becomes them well to wear bellied 
doublets ; that it becomes them well to jet 
in their going ; that it becomes them well 
to swear m their talking. — So the humour 
swelleth, and thinks with itself, if they will 
look upon me when I do set but a stout 
face upon it, how woidd they behold me if 
I were but in apparel ? If they do so 
admire me in silks, how would they cap 
me, and courtesy me, and worship me, if I 
were in velvets ? If I be so brave in plain 
velvet, what if my velvet were pinkt, or 
cut, or printed ? So they study for fashions 
as lawyers do for delays, and count that 
part naked which is not as gaudy as the 
rest ; till all their body be covered over 
with pride, as their mind with folly. — As 
Saul said to Samuel, ' honour me before 
this people,' so the proud man saith to his 
chain, and his ruffs, and his pinks, and his 
cuts, ' honour me before this people.' All 
that he speaketh, or doth, or weareth, is 
like Nebuchadnezzar's palace, which he 
built for his honour. This is their work 



so soon as they rise, to put a pedlar's shop 
upon theii' backs, and colour their faces, 
and prick their ruffs, and frisle their hair : 
and then their day's work is done ; as 
though their office were, to paint a fair 
image every morning, and at night to blot 
it out agam," — Henry Smith's Sermons, 
p. 207. 

Livings given to Children ? or to the wholly 
Unlearned f 

" Hannah said, ' I will not offer the child 
to God before he be weaned,' that is, before 
he be taken from the dug. But now they 
offer their children to God before they be 
weaned, before they can go, before they can 
speak ; and send them to fight the Lord's 
battles before they have one stone in their 
hand to fling at Goliath ; that is, one scrip- 
ture to resist the tempter. This is either 
because the Pati'ons or the Bishops have 
lime upon their fingers, which makes them 
like blind Isaac, that they take no heed 
whom they bless." — Henry Smith's Ser- 
mons, p. 143. 

Itch for curious Questions in Divinity. 

" Paul rebuked them which troubled 
their heads about genealogies ; how would 
he reprove men and women of our days, if 
he did see how they busy their heads about 
vain questions, tracing upon the pinnacles 
where they may fall, while they might 
walk upon the pavement without danger. 
Some have a great deal more desire to learn 
where Hell is, than to know any way how 
they may escape it ; to hear what God did 
purpose before the world began, rather 
than to learn what he will do when the 
world is ended ; to understand whether 
they shall know one another in Heaven, 
than to know whether they belong to 
Heaven. This rock hath made many ship- 
wrecks, that men search mysteries before 
they know principles ; like the Bethsha- 
mites which were not content to see the 
Ark, but they must pry into it, and finger it. 

Commonly the simplest men busy their 
heads about the highest matters ; so that 
they meet with a rough and crabbed ques- 
tion, like a knob in the tree ; and while 
they hack and hew at it with their own wits 
to make it plain, their saw sticks fast in the 
cleft, and cannot get out again : at last, in 
wrath, they become like malecontents with 
God, as though the Scripture were not per- 
fect ; and either fall into despair, or into 
contempt of all. Therefore it is good to 
leave off learning where God hath left off 
teaching ; for they which have an ear Avhere 
God hath no tongue, hearken not unto God, 
but to the tempter, as Eve did to the ser- 
pent." — Henry Smith's Sermons, p. 449. 

Views of a Sceptic in sporting Paradoxes. 

" The reason, perhaps, why men of wit 
delight so much to espouse these paradox- 
ical systems, is not in truth that they are so 
fully satisfied with 'em, but in a view the 
better to oppose some other systems, which 
by their fair appearance have helped, they 
think, to bring mankind under subjection. 
They imagine that by this general Scepti- 
cism, which they would introduce, they shall 
better deal with the dogm.atical spirit which 
prevails in some particidar subjects. And 
when they have accustomed men to bear 
contradiction in the main, and hear the na- 
ture of things disputed at large ; it may be 
safer (they conclude) to argue separately, 
upon certain nice points in which they are 
not altogether so well satisfied. So that 
from hence, perhaps, you may still better 
apprehend why, in conversation, the Spirit 
of Raillery jjrevails so much, and notions 
are taken up for no reason besides their 
being odd and out of the way." — Shaftes- 
bury's Characteristics, vol. 1, p. 95. 

French Prophets ridiculed at Bartholomew 

" Not contented to deny these prophesy- 
ing Enthusiasts the honour of a persecution, 



we have delivered 'em over to the cruel- 
lest contempt in the world. I am told, for 
certain, that they are at this very time the 
subject of a choice Droll or Puppet- Show 
at J3arflein!/ There, doubtless, theu- 
strange voices and involuntary agitations 
are admirably well acted, by the motion of 
wires, and inspiration of pipes. For the 
bodies of the prophets, in their state of pro- 
phecy, being not in their own power, but 
(as they say themselves) mere passive or- 
gans, actuated by an exterior force, have 
nothing natural, or resembling real life, in 
any of their sounds or motions : so that how 
awkwardly soever a Puppet- Show may imi- 
tate other actions, it must needs repi'esent 
this passion to the life. And whilst Bar- 
flcmy-Fair is in possession of this privilege, 
I dare stand security to our National Church, 
that no sect of Enthusiasts, no new venders 
of prophecy or miracles, shall ever get the 
start, or put her to the trouble of trying 
her strength with 'em, in any case." — 
Shaftesbury's Charactei'istics, vol. 1, p. 

Experiments on the Alphabet by a Fanatic 
in Prison. 
" I KNEW once a notable Enthusiast of 
the itinerant kind, who being upon a high 
spiritual adventure in a country where pro- 
phetic missions are treated as no jest, was, 
as he told me, committed a close prisoner, 
and kept for several months where he saw 
no manner of light. In this banishment 
frona Letters and Discourse, the man very 
wittily invented an amusement much to his 
purpose, and highly preservative both of 
health and humour. It may be thought, 
perhaps, that of all seasons or circumstances 
here was one the most suitable to our oft- 
mentioned practice of Soliloquy ; especially 
since the prisoner was one of those whom 
in this age we usually call Philosophers, a 
successor of Paracelsus, and a Master in the 
Occult Sciences. But as to Moral Science, 
or anything relating to Self -converse, \iQvra,?, 
a mere novice. To work therefore he went 

after a different method. lie tuned his na- 
tural pipes, not after the manner of a mu- 
sician, to practise what was melodious and 
agreeable in sounds, but to fashion and form 
all sorts of ai'ticulate voices the most dis- 
tinctly that was possible. This he performed 
by strenuously exalting his voice, and essay- 
ing it in all the several dispositions and con- 
figurations of his throat and mouth. And thus 
bellowing, roaring, snarling, and otherwise 
variously exerting his organs of sound, he 
endeavoured to discover what letters of the 
Alphabet could best design each species, or 
what new letters were to be invented, to 
mark the undiscovered modifications. He 
found, for instance, the letter A to be a 
most genuine character, an original and 
pure Vowel, and justly placed as principal 
in the front of the alphabetic order. For 
having duly extended his under jaw to its 
utmost distance from the upper ; and, by 
a proper insertion of his fingers, provided 
against the contraction of either corner of 
his mouth ; he experimentally discovered it 
impossible for human tongue, under these 
circumstances, to emit any other modifica- 
tion of sound than that which was described 
by this primitive character. The vowel O 
was formed by an orbicular disposition of 
the movith, as was aptly delineated in the 
character itself. The vowel U, by a paral- 
lel protrusion of the lips. The other vowels 
and consonants, by other various collisions 
of the mouth, and operations of the active 
tongue upon the passive gum or palate. 
The result of this profound speculation and 
long exercise of our prisoner, was a Philo- 
sophical Treatise, which he composed when 
he was set at liberty. He esteemed himself 
the only Master of Voice and Language, on 
the account of this his Radical Science and 
Fundamental Knowledge of Sounds. But 
whoever had taken him to improve their 
voice, or teach 'em an agreeable or just man- 
ner of Accent or Delivery, would, I believe, 
have found themselves considerably de- 
luded." — Shaftesbubt's Characteristics, 
vol. 1, p. 287. 



Cultivation of Temper. 
" If happily we are born of a good na- 
ture ; if a liberal education has formed in 
us a generous temper and disposition, well- 
regulated appetites and worthy inclinations ; 
'tis well for ns, and so indeed we esteem it. 
But who is there endeavours to give these 
to himself, or to advance his portion of hap- 
piness in this kind? Who thinks of im- 
proving, or so much as of preserving his 
share, in a world where it must of necessity 
run so great a hazard, and where we know 
an honest nature is so easily corrupted ? 
All other things relating to us are preserved 
with care, and have some art or economy 
belonging to 'em ; this which is nearest 
related to us, and on which our happiness 
depends, is alone committed to chance : And 
Temper is the only thing ungoverned, whilst 
it governs all the rest." — Shaftesbukt's 
Characteristics, vol. 2, p. 293. 

Love of the Wonderful. 
" For, what stronger pleasure is there 
with mankind, or what do they earlier learn, 
or longer retain, than the love of hearing and 
relating things strange and iyicredihle ? How 
wonderful a thing is the Love of Wondering, 
and of raising Wonder ! 'Tis the delight 
of children to hear tales they shiver at, and 
the vice of old age to abound in strange 
stories of times past. We come into the 
world wondering at everything ; and when 
our wonder about common things is over, 
we seek something new to wonder at. Our 
last scene is, to tell wonders of our oivn, to 
all who will believe 'em. And amidst all 
this, 'tis well if Truth comes oif but mode- 
rately tainted." — Shaftesbury's Charac- 
teristics, vol. 2, p. 325. 

Superstition always according to the Number 
of those icho practise upon it. 
" 'Twill, however, as I conceive, be found 
unquestionably true, according to political 

arithmetic, in every nation whatsoever, 
' That the quantity of Superstition (if I may 
so speak) Avill, in proportion, nearly answer 
the number of Priests, Diviners, Soothsay- 
ers, Prophets, or such who gain their live- 
lihood, or receive advantages, by officiating 
in religious aifairs.' For if these Dealers 
are numerous, they vf'iW force a Trade. And 
as the liberal hand of the magistrate can 
easily raise swarms of this kind where they 
are already but in a moderate proportion ; 
so where, through any other cause, the num- 
ber of these, increasing still by degrees, is 
suffered to grow beyond a certain measure, 
they will soon raise such a ferment in men's 
minds, as will at least compel the magis- 
trate, however sensible of the grievance, to 
be cautious in proceeding to a Reform." — 
Shaftesbury's Characteristics, vol. 3, p. 

Well for us that Beasts do not act in 
" Well it is, perhaps, for Mankind, that 
though there are so many animals who na- 
turally herdybr Company's sake and mutual 
Affection, there are so few who for Conve- 
niency and by Necessity are obliged to a 
strict union, and kind of confederate state. 
The creatures who, according to the eco- 
nomy of their kind, are obliged to make 
themselves habitations of defence against 
the seasons and other incidents ; they who 
in some parts of the year are deprived of all 
subsistence, and are therefore necessitated 
to accumulate in another, and to provide 
withal for the safety of their collected stores ; 
are by their nature, indeed, as strictly joined, 
and with as proper affections towards their 
public and community, as the looser kind, 
of a more easy subsistence and support, are 
united in what relates merely to their off- 
spring and the propagation of their species. 
Of these thoroughly associating and confede- 
rate animals, there are none I have ever heard 
of who in bulk or strength exceed the Beaver. 
The major-part of these Political Animals, 
and creatures oi a joint stock, are as incon- 



siderable as the race of Ants or Bees. But 
had Nature assigned such an economy as 
this to so puissant an animal, for instance, 
as the Elephant, and made him withal as 
prolific as those smaller creatures commonly 
are ; it might have gone hard perhaps with 
Mankind : And a single animal, who by his 
proper might and prowess has often de- 
cided the fate of the greatest battles which 
have been fought by human race, should 
he have grown up into a society, with a 
genius for architecture and mechanics pro- 
portionable to what we observe in those 
smaller creatures ; we should, with all our 
invented machines, have found it hard to 
dispute with him the dominion of the con- 
tinent." — Shaftesbury's Characteristics, 
vol. 3, p. 220. 

The French more 3Ioral than the English. 
" There can be no doubt that the habits 
of the people are more moral in France than 
in England : how they have been induced, 
is the question : not by any superiority of 
education, for that has been completely neg- 
lected, and few of them can either write or 
read. The more independent state of the 
women, and their consequent greater influ- 
ence in society, may be one cause, and a 
less difiuslon of wealth and luxury another ; 
a strict police assists, and their living more 
together in their father's family is likewise 
favourable to virtue. It is no uncommon 
thing, in any station of life, for a man to 
have his sons, and their wives and children, 
residing with him, in peace and harmony. 
The ties of kindred are drawn closer in 
France than in England ; and the laws re- 
spect the principle, for they do not allow 
near relations to bear testimony against each 
other ; the prohibition extends, I believe, 
as far as to nephews and nieces." — Mrs. 
Carey's Tour in France, p. 31. 

Family Republics in Auvergne. 
" Several small family republics have 
been established between five and six cen- 

turies in the vicinity of Thiers. One of 
these communities consists of about thirty 
or forty individuals, who carry on their oc- 
cupations together, and bring their profits 
to the common stock. They make laws and 
regulations for themselves, living in perfect 
equality, and dining at the public table. I 
must remark here, that these sticklers for 
equality will not allow the women any share 
in its enjoyments. They will not even suffer 
them to dine at the same time with them- 
selves ; conceiving probably, like other sons 
of liberty, that a fail* division is made of the 
moral obligations, when the j-ights are as- 
signed to the men, and the duties to the 

" These communities were in a declining 
state at the beginning of the Revolution, 
when the Voyage en Auvergne was pub- 
lished." — Mrs. Carey's Tour in France, 
p. 347. 

Trade of Criticism in Shaftesbury s time. 

" There is, I know, a certain species of 
Authoi's who subsist solely by the criticising 
or commenting practice upon others, and can 
appear in no other form besides what this 
employment authorizes them to assume. 
They have no original character or first 
part ; but wait for something which may 
be called a Work, in order to graft upon it, 
and come in for sharers, at second hand. 

" The pen-me7i of this capacity and degree, 
are, from their function and employment, 
distinguished by the title o{ Answerers. For 
it happens in the world that there are read- 
ers of a genius and size just fitted to these 
answering authors. These, if they teach 
'em nothing else, will teach 'em, they think, 
to criticise. And though the new practising 
critics are of a sort unlikely ever to under- 
stand any original book or writing; they 
can understand, or at least remember and 
quote, the subsequent reflections, flouts, and 
jeers, which may accidentally be made on 
such a piece. Where-ever a gentleman of 
this sort happens, at any time, to be in com- 
pany, you shall no sooner hear a new book 



spoken of, than 'twill be asked, ' Who has 
answered it ?' or, ' When is there an answer 
to come out?' Now the answer, as our gen- 
tleman knows, must needs be newer than 
the hook. And the neicer a thing is, the 
more fashionable still, and the genteeler the 
subject of discourse. For this the book- 
seller knows how to fit our gentleman to a 
nicety ; for he has commonly an ansicer 
ready bespoke, and perhaps finished by the 
time his new hook comes abroad. And 'tis 
odds but our fashionable gentleman, who 
takes both together, may read the latter 
first, and drop the other for good and all." 
— Shaftesbury's Characteristics, vol. 3, p. 

— And of Men of Letters. 

" In our nation, and especially in our pre- 
sent age, whilst wars, debates, and public 
convulsions, turn our minds so wholly upon 
business and affairs ; the better geniuses 
being in a manner necessarily involved in 
the active sphere, on which the general eye 
of mankind is so strongly fixed; there must 
remain in the theatre of wit, a sufiicient 
vacancy of place ; and the quality of actor 
upon that stage, must of conseqvience be 
very easily attainable, and at a low price of 
ingenuity or understanding, 

" The persons, therefore, who are in pos- 
session of the prime parts in this deserted 
theatre, being suffered to maintain their 
ranks and stations in full ease, have natu- 
rally a good agreement and understanding 
with their fellow-Wits. Being indebted to 
the times for this happiness, that with so 
little industry or capacity they have been 
able to serve the nation with wit, and sup- 
ply the place of real dispensers and ministers 
of the Muses' treasures ; they must, neces- 
sarily, as they have any love for themselves, 
or fatherly affection for their works, con- 
spire one with another, to preserve their 
common interest of indolence, and justify 
their remissness, uncorrectness, insipidness, 
and downright ignorance of all literate art 
or just poetic heauty : 

Masna inter molles eoncordia. 

" For this reason you see 'em mutually 
courteous, and benevolent ; gracious and 
obliging, beyond measure ; complimenting 
one another interchangeably, at the head of 
their works, in recommendatory verses, or in 
separate panegyrics, essays, and fragments 
of poetry, such as in the Miscellaneous Col- 
lections (our yearly retail of wit) we see cu- 
riously compacted, and accommodated to the 
relish of the world. Here the Tyrocinium 
of geniuses is annually displayed. Here, if 
you think fit, you may make acquaintance 
with the young offsj^ring of wits, as they 
come up gradually under the old ; with due 
courtship and homage, paid to those high 
predecessors of ftime, in hope of being one 
day admitted, by turn, into the noble order, 
and made Wits by patent and authority. 

" This is the young fry which you may 
see busily surrounding the grown Poet, or 
chief Play-house Author, at a coffee-house. 
They are his guards ; ready to take up arms 
for him, if, by some presumptuous Critic he 
is at any time attacked. They are, indeed, 
the very shadows of their immediate pre- 
decessor, and represent the same features, 
with some small alteration, perhaps, for the 
worse. They are sure to aim at nothing 
above or beyond their master ; and would 
on no account give him the least jealousy 
of theii' aspiring to any degree or order of 
writing above him. From hence that har- 
mony and reciprocal esteem, which, on such 
a bottom as this, cannot fixil of being per- 
fectly well established among our Poets : 
The age, meanwhile, being after this man- 
ner hopefully provided, and secure of a 
constant and like succession of meritorious 
Wits, in every kind ! " — Shaftesbury's 
Characteristics, vol. 3, p. 273. 

Jeremy Taylor's Popidarity. 

" We see the Reverend Doctor's [Bishop 
Taylor's] Treatises standing, as it were, in 
the front of this order of authors, and as 
the foremost of those Good Books used by 
the politest and most refined Devotees of 



either sex. They maintain the principal 
place in the study of almost every elegant 
and high Divine. They stand in folios and 
other volumes, adorned with variety of pic- 
tiires, gildings, and other decorations, on 
the advanced shelves in glass cupboards of 
the lady's closets. They are in use at all 
seasons, and for all places ; as well for 
Church Service, as Closet Preparation ; and, 
in short, may vie with any devotional books 
in British Christendom." — Shaftesbury's 
Characteristics, vol. 3, p. 327. 

Flemish Merchants trading on borrowed 

" Ips^ soliE belli suspiciones inferiorem 
Germaniam evertunt, eo quod commercia 
impediant. Pulcherrimjc enim ilia urbes 
et populosissimjE constant ex mercatoribus 
et opificibus ; et plerique mercatores negoti- 
antur pecunia fcenori accepta, quod solet ibi 
esse gravissimum. Jam verb ciim ibi ces- 
sent commercia, et mercatores non utantiu" 
opera opificum, qui fere omnes in diem vi- 
vunt, miseri homines non habent unde se 
et suam familiam sustentent ; mercatores 
autem foenore exhauriuntur. Itaque infi- 
nita illorum hominum multitudo coacta 
egestate jam patriam relinquit,etfereplures 
quam Gallos hic^ per plateas discursantes 
videmus ; quamvis audiam adhuc plures 
conspici Roltomagi, et in reliquis urbibus 
maritimis ISTormannife, ac etiam Londini in 
Anglia. Quid autem fiat si ad arma de- 
veniatur, et Hispani pro arbitrio leges pra>- 
scribant? Ego doleo vicem illius cultissimaj 
gentis, et quse reliquas omnes notas indus- 
tria superare videtur." a.d. 1566. — Hu- 
bert Languet, Epistolce ad Cam.erarium, 
p. 59. 

