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COMMON SCHOOL 

Examiner and Review, 

A COLLECTION OP QUESTIONS USED BY 

STATE, COUNTY AND CITY SUPERINTENDENTS 



IN THE EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS ; ANSAVERED 
IN THE CLEAREST AND BRIEFEST MANNER. 



DESIGNED FOR 

EXAMINERS, TEACHERS, PUPILS AND INSTITUTE 
CONDUCTORS. 



I. H. BROWlSr, 

'I 



PRICE, ONE DOLLAR. 



ST. LOUIS: 
I. 11. BROWN & CO. 

1888. 






Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1887, by 

I. H. BROWN, 

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C 



Press of BecktoJd (^ Co., 

Nixon- Jonea Book Manujaclurers. 

Printing Company. 



L^ 



mis 



FA.GE. 

Arithmetic, Questions on 33 

Arithmetic, Answers to Questions on 43 

Botany, Questions on 259 

Botany, Answers to Questions on 264 

Civil Government, Questions on 240 

Civil Government, Answers to Questions on . . . . 245 

Geogi-aphy, General Questions on , .... . 100 

Geography, General Answers to Questions on ... 119 

Geography, Physical, Questions on 162 

Geography, Physical, AnsAvers to Questions .... 157 

Grammar, Questions on 65 

Grammar, Answers to Questions on 76 

History of U. S., Questions on 175 

History of U. S., Answers to Questions on ... . 194 

Orthography, Questions on 8 

Orthography, Answers to Questions on 11 

Penmanship, Questions on ....... 28 

Penmanship, Answers to Questions on 30 

Philosophy, Questions on 327 

Philosophy, Answers to Questions on 334 

Physiology, Questions on .,.•... . 278 

Physiology, Answers to Questions on 284 

Reading, Questions on 18 

Reading, Answers to Questions on 21 

Rules Governing Examinations 5 

Suggestions by the Author 7 

Theory and Practice of Teaching, Questions on . . . 343 

Theory and Practice of Teaching, Answers to Questions on . 353 

Zoology, Questions on 302 

Zoology, Answers to Questions on 308 

(3) 



00150 



TO THE PUBLIC. 



The favor with which former editions of the COMMON SCHOOL 
EXAMINER AND REVIEW has beeu received justifies the Pub- 
lishers ia adding Theory and Practice of Teaching to the list of 
subjects. 

As in the preparation of other branches, a wide field has been 
culled for suitable matter. The questious are those used by Insti- 
tute Conductors, County and City Superintendents in the exam- 
ination of teachers. 

An effort has been made to include only those questions whose 
answering would occasion some difficulty. 

The work as now presented is peculiarly adapted to the use of 

1. Candidates preparing for teacher's examination. 

2. Scliolars reviewing branches of school study. 

3. Institute Conductors desirous of securing the best results 
in the shortest time. 

SENT POST-PAID TO ANT ADDRESS ON RECEIPT OF $1. 

Address all orders to 

I. H. BROWN & CO., 

8t. Louis, Mo. 



COMMON SCHOOL 
EXAMINER AND REVIEW. 



RTTLES GOVERNING EXAMINATIONS. 

The following rules will give the candidate an idea of the regula- 
tions governing examinations in different States, Counties, and 
Cities. 

1. The object of this examination is to ascertain 
your knowledge of the subjects required by law, and 
your ability to present their principles correctly and 
clearly : the result of the examination depends upon 
your success in showing these conditions. 

2. Provide yourself with paper, pens, and ink. 

3. Be prepared to begin each subject at the time 
appointed. 

4. No reference books or notes will be permitted in 
the examination room. 

5 



6 RULES GOVERNING EXAMINATIONS. 

5. Do not communicate during the examination in 
any manner with any one except the examiner : the 
papers of those who violate this rule will not be exam- 
ined. 

6. Number and letter your answers to correspond 
with the questions and their subdivisions. 

7. Write in a legible hand : no time can be spent in 
deciphering ambiguous expressions ; — all such will be 
considered as evidence of the writer's inability to spell 
or to use them correctly, and will be charged to his 
spelling and grammar. 

8. Let every answer be clear, definite, and com- 
plete. 

9. Divide your work into paragraphs, so that each 
answer shall stand out prominently. 

10. If you do not understand a question, raise your 
hand for an explanation. 

11. Pass such questions as you cannot answer, leav- 
ing a blank space numbered according to the place it 
occupies. t 

12. Ask no indulgences or allowances: such a re- 
quest implies presumptive deficiency. 

13. Absence, except in case of sickness,- will debar 
the candidate from examination in the branch of study 
missed. 

14. Fold your completed paper, and write your 
name and subject on the back. [Some examiners re- 
quire the number by which candidates are designated 
to be written on the papers.] 



RULES GOVERNING EXAMINATIONS. 



Suggestions by tlie Author. 

1. Observe propriety in dress, manner, and behavior: a fop, 
clown, or a boor is out of place in the school room. 

2. Any unfairness in obtaining answers deprives the candidate of 
the first condition required for a certificate — moral character. 
Be above suspicion. 

S. The only favors you should expect will be of the nature of a 
premium for the neatness, order, and promptness you exhibit. 

4. Examine the paper given you, answering mentally the ques- 
tions with which you are familiar before committing anything to 
paper. 

5. Examiners take nothing for granted: be explicit. 

6. Examiners' impressions decide all doubtful answers: they 
reason that what you know you can explain clearly. 

7. Keep your manuscript till it is called for. See that it contains 
no errors which you can correct. 

8. The minimum of speech during recesses, will give you the 
maximum of intellectual power when wanted. 

9. To avoid embarrassment, the respiration should be full, deep, 
and vigorous. 



QUESTIONS ON ORTHOGR.^JPHY. 

1. Define the following terms: (a) Orthography, 
(6) Phonology, (c) Orthoepy, (d) letter, (e) Elemen- 
tary Sound. 

2. (a) How many elementary sounds does the Eng- 
lish language contain? (b) How divided? 

3. Name the voice-producing organs. 

4. Name the organs employed in speech. 

5. Into what two classes are letters divided? 

6. Into what classes are the consonants divided ac- 
cording to the organs employed in their production? 

7. (a) What are sub vocals? (5) Name them. 

8. (rt) Wliat are aspirates? (b) Name them. 

9. Name the consonant combinations. 

10. Define the following terms: (a) cognates, (b) 
liquids, (c) coalescents, (d) explodents, (e) continu- 
ants. 

11. Name the uses of silent letters. 

12. What is the distinction between the name and 
the power of a letter? 

13. Define the following terms : (a) Diphthong, (b ) 
Digraph, (c) Trigraph, (d) Syllable, (e) Word. 

8 



QUESTIONS ON ORTHOGRAPHY. \) 

14. Classify the letters ^ in alien, ce in ocean, ti in 
notion. 

15. When are 20 and ?/ vowels? Consonants? 

16. What is syllabication? 

17. How should words be divided at the end of the 
line ? 

18. When is the hyphen most commonly used? 

19. AVhat is the essential part or base of a syl- 
lable? 

20. Why are words divided into syllables? 

21. Define orthographic synthesis and analysis. 

22. What faculties does the exercise of spelling 
chiefly tend to cultivate ? 

23. How are words classified with regard to the 
number of syllables they contain? 

24. («) How are words classified according to their 
formation? (h) Define the classes. 

25. (a) Define accent. (6) What two kinds? (c) 
Tell how each is denoted and where it is commonly 
placed, (d) State what effect a change of accent may 
produce. 

• 26. (a) What are the significant parts of many de- 
rivative words? (6) Define each. 

27. What is the usual ofiice of Prefixes and Suffixes 
respectively? 

28. In the change of prefixes applied to certain de- 
rivative words for the sake of euphony or analog}^ 
what is the usual practice ? 

29. Mention some elementary sounds which have no 
single character to represent them. 



10 QUESTIONS ON ORTHOGRAPHY. 

30. Under what circumstances is a word formed 
by prefixes or suffixes primitive ? 

31. (a) Which letters have no sound of their own? 
(6) Which letters are never silent? (c) When is m 
silent? (tZ) When is final e silent? (e) What would 
be the result if final e was not silent? 

32. State the relative advantages of oral and written 
spelling as a drill exercise. 

33. With the word incomprehensihility , show the 
proper application of the terms penult, antepenult, 
etc. 

34. What sounds has ifA? Give sounds illustrating 
each. 

35. What advantao-e arises from a knowledge of the 
rules for the duplication of consonants ? 

36. State and illustrate the rules for doubling the 
final consonant of words receivino; a sufiix beginnino- 

O DO 

with a vowel. 

37. {a) Into what is final y preceded by a consonant 
usually changed upon receiving a sufiix? (6) What 
occurs when the final y is preceded by a vowel ? 

38. Give rules for the spelling of words derived 
from radicals ending in silent e. 

39. State a rule for spelling words derived from 
radicals ending with a double letter. 

40. Give an orthographic analysis of the word dis- 
contentment. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ORTHOGRAPHY. 11 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS OX ORTHOGRAPHY. 

1. (a) Orthography is the art of writing words with 
the proper letters according to common usage, (b) 
Phonology is the science of uttering the elementary 
sounds, (c) Orthoepy is the art of uttering w^ords 
with propriety, (d) A letter is the least distinct part 
of a written word representing one or more elemen- 
tary sounds, (e) An elementary sound is the simplest 
sound of a language uttered by a single impulse of 
voice. 

2. (a) The English language contains forty-four 
elementary sounds. (5) They are divided into vocals, 
subvocals and aspirates. 

3. Abdominal and Thoracic Muscles, the Dia- 
phragm, the Thorax, the Pleura, the Lungs, the 

Trachea and the Larynx. 

4. The Lips, Teeth, Tongue, Palate and Nasal 
organs assisted by the respiratory organs. 

5. Letters are divided into vowels and consonants. 

6. Labials, or lip sounds; Linguals, or tongue 
sounds; Lingua-Dentals, or tongue-teeth-sounds ; Lin- 
gua-Nasals, or tongue-nose-sounds; Palato-Nasals, or 
palate-nose sounds, and Palatals. 

7. {a) Subvocals are those sounds produced by the 
voice modified by the speech organs. (5) The sub- 
vocals are: Labials, b, v, lo, m; Lingua-Dentals, d, th, 
j,Zj ^/«; Linguals, l,r; Lingua-Nasal, ?i,- Palato-Nasal, 
ng ; Palatals, g andy. 



12 ANSWERS TO QUESTIOXS ON" ORTHOGRAPHY. 

8. (a) Aspirates are mere breathings modified by 
the speech organs, (b) The aspirates are : Labials, j9, 
f, ivh; Lingua-Dentals, t^ th, ch, 5, sh ; Palatals, A;, 
and h. 

9. The consonant combinations are: ch, gli, phy 
sh, th, wh, and ng. 

10. (a) Cognates are sounds formed by the same 
organs in different positions. (6) Liquids are such 
sounds as flow readily into other sounds, (c) Coales- 
cents unite freely with other sounds. (fZ) Explodents 
are such sounds as do not admit of prolongation, (e) 
Continuants are sounds which are capable of an indefi- 
nite prolongation. 

11. Silent letters are used first, to modify the sounds 
of other letters, and second, to show the origin or defi- 
nition of words. 

12. The name of a letter is the term by which it is 
known ; the power of a letter is the elementary sound 
it represents. 

13. (a) A Dipthong is the union of two vowel 
sounds in the same syllable ; as, ou, ow, oi, and oy. 
(6) A Digraph is the combination of two letters to 
represent one sound; as ai, ph, etc. (c) A Tri- 
graph is the union of three vowels in the same sylla- 
ble, not all of which are sounded; as, ieu in lieu, 
(d) A syllable is a sound or a combination of sounds 
produced by a single vocal impulse, (e) A AVord is 
a syllable or a combination of syllables used as the sign 
of an idea. 



ans'\\t:rs to questions on orthography. 13 

14. The i m alien is a substitute iory, and is there- 
fore a consonant, subvocal, palatal. In ocean and 
notion, ceand ti are substitutes for sh, and are conso- 
nant, aspirate, lingua-dentals. 

15. When w and y represent u and ^ they are vowels ; 
they are consonants when they precede a vowel in the 
same syllable. 

16. Syllabication is the correct division of words 
into syllables. 

17. Words should be divided at the end of a line by 
syllables only. 

18. Between recently compounded words ; bctAveen 
syllables at the end of the line ; between syllables to 
show more clearly their pronunciation. 

19. The vowel. There is an apparent exception in 
the second syllable of such words as table, castle, 
muscle. 

20. To assist in their pronunciation. 

21. Synthesis is the process of combining elemen- 
tary sounds. Analysis is the process of separating a 
syllable or word into its elementary sounds. 

22. The faculties of memory, observation and dis- 
crimination. 

23. As Monosi/Ilables, one syllable ; Bissrjllahles, 
two syllables; Trisyllahles, three syllables: Poly- 
syllables, many syllables. 

24. (a) Into Simple and Compound, Primitive 
and Derivative, (h) 1st. A Simple word is one which 
is not formed by uniting two or more words; as, son, 
father. 



14 ans^\ti:rs to questions on orthography. 

2nd. A Compound word is formed of two or more 
simple words; as, son-in-law , father-in-laio . 

3rd. A Primitive word is one not formed from any 
other word in the same language ; as, man^ rain. 

4th. A Derivative word is one formed by joining 
to a primitive word some letter or syllable to modify 
its meaning ; as, manly, raining. 

25. ((«) Accent is a marked stress applied to some 
particular syllable. (5) Certain words have two ac- 
cents, viz., a primary and a secondary, (c) The pri- 
mary is the more forcible, and, in words having more 
than one accent, usually follows the secondary. The 
primary is denoted thus ('), the secondary, thus ("), 
as in " -com-pat-i bil ' -i-ty. (cZ) A change of accent 
sometimes changes the meaning of a word ; as, Au ' gust, 
the month, and au gust', majestic ; sometimes a differ- 
ent part of speech is indicated by a change of accent ; 
as, in 'suit, the noun, in suit', the verb. 

26. (a) Roots, prefixes, and suffixes. (6) The Root 
is that part of a derivative word modified by a prefix 
or a suffix. A Prefix is that part of a derivative word 
which is placed before the root. A suffix is that part 
of a derivative word which is placed after the root. 

27. Prefixes modify the meaning of a primitive 
word; while Suffixes, in addition, usually determine 
its part of speech. Ex. — /mproper, not proper, an 
adjective. Property, in a proper manner, an adverb. 

28. The last letter of the prefix must often be the 
same as the first letter of the root, as, cor-rect, instead 
of co-rect. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ORTHOGRAPHY. 15 

29. The sounds represented by the following combin- 
ations: o/, ow, 0?/, ow, ng^ th, ch (soft), shy zh, 

30. When by the addition of prefixes or suffixes the 
nrieaning of both root and prefix or suffix is changed, 
the word remains primitive; as, re and proof mihQ 
word reproof y which is a primitive word. 

31. (a) C, cc, and q. (b) Fj J, q, r, x, v, z. (c) 
In mnemonics. (cZ) When preceded by another vowel 
in the same syllable; as, mate, tape, rice, ride, (e) 
An additional syllable would be formed. 

32. The exercise of oral spelling in young children 
cultivates a clear, distinct, and energetic articulation, 
and a readiness of speech. Written spelling fixes the 
forms of words in the mind and gives practice in writ- 
ing. 

33. The last syllable (ty) is the ultima. The last 
but one (i) is the penult. The last but two (bil) is the 
antepenult. The last but three (si) is the preante- 
penult. 

34. Aspirate as in thin, and sub vocal as in thine. 

35. By an examination of the word we may deter- 
mine whether the final consonant should be doubled or 
not. 

36. Monosyllables and other words accented on the 
last syllable, ending in a single consonant preceded by 
a single vowel, double their final consonant before a 
suffix that begins with a vowel ; as, spot, — spotted, 
begin, — beginning. 

37. {a) The final y of a radical word when pre- 
ceded by a consonant, is generally changed to i 
upon the addition of a suffix ; as, try, — trial, happy, — 



16 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ORTHOGRAPHY. 

happiness, (h) If the final y is preceded by a vowel 
the y remains unchanged upon receiving a suffix; as, 
buy, — buyer, glory, — glorying. 

38. 1st. Final e of the radical word is rejected when 
the suffix begins with a vowel, except in words ending 
in ce and ge; as, moving, peaceable. 

2nd. Final e of a radical word is usually retained 
when the suffix begins with a consonant, as, in hope, — 
hopeless, move, — movement. 

Exceptions. — Awful, judgment, truly, wholly, 
abridgment , acknowledgment. 

39. Words ending in a double letter preserve it 
double in their derivatives unless the syllable affixed 
begins with the same letter ; as, seeing, skillful. 

40. Discouteutnient is a simple derivative ])olysyl- 
lable of four syllables, accented primarily on the third 
syllable, and secondarily on the first, derived from 
content. Content, the radical, is modified, first by the 
prefix diSf meaning not, and, second, by the suffix 
ment, meaning state of being. The word signifies " the 
state of being discontented.^' 

d is aconsonant'Subvocal-lingua-dcntal. 

i is a vowel, short sound, the base of first syl- 
lable. 

s is a consonant-aspirate-lingua-dentai, normal 

sound. 

c is a substitute for k, a consonant-aspirate-pala- 
tal. 

o is a vowel, short obscure sound, base of second 

syllable. 

n is a consonant-subvocal-lingua-nasal. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ORTHOGRAPHY. 



17 



t is a consonant-aspirate-lingua-dental. 

e is a vowel, short sound, base of third syllable. 

n is a consonant-sub vocal-lingua-nasal. 

t is a consonant-aspirate-lingua-dental. 

m is a consonant-subvocal-labial. 

e is a vowel, short obscure sound, base of fourth 

syllable, n and t same as n and t above. 

Some of the following words have been found in 
nearly every list examined. The candidate who as- 
pires to a creditable stg^nding in sj5elling should master 
the list. 



gauge 


nonpareil 


mullein 


sadducee 


guerrilla 


indelible 


lachrymal 


Pleiades 


apostasy 


Pentateuch 


camomile 


gherkin 


bicycle 


mnemonics 


inoculate 


plebeian 


bowie-knife 


apocal3'pse 


isosceles 


apocrypha 


caisson 


idiosyncrasy 


caoutchouc 


dishabille 


euchre 


plagiarism 


purslain 


pusillanimous 


elecampane 


surcingle 


bacchanalian 


scirrhus 


exchequer 


mademoiselle 


anachronism 


scarify 


ghoul 


initiation 


corpuscle 


balustrade 


fusillade 


mayoralty 


chenille 


titillation 


cynical 


rescission 


corypheus 


superannuated 


inflammatory 


Pyrrhonism 


aphyllous 


syzygy 


cuirassier 


harelipped 


saccharine 


panacea 


porphyry 


millionaire 


cavalier 


hypocritical 


paraphernalia 


sanatory 


millennium 


daguerreian 


whimsey 


alpaca 


stadtholder 


mammalia 


exhilarate 


meerschaum 


colonelcy 


sibylline 


novitiate 


terrify 


hygiene 


holly-hock 


vicissitude 


beleaguer 


labyrinth 


secession 



QUESTIONS ON READING. 

>' 1. (a) How many and what kinds of reading are 
there? (6) l^liatis the purpose of each ? (c)and(c7) 
Name at least five requisites for each kind of reading. 

2. Define Reading as an Art. 

3. What is Elocution ? 

4. Why is Reading less effectively taught in our 
schools than some other branches ? 

5. State how Reading may be taught so as to secure 
results commensurate with the time it usually receives. 

6. Upon what is voice dependent? 

7. How can a clear, full, flexible voice be secured? 

8. Give a description of the pupil's position while 
reading. 

9. Explain the Word Method of teaching Reading. 

10. What is the Phonic Method of teaching Read- 
ing? State its distinctive purpose. 

11. Describe the Sentence Method of teaching Read 
ing. 

12. Is it possible for a poor reader to teach reading ? 
If so, to what extent? 

7^^3. What is Articulation? 
18 



QUESTIONS ON EEADING. 19 

14. How can a distinct and correct articulation be 
acquired ? 

15. Name the Essential Elements of vocal ex- 
pression, and tell why called essential elements. 

16. Define the term Resonance as used in Reading. 

17. What is Quality of Voice? 

18. Into what two classes may quality be divided? 
What does each embrace ? 

19. Define the following; (a) Pure Tone, (b) 
Orotund, (c) Plaintive, (6) Pectoral, (e) Guttural. 

20. How does the quality of voice determine the 
emotions of the speaker ? 

y^^21. What classes of sentiment are expressed by the 
following Voice Qualities : Pure Tone, Orotund, Plain- 
tive, Pectoral, Guttural, Aspirate? 

22. What is meant by Force in Reading? 

23. What relation does Stress bear to Force? 
"^-"24:. Define Pitch, and state its natural divisions. 

25. What does the term Compass mean? 

26. Define Movement, and name its divisions. 

27. What is meant by the term Quantity? 

28. What terms are commonly employed to desig- 
nate the different kinds of Stress? 

29. Explain the difference between Slides and 
Waves. 

30. Define Slur. 

^"2-31. What is Emphasis? How is it effected? 

32. State the difference between Absolute and 
Antithetic Emphasis. 



20 QUESTIONS ON READING. 

33. What is meant by Cadence ? 

34. Give a general rule for the use of the Downward 
Slide. 

35. Give a general rule for the use of the Upward 
Slide. 

3G. State the general law governing the use of 
Waves. 

37. (a) What is Personation? {h) What does it re- 
quire ? 
■^- 38. What ]s meant by Monotone? 

39. State the difference between grammatical and 
rhetorical pauses. 

"^40. (a) What is a Climax? {h) How should it be 
read ? 

41. What is Transition ? 

42. (a) What is a Series? (6) How many kinds ? 
-43. AVhat is Modulation ? 

44. Explain the term Grouping as applied to Read- 
ing. 

45. How is Slide sometimes affected by emphasis? 

46. Define a Parenthetical Clause, and state how it 
should be read. 

47. (a) What physical habits ought a pupil to form 
from reading aloud? {b) What had physical habits 
may be formed in reading classes under poor teachers? 

48. What are the chief objects to be attained in the 
study and practice of reading? 

49. Describe the style of reading which may be 
considered in the hio;hest deo;ree excellent. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON EEADING. 21 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON READING. 

1. (a) Two: Silent, or Intellectual, and Audible, or 
Oral, (b) The apprehension of the thought and the ex- 
pression of the thought. 

(c) For Silent Readmg. (^d) For Audible Reading. 

Quick Perception. All Required for Silent Reading. 

Keen Discernment. Respiratory Command. 

Clear Conception. Distinct Articulation. 

Vi\'id Imagination. Imitative Power. 

Good Taste and Judgment. Command of Voice. 

Expressive Action. 

Correct Personal Habits. 

2. Reading as an art is the interpretation and ex- 
pression of thought, sentiment, and emotion as pres- 
ented in written or printed composition. 

3. Elocution is the expression of thought, emotion, 
and passion by all the organs of the body, in an easy, 
graceful, and effective manner. 

4. First, for the want of skill among teachers. 
Second, the absence of a definite standard of excellence 
in reading. Third, the lack of interest among pupils 
in the matter contained in their books. 

5. The teacher should arouse the interest of pupils 
by first reading the lesson properly and effectively 
before the class, and then by skillfully questioning 
the pupils, concentrate their attention upon the thought 
and its expression. 

6. Upon a proper and sufficient supply of air. 



22 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON EEADING. 



7. By a daily and systematic exercise in Eespiration, 
Articulation, and Waves. 

8. Book in left hand, thumb and little finger in 
front; first, second, and third fingers at the back of the 

book ; the elbow not touching 
the side. The book should 
be held in such a manner that 
a line drawn from the eyes 
toward the page would inter- 
sect the plane of the book at 
right angles. The full face 
of the pupil should be seen 
by the teacher. The weight 
of the body should be sup- 
ported, while reading y on 
BOTH feet, the left heel two 
or three inches in advance of 
the hollow of the right foot. 
The chest should be elevated 
and expanded, the position 
erect and easy. 

9. TheWord Method con- 
sists in recognizing words as 
wholes without reference to 
the letters of which they are 
THE reader's position. Composed. 

lO. The Phonic Method consists in uttering each ele- 
mentary sound of words with exaggerated distinctness. 
Its purpose is to cultivate the speech organs rather 
than to give facility in distinguishing words. 




ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON READING. 23 

11. The Sentence Method consists in presenting an 
entire sentence as the unit of thought without refer- 
ence to the words of which it is composed. 

12. It is possible to the same extent that dancing, 
singing, fencing, etc., may be taught by a tyro in those 
arts. 

13. Articulation is the utterance of the sounds of a 
lano:ua2;e. 

14. Spell by sound with decided force and distinct- 
ness such words as contain many unharmonious sounds ; 
as, peremptory , legible, mangled'' st, obligatory . 

15. Quality, Force, Stress, Pitch, and Movement 
are called Essential Elements, because they are found 
in the utterance of every sentence. 

16. Resonance in reading me ans the location whence 
the sound appears to come. 

17. Quality of Voice is the nature, character or kind 
of tone used. 

18. Normal and Abnormal Qualities. The Normal 
qualities are Pure Tone and Orotund. The Abnormal 
qualities are Plaintive, Pectoral, Guttural, Aspirate, 
Nasal, and Falsetto. 

19. (a) The Pure Tone is a clear, smooth, musical 
tone free from any aspiration or harshness. (6) The 
Orotund is the Pure Tone deepened and intensified to 
its utmost magnitude, with the resonance in the chest, 
(c) The Plaintive is a thin, feeble tone, with the reso- 
nance in the forward part of the mouth, {d) The 
Pectoral is a rough, harsh, husky, hollow tone resem- 
bling the Orotund, (e) The Guttural is a grating. 



24 ans^\t:rs to questions on eeadixg. 

rattling, discordant sound produced by a rigid com- 
pression of the muscles of the throat. 

20. Different qualities arise from the ever changing 
sentiments that animate the human mind, and the 
varied physical conditions to which the body is con- 
stantly subjected. 

21. The Pure Tone is employed to express solemn, 
serious, tranquil, narrative, descriptive, and didactic 
thought. 

The Orotund is used to express earnest, bold, grand, 
and lofty thought and emotions of grandeur, rever- 
ence, and sublimity. 

The Plaintive Quality expresses feebleness, exhaus- 
tion, languor, and affectation. 

The Pectoral is used to express sorrow, dread, 
solemnity, awe, remorse. 

The Guttural indicates fierce anger, hatred, con- 
tempt, scorn, loathing, malice, detestation. 

The Aspirate is used in the expression of secrecy, 
surprise, fear, caution, and expiring life. 

22. Force is the degree of energy with which sound 
is sent forth from the vocal organs. It is not 
loudness. 

23. Stress is the application of force to some par- 
ticular part of a syllable or word. It is not accent. 
Accent includes the entire syllable. 

24. Pitch is the degree of elevation or depression of 
sound. Its natural divisions are Middle, High, Low. 

25. Compass is the range "of voice above and below 
the Key-note. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON READING. 25 

26. Movement is the degree of rapidity with which 
sounds are uttered in continued discourse. Its divi- 
sions are Moderate, Eapid, Slow. 

27. Quantity is the time occupied in the utterance 
of single syllables or words ; its divisions are Medium, 
Long and Short. 

28. Radical, Median, Final, Compound, Thorough, 
and Intermittent. 

29. Slides, sometimes termed Inflections, are 
changes of pitch either upward or downward on a single 
sound. Waves are compound movements of voice, 
embracing sometimes combinations of several slides. 

SO. Slur is a smooth, rapid and subdued movement 
of voice over certain phrases and clauses of less im- 
portance than others with which they stand associated. 

31. Emphasis is the peculiar utterance of words, 
phrases, and clauses which renders them specially sig- 
nificant or prominent. It is effected by a change of 
Quality, Force, Stress, Pitch or Movement from the 
prevailing element. 

32. Absolute Emphasis makes prominent some word 
or phrase regardless of its relation to other ideas con- 
tained in the sentence ; while Antithetic Emphasis ex- 
presses a contrast between two or more ideas. 

33. Cadence is a general lowering of pitch, indi- 
cating the close of a sentence. 

34. The Downward Slide is employed in sentences 
denoting (1) completeness of thought, (2) determina- 
tion, (3) certainty, (4) positive and decisive declara- 
tion, (5) emphatic declaration. 



26 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON READING. 

35. The Upward Slide is employed in sentences de- 
noting (1) incompleteness of thought, (2) indifference, 
(3) uncertainty, (4) doubt, (5) contingency, (6) 
negation. 

36. The Waves, of which there are nearly two 
hundred varieties, are used in the expression of con- 
trast, double meaning, insinuation, wit, jest, drollery, 
irony, sarcasm, sneer, and contempt. 

37. (a) Personation consists in representing the 
peculiarities of two or more persons in speaking. (6) 
The skillful personation of different characters requires 
a careful study of their peculiar temperaments, condi- 
tions, and circumstances, and the application of the 
appropriate vocal and facial expression. 

38. The Monotone consists in the utterance of 
several successive words with the same elements, as 
quality, force, stress, pitch, and movement. 

39. Grammatical pauses are the punctuation marks 
used to denote the grammatical relation of words and 
sentences, thus enabling the reader to understand 
the same; while rhetorical pauses are temporary 
suspensions of voice used to give effect to ex- 
pression. 

40. (rt) A Climax is a sentence or a succession of 
sentences so arranged that each idea rises in impor- 
tance, force, or dignity above that which precedes it. 
(6) It should be read with a gradual increase of inten- 
sity of all the vocal elements. 

41. Transition is a change in the manner of ex- 
pression in obedience to the change of sentiment. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIOXS ON READING. 27 

42. («) A Series is a succession of particulars hav- 
ing the same grammatical construction, (b) There 
are two kinds : the Commencing and the Concluding. 

43. Modulation is the ready and perfect adaptation 
of the appropriate elements of speech to the sentiments 
designed to be conveyed. 

44. Grouping is the skillful arrangement of words, 
phrases, and sentences, with regard to the elements 
employed in their delivery, into such groups as shall 
render their meaning clear, pleasing, and effective. 

45. Words having the Upward Slide sometimes re- 
ceive the Downward Slide when emphasized. 

46. A Parenthetic Clause is one thrown in to ex- 
plain, or it expresses something said aside from the 
general discourse. It should be read with a lower 
pitch and a more rapid movement than the other parts 
of the composition. 

47. (a) A distinct articulation, correct respiration, 
control of voice, and graceful attitudes and action. 
(b) Careless articulation, unpleasant tones, and un- 
gainly attitudes. 

48. To develop the power of grasping thought and 
to'secure proper oral expression of written language. 

49. That reading which inspires the hearer with 
emotions similar to those sensations one experiences 
while listening to the skillful recital of interesting 
events witnessed by the narrator, may be considered 
" excellent." 



QUESTIONS ON PENMANSHIP. 

1. What are the principal positions at the desk ? 

2. Describe the correct manner of holding the pen? 

3. What movements are employed in penmanship? 

4. Which of the various movements is regarded 
best for general business purposes ? 

5. What should be the lirst lesson in writing with a 
pen? 

6. Explain the following terms used in writing: (a) 
Base line, (6) Head line, (c) Intermediate line, (d) 
Top line, (e) Space. 

7. (a) Define Main Slant, (b) Connective Slant. 

8. From what authority is derived the Main and 
Connective Slants. 

9. What is the unit for measuring the height and 
width of letters ? 

10. (a.) How many principles are employed in the 
Spencerian System (or any other with which you may 
be familiar) in writing? (b.) Give their descriptive 
names. 

11. How should the paper be placed upon the desk 
while writing? 

28 



QUESTIONS ON PENMANSHIP. 29 

12. Into how many and what classes are the small 
letters divided? 

13. State the heights of the three classes of small 
letters, 

14. Name in alphabetical order (a) the short letters, 
(b) the semi-extended letters, (c) the loop letters. 

15. (a) Which is the longest of the small letters? 
(6) Which is the widest? 

16. Where is the beginning of the small letters? 

17. Where are the small letters finished? 

18. At what point do the extended loops above the 
base line cross? 

19. How far below the base line do the loops in g, 
j, etc., extend? 

20. What is the height of the capitals above the base 
line? 

21. What principles or elements are most prominent 
in the formation of the capitals? 

22. What distinction should be made between I and 
J? 

23. What is the general rule lor spacing and com- 
bining small letters ? 

24. (a) What is the general rule for spacing be- 
tween words composed entirely of small letters? {b) 
Rule for spacing between sentences ? 

25. State and illustrate tiie different forms of shaded 
strokes used in writing. 

26. What is the height of the figures in medium 
handwritins: ? 



30 ANSWEES TO QUESTIONS ON" PENIMAI^^SHIP. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PENMANSHIP. 

1. Front, Left Oblique, Eight, and Eight Oblique. 

2. Take the pen between the first and second fin- 
gers and the thumb, observing, 1st, that it crosses the 
second finger on the corner of the nail ; 2d, that it 
crosses the forefinger forward of the knuckles; 3d, 
that the end of the thumb touches the holder opposite 
the lower joint of the forefinger; 4th, that the top of 
the holder points toward the right shoulder; 5th, that 
the wrist is above the paper, and the hand resting 
lightly upon the nails of the third and fourth fingers ; 
6th, that the uoint of the pen comes squarely to the 
paper. 

3. The Finger Movement, the Fore Arm, the Whole 
Arm, the Combined Fore Arm and Finger, and the 
combined Whole Arm and Finger Movements. 

4. The Combined Fore Arm and Finger move- 
ment. 

5. Correct position and pen holding. 

6. (a) The Base line is the horizontal line, real or 
imaginary, on w^iich the letters rest, {h) The Head 
line marks the height of the shortest letters, (c) The 
Intermediate line marks the height of the semi-ex- 
tended letters t, d, and p. {d) The Top line marks 
the height of the extended loop letters b, 1, f, etc. 
(e) A space in height is the height of the shortest let- 
ters a, e, i, etc. A space in width is the distance be- 
tween the straight lines of small u. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PENMANSHIP. 31 

7. (a) The main Slant is that given to the main or 
downward strokes ; it forms an angle of about 52° with 
the horizontal. (6) The connective slant is that which 
marks the lines connecting the downward strokes ; it 
forms with the horizontal an angle of 30°. 

8. From the practice of a majority of the best pen- 
men. 

9. The height of small ^ is called a sjoace in height; 
the distance between the straight lines of small u is 
called a space in width. 

10. (a) Seven principles or elements according to 
the Spencerian System, (b) They are 1st, a straight 
line on the main slant; 2d, a right curve, usually on 
the connective slant ; 3d, a left curve, usually on the 
connective slant ; 4th, an extended loop, three spaces 
in height; 5th, the capital O, or direct oval; 6th, the 
reversed oval; 7th, the capital stem. 

11. The paper should be so placed that the right 
arm makes with the ruled lines a right angle. 

12. Three: short, semi-extended, and extended or 
looped letters. 

13. Short letters are one space, except r and s, 
v/hich are one and a quarter spaces ; semi-extended, 
two spaces ; extended or looped, three spaces. 

14. (a) The short letters are a, c, e, ^, m, n, o, r, .<?, 
u, V, w, x; (6) The semi-extended letters are d, p, q, 
t; (c) The loop letters are b,f, g, h^j, k, I, y, z. 

15. («)/isthe longest; {h) m is the widest. 

16. On the base line. 

17. At the head line. 



32 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PENMANSHIP. 

18. At the head line. 

19. The loop? extend two spaces below the base 
line. 

20. Three spaces. 

21. The Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh, according to the 
Spencerian System. 

22. The J should extend two spaces below the base 
line. 

23. The connecting curve should be carried oneand-^ 
one-quarter spaces to the right of the preceding letter. 

24. (a) The first curve should begin on the base 
line one and one half spaces to the right of the final 
downward stroke of the preceding word, (b) The 
spaces between sentences should be twice as great as 
between words. 

25. Five forms of shaded strokes are used ; they 
are exemplified in the letters t,p,l,y, O. 

26. One and one-half spaces, except the 6, which 
extends one-half space above, and the 7 and 9 which 
continue one-half space below the other figures. 



QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

1. Define the following terms: (a) Mathematics, 
(6) Arithmetic, (c) Integer, (d) Fraction, (e) Math- 
ematical Sign. 

2. State the difference between an abstract and a 
concrete number, and illustrate. 

3. What is the difference between a Simple and 
Compound Number? Illustrate. 

4. Define the following: («) A Power, (5) A Root, 
(c) Demonstration, (d) An Axiom, (e) Analysis. 

5. Name the fundamental operations in Arithmetic. 

6. Why are ten figures used in the Arabic no- 
tation ? 

7. What systems of notation are in general use? 

8. Name the ^ye principles upon which the Roman 
notation is founded. 

9. State the difference between the simple and local 
value of a figure. 

10. Why, in adding, do we begin at the right ? 

11. Why are the minuend, subtrahend and difference 
like numbers ? 

12. Why must the multiplier be an abstract number? 

3 33 



34 QUESTIONS OX ARITHMETIC. 

13. What is the difference between long and short 
division? 

14. Why do we begin at the left in division. 

15. How find the true remainder by dividing by 
factors ? 

16. Define the following: (rt) Prime Factor, (6) 
Composite number, (c) Reciprocal of a number, {d) 
Cancellation, (e) Multiple of a number. 

17. On what principle may we cancel the factors in 
the operation of cancellation ? 

18. What is the difference between the G. C. D. and 
L. C. M. of two numbers? 

19. How does the unit of a fraction differ from a 
fractional unit? 

20. Define the following terms: (a) Fraction, (5) 
Common Fraction, (c) Proper Fraction, {d) Improper 
Fraction, (e) Simple Fraction. 

21. {a) What is a Compound Fraction? (6) What 
does it indicate? (c) What is its sign? 

■ 22. (a) Define a Complex Fraction. (6) What does 
it indicate? 

23. Give the meaning of the following terms.: (a) 
Denominator, (6) Numerator, (e) Terms of a Frac- 
tion, ((Z) The value of the Fraction, (e) Mixed 
Number. 

24. What is the Reciprocal of a Fraction? 

25. Show how the general principles of division 
apply to fractions. 

20. How is the G. C. D. of fractions found? 
27. How is the L. C. M. of fractions found? 



QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 35 

28. Upon what principle does the inversion of the 
divisor depend ? 

29. In what case may we add two fractions by 
writing the sum of the denominators over their 
product, in the form of a fraction? 

30. By what must we multiply a fraction, to have 
its numerafoi' for the product ? 

31. Are the powers of a proper fraction greater or 
less than the fraction itself ? Why ? 

32. (a) Is there such a thing as a prime fraction? 
(6) Can two fractions be prime to each other? (c) 
What kind of fraction must the G. C. D. of two or 
more proper fractions be? (cZ) Can a fraction or 
mixed number be properly called a common divisor 
of two integers? (e) What relation subsists between 
the G. C. D., L. C. M. and product of two num- 
bers ? 

33. What is a Decimal Fraction, and in how many 
ways may it be written ? Illustrate. 

34. Upon what does the value of a decimal figure 
depend ? 

35. State the effect of prefixing or annexing ciphers 
to decimals. 

36. What is the denominator of a decimal? 

37. How does a Mixed Decimal differ from a Mixed 
Decimal number? 

38. Why does the product of two decimals contain 
as many decimal places as both multiplicand and 
multiplier? 



36 QUESTIONS ON AR1TK]METIC. 

39. Define the following terms: (o) A Finite Deci- 
mal, (6) A Circulating Decimal, (c) Repetend, (fZ) 
A Pure Circulating Decimal, (e) A Mixed Circulating 
Decimal. 

40. State the difference between an Account and a 
Bill. 

41. What is the Metric System of measurement ? 

42. What are the principal units of the Metric 
system ? 

43. Name the prefixes employed with the metric 
denominations, distinguishing those used as multiples 
from those used as divisors. 

44. What is a Measure? How established? 

45. What is the standard unit of value in the United 
States? 

46. State the standard unit of the following: (a) 
weight, [b) length, surface and volume, (c) capacity, 
(d) angles, (e) time. 

47. Define the following terms: (a) A Line, (h) 
Surface, (c) Angle, (d) Square, (e) A Cube. 

48. (a) What is the difference between a square 
yard and a yard square? (b) Between three square 
yards and three yards square ? 

49. (a) How many cubic inches in a wine gallon? 
(6) Cubic inches in a bushel? (c) How many feet in 
a mile? (d) How many square rods in an acre? (^) 
What is the value of a Pound Sterling in U. S. 
Money ? 

50. What is a Gunler's Chain? Why so called? 



QUESTIONS ON ARITHIVIETIC. 37 

51. How are the public lands of the U. S. divided 
and subdivided ? 

52. State the number of pounds in a bushel of 
wheat ; a bushel of corn ; a bushel of oats ; a bushel 
of clover seed ; a bushel of potatoes. 

53. How many pounds or ounces make a cubic foot 
of water ? 

54. For what are the following measures and 
weights used: Linear Measure? Square Measure? 
Cubic Measure? Liquid Measure? Dry Measure? 
Troy Weight? Avoirdupois Weight? Apothecaries 
Weight ? Circular Measure ? 

55. Compare the pound Troy with the pound Avoir- 
dupois. 

56. Which is heavier, a pound of butter or a pound 
of silver? 

57. As regards quantity, what is the difference be- 
tween a pint of chestnuts and a pint of claret ? 

58. What are duodecimals ? 

59. Define the following terms : (a) Eatio, (h) The 
Terms of a Ratio, (c) Antecedent and Consequent, 
(cZ) A Simple Ratio, (e) A Compound Ratio. 

60. What is a Simple Proportion? 

61. What is Percentage? 

62. Name and define the elements involved in per- 
centage. 

63. Give short rules for the five cases of percentage. 

64. Name the Applications of Percentage. 

65. Define Profit and Loss, Commission, Consign- 
ment, Consignee, Consignor, Net Proceeds. 



38 QUESTIONS ON ARITHIVIETIC. 

66. What is the difference between a company and 
a corporation ? 

67. What is a charter? 

68. Explain the terms at par, above par, beloiv par. 

69. Define the following: (a) Installment, (6) As- 
sessment, (c) Dividend, (cZ) Gross Earnings, (e) Net 
Earnings. 

70. Name and define the U. S. Securities. 

71. In what kind of money is the interest on bonds 
payable ? 

72. What is Insurance ? 

73. Name and define the different kinds of insur- 
ance. 

74. What is a tax? 

76. What are Duties? How many and what kinds? 

76. What is the meaning of Tare? Leakage? 
Breakage ? 

77. Distinguish between Simple and Compound In- 
terest ? 

78. Explain the difference between true and bank 
discount ? 

79. What is Exchange? 

80. What four parties may there be to a transaction 
in exchange ? 

81. What is the Indorsement of a bill? 

82. What is the Acceptance of a bill? 

83. What is the Equation of Payments? 

84. State the difference between Simple and Com- 
pound Partnership. 

85. What is Allio-ation Medial? 



QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 39 

86. What is Alligation Alternate? 

87. What reason may be given for a higher rate of 
interest being allowed in the new States than in the 
old? 

88. How much longer will it take $100 at interest 
to double itself at 6 per cent., than it will $50? 

89. What is the difference between Involution and 
Evolution? 

90. How does the Square of a number differ from 
its Square Root? 

91. What is a Surd? Illustrate. 

92. Distinguish Exponents from Indices. 

93. State the difference between an Arithmetical 
Progression and a Geometrical Progression. 

94. Name the elements of an arithmetical progres- 
sion, and write the symbol by which each is commonly 
designated. 

95. What are the elements and symbols of a geom- 
etrical series ? 

96. (a) How find the area of a triangle when the 
base and altitude are given? (b) When the three 
sides are given ? 

97. How find the area of a trapezoid when its par- 
allel sides and altitude are given ? 

98. How find the area of a trapezium, when the 
diagonal and perpendiculars are given ? 

99. (a) How do you find the circumference? (b) 
The diameter? (c) The area of a circle? (6^) The 
lateral surface of a prism or a cylinder? (e) The con- 
tents of a prism or a cylinder? 



40 QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

.100. How is the contents of a pyramid or a cone 
found? 

101. (a) How do you find the surface of a sphere? 
(5) The solidity of a sphere? 

102. What is Gauging? 

103. What must be a dealer's asking and selling 
prices of an article costing $7.20, in order that he may 
fall 20 % from his asking price, allow 10 % for delayed 
payments, and still make 20 % ? 

104. If A.'s money is 20 % more than B.'s, B.'s 
money is what per cent, less than A.'s? 

105. Bacon which costs 12 cents a pound wastes 15 
% before it is sold; at what price per pound must it be 
sold to gain 25 per cent. ? 

106. An article lost 10 % by wastage, and is sold 
for 30 % above cost ; what is the gain per cent. ? 

107. Sent $5,128.05 to a broker in Cincinnati, with 
directions to purchase pork at $12 V2 per bbl., to in- 
sure it for 60 days at 15 cents a $100, to pay storage 
at 5 cents a bbl. for 10 days, and to deduct his com- 
mission of 2 % on the money expended. How many 
barrels of pork did he buy ? 

108. Bought by Avoirdupois weight 10 lbs. of 
opium at 45 cents an ounce and sold the same by Troy 
weight at 50 cents an ounce ; how much was gained or 
lost? 

109. Sold wheat at 21/2 % commission ; invested 2/3 
of its value in coffee at IV-i % commission; remitted 
the balance, $623. What was the value of the wheat, 
the coffee, and my separate commissions? 



QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 41 

110. I wish to line the carpet of a room 21 feet 
wide and 24 feet long with canvas Vs of a yard wide. 
If the lining shrink 8 % in length and 5 % in width, how 
many yards must I buy ? 

111. Sold some hemp on a commission of 5 %, in- 
vested the net proceeds in flour, commission 2 % ; my 
whole commission was $210 ; what was the value of the 
hemp and the flour? 

112. If the relative value of oak wood to spruce is 
as 3 to 1, and that of spruce to pine as 7 to 9, how 
many cords composed of spruce and pine in equal 
parts will equal 60 cords of oak? 

113. A citizen donated 3 acres of land, which was 
three-eighths as wide as long to a school district; what 
were its dimensions in feet? 

114. An agent took a risk at 1^/4 % and reinsured Vs 
of it at 2V4 %, and Vi of it at IV2 %; what rate of 
insurance does he get on the remainder? 

115. A draft payable in 30 days after sight, was 
bought for $352.62, exchange being IV2 % discount, and 
interest 6 % ; what was its face ? 

116. A., B., and C. are partners; A.'s stock $8,000, 
B.'s $12,800, C.'s $15,200; A. and B. together gain 
$1,638 more than C. ; what is the gain of each? 

117. A. received of B. 700 lbs. of hides to tan at 6 
cents per lb. tanned, and was to take his pay in green 
hides at 9 cents per lb. A. returned to B. 500 lbs. of 
tanned leather, and as there was 25 % waste in tanning, 
how many lbs. of raw hides must B. send to A. to pay 
him for his trouble ? 



42 QUESTIOXS OX ARITHMETIC. 

118. The stocks of three partners, A., B., and C, 
are $350, $220, and $250, and their gains $112, $88, 
and $220 respectively. Find the time that each man's 
stock was in trade, B.'s being in two months longer 
than A.'s. 

119. The amount of my capital for a certain time 
at 4 % is $360, and for the same time at 7 % is $405 ; 
required the principal and the time. 

120. Sold a horse and carriage for $597, gaining 
25 % on the horse and 10 % on the carriage. What was 
the cost of each, provided Vi of the cost of the horse 
equals V3 of the cost of the carriage? 

121. If 248 men in 5V2 days of 11 hours each 
dig a trench that is 7 degrees of hardness, 232 V2 ft. 
long, 32/3 ft. wide, and 2V3 ft. deep; in how many 
days of 9 hours each, will 24 men dig a trench that is 
4 degrees Of hardness 337V2 ft. long, 52/3 ft. wide, 
and 3V'2 ft. deep? 

122. Three-fifths of the cost of a house increased 
by Vo of the cost of the farm for two years at 5 %, 
amounts to $4,950. What was the cost of each, if % 
of the cost of the house equals 2/7 of V5 of the cost 
of the farm ? 

123. An agent sold a quantity of coffee on a com- 
mission of 6 %, and invested the net proceeds in pork 
at 5 %. His whole commission was $440 ; what was 
the value of the pork ? 

124. A. and B. have an annual income of $400 
each. A. spends each year $40 more than B. ; at the 
end of 4 years they both together have a sum equal to 
the income of either. What do they spend annually? 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 43 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

1. (a) Mathematics is the ccience of quantity. (6) 
Arithmetic is the Science of numbers and the Art of 
computation, (c) An integer is a number composed 
of whole or integral units, (d) A fraction is a num- 
ber which expresses equal parts of a whole thing, (e) 
A Mathematical sign is a character indicating the rela- 
tion of numbers, or an operation to be performed. 

2. An Abstract number is one whose unit is not 
named; as, 3, 4, 6, etc. A concrete number is one 
whose unit is named ; as, 4 boys, 3 books, 6 apples. 

3. A simple number is either an abstract number or 
a concrete number of but one denomination ; as, 27, 
28 days. A Compound Number is a concrete number 
expressed in two or more denominations ; as, 4 days, 
8 hours, 28 minutes. 

4. (a) A Power is the product arising from multi- 
plying a number by itself one or more times, (b) A 
Eoot is the factor repeated to produce a power, (c) 
A Demonstration is a process of reasoning by which a 
truth or principle is established, (d) An Axiom is a 
self-evident truth, (e) Analysis is the process of in- 
vestigating principles and solving problems independ- 
ently of set rules. 

5. Notation and Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, 
Multiplication, and Division. 

O. Because in any scale of numbers there are as 
many characters as are required to make any given 



44 ANSW'ERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

number of units equal one unit of the next higher or- 
der. In the Arabic notation ten units equal one unit 
of the next higher order. 

7. The Eoman and the Arabic. 

8. 1st. Repeating a letter repeats its value ; as, XX 
equals twenty. 

2d. A letter of any value placed after one of greater 
value adds its value to that of the greater ; as, XXI 
equals twenty-one. 

3d. A letter of any value placed before one of 
greater value takes its value from that of the greater; 
as, IX equals nine. 

4th. A letter of any value placed between two of 
greater value takes its value from the sum of the two 
greater; as, XIX equals nineteen. 

5th. A bar or dash placed over a letter increases its 
value one thousand fold ; as, V equals five thousand. 

9. The simple value of a figure is its value when 
standing alone or in unit's place. The local value is 
its value arising from the order in which it stands. 

10. We begin at the right because we can shorten 
the operation by adding the terms of each order, as we 
reach it, the units of that order (if any) contained in 
the sum of the terms of the next higher order. 

11. Because, since the minuend and subtrahend have 
the same denomination, their difference expresses sim- 
ply the excess of like units in the minuend above those 
in the subtrahend. 

12. Because the multiplier shows how many times 
the multiplicand is taken additively. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 45 

13. In short division the several products are sub- 
tracted menially, and the remainder is each time men^ 
tally pretixed to the next figure of the dividend for a 
paj-tial dividend; in long division tlie entire work is 
written. 

14. We begin at the left in division because the re- 
mainder in dividing any part of the dividend must be 
less than the divisor, and it can be divided only by be- 
ing expressed in units of a lower order. 

15. Multiply each remainder, except the^?*5^ by all 
the divisors preceding its own. The sum of these 
products and the first remainder will be the true re- 
mainder. 

16. (a) A Prime Factor is one that cannot be 
separated into two or more factors. (5) A Com- 
posite number is the product of two or more factors, 
each of which is greater than 1. (c) The Reciprocal 
of a number is one divided by that number. (tZ) Can- 
cellation is a process of shortening division by reject- 
ing equal factors from divisor and dividend, (e) A 
multiple of a number is one which is exactly divisible 
by that number. 

17. That dividing both divisor and dividend by the 
same number does not change the value of the quo- 
tient. When terms are cancelled they are divided by 
the same factor. 

18. The Greatest Common Divisor of two or more 
numbers is the greatest number which will exactly di- 
vide them ; as, 9 is the G. C. D. of 18, 27, and 3G. 
The Least Common Multiple of two or more numbers is 



46 ANSAVERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

the least number which can be exactly divided by 
each of them; as, 36 is the L. C. M. of 9, 12, and 
18. 

19 The Unit of the Fraction is the unit or thing di- 
vided; as, the unit of the fraction of an apple is one 
apple. A fractional unit is one of the equal parts into 
which the unit is divided; as, one-third is the frac- 
tional unit of thirds. 

20. (rt) A Fraction is one or more of the equal parts 
of a unit. (6) A Common Fraction is one expressed 
in figures by two numbers, one written over the other 
with a line between them, (c) A Proper Fraction is 
one whose numerator is less than its denominator. (cZ) 
An Improper fraction is one whose numerator is 
equal to or greater than its denominator, (e) A Sim- 
ple Fraction is a fraction not united with another, and 
both of whose terms are integers. 

21. («) A Compound Fraction is a fraction of a 
fraction; as, Vs of ^U. {b) It indicates multiplica- 
tion, (c) Its sign is of ov X • 

22. (a) A Complex Fraction is one having a frac- 
tion in one or both of its terms ; as |. (b) It in- 

t 
dicates division. 

23. (a) The number of equal parts into which the 
unit is divided is called the Denominator, because it 
names the parts, (b) The number of parts taken is 
called the Numerator, because it numbers the parts, 
(c) The Terms of a fraction are the numerator and 
denominator, (c?) The value of a fraction is the 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 47 

quotient of the numerator divided by the denominator, 
(e) A Mixed Number is a whole number and a frac- 
tion expressed together. 

24. The Fraction Inverted. 

25. 1st. Multiplying the numerator or dividing the 
denominator multiplies the fraction. 

2nd. Dividing the numerator or multiplying the 
denominator divides the fraction. 

3rd. Multiplymg or dividing both terms of a frac- 
tion by the same number does not alter its value. 

26. Find the G. C. D, of the numerators and the* 
L. C. M. of the denominators. 

27. Find the L. C. M. of the numerators and the 
G. C. D. of the denominators. 

28. Inverting the terms of the divisor and multi- 
plying the numerators for a new numerator and mul- 
tiplying the denominators for a new denominator, is 
the same as reducing the fractions to a common de- 
nominator, and dividing the numerator of the dividend 
by the numerator of the divisor. 

29. When the numerator of each fraction is one. 

30. By its denominator. Ex. 2/3X8= 2. 

31. They are less. The continued product of the 
numerator by itself, divided by the continued pro- 
duct of the denominator by itself, will give a quotient 
less than the numerator of the fraction divided by its 
denominator. 

32. (a) No. (Jj) No. (c) A proper fraction. 
{d) Yes. (e) The product of the G. C. D. and L. 
C. M. equals the product of the two numbers. 



48 ANSWEES TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

33. A Decimal Fraction is a fraction whose denomi- 
nator is some power of ten. It may be written in 
three ways: 1st. Bywords; as, two-tenths. 2nd. By 
writing the denominator under the numerator, as a 
common fraction ; as, Vio. 3rd. By omitting the de- 
nominator and writing the fraction in a decimal form ; 
as, .3. 

34. The value of a decimal figure depends upon the 
place it occupies at the right of the decimal sign. 

35. Prefixing a cipher to a decimal diminishes its 
value 1 nfold, because it removes every decimal figure 
one place to the right. Annexing a cipher to a deci- 
mal does not alter its value, because it does not alter 
the place of any figure in the decimal. 

36. The denominator of a decimal, when expressed 
is the unit 1, with as many ciphers annexed as there 
are places in the decimal. 

37. A Mixed Decimal is a decimal ending at the 
right with a common fraction; as, .6-/3, A Mixed 
Decimal Number is an integer and a decimal written 
together as one number; as, 5.8. 

38. Since the denominator of the product of two 
fractions is the product of their denominators, this 
must contain as many decimal places as the two de- 
nominators combined. 

39. (rt) A Finite Decimal terminates with the fig- 
ures written; as, .25. (6) A circulating Decimal 
contains a figure or set of figures repeated an unlimited 
number of times; as, .56731. (c) The repeated fig- 
ure or figures are called the Eepetend. (d) A pure 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 49 

Circulating Decimal is made up wholly of a repetcnd ; 
as, .154(5. (e) A Mixed Circulating Decimal is a 
decimal in which the repetend is preceded by one or 
more figures, Avhich form what is called Uie finite 
part. 

40. An Account is a record of items of debt and 
credit between parties. A Bill is a written statement 
of goods sold or delivered, services rendered, with the 
price, quantity and cost annexed to each item. 

