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STATE LIBRARY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



3 0144 00380419 2 


COMMON 

TREES 


of 


INDIANA 

b H 

JOSEPH S. I LUCK 



Presented to the Schools ot Indiana 
by the 

Charles Lathrop Pack Forestry Trust 


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582.1609 

IL6co 

1927 


ad Distributed 

fjby 

i Tree Association 
jton, D. C. 


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c&rees 

I think that I shall never see 
A poem lovely as a tree. 

A tree whose hungry mouth is prest * 
Against the earth’s sweet flowing breast 
A tree that looks at God all day, 

And lifts her leafy arms to pray; 

A tree that may in summer wear 
A nest of robins in her hair; 

Upon whose bosom snow has lain; 
Who intimately lives with rain. 

Poems are made by fools like me, 

But only God can make a tree. 

—by Joyce JQlmer 













SS^.ll, 6*77 

X. 


COMMON 

TREES 

of 

Indiana 

<ZBy 

Joseph s. illick 

and 

CHARLES C. DEAM 

State Forester of Indiana 


A handy pocket manual of the 
Common and Introduced 
Trees of Indiana 

Presented to the Schools of Indiana 
By the 

Charles Lathrop Pack Forestry Trust 


Published and Distributed 
By 

The American Tree Association 
Washington, D. C. 

1927 


STATE U3RARYOF PENNSYLVANIA 







“ 1 / the Nation Stives the c £>rees 
t&he c&rees will Stive the Nation ” 

—CHARLES LATHROP PACK 



With grateful acknowledgment to the United States Forest Service 
for the use of 14 cuts. 








TEN COMMANDMENTS 
OF THE TRAIL 

By Henry Wellington Wack, F. R. G. S. 

(Copyright, 1926) 

By Courtesy of Nature Magazine. 

FIRST. Use the By-Ways—not the Highways. 

SECOND. Don't go Walking to beg a Ride. The Auto¬ 
riding Hiker is a Fraud. 

THIRD. Everything belongs to Somebody. Then respect all 
Private and Public Property. Be not the Author of its dis¬ 
placement, disfigurement or disappearance. 

FOURTH. Keep ofF Prohibited Ground. Neither fish nor 
hunt on Posted Land. Trespassers create bad will toward 
all Nature Lovers. Campers and Sportsmen. 

FIFTH. Leave Gates, Fences, Signs, Stakes, growing grain 
and crops as you found them. Walk around, never across, 
all planted fields. 

SIXTH. Pluck no wild flowers—they belong to all. Leave 
them for all to enjoy. Pick no cultivated Fruit. Resist the 
boyhood call of the Melon Patch I 

SEVENTH. Clear away twigs, leaves and pine needles down 
to moist earth, before laying a Camp Fire one fool square. 
Keep cook fires low, and less than one-fifth the size of the 
clearing. Large fires prevent cooking, but destroy forests. 
Only small fires are safe, quick and comfortable to cook with. 
Put camp fires out with Water, not with a kick. See that 
the peat or humus around the fire is not burning under¬ 
ground to destroy the woodland after you have left. A 
single spark may fly a hundred feet and burn a million trees. 
Arson is no greater crime than stupidity or neglect on the 
Trail. 

EIGHTH. Leave campsites clean; Burn all garbage; replace 
cut Firewood and Supplies found in camps. You are the 
Guest of an absent Host—not the vandal of a present oppor¬ 
tunity. Leave a note of thanks in a wilderness shelter you 
have used. Put it in order before you depart. 

NINTH. Silence, or speech in whispers, is the sign of trail 
experience and good woodmanship. Only fools and asses 
bray in a Forest. 

TENTH. When you leave a beautiful Woodland or descend 
from a Mountain, stop, turn around, and gaze reverently 
awhile. Then thank God for the boon our Forests are to all 
Mankind. Treat Life’s Trail responsibly and keep it clean. 
To the seeing eye and the generous soul, Nature's beauty— 
her mysteries and charm—forever call us to her Trails! 







This handbook aims to open the 
pathway to the delightful study of trees, 
and to help fashion a right attitude toward 
the green and glorious out-of-doors. It 
was prepared to satisfy a growing demand, 
particularly among the young folks of this 
State, for interesting and helpful informa' 
tion about the common trees. 

Each year a greater number of boys 
and girls go out into the fields and forests 
to take part in some outdoor program of 
education. To be able to participate in 
such a wholesome and practical program 
of education is to enjoy one of the greatest 
educational privileges ever made available 
to the young folks of any land. 

The inspirational and descriptive sec- 
tions of this book are offered to its readers 
to study, because a true appreciation of 
trees and a correct working knowledge of 
them will go far to guarantee a sound pro¬ 
gram of forest conservation, one of the most 
vital economic problems now confronting 
the American people. 

All the common trees native to this 
State and a number of introduced trees 
are described in this handbook. A few 
of the less common trees had to be omitted. 
Whoever becomes acquainted with the trees 
treated in this handbook will have a good 
working knowledge of the trees of the 
State and be prepared to appreciate their 
importance in everyday life. 






FOREWORD 


By Charles Lathrop Pack 

President of the American Tree Association 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 


A LL GOOD THINGS must be known to be appreciated. 

There are many things so common in our daily lives 
that we accept them with little thought. So much a part of 
our existence they are that they become, perhaps, little 
known and often less appreciated. Trees run this risk. 


Shading us, protecting us, purifying our water supply, 
furnishing the homes that are built from them, providing the 
paper we use and serving us in thousands of ways, trees 
deserve to be known and to be appreciated. Without them 
existence would be worth little. 


Our country is the greatest in the world. In wealth, in 
standards of living and in comforts it stands alone. Nature 
endowed it with boundless resources. We have taken this 
wealth and built a great nation. The trees in our forests have 
been our greatest resources; they have made possible what has 
been accomplished. 

When our forefathers came to this vast land it was cov¬ 
ered with nearly nine hundred million acres of forest. To¬ 
day only one-fifth of this immense resource remains. A 
quarter of a billion acres of this original forest are growing 
young trees, many of little value. More than eighty million 
other acres whose destiny is to produce forests alone, are pro¬ 
ducing nothing. Of what remains to us of our forests, we 
are using four times as fast as we are allowing or helping 
Nature to replace. 

That is the situation with our forest. One tree or one 
hundred trees do not make a forest. But one tree stands for 
the forest. We send one man to our Congress to speak for 
thousands. We can plant a tree in our dooryard and let it 
speak for millions. 

This is the problem of today. It is a problem that the 
citizens of tomorrow will have brought home to them. They 
will need to know the trees to meet it. 


This little book is the personal story of the trees that 
grow commonly in the soil of our State. It is the story of 
the trees whose forefathers peopled the great majority of the 
acres of our State. They are your trees; citizens of your 
State; companions of your life; servants of your comfort. 

Knowledge of trees is more than a duty of good citizens. 
It is a joy to the one who has this knowledge. The tree is a 


6 


Common Trees 


living thing. It grows as we grow. It pushes upward as 
we should push upward in life. It spreads its branches out¬ 
ward, as we should spread the branches of our minds, broad¬ 
ened by experience in life. The tree is a constant lesson to 
humanity,—a lesson in erectness, in courage, in dignity and 
in steadfastness. It serves us in thousands of material ways, 
so should we know it that it may serve us in human ways 
as a guide and a friend. 

Throughout our great country our future citizens are 
everywhere widening their acquaintance with trees. Through 
various organizations, as well as the schools, they are dis¬ 
covering the happiness that this knowledge brings. 

This little book will serve as a letter of introduction to the 
common trees in your yard, on your street, in the woodlot 
on the edge of the city and in the young forest beyond. You 
can use it freely and many times. It will give you the knowl¬ 
edge that leads to appreciation, and this will lead to enjoy¬ 
ment even beyond expectation. 


A NOTICE 

(A notice found nailed to a tree in one of the parks of Seville, Spain. 
Copied from the book “Spanish Sunshine,” by Elinor Eisner.) 

(By Courtesy of Mrs. Samuel Heilner) 

“To the Wayfarer— 

Ye who pass by and would raise your hand against me 
Harken ere you harm me! 

I am the heat of your hearth on the cold winter nights. 
The friendly shade screening you from the summer sun. 
My fruits are refreshing draughts, 

Quenching your thirst as your journey on, 

I am the beam that holds your house. 

The board of your table, 

The bed on which you lie. 

And the timber that builds your boat, 

I am the handle of your hoe, 

The door of your homestead, 

The wood of your cradle, 

And the shell of your coffin. 

I am the bread of kindness, and the flower of beauty. 

Ye who pass by, listen to my prayer; harm me not.” 




of Indiana 


7 


EACH CITIZEN'S DUTY 

By Hon. Ed JACKSON, Governor of Indiana 

T HE standard of living in any nation is in direct pro¬ 
portion to the amount of wood used per capita. From 
the cradle to the grave our trees render us economic service 
by supplying us wood for warmth, shelter and industry. 
They shelter our wild life, regulate our water supply, and 
afford a glorious picture throughout the landscape. 

The virgin Indiana forest of magnificent ash, tulip, oak, 
maple, and walnut has been the first of our natural resources 
to be so completely harvested. Our natural forest reproduc¬ 
tion upon which depends the restoration of this important 
resource has been subjected to damages by fire and grazing 
until many of our Indiana woodlots are either completely 
destroyed or in immediate danger of destruction. 

The Department of Conservation through its Forestry 
Division is taking the important primary measures of forest 
restoration in Indiana by classifying forest land for tax 
exemption, raising forest seedlings at cost for reclaiming idle 
land, and furnishing forestry advice to farmers and other 
land owners of Indiana. 

Their important work must be aided by strong public 
sentiment and a widespread public interest in trees. This 
book will aid in creating such an interest. 

The unproductive condition of our native woodlands costs 
the citizens of Indiana at least $15,000,000 a year for the 
imported lumber alone which might be grown in our own 
state. A greater interest in trees and forestry is an important 
part of each citizen’s duty. 

EXPRESSIONS OF OPINION 

FORESTS OF INDIANA 

Of all the natural resources of Indiana, its forests were by far the 
greatest. A century of thoughtless wastefulness has almost completely 
destroyed this vast wealth. Only here and there do occasional relic trees 
tell of the splendor of the virgin forests. 

The scattered woodlots remaining are of such poor quality and meagre 
stand that they give little conception of the original forest. 

As an incidental result of this wastefulness, we have approximately a 
million acres of abandoned and wasting land, and this wrecked area is 
rapidly increasing. 

If we reclaim our inheritance, intensive forestry must be carried on for 
many years. Forest and soil are the only natural resources that can be 
restored and then maintained in ever-increasing values. The effort to 
restore and maintain soil fertility is already well in hand. 

The next step, and at the same time the most exigent economic problem 
confronting the state, is the reclamation of these waste lands by afforesta¬ 
tion and the reinforcing of existing wooded areas with species of high 
value. 



8 


Common Trees 


Every loyal and intelligent citizen of Indiana should lend enthusiastic 
support to this great task. 

That through a fuller knowledge of our forests, a wider interest may 
be awakened and that the coming generation may see more clearly than 
their fathers the imperative need of conserving and maintaining this great 
asset, this book has been prepared. 

Stanley Coulter, 

Chairman of the Department of Conservation, 
State of Indiana. 


EVERY CITIZEN SHOULD AID 

Forestry offers perhaps the greatest opportunity for constructive work 
in Conservation. Other great natural resources, our coal, gas and oil, 
which have been wasted with such criminal extravagance, can never be 
restored. 

But while our forests have been exploited with shameful recklessness, 
they may, in a measure at least, be restored by a persistent and intensive 
treatment of existing "stands” and the afforestation of denuded areas. 

A million acres of denuded and wasting land and scant stands of 
inferior species on existing wooded areas together furnish an exigent 
economic problem which the Department of Conservation is endeavoring 
to solve. 

At the best, the problem would be difficult; under the financial limita¬ 
tions of the Department it is one involving years and decades of patient 
and intelligent effort. 

The situation is one that should challenge not only the interest but 
the patriotism of every citizen of the State. A great natural resource 
wasted almost to extinction, yet one capable of again being made a great 
state asset by means of long continued, co-operative work. 

This much to be desired consummation cannot be brought about by 
the Department of Conservation working alone. Every community, 
every land owner, every citizen, should lend to the movement an in¬ 
creasingly intelligent and active support. 

The existing conditions should not be a cause for despondency, but a 
clarion call to a civic duty. The schools should teach the vital necessity 
of afforestation and of improving and maintaining existing wooded 
areas. Indifference and lethargy must be replaced by intelligent interest 
and action if the problem is solved. 

Quite apart from the economic values involved are the higher and 
more far-reaching aesthetic and recreational values implicit in the main¬ 
tenance and extension of the forested areas of Indiana. 

More and more are our citizens demanding recreational opportunities 
and demanding that they be furnished amid beautiful surroundings. Our 
forests, more than any other single natural feature, meet this demand. 
Out of this demand has grown Indiana’s unrivaled park system, its game 
preserves, its state forests, its "monuments” perpetuating not merely 
beauty of surrounding, but the beauty of life and achievement of the 
days long gone. 



of Indiana 


9 


Every citizen proud of Indiana, full of hope for her future, should 
lend aid to this Division of the Department of Conservation to the end 
that the former wealth and beauty of the state may in a measure be 
restored and through us become the perpetual heritage of our children 
and our children's children. 

Richard Lieber, Director, 

Department of Conservation, State of Indiana. 

WHY STUDY OUR TREES? 

By C.HAS. C. Deam, State Forester 

A FOREST is a collection of trees. For the best man¬ 
agement of a forest, it is necessary to know the sev¬ 
eral kinds of trees of which it is, or should be composed. 
Thus the study of the trees becomes of prime economic im¬ 
portance. Trees have contributed so much to our wealth 
and happiness that a study of them needs no argument. 