Effects of Error. 

" A MISTAKE in fact, being no cause or 
sign of ill affection, can be no cause of vice. 
But a mistake of right, being the cause of 

' Lutetise. 

unequal affection, must of necessity be the 
cause of vicious action, in evei-y intelligent 
or rational being. 

" But as there are many occasions where 
the matter of right may, even to the most 
discerning part of mankind, appear difficult, 
and of doubtful decision, 'tis not a slight 
mistake of this kind which can destroy 
the character of a virtuous or tvorthy man. 
But when, either through superstition or 
ill custom, there come to be very gross mis- 
takes in the assignment or application of 
the affection ; when the mistakes are either 
in their nature so gross, or so complicated 
and frequent, that a creature cannot well 
live in a natural state, nor with due affec- 
tions, compatible with human society and 
civil life ; then is the character of virtue 
forfeited." — Shaftesbury's Characteris- 
tics, vol. 2, p. 34. 


" A Providence must be proved from 
what we see of Order in things present. We 
must contend for Order ; and in this part 
chiefly, where Virtue is concerned. All 
must not be referred to a Hereafter. For, a 
disordered state, in which all present care 
of things is given up. Vice uncontrouled, 
and Virtue neglected, represents a very 
CAaos, and reduces us to the beloved Atoms, 
Chance, and Confusion, of the Atheists. 

" What, therefore, can be worse done in 
the cause of a Deity, than to magnify dis- 
order, and exaggerate (as some zealous 
people do) the misfortunes of Virtue, so far 
as to render it an unhappy choice with re- 
spect to this world ? They err widely, who 
propose to turn men to the thoughts of a 
better world, by making 'em think so ill of 
this. For to declaim in this manner against 
Virtue to those of a looser faith, will make 
'em the less believe a Deity, but not the 
more a Future State. Nor can it be thought 
sincerely that any man, by having the most 
elevated opinion of Virtue, and of the hap- 
piness it creates, was ever the less inclined 
to the belief of a Future State. On the con- 



trary, it will ever be found, that as they who 
are favourers of Vice are always the least 
willing to hear of a future existence ; so 
they who are in love with Virtue, are the 
readiest to embrace that opinion which ren- 
ders it so illustrious, and makes its cause 
triumphant." — Shaftesbury's Character- 
istics^ vol. 2, p. 277. 

Argument of Theism from the illtistration 
of a Ship. 

" Imagine only some person entirely a 
stranger to navigation, and ignorant of the 
nature of the sea or waters ; how great his 
astonishment would be, when, finding him- 
self on board some vessel, anchoring at sea, 
remote from all land-prospect, whilst it was 
yet a calm, he viewed the ponderous ma- 
chine firm and motionless in the midst of 
the smooth ocean, and considered its found- 
ations beneath, together with its cordage, 
masts, and sails, above. How easily would 
he see the lohole one regular structure, all 
things depending on one another ; the uses 
of the rooms below, the lodgments and con- 
veniences of men and stores. But being ig- 
norant of the intent or design of all above, 
would he pronounce the masts and cordage 
to be useless and cumbersome, and for this 
reason condemn the frame, and despise the 
architect f O my friend ! let us not thus 
betray our ignorance ; but consider where 
we are, and in what a Universe. Think of 
the many parts of the vast machine in which 
we have so little insight, and of which it is 
impossible we should know the ends and 
uses ; when, instead of seeing to the high- 
est pendants, we see only some lower deck ; 
and are, in this dark case of flesh, confined 
even to the hold, and meanest station of 
the vessel." — Shaftesbuet's Characteris- 
tics, vol. 2, p. 289. 

Babbage on the Cost of things. 

" The cost of any article to the pur- 
chaser includes, besides supply and demand, 

another element, which, though often of 
little importance, is in many cases of great 
consequence. 2'he cost, to the purchaser, is 
the price he pays for any article, added to 
the cost of verifying the fact of its having 
that degree of goodness for which he con- 
tracts. In some cases the goodness of the 
article is evident on mere inspection : and 
in those cases there is not much difference 
of price at different shops. The goodness 
of loaf sugar, for instance, can be discerned 
almost at a glance ; and the consequence 
is, that the price of it is so uniform, and the 
profit upon it so small, that no grocer is at 
all anxious to sell it ; whilst on the other 
hand, tea, of which it is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to judge, and which can be adulterated 
by mixture so as to deceive the skill even 
of a practised eye, has a great variety of 
different prices, and is that article which 
every grocer is most anxious to sell to his 
customers. The difficulty and expense of 
verification are, in some instances, so con- 
siderable, as to justify the deviation from 
well established principles. Thus it has 
been found so difficult to detect the adul- 
teration of flour, and to measure its good 
qualities, that, contrary to the maxim that 
Government can generally purchase any ar- 
ticle at a cheaper rate than that at which they 
can manufacture it, it has been considered 
more economical to build extensive flour- 
mills (such as those at Deptford) and to 
grind their own corn, than to verify each 
sack pixrchased, and to employ persons in 
continually devising methods of detecting 
the new modes of adulteration which might 
be resorted to." — Babbage's Economy of 
Manufactures, p. 101. 

Frauds in Clover Seed. 

" Some years since, a mode of preparing 
old clover and trefoil seeds by a process 
called ' doctoring,' became so prevalent as 
to excite the attention of the House of 
Connnons. It appeared in evidence before 
a committee, that the old seed of the white 



clover was doctored by first wetting it 
slightly, and then drying it with the fumes 
of burning sulphur ; and that the red clover 
had its colour improved by shaking it in a 
sack with a small quantity of indigo ; but 
this being detected after a time, the doctors 
then used a preparation of log-wood, fined 
by a little copperas, and sometimes by ver- 
digris ; thus at once improving the appear- 
ance of the old seed, and diminishing, if 
not destroying, its vegetative power already 
enfeebled by age. Supposing no injury had 
resulted to good seed so prepared, it was 
proved that, from the improved appearance, 
its market price would be enhanced by this 
process from five to twenty-five shillings a 
hundred- weight. But the greatest evil 
arose from the circumstance of these pro- 
cesses rendering old and worthless seed in 
appearance ecjual to the best. One witness 
tried some doctored seed, and found that 
not above one grain in a hundred grew, and 
tliat those which did vegetate died away 
afterwards, whilst about eighty or ninety 
per cent, of good seed usually grows. The 
seed so treated was sold to retail dealers 
in the country, who of course endeavoured 
to purchase at the cheapest rate, and from 
them it got into the hands of the farmers ; 
neither of these classes being at all capable 
of distinguishing the fraudulent from the 
genuine seed. Many cultivators, in conse- 
quence, diminished their consumption of 
the article ; and others were obliged to pay 
a higher price to those who had skill to 
distinguish the mixed seed, and who had 
integrity and character to prevent them 
from dealing in it." — Babbage's Economy 
of Manufactures,^. 102. 


" Five-sixths of the London public is 
supplied by a class of middle-men who are 
called in the trade '■Brass-plate Coal-mer- 
cJinnts ;' these consist principally of mer- 
chants' clerks, gentlemen's servants, and 
others, who have no wharfs, but merely give 

their orders to some true coal-merchant, 
who sends in the coals from his wharf. The 
brass-plate coal-merchant, of course, re- 
ceives a commission for his agency, which is 
just so much loss to the consumer." — Bab- 
bage's Economy of Manufactures, p. 124. 

Mechanical Projectors — their Ignorance and 

" There is, perhaps, no trade or profes- 
sion existing, in which there is so much 
quackery, so much ignorance of the sci- 
entific principles, and of the history of their 
own art, with respect to its resources and 
extent, as is to be met with amongst me- 
chanical projectors. The self-constituted 
engineer, dazzled with the beauty of some 
perhaps really original contrivance, assumes 
his new profession with as little suspicion 
that previous instruction, that thought and 
painful labour, are necessary to its success- 
ful exercise, as does the statesman or the 
senator. Much of this false confidence 
arises from the improper estimate which is 
entertained of the difficulty of invention in 
mechanics ; and it is of great importance, to 
the individuals and to the families of those 
who are thus led away from more suitable 
pursuits, the dupes of their own ingenuity 
and of the popular voice, to convince both 
them and the public that the power of 
making new mechanical combinations is a 
possession common to a multitude of minds, 
and that it by no means requires talents of 
the highest order. It is still more important 
that they should be convinced that the 
great merit, and the great success, of those 
who have attained to eminence in such 
matters, was almost entirely due to the 
unremitted perseverance with which they 
concentrated upon the successful invention 
the skill and knowledge which years of study 
had matured." — Babbage's Economy of 
Manufactures, p. 212-13. 



Stea)}i Possibilities for Iceland from its Hot 

" The discovery of the expansive power 
of steam, its condensation, and the doctrine 
of latent heat, has already added to the 
population of this small island, millions of 
hands. But the source of this power is not 
without limits, and the coal-mines of the 
world may ultimately be exhausted. With- 
out adverting to the theory that new for- 
mations of that mineral are now depositing 
under the sea, at the estuaries of some of 
our larger rivers; without anticipating the 
application of other fluids requiring a less 
supply of caloric than water ; — we may re- 
mark that the sea itself offers a perennial 
source of power hitherto almost unapplied. 
The tides, twice in each day, raise a vast 
mass of water, which might be made avail- 
able for driving machinery. But supposing 
heat still to remain necessary when the 
exhausted state of our coal-fields renders it 
expensive, — long before that period arrives, 
other methods will probably have been in- 
vented for producing it. In some districts, 
there are springs of hot water, which have 
flowed for centuries unchanged in temper- 
ature. In many parts of the island of 
Ischia, by deepening the sources of the hot 
springs but a few feet, the water boils ; and 
there can be little doubt that, by boring a 
short distance, steam of high pressure would 
issue from the orifice. In Iceland, the 
sources of heat are still more plentiful ; and 
their proximity to large masses of ice, seems 
almost to point out the future destiny of 
that island. The ice of its glaciers may 
enable its inhabitants to liquefy the gases 
with the least expenditure of mechanical 
force ; and the heat of its volcanoes may 
supply the power necessary for their con- 
densation. Thus in a future age, power may 
become the staple commodity of the Ice- 
landers, and of the inhabitants of other 
volcanic districts ; and possibly the very 
process by which they will procure this 
article of exchange for the luxuries of hap- 
pier climates, may, in some measure, tame 

the tremendous element which occasionally 
devastates their provinces." — Babbage's 
Economy of Manufactures, p. 317. 

Religious Conclusions from Philosophy. 

" In whatever light we examine the tri- 
umphs and achievements of our species over 
the creation submitted to its power, we 
explore new sources of wonder. But if 
science has called into real existence the 
visions of the poet, — if the accumulating 
knowledge of ages has blunted the sharpest 
and distanced the loftiest of the shafts of 
the satirist, — the philosopher has conferred 
on the moralist an obligation of surpassing 
weight. In unveiling to him the living 
miracles which teem in rich exuberance 
around the minutest atom, as well as 
throughout the largest masses of ever-active 
matter, he has placed before him resistless 
evidence of immeasurable design. Sur- 
rounded by every form of animate and in- 
animate existence, the sun of science has 
yet penetrated but through the outer fold 
of Nature's majestic robe ; but if the phi- 
losopher were required to separate, from 
amongst those countless evidences of cre- 
ative power, one being, the masterpiece of 
its skill ; and from that being to select one 
gift, the choicest of all the attributes of 
life ; — turning within his own breast, and 
conscious of those powers which have sub- 
jugated to his race the external world, and 
of those higher powers by which he has 
subjugated to himself that creative faculty 
which aids his faltering conceptions of a 
deity, — the humble worshipper at the altar 
of truth would pronounce that being, — 
man ; that endowment, — human reason. 

" But however large the interval that 
separates the lowest from the highest of 
those sentient beings which inhabit our 
planet, all the results of observation, en- 
lightened by all the reasonings of the phi- 
losopher, combine to render it probable 
that, in the vast extent of creation, the 
proudest attribute of our race is but, per- 



chance, the lowest step in the gradation of 
intellectual existence. For since every por- 
tion of our own material globe, and every 
animated being it supports, afford, on more 
scrutinizing inquiry, more perfect evidence 
of design, it would indeed be most unphilo- 
sophical to believe that those sister spheres, 
glowing with light and heat radiant from 
the same central source, — and that the mem- 
bers of those kindi-ed systems almost lost 
in the remoteness of space, and perceptible 
only from the countless multitude of their 
congregated globes, — should each be no 
more than a floating chaos of unformed 
matter, — or, being all the work of the same 
Almighty Architect, that no living eye 
should be gladdened by their forms of 
beauty, that no intellectual being should 
expand its faculties in decyphering their 
laws." — Babbage's Economy of Manufac- 
tures, p. 319-20. 

Johnson's Opinion that the liage of Trade 
would destroy itself. 
" Depend upon it, said Dr. Johnson, 
this rage of trade will destroy itself. You 
and I shall not see it ; but the time will 
come when there will be an end of it. Trade 
is like gaming. If a whole company are 
gamesters, play must cease ; for there is 
nothing to be won. AVhen all nations are 
traders, there is nothing to be gained by 
trade ; and it will stop first where it is 
brought to the greatest perfection." — Cro- 
kers BoswELL, vol. 2, p. 456. 

Johnson, of the Growth of Falsehoods. 

" Nothing, says Dr. Johnson, but ex- 
perience, could evince the frequency of false 
information, or enable any man to conceive 
that so many groundless reports should be 
propagated as every man of eminence may 
hear of himself. Some men relate what 
they think, as what they know ; some men 
of confused memories and habitual inaccu- 
racy, ascribe to one man what belongs to 

another ; and some talk on without thought 
or care. A few men are sufficient to broach 
falsehoods, which are afterwards innocently 
diffused by successive relaters." — Crokers 
BoswELL, vol. 4, p. 84. 

Johnson upon Wages.^ 

" It is of no consequence, said Johnson, 
how high the wages of manufacturers are ; 
but it would be of very bad consequence 
to raise the wages of those who pro- 
cure the immediate necessaries of life, for 
that would raise the price of provisions. 
Here, then, is a problem for politicians. 
It is not reasonable that the most useful 
body of man should be the worst paid; yet 
it does not appear how it can be ordered 
otherwise. It were to be wished that a 
mode for its being otherwise were found 
out. In the mean time, it is better to give 
temporary assistance by charitable contri- 
butions to poor labourers, at times when 
provisions are high, than to raise their 
wages ; because if wages are once raised, 
they will never get down again." — Croker's 
BoswELL, vol. 2, p. 490. 

Johnson's Opinion why Infidelity was not 

" BoswELL. I asked if it was not strange 
that Government should permit so many 
infidel writings to pass without censure. — 
JoHASON. Sir, it is mighty foolish. It is 
for want of knowing their own power. The 
present family on the throne came to the 
croAvn against the will of nine-tenths of the 
people. Whether those nine-tenths were 
right or wrong, it is not our business now 
to enquire. But such being the situation 
of the royal family, they were glad to en- 
courage all who would be then* friends. 
Now you know every bad man is a whig ; 
every man who has loose notions. The 


is >%Tong. 


Church was all against this family. They 
were, as I say, glad to encourage any 
friends ; and therefore, since their acces- 
sion there is no instance of any man being 
kept back on account of his bad principles ; 
and hence this inundation of impiety." — 
Crokers Boswell, vol. 2, p. 497. 


A German in St. Evremond's comedy 
says, " C'est une coiitume generale en Al- 
lemagne que de voyager; nous voyageons 
de pere en fils, sans qu'aucune affixire nous 
en empeche jamais. Si-tot que nous avons 
appris la langue Latine, nous nous prepa- 
rons au voyage. La premiere chose dont 
on se fournit, c'est d'un Itineraire qui en- 
seigne les voyes ; la seconde, d'un petit 
livre qui apprend ce qu'il y a de curieux 
en chaque pays. Lors que nos voyageurs 
sont Gens de Lettres, ils se munissent en 
partant de chez eux, d'un livre blanc, bien 
relie, qu'on nomme Album Amicorum ; et 
ne manquent pas d'aller visiter leg Savans 
de tons les lieux oii ils passent, et de le leur 
presenter afin qu'ils y mettent leur nom ; 
ce qu'ils font ordinairement en y joignant 
quelques propos sententieux, et quelque 
temoignage de bienveillance, en toutes 
sortes de langues. II n'y a rien que nous 
ne fassions pour nous procurer cet honneur ; 
estimant que c'est une chose autant curi- 
euse qu'instructive, d' avoir connu de vue 
ces gens doctes qui font tant de bruit dans 
le monde, et d' avoir un specimen de leur 

" La Femme de Sir Politick. Est-ce 
la tout I'usage (j^ue vous faites de cet inge- 
nieux Livre ? 

" L'Allemand. n nous est aussi d'un 
tres-grand secours dans nos debauches : car 
lors que toutes les santes ordinaires ont ete 
biies, ou prend 1' Album Amicokum, et fai- 
sant la revue de ces grands hommes qui ont 
eu la bonte d'y mettre leurs noms, ou boit 
leur sante copieusement." — Sir Politick 
Would-be, — Oeuvres Mcslees de Saint-Ev- 
remond, torn. 2, p. 125. 

Deaths from Want in London. 

" Saunders Welch, the Justice, says 
Johnson, who was once high-constable of 
Holborn, and had the best opportunities of 
knowing the state of the poor, told me that 
I under-rated the number, when I computed 
that twenty a week, that is, above a thou- 
sand a year, died of hunger ; not absolutely 
of immediate hunger, but of the wasting and 
other diseases which are the consequences 
of hunger. This happens only in so large 
a place as London, where people are not 
known." — Crokers Boswell, vol. 4, p. 275. 

A Stylites in India. 
" I SAW in the city of Sanjarur," says Ibn 
Batuta, " one of the Moslems who had 
been taught by the Jogees, and who had set 
up for himself a lofty cell like an obelisk. 
Upon the top of this he stood for five-and- 
twenty days, during which time he neither 
ate nor drank. In this situation I left him, 
nor do I know how long he continued there 
after I had left the place. People say that 
they mLx certain seeds, one of which is 
destined for a certain number of days or 
months; and that they stand in need of no 
other support during all this time." — Tra- 
vels q/" Ibn Batuta, p. 160. 

Catiline'' s Radicalism. 

" — Now, the need inflames me, 
AVhen I forethink the hard conditions 
Our states must undergo, except in time 
We do redeem ourselves to liberty 
And break the ii"on yoke forged for our 

necks : 
For what less can we call it when we see 
The commonwealth engross'd so by a few. 
The giants of the state, that do by turns 
Enjoy her, and defile her ! — While the rest. 
However great we are, honest and valiant, 
Are herded with the vulgar, and so kept 
As we were only bred to consume corn 
Or wear out wool, to drink the city's water. 



Ungraced, without authority or mark. — 
All places, honours, offices, are theirs ; — 
Which how long will you bear, most valiant 

spirits ? — 
I call the faith of Gods and Men to question. 
The power is in our hands, our bodies able, 
Our minds as strong ; o' the contrary, in 

All things grown aged with their wealth and 

There wants but only to begin the business, 
The issue is certain." 