41. The Metric System is a decimal system of 
weights and measures, having the meter for its base 
or unit. 

42. The Meier, Liter, and Gram. To these are 
added, for square and cubic measures, the Ar and 
Ster. 

43. The names of the higher denominations are 
formed by prefixing to the name of the unit, the Greek 
numerals, Deka, (10), Hekto, (100), Kilo, (1,000), 
M^a'ia, (10,000). The lower denominations arc 
formed by prefixing to the name of the unit the Latin 
ordinals, deci, (Vio), centi, (Vioo), milli, (Viooo). 

44. A measure is a standard unit, established by 
law or custom, by which the length, surface, capacity, 
and weight of things are estimated. 

45. The American dollar. 

46. (a) Of weight, the Troy Pound. (6) Of 
length , the linear yard ; for ordinary surface the Square 
Yard ; for land, the Acre; for volume in general, the 
Cubic Yard; for wood, the Cord, (c) The unit of 
capacity is the Gallon for fluids, and the Bushel for 



50 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

dry substances, {d) The unit of angles is the Right 
Angle, or, practically, one degree of a circle, (e) 
The unit of time is the Day. 

47. (a) A Line is that which has length only, (b) 
A surface is that which has length and breadth only, 
(c) An angle is the opening between two lines which 
meet at a point. (cZ) A Square is a rectilinear figure 
which has four equal sides and four right angles, (e) 
A Cube is a regular solid bounded by six equal squares 
called its faces. 

48. (a) There is no difference, {h) Three square 
yards are three squares, each 1 yard long and one yard 
wide, each containing a square yard ; three yards 
square is a square figure three yards long and three 
yards wide, and contains 3 times 3 yards, or 9 square 
yards. 

49. (a) 231 cu. inches. (6) 2150.42 cu. inches, 
(c) 5280 feet in a mile, {d) 1(30 sq. rods in an acre. 
{e) $4.8665 equal 1 Pound Sterling. 

50., A Gunters Chain, is 4 rods or QQ> feet long, 
and contains 100 links. It is so called from the name 
of its inventor. 

51. The public lands of the U. S. are di voided into 
Townships, which are subdivided into Sections, Half- 
Sections, Quarter Sections, etc. 

52. The law or custom of most States is as follows: 
wheat, 60 lbs. ; corn in the ear, 70 lbs. ; oats, 32 lbs. ; 
clover seed, 60 lbs.; potatoes, 60 lbs. 

53. 621/2 lbs. or 1000 oz. make a cubic foot of 
water. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC 51 

64. Linear measure is used in measuring lines and 
distances; Square Measure, in measuring surfaces; 
Cubic Measure, in measuring solids and volumes; 
Liquid Measure, in measuring milk, oil, wine, etc. ; 
Dry Measure, in measuring grain, fruit, etc.; 
Troy Weight is used in weighing gold, silver, etc. ; 
Avoirdupois Weight, in weighing coarse articles; 
as, groceries, hay, etc., and all metals except gold and 
silver; Apothecaries Weight is used in mixing medi- 
cines; Circular Measure is used in measuring angles, 
latitude, heavenly bodies, etc. 

55. The pound Troy equals 5760 grains, while the 
pound Avoirdupois equals 7000 grains. 

56. A pound of butter. 

57. A pint of chestnuts is one-sixth greater than a 
pint of claret. 

58. The divisions and subdivisions of a unit, result- 
ing from continually dividing by 12. 

69. (a) Katio is the relation of two like numbers 
with respect to comparative value. (6) The Terms of 
a ratio are the two numbers compared. (c) The 
Antecedent is the first term ; the Consequent is the 
second term, (d) A Sim])le Ratio consists of a single 
couplet, (e) A Compound Ratio is the product of two 
or more simple ratios. 

60. A Simple Proportion is an equality of two sim- 
ple ratios, and consists of four terms. 

61. Percentage is the process of calculating by hun- 
dredths. 



52 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

62. 1st. The Base is the number on which percent- 

age is computed. 

2d. The Eate is the number of hundredths taken. 

3d. The Percentage is that part of a number 
which is indicated by the rate. 

4th. The Amount is the sum of the base and 
the percentage. 

5th. The Difference is the base less the percen- 
tage. 

63. 1st. Base and rate given to find the percentage : 

Multiply the base by the rate. 
2d. Base and percentage given, to find the rate : 

Divide the percentage by the base. 
3d. Rate and percentage given, to find the base: 

Divide the percentage by the rate. 
4th. Base and rate given, to find either amount 
or difference : 

Multiply the base by 1 plus the rate, for 
the amount; and by 1 minus the 
rate for the difference. 
5th. Amount or difference and rate given, to 
find the base : 

Divide the amount by 1 plus the rate; 
and the difference by 1 minus the 
rate. * 

64. Profit and Loss, Commission and Brokerage, 
Insurance, Taxes, Duties, Interest, Discount, Equa- 
tion of Payments, Averaging Accounts, Stocks, and 
Exchange. 



ANS^VET^S TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 53 

65. Profit and Loss are commercial terms, used to 
express gam or loss in business. Commission is the 
fee or compensation of an agent, factor, or commission 
merchant. A Consignment is a quantity of goods sent 
to one person to be sold on commission for another 
person. The Consignee is a person who receives goods 
to sell for another. The Consignor is a person who 
sends goods to another to be sold. The net proceeds of 
a sale or collection is the sum left, after deducting the 
commission or other charges. 

66. A company is an association of joersons for 
carrying on some business. Companies may be incor- 
porated or not. A corporation is a body formed and 
authorized by law to act as a single person. 

67. A Charter is the legal act of incorporation, and 
defines the powers and obligations of the incorporated 
body. 

68. Stock is at par when it sells for its first cost, or 
nominal value. It is above par when it sells for more 
than its nominal value. It is below par when it sells 
for less than its nominal value. 

69. («) An Installment is a percentage on the par 
value of the capital stock, required of the stockholders, 
as a payment on their subscription. 

(6) An Assessment is a percentage on the par 
value of the capital stock, required of 
stockholders, to meet the losses or the 
business expenses of the company. 

(c) A Dividend is a sum paid to the stockhold- 
ers from the profits of the business. 



54 ANS^YERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

(cZ) Gross Earnings are all the moneys received 
from the regular business of the company. 

(e) Net Earnings are the moneys left after pay- 
ing expenses, losses, and the interest upon 
the bonds, if there be any. 

70. First, Bonds, of which there are two kinds; 
viz., first, those which are paj'able at a fixed date 
known by the rate of interest they bear ; as U. S. 6's ; 
and, second, those which are payable at a fixed date, 
but which may be paid at an earlier specified time, as 
the Government may elect. These are known and 
quoted by a combination of two dates ; as, U. S. 
5-20's, or a combination of the rate of interest and the 
two dates ; as U. S. 6's 5-20's; that is, bonds bearing 
6 % interest, which are payable in 20 years, but may be 
paid in 5 years, if the Government so elect. 

Second, Notes, of which there are two kinds; viz., 
first, those payable on demand without interest, known 
in common language as "Green Backs;" and, sec- 
ond. Notes payable at a specified time, with interest, 
known as Treasury Notes. 

71. The interest on bonds is payable in gold. 

72. Insurance is security guaranteed by one party 
to another, against loss, damage, or risk. 

73. Fire insurance, against loss by fire. Marine in- 
surance, against the danger^} of navigation. Accident 
insurance, against casualties. Health insurance, pro- 
viding a weekly allowance in case of sickness. Life 
insurance provides a certain sum at the death of the 
insured, to be paid to some designated party. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 55 

74. A Tax is a sum of money assessed on the per- 
son or property of an individual for public purposes. 

75. Duties are taxes levied on imported goods, for 
the support of government and the protection of home 
industry. There are two kinds : Ad Valorem Duty 
and Specific Duty. 

76. Tare is an allowance for the weight of the box 
or other covering that contains the goods. Leakage is 
an allowance on liquors imported in casks or barrels. 
Breakage is an allowance on liquors imported in bottles. 

77. Simple interest is the sum paid for the use of 
the principal only. Compound interest is interest on 
both principal and interest, when the interest is not 
paid when due. 

78. True discount on a given sum is less than bank 
discount, for it is a given rate per cent, on a smaller 
sum than that upon wdiich bank discount is reckoned. 
True discount is the difference between the present 
worth and the face of the debt. True discount is 
reckoned on the present worth, — bank discount is 
reckoned on the face of the debt. 

79. Exchange is a method of making payments at 
a distance by written orders, called bills of exchange. 

80. 1st. The Drawer or Maker, who- signs the bill. 
2nd. The Drawee, to whom the order is ad- 
dressed. 

3rd. The Payee, to whom the money is ordered 

to be paid. 
4th. The Buyer or Remitter, who purchases the 

bill. 



56 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

81. The Indorsement of a bill is the loriting upon 
its back, by which the payee relinquishes his title, 
and transfers the payment to another. 

82. The Acceptance of a bill is the promise which 
the drawee makes when the bill is presented to him to 
pay it at maturity. This obligation is usually ac- 
knowledged by writing the word " Accepted," with 
his signature across the face of the bill. 

83. The Equation of Payments is the process of 
finding an equitable time of payment of several sums, 
due at different times without interest. 

84. In Simple Partnership the capital of the several 
partners is invested for an equal time. In Compound 
Partnership the capital of the several partners is in- 
vested for an unequal time. 

85. Alligation Medial is the process of finding the 
average value or quality of a mixture composed of 
articles of different value or qualities. 

86. Alligation Alternate is the process of com- 
pounding several articles of different values or quali- 
ties to form a mixture of an average value or quality. 

87. In the new States capital is less abundant than 
in the old States. Opportunities for speculation being 
more favorable in the new than in the old States, 
money will command a higher rate than where enter- 
prises are less active. 

88. No longer. 

89. Involution is the jjrocess of raising a given 
number to a given power. Evolution is the process of 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHIMETIC. 57 

extracting the root from a number considered as a 
power ; it is the reverse of Involution. 

90. The Square of a number is its second power. 
The Square Root of a number is one of the two equal 
factors that produce the number. 

91. A Surd is an indicated root that cannot be ex- 
actly obtained ; as, \/27 

92. The Exponent of a power is a small figure 
placed at the right of a figure, to show how many 
times it is to be taken as a factor. The Index of the 
root is the figure placed above the radical sign, to de- 
note what root is taken. 

93. An Arithmetical Progression is a series which 
increases or decreases by a common difference. A Ge- 
ometrical Progression is a series of numbers which 
increases or decreases by a common ratio, 

94. The elements of an arithmetical progression 
are five : the first term, a; the last term, I; the com- 
mon difference^ d; the number of terms, n; and the 
sum of the terms, s. 

95. The elements and symbols of a geometrical 
series are, the^rs^ term, a; the last term, I ; the ratio, 
r; the number of terms, n; and the sum of the terms,*. 

96. (a) Multiply the base by half the altitude. 
(6) When the three sides are given: From half the 
sum of the three sides subtract each side respectively ; 
then multiply half the sum and the three remainders 
together, and extract the square root of the product. 

97. Multiply half the sum of the parallel sides by 
the altitude. 



58 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

98. Multiply the diagonal by half the sum of the 
perpendiculars to it from the opposite angle. 

99. (a) The circumference = the diameter X 3.1416. 
(b) The diameter = the circumference ^- 3.1416. (c) 
The area of a circle equals half the circumference 
multiplied by half the diameter, or the circumference 
multiplied by one-fourth of diameter, (d) The lateral 
surface of a prism or cylinder equals the perimeter of 
the base multiplied by the altitude, (e) The contents 
of a prism or a cylinder equals the area of the base 
multiplied by the altitude. 

100. The contents of a pyramid or a cone equals 
the area of the base multiplied by one-third of the al- 
titude. 

101. («) The surface of a sphere equals the circum- 
ference multiplied by the diameter. (6) The solidity 
of a sphere equals the surface multiplied by one-i<.ixtli 
of the diameter. 

102. Gauging is finding the contents of casks and 
other vessels. 

103. $7.20 X 1.20 = $8.64, Net price. 

$8.64 -^- .90 = $9.60, Selling price. 

$9.60 -f- .80 = $12, Asking price. 

104. B.'s = 100 % : A.'s = 120 % : Difference 20 % ; 
.20-^1.20= 16|%. Ans. 

105. 125 % of 12 cents = 15 cents ; 
100 % _ 15 % = 85 % ; 

15 cents -^- .85 = yi\\ cents, Ans. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 59 

Or 

12 cents ^ .85 = 14y\ cents, cost of lib. after 

wastaoje ; 

14^2^ cents X 125 % = 17j} cents, Answer. 

106. 100 % — 10 % = 90 %, what remains; 
130 % of 90 = 117, Selling price ; 
117 % — 100 % = 17 % gain. Ans. 

107. $5128.05 ^ (100 % + 2 %) = $5027.50, money 

to be expended after deducting com. 
15 cents on $100 = 1| cents on $12i ; 
5 cents storage + 1| cents Ins. + $121, first cost 

of pork, = $12.56|, total cost of one barrel 

of pork. 
$5027.50 ^ $12,567 =400 bbls. Ans. 

108. 16 oz. X 10 = 160 oz. Av. : 160 oz. X .45 = 

$72, cost of opium ; 
7000 grs. X 10 = 70000 grs. in 10 lbs. Av. ; 

70000 ^ 5760 = 12|i lbs. Troy. 12 oz. X 

12|l-= 145| oz. Troy; 
50 cts. X 145| = $72.91|, Selling price ; 
$72.91| — $72 = 91| cents, gain. 

109. If % of I = 11 of I : I of the value or 66| % 

+ 2^% + l}% = 70^%: 100— 70^% = 29| 
% remitted. 
$623 = 29| %. $623 -- .29| = $2100, value of 
wheat, I of $2100 = $1400, expended for 
coffee. 2}% of $2100 ^$52.50 com. on 
wheat. 1|% of $1400 = $24.50, com. on 
coffee. 



60 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

110. 21 ft. = 7 yds., 24 ft. = 8 yds., 

100 % _ 5 % = 95 % ; 7 yds. -f- 95 % = 7^^ = 

tV yds., required width of lining; 

100 % — 8 % = 92 % ; 8 yds. -- 92 % = 8^| 

yds. = Yg", required length of lining. 
tV X \'-i -^ I = 96^Vt yt^s- Ans. 

111. 100% — 5% = 95%; 100% + 2% = 102 %. 
95 % -- 102 % = 93/-3- % ; 

1.00 _.93/y =.06|| whole com. : cost of hemp 

as the base. 
$210 -4- .06|i = $3060, value of hemp ; 
95 % of |3060=$2907 ; $2907 -^- 1.02 = $2850, 

value of flour. 



Or 



1.02-;-. 95 = 1.07 j\ I 

1.07y^^ — 1.00= .073?^, whole com.: cost of 

flour as the base ; 
$210.00 H- .0737- = $2850, value of flour; 
$2850 X 1.02 = $2907; $2907 -- .95 = $3060, 

value of hemp. 
112. Value of 1 C. spruce = | value 1 C. of oak, 
" 1 " pine = f <f 1 *« i' 
Also value of 1 C. pine = ^ of ^ or ^ value 1 

C. oak; 
^ C. oak -f- I C. oak = If C. oak = value 1 C. 

spruce and 1 C. pine : |- of if = 2^ C. oak = 

value of a cord composed of spruce and pine 

in equal parts ; 
60 -i- /-J- = 157^ cords. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 61 

113. 3 Acres = 160 sq. rods X 3 = 480 sq. rd. ; 

A piece of land | as wide as long equals a 
piece of laud containing 24 small pieces ar- 
ranged in a rectangular form 3 parts wide 
and 8 long. 480 sq. rd. ^ 24 = 20 sq. rd. 
in each small square. 272;|- sq. ft. X 20 = 
5445 sq. ft. The square root of 5445 sq. 
ft. = 73.79 + feet, which multiplied by 3 
and 8 respectively equals the length and 
width of the 3 Acres. 

114. 2^ % of I is /o ^0 on the entire risk ; li ^o of 

:^ is I % on the entire risk ; ^-^ % + | % = 
\% % on the whole risk ; ^-\r\ = ^\; | o — 
^9j. = 1.^ of the risk for which he receives 1| 
% — II %, or 1^ % on the whole ; for ^\, j\ 
of 3 7 % . for the whole f ^ of |i % = llf % 
Ans. 

115. $1 — 1.015 = $.985; $.985 — $.0055 (the int. 

of $1 for 33 days) = $.9795, cost of $1; 
$352.62 -^ .9795 = $360, Ans. 

116. $8000 + $12800 + $15200 = $36000, whole 

stock : 
The proportional parts are. A., |^;B., ||; 

fl = -g^l, A.'s and B.'s more than C.'s; 
$1638 = 1|; ^\=nn; II = $2340, A.'s 
gain; ||. = $3744, B.'s gain; || = $4446, 
C.'s gain. 

117. Since A. returns 500 lbs. of tanned leather he 

is entitled to 6 cents X 500, or $30 worth 



G2 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ARITHMETIC. 

of green hides. A waste of 25 % of 700 
lbs. leaves 525 lbs. of tanned leather, of 
which A. retains 25 lbs. This is equal to 
33^ lbs. of raw hides, for 25 -- 75 % = 331. 
$30 -^ 9 cents = 333^, No. of lbs. green 
hides to which A. is entitled ; 333| — 33^ = 
300 lbs. Ans. 

118. A.'s gain is 32 % of his stock, B.'s gain is 40 

% of his stock, C.'s gain is 88 % of his 
stock. The difference between 40 % and 32 
%, or 8 %, equals the difference between 
A.'s and B.'s time, or 2 months. If 8 % 
equals 2 months, 1 % equals \ month ; 32 % 
= 8 month's A.'s time; 40 % = 10 months, 
B.'s time ; 88 % =22 months, C.'s" time. 

119. $405 — $360 = $45, difference of amounts ; 

7 % _4 % = 3 %, difference of rates. 
$45 -^ 3 % = $15 interest at 1 % ; 
$15X4% = $ 60 interest at 4 %. 
$360 — $60 = $300, the principal. 
$60 ^ 12, the interest of $300 for one year, 
=5, the number of years. 

120. Since | the cost the horse = | the cost of 

the carriage, \ the cost of the horse = f 
the cost of the carriage ; and | the cost of 
the horse = f the cost of the carriage ; hence 
the horse cost | as much as the carriage. 
25 %, or ^ the cost of the horse, + f = V , 
S. P. of horse ; 10 %, or ^^ the cost of the 
carriage, + | = i|, S. P. of carriage; 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON AEITITMETrC. 



63 



121. 



1-5 
cost of carriage 

horse. 

r 24 men 

9 hours 

7 degrees 

232^ ft. long 

3| ft. wide 

21 ft. deep 



>^V = $597, ^V= ^340 = $270 



I of $270 = $240 cost of 



5^ days: 



248 men 
11 hours 
4 degrees 
337 Tft. long 
5§ ft. wide { 
31 ft. deep 3 
Cancelling and reducing: answer 133|- days. 

122. The amount of $1 for 2 years at 5 % equals 

$1.10; 
Since 110 % of I the cost of house and 4 the 

cost of farm = $4950, 100 % of f the cost 

of house and ^ the cost of farm :=$4500. 
Since I the cost of the house = | of |- the cost 

of the farm, | the cost of the house = -^ 

the cost of the farm. 
$4500 = ^\ the cost of farm + 4 cost of farm, 

= If cost of farm ; |f = $4500, ^i^. = $125, 

11= $4375, cost of farm. 
Since | of cost of house = •/- cost of farm, 4 

and 
cost of house. 

123. 100 % — 6 %=- 94%, proceeds of coffee, or 

105 % of pork. 
94 % -^- 105 % = 8911 % of the value of cofPee, 

which equals value of the pork. 
100 % — 89^ j % = lO^f , whole com., which is 

equal to" $440. $440 h- lO^f % = $4200, 



j\ of $4375= $16G6l 



64 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS OX ARITHMETIC. 

value of coffee. 9-4% of $4200 -= $3948, 
proceeds of coffee, or 105 % of the value of 
pork; $3948 -f- 105 % = $3760, value of 
pork. 
124. $400 X 4 X 2 = $3200, income of A. and B. 
for 4 years ; $3200 — $400 = $2800, amount 
spent by A. and B. in 4 years ; $2800 — 
$160 (amount A. spends more than B. in 
four years) = $2640, or twice the amount 
spent by B. ; $2640 -- 2 = $1320, amount 
spent by B. in 4 years; $1320 ^ 4 = $330 ; 
B.'s annual expenses. $330 + $40 == $370, 
A.'s annual expenses. 



QUESTIOXS OX GRA30IAR. 

1. "VThat is the difference between Grammar and 
English Grammar? 

2. Into what parts is English Grammar divided? 

3. Define Etymology, Syntax, Prosody. 

4. TThat is the test of correctness in the use of 
lano^uao:e ? 

5. What is meant by the terms Inflection and Deri- 
vation of words ? 

6. What is lanOTas^e? 

7. Name the parts of speech. 

8. (a) What is a noun? (6) A pronoun? 

9. Give a complete classification of the noun and 
the pronoun. 

10. State the difference between a proper and a 
common noun. 

11. What may be used as nouns? 

12. When does a proper noun become common? 

13. When does a common noun become proper? 

14. What does the word substantive signify? 

15. Define the following: Class Nouns, Abstract 
Nouns, Collective Nouns, Verbal Nouns. 

5 65 



6G QUESTIONS ON GRAMjNIAR. 

16. Name the properties or attributes of nouns and 
pronouns. 

17. How are the o-enders distino-uished? 

18. State the application of each gender. 

19. What is personification? 

20. What attributes determine the gender of certain 
nouns without sex ? 

21. What are the three ways of distinguishing the 
masculine and feminine genders? 

22. When is a collective noun of the neuter gender? 

23. Of what gender are pronouns of the first and 
second person? 

24. What should be the gender of pronouns of the 
third person, singular number when referring to both 
sexes? 

25. Name the feminine genders of the following : 
steer, colt, earl, friar, hart, sire, sloven, stag, swain, 
don, infant, tzar, John, youth, marquis. 

26. What is person as applied to nouns and pro- 
nouns? 

27. Distinguish the person of nouns and pronouns. 

28. What is the person of the predicite nominative? 

29. What is number as applied to nouns and pro- 
nouns ? 

30. What are the numbers and what does each de- 
note? 

31. State how the plural of nouns ending in the 
following manner is formed; nouns ending in y pre- 
ceded by a consonant, nouns ending inforfe, nouns 
ending in o. 



QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 67 

32. How is the plural of letters, figures, marlis, and 
signs usually formed ? 

33. How are compound words made plural? 

34. How are compound terms composed of a proper 
noun and a title pluralized? 

35. State the rule for forming the plural of the 
compounds of full. 

36. What is the origin of the sign 's ? 

37. Write the plurals of the following: ottoman, 
alderman, court-martial, mouthful, nebula, focus, 
hypothesis, goodness, trout, elf, it, aid-de-camp, billet- 
doux, porte-monnaie, staff, Nero, n. Dr., Mr. Jones, 
chimney. 

38. Name and define the Cases. 

39. How may the several cases be known? 

40. How is the possessive singular formed? The 
possessive plural ? 

41. How is the possessive of compound names 
formed ? 

42. When is a noun or pronoun in apposition with 
another ? 

43. In what ways may a noun be in the absolute 
case? 

44. What does the term declension mean? 

45. Of what does parsing consist ? 

46. Into what classes may pronouns be divided? 

47. AVhat is the personal pronoun? What two 
kinds? 

48. What is the antecedent of a pronoun? What 
may it be ? 



68 QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 

49. In what cases are compound personals used? 

50. Define Possessive Pronouns. Name the pos- 
sessives. 

51. What is a Relative Pronoun? Illustrate. 

52. State fully the difference between a personal 
and a relative pronoun. 

53. -What two uses has the relative pronoun? 

54. («) When is as a relative pronoun? (6) When 
is that Si relative? (c) When is what a relative? 

55. When is titat preferred to who or which? 

56. What is the possessive of which and what? 

57. Name the Interrogative pronouns. 

58. (a) What is an adjective? (b) What two 
classes? 

59. Into what classes are descriptive adjectives 
divided ? 

60. Name the classes into which limiting adjectives 
are divided. 

61. What is a Participial Adjective? 

62. What is a Limiting Adjective? 

63. State the particular use of the definite article. 

64. For what is the indefinite article used? 

65. (a) What are Pronominal Adjectives? (b) 
Into what classes are they divided? 

66. What is the ofiice of Demonstratives? Name 
them. 

67. How are the Distributives used? Name them. 

68. How are the Indefinites used? Name them. 

69. What are Numeral Adjectives? Name the 
cKjses. 



QUESTIONS ON GRAaiMAR. 69 

70. Define and illustrate the three classes of Nu- 
merals. 

71. What is Comparison? How many degrees? 

72. When is an adjective in the positive degree? 

73. Define the comparative degree. Tell how it is 
formed. 

74. Define the superlative degree. Tell how it is 
formed. 

75. What does the suffix ish signify? 

76. What words signify a high degree of quality 
without implying comparison ? 

77. Give the comparative and superlative degrees 
of the followino: adjectives: bad, little, far, fore, lazy, 
ill, good-natured, evil, old, late. 

78. Name some adjectives which have no positive. 

79. Name some adjectives which have no compara- 
tive. 

80. Name some adjectives which have number. 

81. What is meant by descending comparison ? 

82. When monosyllabic and polysyllabic adjectives 
are used in the same sentence, which should precede? 

83. Correct and state your reason: "A more hand- 
somer woman." 

84. (a) Define a verb.' {h) How classified with 
respect to use ? 

85. Define a copulative verb. Illustrate. 

86. What is a transitive verb? Elustrate 

87. Define an intransitive verb. Give an example. 

88. What distinction may be made between the 
action expressed by a transitive and an intransitive 
verb ? 



70 QUESTIONS ON GRAMBIAR. 

89. How can a transitive verb in the passive voice 
be distinguished from an intransitive verb ? 

90. How may the words "What" and "Whom" be 
employed to determine whether a verb is transitive or 
intransitive ? 

91. When docs an intransitive verb become transi- 
tive? 

92. How are verbs classified with respect to their 
nature? 

93. Define and illustrate Active Verb, Passive Verb, 
Neuter Verb. 

94. Give the classification of verbs according to 
form. 

95. What is a Regular verb? Illustrate. 

96. Define an Irregular verb. Give an example. 

97. What properties has the verb? 

98. Define Voice. How divided? 

99. What does the Active Voice represent? 

100. Define Passive voice, and state how it is 
formed. 

101. What is Mode? 

102. How many and what modes are there? 

103. Define the Indicative mode. 

104. In what class of sentences is the indicative 
mode used? 

105. (a) What is the subjunctive mode? (fi'iWhy 
so called? 

106. What is the potential mode? 

107. What docs the imperative mode express? 

108. How may the imperative usually be known? 



QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 71 

109. How does the infinitive represent an action ? 

110. After wliat words is the sign ^o omitted? 

111. What relations may the infinitive sustain to 
other parts of the sentence? 

112. What are the signs of the modes? 

113. What is a participle? Why so called? 

114. How is the participle formed from the verb ? 

115. How many participles are there ? 

116. What does the present participle denote? 

117. How may the present active participle be 
used ? 

118. What is denoted by the perfect participle? 

119. In what ways is the action or state expressed 
by a participle ? 

120. In what case is the agent of an action expressed 
by the participle? Illustrate. 

121. Name the auxiliary verbs, and state for what 
used. 

122. What is an impersonal or unipersonal verb? 

123. Define tense, and name the divisions usually 
recognized by grammarians. 

124. Define the present tense. 

125. What is the present perfect tense? 

126. Define the past tense. 

127. Define the past perfect tense. 

128. What is the future tense? 

129. Define the future perfect tense. 

130. How many and what tenses in each mode? 

131. How many and what forms have verbs? 

132. Give rules for the use of shall and will. 



72 QUESTIONS OX GRA5IMAR. 

133. Define the terms, relation, agreement, govern- 
ment. 

134. What is person and number as apphed to 
verbs ? 

135. When should a verb be in the singular? 

136. In what cases should a verb be in the plural? 

137. Define conjugation. 

138. How many and what forms of conjugation? 

139. What are the principal parts of a verb? 

140. What is the synopsis of a verb? 

141. How is a verb conjugated negatively? 

142. How conjugate a verb interrogatively and nega- 
tively ? 

143. What are defective verbs ? Illustrate. 

144. What are redundant verbs? Give examples. 

145. What is meant by the term, "To make a 
verb ? ' ' 

146. Give the principal parts of the following verbs : 
dive, say, drink, gird, bear (to carry), cling, set, lie 
(to recline), shoe, sit, eat, wring, wear, strike, swim, 
lay, chide, dare (to venture), fly. 

147. What is an adverb? To what is it equivalent? 

148. Into what classes are adverbs divided? 

149. What are the modal adverbs? Interrogative 
adverbs ? 

150. Define an adverbial phrase. 

151. What are conjunctive adverbs? Name five. 

152. Give examples in which adverbs are used as 
adjectives. 



QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 73 

153. Classify the following adverbs : wholly, verily, 
asunder, therefore, away, seldom, almost, perhaps, 
why, forth. 

154. What is a preposition? 

155. What is the preposition and its object termed? 

156. Define a complex preposition. Illustrate. 

157. How is a preposition regarded whose object is 
omitted ? 

158. What distinction should be observed in the use 
of ' ' with ' ' and " by ? " 

159. What is a conjunction? 

160. What part of the sentence does the conjunc- 
tion form ? 

161. Are all conjunctive words conjunctions? If 
not, name exceptions. 

162. Into what classes are conjunctives divided? 

163. Define each class of conjunctions, and illus- 
trate. 

164. What is an interjection. What meaning has 
it? 

165. Give sentences illustrating the use of «s, first, 
as a relative pronoun; second, as a correlative con- 
junction; third, as a complex preposition, fourth, as 
an adverb. 

166. Illustrate by sentences, the use of hut as an 
adverb, an adjective, a preposition, and a conjunction. 

167. Of what does Syntax treat? 

168. What is the difference between a proposition 
and a sentence ? 

169. What is a principal proposition? 



74 QUESTIONS ON GRAIMMAR. 

170. Define a subordinate proposition. 

171. What is a phrase ? Illustrate. 

172. Define the terms, element, analysis, synthesis. 

173. What is the subject of a proposition? 

174. What is the predicate? The copula? 

175. How are sentences classified with respect to 
use? 

176. Define a declarative sentence. 

177. What is an interrogative sentence? 

178. Explain the difference between a direct and an 
indirect question. 

179. Wliat is an imperative sentence? 

180. Define an exclamatory sentence. 

181. How are sentences classified with respect to 
form? 

182. What is a simple sentence? Illustrate. 

183. What is a complex sentence? Illustrate. 

184. What are clauses? 

185. Define a compound sentence. 

186. What terms are applied to the parts of a com- 
pound sentence ? 

187. How are clauses connected ? Members? 

188. Wiiat is a transitive sentence? 

189. Define an intransitive sentence. 

190. Define a mixed sentence. 

191. What is an auxiliary sentence? 

192. What may the subject of a sentence be? 

193. Of what may the predicate be composed? 

194. What is a modifier? 

195. What elements are termed subordinate? 



QUESTIONS ON GRAIfflMAR. 75 

196. Define an objective element. What is it called ? 

197. What is an adjective element? 

198. What parts of speech form the adjective ele- 
ment ? 

199. Define an adverbial element. 

200. What is an independent element? 

201. Into what classes are elements divided? 

202. Designate the classes of elements according to 
construction. 

203. How are clauses classified with reference to 
their use ? 

204. What is an abridged sentence? 

205. Give a comprehensive rule for the use of the 
comma. 

206. Give ten short rules for the use of capital let- 
ters. 

207. Correct the following, giving your reason: 
"Things look much more favorably this morning." 
" Washington was given the command of a division." 
"The most tremendous civil w^ar which history re- 
cords." " To say he is relieved, is the same as saying 
he is dismissed." " We are agreed on this." 

208. TMiat is a figure of speech? 

209. Into what three classes may Figures be 
divided? 

210. Define the several figures of speech. 

211. Name five figures of orthography with exam- 
ples. 

212. Define Ellipsis. 

213. What is Enallage ? Illustrate. 



76 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 

214. Write ten figures of rhetoric, and illustrate 
each. 

215. What is versification? Define verse. 

216. What is a poetic foot? 

217. Name the principal poetic feet. Illustrate. 

218. State the difference between rhyme and blank 

verse. 

219. What is a stanza? 

220. What is a csesural pause? 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 

1. Grammar treats of the science upon which the 
principles of languages are based. English Grammar 
teaches how to speak and write the English language 
correctly. 

2. English Grammar is divided into four parts : Or- 
thography, Etymology, S3nitax, and Prosody. 

3. Etj^mology treats of the classification, derivation 
and properties of words. Syntax treats of the con- 
struction of sentences. Prosody treats of the laws of 
versification. 

4. The usage of the best writers and speakers. 

5. Inflection of words means the change of form 
which they undergo. The Derivation of words is 
tracing them to their original form and moaning. 

6. Language is the expression of ideas by means of 
words. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMINIAR. 



77 



7. Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Prep- 
osition, Interjection, Conjunction. To these are added 
by different authors, Articles, Participles, and Words 
of Euphony. 

8. (a) A noun is a name. (&) A pronoun is a word 
used instead of a noun. 

9. 



PROPER. 
COMMON. 



Class, 


CO 


Abstract, 


H 


Collective, 


H 


Verbal, 


a 


Personal, 


g 


Possessive, 


o 


Relative, 


« 


Interrogative 


. 0-, 



Masculine, 
Feminine, 

Neuter. 

Common. 

First, 

Second, 

Third. 

Singular. 

Plural. 

Kominative, 

Possessive, 

Objective. 

Absolute. 

10. A proper noun is the name of some particular 
person, place, or thing. A common noun is applied to 
each individual of a class of objects. 

11. Any word, sign, phrase, or sentence used inde- 
pendently of its meaning is a noun; as, " A is an ar- 
ticle." 

12. A proper noun becomes common when it as- 
sumes meaning; as, "Bolivar was styled the Wash- 
ington of South America." 

13. A common noun becomes proper when it is used 
to distinguish one individual from another of the same 
class ; as, " The Park." 

14. The word substantive includes everything used 
as a noun. 

13. Class nouns are names applied to each individ- 
ual of a class or group of objects. Abstract nour.s 
denote the quality of objects. Collective nouns are 



78 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRA3IMAR. 

singular in form but plural in meaning. Verbal nouns 
denote the names of actions ; they are participles and 
infinitives, sometimes termed Participial nouns. 

16. Person, gender, number, and case. 

17. As masculine, feminine, neuter, and common. 

18. The masculine gender is applied to males, the 
feminine gender, to females, the neuter gender, to 
objects neither masculine nor feminine, the common 
gender, to terms which may signify either male or 
female. 

19. Personification is the application of the mascu- 
line or feminine genders to objects without life. 

20. Objects noted for size, power, and domineering 
qualities are masculine. Objects noted for beauty, 
amiability, productiveness, or submissive qualities are 
feminine. 

21. First, by using different words ; as man, woman. 
Second, by using different terminations ; as host, 

hostess. 
Third, by prefixes and suffixes ; as, Mr. Smith, 
Mrs. Smith. 

22. Collective nouns conveying the idea of unity or 
in the plural form, are neuter. If they convey the 
idea of plurality without the plural form they have the 
gender of the individuals composing the collection. 

23. They have the common gender unless the sex is 
known from some other word. 

24. Usage sanctions the use of the mascuhne forms, 
Jie, his, him\ as, " Every scholar should be prompt in 
his exercises." 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 79 

25. The feminine of steer is heifer, of colt is 
filly., of earl is countess, of friar is nun, of hart is 
roe, of sire (the king) is madam, of sire (a horse) is 
dam, of sloven is slattern, of stag is hind, of swain is 
nymph, of don is donna, of infant is infanta, of tzar is 
tzarina, of John is Joanna, of youth is maiden or 
damsel, of marquis is marchioness. 

26. Person is that property of a noun or pronoun 
which distinguishes the speaker, the person spoken to, 
and the person or object spoken of. 

27. The first person denotes the speaker; the second 
person, the person addressed ; the third person, the 
person or object spoken of. • 

28. It is in the third person. 

29. Number is the distinction of nouns and pronouns 
with regard to unity or plurality. 

30. The numbers are the Singular and Plural. The 
singular denotes but one ; the plural denotes more than 
one. 

31. Nouns ending in y, preceded by a consonant, 
change y into ies; as glory, glories. Most nouns end- 
ing in / or /e are changed to ves- as, wife, wives. 
Most nouns ending in o, add es; as, cargo, cargoes; 
nouns ending in o, preceded by a vowel, add s. 

32. Letters, figures, signs, etc., form their plurals 
by adding 's; as, the 3 's and4 's, a's, +'5. 

33. Most compound words are pluralized by having 
the described part made plural ; as ox-carts. In some 
compound words both parts are plurahzed ; as, men- 
servants. 



80 ANSWEES TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAE. 

34. They are made plural by adding a plural termin- 
ation to either the name or the title, but not to both; 
OS, the Misses Smith or the Miss Smiths. 

35 . The compounds of full form the plural regu- 
larly; as, spoonfuls, hucketfuls. 

36. The 's comes to us from the ending es or is in the 
old English genitive case. The apostrophe indicates the 
omission of e or i. 

37. The plural of ottoman, is ottomans; alderman, 
aldermen; court-martial, courts- martial ; mouthful, 
mouthfiils; nebula, nebulae; focus, foci; hypothesis, 
hypotheses; goodness, no regular form; trout, trout; 
elf, elves; it, they ; aid-de-camp, aids-de-camp; portc- 
monnaie, porte-monnaies ; billet-doux, billets-doux; 
staff, staves, (sticks) ; staffs, (officers) ; Nero, N'eroes; 
n, n's; Dr., Drs. ; Mr. Jones, Messrs. Jones ; chimney, 
chimneys. 

38. There are four cases : Nominative, Possessive, 
Objective, and Absolute. The Nominative Case is the 
use of a noun or pronoun as the subject or predicate of 
a proposition. The Possessive Case is the use of a 
noun or pronoun to denote ownership. The Objec- 
tive Case is the use of a noun or pronoun as the 
object of a transitive verb or of a preposition. The 
Absolute Case is the use of a noun independent of 
any relation. 

39. The Nominative is the name case. The Pos- 
sessive denotes possession. The Objective usually 
follows a transitive verb or a preposition. The Abso- 
lute Case is used independently. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 81 

40. The possessive singular is formed by annexing 
'5 to the nominative. The possessive plural is formed 
by annexing the apostrophe only when the nominative 
plural ends in s. If the plural does not end with s, the 
apostrophe and s are added. 

41. By annexing 's to the last part; as, "John 
Smith's house." 

42. When it denotesthe same person orthing. It is 
then said to be in the same case. 

43. 1st, By direct address. 2nd, By exclamation. 
3d, By pleonasm or specification. 4th, With a parti- 
ciple. 

44. Declension of a noun is its variation to denote 
number and case. 

45. Parsing consists, first, in naming the part of 
speech ; second, in stating its properties or attributes: 
third, in naming its relation to other words together 
with the rule for such relation. 

46. Personal, possessive, relative, and interrogative. 

47. The personal pronoun both represents the noun 
and by its form shows whether it is of the first, second, 
or third person. A personal pronoun may be simple 
or compound. * 

48. The antecedent is the noun or substa itive ex- 
pression for which a pronoun stands. It may be a 
noun, a different pronoun, a phrase, or a clause. 

49. In the nominative and objective cases only. 

50. A Possessive pronoun is a word which repre- 
sents both the possessor and the thing possessed ; as, 
mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs. 

6 



'*i't AJSftWtJte TO t^UESTlOSg OJf GRAMMAJa. 

5L A Relative proitoxin Teprbheats Mjme pr^jceding 
i»oun or ecjuivaleirt expre»%ioii, called tl>e anteeesdent, 
to which it joins a Ijiujtjng clause; a^, "The town 
ktHcA we just passed isMjltoD/' 

52- nrst. Personal pronoun© hare a peculiar form 
for «ui person ; the relative^ do not change their form 
for person- Second, a perjoonaJ pronoun maj' be the 
eubjeet of an independent sentence ; a relative is not 
so used ; it is found onJj in & ' ' i.te clause- 

53. A pronominal and a , use. Bj the 
fir^t it represents a - ,e e^t^^i^i it joins a modi- 
fying clause to the 

54. A« ie a relative vinen it takes the place of «cA<;<, 
'ich.kh, fjT 'tcliot afXAiT isuth, many, and *«»»«-, 77*a< ic 
a relative when tcAo, whwra, or t«j/<ic/< can be subistrtuted 
for it. W7ta^ i, a relative when </*a< tr/<««7< can be 
fcuhirrtituted for it. 

5.5. 77ta< is preferred to '«?:/«> and ««:/<i>^/< when the 
arjt'boedent denotes both persons and things ; after the 
- .perlative dhip-'^^ ; after '<;t-//c used as an antecedent, 
arjd generally aft^r r<^, o-W, any, eacA, every, mrm, 
>!/jrri^, fjT very. 

Tyti, W}iy:h and 'or/^a< having no possessive form of 
their own, sometimes borrow wJt/jfse, the jx/ssessive of 

57. The InXerrogaihe pronouns are vxVo, tcAi^A and 
what. 

58. ^ct j An Adjective is a word used to describe or 
limit the meaning of a noun. C6; Descri|/tive and 

limiting adjectives. 



ANS^NIIRS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 83 

59. Into Common, Proper, and Participial. 

60. Into Articles, Pronominal Adjectives, and Nu- 
meral Adjectives. 

61. A Participle placed before the noun it describes, 
as, "A warbling brook." 

62. A Limiting Adjective limits or restricts the 
meaning of a noun without expressing any of its qual- 
ities. 

63. The definite article is used to point out a partic- 
ular object or group of objects ; to distinguish one 
object from another of the same name; as, Ohio, the 
State, the Ohio, the river ; to point out some well 
known object; as, the Pleiades. 

6-4. The indefinite article is used to show that no 
particular one of a class is meant. Its general use is 
to point out a single individual or a group ; as, a n apple, 
a brace of ducks. 

65. (a) Pronominal Adjectives are limiting adjec- 
tives sometimes used as pronouns, (b) They are 
divided into three classes ; Demonstratives, Distribu- 
tives, and Indefinites. 

66. The Demonstratives point out objects definitely. 
They are this, that, these, those, former, latter, both, 
same, yon, yonder. 

67. Distributives relate to objects taken separately. 
They are each, every, either, neither, many a. 

68. The Indefinites relate to objects indefinitely. 
They are all, any, another, certain, divers, enough, 
few, little, many, much, no, none, one, oicn, other^ sev- 
eral, some, sundry. 



84 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAIVEVIAR. 

69. Numeral Adjectives are those which express 
number and order. The classes are Cardinal, Ordinal, 
and Multiplicative. 

70. Cardinal Numerals tell how many ; as, one, two. 
Ordinal Numerals tell the order ; as first, second. 
Multiplicative Numerals tell how many fold ; as, 

single, twofold. 

71. Comparison is a variation of adjectives express- 
ing different degrees of quality. There are three de- 
grees of comparison : The Positive, the Comparative, 
and the Superlative. 

72. An adjective is in the positive degree when it 
expresses simply the quality. 

73. An adjective is in the comparative degree when 
it expresses a higher or lower degree of quality; as, 
tall, taller. It is regularlj^ formed by adding er or 
more or less to the positive form. Less is added when 
a less degree of quality is expressed. 

74. An adjective is in the superlative degree when 
it expresses the highest or lowest degree of qualit}^ ; 
as, tally taller, tallest. It is regularly formed by add- 
ing est, or most, or least to the positive form. Least is 
added when the smallest degree of quality is ex- 
pressed. 

75. A small degree of some quality ; as, saltish. 

76. Very, exceedingly, greatly, much, vastly, etc. 

77. Bad, worse, worst; little, less, least; far, far- 
ther or further, farthest or furthest; fore, former, 
foremost; lazy, lazier, laziest; ill, worse, worst; 
good-natured, better-natured, best-natured ; evil, worse 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 85 

worst ; old, older or elder, oldest or eldest ; late, later 
or latter, latest or last. 

78. Nether, nethermost ; under, undermost ; hither, 
hithermost. 

79. Top, topmost; head, headmost; southern, 
southernmost. 

80. This — these; that — those; few — many. 

81. The expression of a lower degree of quality 
than is implied in the positive ; as, rash, less rash, least 
rash. 

82. The monosyllabic adjective should precede ; as, 
" A more proud and exalted mind." 

83. " A handsomer woman." Adjectives should • 
not be doubly compared. 

84. («) A verb is a word which expresses action, 
being or state. (6) Verbs may be classed as Copu- 
lative, Transitive, and Intransitive. 

85. A copulative verb asserts the predicate of the 
subject; as, "Gold is yellow." Examples: see7n,aj)- 
pear, become, is named, is elected, is made, is chosen. 

86. A Transitive verb has, or requires an object to 
complete its meaning ; as, " James cut the apple." 

87. An Intransitive verb neither has nor requires an 
object to complete its meaning; as, "The clouds 
darken." 

88. The action expressed by a transitive verb has 
reference to some object upon which it terminates, 
apart and distinct from the subject; the action ex- 
pressed by an intransitive verb affects the subject 
only. 



86 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 

89. A verb in the passive voice is transitive, if its 
subject in the passive voice o^ be made its object in 
tlie active: as, <' The door was shut by John ;" " John 
shui the door." 

90. Ask the question What 9 or Whom? after the 
assertion; if the answer is a different thing or person 
from the subject, the verb is transitive, otherwise it is 
intransitive. 

91. When the object is like the verb • as, "And he 
dreamed yet another dream." 

92. Into Active, Passive, and Neuter. 

93. An Active Verb represents the subject in an 
active state; as, " Boys j?/ay." A Passive Verb repre- 
sents the subject as acted upon ; as, " The man was in- 
jured." A Neuter Verb represents the subject in 
neither of these states ; it implies being or condition ; 
as, " The child sleeps." 

94. With respect to their form, verbs are either 
Eegular or Irregular. 

95. A regular verb forms its past indicative and 
perfect participle by adding d or ed to the present in- 
dicative, or simplest form of the verb ; as, hope, hoped, 
hoped. 

96. An irregular verb does not form its past tense 
and perfect participle by adding d or ed to the present 
indicative; as, am, was, been. 

97. Voice, Mode, Tense, Number, and Person. 

98. Voice is that form of a transitive verb which 
shows whether the subject acts or is acted upon. Into 
Active and Passive voices!. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAilMAR. 87 

99. The Active Voice represents the subject as act- 
ing upon some object; as, " Jolin saws wood." 

100. The Passive Voice represents the subject as 
being acted upon ; as, "John was struck by James." 
The passive voice is formed by prefixing some form 
of the neuter verb to be to the perfect participle of a 
transitive verb. 

101. Mode is the manner in which the action, being, 
or state is represented. 

102. Five modes : the Indicative, Subjunctive, Po- 
tential, Imperative, and Infinitive. 

103. The Indicative mode asserts a thing as a fact. 

104. The indicative mode is used in declarative, in- 
terrogative, and exclamatory sentences and subor- 
dinate propositions. 

105. (a) The Subjunctive mode asserts a thing as 
doubtful or conditional, (b) It is so called because it 
is used only in subjoined or subordinate sentences. 

106. The Potential mode asserts the power, possi- 
bility, liberty, duty, obligation, inclination, or neces- 
sity of doing, or being in a certain state. 

107. The Imperative mode expresses a command, 
an exhortation, an entreaty, or a permission. 

108. By the omission of a subject. 

109. The Infinitive expresses the action, being, or 
state without affirming it. 

no. After the verbs bid, dare, feel, hear, help, let, 
make, need, see, and some others. 

111. The Infinitive, as an abstract noun, may be the 
subject or predicate of a sentence ; may be in apposi- 



88 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 

tion with a noun ; and may be the object of a .transi- 
tive verb or a preposition. 

112. Indicative mode: the simple form of the verb; 
Subjunctive mode: ^y", though ^ except, lest, unless; 
Potential mode : may, can, must, might, could, would, 
sliould; Imperative mode : let or a command; Infini- 
tive mode: to. 

113. A Participle is a word partaking of the proper- 
ties of a verb, an adjective, and a noun. It is so called 
because it partakes of the properties of the verb and 
the adjective. 

114. The present participle, by adding ing ; the 
past by adding ed to all regular verbs; and the 
perfect, by prefixing to the past the auxiliary 
" having." 

115. There are three participles: the present the 
past and the perfect. 

116. The present participle denotes an action or 
state in progress at the time represented by the prin- 
cipal verb. 

117. As an adjective,ji predicate, and a noun. 

118. The perfect participle denotes an action or 
state completed at the time represented by the princi- 
pal verb. 

119. It may be predicated or assumed. 

120. It is in the possessive : " I heard of his going 
home." 

121. They are do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, 
must. The^ are used in the conjugation of other 
verbs. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAjVUMAR. 89 

122. An impersonal verb is one by which an action 
or state is asserted independently of any particular 
subject: as, " It snows ; " "It seems." 

123. Tense denotes the time of an action or 
event. Six tenses: the present, the present perfect, 
the past, the past perfect, the future, and the future 
perfect. 

124. The present tense denotes simply present 
time. 

125. The present perfect tense denotes what is 
past and finished, but which is connected with the 
present. 

126. The past tense denotes simply past time. 

127. The past perfect denotes what is passed and 
finished before some other event, which is also past. 

128. The future tense denotes simply future time. 

129. The future perfect tense represents a future 
time prior to some other future time. 

130. The indicative has the six tenses; the subjunc- 
tive has three: the present, past and past perfect ; the 
potential has four: the present, present perfect, past, 
di^nd past perfect ; the imperative has one ; th.e present; 
the infinitive has two: the present, and the present per- 
fect. 

131. Verbs have fve forms: the common, the em- 
phatic, the jjrogressive, the passive, and the ancient. 

132. Shall in the first person, and i^'z'ZZin the sec- 
ond and third, denote simple futurity; as, "I shall 
go." "You and he will go with me." Shall in the 
second and third person denotes necessity ; as, " You 



90 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 

and he shall not go till I come." Will in the first per- 
son denotes determination; as, *' I will prove my as- 
sertion." 

133. Relation is the connection or relation words 
have with one another; agreement is the similarity 
words have with one another in person, gender, num- 
ber, case, etc. ; government is the power one word has 
over another in determining its relations. 

134. Person and number of verbs are the chano-es 

o 

which they undergo to mark their agreement with their 
subjects. 

135. A verb should be singular when its subject is 
singular, when its subject is a group viewed as one 
thing, when its subject is two or more objects taken 
singly, and denoted by several terms. 

136. A verb should be plural when its subject is 
plural, when its subject is a group conceived as to its 
individual parts, when it has two or more objects 
taken collectively. 

137. Conjugation is the correct expression in regu- 
lar order of the modes, tenses, voices, numbers, and 
persons of a verb. 

138. Four forms: the regular, the emphatic, the 
progressive and the interrogative. 

139. The principal parts of a verb are the present 
indicative, the past indicative, and the perfect parti- 
ciple. 

140. The Synopsis of a verb is its variation in 
form, through the different modes and tenses, in a 
single number and person. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS O^ GRAMMAR. 91 

141. Place not after it, or after the first auxiliary, 
but before the infinitive or the participles. 

142. Place the subject and not after the vero, or af- 
ter the first auxiliary. 

143. Defective verbs are those wanting some of 
their principal parts ; as beware, ought, quoth, wit. 

144. Redundant verbs are those having more than 
one form for their past tense or perfect participle ; 
as, cleave, cleft, clove, or clave; cleft, cloven, or 
cleaved. 

145. To put a verb into any required form. Ex. : 
To name the tense, mode, form, voice, number and 
person of the verb. 

146. dive, — dived, dived; say, — said, said; 
drink, — drank, drunk; gird, — girded or girt; bear, 
— 6o7'e, borne; cling, — clung, clung; set, — set, set; 
lie, — lay, lain; shoe, — shod, shod; sit, — sat, sat; 
eat, — ate, eaten; wring, — wrung, wrung; wear, — 
wore, worn; strike, — struck, struck or stricken;^ 
swim, — swam, or swum, swum; lay, — laid, laid; 
chide, — chid, chidden or chid; dare, — durst or 
dared , dared ; fly , — few , floiv n . 

147. An adverb is a word which modifies the mean- 
ing of a verb, adjective, participle, or an adverb. It 
is equivalent to a phrase consisting of a preposition 
and its object, limited by an object. 

148. Five classes ; abverbs of time, place, cause, 
manner, and degree. 

149. Modal adverbs show the manner of the asser- 
tion ; as, yes, truly. Interrogative adverbs are those 
used iu asking questions. 



92 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMIMAR. 

150. An adverbial phrase is a combination used as a 
single adverb. 

151. Conjunctive adverbs are those which connect 
an adverbial element with the part of the principal 
proposition modified. Ex. where, when, while, before, 
since. 

152. " He seems better.'' " She looks well.'' 

153. Wholly — degree ; verily — modal ; asunder — 
manner ; therefore — cause ; away — place ; seldom — 
time; almost — degree; perhaps — manner; why — 
cause ; . forth — place. 

154. A preposition is a word which shows the rela- 
tion of a noun or pronoun to some other word. 

155. A phrase; as, " at home," " in town." 

156. A complex preposition consists of two words, 
and is parsed as a single word; as, " as far," *' from 
among." 

157. As an adverb ; as, " They went out." 

158. With denotes an instrument; by a cause ; with 
the immediate, by the remote means. 

159. A conjunction is a word used to connect words, 
sentences, and parts of sentences. 

160. A pure conjunction forms no part of the 
sentence; it unites the materials of the sentence. 

161. They are not; relative pronouns and conjunc- 
tive adverbs are exceptions. 

162. Into three classes : copulative, disjunctive, and 
correlative. 

163. Copulative conjunctions join on members de- 
noting an addition, consequence, cause, or supposition ; 
as, and, for. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAJIMAR. 93 

Disjunctive conjunctions join on members denoting 
opposition of moaning; as, buty except. 

Correlative conjunctions are copulatives or disjunc- 
tives, used in pairs, one referring or answering to an- 
other ; as, .s'o — as, neither — nor. 

164. An interjection is a word used to express some 
sudden or strong emotion. The interjection has no defi- 
nite meaning or o-rammatical relation. 

165. Relative pronoun: "This is the same as I 
found;" Correlative conjunction; "^s he did to you, 
so will I do to him;" Complex preposition: ^^ As for 
me, I cannot go;" Adverb: " It is as clear as crystal." 

166. An adverb : " I can but think him gone;" An 
adjective: " There is nothing but leaves;" A preposi- 
tion: <' They have all gone but you ;" A conjunction : 
" Age advances, but knowledge lingers." 

167. Syntax treats of the construction of sentences. 

168. A proposition is a thought expressed in words. 
A sentence is the assemblage of words used to express 
the thought . 

169. A principal proposition is one which makes 
complete sense when standing alone. 

170. A subordinate proposition is one which does 
not make complete sense when standing alone, but 
must be connected with another proposition. 

171. A phrase is an assemblage of words forming a 
single expression, but not making complete sense : as, 
in haste, since then. 

172. An element is one of the component parts of a 
sentence. Analysis is the separation of a sentence into 



94 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 

its elements. Synthesis is the construction of sentences 
from words. 

173. The subject of a proposition is that of which 
something is affirmed. 

174. The predicate of a proposition is that which is 
affirmed of the subject. 

The copula is a word or group of words used to assert 
the predicate of the subject. 

175. Declarative, interrogative, imperative, and ex- 
clamatory. 

176. A declarative sentence affirms or denies some- 
thing. 

177. An interrogative sentence is one which asks a 
question. 

178. A direct question requires yes or no for an 
answer. 

An indirect question cannot be answered by yes or 
no. 

179. An imperative sentence expresses a command 
or an entreaty. 

ISO. An exclamatory sentence is used in the ex- 
pression of emotion. 

181. With respect to form sentences are simple, 
complex, and compound. 

182. A simple sentence contains but one proposi- 
tion: "The sun rises in the east." 

183. A complex sentence contains one principal 
proposition, some part of which is modified by one or 
more subordinate propositions: "The fog disappears 
when the sun rises.'' 