The study of trees is far reaching. Take, for example, 
the study of the white oak, which is one of our most com¬ 
mon and valuable trees. The first step is to distinguish this 
tree from trees of other families of trees, and lastly to know 
it from its brother oaks. This may be done by closely ob¬ 
serving the bark, buds, leaves, fruit and wood. This kind of 
study develops discriminating observation and careful deduc¬ 
tions. Further, the study of the white oak will teach 
geography, because an interest will be aroused in knowing 
where this tree is found. Does it grow as far east as Maine, 
as far south as Florida and as far west as California? It 
will teach geology and soils, because it will soon be learned 
that this tree grows both in low rich woods, and on ridges 
in almost pure sand and on ridges of poor clay or stony 
soils. Seeing this tree growing in different places shows 
that it reaches its maximum size in certain kinds of soil, 
while it is entirely absent in other kinds of soils which are 
derived from other kinds of rock. Why is this? Observa¬ 
tions will show that this tree is of excellent form and is 
long lived. These qualities recommend it for shade tree 
planting. In the woods it is seen that it is the injured tree 
that is usually blown over by the wind. This means that 
fire and grazing should not be permitted in the woods, because 
they injure more trees than all other agencies. Further obser¬ 
vation will often show that the tree sometimes during its life 
has been attacked by some kind of insect. Scientists tell us 
that over 400 kinds of insects feed upon the white oak, but 
that none are so destructive as to kill it. Now and then a 
hole may be seen in a large branch, in which a squirrel or 
bird may make its home. The large collection of dead 
leaves and twigs sometimes seen in the top is the place where 
some squirrel or bird has reared its family. 



10 


Common Trees 


No one can walk in the woods and study the trees without 
becoming interested in the shrubs, wild flowers, birds and 
other wild life. A walk through the woods after a snowfall 
will show all kinds of tracks in the snow. Was it a bird, 
rabbit, mouse, squirrel, skunk, mink, fox or some unknown 
animal? Usually the interest in the tracks will be sufficient 
to ascertain the author of them. 

A study of trees will always result in a study of nature 
as a whole—the most luring, healthful and instructive of all 
studies. A study of nature’s laws carries one back to the 
beginning of time. Her laws are just in that she has no 
favorites. From her laws a philosophy can be developed 
that will be a help in every-day life. 

Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack, President of the American Tree 
Association, has wisely and understanding^ said that trees 
make better citizens. 


THE FORESTRY SITUATION 

By RALPH F. Wilcox, Acting State Forester 

T HE Department of Conservation, through the Division 
of Forestry, is charged with the responsibility for re¬ 
storing the forest resources of Indiana. The inertia of public 
support to the forestry movement is being overcome and con¬ 
siderable momentum is noticeable. 

The Division of Forestry recognizes certain problems of 
forestry in this state and believes this splendid handbook of 
Indiana trees offers an opportunity to present an analysis of 
the present forestry situation. 

Indiana has been importing forest products, chiefly lum¬ 
ber since 1885. According to available statistics, a billion 
board feet of lumber alone were consumed in the state in 
1925. Only two hundred million feet were produced locally, 
making Indiana a net purchaser of eight hundred million feet, 
or four-fifths of her total consumption. The probable cost 
of this import was $32,000,000. At least $12,000,000 
worth of this lumber bill could have been produced in In¬ 
diana to the advantage of local labor and business prosperity. 

The question of stopping this $12,000,000 leak in our 
state pocketbook makes forestry a problem in economics as 
well as of sentiment for trees. 



of Indiana 


11 


There are three phases to the problem. In order of their 
importance they are, protection of our existing forests from 
fire and grazing, improvement in composition of these forests, 
and the reforestation of waste or idle land by state acquisi¬ 
tion and private enterprise. 

Insufficient funds prevent any organized forest fire con¬ 
trol. Grazing, which threatens our forests more than fire is 
discouraged by general publicity work and is completely 
stopped on about twenty thousand acres of forests which 
have been classified under the present forest tax exemption 
law with a prohibitory grazing clause. A program is being 
carried out to increase the campaign against forest grazing. 

As to the improvement of our existing stands the several 
hundred forest owners whose land has been inspected for 
classification have been advised about proper forestry prac¬ 
tice in their particular woods. Many have followed this ad¬ 
vice. Protection and woodland improvement are both ac¬ 
complished with our present forest tax law. This makes 
forestry financially attractive by giving forest land a tax 
assessment of one dollar an acre. 

The policy of the Department of Conservation to raise 
and distribute forest seedlings at cost to Indiana citizens is 
very important. Seedling orders nearly double each year. 
Since 1922 the State Nursery has furnished nearly a half mil¬ 
lion trees for state and private planting. It is expected that a 
million trees annually will be distributed after 1930. 

Since 1903 the state has acquired forty-five hundred acres 
of forest land at the Clark County State Forest. The aban¬ 
doned land is planted to experimental forest plantings which 
in time will earn revenue and afford the scientific research 
necessary as a background for future forestry practice in the 
state. 

The legislature of 1927 increased the funds for reforesta¬ 
tion so that more state forests can be established and the 
growing of forest seedlings continued on a larger scale. 

The services of the Division of Forestry, in so far as a 
limited personnel permits, are available to all who are inter¬ 
ested in the important economic task of forest development. 
“Common Trees of Indiana” carries the message of trees and 
their preservation and therefore performs real service in the 
crusade for more and better forests. 



12 


Common Trees 


HISTORIC TREES OF INDIANA 

By PROF. O. B. Christy, Muncie State Normal School 

The most famous tree that has stood upon Indiana’s soil 
was the Constitution Elm, located at Corydon, Indiana. 
Under this tree the Constitution of Indiana was written 
largely by the founders during the summer of 1816. The 
old state capitol was built near this tree. The warm 
weather and the flies were perplexing problems for those 
constitutional framers, and in order to proceed more rapidly 
with their duties they gathered near by under the spreading 
branches of the venerable Elm. Although it was a large tree 
at that time, it continued to grow and develop for many 
decades, until its branches reached a spread of one hundred 
and twenty-four feet in diameter. It was one of Indiana’s 
graceful, beautiful trees as well as becoming known through¬ 
out the land as the Constitutional Elm. As the years went 
by the tree became one of the valuable land marks of the 
state and the pilgrimages to it became numerous. The 
state's centennial celebration was held under it in 1916. A 
few years after this event the tree was attacked by the 
ozonuim root rot, and all efforts to prolong its life seemed 
useless. During the spring of 1925 the vitality of the 
venerable old land mark had become so sapped that only a 
few leaves put forth from its branches. Before the summer 
had passed the last signs of life had disappeared and the old 
monarch bid farewell to the grateful state which it had 
watched from infancy to a strong and prosperous common¬ 
wealth. 

In Greene County, Indiana, a mile and a half south of 
Worthington, was located one of the largest hardwood trees 
in the United States. This was a sycamore, forty-five feet 
and three inches in circumference one foot above the ground, 
and forty-two feet and two inches in circumference five feet 
above ground. The trunk forked into two symmetrical 
branches, one nearly nine feet and the other nearly 8 feet in 
diameter, the east one was twenty-three feet and two inches 
in circumference. The height of the tree was about one 
hundred and forty feet, but its spread was about one hundred 
feet. 

This old tree was a reminder of the days when Indiana 
was like the Oregon, Washington and California forests. It 
was not widely known until a survey was made by the 
American Genetic Association, declaring it to be the largest 
hardwood tree in United States. After this many pilgrim¬ 
ages were made to it. About two years ago it was destroyed 
by a wind storm. 



of Indiana 


13 


THE WOODS 

W HERE is the boy with spirit so low who upon hearing 
the name Robin Hood does not long to go to the 
woods; and where is the girl who upon hearing the name 
Gene Stratton Porter, does not wish to go out among the 
beauties of nature. There is only one way for boys and 
girls to satisfy this longing for the out-of-doors and that is 
to get ready, go out into the open, and there fill up on the 
many good things that nature holds ever ready to give to us. 

The forest is much more than a grouping of trees. It is 
a complex community of living things. Associated with the 
trees are shrubs, wild flowers, ferns, fungi, mosses, and many 
other plants. And among this varied plant life live the 
birds, the deer, the rabbits, the snakes, the squirrels, and a 
long list of other animals. All these living things are a part 
of the forest. To know the forest fully means that we know 
these wonderful creatures of a great creation. Blessed is the 
boy and the girl who can go out into the woods and learn 
the many interesting and useful lessons that a woods environ¬ 
ment makes available. 

There is no better place for summer play than among the 
trees. A tree environment is the best place to seek adventure, 
to become handy and hard, to see beauty, to think quietly, 
to walk reverently, to become acquainted with trees, flowers, 
and ferns, and to study the feathered folks and their furred 
friends. But we cannot have these privileges unless we care 
for our forests. It is a sad story, but only too true, that the 
forests have been swept with haste from the face of the civil¬ 
ized world. Few original forests, except those out of reach, 
are now left. 

It is time to begin a constructive occupancy of the earth. 
To exist as a Nation, to prosper as a State, and to live as a 
people, we must have forests. But to have them we must 
do our part in rebuilding the wrecked and wasted forest areas 
that now abound everywhere. Forest fires must be stopped. 
More and better trees must be produced. Existing forests 
must be handled more wisely. Idle forest land must be put to 
work. Unless these and many other necessary things are done, 
forest restoration will not move forward. Our forest slogan 
should be, “Let’s have good forests and get them now.” If 
you want to do an act of kindness —Protect the Forests. 
If you want to do an act of faith —Plant Forest Trees. If 
you want to prove that you are unselfish —Devote Yourself 
to the Woods. 



14 


Common Trees 


THE TREES 

TTREES are much more than columns of wood that lift their 
heads toward the sky. They are living and friendly 
creatures of a great and wonderful creation. They are glori¬ 
ous nature-made objects, surpassed only by him who walks 
among them in living beauty and thinking grace. They are 
the earth's fairest cloak, designed primarily; for a life of service 
and to broadcast happiness and bring comforts to the people 
of the earth. 

The botanist tells us that “a tree is a woody perennial 
plant having a single main stem commonly exceeding 10 feet 
in height and usually devoid of branches below, but bearing 
a crown of branches and foliage at the summit.” This may 
be a good descriptive definition of a tree, but it does not really 
tell us what trees are. To really know trees we must have 
a knowledge of more than the length of their trunk, the 
position of their crown, and the distinctive characteristics 
of their bark, branches, twigs, buds, leaves, flowers, fruit 
and other structural features. Trees are living things, and 
in their lives are more interesting and worthwhile lessons 
than in their structures. The lives of trees unfold to us 
beautiful messages and fashion an attitude of tree apprecia¬ 
tion without which tree knowledge is soulless. 

There is a human as well as a material side to trees. They 
do so many things that man doeth. To say that they breathe, 
eat, drink, grow, reproduce, work, and rest is naming only 
a few of their common functions. They have habits, pos¬ 
sess peculiarities, and are adaptive to the environment in 
which they live. All these attributes place them among the 
most interesting living things on the face of the earth. 

Many a time have I been impressed with the quiet and 
natural ways of trees and their clean and normal lives. It 
will ever be to our credit if we too can grow, live and give 
in the same quietness and naturalness. Then, too, they stand 
erect, reach high, root deep, and do many good deeds. In 
many ways the acts of trees are worthy patterns for all of 
us. If our lives give shelter, pleasantness, and relief as do 
the trees, they will bring blessings and comforts in growing 
abundance. 



of Indiana 


15 


TREES ARE OUR FRIENDS 

T REES live TO give. Whenever we look at a tree we 
should think it has some gifts for us. If the gifts are 
not wood or food, shade or shelter, they may be one of a 
long list of other good things we need in our everyday life. 
Trees are such commonplace things that we often overlook 
their full service to us. Let us pause just long enough to list 
a few of the things our tree friends do for us: 


Trees make a great contribution to the world’s beauty. 
They pay beauty dividends every day. No place is complete 
without them. A home without trees is charmless. A road 
without trees is shadeless. A park without trees is purpose¬ 
less. A town without trees is cheerless. A country without 
trees is hopeless. 


Trees give us shade and shelter. Beneath their friendly 
branches man has found refuge from the scorching sun and 
the angry winds. Today, as in ages past, man seeks the 
shade of friendly trees to write and enjoy what others have 
written. Some of the world’s greatest thoughts were born 
in the soft shades of friendly trees. Wherever I see trees 
shading occupants of benches in our city parks as they shel¬ 
ter the lambs that gather at their feet in the pasture, I think 
of their friendliness. 


Trees help purify the atmosphere. They give out enor¬ 
mous quantities of oxygen through the tiny openings in 
their leaves. In this way they help make and maintain the 
pure air we need to keep us alive. 


Trees help supply us with wholesome water. The best 
drinking water comes from the springs that flow from tree- 
covered watersheds. The pure water that trickles out from 
among the roots of trees is a great factor in maintaining the 
health of our people. 


Trees safeguard us against drought and protect us against 
raging floods. They increase the low wafer runoff in sum¬ 
mer and decrease the high water runoff in early spring. 


Trees feed, shelter, and give homes to the wild animals 
of the forest, particularly the birds. 









16 


Common Trees 


Trees give us rich food. Every boy and girl remembers the 
delicious chestnuts, walnuts and hickory nuts gathered from 
trees. The cherries, apples, pears, and the tasty persimmons 
are also among our favorite fruits. 


Trees enrich the soil. Their leaves, upon falling to the 
ground, are a big factor in maintaining the fertility of our 
soil. Tree-enriched soils make possible the production of 
many of the necessary crops of life. 


Trees give us a wonderful environment for play. There 
is no better place to play and rest than among the trees. 
The lap of a tree is the most comfortable and attractive rest¬ 
ing place on the face of the earth. Clean, outdoor play 
grounds make clean young hearts. The right use of leisure 
is as vital to good citizenship as the right use of toil. 