Ben Jonson, vol. 4, p. 215. 

Catiline s Motives. 

" For our reward then: 

First, all our debts are paid; dangers of law. 

Actions, deci'ees, judgements against us, 
quitted : 

The rich men, as in Sylla's times, pro- 

And publication made of all their goods ; 

That house is yours ; that land is his ; those 

Orchards and walks, a third's ; he has that 

And he that office ; 

You share .... magistracies, priest- 

Wealth and felicity, amongst you, friends. — 

Is there a beauty here in Rome you love? 

An enemy you would kill ? What head's 
not yours ? 

Whose wife — whose daughter?" 

Ben Jonson, Catiline,\ol. 4, p. 219. 

Capital — a Tecu-niary Word. 

" Flocks and herds constituted the chief 
wealth of ancient nations : the common 
speech of the Roman, the Norman, and the 
Anglo-Saxon, discloses the c^ass and charac- 
ter of the objects which were first considered 
as chattels, ov pecuniary propertj ; and whilst 
the political economist vainly labours to 
define his abstract capital, the term, in its 
original signification, merely results *from 
the rude enumeration of the stock by the 

heads of the animals of which it was com- 
posed." — Palgrave's liise and Progress of 
the English Commonivealth, p. 186. 

Belief rejected with as little Reason as it is 
" CoMME nous ne recevons jioint notre 
crcance par la ralson, aussi la raison ne 
nous en fait-elle pas changer. Un degout 
secret des vieux sentimens nous fait sortir 
de la religion dans laquelle nous avons 
vecu; Tagi-ement que trouve I'esprit en de 
nouvelles pensees, nous fait entrer dans une 
autre ; et lors qu'on a change de religion, 
si on est fort a parler des erreurs qu'on a 
quittees, on est assez foible a etablir la ve- 
rite de celle qu'on a prise." — Saint-Evre- 
MOND, tom. 4, p. 98. 

New-Zealander's Account of the Man in the 
Professor Lee, in a note to his trans- 
lation of the Travels of Ibn Batuta, says, 
" The following accoiint of the Man in the 
Moon, I had from the mouth of a New 
Zealander : A man named Celano once hap- 
pened to be thirsty ; and coming near a well 
by moonlight, he intended to drink ; but a 
cloud coming over the JVIoon 2>revented him. 
He then curst the IMoon because it refused 
to give him its light ; but upon this the 
Moon came down and took him up forcibly, 
together with a tree on which he had laid 
hold ; and there he is now seen, continued 
the Zealander, with the tree, just as he was 
taken up. I would merely remark, that it 
is by no means surprizing that vulgar cre- 
dulity should be much the same all the world 
over : but that it should arrive at almost pre- 
cisely the same results, is curious enough." 
—P. 161. 

When Seamanship is vanted. 
" Each petty hand 
Can steer a ship becalm'd; but he that will 
Govern and carry her to her ends, must know 



His tides, his currents ; how to shift his sails ; 

"What she wiU bear in foul, what in fair wea- 
thers ; 

Where her springs are, her leaks, and how 
to stop 'em ; 

What sands, what shelves, what rocks do 
threaten her; 

The forces and the natures of all winds, 

Gusts, storms, and tempests : when her keel 
ploughs hell. 

And deck knocks heaven ; then to manage 

Becomes the name and office of a pilot." 

Ben Jonson, Catiline, vol. 4, p. 249. 

Effect of Anarchy upon Religion. 
" When all order, discipline, and Church 
government," says Sir Walter Raleigh, 
" shall be left to newness of opinion and 
men's fancies ; soon after, as many kinds of 
religion will spring up as there are parish 
churches within England ; every conten- 
tious and ignorant person, clothing his fancy 
with the spirit of God, and his imagination 
with the gift of Revelation ; insomuch that 
when the Truth, which is but o)ie, shall 
appear to the simple multitude no less vari- 
able than contrai-y to itself, the faith of men 
will, soon after, die away by degrees, and 
all religion be held in scorn and contempt." 
— Histoi-y of the Woi'ld, book 2, chap. 5, 

Paganism probable, in Hume's opinion. 

" For if we examine without prejudice 
the ancient heathen mythology as contained 
in the poets, we shall not discover In it any 
such monstrous absurdity as we may at first 
be apt to apprehend. Whei'e is the difficulty 
in conceiving that the same powers, or prin- 
ciples, whatever they were, which formed 
this visible world, men, and animals, pro- 
duced also a species of intelligent creatures 
of more refined substance, and greater 
authority, than the rest? That these crea- 
tures may be capricious, revengeful, pas- 

sionate, voluptuous, is easily conceived ; nor 
is any circumstance more apt among our- 
selves to engender such vices, than the li- 
cense of absolute authority. And in short, 
the whole mythological system is so natural, 
that in the variety of planets and worlds 
contained in this universe, it seems more 
than probable that somewhere or other It 
Is really carried into execution." — Hume's 
Essays, vol. 2, p. 242. 

Hume on Chastity! 

" It is needless," says Hume, " to dis- 
semble. The consequence of a very free 
commerce between the sexes, and of their 
living much together, will often terminate 
in intrigues and gallantry. We must sacri- 
fice somewhat of the useful, if we be very 
anxious to obtain all the agreeable quali- 
ties ; and cannot pretend to reap alike 
every advantage. Instances of license daily 
multiplying will weaken the scandal with 
the one sex, and teach the other by degrees 
to adopt the famous maxim of La Fontaine 
with regard to female infidelity ; that If one 
knows it, it is but a small matter ; if one 
knows It not, it is nothing." {Essays, vol. 
2, p. 394.) 

Again (p. 255), he contends that the 
necessary " combination of the parents for 
the subsistence of their young, is that alone 
which requires the virtue of chastity, or 
fidelity to the mai'ried bed. AVithout such 
a utility, it will readily be owned," he asserts, 
" that such a virtue would never be thought 
of." And this being a fixvourlte subject 
with this writer, whose Inquiry concerning 
the Principles of Morals is boasted of by 
himself as his best work, he proceeds to en- 
large upon it in an additional note (p. 490), 
In which he calls In the aid of Greek to 
sustain him in his philosophic profligacy; 
and referring all notions of virtue and vice 
to public utility, asks with an air of final 
triumph, " And indeed, to what other pur- 
pose than that of utility do all the ideas of 
chastity and modesty serve ? — This, says 


Archbishop Magee, is the Perfectly Wise 
AND Virtuous ]\Ian of Adam Smith. 

Jf a Ham has a hiack Tongue, his Lamhs 
xvill he Black. 

" Chi tien cara la lana, le sue gregge 

Meni lontan da gli spinosi dumi, 

E da lappole e roghi, e da le valli 

Che troppo liete sian ; le madri elegga 

Di delicato vel candide e moUi ; 

E ben guardi al montou ; che, benche ei 

Tutto nevoso fuor, se 1' aspi-a lingua 
Sia di fosco color, di negro manto, 
O di macchiato pel, produce i figli." 

Alamanni, Coltivazione, torn. 1, p. 33. 

I remember, -when keeping silkworms in 
my boyhood, to have heard and observed, 
that the colour of the silk was indicated by 
that of the grub's legs before it began to 
spin : — as they were a pale straw-colour or 
a bright yellow, so the silk uniformly proved. 

The Turkey a neic bird in Tansilld's time. 

After describing the peacock, Tansillo 

" E '1 pavon d' India, peregrin novello. 
Angel, sebben non ha si nobil coda, 
Non men buon morto, che quel vivo, bello." 
II Podere, cap. 3. 

The English reproached for despising 
their oivn Speech. 

" — The Xormans ne couthe speke the bote 

her owe speche, 
And speke French as dude atom, and here 

chyldren dude al so teche ; 
So that heymen of thys lond, that of her 

blod come, 
Holdeth alle thulke speche that hii of hem 

nome : 
Vor bote a man couthe French me[n ?] tolth 

of hyra wel lute, 

Ac lowe men holdeth to Englyss, and to her 

kunde speche gute. 
Ich wene ther ne be man in world contreyes 

That ne holdeth to her kunde speche, bote 

Engelond one. 
Ac wel me wot vor to conne bothe wel yt ys, 
Vor the more that a man con, the more 

worth he ys." 
Robert of Gloucester, vol. 1, p. 364. 

Orlando reconciling Morgante to the Dam- 
nation of his Brothers. 

Orlando reconciles Morgante to the 
death of his Pagan brothers, and the conse- 
quences of their dying unbaptized, by this 
reasoning : 

" — Sonsi i nostri dottori accordati, 
Pigliando tutti una conclnsione, 

Che que' che son nel ciel glorificati, 
S' avessin nel pensier compassione 

De' miseri parenti che dannati 

Son ne lo inferno in gran confusione, 

La lor felicita nulla sarebbe ; 

E vedi che qui ingiusto Iddio parrebbe. 

" Ma egli hanno posto in Gesu ferma spene ; 

E tanto pare a lor, quanto a lui pare ; 
Afferman cio ch' e' fa, che facci bene, 

E che non possi in nessun modo errare : 
Se padre o madre e ne 1' eterne pene, 

Di questo non si posson conturbare : 
Che quel che place a Dio, sol place a loro, 
Questo s' osserva ne 1' eterno coro." 

PuLCi, Morgante Maggiore, torn. 1, p. 16. 

liinaldo^s Revenge upon the Country, in a 
true Feudal Spirit. 

The spirit in which a feudal Baron 
avenged himself upon the country when he 
was offended with his sovereign, is charac- 
teristically described by Pulci. 
" Rinaldo mille volte giurb a Dio, 

Che ne fara vendetta qualche volta 
Di questo fraudolente iniquo e rio, 

Se prima non gli fia la vita tolta. 



E poi diceva, ' Caro cugin mio, 

So che tu m' ami ; e pertanto m' ascolta : 
lo vo' clie tutto il paese rubiamo, 
F, che di mascalzon vita tegnamo. 

" ' E se San Pier trovassimo a camTiiino, 
Che sia spogliato e messo al fil di spada : 

E Ricciardetto aiicor sia malandrino.' 
Rispose Astolfb, ' Perche stiamo a bada ? 

10 spogliero Ottou' per un qiiattrino : 
Doman si vuol che s' assaiti la strada : 

Non si risparmi parente o compagno ; 
E poi si porta il bottino e '1 guadagno. 

" ' Se vi passasse con sua compagnia 
Sant' Orsola con Y agnol Gabriello 

Ch' annuuzio la vergine Maria, 

Che sia spogliato e toltogli il mantello.' 

Dicea Rinaldo, ' Per la fede mia, 

Che Dio ti ci ha mandate, car fratello : 

Troppo mi place, e savio or ti conosco ; 

Parmi mill' anni che noi siam nel bosco.' 

" Quivi era Malagigi, e confermava 
Che si dovesse far com' egli, ha detto. 

Rinaldo gente strana ragunava ; 

Se sa sbandito ignun, gli da ricetto. 

Gente che ognun le forche meritava, 
A Montalban rimetteva in assetto. 

Donava panni, e facea buone spese ; 

Tanto ch' assai ne raguno in un mese. 

" Tutto il paese teneva in paura ; 
Ogni di si sentia qualche spavento : 

11 tal fu morto in una selva scura, 

E tolto venti bisanti ; e al tal cento." 
Morgante Maggiore, torn. 1, p. 280. 


" To honour marriage more yet, or rather 
to teach the married how to honour one 
another, it is said that the wife was made of 
the husband's rib ; not of his head, for Paul 
calleth the husband the wife's head ; not of 
his foot, for he must not set her at his ff)Ot ; 
the servant is appointed to serve, and his 
wife to help. If she must not match with 
the head, nor stoop at the foot, where shall 

' His own father. 

he set her then ? He must set her at his 
heart ; and therefore she which should lie 
in his bosom, was made in his bosom, and 
should be as close to him as his rib, of which 
she was fashioned." — IIenky Smith's Ser- 
mons, p. 12. 

" We see many times even the godly 
couples to jar when they are married, be- 
cause there is some unfitness between them, 
which makes odds. What is odds, but the 
contrary to even ? Therefore make them 
even, saith one, and there will be no odds. 
From hence came the first use of the Ring 
in weddings, to represent this evenness : 
for if it be straiter than the finger, it will 
pinch ; and if it be wider than the finger, it 
will fall off; but if it be fit, it neither 
pincheth nor slippeth." — Henry Smith's 
Sermons, p 19. 

A marginal note says, " The ceremony is 
not approved, but the invention declared." 

Loudon^ s Scheme for covering our Moun- 
tains with Manufactories. 

" Were it found necessary to resort to 
water as a primary power instead of steam, 
the hills and mountains of Cumberland and 
Westmoreland would be found of immense 
value ; and the water which might be col- 
lected on them in zones, as hereafter de- 
scribed, would probably be more than suffi- 
cient to move all the machinery now in use 
on the island. To produce a maximum of 
effect by the water which fulls on any hill, 
it ought to be collected in zones, the upper 
zone being formed fifty or an hundred feet 
lower than the summit of the hill or moun- 
tain, and each succeeding zone being made 
at a distance below the other, of a foot or 
two more than the diameter of the water- 
wheel to be driven by it. The number of 
wheels of fifty foot diameter which might 
thus be di-iven between the foot and the 
summit of a conical mountain fifteen hun- 
dred feet high, and whose base covered an 
area of two thousand acre*?, might easily be 


calculated ; and the calculation would fur- 
nish data for estimating the power of any 
number of irregular mountains. It may 
possibly happen that in some future age 
when the coal mines are exhausted, the 
manufactures of Great Britain will be trans- 
ferred from the plains of Lancashire, War- 
wickshire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire, 
and other counties, to the highlands of 
Scotland, to North Wales, and to the lake 
scenery of Cumberland and Westmoreland. 
To those whose patriotism can embrace a 
period of a thousand years, this view of 
British manufactures may be consolatory." 
— Loudon's Gardener s Magazine, no. 34, 
p. 516. 

Jeffrey Hudson begem to grow again after 

" That which in my opinion seems the 
most observable, is what I have heard him 
several times affirm, that between the se- 
venth year of his age and the thirtieth, he 
never grew anything considerable; but after 
thirty he shot up in a little time to that 
heighth of stature which he remained at in 
his old age, viz. about three foot and nine 
inches. The cause of this he ascribed (how 
truly I know not) to the hardship, much 
labour and beating, which he endured when 
a slave to the Turks. This seems a para- 
dox, how that which hath been observed to 
stop the gi'owth of other persons should be 
the cause of his. But let the Naturalists 
reconcile it." — Weight's History of Rut- 
landshire, p. 105. 

1569. — Our Ciniisers almost cut off the Trade 
between the Low Countries and Spain. 

" Akgli etiam facessunt multum negotii 
Albano suis incursionibus maritimis, quibus 
illud mare occidentale ita infestum reddi- 
derunt, ut plane cessent commercia inter 
Belgas et Hispanos." a.d. 1659. — Hubert 
Languet, Epistolce ad Camerarium, p. 112. 

Punishment sure though slow, 

" Whilst the thief stealeth, the hemp 
groweth ; and the hook is covered within 
the bait. W^e sit down to eat, and rise up 
to play, and from play to sleep, and an 
hundred years is counted little enough to 
sin in : but how many sins thou hast set on 
the score, so many kinds of punishment 
shall be provided for thee. How many year;^ 
of pleasure thou hast taken, so many years 
of pain ; how many drams of delight, so 
many pounds of dolour ; when Iniquity hatli 
played her part. Vengeance leaps upon the 
stage; the Comedy is short, but the Tragedy 
is longer ; the Bl.ack Guard shall attend 
vipon you, you shall eat at the table of 
Sorrow, and the crown of Death shall be 
upon your heads, many glistering faces look- 
ing on you : and this is the fear of sinners." 
— Henry Smith's Sermons, p. 783. 

Languefs Hope that Belgium and Maritime 
Adventure will rid France of its Robbers. 

" In hac parte GallijE sunt jam admodum 
crebra latrocinia, quamvis diligenter In la- 
trones inqulratur, et multi C][uotidie crude- 
libus suppliciis afficiantur. Horum ple- 
rique sunt milites qui, absumptis iis quas in 
proximis bellis rapuerant, nullam aliam 
rationem sibi victum quajrendi norunt. Sed 
spero quod plerosque istorum absument 
Belgici tumultus, et longinquffi navigationes 
quse jam frequenter instituuntur." — Hu- 
bert Languet, Epistolce ad Camerarium, 
p. 61. 

English Trade removed from Antwe7p to 
Hamburgh — 1567. 
" Belgium esse plane eversum Procerum 
stultitia et ignavia non ignoras. Negotia- 
tiones Anglica; quas fuerunt Antverpia?, 
transferuntur Hamburgum ; et jam de con- 
ditionbus quibus id fiat, convenit inter 
Ano-los et Hamburgenses. Vereor ne ea 
res faciat mutationem in aliquibus Ger- 



manije emporiis, et priPsertim in vestro Lip- 
sensi et in Francofurtensi ; nam cum An- 
glorum merces sint pretiosissimas et maxime 
necessarite, quocunque se conferunt, solent 
pleninque sequi alii raercatores. Constat 
eos iustituisse Brugense emporium, et pos- 
tea Antverpiense." a. d. 1567. — Hubert 
Languet, Epistolce ad Camerarium, p. 68. 

LangucVs Fear for Belgium — 1578. 

" Jam imminent Belgis, si non exitium, 
saltern summre calamitates ; qute enim liac- 
tenus perpessi sunt, quamvis fuerint gravis- 
siraa, judicabunt fuisse ludum pras iis qute 
necesse est ut postea patiantur. Conscri- 
buntur ipsis ad duodecim millia equitum in 
Germanic, quibus adjungetur peditatus 
Helveticus, ac etiam Gallicus. Joannes 
Austriacus dicitur conscribere non multo 
pauciores equites. Quid fiet ubi tantus 
numerus hominum raptu viventium venerit 
in eas regiones quas sunt angustse, magna 
ex parte jam devastatse, et pecunia plane 
exhaustse ? Et cimi liabeant iuimicos po- 
tentissimos Prineipes orbis Christiani, nemo 
est a quo quicquam auxilii sperare possint, 
prsterquam ab Anglis ; nee tamen inde 
speranda sunt magna auxilia, ob imperium 
illorum qui omnia timide et frigide agunt. 
Ego oro Deum Omnipotentem,ut ipsis adsit, 
et calamitates quse imminere videntur, aver- 
tat ab ipsis." a. d. 1578. — Hubert Lan- 
GUET, Epistolce ad Camerariu7n, p. 255. 


John Rous " representeth the famous 
Arthgal to be one of the Knights of King 
Arthur's Round Table, and the first Earl of 
Warwick ; but he saith that the Britons 
did not pronounce the g in that name ; and 
that Arth, or Narth, signifieth the same in 
that language as Ursus doth in Latin ; from 
whence he conjectureth that the same Arthal 
took the Bear for his ensign, which so long 
continued a badge to the succeeding Earls." 
— Dugdale's Waricickshire, p. 260. 


" O MIGHTY Prayer, that can such wonders 

To force both Heaven and the Almighty too ! 

Fools were those Giants, then ; since if, in- 

Of heaping hills on hills, as once they did, 

They had but heapt up prayers on prayers 
as fast. 

They might have easily conquered Heaven 
at last." 

FiECKNOE, Farrago, p. 2. 