ANS'WEES -lO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 95 

184. Clauses are the propositions of which complex 
sentences are composed. 

185. A compound sentence contains two or more 
simple or complex sentences, joined by coordinate con- 
nectives. 

186. The parts of a compound sentence are called 
members. 

187. The clauses of complex sentences are connected 
by relative prpnouns, conjunctions and conjunctive 
adverbs. The members of a compound sentence are 
connected by conj mictions, 

188. A transitive sentence is one whose predicate is 
a transitive verb. 

189. An intransitive sentence is one whose predicate 
is an intransitive verb. 

190. A mixed sentence nas both a transitive verb 
and an intransitive verb as predicates. 

191. An auxiliary sentence is a subordinate propo- 
sition. 

192. The subject may be a word, a phrase, or a 
clause. 

193. The predicate may be a word, a phrase, or a 
clause. 

194. A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause joined 
to a term to limit or modify its meaning. 

195. The subordinate elements are objective, ad- 
jective, and adverbial. 

196. An objective element is a word or group of 
words which completes the meaning of a transitive 



96 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON" GRAMMAR. 

verb in the active voice, or of its participles. It is 
called the object. 

197. An adjective element is a word or group of 
words which modifies a noun, or other expression used 
as a noun. 

198. The adjective element may be an adjective, a 
participle, a noun in apposition, or a possessive. 

199. An adverbial element is a word or group of 
words used to modify a verb, adjective, participle, or 
an adverb. 

200. An independent element is a word or expression 
which has no grammatical connection with the sentence 
in which it may be used. 

201. Elements maybe of the first class; as, a word ; 
of the second class; as, a. phrase; of the third class ; as, 
a clause. 

202. Simple elements, or those not restricted by a 
modifier; complex elements, or those which contain a 
leading element restricted in meaning by one or more 
modifiers; compound elements, or those consisting of 
two or more simple or complex elements. 

203. Clauses may be classed with reference to their 
use or position in sentences; as, subject clauses, predi- 
cate clauses, relative clauses, appositive clauses, inter- 
rogative clauses, objective clauses, and adverbial 
clauses. 

204. An abridged sentence is one whose predicate 
has the infinitive or participial form. 

205. The following terms should be set off by com- 
mas: 1. Parenthetical expressions. — 2. Intermediate 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEAMMAR. 97 

expressions, that is, such as break the essential part of 
a sentence. — 3. Dependent clauses. — 4. Words form- 
ing a series. — 5. Words or phrases in pairs. — 6. 
Noun in apposition. — 7. Absolute case. — 8. In- 
verted clauses. 

206. Capital letters should be used in the following 
cases: The first word of a sentence, — The first word 
of an example, — The first word of a direct quotation, — 
The first Avord of a direct question, — The first word 
after a period, — The first word after an interroga- 
tion, — Numbered clauses, — The pronoun I and the 
interjection O, — The first word of every line of 
poetry, — Proper names, — Adjectives derived from 
proper names, — Names of the Deity. 

207. " Things look much move favorable this morn- 
ing." Favorable modifies things^ and should be an 
adjective. " The command of a division was given to 
Washington." The object of the active verb, and not 
that of a preposition should be made the subject of the 
passive verb. " The most tremendous civil war that 
history records." That should be used in preference to 
which after the superlative degree. " To say he is re- 
lieved, is the same as to say he is dismissed." It is im- 
proper to use different forms of the verb in the same 
construction. *' We agree on this." Needless passive 
forms should be avoided. 

208. A figure of speech is a deviation from the or- 
dinary form, regular construction, or literal significa- 
tion of words. 

7 



98 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 

209. Into figures of orthography, syntax, and rhet- 
oric. 

210. A figure of orthography is a deviation from 
the ordinary spelling or pronunciation of words. A 
figure of sj'ntax is a deviation from the ordinary con- 
struction or arrangement of words. A figure of 
rhetoric is a deviation from the ordinary application of 
words. 

211. Apheresis; as, 'gainst, for against. Prosthe- 
sis ; as, beloved, for loved. Syncope; as, o'er, for 
over. Apocope; as, yond, for yonder. Syneresis; 
as, cZon'^, for do not. 

212. Ellipsis is the omission of a word, phrase, or 
clause, which must be supplied to complete the mean- 
ing. 

213. Enallage is the use of one part of speech or 
of one form of a word for another. Ex. We, for /. 
Metliinks, for I think. 

214. Simile: *' He is lilce a giant: " Allegory: 
Bunj^an's Pilgrims' Progress; Metonymy: ^'Intem- 
perance kills more than the sicord; " Personification: 
*'Joy gave him happiness; " Irony: " Sure, Brutus is 
an honorable ^vciVin ;" Hyperbole: "Then, swift as 
light, their swords flashed;" Synecdoche: gold, for 
money; Antithesis : " Virtue ennobles, vice debases; " 
Epigram *' Nothing so fallacious as facts, except fig- 
ures; " Paralipsis : " I will not call him villain, forit 
would be unparliamentary." 

215. Versification is the art of making verse. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GRAMMAR. 99 

Verse is the musical arrangement of words, according 
to some regular accent. 

216. A poetic foot is a collection of syllables, one of 
which is accented. 

217. The Iambus, two syllables, second accented, 
enthrall; the Trochee, two syllables, first accented, 
raven; the Anapest, three syllables, the last accented, 
countersign; the Dactyl, three syllables, the first ac- 
cented, principal. 

218. Rhyme is a similarity of sound between succes- 
sive lines or lines at regular intervals. Blank verse is 
verse without rhyme. 

219. A stanza is a combination of lines constituting 
a division of a poem. 

220. A caesural pause is a slight pause made in or 
near the middle of poetic lines 



QUESTIONS OX GEOGRAPHY. 

1. Define Geography. How divided? 

2. Define Mathematical Geography. 

3. What is Political Geography? 

4. Define Physical Geography, 

5. State three facts which prove the lotundity of 
the earth. 

6. What is the generally accepted reason, for the 
flattening of the earth at the poles ? 

7. (a) Give the length in miles of the equatorial 
diameter. (6) The polar diameter, (c) The earth's 
circumference, (c?) The earth's extent of surface, 
(e) What proportion is water? 

8. What revolutions has the earth? Explain the 
cause of each. 

9. What proofs can you give for the earth's daily 
rotation ? 

10. State the cause of the change from day to night. 

11. Explain the cause of winter and summer. 

12. What position does the earth occupy in the solar 
system ? 

13. What is the inclination of the earth's axis? 
100 



QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 101 

14. What is the length of the earth's orbit? 

15. Into what zones is the earth's surface divided? 
What is the width of each in degrees? 

16. Why are the tropics and polar circles placed 
just where they are ? 

17. What imaginary lines would be removed from 
the surface of the globe if its axis were perpendicular 
to the plane of its orbit, and what would be the effect 
upon the seasons, and on the length of day and night? 

18. If the rotary motion of the earth were to cease, 
what change would be made in the distribution of wa- 
ter on the surface of the earth ? 

19. Mention five causes which produce oceanic cur- 
rents. 

20. Name four effects of ocean currents. 

21. When are the days and nights equal throughout 
the globe? 

22. What is the horizon ? 

23. What is a great circle of the earth? A small 
circle? Give an example of each. 

24. What is a meridian circle? A meridian? 

25. What do you mean by the circle of illumina- 
tion? 

->26. What is latitude? Longitude? 
' 27. What is the greatest latitude a place can have? 
Why ? The greatest longitude ? Why ? 

28. (a) Philadelphia and Denver are in the same 
latitude ; would the parallel be the shortest distance 
between them measured on the earth's surface? (5) 
Is there any parallel which is the shortest distance be- 
tween two points situated upon it? 



102 QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

29. If tbe inclination of the earth were 20 degrees 
from the vertical, what would be the width of each 
zone? 

30. Name the countries crossed by the Tropic of 
Cancer. By the equator. 

31. Give the approximate latitude of the following 
cities: New Orleans, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Wash- 
ington, Montreal, Chicago, New York, Havana, Lon- 
don, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Rome, St. Petersburg, 
Constantinople, Rio Janeiro. 

32. Where is there neither latitude nor longitude ? 

33. How many degrees is Washington west of 
Greenwich ? 

34. What are the following: Island, Arcl ipelago, 
Peninsula, Cape, Isthmus? 

35. What is a Mountain ? Mountain Range? Vol- 
cano? Watershed? 

36. Why is the climate of England milder than that 
of Labrador? 

37. Name and locate the four most celebrated vol- 
canoes. 

38. Name the warm ocean currents. The cold cur- 
rents. 

39. Where, on the 21st of June at the Arctic Circle, 
would you look for sunrise ? 

40. Define the following : Cascade, Confluence, 
Frith or Estuary, Glacier, Avalanche. 

41. What is the Ecliptic? Why so called? What 
is its mean distance from the sun? What is its 
length? 



QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 103 

42. Wheat is the earth's orbital velocity? 

43. Under what circumstances would summer and 
winter be longer than at present ? 

44. Which has the longer twilight June 21, Havana 
or Quebec? Explain why. 

45. What is climate? Upon what conditions does 
it depend ? 

46. How does the temperature vary with altitude 
and distance from the equator? 

47. Why are the western coasts of Europe and the 
United States warmer than the eastern coasts of Asia 
and the United States? 

48. Into what general classes is mankind divided? 
Give an example of each class. 

49. What are the political divisions of the world? 
- 50. What is a Republic? Empire? Kingdom? 
Limited Monarcliy? Absolute Monarchy? Give ex- 
amples of each. 

51. What is a village? Town? City? A capital 
of a state or country ? The Metropolis ? 
' 52. What are the chief industrial pursuits? 

53. Distinguish between the two kinds of Com- 
merce. Between imports and exports. 
^54. Name the four grades of social condition of 
mankind. 

55. Name the four principal religious systems. 
^,56. What are the Equinoxes? When do they oc- 
cur? 

, 57. Explain what you mean by the Solstices, and 
state when they occur. 



104 QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

58. Name the grand divisions of the earth, and af- 
ter each write the name of its principal mountain sys- 
tem. 

y 59. Name the eight largest islands in their order of 
size. 

" 60, Give in round numbers the area of each of the 
grand divisions. 

61. Name and give length of principal river of each 
grand division. 

62. To what is the term Antarctic Ocean applied ? 

63. How much more land does the North Temperate 
zone contain than the South Temperate? 

64. Name ten peninsulas which project in a south- 
erly direction. 

65. How far north have navigators explored? 
'^^66. What was the only beast of burden possessed 

by the aborigines of America ? 

67. Why is the region about the Antarctic Circle 
colder than that of the Arctic Circle ? 

68. Name the ten largest gulfs and bays that wash 
the coast of North America. 

69. Name the ten largest lakes of North America. 

70. Into w^hat four classes is the surface of North 
America naturally divided? 

71. Name the political divisions of North America. 

72. Name the principal wild animals of North 
America. 

73. What is the area of the United States? Its 
population ? Breadth from north to south ? Length 
from east to west ? 



QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 105 

74. What races may be found in the United States ? 

75. What are caiions? What river is remarkable 
for its numerous and deep canons? 

y 76. Ii"or what are the rivers of the Atlantic plain 

remarkable? 

"'^7. What political divisions do the United States 

comprise ? 

78. Name the ten largest cities of the United States. 

79. Why has the northeastern part of the United 
States been foremost in manufacturing industries? 

' 80. Name five principal exports of the United 
States. Five principal imports. 

^! 81. Locate and define the following : Ottawa, 
Yukon, Hatteras, Yucatan, Nicaragua, Hayti, Halifax, 
Sitka, Bathurst, Bermuda, Sandusky, Yankton, The 
Thousand Isles, Mackinaw, Itasca, 'Tehuantepec, Gila, 
Height of Land,'lKod3'ak, Fundy. 

82. Compare the New England States with Cali- 
fornia in size. With Texas. 

83. If Texas were placed across the United States 
from Washington City westward, how far would it 
extend ? 

84. State the -location of the following colleges: 
Yale, Harvard, Brown University, Dartmouth, Vassar, 
William and Mary College. 

85. Name the States and their capitals that border 
on the Mississippi Eiver. 

^ SG. In what two industries do the Middle States ex- 
cel all others ? 

87. What is the government of the District of Co- 
lumbia ? 



106 QUESTIOXS OX GEOGRAPHY. 

88. In what respect is Chesapeake Bay remarkable? 

89. What three large cities are in nearly the same 
latitude as Philadelphia? How do they compare in 
climate? Give the reason for your answer. 

"^ 90. Of what benefit are sand-bars and islands lying 
off the coast of North Carolina? 

91. Name the peculiar productions of North Caro- 
lina. How are they obtained ? 

92. Give a detailed description of Florida. 

93. How are the lowlands along the Mississippi 
rendered tillable ? 

94. "Whence comes the moss used for cushions and 
mattresses ? 

95. What is the Eed Eivcr Raft? 

^ 96. By whom, and for what purpose was Indian 
Territory set apart? 

97. Compare the eastern tributaries of the Missis- 
sippi with the western in the following respects : ( 1 ) 
Rapidity of descent. (2) Navigable distance. (3) 
Extent of surface drained. (4) Time of subsidence. 
''98. What is the natural center of population of 
the United States? Give reasons for your answer. 

99. Name ten productions of the Mississippi Valley. 

100. How do steamboats pass the falls at Louisville ? 

101. For what is Chicago remarkable? Name four 
points. 

102. Why is the climate of Michigan milder than 
other States in the same latitude? 

103. How do vessels pass from Lake Superior to 
Lake Michigan ? 



QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 107 

104. Why is southwestern Michigan particularly 
adapted to fruit culture ? 
' 105. (a) Locate Yellowstone National Park, (b) 
Give its area, (c) By whom and for what set apart? 
(d) Name four features which render it a natural 
wonder, (e) What three rivers have their source in 
this park? 

lOG. Name the capitals of tne ten territories. 

107. Why is the Red River of the North impor- 
tant ? 

108. Compare the natural coinmercial advantages of 
the Atlantic and Pacific States. 

'^^lOO. What and where are the following: Dry 
Tortugas, Managua, The Panhandle, The Eastern Shore, 
Sandy Hook? 

110. What waters surround New York City? 
•i^'IH. Name the largest lake in each grand division. 

112. («) Where do navigators change their time? 
(6) Under what circumstances do they add a day and 
drop a day ? 

113. In what city is it 6 a. m. when it is noon at 
London? 

114. On the 21st of June at noon which way are the 
shadows cast at London, Tunis, Mecca, Rio Janeiro, 
Muscat ? 

' 115. Name, in order, the five most populous powers. 
116. Name the States which excel in the following 
productions: Corn, Wheat, Oats, Potatoes, Sweet Po- 
tatoes, Tobacco, Cotton, Wool, Manufacturing pro- 
ducts, Mining products. 



108 QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

117. How does the extent of the raih'oad system of 
the United States compare with that of European 
countries ? 

118. Which is the most densely populated country? 

119. Trace the " International Date Line." 

120. Where is the center of population of the United 
States? 

121. Name the States crossed by the 40th parallel. 

122. Name the waters upon which a boat would ply 
from Nashville to Little Eock. 

123. Why has Rhode Island two capitals? 

124. For what are the following cities noted : Spring- 
field, Mass., Annapolis, Pittsburg, Paterson, Indian- 
apolis ? 

' 125. What and where are the following: Salado, 
Popocatepetl, Welland, Elburz, Batavia, Ormus, Brest, 
Finland, Manilla, Tenneriffe? 

126. What portions of icebergs are under water? 

127. By whom is Greenland inhabited? Why 
called Greenland? 

128. For what is Iceland remarkable? By whom 
peopled? What is their language? 

129. What is the chief value of Alaska? 

130. Name the principal American possessions of 
Great Britian ? 

131. What provinces are embraced in the Dominion 
of Canada? 

132. How is the Dominion of Canada governed? 

133. What country furnishes the greater portion of 
furs to the world? " 



QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 109 

134. How do vessels pass from the great lakes to the 
ocean ? 

135. For what is the Bay of Fundy noted? Explain 
the cause. 

136. In what are nearly all the people of New- 
foundland employed ? 

137. Name the largest city of the following States: 
Vermont, North Carolina, Arkansas, Oregon, Nevada. 

138. (rt) Which State has the greatest number of 
electoral votes ? (6) Upon what does this depend? 

139. (a) Of how many members does the House of 
Kepresentatives consist (1884)? (b) What is the basis 
of representation? 

140. Name the cities which have been capitals of the 
United States. 

141. Why is the passage from New York to Liver- 
pool shorter than that from Liverpool to New York? 

142. What and where are the following : Tapajos, 
Tchad, Anticosti, The Levant, The Three Rivers, Pem- 
bina, Atacama, Heart's Content, Otranto, Severn, 
Taranto? 

143. What two States have nearly the same area? 

144. What are the only French possessions in North 
America ? 

145. How do the United States compare in size with 
Brazil? 

146. Compare Blinois with England in size and 
population. 

147. What is remarkable about the climate of Mex- 
ico? 



110 QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

148. What kind of government has Mexico? Of 
what composed ? Who are its people ? What are its 
exports ? 

149. Of what does Central America consist? 

150. What gives Central America importance to the 
world? 

151. How is the intense heat of the West Indies 
modified? 

152. Name five valuable exports of the West Indies. 
Who are its people ? What is their number? Of how 
many islands do the West Indies consist? 

153. For what is Havana noted? 

154. AVhat peculiar navigable advantages has the 
Amazon ? 

155. A vessel sails from Baltimore to Maracaybo, 
touching at Vera Cruz, name the waters upon which 
she sails. 

156. Why is South America not well adapted for 
commerce ? 

157. What character of government prevails in 
South America? What is the prevailing religion? 
Population, number, and origin? 

158. What is the government of Brazil ? How does 
the country compare in population wath the U. S.? 

159. What capital of South America is in the same 
longitude as Washington ? How does their time com- 
pare ? 

160. Name the greatest mountain chain of South 
America ; the highest mountain ; the largest city ; the 
largest gulf. 



QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. Ill 

161. Name the countries of South America, and after 
each write the name of its capital. 

162. Caracas is in longitude Cu° ^Y., St. Louis is in 
90° 15' W. How does their time compare? 

163. What are the lowlands of South America 
called in the different river basins? 

164. In what part of the world is the largest bird of 
prey? 

165. Describe the great plains of South America 
with reference to their vegetable and animal pro- 
ductions. 

166. Mention ten of the most valuable productions 
of South America. 

167. Name five forest trees of South America of 
great commercial value. 

168. What are the five chief commercial cities of 
South America? 

169. Which is the most enterprising nation of South 
America? To what is this due? 

170. What language is spoken in Brazil ? Why ? 

171. To whom do the Falkland Islands belong ? Im- 
portance ? 

172. What is particularly remarkable about the 
Galapagos Islands? 

173. What and where are tne following: Chiloe, 
Cuzco, Frio, Maracaybo, Aspinwall, Cartagena, Para, 
Rosario, Guayaquil, Popayan, Corrientes, San Fran- 
cisco, Tucuman, Angostura, Xingu, Cotopaxi, Panama, 
Maderia, Joannes, Bahia? 



112 QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

174. Where is the only part of the world to which 
the cinchona-tree is indigenous ? What can you say of 
the supply? 

175. What is the only nation in America without a 
sea-front ? 

176. Which nations own no islands except those 
along their coasts termed littoral islands? 

177. What is the area and population of Europe? 

178. How does the coast-line of Europe compare 
with that of the other grand divisions? What ad- 
vantages accrue from an extensive coast line ? 

179. Name ten seas that wash the shores of Europe. 

180. What forms of government prevail in Europe, 
and how many of each ? 

181. Name the countries of Europe and after each 
write the name of its capital. 

182. Name the Eepublics of Europe. 

183. Which is the oldest Republic of the world? 

184. Which countries of Europe have the same 
king? 

185. What causes the great emigration from Europe 
to America? 

186. What striking features exist in the political ge- 
ography of Europe ? 

187. Name five gulfs or bays that wash the shores 
of Europe. 

188. Compare the latitude of St. Petersburg Avith 
some prominent point in America. 

189. Name in order the ten largest cities of Europe. 



QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 113 

190. Locate the following: Lipari Islands, Lake 
Como, Palermo, Elba, Hamburg. 

191. Name the waters upon which a vessel would 
sail by the shortest route from Genoa to Trieste. 

192. What countries occupy the Great Low Plain of 
Europe ? 

193. Name and locate the foreign possessions of 
Great Britain. 

194. Compare the winter climate of England and 
South Carolina, and give a reason for your answer. 

195. How do the railroads of England differ from 
those of the U. S.? 

196. Why is Birmingham said to be in the Black 
Country ? 

197. For what are the following cities noted: Liv 
erpool, Manchester, Leeds, Nottingham, Newcastle 
upon-Tyne, Sheffield, Portsmouth, Oxford, Cambridge'^ 

198. What is the length of tAvilight in northern 
Scotland at the summer solstice? 

199. How many and what telegraph cables con^ 
nect America with Europe? 

200. What and where are the following : Kiev, 
Eiga, Khodes, Dwina, Kiolen, Cattegat, Pesth, Candia, 
Gottenburg, Dovrefield, Astrakhan, Munich, Crimea, 
Cologne, Wilna, Wcner, The Naze, Bucharest, Dantzic, 
Finland? 

201. Describe the climate of Ireland. 

202. For what are the following pities noted : Bel- 
fast, Paris, Lyons, Bordeaux, Glasgow? 



114 QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

203. Compare the climate about the G. of Finland 
with that of the harbor of Hammerfest. Explain the 
cause. 

204. What country of Europe is the richest in min- 
eral productions? 

205. What people carry on nearly all the trade of 
Austria, Hungary, and Poland? 

206. What are respectively the centers of the inland 
and foreign trade of Austria ? 

207 . What are the most famous quicksilver mines of 
the world? 

208. What is " The Key to the East? " 

209. What is the military importance of Gibraltar? 

210. What and where is the " Alhambra? " 

211. Describe the location of Venice? 

212. How does the German Empire compare in area 
and population with Texas ? 

213. Name two famous watering places of Europe. 
Locate them. 

214. Where is amber found on the surface? 

215. Which is the best cultivated country of the 
world ? 

216. From what country and through what rivers 
does water flow into four great seas of Europe? 

217. Name the characteristics of the Dutch. Of the 
Swiss. 

218. Where is the most fertile laud of Europe? 

219. Which is the greatest o;rain market of the world ? 

220. What three nations control over one-third of 
the world? 



QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 115 

221. Describe and locate the Steppes of Russia. 

222. In what part of Europe are famous fairs held? 

223. Which is farther from London, a town 2° west 
or one 2° north of it? Explain your answer. 

224. What and where are the two great shipping 
ports of Russia ? 

225. What is the religion of the Russians? 

226. To what race do the Russians belong? 

227. Where do the following people live : Amphis- 
cians, Antiscians, Ascians, Periecians, Pericians, Anti- 
podes ? 

228. Name the waters upon which a vessel sails by 
the shortest route from St. Petersburg to Odessa. 

229. What is the width of Dover Strait, Gibraltar, 
Behring ? 

230. From what nations are the Italians derived? 

231. What language is chiefly spoken in the follow- 
ing cities : Havana, Constantinople, Quebec, Rio Ja- 
neiro, Berne? 

232. Where are the Valdai Hills ? The Matterhorn ? 

233. What is a Mercator Mao ? By whom invented ? 
For what purpose? 

234. State the advantages and disadvantages of Mer- 
cator's Map. 

235. State the principal points of resemblance and 
difference between («) the British Parliament and 
the Congress of the U. S. ; (6) between the Executive 
powers of the two countries. 

236. What country in the world has the longest and 
most numerous lines of railroad? 



116 QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

237. Name five principal mountain systems of Asia. 

238. Name in order the five longest rivers of Asia. 

239. What are the political divisions of Asia? 

240. Name the seas, gulfs, and bays which surround 
Asia, beOTnnins at the N. W. 

241. Locate the following cities of Asia : Tobolsk, 
Kclat, Tomsk, Madras, Hong Kong, Irkoutsk, Tokio, 
Aden, Colombo, Khiva, Lassa, Bankok, Lucknow, 
Cabul, Teheran, Smyrna, Tientsin, Kashgar, Surat, 
Mecca, Shanghai, Medina, Cashmere, Hue, Omsk, 
Mandalay, Ozaka, Aleppo, Tiflis, Nankin, Damascus, 
Ispahan, Mocha, Bey root, Fuh Chau. 

242. Name the two principal forms of religion of 
Asia and state their distinctive features. 

243. What do the suffixes stem, chow, ho and kiang 
added to Asiatic names signify ? 

244. What is the character of the surface of 
Siberia ? 

245. Has a passage along the northern coast of 
Europe and Asia ever been made ? 

246. Where and from what is ivory obtained in Si- 
beria ? 

247. What are the principal exports of Asiatic 
Turkey? 

248. How do most of the tribes of Arabia, Turke- 
stan, Tibet, etc., live? 

249. What are the estimated area and i)opulation of 
China? 

250. Name and describe some of the most famous 
public works of China. 



QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 117 

251. Is the production of tea limited to China? i.e.^ 
Can it be cultivated elsewhere? Explain fully. 

252. Enumerate the uses of the bamboo.' 

253. How do you account for the non-progressive 
spirit of the Chinese and at the same time for their in- 
genuity ? 

254. Where is the largest known collection of in- 
habitants ? 

255. Name the four large islands of Japan? How 
many smaller ones ? 

256. What are the principal articles of commerce 
obtained from Arabia ? 

257. From what and how is Gutta-Percha obtained? 

258. What is sago? How obtained? 

259. Name the Treaty, or Free ports, of Japan 
open to the U. S. 

260. What valuable woods are found in Siam ? 

261. Name ten exports of Hindoostan. Where pro- 
duced ? 

262. From what is opium made? To what extent 
is it used in China? 

263. How does the quality and flavor of such fruits 
as grapes, pears, peaches, watermelons, etc., grown in 
dry countries compare with the same when grown in 
moist countries? 

264. For what purpose is Siberia used by Russia? 

265. Where do the " Fire Worshippers " live? 

266. What and where are the Tundras? 

267. What and where are the following: Tulare, 
Zealand, Agulhas, Chincha, Land's End? 



118 QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

268. Enumerate five causes for our limited knowl- 
edge of Africa. 

269. Locate and define the following: Nubia, 
Sofala, Zululand, Algeria, Victoria Nyanza, Tunis, 
Monrovia, Port Said, Zambesi, Orange, Natal, Tchad 
Canary, Tananarivo, Dahomey, Comoro, Zanzibar, 
Congo, Alexandria, Oran. 

270 Name the political divisions of Africa. 

271. Which are the Barbary States? Their chief 
products ? 

272. To what race do the Egyptians belong? What 
is their language? Their ruling class? Prevailing re- 
ligion? 

273. How does the temperature of the Sahara by 
day compare with the temperature at night? 

274. What and where is Liberia? 

275. Describe the Suez Canal. Who constructed 
it? 

276. What does Oceanica comprise ? What is its ex- 
tent? 

277. Contrast Australia and the United States in 
respect to area, climate, seasons, vegetation, animals. 

278. Describe the natives of Australia. 

279. Three persons separate in St. Louis, January 
1, 1883. A starts eastward to go round the world; 
B journeys west, also to go round the world, and C 
remains in St. Louis. On the evening of December 31. 
1883, they meet again in St. Louis, A and B having 
just completed the circuit of the world. How many 
days has each seen in the year? 



ANSWEr.8 TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 119 

280. A vessel goes from Chicago to Shanghai by 
way of the Suez Canal ; name the waters upon which 
she sails. 

281. (a) Explain what is meant by "standard 
time." (/;) By whom and when adopted? (c) How 
many and what divisions of time in the United States? 

282. Name three important cities of the IViississippi 
Valley having nearly the same standard and local time. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

1. Geography is a description of the earth's sur- 
face, its countries and their inhabitants. It is treated 
under three divisions: Mathematical, Political and 
Physical Geography. 

2. Mathematical Geography treats of the form, 
size and motions of the earth, and its relations to other 
heavenly bodies. 

3. Political Geography treats of the divisions 
formed by man for the purpose of government, the 
people, religion, customs, and government. 

4. Physical Geography treats of the natural divi- 
sions of land and water, climate, productions, and their 
effects upon the animal creation. 

5. 1st. Ships have sailed around it. 2d. The hull 
of an outgoing vessel is the first to disappear from 
sight. 3d. The shadow which the earth casts upon 
the moon during an eclipse is circular. 



120 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

6. Its revolution during its plastic state. 

7. (a) 7,925V2 miles, (b) 7,899 miles, (c) 24,- 
899 miles. (J) 196,900,278 square miles, (e) About 
three-fourths. 

8. Two : A daily and a yearly. The daily is 
caused by the earth's turning on its axis. The yearly, 
by the earth's revolution around the sun. 

9. 1st. The flattening of the earth at the poles. 
2d. If a number of balls be let fall from the summit of 
a high tower they will fall eastward of a vertical line. 
The top of the tower being farther from the center of 
the earth than its base, has a o-reater centrifu2:al force 
than the base, and hence, tends to throw the balls east- 
ward. 3d. The diminished weight of bodies at the 
equator is partly due to the centrifugal force caused 
by the earth's rotation. 4th. Since all the heavenly 
bodies turn upon their axes, it is reasonable to suppose 
the Earth is no exception. 

10. The daily revolution, presenting one-half of the 
earth's surface to the sun. 

11. During the winter season north of the equator 
the rays of the sun fall obhquely upon that portion of 
the earth ; during the northern summer the sun's rays 
fall more nearly vertical, and thus concentrate the 
heat. 

12. It is the third from the sun. 

13. It leans 23V2 degrees from the perpendicular. 

14. 577,000,000 miles. 

15. Into one torrid, two temperate, and two frigid 
zones. The torrid is 47 degrees in width, the temper- 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 121 

ate zones are each 43 degrees wide, and the frigid zones 
are 23Vo degrees respectively. 

16. The tropics mark the limit of the sun's vertical 
rays north and south of the equator. The polar circles 
mark the limit of the sun's oblique rays. Ex. On 
the 21st of June, when the sun's rays are verticals 
the Tropic of- Cancer, the extreme southern limit of 
the sun's oblique rays is marked by the antarctic cir- 
cle. 

17. The tropics ana polar circles would be removed. 
There would be no change of seasons. The days and 
nights would be equal throughout the globe. 

18. The waters of the ocean would settle about the 
poles. 

19. 1st. The rotation of the earth on its axis. 2d. 
Difference in the densities of the waters of the polar 
and tropic seas. 3d. Immense evaporation in the 
equatorial regions. 4th. Winds and tides. 5th. The 
melting of polar ice and snow. 

20. 1st. Modification of the extremes of climate. 
2d. Advantage to commerce by shortening the time of 
ocean navigation. 3d. Distribution of animal and 
vegetable life. 4th. They render the globe healthful 
by carrying off decaying vegetable and animal matter. 

21. On the 21st of March and the 22d of Septem- 
ber, on which days the sun's rays are vertical on the 
equator. 

22. The horizon is that circle upon which the earth 
and sky appear to meet. 



122 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

23. A great circle is one which divides the earth into 
two equal parts. Ex. The equator. A small circle is 
one that divides the earth into two unequal parts. Ex. 
The tropics and polar circles. 

24. A meridian circle passes through the poles. A 
meridian is half a meridian circle and extends from 
pole to pole. 

25. The circle of illumination separates the dark 
side of the earth from the light. 

26. Latitude is distance north and south of the 
equator towards the poles. Longitude is distance east 
and west of some given meridian, measured on paral- 
lels in degrees. 

27. 90 degrees north or south, because latitude does 
not extend beyond the poles. The greatest longitude 
cannot be more than 180 degrees east or west, because 
longitude is reckoned both ways from a given meridian 
to the other half of a meridian forming with the start- 
ing point a meridian circle. 

28. (a) It would not. (b) Yes, the equator. 

29. The torrid zone would extend 20 degrees each 
side of the equator, and would be 40 degrees wide. 
The frigid zones would each be 20 degrees, while the 
temperate zones would be 50 degrees wide. 

30. The Tropic of Cancer crosses Mexico, Sahara, 
Nubia, Turkey, Arabia, Hindostan, Birmah, and 
China. The equator crosses Ecuador, U. S. of Co- 
lombia, Brazil, Lower Guinea, Ethiopia, Zanguebar, 
Sumatra, Borneo, and the Celebes. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 123 

31. New Orleans, 30'; Philadelphia, 40°; St. 
Louis, 381/2°; Washington, 39"; Montreal, 4(5°; Chi- 
cago, 42°; New York, 41°; Havana, 23°; London, 
511/2°; Paris, 49°; Berlin, 52V-2°; Vienna, 48°; Rome, 
42°; St. Petersburg, 60'; Constantinople, 41° ; Rio 
Janeiro, 23° south. 

32. "Where any prime meridian, as that of Wash- 
ington or Greenwich, crosses the equator. 

33. 77 degrees. 

34. An island is a body of land entirely sur- 
rounded by water. An archipelago is a group of 
islands. A peninsula is a body of land nearly sur- 
rounded by water. A cape is a point of land extend- 
ing into the water. An isthmus is a neck of land 
connectinor two laro;er bodies of land. 

35. A mountain is a great elevation of land. A 
mountain range is a connected line of mountains. A 
volcano is a mountain which sends forth fire, smoke, 
ashes, and lava. A water shed is the ridge or elevated 
land from which water flows in different directions. 

36. The gulf stream, warmed by the equatorial 
heat, gives off its warmth to the British Isles, while 
the cold Arctic winds and currents render Labrador 
too cold for cultivation. 

37. Vesuvius, in southern Italy; Etna, in Sicily; 
Hecla, in Iceland ; Cotopaxi, in Ecuador. 

38. The Equatorial Current, Gulf Stream, and the 
Japan Current are warm ; the Arctic and Antarctic cur- 
rents are cold. 

39. Toward the North Pole. 



124 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

40. A cascade is a stream flowing down a precipice. 
A confluence is the meeting of two rivers. A Frith 
or Estuary is the narrow and deep inlet of the sea at 
the mouth of a river. A glacier is a mass of snow and 
ice moving slowly down the side of a mountain. An 
avalanche is a mass of snow, ice, and earth rolling 
down the side of a mountain. 

41. The Ecliptic is the orbit, or path, which the 
earth describes in its yearly revolution. It is so called 
because the eclipses of the sun and moon happen in or 
near its plane. Its mean distance from ths sun is 92,- 
000,000 miles. The length of the orbit is 577,000,000 
miles. 

42. The velocity of the earth is 1,099 miles a min- 
ute. 

43. If the inclination of the earth's axis were greater 
than at present the vertical rays of the sun would ex- 
tend farther north and south than the present tropics, 
and, consequently, prolong the summers and win- 
ters. 

44. Quebec has the longer twilight. On June 21, 
at Havana, the sun in setting passes downward verti- 
cally. At Quebec, on same day, the sun in setting 
north of west passes downward diagonally toward the 
north, thus leaving the reflection of its rays above the 
horizon longer than when it sets due west. 

45. Climate is the condition of a place in relation 
to its temperature, moisture, and atmosphere. It is 
influenced by latitude, elevation, prevailing winds, 
nearness to the ocean, and mountain ranges. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 125 

46. The temperature diminishes 1° for every 350 
feet of elevation, and 1° for eveiy 100 miles from the 
equator. 

47. The western coast of Europe is warmed by the 
Gulf Stream ; the Japan Current imparts its moisture 
and warmth to the western coast of the U. S. The 
eastern shores of Asia and America are cooled by cold 
currents from the Arctic Ocean. 

48. The Caucasian, or white race; Ex. Europeans 
and their descendants ; The Mongolian, or yellow 
race; Ex. Chinese, Japanese, and Esquimaux; The 
Malay, or brown race; Ex. The inhabitants of Malay 
Peninsula and East Indies; American Indian, or red 
race ; Ex. The Indians of the Territories ; The Ethi- 
opian, or black race; Ex. The inhabitants of Lower 
and Upper Guinea. 

49. Kepublics, Empires, Kingdoms. 

50. A Ecpublic is a country governed by represen- 
tatives elected by the people; Ex. The United States, 
Peru ; An Empire is a region comprising several coun- 
tries governed by a monarch styled Emperor ; Ex. 
Eussia, Germany. A Kingdom is a country governed 
by a King or Queen; Ex, Spain, Denmark. A Lim- 
ited Monarchy is a government in which the power of 
the monarch is limited by law; Ex. Great Britain, 
Prussia. An Absolute Monarchy is a government in 
which the power of the ruler is unlimited ; Ex. Russia, 
China. 

51. A village is a small collection of houses and in- 
habitants. A town is laro;er than a village. Cities are 



126 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

large towns having special privileges granted by law. 
The capital is the city in which the laws are made. 
The Metropolis is that city of a state or country which 
contains the largest number of inhabitants. 

52. Agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, mining, 
lumbering, fishing, hunting, and trapping. 

53. Commerce carried on between parts of the same 
country is called domestic; carried on between differ- 
ent countries is called foreign. Imports are goods 
brought into a country, exports are those sent out. 

54. Civilized, half-civilized, barbarous, and savage. 

55. Christian, Jewish, Mohammedan, and Pagan. 

56. Equinoxes, meaning equal nights, are times in 
the year when the sun's rays fall vertical to the equa- 
tor. They occur March 20 and September 22. 

57. The Solstices, meaning the sun standing; are 
times in the 3^ear when the sun's rajs fall vertical to 
the tropics. The summer solstice occurs June 21, the 
the winter solstice, December 21. During the former 
the sun's rays 'are vertical to the Tropic of Cancer, 
when the days are longest north of the equator. Dur- 
ing the winter solstice the sun's rays are vertical to the 
Tropic of Capricorn, when the days are longest south 
of the equator. 

58. North America — The Eocky Mountains; South 
America — The Andes; Europe — The Alps; Asia — 
The Himalaya ; Africa — The Atlas. 

59. Australia, Greenland, Borneo, New Guinea, 
Madagascar, Sumatra, Niphon, Great Britain. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 127 

60. North America, 9,000,000 square miles; South 
America, 7,000,000; Europe, 3,800,000; Asia, 17,- 
000,000; Africa, 11,500,000. 

01. North America, Mississippi — 4,396 miles; 
South America, Amazon — 3,596 miles; Europe, 
Volga — 2,351 ; Asia, Yenisei — 3,688; Africa, Nile — 
3,895 miles. 

62. To the waters supposed to lie south of the Ant- 
arctic Circle. 

63. Thirteen times as much. 

64. Alaska, California, Florida, Spain, Arabia, Indo- 
China, Corea, Kamtchatka, Africa, and Malacca. 

65. 83° 24' north. (Greely Expedition, 1884.) 

66. The Llama of Peru. 

67. In the Antarctic regions there are no land 
masses to receive and diffuse the rays of the sun as in 
the Arctic regions. 

68. Gulf of Mexico; Hudson Bay; Baffin Bay; 
Gulf of St. Lawrence; California; Chesapeake Bay; 
Delaware Bay ; James Bay ; Bay of Campeachy ; Bay 
of Honduras. 

60. Great Bear, Great Slave, Athabasca, Winni- 
peg, Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario, Nica- 
ragua. 

70. The Western Highland, the Eastern Highland, 
the Low Central Plain, and the Atlantic Plain. 

71. British America, Danish America (Greenland 
and Iceland), United States, Mexico, Central American 
Republics, The West Indies. 



128 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

72. In the north: polar bear, reindeer, musk-ox, 
moose, walrus, grizzly bear ; in the central part: bison, 
deer, peccary; in the south, the alligator. 

73. Area, 3000000 square miles. Population, 
50000000. Breadth from north to south, 1300 miles. 
Length from east to west, 2500 miles. 

74. The White race, Indians, Chinese, and Negroes. 

75. Deep cuts, or gorges, many hundred feet deep 
lined by perpendicular walls, formed by the flowing 
of rivers. The Colorado Eiver has the most frightful 
canons in the world. 

76. For their numerous falls, furnishing excellent 
water-power. 

77. Thirty-eight states, ten territories, and one 
federal district. 

78. New York, Philadelphia, Brooklyn, Chicago, 
St. Louis, Boston, Baltimore, Cincinnati, San Fran- 
cisco, New Orleans. 

79. Because of its abundant water-power, fuel, labor, 
and superior commercial facilities. 

80. Exports: Cotton, breadstuffs, provisions, petro- 
leum, and tobacco. Imports: Dry goods, sugar, 
coffee, tea, tin. 

81. Consult map of North America. 

82. New England is about one-third as large as 
California, and about one-fourth as large as Texas. 

83. From Washington City to Jefferson City, Mo. 

84. Yale, New Haven, Ct. ; Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass.; Brown University, Providence, 
E. I. ; Dartmouth, Hanover, N. H. ; Vassar, Pough- 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY 129 

keepsie, N. Y. ; William and INIary College AVilliams- 
burg, Va. 

85. Minnesota, St. Paul; Wisconsin, Madison; 
Iowa, Des Moines; Illinois, Springfield; Missouri, 
Jefferson City; Kentucky, Frankfort; Tennessee, 
Nashville; Arkansas, Little Rock; Mississippi, Jack- 
son; Louisiana, Baton Rouge. 

86. In the value of their manufactures and com- 
merce. 

87. Its government is similar to that of the terri- 
tories. The Governor is appointed by the President 
and Senate. It has one dele2;ate to Cong-ress. 

88. For the variety, excellence, and abundance of 
its fish and oysters. 

89. Madrid, Naples, and Constantinople ; all of 
which have a milder and more equable climate than 
Philadelphia. This is due to the warm winds of the 
Sahara, moistened by the evaporation of the Mediter- 
ranean Sea. 

90. They protect the navigation of the entire coast 
of North Carolina. 

91. Tar, pitch, and turpentine. The turpentine is 
obtained by blazing the tree, and dipping the gum 
from a box that is put at the root to receive it as it ex- 
udes from the tree. Tar is obtained by burning pino 
wood with a close smothering heat and collecting the 
resinous exudations. 

92. Florida has the mildest climate of the Southern 
States. The Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of jNIexico, by 
which it is almost surrounded, temper the heat of sum- 



130 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

nier. The soil is adapted to the cultivation of almost 
every fruit and vegetable. The live-oak, the most 
valuable wood used in ship building, will become a 
source of wealth. The State abounds in beautiful 
lakes, and clear, deep springs. Some of the lakes are 
deep enough to float a man-of-war, and yet so clear 
are they, that pebbles may be distinctly seen on the 
bottom. 

93. By embankments, called ?eyees. In many places, 
below the mouth of Red River, the surface of the Mis- 
sissippi during high water is above the land back of the 
levees. 

94. From the forest trees of the swamp lands of the 
South, from which may be seen the long gray moss, 
which, as a parasite, hangs in long and graceful festoons. 

95. An immense collection of logs extending for 
nearly one hundred miles, ilniong these trees and logs, 
vines and creepers have taken root, and their tendrils 
have so interwoven among the branches that the whole 
has become matted together from bank to bank. 

96. By the U.S. Congress for the Indians and their 
descendants to be occupied and governed in their own 
way. 

97. The eastern tributaries are more rapid in de- 
scent. They are not navigable to so great a distance. 
The plains are not so extended. The rapidity of the 
streams permit the discharge of the waters much sooner 
than the long gentle streams of the West. 

98. The Mississippi valley. The vast area of arable 
land, susceptible of an easy cultivation, will for ages 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 131 

produce food sufficient for the support of 300,000,000 
people. 

99. Corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, tobacco, live 
stock, iron, copper, and lead. 

100. By a canal on the Kentucky shore. 

101. ( 1 ) Its rapid growth. ( 2 ) Its extensive railway 
connections. (3) The enterprise of its people. (4) Its 
grain and provision trade. 

102. Because it is nearly surrounded by water 

103. By a ship canal in Michigan. 

104. The winds blowing across Lake Michigan are 
so warmed by the open waters that fruit-trees are 
seldom injured by extreme cold. 

105. (a) It lies almost wholly in the northwest cor- 
ner of Wyoming Territory. (6) Its area is 3575 square 
miles, (c) Congress in 1882 set it apart as a " per- 
petual reservation for the benefit and instruction of 
mankind." (tZ) Its deep canons, lofty falls, numer- 
ous geysers, and beautiful lakes make it the most won- 
derful portion of the continent, (e) Clark's Fork of 
the Yellowstone, the Lewis Fork of the Columbia, and 
the Madison and Gallatin branches of the Missouri. 

106. Washington, Olympia ; Idaho, Boise City; 
Montana, Helena; Wyoming, Cheyenne; Utah, Salt 
Lake City ; Arizona, Prescott ; New Mexico, Santa Fe ; 
Dakota, Bismarck ; Indian, Tahlcquah; Alaska, Sitka. 

107. Because it is the natural water route to the 
most fertile spot of the Dominion of Canada. 

108. The absence of numerous bays, harbors, and 
navigable streams on the Pacific coast will prevent the 



132 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

location of as many seaports as are found on the Atlan- 
tic coast. 

109. Dry Tortugas, Islands off the coast of Florida ; 
Managua, capital city of Nicaragua ; The Pan Handle is 
that portion of West Virginia lying between Ohio and 
Pennsylvania ; The Eastern shore is that part of Virginia 
lying east of Chesapeake Bay ; Sandy Hook is a Cape 
in New Jersey. 

110. The Hudson, East and Harlem Eivers, and a 
creek running into the Hudson. 

111. North America, Superior; South America, Mar- 
acaybo; Europe, Ladoga ; Asia, Baikal; Africa, Vic- 
toria. 

112. (a) On the 180th meridian from Greenwich. 
(b) If sailing westward, a day is added; if sailing east- 
ward, a day is dropped. 

113. In New Orleans, 90 degrees west from Lon- 
don. 

114. At London, north ; at Tunis, north ; at Mecca, 
south ; at Rio Janeiro, south ; at Muscat, no perceptible 
shadow. 

115. I.Chinese Empire; 2. British Empire; 3. 
Eussian Empire ; 4. United States ; 5. German Empire. 

116. Corn, "Wheat andpats, Illinois ; Potatoes, New 
York; Sweet Potatoes, North Carolina; Tobacco, 
Kentucky; Cotton, Mississijopi ; Wool, Ohio ; Manu- 
facturing products, New York ; mining products, Penn- 
sylvania. 

117. The United States have more miles of railroad 
than all the countries of Europe combined. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 133 

118. Belgium, 482 inhabitants to the square mile. 

119. It runs from Behring Strait southwest, along 
the ocean side of Japan, and between the Phillipine 
Islands and Asia; thence it curves, taking a south- 
easterly course to Chatham Island, passing on the 
Pacific side of Borneo, New Guinea, New Ireland, and 
the New Hebrides, and east of New Zealand. 

120. 8 miles W. by S. of Cincinnati. 

121. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Colorado, Utah, 
Nevada, and California. 

122. Cumberland Kiver, Ohio River, Mssissippi 
River, and Arkansas River. 

123. In its early charter the General Assembly was 
required to meet alternately at each place. 

124. Springfield, manufacture of arms; Annapolis, 
seat of the U. S. Naval Academy; Pittsburg, iron and 
glass works ; Paterson, locomotive works and extensive 
silk manufactures; Indianapolis, great railroad center 
and largest city in the United States not on navigable 
waters. 

125. Salado, river in Argentine Confederation ; Pop- 
ocatepetl, a volcano in southern Mexico; Welland, a 
canal in Canada connecting Lakes Erie and Ontario; 
Elburz, mountains in Persia ; Batavia, the capital city 
of Java; Ormus, strait separating Persian Gulf and 
Arabian Sea ; Brest, a city in western France ; Finland, 
a gulf in Western Russia; Manilla, the capital city of 
Luzon ( Phillipine Islands ) ; Tenncriffe, a famous peak 
of the Canary Islands. 



134 ANS^VERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

126. About seven-eighths. 

127. By a few hundred Danes and Esquimaux. 
AVhen first seen by Icelanders it looked green and fertile 
compared with their island. 

128. For its numerous geysers and volcanoes. Itis 
peopled by descendants of Norwegians, a thrifty and 
industrious race who speak the old Norse language. 

129. Its fisheries and furs. 

130. Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, Balize, 
Bermudas, Jamaica, and a number of smaller islands 
of the West Indies. 

131. British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, 
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, 
and Northwest and Northeast territories. 

132. By a Governor-General under appointment of 
the British crown. The laws are enacted by a Parlia- 
ment composed of a senate and house of commons. 
The senators are appointed by the Governor-General; 
members of the House of Commons are elected by the 
people. 

133. The Canadian territories furnish two-thirds of 
the world's supply. 

134. Vessels pass through Welland Canal from Lake 
Erie to Lake Ontario, and through canals around the 
rapids in St. Lawrence River. 

135. For its high tide, which reaches 70 feet. This 
is caused by the narrow neck of water through which 
the tides rush with such rapidity as often to overtake 
swine feeding on the beach. 

136. In the cod, seal, herring, and salmon fisheries 



ANSWEES TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 135 

137. Vermont, Burlington ; North Carolina, Wil- 
mington; Arkansas, Little Rock; Oregon, Portland ; 
Nevada, Virginia City. 

138. (of) New York has thirty-five electoral votes, 
seven more than Pennsylvania. (6) The number is 
proportional to the population. 

139. (rt) 325 members. (6) One member for every 
151,912 inhabitants. 

140. Philadelphia, York, Lancaster, Baltimore, 
Princeton, N. J., Annapolis, Trenton, N. J., New York 
and Washington. 

141. The Gulf Stream and prevailing winds aid the 
vessels going eastward. 

142. Tapajos, a branch of the Amazon River; 
Tchad, a lake in Soudan, Africa; Anticosti, an island 
in Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Levant is that portion 
of Asia washed by the eastern end of the IMediterra- 
nean Sea; Three Rivers, a city in Quebec, Canada; 
Pembina, a city in northeast Dakota; Atacama, a 
desert in southwest Bolivia ; Heart's Content, a town 
in Newfoundland; Otranto, a strait east of Italy; 
Severn, a river in western England; Taranto, a gulf in 
southern Italy. 

143. Iowa and IHinois, also Nevada and Colo- 
rado. 

144. Three small islands south of Newfoundland, 
Miquelon, Langley, and St. Pierre, comprising eighty- 
one square miles. 

145. Brazil is a quarter of a million square miles the 
larger. 



136 ANSAVERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

146. Illinois contains nearly 6,000 more square 
miles than England, but has only one-sixth as many 
inhabitants. 

147. Mexico has the greatest possible variety of 
climate ; cold on the high mountains, temperate on the 
plateaus, and hot and moist on the coast. 

148. It is a federal republic of 27 states, one 
territory, and one federal district. Its people consist 
of Indians, mixed races, and Spanish Creoles; ^.e., de- 
scendants of the early Spanish settlers. Its chief ex- 
ports are silver, dye-woods, cochineal and vanilla. 

149. Of five republics: Guatemala, San Salvador, 
Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Balize, a 
British colony. 

150. It contains the principal routes connecting the 
commerce of the two great oceans. 

151. By the ocean currents and trade winds. 

152. Sugar, coffee, cotton, tobacco, and tropical 
fruits. Creoles (descendants of European settlers), 
negroes and coolies from China ; they number about 
4500000. The West Indies include about one thou- 
sand islands. 

153. Havana is the greatest sugar market in the 
world, and is the second city of the New World in 
foreign commerce. 

154. The Amazon is so deep, and so sluggish is the 
current that a sailing vessel may ascend by the aid of 
an almost constant easterly wind 2600 miles. The 
river and its branches furnish 50000 miles of navigable 
waters. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 137 

155. Chesapeake Bay, Atlantic Ocean, Florida 
Strait, Gulf of Mexico, Bay of Campeach}^, Yucatan 
Channel, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Venezuela. 

156. On account of the absence of few good 
harbors. 

157. Republic. Roman Catholic religion. Pop- 
ulation 28000000, of whom more than one-half belong 
to mixed races, derived from Spanish and Portuguese 
settlers, Indians, and Negroes. 

158. A constitutional monarchy. Brazil contains 
one-fifth as many people as the U. S. 

159. Lima. Washington and Lima have the same 
time. 

160. The Andes is the greatest mountain chain; 
Aconcagua is the highest mountain ; Rio Janeiro is the 
largest city ; Panama is the largest gulf. 

161. Consult map of South America. 

162. Caracas has 1 hr. and 33 min. earlier time. 

163. Llanos in the Orinoco basin ; Selvas in the 
Amazon; Pampas in the La Plata and Paraguay. 

164. The condor, the largest known bird of prey, is 
found among the Andes in Peru and Bolivia. 

165. The Selvas are covered with an almost impen- 
etrable growth of trees, climbing plants, and dense 
underbrush . Myriads of beasts, birds, and insects, and 
uncivilized tribes are the sole inhabitants. The Llanos 
of the Orinoco and the Pampas of the La Plata and 
Paraguay are destitute of trees. In the dry season 
they become parched and all vegetation is destroyed. 
When the rainy season sets in the whole country is 



138 ANS'W'ERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

covered with luxuriant grass, which attracts multitudes 
of wild cattle and horses. 

1G6. Coffee, Sugar, Tobacco, Eice, Maise, Cinchona, 
Caoutchouc (india-rubber). Precious Stones, Tropical 
Fruits, and Spices. 

167. Eosewood, mahogany. Brazil-wood, tortoise- 
shell wood, the most beautiful cabinet-wood in the 
world, and the India rubber tree. 

168. Eio Janeiro, Buenos Ay res, Aspinwall, Val- 
paraiso, Montevideo. 

169. The Chilians. This is due to extensive com- 
merce and a large European population. 

170. Portuguese, because Brazil was settled by the 
Portuguese. 

171. To Great Britain. Excellent pasturage for 
cattle and sheep. 

172. They are the only inhabitable group of islands 
in the Pacific Ocean that were uninhabited at the time 
of their discovery. 

173. Consult map of South America. 

174. The eastern slopes of the Andes from Bolivia 
to the U. S. of Colombia and to no other part of the 
world. The forests are being rapidly all destroyed. 

175. Paraguay. 

176. The United States, Eussia, China, Turkey, and 
Brazil. 

176. Area, 3824240 sq. miles; population, 313- 
834000. 

178. The coast-line of Europe is about 20000 miles 
greater in proportion than that of any other of the 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 139 

grand divisions. Greater commercial facilities and cli- 
matic advantages are offered by a deeply indented coast 
than a by more regular outline. 

179. Caspian, Azof, Black, Marmora, Archipelago, 

Adriatic, Mediterranean, Irish, North, Baltic, White. 

• 180. 4 Empires, 14 Kingdoms, 5 Eepublics, 5 Grand 

Duchies, 8 Duchies, 4 Free Cities, 9 Principalities, 1 

Landofraviate, and 1 Electorate. 

181. Consult map of Europe. ' 

182. France, Switzerland, Andorra, San Marino, 
and the Ionian Isles. 

183. San Marino, in Italy. 

184. Norway and Sweden, and Austria and Hungary. 

185. America possesses greater political privileges, 
cheaper land, and a greater demand for labor. 

186. A high state of improvement both in country 
and towns, absence of fences, vast extent of improved 
lands^ limited forests, magnificent mansions, spacious 
barns, great number of villages, excellent roads and, 
withal, a most vigilant system of municipal and national 
government. 

187. Lions, Biscay, Finland, Bothnia, and Onega. 

188. St. Petersburg is in the same latitude as Cape 
Farewell. 

189. London, Paris, Constantinople, Berlin, St. 
Petersburg, Vienna, Liverpool, Manchester, Glasgow, 
Naples. 

190. Lipari Islands, north of Sicily ; L. Como, 
northern Italy; Palermo, N. W. Sicily; Elba, N. E. 
of Corsica; Hamburg, N. W. Prussia on Elbe River. 



140 ANSAVERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

191. Gulf of Genoa, Mediterranean Sea, Tyrrhen- 
ian Sea, Strait of Messina, Ionian Sea, Strait of 
Otranto, Adriatic Sea, Gulf of Trieste. 

192. Russia and Germany. 

193. In Europe ; The islands of Malta, Cyprus, 
Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney and Heligoland, and tlie 
Fort of Gibraltar ; in America : Dominion of Canada 
and adjacent islands, Balize, British Guiana, and the 
islands of Bahama, Bermuda, Jamaica, Turk, Lee- 
ward, Windward, Trinidad, and Falkland; in Asia: 
India, Hong Kong, Singapore, Aden, Malacca, and 
Ceylon Island ; in Africa : Cape of Good Hope, Natal, 
Caffraria, Transvaal, Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and 
the Islands of St. Helena, Ascension and Mauritius ; 
in Oceanica : Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania and 
Feejee Islands. 

194. The winter climate of England is milder than 
that of S. Carolina. This is due to the warm west 
winds blowing from the Gulf Stream. 

195. English railroads have double tracks. They 
are not allowed to cross each other on the same 
level, but are compelled to cross by going under or 
over. 

196. On account of the great number of iron and 
coal mines. 

197. Liverpool, greatest cotton market of the world ; 
Manchester, cotton manufacture; Leeds, woolens; 
Nottingham, laces and stockings ; Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, coal trade; Sheffield, cutlery; Portsmouth; 
naval station; Oxford and Cambridge, Universities. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 141 

198. Twilight sufficient to enable one to read lasts 
all night. 

199. Four: two English and one French between 
Heart's Content, .Newfoundland, and Valentia Bay, 
Ireland; and one between Rio Janeiro and Portugal. 