Trees supply us with wood, which is one of the most 
necessary things of life. We use it every day. We cannot 
get along without it. It is essential to our welfare and our 
life. 


Not all the good things that trees do for us have been 
listed. There are many other ways in which they help us. 
Enough benefits have been recorded, however, to convince 
every boy and girl and their teachers, that trees are truly 
among our best helpers and greatest benefactors. 

WITHOUT TREES 

W ITHOUT TREES this would be a dreary and uncomfort¬ 
able world. Trees are among nature’s best gifts, but 
they are so common that we do not half appreciate their 
shade and beauty. We partake of their food and wood as a 
matter of course. Oft it is with trees as with friends; we 
do not appreciate their real value until we have lost them. 
What would we think and how would we feel if some 
powerful dragon would rush through our streets and about 
our countryside and over-night destroy all the trees. Then, 
as never before, would we think of their gifts and realize 
how intimately they serve us. 

Without trees man would be without many indispensable 
things of life. Without trees the birds, squirrels, and many 
other wild folks would be homeless. Without trees many 







of Indiana 


17 


of the choicest wild flowers and ferns would be without a 
sheltering canopy. Without trees the whole balance of nature 
would be destroyed and human life imperiled. 

Man cannot get along without trees. Apart from their 
practical value, they make for better manhood and woman¬ 
hood by inspiring cleaner thoughts and higher ideals. The 
spiritual value of loving them and being with them is beyond 
estimate. If we want to continue as a happy people and a 
prosperous nation we must see to it that we have plenty of 
thrifty and healthy trees. This is our civic and social duty. 
Treeless lands are as cheerless as creedless countries are hope¬ 
less. 


THE PARTS OF A TREE 

W HEN we look at a tree we can recognize in its makeup 
three principal parts. They are the roots, the stem, 
and the crown. The roots comprise that part of a tree that 
is usually found below the ground. Our common trees 
have two general type of root systems, namely, shallow- 
rooted and tap-rooted. Such trees as the spruces, the hem¬ 
locks, and the pines have roots that tend to spread and lie 
close to the ground. These shallow-rooted trees are, as a 
rule, not windfirm. Other trees, such as the hickories, the 
oaks, and the walnuts develop a long taproot. These trees 
are firmly anchored and rarely uprooted. 

Roots have three main lines of work. They anchor the 
trees to the ground, absorb water from the soil, and trans¬ 
port water to the stem. Without roots, trees could not stand 
up, and without roots trees would starve for they supply 
water and food to the stem, branches, twigs, leaves, and other 
parts of the crown. The principal work of the big roots 
near the stem is to help the trees stand up, while the fine root 
hairs at the end of the rootlets are the ones that absorb the 
water from the soil. 

The stem of a tree, also called trunk and bole, is the 
main axis extending from the roots to the crown, or to the 
tip in case of an unbranched stem. Tree stems show a wide 
range in form. They range from long to short, straight to 
crooked, and from erect to prostrate. An examination of a 
cross-section of a stem will show three principal parts— 
bark, wood, and pith. In the central part of the stem is 
the pith. About it is the wood, which in many trees can be 
divided into the darker heartwood and the lighter sapwood. 
Between the wood and the bark is a thin layer known as 
the cambium. This is the most vital part of a tree, for it is 
here that all new wood and bark are made up. When a tree 





18 


Common Trees 


is girdled, the ring of cambium is severed. This kills the 
tree, for the thin cambium layer is the life-giving part of 
the stem. The most valuable part of a forest tree is the 
stem, for in it is produced the wood that is used so exten¬ 
sively by man. The principal functions of the stem are (1) 
support of the tree crown; (2) transportation of food and 
water; and (3) storage of food. During the winter months 
considerable food is stored in the stem for use early in spring 
when growth starts. 

The bark may be divided into two parts—the outer or 
dry bark, and the inner or living bark. The bark of some 
trees is very valuable. Some of their products are tannin, 
cork, dye, and other important commercial products. The 
bark is very helpful in identifying many of our common 
trees. The beech can always be recognized by its smooth 
gray bark, the shagbark hickory by its shaggy bark, and the 
paper birch by its white bark which peels off in thin papery 
scales. Other trees also have very distinctive features. 

The crown of a tree is made up of many parts such as 
branches, twigs, buds, leaves, flowers, and fruit. The 
branches and twigs have many markings, such as lenticels 
(breathing pores), leaf-scars, and bundle-scars, which are 
helpful in recognizing trees. The buds of most trees are 
either opposite or alternate in their arrangement. They are 
among the best tree features to use for the identification of 
trees in winter. In summer the leaves have the most dis¬ 
tinctive characteristics. In using them in tree identification 
work, it is helpful to classify them into four major groups: 
(1) those with opposite leaves; (2) those with alternate 
leaves; (3) those with simple leaves; and ( 4 ) those with 
compound leaves. If this simple classification method is fol¬ 
lowed, tree identification becomes easy and interesting. 

THE FOOD OF TREES 

W E KNOW that trees grow. They get bigger from year to 
year. In order that they can grow they must feed. 
The raw material out of which trees make their food comes 
from two sources—the soil and the air. The rootlets with 
their many small root-hairs absorb water and with it many 
food substances are held in solution. During the growing 
season there is a continuous flow of sap from the roots 
through the stem to the leaves, where it is converted into 
nutritious tree food. When the sunlight plays upon the 
granules of leaf green, tree food is manufactured. To make 
the food, water is brought from the stem through the leaf¬ 
stalks into the leaves. Then a complex chemical process takes 



of Indiana 


19 


place. This is the reason why leaves have been called the 
laboratory of the trees. The principal product derived from 
this process, known by the technical name of photo-synthe¬ 
sis, is starch. As rapidly as the food is manufactured in the 
leaves, it makes its way down through the cells of the twigs, 
branches, and the stem. A continuous stream of nutritious 
sap is moving downward. The thin layer of cambium cells 
which encircle the tree then draws upon this food supply to 
build up new wood, bark, and other tree tissue. When there 
is an excess of food material it is stored in the roots, stems, 
branches, and twigs for later use. 

It is interesting to know that in making the starch, oxy¬ 
gen is a by-product. This explains why it is healthy to have 
green growing plants about us in daytime. Leaves prepare 
food only in daytime, and their output is the greatest in full 
sunlight, and is almost negligible during dark nights. This 
is the reason why we find the most luxuriant tree growth 
in moist, sunny, and warm regions. It is also worth know¬ 
ing that during the periods of the year when the leaves are 
not manufacturing food, the trees live upon a food supply 
stored up during the long and light days of summer time. 

THE ENEMIES OF TREES 

T REES have many enemies. They are fighting for their 
lives all the time. There are 200,000 known kinds of 
insects that attack trees. It is estimated that caterpillars, 
beetles, borers, and other insects cause a loss of one hundred 
million dollars every year. Birds help us a lot in holding 
the insects in check. But they cannot wage war unaided. 
We must take a hand in this serious insect problem. 

When we think of tree enemies we must not overlook tree 
diseases, such as blights, rusts, and rots. They too are a 
serious menace. These diseases affect the tree’s health, just 
as human diseases affect our health. Not many years ago the 
chestnut was the foremost tree in many eastern states. Now 
middle-size to large chestnut trees are very scarce. There is a 
good reason for this. In 1904 the deadly chestnut blight was 
imported from China. In twenty years it travelled over 
practically the entire range of the chestnut, killing trees by 
the millions. So far no practical method of control has been 
found. As a result of its destructive work the chestnut tree 
is rapidly vanishing. 

There are thousands of other tree diseases continuously at 
work holding back the growth of trees. And decay is always 
hard at work destroying the wood that the trees have built 
up. Trees must be kept strong and healthy so they can 



20 


Common Trees 


throw off disease. To accomplish this we must keep our for¬ 
ests clean. Unless we do this we will pay an ever increasing 
price for lumber, and later on we will have no more forests 
to draw on. 

T WO great enemies of our trees are fire and grazing.. Graz¬ 
ing is a greater menace to the perpetuation of the forests 
in Indiana than fire. The carelessness of man is responsible 
for nearly all forest fires. Failure of forest owners to realize 
the evils of grazing and to protect their wood crop from cattle 
as they would protect an agricultural crop is rapidly destroy¬ 
ing our remaining forests of the central hardwood region. 
With these things in mind let us consider a few of the things 
done by forest fires and grazing. 

FOREST FIRES 

1. Forest fires destroy the beauty of the woodlands. 

2. They destroy animal and plant life. 

3. They destroy tree seeds and seedlings that would grow 
into valuable stands of timber. 

4. They kill an enormous number of promising young, 
middle-aged and old trees. 

5. They consume large quantities of felled timber and 
other forest products. 

6. They destroy the leaf litter on the forest floor. 

7. They impoverish the forest soil. Many bare and 
sterile hillsides are the result of repeated forest fires. 

8. Forest fires open the way for the destructive work of 
insects, fungi, erosion, floods, and drought. 

9. They frequently destroy buildings, crops, and fences, 
and occasionally homes. 

10. They may also be responsible for the loss of human 
lives. 

There is no end to the damage forest fires do. They bring 
no good to anyone. In their wake we find waste and impov¬ 
erishment. To prove our citizenship we must begin right 
now to battle this red foe. 

FOREST GRAZING 

1. Forest grazing destroys young forest trees. 

2. It destroys the reproduction of the forest. 

3. It deforms young trees which are not actually eaten. 

4. It retards the growth rate by packing the forest soil. 

5. It thins the woods and exposes the soil to drought. 

6. It destroys a profitable wood crop to afford little or 
no pasture. Leaves of young trees have little or no 
actual food value. 



of Indiana 


21 


7. It makes an unnatural forest condition and ruins the 

native beauty of a dense woods. 

8. It opens the forest to sunlight and invites destruction 

by insects. 

Forest grazing unless checked will destroy practically all 
the woodlots in Indiana. Like fire, continued grazing in a 
woods prevents perpetuation of the forest after logging by 
destroying young trees. It is not the increasing death rate 
which threatens a race so much as a decreasing birth rate. 
The natural birth rate of a hardwood forest is prolific and 
future forests must be insured by protecting these young trees. 
Grazing destroys them. 

Every boy and girl should become a tree protector, and it 
would be well for the grown-ups to turn a heedful ear to the 
lessons of forest protection. If we want to continue as a 
nation of wood users we must become a nation of wood 
growers. To do this effectively we must wage a constant 
warfare against the foes of our friends—the trees. PRE¬ 
VENT FOREST FIRES AND GRAZING—IT PAYS is a 
slogan that should be repeated over and over again until it 
becomes a household word, for everybody loses when our 
forests are destroyed. 

WHAT FORESTRY IS 

F ORESTRY is the art of handling forest land in such a 
way that it will be of the greatest service to man. This 
implies a good working knowledge of forest trees, for they 
are the principal members in the make-up of the forest. A 
correct working knowledge of trees will go far to guarantee 
a sound program of forest conservation, which is one of the 
most vital problems confronting the people of our state. 

WHEN TREES GROW 


M OST people believe that trees grow from early spring 
when the leaves begin to come out until the first frost 
when they start to show their autumn color. That this wide¬ 
spread belief is not correct is now known. For instance in 
the latitude of southern Pennsylvania the native forest trees 
make 90 per cent of their height growth in 40 days of spring 
and early summer. 

Not all trees begin to grow at the same time. Some begin 
early in spring, while others delay starting their growth 
until late April or early May. The Wild Black Cherry 
starts about the first of April, while the Tulip Tree or Yellow 
Poplar does not begin until late in April, and the Norway 
Spruce waits until early in May. The fact that the different 
trees start their growth at different times may not seem 
strange, but where is the person who is not amazed to learn 



22 


Common Trees 


that the Sweet Buckeye has its whole height growth for the 
season completed in some regions by the tenth of May. For 
ten years the author has watched different specimens of this 
tree in Pennsylvania, and with no single exception all the 
height growth for the year was finished by May 10. This 
means that the height growth took place in 35 days in spring¬ 
time. 

An even greater revelation of this growth study was the 
fact that growth takes place by leaps and bounds. Periods 
of rest often occur between periods of growth. These rest 
periods may be long or they may be short. In this respect 
trees are not different from boys and girls who are willing 
to have long rest periods scattered freely among their work¬ 
ing hours. 

Several years ago, the author tagged a chestnut oak tree 
and measured its growth carefully. It began growing on 
April 17, and grew regularly until May 23. Then it began 
a rest period of 32 days. On June 24 it started to grow 
again and continued until July 13. If you figure out this 
tree’s height growth you will find that at the beginning of 
the season it grew for 36 days, then rested for 32 days, and 
thereafter grew again for 20 days. During the first growth 
period it grew 10 inches—an average of about one-third of 
an inch per day, and during the second period 13^ inches— 

This was one of the most interesting tree studies ever 
undertaken by the writer of this handbook. He hopes that 
many boys and girls will continue this study and help add 
to our tree knowledge. 

DO TREES BREATHE? 

T HAT trees breathe is a firmly established scientific fact. 

Year after year, during night and day, in summer and 
in winter, trees inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. 
Trees breathe from the time they are seeds until they die. 

The leaves are often called the lungs of a tree. It is true 
most of the oxygen enters through little openings on the 
leaves. Most of these tiny openings are on the lower leaf 
surfaces. They have been given the technical name of sto¬ 
mata. On the leaves of some trees there have been counted 
as many as 100,000 openings on a square inch. These little 
doorways open to let in oxygen and to let out carbon diox¬ 
ide. During the day trees also take in carbon dioxide and 
give off oxygen through the small leaf openings. This is 
a part of the process of food manufacture known under the 
scientific name of photosynthesis. Not all the oxygen is 



of Indiana 


23 


inhaled through the leaves, for some is taken in through little 
openings on the twigs known as lenticels. They can read¬ 
ily be recognized as pale to brown dots. On some trees, 
such as the birches, cherries, and sumacs, they are large and 
easily visible to the naked eye, while in other trees they are 
small and obscure. 