" So full, so high, so great a happiness. 
As nothing can be more that is not less ; 
Nothing beyond, but down the hill again ; 
And all addition rather loss than gain." 

Flecknoe, Farrago, p. 20. 

Dulie of Newcastle. 

How great he was, would require a 
Chronicle to tell ; as how he surpassed 
LucuUus' rate in peace, who held that 
none who could not spend a private 
patrimony at an entertainment should 
be accounted splendid and magn ificent ; 
or Crassus' rate in war,' that none 
should be counted rich that could not 
maintain an army at their own proper 
cost. To tell his name only, is Chro- 
nicle enough : 'tis William Duke of 
Newcastle ; who, as if his fate and the 
Crown's were inseparably conjoined, 
supported the Crown whilst he stood ; 
and when by the iniquity of the times 
he fell, the Crown fell too : till they 
were both at last restored again, and 
raised to greater height than ever they 
were before ; the Crown by Heaven's 
favour, and he by favour of the Crown." 

Flecknoe's Farrago., p. 27. 



Moral Censorship. 

"A Censor," says Gibbon (vol.1, p. 403), 
" may maintain, lie can never restore, the 
morals of a state. It is impossible for such 
a magistrate to exert his authority with be- 
nefit, or even with effect, unless he is sup- 
ported by a quick sense of honour and virtue 
in the minds of the people, by a decent re- 
verence for the public opinion, and by a 
train of useful prejudices combating on the 
side of national manners. In a j^eriod when 
these principles are annihilated, the cen- 
sorial jurisdiction must either sink into 
empty pageantry, or be converted into a 
partial instrument of vexatious oppression." 

Use of Luxury. 

" In the present imperfect condition of 
society, luxury, though it may proceed from 
vice or folly, seems to be the only means 
that can correct the unequal distribution of 
property. The diligent mechanic and the 
skilful artist who have obtained no share in 
the division of the earth, receive a voluntary 
tax from the possessors of land ; and the 
latter are prompted by a sense of interest 
to improve those estates with whose pro- 
duce they may purchase additional plea- 
sures." — Gibbon, vol. 1, ]}. 87. 

" — In a civilized state, every faculty of 
man is expanded and exercised ; and the 
great chain of mutual dependence connects 
and embraces the several members of so- 
ciety. The most numerous portion of it is 
employed in constant and useful labours. 
The select few, placed by fortune above that 
necessity, can however fill up their time by 
the pursuits of interest or glory, by the im- 
provement of then" estate or of their under- 
standing, by the duties, the pleasures, and 
even the follies, of social life." — Gibbon, 
vol. 1, p. 357. , 

This he contrasts with the life of the 

Baptism refused to Marsilio at his 

Marsii-io at his execution. — 

" E poi pregb, come malvagio e rio, 
Che voleva una grazia chieder sola, 

Cloe di battezzarsi al vero Dio. 

Disse Turpin, ' Tu menti per la gola, 

Ribaldo ; appunto qui t' aspettavo io.' 
Rinaldo gli rispose, ' Ora mai cola ; 

Non vo' che tanta allegrezza tu abbi, 

Che in vita e in morte il nostro Dio tu gabbi. 

" ' Sai che si dice cinque acque perdute : 
Con che si lava a V asino la testa ; 

L' altra una cosa che in fine pur pute ; 
La terza equellache in mar piove e resta; 

E dove genti Tedesche son sute 

A mensa, sempre anche perduta e questa; 

La quinta e quella ch' io mi perderei 

A battezzare o Marrani o Giudei. 

" ' Io non credo che 1' acqua di Giordano, 

Dove fu battezzato Gesu nostro, 
Ti potesse lavar come Cristiano.'" 

PuLci, Morgante Maggiore, torn. 3, 
p. 290. 

Stones useful in Fields. 

" Some of the arable land along the shore 
on the south-east coast of Sutherland, is 
almost covered with shore-stones, from the 
size of a turkey's egg to eight pounds weight. 
Several experiments have been made to col- 
lect these off the land, expecting a better 
crop ; but in every case the land proved less 
productive by removing them ; and on some 
small spots of land it was found so evident, 
that they were spread on the land again, to 
ensure their usual crop of bear, oats, or 
pease." — Henderson's View of the Agricul- 
ture of Sutherland., p. QQ. 

Wolves and Foxes tormented in Italy. 

"Wolves and foxes are tormented in Ita- 
ly, as sailors torment sharks. 
" Chi ha visto mai per ville e per castella 

Portare i lupi presi a la tagliuola ; 


O pur la volpe cosi trista e fella, 

Che ognun lor dice qualclie aspra parola ; 

Xc si trova pastore o villanella, 

La qual cou tutta la sua famigliuola 

Non gli strappi del pelo, e non 1' angarj 

Quanto die puote cou strapazzi varj." 
FoRTiGUERKA, Ricciardetto, torn. 1, p. 171. 

Sir Francis Drake. 

" YiR fuit Arctoo uatus sub sidere, et UrsEe 
Lactatus mammis, gelidisque in fluctibus 

altus ; 
Idcirco toto ferltatem pectore primis 
Hauserat ex annis, fibrisque immiserat altis, 
Barbariemque ipso referebat nomine ; dictus 
Xam Draco Iljqjei'boreis est gentibus ; al- 
ter et illo 
Haud gelido vixit sub cwlo imnianior un- 

NicoLAi Parthenii Giannettasu 
Naumachica, p. 14. 

Edward the Third's Pun npon the Gabelle, 
introduced by his rival Philip. 

It was Philip who " settled a Gabelle 
upon salt, for which Edward called him the 
Author of the Salique law. This impost," 
says Joshua Barnes, " which makes the 
sun and water to be sold, was the invention 
of the Jews (mortal enemies of the Chris- 
tian name), as the word Gabelle denotes, 
which comes from the Hebrew." — History 
of Edward the Third, p. 300. 

Cruelty to the Clergy in the Parliaments 

" If any of the Clergy, worn out with old 
age and former calamities, made use of a 
staff to support his aged weak limbs, as 
he walked along the streets, he was pointed 
at as one that through drunkenness was not 
able to govern his steps. If he looked earn- 
estly round about him with his dim eyes, 
to find out any place he was to go to in the 

City, some insolent scoffer would thus reflect 
upon him, ' That parson has devoured five 
fat livings, and see with what prying eyes 
he is seeking after a sixth.' Indeed I knew 
this severe reflection cast upon one who had 
not only refused a benefice deservedly of- 
fered him, but had voluntarily resigned 
those he had accepted, because he thought 
his ill health rendered him uncapableto take 
due care of them. From these reproaches 
of ill men, the best of the clergy could not 
be safe ; neither Mi'. Oley, nor Mr. Thorn - 
dike, nor JNIr. Thirscross, nor any of those 
great men who with incomparable sanctity 
of life have adorned this worst age, alto- 
gether worthy of a better." — Life of Dr. 
Barwick, p. 338. 

Puritans'' Inhumanity to Barwick in his 

Dr. Barwick, Dean of St. Paul's, went 
out in his last illness to see his old friend 
Dr. Busby, "who was then retired to Chis- 
wick for some refreshment in his toilsome 
employment. In the midst of the way he 
was on a sudden seized with an immoderate 
efflux of blood. Now it happened at that 
time, that some travellers passed by, of that 
sort, it seems, who bear a great hatred to 
the Clergy Avithout any ground ; for, as if 
they had been delighted with this sight. 
Behold, say they, one of Baal's priests, drunk 
with red wine and discharging his over- 
loaded stomach. There was certainly no 
man living against whom they could with 
more injustice have thrown this cursed dart 
of a poisoned tongue. For it was about 
fifteen years since he had tasted the least 
drop of wine, except at the holy sacrament ; 
continually tempering and diluting the heat 
of his blood with cold sj^ring water only. 
As soon as the good Dean was able to take 
breath after this fit of vomiting blood, little 
moved with so unworthy a reproach, and 
wishing his revilers a better mind. These 
calumnies, said he, ought to be refuted only 
by our good deeds." — Life of Dr. Barwick, 
p. 337. 


The Heart. 

" — Set the heart a-going, and it is like 
the poize of a clock, which turns all the 
wheels one way ; such an oil is upon the 
heart, which makes all nimble and current 
about it : therefore it is almost as easy to 
speiik well and do well, as to think well. 
If the heart indite a good matter, no marvel 
though the tongue be the pen of a ready 
writer ; but if the heart be dull, all is like 
a left-hand, so unapt, and untoward, that it 
cannot turn itself to any good." — Henry 
Smith's Strmons, p. 123. 

Not to provoke a Disputant. 

" My care usually was," says Thomas 
Story the Quaker, " not to provoke my 
opponent ; for by keeping him calm, I had 
his own understanding, and the measure of 
grace in him, for truth and my point, against 
the eri'or he contended for ; and my chief 
aim generally has been, to gain upon peo- 
ple's understandings for their own good. 
But when a man is put into a jiassion, he 
may be confounded, but not convinced : for 
passion is as a scorching fire without light, 
it suspends the understanding, and obstructs 
the way to it, so that it cannot be gained 
upon, or informed, which ought to be the 
true aim in all conferences and reasoning 
in matters of religion ; else all will end in 
vain and unprofitable jangling, contrary to 
the nature of the thing they reason about, 
and displease the Holy One, and end in 
trouble." — Life, o/ Thomas Story, p. 46. 

Princes cannot ennoble what is mean. 

" For princes never more make known their 

Than when they cherish goodness where they 

find it : 
They being but men, and not gods, Cou- 

They can give wealth and titles, but no 

virtues ; 

That is without theu* power. When they 

Not out of judgement, but deceiving fancy. 
An undeserving man, however set off 
With all the trim of greatness, state, and 

And of a creatui'e even grown terrible 
To him from whom he took his giant form. 
The tiling is still a comet, no true star ; 
And when the bounties feeding his false fire 
Begin to fail, will of itself go out. 
And what was dreadful proves ridiculous." 
Massinger, Great Duke of Flo- 
rence, p. 434. 

Saxon Kings. 
" All his reign of three-and-twenty 
years," says Damel, " Edward the Elder 
was in continual action, and ever before- 
hand with fortune. And surely his father, 
he, and many that succeeded during this 
Danic war, though they lost their ease, won 
much glory and renown. For this affliction 
held them so in, as having little outlets or 
leisure for ease and luxury, that they were 
made the more pious, just, and careful in 
their government ; otherwise it had been 
impossible to have held out against the 
Danes as they did, being a people of that 
power and undauntable stomach as no for- 
tune could deter, or make to give over their 


Sweyke. — 

" AVrong had made him a right, who had 
none before." — Daniel, p. 17. 


Canvte. — 

" — With the people he is said to have 
so well cleared himself (howsoever he did 
with God) that he became King of their 
affections, as well as of their country." — 
Danlel, p. 20. 



Canute. — 

" As likely was he to have been the root 
of a succession spreading into many de- 
scents, as was afterwards the Norman ; hav- 
ing as plentiful an issue masculine as he ; 
besides he reigned near as long, far better 
beloved, of disposition more bountiful, and 
of power larger to do good : But it was not 
in his fate ; his children miscarried in the 
succession, and all this great work fell, in a 
manner, with himself." — Daniel, p. 21, 

Edward the Third, 

Edward III. — 

Hardyng thought his claim the better 
for being through the female line, and pro- 
duces a curious argument in support of that 
opinion : This king, he says, 

" — was the fii-st of English nacion 

That ever had right unto the crown of 
By succession of blood and generacion 
Of his mothei", withouten variaunce ; 
The which methynk should be of more 
substaunce ; 
For Christ was king by his mother of Judee, 
Which sykerer side is ay, as thynketh me." 

P. 335, 

Henry the Fifth. — His vigorous Government 
at home the Boot of his Power. 

At the end of Henry the Fifth's reign, 
the "ornate" Chronicler John Habdyng 
has the following Chapter, shewing 

" How through the law and peace con- 
served was the encrease of his conquest, and 
else had he been of no power to have con- 
quered in out-lands. 

" When he in Fraunce was daily conver- 

His shadow so obumbred all England, 
That peace and law were kept continuant, 

In his absence, throughout in all the land; 

And else, as I conceive and understand, 

His power had been littell to conquer 

Ne other realms that well were less per- 


" The peace at home, and law so well con- 
Were crop and root of all his high con- 
cjuest ; 
Through which the love of God he well de- 
And of his people, by North, South, East 

and West. 
Who might have slain that prince, or down 
him kest. 
That stode so sure in rightful governaunce 
For commonweal, to God his high plea- 
saunce?" P. 389. 

What Lords had been, and ought to he. 

" Happy those times 
When lords were styled fathers of families, 
And not imperious masters ! when they 

Their servants almost equal with their sons, 
Or one degree beneath them ! when their 

Were cherished and rewarded, and a period 
Set to their suflferings ; when they did not 

Their duties or their wills beyond the power 
And strength of their performance ! all 

things order'd 
With such decorum, as wise law-makers 
From each well-governed private house de- 
The perfect model of a commonwealth. 
Humanity then lodged in the hearts of men. 
And thankful masters carefully jarovided 
For creatures wanting reason. The noble 

That in his fiery youth, from his wide nostrils 
Neigh'd courage to his rider, bearing his lord 
Safe to triumphant victory ; old, or wounded, 
Was set at liberty and freed from service. 
The Athenian mules that from the quarry 

Marble hew'd for the temples- of the Gods, 



The great work ended, were dismissed, and 

At the public cost ; nay, faithful dogs have 

Their sepulchres ; but man, to man more 

Appoints no end to the sufferings of his 

Since pride stept in, and riot, and o'erturn'd 

This goodly frame of concord, teaching mas- 

To glory in the abuse of such as are 

Brought under thcu' command, who grown 

Are less esteera'd than boasts." 

]\LvssiNGER, Bondman, p. 78. 

If toe could live over our Lives again. 

" Se si potesser far due volte almeno 
Le cose che una volta sol di fanno, 

Averemmo del mal tanto di meno, 

Che sto per dir, sai-emmo senza affanno ; 

E il viver nostro di pianto ora pieno 
E di miserie e di continue danno, 

sarebbe felice, o il lagrimare 
Si conterebbe tra le cose rare. 

" AUor sarebber santi tutti i frati, 
E sarieno le monache contente, 

Ed avrebbero pace i maritati : 

Che lasoeriano il chiostro prontamente 

1 monachi, le monache, e gli abati ; 

E lascerian le mogli parimente 
Quclli che r hanno, e frati si farebbero ; 
E gli sfratati allor s' ammoglierebbero. 

" E avendo a mente gl' impcti e le furie 

Del guardiano indiscreto ed incivile, 
Non sentirien de le mogli 1' ingiurie : 

E il marito fra tanto avrebbe a vile 
I cilizj, le lane e le penurie 

Che porta seco quella vita umile ; 
Pensando molto peggio aver patito, 
Quando faceva il miser da marito."^ 

FoRTiGUERRA, Ricciardctto, tom. 3, p. 67. 

Hardijng to Edward the Fourth, on the Ne- 
cessity of making Peace with an armed 

Hardyng says to Edward IV. : 
" Consyder also, most earthly soverayn lord. 
Of French or Scots ye get never to your 

Any treaty, or truce, or good concord, 
But if it be under your banner aye ; 
Which may never be by reason any way. 
But if your realm stand well in unity, 
Conserved well in peace and ec^uity. 

" Your marches kept, and also your sea full 
To France, or Spain, ye may ride for 
your right. 
To Portingale, and Scotland, with your 
"Whiles your rereward in England stand- 

eth wight. 
Under your banner your enemies will you 
A better treaty within a little date 
Than in four years to your ambassiate." 

P. 413. 

Hardyng exhorts Edward the Fou?'th to 
conquer Scotland. 

In exhorting Edward TV. to undertake 
and compleat the conquest of Scotland, 
Hardyng says : 

" I had it liever than Fraunce and Nor- 
And all your rights that are beyond the 
sea ; 
For ye may keep it ever full sekerly, 
Within yourself, and dread none enmitee : 
And other lands, without gold, men and 
Y''e may not long rejoyse, as hath been told. 
For lighter be they for to win than hold. 

" Your auncestors have had beyond the sea 

Divers landes, and lost them all again. 
Sore gotten, soon lost, what availeth such 



But labour and cost, great loss of men, 

and pain ? 
For, aye before, with treason or -witli train. 
And want of gold, was lost within a year 
That we had got in ten, as doth appear." 

P. 422. 

liichard the First. 

Richard C(EUR-de-Lion. — 

Seldom indeed has a more unfortunate 
expression been used in prose or rhyme, 
than by John Hardyng in his Chronicle, 
when he said that 

" Kyng Henry, by Christes decree, 
Gatte sons four of great humanitee." 

P. 252. 

Sons of Edward the Third. 
Edward III. — 
" There was no king Christian had such 

sonnes five. 
Of likeliness and persons, that time on live. 

" So high and large they were of all stature, 

The leaste of them was of person able 
To have foughten with any creature 
Singler battayle in actes mercyable. 
The Bishop's wit methinketh was com- 
So well could chese the Princess that them 

bare ; 
For by practyse he knew it, or by lare." 
Hakdyng, p. 329. 

Presbyterian Sermon in Charles the 
Second's time. 
" At Newcastle-upon-Tyne I once hap- 
pened to hear a famous Presbyterian preach- 
er. It was in the reign of King Charles II., 
when the national laws were against them 
and all other dissenters from the national 
worship ; and they, being cowardly, had 
theii- meeting in the night, and in an upper 
room, and a watch set below. I did not go 
into the room, but stood on the head of the 
stairs, expecting to hear something like doc- 

trine from so noted a man among them ; 
but all that he entertained his auditory with, 
was suggestions of jealousy and dislike 
against the government ; and that he de- 
livered in such a way as appeared to me 
very disagreeable." — Thomas Story's 
Journal, p. 3. 

Paralytic Clergrjmen in Virginia, how treated 
by their Parishioners. 

At Barbican in Virginia, a. d. 1698, 
Story the Quaker says in the Journal of 
his ownLife(p. 155), "The people hereabout 
had a priest, who being taken with an in- 
firmity in his tongue and limbs, had not 
preached much for five years ; and they 
being just in some sort to their own in- 
terest, paid him only as often as he exer- 
cised his faculty ; but yet were exceedingly 
liberal, considering how little they had for 
their pay, for they gave him a hogshead of 
tobacco for every sermon. But the last 
two years, he being wholly silent, they alto- 
gether withdrew their pay. So that among 
some sort of hirelings and their employers 
it is. No Penny, no Pater-noster ; here, on 
the other hand, it is. No Pater-noster, uo 

Story's Journal — hoiv carefully he omitted 
all interesting Matter. 