200. Consult map of Europe. 

201. In the western part of Ireland it rains three- 
fourths of the year, and the climate is damp and 
mild; so much so, even in winter, that its green 
fields have won for it the name of the "Emerald 
Isle." 

202. Belfast, manufacture of linen goods; Paris, 
excellence in the manufacture of almost every fancy 
article in the market; Lyons, silk manufacture; Bor- 
deaux, for its wines; Glasgow, ship building and 
marine engines. 

203. The Gulf of Finland is closed with ice half the 
year, while ice never forms in the harbor of Hammer- 
f est. The mildness of the latter is due to the influence 
of the Gulf Stream. 

204. Austria. 

205. The Jews. 

206. Inland trade, Vienna ; foreign trade, Trieste. 

207. Almaden, Spain. 

208. Constantinople has been so regarded by the 
great powers of Europe. 

209. It commands the passage between the Mediter- 
ranean and the Atlantic. 

210. A famous Moorish palace in Granada, Spain, 
now in ruins. 



142 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

211. Venice is situated upon 72 islands, between 
which the waters, serving as streets, are navigated by 
gondolas. 

212. It is 50,000 square miles smaller, but contains 
34 times as many people. 

213. Brighton, in southern England, and Baden- 
Baden, at Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhenish-Prussia. 

214. It is found along the coast of the Baltic Sea, 
where it is cast up by the waves. 

215. Belgium 

216. From Switzerland, the rivers Danube, Ehine, 
Ehone, and Po flow into the Black, North, Mediter- 
ranean, and Adriatic Seas. 

217- The Dutch are a sober, provident, and indus- 
trious people ; the Swiss are phlegmatic, industrious 
and patriotic. 

218. The southeast part of Russia, termed the 
"Black Lands of Russia," bordering on the Caspian 
and Black Seas. The soil is inexhaustible, yielding 
annually, without, manure, two crops: a green crop 
and a cereal. 

219. London, where the breadstuffs of the world 
meet in competition. 

220. Russia, Great Britain and the United States. 

221. The Steppes of Russia, immense prairies cov- 
ered with coarse grass, and subject to intense summer 
droughts, extend along the southern border of Russia, 
from the foot of the Carpathian Mountains in Europe, 
to China. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 143 

222. At Nijni (nizh'ni) Novgorod, Russia, where 
meet and barter merchants from China, Mongolia, 
India, Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey, and every part of 
Europe. 

223. Tne town T north is farther from London, 
than that 2"" west of it, because the degrees of longi- 
tude grow smaller as we approach the Poles. 

224. Archangel is the northern port, Odessa the 
southern; the former is on the White Sea, the latter is 
on the Black Sea. 

225. Greek Christians. The Emperor is the head 
of the church. 

226. The Russians belong chiefly to the Slavonic 
race. 

227. Amphiscians : the inhabitants between the 
tropics, whose shadows^ in one part of the year, are 
cast to the north, and in the other to the south. 
Antiscians : the inhabitants of the earth living on dif- 
ferent sides of the Equator, whose shadows at noon 
are cast in contrary directions. Those living north of 
the Equator are antiscians to those on the south, and 
vice versa, Ascians : persons who at certain times of 
the 3^ear have no shadow at noon. Such only are the 
inhabitants of the torrid zone, who have, twice a year, 
a vertical sun. Periecians ; the inhabitants of the 
opposite sides of the globe, in the same parallel of 
latitude. Pericians : the inhabitants within a polar 
circle, whose shadow during some portion of the sum- 
mer must, in the course of the day, move entirely 
round, and fall toward every point of the compass. 



144 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

(See Ques. 39.) Antipodes: those persons who live 
on opposite sides of the globe, and whose feet are, of 
course, directly opposite to the feet of those who live 
on this side. 

228. Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, Great Belt, 
Straits of Cattegat and SkagerRack, North Sea, Dover 
Strait, Enghsh Channel, Atlantic Ocean, Strait of Gib- 
raltar, Mediterranean Sea, Archipelago Sea, Strait of 
Dardanelles, Sea of Marmora, Bosphorus Strait, and 
Black Sea. 

229. Dover Strait, 30 miles; Gibraltar, 12; Beh- 
ring, 40. 

230. From the Romans, Greeks, Gauls, Goths, Ger- 
mans, and Arabs. 

231. In Havana, Spanish ; Constantinople, Arabic; 
Quebec, English; Rio Janeiro, Portuguese; Berne, 
German. 

232. The Valdai Hills are between St. Petersburg 
and Moscow. The Matterhorn is an Alpine peak be- 
tween Italy and Switzerland. 

233. A Mercator Map, or projection, conceives the 
surface of the earth to be that of a cylinder, in which 
the parallels and meridians cross each other at right 
angles. It was invented by Mercator, of Antwerp, to 
aid mariners in determining their true course more 
readily than by the ordinary maps. 

234. Mercator' s Map distorts the proportions by 
representing the surface of a sphere on that of a plane, 
in which, places far to the north or south appear much 
more distant east and west than they really are ; but 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 145 

this distortion is made in such away as to preserve the 
true course of places from each other. 

235. (rt) The Parliament consists of the House of 
Lords and the House of Commons ; these correspond to 
the Senate and House of Representatives respectively. 
The House of Lords is composed of 537 members, 
termed peers, who hold their seats by one of five titles ; 
viz. , by hereditary right, by creation of the sovereign, by 
virtue of office, as the English bishops, by election for 
life, as the Irish peers, and by election for the duration 
of Parliament, as the Scottish peers. The House of 
Commons is composed of 652 members, who are elected 
by the electors of counties, cities, boroughs, and univer- 
sities of the united kingdom. The United States Senate 
is composed of 76 members, two from each State, 
chosen for a term of six years by the joint ballot of their 
respective State legislatures. The House of Repre- 
sentatives consists of 325 members, apportioned among 
the several States according to population, elected by 
popular ballot by the electors of their several districts. 
(6) The Sovereign of Great Britain holds the execu- 
tive power for life by virtue of inheritance ; the Presi- 
dent of the United States holds his office for four years 
by election of electors selected by popular vote. The 
veto of the British sovereign is final ; that of the Pres- 
ident may be set aside by a two-thirds vote of both 
houses of Congress. 

236. The United States. 

237. Himalaya, Altai, Stanovoy, Kuenlun, Hindoo- 
koosh. 



146 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

238. Yang-tse-Kiang, Lena, Yenisei, Amoor, Obi. 

239. Asiatic Russia, Chinese Empire, Japan, Anam, 
Siam, Burmah, British India, Bokhara, Turkestan, 
Afghanistan, Beloochistan, Persia, Arabia, Turkey. 

240. Sea of Kara, Behring Sea, Okhotsk, Japan, 
Yellow, Blue, China, Gulf of Siam, Bay of Bengal, 
Arabian, Persian, Gulf of Aden, Red, Mediterranean, 
Archipelago, Marmora, Black, Caspian. 

• 241. Find on map of Asia. 

242. Brahmanism and Buddhism. Among the 
features of the former is the transmigration of the soul 
into the inferior animals. -Brahmanism has its seat in 
Hindostan. Buddhism enjoins charity toward all men 
and the conquest of self. 

243. 8 tan is the Persian word for country. Chow 
in Chinese means town of the second rank. Ho and 
Kiang mean river. 

244. The ground is perpetually frozen to a great 
depth, while the summer thaw affects only the sur- 
face. 

245. Nordenskjold (nor'den shold) the Swedish ex- 
plorer in 1878-9, made the passage from the Atlantic 
to Behring Strait in 294 days. 

246. Ivory from the tusks of mammoths (long since 
extinct), imbebbed in masses of ice, has been found in 
such quantities on the New Siberia Islands and nearthe 
mouths of Siberian rivers, as to furnish profitable em- 
ployment for many men. 

247. Dried figs, raisins, cotton, opium, wool, goat's 
hair, sponges, and leeches. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 147 

248. They are nomads, half-savage, half-civilized, 
and live by tending their flocks, robbing their neigh- 
bors, and plundering the helpless. 

2-49. Estimated area 4700000 square miles; popu- 
lation 480000000. 

250. A canal 700 miles long, constructed a thousand 
years ago, and its celebrated wall built two thousand 
years ago, 1200 miles long, from 15 to 30 feet high, 
and so thick that six men on horse-back can ride 
abreast upon it. 

251. It is not. It can be cultivated in the south 
Atlantic States ; but the expense of its preparation for 
market, where labor is scarce, would not justify its 
culture. The labor employed in the production of tea 
in China costs not more than two cents a day. 
No article of commerce requires more labor than tea ; 
and hence, the restriction of its culture to such coun- 
tries as furnish the cheapest labor. 

252. Its leaves afford a medicine, its seeds a favorite 
food, its tender shoots are eaten like asparagus, or 
made into pickles and confections, a great variety of 
utensils are made of its stem, paper from its pulp, and 
entire dwellings have been made of its various parts. 

253. Their non-progressiveuess is due to the exclu- 
sion of foreigners, and their ingenuity to their immense 
numbers and constant struggle for food. 

254. Three cities in China on the Yang-tse-Kiang 
are so closely connected that they form one city with a 
population of nearly 8,000,000. 



148 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

255. Niphon, Yesso, Kiushiu, and Shilioku together 
with 3850 smaller islands form the empire of Japan. 

256. Dates, tamarinds frankincense, gum-arabic, 
sponges, coral, ambergris, tortoise-shell, and pearls. 

257. Gutta-percha is the coagulated sap of a tree 
(thetapan), peculiar to the East Indies. The milky 
juice, which flows from incisions made in the tree is 
thickened by boiling. 

258. Sago is a granulated meal obtained from the 
tissues of trunks of the sago palm, by a process of 
washing and sifting, by which the starchy granules are 
separated. 

259. Nagasaki, Hakodadi, Simoda, Tokio, Osaka, 
Hioo-a, Niigata, and Kana^iwa. 

260. White sandalwood, ebony, rosewood, iron- 
wood, red dye-woods. 

261. Sugar, cotton, flax, rice, tobacco, opium, in- 
digo, hemp, gums, spices, and drugs. 

262. Opium is made from the poppy. Its produc- 
tion is confined largely to India. The entire proceeds 
of the tea crop are said to be insufficient to pay for the 
opium annually brought into China, and consumed there. 

263. These fruits, together with apricots, nectar- 
rines, cantelopes, plums, cherries, damascenes, and 
some others, seem to have originated among the arid 
plains of Persia and other dry countries, and in such 
attain their highest excellence. 

264. As a place of exile for political offenders. 

265. At Bakou in Georgia, on the southwest shores 
of the Caspian Sea. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS OX GEOGRAPHY. 149 

266. Vast marshy plains along the coast of the 
Arctic Ocean. 

267. Tulare, lake in California; Zealand, an island 
east of Denmark ; Agulhas, cape in southern Africa; 
Chincha, an island west of Peru; Land's End, a cape 
in southwestern England. 

268. Its compactness, absence of navisjable rivers, 
the savage nature of its inhabitants, its ferocious 
beasts, and intensely hot climate. 

269. Consult map of Africa. 

270. Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, Barca, Fez- 
zan, Egypt, Nubia, Soudan, Abyssinia, Zanguebar, 
Mozambique, Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, Orange 
Free State, Upper Guinea, Senegambia, Sierra Leone, 
Liberia, Lower Guinea, Sahara. 

271. Morocco, Algeria, Tunis and Tripoli. Pro- 
ducts, leather, wool, grain, olives, olive oil, and trop- 
ical fruits. 

272. Caucasian. Language, Arabic, Ruling class, 
Turks. Prevailing religion, Mohammedan. 

273. The heat by day rises to 120^ Fahrenheit, while 
the nights followino; are often so cold that water 
freezes. 

274. An American settlement of emancipated slaves 
established in 1820 by the American Colonization So- 
ciety. It is an independent republic on the western 
coast of Africa. 

275. The Suez canal, ninety-two miles long, connects 
Port Said on the Mediterranean, with Suez on the Red 



150 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 

Sea. It has a depth of twenty-six feet, and was 
opened in 1869. It was constructed by M. Lesseps, a 
French engineer. 

276. It comprises nearly all the islands of the 
Pacific ocean. Area about 4,500,000 square miles. 
Population 30,000,000. 

277. In area Australia is about the same as the 
United States. The climate is warmer, with less rain. 
The seasons are opposite. Christmas occurs there in 
mid-summer. The leaves of trees are leaden gray or 
brown instead of green. The sun- is so hot and the air 
so dry that the narrow leaves arrange themselves ver- 
tically instead of horizontally, and are alike on both 
sides. Forests are seldom found. The trees are 
grouped in clusters ; they cast shadows but give no 
shade. There are no aboriginal quadrupeds larger than 
the Dingo dog and Kangaroo. Many of the animals 
are pouched. The apteryx, a bird, has no wings, and 
the lyre-bird has tail feathers which resemble a harp. 

278. They are a sort of negro without wooly heads, 
but with thick lips and flat noses. In color they vary 
from chocolate-brown to sooty black. 

279. A, 366 days ; B, 364; and C, 365. (See ques- 
tion 112). 

280. Lake Michigan, Strait of Maci^inaw, Lake 
Huron, St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, Detroit Eiver, 
Lake Erie, Welland Canal, Lake Ontario, St. Lawrence 
River, Canal around St. Lawrence Rapids, Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, Atlantic Ocean, Strait of Gibraltar, Medit- 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY. 15 1 

erranean Sea, Suez Canal, Red Sea, Strait of Babel- 
Mandeb, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, 
Strait of Malacca, China Sea, Formosa Channel, and 
Blue Sea. 

281. (a) Standard time is the uniformity of time 
for all places situated seven and one-half degrees 
east and west of a given standard meridian. (6) 
It was adopted by nearly all the American rail- 
roads November 18, 1883. (c) Five divisions are pro- 
vided for the United States, with the following merid- 
ians passing through their centers: Intercolonial, 60th 
meridian; Eastern, 75th meridian ; Central, 90th me- 
ridian; Mountain, 105th meridian; Pacific, 120th 
meridian. 

282. St. Louis, Memphis, and New Orleans. 



QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAIi GEOGRAPHY. 

1. What circumstances prove that the interior of the 
earth is highly heated ? 

2. At what rate does the heat increase as we descend ? 

3. Name four effects upon the earth's surface pro- 
duced by the heated interior. 

4. (a) What are Earthquakes? (5) How mani- 
fested? (c) When most frequent? (d) State five 
causes, (e) Where most frequent? 

5. What places on the earth's surface can you 
mention which show a gradual change of level ? 

6. Locate the regions of the world where volcanoes 
are most numerous, and give the cause for such loca- 
tion. 

7. Name the principal elements composmg the earth's 
crust. 

8 . ( a ) Name the classes of rocks according to origin . 
(b) According to condition, (c) According to the 
presence or absence of fossils. 

9. Define Azoic Time, Paleozoic Time, Mesozoic 
Time, Ccnozoic Time. 

152 



QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 153 

10. What do the following Ages include: Azoic, 
Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Reptilian, Mam- 
malian, Age of Man ? 

11. What are continental and oceanic islands? Give 
two examples of each. 

12. State the difference between volcanic and corai 
islands in respect to origin, distribution, height, and 
habitation. 

13. Name and define the different kinds of coral 
islands. 

14. Explain the formation of plains and give an ex- 
ample of each method. 

15. Describe the continents in respect to the fol- 
lowing features: height, depression, culminating 
points, prolongation, trend of mountains. 

16. Name and locate the predominant and secondary 
mountain systems of North America. 

17. What connection have plains with civilization 
and human progress? Cite instances and reasons to 
prove your answer. 

18. Name the degrees of temperature which produce 
the three conditions of water, as liquid, solid, aud 
gaseous. 

19. (a) What temperature is water at its maximum 
density? {b) What advantage accrues from this 
physical exception? 

20. How are extremes of heat and cold mitigated by 
large bodies of water? 

21. State two causes of hot springs. 



154 QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

22. ((f) Whatisan Artesian Well? (b) Show how 
such wells prove the heated interior of the earth. 

23. Name the classes into which springs are divided. 

24. Define the different kinds of springs. 

25. Name three extensive geyser-regions of the 
world. 

26. What is the usual explanation of the origin of 
petroleum, or rock or coal oil? 

27. Name five inland bodies of salt water, and give 
your reason for such waters being salt. 

28. Name the five most extensive deltas of the 
world. 

29. What part of the earth's water is contained by 
each of the five oceans ? 

30. Classify, define, and give^ examples of the in- 
dentations of the ocean. 

31. Compare the waters of the Baltic Sea with 
those of the Mediterranean with respect to saltness and 
state your reason. 

32. What are the three movements of the oceanic 
waters ? 

33. In what waters do waves have a forward motion? 
Explain. 

34. Define Tides- By what caused? How dis- 
tinguished? 

35. What proof can you give for the influence of 
the moon and sun in causing tides? 

36. Explain why the lunar tide is greater than the 
solar tide. 



QUESTIONS ON" PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 155 

37. State the difference between spring and neap 
tides. When do they respectively occur ? 

38. Where is the " cradle of the tides? " 

39. State the origin of constant currents and show 
how these causes operate. 

40. Describe the Gulf Stream. 

41. What current in the Pacific resembles the Gulf 
Stream ? What is its influence ? Why inferior to the 
Gulf Stream? 

42. What is the composition of the atmosphere ? 

43. State the use of the atmosphere in nature. 

44. What is the pressure of the atmosphere upon 
the earth? Is this uniform in all parts of the world? 

45. (a) Define climate. (6) How influenced ? 

46. In what two ways is the atmosphere warmed? 

47. (a) What are isothermal lines? (b) Under 
what circumstances do they vary greatly from the par- 
allels? 

48. State the rate of decrease of temperature ob- 
served as we ascend great elevations ? 

49. Give two causes for a decrease of temperature 
with elevation above the sea. 

50. Explain the origin of winds. 

51. How is the direction of the wind affected by the 
rotation of the earth ? 

52. Name and define the three classes of winds. 

53. Explain the cause of land and sea breezes. 

54. Where are the " Horse latitudes?" Why so 
called? 



156 QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

55. (a) What is the cause of desert winds? (6) 
Name and locate five from the Desert of Sahara. 

56. Define Monsoons and name the Monsoon regions. 

57. What are cyclones? Mention some peculiarity 
about the direction and rotation of cyclones. 

58. Name five circumstances which influence evap- 
oration. 

59. State the various forms of precipitation of 
moisture, and give the law of precipitation with respect 
to time and distribution. 

x\ 60. What are the offices of clouds in the economy of 
nature ? 

61. Classify and define the various forms of clouds. 

62. Where and what is the greatest annual rainfall? 

63. Give an explanation of the cause of rain. 

64. Explain the rotary theory of the formation of 
hail. 

65. Upon which side of the Mississippi does drift 
tend to collect? Explain the cause of this tendency. 
~^^ 66. W^hy is no delta formed at the mouth of the 
Amazon ? 

67. About what is the actual time of darkness at the 
North Pole? Explain your answer. 

68. In what regions are the followingr believed to 
have originated : Wheat, corn, barley, oats, rye, buck- 
wheat, potato? 

69. What conditions are requisite for a luxuriant 
growth of forests ? 

70. Which cereal has the farthest northern range? 

71. Name the principal food plants of the tropics. 



ANSWERS TO QL ESTIONS ON PHYSICAL, GEOGRAPHY. 157 

72. From what is chocolate prepared? 

73. Name the countries which excel in the produc- 
tion of the following metals: iron, copper, tin, zinc, 
lead, gold, silver. 

74. What forms the basis for the distribution of 
animal life ? Why ? 

75. What difference in the variety, beauty, and size 
of terrestrial and marine fauna may be observed in 
passing from the equator toward the poles ? 

76. How does the coal-field area of the United States 
compare with that of Europe ? 

77. Explain the cause of the limited amount of rain 
in Cahfornia, Peru, and Bolivia during the summer and 
fall. 

78. What is the origin of the solar and planetary 
systems according to the Nebular hypothesis? Who 
was its author ? To wdiat credence is it entitled ? 

79. What is the zodiac? Into what parts divided? 

80. Name the planets in their order from the sun. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS OX PHYSICAIi 
GEOGRAPHY. 

1. The increased heat of the crust as we go below 
the surface and the escape of lava and other heated 
substances from volcanoes. 

2. About 1° Fahrenheit for every 55 feet of de- 
scent. 



158 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

3. 1st, Volcanoes; 2ikI, Earthquakes; 3rd, Non- 
Volcanic igneous eruptions; 4th, Gradual elevations or 
subsidences. 

4. (a) Earthquakes are shakings of the earth's crust. 
(5) 1st, A gentle wave; 2nd, An upward motion; 
3rd, A rotary motion, (c) 1st, In winter; 2nd, At 
night; 3rd, During new and full moon. (tZ) 1st, 
Strain produced by contraction of the earth's crust ; 
2nd, Forces that eject the matter from volcanoes ; 3rd, 
Generation of gases in the interior; 4th, Falling in of 
masses of rock from the roofs of subterranean caverns ; 
5th, By the tidal wave of the pasty interior, (e^ They 
are most frequent in volcanic regions. 

5. The eastern coast of America from Labrador to 
New Jersey is rising. The bed of the Pacific in the 
central part is sinking. Portions of the Andes are 
rising. 

6. Along the shores of the Pacific; on the islands of 
the Pacific Ocean ; between the northern and southern 
hemispheres. This is due to the weakness of the crust 
in such places, caused by sinking oceans. 

7. Oxygen, which constitutes nearly one-half , silicon, 
aluminium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, 
iron, and carbon. 

8. (a) Igneous rocks, those which were ejected in a 
melted condition, and afterward cooled. Aqueous 
rocks, those deposited as sediment by water. Met- 
amorphic rocks, those originally deposited in layers, 
but afterwards so changed by heat as to lose all traces 
of stratification, (h) Stratified rocks, those arranged 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 159 

in laj^ers by the action of •U'ater. Aqueous rocks be- 
long to this cLiss. Unstratified rocks, those destitute 
of any arrangement. Igneous and j\Ietamorphic rocks 
belong to this class, (c) Fossiliferous and Non-fos- 
siliferous. 

9. Azoic Time includes the period before vegetable 
or animal life appeared on the globe. Paleozoic Time, 
meaning ancient life, included the time when animal 
and vegetable life bore but little resemblance to that 
which we now see. Mesozoic life, meaning middle life, 
was the period of huge animals, when both animal and 
vegetable life approached nearer to the species now 
existing than to the relics of preceding ages. Cenozoic 
Time, or recent life, included the time when the ani- 
mals and plants bore close resemblance to those now 
living. 

10. The Azoic Age includes all time prior to the 
advent of life u[)on the globe. The Silurian Age is 
characterized by types of life of the simplest construc- 
tion, the animals were all marine and belong to the 
three classes, mollusks, radiates, and articulates. 
Devonian Age, or Age of Fishes. The fishes which 
characterize this age belong to two classes, sharJcs and 
ganoids, the latter were of the type of the sturgeon and 
garpike. Carboniferous Age was the coal-producing 
ao-e. Dense forests of ferns and other trees covered 
the earth from pole to pole. The climate was warm, 
moist, and equable. Then followed subsidences and 
upheavals ; the forests were swept away, submerged 
and covered with mud and silt. Thus was formed the 



160 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

immense coal beds of the continents. The Reptilian 
Age was the age of enormous reptiles of the lizard 
kind, such as the ichthyosaurus (fish-lizard), a cold- 
blooded, air-breathing, and carnivorous monster, hav- 
ing the teeth of a crocodile and the head of a lizard, 
and ih.Q plesiosaurus (lizard-like), a monstrous, though 
less formidable animal than the ichthyosaurus. The 
Mammalian Age was the period of enormous herbiv- 
orous animals, whose skeletons are found in many 
parts of the world. Among these were the mammoth^ 
whose r, mains are found imbedded in the frozen gTav el 
of Siberia ; the mastodon, with tusks eleven feet in 
length; the megatherium, an animal resembling the 
sloth; the mylodon and the deinotherium. The age of 
Man is the present age. 

11. Continental islands are such as lie near the shores 
of continents, and have the same general construction. 
Example: West Indies, Phillippines. Oceanic islands 
are those in the ocean, having no connection with the 
continents. Example : Sandwich, New Zealand. 

12. Volcanic islands are formed mainly by the 
summits of submarine volcanoes, either, extinct or 
active. The coral island is a limestone formation, de- 
rived from countless skeletons of minute polyps that 
once lived below the surface of the waters. Volcanic 
islands are scattered over the globe, while coral islands 
are found in warm, shallow, tropical waters, remote 
from active volcanoes. Coral islands rarely rise above 
12 feet, on which account few of them furnish com- 
fortable habitation for man. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 161 

13. 1st. Atolls, or Lagoon islands, consist of a ring 
of coral inclosing a lagoon — a portion of the ocean. 
2nd. Encircling reefs are the same as Atolls except 
that one or more islands lie within the lagoon. 3rd. 
Fringing reefs are narrow ribbons of coral rock lying 
near the shore of an ordinary island. 4th. Barrier 
reefs are usually broad and lie some distance from the 
shore. 

14. Plains owe their existence to three causes; viz., 
1st. The absence of wrinkles in the folds of the crust, 
as the plains of Kansas, Nebraska, etc. 2nd. Such as 
were formed by marine deposits along the shores of 
receding oceans, as the plains along the Atlantic coast. 
3rd. Alluvial plains deposited by the fresh water of 
rivers and lakes, as the alluvial bottoms along the lower 
Mississippi. 

15. 1st. The greatest elevations of the continents are 
nearly all found in tropical regions. 2nd. The con- 
tinents have in general high borders and low interiors. 
3rd. The highest points of land lie out of the center of 
the continents. 4th. The greatest prolongation cor- 
responds to the predominant mountain system. 5th. 
The prevailing trends of mountain masses agree with 
the direction of the coast line. 

16. The predominant mountain system of North 
America extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Isthmus 
of Panama. It consists of two nearly parallel mountain 
systems ; viz. , the Eocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, 
and the Cascade ranges. The secondary system ex- 
tends from Georgia to the Arctic Ocean, and comprises 

11 



162 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

the Appalachian system, the Plateau of Labrador, the 
Height of Land and the Arctic Plateau. 

17. River-plains have ever been the chosen seats of 
settled industry, progress, and civilization. The popu- 
lous centers of civilization of antiquity, as Babylon, 
Nineveh, Thebes, Rome, as well as modern sites of in- 
dustry, are found in the river-plains of both continents. 
These regions possess special adaptations and facilities 
for agriculture, commerce, and the arts. 

18. Fresh water freezes at 32° Fahr. Ocean water 
freezes at 26V2° Fahr. At 212° Fahr. water boils. 

19. (a) Water reaches its greatest weight, or dens- 
ity, at 39.2° Fahr. (b) If it contracted below this 
temparature, say lower than 32°, the ice first formed 
would sink to the bottom, and so continue, until our 
rivers and lakes would become a frozen mass which 
the greatest heat of summer would not thaw. 

20. Large bodies of water take in more heat while 
warming, and give out more heat while cooling than 
any other substance. Again, the constant movement 
of large bodies of water brings to the surface waters of 
a different temperature, which modify the adjacent 
lands. 

21. Hot springs near active volcanoes may owe 
their heat to their beds being in the vicinity of recent!}^ 
ejected lava. If remote from volcanic disturbance 
their high temperature is to be attributed to the great 
depth of their reservoirs. 

22. (rt) An Artesian well is one bored into the 
earth until a subterranean basin is reached. The water 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 163 

rushes up the bore in consequence of the hydrostatic 
pressure. The temparature of waters issuing from 
Artesian wells is always proportional to the depth, 
showing a nearly constant increase of 1° for every 55 
feet of descent. 

23. Springs are divided into the following classes: 
constant, variable, periodical, thermal, mineral and 
petroleum. 

24. Constant springs flow continually from sources 
in subterranean lakes so vast that the constant flow 
cannot drain them during the drycst seasons. 

Variable springs burst forth after heavy rains and 
diminish as the dry season approaches. 

Periodical springs swell and subside at stated 
periods. Their cause is usually attributed to the 
siphon-shape of the outlet tube. 

Thermal springs send forth water from 60° Fahr. to 
the boiling point. Beyond this heat the spring is 
termed a geyser. 

Mineral springs are such as send forth water so 
strongly impregnated with mineral matter as to sensibly 
affect the animal system. The five principal classes 
designated according to their ingredients are. Chaly- 
beate (iron). Saline (salt), Silicious (flint), Calcareous 
(lime), and Sulphurous springs. 

Petroleum springs, from which we obtain our coal 
oil are scattered all over the globe. 

25. In Iceland over 100 geysers occur in a limited 
area. In New Zealand, near the volcano of Tongariro, 
over 1000 mud springs, hot springs and geysers burst 



164 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

from the ground. In Yellowstone Park, "Wyoming 
Ty., are some of the most magnificent geysers in the 
world. 

26. The oil is derived from the slow decomposition, 
in the presence of heat, of various animal and vegetable 
matters, which are found in the strata of nearly all the 
geological formations. 

27. Caspian Sea, Dead Sea, Aral Sea, Lake Urum- 
iyah, in Persia, and Great Salt Lake, in Utah. These 
lakes and seas have inlets but no outlets. All rivers 
have more or less salt dissolved from the washings of 
the crust. Since all loss of waters from lakes having 
no outlets is by evaporation, the quantity of salt will 
continually accumulate in such bodies of water. 

28. The Mississippi, the Nile, the Tigi-is, the 
Euphrates, and the Zambesi. 

29. The Pacific contains about l, the Atlantic, about 
|, the Indian, about |, the Antarctic, about yV> the 
Arctic about -^\ of the waters of the earth. 

30. 1st. Inland Seas, or those surrounded by a nearly 
continuous land border; as the Baltic and Mediter- 
ranean Seas. 

2nd. Border Seas, or those isolated from the ocean 
by peninsulas and island chains ; as the Caribbean and 
North Seas. 

3rd. Gulfs or Bays, or broad expansions of the ocean 
extending into the land ; as the Bay of Biscay, the Bay 
of Bengal. 

31. The Mediterranean contains more salt propor- 
tionally than the Baltic, because, being connected 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 1G5 

with the ocean by a narrow channel, it loses more 
of its waters by evaporation than by outflow, while the 
Baltic, receiving the waters of powerful rivers is fresher 
than the ocean. 

32. The three movements of the oceanic waters are 
waves, tides, and currents. 

33. In shallow water waves have a forward motion. 
In such waters the motion at th^ bottom is checked, 
and the top curls over and breaks, producing what are 
called breakers. 

34. Tides are the alternate rise and fall of the ocean 
twice in a lunar day (24 hrs. and 51 min.), caused by 
the attraction of the sun and moon. The rising of the 
water is called Jlood tide ; when it has attained its great- 
est height high tide occurs. Remaining stationary for 
a few minutes, the water falls, called ebb tide, reach- 
ing the lowest point in about six hours, loio tide occurs. 

35. In the deep ocean the passage of the moon is 
always followed by high water. The shape of the 
ocean basin often prevents this occurring immediately 
after the passage of the moon. Again, the highest 
tides result when the sun and moon act simultaneously 
on the same hemisphere of the earth. 

36. The sun's distance from the earth being 400 
times that of the moon, its attraction at any time is 
almost the same on every part of the earth, there being 
a difference of only -^^^-^ its whole attraction on oppo- 
site sides. If the sun's attraction were the same upon 
every part of the earth there would be no tendency to 
disturb the waters upon any one side, i.e., no tides due 



1 06 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

to its influence. The difference between the moon's 
attraction on opposite sides of the earth is jg- its entire 
attraction, equal to (^-^ of j\j) -^-^^j of the sun's attrac- 
tion. The fraction jlj is the force of the moon's en- 
tire attraction compared to that of the sun. The 
moon's influence in creating a tide is 2¥V5"^6"oV'o ' ^^ 
more than twice the sun's; and the tides are due to 
difference of attraction on different sides of the earth. 

37. Spring tides are caused by the combined attrac- 
tions of the sun and moon on the same portions of the 
earth; ITeap tides, by their opposite attractions. 
Spring tides occur twice during every revolution of the 
moon, once Sit full, and once at new moon. Neap tides 
occur twice daring each revolution of the moon, when 
the sun and moon are 90^ apart, or as we say, when the 
moon is in quadrature. 

38. In the great southern water areas, where the 
Pacific, the Indian and the Antarctic are merged in one. 

39. The two principal causes of oceanic currents are 
the sun's heat and ths earth's rotation. The evapora- 
tion constantly going on in the equatorial regions tends 
to lower the level of the waters in those latitudes, 
which, added to the influence of the sun in lessening 
the specific gravity of the waters about the equator, 
produce a constant tendency of the colder and warmer 
waters to commingle. The polar waters flow toward 
the equator to equalize the pressure, thus displacing the 
warmer waters which flow toward the poles. If the 
earth were at rest the currents would flow north and 
south, to and from the equator; but the rotation of the 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 167 

earth from west to east causes currents flowing toward 
the poles to be deflected toward the east, while those 
flowing toward the equator are turned toward the west. 

40. The Gulf Stream is an ocean river from 10 to 
50 miles wide, and 500 fathoms deep, of a dark indigo 
color, originating in the warm waters of the equatorial 
regions. Its velocity is from four to six miles an hour, 
and so great is its latent heat that after flowing 3000 
miles to the north, it preserves, even in winter, a sum- 
mer heat. 

41. The Japan Current in the Pacific corresponds to 
the Gulf Stream of the Atlantic. Its warm waters 
soften the climate of the Aleutian Islands and the north- 
west coast of America. On account of the shallowness 
of Behring Strait through which it cannot pass, it has 
neither the velocity nor sharpness of outline of the 
Gulf Stream. 

42. The atmosphere is composed of nitrogen and 
oxygen, in the proportion, by weight, of 77 per cent of 
nitrogen to 23 per cent of oxygen. To these are 
added a small quantity of carbonic acid, about five or 
six parts in every 10000 of air. 

43. Oxygen supports combustion and respiration, 
and is thus necessary to animal life. Carbonic acid, 
composed of oxygen and carbon, is the source from 
which vegetation derives its woody fibre, and is thus 
necessary to plant life. In respiration animals take in 
oxygen and give out carbonic acid; plants, in sunlight, 
take in carbonic acid and give out oxygen. 



] 68 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHrSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

44. The atmosphere exerts a pressure of 15 pounds 
on every square inch of surface. This pressure is not 
uniform in all parts of the earth at the same level. 
The greatest pressure is in latitude 35° north and south. 

45. (a) Climate is the condition of the atmosphere 
as regards heat or cold, moisture or dryness, healthi- 
ness or unhealthiness. (b) It is influenced by latitude, 
altitude, location with respect to mountains, plains, 
bodies of water, ocean currents, and prevailing winds. 

4G. 1st. By direct absorption of the sun's rays 
passing through it. 2nd. By actual contact, reflection, 
or radiation from the heated earth. 

47. (a) Isothermal lines connect places on the earth 
which have the same mean annual temperature, (b) In 
those parts of the ocean traversed by warm currents 
flowing toward the poles, isothermal lines are deflected 
in the same direction as the currents ; while cold cur- 
rents or mountain reo;ions cause a marked bending of 
those lines toward the equator, 

48. The temperature of the atmosphere decreases 
with the elevation above the sea about 3° Fahr. for every 
1000 feet. 

49. Increased cold in elevation is caused as follows : 
1st. Since the earth receives most of its heat from the 
earth's surface, .the farther we go from the surface up- 
ward, the colder it grows. 

2nd. The diminished humidity and density of the air 
at great elevations prevents its absorbing either the 
direct rays of the sun, or those reflected from the earth. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 169 

50. Winds are caused by atmospheric heat disturb- 
ances and the rotation of the earth. As the air in the 
equatorial regions becomes heated, it expands, becomes 
lighter, rises and its place is supplied by the inrushing 
cold air. The ascending currents continue rising until 
they reach a stratum of air of nearly the same density 
as their own, when they spread laterally in all direc- 
tions, filling the areas where the air has been rarefied 
by lateral surface currents. 

51. But for the diurnal motion of the earth the wind 
would blow due north and south from the equator. 
Winds originating at the equator with a velocity of 1000 
miles an hour, will, as they move northward or south- 
ward like the currents, move faster than the slower 
moving regions of the earth, and thus flow toward the 
northeast and southeast. Winds originating at the 
poles, moving with a slow velocity, will as they 
approach the faster moving equatorial regions lag be- 
hind, and so blow toward the southwest north of the 
equator, and northwest south of the equator. 

52. 1st. Constant, those which blow in the same 
direction throughout the year. 2nd. Periodical, those 
which blow alternately in opposite directions. 3rd. 
Variable, those which blow irregularly; these are in- 
fluenced by local causes. 

53. The land, by reflection of the sun's rays, becomes 
warmer than the sea during the day; this causes an 
ascending current, whose place is supplied by the cool 
air from the sea rushing in. This is called the sea 
breeze. During the night the land cools off more rap- 



170 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

idly than the water; the ascending current then rises 
from the water and a breeze called the land hreeze sets 
toward the sea from the land. 

54. The Calms of Cancer in the Atlantic are thus 
known. Formerly, when vessels from New England 
laden with horses for the West Indies were beset by 
calms in these regions, it became necessary to throw 
many of these animals overboard for want of water. 

55. (a) Deserts by reason of the absence of water, 
cool and heat more rapidly than other portions of land. 
Currents alternately blow to and from the heated area 
with great violence, (h) The Etesian Wind from July 
to September blows over the Mediterranean ; The Har- 
mattan blows over the coast of Guinea; The Khamsin 
blows over Egypt ; The Sirocco blows over Italy ; The 
Solano blows over Spain. 

56. Monsoons are a species of land and sea breezes, 
which blow in a certain direction during a part of the 
year and in an opposite direction during the remainder 
of the year. The three principal monsoon regions are 
the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Guinea, the Mexican 
Gulf and Caribbean Sea. 

57. Cyclones are storms moving in o. parabolic path 
about a calm, circular center. In the northern hemi- 
sphere the rotation of the whirl is in a direction con- 
trary to the hands of a watch, south of the equator 
the whirl is with the hands of a watch. 

58. 1st. The temperature of the atmosphere. 2nd. 
The quantity of vapor in the air. 3rd. Amount of 
atmospheric pressure. 4th. Extent of exposed sur- 
face. 5th. The renewal of th'^ ^ir 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 171 

69. Moisture is deposited from the air in the form of 
rain, fog, mist, dew, cloud, sleet, hail, and snow. 
Precipitation can occur only when the air is cooled 
beJcno the temperature of its dew point. The amount 
of precipitation decreases as we pass from the equator 
to the poles, and from the coasts of the continents 
toward the interior. 
V 60. Clouds temper the climate, protect the earth 
from too much heat in summer and keep it warm- in 
winter. By their constant motion, they keep the 
atmosphere stirred up ; and thus is carried off those 
noxious exlialations that would otherwise render the air 
unfit for animal existence. Finally, they hold in 
minute particles the vast reservoirs of vapor which, 
when aggregating, exceed a certain size, fall to the earth 
as rain. 

61. The principal forms of clouds are classified as 
follows: The Cirrus cloud, a fleecy, feathery mass of 
condensed vapor, high above the earth; the Cumulus 
cloud, a mountainous, rounded mass of dense vapor, 
formed in the lower regions of the atmosphere ; the 
Stratus cloud, a stratified collection of horizontal sheets, 
forming the base of the other clouds ; the Nimbus 
cloud, a dark, stormy mass of vapor from which rain 
falls. 

62. At Cherrapongi, a station among the Himalaj^as, 
in India, where an annual rainfall of 610 inches has 
been recorded. The greatest rainfall in the New 
World is 280 inches, at Maranham, Brazil. 



172 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY* 

63. When, from any cause, as the sweeping down 
from the mountains into the warm valleyg of cold blasts, 
or tlie rising of warm winds up the mountain slopes, 
clouds of different temperature are brought in contact, 
unable to hold the whole amount of moisture in solu- 
tion, they part with a portion of their vapor in the 
form of rain. This is due to the fact that the capacity 
of clouds to retain their moisture diminishes faster than 
their temperature. 

64. Snowflakes, which form the nuclei of hail are 
supposed to whirl around a horizontal axis, and be- 
tween two horizontal layers of cloud — the upper one 
of snow, the lower one of rain. As the particles pass 
through the successive strata of snow and rain, alter- 
nate coatings of ice and snow are formed, until at last 
they are hurled to the ground as hail. 

65. Upon the west bank. This is due to the diurnal 
motion of the earth. 

66. The sediment carried down the Amazon is swept 
away by the equatorial current. 

67. About 82 days, or from November 10th to Febru- 
ary 1st. Owing to refraction and the breadth of the sun's 
disc, twilight lasts from September 21, to November 
10, and from the same cause, twilight again begins 
February 1st. 

68. Wheat, in Tartary ; corn, in America; barley, in 
Tartary; oats, in the region of the Caucasus ; rye, in 
Persia; buckwheat, in northern China: the potato, in 
Chili or Peru. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 173 

60. An abundance of regularly distributed rain 
throughout the year. 

70. Barley is grown farther north than any other 
grain. 

71. Eice, dates, cocoa-nuts, bananas and plantains, 
cassava, bread-fruit, sago, and yams. 

72. From the seed of the cocoa-tree. 

73. Iron, Great Britain; Copper, Chili ; Tin, Eng- 
land ; Zinc, Germany; Lead, Spain; Gold, the United 
States; Silver, the United States. 

74. The distribution of heat, moisture, and vegeta- 
tion forms the basis for the distribution of animal life, 
because animals derive their sustenance either directly 
or indirecty from plants. 

75. As a rule, the luxuriance and variety of terres- 
trial animal life decrease as we pass from the equator 
toward the poles. This law of distribution is reversed 
in marine animal life, both the number and size of the 
species increasing from the equator toward the poles. 

, 76. The area of the coal fields of the United States 
is over six times as great as that of Europe. 

77. The prevailing winds of California during the 
summer and fall are from the east, which are deprived 
of their moisture in crossing the continent. The Pa- 
cific shores of Peru and Bolivia are rainless for a simi- 
lar reason. 

78. The Nebular hypothesis assumes that the matter 
of which the bodies belonging to the solar and planetary 
systems is composed, once existed in space as a great, 
chaotic, nebulous and highly heated mass of gas or 



174 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

vapor, endowed with a kind of whirlpool motion, which, 
gradually condensing through the mutual attraction of 
its particles, formed the countless suns; that the 
planets were formed by the condensation of rings of 
matter successively thrown off by the central mass, 
and the satellites by the condensation of matter thrown 
off in like manner by the planets. It was invented by 
Laplace, a French astronomer, in the latter part of the 
last century. All recent observations and discoveries 
seem to prove its correctness. 

79. An imaginary belt in the heavens, extending nine 
degrees on each side of the ecliptic, or celestial equa- 
tor. Within its limits are contained the orbits of all 
the planets except some of the minor planets. It is 
divided into twelve parts, called signs, of 30° each, as 
follows: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, 
Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, 
Pisces. 

80. Mercury, Yenus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, 
Uranus, and Neptune. 



QTJESTIOXS OX UXITED STATES HISTORY. 

1. "WTiat theories have been advanced regarding the 
origin of the American Indians ? 

2. What evidence exists which indicates the occu- 
pancy of this continent by a civilized race before the 
Indians ? 

3. Give a brief description of the American Indians 
as they have manifested themselves to the "Whites. 

4. What claim to the discovery of America prior to 
Columbus is now very generally accepted? 

5. Name some circumstances that directly contrib- 
uted to the discover}' of the Western Continent. 

6. What peculiar characteristics did Columbus 
possess which fitted him for his great work? 

7. Kame in order the powers to which Columbus ap- 
plied for aid. 

8. (a) How many voyages to the New World were 
made by Columbus? (&) Name discoveries made in 
each voyage. 

9. How came this country to be called America? 

10. Why were the Indians so named' 

175 



176 QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 

11. What two circumstances dispelled the idea of the 
Spaniards that the lands discovered by Columbus were 
the Indies? 

12. Show how the promises made to Columbus by 
the Sovereigns of Spain compared with his rewards. 
^^3. Name ten Spanish discoverers and explorers, and 
after each write the name of his most important dis- 
covery or exploration, with date of each. 

14. (a) What territory of the New World was 
claimed by England? (5) Upon what Avere these 
claims based? 

15. Name the prominent Enghsh explorers of the 
16th century. 

16. What unsuccessful attempts were made by Eng- 
land to colonize North America in the 16th century? 

17. Locate the claims made by France, and state 
what means were employed to confirm these claims. 
^-■'18. Name five French explorers with the date and 
location of their explorations. 

19. Where and by whom were French settlements 
made in the early part of the 17th century? 
-^' 20. What claim did Holland make in America? 
Upon what based, and what was the extent? 

21. What motives may be assigned for the first at- 
tempt of the French to plant colonies in Florida and 
Carolina ? 

22. Give reasons for the long time intervening be- 
tween the discover}'' and settlement of North America. 

23. (a) What was the route from England to 
America during the 16th century? (^b) How and by 
whom was the passage shortened, and to what extent? 



QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 177 

'^4. Give names and dates of the first permanent 
settlements made by the nations engaged in exploring 
the future United States. 

/"^5. {a) "What two companies were formed in Eng- 
land for colonizing America ? ( 5 ) What were their 
respective territorial boundaries ? 

26. Relate the circumstances which determined the 
site of the first permanent English settlement. 

27. Why were the first settlei^ at Jamestown poorly 
fitted for pioneer life? 

28. What delusion among the people of Jamestown 
impaired the success of their first year's settlement? 

29. For what were the three charters granted to 
Jamestov^n remarkable? Give their dates. 

30. When was the " Starving Time " in Virginia? 
What was its cause and result? 

' 31. When, where, and by whom convenea, was the 
first legislative body in America? 

32. When was negro slavery introduced into 
America ? 

^/^133. When was the Navigation Act passed? When 
enforced? "What were its provisions? 

34. State the cause and date of Bacon's Rebellion. 

35. Give the dates of the two Indian massacres in 
Virginia. 

36. (a) Who was Pocahontas? (6) What influ- 
ence had she upon the Jamestown Colony? 

37. When, where, and by whom was New York 
settled? 



12 



178 QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 

38. Kame in order the four Dutch Governors of 
New Xijrk. 

7^^9. Wheat people settled Delaware ? Under whose 
auspices ? By whom conquered ? 

40. What is the origin of the term Puritan, as ap- 
plied to the Plymouth settlers ? 

41. (a) What was the character of the Pilgrim set- 
tlers ? (b) How did it fit them to become the founders 
of a successful colony in the New World ? 

42. (a) State the plan of working practiced by the 
early settlers of America, (b) What were its merits 
and demerits ? 

43. From what religious disturbances did the colon- 
ists of Massachusetts suffer? 

44. («) What colonies composed the famous 
" United Colonies of New England? " (b) What was 
the purpose of the Union? 

45. When did King Philip's War occur? 

46. State the cause and result of King Philip's War. 

47. Why was Massachusetts made a Royal Province ? 
Who was appointed governor ? 

48. What social delusion occasioned great excite- 
ment in Massachusetts in the latter part of the 17th 

century ? 

~ 49. Who settled Connecticut? 

50. When was the Pctiuod War? What was the 
principal action? How did it terminate? 

51. Under whom and by what class of people was 
Rhode Island settled ? 



QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 179 

52. What is particularly remarkable about the code 
of laws adopted by Rhode Island ? 

53. State what you can respecting general religious 
persecutions during the 17th century. 

■^ 54. How did New York come into the possession of 
the English? 

55. By what different sects was Pennsylvania prin- 
cipally settled ? What reasons can you assign for this ? 

56. What were the prominent principles of the laws 
established in Pennsylvania under the guidance of 
William Penn ? 

57. What remarkable feature can you mention in 
connection with Penn's celebrated treaty with the In- 
dians? 

7 58. When, where, by whom, and for what purpose 
was Maryland settled? 

59. What were the provisions of the Toleration Act 
passed by the Maryland Assembly in 1649? 

60. How did the religious tolerance of Rhode Island 
and Maryland differ? 

61. Give date and cause of Claiborne's Rebellion. 

- 62. What religious troubles occurred in Maryland? 

63. Explain the origin of Mason and Dixon's line. 

64. After w4iom was Carolina named and by whom? 

65. What was " Locke's Grand Model? " 

-> 66. By whom and when was Georgia founded and 
for what purpose ? 

67. What restrictions were contained in the early 
laws of Georgia, and what was the effect? 

68. By what people was Charleston largely settled? 



180 QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 

69. Name four missionaries among the Indians, 

70. What was the character of Governor Andres's 
administration in New England? 

71. Give the dates of the introduction of some of 
the religious societies in the American colonies. 

72. ^^'hat may be said of educational provisions 
among the early colonies ? 

73. What were the causes of King William's War? 

74. AAliat cause can you assign for the Indians usu- 
ally siding with the French against the English? 

75. Name the principal actions and their results of 
King William's War. 

76. What treaty ended King William's War, and how 
did it affect the American Colonies? 

77. What was the cause and duration of Queen 
Anne's War? 

^78. (ff) Name the important events of Queen 

Anne's War. ( ''> ) By what treaty and upon what terms 

was it settled ? 

^' 79 . State the date , cause and result of King George' s 

War. 

80. (a) What was the state of feeling between 
French and English settlers in the middle of the 18th 
century? (5) How had this condition been brought 
about ? 

81. What was the geographical position of the 
French and English settlements at the opening of the 
French and Indian War? How did this compare with 
their respective claims ? 



QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 181 

82. Give some account of the ancestry of Washing- 
ton. 

83. Name the physical, mental, and moral traits 
which fitted Washington for his destiny. 

84. By whom and for what purpose was Wash- 
ington sent to the French commandant at Fort le Boeuf ? 

85. What were the five objective points of the Brit- 
ish during the French and Indian War ? 

86. (a) What gave Fort du Quesne its importance? 
(6) Who conducted the expedition against this fort? 
(c) With what result? (d) By whom and when was 
the fort taken ? 

87. State the result of expeditions against Loiiis- 
burg. Crown Point and Ticonderoga, and Niagara. 

88. By what military action was the French and In- 
dian War terminated? By whom conducted? 

89. State the results of the French and Indian War 
to (a) the French; (6) the English; (c) the Colonists. 

90. What eminent revolutionary generals received 
their training in the French and Indian War? 

'^^^. What was the population of the American col- 
onies at the beginning of the Revolution? 

92. What forms of government existed in the colo- 
nies prior to the Revolution? 

93. Name the Colleges of Colonial times, and state 
which of these owed its existence to the patronage of 
the home government. 

94. Where and when was the first printing press in 
America ? The first jjermcnieiii newspaper ? 



182 QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 

95. What differences in the customs and manners of 
the northern, middle, and southern colonies existed in 
Colonial times? 

96. What noted events occurred on the followinGr 
dates: October 12,1492; May 23, 1G07 ; June 28, 
1619; December 21, 1620; February 22, 1732? 

97. What connection had the following persons with 
American history: DeSoto, Leonard Calvert, Roger 
Williams, D'Iberville, Sir William Pepperell? 

98. (a) When was rice first cultivated in South 
Carolina? (6) When first exported? 

'^'99. "VYhen, where, and by whom was the first per- 
manent settlement made in the ^Mississippi valley? 

100. Show in what manner the influence of the early 
Governors of Virginia retarded the progress of educa- 
tion. 

101. How were the manufacturing and commercial 
enterprises of the colonists regarded by the British 
government ? 

102. What was the condition of American literature 
prior to the Revolution? 

103 Name in order of numbers the nationalities rep- 
resented in the American colonies at the opening of the 
Revolution. 

104. What were the peculiar characteristics of the 
colonists which influenced them in resisting the oppres- 
sions of the mother country ? 
■^105. Enumerate what are commonly styled the re- 
mote causes of the Revolution. 
> 106. What w^as the direct cause of the Revolution? 



QtTESTIONS ON" UNITED STATES HISTORY. 183 

107. Who and in what manner sounded " The 
trumpet of the Revolution ? " 

108. Name some popular demonstrations showing 
the general opposition to the measures of the British 
government on the part of the colonists in the decade 
preceding the Eevolution. 

7109. (a) What was the Mutiny Act? (6) Why 
passed? (c) What was its effect? 

110. Give a short history of Faneuil Hall. 

111. What application had the terms " Whigs and 
Tories?" 

112. How was Boston punished for the "Tea 
Party?" 

113. Give the dates, places of convening, and objects 
of the three colonial Congresses held prior to the Rev- 
olution. 

114. (a) What and where was the first battle of the 
Revolution? {b) What was its purpose? (c) What 
was its effect? 

'115. When and where was the second Continental 
Congress held? Name its principal acts. 

IIG. For what purpose, by whom conducted, and 
with what result was an expedition made against Can- 
ada in 1775? 

117. Name the principal military actions of 1776. 

118. By whom and when was the resolution declar- 
ing the Colonies free and independent States intro- 
duced? 

^ 119. (fl) By whom was the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence drawn up ? (6) When adopted by Congress, 



184 QUESTTONS O^T UNITED STATES HISTORY. 

and by what majority? (c) By how many members 
signed? (d) What was its effect? 

120. By what movements did Washington display 
his greatest military powers ? 

121. Name five eminent European officers who 
served with distinction in the Continental armies. 

122. (a) What was the object of Burgoyne's expe- 
dition? (b) What was his force ? 

123. How were the plans of Burgoyne defeated? 

124. What officers contributed largely to the check 
and defeat of Burgoyne's army? 

125. When was the present American Flag adopted? 

126. What is meant by the Conway cabal? 

127. W'hat evidence attests the suffering and 
patriotism of the American army during the Kevolu- 
tion? 

128. Name the circumstances which induced France 
to aid the United States against England. 

129. How far did the treaty of alliance with 
France contribute to the ultimate success of the Eevo- 
lution ? 

130. Name the principal battles of 1777. 

131. (rt) What financial measures were adopted by 
Congress to carry on the Revolution? (b) What was 
the result of the measure ? 

132. Name the patriot leaders of the South during 
the Revolution. 

133. (a) State the cause of Arnold's treason, (b) 
Its effect, (c) His reward. 



QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 185 

134. (a) What difficulties beset the Continental 
Army in consequence of a depreciated currency? (b) 
How were these difficulties aggravated by the 
British ? 

135. Name the important military events of 1778. 

136. What important battles occurred in 1779? 

137. Who was the "great financier" during the 
Kevolution ? 

138. What is particularly remarkable about Gen- 
eral Greene's campaign in the Carolinas? 

139. Name the battles of 1780. 

140. What important military actions occurred in 
1781? 

141. (a) By what treaty was the independence of 
the United States recognized? (b) Who were the 
commissioners appointed by Congress? 

142. Relate some circumstance showing a tendency 
on the part of the founders of our government to estab- 
lish a monarchy instead of a republic. 

143. (rt) What were the " Articles of Confedera- 
tion?" (b) When adopted by Congress? (c) When 
did they become binding upon the States? (d) What 
were some of their radical defects ? 

144. State the origin of the Constitution. 

145. (a) Into what two parties were the people 
divided during the discussion pending the adoption of 
the Constitution? (6) What were the- principles of 
these two parties? (c) Name some prominent Con- 
stitutional advocates. 



186 QUESTIONS ON tJNITED STATES HISTORY. 

146. (a) When did the Constitution of the United 
States go into operation? (5) What States had not 
adopted it at that time? (c) Who ',vas chosen first 
President and how elected? 

147. State the effect of the Kevolutionary war upon 
the morals, manners, religion, education, commerce, 
and manufactures of the States. 

148. Who composed Washington's cabinet? 

149. Name some of the difficulties with which the 
first administration had to contend. 

150. (a) What financial measures we re proposed by 
Hamilton? (b) State their effect. 

151. What was the origin of the District of Colum- 
bia ? 

152. (a) What political parties Were formed during 
Washington's administration ? (5) What distinguished 
men were the leaders of these parties? 

153. What course did the people and government of 
the United States pursue with respect to the French 
Revolution? 

154. (a) What laws enacted during Adams's admin- 
istration turned popular favor from the Federalists? 
(b) Explain these laws. 

155. What was the first official expression of the 
doctrine of State Eights ? 

156. In what manner and when did the United States 
acquire Louisiana? 

157. When, by whom, and by what means was steam 
first practically applied to navigation? 



QUEPTIOXS ON UXITED STATES HISTORY. 187 

158. Enumerate the causes of the second war with 
Great Britain. 

159. (a) Why was not the War of 1812 a popular 
measure throughout the country? (b) What party 
generally opposed the war ? 