Trees also transpire, that is, give off water. We may call 
it perspiring or “sweating.” When an excess amount of 
water is delivered to the leaves it is given off through small 
stomata, the same openings through which the trees breathe. 
This excess water is given off as an invisible vapor. Scientists 
have estimated that a big oak may transpire as much as 150 
gallons of water during a single day of summer. 

HOW TO TELL THE AGE OF TREES 

S OME TREES reach a great size and become very old, while 
others remain small and die young. A definite age limit 
cannot be set for each kind of tree, but for general use our 
common trees may be said to be long-lived or short-lived. 
Of our native trees, the White Oak, Button-wood, White 
Pine, and Hemlock are long-lived trees, and the Poplars, 
Willows, some Cherries, and a few Oaks are short-lived. 
Some of the Sequoias of California exceed the 3,000-year 
an average of more than three-fifths of an inch per day. 
mark, and the big Cypress Tree of Tule growing in the 
state of Oaxaca, Mexico, has been estimated from 4,500 to 
5,000 years, and is sometimes spoken of as “the oldest liv¬ 
ing thing in the World.” 

It is not always easy to tell the age of a tree. Sometimes 
accurate written records are available. In other cases it may 
be possible to get a reliable verbal statement from one who 
knows exactly when a specific tree or a group of them was 
planted. In the absence of accurate records or reliable state¬ 
ments, the best way to tell the age of a tree is to count the 
annual rings on the cross section of the stem near the ground, 
and add to this count the number of years it took the tree to 
grow to the height at which the count was made. In case of 
a felled tree, the stump section is a good place to make the 
count. The number of rings on the top section, plus the 
number of years it took the tree to grow to the height of 
the stump, gives the total age of the tree, for each ring usu¬ 
ally represents a year’s growth. To determine the age of 
standing trees an instrument is in use known as an increment 
borer. By means of this borer a small core about Yg of an 
inch in diameter is taken from the stem, and rings thereon 
are counted. The results furnish a good basis for estimating 



24 


Common Trees 


the age of trees. It has proved very valuable to foresters in 
studying the growth of standing forest trees. 

There is another method that is helpful in telling the age 
of such trees as White Pine, which develop their lateral 
branches in distinct whorls or stories one above another. 
The distance between these whorls of branches normally 
represents a year’s growth. If the branches have fallen off 
or been removed, one can often see the circle of branch scars 
on the stems. By counting the number of sections between 
these separate stories of branches one can estimate very closely 
the age of the trees in question. The age of young hard¬ 
wood trees can also be told by counting the rings of terminal 
bud-scale scars upon the twigs and the slender stems. The 
portion of the twigs from the tip to the first ring of bud- 
scale scars is one year’s growth. The distance between the 
first and second rings is another year, and so on as far down 
the stem as these scars remain visible. 

Telling the age of trees is fascinating pastime. After you 
have been successful in telling the age of a few trees you 
will find yourself questioning the age of others. You will 
not have gone far in your study of the age of trees until you 
will be convinced that the age of young trees like that of 
children is far more easy to tell than that of grown-up trees. 

WHERE TO STUDY TREES 

T HE best place to study trees is right where you are— 
if a tree happens to be near. If you are in a city 
and it is not convenient for you to go out into the woods, 
you can study the trees on the home grounds, along the 
streets, or in the parks. Do not forget to get acquainted 
with the tree that may stand near your front door. Other 
satisfactory places are fence rows, stream banks, waste places, 
abandoned fields, and woodlots. But the best place of all 
to get an acquaintance with trees is out in the great forest 
stretches on the mountain tops and in mountain valleys. 
Out there the trees are so plentiful and look so natural. 

Then too we must not forget that many trees have been 
planted in all parts of the State. Among these planted 
trees are some very rare and interesting specimens. They 
can be found on private estates, public parks, arboretums, 
and forest plantations. A real tree treat is available to 
those who will journey to these great tree places. 

Each year an increasing number of people go a-camping. 
When in camp one has unexcelled opportunities to study 
the native trees. The author has visited many places in 



of Indiana 


25 


Indiana. At each were found from 40 to 75 different 
native trees, and at some a considerable number of intro¬ 
duced trees have been planted. To name and list the trees 
on and about the camp ground is not only a pleasant past¬ 
time but also a profitable undertaking. Rich, indeed, is 
the boy or girl who can say “I can name all the trees about 
our camp.” "I have named and listed all the trees between 
Oak lane and Cedarville,” “Shoemaker’s island is a tree 
paradise—I found 57 different species there.” To know 
all the trees on a particular plot of ground is an achievement 
of merit for any boy or girl, and even grown-up folk who 
can name the trees that help to make our land so beautiful, 
have a right to feel proud of their accomplishment. 


HOW TO STUDY TREES 

T HE FIRST THING one usually wants to know about a tree 
is its name. Each tree has two kinds of names—the 
common name and the scientific name. One of our best known 
trees has the common name of WHITE OAK. Its scientific 
name is Quercus alba. Some trees have five to ten or more 
common names. Whoever knows the common and scien¬ 
tific names of a tree has mastered the first step in tree iden¬ 
tification. 

There are a number of common ways to get acquainted 
with trees. Some students are fortunate enough to have good 
teachers who know the trees. When this is true, tree identi¬ 
fication is very easy. But there are other less fortunate ones 
who must study them from books. The study of trees is 
one of the purest delights of outdoor life. It is so pleasant, 
so fascinating, and so stimulating that it becomes a pastime 
of rare delight. To know trees is to love and protect them. 
In teaching our boys and girls about trees we will place in 
their possession an unafraid attitude towards the out-of- 
doors and thus instil into them the duty of preserving tree 
homes for our cheery bird friends “Whose habitations in the 
treetops e’en are half-way houses on the road to Heaven.” 

Fortunate are the boys and the girls who can tell the names 
of trees, know the quality of their fruit, the fragrance of their 
flowers, the form of their leaves, the flavor of their twigs, 
the color of the bark, and the properties of their wood; 
especially whether the wood is tough or brittle, easy or hard 
to chop and split into firewood. 



26 


Common Trees 


EXCELLENT BOOKS ON TREE AND SHRUBS 
OF INDIANA 

Y OUR attention is called to two books, “Trees of 
Indiana’’ and “Shrubs of Indiana,” by Charles C. 
Deam, State Forester. They are published and distributed 
at cost by the Division of Forestry of the Department of 
Conservation, Indianapolis. Both books are complete in 
scientific detail. The botanical characteristics of each species 
are technically accurate. 

The species are arranged in the order of development ac¬ 
cording to family, genera, and species. Each species is treated 
in order as to botanical characteristics, distribution, and re¬ 
marks. The books are bound and printed on good quality 
paper, with a list of illustrations and index. “Trees of In¬ 
diana” contains one hundred and thirty-three 5x7 illustra¬ 
tions. “Shrubs of Indiana” contains one hundred and forty- 
six 5x7 illustrations. These books are recommended for 
school teachers, botany students, farmers, nurserymen and 
horticulturists who might desire greater scientific detail than 
is possible in this handbook: “Common Trees of Indiana.” 

****** 

“He that planteth a tree is a servant of God. 

He provideth a kindness for many generations, and 
faces that he hath not seen shall bless him.” 

Henry Van Dyke. 

****** 

“I have written many verses, but the best 
poems I have produced are the trees I planted on 
the hillside” 

Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

****** 

"Under this oak I love to sit and hear all the 
things which its leaves have to tell. No printed leaves 
have more treasures in history or of literature to those 
who know how to listen.” 


Henry Ward Beecher. 



of Indiana 


27 


WHITE PINE 

Pinus Strobus, Linnaeus 

T HERE is no tree in the world that surpasses the White 
Pine in beauty, stateliness, individuality, and usefulness. 
It is the prince of North American trees. Reliable records 
show that the first American house was built of White Pine. 



One-third natural size. 

It is the only evergreen tree native to eastern North Amer¬ 
ica that has soft, slender, flexible, straight, bluish-green 
leaves grouped in clusters of five. They are 3 to 5 inches 
long, adn persist for 2 years. 

The cones are 5 to 10 inches long, short-stalked, narrowly 
cylindrical, rarely hang long on the trees. The cone-scales 
are thin, flat and without spines or prickles. 

The trunk is straight, when grown in dense stands is 
clear of branches for many feet. The lateral branches occur 
in whorls of 3 to 7 arranged in horizontal layers. Upon 
falling they leave distinct circles of branch-scars. 

The wood is soft, light brown, straight-grained, easily 
worked. It is used for a wider range of purposes than any 
American wood. 

The White Pine is native from Newfoundland west to 
Manitoba and Minnesota south to Iowa, Pennsylvania and 
Kentucky and along the mountains to Georgia. In Indiana 
it is local on the dunes about Lake Michigan. A few trees 
occur along Big Pine, Little Pine, Rock and Kickapoo creeks 
in Warren county; also along Big Shawnee and Bear creeks 
in Fountain county, and along Sugar Creek in Montgomery 
county. White Pine is one of the trees recommended for 
reforesting abandoned fields in Indiana. 







28 


Common Trees 


JERSEY PINE 

Pinus virginiana, Miller 

T HE Jersey Pine is a pioneer tree. It is among the first 
trees to march out and reclaim abandoned fields and 
other waste places. It is unfortunate in its common name, 
which implies that it is inferior and undesirable. This is 
incorrect, for each year its wood is used more extensively for 
pulp, shipping crates, and general construction work, and 
locally it is used as a Christmas tree. 



JERSEY PINE 
One-half natural size. 


The leaves occur in pairs. They are 1 to 3 inches long, 
twisted, spread widely from each other. 

The cones are narrow, conical, sharp-pointed, 2 to 3 
inches long, persist for several years. The cone-scales bear 
slender prickles. 

The twigs are smooth, purplish, tough, usually wavy. 
On older trunks the bark peels off in thin scales, giving a 
ragged appearance. 

The Jersey Pine is found from southeastern New York, 
central New Jersey, and north-central Pennsylvania south to 
Georgia and Alabama and west to Indiana and Texas. In 
Indiana it is confined to the knob area of Floyd, Clark and 
Scott counties, and the southeastern part of Washington 
county. Whenever this tree grows near an abandoned field 
it soon reforests it. This makes it a valuable tree in reforest¬ 
ing the “knob” area of Indiana. 

The Jersey Pine does not become a big forest tree. It 
usually reaches a height of 30 to 70 feet and a diameter of 
18 inches. The largest specimen found in the northern part 
of its range was 82 feet high and 28 inches in diameter. 
Another pine found on the dunes about Lake Michigan is the 
Gray Pine or Jack Pine, Pinus Banksiana, Lambert. It has 
short leaves about 1 %. inches long and unarmed cone-scales. 






of Indiana 


29 


HEMLOCK 

Tsuga canadensis, (L.) Carriere 

T HE Hemlock, also called Spruce Pine and Hemlock 
Spruce, is an important forest tree with a very pleasing 
and graceful appearance. As an ornamental tree it has few 
equals and as a timber tree it stands in the front rank. 



HEMLOCK 
One-half natural size. 


The leaves are flat, of an inch long, rounded or notched 
at apex, dark green and glossy above, with two white lines 
on lower surface, joined to the twigs by short and slender 
woody stalks. They are spirally arranged, but appear as if 
arranged in two flat rows alongside the twigs. A third row 
of small leaves point forward on the top of the twigs. 

The cones are oblong, light brown, of an inch long, 
short-stalked. They often persist throughout the winter. 
The cone-scales are about as wide as long. 

The outer bark is reddish-brown and scaly; the inner is 
cinnamon red. If one takes a pocket knife and bores into 
the inner bark and finds it cinnamon red he has a positive 
distinguishing characteristic of this tree. The twigs are very 
slender, grayish-brown, at first hairy, and rough when 
needle-leaves are shed. 

The wood is hard, weak, brittle, liable to splinter and dif¬ 
ficult to work. It is used for coarse lumber, boxes, crates 
and pulp, and the bark is rich in tannin. 

The Hemlock is found from Nova Scotia to Minnesota 
and south to New Jersey and Pennsylvania and along the 
mountains to Alabama. It occurs only in a few places in 
Indiana, being found on cool slopes of high bluffs on the 
south side of streams. It is reported from Brown, Putnam, 
Parke, Montgomery, Owen, Jackson, Jennings, Floyd, Clark, 
Lawrence and Crawford counties. It is a shade-loving tree 
and not very windfirm. It usually reaches a height of 60 
to 80 feet, but may become 100 feet high and 4 feet in 
diameter. 






30 


Common Trees 


AMERICAN LARCH 

Larix laricina (Du Roi ) Koch 

T HE American Larch, commonly called Tamarack, is a 
northern tree, which sheds all its leaves in autumn. 
The leaves are flat, soft, slender and about one inch long. 
On the twigs of last seasons growth they occur singly; on 
the spurs of older twigs in clusters of ten or more. 

The cones are 
among the smallest 
of any American tree. 

They average two- 
fifths of an inch in 
length, bear about 12 
scales, and often per¬ 
sist for many years. 

The glossy brown 
twigs are without 
foliage in winter and 
covered with numer¬ 
ous stubby spurs. 

The bark on older 
trunks is reddish- 
brown and breaks up 
into small roundish 
scales. 

The wood is 
heavy, hard, and 
durable in contact 
with the soil. It is 
used for posts, poles, 
ties and in ship 
building. 

The A m e r i can 
Larch is found from 
Newfoundland south 
to northern New 
Jersey and Pennsyl¬ 
vania and west to 
Minnesota and through British Columbia to Alaska. It is 
found in bogs, on the border of rivers and lakes in northern 
Indiana. The most southern station is in Allen county. It 
is fast becoming extinct due to dredging of bogs. It rarely 
exceeds 50 feet in height and 2 feet in diameter. 