" There is one thing more, too remark- 
able to be passed over without observation ; 
which is, that though the Author was known 
to be a man of excellent understanding and 
extensive learning, and had particularly 
applied part of his time to the study of 
Natural History and the physical expla- 
nation of things, yet we do not find any 
disquisitions nor observations of this kind 
brought into his Journal, though oppor- 
tunities seem not to have been a-wanting, 
if he had thought it proper to have made 
any use of them ; and perhaps some readers 
may be disappointed in not finding some- 
tliinif of this sort in the following work 



But the Author certainly judged of these 
matters in another manner, and esteemed 
them as subjects of too light and insignifi- 
cant a nature to bear any part or mixture 
with things appertaining to Religion and 
the AVorld to Come. He was well convinced 
of the mutable and uncertain state of terrene 
affairs ; the limited and narrow bounds of 
the present life; the shortness, imperfection, 
and vanity of all temporary enjoyments ; 
and the weak and perplexed condition of 
human reason and the natural abilities of 
]Man, though aided and improved with all 
the Arts and Sciences the world can give. 
AVith these he had compared (or rather 
opposed to them) the eternal and unchange- 
able mansions prepared in the Heavens for 
the favoured of God ; the wide and un- 
bounded prospects of Lnmortality,the tran- 
scendent fullness and dui'ation of Celestial 
Joys, of the ineffable Light and sure Know- 
ledge revealed and manifested in the Pre- 
sence and Enjoyment of the Almighty. In 
regard to these views, and under a deep 
consideration of this sort, the world (though 
God's creation, and, in its place, perfectly 
harmonious, and wisely designed and or- 
dered) he held of small account ; and, with 
the Apostle, esteemed it as dross and dung 
in comparison with Divine Riches and At- 
tainments. It seems therefore to have been 
his studied care, to avoid touching upon 
every other subject but which in some mea- 
sure leaned towards religious matters, or 
related to the Work of God in the Soul of 
Man ; and as he had freely dedicated his life 
to this great purpose, we do not only find 
that he has excluded the amusements of 
natural science and the curiosities of human 
learning from his work, but also most of 
the matters of business and incidents which 
fell to his share in the course of his secular 
affairs and transactions in the world, whether 
of a private or public nature ; amongst 
which it is not a little remarkable, that he 
has not once mentioned his e\ev having 
been in the conjugal state, though 'tis cer- 
tain that he was married In 1706 to Anne 
daughter of Edward Shippen, with whom 

he lived in great harmony and affection 
several years, viz. till 1711 or 12, when he 
was deprived of that comfort, by her death. 
His not taking any notice of a thing of so 
great private concernment as this, makes it 
no wonder that he has omitted many others 
of a more remote and indifferent nature." — 
Journal of the Life of Thomas Story, p. 

Rejoicings at the Birth of James the 
Second'' s Son. 

"This was in the year 1688, about which 
time came the news of the Queen's being 
with child ; and the Papists being greatly 
overjoyed thereat, made bonfires in the mar- 
ket-place, and in a public, exalted, and 
triumphant manner, drank healths to the 
young Prince : and I being a spectator with 
many other young men of the town, the 
Officers called several of us to cb'ink the 
health with them ; and then I took occasion 
to ask one of the Captains how they knew 
the child would be a Prince ; might it not 
happen to be a Princess ? No, rejilied he, 
Sir, that cannot be, for this child comes by 
the prayers of the Church : the Church has 
prayed for a Prince, and it can be no other- 
wise. And when the news came of his 
birth, they made another great fire in the 
same place ; where they drank wine, till 
with that, and the transport of the news, 
they were exceedingly distracted, throwing 
their hats into the fire at one health, their 
coats at the next, their waistcoats at a third, 
and so on, to their shoes ; and some of them 
threw in their shirts, and then ran about 
naked like madmen : which was no joyful 
sight to the thinking and concerned part of 
the Protestants who beheld it." — Journal of 
the Life of Thomas Story, p. 7. 

Story's Northern Feelings. 
" My mind seemed separated from my 
body, plunged into utter darkness, and to- 
wards the North, or place of the North 
Star ; And being in perfect despair of re- 



turning any more, eternal condemnation 
appeared to surround and enclose me on 
every side, as in the centre of the horrible 
Pit ; never, never to see Redemption thence, 
or the face of Ilim in mercy, whom I had 
sought with all my soul : But, in the midst 
of this confusion and amazement, when no 
thought could be formed, or any idea re- 
tained, save grim eternal death possessing 
my whole man, a voice was formed and 
uttered in me, as from the centre of bound- 
less darkness, ' Thy will, O God, be done ; 
if this be Thy act alone, and not my own, I 
yield my soid to thee.' 

" In the conceiving of these words, from 
tlie Word of Life, I quickly found relief: 
tliere was all-healing virtue in them ; and 
the effect so swift, and powerful, that even, 
in a moment, all my fears vanished, as if 
they had never been, and my mind became 
calm and still, and simple as a little child ; 
the Day of the Lord dawned, and the Son 
of Righteousness arose in me with divine 
lieaiing and restoring virtue in His coun- 
tenance ; and He became the centre of my 
mind." — Journal of the Life of Thomas 
Stort, p. 13. 

Story's Enlightenment. 

" The next day I found my mind calm 
and free from anxiety, in a state likest that 
of a young child. In this condition I re- 
mained till night : and about the same time 
ill the evening that the Visitation, before 
related, came upon me, my whole nature of 
being, both mind and body, was filled with 
the Divine Presence, in a manner I had 
never known before, nor had ever thought 
that such a thing could be ; and of which 
none can form any idea, but what the holy 
thing itself alone doth give. 

" The divine essential Truth was now 
self-evident ; there wanted nothing else to 
prove it. I needed not to reason about 
him ; all that was superseded and immerged, 
by an intuition of that divine and truly 
wonderful evidence and light, which pro- 
ceeded from himself alone, leaving no place 

for doubt or any question at all. For as 
the Sun in the open firmament of Heaven, 
is not discovei-ed or seen, but by the direct 
efflux and medium of his own light, and the 
mind of man determines thereby, at sight, 
and without any train of reasoning, what he 
is ; even so, and more than so, by the over- 
shadowing influence and divine virtue of 
the Highest, was my soul assured that it 
was the Lord. 

" I saw him in his own light, by that 
blessed and holy medium, which of old he 
promised to make known to all nations ; by 
that Eye which he himself had formed and 
opened, and also enliglitened by the Ema- 
nation of his own eternal Glory. 

" Thus I Avas filled with perfect conso- 
lation, which none but the Word of Life 
can declare or give. It was then, and not 
till then, I knew that God is Love, and that 
perfect Love which casteth out all fear. It 
was then I knew that God Is eternal Light, 
and tliat in him Is no darkness at all." — 
Journal of the Life of Thomas Story, p. 

Story s Defence of the naked Exhibitions of 
the Quakers. 

" I HAPPENED to fall Into company with 
a strict and rich Presbyterian, a great Form- 
alist, at a gentleman's house in the country, 
whose daughter he had married, and they 
lived together in the same house. And I 
being young and of few words, he Imagined 
I was not so much engaged In the way of 
Friends but that I might be brought off; 
and to shew his good-will, he began with 
reproaches against them, saying, they used 
to go naked into churches, markets, and 
other public places, pretending to be moved 
thereto by the Spirit of God ; which could 
not be true, since a thing indecent in itself 
cannot be of God. 

" I answered, that whatever God had, at 
any time heretofore, thought fit to command 
in particular cases, is consistent with him 
still ; and we read in the Holy Scripture, 
that the Lord commanded Lmiak, that great 



and evangelical Proi)het, to go and loose 
the sackcloth from off his louis, and put off 
his shoe from his foot ; and he did so, u-alk- 
ing naked and barefoot. And the Lord said, 
Like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked 
and barefoot three years, for a sig)i and 
wonder upon JSgypt ami upon Ethiopia, &c. 
Now, though this nakedness was to be a sign 
of shame unto the unhappy subjects of the 
judgments denounced, it was not inconsis- 
tent with the Lord to command the sign ; 
nor is nakedness any indecency in his sight, 
since every creature comes naked from his 
all-creating Hand : It follows, then, that it 
is possible some of the Quakers, and rational 
religious men too, as that Prophet was, might 
be commanded of God to such actions, and 
to a good end also, viz. To rouse the people 
of this nation out of their deep lethargy and 
self-security, into a consideration of their 
various empty forms of religion, which they 
severally exercised, without the life of reli- 
gion (divine love and charity one toward 
another), too much a stranger, at this day, 
among all sects and names. And thou canst 
not therefore make appear, that those Qua- 
kers were not commanded of God to do as 
they did in that case." — Journal of the Life 
o/" Thomas Stort, p. 49. 

Glasgoiv Collegians. 

" We had a meeting at Glasgow ; where 
came a great many Collegians, along M-ith 
a mob of other people ; they were very rude, 
both in words and actions, as generally that 
sort everywhere are : And it is a lament- 
able thing to consider, that people of the 
age of discretion as men, and professing the 
Name of the True God, and of Jesus Christ 
the Son of God, the IMessiah and Saviour 
of the World, should be so blind concerning 
that religion, as to think (if they think about 
it at all) that such brutish creatures, as 
those Collegians are, can be Ministers of 
Christ in that condition ; being commonly 
promoted brand-new, as it were, out of that 
mint wherein they are coined, not in the 

image of God, but of the Adversary ; from 
wallowing in all manner of vice and immo- 
rality, to pretend to teach those who have 
far more understanding in religion than 
themselves : nevertheless so it is." — Journal 
of the Life of Thomas Story, p. 94. 

Presentiments. — Story'' s Theory. 

" Being at the Castle of Shannigary, be- 
longing to him [William Penn], a gentle- 
woman of good sense and character related 
to me the following passage, viz. 

" ' That she being in the city of Cork 
when it was invested by King William's 
army, and having a little daughter of hers 
with her, they were sitting together on a 
squab ; and being much concerned in mind 
about the danger and circumstances they 
were under, she was seized with a sudden 
fear, and strong impulse to arise from that 
seat, which she did in a precipitant manner; 
hasted to another part of the room, and then 
was in the like concern for her child, to 
whom she called with uncommon earnest- 
ness to come to her, which she did ; imme- 
diately after which came a cannon-ball and 
struck the seat all in pieces, and drove the 
parts of it about the room, without any hurt 
to either of them.' 

" From this relation I took occasion to 
reason with her thus : ' That Intelligencer 
which gave her notice, by fear, of the danger 
they Avere in, must be a spiritual Being 
having access to her mind (which is likewise 
of a spiritual nature) when in that state cf 
humiliation and in those circumstances ; 
and must also be a good and beneficent In- 
telligencer, willing to preserve them, and 
furnished also with knowledge and foresight 
more than human. He must have known 
that such a piece would be fired at that 
time, and that the ball would hit that seat, 
and infallibly destroy you both, if not pre- 
vented in due time by a suitable admo- 
nition ; which he suggested by the passion 
Fear (the passions being useful when duly 
subjected), and by that means saved your 



livesi. And seeing that the passions of the 
mind can be wrought upon for our good, 
by an invisible beneficent Intelligencer in 
the mind, in a state of humiliation and still- 
ness, without any exterior medium, is it not 
reasonable to conclude, that an evil Intelli- 
gencer may have access likewise to the mind, 
in a state of unwatchfulness, when the pas- 
sions are moving, and the imagination at 
liberty to form ideas destructive to the mind, 
being thereby depraved and wounded ? And 
when so, is it not likewise reasonable to 
think that the Almighty himself, who is the 
most pure, merciful, and beneficent Spirit, 
knowing all events and things, doth some- 
times, at his pleasure, visit the minds of 
mankind, through Christ, as through or un- 
der a veil, so as to communicate of his good- 
ness and virtue to a humble and silent 
mind, to heal and instruct him in things 
pleasing to himself and proper for the con- 
duct of man in his pilgrimage through this 
present world, and lead him to the next in 
safety ? ' 

" This, coming immediately upon the in- 
stance she had given, took with her and the 
company ; who readily granted it might be 
so, and some of them knew it ; and this 
conversation seemed agreeable to us all." — 
Journal of the Life of Thomas Story, p. 

Conversion of the Indians. 

" As to the conversion of the Indians of 
all or any nation or nations, to the Truth, 
I believe the Lord will call them, after the 
power of Antichrist is overthrown ; but it 
seems to me, that learning, or the historical 
part of religion, or their own language 
(which is very barren of pertinent woi'ds), 
will not be much instrumental in it ; but 
the Word of Life, whose divine and life- 
giving intellectual speech is more certainly 
known in the mind, will tender their hearts, 
in a silent state and retirement, by means 
of some instruments that the Lord will raise 
up and qualify for that purpose ; who shall 
not confound them with a Ions fruitless his- 

tory of needless things ; but when the Lord 
shall send forth his Word, the light of the 
Gentiles., the quickening ' Spirit of Jesus, 
into and upon any of them in holy silence, 
or in prayer, their minds shall be directed 
to the Spirit himself, as the present object 
of their faith, obedience, and love, and Au- 
thor of their present joy and salvation ; and 
so believing in the light, shall become chil- 
dren of that light and day of God, and heirs 
of eternal life in him ; And then the histories 
in the Bible, the prophecies of the Prophets 
of God, and the fulfilling of them ; the evan- 
gelical account of the Conception, Birth, 
Life, Doctrine, Miracles, Death, Resurrec- 
tion, Ascension, Glorification, Mediation, In- 
tercession, and Judgment, of Him who is the 
Substance of all, and that true Light which 
lighteth every man that cometh into the world ; 
will be the more clearly received by the 
Indians, when the Almighty shall think fit 
to acquaint them therewith." — Journal of 
the Life of Thomas Story, p. 163. 

Hoiv Sermons in a Language which we do 
not understand, may nevertheless edify. 

" The third day following, we had a meet- 
ing at Myrionvi\\\\ the TFt^*/; Friends, on the 
loth, among whom I was much satisfied : for 
several of them appearing in testimony in 
the British tongue, which I did not under- 
stand ; yet being from the Word of Truth 
in them, as instruments moved thereby, I 
was as much refreshed as if it had been in 
my own language ; which confirmed me in 
what I had thought before, that when the 
Spirit is the same in the preacher and hearer, 
and is the Truth, the refreshment is chiefly 
thereby, rather than by the form of words 
or language, to all that ai*e in the same 
Spirit at the same time. And this is the 
universal language of the Spirit, known and 
understood in all tongues and nations, to 
them that are born of him. But in order 
to the convincement of such as know not 
the Trutli ; for the begetting of Faith in such 
as do not yet believe therein ; for the open- 



ing of tlie understanding, by the form of 
doctrine, and declaration of the necessary 
truths of the gospel and kingdom of God ; 
intelligible language, uttered under the im- 
mediate iniluence of the Spirit of Truth, is 
indispensably necessary, as also for the edi- 
fying of the Church, the Body of Christ, in 
general." — Journal of the Life o/" Thomas 
Story, p. 177. 


" The Ranters. — 'That they held absurd 
and blasphemous opinions : That God had 
taken their souls out of theu- bodies into 
himself, and he occupied the place in their 
bodies where their souls had been ; so that 
it was no more they that acted or said any 
thing, how ridiculous or absurd soever, but 
God in their bodies ; and he, not being sub- 
ject to any law but his own pleasure, what- 
ever he acts or says is good : So that when 
they were rude, immoral, and ridiculous, in 
words or practice, sometimes going on their 
hands and feet on the ground, barking and 
grinning like dogs, they said. See how God 
laughs thee to scorn ; blasphemously charg- 
ing their own wickedness and folly upon 
the Almighty. 

" ' And they frequently come into our 
meetings, and rant, sing, and dance, and act 
like antics and madmen, throwing dust in 
the faces of our ministers when preaching : 
and though they profess the Truth, and are 
called Quakers, and have meetings of their 
own as we have, yet they have no discipline 
or order among them ; but deny all that as 
carnal and formal, leaving every one to do 
as he pleases, without any reproof, restraint, 
or account to the society in any thing, how 
inconsistent soever with civility, morality, 
and religion ; and are in mere anarchy : 
And therefore we bear witness against them 
in word, writing, and practice 5 we being 
settled under the most concise, regular, and 
reasonable constitution of discipline that 
ever was established in the world. 

" ' And as they go imder the name of 

Quakers, as the world calls us, and often 
come into our meetings, and act such things, 
and many more the like, other people, who 
do not know the difference, think we are all 
alike : and since we cannot oppose them by 
force, they continue to impose upon us in 
that matter.' " — Journal of the Life of 
Thomas Stokt, p. 192. 

Place ichere the Qiiahei's suffered at JBoston. 
' — Storfs Feelings thei-e. 

" The next day, accompanied by some 
Friends, we went to Boston : near which, on 
a green, we observed a pair of gallows ; and, 
being told that was the place where several 
of our Friends had suffered death for the 
Truth, and had been there thrown into a 
hole, we rode a little out of the way to see 
it ; Avhich was a kind of pit near the gal- 
lows, and full of water, but two posts at each 
end, which had been set there by means of 
Edward Shippen, of Philadelphia, a reputa- 
ble Friend, formerly of Boston ; who would 
have erected some moi'e lasting monument 
there, with leave of the magistrates, but 
they were not willing ; since it would too 
frequently and long bring to remembrance 
that great error of their ancestors, which 
could not now be repaired ; so that he had 
only leave to put down those posts, to keep 
the place in remembrance, till something 
further might be done, at a time when it 
might be less obnoxious. 

" While we sat on horseback by the pit, 
we were drawn into right silence, by the 
awfxd, yet life-giving presence of the Lord, 
which there graciously and unexpectedly 
visited us together, and tendered us ; which 
so raised our minds, though in deep humility 
before the Lord, over that evil Spirit which 
murdered our Friends (yet too much alive in 
Boston), that for my own part, the inhabit- 
ants were no more than as the dust in the 
streets as we rode through among them : 
and thotigh they gazed upon us with looks 
denoting the old Apollyon yet alive in them, 
yet we could see them as far below that 



Divine Truth we faced them in, as the Earth 
is the Heavens ; rememberinjr that where 
Truth hath suffered, Truth will triumph in 
all the Faithful, and will arise one day in 
jjlory, to the utter condemnation, shame 
and confusion of all his enemies." — Journal 
of the Life w/ Thomas Story, p. 195. 

Fear of the Indium still 7'emaimng in 
Story^s time. 

" We were informed by some of our 
Friends and the people there, that in the 
late Indian wars, the country, for above one 
hundred miles forther north-east, formerly 
inhabited by the English, was at this time 
laid waste, by the prevalence of the In- 
dians; one of whom, in these last wars, being 
able to chase several English; whereas, 
formerly, it was much more on the con- 
trary. Many houses had been laid waste 
and ruined ; and the owners were at this 
time beginning to return, but many not 
yet bold enough to lodge out of some gar- 
rison ; several whereof were in those parts, 
being only the strongest dwelling-houses, 
most commodiously situated in the country 
places, impaled with small trees, sharpened 
like stakes at the upper ends, and higher 
than the Indians could climb over, and the 
houses fortified with embattlements of logs 
at two of the reverse corners, so as that 
thereby they could command each end and 
each side, by shot from thence." — Journal 
of the Life o/Tuomas Story, p. 197. 

Maintenance for the Clergy in New Eng- 
land could not be without compulsory 

" OxE part of the scheme of religion in- 
vented by the Preachers among the Presby- 
terians and Independents, is, that a Preacher 
unprovided with a living, or wanting a 
better, goes and preaches a sermon, or more, 
to the people he would beget into a good 
f.pinion of himself; and, if they like him, 

he must first have a call from that people 
to whom he hath preached, before he can 
be their settled minister : The meaning of 
which is, that he may have an opportunity 
to bargain with them for so much a year as 
they can agree, before he will obey the call, 
so as to be their settled Preacher ; and, 
when the price is fixed, the leading Elders 
give him security for payment, and they 
raise it by subscription : But the Preachers 
in that country being dry and formal, and 
the people cold in their love, many town- 
ships were silent, and no voice of calling 
heard from them ; so that the Preachers 
multiplying, and many of them wanting 
employment and maintenance, they, and 
their friends, influenced the legislatiire 
(which are usually of their own sect, as most 
numerous in that country) to make a law, 
' That the inhabitants of each town within 
that province should be provided with at 
least one able, learned, orthodox minister, 
to dispense the Word of God to them ; which 
minister shall be suitably encouraged, and 
sufficiently supported and maintained, by 
the inhabitants of such town; with provision 
for levying proportionable rates upon siich 
as should refuse to pay, &c.'" — Journal of 
the Life of Thomas Story, p. 209. 