160. What was the general pian of the Americans at 
the opening of the Second War with Great Britain? 

161. Contrast the general conduct of the land and 
naval forces during 1812. 

162. What armies were organized for the campaign 
of 1813, and by whom commanded, and for what pur- 
pose ? 

163. What action did Massachusetts take with ref- 
erence to the War of 1812? 

164. (rt) What was the Hartford Convention? (6) 
Why was it called? (c) What was its action? 

165. Name the principal battles of the Second War 
with Great Britain. 

166. By what treaty was this war ended? 

167. What were the results of the War of 1812? 

^ 168. Name the principal events of Washington's 
Administration. 

• 169. Name the principal events of Adams's Admin- 
istration. 

170. What is particularly remarkable about the elec- 
tion of James Monroe to the presidency? 

171. (a) What changes in the political parties of the 
United States occurred during INIonroe's administra- 
tion? (?)) What particular measures characterized the 
new parties ? 



188 QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 

' 172. Name the principal events of Monroe's admin- 
istration. 

173. Name some noted events which occurred July 
4th. 

174. What was the Mssouri Compromise? 

175. When and for what consideration did the 
United States obtain Florida? 

176. What is the Monroe Doctrine? 

177. How was John Quincy Adams elected Presi- 
dent? 

178. Name the coincidences in the lives of John 
Adams and Thomas Jefferson. 

' 179. For what Avas the administration of J. Q. 
Adams particularly distinguished ? 

180. What practice in official appointments was in- 
troduced by President Jackson in 1829? 

181. State the means proposed by Jackson to secure 
from France the payment of indemnities for destruc- 
tion of American commerce during the Napoleonic 
wars. 

182. When did the cholera make its first appear- 
ance in the United States ? 

183. Give an account of the nullification ordinance. 

184. Name the circumstances Avhich contributed to 
the financial crisis of 1837. 

185. When and by whom was the northeastern 
boundary settled? 

186. In what respect did John Tyler resemble 
Andrew Johnson in his official acts ? 



QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 189 

187. What were the conditions upon which Texas 
was annexed to the United States? 

188. What were the chief grounds of opposition to 
the annexation of Texas ? 

189. (a) Upon what were the rival claims of Eng- 
land and the United States to Oregon based ? (h'^ How 
and where were these claims settled? 

190. (rt) What was the cause of the war with Mex- 
ico? {h) When did it begin? (c) How long did it 
continue? (cZ) By what treaty was the war closed? 
(e) What were the terms of this treaty? 

191. What battles in Mexico were won by the Amer- 
icans ? 

192. (rt) AATiat sectional disturbances threatened the 
Union at the beginning of Taylor's administration? 
(5) How were the dangers averted? 

, 193. Name the five provisions of the Compromise of 
1850, known as the Omnibus Bill. 

194. («) What was the Kansas-Nebraska Bill ? (5) 
Who was its author? (c) What was the legal effect of 
its passage? (cZ) State its political effect. 

195. What Congressional act may be said to have 
given birth and strength to the Republican party? 

196. Name the political parties which have existed 
since the adoption of the Constitution. 

197. Name the principal events of Pierce's admin- 
istration. 

198. (a) What was the Dred Scott decision? (6) 
How was it regarded by the North and South ? 



190 QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 

199. What was the alleged cause of the secession of 
the Southern States? 

200. Name the States which formed the " Confed- 
erate States of America." 

201. (a) When and how was the War of Secession 
begun? (b) When and how was it ended? 

202. What was the attitude of England and France 
toward the United States during the Rebellion ? 

203. What was the general result of the first year of 
the War of Secession ? 

201. What was the general plan of conducting the 
war of the Rebellion on the part of the goverment? 

205. Show in what manner the defeat of the national 
troops at Bull Run proved advantageous to the cause of 
the Union. 

206. Name ten important battles of the Rebellion 
fought in 1862, and state which were Union and which 
Confederate victories. 

207. What was the numerical strength of the Union 
and Confederate armies at the beginning of 1863? 

208. (rt) When and by whom was the Emancipation 
Proclamation issued? {b) Whom did it include? (c) 
How was it justified ? 

209. (a) How many invasions of the North were 
attempted by Lee? (6) How and when were these 
checked ? 

210. (a) What was the turning point of the War of 
the Rebellion? (6) What mihtary actions determined 
this point? 



QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 191 

211. Name the great battles won by the Confed- 
erates in 1863. 

212. What was the purpose of Sherman's " March 
to the Sea." 

213. What reasons may be assigned for the failure of 
the United States government to subdue the Rebellion 
earlier than it did ? 

214. Name some of the most important naval actions 
of the War of the Rebellion. 

215. Name in order the generals who commanded 
the army of the Potomac. 

216. How were the war measures of the government 
during the Rebellion impeded in the North? 

217. State the number of men actually enlisted in 
the Union army during the Rebellion. 

218. (a) About what time during the Rebellion did 
the United States army contain the greatest number of 
men? (6) What was the daily expense of the govern- 
ment at this time? 

210. What was the total cost to the government of 
the War of Secession? 

220. What was the effect of the War of Secession 
upon the North and South respectively? 

221. How were the expenses of the government 
during the Rebellion provided for by Congress? 

222. How and when was slavery in the United 
States abolished? 

223. Write a summary of the principles contained 
in the Fourteenth Amendment. 



192 QUESTIONS OX UNITED STATES HISTORY. 

224. How were the men engaged in the Rebellion 
restored to their rights and privileges in the Union? 

225. How and why were States engaged in rebellion 
governed pending what is known as the " reconstruc- 
tion?" 

226. Give an account of the difficulties between 
President Johnson and Congress which led to his im- 
peachment. What was the result of this impeachment ? 

227. State fully the nature of the "Alabama 
Claims." 

228. How was the difficulty regarding the Presi- 
dential contest of 1876 settled? 

229. What Presidents had been formerly Vice 
Presidents ? 

230. Name the Presidents who died in office 

231. Name the Presidents in chronological order, 
and after each write the name of the pra-ty by which 
he was elected, date of inauguration, and term of office. 

232. (a) When, and by whom, was the cotton gin 
invented? (b) What can you say of its political in- 
fluence in the*United States? 

233. Name the Presidents who had been military 
men. 

234. For what is April 19th notable in the history 
of the United States ? 

235. What officer has charge of the National Bureau 
of Agriculture? 

236. When, where, and by whom was Indiana first 
settled ? 



QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES HISTORY. 103 

237. Name five distinguished Union officers killed 
during the War of Secession. 

238. (a) State the difference between a protective 
tariff and free trade, (b) Which sections of the Union 
have favored these tv.o policies? (c) Name three 
political leaders who have favored a protective tariff. 
(d) Three who have favored free trade. 

230. Name the Presidential candidates of 1860 and 
the parties they represented. 

240. (a) When, w^hcre, and by what people was 
Missouri settled? (b) When did it become a separate 
territory? (c) When was it admitted into the Uniou? 

241. When and where was California first settled 
by a civilized race? 

242. Name, including the more important Indian 
troubles, the wars in which the United States have 
been engaged. 

243. {a) In what four ways have the United States 
acquired territory? (b) Specify the territory gained 
by each method, and state from whom acquired. 

244. Name the three greatest books published by 
American writers. 

245. What were the requirements of reconstruc- 
tion imposed upon the States which had passed ordi- 
nances of secession? 

246. Name the most decisive battle fought in the 
following States : Massachusetts, New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, 
Mississippi, Arkansas, Kentucky. 



13 



194 ANS^\TEES TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

247. What general is said never to have lost a 
battle? 

248. (a) How many attempts were made to lay the 
Atlantic cable. (6) To whom was the success due? 

249. Explain briefly the distinctions between the 
Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. 

250. When, and for what purpose, was the first 
paper money used in America? 

251 Name, three orators of America, three states- 
men, three poets, three historians, three novelists, 
three inventors. 

252. Give the names of ten of the most prominent 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

253. What persons have held the offices of General 
and Lieutenant-General respectively? 

254. In whom was the American executive power 
vested from 1787 to 1789? 

255. Name five important national events since the 
Rebellion. 

256. What important decision was rendered by the 
United States Supreme Court in 1883? 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON UNITED STATES 
HISTORY. 

1. 1st. That they are aborigines. 2nd. That they 
are descendants of Asiatic tribes who crossed Behring's 
Strait. 3rd. That they are descendants of Phoenician 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 195 

or Carthaginian colonies. 4th. That t!iey are the ten 
" lost tribes " of Israel, who were conquered by Shal- 
maneser, King of Assyria, 700 B. C. 5th. That they 
are descended from the early Egyptians. 

2. Throughout the Mississippi Valley many thou- 
sand mounds and other curiously constructed earth- 
works, seemingly designed for religious and military 
purposes, attest the presence of a race greatly superior 
to the Indians. Architectural remains, as ruins of 
magnificent temples, cities and extended graded ways 
scattered along the western coast of South America 
and throughout Mexico and Central America, point to 
a people who had attained a degree of civilization not 
inferior to their contemporaries of Europe at the time 
in which they flourished. 

3. The Indians are cruel, treacherous, revengeful; 
and though boastful of their willingness for war, have 
ever shown themselves, as a race, cowardly in open 
battle. They are lazy and improvident, — the lessons 
of famine teachino; them nothing for the future. The 
women are degraded, and regarded by the men as only 
fit to bear the burdens of their lords and provide for 
their daily wants. 

4. The claims of the Northmen, about the year 
1000. 

6. 1st. The invention of the mariner's compass in 
1302, and later, the astrolabe, an instrument for 
reckoning latitude. 2nd. An increased desire for 
geographical knowledge. 3rd. The invention of print- 
ing, furnishing numerous books of travel and descrip- 



196 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

tion of other lands. 4th. Increased commercial 
activity and a general demand for a route to the East 
Indies. 

6. He early displayed a fondness for Mathematics, 
Geography, and Astronomy. At fourteen he went to 
sea, where he continued, with few interruptions, all 
his life. Marrying the daughter of an eminent Portu- 
guese navigator, he became possessed of numerous 
charts and journals, which increased his thirst for dis- 
covery. 

7. First, to the Senate of Genoa; second, to King 
John II., of Portugal ; third, to Henry VIL, of Eng- 
land, and, fourth, to the court of Spain. 

8. (a) Columbus made four voyages, (b) In the 
first voyage he discovered San Salvador, Cuba, and 
Hispaniola; in the second, Jamaica, and other neigh- 
boring islands ; in the third, Trinidad, and the coast 
of South America in 1498; in the fourth he explored 
the coast of Darien in 1503. 

9. A German geographer, Waldsee-Miiller, in re- 
publishing the adventures of Americus Vespucius, a 
companion of Columbus, suggested that the name of 
this loriter should be applied to the country discovered 
by Columbus. 

10. Columbus, supposing the lands he had discov- 
ered were the outlying islands of India, called the 
natives Indians. 

' 11. First, the discovery of the Pacific Ocean by 
Balboa in 1513, and, second, the circumnavigation of 
the globe by Magellan in 1520. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 197 

12. Ho was promised the life Vice-royalty of all the 
countries he might discover, and died in poverty and 
obscurity, requesting that his chains be buried with 
him. 

13. Columbus, San Salvador, 1492; Ponce de Leon, 
Florida, 1512; Balboa, South Sea (Pacific), 1513; 
Cordova, Yucatan, 1517 ; Magellan, rounded S. Amer- 
ica and crossed the Pacific Ocean, 1520; De Ayllou, 
Carolina, 1520 ; Cortez, Mexico, 1519-21 ; DeNarvaez, 
Florida, 1528; De Soto, Mississippi River, 1541; 
Espejo, New Mexico, 1582. 

14. (a) England claimed that portion of North 
America lying between Labrador and Florida, and 
from ocean to ocean, (b) This claim was based upon 
the discovery of Labrador and southward explorations 
by the Cabots, in 1497. 

15. Frobisher, Drake, Gilbert, Gosnold, and Smith. 
10. In 1578, by Gilbert, in 1583, and again in 1587, 

by Raleigh, 

17. France claimed the valleys of the St. Lawrence, 
Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and the islands in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. She attempted to make these 
claims good by planting military stations, missions, 
and trading posts at strategic points throughout the 
region. 

18. Verrazani, 1524, the coast from North Carolina 
to New York; Cartier, 1535, St. Lawrence River; 
John Ribaut, 1562, South Carolina; De Monts, 1605, 
Nova Scotia; Champlain, 1609, Lake Champhun. 



198 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON tJ. S. niSTOKY. 

10. At Port K()\':il in 1005 by Do Monts, and Que- 
bec in in08 by Chnniplain. 

20. Holland claimed the Hudson valley as far ca.st 
as the Comiecticut, and the land embraced in the pres- 
ent States of New Jersey and Dehiware, and the east- 
ern shores of Maryland and Vir;:^inia. This claim was 
based on the discoveries of Henry Hnd-on. 

21. To found an asylum for the; Hu^ajonots, a sect 
of Fren<;h Protestants who were suffering from perse- 
cution at home. 

22. 1st. Tluihosliiily ofthc ii;itlv<-s. 2n(l. Th(; jeal- 
ousy am(jiig 1h<! rival ciaimniits 1o the country. 3rd. 
Th(i absence of any gr(!al ohjcci of conquest, as ex- 
isted in Mexico and Peiu. Ith. The distance from 
Europe and the inconvenience of t lan-fcrriug settlers 
in large numbers to new homes. 

2.'J. (ft) Southwai'd along the coa.sts of Spain, Por- 
tugal, and Africa to the Canary Islands, thence neaily 
westward to llie li;ih;iiii;i<. (/;) (io-iiold in 1 (;02 
shortened the passage '.'),()()() miles by sailing directly 
from England to Massachusetts. 

24. St. Augustine, by the Spanish, 150.5; Port 
Royal, N. S., by tli<-, Preiich, 1(;05; Jamestown, by 
th(! English, 1007 ; New York, by the Duleh, l<;i;{. 

25. («) The London Company and the Plymouth 
Company, named from the residence of their principal 
members, (/j) James I. granted to the fii-st company 
all lands lying between the 8Ith and .38tl) p;ir:illels of 
noi-th latitude, to the I'lymoiith Company lh(; land 



hro^ !ystwe«fi tk^. 4l<^ and 45tfe |«waII«>U4, Both 

gTttnt* eslr^ja<!<*tf from th .■.' ■ ^ to tb<» Panlir.. 

215. Ih^ c-t-^aipnav. . .f 105 p«>iNirtOi*, d^ 

s'on>->f f .iranna of Cnp- 

tA ' N .• on Eonnotr(» 

I 'tail : hun a. -Poit^nr. storm «inn«Hl th<>m noithwarti 
int.-v Chfi^sapejtlte B-jy. Fixuilja?; a good hjirl^or off 
Poiint Comfort, m najn«d oa acnonnt of their recent 
piftYil, tht^j w ■ ' - ''-.^ James* Rii?sr, wh»»rft on th«* 
Hk of \hj, : miles ahove it-* mouth the.y *<*- 

kctf^i A .*it«» : 

3fT 'n^-str V i^j*^ annf*«^d to khor 

ot th<» me:i«>>* ti:> he ero- 

- }' wmn» mori* of a harden 

rii;ia A help to the few who were capable of fouadiag a 

colonj in the wilderne»». 

2^. The attention of the aettfecs wan so ocnnpied by 
* iT' " i in a sraaJl .«4tream« 

'■^'J' .!itor tnlketl of hut 

^'- 1. In thii4 dehwion 

ti*-'- lin^ lookin^j to per- 

maaenr. et-^mfort w l. 

2a. For the nt:. / .... .- _ ird of the personal ri^ts, 
wishes, aaid needn of tlie colonit*fj« themi»elvej4. They 
weredatevi 1H0»^» liWO, and li^li^ respectively. 

30. The winter of l(>()0-l() w.i.^ known oa the 

'^.*' The Lnftncnre of Stiiith, the con- 

f J;im«»sto wn . heinjj removetl by hia re- 

i:..ru r.) taj'ljuid, the coloniatd became a prey to 

!:uint^s^. dijie:u!»e, and famine. In :»ix months they 

were redneeti from 4S)0' to HO. 



200 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

31. It was called by Governor Yeardley at James- 
town, June 19, 1619. This was the origin of the 
" House of Burgesses " in Virginia. 

32. Twenty negroes were sold to the Jamestown col- 
onists by the captain of a Dutch trading vessel in 1619. 
Their labor was found so profitable in the cultivation 
of tobacco that many others were afterward imported. 

33. It was passed in 1651, and enforced in 1660. 
It required that all colonial commerce should be car- 
ried on in English vessels, and that all tobacco should 
be shipped to England. 

34. Governor Berkley, of Virginia, failing to pro- 
vide sufficient defence against the Indians, the people 
in 1676 proceeded against them under a popular leader 
named Nathaniel Bacon. The Governor denounced 
Bacon as a traitor, and refused him a commission. 
Bacon marched against the Governor, driving him and 
his party out of Jamestown. The rebellion was ended 
by the death of Bacon. 

35. The first, in 1622; the second, in 1644. 

36. (a) Pocahontas was the daughter of the Indian 
chief Powhatan, (b) She saved the life of Captain 
Smith, the leader of the Jamestown colony, often 
brought food to the colonists, and in 1613 married 
John Rolfe, an English planter. Through her influence 
the friendship of the Indians was secured to the Eng- 
lish. 

37. New York was settled in 1613, on Manhattan 
Island by Dutch traders. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIOXS ON U. S. HISTORY. 201 

38. Peter Minuit, Wouter Van Twiller, William 
Eeft, and Peter Stujvesant. 

39. Delaware, under the name of New Sweden, was 
settled at Wilmington by Swedes and Finns in 1638, 
under the auspices of Oxenstiern, the minister of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus. New Sweden was claimed by the 
Dutch, and in 1652 the whole region was conquered 
and added to New Netherland. 

40. It was applied originally in reproach to the dis- 
senters from the estahUshed church of England during 
the reigns of James I. and Charles I. They professed 
to follow the pure word of God, in opposition to all 
traditions and human institutions and ceremonies. 

41. («) They were earnest, sober-minded people, 
governed in all things by religious principles and their 
convictions of duty. (6) For twelve years they had 
been wanderers in Holland, without a home, without a 
country. They longed for an asylum where they could 
rear their children free from evil influences, and 
worship God according to the dictates of their con- 
sciences. 

42. (rt) Most were governed by a community inter- 
est, that is, they shared the results of their labor in 
common. The practice was soon abandoned, (h) 
The only advantage it possessed was in keeping the 
settlers together for mutual defence, but it encouraged 
improvidence among the indolent. 

43. Roger Williams, an eloquent minister, after ex- 
citing many bitter discussions, was banished for advo- 
cating greater freedom of thought and action than was 



202 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

tolerated by the majority. Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, 
claiming special revelations from heaven, aroused such 
violent and bitter controversy among the clergy that 
she, too, was soon after banished. Quakers were 
whipped, fined, sent out of the colony, and four were 
executed. 

44. (a) Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, 
and Connecticut. (6) It was formed for protection 
against the Indians, French, and Dutch. 

45. It opened July 14, 1675. 

46. Its cause was the jealousy of the Indians at the 
encroachments of the whites and an attempt to exter- 
minate them before they became too numerous. Many 
settlers were massacred, but at length uniting their 
forces and pursuing the Indians to their retreats, the 
whites within a few months destroyed nearly the en- 
tire force of savages. Philip was shot by a faithless 
Indian. 

47. Massachusetts, refusing to comply with the 
provisions of the Navigation Act, Charles II. seized 
upon her conduct as an act of disobedience, and made 
her a royal province, appointing Sir Edmund Andros 
as royal governor of New England. 

48. The Salem witchcraft. 

49. The first English settlers were from Massachu- 
setts. The Dutch had previously established trading 
posts along the Connecticut River. 

50. The Pequod War was begun in 1637 by the 
massacre of thirty whites. The principal battle was 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS OX U. S. HISTORY. 203 

on the Mystic River. The tribe perished in the action 
of June 4, 1G37. 

51. Ehode Island was settled first by Roger Will- 
iams, and later, by exiles from Massa(?husetts, taking 
refuge there on account of religious persecutions. 

52. It was " the first legal declaration of liberty of 
conscience ever adopted in Europe or America." 

53. Bigotry and religious intolerance prevailed 
among all the dominant sects, both in Europe and 
America, to such an extent that the weaker denomina- 
tions found security from persecution onl}^ among the 
wilds of America. 

54. The Duke of York, afterwards James IT., 
claimed the territory by virtue of a grant made by his 
brother Charles II. The colonists, composed largely 
of English, grew restless under the stern rule of Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant, and longed for the freedom granted 
the neighboring colony of Connecticut. An English 
fleet appearing in the harbor, demanded the surrender, 
and the Governor, unable to resist the threatened 
atack, was forced to surrender. 

55. By Puritans, Quakers, and Scotch Presbyte- 
rians. This was doubtless due to the benevolence and 
charity of its illustrious founder, William Penn, who 
desired to establish a colony for the persecuted of .all 
sects and nations. 

56. Faith in Christ was a necessary qualification for 
voting and holding office; but no one believing in 
in '^Umighty God " should be molested in his relig- 
ious practices. 



204 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

67. *' It was the only treaty never sworn to, and 
the only one never broken." While the Indians 
waged war almost continuously with other colonies, 
they never shed a drop of Quaker blood. 

58. Maryland was settled in 1634, at St. Mary's, hy 
Lord Baltimore [Cecil Calvert], as a refuge for perse- 
cuted Catholics. 

59. It secured to all Christians liberty to worship 
God according to the dictates of their own conscience. 

60. The Toleration Act, passed by Rhode Island in 
1647, gave protection to every kind of faith and wor- 
ship, thus including the universally persecuted Jew, 
while that of Marjdand extended protection to all 
forms of Christianity alone. 

61. Claiborne, a member of the Jamestown Council, 
having established trading posts in territory claimed 
by both the Virginia colony and the representatives of 
Lord Baltimore, refused to submit to the latter' s 
authority. Being convicted of murder and other 
crimes, he fled from the province; but returning in 
1637 with a large mob, he broke up the government. 
Governor Calvert the next year regained possession of 
his government. Order was soon restored, and Clai- 
borne was driven from the colony. 

62. During the wars of Cromwell the Protestants 
gaining supremacy in the Maryland Assembly, de- 
prived the Catholics of the protection of the laws. A 
civil war ensued, which continued till Cromwell's death, 
when the rights of Lord Baltimore were restored. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 205 

63. Mason and Dixon's line separates Pennsylvania 
from Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia. It was 
surveyed by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two 
English surveyors, between 1763 and 1767. 

64. It was named after Charles IX. of France, by 
John Ribault. 

65. Clarendon and others to whom Charles II. had 
granted the region known as Carolina, contemplated 
the founding of a great empire. John Locke, the most 
eminent philosopher of his time, was engaged to draft 
a scheme and charter for the new province. This in- 
strument, known in history as the " Grand Model," 
gave almost unlimited power to a body of nobles, but 
entirely overlooked the rights of the masses. Among 
a people accustomed to the hardships of pioneer life 
and compelled to govern themselves, there was no 
room for such a code, and the proposed constitution 
failed. 

66. Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe, in 
1733, as a home for English debtors. 

67. The size of farms was limited, women could not 
inherit land, and the importation of rum and slaves 
was prohibited. These prohibitions occasioned discon- 
tent and impaired the financial prosperity of the colon- 
ists to such an extent that the trustees, growino; tired 
of their charge, gave up their claim, and Georgia be- 
came a royal province. 

68. By French Huguenots. 

69. Eliot, Marquette, Allouez, Hennepin. 



206 ANSAVERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

70. Every right the people had enjoyed was denied 
them, while their taxes were largely increased. Con- 
trary to the wishes of the people, the Church of 
England was established, and the meetings of the peo- 
ple, except for the election of town officers, were pro- 
hibited, 

71. The Dutch Reformed Church was introduced 
into New York about 1G14; the Episcof)al, 1608; the 
Roman Catholic, in 1634; the Mennonites, in Penn- 
sylvania, in 1692; the Tunkers or General Baptists, 
1719; the Moravians, in 1741 ; the Shakers, in 1774; 
the Wesley an Methodists, in 1766 ; the Universalists, 
in 1760. 

72. With few exceptions, every settlement made 
generous provision for the education of the children. 

73. King James having fled to France upon the 
opening of the English Revolution of 1688, France 
espoused his cause, and declared war against England. 
The natural jealousies existing between the subjects of 
these two rival powers soon developed hostilities 
among the colonies. 

74. The influence of the French was ever exerted 
in winning the Indians to their side. The missionaries 
of France converted many of the tribes to the Catholic 
faith. French traders and settlers mingled and mar- 
ried among the Indians, and in every relation affiliated 
with them upon terms of far greater intimacy than did 
the English. 

75. The attacks and massacres of Schenectady and 
Haverhill by the French and their Indian allies, from 



ANSAVEKS TO QUESTIONS OX U. S. HISTORY. 207 

which the colonists suffered heavily and the capture of 
Port Royal, Acadia by the English colonists under Gov- 
ernor Phipps. 

76. The treaty of Ryswick, by which each party 
held the territory it had at the beginning of the war. 

77. Queen Anne's War, known in Europe as the 
War of the Spanish Succession, was caused by the 
jealousy of William III., at the growing power of the 
Bourbon family. The colonies were at once involved, 
and from 1702 to 1713 experienced all the horrors of 
Indian barbarity. 

78. The principal events of Queen Anne's War were 
the capture of St. Augustine and St. Marks, by the 
South Carolinians, the attack on Charleston by a 
French fleet, the attack and massacre of Deerfield and 
the capture of Port Royal. The war was terminated 
by the treaty of Utrecht, by which Acadia and New- 
foundland were ceded to Eno-land, 

o 

79. King George's War, caused oy the conflicting 
territorial claims of France and England, opened in 
1744, and continued four years. Louisburg, on Cape 
Breton Island, was wrested from the French by the 
British and Colonists, but by the treaty of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, was restored to the French. 

80. The bittei-e.st feelings existed between the 
French and English settlers engendered by the three 
preceding wars. 

81. The French occupied and claimed the Ohio and 
Mississippi valleys, from the lakes to New Orleans. The 
English were scattered along the Atlantic Coast 



208 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS OX U. S. HISTORY. 

between Maine and Florida, and extending westward 
to the Alleghanies, but claimed the territory between 
their western settlements and the Ohio Eiver. 

82. Washington was descended from an old English 
family whose original name was Wessyngton, mem- 
bers of which were prominent in different periods of 
English history. His great-grandfather, who came to 
America in 1657, was distinguished in the early Indian 
wars. His father, Augustine Washington, died when 
he [George] was eleven years old. 

83. Washington by nature possessed a vigorous and 
robust constitution, and excelled in the youthful sports 
of his time. In his studies he was surpassed by none. 
His manuscript-school books, still preserved, attest 
the precision and order of his mind. Like most men 
who have excelled in military tactics, he had a marked 
fondness for mathematics. His motives and morals 
were as pure as his patriotism was incorruptible. 

84. The French having erected forts upon territory 
claimed by the English in western Pennsylvania for 
the purpose of menacing the English settlers and 
breaking up the trade of the Ohio Company, Governor 
Dinwiddle, under orders of the General Assembly of 
Virginia, despatched Washington to inquire into the 
cause of the measures the French had pursued, and to 
ask that the forts be evacuated and the troops re- 
moved. 

85. The capture of the following: Fort du Quesne, 
Louisburg, Crown Point and Ticonderoga, Niagara, and 
Quebec. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIOXS OX U. S. HISTOIIY. 209 

80. (a) It commanded the Ohio Elver and formed 
the gateway of the west, (b) General Braddock. 
(c) His force was defeated aud himself killed, (d) 
It was captured by Washington in 1758. 

87. Generals Amherst and Wolf captured Louisburg 
in 1758, Crown Point and Ticonderoga were evacuated 
at the approach of General Amherst in 1759, and the 
same year Niagara was taken by General Johnson. 

88. The capture of Quebec by General Wolf. 

89. (a) The French lost their entire American 
possessions, — giving to England all east of the ]\Iissis- 
sippi except two small islands, south of Newfoundland, 
and ceding to Spain New Orleans and all her territory 
west of the ^lississippi. (6) England obtained con- 
trol of all North America, except the south west, and 
the glory of a renowned military conquest, (c) The 
Colonists lost 30,000 men and spent $16,000,000, a 
third only of which was returned by the mother coun- 
try; but the burdens of the war gave them the 
strengt]i, courage, and independence which developed 
the revolution. 

90. Washington, Gates, Arnold, Morgan, Putnam, 
Montgomery, and Stark? 

91. About two and a half millions. 

92. Royal, Charter and Proprietary. 

93. Harvard, William and Mary, Yale, Princeton, 
King's, Brown, Queen's, Dartmouth, and Hampden 
Sidney. William and Mary was the only college Avhich 
received a donation from the English government, 
taking its name from its principal donors. 

14 



210 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

94. At Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1639. The 
" Boston News Letter," issued in 1704, was the first 
permanent newspaper. 

95. The people of New England were until the 
Revolution more homogeneous than those of other 
colonies. The influence of the early Puritans, with 
their rigid adherence to the literal interpretation of the 
Scriptures, shaped every motive of public and private 
action ; gaming, racing, theaters, and nearly every form 
of frivolity was prohibited. The middle colonies, 
though peopled by representatives from nearly every 
country of northern Europe, were essentially Dutch in 
their social customs. While the severest laws of mor- 
.ality were inculcated and enforced, the people enjoyed 
greater freedom and means of pleasure than their 
northern neighbors. The Southern colonies being 
more sparsely settled, were less rigidly governed by 
those religious and sumptuary laws peculiar to munici- 
pal corporations, for which the New England colonies 
were early distinguished. Greater freedom of conduct 
and luxury of living prevailed than elsewhere, though 
church attendance was obligatory in most of the 
Southern colonies, as in New England. 

96. Oct. 12, 1492, Columbus discovered San Sal- 
vador; May 23, 1607, Jamestown settled; June 28, 
1619, first Representative Assembly in America; Dec. 

21, 1620, landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth ; Feb. 

22, 1732, Washington born. 

97. De Soto discovered the Mississippi River, 1541 ; 
Leonard Calvert colonized Maiyland, 1634; Roger 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 211 

Williams settled Ehode Island, 1636 ; D'Iberville 
founded Mobile, 1702; Sir Wm. Pepperell, in com- 
mand of colonists, captured Louisburg, 1745. 

98. (a) In 1696. (b) First exported in 1698. 

99. In 1688 or 1690 at Kaskaskia, 111., by the 
French. 

100. With few exceptions, the early governors of 
Virginia were aristocratic and tyrannical, and caring 
nothing for the masses, opposed every measure calcu- 
lated to elevate the people. Governor Berkley is cred- 
ited with saying, "I thank God there are no free 
schools nor printing presses here, and I hope we shall 
not have them these hundred years." 

101. With the utmost disregard for Colonial inter- 
ests, the government sought to stifle with various re- 
strictions the manufacturing and commercial spirit of 
the colonists. 

102. The only books published in America before 
the Revolution were a few histories, religious treatises, 
and political essaj^s. Up to this time no great poem 
or work of fiction had been produced in America. 

103. English, Dutch, Scotch, Irish, French, Ne- 
groes, Germans, Swedes, and a limited number of 
Finns, Norwegians and Spaniards. 

104. They were descendants of men who had fled 
from oppression, and braved and suffered the hard- 
ships of the wilderness for the blessings of civil and 
religious liberty. They possessed a freedom, inher- 
ited from these ancestors, as responsible as it was en- 
joyable. The incompetence of the British officers and 



212 ANSWERS TO QUESTIOXS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

the heroism and prowess of their own officers and men 
during the wars with the French had shown them the, 
power which they possessed within themselves. 

105. 1st. The Navigation Act. 2nd. Writs of 
Assistance, authorizing custom-house officers to break 
open stores, dwellings, and ships, in search of mer- 
chandise on which it was suspected no duty had been 
paid. 3rd. The Stamp Act, requiring all legal in- 
struments of writing, as notes, deeds, bonds, and even 
newspapers, almanacs, and other printed matter to be 
stamped. 4th. The Boston Massacre. 5th. The 
Boston Tea Party, and the Boston Port Bill. 6th. 
The Trade Restrictions imposed upon the colonies 
by the English government. 7th. The General 
Treatment of the settlers as an inferior class of 
people. 

106. T.\XATiON Without Representation. The 
British government attempted to tax the colonies with- 
out their consent in order to raise money to defray the 
expenses of the French and Indian War. 

107. James Otis, in Boston, when he said in a 
speech in reference to the Writs of Assistance, " To 
my dying day I will oppose, with all the powers and 
faculties God has given me, all such instruments of 
slavery on the one hand, and villainy on the other." 

108. The houses of stamp officers were mobbed, 
prominent officials were hung in effigy; people agreed 
to use no article of British manufacture ; associations, 
called the "Sons of Liberty," were formed for the 
purpose of resisting the stamp law. The day upon 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 213 

Avnich the stamp act was to go into effect ** was ob- 
served as a day of mourning," and in everyway pos- 
sible the people manifested their determination to 
resist the oppression of the British Government. 

109. (a) The Mutiny Act required the colonies to 
provide British soldiers with quarters and supplies. 
(b) The government, in order to quell the rebellious 
spirit of the colonists determined to place a military 
force among them, (c) The people were indignant ; 
they thought it bad enough to be taxed, but to be com- 
pelled to feed and shelter their oppressors seemed be- 
yond all endurance. Most of the colonial assemblies 
absolutely refused to furnish the shelter or subsist- 
ence. 

110. Faneuil Hall was erected by Peter Faneuil in 
1742. It originally comprised a market place on the 
ground floor and a town hall above. It was the ren- 
dezvous of the Revolutionary spirits for which reason 
it has been called the " Cradle of Liberty." 

111. The Tories supported the British government, 
the Whigs opposed it. 

112. By the Boston Port Bill, passed by Parliament, 
by which ships were forbidden to take in or discharge 
their cargoes at the port of Boston. 

113. The first was convened at Albany, N. Y., in 
1754, for the purpose of adopting a plan of union 
against the French and Indians. The second, rej^re- 
senting nine colonies, met in New York, October, 1765, 
for the purpose of remonstrating against the Stamp 
Act. The third, known as the " First Continental 



214 ANSWERS TO QUKSTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

Congress," met in Philadelphia, Sept. 5, 1774, to con- 
cert a plan of action and union against the tyrannical 
measures of Parliament. 

114. (a) The battle of Lexington April 19, 1775. 
(5) The capture of military stores collected at Con- 
cord, (c) The complete union of the colonies. 

115. At Philadelphia, May 10, 1775. It voted to 
raise 20,000 men and appointed General Washington 
:;cnimander-in-chief . A petition to the King was o*-- 
dered and sent, but George III., regarding them as 
rebels, refused to be petitioned. 

116. To prevent the British using Canada as a ren- 
dezvous and base of supply, an expedition under Gen- 
erals Schuyler, Montgomery, and Arnold was sent to 
occupy the province. St. Johns and Montreal were 
captured by Montgomery; but in the attack on Que- 
bec, the Americans were repulsed with the loss of 
General Montgomery, and the expedition proved a 
failure. 

117. British evacuation of Boston; Attack on Fort 
Moultrie ; Battles of Long Island, White Plains, and 
Trenton. 

118. By Richard Henry Lee, June 7, 1776. 

119. («) By Thomas Jefferson, (b) July 4, 1776, 
by a majority of one colony, (c) By all members 
present, — 56. (d) It was everywhere in the States 
just formed greeted with the firing of cannon, the 
ringing of bells, and other demonstrations of exulta- 
tion. 

120. In the battles of Trenton and Princeton. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 215 

121. La Fayette, Barons de Kalb and Steuben, 
Count Pulaski, and Tliaddcus Kosciusko. 

122. (a) Burgoyne's purpose was to force his way 
from Canada to New York, and thus cut off New Eng- 
land from the other colonies. (6) His force consisted 
of 10,000 regulars, Canadians and Indians. 

123. By the two battles of Saratoga, Sept. 19 and 
Oct. 7, 1777, in the latter of which he was so com- 
pletely worsted that he was compelled to surrender his 
entire army. 

124. Generals Schuyler, Gates, Lincoln, Arnold, 
Morgan, Stark, and Kosciusko. 

125. June 20, 1782. 

126. While Washington was encamped at Valley 
Forge, using every means to keep the army together, 
through that long, gloomy winter, intrigues were on foot 
to supersede him in command by friends of Gates, whose 
brilliant success was contrasted with the late reverses 
of Washington. These were principally conducted by 
one General Conway. So great was the indignation 
upon this becoming known that the instigators were 
ashamed to acknowledge the part they had taken in 
the intrigue. 

127. In a letter written by Washington at Valley 
Forge, he says: " Without arrogance, or the smallest 
deviation from truth, it may be said that no history, 
now extant, can furnish an instance of an army suffer- 
ing such hardships as ours has done, bearing them with 
the same patience and fortitude." 



216 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS OX U. S. HISTORY. 

128. The untiring exertions of Benjamin Franklin 
and the surrender of Burgoyne. 

129. Without the assistance of France in money, 
ships, and troops, it is scarcely probable that the colo- 
nies would have succeeded without a struggle greatly 
prolonged. 

130. Princeton, Bennington, Brandywine, Saratoga, 
Germantown. 

131. (ff) In 1775, and in each year following till 
1780, Congress issued bills of credit, called continen- 
tal money, till the amount reached $200,000,000. (5) 
For want of confidence of the people in the redemp- 
tion of these bills, and the flooding of the country 
with counterfeits by the British, this money depreci- 
ated in value till 1 100 in bills were worth but a dollar 
in specie. 

132. Marion, Sumter, Pickens, Lee and Hayne. 

133. (a) Indebtedness and disgrace caused by ex- 
travagance, dissipation, and gambling, and charges re- 
sulting in a reprimand by Washington, inflamed him 
to resentment. (5) While it temporarily grieved the 
Americans and caused apprehensions of more serious 
results, it united the army and people in a more vigor- 
ous effort in expelling the British, (c) His reward 
was £6,315, a colonelcy in the English army, and the 
contempt of everybody. 

13-4. ((/) The revolt of the Pennsjdvania and New 
Jersey troops on account of non-payment for service 
and insufiicient supplies and clothing. (6) Agents of 
Sir Henry Clinton offered the mutineers large rewards 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 217 

to join the British army ; but while they were in revolt, 
they were not traitors ; they arrested the emissaries 
and gave them up as spies. 

135. Battle of Monmouth, arrival of the French 
fleet, capture of Savannah by the British. 

136. Stony Point, PaulJones's Naval battle, repulse 
of the Americans and French at Savannah. 

137. Robert Morris of Pennsylvania. 

138. He never gained a decided victory, but his de- 
feats had all the effect of success. Again, it is to be 
noticed that the British retreated after each victory 
they claimed, and only pursued the Americans after 
their defeat by Morgan at the Cowpens. 

139. Surrender of Charleston to the British, battles 
of Hanging Rock, Camden, and King's Mountain. 

140. Battle of the Cowpens, Greene's Retreat, bat- 
tles of Guilford C<':>urt House, and Eutaw Springs, and 
Surrender of Cornwallis, Oct. 19, 1781. 

141. (ff) By the treaty of Paris, September 3, 
1783. (b) John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John 
Jay, Henry Laurens, and Thomas Jefferson, though 
the latter did not serve. 

142. Many of the officers at the close of the Revo- 
lution, doubted the ability of the people to form an 
efficient government ; and many and urgent were the 
proposals made to Washington that a monarchy be es- 
tablished and he accept the crown. Washington indig- 
nantly repelled the offer. 

143. (a) The "Articles of Confederation " consti- 
tuted the bond of union of the States which declared 



218 AXSWEBS TO QCESTIO.VS OS U. S. HISTORY. 

themselves independent of Great Britain, (b) They 
were adopted by Congress, November 15, 1777. (c) 
Ac<x»rdingto their own provisions they were not bind- 
ing until ratified by all the States, which did not occur 
till iLirch 1, 1781. (d) By these articles Congress 
had power to declare war and contract debts, but could 
not rai^e a dollar by taxation. It could advise all 
things, but could enforce nothing. 

l-i-l:. The manifest failure of the Articles of Con. 
federation, the deranged condition of the finances of 
the country, and the numerous controversies verging 
ujwn oi>en hostilities between several of the States, con- 
vinced the people that immediate steps must be taken 
to revise the bond by which the States were united. 
After several attempts to secure a meeting of represen- 
tatives from the several States, on May 25, 1787, the 
delegates present organized by electing George Wash- 
ington president of the Convention, and proceeded at 
once to the work in hand. The idea of revision was 
early abandoned ; and after a deliberation of four 
months and three days, the Constitution as we have it 
to-day, except the Amendments and the manner of 
electing the President, was published to the people. 

145. («) Federalists and Anti-Federalists. (A) 
The Federalists favored the Constitution and sought to 
increase the jwwers of the national government, and 
thus strengthen the Union at home and abroad. The 
Anti-FederaUsts opposed the Constitution on the 
ground that it gave too much authority to Congress, 
thus weakening the power of the States and might 



ANSWKUS TO QIJ[:STI()\S O.V IL H. IIISTOIIV. 219 

altiiii.'itely lead to the cslahlislimciit of a nioiiarcliy. 
(c) Alexander ILunilton, .loliii Jay, and James Madi- 
son W(!re among tlic most prominent advoeates of tlie 
CoJistitution. 

146. (a) Mareli 4, 1781). (h) Xortli Cai-olinn and 
Rhode Island, (c) George Wasiiington, by a unani- 
mous vote. 

147. The change of occupation, associations and 
general practice of the people produced a greatcsr 
looseness in morals and manners. Ttiat high sense of 
integrity which had existed before the war, gave place 
to more slippery notions of honesty and honor. The 
atheistical philosophy, which was preparing the way 
for the horrors of the French revolution, spread over 
the country and threatened to wreck the religious sen- 
timents of the people. Commerce was entirely ne- 
glected, but cut off from for(Mgn supply, the people 
were compelled to look to their own ing(;nuity for the 
manufacture of those articles needed in the struggle, 
and for the usual avocations of life. 

148. Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State (then 
styled Secretary of Foreign Affairs); Henry Knox, 
Secretary of War; Alexander Kamilton, Secretary of 
the Treasury; and Edmund Kandolph, Attorney 
General. 

141>. The treasury was empty and tlu; government 
without credit. The fi-ontier was ravaged by hostile 
Indians. Spain refused tlie navigation of the Missis- 
sippi, and P^ngland ignored all commercial treaties thus 
far proposed. 



220 ANSAVERS TO QUESTIONS ON TJ. S. HISTORY. 

150. (a) Hamilton proposed the payment of the 
national debt, foreign and domestic, and the assump- 
tion of the State debts contracted during the war. 
(b) These measures at once gave confidence in the 
stability and integrity of the government. 

151. At the second session of Congress an act was 
passed fixing the seat of government after the year 
1800 on the Potomac River. In accordance with this 
act, Maryland and Virginia ceded to the U. S. a tract 
of land 10 miles square which was termed the " Dis- 
trict of Columbia." The City of Washington was 
founded on the Maryland side in 1792, Washington 
himself laid the cornerstone of the capitol. The Vir- 
ginia portion, containing forty square miles, was re- 
ceded to that State in 1846. 

152. (a) The Eepublican and Federalist parties. 
(b) Thomas Jefferson and Edmund Randolph were the 
the leaders of the Republican party, Alexander Ham- 
ilton and John Adams of the Federalists. 

153. A majority of the people, grateful for the aid 
of France in the American Revolution, fervently de- 
sired the success of the French Republic. The Presi- 
dent considering the true policy of this country was 
non-interference in the affairs of Europe, issued a 
proclamation of neutrality. 

154. (a) The Alien and Sedition laws passed in 
1798. (b) The Alien law authorized the President to 
order any alien, whom he should judge dangerous to 
the United States, to leave the country. Under the 
Sedition law, any person could be punished, by fine 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 221 

or imprisonment, for speaking, writing, or publishing 
anything false or malicious against the government, 
the President, or Congress. 

155. The legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky, in 
response to the passage of the Alien and Sedition laws, 
asserted that a State had a right to judge for itself 
how far the national authority should be considered 
binding. 

156. Louisiana was purchased from France in 1803 
for fifteen million dollars. 

157. In August, 1807, by Robert Fulton, who made 
the voyage from New York to Albany in the first 
steamboat, the Clermont. 

158. The aggressions committed by British cruisers 
in executing the " Orders in Council,'' in maintaining 
the right of search for alleged British subjects, and the 
impressment of American seamen, often taken from 
American vessels. 

159. (a) The country was poorly prepared for 
war. The army numbered but ten thousand men, 
while to contend with the formidable naval power of 
England, which included a thousand vessels, we could 
boast but ten frigates and a few old worthless gunboats. 
{b) The Federalists. 

160. To invade and conquer Canada. 

161. The general result of the military expeditions 
into Canada was disastrous to the Americans, while the 
naval engagements were almost without exception suc- 
cessful. 



222 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

162. The Army of the West, under General Har- 
rison, for the recovery of Michigan ; the Army of the 
Center, under General Dearborn,* for the invasion of 
Canada by the way of Niagara River, and the Army 
of the North, under General Wade Hampden^ for the 
protection of the northern frontier and ultimate 
cooperation with the other armies in the invasion of 
Canada. 

163. Though New England generally opposed the 
War of 1812, Massachusetts took the lead, considering 
it ruinous to the interests of the country, wrong in its 
origin, and in its progress, characterized by the gross- 
est mismanagement. 

164. («) A convention of delegates from most of 
the New England States, which met at Hartford, Ct., 
Dec. 15, 1814. (b) The object was to consider the 
condition of the States represented with reference to 
the prosecution of the war. (c) Beyond the recom- 
mendation of several amendments nothing was done. 

165. Perry's Victory, battles of the Thames, 
Lundy's Lane, Plattsburg, and New Orleans. 

166. By the treaty of Ghent, Dec. 24, 1814. 

167. While the terms of the treaty left the questions 
of the war unsettled, the claims of England were 
never renewed. The United States gained the respect 
of European nations and at once took her place among 
the leading powers of the world. 

168. Restoration of the public credit ; war with the 
Indians in the Northwest Territory; Jay's Treaty; 



Answers to questions on u. s. history. 223 

admission to the Union of Vermont, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee ; and the invention of the cotton gin. 

169. Hostilities with France, death of Washington, 
and removal of the national capital to Washington. 

170. The Federalist party had become so weakened 
by its opposition to the War of 1812, that Monroe, 
the Republican candidate, was elected almost unani- 
mously. 

171. (a) The Whig party succeeded the Federalist; 
while the Republican party became known as the 
Democratic party. (6) The Whigs advocated a pro- 
tective tariff and a general system of internal im- 
provements; the Democrats opposed these. 

172. The Seminole war; the purchase of Florida ; 
the admission of Mississippi, lUinois, Alabama, Maine, 
and Missouri into the Union ; adoption of the "Mis- 
souri Compromise " and La Fayette's visit. 

173. First ship built in New England — the " Bless- 
ing of the Bay," July 4, 1631 ; the Declaration of In- 
dependence, July 4, 1776; death of Adams and Jeffer- 
son, July 4, 1826 ; death of James Monroe, July 4, 
1831 ; surrender of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863. 

174. Pending the admission of Missouri, violent 
debate arose on the question whether it should be a 
free or a slave State. It was finally agreed in 1820 
that Missouri might come in as a slave State, but that 
slavery should be prohibited in all territory, belonging 
to the United States, west of the Mississippi, and 
north of parallel 36° 30'. 



224 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

175. In 1819, the American Government agreeing 
to pay to citizens of the United States five million 
dollars, due them from Spain, and give up all claim to 
the present State of Texas. 

176. In President Monroe's annual message, in 
1823, alluding to the South American colonies, re- 
cently recognized as sovereign powers, he declared 
that " the American continents, by the free and inde- 
pendent position which they have assumed and main- 
tained, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects 
for future colonization by any European powers." 

177. Four candidates were in the field, and no one 
receiving a majority of the electoral vote, John Q. 
Adams was elected by the House of Representatives. 

178. Both were early enlistled in their country's 
cause. Both were bold, ardent, unyielding patriots. 
They were both members of the committee appointed 
to prepare the Declaration of Independence, and they 
formed the sub-committee appointed by the other 
members to make the draft of it. While Jefferson 
was the author of the Declaration, Adams was its great 
advocate on the floor of Congress. Both had been 
ministers abroad, both vice-presidents, and both 
presidents, and both died on July 4, 1826 

179. For unprecedented internal improvements. 
During Mr. Adams's presidency the Erie Canal was 
opened, in 1827 the first railroad was completed in 
Quincy, Mass.; though steam locomotives were not 
used till 1829. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 225 

180. The removal of officials belonging to an oppo- 
site party and appointing political adherents. 

181. France had acknowledged the claim of the 
United States to five million dollars, but refusing to 
make the payment, President Jackson proposed that 
reprisals should be made upon the French property 
until the claim was paid. 

182. In 1832. 

183 The political leaders of South Carolina, chief 
of whom were Eobert Y. Hayne, senator from that 
State, and John C. Calhoun, then vice-president, held 
that it is the right of a State to determine for itself 
how far it would yield obedience to the laws of the 
United States. South Carolina asserting the principle 
of a protective tariff to be unjust and unconstitutional, 
called a convention, which, November 24, 1832, passed 
an ordinance of nullification, declaring the tariff laws 
null and void. Preparations were made to resist the 
enforcement of these laws in that State, but the 
prompt action of the President, and a compromise 
tariff passed by Congress, averted the threatened 
calamity. 

18-1. 1st. The flooding of the country with a large 
amount of paper currency by the banks holding the 
public funds, thus favoring an unwarrantable spirit of 
speculation. 2nd. The withdrawal of the surplus 
public funds from the banks to be distributed among 
the States, causing a sudden contraction of the specie 
circulation from the inability of the banks to meet the 
demand. 3rd. The President's specie circular, order- 

15 



226 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

ing payment for public lands to be made in gold and 
silver. 4th. Heavy importations, requiring payment 
in gold. 

185. In 1842, by Daniel Webster and Lord Ash- 
burton. 

186. In vetoing the measures of the party which 
had elected him to office. 

187. 1st. That Texas should adopt a constitution, 
and lay it before Congress on or before January 1, 
1846. 2nd. That all mines, minerals, fortifications, 
arms, navy, etc., should be ceded to the United Scates. 
3rd. That new States might hereafter be formed out 
of said territory. 

188. First, an unwillingness to involve the country 
in a war with Mexico, owing to unsettled disputes 
regarding the boundary of Texas ; and, second, anti- 
slavery men opposed its annexation on the ground 
that Texas being slave territory, its admission would 
extend the area of slavery. 

189. (a) The United States founded their claim to 
Oregon upon the expeditions and explorations of Cap- 
tain Gray, in 1792, and Lewis and Clark in 1804-5, 
and on the purchase from Spain of her rights to that 
territory. The English based their claim upon the 
operation of British fur companies within the terri- 
tory, (b) The present boundary Avas established by 
treaty in 1846. 

190. (a) The annexation of Texas, (b) By an 
action in which Captain Thornton, with some fifty dra- 
goons, was captured, April 26, 1846, though war wa§ 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 227 

not formally declared till May 11. (c) Till February 
2, 1848. (d) By the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 
(e) The United States gained a vast territory, extend- 
ing south to the Gila Eiver and west to the Pacific, 
and agreed to pay Mexico fifteen million dollars, and 
to assume her debts due to American citizens to the 
amount of three million more. 

191. All the important battles. 

192. (a) 1st. The people of the slave States con- 
tended that the territory acquired by the blood and trea- 
sure of the whole Union from Mexico should be open to 
slaveholders with their slaves as well as with their 
other property. 2nd. California asked admission as a 
free State, although a portion of her territory lay 
south of the proposed line of compromise in which 
slavery should be permitted. 3rd. Petitions were 
pouring in from the north praying for the abolition of 
slavery in the District of Columbia. 4th. The south 
was greatly exasperated by the assistance rendered 
fugitive slaves to escape. 5th. Texas set up a claim 
to a part of the acquired territory, which if allowed, 
would extend slavery to the region claimed, (b) By 
the passage of the Omnibus Bill. 

193. 1st. California was to be admitted as a free 
State. 2nd. Utah and New Mexico were to be formed 
as territories without any provision concerning slavery. 
3rd. Texas was to be paid ten million dollars to give up 
her claim on New Mexico. 4th. The slave trade was 
to be abolished in the District of Columbia. 5th. A 
Fugitive Slave Law was to be enacted providing for 



228 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

the return to their owners of slaves escaping to a free 
State. 

1D4. (a) The Kansas-Nebraska Bill provided for 
the organization of two territories — Kansas and 
Nebraska, in which the question whether they should 
be free or slave, should be determined in each territory 
by its inhabitants, (b) Its author was Stephen A. 
Douglas, (c) Its legal effect was the repeal of the 
Missouri Compromise, (d) Its political effect was 
the most bitter sectional strife the country had known. 

195. The rescinding of the Missouri Compromise, 
by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill in May, 
1855. 

196. (1.) The Federalists. (2.) Eepublicans. 
(3.) Democrats. (4.) Whigs. (5.) Free Soilers. 
(6.) Republicans (opposed to the extension of 
slavery). (7.) Americans or Know-Nothings. (8.) 
Constitutional Union Party. ( 9. ) Liberal Republicans. 
(10.) National Greenbackers. (11.) Prohibitionists. 

197. The repeal of the Missouri Compromise, civil 
war in Kansas, and treaty with Japan. 

198. (a) Dred Scott and his wife were slaves 
belonging to a United States army surgeon, who took 
them into Illinois and afterwards to United States 
territory north of the Missouri Compromise line. 
Claiming their freedom on the ground that they had 
been carried into free territory by their master, the 
United States Supreme Court, in 1857, through Chief- 
Justice Taney, declared that slave-owners might take 
their slaves into any State of the Union without for- 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 229 

feiting authority over thera. (b) At the north it 
produced great indignation, the effect being it was 
considered, the removal of the last barrier to the leo-al 
extension of slavery throughout the country. The 
people of the south regarded it as only a right guaran- 
teed them by the Constitution. 

199. The southern leaders declared after the election 
of j\Ir. Lincoln that he was a sectional candidate, 
pledged to the overthrow of slavery, and assuming the 
right of secession, declared that its exercise was nec- 
essary to protect them from aggression on the part of 
the Federal Government. 

200. South Carolina, Mississippi, Florma, Alabama, 
Georgia, Louisiana and Texas, organized the govern- 
ment; Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North 
Carolina, entered the confederation later in the spring. 

201. (a) April 14, 18G1, by the capture of Fort 
Sumter, by the Secessionists, (b) April 2(), 1865, 
by the surrender of Johnston's army to Sherman, 
though the rebel forces west of the Mississippi did not 
surrender till May 26. 

202. Their interest in the cotton product of the 
South, together with their jealousy of the growing 
power of United States, caused them to accord to the 
Southern Confederacy the rights of belligerents, and 
to furnish them aid in the way of arms and money. 

203. With the exception of the victories of the 
Union army in West Virginia, the occupancy of Mis- 
souri by Union forces, and the capture of Hatteras 
Inlet, North Carolina, and the forts at Port Eoyal 



230 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

Entrance, South Carolina, by the Union navy and 
army, the military advantage was entirely with the 
Confederates. 

204. 1st. To confine the military operations within 
the Confederate States. 2nd, To enforce the block- 
ade of the Southern ports. 3rd. To open the Mis- 
sissippi River. 4th. To capture Richmond, the 
Confederate capital. 

205. The result of the battle of Bull Run convinced 
the Northern people that the preservation of the Union 
could be accomplished only by the most gigantic 
struggle. After this battle extraordinary efforts, 
extreme measures and unflinching determination char- 
acterized every act of the people, the government and 
the army till the great work was completed. 

206. The Union victories of 18G2 were Fort Donel- 
son. Pea Ridge, Shiloh, Antietam, lukaand Murfrees- 
boro; the principal Confederate victories were the 
Seven-Days' battles before Richmond, Second Battle 
of Bull Run, Cedar Mountain and Fredricksburg. 

207. The Union army numbered about 700,000 
men, while that of the Confederate was about half this 
number. 

208. (a) January 1, 1863, by President Lincoln. 
(6) It included all slaves in the insurgent States 
except such parts of Louisiana and Virginia as were 
under national authority, (c) As the legitimate 
issue of the rebellion. 

209. (a) Two. (b) The first was checked by the 
battle of Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862 ; the second by the 
battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 2, and 3, 1863. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 231 

210. (a) July 1, 2, 3, and 4, 1803. (/>) The battle 
of Gettysburg and surrender of Vieksburg, July 4, by 
which the Confederates lost in killed, wounded, and 
prisoners, 60,000 men. 