The European Larch (Larix decidua, Mill.) has been 
planted as a specimen tree in Indiana and is recommended 
for forest planting on well-drained gravelly soil. It has 
larger and usually erect cones, stouter and yellower twigs, 
and longer and more abundant leaves than the American 
Larch. 





of Indiana 


31 


ARBOR VITAE 

Thuja occidentalis, Linnaeus 

T HE Arbor Vitae, also called White Cedar and Cedar, is 
one of the most widely planted evergreen trees in North 
America. It develops a conical symmetrical crown and 
usually reaches a height of 25 to 50 feet. 




ARBOR VITAE 
One-half natural size. 


The leaves are scale-like, % of an inch long, closely over¬ 
lap one another, aromatic when crushed, marked with glan¬ 
dular dots. They are arranged in pairs. Each succeeding 
pair alternates with the next pair. 

The cones are oblong, Yz of an inch long, with 6 to 12 
blunt-pointed, reddish-brown scales. The trunk usually 
divides near the base. The bark is grayish to reddish-brown, 
usually furrowed, and peels off into thin shred-like strips. 

The Arbor Vitae is found from southern Labrador west 
to Manitoba and Minnesota and south to North Carolina. 
In Indiana it is now native only northwest of Mineral 
Springs in Porter county. Formerly it occurred in Lake 
county. It has been planted widely for ornamental uses. 
More than 50 garden varieties of Arbor Vitae are known. 
Some of them, such as White Arbor Vitae and the Golden 
Arbor Vitae, are distinguished by their color. Others are 
recognized by their form. Among the commonest forms are 
the pyramidal, the globose, the juvenile, and the pendulous. 
Closely related to the native Arbor Vitae is the Oriental 
Arbor Vitae—Thuja orientalis, Linnaeus. This tree has 
been planted extensively throughout eastern North America. 






32 


Common Trees 


RED CEDAR 

Juniperus virginiana, Linnaeus 

R ED CEDAR is a common household word. In recent 
years the “red cedar chest” has won its way to a special 
place in the modern home. 

The leaves are of two kinds, namely scale-shaped and 
awl-shaped. The scale-shaped are commonest, one-six¬ 



teenth of an inch long, closely appressed to twigs, four 
ranked. The awl-shaped are narrow, sharp-pointed, spread¬ 
ing, do not overlap, occur in 2’s and 3’s. 

The fruit is a dark blue berry about of an inch in 
diameter. Berries are freely eaten by birds. 

The bark is very thin, reddish-brown, shallowly fur¬ 
rowed, peels off in long shred-like strips. 

The wood is soft, strong, of even texture, works easily. 
The heartwood is distinctly red and the sapwood white. 
This color combination and its pronounced fragrance, sup¬ 
posed to ward off moth and other insects, account for its 
wide use for clothes chests, closets and for interior wood¬ 
work. It is also used extensively for fence posts, lead pen¬ 
cils and cigar boxes. 

The Red Cedar, also called Cedar, and Juniper, is found 
from Nova Scotia to South Dakota south to Florida and 
Texas. It is found throughout Indiana, but sparingly in 
the northern part. It is commonest on unglaciated limestone 
soil. This tree grows slowly, needs plenty of sunlight, and 
rarely exceeds 50 feet in height and 18 inches in diameter in 
Indiana. It has a distinctive narrow conical crown when 
growing in the open. 

The Common Juniper—Juniperus communis, Linnaeus— 
is closely related to the Red Cedar. It is frequent along 
Lake Michigan and found inland in Noble, St. Joseph and 
Steuben counties. Its awl-shaped leaves occur regularly in 
3’s and do not extend along the twigs. 



of Indiana 


33 


BLACK WILLOW 

Salix nigra, Marshall 

T HE Black Willow reaches the largest size and has the 
widest distribution of any native American Willow. 
It is the only native willow of timber size, sometimes reach¬ 
ing a height of 80 feet and a diameter of 4 feet. 

It can always be distinguished by its simple, alternate, 
long, narrow, sharp- 
pointed leaves, 3 to 5 
inches long. At the 
base of the short leaf¬ 
stalk round leaf-like 
appendages often 
clasp the twigs. 

The flowers are of 
two different kinds. 

Both are arranged in 
short stubby spikes. 

The pollen-bearing 
and seed-producing 
always occur on dif¬ 
ferent trees. The 
seeds are minute, bear 
dense tufts of long 
silky down, occur in 
large numbers in 
small capsules on 
drooping tassels. 

The bark varies 
from light brown to 
dark brown and 
black. On old trunks 
it becomes furrowed 
and peels off in scales. 

The branches are 
slender, brittle, some¬ 
what drooping. The buds are sharp-pointed, Yz of an inch 
long, covered by a single reddish-brown scale. 

The wood is pale reddish-brown, used chiefly in boxes, 
excelsior, charcoal, pulp, artificial limbs. 

The Black Willow occurs from New Brunswick to Flor¬ 
ida, west to the Dakotas and southern Mexico. It is found 
throughout Indiana, but reaches its largest size in the lower 
Wabash bottoms. One usually finds it in wet places, but 
it will grow on dry situations. 



BLACK WILLOW 

One-fourth natural Biie, except 2. 4, 6 and 8 
which are enlarged. 












34 


Common Trees 


PUSSY WILLOW 

Salix discolor, Muhl. 

T HE Pussy Willow, probably more than any other tree, 
tells the people of both city and country, when spring 
is here. During a brief period of spring it gives the chief 
touch of beauty to the landscape through its fine display of 
yellow blossoms that are visited by thousands of bees. 

The leaves are 
simple, alternate, 
elliptic, 3 to 5 in¬ 
ches long, bright 
green above and 
silvery white be¬ 
low. A distinctive 
feature of the 
leaves is the wavy 
margins with 
coarse teeth. 

The flowers are 
of two kinds. 

Both are arranged 
in short, stubby 
spikes. The pol¬ 
len-bearing and 
the seed-producing 
always occur on 
different trees. 

They appear be¬ 
fore the leaves and 
tell us when spring 
is coming. The seeds are produced in large numbers in 
hairy long-beaked light-brown capsules. 

The bark is thin, smooth, greenish, rarely scaly. The 
stout branchlets are marked with orange-colored breathing 
pores. The buds are alternate, % of an inch long, duck¬ 
bill like, flattened on inside, dark reddish purple. The wood 
is similar to that of Black Willow. 

The Pussy Willow is found in moist meadows or marshes 
and along banks of streams and in other wet places from 
Nova Scotia south to Delaware and west to Manitoba and 
Missouri. It is common in northern Indiana. It is rare or 
absent in the unglaciated area of south-central counties. It 
rarely exceeds 25 feet in height and is of considerable value 
in landscape work, especially along water courses. 



PUSSY WILLOW 
One-fourth natural size. 





of Indiana 


35 


WIDELY INTRODUCED WILLOWS 



'HREE Willows have been widely introduced into In 


-i- diana. They are the Weeping Willow, the White 
Willow, and the Crack Willow. 

The Weeping Willow (Salix babylonica, Linnaeus), a 
native of Asia, was introduced into the United States in 
1702 by a famous botanist named Tournefort. Sometimes 
this tree is called Napoleon Willow because of its associa¬ 
tion with the great French general during his exile. It has 
been planted widely in New Jersey. This tree can always 
be distinguished by its weeping habit. Its long drooping 
branches are distinctive, and when young they are tough and 
pliable, but later become brittle. Its leaves are simple, alter¬ 
nate, 4 to 7 inches long; in shape they resemble the Black 

Willow and in color those of the White Willow. 

/ 

The White Willow (Salix alba, Linnaeus), a native of 
Europe, was brought to America by the early settlers. It 
is now found from the Atlantic to the Pacific and is given 
planting preference where erosion and landslides are to be 
stopped. It is found locally throughout Indiana as an orna¬ 
mental tree. In some places it has escaped cultivation. This 
tree sometimes reaches a height of 70 feet and a diameter of 
4 feet. The leaves are simple, alternate, 2 to 4 inches long, 
one-third to two-fifths of an inch wide, finely toothed along 
edge. When young the leaves are pale green and hairy on 
both sides, but when mature they are distinctly white only 
on the lower surface, whence the name White Willow. 

The Crack Willow (Salix fragilis, Linnaeus), a native of 
Europe and northern Asia, has been planted widely in Amer¬ 
ica, especially in the prairie states. It is found locally in 
Indiana, particularly about the earlier settlements. It is 
readily distinguished from the White Willow by its yellow¬ 
ish-green twigs and larger leaves, which are 3 to 6 inches 
long, Yz to 1 inch wide, coarsely toothed along margin. 
The branches are so brittle that they crack off easily in a 
slight breeze, whence the appropriate name Crack Willow. 
After a storm the ground beneath this tree is often completely 
covered with twigs and branches. 



36 


Common Trees 


QUAKING ASPEN 

Populus tremuloides, Michaux 


T HE Quaking Aspen is also called Trembling Aspen and 
Small-toothed Aspen. The air must be remarkably 
still if the foliage is not quaking or trembling. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, \ x / 2 to 2^ inches long, 
nearly round, finely toothed on margin, with leaf-stalks flat¬ 
tened laterally. 

The flowers ap¬ 
pear early in the 
spring. Pol len- 
bearing and seed- 
producing occur 
on different trees. 

Both are arranged 
in slender droop¬ 
ing tassels. 

The fruit is a 
2-valved capsule 
containing small 
seeds with tufts of 
fine hairs. 

The bark is 
white or grayish 
to yellow ish- 
green; on old 
trunks becomes 
rough and black. 

The twigs are 
smooth, shiny, 
reddish-b r o w n. 

The buds are nar¬ 
row, conical, sharp-pointed, smooth, shiny, appear varnished, 
covered with 6 to 7 reddish-brown scales. 



QUAKING ASPEN 

One-fourth natural size, except enlarged flowers and 
twigs. 


The wood is soft, weak, not durable, white to light 
brown, used for paper pulp, boxes, crates, and wooden dishes. 

The Quaking Aspen is the most widely distributed tree 
in North America. It is a transcontinental tree extending 
from Newfoundland to Alaska and south to New Jersey, 
Kentucky, Mexico and California. It is frequent in the 
lake region of northern Indiana, becoming rarer farther south 
and absent in the unglaciated area. 

A closely related tree is the Large-toothed Aspen (Popu¬ 
lus grandidentata). It is found with the Quaking Aspen 
and on some of the hills of southern Indiana. Its leaves 
are larger and more coarsely toothed, and its buds are stout, 
broad-pointed and covered with a flour-like coating. 






of Indiana 


37 


COTTONWOOD 

Populus deltoides, Marshall 

T HE Cottonwood, also called Carolina Poplar, is one of 
the largest trees of Indiana. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, broadly triangular, square 
at base, 3 to 5 inches long, with long and laterally flattened 
leaf-stalks. 

The flowers ap¬ 
pear before the leaves. 

Pollen-bearing and 
seed-producing occur 
on different trees. 

Both are arranged in 
drooping tassels. 

The fruit is a 3 to 
4-valved capsule ar¬ 
ranged in drooping 
tassels and containing 
numerous small seeds 
with tufts of fine 
hairs. 

The bark on 
young trunks is 
smooth and greenish- 
yellow, on old trunks 
becomes ashy-gray to 
dark brown and deep 
furrowed. The lat¬ 
eral branches take an 
upright position. 

The twigs are stout, 
y e 1 lowish, marked 
with grayish dots, 
have prominent 
ridges below leaf-scars. The buds are large, resinous, glossy, 
chestnut-brown. The terminal bud is often 5-angled. The 
wood is soft, not durable, white to brown. Used for paper 
pulp, boxes and crates. 

The Cottonwood is found from Quebec south to Florida 
and west to the Rocky Mountains. This tree is found 
throughout Indiana in low places. 

The introduced Lombardy Poplar, a native of southern 
Europe, was formerly planted as a street tree, but is now 
prohibited because its roots penetrate sewers. It can be recog¬ 
nized by its narrow and high crown with almost vertical 
lateral branches. The Swamp Cottonwood with large 
leaves, with hairy lower surfaces and round leaf-stalks is com¬ 
mon in southwestern Indiana. 



COTTONWOOD 

One-fourth natural size except enlarged flowers 
and twig. 






38 


Common Trees 


BLACK WALNUT 

Juglans nigra, Linnaeus 


T HE Black Walnut is more fortunate than many trees in 
that it has only a few common names. Throughout 
its entire range of 650,000 square miles it is called Walnut, 
Black Walnut or Walnut-tree. 



BLACK WALNUT 

Leaf and fruit, one-fifth natural size. Twig, three-fourths natural size. 


The leaves are alternate, compound, with 13 to 23 leaf¬ 
lets. Leaflets are 3 to 4 inches long, sharp-pointed, toothed 
along margin, stalkless. 

The flowers are of two kinds. Both occur on same tree. 
The pollen-bearing occur in unbranched drooping tassels. 
The nut-producing occur in few-flowered clusters on the new 
growth. 

The fruit is a round furrowed nut, 1 to 2 inches in diam¬ 
eter with a green non-splitting fleshy husk which turns 
black when mature. 

The bark is thick, rough, furrowed, dark brown to gray¬ 
ish-black. The twigs are stout, grayish-broWn, bitter to 
taste, contain gray to light brown chambered pith. The 
buds are covered with downy scales. Terminal bud is as long 
as wide. Lateral buds are smaller. 

The wood is rich dark brown, hard, strong, splits easily, 
very durable. Used in furniture, interior finishings, sewing 
machines and gun stocks. 