Sifdess Perfection. 

" Then said the Priest, but most per- 
versely as an enemy of all righteousness, 
' Yea, that is true ; we are to be made free 
from sin, but not in this life.' Then Samuel 
Jeiinings asked the Pi-iest, since he had ac- 
knowledged a freedom from sin, but not in 
this life, ' When, where, and how must it 
be effected, since 7io unclean thing can enter 
the Kingdom ? ' 

" To which he replied, ' AVe are drove 
to a necessity to confess, it is not done in 
Heaven; and in this life it cannot be: there- 
fore it luust be at the very point of death, 
as the soul departeth from the body.' 

" ' AVell, then,' said I, ' let us see thee 
split a hair, and show what distance there 



is between the utmost point of time and the 
beginning of eternity : for if done in the last 
point of time, it is in this life ; and if not 
till its entrance into eternity, then the un- 
clean thing enters the kingdom ; which is 
already granted cannot be. Where, then, is 
this freedom ? ' Which question Samuel Je- 
nings pressing upon him, he then affirmed, 
' The soul is cleansed from sin in its way 
between earth and heaven ; for there is,' 
said he, ' a considerable space between.' 

" Then said Samuel Jenings, ' This is 
such a little Presbyterian purgatory as I 
never heard of before.' And though the 
Preacher had hitherto seemed to have com- 
mand of his passion, yet upon this he grew 
very angry ; for we then exposed him to his 
own people." — Journal of the Life o/Thomas 
Story, p. 2 16-. 

Roman Catholic Trick practised in Mary- 

" There was then a romantic paper 
handed about, falsely relating, ' That in Hol- 
land had lately been observed by some tra- 
vellers a certain great stone by the way-side, 
with this inscription. Blessed is he that turns 
me over; upon which the travellers essayed 
to do it, but could not ; and many people 
being about it trying, but in vain, till there 
came one imknown, in the form of a little 
boy of about four years of age, and making 
the crowd give way, turned the stone with 
ease ; under which was found a letter, pre- 
tending to be ^yrote by the Lord Jesus 
Christ, intimating that he purposed to come 
shortly to judgment, and strictly com- 
manded the keeping of the Sabbath, and that 
they should baptise their children. 

" Copies of this forged letter were indus- 
triously spread about in Maryland, and in 
those lower counties and territories o(Pen- 
sylvania, not without some suspicion of 
priest -craft ; for about that time s6me of 
them went about, as tinkers in their trade, 
asking the people if they had any chUdren 
to christen ? And those who woidd pay for 

it, might have them made as good members 
of Christ, children of God, and inheritors of 
the kingdom of heaven, as the Priest was 
able, for so much money, tobacco, or other 
reward or barter, as they could bargain 
for : but the work going on slowly and 
heavily, there wanted something to quicken 
the zeal of the people ; and to that end this 
miraculous event was reported before-hand, 
as the most proper messenger to prepare the 
way of the Priests before them : and that 
which was to have made the people's neglect 
in the case the more to be dreaded, such as 
should be negligent herein were not to 
thrive in the world ; for neither their cattle, 
hogs, corn, or any thing else, were to pros- 

" The Priests of Maryland, whence this 
report and paper came, had it read in their 
churches ; in which also they had another 
end, viz. to overawe the inconsiderate peo- 
ple into the practice of sprinkling their chil- 
dren, the invalidity whereof had, all over 
those parts, been so lately before exposed, 
as no ordinance of Christ, but a Popish re- 
main." — Journal of the Life of Thomas 
Story, p. 238. 

Story s Compluint against forward Speakers 
in the Quaker Meetings. 

" I WENT to a monthly meeting atFrank- 
fort, about nine miles from Philadelphia ; 
and being late by an accident, a Welsh 
Friend was speaking when I went in ; and, 
before he concluded, I was imder a great 
concern to appear in testimony as soon as 
he had done : but immediately after, there 
started up one of the same meeting and 
took place ; and when he had done, another, 
and after him, another; and then one of 
them prayed : and so the meeting con- 
cluded in this kind of hurry, to my very 
great oppression and exercise : for the 
weio'ht of the service of the day was laid 
upon me ; but I could not have any time to 
discharge it for those praters, who had no 
authority in the Truth to meddle at that 



time. Foi- I would not break in upon any 
of them, but rather chose to sacrifice my 
peace than break through a settled order, 
That no one shall interrupt another in his 
public service ; which, though very good 
in itself when rightly applied, is but too 
often attended with bad consequences, by 
the unseasonable interpositions, sometimes 
of forward, ignorant, self-seeking, and self- 
advancing pretenders; at other times, of 
wilful, designing, antichristian sjjirits, who 
start up on purpose to disappoint the real 
service of the true and qualified JNIinisters of 
God, the edification of his people, and con- 
vincement of mankind, by their divine and 
spiritual ministry : for which the Lord, in 
his own time and way, provide an effectual 
remedy ; Avhich hath not yet fully appeared 
in this dispensation, for want chiefly of a 
due application. Nevertheless these, being 
reproved by some of the faithful Elders 
after this meeting, made their excuses, as 
not seeing me come into the place ; by which 
it appeared they were guided therein by the 
sight of their eyes, and not by the mind of 
Christ, of whom it is written. He shall not 
judge after the sight of his eyes, nor reprove 
after the hearing of his ears : but that re- 
proof did not relieve me from under the 
load of oppression, or afford any consolation 
to my mind." — Journal of the Life o/" Tho- 
mas Story, p. 241. 

[^Prayer efficacious, only through Faith.'] 
" FoEMEKLT when I had asked help in 
prayer, instead of looking for that help, and 
relying on it, I strove to help myself, and 
stripped to fight my adversary. Many of 
these battles I have fought, but never gained 
any credit by them. My foe would drop 
his head sometimes by a blow I gave him, 
and seemed to be expiring, but revived 
presently, and grew as pert as ever. I 
found he valued not an arm of flesh, but 
made a very scornful puff at human will 
and might. Often when a fire broke out in 
my bosom, the water I threw on to quench 

it, only proved oil, and made it burn the 
faster. The flame of angei* would continue 
in my breast, till its materials were con- 
sumed, or till another fire broke out. One 
wave of trouble e'erwhile passed off, because 
another rolled on, and took its place. One 
evil often di-ove another out, as lions drive 
out wolves ; but in their turns, my bosom 
was a prey to every wild beast in the forest. 
Or if a quiet hour passed, it proved but a 
dead calm ; my heart had no delight in 
God, a stranger yet to heavenly peace and 


" At length, after years of fruitless 
struggling, I was shewn the Gospel method 
of obtaining rest, not by loorking, but be- 
lieving. A strange and foolish way it seems 
to Nature, and so it seemed to me ; but is 
a most effectual way, because it is the Lord's 
appointed way." — Berridge's World Un- 
mashed, p. 9L 

\_Salvation through Faith only.] 

" The crime of Uzza is but little under- 
stood ; some think it was a slight one, and 
the punishment severe. But the same sin 
destroyed Uzza which destroyeth every sin- 
ner, even unbelief. What slew his body, 
slayeth all the souls that perish. He could 
not trust the Lord wholly with his Ark, but 
must have a meddling finger, called in the 
Bible-margin his rashness. Rash worm in- 
deed, to help a God to do his work! and 
thousands everywhere are guilty of this 
rashness, and perish by this Uzzaizing. 
Jesus Christ is jealous of his glory, as Sa- 
viour : he will not share it with another ; 
and whoso takes it from him, shall take it 
at his peril." — Berridge's World Unmasked, 
p. 93. 

l^Faith — its Efficacy.] 

" For my own part, since first my unbe- 
lief was felt, I have been praying fifteen 
years for faith, and praying with some earn- 
estness, and am not yet possessed of more 



than half a grain. You smile, Sir, I per- 
ceive, at the smaUness of the quantity ; but 
you would not, if you knew its efficacy. 
Jesus, Avho knew it well, assures you that a 
single grain, and a grain as small as mustard- 
seed, would remove a mountain, — remove a 
wioMHtam-load of guilt from the conscience, 
a inountain-\viSt from the heart, and any 
mountain-\o&d of trouble from the mind." — 
Behbidge's Wo7-ld Unmasked, p. 94. 

[ The Doctrine of Perseverance, and Ser- 
geant If.] 

" The doctrine of perseverance affords a 
stable prop to upright minds, yet lends no 
wanton cloak to corrupt hearts. It brings 
a cordial to revive the faint, and keeps a 
guard to check the froward. The guard 
attending on this doctrine, is sergeant If; 
low in stature, but lofty in significance ; a 
very valiant guard, though a monosyllable. 
Kind notice has been taken of the sergeant 
by Jesus Christ and his Apostles ; and much 
respect is due unto him, from all the Lord's 
recruiting officers, and every soldier in his 

" Pray listen to the sergeant's speech : — If 
ye cojitinue in my icord, then are ye my dis- 
ciples indeed. John viii. 31. If ye do these 
things, ye shall never fall. 2 Pet. i. 10. If 
ivhat ye have heard shall abide in you, ye 
shall continue in the Son and in the Father. 
1 John ii. 24. We are made partakers of 
Christ, if we hold stedfast unto the end. Heb. 
iii. 14. Whoso looketh and continueth (that 
is, if he that looketh does continue) in the 
perfect law of liberty, that man shall be blessed 
in his deed. James i. 25. 

" Yet take notice, Sir, that sergeant If 
is not of Jewish but of Christian parentage; 
not sprung from Levi, though a son of 
Abraham ; no centinel of Moses, but a 
watchman for the camp of Jesus." — Ber- 
ridge's Wo}-ld Unmasked, p. 194. » 

\_Grace the only sure Foundation of 
Morality. 1 

" The people who are chiefly loaded with 

morality, are the booksellers ; and they have 
got a shop-full, but are rather sick of the 
commodity, and long to part with it. Though 
gilt and lettered on the back, it moulds upon 
a shelf like any Bible : and Mr. Ilales's 
tract on salivation, will post away through 
ten editions, before a modest essay on mo- 
rality can creep through one. 

" The Whole Duty of Man was sent abroad 
with a good intent, but has failed of its 
purpose, as all such teaching ever will. 
JNIorallty has not thriven smce its publica- 
tion ; and never can thrive, unless grounded 
wholly upon grace. The heathens, for want 
of this foundation, could do nothing. They 
spoke some noble truths, but spoke to men 
with withered limbs and loathing appetites. 
They were like way-posts, which shew a 
road, but cannot help a cripple forwards ; 
and many of them preached much brisker 
morals than are often taught by their mo- 
dern friends. In their way, they were skil- 
ful fishermen, but fished without the gospel- 
bait, and could catch no fry. And after 
they had toiled long in vain, we take up 
their angle-rods, and dream of more success, 
though not possessed of half their skill." — 
Berridge's World Unmasked, p. 210. 

\_Moral Rectitude and Moral Obliquity. 1 

" When I waited on the Vicar to pay my 
last Easter-offerings, I found a fierce young 
fellow there, just arrived from College, who 
called himself a soph. He seemed to make 
a puff at sin and holiness, but talked most 
outrageously of moral rectitude and obliquity. 
I could not then fish out who these moral 
gentry were, but I learnt it afterwards in 
a mai'ket, where I sometimes pick up rags of 
knowledge. A string of two-legged cattle, 
with tails growing out of their brains, and 
hanging down to their breech, rode helter- 
skelter through the beast-market. The 



graziers were all iu full stare, as you may 
think : some said, they were Frenchmen ; 
some thought, they were Jesuits ; some said, 
they were Turks, who had fled from the 
Russians ; and some aflirmed they were 
monkeys, because of their tails ; but the 
clerk of the market, coming by, assured us, 
they were a drove of moral rectitudes, who 
had been drinking freely at the Hoop, and 
railing madly at the Bible, and were going 
post-haste to lodge with Miss Moral Ob- 
liquity. So I found that JNIr. Moral Recti- 
tude and Mrs. Moral Obliquity were own 
brother and sister, both of them horned 
cattle ; and that their whole difference lay 
in the gender, one was male and the other 
female." — Bekkidge's World Unmasked, p. 

[ Wesley and the Doctrine of the direct Wit- 
ness of the Spirit.'] 

" I BELIEVE that correspondence did evil 
before it was published — I believe it has 
done much moi-e since, and wiU continue 
to do more and more ! — As to what IVIr. 
W. says of ' the Methodistical Students, 
thanks to IMr. Moore for the publication of 
those papers,' I dare say it may be true in 
respect to too inany methodistical stiulents — 
who halance about the direct witness which 
they have not, and are glad to find so many 
powerful arguments against. — IVIr. W.y was 
always full of work — he had no time for 
a series of logical controversy — hence I. 
Smith seems often to have the advantage. — 
I was pained with this appearance of supe- 
riority in I. Smith's answers ; and was sorry 
to see Mr. W.y deal so much in assertion, 
on a Doctrine so momentous. — When I 
read the quotation you make of Mr. W.'s 
opinion, I refelt what I felt when I first read 
it — contempt for the man who would seri- 
ously recommend it. Mr. W.y makes in it 
the worst defence he ever made of a Doc- 
trine of God. From that publication I 
have no doubt that the Doctrine of the Di- 
rect Witness of the Spirit will be less and 
less credited, till at no great distance of 

time it will merge in constructive or inferen- 
tial Salvation — and then the Spirit of Re- 
ligion will become extinct among them that 
hold it. — There are many in this state now ; 
and many who are wire-drawing the doc- 
trine according to I. Smith's argumentation, 
which ISlv. W.y unfortunately did not take 
time sufficient to overthrow. I still must 
say, though your intention was to do nothirig 
but good, by giving up that MS., yet, mala 
avi, in a luckless hour, it was published.^ I 
was astonished when I found that Mr. M. 
had published it — but he wanted matter — 

netv mattei and that was neiv — and that 

would do — and the two names (one of which 
is purely imaginary) Wesley and Archbishop 
Seeker, would sell the work. And thus, 
alas ! to the great consolation of the half- 
hearted Methodist, the work is published. 
Proh dolor ! " — Adam Clakke. 

^Projects for Bridge or Tunnel from Dover 
to Calais.] 

" When we came to Dover, we amused 
ourselves with discussing the various modes 
of crossing from England to France. That 
by means of a balloon gave rise to some 
pleasantries. We afterwards discussed the 
idea of having a wooden floating bridge, ten 
feet wide and ten feet high : 'the passage 
being twenty-five miles broad, Montgolfier 
calculated that it would require 14,000,000 
feet of oak, which at 2*. 6d. per cubical foot 
(the price of oak in France at that time) 
would amount to £ 1,750,000. Montgolfier 
therefore contended, that for £3,000,000 
sterling at the utmost, a wooden floating 
bridge might be constructed from Dover to 
Calais, on a larger scale than the one origi- 
nally proposed, which would defy any tem- 
pest that could arise. The interruption to 
navigation, however, was an insurmount- 
able obstacle to such an attempt. It was 
amusing, after this discussion, to heai' in a 

•• See Whitehead's Life of Wesley, vol. 2, p. 
20.3, who coincides 1)1 dpiiilon. 



farce acted in one of the theatres at Paris, 
the following lines put into the mouth of a 

' Pour dompter les Anglais, 

II faut batlr un pont sur le Pas de Calais.' 

We likewise discussed the idea of having a 
subterraneous passage under the Channel ; 
but the procuring of air was a difficulty 
that could not easily be got the better of. 
The only means we could contrive for getting 
that obstacle surmounted, was, to compress 
air in barrels, and transmit it in that state, 
to be let out in the centre of the excavation. 
It was the discussion we had upon this sub- 
ject, which has ever since made me extremely 
partial to the idea of trying excavations, 
and more especially the Tunnel under the 
Thames." — Sir John Sinclair's Corre- 
lence, vol. 2, p. 87. 

[^Buonaparte s Expedient for diverting atten- 
tion from the Murder of the Duke UEng- 

"When Bonaparte put the Duke d'En- 
ghien to death, all Paris felt so much horror 
at the event, that the throne of the tyrant 
trembled under him. A counter-revolution 
was expected, and would most probably 
have taken place, had not Bonaparte ordered 
a new ballet to be brought out, with the 
utmost sjilendour, at the Opera. The sub- 
ject he pitched upon was, ' Ossian, or the 
Bards' It is still recollected in Paris, as 
perhaps the grandest spectacle that had ever 
been exhibited there. The consequence 
was, that the murder of the Duke d'Enghien 
was totally forgotten, and nothing but the new 
ballet ivas talked of' — Sir John Sinclair's 
Correspondence, vol. 2, p. 14.5. 

[Industrious Weeding by Flemish Farmers.'} 

" It is hardly possible to conceive, how 
much attention is paid by the Flemish 
farmers to the weeding of their land. In 

their best-cultivated districts their exertions 
are incessant, and frequently from twenty 
to thirty women may be seen in one field 
kneeling, for the purpose of greater facility 
in seeing and extracting the weeds. The 
weeds collected in spring, particularly when 
boiled, are much relished by milch cows ; 
and in various parts of Flanders, the farmers 
get their lands weeded by the children of 
the neighbouring cottagers, solely for the 
privilege of procuring these weeds for their 
cattle, and thus converting a nuisance into 
a benefit. Where such enormous sums are 
bestowed on the maintenance of the poor 
in country parishes, they might surely be 
employed in so beneficial an operation as 
that of weeding land." — Sir John Sin- 
clair's Correspondence, vol. 2, p. 154. 

[Agrican's chivalric Repugnance to Letters.'] 

Botardo, or Berni, has put into the 
mouth of Agrican the real feelings of many 
a great personage in the middle ages : 

" lo non so che si sia ne ciel ne Dio ; 

Ne mai sendo fanciul volsi imparare. 
Ruppi la testa ad un maestro mio 

Che pur' intorno mi stava a cianciare: 
Ne mai piii vidi poi libro o scrittura ; 
Ogni maestro avea di me paura. 

" Laonde spesi la mia fanciullezza 

Licacce, in questo giocod'arme e quello ; 

Ne pare a me che sia gran gentilezza 
Stare in su i libri a stLUarsi U cervello : 

Ma la forza del corpo, e la destrezza, 
Conviene a cavalier nobile e bello : 

Ad un dottor la dottrina sta bene ; 

Basta a gli altri saper quanto conviene." 
Orlando Innamorato, canto 18, stan. 
47-48,— torn. 2, p. 112. 

[Etymology of Canada.] 

Canada. — "Some," says Dr. Douglass, 
" say it was named from Mons. Cane, who 
early sailed into the Mississippi : if so, O 



caprice! why should so obscure a man (his 
voyage is not mentioned in histoi'y) give 
name to New France ! " — Summary of the 
I3ritish Settlements in North America. 

{_Preaching of Tmmortallfi/ to the Indians.'] 
Thomas Story and his companion went 
to a town of the Chickahomine Indians, and 
spake to them concerning the Immortality 
of the Soul, and told them " that God hath 
placed a Witness in the heart of eveiy man, 
which approves that which is good, and re- 
proves that whicli is evil. 

" The Sagamor then pointed to his head, 
and said, that was treacherous ; but pointing 
to his breast, said it was true and sweet 
there. And then he sent forth his breath, 
as if he had poured out his soul unto death ; 
and signing up towards Heaven with his 
hand, raised a bold, chearful, and loud Hey, 
as if the Soul ascended thither in a trium- 
phant manner ; and then pointing to his 
body, from thence put his hand towards the 
earth, to demonstrate his 02)inion that the 
Body remains there when the soul is de- 
parted and ascended." — Journal of the 
Life o/ Thomas Story, p. 162. 