211. Chickaniaujra and Chancellorsville. 

212. To divide the Confederacy and ultimately to 
co()pcrnte in the attack on Richmond from the South. 

213. 1st. Ignorance of the real intentions of the 
Southern leaders. 2nd. Absence of any definite 
preparation in the beginning. 3rd. Want of sufficient 
number of trained officers. 4th The prudence, tact, 
and military skill of the Confederate officers and valor 
of the Southern soldiers, 5th. The need of a com- 
manding officer for the first three years, regulating the 
movements of the different armies for the accom- 
plishment of a definite purpose. 

214. The capture of Port Eoyal Entrance, the bat- 
tle between the Monitor and the Merrimac, the de- 
struction of the Alabama by the Kearsarge, and the 
capture of the forts in Mobile Bay by Farragut. 

215. Irwin McDowell, George B. McClellan, John 
Pope, Ambrose E. Burnside, Joseph Hooker, George 
G. Meade, and U. S. Grant. 

216. While thousands of men were fighting for the 
preservation of the Union in the national armies, there 
were many in the North who sympathized with the 
Southern insurgents. These, with emissaries from the 
South, too cowardly to enter the ranks, sought every 
opportunity to thwart the effoi-ts of the government in 
subduing the rebellion. During the draft for troops 



232 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

in New York and elsewhere, forcible resistance was at- 
tempted resulting in terrible riots, causing the destruc- 
tion of millions of property and many lives. 

217. 2,690,000 men. 

218. (a) May 1, 1865, when the number under 
arms was 1,000,000 men. (b) The daily expense at 
this time was $3,500,000 per day. 

219. Including pensions up to 1883, the amount was 
not far from $4,000,000,000. 

220. The North emerged from the war richer and 
stronger than ever before ; while the South was re- 
duced to poverty and greatly diminished in numbers. 

221. 1st. By a system of internal revenue, as taxes 
on incomes, manufactures, etc. 2nd. By the issuing 
of $500,000,000 treasury notes as a circulating medium. 
3rd. By loans of various forms, for which the bonds 
of the U. S. were given. 

222. B}'- the 13th Amendment, declared adopted by 
the States as a part of the Constitution, December 18, 
1865. 

223. 1st. Equal civil rights shall be guaranteed to 
all, without regard to race or color. 2nd. Keprcsen- 
tation in each State shall be in proportion to the number 
of voters. 3rd. No man who broke his civil oath to 
eno-aire in rebellion shall hold office, or vote for presi- 
dent till permitted by special act of Congress. 4th. 
The national debt, including bounties and pensions to 
soldiers, shall be held inviolable. 5th. The rebel 
debt shall be held illegal and void. 6th. No compen- 
sation shall be allowed for emancipated slaves. 



ANS^^^:RS to questions on u. s. history. 233 

224. By general amnesty and pardon. 

225. By military governors appointed by the Presi- 
dent, because, according to the plan of reconstruction, 
their own State governments were declared merely 
provisional. 

226. Troubles growing out of the difference of 
opinion between President Johnson and Congress re- 
specting the " readmission of the seceded States," 
occasioned much bitterness of feeling between Johnson 
and that body. No less than seventeen bills submitted 
for the President's signature, were returned with his 
veto — most of which were afterwards passed by the 
requisite two-thirds majority of both houses. Finally, 
upon the President's removing Mr. Stanton, Secre- 
tary of War, without concurrence of the Senate, the 
House of Representatives by a vote of 126 to 47 im- 
peached Andrew Johnson, President of the United 
States, of high crimes and misdemeanors in office. 
The President was acquitted, but only by one vote. 

227. The American government claimed reparation 
from the English government for depredations com- 
mitted by the Alabama and other English-built-and- 
manned privateers during the Civil War. The refusal 
of the English government to pay the damages caused 
by these vessels, produced much bitter feeling, and 
even threatened war. A tribunal consisting of five 
arbitrators from different nations, acting under the 
provisions of the treaty of Washington, met in Geneva, 
Switzerland, and on Sept. 14, 1872, awarded the sum 
of 15V2 million dollars in gold to be paid by Great 



234 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 

Britain to the United States, for the satisfaction of all 
the claims " known as the Alabama claims." 

228. Both parties claiming the victory, Congress 
agreed to refer the contest to a joint electoral commis- 
sion, composed of five senators, five representatives, 
and five judges of the Supreme Court This commis- 
sion decided that 185 electoral votes had been cast for 
Hayes and Wheeler, and 184forTilden and Hendricks. 

229. John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Martin 
Van Buren. 

230. Harrison, Taylor, Lincoln, and Garfield. 
231. 

Presidents. Parly. 

George Washington Federal, 

John Adams " 

Thomas Jefferson Republican 

James Madison " 

James Monroe " 

John Quinc}' Adams Whig, 

Andrew Jackson Democrat, 

Martin Van Buren " 

William H. Harrison Whig, 

John Tyler « 

James K. Polk Democrat, 

Zo chary Taylor Whig 

Millard Fillmore " 

Franklin Pierce Democrat, 

James Buchanan " 

Abraham Lincoln Republican, 

Andrew Johnson " 

U.S.Grant '« 

R.B.Hayes «< 

James A Garfleld " 

Chester A Arthur " 

Grover Cleveland Democrat, 



Inaugurated. 

1789 


Tears 

in office. 

8 


1797 


4 


1801 


8 


1809 


8 


1817 


8 


1825 


4 


1829 


8 


1837 


4 


1841 
1841 
1845 


Vl2 

4 


1849 


I'/s 


1850 
1853 


273 

4 


1857 


4 


1861 


4^8 


18G5 
1869 


3V8 

8 


1877 


4 


1881 
1881 
1884 


6V2 nios. 

3V2 y- 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 235 

232. (a) In 1792, by Eli Whitney. (5) By its in- 
vention, the annual production of cotton in the Southern 
States was increased from five thousand to over five 
million bales, a quantity equal in value to seven-eighths 
of all the cotton produced on the globe. By this won- 
derful increase in the civilized world's commodity, 
" Cotton became king," and slavery, his scepter, with 
which he sought to rule the world. Without this in- 
vention the South would never have attained its present 
agricultural importance, and slavery, for the want of 
profitable continuance, would not have lingered on our 
continent till its baleful influence drenched the country 
with the people's blood. 

233. Washington, Jackson, Harrison, Taylor and 
Grant. 

234. For the first blood shed in the Revolution and 
in the Great Civil War. 

235. The Commissioner of Agriculture. 

236. In 1(500, at Vinccnnes, as a trading post by the 
French. 

237. General Lyon, August 10, 1861 ; Generals Stev- 
ens and Kearney, September 1, 18G2 ; Colonel Dahl- 
gren, February, 1864 ; General Sedgwick, May 9, 1864, 

238. (rt) A protective tariff is a duty imposed on 
imported goods for the purpose of encouraging their 
manufacture at home. Free trade means no duty what- 
ever, or a light duty for revenue only, (h) Tlie North 
has generally favored a protective tariff, the South free 
trade, (c) Clay, Webster and Calhoun (during his 
earlier career), (d) Calhoun, Benton, and Hayne. 



236 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. ^ 

239. Abraham Lincoln, Republican party; Stephen 
A. Douglas, the northern wing of the Democratic par- 
ty; John C. Breckenriclge, the pro-slavery Demo- 
cratic party ; John Bell, the Constitutional Union 
party. 

240. (a) In 1755, at St. Genevieve, by the French. 
(b) April 8, 1812. (c) August 10, 1821. 

241. In 1769 at San Diego. 

242. Revolutionary war; war with Indians in north- 
west Territory, 1793—4; war with Tripoli, 1801— 5 ; 
second war with Great Britain 1812 — 14 ; war with the 
Creeks, 1811—14 ; war with Algiers, 1815 ; Black Hawk 
War, 1832; Seminole ^Yar, 1835—37 : war with Mexi- 
co, 1846—8; the Civil War, 1861—5; the war with the 
Sioux, 1862, and again in 1877. 

243. (a) By conquest, purchase, annexation, ex- 
ploration, and occupancy. (6) By conquest: the orig- 
inal territory from England ; partly by conquest and 
partly by purchase: California, Nevada, etc., from 
Mexico ; by annexation : Texas from Texas ; by ex- 
ploration and occupancy : Oregon ; by purchase : Louis- 
iana, from France, Florida from Spain; Gadsen tract, 
from Mexico, Alaska from Russia. 

244. Bancroft's History, Webster's and Worcester's 
Dictionaries. 

245 They were required to rescind their ordinances 
of secession, declare void all debts contracted in sup- 
port of the Rebellion, and vote to adopt an amendment 
to the Constitution abolishing slavery. 



. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 237 

246. In Massachusetts, Bunker Hill; in New York, 
Saratoga; in Pennsylvania, Gettysburg; in Maryland, 
Antietam; in Virginia, Yorktown; in Tennessee, 
Nashville, and Murf reesboro ; in Georgia, battles 
before Atlanta ; in Mississippi, battles in vicinity of 
Vicksburg ; in Arkansas, Pea Ridge; in Kentucky, 
Perry ville. 

247. General George H. Thomas. 

248. (a) Four; viz., 1857, 1858, 1865, and accom- 
plished in 1866. (6) Cyrus W. Field. 

249. 1st. The Articles of Confederation constituted 
a mere bond of union between independent States; — 
the Constitution is the expression of a people constitut- 
ing and establishing themselves an independent and 
indivisible nation. 2nd. The power of Congress, 
under the articles of Confederation was only delegated 
power, the States reserving the sovereignty to them- 
selves; — the power of Congress, under the Constitu- 
tion comes direct from the people. 3rd. Under the 
Articles of Confederation, Congress could merely 
I'econwiend, leaving the sovereign States to act as their 
^ocaHnterests might dictate; — under the Constitution, 
Congress, representing the will of the people, author- 
izes, and the executive enforces. 4th. Congress, under 
the Articles of Confederation, could apportion the 
general debt among the States, and reco^nmend that 
each pay its just share; — under the Constitution, 
the national debt is paid by appropriations from the 
national treasury. 



238 ans^\t:rs to questions on u. s. history. 

250. During King William's War Massachusetts 
issued bills of credit to pay the expense of Governor 
Phipp's expedition against Canada. 

251. Three orators: Patrick Henry, Clay and Web- 
ster; statesmen: Hamilton, Madison and W. H. 
Seward; poets: Longfellow, Bryant, and Whittier ; 
historians : Bancroft, Prescott, and Motley; novelists: 
Cooper, Irving, and Hawthorne ; inventors : Ell 
Whitnej'-, Morse, and Edison. 

252. John Hancock, John Adams, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Kobert Morris, Eoger Sherman, Thomas Jefferson, 
Eldridge Gerry, Richard Henry Lee, Charles Carroll, 
Samuel Adams. 

253. The rank of General has been held by U. 
S. Grant and W. T. Sherman; Lt. General by 
Washington, Grant, Sherman, and Sheridan, — Scott, 
by brevet. 

254. Under the Articles of Confederation no such 
officer was provided as President. The Constitution, 
which succeeded the Articles of Confederation, was 
completed by the convention, September 17, 1787, but 
owing to the delay in its ratification by the requisite 
number [9] of States, it did not go into effect until 
March 4, 1789 ; during the interim both executive and 
legislative powers were exercised by Congress. 

255. The purchase of Alaska, the Centennial Cele- 
bration, settlement of the fishery dispute, the rail- 
road riots, and the assassination of President Gar- 
field. 



ANS^VERS TO QUESTIONS ON U. S. HISTORY. 239 

25G. November 15, 1883, the United States Supreme 
Court decided that the first and second sections of the 
Act of Congress of March 1, 1877, entitled "An act 
to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights " 
were unconstitutional. These acts refer to granting 
colored persons equal accommodations in hotels, rail- 
road cars, and theatres. 



QUESTIONS ON CIVrL GOVERNMENT. 

1. Define government as applied to communities. 

2. What does tlie term nation in a political sense 
mean? 

3. What should be the chief object of every govern- 
ment? 

4. (a) Name the various forms of government 
known to history, (b) State which of these are now 
in existence. 

5. (a) Explain what is meant by a republican form 
of government, (b) Give five examples. 

6. What term defines the government of the U. S. ? 

7. What analogy exists between the government of 
the U. S. and the several States? 

8. Show whether the form of government under 
which we live is " the best" for all classes. 

9. What do you mean by a written constitution? 
and how does it differ from an unwritten constitution? 

10. Whence are the laws of this country mainly de- 
rived ? 

11. By what bonds were the States united from 1775 
to 1789? 

240 



QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 241 

12. State in the fewest words possible the objec- 
tions to the Articles of Confederation. 

13. Write correctly the Preamble to the Constitu- 
tion . 

14. Which of the several objects set forth in the 
Preamble do you regard the most important? Give 
your reason. 

15. What is the Congress of the U. S. ? and of what 
does it consist? 

16. (a) How often, and when, does Congress as- 
semble? (6) What is the constitutional term of its 
existence ? (c) What do you mean by the forty-fourth 
Congress ? 

17. («) What is the House of Representatives? 
(h) Of how many composed (1884)? (c) Why are 
the members called Representatives ? (cZ) Eligibility ? 
(e) What is the basis of representation (1884)? 

18. What is the constitutional definition of a citizen? 

19. Where and for what purpose does the word 
slavery occur in the Constitution ? 

20. («) What is the principal object in taking the 
census? (b) How often taken? (c) Name some 
other facts obtained by the census than population. 

21. Define the following terms used in the Constitu- 
tion: electors; oath ; affirmation ; judgment. 

22. State what bills must originate in the House of 
Representatives, and why. 

23. Under what circumstances does the House of 
Representatives elect the President? How many times, 
and when did this occur? 

16 



242 QUESTIONS ox CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 

24. How is the U. S. Senate composed? 

25. What are the conditions of eligibility to the U. 
S. Senate? 

26. By whom and for what term are Senators chosen ? 

27. Is the President of the Senate pro tempore, when 
the Vice-President has succeeded to the presidency, 
Vice-President of the U. S, ? Give your reason. 

28. When does the Chief Justice preside over the 
Senate ? 

29. AVhat is impeachment? By whom made? By 
whom tried? 

30. What is an executive session of the Senate? 
Why so called, and what business is transacted at such 
session, and in what manner? 

31. (ff)When is the Vice-President of the U. S. 
elected by the Senate? (h) When has such an elec- 
tion occurred? 

32. What punishment under the Constitution may 
follow conviction, on impeachment, by the Senate? 

33. What constitutes a quorum in Congress? 

34. Name the objects in taking the vote by yeas and 
nays in the U. S. Congress. 

35. On what does the duration of Congress depend? 

36. What is a bill as used in the Constitution? 

37. (a) By how many processes may a bill become 
a law? (J)) Give the several steps of each process. 

38. (a) Is the veto power of the President quali- 
fied or absolute? (6) State what you can respecting 
the exercise of this power by the different Presidents. 

39. Give an explanation of a writ of habeas corpus. 



QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 243 

40. When, why, and by whom may the writ of 
habeas corpus be suspended ? 

41. Why are export duties from States prohibited? 

42. What is the object of the provision restricting 
the disbursement of public money ? 

43. State why army appropriations cannot extend 
beyond two years. 

44. State clearly what is meant by a bill of attainder. 

45. What is an cx-^9os^-/rtc^o law? 

46. Who declares the punishment of treason? To 
whom is the punishment limited ? 

47. Why does the Constitution in the 14th Amend- 
ment prohibit the payment of certain debts ? 

48. Give a comprehensive definition of civil liberty. 

49. What Constitutional provisions are made for 
the exercise of religious freedom? 

50. What personal rights of speech, freedom of the 
press and right of petition are guaranteed by the Con- 
stitution ? 

51. State a reason why the Senate suffrage can 
never by changed by Constitutional amendment. 

52. Why are insurrections more liable to occur 
under our government than under a monarchy? 

53. What rights and powers are reserved to the 
respective States? 

54. What is the origin of the State obligation to the 
Federal Union ? 

55. Why are amendments equally binding on such 
States as do not ratify them as upon others? 



244 QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNIMENT. 

56. What terms of the Constitution particularly es- 
tablish the supremacy of the U. S. authority? 

57. Name the commercial powers which the States 
are forbidden to exercise. 

58. Under what circumstances would a State be jus- 
tified in raising troops without the consent of 
Congress? 

59. For what purpose are inspection laws enacted? 

60. What is the term of office of Supreme Court 



jud 



"•es 



61. What was the origin of trial by jury? 

62. What is the difference between a grand and 
petit jury? 

63. Under what conditions may a person be de- 
prived of his property ? 

6-4. How is treason against the U. S. defined? 

65. In whom is the executive power of the U. S. 
vested? 

66. What conditions of eligibility are required in 
the President? 

67. How many and what methods are provided for 
the election of President of the U.S.? 

68. Give a brief outline of the method of electing 
the President of the United States. 

69. Who would become President if the Constitu- 
tional methods prescribed failed in the election of that 
officer? 

70. State the extent of power given the President 
over pardons and reprieves. 



ANSWEE8 TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVEKNMENT. 245 

71. Define the following terms : Ambassador, 
Minister, Consul. 

72. What officers constitute the President's cabinet? 

73. Name the instances in our history in which the 
Vice-President has been called to fill the unexpired 
term of the President. 

74. What special propriety is there in prescribing 
the election of Vice-President by the Senate, in case 
the electors fail in electing that officer? 

75. In what respect do the duties of the President 
of the Senate differ from those of the Speaker of the 
House? 

76. How is the Supreme Court of the United States 
established, and how organized ? Of how many judges 
does it consist? 

77. How is a person having a claim against a State 
to obtain relief? 

78. Name the various offices and bureaus in charge 
of the Department of the Interior. 

79. Explain what is meant by " minority represen- 
tation . ' ' 

80. Name some exceptions to universal suffrage in 
the several States. 



AJJ^SWERS TO QUESTIONS ON dVTL GOVERN- 
MENT. 

1. The term government signifies the organized 
means a nation cni[)lo3S for securing the rights of the 
people and for perpetuating its own existence. 



246 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 

2. A nation is a political community, independent 
of all others, creating and changing its own constitu- 
tion and enacting its own laws without hindrance from 
any other community. 

3. The good of the governed. 

4. (a) Patriarchal, Theocratic, Monarchial, Aristo- 
cratic, Democratic, Republican, (b) Monarchial and 
Republican. 

5. (a) A Republican government is one whose laws 
are made and executed oy representatives chosen by 
voters at stated times, (b) The United States, France, 
Switzerland, Mexico, Chili. 

6. A Federal-Republican government. 

7. The National government and State governments 
have each three distinct branches or departments : the 
legislative, executive, and judicial. The President of 
the nation corresponds to the Governor of the State ; 
the vice-president of the former, to the lieutenant-gov- 
ernor of the latter. The nation has its congress, and 
the State has its legislature. The nation has its federal 
judiciary, and the States have their system of courts. 

8. It is the best for an intelligent and virtuous peo- 
ple ; but for the ignorant and depraved it is the worst 
form which could be devised, since the power is likely 
to fall into the hands of corrupt intriguers and mer- 
cenary demagogues influenced by no motive but self- 
interest, and amenable to no power save that of might. 

9. A written constitution is a written instrument 
embodying the principh^s or fundamental laws which 
govern the nation. An unwritten constitution is the 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 247 

character of a nation as implied in the institutions and 
usages of its society. 

10. From England. 

11. For the first six years, by the ties of common 
interest, without any written bond of union; after that, 
by the Articles of Confederation. 

12. They were antagonistic to the spirit, genius, 
and constitution of the people whom they were designed 
to mould into one nation. 

13. We, the people of the United States, in order 
to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure 
domestic tranquilhty, provide for the common defence, 
promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings 
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitution for the United States of 
America. 

14. The 5th, to "-^ promote the general welfare,'' be- 
cause it implies, in a general way, all the others. 

15. The law-making power of the United States. 
It consists of a Senate and a House of Eepresentatives. 

16. (a) Congress must assemble at least once every 
year, on the first Monday in December, {h) It can 
never extend beyond two years. (c) The forty- 
fourth Congress means the forty-fourth time a new 
Congress, i.e, the House of Eepresentatives has been 
organized, which must occur every alternate year. 

17. (ff) The House of Eepresentatives is the most 
numerous branch of Congress. Its members are 
elected by the people, {h) It is composed of 325 
members, which number will not be changed before 



248 ANS^\'ERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 

March, 1893. (c) Because they act, and speak, and 
vote as the agent of the people who elect them, {d) 
A Representative must have attained the age of 25 
years, must have been a citizen of the U. S. seven 
years, and must be an inhabitant of that State from 
which he is chosen, (e) From March, 1883, to March, 
1893, each State is entitled to one representative for 
every 151,912 of its inhabitants. 

18. All persons born or naturalized in the United 
States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citi- 
zens of the United States and of the State wherein 
they reside. 

19. Only in the 13th Amendment for the purpose 
of its abolition. 

20. Theapportionment of representatives. (6) Every 
ten years. The first was taken in 1790. (c) Besides 
the number of inhabitants, their ages, sex, color, and 
ability to read and write, we obtain statistics of facts 
relating to agriculture, commerce, manufacture, etc. 

21. Electors in the Constitution means voters. An 
oath is a solemn declaration made with an appeal to 
God for the truth of what is said. An affirmation is a 
solemn declaration made by one who is unwilling to 
take an oath from conscientious scruples. A judg- 
ment is a solemn determination of a fact by compe- 
tent judicial authority. 

22. "All bills for raising revenue shall originate in 
the House of Representatives," because since the peo- 
ple are to pay the taxes, if any are imposed, it is 
proper that their representatives should be the prime 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL G0\T:RNMENT. 249 

movers in any measures that require money to prose- 
cute them. 

23. When the electors shall fail to elect a President, 
in the manner prescribed, the election devolves on the 
House. This has occurred twice: the first time in 
1801, when Thomas Jefferson was elected on the thirty- 
sixth ballot; the second instance was in 1825, when 
John Quincy Adams was elected on the first ballot. 

24. The Senate is composed of two members from 
each State. 

25. A Senator must be thirty years of age, have 
been a citizen of the United States nine years, and must 
be an inhabitant of the State from which he is chosen. 

26. Senators are chosen by the Legislatures of their 
respective States for a term of six years. 

27. The President of the Senate ^ro tempore is not 
Vice-President of the United States. The Vice-Presi- 
dent is an ofiicer of the United States, and cannot be 
a member of Congress. A person may be eligible to 
the ofiice of Senator, and consequently to the position 
of President ^jro tern., though ineligible to the Vice- 
Presidency. Example : the President pro tern, might 
not be a native-born citizen. 

28. When the President is tried the Chief Justice 
presides. 

29. An impeachment is a solemn and specific accusa- 
tion brought against a public ofiicer for misconduct in 
office. The House has the sole power of preferring 
articles of impeachment. The Senate has the sole 
power to try all impeachments. 



250 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 

30. An Executive Session is a special meeting of 
Senators called for the purpose of confirming Presi- 
dential appointments or ratifying treaties. It is so 
called because in such cases tlie Senate acts on the 
recommendations of the President. The meeting is 
held with closed doors, the members being, gener- 
ally, under an injunction of secresy. 

31. (a) When the electors shall fail to elect a Vice- 
President, {b) Richard M. Johnson in 1837 was 
elected Vice-President by the Senate. 

32. 1st, Removal from office ; and, 2nd, Disqualifi- 
cation to hold and enjoy any oflace of honor, trust, or 
profit under the United States. 

33. A majority of each House. 

34. To preserve a record of the vote of each mem- 
ber on any matter voted upon. 

35. 1st. On the Constitutional limitation which can 
not extend beyond two years. 2nd. On the pleasure 
of the two Houses, subject to the foregoing restric- 
tions. 3rd. On the pleasure of the President of the 
United States, when the two Houses cannot agree on 
the time of adjournment. 

36. A bill is the draft of a proposed law. 

37. (a) Three processes. (6) First process: 1st. 
the bill shall pass both Houses of Congress. 2nd. It 
shall be presented to the President. 3rd. If he ap- 
prove it he shall sign it. 

Second Process: 1st. The bill shall pass both 
Houses. 2nd. It shall be presented to the President. 
3rd. If he disapprove it, he shall return it to that 



ANSAVERS TO QUESTIOXS ON CIVIL GOVERNIMENT. 251 

House in Avliich it originated. 4tb. That House shall 
enter his objections at large on their journal. 5th. 
They shall proceed to reconsider it; and if, after such 
reconsideration, two-thirds of the House shall agree to 
pass it, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the 
other House. 6th. The other House shall reconsider 
the bill ; and if approved by two-thirds of that House, 
it shall become a law. 

Third Process : 1st. The bill shall pass both Houses. 
2nd. It shall be sent to the President. 3rd. He neg- 
lects to approve or return it. 4th. It becomes a law 
at the end of ten days (Sundays excepted), unless 
Congress by adjournment within that time prevent its 
return. 

38. (a) The veto power of the President is only 
qualified, not absolute. In this respect it differs from 
the veto power of the British Sovereign, in whom it is 
absolute, (b) Nearly all the Presidents have exercised 
the prerogative. Tyler vetoed five bills, and John- 
son, tiventt/-one. Bills have been passed over the veto 
of but three Presidents — viz., one in the administra- 
tion of Mr. Tyler, four in that of Mr. Pierce, and 
seventeen in that of Mr. Johnson. 

39. It is a writ of relief ordering the release of any 
one imprisoned or wrongfully restrained of his lib- 
erty. If the court on inquiry decide that the person 
is justly restrained he is remanded to custody, other- 
wise he is set at liberty. 

40. The writ of habeas corpus may be suspended 
during a rebellion, when the public safety may require 



252 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GO^^RNMENT. 

it. The power of suspension belongs to Congress. 
From 1861 to 1865, Congress vested the power in the 
President. 

41. The Prohibition is to prevent taxing the inter- 
ests of any State to its detriment, and giving undue 
advantages to others. The production of the several 
States being different, the burden of taxation would 
be as unequal as the exports. 

42. To secure strict faithfulness in the public ex- 
penditures. No officer of the U. S. or of Congress 
can draw a dollar of public money except by appro- 
priations made by law. 

43. This constitutional provision was due to the 
fear that the army might become a power too formid- 
able to be consistent with the rights and liberties 
of the people. 

44. It is a special act of the legislative body, 
inflicting capital punishment on a person for high 
crimes, without having convicted him before a court 
of law. A person against whom such an act was 
passed was said to be attainted and outlawed. His 
blood became so corrupted that he could neither 
inherit from his ancestry, nor transmit by hereditary 
descent to his heirs. 

45. An ex-post-facto law is one which makes an act 
criminal which was not so when committed. 

46. Congress. The punishment is limited to the 
person convicted ; in no legal sense does it reach his 
posterity. 



ANS'VVEKS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 253 

47. These debts were incuiTed in aid of tlie rebel- 
lion against the U. S. Their repudiation is designed 
as a penalty on those who aided the rebellion by 
investing in Confederate bonds. 

48. " Civil liberty is the natural liberty of man- 
kind so far, and only so far restrained as is consistent 
with the public good." — Pliny. 

49. " No religious test shall ever be required as a 
qualification to any office or public trust under the 
United States." 

*' Congress shall make no law respecting an estab- 
lishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise 
thereof." 

60. No law shall be made " abridging the freedom 
of speech or of the press ; or the right of the people 
peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government 
for a redress of grievances." 

51. Art. V. of the Constitution provides that " No 
State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its 
equal suffrage in the Senate." 

52. On account of the greater freedom our people 
enjoy than those under other forms of government, 
that freedom is, correspondingly, more liable to be 
abused. 

53. All such rights and powers are reserved to the 
States as are not expressly, or by necessary implica- 
tion, delegated to the general government. 

54. It is based on their assent to the Constitution 
of the U. S. Having accepted the terms of the union, 
they became subordinate to the national authority. 



254 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNIMENT. 

55. Because, having entered the Union, they agreed 
to the terms upon which its Constitution might be 
amended. 

56. Sect. 2, Art. VI. : "This Constitution, and the 
laws of the United States which shall be made in pur- 
suance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall 
be made under the authority of the United States, 
shall be the supreme law of the land ; and the judges 
in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the 
Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not- 
withstanding." 

57. 1. To coin money. 2. To issue bills of credit. 
3. To make anything but gold and silver coin a tender 
in payment of debts. 4. To pass any law impairing 
the obligation of contracts 

58. Necessities for protection against invasion or 
insurrection might be so great as to render a delay 
dangerous ; in which case the State government would 
be justified in arming and equipping its own troops 
for the emergency. 

59. Inspection laws serve to maintain the standard 
and purity of articles designed for exportation and 
domestic use. 

60. During good behavior, or life. Any judge of 
the U. S. Court having held his commission ten years, 
and having attained the age of seventy years, may 
resign his office and receive the same salary during 
life which was payable to him at the time of his res- 
ignation. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CTATL GOVERNMENT. 255 

61. Trial by jury originated in England in the 9th 
century during the reign of Alfred the Great. 

62. A grand jury consists of from 12 to 23 men, 
whose duty is to make careful inquiry of offenses 
committed within the district for which they are 
chosen, and to make presentment of the same. A 
majority is required to find an indictment. A petit 
jury consists of 12 " good and lawful men," selected 
to try the offenses against which indictments are 
found, or for the trial of issues of fact. A unanimous 
vote in most States is necessary to convict. 

63. The public good may require private property 
for public roads, railroads, arsenals, forts, etc. In 
these cases private property may be taken by authority 
of law, but not without just compensation to the owner. 

64. " Treason against the United States shall con- 
sist in levying war against them, or adhering to their 
enemies, giving them aid and comfort." 

65. In the President of the United States. 

66. He must be a natural born citizen of the U. S., 
must have attained the age of 35 years, and have been 
14 years a resident within the United States. 

67. Two methods : first, by electors api)ointed for 
that purpose ; if this method fail the election devolves 
on the House of Representatives. 

68. The following are the steps taken in the election 
of President: 

1st. The electors, previously appointed, shall meet 
in their respective States on the first Wednesday in 



256 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNlViENT. 

December, and vote by distinct ballots for President 
and Vice-President. 

2nd. The votes are signed, certified, sealed, and 
addressed to the President of the Senate at the seat of 
government of the United States. 

3rd. The President of the Senate, at a joint meet- 
ing of the two Houses of Congress, called the second 
Wednesday of February, shall open the certificates, 
and the votes are counted by tellers appointed by the 
House and the Senate. 

4th. The person having the greatest number of votes 
for President, shall be President, if such number be a 
majority of the whole number of the electors appointed. 

5th. If no person have a majority of the electors 
appointed, the election of President devolves on the 
House of Representatives. 

69. The Vice-President. 

70. " He shall have power to grant reprieves and 
pardons for offenses against the United States, except 
in the cases of impeachment." 

71. An Ambassador is an officer employed by gov- 
ernment to represent, and to manage its interests, at 
the seat of government of some other government. 
A Minister has the same duties as an Ambassador, but 
is regarded as inferior in rank. A Consul is an officer 
whose duty it is to protect the rights, commerce, mer- 
chants and seamen of his government in the country 
to which he may be appointed, and to aid any com- 
mercial transactions between his own and such foreign 
country. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOYEItN.^IENT. 257 

72. Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, 
Secretary of War, Secretary of the Navy, Secretary 
of the Interior, Postmaster-General, and Attorney- 
General. 

73. 1. John Tyler succeeded WiUiam Henry Harri- 
son, who died April 4, 1841. 2. Millard Fillmore 
succeeded Zachary Taylor, who died July 9, 1850. 3. 
Andrew Johnson succeeded Abraham Lincoln, who 
wasassassinated April 14, 1865. 4. Chester A. Arthur 
succeeded James A. Garfield, who died September 19, 
1881. 

74. This provision seems to be designed as a com- 
pliment to the Senate on account of the position the 
Constitution provides for the Vice-President in the 
Senate. 

75. The Speaker of the House has the appointment 
of standing committees ; but since the President of the 
Senate is not a member of that body, he has no such 
privilege unless granted by the Senate. 

76. The supreme court of the United States is es- 
tablished by the Constitution and organized by Con- 
gress. The judges of the Supreme Court are one Chief 
Justice and eight associate justices. 

77. He may petition the Legislature for redress, un- 
less courts of claims are established for such purposes, 
in which case he may present his claim by petition or 
otherwise. 

78. The Patent Office, Census Office, Land Office, 
Bureaus of Mines, Lidian Affairs, Pensions, Educa- 
tion. 



258 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 

79. In the case of election of representatives in 
some States, each qualified voter may cast as many 
votes for one candidate as there are representatives to 
be elected, or may distribute the same, or equal parts 
thereof, among the candidates, as he shall see fit. 

80. In Connecticut and Massachusetts those who are 
unable to read an article in the Constitution are ex- 
cluded from voting. Seven States exclude paupers 
from suffrage. Georgia, Nevada, Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire make the payment of taxes a requisite 
for voting, except in certain cases. 



QUESTIONS OX BOTANY. 

1. State resemblances and differences between 
plants and animals. 

2. What is meant by the flora of a country? 

3. Explain the application of the terms species and 
genus. 

4. (^a) How are plants designated as to their term 
of life? (6) Define and give examples of the terms 
you employ. 

6. Distinguish between deciduous and evergreen 
trees, and give two illustrations of each. 

G. (a) Define germination. (6) What does it re- 
quire? 

7. Name and define the parts of the embryo. 

8. Upon what characteristic of the early growing 
plant is founded the most important subdivision of 
dowering plants? 

9. Define and apply correctly the terms endogens 
and exogens. 

10. What distinction is observed between the leaves 
of endogenous and exogenous plants? 

259 



260 QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 

11. Give a diagram-outline of the vegetable sub- 
kingdoms known as Phaenogamia and Oryplogamia. 

12. Name and locate the parts of a flower. 

13. Define the terms, 2)eria nth, androecium, gynoe- 
cium. 

14. Enumerate the attributes possessed by a typical 
flower. 

15. Explain the terms used in distinguishing the 
typical flower. 

16. How are leaves of the cahjx and corolla desig- 
nated ? 

17. AYhen is a flower said to be {a) perfect? (b) 
complete.^ (c) apelalous? (d) staminate? (e) pistil- 
late? 

18. What are glumes and pales? 

19. What is pollen ? Where found ? 

20. Define the term pericarp, and state which form 
is dehiscent and which indeliiscent. 

21. Give examples of the following: Drupe, Tryma^ 
Pome, Hef<peridium, Samara. 

22. What are the ofiices of the root? 

23. Name some of the principal forms of roots. 

24. State the difference between epiphytes and^ara- 
sites. 

25. What terms are applied to those branches tend- 
ing to produce adventitious roots? 

26. Define the terms caulis, culm, trunk. 

2.1. What peculiarity is observed with respect to the 
twinins: of different vines ? 



QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 261 

28. What distinction can you name between the 
rhizome and the creeper'^ 

29. Is the tuber a root? State your reason. 

30. What is a bulb ? Name its most common forms. 

31. How does a flower-bud differ from a leaf- 
bud? 

32. What various positions upon the plant may the 
leaf-bud occupy? 

33. Define vernation, and enumerate the various 
forms of bud folding. 

34. What are the common forms of leaf arrangement 
on the axis ? 

35. Name the parts of a complete net-veined leaf. 

36. How do leaves contribute to the nourishment of 
plants ? 

37. What is the characteristic venation of the three 
grand divisions of the vegetable kingdom ? 

38. Name and define ten of the most common forms 
of leaf -outlines. 

39. Wliat are the divisions of a compound leaf 
called? To what are they usually attached? 

40. Give the terms used to describe the margin of 
leaves. 

41. What terms are employed in describing the sur- 
face of leaves ? 

42. What is a tendril and its use? 

43. Wliat do you mean by the term metamorphosis, 
as applied to flowers ? 

44. (a) Define inflorescence. (6) Name the two 
forms. 



262 QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 

45. What is the peduncle? Pedicel? 

46. Name the principal varieties of axillary inflores- 
cence. 

47. Describe the following: umbel, spadix, panicle, 
catkin, raceme. 

48. Name the parts of the anther. 

49. Define and give an example of multiple fruits. 

50. How are plants nourished, clothed, pro- 
tected ? 

51. (a) What are cryptogams? (b) Give illustra- 
tions, (c) Where do they grow? (d) What useful 
purpose do they serve ? 

52. What is the elementary organism of the plant? 

53. Name the different forms of cells. 

54. What chemical elements compose the outer and 
secondary cell walls ? 

55. Name the contents of the vegetable cell. 

56. What is chlorophyll? 

57. (a) Of what does the growth of plants consist? 
(b) Explain the process by which this is accom- 
plished. 

58. What different forms of tissue are formed of 
cells? 

59. Describe the tissues found in vegetation. 

60. (a) What are the breathing-pores of plants? 
(b) How are these affected by moist and dry 
weather ? 

61. (a) What is the construction of vegetable 
glands? (6) What is their use? 



QUESTIONS O.V BOTANY. 263 

62. Into what foiir classes is the vegetable kingdom, 
according to modes of growth, divided? 

63. Name and locate the structural parts of Exogens. 

64. "What and where is the cambium layer? 

65. State the characteristic structure of endogenous 
plants. 

66. Upon what peculiarity of growth is based the 
distinction of Exogens and Endogens ? 

67. Describe the mode of growth in Acrogens. 

68. Name some of the lowest forms of vegetation, 
and state to what class they belong. 

69. Show wherein animal life is dependent upon the 
vegetable kingdom. 

70. Of what does the substance of plants mainly con- 
sist, and how and whence is this derived? 

71. Name the vital phenomena upon which the life of 
a plant depends ? 

72. In what respect are some plants and insects 
mutually dependent ? 

73. How are generic and specific terms in Botany 
distinguished? 

74. Ui)on what principle is the absorption of fluids 
in a direction contrary to gravitation? 

73. What fact proves the importance of a rotation of 
crops in agriculture ? 

76. Describe the upward and downward flow of the 
sap and its use in the plant economy. 

77. In what respect are plants and animals mutually 
dependent ? 



264 ANSWERS TO QUESTIOXS OX BOTA^T. 

78. Explain the principles upon which the " natural 
system " of plant classification is based. 

79. Contrast the characteristic differences between 
Dicotyledons and Monocotj'ledons. 

80. Name fruits belonging to the following orders : 
Rosacea, Saxifragaceas, Ebenacese, Artocarpaceas, 
Crassulacege. 

81. To what natural orders do the sunflower, pea, 
lettuce, parsle}', and sweet potato belong? 

82. What is the fruit of the strawberr}^ plant? 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS OX BOTAXT. 

1. Plants, like animals, are organized bodies com- 
posed of distinct parts, endowed with vitality but 
without sensation. Like animals, the presence of 
every organ is essential to completeness in plants, but 
the power of volition and perception of animals is 
absent in plants. 

2. The flora of a country is the system of vegetable 
species native in a given region or locality. 

3. The term species embraces such individual plants 
as may have originated from a common stock, bearing 
essential resemblances to each other as well as to their 
common parent. A genus is an assemblage of species 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 265 

closely related to each other in the structure of their 
flowers and fruit. 

4. (a) Annual, biennial, and perennial, (b) Ai? 
annual plant continues but one season; as, oats, corn; 
a biennial germinates and bears leaves only the first 
season, and blossoms, bears fruit and dies the second; 
as, cabbage, turnip, parsnip; a perennial continues 
many years ; as, trees and shrubs. 

5. Deciduous trees lose their foliage in autumn; as, 
oak, hickory; evergreens retain their leaves and 
verdure throughout the season; as, pines, mag- 
nolias. 

6. (a) Germination is the awakening and develop- 
ment of the embryonic plant within the seed, (b^ It 
requires warmth, moisture, air, and shade. 

7. The embryo consists of the radicle j the descend- 
ing part, forming the root; the plumule, a stem bud, 
which forms the ascending axis of the plant ; and the 
cotyledons, the seed lobes, destined to become the first 
leaves of the plant, shown in the two thick leaves of 
the bean as it emerges from the ground. 

8. The number of cotyledons; as, monocotyledons 
and dicotyledons. 

9. Endogens are plants which grow by internal 
accretions ; as, wheat, grass ; exogens are those whose 
stems grow by external accretions ; as forest trees. 

10. Endogenous plants have, in most cases, parallel 
veined leaves, while leaves of exogenous plants are 
net veined. 



266 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 



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AlSrSWT^RS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 267 

12. The floral envelopes and the essential floral or- 
gans. The floral envelopes consist of one or more 
circles of leaves surrounding the essential organs. 
The outer circle is called the calf/x; the inner, if any be 
present, is called the coroUa. Within the envelopes 
are the stamens, small thread-like orsfans varying in 
number from one to one hundred. The ^^s<^7s occupy 
the center of the flower. 

13. Perianth is used to designate both the calyx and 
corolla ; the stamens are collectively called androRcium ; 
gyncecium is used for the entire collection of pistils. 

14. The typical flower should be complete, regular, 
symmetrical, alternating, and each organ distinct. 

15. The term complete implies that the four sets of 
organs are arranged in as many concentric circles ; 
regular, that the organs of the same name are all simi- 
lar; symmetrical y t\iii.t \t has the same number of or- 
gans in each circle; alternating , that the several 
organs in each set stand not opposite to, but alternat- 
ing with the organs of the adjacent set ; distinct, that 
all organs are free from each other. 

16. The leaves of the calyx are styled sepals, those 
of the corolla, petals. 

17. (a) A flower iaperfect when it has both stamens 
and pistils. (6 ) It is complete when it has stamens, pis- 
tils, calyx, and corolla, {e) It is apetalous when the 
calyx is present without the corolla. (fZ) It is staminate 
when it has stamens without pistils, (e" It \s pistil- 
late when it has pistils without stamens. 



268 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 

18 . Glumes and pales represent the floral envelopes 
of the grasses. 

19. Pollen is the fecundating yellow dust contained 
in the cells of anthers. 

20. The pericarp is the envelope inclosing the seed. 
The fleshy pericarp, as the berry, apple, cherry, etc., 
is indehiscent ; the dry pericarp, as the pea, mustard, 
etc., is dehiscent. 

21. Drupe, — cherry, peach; Tryma, — butternut, 
hickory nut ; Pome, — apple, haw ; Hesperidium, — 
orange, lemon; Samara, — ash, maple. 

22. 1st. To support the plant in position. 2nd. To 
imbibe from the soil the food necessary to the growth 
of the plant. 

23. The principal axial forms are the ramous, fusi- 
form, napiform, and conical; the principal inaxial 
forms are fibrous, tubercular, coralline, nodulous, and 
moniliform. 

24. Epiphytes, sometimes called air-plants, are 
those whose roots are fixed upon other plants, while 
the epiphyte itself derives its nourishment wholly from 
the air. Parasites are those whose roots, penetrating 
to the cambium layer of other plants and trees, appro- 
priate the stolen juices to their own growth. 

25. Cions, suckers, stolons, offsets, slips, layers, 
cuttings, and runners. 

26. Caul'is is the term applied to the annual leaf- 
stems of herbaceous plants. The culm is the stem of 
the grasses and the sedges. The term trunk is applied 
to the stems of trees. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 2C9 

27. The hop vine invariably winds with the sun, 
that is, from left to right; while others, as the morn- 
ing-glory, revolves in a contrary direction. 

28. The rhizome is a prostrate, fleshy, rooting stem, 
often marked with scars, as in hloodroot; while the 
creeper is more slender, much branched, many jointed, 
and sends out rootlets in every direction, binding the 
soil into turfs wherever it abounds. 

29. The tuber is not a root. It is the thickened 
portion of the subterranean stem and produces buds. 

30. The bulb is a thickened mass of scales with a 
small axis, the whole forming a bud. The most com- 
mon forms are tunicated, as the onion, and scaly, as 
in the lily. 

31. A leaf -bud contains the rudiments of a leafy 
stem or branch folded up in such a manner as to 
occupy as little space as possible ; the flower-bud con- 
tains the same elements transformed into the rudimen- 
tary organs of a flower. 

32. With regard to position, the leaf-bud may be 
terminal or axillary. In addition to these, buds may 
be accessory or adventitious. 

33. Vernation signifies the mode of arrangement 
and folding of the leaf organs within the bud. The 
following terms denote the leaf folding within the bud : 
reclined, conduplicate, plicate, circinate, convolute, 
involute, revolute. 

34. Alternate; ^^e., one above another on opposite 
sides. Scattered; i.e., irregularly spiral. Opposite; 



270 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 

i.e., two against each other, at the same node. Reso- 
lute ; i.e., clustered regularly. 

35. Blade, petiole, stipules, margin, apex, base, 
midvein, veins, veinlets, veinulets. 

36. The leaves are the organs of respiration and 
digestion, without which the plant would soon die. 

37. The leaves of Exogens, or Dicotyledons, are 
net-veined; those of Endogcns, or Monocotyledons, 
are parallel-veined; the leaves of Cryptogams are 
fork-veined, dividing and subdividing in a forked 
manner. 

38. Oz7a<;e, having the outline of an egg; orbicular y 
circular; lanceolate, lance-shaped, tapering gradually 
toward the apex ; deltoid, like the Greek letter A ; el- 
liptical, formed like an ellipse ; cordate, heart-shaped; 
auriculate, ear shaped lobes at base; sagittate, arrow- 
shaped; cuneate, wedge-shaped; reniform, kidney- 
shaped. 

39. The divisions of a compound leaf are called 
leaflets, and are usually attached to the rachis. 

40. Dentate, toothed ; serrate, having teeth pointing 
forward; cre7iate, with rounded teeth; undulate, 
wavy-edged ; repend, indented like the margin of an 
umbrella; spinous, projecting veins; incised, cut; 
crispate, crisped. 

41. The leaf surface may be glabrous (smooth), 
scabrous (you^), pubescent, covered with soft, short 
hair, villous, when the hairs are long and weak, seri- 
cious, when the hair is fine and silky, lanuginous. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 271 

wooly, tormentousy matted like felt, ^occose, when soft 
and fleecy. 

42. A tendril is a thread-like appendage furnished 
to weak-stemmed plants as their means of support. 

43. The metamorphosis of a flower is the transfor- 
mation of the leaf to form the flower. 

44. (a) Inflorescence is the arrangement of flow- 
ers on the stem. (6) The two forms are axillary, in 
which the flowers originate from axillary buds, and 
terminal, in which the flower buds are terminal. 

45. The peduncle is the flower stalk. Divisions of 
the peduncle are termed pedicels. 

46. The spike, spadix, catkin, raceme, corymb, 
umbel, panicle, thyrse, and head are the principal 
varieties of axillary inflorescence. 

47. An umbel consists of several pedicels of nearly 
the same length radiating from the same point ; a 
spadix is a thick, fleshy rachis, with flowers closely 
sessile or imbedded on it ; a panicle is a compound in- 
florescence formed by an irregular branching of the 
pedicels of the raceme, as in oats ; the catkin is a 
slender, pendent spike with scaly bracts, as in the oak 
and willow ; the raceme is a rachis bearing its flowers 
on distinct, simple pedicels. 

48. Filament, anther-lobe, connective, and valves. 

49. Multiple fruits are formed by the union of 
many separate flowers, as the pineapple . 

50. The first nourishment the j^lant requires is de- 
rived from the albumen contained within the seed; 
afterward the sap, laden with the requisite food ele- 



272 ANS^^^:RS to questioxs on botany. 

ments, permeates every tissue, and deposits within 
each organ its appropriate food. The leaves and other 
parts of plants are covered with hairs, which, with the 
bark, serve as clothing. The sharp thorns, spikes and 
prickles, with which many plants are supplied, would 
seem to imply a provision for self-defense. 

51. (rt) Cryptogams are flowerless plants, (b) 
Mosses, ferns, lichens, seaweed, mushrooms, (c) They 
grow on rocks, sand, tree-trunks, cinders, etc. (d) 
They form the basis of all vegetable and animal life. 
By the decay of successive generations of these simple 
forms soil is formed and fertilized, and the growth of 
higher orders, as grains, grasses and trees, is rendered 
possible. 

52. The cell, a closed sac of membrane containing a 
fluid, by its multiplied aggregation, makes up the mass 
of all vegetation. 

53. Spiral, annular, porous, and reticulated. 

54. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 

55. While some cells contain nothing but air and 
others solid matter, the greater number are filled with 
both fluids and solids. These are the cytoUast, a glob- 
ular atom, designed to form new cells, and proto pi a S7nj 
the nourishing semi-fluid. 

56. Chlorovhyl is the green coloring matter of 
leaves. 

57. {a) The growth of plants consists of the de- 
velopment of new cells. (5) The primordial utricle 
divides into two or more parts by new walls growing 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 273 

from its sides till the^^meet, and thus cells multiplying 
by millions, build up the fiibric of the plant. 

68. Cellular tissue, termed parenchyma; fibrous 
tissue, or pleurenchyma ; vascular tissue, or trachen- 
chyma ; laticiferous tissue, or cienchyma. 

59. Parenchyma y the most common form of tissue, 
is composed of spheroidal cells. It is found in all 
young growths, — the pith, leaf, and stem; in the 
pulp of fruits, and in the soft parts of all plants. 

Pleurenchyma consists of elongated cells cohering 
by their sides in such a way as to form continuous 
fibre, as in flax and hemp. 

Trachenchyma is a tissue of vessels and tubes. 
These extend lengthwise and form rows of cells joined 
end to end, and fuse into one by the absorption of the 
contiguous walls. 

Cienchyma is a system of milk vessels, secreting 
the peculiar juice of the plant, as opium, gamboge, 
resin, etc. 

60. (a) Little chinks in the leaf-epidermis, termed 
stomata. (b) Each stoma is guarded by cells of such 
construction as to open in moist weather and close in dry. 

61. (a) Glands are cellular structures within the 
epidermis, or at the base of a hair, or at its summit. 
{b) Their use is to elaborate and contain the peculiar 
secretions of plants, such as oils, resins, honey, 
poisons, etc. 

62. Into Exogens, or outside-growers, JEndogens, or 
inside-growers, Acrogens, or point-growers, and TJiall- 
ogens, or mass-growers. 

18 



274 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 

63. 1st. The p^77^, consisting of parenchyma, which 
occupies the central part of the stem. 2nd. The 
medullary sheath, a thin, delicate tissue, composed of 
spiral vessels, which immediately surrounds the pith. 
3rd. The wood proper, which is arranged in concen- 
tric zones or layers about the central mass. This 
consists of two kinds — the sap-wood and heart-wood. 
4th. The bark, covering and protecting the wood. It 
consists of the three parts — the inner or white bark, 
the middle or green bark, and the outer or brown bark. 

64. The cambium layer is a muscilaginous-sap solu- 
tion of the starchy deposits of the preceding year. It 
is between the wood and white bark, serving to loosen 
the latter, and thus render it easy to peel from the 
wood. 

65. The stem of an endogenous plant is composed 
of tissues similar to those of the exogenous stem, but 
there is no distinction of bark, wood, pith, or annual 
layers in the endogen. 

66. Upon the characteristic method of annual accre- 
tions; — in the Exogens the yearly increments are 
added to the outside, while the addition of new mate- 
rial in the Endogens is to the interior. 

67. The stems of Acrogens advance beneath or 
above the ground, full formed, growing only at the 
end. 

68. Mildew, frog spittle, lichens, seaweeds , puff-balls 
and mushrooms, belonging to the Thallogens, or mass- 
growers, are among the lowest forms of the vegetable 
kingdom. 



ANS'V\^RS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 275 

69. The process of vegetation consists in imbibing 
the crude matters of the earth and air, and elaboratins: 
into food the elements which animals require for their 
growth and sustenance. 

70. The substance of plants consists mainly of 
water derived from the moisture of the air and the 
soil, through the absorptive powers of the leaves and 
roots. 

71. Absorption, circulation, exhalation, assimila- 
tion, and secretion. 

72. The propagation and continuance of certain 
species of plants in a given locality require cross-fer- 
tilization. This is effected sometimes by insects, 
which, attracted by the brilliant tints and savory 
juices contained within the nectary, in return for 
the honey they extract, carry the fertilizing pol- 
len from the anther to distant plants of the same 
species. 

73. Generic names are nouns, and should always 
begin with capitals. Specific names are generally 
adjectives, and should not begin with capitals except 
when derived from the name of a country or person, 
or when the term may be a noun. 

74. It is due to the physical principles of capillary 
attraction and endosmose. 

75. If wheat, buckwheat, peas, and cabbage be 
grown upon the same land, it will be obsei-ved that the 
wheat will select the silica^ the buckwheat, the mag- 
nesia, the pea, the lime, and the cabbage the potash, 
each for its peculiar want. 



276 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 

76. Starting from the roots as crude sap, in the 
forra of colorless water, charged with minute quanti- 
ties of gases and mineral salts, it passes upward dis- 
solving the dextrine and sugar of the cells and gaining 
in density, till it reaches the leaves, where it parts with 
a large portion of the water by exhalation, and receives 
carbon in return. After undergoing important chem- 
ical changes, under the action of the air and light, it 
becomes rich in nutritive material and returns upon 
its downward course through the barky tissues, dis- 
tributing to every organ its due proportion of appro- 
priate food. 

77. The carbonic acid exhaled by animals if left to 
accumulate would in time destroy all animal life upon 
the globe. The necessities of the plant demand this 
gas, and in the very process of its appropriation the 
life-giving oxygen, so essential to animal existence, is 
returned by the plant to the atmosphere. 

78. The natural system is based upon the natural 
affinities and resemblances of plants by which nature 
has distinguished them into groups and families. 

79. Dicotyledons grow by new layers external to 
the wood, but inside of the bark ; their leaves are net- 
veined, flowers rarely three-parted, seeds with two or 
more cotyledons, and with an axial root extending 
downward from the radicle. Monocotyledons grow 
by scattered, internal wood bundles; their leaves are 
parallel veined, flowers generally three-parted, seeds 
with one cotyledon, while the radicle never produces 
an axial root. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON BOTANY. 277 

80. Rosaceas: cherry, apricot, plum, almond, peach. 
Saxif ragaceas : hydrangea. Ebenaceoe, persimmon. 
Artocarpaceas : fig, osage orange, mulberry. Crassu- 
lacese : currant, gooseberry. 

81. The sunflower belongs to the order of Compos- 
itae; the pea, to the Leguminosje; lettuce, to the 
Composite; parsley, to the Umbellif eras ; the sweet 
potato to the Convolvulacete. 

82. It consists of the entire inflorescence developed 
into a mass of united pericarps. 



QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

1. Define the terms Anatomy, Physiology, and Hy- 
giene. 

2. Name the primary animal tissues. 

3. («) What are membranes? (6) State their uses. 

4. Name the principal membranes of the body. 

5. What is the number and names of the ultimate 
elements composing the human body ? 

6. Describe the bones and state their uses. 

7. What is the composition of bone at different 
periods of life ? 

8. How many bones in the human body? 

9. Draw an outline showing the relative position 
of the different bones in the human skeleton. 

10. (a) Name and illustrate the different kinds of 
movable joints. (6) State how their movements are 
facilitated. 

11. (a) With what are the bones covered? (b) 
What is the purpose of this covering? (c) What 
peculiar disease originates beneath this covering? 

12. What is the use of the synovia? 

278 



QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 279 

13. What mechanical and botanical principle is 
illustrated in the long bones? 

14. State the process by which nature repairs a 
broken bone. 

15. (a) What are sprains ? (b) What care do they 
require ? 

16. («) Name the characteristic property and law 
of muscles. (6) What diversity of form is observed 
in the adaptation of the muscles to their various posi- 
tion and uses? 

17. What is the general arrangement of muscles 
with respect to each other? 

18. Into what two classes, with respect to action, 
are the muscles divided? Illustrate each class. 

19. (a) How many muscles in the human body? 
(6) How are the muscles of the limbs distinguished 
as to their use ? 

20. Name two important muscles in each of the 
following regions: head, front part of trunk, back 
part of trunk, upper limbs, lower limbs. 

21. Name some of the uses which muscles serve in 
the animal economy. 

22. (rt) Of what are tendons cbmposed? (b) 
State their use. 