The Black Walnut is found from southern New England 
to Minnesota and south to Florida. This is a common to 
frequent tree throughout Indiana. It has been extensively 
planted by man and squirrels. Few farms are without it. 
It is recommended for planting in woodlots. Its wood has 
always commanded high prices, and its nuts are among the 
best. 










of Indiana 


39 


BUTTERNUT 

Juglans cinerea, Linnaeus 

'HE Butternut, also called White Walnut, is a close kin 
of the Black Walnut. 

The leaves are alternate, compound, with 13 to 23 leaf¬ 
lets. 

The flowers are of two kinds. The pollen-bearing occur 
in unbranched droop¬ 
ing clusters. The 
nut-producing occur 
in few-flowered clus¬ 
ters on new growth. 

The fruit is an 
elongated nut with a 
hairy, sticky, non¬ 
splitting husk. The 
nut is 4-r i b b e d, 
pointed at one end, 
sharply furrowed 
over entire surface, 
and contains sweet, 
oily and edible nut. 

The bark is gray 
to ashy-white, sepa¬ 
rates into wide flat 
ridges. The twigs 
are stout, greenish- 
gray, often downy, 
contain dark-brown 
chambered pith. The 
buds are covered with 
dense pale down. 

Terminal bud is butternut 

tO 24 t)f an inch One-fourth natural size, except 3 and 4 which are 
t _ c i a. _ J enlarsed and 7, 8, 10, 11 and 12, natural size. 

long, flattened, 

blunt-pointed, longer than wide. Lateral flower buds are 
pineapple-like, often placed one above another. 

The wood is soft, not strong, light-brown, 
niture, interior finishing, and chests. 



Used in fur- 


The Butternut is found from New Brunswick to Minne¬ 
sota, south to Delaware and Arkansas and along mountains 
to Georgia. This is an infrequent tree throughout Indiana. 
It usually occurs alone, and grows best on moist soil in the 
northwestern part of the State. It rarely exceeds 50 feet in 
height and 2 feet in diameter. 














40 


Common Trees 


SHELLBARK HICKORY 

Carya ovata, ( Miller ) K. Koch 


T HE Shellbark Hickory, also called Shagbark Hickory, 
is the best known of all the hickories. It produces the 
best nuts and has the most distinctive features of all the 
native hickories. 


The leaves are alternate, 8 to 14 inches long, compound, 
with 5, rarely 7, leaf¬ 
lets. The three up¬ 
per leaflets are the 
largest, the pair near¬ 
est the base is usually 
only about one-half 
the size of the ter¬ 
minal ones. 

The flowers are 
similar to those of 
the other hickories. 

The fruit is round, 

1 to 1 Yi inches long, 
with husk that splits 
into 4 sections from 
apex to base. The 
nuts are smooth, 
white, 4-angled, 
pointed at the ends. 

The kernel is large 
and sweet. 

The bark is 
smooth and light 
gray on young stems. 

On old trunks it be- 
comes distinctly 
shaggy. The twigs 
are reddish-brown to 
gray, covered with numerous light dots, usually hairy. The 
buds are egg-shaped, blunt-pointed, about three-fifths of an 
inch long, covered with about 10 bud-scales. 

The wood is very heavy, hard, strong, tough, elastic, 
close-grained. Used chiefly for handles and vehicles. 



SHELLBARK HICKORY 

One-fourth natural size, except 7 szhieh is natural 
size, and 8 slightly enlarged. 


The Shellbark Hickory is found from Quebec to Minne¬ 
sota, south to Florida and Texas. It occurs in all parts 
of Indiana, mostly in rich moist soil. It is a valuable tree 
in the woodlots. In the second growth forests it usually 
reaches a height of 90 feet and a diameter of 15 to 30 
inches. 





of Indiana 


41 


BIG SHELLBARK HICKORY 

Cary a laciniosa, (Mx. f.) !Loudon 


T HE Big Shellbark Hickory, also called Bull Nut, is a 
very important forest tree in Indiana on account of the 
valuable wood and the delicious nuts its produces. 

The leaves are alternate, compound with 5 to 9 leaflets. 
The prevailing number of leaflets is 7. They are usually 
hairy beneath un¬ 
til maturity. The 
leaf-stalks often 
persist through the 
winter. The fruit 
is a dull white nut, 

1 to 1 Yi inches 
long, usually 
rounded at base 
and pointed at 
apex, covered with 
thick husks that 
split in 4 valves, 
and contains large 
sweet kernel. 

The bark on 
young trees is 
tight, begins to 
scale when 4 to 8 
inches in diameter; 
on old trees shags 
off in long narrow 
strips. The twigs 
are stout, usually 
light orange 
brown, at first 
hairy but become 
smooth. The buds 
and wood are sim¬ 
ilar to those of the 
Shellbark Hickory. 

The Big Shellbark is found from southwestern Ontario to 
Nebraska and Iowa and south to Alabama and Louisiana. 
It occurs throughout Indiana except in the northwestern 
counties. It is abundant in the southwestern part of the 
State, particularly in the lower Wabash bottoms. Moist 
rich woods and river bottoms are its favorite home. The 
Shellbark Hickory is its common associate. 



BIG SHELLBARK HICKORY 






42 


Common Trees 


WHITE HICKORY 

Carya alba, ( Linnaeus ) K. Koch 

T HE White Hickory, also called Mocker Nut Hickory and 
Bull Nut, produces a large nut with a small bitter kernel 
and yields valuable wood, a large proportion of which is 
white. 


The leaves are alternate, compound with 7 to 9 leaflets, 
fragrant when 
crushed, usually 
hairy on lower 

surface and along 
leaf-stalks. The 
upper pair of leaf¬ 
lets are the largest. 

The fruit is an 
ovoid nut, 1 Yi to 
2 Yi inches across, 
with thick husk 
and usually round- 
based nut with 

thick shell and 

small bitter kernel. 

The bark is 
gray, furrowed, 
not shaggy. The 
twigs are stout, 

reddish-brown, us¬ 
ually very downy. 

The buds are 
large, blunt-point¬ 
ed, densely hairy, 

2/5 to 4/5 of an 
inch long. The 
wood is similar to 
that of the Shell- 

bark Hickory but mlTE hickory 

usually has wider 

and white sapwood, whence its name White Hickory. 



The White Hickory is found from Massachusetts and On¬ 
tario to Nebraska and south to Florida and Texas. It occurs 
throughout Indiana, except the extreme northwestern part. 
It is infrequent on the glaciated area becoming frequent 
southward. In most places it grows on hilly ground, but in 
the lower Wabash valley it is found with the Shellbark and 
Big Shellbark Hickory in low bottomlands. 









of Indiana 


43 


PIGNUT HICKORY 

Carya glabra, ( Miller ) Spach 


T HE Pignut Hickory, commonly called Black Hickory 
and locally Bitter Hickory, is among the well-known 
trees of Indiana, especially in the southern part, where it is 
most plentiful. 


The leaves are alternate, compound, 8 to 12 inches long 
with 5 to 7 leaflets. Leaf¬ 
lets are long, narrow, 
s h a r p-pointed, smooth, 
glossy. They are slightly 
larger than those of the 
Bitternut Hickory. 

The flowers are similar 
to those of the other hick¬ 
ories. 

The fruit is pear-shaped 
to spherical, with neck-like 
projection at base. The 
husk is thin, often does 
not split or may split to 
middle. The kernel is us¬ 
ually small and bitter, and 
not edible. 



PIGNUT HICKORY 
One-fourth natural size. 


The bark is close-fitting, 
dark grey, marked with 
shallow furrows, does not 
shag off. The twigs are smooth, tough, reddish-brown, 
marked with pale dots. The buds are oval, blunt-pointed, 
reddish-brown. 


The wood is similar to that of other hickories, but some¬ 
what superior to Bitternut. Formerly it was used extensively 
for hoop poles and more recently in the manufacture of rustic 
furniture. 


The Pignut Hickory is found from Maine to Minnesota, 
south to Florida and Texas. In Indiana it is found from the 
Mississinewa river southward, becoming a common tree in 
most of the unglaciated areas. It is generally found on the 
hills, but locally it occurs in the flats. The largest trees 
reach a diameter of 30 inches. 




44 


Common Trees 


BITTERNUT HICKORY 

Carya cocdiformis, ( Wangenheim ) K. Koch 

T HE Bitternut Hickory, also called Pignut Hickory and 
locally within its range, Swamp Hickory and Water 
Hickory, is usually found in moist to wet locations. One 
often finds it along streams and in rich woods. 

The leaves are alternate, compound, 6 to 10 inches long 
with 5 to 9 leaflets. 

Leaflets are long, nar¬ 
row, s h a r p-pointed, 
without stalks except 
the terminal one. 

The flowers are of 
two kinds. They occur 
on the same tree. The 
pollen-bearing occur in 
drooping tassels, 3 to 4 
inches long. The nut- 
producing occur in few- 
flowered clusters on new 
growth. 

The fruit is a thin- 
shelled nut with bitter bitternut hickory 

t t One-fourth natural size. 

kernel covered with a 

thin-shelled husk, which splits to middle into 4 valves. 
Winged projections mark meeting line of husk sections from 
apex to middle. 

The bark is light gray, rather thin, roughened by shal¬ 
low furrows, does not scale nor shag off. The twigs are 
slender, smooth, grayish to orange-brown or reddish. The 
buds are long, flattened, blunt-pointed, covered by 4 yel¬ 
lowish scales. 

The wood is heavy, hard, strong, somewhat brittle. It 
is inferior to that of other hickories, but used for practically 
the same purposes. 

The Bitternut Hickory is found from Quebec to Minne¬ 
sota, south to Florida and Texas. It is generally distributed 
throughout Indiana, but is nowhere abundant. In many 
localities it is dying out rapidly. It is not recommended for 
the farmer’s woodlot on account of its ordinary wood and 
inferior nuts. This tree may attain a height of 100 feet 
and 3 feet in diameter. 




of Indiana 


45 


OTHER INDIANA HICKORIES 

T HE Pecan—Carya illinoensis, (Wangenheim) K. Koch 
—has the distinction of producing the best nuts of any 
native American tree. This tree is not so common as 
it was formerly in Indiana. It was found chiefly in the 
southwestern part of the State, extending as far north as 
Covington and eastward to Clark and Jackson counties. It 
is hardy in all parts of the State, but in northern Indiana the 
fruit does not mature on account of the short seasons. A 
few orchards have been planted in Indiana but so far none 
have proven profitable. The Pecan is a tall, slender tree with 
tight-fitting bark that rarely becomes scaly. It has com¬ 
pound leaves with 9 to 17 leaflets, usually about 13. The 
leaflets generally curve backwards. The fruit is an elongated 
small nut with sweet kernel and circular in cross-section. 
The buds are covered with 4 to 6 valvate scales. This tree 
produces the poorest wood of all the hickories, having only 
about half the strength and stiffness of the Shellbark Hickory. 


Closely related to the Pignut Hickory is the Small-fruited 
Hickory—Carya ovalis (Wangenheim) Sargent. The pre¬ 
vailing number of leaflets to a leaf is 7. The fruit is usu¬ 
ally granular, and rarely tapers to a short stem. The shell 
of the nut is thin and the kernel rather sweet. It fruits 
oftener than any other hickory. In Indiana it is found 
chiefly north of the Wabash river. The Pignut Hickory is 
most abundant in the southern part of the State. It usu¬ 
ally occurs on dry soils. A number of distinct varieties of 
this tree are recognized. 

****** 

"Now the trees are sentient beings; they have 
thoughts and fancies; they stir with emotion; they 
converse together; they whisper or dream in the 
twilight; they struggle and wrestle with the 
storm 


John Burroughs. 




46 


Common Trees 


RIVER BIRCH 

Betula nigra, Linnaeus 

T HE River Birch is also called Red Birch and Water 
Birch. It is the most abundant birch of Indiana. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, egg-shaped, 2 to 3 inches 
long and wedge-shaped at base. 

The flowers ap¬ 
pear about April, 
are of two kinds. 

The pollen-bear¬ 
ing are arranged in 
drooping tassels, 2 
to 3 inches long. 

The seed-produc¬ 
ing occur in small 
spikes about one- 
third of an inch 
long. 

The fruit is an 
erect cylindrical 
spike, 1 to P /2 
inches long. The 
seeds ripen in ear¬ 
ly summer with 3- 
lobed scales. 

The bark is red¬ 
dish-brown to cin¬ 
namon red, peels 
off in large thick 
layers. On old 
trees the bark be¬ 
comes thick, deep¬ 
ly furrowed and 
dark brown. The 
twigs are reddish-brown and more or less hairy. 

The wood is strong, heavy, close-grained, reddish-brown 
with white sapwood. It is used in the manufacture of wood- 
enware, turnery, pulp and chemicals. 

The River Birch extends farther south than any other of 
our native birches. Its range is from Massachusetts to Min¬ 
nesota and south to Florida and Texas. This tree is absent 
in eastern Indiana, most abundant in the southern part, and 
extends as far north in the western part as Lake county and 
as far east as Bartholomew, Scott and Clark counties. It is 
a tree of overflow lands. In the lower Wabash it reaches a 
diameter of 30 inches. It is usually short-boled and of little 
commercial importance. 



RIVER BIRCH 
One-third natural size. 





of Indiana 


47 


OTHER INDIANA BIRCHES 

T HE Yellow Birch—Betula lutea, Michaux, f.—also 
called Silver Birch and Swamp Birch is a rare tree in 
Indiana. 

It is now probably found in a dozen places in the lake 
region, chiefly in old tamarack bogs. Its southern limit is in 
Allen county. In this state it rarely exceeds 40 feet in height 
and 15 inches in diameter. Elsewhere it becomes 100 feet 
high and 4 feet in diameter. This tree can be recognized by 
its ragged yellow bark which peels off in thin papery scales. 