{^Ruin of Maritime Cities.] 

Speaking of cities that are left desolate, 
" by reason of wars, fires, plagues, inunda- 
tions, wild beasts, decay of trades, barred 
havens, and the sea's violence," Burton 
says, " — as Antwerp may witness of late, 
S}Tacuse of old, Brundusium in Italy, 
Rye and Dover with us, and many that at 
this day suspect the sea's fury and rage, and 
labour against it, as the Venetians to their 
inestimable charge." — Anatomy of Melan- 
choly, p. 47. 

{^Character of an insular andivarlike State.] 

" I MUST tell you, Sir, 
Virtue, if not in action, is a vice ; 
And when we move not forward, we go 
backward : 

Nor is this peace, the nurse of drones and 

Our health, but a disease. — 

— Consider 
Where your command lies: 'tis not, Su", 

in France, 
Spain, Germany, Portugal, but in Sicily, 
An island. Sir. Here are no mines of gold 
Or silver to enrich you : no worm spins 
Silk in her womb, to make distinction 
Between you and a peasant in your habits : 
No fish lives near our shores, whose blood 

can dye 
Scarlet or purple : all that we possess. 
With beasts we have in common. Nature did 
Design us to be warriors, and to break 

Our ring, the sea, by which we are envi- 

ron'd ; 
And we by force must fetch in what Is wanting 
Or jJrecious to us. Add to this, we are 
A populous nation, and increase so fast. 
That if we by our providence are not sent 
Abroad in colonies, or fall by the sword. 
Not Sicily, though now it were more fruitful 
Than when 'twas styled the granary of great 

Can yield our numerous fry bread : we must 

Or eat up one another. 

— Let not, our nerves 
Shrink up with sloth : nor, for want of em- 
Make younger brothers thieves ; it is their 

swords. Sir, 
Must sow and reap their harvest. If ex- 
May move you more than arguments, look 

to England, 
The empress of the European isles ; — 
When did she flourish so, as when she was 
The mistress of the ocean, her navies 
Putting a girtlle round about the world ? 
When the Iberian quaked, her worthies 

named ; 
And the fair flower-de-luce grew pale, set by 
The red rose and the white ? Let not our 

Hung up, or our unrigg'd armada, make us 


Ridiculous to the late poor snakes our neigh- 
Warm'd in our bosoms, and to whom again 
We may be terrible ; while we spend our 

Without variety, confined to drink. 
Dice, cards, or whores. Rouse us. Sir, from 

the sleep 
Of idleness, and redeem our mortgaged ho- 

IVIassingek, Maid of Honour, pp. 
14, 17. 

[ Wliat Waters are purest.^ 
" Rain water is purest, so that it fall not 
down in great drops, and be used forthwith ; 
for it quickly putrlfies. Next to it, foun- 
tain water that riseth in the east, and run- 
neth eastward, from a quick running stream, 
from flinty, chalky, gravelly grounds." — 
Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 233. 

\Water through Leaden PipesJ] 

" Although Galen hath taken exception 
at such waters which run through leaden 
pipes, oh cerussam quce in iis generatnr, for 
that unctuous ceruse, which causeth dysen- 
teries and fluxes ; yet, as Alsarius Crucius 
of Genoa well answers, it is opposite to com- 
mon experience. If that were true, most of 
our Italian cities, Montpelier in France, 
with infinite others, would find this incon- 
venience ; but there is no such matter." — 
Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 233. 

^Sheltered Sites of English Country 
" Our gentry in England live most part 
in the country (except it be some few 
castles), building still in bottoms, saith Jo- 
vius, or near woods, corona arborum viren- 
tium ; you shall know a village by a tuft of 
trees at or about it, to avoid those* strong 
winds wherewith the island is infested, and 
cold winter blasts." — Burton's Anatomy of 
Melancholy, p. 260. 

^Rustic Genealogy.l 

" — Ab utroque parente fui ruricola ; et 
avus mens fuit bubulcus, proavus meus 
agazo, abavus meus villlcus ; et attavus fuit 
mulio, et tritavus fuit gorgicus, quai-tavus 
meus fuit calator, quintavus agricola : ger- 
niani vero subulci ; et filii mei sunt agella- 
rii ; et alumni glebones ; et nepotes mei 
sunt sulcones ; et pronepotes mei sunt agri- 
cultores; et fratrueles sunt pastinat ores; so- 
brini suntstinarii; et consobrini sunt abigei : 
avunculi autem sunt armentarii ; et soceri 
sunt agrestes ; patrueles vero tyri sunt ; et 
cognati sunt eroici ; et agnati sunt man- 
drici ; et uxor mea filia fuit opilionis ; et 
ego verus et indubitatus rusticus ab omni- 
bus progenitoribus meis, in rure procrea- 
tus." — Felix Hemmerlein, De Nobilitate 
et Rusticitate, fol. 5, 

[Youthfid Jesuit Zeal.~\ 

" — Ardet — 
— vivldus inclytae 
Ardor juventae. Quo sibi robore 
Ad signa LoiolaB negatum 

Rumpit iter, cuneosque densat. 
Frustra invidendis explicat atriis 
Longam suorum progeniem pater. 
Hsec prima laus est, ampla torvo 
Atria prseteriisse vultu. 
Abscissa crines, et viduos parens 
Amplexa postes diripuit sinus, 
Ca3lumque complevit querelis, 
Nee tenuit moritura natum." 

Wallius, p. 320. 

\_English Music at the end of the Sixteenth 
Rosseter, the lutenist, in the Preface to 
his Book of Airs, 1601, expresses his dislike 
of those " who to appear the more deep and 
singular in their judgement, will admit of 
no music but that which is long, intricate, 
bated with fugue, chained with syncojiation, 
and where the nature of the word is pre- 
cisely expressed in the note ; like the old 



exploded action in comedies ; when, if they 
did pronounce memini^ they ■would point to 
the hinder part of their heads ; if video, put 
their finger in their eye." — SiK John Haw- 
kins, Histo7-y of Music, vol. 4, p. 29. 

\_Effect of Climate upon Timber Trees.'] 

" Though in the western parts it have 
been observed, that generally the inside, or 
heart as they call it, of trees, is harder than 
the outward parts, yet (Fournier) an author 
very well versed in such matters, gives it us 
for a very important advertisement touch- 
ing that matter, that they have observed at 
Marseilles, and all along the Levantine 
shores, that that part of the wood that is 
next the bark, is stronger than that which 
makes the heart of the tree." — Boyle, vol. 
1, p. 226. 

[ Uncertainty of Medical Experiments.] 

" And indeed in physic it is much more 
difficult than most men can imagine, to make 
an accurate experiment : for oftentimes the 
same disease proceeding in several persons 
from quite differing causes, will be increased 
in one by the same remedy by which it has 
been cured in another. And not only the 
constitutions of patients may as much alter 
the effects of remedies, as the causes of dis- 
eases ; but even in the same patient, and 
the same disease, the single circumstance 
of time may have almost as great an opera- 
tion upon the success of a medicine, as either 
of the two former particulars." — Boyle, vol. 
1, p. 222. 

" Besides the general uncertainty to 
which most remedies are subject, there are 
some few that seem obnoxious to contin- 
gencies of a peculiar nature ; such is the 
Sympathetic Powder, of which not only 
divers physicians and other sober persons 
have assured me they had successfully made 
trial, but we ourselves have thought that 
we were eye-witnesses of the operation of 

it ; and yet, not only many, that have tried 
it, have not found it answer expectation ; 
but we ourselves trying ^ome of our own 
preparing on ourselves, have found it in- 
effectual, and unable to stop so much as 
a bleeding at the nose ; though iipon appli- 
cation of it a little before, we had seen such 
a bleeding, though violent, suddenly stopped 
in a person, who was so far from contributing 
by his imagination to the effect of the pow- 
der, that he derided those whom he saw 
apply it to some of the drops of his blood. 
Wherefore that the Sympathetic Powder, 
and the Weapon Salve, are never of any 
efficacy at all, I dare not affirm : but that 
they constantly perform what is promised 
of them, I must leave others to believe." — 
Boyle ( Of Unsucceediiig Experiments) ,yo\. 
1, p. 222. 

{^Petrifaction versus Mineral Vegetation.] 

" Perhaps it might seem rash to deny a 
petrifaction of animals and vegetables, so 
many instances being alleged on all hands 
by judicious persons attesting it ; though I 
cannot say, that my own observations have 
ever yet presented me with an ocular evi- 
dence of the thing : I only find, that the 
thing supposed to be petrified, becomes first 
crusted over with a stony concretion, and 
aftei'wards, as that rots away inwardly, the 
lapidescent juice insinuates itself by degrees 
into its room, and makes at last a firm stone, 
resembling the thing in shape ; which may 
lead some to believe it really petrified. But 
though a real petrifaction were alloAved in 
some cases, it would not be rational to plead 
this in all the figured stones we see, on 
account of the many grounds we have for 
the contrary. But I take these to be the 
chief reasons which make some so ready to 
embrace so generally this conceit of petri- 
faction ; because they are prepossessed with 
an opinion against the vegetation of all 
stones, and for that they think it impossible 
for nature to express the shapes of plants 
and animals where the vegetative life is 
wanting, this being a fiiculty peculiarly be- 



longing to that soul ; whei-eas they seem to 
err in both ; for, as what has been said con- 
cerning our stone-])lants may suffice to pi'ove 
their vegetation, so it will be as easy to show 
that nature can and does work the shapes 
of plants and animals without the help of a 
vegetative soul, at least as it is shut up in 
common seeds and organs. To be satisfied 
of this, let them view the figurations in 
snow ; let them view those delicate land- 
scapes which are very frequently found 
depicted on stones, carrying the resemblance 
of whole groves of trees, mountains, and 
valleys, &c. : let them descend into coal- 
mines, where generally with us the clifts 
near the coal are all wrought with curious 
representations of several sorts of herbs, 
some exactly resembling fern-branches, and 
therefore by our miners called the fern- 
branch cleft ; some resembling the leaves of 
sorrel, and several strange herbs, which per- 
haps the known vegetable kingdom cannot 
parallel ; and though it could, here can be 
no coloui' for a petrifaction, it being only a 
superficial delineation. The like may be 
said of animals, which are often found de- 
picted on stones ; as all mineral histories 
will sufiiciently Inform them. Now since 
here is no place for petrifaction, or a vege- 
tative soul, we can only say, that here is 
that seminal root, though hindered by the 
unaptness of the place to proceed to give 
these things a principle of life in themselves, 
which in the first generation of things made 
all plants, and I may say animals, rise up In 
their distinct species, God commanding the 
earth and waters to produce both, as some 
plants and animals rise up still in certain 
places without any common seed. 

" It seems to be a thing of a very difiicult 
search, to find what this seminal root is, 
which is the efficient cause of these figures. 
Many of the ancients thought it to be some 
outward mover which wrought the figures 
In things for some end ; the Peripatetics 
rather judged It to be some virtue Implanted 
in the seed, and in substances having an 
analogous nature with the seed, &c. &c." — 
Philosophical Transactions, vol. 2, p. 351. 

IMusic in Speech.^ 

" Sitting in some company, and having 
been but a little before musical, I chanced 
to take notice that In ordinary discourse 
words were spoken in perfect notes ; and 
that some of the company used eighths, 
some fifths, some thirds ; and that those 
were most pleasing, whose words, as to their 
tone, consisted most of concords ; and where 
of discords, of such as constituted harmony ; 
and the same person was the most affable, 
pleasant, and the best-natured in the com- 
pany. And this suggests a reason why many 
discourses which one hears with much plea- 
sure, when they come to be read scarcely 
seem the same things. 

" From this difference of music In speech, 
we may also conjecture that of tempers. 
We know the Doric mood sounds gravity 
and sobriety ; the Lydian, freedom ; the 
iEolic, sweet stillness and composure ; the 
Phrygian, jollity and youthfid levity ; the 
Ionic sooths the storms and disturbances 
arising from passion. And why may we not 
reasonably suppose that those whose speech 
naturally runs into the notes peculiar to 
any of these moods, are likewise in dispo- 
sition ? 

" So also from the cliff : as he that speaks 
in gamut, to be manly ; C Fa Ut may show 
one to be of an ordinary capacity, though 
good disposition ; G Sol Ke Ut, to be 
peevish and effeminate, and of a weak and 
timorous sjili-it ; sharps, an effeminate sad- 
ness ; flats, a manly or melancholic sadness. 
He who has a voice in some measure agree- 
ing with all cliffs, seems to be of good parts 
and fit forvarlety of employments, yet some- 
what of an inconstant nature. Likewise 
from the times : so seml^rlefs may bespeak 
a temper dull and phlegmatic ; minims, 
grave and serious ; crochets, a prompt wit ; 
quavers, veliemency of passion, and used 
by scolds. Semlbrlef-rest may denote one 
either stupid, or fuller of thoughts than he 
can utter ; minim-rest, one that deliberates ; 
cix)chet-rest, one In a passion. So that 
from the natural use of mood, note, and 



time, we may collect dispositions." — Philo- 
sophical Transactions, vol. 2, p. 441. 

[^Public Exercising Grounds necessary to the 
Health of Cities. ~\ 

" In all large and well regulated cities, 
there ought to be play-grounds or places 
for public exercise, where labourers, and 
people Avho work at particular trades, might 
assemble at certain hours for recreation, and 
amuse themselves with walking or other 
healthful exercises, in order to prevent those 
diseases which may arise from the usual 
posture required in their business, if con- 
tinued without remission, or any relaxation 
or change. 

" The general decay of those manly and 
spirited exercises which formerly were 
practised in the metropolis and its vicinity, 
has not arisen from any want of inclination 
in the people, but from the want of j^laces 
for that purpose. Such as in times past had 
been allotted to them, are now covered with 
buildings or shut up by enclosures ; so that, 
if it were not for skittles, and the like pas- 
times, they would have no amusements 
connected with the exercise of the body ; 
and such amusements are only to be met 
with in places belonging to common drink- 
ing-houses ; for which reason their play is 
seldom productive of much benefit, but more 
frequently becomes the prelude to di'unken- 
ness and debauchery. Honest Stow, in his 
Survey of London, laments the retrench- 
ments of the grounds appropriated for mar- 
tial pastimes, which had begun to take place 
even in his day." — Sir John Sinclair's 
Code of Health and Longevity, p. 292. 

\_Power of Music to inspire Devotion.^ 

" That there is a tendency in music," 
says Sir John Hawkins, " to excite grave 
and even devout as well as lively and mirth- 
ful affections, no one can doubt who is not 
an absolute stranger to its efficacy : and 
though it may jjerhaps be said that the 

effects of music are mechanical, and that 
there can be nothing pleasing to God in that 
devotion which follows the involuntary ope- 
ration of sound on the human mind ; this is 
more than can be proved, and the scripture 
seems to indicate the contrary." — History 
of Music, vol. 4, p. 42. 

\^Intelligihle versus Obscure Philosophy.'] 

Writing to Mersennus concerning his 
controversy with Fludd, Gassendi says, "He 
will have one great advantage over you ; 
namely, that whereas yovrr philosophy is of 
a plain, open, intelligible kind ; his, on the 
contrary, is so very obscure and mysterious, 
that he can at any time conceal himself, and 
by diffusing a darkness round him, hinder 
you from discerning him so far as to lay 
liold of him, much less to drag him forth to 
conviction." — Sir John Hawkins, History 
of Music, vol. 4, p. 167. 

[^Organ Music] 

Sir John Hawkins says,Frescobaldi may 
be deemed " the father of that organ-style 
which has prevailed not less in England 
than in other countries for more than a 
hundred years past ; and which consists in 
a prompt and ready discussion of some pre- 
meditated subject, in a quicker succession of 
notes than is required in the accompaniment 
of choral harmony. Exercises of this kind 
on the organ are usually called Toccatas, 
from the Italian toccare, to touch ; and for 
want of a better word to express them, they 
are here in England called Voluntaries." — 
History of Music, vol. 4, p. 175. 

{Metrical Hair-dressing.] 

" Gaudent complures membrorum fric- 
tione et pectinationecapillorum; verumha'c 
ipsa multo magis juvant si balnearii et ton- 
sores adeo in arte sua fuerint pcriti, ut 
quosvisetiam numeros suis possintexplicarc 


digitis. Non semel recordor me in ejus- 
modi incidisse manus, qui quorumvis etiam 
canticorum motus suis imitarentur pectini- 
bus, ita ut nonnunquain iambos vel tro- 
cha'os, alias dactylos vel anapjestos, non- 
nunquain aniphibraches aut pseonas quam 
scitissimc exprimerent, unde baud raodica 
oriebatur delectatio." — Isaac Vossius, De 
Pocwatum Cantu et Viribus Rhijthmi, — 
quoted by Sir John Hawkins, History of 
Music, vol. 4, p. 275. 

[ Use of Self -Knowledge. '\ 

" Study in particular your own heart," 
says IMr. Freeman of New England, in one 
of his Ordination Charges : " for as the 
essential principles of human nature are 
probably the same in all, by knowing your- 
self well, you will become intimately ac- 
quainted with other men. "When you observe 
your own defects in knowledge and virtue, 
you will learn at the same time humility 
and candour. But you will in particular, 
from the consciousness that you are not 
yourself inclined to every thing which is 
evil, acquire a sobriety and moderation in 
your thoughts and representations of man- 
kind, which will for ever prevent you from 
introducing those exaggerated descriptions 
of the vicious, which deserve to be con- 
sidered only as theological romances, as they 
are derived not from real life, but from an 
excited imagination, ever fond of leaping 
over the bounds of truth and nature, and of 
penetrating into the land of gorgons and 
demons." — Freeman's Sermons, p. 262. 

\_Idleness generating Melancholy. '\ 

" Amongst us the badge of gentry is 
idleness ; to be of no calling, not to labour, 
for that's derogatory to their birth ; to be a 
mere spectator, a drone, frnges consumere 
natus ; to have no necessary employment to 
busy himself about in Church and Common- 
wealth (some few governors exempted), 
but to rise to eat, &c. ; to spend his days in 

hawking, hunting, &c. and such like disports 
and recreations (which our casuists tax) ; 
are the sole exercise almost, and ordinary 
actions of our Nobility, and in which they 
are too immoderate. And thence it comes 
to pass, that in city and country so many 
grievances of body and mind, and this ferall 
disease of melancholy so frequently rageth, 
and now domineers almost all over Europe 
amongst our great ones." — Burton's Ana- 
tomy of Melancholy, p. 263. 

'[Temptations of Clergymen.^ 

" Though your profession exempts you 
from many temptations," says an American 
Unitarian, in an Ordination Charge, " yet 
there are some to which it is peculiarly ex- 
posed. Know your danger, and carefully 
guard your heart. The vices and follies to 
which clergymen are most prone, are in- 
dolence, vanity, haughtiness, the love of 
popularity and the love of dominion, envy, 
flattery of the rich and great, dishonest 
compliances with the prejudices of men, and 
a bitter and uncharitable zeal. It will de- 
mand the most heroic exertions, and the 
most ardent prayers, to keep yourself en- 
tirely free from the contagion of these sins." 
— Freeman's Sermons, p. 250. 

\Iluinous Luxury in Dress."] 