23. Show how the bones are used as levers of the 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd classes. 

24. State the effect upon the muscles of (a) use 
(b) disuse, (c) misuse. 

23. Why should one abstain from severe exercise 
immediately before and after eating? 



280 QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

26. State the proper method and necessary extent 
of educating muscles. 

27. How does the character of a child's early mus- 
cular training determine his habits of action in later 
life? 

28. What organs constitute the nutritive apparatus? 

29. Name the digestive organs. 

30. What preparatory changes does food undergo 
before it becomes nourishment for the body? 

31. Name, locate, and state the use of the salivary 
glands. 

32. Name and locate the fluids involved in the pro- 
cess of digestion. 

33. Trace a particle of food from the mouth until it 
reaches the blood. 

34. What is the principal use of the saliva? 

35. State the conditions upon which the health of 
the digestive organs depend. 

36. Under what circumstances is digestion most 
perfect? 

37. What does the term absorption comprehend? 

38. Name the absorbents. 

39. What are the principal secretions and excretions 
of the human body ? 

40. What is the length of time required for diges- 
tion ? 

41. State the object of cooking foocf, and how this 
is secured. 

42. Mention the evils arising from rapid eating. 

43. Name the or^^ans of circulation. 



QUESTIONS ON niYSIOLOGY. 281 

44. Describe the heart. 

45. Why is there sometimes said to be two hearts? 

46. Describe the circulation of blood, distinguish- 
ing between pulmonary and systemic circulation. 

47. How does the blood differ in color in different 
parts of its circulation? State the cause. 

48. What time is required for the complete circula- 
tion of the blood through the system ? 

49. How is a backward flow of blood prevented? 

50. What is the normal temj)erature of the body ? 

51. Which end of a ruptured artery should be tied? 
Why? 

52. Define coagulation, and state its use. 

53. State the use of circulation of the blood. 

54. Name the three classes of organic substances 
used for food. 

55. How do you account for the arteries being 
deep-seated, while the veins are generally superficial? 

56. How and through what organ is the oxygen ad- 
mitted to the blood ? 

57. State the functions of the lymphatics; of the 
lacteal s. 

58. How can you distinguish in external hem- 
orrhage, whether the blood comes from an artery or a 
vein ? 

59. Name the animal and vegetative functions of the 
body. 

60. What three evils result from tight lacing? 

61. Name the respiratory and vocal organs. 



282 QUESTIONS ox PHYSIOLOGY. 

62. State the immediate and ultimate object of 
respiration. 

63. How does the amount of air inhaled compare 
with the quantity exhaled ? 

64. In what way may the variety of tones of differ- 
ent voices be accounted for ? 

65. Upon what does the strength of the voice de- 
pend ? 

66. Are the lungs filled and emptied completely by 
respiration? What is the importance of this provis- 
ion? 

67. What diseases are apt to attack the respiratory 
organs? How can these be provided against in the 
school room? 

68. What anatomical changes cause the change in a 
boy's voice at puberty? 

69. What three natural remedies for consumption 
are suggested by physiology and hygiene ? 

70. Explain the origin and progress of a cold. 

71. What is congestion ? How indicated? 

72. State the conditions upon which pure blood is 
dependent. 

73. What physical evils result from impure blood? 

74. What is the usual number of respirations per 
minute? How can the frequency be diminished? 

75. Into what two secondary systems may the ner- 
vous system be divided ? 

76. (a) Describe the two kinds of matter which 
compose the nervous system. (6) State their func- 
tions. 



QUESTIOXS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 283 

77. Give a brief description of the human brain. 

78. What is the spinal cord ? What means of pro- 
tection suggest its importance ? 

79. Where is the seat of pain? Illustrate. 

80. Name in order the effects of alcohol on the ner- 
vous system. 

81. Wiiy, in apoplexy, when the right side of the 
body becomes paralyzed, is the left side of the face 
usually affected ? 

82. Give examples of associated sensations in which 
nerves are excited by sight, hearing, and smell. 

83. What are the functions of the cerebrum and the 
cerebellum respectively? 

84. Name the nerves of special sense and state in 
what they differ from other nerves. 

85. Name habits which particularly impair the ner- 
vous system. 

86. What conditions are essential to the highest 
mental development and vigor? 

87. (a) What is meant by "reflex action of the 
spinalcord?" (6) Give examples, (c) State itsuse. 

88. Describe the globe of the e3'e and name its parts. 

89. How do we change the vision in looking from 
near objects to distant ones in the same direction ? 

90. (a) What four classes of substances excite the 
sense of taste? (b) Locate the sense of taste. 

91. Where is the sense of touch most delicate? 
How may this be shown ? 

92. What purpose does the skin serve? 

93. State the office of perspiration. 



284 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

94. What deleterious eftects result from having the 
air too dry in occupied rooms? 

95. State briefly some important directions regard- 
ing the manner of dressing most conducive to health. 

96. What effect does the loss of sleeD have upon 
the body and the mind ? 

97. Show in what.manner bathing is beneficial? 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

1. Anatomy is the description of the form and posi- 
tion of the organs of animal bodies. Physiology is 
the description of the uses of these organs. Hygiene 
treats of the preservation of health. 

2. The primary tissues are the fibrous, areolar, car- 
tilaginous, which collectively form the connective tis- 
sues, and the adipose, sclerous, muscular, tubular, and 
nervous tissues. 

3. (a) Membranes are thin, extended, soft, trans- 
parent tissues, formed by fibers interwoven like net- 
work. (6) They serve to cover some part of the 
body, or to absorb or secrete certain fluids. 

4. The principal membranes are the basement, ser- 
ous, synovial, and mucous membranes. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 285 

5. There are fourteen ultimate elements, viz, : oxy- 
f^en, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, potassium, 
fsodium, chlorine, phosphorous, sulphur, silicon, iron, 
magnesium, and fluorine. 

6. The bones are firm and hard, combining strength 
and lightness. They serve as a framework or skeleton 
for preserving the shape of the body and for the pro- 
tection of its most delicate organs, and for the attach- 
ment of muscles. 

7. The bones consist of animal and mineral matter. 
In early life the animal matter predominates ; at ma- 
turity the proportion is about one part of animal to 
two parts of mineral matter ; while, as age advances, 
the quantity of mineral matter greatly exceeds that of 
animal substance. 

8. The number of bones varies at different periods 
of life. In childhood the number is greater than in 
later life, many bones consisting of two parts growing 
together, forming but one bone in the adult. The 
number usually given, exclusive of the teeth, is 208. 



286 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIOXS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Head. 



The Cranium. 



The r."cc. 



r Frontal bone. 

Two Parietal bones. 
i Two Temporal bones. 
"{ Sphenoid bone. 

p:thmoi(.l bone. 
[Occipital bone. 

Two Superior Maxillary bones. 

Inferior Maxillary bone. 

Two Malar bones. 

Two Lachrymal bones. 

Two Turbinated bones. 

Two Nasal bones. 

Vomer. 

Two Palate bones. 



(Hammer. 
Anvil. 
StiiTup. 



The Truxk. 



The Spinal 
Column. 



{Cervical Vertebrae, 
Dorsal Vertebrse. 
Lumbar Vertebrae. 



The Ribs. 



f True Ribs. 

t False Ribs. 
The Sternum. 
The Os Hyoides. 

iTwo Innominata. 
Sacrum. 
Coccyx. 



The Limbs. 



The Upper 
Limbs. 



The Lower 
Limbs. 



The Shoulder. 
The Arm. 



The Hand. 



The Lee 



The Foot. 



Clavicle (2). 
Scapula (2). 
f Humerus. 
\ Radius and Ulna. 
Carpal bones. 
Metacarpal bones 
Phalanges. 

(Femur. 
Patella. 
Tibia and Fibula. 
7 Tarsal bones. 
5 Metatarsal bones 
li Phalanges. 



f8C 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 287 

10. (a) Movable joints are of three kinds — the 
Pkiniform, the Hinge, and the Ball and /iSocA;e^ joints. 
The Planiform joint is found where gliding movements 
are required, as in the carpus and metacarpus; the 
hinge joint, where there is motion in two directions only, 
backward and forward, as in the knee and the elbow; 
the ball and socket joint, where there is free movement 
in all directions, as in the hip and shoulder joints, (b) 
They are provided with cartilage where the surfaces are 
in contact, and supplied with synovial membrane and 
connecting ligaments. 

11. (a) The bones are covered, as with a sac, by a 
dense, white, fibrous membrane cnWed periosteum. (6) 
It serves to transmit blood-vessels into the bone, thus 
furnishing nutriment, and gives insertion to muscles, 
tendons, and ligaments, (c) The disease called 
" felon " commences in or beneath the periosteum. 

12. The use of the synovia is that of a lubricating 
fluid, enabling the surface of the bones to move more 
freely upon each other, preventing friction and conse- 
quent Avear. 

13. The shafts of long bones are made hollow, giving 
not only lightness but strength, according to the prin- 
ciple of mechanics, that with a given amount of mate- 
rial, a hollow cylinder will sustain more weight than a 
solid one of the same dimensions. The culms of 
grasses illustrate the same principle. 

14. The blood which flows in consequence of the in- 
jury is gradually absorbed, and gives place to a watery 
fluid, which, thickening from day to day, acquires at 



288 ANSWERS TO QUl<:STIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

the end of two weeks, the consistency of jelly. This 
begins to harden by a deposit of new bone-substance, 
until in five or six weeks, the broken bone is united. 

15. (a) Sprains are caused by a twisting, straining, 
or tearing of the connecting ligaments of bones from 
their attachments, (b) As a sprain may be as serious 
as a broken bone, care should be exercised, lest the 
use of the limb before the ligament is restored to its 
place may impair its usefulness. 

16. (a) The characteristic property of muscles is 
contractility, and the law is that they shall contract 
toward the center, (b) The general forms or shapes 
of muscles are spindle-shaped, radiate, penniform, bi- 
penniform, and 07'bicular. 

17. With the exception of twelve single muscles, they 
are all arranged in pairs, each having its antagonist ; 
so that as they contract and expand alternately, the 
bone to which they are attached is moved to and fro. 

18. Into voluntary, those which are under the con- 
trol of the will, as the muscles of the limbs, and invol- 
untary, those which cannot be controlled by the will, 
as the muscles of the heart. 

19. (a) The number exceeds five hundred, {b) In 
regard to their use the limb muscles may be distin- 
guished as flexors, those used to bend the limbs, 
and extensors, those which are used to extend the 
limbs. 

20. Head and neck: oral, orbitidar and masseter; 
front part of trunk : the external oblique and the 
straight abdominal ; back part of trunk; the trapezius 



ANSWERS TO QUEST10^^S ON PHYSIOLOGY. 289 

and the superior serrated muscles; the upper limbs: 
the biceps and the radio-carpal extensor ; the lower 
limbs : the gluteal and sartorius. 

21. They give form and symmetry to the body, en- 
close the cavities, and form a firm, defensive, but 
yielding wall in the trunk, cover and move the 
limbs, and give to some of the joints their principal 
protection. By means of muscular action, the heart 
beats, the blood circulates, and respiration is carried on. 

22. (a) Tendons are composed of the inelastic, 
white-fibrous tissue, and possess great strength. 
(b) They serve to convey the contractile power of 
muscles to the bones, and connect the muscles with 
the bones. 

23. The movements of the head illustrate a lever of 
the first class : the back or front is the weight, the 
backbone is the fulcrum, and the muscles at the back 
or front of the neck are the powers by which we toss 
or bow the head. 

Raising the body on tiptoe illustrates a lever of the 
second class: the toes resting on the ground is the 
fulcrum, the weight of the body is the weight, and 
the muscles of the calf, the power. 

Raising the lower jaw illustrates a lever of the third 
class. Another familiar example is the elbow, in which 
the fulcrum is at the joint, the weight is the forearm 
and hand, and the power is in the biceps and brachial 
muscles. 

24. (a) By judicious use muscle grows larger, 
and becomes hard, compact, and darker-colored. 

19 



290 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

(b) By disuse, it decreases in size, and becomes soft, 
flabby and pale, (c) By misuse, the muscle is often 
strained and blood vessels burst in our efforts to per- 
form feats beyond our muscular power. 

25. Because the vigor of the system is needed 
for the digestive functions. Nature can sustain in 
vigorous activity but one function at a time. 

26. The training of muscles to the performance of 
any exercise in which the highest excellence is desired 
should be begun in early life, and continued regularly 
and systematically till every muscle and every fiber is 
under the control of the will. 

27. An individual's speech, writing, singing, atti- 
tudes, walking, and actions are all determined by his 
first movements in these exercises. If exactness is not 
required in the beginning, and continued during the 
formative period of habit, awkwardness and impropri- 
ety must always characterize the exercises and move- 
ments of the individual through life. 

28. The nutritive apparatus includes the digestive, 
the absorptive, the circulatory , the assitnilatory , and the 
respiratory organs. 

29. The digestive organs are the mouth, teeth, sali- 
vary glands, palate, pharynx, cesophagus, stomach, in- 
testines, liver, pancreas, and spleen. 

30. 1st. Digestion, by which the food is reduced to 
a soluble condition. 2nd. Absorption,hy \N\nch.,yih.en 
digested, it is imbibed into the blood. 3rd. Circula- 
tion, which carries the enriched blood to the various 
parts of the system. 4th. Assimilation, by which 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 291 

each tissue derives from the blood the materials nec- 
essary for its support. 

81. The salivary glands consist of three glands on 
each side of the mouth. The parotid gland is situated 
in front of the external ear and behind the angle of 
the lower jaw. The submaxillary gland is situated 
within the angle of the lower jaw. The sublingual 
gland is situated on the floor of the mouth, beneath 
the side of the tongue. They all secrete a liquid 
called saliva. 

32. 1st. The saliva in the mouth; 2nd. The gastric 
juice, in the stomach; 3rd. The bile, in the small in- 
testines. 4th. The pancreatic juice, in the small in- 
testines. 5th. The intestinal juice, in the small 
intestines. 

33 From the mouth, where the food is chewed and 
insalivated, it passes through the pharynx and oesopha- 
gus at the cardiac orifice into the stomach. Here it 
undergoes a churning process until every particle is 
subjected to the action of the gastric juice, which di- 
gests the albuminoid substances in it, and changes 
them to albuminose. The work of the stomach being 
completed, the food passes through the pyloric orifice 
into the small intestines, where it is subjected to the 
pancreatic fluid, the bile and the intestinal juice, which 
digest the starch and fat, changing the starch into 
sugar and the fat into chyle. Here the digested mass, 
called collectively the chyle, is absorbed by the lacteals 
and blood vessels and taken into the general circula- 
tion. 



292 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

34. It moistens the food and thus facilitates diges- 
tion. 

35. 1st. The quantity of food ; this should simply 
equal the waste of the system. 2nd. The quality of 
food, which should be nutritive and digestible. 3rd. 
manner of taking food. Food should be neither too 
hot nor too cold ; it should be sufficiently masticated 
and taken at regular intervals. 4th. The system 
should be mentally and physically conditioned to re- 
ceive food. 

36. When the action of the cutaneous vessels is 
energetic, the mind free from absorbing thought, ex- 
citement or depression, the blood well purified, and the 
muscular system duly exercised. 

37. Absorption is the general term for that process 
by which all soluble substances, external to the animal 
body, are introduced into the tissues of the body. 
It includes also the process by which portions of the 
hving tissues are themselves removed, or absorbed 
within the body. 

38. The absorbents are the lymphatic vessels of the 
small intestines, termed lacteals, lymphatic glands, 
vessels, and ducts, and the thoracic duct. 

39. Mucus, sebaceous matter, perspiration, tears, 
serous fluid, saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, in- 
testinal juice, and bile. 

40. From two to four hours, according to the nature 
of food, state of the system and perfection of mastica- 
tion. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 293 

41. The object of cooking food is to render it more 
palatable and easily digested. Cooking breaks the 
cells and softens the fibers of which the food is com- 
posed. 

42. 1st. The food is swallowed without sufficient 
saliva. 2nd. The particles of food are so large as to 
hinder the action of the gastric juice, which is often 
weakened by the use of drinks poured down with the 
food. 3rd. We do- not realize the quantity eaten until 
the stomach is overloaded. 4th. Failing to get the taste 
of our food we think it insipid, and resort to condi- 
ments which over stimulate the digestive organs. 

43. The heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins. 

44. The heart is the hollow muscle enclosed m a 
sac, termed pericardium. It is situated between the 
lungs. It is conical in shape, the apex pointing down- 
ward, forward, and to the left. Its only attachments 
are the large blood-vessels by which it is joined to 
the vertebral column. 

45. On account of the division of the heart by a 
muscular septum into two parts — the right and left. 
Each of these contains two apartments, termed auricles 
and ventricles, the ventricles being next the apex. 
The two sides have no communication, each perform- 
ing a separate function. The right is sometimes 
termed ihQ pulmonic heart, the left, the systemic heart. 

46. In pulmonic circulation the right auricle after 
receiving the blood from two large veins, contra c^.s 
and sends it into the right ventricle. This in turn con- 
tracts and sends it through the pulmonary artery to the 



294 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

lungs, where it is purified and becomes a bright arterial 
blood. Here the systemic circulation begins by the 
entrance of the blood into the left auricle, which, con- 
tracting, sends it to the left ventricle, from which it is 
transmitted through the aorta to all parts of the system, 
from which it returns through the capillaries and veins 
to the right auricle to repeat its course as before. 

47. As the blood visits the different organs it both 
gives out and gathers up materials. In the arterial 
circulation it is enriched with food, and scarlet with 
oxygen received in the lungs ; returning from the 
organs it has fed, it is impoverished in quality and 
purple in color. 

48. The entire mass is believed to make the circuit 
in from one to two minutes. 

49. A backward flow in the auricles i? prevented by 
the contraction of muscular fibers about the mouths of 
the veins, and by valves in the veins. 

50. About 98° Fahrenheit. 

51. The end next to the heart, because the blood in 
arteries flows from the heart. 

52. Coagulation is a thickening or hardening of the 
blood. It is serviceable in stopping the flow of blood 
from a wounded vein. 

53. Circulation of the blood carries nutrition to all 
parts of the system, and also carries impurities to the 
lungs to be exhaled. 

64. Farinaceous, saccharine, and albuminous. 
55. An injury to the more important arteries would 
soon result in death, hence, they are deep-seated for 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 295 

protection. For the same reason the larger veins are 
deep-seated. 

56. By a process called endosmosis the oxygen of 
the air passes through the tissues of the lungs. 

57. The lymphatics gather up materials that may 
still be of benefit to the blood. The lacteals carry 
nutrition from the intestines to the thoracic duct. 

58. By observing the manner of the flow. The 
arteries throw out the blood by jets at each beat of the 
heart, while the veins bleed regularly. 

59. The animal functions are sensation and voli- 
tion. The vegetative functions, which are common to 
both animals and vegetables, are digestion, assimila- 
tion, absorption, secretion, excretion, growth, respira- 
tion, and generation. 

60. 1st. It disturbs the circulation. 2nd. It re- 
stricts the action of the stomach and impairs digestion. 
3rd. It prevents proper and sufficient respiration. 

61. The respiratory and vocal organs are the larynx, 
the trachea, the bronchi, and the lungs. 

62. The immediate object of respiration is the puri- 
fication of the blood ; the ultimate object is the produc- 
tion of heat, motion and nervous energy. 

63. The volume of air inhaled in an ordinary in- 
spiration is about one pint, the quantity expelled, a 
little less than one pint. 

64. The tones of different voices are modified by the 
shape and size of the vocal apparatus. A large larynx 
usually gives a deep-toned voice, a smaller one, a thin- 
toned or high-pitched voice. 



29Q ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGr. 

65. Upon the capacity of the chest, the develop- 
ment of the muscles used in vocalization, and the ex- 
tent of vibration of the vocal cords. 

66. No. If they were completely emptied the air 
cells would collapse, and the blood then in the lungs 
would not be purified. 

67. Consumption, bronchitis, pneumonia, lung fever, 
asthma, etc. By having the room ventilated and 
warmed, and teaching the children to sit, stand, and 
walk erect, and breathe deeply and vigorously. 

68. The larynx grows larger, and the vocal cords 
longer and coarser, thus deepening the tones and low- 
ering the pitch. 

69. Plenty of pure air properly breathed, sunlight, 
and frequent bodily exercise. 

70. A cold frequently arises from a change in cloth- 
ing, putting on a thinner garment, or sitting in a cool 
place, or a draft when heated. The skin becomes 
chilled and the perspiration checked. The pores are 
closed and the blood is driven to the lungs for purifi- 
cation. Oppression of the lungs ensues, breathing 
becomes difficult and the extra mucus is thrown 
off by coughing. From this condition fever, head- 
ache, pneumonia, or pleurisy is developed. 

71. Congestion is an excessive accumulation of 
blood in any part of the body. It is indicated by an 
unusual redness in the parts affected. 

72. Pure blood is obtained only by a healthy action 
of the respiratory organs, which in turn depends upon 
a constant and sufficient supply of pure air. 



ANSV/ERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 297 

73. The carbonic acid is retained in the blood ; the 
brain works sluggishly; the muscles become inac- 
tive ; the heart acts imperfectly ; the secretions are 
deteriorated; the food is not properly assimilated; 
and the whole body becomes weak. 

74. About eighteen per minute. By training and 
habit the number may be much diminished. 

75. The cerebrospinal system, consisting of the 
brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves given off by 
them to all parts of the body, and the sympathetic 
system^ composed of nerves and ganglia, mainly dis- 
tributed to the viscera of the body. 

76. (a) The nervous system is composed of two 
kinds of matter, — the gray and the white. The gray 
consists of small, ashen-colored cells, forming a pulp- 
like substance ; the white is composed of glistening, 
white fibers, averaging about -g-oViyOf an inch in diam- 
eter. (6) The gray cells act as generators of nervous 
force, while the white fibers serve as conductors of this 
nervous force, having a velocity of about 100 feet per 
second. 

77. The brain, the seat of the mind, is the great 
volume of nervous tissue lodged within the skull ; it 
consists of two parts : — the cerebrum, or brain proper, 
and the cerebellum, or " little brain." The cerebrum 
lies in the front and upper part of the skull, the cere- 
bellum, in the lower and back part. The whole floats 
securely in a bed of liquid surrounded by three mem- 
branes, — i\iQpia mater and the cZi^-a mater and the 
arachnoid. 



298 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

78. The spinal cord, or " marrow," is a cylindrical 
mass of soft nervous tissue, which occupies the tunnel 
fitted for it in the spinal column. It is composed of the 
same substances as the brain ; but here the white mat- 
ter surrounds the gray, instead of being encompassed 
by it. The importance of the spinal cord is apparent 
from the extreme care taken to protect it from exter- 
nal injury. 

79. In the mind. If the " funny bone " behind the 
elbow receives a blow, the effect is at once sent to the 
brain, which refers the shock to the ends of the nerve 
in the third and fourth fingers, where the pain will 
seem to be. 

80. 1. Excitement. 2. Muscular weakness. 3. Men- 
tal weakness. 

81. The nerves cross from the brain to the opposite 
side of the body, while the facial nerves come from 
the side of the brain affected. 

82. Disagreeable odors and unpleasant sights pro- 
duce nausea ; the savory odor of cooking food and the 
peeling of a lemon make the mouth water ; while the 
rasping sound heard in filing a saw produces in some 
persons the utmost irritability. 

83. The cerebrum is the instrument through which 
the powers of memory, reason, and judgment mani- 
fest themselves. The cerebellum presides over the 
muscular movements of the body. 

84. The nerves of special sense are the auditory, 
optic, and olfactory nerves. They differ from other 
nerves in being neither sensitive nor motor, their 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 299 

office being simply to convey the sense of hearing, see- 
inor, and sraellino^. 

85. The opium habit, the use of alcohol, tobacco, 
and the excessive use of tea and coffee. 

86. Each faculty of mind should receive its due 
share of cultivation and exercise. 

87. (a) The reflex action of the spinal cord is the 
involuntary action of certain muscles independent of 
the agency of the will. An impression made on the 
surface of the skin, is conveyed to the cord, which 
reflects back the motor impulse to the muscles so as to 
excite them to action. (6) Examples are numerous: 
nearly every act of our daily routine is an illustra- 
tion — walking, eating, standing erect, (c) By the 
reflex action of the cord we are protected from a thou- 
sand perils. We involuntarily throw up our hands as 
a shield from danger, we instinctively wink to protect 
the eye, and upon seizing a heated substance, we in- 
stantly drop it before the command could come from 
the brain. 

88. The globe of the eye consists of three concen- 
tric layers — the sclerolica , v^nih. the cornea in front; 
the choroidea^ with the iris in front; and the retina^ 
which is internal. These compose most of the solid 
part of the eyeball, which is a hollow sphere filled with 
three semi-fluid substances — the aqueous humor, the 
crystalline lens, and the vitreous humor. 

89. The convexity of the lens is changed by means 
of ciliary muscles. The 'lens is made more convex for 
near objects and less convex for those more distant. 



300 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 

90. (a) The sour y as certain acids; the sweet, as 
sirup and sugar ; the bitter, as quinine ; and the salt, as 
common salt, (b) The margin and the tip of the 
tongue. 

91. The sense of touch is most acute on the palmar 
surface of the fingers. If two needles one-twen- 
tieth of an inch apart are pressed against the end 
of the finger two impressions are felt. No where else 
on the body will this occur when the needles are so 
near together. 

92. The skin aids in keeping the tissues and organs 
in their places, and protects the delicate nerves, lym- 
phatics and blood vessels found beneath it. 

93. It regulates the temperature of the body. When 
exercise warms the body the perspiration is exuded 
upon the skin and its evaporation reduces the tempera- 
ture and keeps the system from being overheated. 

94. When the confined air is warm and dry it ab- 
sorbs too much of the moisture from the lungs and 
skin, and produces a dry and feverish condition of the 
system. 

95. All garments should be as light as is consistent 
with the warmth and comfort of the wearer. Two or 
three thicknesses of flannel is warmer than double 
the weight of cotton or linen ; and in a climate subject 
to sudden and extreme changes, flannel is preferable 
at all seasons of the year. 

96. Continued loss of sleep produces debility of the 
nervous system, nervous excitability, disturbed breath- 
ing, palpitation of the heart, and dyspepsia; while 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY. 301 

insanity, particularly in those engaged in absorbing 
mental labor, frequently follows as the final punish- 
ment for disregarding Nature's laws. 

97. The skin becomes covered with a mixture of oil, 
dust, etc., which if permitted to remain interferes 
with the excretory powers of the skin. In addition 
to removing this accumulation, water, if moderately 
cool, throws the blood back upon the internal organs, 
quickens the action of the heart and communicates the 
stimulus to the Wihole system ; reaction sets in, and a 
return of the blood to the surface invigorates the vital 
powers to an extent unknown by him who never in- 
dulged the luxury. 



QUESTIOI^S ON ZOOLOGY. 

1. Explain the terms biology ^ zoology, and natural 
history. 

2. How does the nutrition of plants differ from that 
of animals ? 

3. Give a comprehensive definition of animals 

4. Name and define the three great physiological 
functions. 

5. Name some of the most celebrated naturalists 
who have devoted much attention to zoology. 

6. Show in what manner we are dependent upon the 
animal creation. 

7. How is mankind benefited by a knowledge of the 
habits of animals ? 

8. (a) What are fossils ? (b) In what way do they 
aid the geologist ? 

9. How is paleontology dependent upon zoology? 

10. Name the systems of organs found in those 
animals exhibiting the highest order of structure. 

11. Define the terms absorption and exhalation. 

12. State what is meant by a cell in animal struc- 
ture. 

302 



QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 303 

13. Upon what is the study of zoology chiefly 
based ? 

14. State the general plan of classification of the 
animal kingdom by naming the groups beginning with 
the highest division. 

15. According to modern naturalists, what princi- 
ples determine the classification of animals into classes, 
orders, families, etc. ? 

IG. Upon what principle is all scientific classification 
of animals based ? 

17. Name the six subkingdoms into which the ani- 
mal kingdom is commonly divided. 

18. AYhat animals constitute the Vertebrates? 

19. Name the five classes composing the Vertebrata. 

20. How do the bones of vertebrates differ from 
shells of mollusks? 

21. In what respect do the teeth differ from bone? 

22. What are the characteristics of the Mammalia? 

23. Name the orders of the Mammalia, and after 
each give an example. 

21:. In what consists the superiority of the frame of 
man over that of other animals ? 

25. "Why are monkeys sometimes classed as 
Pedimana ? 

26. State the anatomical distinctions between man 
and the monkey. 

27. Explain the meaning of complete and double 
circulation as applied to mammals. 

28. How can you prove that cartilage is the basis 
of all the bones ? 



304 QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

29. Write the dental formula of man. 

30. What is meant by "facial angle? " How does 
man compare in facial angle with some of the lower 
orders ? 

31. Name the three families of the Quadrumana, 
and state which most resembles man. 

32. Can the Quadrumana be trained to be of any 
service to man ? Give your reasons. 

33. State to what families the following monkeys 
belong: Mandrill, Spider Monkey, Aye Aye, Gorilla, 
Chimprnzee. 

34. What are the prominent characteristics of the 
Carnivora ? 

35. Into what families are the Carnivora divided? 

36. Classify the Carnivora according to their means 
of locomotion, and give examples. 

37. How do the senses of the Carnivora compare 
with those of other animals ? Why this provision ? 

38. What is the typical family of the Carnivora? 
Why? 

39. Describe the digestion of the Kuminantia. 

40. Name the more important families of the Un- 
gulata, distinguishing those which are artiodactyl from 
those termed perissodactyl. 

41. Name ten animals termed ruminants. 

42. State resemblances and differences between the 
three species of the camelidae? 

43. What fossil animals are included in the Probos- 
cidea ? 



QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 305 

44. Describe and name the uses of the elephant's 
trunk. 

45. Name the families of the Cetacea, and state 
from which whalebone and sperm are obtained. 

46. To what order do bats belong? 

47. What peculiar habits distinguish the bats? 

48. Name some of the most important insectivora. 

49. Describe the dentition of the rodents. 

50. Classify the Rodentia according to families, and 
give at least one example of each. 

51. Which of the rodents is the most valuable to 
man? 

52. State two characteristics of the Edentata. 

53. What is the peculiar characteristic of the Mar- 
sujnalia ? 

54. For what are the Mammalia of Australia re- 
markable ? 

55. What structural phenomena are exhibited in the 
Platypus? 

56. Name the orders of birds, with an example of 
each. 

57. State the modifications in the form of birds 
which adapt them for flight. 

58. How is the bird's plumage rendered water- 
proof ? 

59. How do the bones of birds differ from the 
bones of mammals ? 

60. Describe the respiration of birds. 

61. Explain the perching apparatus of birds. 

62. Describe the digestive apparatus of birds. 

20 



306 QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

63. (a) What temperature is required for the 
hatching of eggs? (b) How is the chick aided in eS' 
caping from the shell ? 

64. Explain the terms, granivorous, carnivorous, 
gregarious, omnivorous, ruminants. 

65. Give the orders of reptiles with an example of 
each? 

66. How does the digestive apparatus of reptiles 
differ from that of mammals and birds? 

67. Describe the circulatory system of reptiles. 

68. What is the structural characteristic of the 
thoracic cavity of reptiles? 

69. Compare the special senses of reptiles with those 
of the higher orders. 

70. Name five extinct orders of the Rcptilia. 

71. Compare the heart of a serpent with that of a 
fish. 

72. Explain how serpents are capable of swallowing 
animals larger than themselves. 

73. How is the poison of a venomous snake com- 
municated to the object bitten ? 

74. Where are alligators and crocodiles respectively 
found? 

75. Show the propriety of applying the term " am- 
phibians " to the Batrachia. 

76. Name the orders of the Batrachia. 

77. In what way is the toad helpful to the gardaner? 

78. Compare a fish with a land vertebrate in respect 
to respiration, locomotion, digestion. 

79. Name and locate the fins of a fish, and state 



QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 307 

which correspond to the anterior and posterior limbs 
of vertebrates. 

80. Into what four classes are fishes divided accord- 
ing to Agassiz ? Give examples. 

81. "What enables the flying fish to " fly ? " 

82. Name the subkingdoms which form the Inverte- 
brates. 

83. Name the classes of Articulata with examples. 

84. Give some of the most prominent structural 
characteristics of the Articulates. 

85 . How are insects distinguished from other Articu- 
lates ? 

86. How do insects breathe? 

87. Describe the sting of an insect, and state how it 
differs from an '* ovipositor." 

88. Trace a particle of food in the digestive organs 
of an insect by naming the organs through which it 
passes to the intestine. 

80. Describe the metamorphosis of insects. 

90. Name and define the seven orders of insects, and 
give two examples of each. 

91. Are young flies smaller than old flies? 

92. What orders belong to the Arachnidaf 

93. Give the characteristics of the arachnids. 

94. Describe the Crustacea as a class. 

95. What remarkable restorative power over lost 
limbs is possessed by crustaceans ? 

96. Explain the molting of a crustacean. 

97. Name the orders of Crustacea according to the 
most general authority, and give examples of each. 



308 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

98. State the different methods by which worms 
multiply. 

99. How does the earth-worm benefit the soil? 

100. (a) Explain how the tape-worm is nourished. 
(b) How it grows, (c) How it is developed in the 
human system. 

101. How do Mollusks differ from the higher 
branches ? 

102. Describe the circulatory system of iSIollusks. 

103. Name and briefly describe the commonly rec- 
ognized classes of Mollusca. 

104. What is the structure of the Radiata? 

105. Describe the digestion of the Asteroids. 

106. What is the simplest form of animal which has 
been discovered? 

107. Classify the following animals by naming the 
Subkingdom, Class, Oixler, imd Family to which they 
severally belong: Orang-outang, Jaguar, Otter, Goat, 
Zebra, Mole, Armadillo, Swallow, River Tortoise, 
Frog, Salmon, Butterfly, Locust, Scorpion, Hair- 
snake, Slug, Oyster, Madrepore, Jelly-fish, Deer, 
Sperm Whale, Rat, Sparrow, Hawk, Quail, Pelican, 
Alligator, Katydid, Cuttle-fish, Sea Urchin. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

1. Biology {bios, life; and logos, discourse) is the 
study of living objects of all kinds. It includes the 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 309 

sciences of Botany and Zoology. Zoology (zoon, ani- 
mal; and logos, discourse) treats of animals. The 
term Natural History, formerly applied to the study 
of all natural objects, is now limited to Zoology. 

2. Plants live upon purely dead or inorganic sub- 
stances, as water, carbonic acid, ammonia, converting 
these into organic substances ; as starch, cellulose, 
sugar, etc. Animals have no power of living on in- 
organic substances; they require rea di/-made orgamic 
compounds, which plants furnish. 

3. Animals are living beings, nourished wholly by 
organic food, and which have sensation and the power 
of voluntary motion, consuming oxygen and giving 
off carbonic acid. 

4. 1. Functions of Nutrition, those by which an 
animal is able to live, grow and maintain its existence 
as an individual. 2. Functions of Beproduction, those 
by which the perpetuation of the species is insured. 
3. Functions of Relation, those by means of which 
external objects are brought into relation with the 
organism, and by which it in turn reacts upon the 
outer world. 

5. Aristotle, Linneas, Cuvier, Buffon, and Agassiz. 

6. First, a great portion of our food is derived from 
the animals of the forest, field and waters. Second, 
all our most valuable articles of apparel we get from 
this source. Third, dyes, varnishes, glues, ivory, 
bone, and a thousand other articles employed in the 
arts we take from the animal world. 



310 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

7. Zoology teaches mankind what animals are useful 
to him, and what ones are harmful. It teaches us how 
to protect those which may be of use, and how to de- 
stroy those which do us harm. 

8. (a) The remains of ancient organic bodies dis- 
covered in the earth, (b) Fossils aid the geologist in 
tracing out the different rock formations, and finding 
the coal and other materials essential to supply the 
wants of civilized man. 

9. Fossil remains of animals can be understood only 
when studied by the aid of facts and principles of 
zoology. 

10. Respiratory, digestive, absorbent, circulatory, 
secretory, excretory, motory, reproductive and ner- 
vous systems. 

11. Absorption is the act by which organisms imbibe 
into their tissues the fluids which surround them. 
Exhalation is the act of sending forth fluids in the form 
of vapor through the external and internal surfaces of 
the animal. 

12. A cell is the ultimate structural element of the 
animal composition. It is a minute vesicle filled with 
a viscid liquid named protoplasm ; i.e., the first to form. 
Within the vesicle there is a central particle termed the 
nucleus, and within this, there is, in many cases, a still 
smaller particle called nucleolus. 

13. Upon the classification of animals according to 
their relations and afiinities. 

14. The first division is into Subkingdoms or 
Branches; 2nd. Classes; 3rd. Orders; 4th. Families; 
5th. Genera; 6th. Species. 



ANS^VERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 311 

15. Subkingdoms are characterized by plan of struc- 
ture; classes, by the manner in which the plan is exe- 
cuted; orders, by the complication of structure; 
families, by form, as determined by structure ; genera, 
by details of execution in special parts; species, by 
the relation of individuals to one another, and by the 
proportion of their parts. 

16. Upon structure and upon form as determined 
by structure. 

17. 1. Vertebrata. 2. Articulata. 3. Mollusca. 
4. Echinodermata. 5. Coelenterata. 6. Protozoa. 

18. All animals which have an internal jointed skel- 
eton, and a brain and spinal cord along the dorsal side. 

19. Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Pisces. 

20. The bones are living and vascular animal tis- 
sues, greying and changing by internal additions and 
modifications. Shells grow only by additions to and 
modifications of the circumference. 

21. The teeth are in part composed of bony mate- 
rial called cement, but their principal substances are 
dentine and enamel; enamel being harder than any 
other tissue of the body, having but a trace of animal 
tissue, the teeth are far more durable than the bones. 

22. The Mammalia are warm-blooded, air-breathing 
vertebrates, which bring forth living young, and nour- 
ish them with milk. Their skin is usually covered 
with hair, fur or wool. Their lungs are separated by a 
diaphragm from the abdominal cavity. The heart has 
four cavities; the circulation of the blood is double 
and complete. 



312 ans^\t:rs to questions on zoology. 

23. Bimana^ man; Quadrumana, monkey; C«r- 
nivoray lion; TJngulatay horse; Proboscidean ele- 
phant; Sirenia^ dugong ; Hyracoidea, daman; 
Cetacea, whale; Chiroptera, hat; Insectivora, mole; 
Rodeiitia^heiiYQV', Edentata ^ anteater ; Marsupialiay 
opossum; Monotremata ^ duckbill. 

24. The framework of man is superior to that of 
the animals in its adaptability for the greatest variety 
of movements. 

25. Because of their power of opposing the great 
toe to the other toes, making the hind feet become 
hands. 

26. Monkeys may be distinguished from man ana- 
tomically by the spinal opening in the cranium being 
in the posterior third of the base ; by the single curve 
of the vertebral column ; by the shortness of the thumb 
which does not reach the base of the index finger ; by 
the long and narrow pelvis ; by the obtuse angle of the 
foot with the leg; and by the disproportionate length 
of the arms, which in most species, reach to the knee. 

27. The circulation in mammals is complete because 
all the blood circulates through the lungs before going 
through the body ; and it is said to be double becaupe 
the blood passes through two sets of capilliary vessels, 
one set belonging to the lungs, the other set to the 
body. 

28. This may be shown by placing a bone in weak 
muriatic acid for a few days, when the mineral sub- 
stance will be dissolved, and the cartilage having the 
same form and size as the bone will remain. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 313 

2—2 1—1 2—2 

29. Incisors, ; Canine, ; Pre-molars, . 

2-2 1-1 2-2 

Molars,^ = 32. 
3-3 

30. The '< facial angle " is formed by the intersec- 
tion of two lines projected in the following manner: 
the first extends from the lower opening of the ear to 
the base of the nose ; the second starting from the 
most prominent part of the forehead, intersects the 
first at the most prominent part of the upper jaw. 
In the White race this angle varies from 75° to 95°; 
in the ape it is 40° ; in the dog, 20°. 

31. The three families of the quadrumana are the 
Simiida3, the Cebidge, and theLemuridee. The Simiidse 
resembles man most. 

32. None have ever been trained to render any- 
useful service, and such training is probably impossi- 
ble from their disposition, being selfish, crafty, 
thievish, and malicious. 

33. The Mandrill, to the Simiidce ; the Spider 
Monkey, to the Cebid® ; the Aye Aye, to the Lemuri- 
dse ; the Gorilla and the Chimpanzee, to the Simiidse. 

34. 1st. They feed wholly or mainly on flesh. 2nd. 
They have long, sharp teeth, fitted for cutting and 
tearing rather than grinding. 3rd. The stomach is 
simple and the intestines relatively short, perfectly 
adapted to their easily digestible food. 4th. Their 
feet are provided with toes, which are often armed 
with sharp claws. 5th. In most cases the Carnivora 
are without clavicles. 



314 ANSWERS TO QUESTIOJvS ON ZOOLOGY. 

35. Felidce^ as the lion, cat ; Viverridoe^ civet, ich- 
neumon ; Hyenidoe, hyena; Canidcey dog, wolf; 
J/ws^e/uZce, weasel, otter; t^mtZce, bear ; Procyonidce, 
raccoon; Otariidce, eared seal, sea bear; Phocidcey 
common seal; i?osmamZce, walrus. 

36. Digitigrades, those which walk on the toes 
without touching the heel to the ground ; as the cat, 
tiger; Plantigrades, those which in walking place the 
sole of the foot flat on the ground; as the bear, rac- 
coon ; Pennigrades, those which progress by means of 
fin-like paddles; as the seal and walrus. 

37. Since the carnivora live almost entirely by prey 
which they must capture, their senses are more acute 
than those of any other order. 

38. The FelidiB, because they exhibit the peculiar 
characteristics of the order more than any other 
family. 

39. In the Euminantia the stomach is composed of 
four compartments. The food is swallowed as the 
animal grazes, and is passed directly into the paunch 
or first stomach ; thence into the reticulum or second 
stomach, where it is moistened and formed into 
pellets, which afterward ascend through the oesophagus 
to the mouth to be chewed while the animal rests. 
The food, now in the form of chewed cuds, is again 
swallowed, passing directly into the leaflet or third 
stomach, sometimes called many plies, on account of 
its numerous folds. From this it passes to the fourth 
stomach or caillette, which is the true organ of dio;es- 

' DO 

tion. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 3l5 

40. The artiodactyl Ungulata are : Camelidse, 
GiraffidtB, Bovidae, Antilocapridpe, Cervidse, Hippo- 
potamidffi, Suidse, Dicotylidoe; the perissodactyl Un- 
gulata Sive: Equidge, Rhinocerotidse, Tapiradse. 

41. The giraffe, bison, buffalo, goat, chamois, ox, 
deer, moose, sheep, gazelle. 

42. The camel, dromedary, and llama resemble one 
another in having no horns, being provided with two 
toes and cushioned feet, and being all ruminants. 
They differ in their dorsal structure and habitat, the 
camel having one hump, the dromedary, two and the 
llama none. The camel is adapted to cold climates, 
the dromedary to hot climates, and the llama, by rea- 
son of its hooked toes, is adapted to the rugged moun- 
tains of the Andes. 

43. The mastodon and the dinotheriwyi. 

44. The elephant's proboscis or trunk is a long cylin- 
drical organ composed of several thousand muscles, and 
endowed at its terminus with the most dehcate sensi- 
bility. The trunk is remarkable for its power and 
agility. It is the organ of touch, smell, prehension, 
and defense. 

45. The families of the Cetacea are delphinidoe^ hal- 
aenidcE, and physeteridce. Whalebone is obtained from 
the upper jaw of the balaenidm. Sperm is obtained 
from cranial cavities in the physeteridce. 

46. To the Chiroptera. 

47. The bats fly during the night, concealing them- 
selves in daylight in caves, hollow trees, and dark 
places, hanging by the hooks or nails of their hind 



316 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

feet. Their large ears and broad wings possess such 
a delicate sensibility that they are enabled to fly 
quickly and safely through the most complicated 
passages. 

48. The mole, shrew, hedgehog, kabung. 

49. In each jaw they have two chisel-shaped inci- 
sors, between which and the molars there is a space 
without teeth, canines being wanting. The incisors are 
long, slightly curved and deeply rooted. The edges 
are kept sharp by friction and growth. The molars 
are usually ridged transversely, and the jaws have 
a backward and forward motion as required in 
gnawing. 

50. Mm-idoe, rats and mice; Geomi/idce, gophers; 
Castoridce, beaver; Sciitridm^ squirrels; Hystricidce, 
porcupine ; Caviidce, Guinea-pig ; Leporidoe, hares and 
rabbits. 

51. The beaver on account of its fur. 

52. They are all toothless and painfully deliberate in 
their movements. 

53. The Marsupialia at birth are extremely small, 
and are immediately received into a pocket or pouch, 
formed by folds of the skin of the mother's abdomen. 
Here they are nourished till they are able to take care 
of themselves. 

54. In belonging, with a few exceptions, to the order 
of Marsupialia. 

55. It has the form of an otter with many of his 
habits, and the bill of a duck and webbed feet. 



ANSAVEKS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 317 

66. 

Passeres, sparrows. Herodiones, herons. 

PiCAEi^, woodpeckers. Alectorides, rails. 
PsiTTACi, parrots. Lamellirostres, geese. 

Eaptores, vultures. Stegaxopodes, pelicans. 

CoLmiBiE, cloves. Longipenxes, gulls. 

Gallix.e, turkeys. Pygopodes, auks. 

Beevipennies, ostriches. Sphexisci, penguins. 
LiMicoL^, snipes. 

57. The breast bone is greatly enlarged to furnish 
support for the muscles which move the wings ; while 
the fore limbs below the elbow are more or less consol- 
idated to give firmness in striking the air in flight. 

58. By the oil with which the feathers are dressed, 
and which is furnished by a gland situated on the tail. 

59. In being much lighter. The marrow found in 
the bones of mammals is replaced by air in the bones 
of birds. 

60. Eespiration in birds is most complete. Not only 
the lungs perform this function, but the bones and 
feathers aid in the act of breathing. It is claimed that 
if the windpipe be tied a bird will breathe through a 
broken bone. 

61. A large muscle extends down the thigh-bone, 
terminating in a tendon, which passes in front of the 
knee, and continuing downward and backward, passes 
behind the heel-bone; here it divides, sending branches 
to all the toes. When the bird stands erect the toes 
are extended, but as it crouches, the limbs being bent, 
the muscle and tendon are shortened, and in the act 



318 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

the toes are flexed and grasp the perch. This flexion 
is seen in the stepping of fowls, the flexing of the toes 
being involuntary. 

62. The stomach is composed of three parts, — the 
crojJ, which is an enlargement of the guUet, a membran- 
eous stomach lined with numerous glands which furnish 
juices to moisten the food, and the gizzard, in which 
the food is finally digested. 

63. (a) 104° Fahr. {b) By a horny point at the 
exti'cmity of the bill by which the shell is pierced. 

64. Granivorous, living upon grains or other seeds. 
Carnivorous, living upon animal food. Gregarious, 
living in numbers or herds. Omnivorous, feeding 
indiscriminately on all kinds of food. Ruminants, 
animals which chew the cud. 

65. Testudinata , tuviXQQ ; Z^ oWca to , alligator ; Lac- 
ei'tilia, lizards; Ophidia, snakes. 

66. It is shorter in proportion than in warm blooded 
vertebrates. The transition from the oesophagus to 
the stomach is by a pouch-like dilatation. The small 
intestines have but few coils, and the large intestines 
are short. Dio-estion is slugo-ish. 

67. The blood of reptiles is much cooler than in 
animals or birds. The heart has only three cavities 
instead of four, two auricles and one ventricle. The 
arterial blood from the lungs goes into the left auricle, 
and the venous blood from all parts of the body into 
the right auricle ; both are poured into the single ven- 
tricle, thus mixing the pure and impure blood; hence 
the sluggishness of these animals. 



ANS^VERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY 319 

68. Reptiles having no diapliragm, there is no divi- 
sion between the cavities of the thorax and abdomen, 
and the lungs are not connected with air-sacs placed in 
various parts of the body. 

69. The eyes of reptiles differ but little from those 
of birds; the hearing is less complete than it is in 
either mammals or birds ; the sense of smell is but 
little developed ; while the sense of touch is almost 
wanting. 

70. Ichthyopterygia, Sauropterygia, Pterosauria^ 
Anomodontia , Deinosauria. 

71. The heart of a serpent has three cavities, — two 
auricles and one ventricle; while a fish has but two 
cavities, — one auricle and one ventricle, containing 
only impure blood. 

72. The lower jaw articulates with the skull by 
means of a quadrate bone, and this in turn is movably 
jointed to the cranium. The two halves of the lower 
jaw are loosely united by ligaments and muscles. By 
reason of this peculiar arrangement serpents have the 
power of opening the mouth to an astonishing extent. 

73. The upper jaw contains a pair of long, curved 
fangs, which, when not in use, are pointed backward, 
and concealed in a fold of the gum. Each fang is 
perforated by a fine tube, connecting with the duct of 
the "poison-gland," located under and behind the 
eyes. When the snake strikes at any object, the poi- 
son is forced through the fang into the Avound, partly 
by the contraction of the muscles of the glands, and 
partly by the action of the jaw. 



320 ANSWEKS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

74. The alligator in the New World, the crocodile 
in the Old World. 

75. The term " amphibians " is applied to the Ba- 
trachia on account of their " double life," — the tadpole 
stage passed in water during which they breathe by 
gills like a fish, and a mature stage passed in air, dur- 
ing which they breathe by lungs. 

76. Anoura^ as frogs and toads; Urodela, as sala- 
manders and newts; Amphipneuslra ^ as siredons; 
Ai^oda, as the blind worm. 

77. The toad is an enormous eater; his daintiest 
food is the insect tribe that infest the gardens. A half 
dozen toads in a large garden will devour all the in- 
sects that destroy the young plants. 

78. While respiration in the land vertebrates is per- 
formed by means of lungs, in fishes it is effected by 
means of gills ; the limbs of fish corresponding to the 
locomotive members of land vertebrates are but little 
developed. Owing to the simplicity of the intestinal 
canal, digestion in fishes is very rapid. 

79. The fins of fish are termed loectovals, corre- 
sponding to the fore or anterior limbs of the higher 
vertebrates; ventrals, corresponding to the posterior 
limbs, dorsal, on the back ; anal, beneath the tail ; and 
caudal, at the end of the tail. 

80. Into Salachians (cartilaginous skeleton), as 
Sharks, Rays; Ganoids (enameled), as Gar-pikes ; 
Sturgeons ; Telliosts (perfect bone), as Perch, Salmon, 
Marsipobranchii (pouch gills), as Lampreys, Lan- 
celet. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 321 

81. The so-called flying of this fish is duo to an 
excessive development of the pectoral fins, by which it 
is enabled to sustain itself in air for only a few 
seconds. 

82. The ArticukUa ; the MoUusca; the Echinoder- 
mata; the Coelentei^ata; the Protozoa. 

83. /?i6^ecto , as insects ; Myriapoda , a.^ centipedes; 
Arachnida, as spiders; Crustacea^ as lobsters; An- 
nelida, as worms. 

84. The bodies of Articulates consist of a series of 
transversely jointed rings, more or less movable, com- 
posed of a substance termed chitine. The external 
parts are usually hard, and constitute the only skele- 
ton the animal may be said to have. The limbs, when 
present, are like the body — composed of jointed rings. 
Each distinct segment of the body possesses an inde- 
pendent nerve center, though these are all connected, 
both with each other and with the outer integument. 

85. In the true insects the three divisions of the 
body, the head, thorax, and abdomen, are always dis- 
tinct from one another; there are never more than 
thi'ee pairs of legs in the adult, and these are borne 
upon the thorax ; the abdomen has no locomotive ap- 
pendages. 

86. Breathing in insects is effected by means of air- 
tubes which branch throughout the animal, and which 
receive the air through air-holes, arranged along the 
side or posterior part of the body. The biood is 
aerated by absorbing air through delicate membranes 
of the tubes. 

21 



^22 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

87. The sting is a kind of hollow lancet connected 
with an internal sac of poison, which the insect injects 
into the wounds it inflicts when enraged. The oviposi- 
tor, or piercer, is a jointed tube used for conducting 
eggs into holes where they are left to be hatched. 

88. The food in some insects is chewed by means of 
mandibles by a horizontal motion ; in others it is mere- 
ly sucked in, and passes into a more or less folded 
cavity, termed the crojJ, from which it goes into a 
second muscular cavity or gizzard. The gizzard is 
adapted for crushing the food, by having, in many 
cases, teeth-like plates of chitine. From this the food 
passes into the true digestive organ, termed the chylific 
stomach, and thence to the intestine. 

89. The metamorphoses comprise three stages. The 
moth in passing from the egg state becomes a larva. 
If legs are present, the larva is a caterpillar ; if absent, 
a grub or maggot. In this state the larva is a voracious 
eater, and grows astonishingly, as may be seen in the 
common tobacco worm . At growth it usually rolls itself 
into an apparently lifeless oval or conical body called a 
puj)a or chrysalis. After a time, varying in length in 
different species, it sheds its pupa covering and comes 
forth an imago, or perfect insect. 

90. 1. Hymenoptera (membrane-winged), bees, 
wasps. 

2. Lepidoptera ( scaly-Manged ) , butterflies, moths. 

3. Diptera (two-winged), flics, mosquitoes. 

4. Coleoptera (sheath-winged), beetles, weevils. 

5. Hemiptera (half-winged), harvest-flies, bugs. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 323 

6. Ot'tlioptera (straight-winged), locusts, crickets. 

7. Neuroptera (nerve-winged), dragon-flies, ant- 
lion. 

91. They are not. Flies come forth in the imago 
full grown. The small flies belong to a different 
species. 

92. Aranece, as the spider; Pedipalpi, as the 
scorpion; Acarina, as the mite, cattle tick. 

93. The Arachnids have the head and thorax closely 
united ; four pairs of legs ; they are without antennas 
or wings; and, in general, undergo no metamorphosis, 
but molt their skin six times before coming to ma- 
turity. 

94. The Cmstacea (hard covering) are covered 
with a crust or shell. The body consists of segments, 
most of which, in the higher orders, are united into 
one piece, called the cephalo-thorax. Most crustaceans 
live in water, and breathe by means of gills or 
hranchice. 

95. All Crustaceans have the power of repairing 
injuries to themselves. Thus, if a leg or other ap- 
pendage is broken off another soon grows in its 
place. 

96. As the Crustacean grows it becomes too large 
for its shell. A rent is formed through the back and 
the animal slips out, leaving a shell as much like itself 
as when it encased the living creature. 

97. Decapodciy ten-footed, as lobsters, crabs, and 
shrimp ; Tetr'adecapoda, fourteen-footed, as wood-lice 



324 ANS^^'ERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

and sand-fleas; Entomoslraca, insect-like, as horse- 
shoe crabs and barnacles. 

98. Most worms multiply by eggs; some by self- 
division, called germination or fission ; while a few are 
viviparous. 

99. The earth or angle worm eats the organic mat- 
ter found in the earth. The rejected worm casts 
together with the burrowing and working of the worms 
over the soil often converts barren wastes into pro- 
ductive land. 

100. (rt) The tape worm is without digestive organs 
or alimentary canal, hence all nourishment is absorbed 
through the walls of its body. (5) The worm grows 
by increase in the number of joints near the head, the 
older ones, containing eggs, ripening and falling away, 
(c) The detatched joints escaping to the world scatter 
the eggs, which enter the system of other animals, 
usually some omnivorous feeder like the hog. Here 
only the eggs will hatch. The embryo pierces the 
flesh and becomes hydatids. The meat of such tainted 
hoo-s, containino;, the larvcB of these is eaten raw or 
insufficiently cooked, and develop in the human system 
the tape worm. 

101. MoUusks are neither jointed nor radiated in 
their internal structure, but are composed of yielding 
tissues of great concractile power enveloped by a mus- 
cular skin called the mantle. In most cases the mol- 
lusk is protected by a hard shell. 

102. The circulatory system of the higher orders 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 325 

of the Mollusca consists of a distinct heart, having an 
auricle and a ventricle, arteries and veins. The auricle 
receives the colorless aerated blood from the gills, while 
the ventricle drives it through the body. 

103. 1st. The CepJialopoda have muscular append- 
ages or arms around the head, two stout horny jaws ; 
two large eyes ; and the body is sometimes covered 
by a shell. 2nd. The Gasteropoda have the abdomen 
provided with a single foot by which all movements 
are effected. While some are naked, most live in an 
univalve shell. 3rd. The Acephala or LamelUbran- 
diiata have no apparent head, and live in a shell com- 
posed of two valves. 4th. The Tiinicata or Ascidiaris 
have a soft, elastic covering instead of a shell. 5th. 
The Brachiopoda (arm-footed) have two ciliated arms, 
the shell composed of two valves, one above and one 
below opening by a system of muscles instead of 
hinge ligaments as in the oyster. 6th. The Polyzoa 
grow in clusters, hence the name (many animals). 
They resemble plants in their general appearance so 
much as to be sometimes called mass-animals. 

104. The Radiata diverge in all directions from a 
central axis, — they are without ends or sides. The 
lateral symmetry observed in the higher forms is here 
replaced by a circular symmetry from the center, 
similar to the growth of plants, from which resem- 
blance the radiates are often called plant-animals. 