The Gray Birch—Betula populifolia, Marshall—also 
called White Birch, is a small tree, of which a local outpost 
has been reported as occurring in a few places in Indiana 
bordering Lake Michigan. Probably it is now extinct as a 
native tree but has been planted for ornamental uses. This 
tree can be recognized by its close-fitting white bark which 
does not peel off like that of the Paper Birch. The bark is 
marked with triangular black blotches. Its twigs are rather 
rough and its leaves are long-pointed. 


The Paper Birch—Betula papyrifera, Marshall—also 
called Canoe Birch is a northern tree found in a few 
places in Indiana in low places on the dunes near Lake Mich¬ 
igan. In this State it remains a small tree and can be dis¬ 
tinguished by its thin, creamy-white bark which peels off in 
thin paper-like films. Every boy and girl has learned that 
this tree was used by the Indians and early settlers in the 
making of canoes, whence the name Canoe Birch. It is 
planted locally in Indiana for ornamental purposes. It is 
also likely that the European White Birch—Betula alba, Lin¬ 
naeus, is planted as an ornamental tree in Indiana. It also 
has white bark. The principal varieties of it are the Cut- 
leaf, the Weeping and the Purple-leaved Birch. 





48 


Common Trees 


HOP HORNBEAM 

Ostrya virginiana, ( Miller ) K. Koch 

T HE Hop Hornbeam, also called Ironwood, has appro¬ 
priate common names, for its fruit is hop-like and 
the wood is “hard as iron.” It is the only tree native to 
eastern North America that produces hop-like fruit. An 
examination of the fruit shows that it is made up of a num¬ 
ber of loose papery 
bags in each of which 
is found a little 
brown nutlet. The 
seed bags are arranged 
in clusters usually 
from 1 to 2 inches 
long and attached to 
the twig by a hairy 
stem. 

The leaves are sim¬ 
ple, alternate, 3 to 5 
inches long, ovate, 
long-pointed, finely 
toothed along the 
margin. 

The flowers are of 
two kinds. Pollen¬ 
bearing and seed-pro¬ 
ducing occur on the 
same tree. The for¬ 
mer occur in droop¬ 
ing tassels about 2 
inches long, and the 
latter are produced in 
erect clusters. Dur¬ 
ing winter the partly 
developed pollen-bearing flower catkins occur in clusters of 
3 to 4 at the ends of the twigs. 

The twigs are very delicate and interlacing. The thin 
grayish brown bark peeling off in narrow, flat scales, is also 
helpful in recognizing this tree. The small reddish-brown 
buds with four-ranked bud scales are distinctive. 

The Hop Hornbeam is widely distributed over the eastern 
United States. It is found from Cape Breton Island to Flor¬ 
ida and west to Minnesota and Texas. It occurs through¬ 
out Indiana on dry ground. Beech and Sugar Maple are its 
chief associates. It is of no commercial importance. It is 
rarely over 30 feet high and 12 inches in diameter. 



HOP HORNBEAM 
One-fourth natural size. 

Twig section and seed with enclosing 
membrane enlarged. 





of Indiana 


49 


AMERICAN HORNBEAM 

Carpinus cacoliniana, Walter 

T HE American Hornbeam, also called Blue Beech and 
Water Beech, is a small bushy tree usually found in 
moist woods. In appearance it will pass for a little brother 
of the Beech. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 2 to 4 inches long, ovate, 
long-pointed, finely toothed along margin. 


The flowers are of two 
kinds, both appearing on 
same tree. The pollen¬ 
bearing occur in tassels 
about 1 Yi inches long; the 
seed-producing in few- 
flowered clusters about Y 
of an inch long. 

The fruit is a small, 
prominently ribbed nut 
about one-third of an inch 
long, enclosed in a leaf¬ 
like 3-lobed bract, which 
is usually toothed on one 
margin of middle lobe. 
The seed is attached to a 
leaf-like bract. 

The bark is thin, 
smooth, bluish-green, and 
marked with distinctive, 
furrows running up and 
down along the trunk. 
The twigs are slender, red¬ 
dish to orange, and cov¬ 
ered with scattered pale 
breathing pores. Small 
buds are about % of an 
inch long, covered with 8 
to 12 reddish-brown bud- 
scales. 



AMERICAN HORNBEAM 
One-fourth natural sire. 

Twig section and seed with winged bract, 
enlarged. 


The wood is heavy, 
hard, and strong. It is sometimes used for levers, tool han¬ 
dles, wedges and mallets. 

The American Hornbeam is found from Nova Scotia to 
Florida and west to Minnesota and Texas. This tree oc¬ 
curs throughout Indiana from old Tamarack bogs to dry 
oak ridges. It has no commercial value. 




50 


Common Trees 


SMOOTH ALDER 

Alnus rugosa, (Du Roi ) Sprenget 


T HE Smooth Alder, also called Black Alder, is found 
in swamps, bogs, along the streams and other wet 
places of the State. It usually remains a shrub, but occa¬ 
sionally it becomes 20 feet high. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, obovate, rounded at apex, 
wedge-shaped a t 
base, finely toothed 
along margin. 

The flowers ap¬ 
pear before the 
leaves and are of 
two kinds. The 
pollen-bearing oc¬ 
cur in drooping 
tassels 2 to 5 in¬ 
ches long. The 
seed-producing are 
greenish to pur¬ 
plish with scarlet 
styles. They are 
about 14 of an 
inch long and oc¬ 
cur in 2’s or 3’s at 
the end of the 
twigs. 

The fruit is a 
woody cone about 

54 of an inch smooth alder 

long. Twig section with bud, and leaf-scar enlarged. 

6 ' One-fourth natural size. 



The bark is 

thin, smooth, often grooved, grayish-green, dotted with nu¬ 
merous brown lenticels and marked with white blotches. 
The twigs are greenish to grayish brown, dotted with 
brownish lenticels. The buds are alternate, 54 of an inch 
long, evidently stalked, blunt-pointed, covered with 2 scales. 
The wood is yellowish brown and marked with broad rays. 


The Smooth Alder is found from Maine to Florida and 
Texas and west to Minnesota. It occurs locally in In¬ 
diana. The closely related Speckled Alder-Alnus incana is 
rather frequent in the dune area about Lake Michigan and 
along Pigeon river. Its bark is marked with pale dots, and 
its leaves are doubly toothed along the margin and glaucous 
beneath. 




of Indiana 


51 


CHESTNUT 

Castanea dentata, ( Marshall ) Bork. 

P RIOR to its attack by the Chestnut blight, the Chestnut 
was one of the most important American forest trees. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 6 to 8 inches long, sharp 
pointed and coarsely toothed. 

The flowers appear in 
June or July. They 
are arranged in slender, 
yellowish-white, pencil¬ 
like plumes. Pollen¬ 
bearing make up most 
of these plumes. The 
seed-producing occur in 
small numbers near the 
base of the plumes. 

The fruit is a prickly 
bur with 1 to 5 nuts 
maturing in September 
or October. 

The bark on bran¬ 
ches and small trunks is 
smooth, brownish and 
close-fitting; on old 
trunks becomes grayish- 
brown and deeply fur¬ 
rowed. The twigs are 
smooth, greenish to 
brown, dotted with nu¬ 
merous small white 
breathing pores. The 
buds are alternate, 54 of 
an inch long, blunt- 
pointed covered with 2 
to 3 chestnut brown 
scales. 

The wood is light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, dur¬ 
able. It is used for posts, poles, ties, general construction 
and interior finish. 

The Chestnut is found from Maine to Michigan, and 
south to the Carolinas, Georgia and Arkansas. It is con¬ 
fined to the sandy soil and sandstone outcrops of south- 

central Indiana. In Jackson county it goes north into the 
glaciated area. 



CHESTNUT 
One-fourth natural size. 

Twig sections and single flowers, enlarged. 





52 


Common Trees 


BEECH 

Fagus grandifolia, Ehrhart 

N O hardwood tree is more beautiful or more easily recog¬ 
nized than the American Beech. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 3 to 4 inches long, pointed 
at tip, wedge-shaped at base, coarsely toothed along margin. 
When mature they are stiff, leathery, with straight, sunken 
veins. 



BEECH 

One-half natural size. 


The flowers are of two kinds, appear about April. The 
pollen-bearing occur in stalked round heads; the nut-pro¬ 
ducing in a few-flowered clusters. 

The fruit is a stalked, prickly, four-valved bur, usually 
produced in pairs, containing triangular, pale brown, shin¬ 
ing nutlets with sweet kernel. 

The bark is smooth, light gray, often marked with initial 
carvings. The twigs are slender, dark gray, marked with a 
circle of bud-scale scars. The buds are alternate, slender, 
conical, sharp-pointed, % of an inch long, 5 times as long 
as wide, covered with 10 to 20 reddish-brown scales. 

The wood is very hard, strong, tough, not durable in 
contact with soil. It is an excellent fuelwood, and is used 
extensively in the manufacture of charcoal, chemicals, novel¬ 
ties. 

The Beech is found from Nova Scotia to Wisconsin and 
south to Florida and Texas. Numerically it is probably the 
most common tree in Indiana. It occurs throughout the 
State. The nuts of the Beech were used by the pioneers to 
fatten their hogs. 








of Indiana 


53 


THE OAKS 

O F the 300 Oaks known in the world. 55 are native to 
North America, and most of these occur in the eastern 
United States. The oaks make up the largest group of forest 
trees native to Indiana. In all there are 17 different kinds 
of oaks native to this State. They grow under a wide range 
of conditions and show wide variations in form and other 
distinguishing characteristics. The best way to get ac¬ 
quainted with Indiana oaks is to divide them into two major 
groups, the one group to comprise the White Oaks and the 
other the Black Oaks. It is easy to place the oaks of In¬ 
diana in these two groups by remembering the following 
characteristics of each. 

THE WHITE OAKS: The leaves of the members of 
this group have rounded lobes (not bristle-tipped), 
and the kernels of the acorns are usually sweet. All 
the oaks of this group mature their acorns in a single 
season: for this reason they are sometimes called Annual 
Oaks. The eight Indiana members of this group are 
White Oak, Swamp White Oak, Bur Oak, Post Oak, 
Chestnut Oak, Yellow Oak, Cow Oak and Overcup 
Oak. 

THE BLACK OAKS: The leaves of the members of this 
group have bristle-tipped (not round-lobed) leaves, 
and the kernel of their acorns is usually bitter. All the 
oaks of this group require two seasons to mature their 
acorns: for this reason the representatives of this group 
are sometimes called Biennial Oaks, which means two- 
year oaks in contrast with the one-year white oaks. The 
immature acorns are very helpful in recognizing the 
members of the Black Oak group, especially during the 
winter months when the trees are without leaves. The 
nine Indiana members of this group are Black Oak, Red 
Oak, Scarlet Oak, Pin Oak, Spanish Oak, Black Jack 
Oak, Shingle Oak, Schenck’s Oak and Hill’s Oak. 

The sign of all oaks is the acorn. It is an unfailing dis¬ 
tinguishing characteristic. Man has good reasons for his high 
regard for the oaks. History shows that the human race 
has been helped from the earliest ages by them, and the people 
of today enjoy a long list of good things they provide. 
Their most important gift is wood. They also supply us 
with cork, dyeing materials, tanning products, food for wild 
and domestic animals, and many other valuable products. 



54 


Common Trees 


WHITE OAK 

Quercus alba, Linnaeus 

T HE White Oak is the most important hardwood forest 
tree native to North America. It has held this front 
rank place since the earliest days of colonization. The orig¬ 
inal forests of the rich agricultural areas of Indiana were 
largely made up of this great tree. 

The leaves are sim¬ 
ple, alternate, 5 to 9 in¬ 
ches long, 2 to 4 inches 
wide. They are divided 
into 3 to 9, usually 7, 
blunt-pointed, finger¬ 
like lobes. Mature 
leaves are deep green 
above and light green 
beneath. 

The flowers appear 
about May and are of 
two kinds. The pol¬ 
len-bearing occur on the 
old growth in drooping 
tassels 2 or 3 inches 
long. The acorn-pro¬ 
ducing occur in small 
clusters on the new 
growth. 

The fruit is a sessile 
or short-stalked acorn 
maturing in one season. 

The light brown nuts 
are about 34 of an inch long, seated in a warty cup, en¬ 
closing about 34 of nut. The nuts are relished by wild 
animals. 

The bark is grayish-white and peels off in numerous 
loose scales. The early settlers made it into a tea used in 
the treatment of tonsilitis. The twigs are smooth, light- 
gray, dotted with light lenticels. 

The buds are alternate, egg-shaped, blunt-pointed, red¬ 
dish-brown, clustered at end of twigs. 

The wood is heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, light- 
brown, durable. Its uses are interior finish, flooring, fur¬ 
niture, general construction, implements and fuel. 

The White Oak is found from Maine to Minnesota and 
south to Florida and Texas. It is common throughout 
Indiana, and next to beech the commonest tree of the State. 
This tree reaches its best development on rich moist soil, 
where it attains a height of 75 to 100 feet and 2 to 4 feet 
in diameter. 



WHITE OAK 
One-fourth natural size. 

Single flowers and twig sections, enlarged. 










of Indiana 


55 


SWAMP WHITE OAK 

Quercus bicolor, Willdenoiv 

T HE Swamp White Oak is usually found in swamps, 
about ponds, and along the banks of streams. In youth 
it is rather attractive, but with advancing years it becomes 
ragged and unkempt in appearance. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 5 to 6 inches long, 
broad, wav y-toothed 
on margin, dark green 
above, light green and 
hairy on lower surface. 

They are broadest be¬ 
tween the middle and 
the apex. 

The flowers and 
wood are similar to 
those of the White Oak. 

The fruit is a long- 
stalked acorn that ma¬ 
tures in one season. The 
acorns are about an 
inch long and usually 
occur in pairs. 

The bark on old 

trunks is thick, grayish- 
brown and breaks in 
long deep furrows. On 
the small branches it 
sheds off in flakes like 
that of the Sycamore. 