" There are some of you, 
Whom I forbear to name,whose coining heads 
Are the mints of all new fashions, that have 

INIore hurt to the kingdom by superfluous 

Which the foolish gentry imitate, than a war 
Or a long famine. All the treasure, by 
This foul excess, is got into the merchant. 
Embroiderer, silkman, jeweller, tailor's 

hand ; 
And the third part of the land too, the nobility 
Engrossing titles only." 

Massinger, The Picture, p. 148. 



[^Uncertainties in Warfm-e.'] 

" In nessun' altra cosa 1' uom piii erra, 
Piglia piugranchj, e fa maggior marroni, 

Certo, die ne le cose de la giierra : 
Quivi perdon la serima le ragioni ; 

E questo perche Dio getta per terra 
I discorsi e 1' umane opinioni ; 

E vuol clie sol da liii riconosciamo 

Tutto quel clie da iioi far ci pensiamo." 
Bebni, Orlando Innamorato., canto 15, 
Stan. 3, — torn. 2, p. 29. 

[Fallibility of Human Judgements.^ 

" In questa mortal vita fastidiosa, 
Fra r altre cose che ci accade fare, 

Una non solamente faticosa, 
E di difficulta piena mi pare, 

Ma bene spesso ancor pericolosa, 

E piena d' odlo ; e questa e '1 giudicare ; 

Che se fatto non e discretamente, 

Del suo giudicio 1' uom spesso si pente. 

Vuol' esser la sentenzia ben matura, 
E da lungo discorso esaminata ; 

Ke la bisogna far per conjettura, 

Che quasi sempre inganna la brigata : 

E pero in molti luoghi la scrittura 
Con gran solennita ce 1' ha vietata. 

E certo io son di quel parere anch' io, 

Che '1 flir giudicio appartien solo a Dio." 
Berni, Orlando InimmorutOi canto 3, 
Stan. 1-2. 

[Happiness of the Poor in escaping the 

" Happt are poor men ! 
If sick with the excess of heat or cold, 
Caused by necessitous labour, not loose sur- 
feits, — 
They, when spare diet, or kind nature, fail 
To perfect their recovery, soon arrive at 
Their rest in death : but, on the contrary, 
The great and noble are exposed as preys 
To the rapine of physicians ; and they. 

In lingering out what is remediless. 
Aim at their profit, not the patient's health." 
Massingee, Emperor of the East, — 
vol. 3, p. 316. 

[Soul and Body.'] 

" The body is domicilium animee, her 
house, abode, and stay ; and as a torch 
gives a better light, a sweeter smell, ac- 
cording to the matter it is made of, so doth 
our soul jJerform all her actions better or 
worse, as her organs are disposed : or as 
w ine savours of the cask wherein it is kept, 
the soul receives a tincture from the body 
through which it works." — Burton's Ana- 
tomy of Melancholy, p. 173. 

[A Suicidal Maniac through Religious Me- 

" Please it your most noble Grace to be 
advertised, that upon Friday last passed, 
one called John Millis of Chevenyng, opened 
a book in the church, wherein he found this 
schedule which I send now unto your Grace 
herein enclosed, in the which is written 
' Rex tanquam tyrannus opprimit populum 
suum.' Then the said John JVIilles called 
two or three of his neighbours unto him, 
and consulted whose hand the said writing 
should be of, but they could not divine who 
did write it ; howbeit they suspect one Sir 
Thomas Baschurche, priest, sometime secre- 
tary unto the Bishoj) of Canterbury my 
jiredecessor, whom I suppose your Grace 
doth know. This same day in the morning, 
tlie said Sir Thomas of his own mind came 
unto the foresaid John Myles, and confessed 
the same schedule to be of his making and 

" Here I have showed unto your Grace 
the said Sir Thomas' fact and his confession, 
according as by mine allegiance and oath I 
am bounden. If it please the same to hear 
also some of his qualities, I shall inform 
your Grace, partly as I know, and partly 
as I am informed. 



" At April next coming it shall be tbree 
years since the said Sir Thomas fell into 
despair, and thereby into a sickness so that 
he was in peril of death. Of his sickness, 
within a quarter of a year after, he recovered ; 
but of his despair he never yet recovered, 
but saith he is assured that he shall be per- 
petually damned. My chaplains, and divers 
other learned men, have reasoned with him, 
but no man can bring liim in other opinion, 
but tliat he, like unto Esau, was created 
unto damnation ; and hath divers times and 
sundry ways attempted to kill himself, but 
by diligent looking unto he hath hitherto 
been preserved. A little before Christmas 
last, as I am credibly informed by honest 
men of the same parish, a priest deceived 
him of twenty nobles, and ever since he 
hath been much worse than ever he was 
before ; so that upon St. Thomas' Day in 
Christmas he had almost hanged himself 
with his own tippet, and said to certain 
persons the same day, as soon as high mass 
was done he would proclaim your Grace a 
traitor, which nevertheless he did not. And 
within this ten or twelve days he had almost 
slain himself with a penknife. And this same 
day in the morning, when he confessed the 
foresaid schedule to be made and written by 
him, John Mylles said unto him, that he 
supposed your Grace would pardon his 
offence, considering what case he was in. 
Then he in a rage said, ' If I cannot be rid 
this way, I shall be rid another way.' " — 
Cranmer's Wo?'ks, vol. 1, p. 159. 

l^A Letter of Recommendation from Cran- 
mer to CromwellJ] 

" Mt very singidar good Lord, after most 
hearty recommendations to your Lordship, 
I desire you to be good lord to this bearer, 
an old acquaintance of mine in Cambridge, 
a man of good learning in divers kinds of 
letters, but specially in the Latin tongue, 
in the which he hath obtained excellent 
knowledge by long exercise of reading elo- 
quent authors, and also of teaching, both 

in the University, and now in Ludlow 
where he was born. His purpose is, for 
causes moving his conscience (which he hath 
opened to me and will also to your Lord- 
ship), to renounce his priesthood ; whereby 
he feareth (the rawness and ignorance of 
the people is such in those parts) that he 
should lose his salary whereof he should live, 
except he have your Lordship's help. Where- 
fore, I beseech your Lordship to write for 
him your letters to the Warden of the Guild 
there and his brethren, who hath the col- 
lation of the said school, that he may con- 
tinue in his room and be schoolmaster still, 
notwithstanding that he left the office of 
priesthood, which was no furtherance, but 
rather an imjiediment to him in the apply- 
ing of his scholars. There is no foundation 
nor ordinance, as he showeth me, that the 
schoolmaster thereof should be a priest. 
And I beseech you to be good lord unto 
him in any farther suit which he shall have 
unto your Lordship. Thus Almighty God 
long preserve your Lordship. At Lambeth, 
the XXV th day of August. 

" Yoiu' own ever assured, 

" T. Cantiiarien." 
Cranmer's Works, vol. 1, p. 265. 

\_A curious Effect of Electricity on the 

" Mr. Haward, a very credible person, 
tells me, that being once master of a ship 
in a voyage to Barbadoes, in company with 
another commanded by one Grofton, of New- 
England, in the latitude of Bermudas they 
were suddenly alarmed with a terrible clap 
of thunder, which broke INIr. Grofton's fore- 
mast, tore his sails and damaged his rigging. 
But that after the noise and confusion were 
past, ]VIi\ Haward, to whom the thunder 
had been more favourable, was, however, 
no less surprised to see his companion's ship 
steer directly homeward again. At first he 
thought that they had mistook their course, 
and that they would soon perceive their 
error ; but seeing them persist in it, and 
being by this time almost out of call, he 

■25 i 


tacked and stood after them ; and as soon 
as he got near enough to be well under- 
stood, asked where they were gohig : but 
by their answer, which imported that they 
had no other design than the prosecution of 
their former intended voyage, and by the 
sequel of their discourse, it at last appeared 
that ]Mi-. Grofton did indeed steer by the 
right point of his compass, but that the card 
was turned round, tlie north and south 
points having changed positions; and though 
with his finger he brought the fleur-de-lys 
to point dii-ectly north, it would immedi- 
ately, as soon as at liberty, return to this 
new unusual posture ; and on examination 
he found every compass in the ship altered 
in the same manner : which strange and 
sudden accident he could impute to nothing 
else but the operation of the lightning or 
thunder just-mentioned. He adds, that 
those compasses never, to his knowledge, 
recovered their right positions again." — 
Philosophical Transactions, vol. 2,. p. 309. 

l_Watts on Everlasting Punishment.^ 

" Were I to pursue my enquiries into 
this doctrine, only by the lights of nature 
and reason, I fear my natural tenderness 
might warp me aside from the rules and 
the demands of strict justice, and the wise 
and holy government of the great God. 
But as I confine myself almost entirely to 
the revelation of Scripture in all my 
searches into things of revealed religion 
and Christianity, I am constrained to for- 
get, or to lay aside, that softness and ten- 
derness of animal nature which might lead 
me astray, and to follow the unerring dic- 
tates of the Word of God. — 

" I must confess here, if it were possible 
for the great and blessed God any other 
way to vindicate his own eternal and un- 
changeable hatred of sin, the inflexible 
justice of his government, the wisdom of 
liis severe threatenings, and the veracity of 
his preflictions ; if it were also possible for 
him, without this terrible execution, to 

vindicate the veracity, sincerity, an 1 avIs- 
dom of the prophets and apostles, and 
Jesus Christ his son, the greatest and 
chiefest of his divine messengers ; and then 
if the blessed God should at any timi, in a 
consistence with his glorious and incompre- 
hensible perfections, release those wretched 
creatures from their acute pains and long 
imprisonment in hell, either with a design 
of the utter destruction of their beings by 
annihilation, or to put them into some un- 
known world, upon a new foot of trial ; I 
think I ought cheerfully and joyfully to 
accept this appointment of God, for the 
good of millions of my fellow-creatures, 
and add my joys and j^raises to all the songs 
and triumjihs of the heavenly world, in the 
day of such a divine and glorious release 
of these prisoners. 

" But I feel myself under a necessity of 
confessing, that I am utterly unable to solve 
these difficulties according to the discove- 
ries of the New Testament, which must be 
my constant rule of faith, and hope, and 
expectation, with regard to myself and 
others. I have read the strongest and best 
writers on the other side ; yet after all my 
studies, I have not been able to find any 
way how these difficulties may be removed, 
and how the divine perfections, and the con- 
duct of God in his Word, may be fairly vin- 
dicated without the establishhient of this 
doctrine, as aweful and formidable as it is. 

" The ways, indeed, of the great God, and 
' his thoughts, ai'e above our thoughts and 
our ways, as the heavens are above the 
earth : ' yet I must rest and acquiesce where 
our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father's chief 
minister, both of his will and his love, has 
left me, in the divine revelations of scripture. 
And I am constrained, therefore, to leave 
these unhappy creatures under the chains 
of everlasting dai-kness into which they have 
cast themselves by their wilful iniquities, 
till the blessed God shall see fit to release 

"This would be indeed such a new, such 
an astonishing and universal jubilee, botli 
for devils and wicked men, as must fill 


heaven, earth, and hell, with hallelujahs and 
joy. In the mean time, it is my ardent 
wish that this awef ul scene of the terrors of 
the Almighty and his everlasting anger, 
which the word of the great God denounces, 
may awaken some souls timely to bethink 
themselves of the dreadful danger into 
which they are running, before these ter- 
rors seize them at death, and begin to be 
executed upon them without release and 
without hope." — Watts, Preface to the 
Second Volume of his Discourses on the 
World to Come. 

[^Grafting of Fruit-trees.'] 

" To make fruits of very different na- 
tures be nourished prosperously by the 
same stock, is so difficult a thing," says 
BoTLE, " that we can at most but reckon 
it among contingent experiments. For 
though Pliny and Baptista Porta relate 
their having seen, each of them, an example 
of the possibility of producing on one tree 
great variety of differing fruits ; and though 
such a person as the deservedly-famous 
astronomer. Dr. Ward, assures me that 
he has particularly talcen notice of pears 
growing upon an apple-tree, — yet certainly 
this experiment has been for the most part 
but very unprosperously attempted ; nor 
have I yet ever seen it succeed above once, 
though tried with very much care and in- 
dustry."— Vol. 1, p. 216. 

\_Advantages of Archery over Musquetry.'} 

"We are told by most writers, that in 
this fight the English arrows fell so thick 
among the French, and did so sting, tor- 
ment, and fright them, that many men, 
rather than endure them, leapt desperately 
into the sea : to which the words of this 
jester no doubt alluded. And without all 
question, the guns which are used now-a- 
days, are neither so terrible in battle, nor 
do such execution, nor work such confu- 

sion, as arrows can do : for bullets, being 
not seen, only hurt where they hit ; but 
arrows enrage the horse, and break the ar- 
ray, and terrify all that behold them in the 
bodies of their neighbours : not to say, that 
every archer can shoot thrice to a gunner's 
once, and that whole squadrons of bows 
may let fly at one time, when only one or 
two files of musqueteers can discharge at 
once ; also, that whereas guns are useless 
when your pikes join, because they only do 
execution point-blank, the arrows, which 
will kill at random, may do good service 
even behind your men-at-arms : And it is 
notorious, that at the famous Battle of Le- 
panto, the Turkish bows did more mischief 
than the Christian artillery. Besides, it is 
not the least observable, that whereas the 
weakest may use guns as well as the 
strongest, — in those days your lusty and 
tall yeomen were chosen for the bow ; whose 
hose being fastened with one point, and 
their jackets long and easy to shoot in, they 
had their limbs at full liberty, so that they 
might easily draw bows of great strength, 
and shoot arrows of a yard long beside 
the head." — Joshua Barnes, p. 185. 

[^Defective Identification in Parish Re- 

" There is no difficulty in Mr. Smith, or 
Mr. Brown, or Mr. Jones, of Parliament- 
Street or Charing-Cross, making himself 
descended from almost any Smith, Brown 
or Jones in the kingdom ; because the name 
is so common, that as far as parish registers 
are concerned, parties of such names can 
find in nearly every parish entries which 
will answer for their parents ; and in con- 
sequence of the before-named deficiency of 
identity, the great efforts which have been 
made for the Angel estate, and for the 
estates of the late Mr. Jones (which latter 
case was tried at Shrewsbury within the 
last three or four years), have had great 
encouragement ; because the parties, in one 
case by industry, and in the other case 



from the name of Jones being so common, 
had no difficulty to prove a descent by 
means of parochial registers : but had the 
parochial registers contained an identifica- 
tion (which is most simply to be done), 
none of those attempts which have failed for 
the Jones estates, or for the Angel estate, 
would have been brought into court ; and 
much perjury, much wickedness, and great 
expense, would have been avoided : the 
Jones case was attended with ruin to a 
great many poor families, who, believing 
in the representation of the claimant, mort- 
gaged and sold their property, and handed 
it over to the claimant to go to the Shrews- 
bury assizes to prove his case ; and I know 
it was a mistaken case (not to use a stronger 
term) ; they brought the papers into my 
office, and it was evident they were under 
an erroneous impression." — Report on Pa- 
rochial Registration, p. 114. 

\_Confused History of the Wars between the 
Anglo-Saxons and the Danes.^ 

" As soon as the Saxons had ended their 
travails with the Brittains, and drew to 
settling of a monarchy, the Danes, as if 
ordained to revenge their slaughters, began 
to assault them with the like afflictions. 
The long, the many, and horrible encoun- 
ters between these two fierce nations, with 
the bloodshed and infinite spoils committed 
in every part of the land, ai-e of so disor- 
dered and troublous memory, that what 
with their asperous names, together with 
the confusion of places, times, and persons, 
intricately delivered, is yet a war to the 
reader to overlook them." — Daniel, p. 12. 

'[Dangers to Agriculture from War.'] 

Even in the most peaceful age of the 
world, ;Maximus Tykius expatiates upon 
the dangers to which the cultivator was 
exposed : Y[oi tiq rpuTrrjrai, ttov ti<; evfn] 
yewpylav a.a<p(iXel ; — Mrj yewpye/, civOpuj- 

Tre, ea njy yi]v uKaWwiri'^ov, av\fJu>(Tai'' 
'^aaiv Kii'elc, Tr6\ij.tov Kivfic. (Dissert. 
xiii.) ' Whither may any one turn Avhere 
he can find agriculture safe ? — O man ! 
cultivate not the ground ; let it lie neg- 
lected and waste, miless you would stir up 
contention, unless you would stir up war.' 
— This, indeed, occurs in a declamation ; 
but it is not disputed in the counter-de- 
clamation which follows it. 

\_Book- Coverings for Henry the Fifth.'] 


" Pro Coopertnris Librorum Regis. 

" Eidem Domino Regi, in Cameram 
suam, ad cooperturas diversorvun librorum 
Domini nostri Regis, et cum bagges coope- 
ricnd. in pann. velvet, adaurat. seric. plan, 
et motle, pann. baldek adaurat. et linand. 
cum satyn, diversor. color, de mandato 
Domini Regis. 

1 pec. 6 uln. velvet, plan. 

1 uln. velvet motle. 

2 pec. 3i uln. velvet adaurat. 

1 pann. 2i uln. baldek. adaurat. 
9 pec. 42 uln. satyn." 

Rymeb, vol. 9, p. 335. 

[Royal Phy.ncians and Surgeons in the 
Fifteenth Century.] 

De ministrando medicinas circa personam 

" Rex, dilectis sibi, Magistris, Johanni 
Arundell, Johanni Faceby, et Willielmo 
HatclyfF, Medicis, Magistro Roberto Wa- 
reyn, et Johanni Marchall, Chirurgicis, 

" Sciatis quod, 

" Ciim Nos adversa valetudine, ex visita- 
tione divina, corporaliter laboremus, k qua 
Nos, ciim Ei placuerit, qui est omnium vera 
Salus, liberari posse speramus ; propterea, 
juxta consilium ecclesiastic;-' coissultoris. 



quia nolumus abliorrere Medicinam quam 
pro subveniendis humanis languoribus ore- 
avit Altissimus de ejus salutari subsidio ; 
ac de fidelitate, scientia et circumspectione 
vestris plenius confidentes : 

" De avisamento et assensu ConcUil nos- 
tri, assignavimus vos conjunctim et divisini 
ad libere ministrandum et exequendum in 
et circa Personam nostram ; 

"Imprimis (videlicet) quod licite valeatis 
moderare Nobis dietam juxta discretiones 
vestras, et casus exigentiam ; 

" Et quod, in regimine mediclnalium, li- 
bere Xobis possitis ministrare Electuaria, 
Potiones, Aquas, Sirupos, confectiones, Lax- 
ativas Medicinas in quacumque forma Xobis 
gratiore, et ut vidcbitur plus expedire, 
Clisturia Suppositoria, Caput purgia Garga- 
risiuata, Balnea, vel universalia vel particu- 
hiria, Epithimata, Fomentationes, Embroca- 
tiones, Capitis rasuram, Unctiones, Emplas- 
tra, Cerota, Yentosas cum scarificatione vel 
sine, Emeroidarum provocationes, modis 
quibus meliiis ingetuare poteritis, et juxta 
consilia peritorum Medicorum, qui in hoc 
casu scripserunt, vel imposterum scribent ; 

" Et ideo vobis, et cuilibet vestrum 
mandamus quod circa praemissa diligenter 
intendatis, et ea faciatis et exequamiui in 
forma praedicta : 

" Damns autem unlrersis et singidis fide- 
libus et ligeis nostris, quorum interest, in 
hac parte, firmiter in mandatis, quod vo- 
bis, in executione pra*missorum, pareant et 
intendant, ut est justum. 

" Li cujus, &c. 

" Teste Eege, apud Westraonasterium,