105. The Asteroids force their prey into a cavity 
on the under side by means of tentacles, when the 



326 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON ZOOLOGY. 

stomach by a peristaltic movement protrudes and en- 
velopes the food, which by the action of the fluids 
secreted by the animal, goes through the process of 
digestion. 

106. The Bathyhius, belonging to the Monera, a 
structureless living albuminous jelly. 

107. Consult Tenxy's Elements of Zoology or 
Steel's Fourteen Weeks in Zoology. 



QUESTIONS ON PHrLOSOPHY. 

1. Define Natural Philosophy. Physics. 

2. Give the general properties of matter. 

3. What are the specific properties of matter ? 

4. How does a molecule differ from an atom? 

5. Name the great forces in nature. 

6. State and illustrate the difference between cohe- 
sion and adiiesion. 

7. In what three forms does matter exist? 

8. What is the difference between annealing and 
welding? 

9. State Newton's Laws of Motion. 

10. What is the absolute unit of force? 

11. Give the law of reflected motion. 

12 . What are the two laws of gravitation ? 

13. («) How does weight decrease above and below 
the earth's surface. (6) Where is it nothing? 

■ 14. Write the three formulas for falling bodies, ex- 
plaining the characters you employ. 

15. How does the initial velocity of a body pro- 
jected upward compare with the final velocity of a fall- 
ing body ? 

327 



328 QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 

16. What is meant by the random of a projectile? 

17. How far will a body fall in ten seconds? 

18. Give the laws of the pendulum. 

19. (a) What is the length of a second's pendulum 
in the United States? (6) Where would it be longer? 

20. Explain what is meant by a 10 horse-power en- 
gine. 

21. What are the three general laws of machines? 

22. Describe the three classes of levers. 

23. Give formulas for the solution of lever problems. 

24. With a lever of the first class in which the 
distance between the power and fulcrum is 4 feet, and 
the distance from the weight to the fulcrum is 2 feet, 
how great a weight can be balanced by a man weighing 
150 pounds ? 

25. Write a formula for the wheel and axle. 

26. State the law of wheel-work. 

27. What is a pulley ? How many kinds? 

28. How do you find the weight balanced by a given 
power with a system of pulleys having a continuous 
rope ? 

29. Give rules for determining the advantage gained 
by using an inclined plane. 

30. How is the advantage gained by the use of a 
screw estimated? 

31. What means are employed for diminishing the 
friction between two surfaces ? 

32. State the law of liquid pressure. 

33. How is the pressure of a hj'drostatic presa 
found? 



QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHT. 329 

34. Give a rule for finding the liquid pressure on the 
bottom of any vessel. 

35. How may the pressure of water against the side 
of a vessel be found? 

36. Upon what property of liquids is the spirit level 
constructed ? 

37. State clearly what is meant by specific gravity? 

38. How would you find the sp. gr. of a piece of 
iron ? 

39. Give a rule for finding sp. gr. of a body lighter 
than water. 

40. How is the weight of any substance determined 
from its specific gravity ? 

41. (a) What is the pressure of the air at sea level? 
(5) How high a column of mercury does this pressure 
sustain? (c) What height does it raise water in a 
pump ? 

42. Describe and state the uses of the barometer. 

43. State the velocity of sound in air and in water. 

44. AVith what velocity will water flow from an 
opening 64.32 feet below the surface of the water? 
Give the work, and state the law upon which this is 
based. 

45. How would you determine the volume of water 
discharged by a river in a given time? 

46. Name the different kinds of water-wheels in use, 
and state how much of the water power is made avail- 
able by each . 

47. What is Mariotte's law governing the compress- 
ibility of air? 



330 QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 

48. Explain the action of the lifting pump. 

49. How is the earth's magnetism shown by polar- 
izing a bar thrust in the ground? 

50. State the law of electric action. 

51. What is the velocity of light? 

52. How does the intensity of light and heat vary? 

53. Give three laws for the refraction of light. 

54. Upon what principles are sounds transmitted by 
the telephone? 

55. Nameand define the methods of diffusion of heat. 

56. Upon what facts does the action of the ther- 
mometer depend ? 

57. How much steam will a cubic foot of water 
make? 

58. Give the law of thermodynamics. 

59. How is the vibrating movement of the piston in 
a steam-engine produced ? 

60. How do images appear in convex mirrors? 

61. Name the different kinds of lenses. Into what 
two classes may they be divided ? 

62. Explain how objects are perceived by the 
organs of the eye. 

63. A, who can row 6 miles an hour in still water, 
heads his boat straight across a stream flowing 4 
miles an hour: how far and with what velocity does 
his boat move to reach the opposite shore, if the 
stream is 4 miles wide? 

64. A body weighs 50 lbs. at the earth's surface; 
what is its weight 500 miles below the surface? 

65. What would be the difference in weight of a 



QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. • 331 

100 lb. ball 1000 miles above the earth's surface and 
1000 miles below the surface? 

66. How far above and below the earth's surface 
should a Troy pound be taken to weigh 3 ounces? 

67. How far will a two-pound weight fall during 
(a) the fourth second of its descent? (b) What will 
be the entire distance fallen? (c) With what velocity 
will it strike the earth? 

68. A body is thrown directly upward with a veloc- 
ity of 112.56 feet; (a) What velocity will it have at 
the end of the fourth second? (b) In what direction 
is it moving? 

69. What will be the time of vibration of a pendu- 
lum 30 inches long, and how . many vibrations will it 
make in a minute ? 

70. How long must a pendulum be to beat once in 
2V3 seconds ? 

71. A pendulum 5 feet long makes 400 vibrations 
durino; a certain time; how many vibrations will it 
make in the same time after the pendulum rod has 
been expanded V-t of an inch ? 

72. What is the horse-power of an engine that can 
raise 2000 lbs. 4800 feet in 3 minutes? 

73. How long will it take a 10 horse-power engine 
to raise 50 tons 200 feet? 

74. How far can a 20 horse-power engine raise 80 
tons in 40 seconds? 

75. AVhat weight can be balanced by a lever having 
the following elements: power arm 7V2 feet, weight 
arm 8 inches, power 100 lbs.? 



332 QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 

76. Required the power to balance a weight of 150 
lbs., and the class of lever, if the power arm is 3 
feet and the weight arm 4 feet. 

77. Two men, A and B carry a barrel of flour 
(weight 210 lbs.) suspended from an 8-foot pole be- 
tween them, but as B is only "/8 as strong as A, it is 
required to know how far from each the weight should 
be placed. 

78. Where should be the fulcrum of a 5-foot lever 
so that a weight of 40 lbs. at one end shall be balanced 
by 8 lbs. at the other? 

79. What is the class and length of lever and dis- 
tance from power to fulcrum of that lever with which 
a power of 1 kilogram will balance a weight of 4 kilo- 
grams placed 50 centimeters from the fulcrum ? 

80. What power will be required to move the pilot- 
w^heel of a boat if the resistance of the rudder is 
80 lbs. and the diameters of the wheel and axle are 
4 feet and 8 inches respectively? 

81. A weight of 540 lbs. is balanced by 60 lbs. on 
a wheel 12 feet in diameter; what is the diameter and 
circumference of the wheel's axle? 

82. How much power Avill be required to draw 10 
gallons (80 lbs.) of water from a well with a windlass 
12 inches in diameter fitted with a winch 20 inches 
long? 

83. What weight can be balanced by a system of 
4 movable and 5 fixed pulleys, the poAver being 100 
lbs.? 



QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 333 

84. In a system of pulleys of two blocks, each 
containing 4 sheaves, the friction is Ve the power; 
required the power which will support 1200 lbs. 

85. An inclined plane has a base of 12 feet and a 
height of 3 feet. What force acting (a) horizontally, 
that is parallel to the base, will balance a weight of 
3 tons? (b) What force will be required if the force 
acts parallel to the plane? 

86. A screw whose threads are V4 of an inch apart 
is turned by a lever 6 feet long. How great a force 
will be exerted by a power of 25 lbs., applied at the 
end of the lever, allowing 200 lbs. for friction? 

87. Find the pressure on the base of a cylindrical 
cistern whose diameter is 5 feet, the water being 6 
feet deep. 

88. A dam 20 feet high and 100 feet from shore to 
shore is filled with water ; what is the average pressure ? 

89. What is the total liquid pressure on the sides 
and bottom of a prismatic vessel containing 2 cubic 
yards of water, the bottom of the vessel being 2 by 
3 feet? 

90. What is the pressure on the bottom of a pyra- 
midal vessel filled with water, the base being 3 by 4 
feet, and the height being 10 feet? 

91. The lever (2nd class) of a hyarostatic press is 
8 feet long, the piston rod is one foot from the ful- 
crum; the area of the tube is V2 square inch, that of 
the cylinder is 120 square inches. Find the weight 
that may be raised by a power of 100 lbs. 



334 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 

92. The temj^erature of a school-room, as shown 
by a Fahrenheit's thermoneter, is 68 deg., what tem- 
perature would be indicated by a Centigrade thermome- 
ter? By Reaumer's thermometer? 

93. What is the specific gravity of a piece of metal 
which weighs 88.19 ounces in air, and when placed 
in a vessel even full of water displaces 1 1 ounces of 
the liquid ? 

94. A 16-ounce ball weighs 7 ounces in Avater, but 
upon being transferred to another liquid, weighs 11 
ounces; what is the specific gravity of the second 
liquid? 

95. Find the specific gravitj^ of a piece of ice from 
the following conditions: a lump of ice weighing 8 
lbs. is tied to 16 lbs. of lead. In water the lead 
alone weighs 14.6 lbs., while the lead and ice in water 
weigh 13.712 lbs. 



AJS^SWERS TO QUESTIONS ON NATURAL, 
PHILOSOPHY. 

1. Natural Philosophy is the science which treats of 
all those phenomena of matter in which there is no 
change in the composition of the body. Physics is 
only another tei-m for Natural Philosophy. 

2. Extension, Impenetrability, Weight, Indestructi- 
bility, Inertia, Mobility, Divisibility, Porosity, Com- 
pressibility, Expansibility, and Elasticity. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 335 

3. Hardness, Tenacity, Brittleness, Malleability, 
Ductility. 

4. A molecule is the smallest particle of matter that 
can exist by itself; while an atona is the smallest parti- 
cle of matter that can enter into composition. 

5. Internal or Molecular Forces, Attraction of 
Gravitation, Heat, Light, Electricity, Magnetism, Vi- 
tal Force. 

6. Cohesion is the force which holds together like 
molecules; adhesion is the force which holds together 
unlike molecules. Cohesion preserves the forms of 
bodies, as the parts of a stone, while adhesion holds 
the crayon marks to the blackboard. 

7. In the solid, the liquid, and the gaseous forms. 

8. Annealing is the process of rendering metals, 
glass, etc., soft and flexible by heating and gradually 
cooling. The process of welding is the union by cohe- 
sion of two pieces of iron or platinum by heating and 
hammering them together. 

9. First Law. A body unaffected by any exter- 
nal force continues in its state of rest or of uniform 
motion in a straight line. 

Second Law. A force produces the same effect 
whether the body on which it acts is at rest or in mo- 
tion, whether it acts alone or with other forces. 

Third Law. Action and reaction are equal and in 
opposite directions. 

10. It is the force, which acting for a unit of time 
upon a unit of mass, will produce a unit of velocity. 



336 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 

11. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of 
reflection, and lies in the same plane. 

12. 1st. Gravitation varies directly as the mass. 
2nd. Gravitation varies inversely as the square of the 
distance from the centers of gravity. 

13. Above the surface of the earth weight decreases 
as the square of the distance from the center of the 
earth increases. Below the surface it decreases sim- 
ply as the distance from the surface toward the center 
increases. At the center of the earth there is no 
weight, because the influence of gravity there ceases. 

14. V = velocity; s = space fallen each second; 
S = total distance fallen; g = 32.16 ; t = time; V = 
gXt; s = V2 g (2t— 1) ; S = V2 g Xt'^ 

15. It is the same for any given distance. 

16. The random of a projectile is the horizontal dis- 
tance from its starting point to where it strikes the 
ground. 

17. 8 = 1/2 gXt^; that is 1/2 of 32.16x10^=1608 
feet. 

18. 1st Law. Vibrations of small amplitude are 
made in equal times. 

2nd Law. The times of vibrations of two pendu- 
lums are to each other as the square roots of their 
lengths. 

3rd Law. The lengths of two pendulums are di- 
rectly proportional to the squares of their times of vi- 
bration, or inversely proportional to the squares of 
the number of their vibrations in a given time. 

19. (a) 39.1 inches, (b) Toward the Poles. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 337 

20. A 10 horse-power engine is one having power to 
do 10X33,000 foot-pounds of work in a minute. 

21. First. What is gained in intensity of power is 
lost in time, velocity, or distance. 

Second. The power multiplied by the distance 
through which it moves equals the weight multiplied 
by the distance through which it moves. 

Tliird. The power multiplied by its velocity equals 
the weight multiplied by its velocity. 

22. In a lever of the first class the power and 
weight are at the ends, the fulcrum is between them. 

In a lever of the second class the poioer and fulcrum 
are at the ends, the weight is between them. 

In a lever of the third class the weight and fulcrum 
are at the ends, the power is between them. 

23. P (power) : W (weight) :: WF (weight arm) : 
P F (power arm). 

24. P: W::WF: PF; 

150: X:: 2: 4; whence X= 300 pounds. 

25. The power : Weight;: the radius, diameter, or 
circumference of the axle: the Radius, Diameter, or 
Circumference of the wheel. 

26. The continued product of the power and the 
radii of the wheels equals the continued product of 
the weight and the radii of the axles. 

27. A pulley is a wheel usually fixed in a block, and 
turning on its axis by means of a cord running in a 
crroove formed on the edge of a wheel. There are 
two kinds — fixed and movable. 

22 



338 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 

28. Multiply the power by the number of folds of 
the rope supporting the weight attached to the mova- 
ble block. 

29. P (power): W (weight):: h (height): 1 
(length). This rule applies only when the power acts 
parallel to the plane. If the power acts parallel to the 
base, we apply this formula: P: W:: h (height): 
b (base). 

30. A given power will support a weight as many 
times as great as itself as the circumference described 
by the power is times as great as the distance between 
the threads. 

31. 1st. By increasing the smoothness between the 
surfaces. 2nd. By placing some lubricant between 
the surfaces, as soap and black lead for woods, and oil 
for metals. 3rd. By making the surfaces of different 
material. 

32. Liquids under the pressure of gravity only, 
press equally in all directions. 

33. Multiply the pressure exerted by the piston by 
the quotient obtained by dividing the area of the cyl- 
inder by the area of the piston. 

34. Multiply the area of the base in feet by the 
depth of the water in feet, and this product by 62V2 
(the number of pounds in a cubic foot of water). 

35. Multiply the area of the side in feet by one-half 
the height of water in feet, and this product by 
62V2. 

36. It is constructed upon the property of liquids 
to assume a horizontal surface. 



ANSA\^RS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 339 

37. The specific gravity of a body is its Aveight 
compared witli the weight of an equal volume of an- 
other body taken as the standard. 

38. Weigh the piece of iron in air and in water; 
divide its weight in air by the loss it sustains by weigh- 
ing it in water. 

39. Attach the lighter body to a piece of metal 
heavy enough to sink it ; weigh the combination in air 
and in water. 

Find the loss of weight of the combined mass when 
weighed in water. Weigh the heavy body in air and 
in water, and find the loss. From the loss which the 
combined mass sustains in water subtract the loss 
which the heavy body alone sustains in water; the 
remainder will be the weight of water equal to the 
bulk of the lighter body. Divide the weight of the 
lighter body by this remainder. 

40. Multiply the sp. gr. of the substance by 62 V2 ; 
the product is the weight of a cubic foot of the sub- 
stance. 

41. (a) 15 pounds per square inch. (5) It sup- 
ports a column of mercury 30 inches high, (c) 
Theoretically, it raises water 34 feet: practically 
about 28 feet. 

42. The barometer consists of a straight glass tube 
about 33 inches long, filled with mercury and inverted 
in a vessel containing mercury. It is used to indicate 
changes in the weather, and to measure the heights of 
mountains. 



340 ANSAVERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 

43. Sound travels in air, at 32° Fahr., 1,090 feet 
per second; in wate^-, about 4,700 feet per second. 

44. 64.32 feet -^ 16.08 = 4 ; The square root of 4 
is 2, the number of seconds; 32.16 X 2 = 64.32 ft., 
Ans. The law upon which this is based is: The veloc- 
ity of a stream flowing through an orifice is the same 
as that acquired by a body falling freely from a height 
equal to the depth of the liquid. 

45. Multiply the area of a cross section of the 
river's bed by the velocity of the stream, and this 
product by the time. 

46. The undershot wneel, using about 25% of the 
water power, the breast wheel, about 65 %, the over- 
shot wheel, about 72 %, and the turbine wheel, using 
from 80 to 85 %. 

47. The volume of space which air occupies is in- 
versely as the pressure upon it. 

48. The lifting pump consists of a hollow cylinder, 
within which is a piston working air-tight. At the 
lower end of both piston and cylinder is a valve open- 
ing upward. The cylinder is attached to a tube or 
"suction pipe" communicating with the water. As 
the piston is worked the air below it is gradually re- 
moved. The downward pressure in the pipe being 
thus removed, the pressure of the air, exerted upon 
the surface of the liquid, pushes the liquid up through 
the suction pipe and the lower valve into the cylinder. 
When the piston is again pressed down, the lower 
valve closes, the reaction of the water opens the piston 
valve, the piston sinking below the surface of the 



ANSW'ERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 341 

water in the cylinder. When next the piston is raised, 
its valve is closed by the weight of the water, and at 
the same time the water is lifted toward the spout and 
thrown out. 

49. If an iron bar be placed in the earth and struck 
a sharp blow upon the upper end, that end becomes 
polarized. 

50. Two bodies charged with like electricities repel 
each other; two bodies charged with opposite elec- 
tricities attract each other. 

61. About 186,000 miles per second. 

52. The intensity of light and heat varies inversely 
as the square of the distance. 

53. First. Light entering a medium at right angles 
to its surface is not refracted. 

Second. Light passing obliquely from a rarer to a 
denser medium is refracted toward the perpendicular. 

Third. Light passing obliquely from a denser to a 
rarer medium is refracted jT/'ow the perpendicular. 

54. The sounds uttered cause air waves to beat 
upon the diaphragm and cause it to vibrate. Each 
vibration of the diaphragm produces an electric cur- 
rent in the wire. These currents are transmitted to 
the coil of the connected telephone, and there produce 
in the diaphragm of the connected instrument vibra- 
tions exactly like the original vibrations produced by 
the voice of the speaker. 

65. Heat is diffused in three ways: Conduction, 
Convection, and Radiation. Conduction is the trans- 
fer of heat from molecule to molecule. Convection 



342 AXSWHES TO QUESnoyS ON PHTLOSOPHT. 

is the transfer of heat by circulation. Eadiation is the 
transfer of heat bv waves moring in straight lines in 
all directions. 

56. The action of the mercurial thermometer de- 
pends upon the facts that heat expands mercury more 
than it does glass, and that when two substances of dif- 
ferent temperatures are brought into contact, the 
warmer one will gire heat to the colder one until they 
have a common temperature. 

o7. About 1700 cubic feet of steam. 

58. When heat is transformed into mechanical 
energy, or mechanical energy into heat, the quantity 
of heat equals the quantity of mechanical energy'. 

59. In a double-acting steam-engine, the steam is 
admitted by means of sliding valves, to the cylinder 
alternately above and below the piston. 

60. In convex mirrors the images are virtual, erect, 
and smaller than their objects. 

61. The Double-convex, Plano-convex, and Concavo- 
convex, or meniscus, are thicker in the middle than 
at the edges: while the Double-concave, Plano-con- 
cave, and Convex-concave, or diverging meniscus, are 
thinner in the middle than at the edges. 

62. Eays of light entering the eye from an object, 
are refracted by the cornea and crystaline lens, and 
made to converge to a focus at the back of the eye, 
and form an image upon the retina. This image pro- 
duces a sensation on the optic nerve, and conveys, in 
some unknown way, to the mind, a perception and 
knowledge of the external object. 



ANSA\'ERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 343 

63. (6 mi.)- +(4 mi.)-=52 sq. mi. ; V52 = 7.21 
+ mi. velocity. If he rowed with a velocity of 4 mi. 
an horn- he would drift 4 miles, but he rows 6 miles an 
hour, and therefore drifts | or | of 4 miles, or 2| 
miles. (2|)2+ (4)2 = 23| ; V23|. = 4.8 + miles. 

64. The weight below the surface : the weight at 
the surface : : the distance from the earth's center : 
the distance from the center to the surface ; that is 

10 : W:: d: D; 

X lbs.; 50 lbs. : :3500 mi. : 4000 mi. 

Ans. 43.75 lbs. 

65. iv: W :: d :D; 

x : 100 : : 3000 : 4000. Weight 75 lbs. below 
the earth's surface. 

w: W :: D- : d- ; 

X : 100 : : (4000)'^ : (5000)^. Weight 64 lbs. 
above the earth's surface. 75 lbs. — 64 lbs. = 11 lbs., 



difference. Ans. 








66. 






lu : W 
3 : 12 


::d:D; 

::x : 4000. 






Ans. 


1000 mile 


s from the earth's 


center. 






IV 


: W:: 


D': d'; 








3 


; 12 : : 


(4000)2 :x\ 





I 12 X 16000000 = V<J-i<^0^000 = 8*^00 miles from 

■^=J 3 

the center, or 4000 miles above the surface. 

67. (a) 16.08 ft.X7 (twice the number of seconds 
less one)= 112.56 ft., distance fallen during the 4th 
second; (b) 16.08X16 (the square of the number of 



344 ANS"VVER8 TO QUESTIONS ON PHIL080PHT. 

seconds) = 257.28 ft., the entire distance fallen; (c) 
32.16 (gravity) X4 = 128.64 ft., velocity at the end 
of the 4th second. 

68. 112.56 ft. (initial velocity) -^ 32.16 (gravity) 
= 3|- seconds in rising. Since it rises but 3|- seconds, 
at the end of the 4th second it has been falling ^ sec- 
ond, and has a velocity of 32.16 X |- or 16.08 ft. 

69. 39.1 : 30 : : 12 : t^, or t = .87 + seconds. Since 
the pendulum vibrates once in .87 seconds, it will 
vibrate as many times in one minute, or 60 seconds, 
as 60 -^ .87+ = 68.9+. Ans. 

70. 39.1 inches X (2|)2 = 278+ inches. 

71. The length of the given pendulum : the length 
of the pendulum increased by ^ of an inch : : the 
square of the required number : 400^. 60 inches 
: 60.25 inches : : x" : 400^. Ans. 399.04+. 

-« TT 2000 X 4800 ^„ f. . 

72. Horse power = ggQ^Q ^ — 3- = 96.9. Ans. 

73. 2000 X 50 X 200 = 20000000 minutes ; 33000 

X 10 = 330000 foot pounds ; 20000000 min. -- 330000 

= 6011 minutes. Ans. 

_, TT Weight X distance ^-^r . . ,. 

74. Horse power = 33000 x time in minutes . - W. X dis- 
tance = 33000 X time X H. P. ; that is, (2000 X 80) 
X sc = 33000 X I [40 sec] X 20. 160000 x = 440000, 
and a;, or the distance, = 2| feet. 

75. P:W::WF:PF; 

100 : a; : : 8 in. : 90 in. Ans. 1125 lbs. 

76. P:W ::Wr:PF; 
X : 150 : : 4 ft. : 3 ft. 

Ans. 200 lbs., lever of 3d class. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 345 

77. I + f = y, strength of both compared with A. 
210 -T- y = 112 lbs. carried by A ; 210 — 112 = 98 
lbs. carried by B. If B acts as fulcrum and A as 
power, we have 

P : W : : W F : P F ; 
112 : 210 : : cc ft. : 8 feet. 
Performing indicated operation, we have 4^^^ feet as 
the distance the weight is from B ; and 8 — 4^*3- = 3ii 
feet from A. 

78. Since the weight is five times as great as the 
power, the power arm should be five times as long as 
the weight arm ; the weight arm plus 5 times the weight 
arm, or 6 times the weight arm, equals 60 inches, or 
the weight arm equals 10 inches and the power arm 
equals 50 inches. 

79. The lever may be of the 1st or 2nd class. 
Of 1st class: P: W :: WF : P F; 

1 kg. : 4 kg. : : 50 cm. : x cm. 
The power arm, or distance from fulcrum to power, 
is 200 cm., and the length of lever is 200 cm. + 50 
cm. = 250 cm. As a lever of the 2nd class the whole 
length would be 200 cm. 

80. P: W:: d (diam. axle): D (diam. wheel); 
x: 80:: 8 inches : 48 inches. 

Performing operation, x equals 13|^; but since the 
wheel is to. be movedy the power must be anything 
greater than 13^ lbs. 

81. P: W:: d: D; 

60 : 540 : : x ft. : 12 ft. Diam. axle, 1^ ft. 
11 ft. X 3.1416 = 4.1888 ft., circumference of axle. 



346 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 

82. P; W:: d: D; 

X : 80: : 12 : 2 X 20; power equals 24 lbs, 

83. Since the number of fixed pulleys is one greater 
than the number of movable pulleys, the number of 
cords is one greater than twice the number of mova- 
ble pulleys, or 9 ; and 100 lbs. X 9 = 900 lbs. Ans. 

84. 4X2=8, number of cords. 

1200 Ib.^ 8 = 150 lbs.; 150 lbs.— 25 lbs. (deducted 
for friction) equals 125 lbs. Ans. 

85. (a) P: W :: h (height) : b (base) ; 

X : 6000 : : 3 ft. : 12 ft. Ans. 1500 lbs. 
(b) (12ft.)'^=144sq. ft. 

(Sfi.y= 9 sq. ft. 144 + 9 = 153 ; V'TSS 
= 12.3+ ft. 

P: W:: h (height): 1 (length); 
x: 6000:: 3 ft: 12.3+ ft. 

Ans. 1463.4+. 

86. 6 X 12 X 2 X 3.1416 =452.3904 inches circum- 
ference described by power. 

P : W : : d (distance between threads) : c (circum. ) ; 
25: a; :: ^ inch : 452.3904 in. 

Performing operation, x = 45239.04 lbs. ; subtracting 
200 lbs. for friction, we have 45039.04 lbs. Ans. 

87. Area of the base equals 19.635 sq. feet. 19.635 
X 6 X 62.5 lbs. = 7363.12+ lbs. Ans. 

88. 20 X 100 = 2000 sq. ft. 2000 sq. ft. X 10 (half 
the height) = 20000 cu. ft. ; 62.5 lbs. X 20000 = 
1250000 lbs. Ans. 

89. The water in the vessel stands (V = ) ^ f** 
deep. The sides subjected to lateral pressure have an 



ANS^VEKS TO QUESTIONS ON PHILOSOPHY. 347 

area of [(2 + 2 + 3 + 3) X 9] 90 square feet. 90 
X 4|- = 405, number of cu. feet in a column producing 
lateral pressure. There are (2X3X 9) 54 cubic feet 
in the vertical column. 405 + 54 = 459 ; 62| lbs. X 
459 = 28687^ lbs. Ans. 

90. 3 X 4 X 10 = 120 cu. ft. 62^ lbs. X 120 = 
7500 lbs. Ans. 

91. The piston will move with a force of (8 X 100) 
800 lbs. The area of the cylinder being 240 times 
greater than that of the piston, the weight will be 240 
times 800 lbs., or 192000 lbs., or 96 tons. 

92. The differences between the freezing and boil- 
ing points of Fahrenheit's, the Centigrade, and Reau- 
mer's thermometers are respectively (212 — 32) 180°, 
100= and 80° ; hence, 1° Fahr. = | C. and | R. Sub- 
tracting 32° from 68°, we have 36° Fahr. above the 
freezing point. | of this equals 20° C, and | of it 
equals 16° R. 

93. 88.19 ounces -f-. 11 = 8.01 + specific gravity. 

94. 16 oz. — 7 oz. = 9 oz. ; 16 oz. — 11 oz. = 5 oz. 
5 -^ 9 = |. Ans. 

95. Combined weight in air, 24 lbs. 
Combined weio-ht in water, 13.712 lbs. 



Weight of water displaced by ice and lead, 10.288 lbs. 
Weight of water displaced by lead, 1.4 lbs. 

Weight of water displaced by ice, 8.888 lbs. 

Specific gravity of ice (8 -=- 8.888) = .9+. Ans. 



QUESTIONS ON THEORY AND PRACTICE OF 
TEACHING. 

1. Give a comprehensive definition of education. 

2. What is the essential process of education? 

3. Explain what is meant by the ♦' natural order of 
educating the faculties." 

4. Show the difference between "Learning and 
Education." 

5. State as many fundamental educational truths 
recognized by educators as you can. 

6. What three kinds of knowledge should the teacher 
possess ? 

7. Into what three general classes are the mental 
powers commonly divided? Illustrate. 

8. Define the following terms : Perceptive Facul- 
ties, Conceptive Faculties, Reflective Faculties, Intui- 
tion. 

9. Explain the distinction between a mental power 
and a mental faculty. 

10. What is included in the " Theory and Practice 
of Teaching?" 

11. What items are included in the *' History of 
Education?" 

348 



QUESTIONS ON THEORY AND PRACTICE, ETC. 349 

12. Name the six methods of instruction commonly 
recognized by educators. 

13. Explain the difference between mere teaching 
and training. 

1-4. State the commonly recognized requisites of a 
successful teacher. 

15. What is meant by " School Government? " 

16. Is it true that good teachers, like true poets, are 
born, and not made by cultivation ? Give your reasons 
for your answer. 

17. Explain how a good teacher may be a poor 
educator. 

18. Enumerate the means through Avhich the percep- 
tives are cultivated. With which is the teacher most 
concerned ? 

19. What training should the reflective powers of 
children under 15 years of age receive? 

20. Name the most prominent mental qualities 
sought in the cultivation of the conceptive faculty. 
Give 3'our reasons. 

21. What course should a teacher pursue during the 
first day of school ? 

22. What items should be included in a teacher's 
contract? 

23. Name four hygienic conditions which should 
receive daily attention by the teacher. 

24. To what extent should a child of average mental 
power be trained during his first year at school? 

25. Name five of the most common methods in 
teachinsc children to read. 



350 QUESTIONS ON THEORY AND PRACTICE, ETC. 

26. Explain the advantages of instruction in phonics. 

27. Explain the Word Method of teaching children 
to read. 

28. Give the successive steps usually taken in teach- 
ing the Word Method . 

29. What should be the teacher's purpose in teach- 
ing reading? 

30. State how a teacher may learn his pupils' names 
during the first day of school. 

31. Show whether it is or it is not necessary for 
teachers of the primary and intermediate grades to 
acquaint themselves with the higher branches. 

32. What item should be daily recorded by the 
teacher? 

33. What monthly summary is required to be re- 
ported by the teacher ? 

34. Enumerate five of the principal objects of a 
recitation. 

35. Why should physiology and hygiene in some 
form be taught in all schools? 

36. Name one or more studies which call into exer- 
cise the different faculties. 

37. How far and when should the pupil be assisted 
in the preparation of his lesson ? 

38. Of what advantages is a daily programme? 

39. What can you say regarding a teacher's tones 
in his school room? 

40. Is a marked degree of excellence in the per- 
formance of reading, writing and arithmetic essential 
to success in teaching these branches? 



QUESTIONS ON THEORY AND PRACTICE, ETC. 351 

41. Show clearly that the teacher is equally responsi- 
ble for the physical and moral training of his pupils as 
for their intellectual training. 

42. Name and illustrate the three methods com- 
monly employed in conducting a school exercise. 

43. State four advantages of school records. 

44. How is moral responsibility best taught to 
pupils in school? 

45. "What methods should be employed in school 
to train the pupils in oral expression ? 

46. Is a teacher legally justified in correcting pupils, 
by punishment or other means, for misconduct on the 
road to and from school? 

47. Is a teacher required to be at his school before 
the time of opening? 

48. Name certain incentives to study which a teacher 
may not employ. 

49. Enumerate what are commonly regarded as 
proper incentives to study. 

50. In what respect are most unsuccessful teachers 
deficient? 

51. Explain the Grube method of teaching numbers. 

52. Why should Long Division be taught before 
Short Division? 

53. How should written arithmetic be taught? 

54. How should such subjects as long, square and 
cubic measures be taught? 

55. How should dry and liquid measures and weights 
be taught? 

56. What are the two chief purposes in studying 
the history of one's own country? 



352 QUESTIONS ON THEORY AND PRACTICE, ETC. 

57. How should writing be taught? 

58. What is the standard of excellence in teaching 
penmanship? 

59. What are the advantages of oral spelling? 

60. State briefly the advantages of written spelling. 

61. How should the spelling lesson be prepared? 

62. How may a written spelling lesson be most 
advantageously conducted? 

63. Of what value is concert reading? 

64. By what names should children in primary and 
grammar schools be addressed? 

65. Of what advantage is the daily record of reci- 
tations ? 

66. State fully the disadvantages of keeping a daily 
record of recitations. 

67. Why are pupils required to form lines in enter- 
ing and leaving school buildings? 

68. Specify the advantages of the self-reporting 
system. 

69. What objections may be urged against the self- 
reporting system? 

70. Explain the phonetic method of teaching chil- 
dren to read, and state its chief advantage. 

71. In what does the phonic method of teaching 
children to read consist? State its advantage. 

72. Name five or more educational reformers. 

73. Who was Froebel? For what is he noted? 
What particular educational theories did he advocate? 

74. Who was the author of '* Emile? " What was 
the object of its publication? 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 353 

75. For what is Roger Ascham chiefly noted? 

76. State briefly the more prominent characteristics 
of Pestalozzi's educational principles. To what ex- 
tent have these principles influenced the education of 
the present time? 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY AND 
PRACTICE OF TEACHING. 

1. Education is the process of securing rational 
freedom through the subordination of every power of 
the mind and organ of the body to the laws of reason 
and morality. 

2. Education from diic^ to lead, and the prefix e, 
out, is the leading out, or the developing of those 
powers whose germs are found in earliest childhood. 

3. The natural order of educating the faculties is 
in the order of their development and activity, viz, : 
1st. The " perceptives," 2ud. The *« conceptives," 
3rd. The *' reflectives." 

4. Learning is merely the possession of knowledge, 
as facts of history, science and literature ; while edu- 
cation signifies that mastery over one's own powers 
through training and development which enables him 
to accomplish more than would be possible with uned- 
ucated faculties. Learning gives us knowledge, but 
often leaves us with a barren possession. Education 
enables us to use whatever Jinowledge we have to the 
best advantage. 

23 



354 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 

5. I. Any power under the control of the will may 
be cultivated or trained. 

II. The povvers are trained in one w.iy, and in one 
way, only ; viz., by ivist use. This law of work is the 
one unchangeable law of progress everywhere. 

III. The wisest training will be directed to those 
powers which are conspicuously active at the time. 

IV. An indispensable prerequisite to any profitable 
training is careful attention to the matter in hand. 
[Hewett.] * 

6. First, a knowledge of the matter to be taught; 
second, a knowledge of the being whom he is to teach ; 
and, third, a knowledge of the methods by which the 
matter is to be taught. 

7. First, the intellect proper, as the capacity to 
comprehend ; second, the sensibility as the capacity to 
sympathize with the sufferings of others ; third, the 
will, as the power to chouse or determine. 

8. The perceptives are tho:se faculties by which we 
ol)tain a knowledi>;e of the outside world through the 
senses. 

The conceptive faculties enable us to conceive or 
reproduce the image of absent objects. 

The reflectives are those faculties by which we see 
the relations of objects through the agency of com- 
parison, judging, reasoning, etc. 

Intuition is that power by which we know certain 
truths or ideas without being taught. 

9. A mental power is the ability to perform an in- 
tellectual operation ; while a mental faculty is a mental 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 355 

power acting entirely under the will; as observing, 
memory, judgment, 

10. The Theory and Practice of Teaching includes 
the investigation of the various susceptibilities, powers 
and faculties of mind and the harmonious development 
of these powers and faculties so as to secure the best 
result of which they are capable. 

11. I. The statement of the different theories, plans 
and processes of educators of the past. II. The suc- 
cess or failure of the theories described. 

12. The Oral, Socratic, Text-Book, Discussive, Top- 
ical, and Lecture Methods. 

13. Teaching is telling, explaining, illustrating; and 
stops short of requiring any action on the part of the 
pupil. It is exemplified in the lecture method of in- 
struction. Training includes as a preliminary step all 
employed in teaching, and requires the pupil to repeat, 
illustrate, amplify and do until every detail is familiar 
and every act performed with facility and precision. 

14. First, he must have good health : this ensures 
that cheerful buoyancy which inspires respect and love 
in the minds of pupils. Second, he must have a knowl- 
edge of the branches which he proposes to teach : 
without this he can not have the confidence of his 
pupils. Third, he must possess skill in teaching: the 
lack of this soon engenders indifference and discontent 
among the scholars. Fourth, he must be a master to 
manage and command : that is, he must possess skill 
in management. He must foresee and forestall every 
tendency toward the disintegration of his educational 
forces. 



356 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 

15 . School government is the subordination of all the 
elements involved in a given educational system to the 
demands of an enlightened and conscientious standard 
of human development of mind, body and heart. 

16. This statement is often made by people of ex- 
tended observation among the educational classes. 
Some facts which may be given in support of its truth 
are, — 

I. The prominent characteristics of the most noted 
educators of all countries and ages were such as seem 
to have fitted them for their peculiar vocation and for 
no other. 

II. It is observed that those ladies and gentlemen 
of our own time who have great success in teaching 
possess certain peculiarities of disposition which dis- 
tino-uish them by a marked contrast from their less 
successful colleagues. 

III. It has been noted that persons without the 
greater number of the following traits have never been 
successful in the work of teaching: patience, human 
sympathy, cheerfulness, self-control, kindness, moral 
courage, enthusiasm, persistence, order, method, pru- 
dence, energy, governing power, will, vigilance, firm 
ness, tact and promptness. 

17. The teacher who imparts facts and drills his 
pupils with reference to impressions to be made on 
visitors on examination day, may be regarded as a 
fair teacher, since he " larns the scholars ; " but if he 
confine himself to data, definitions and rules, and 
ignore the relation of these facts, the impulses, motives 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 357 

and susceptibilities of his pupils, — if he neglect those 
mental germs of power whose development alone de- 
cides the cultured man, — in short, if he work not to 
secure that highest development of human power styled 
self-control, the results of his labors must class him as 
a poor educator. 

18. The five senses: — seeing, hearing, feeling, 
tasting and smelling. The teacher is much concerned 
with the first and second of these, since the successful 
mental training of children is largely dependent upon 
the cultivation of the sight and hearing. 

19. Experience teaches that if the perceptive and 
conceptive powers receive the attention of the teacher 
during the activity of these powers, little time or oc- 
casion will be afforded for the distinctive training of 
the reflective faculties of children under fifteen. The 
teacher should constantly avail himself of the pass- 
ing activities of perception, memory and imagination 
displayed by his pupils to impart impressions con- 
ducive to the noblest manhood. Of course the slight- 
est manifestations in pupils of any age to seek for 
causes, results and relations should never be dis- 
couraged. 

20. I. Versalility ^ that the mind may have a wide 
range of observation and constant activity. 

II. Strength^ that the attention maybe fixed in con- 
templation, and that impressions ma}' be recalled with 
freshness and distinctness. 

III. Precision, that the ideas and impressions ob- 
tained by observation and experience may be properly 



358 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 

arranged for service in the higher exercise of reason- 
ing and generalizing. 

21. I. He should at once furnish every pupil some- 
thing to do. 

II. He should during the first half day learn the 
name of every pupil. 

III. Within three hours he should have every mem- 
ber of the school engaged iu the regular order of bus- 
iness. 

IV. He should discourage disorder by his own de- 
liberate and methodical movements. 

V. He should at once establish the system he pro- 
poses to continue. 

22. A teacher's contract should specify the time of 
opening, length of term, hours per day, holidays, 
wases, care of grounds, building and apparatus, and 
provisions for fuel, janitor work, suspension of pupils 
and agreement as to resignation of teacher. 

23. I. The pupils' positions and movements in sit- 
ting, standing and walking. 

II. Proper and sufficient ventilation of the school- 
room. 

III. Sufficient light and proper position of pupils 
with respect to light. 

IV. Calisthenic exercises to bring into judicious use 
neglected muscles. 

24. He should be trained to write on slate or black- 
board sufficiently well to have his writing easily read, 
to read without drawling words of one and two sylla- 
bles, to spell orally by sound and by letter, the greater 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIO^'S ON THEORY, ETC. 359 

number of words found in his reading lessons, to 
count by ones and twos to 100, to write numbers to 
100, to count and write by the Roman method to L, 
and to name the days of the week, the months of the 
year and his county and State. 

25. The Word Method, the Sentence Method, the 
Phonic Method, the Object Method, the Alphabet 
Method. Two or more of the above are usually 
employed by nearly all teachers. 

26. A daily drill in phonics for a few months gives 
to the pupil a clearness and precision of speech which 
will permanently distinguish him from one who has 
not had this advantage. 

27. The Word Method consists in presenting words 
as objects and teaching children to recognize them as 
individual units of the sentence. This method has to 
a great extent supplanted the old method of teaching 
the alphabet before words. 

28. The attention of the pupils is called to some 
familiar object, upon which many questions are asked. 
As soon as the children's attention is secured and in- 
terest aroused a picture of the object is displayed, or 
drawn upon the board. The picture is discussed for 
some minutes, when tlie name of the object is printed 
beside the picture, and the children are informed that 
this too is a picture, — a word-picture. After holding 
their attention to this for a few moments they are 
directed to find other word-pictures like this on the 
chart. This comprises the first lesson. Tiie pupils 
are dismissed to their seats and directed to copy the 



360 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 

word-picture. At a later lesson other words are 
treated as the first, and words previously learned are 
reviewed, hunted for on the chart and formed into 
sentences. All words learned are printed on the board 
by the teacher and copied by the pupils, at first in 
Roman and afterward in script, until their forms be- 
come familiar. 

29. I. To develop clear, pleasant and impressive 
speech in the delivery of extemporaneous or written 
language. 

II. To cultivate the power of instantly grasping the 
thought as presented on the printed or written page. 

30. Send as many pupils to the board as can be ac- 
commodated, and require them to write their names 
at the top in their best writing. Assign some simple 
exercise, to be placed on the board ; when the work is 
completed, call pupils to face you. As each in turn is 
named to explain, his voice, face and name (written 
over his head) will associate themselves in your mind 
until you can, without difliculty, call the name of each 
pupil before you. 

31. The so-called higher branches all extend the 
teacher's intellectual resources, and strengthen his 
power over difficulties. As the teacher's work con- 
sists mainly in *' managing" his pupils, and cultivat- 
ing in them a desire for knowledge and improvement, 
his familiarity with the higher branches gives him ad- 
vantages in these efibrts which render him infinitely 
more successful than he could be without them. 

32. The daily attendance of all pupils belonging to 
the school. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 361 

33. The total enrollment and average daily attend- 
ance of pupils, together with such special items as may 
be required by the officers of the school. 

34. I. To test the pupil's knowledge of the subject. 

II. To cultivate the habit of careful preparation and 
accurate expression. 

III. To supplement the information gained from the 
text-book. 

IV. To direct the pupils in their preparation of the 
lessons. 

V. To stimulate the pupils, arouse their attention 
and cultivate in them habits of investigation. 

35. That the pupils may early learn the function 
and care of every organ of their bodies, that they may 
know the necessity of pure air, sufficient and whole- 
some food, alternation ot rest and exercise and under- 
stand the dependence of the mental powers upon 
bodily health, phy.-.ical restraint and moral culture. 

36. The perceptive faculties are exercised by writ- 
ing, drawing, spelling and botany ; the conceptive 
faculties by reading, history, geography and compo- 
sition ; while the reflective faculties are best exercised 
and developed by mathematics, rhetoric and logic. 

37. Only so far as to aid a partial comprehension 
of principles, — never in their ap].)lication to the as- 
signed lesson." A teacher may illustrate ix, principle by 
its application to work similar to that required. As- 
sistance should be withheld until the teacher is satisfied 
the pupil has exhausted his own resources, and evinces 
signs of discouragement. Individual assistance should 



362 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 

be given rarely in the presence of the class. Explain 
difficulties to the class, and command the attention of 
every member. 

38. •' A programme conduces to good order, dimin- 
ishes the teacher's labor, cultivates methodical habits^ 
and makes his teaching more effective." 

39. Clearness of voice and distinctness of speech 
are indispensable in the management of classes; but 
the force must be constantly subdued and the pitch 
slightly below the natural to secure the respectful 
attention of pupils. 

40. It is difficult to understand hovv a teacher un- 
skilled in rapid, elegant penmanship, natural impres- 
sive and effective reading, and accurate and rapid 
arithmetical calculations, can inspire his pupils with 
sufficient admiration for these arts todesiie more than 
the teacher presents as models. The highest skill in 
these branches, upon the part of the teacher, is essen- 
tial to their successful teaching. Few teachers insist 
upon a higher standard than they, themselves, possess. 
Hence, but moderate skill in these branches may be 
expected from pupils whose teachers are not proficients. 

41. To secure the highest intellectual attainments, 
certain previous conditions are essential : these are 
mental vigor and sensual restraint. The first of these 
is secured only through the judicious exercise and em- 
ployment of the mental and physical organs. The 
second condition is attained by the training of the 
moral faculties to acts of justice, duty and self-denial. 
The vigorous body gives energy to the brain, and the 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 363 

self-poised conscience imparts accuracy and decision 
to the perceptions of the senses and conceptions of the 
mind. 

42. I. Teaching, or instruction, by which the teachc 
orally or through the text-book, presents the principles 
of the subject in definition and illustration. 

II. Development, or Socratic questioning, by which 
the teacher tells the pupil nothing, but by a series of 
skillful questions, beginning with what is already clear 
to the pupil's mind, he leads him step by step to com- 
prehend the principle and its application. 

III. Training, or drilling, by which through instruc- 
tion, practice and criticism, the subject in all its 
details is fully mastered. 

43. Accurate school records afford the following 
advantages: 1. They aid the teacher in classification 
and promotion of pupils. 2. They give information 
to parents and school officers. 3. They furnish im- 
portant educational statistics. 4. They exert a bene- 
ficial influence upon both teachers and pupils. 

44. By first explaining the rights and duties of 
pupils, and then insisting that these shall be mutually 
observed and respected. In addition, pupils should 
be taught early in their school life that the greatest 
success and happiness come only from individual in- 
dependence, and that independence exists alone in a 
ready performance of duty, a cheerful self-denial and 
a conscious rectitude. 

45. I. The pupils should be taught to breathe 
properly. 



364 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 

II. They should be drilled on the oral elements un- 
til every sound and combination can be distinctly and 
correctly uttered. 

III. They should be subjected to frequent drills in 
voice slides and waves. 

IV. The test of all reading exercises should be the 
ability of the teacher to understand every word read 
without referring to the text-book. 

46. The Supreme Courts of a number of States have 
decided that school directors have the right to make 
rules governing the conduct of scholars on the grounds 
or on the road to or from school. The teacher is the 
directors' authorized agent and executive in all matters 
pertaining to the management of the school so far as 
their authority may be delegated to him. Before pun- 
ishing pupils for misdemeanors committed on the road 
to or from school, teachers should have this authority 
duly given. 

47. He is rarely required by law or contract to be 
present before the time of opening, but his interest 
in the welfare of his pupils and his zeal in his work 
should prompt him to be at his post early enough to 
forestall difficulties and make the necessary prepara- 
tion to begin on time. A good teacher, like a good 
scholar, is always a little ahead of time. 

48. Ridicule, force, additional tasks, fear of punish- 
ment, prizes, merit marks, and the granting oi special 
privileges. 

49. I. The desire for knowledge. 
II. The hope to secure perfection. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 365 

III. The approbation of the teicher. 

IV. The approbation of parents and friends. 

V. The pleasure of overcoming difficulties. 

VI. The enjoyment of useful employment. 

VII. The prospect of a successful manhood. 

50. They are deficient in management, otherwise 
termed tact, or governing power. 

51. The Grube method consists in teaching begin- 
ners the combinations of numbers less than ten in 
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. 
Various articles, such as buttons, beans, grains of 
corn, pebbles, etc., are at first employed until the 
children can perform the operations without these aids. 

52. Since every step in the process of long division 
is placed before the pupil in figures, he can hold each 
step with his eye until the next is taken ; and if an 
interruption occur or the teacher wish to repeat or 
impress the operation, the work as far as completed, 
remains before the eye. This is but an application of 
object-teaching, and presents the principle of division 
much more clearly than the process of short division, 
in which the operations are carried on almost entirely 
in the mind. 

53. Always in connection with mental arithmetic, 
and, as far as possible, with practical illustrations taken 
from the school-room, yard, and neighboring stores. 
A subject will be sooner mastered and longer retained 
if practically applied at the time and presented with 
small numbers which can be easily held in the mind. 



366 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 

54. By having pupils supplied with yard sticks 
divided into feet and inches, and by requiring them 
to measure distances, surfaces and solids in and about 
the school-house. 

55. The teacher and pupils may borrow pint, quart, 
gallon, peck and bushel measures, and construct the 
usual tables by actually measuring water and sand. 
This practice fixes the relative capacity of these meas- 
ures as no drill upon tables and problems can ever do. 
The same course should be pursued with the various 
weights, 

56. I. To cultivate the virtue of patriotism. 

II. To teach the embryonic citizen that a certain 
train of causes produces certain definite results whose 
evils may be avoided or remedied by appropriate and 
timely action. 

57. After the necessary instruction in position, pen- 
holding and movement is given, individual elements, 
letters, words and sentences should be presented on the 
blackboard. Attention should be called to one thing 
at a time. The characters should be accurately formed 
and analyzed before the pupils are called upon to re- 
produce them. Much time and many efforts may be 
required to master one element or letter, but the ex- 
penditure will be amply repaid in the rapid progress 
secured as the pupil advances from letter to letter. 
Writing is an art and skill in its execution is possible 
to all who are taught. 

58. The standard of excellence in penmanship to 
which every teacher should endeavor to bring his 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 367 

pupils is the ability to write a uniformly legible style 
of writing, free from meaningless flourishes, and exe- 
cuted with an easy, rapid, graceful, movement, which 
may be continued for hours without weariness. 

59. Oral spelling, if properly conducted, cultivates 
the ear to hear quickly and accurately. If the teacher 
is a correct speaker and exacting in securing correct- 
ness in articulation, the pupil acquires a facility and 
accuracy in pronunciation that will dispense with much 
laborious research in later years. 

To secure these results the teacher should observe 
these cautions : Never repeat a word or a syllable, nor 
permit a pupil to repeat syllables. No pupil should 
try a second time to spell a word. Require pupils to 
pronounce the words correctly before and after spell- 
ing. Each letter and syllable should be distinctly and 
accurately uttered in passing, but not repeated, i.e., 
not uttered a second time. 

60. Since skill in spelling is required chiefly for 
writing, it follows that what one does most with a 
constant purpose of improvement in view, he does 
best. Hence, the practice of writing words through 
several years of school life, familiarizing their forms 
to the eye, finally fixes the order of letters composing 
a word permanently in the mind. 

61. Correct spelling must be mastered through hand 
and eye. As soon as the child has learned to form the 
letters in script he should prepare all spelling lessons 
by writing the words two or more times on slate or 
paper. 



368 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 

62. I. Require pupils to use pen, ink and a blank- 
book. 

II. Pronounce each word accurately and but once. 

III. Require words written neatly in plain char- 
acters. 

IV. Allow no alterations, additions or erasures. 
All omissions, interlineations, or indistinct letters 
should be counted as errors. 

V. Have pupils exchange books and mark each 
other's errors with lead pencil^ noting also the grade 
of the work, each corrector writing his name below. 

VI. Have monitors collect books for teacher's ex- 
amination. 

VII. If violations of No. IV. are found mark the 
word zero. 

VHI. If any corrector has failed to correct an error 
mark him zero for the error he has failed to note. 

Another method equally good is to have each pupil 
correct his own work. This plan has the advantage 
of time, since the delay of exchanging is avoided, and, 
further, the teacher marks all the errors (the speller's 
and the corrector's), in a given book at once. 

63. As a substitute for the reading exercise it is of 
too little value to justify its employment. As a means 
of developing purity, force and flexibility of tone, it is 
of sufficient value to warrant the teacher in using it 
occasionally at the beginning of the lesson. 

64. Always by their Christian names — never as 
"Brown," "Smith," "Jones," etc., nor Miss " So 
and So," or Master "This or that," nor "Sonny," 
" Honey " or " Darling." 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 369 

65. The pupils, conscious that a daily record of 
their recitations and deportment is kept, are dis- 
posed to recite and act more uniformly well than they 
would with an occasional record of these items. The 
cards of record being promiscuously arranged for each 
recitation, pupils are called unexpectedly and are kejjt 
on the alert. Again, the teacher, anxious to mark his 
pupils upon a common basis, assigns to each about the 
same amount of duty. 

66. The teacher having to estimate the value of 
each answer, recitation or exercise, consumes in the 
calculation and record of such value, much time that 
were better spent in the management of his classes. 

67. 1. To secure better order in movements. 

II. To prevent the smaller children from being in- 
jured by the rushing of large boys. 

in. To train pupils to habits of order, system, and 
deliberate movements. 

68. The better class of pupils in whom the influ- 
ence of conscience and love of approbation are strong, 
fearful of disgrace by prevarication, are restrained, 
and thus constitute the nucleus of a well ordered 
school. A large portion of well inclined, but weaker 
children, more or less under the influence of the 
former, out of consideration of dependence or " pop- 
ularity," fall into the practice of their stronger 
neighbors. These two classes being left to govern 
themselves in a measure, the teacher has opportunity 
to attend to the idle, mischievous and dilatory pupils. 

69. The report of conduct being left entirely with 

24 



370 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 

the scholars, there is, even among the well inclined, a 
daily temptation to violate the truth. Those pupils 
whose motives and habits are bad, seeing the opportu- 
nity afforded to stand as high as their more deserving 
schoolmates, do not hesitate to take advantage of this 
reliance upon their honor ; and unless they know their 
statement will be challenged, claim " perfect," after 
doing their utmost to escape every requirement of the 
teacher. 

70. The phonetic method, which might properly be 
termed phonotypic, requires modified characters rep- 
resenting all the sounds of the language. Its purpose 
is to enable the child after the sounds have been 
taught, to help himself in the pronunciation of each 
new word. 

71. The phonic method consists in teaching the 
sounds of words through the powers of the letters 
composing them. It employs no modified letters. 
Words containing silent letters are at first omitted, 
the attention being confined to words containing short 
vowels. The advantages claimed for the phonic and 
phonetic methods are an earlier recognition of sounds 
and a greater skill and accuracy in articulation. 

72. Eoger Ascham, Friedrich Froebel, Desiderius 
Erasmus, John Amos Comenius [Komenski], Jean 
Jacques Rousseau, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, and 
Immanuel Kant. 

73. Froebel, born in Thuringia, 1782, was the 
founder of the Kindergarten. Many of the improve- 
ments in primary teaching may be ascribed to him. 



ANSWERS TO QUKSTIONS ON THEORY, ETC. 371 

The principles involved in his theory of education 
may be summed up in the single sentence: «' Free 
creativeness is at once the means and end of educa- 
tion." 

74. " Eniile " was written by Eousseau (born in 
1712), in which he portrays an ideal education accord- 
ing to his peculiar views. The book attracted much 
attention at the time of its publication, but the atheist- 
ical tendencies of the author's writings and his general 
erratic conduct brought condemnation upon this as 
upon his other works. 

75. Roger Ascham was Queen Elizabeth's teacher 
of Greek and Latin. His only educational work of 
importance was the *' School Master" [Scholemas- 
ter], in which he advocated a milder and more careful 
training of youth than that in vogue at his time. The 
work deals mainly with the teaching of Latin and 
Greek. 

76. Pestalozzi's principles of education were 
founded upon natural development. He considered 
and taught that the end of education is the harmoni- 
ous development of all the natural powers. Recog- 
nizing the existence of a certain order of growth and 
activity, he taught that all instruction should harmon- 
ize with this order in time and character. He has 
exerted a greater influence over the general theory 
and practice of teaching than any man of modern 
times. 



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This is the simplest and clearest presentation of the subject published. 

The untrained teacher may, with average zeal, lead a class profitably and 
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Directions for securing the highest vocal and hygienic benefits from 
Respiratory exercises, distinct and correct Articulation, the several 
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I. H. BROWN & CO., Publishers, 

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COMMON SCHOOL EXAMINER 



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