The twigs are stout, 
yellowish to reddish- 
brown. The buds are about % of an inch long, blunt- 
pointed, smooth, reddish-brown. 

The Swamp White Oak is found from Maine to Michigan 
and south to Georgia and Arkansas. It is common in wet 
woods of northern Indiana, also on the flats of the southeast¬ 
ern part and the river bottoms of the southwestern part, but 
rare or absent on the hills in the south-central part. Trees 
2 to 4 feet in diameter and 80 feet high are not unusual. 
The largest specimen of Swamp White Oak ever recorded was 
the Wadsworth Oak in New York, which was 27 feet in 
circumference. It was near this tree that Robert Morris and 
the Seneca Indians made an important treaty in 1797. 



SWAMP WHITE OAK 
One-third natural size. 




56 


Common Trees 


BUR OAK 

Quercus macrocarpa, Michaux 

T HE Bur Oak, also called Mossy Cup Oak is one of the 
largest of American Oaks. It often reaches a height of 
100 feet and 4 to 7 feet in diameter. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 6 to 12 inches long, 3 to 
6 inches wide, shiny and deep green above, pale and finely 
hairy beneath. 

Near the middle 
are deep clefts. 

The flowers and 
wood are similar 
to those of White 
Oak. 

The fruit is a 
large acorn matur¬ 
ing in one season. 

The nuts are % of 
an inch long with 
a white and sweet 
kernel. The cup is 
bordered by dis¬ 
tinct fringe along 
margin. 

The twigs are 
stout, yellowish- 
brown and usually 
marked with corky 
winged p r o j e c- 
tions. The buds 
are alternate, Y& of 
an inch long, 
blunt- pointed, 
redd ish-brown, 
clustered at end of 
twigs. The bark becomes deeply furrowed and has a ten¬ 
dency to peel off in flaky scales. 

It is found from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia west 
to Manitoba, and south to Georgia, Kansas and Texas. It 
is found in all parts of Indiana except the “knob area.” 
About 5 miles northwest of Warsaw, Indiana, is a Bur Oak 
7 feet in diameter and 50 feet to the first branch. It is 
probably one of the largest oaks in the United States. 

The Bur Oak is a valuable timber tree and is being used 
for ornamental planting. It is easy to transplant, grows 
rapidly, has few insect enemies. 



BUR OAK 

One-third natural eize 







of Indiana 


57 


POST OAK 


Quercus stellata, Wangenheim 


T HE Post Oak was given its name in pioneer days when 
it was used extensively for posts, a use for which it is 
well adapted on account of its durability. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, coarse, stiff leathery in 
texture, 4 to 6 inches long. They are dark green and shiny 
on the upper surface, 
have a heavy coating of 
rusty brown hairs on 
lower surface. Under a 
magnifying glass the 
hairs are star-shaped 
whence the specific name 
“stellata.” The two 
basal lobes are small 
and the three terminal 
lobes are large and gen¬ 
erally squarish in out¬ 
line. Near the middle 
of the leaf is a deep cut 
that almost separates 
the leaf in two parts. 

The flowers are like 
those of the other oaks. 

See White Oak. 

The fruit is a small 
acorn maturing in one 
season. The nut is 
about Yi of an inch long, dark brown, often striped. The 
cup is shallow, covered with pale woolly scales, enclosing 
about 1 /3 of nut. 



POST OAK 
One-third natural size 


The bark is darker, rougher and less scaly than White 
Oak. The twigs are stout, hairy and rusty. The buds are 
alternate, of an inch long, blunt-pointed, reddish-brown, 
clustered at end of twigs. 


The wood is similar to White Oak and used for the same 
purposes. 

The Post Oak, also called Iron Oak, is found from Mas¬ 
sachusetts to Kansas and south to Florida and Texas. In 
Indiana it is confined to the southwestern part of the State, 
where it usually occurs on poor soil. It is a medium-sized 
tree, rarely exceeding 60 feet in height and 3 feet in diam¬ 
eter. 





58 


Common Trees 


CHESTNUT OAK 

Quercus Prinus, Linnaeus 


T HE Chestnut Oak, also called Rock Oak, and Tanbark 
Oak, is an important forest tree. Its importance will 
grow for it produces valuable wood, and yields bark rich 
in tannin. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, stiff, 5 to 9 inches long, 2 
to 4 inches wide, coarsely 
toothed along margin. 


The flowers are similar 
and the wood ranks close 
to White Oak. 

The fruit is a large 
acorn maturing in one 
season. The nut is 1 to 
1 Yz inches long, oval, 
smooth, glossy, chestnut 
brown. The cup is thin, 
deep, hairy inside, covers 
one-third of nut. 

The bark on young 
stems and branches is 
smooth, thin, yellowish- 
brown. On old trunks it 
is thick, brown to black, 
deeply furrowed. The 
bark ridges are high, sharp 
and angular. At the bot¬ 
tom of the furrows the 
bark is cinnamon red. It 
is rich in tannin. 



CHESTNUT OAK 
One-third natural size. 

Twig section and bud scales enlarged. 


The twigs are slender, 
angular, orange brown. 

The buds are light-brown, Y\ to Yz of an inch long, sharp 
pointed, and clustered at tip of twigs. 


The Chestnut Oak is found from Maine to Ontario, south 
to Alabama and Tennessee. It reaches its best development 
in the Alleghenies of Pennsylvania and southward. In In¬ 
diana it is confined almost entirely to the crest of ridges in 
the unglaciated part of the State. Its eastern limit in the 
State is in Clifty Falls State Park, and a few trees on the 
knobs of Spencer county marks its western limit. 







of Indiana 


59 


CHINQUAPIN OAK 

Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelmann 

T HE Chinquapin Oak, also called Sweet Oak, Yellow 
Oak and Chestnut Oak, was a favorite tree among the 
pioneers of Indiana who sought it for fence posts because of 
its durability. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 4 to 8 inches long, taper- 
pointed at apex, 
smooth and dark 
green above, gray¬ 
ish hairy beneath, 
with coarsely 
toothed margins, 
divided by more 
or less incurved 
teeth. 

The flowers are 
similar to those of 
the White Oak. 

The fruit is an 
acorn, generally 
stalkless and ma¬ 
turing in one sea¬ 
son. The nut is 
ovoid, Yi to 1 
inch long, enclosed 
for about its 
length by thin cup 
covered with 
brown woolly 
scales. 

The bark is 
g r a y i sh-brown. 

The twigs are slen¬ 
der, reddish-brown 
at first hairy but chinquapin oak 

b e come smooth. 

The buds are chestnut brown, sharp-pointed, about 1 /6 of 
an inch long. The wood is similar to that of the White 
Oak. 

The Chinquapin Oak is found from Vermont to Minne¬ 
sota and south to Florida and Texas. In Indiana it occurs 
in limited numbers in all parts of the State, being rare in 
the northwestern part, and more common south of the Wa¬ 
bash river. It was one of the favorite trees of wild pigeons 
before they became extinct. Its fruit is the most edible of 
all our oaks. 










60 


Common Trees 


RED OAK 

Quercus rubra, Linnaeus 

T HE Red Oak is one of the biggest, stateliest, and hand¬ 
somest trees of eastern North America. As early as 
1740 it was introduced into Europe. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 5 to 9 inches long, 4 to 6 
inches wide, 7 to 9-lobed. Lobes are bristle-tipped and sepa¬ 
rated by clefts that reach 
halfway to midrib. 

The flowers appear with 
the leaves. The pollen¬ 
bearing are arranged in 
drooping tassels; the 
acorn-producing occur in 
few-flowered clusters on 
new growth. 

The fruit is an acorn 
maturing in two seasons. 

The cup is wide, shallow, 
covered with over-lapping 
reddish-brown scales, en¬ 
closing only base of nut. 

The nuts average one inch 
long, y 2 to of an inch 
wide, are flat at base and 
short-tipped at apex. 

The bark on young 
stems is smooth, grayish or brown. On older trunks it be¬ 
comes rough with furrows separating wide, smooth gray¬ 
ish to brownish ridges. The lateral branches are straight 
and ascend at about an angle of 45 degrees. The twigs are 
smooth and rich brown. The buds are of an inch long, 
sharp-pointed, smooth, glossy, reddish-brown, without 
hairs. 

The wood is heavy, hard, strong, light reddish-brown, 
with light sapwood. It is used for furniture, interior finish¬ 
ing, ties, and general construction. 

The Red Oak has a wide distribution. It is found from 
Nova Scotia to Minnesota and Kansas south to Florida and 
Texas. It is found throughout Indiana, but occurs only 
locally in the knob area, and becomes rare in the southern 
counties. Moist, porous, sandy to gravelly clay soils are its 
favorite homes. It is one of the most important timber trees 
of North America, reaching a height of more than 100 feet 
and an age of 300 or more years. 



RED OAK 

Twig, one-half natural size. 
Leaf, one-third natural size. 



of Indiana 


61 


BLACK OAK 

Quercus velutina, Lambert 

HE Black Oak, also called Yellow Oak, is one of the 
most common trees of Indiana. It sometimes reaches a 
height of 100 feet and 4 feet in diameter. By its bark one 
can always recognize this tree. Its outer bark is black and 
its inner bark is distinctly yellow. 

The leaves are 
simple, alternate, 4 to 
10 inches long, 3 to 
6 inches wide, usual- 
1 y 7-lobed with 
bristle tips. The 
lower leaf surfaces are 
pale green to rusty 
brown. 

The flowers are 
similar to those of 
other oaks. 

The fruit is an 
acorn maturing in 
two seasons. Cups 
are cup-shaped, light 
brown, often slightly 
fringed along margin, 
enclose Yz of nut. 

Nuts are to 1 inch 
long, light reddish- 
brown. 

The bark on older 
trunks is black, thick, 
very rough. Twigs 
are stout, angular, 
reddish-brown, often hairy. Buds are large, sometimes l /z 
of an inch long, angular, covered with a coating of yellow¬ 
ish or dirty-white hairs. 

The wood is similar to that of Red Oak. 

The Black Oak is found from Maine to Ontario, south 
to Florida and Texas. It occurs throughout Indiana but is 
confined to the poorer soils. It is rare in the rich agricul¬ 
tural part of the State, becoming very common on the sandy 
and gravelly soils of northern Indiana and the hills of 
the southern part of the State. 



BLACK OAK 
One-fourth natural size. 
Twig section, enlarged. 







62 


Common Trees 


SCARLET OAK 


Quercus coccinea, Muench 


T HE Scarlet Oak is one of the showiest oaks in the east¬ 
ern part of its range, but in Indiana it does not de¬ 
velop its beautiful foliage of brilliant scarlet to gorgeous red. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 3 to 6 inches long, 3 to 
5 inches wide, 5 to 9-lobed. Lobes are bristle-tipped and 
separated by deep clefts. 


The flowers resemble those 
of other oaks. 

The fruit is an acorn ma¬ 
turing in two seasons. The 
cup is thin, narrowed at base, 
often glossy on surface, 
covers ^2 of nut. The nut is 
three-fifths of an inch long, 
reddish-brown. 

The bark on small stems 
and branches is smooth, thin, 
light to grayish-brown, be¬ 
comes rough and irregular on 
older trunks, sometimes al¬ 
most black near base. Flat- 
topped ridges occur between 
shallow furrows. Inner bark 
is of a pale-coloring. Dead 
limbs often persist along 
lower trunk. The twigs are 
smooth, rather slender, reddish to grayish-brown. The buds 
are about of an inch long, covered with a pale wool 
from apex to middle. 

The wood is rather strong, heavy, hard, coarse in tex¬ 
ture. It does not have a wide commercial use, but is valu¬ 
able for fuel, ties and general construction. 



SCARLET OAK 
Leaf and acorns, one-third natural size. 


The Scarlet Oak is found from Maine to Minnesota south 
to North Carolina and west to Nebraska. In Indiana it is 
extremely local outside of the hill country, where it usually 
occurs on the crest of ridges. In the northern part of its 
range this tree is rather small, but toward its southern limits 
it becomes 80 feet high and 3 feet in diameter. It is of little 
commercial importance in Indiana, where many mature trees 
show rot and other defects. 






of Indiana 


63 


PIN OAK 


Quercus palustris, Muench 


T HE Pin Oak, also called Water Oak and Swamp Oak, 
is one of the most attractive oaks native to North 
America, Its trunk usually remains unbranched and the 
lateral branches take a horizontal position along the middle 
of the trunk. At the bottom they are drooping and those 
at the tip are ascending. 


The leaves are simple, al¬ 
ternate, 4 to 6 inches long, 

2 to 4 inches wide, 5 to 9- 
lobed. Lobes are bristle-tip¬ 
ped and separated by deep 
clefts. They resemble those 
of the Scarlet Oak, but are 
coarser and less lustrous. 

The flowers are similar to 
those of other oaks. 

The fruit is a tiny acorn, 
maturing in two seasons. The 
cup is thin, shallow, saucer- Leaf and acorns, one-third natural size, 
shaped, about 34 of an inch TwiK> one - half natural size - 
across. The nut is light 
brown, often striped, about of an inch long. 



PIN OAK 


The bark is rather smooth, grayish or dark-brown. The 
twigs are smooth, shiny, grayish-brown. The branches are 
thickly set with stiff pin-like twigs, whence its name Pin 
Oak. The buds are small, smooth, light-brown. 


The wood is rather heavy, hard, and strong. It warps 
and checks freely. It is used for fuel, ties and general con¬ 
struction work. 


The Pin Oak is found from Massachusetts to Michigan 
south to Tennessee and Oklahoma. It is found throughout 
Indiana, usually occurring in swampy woods. It is a medium¬ 
sized tree reaching a height of 75 feet and a diameter of 3 
feet. It is used for shade, park, and street planting. For 
forestry purposes it should be replaced by the Red Oak. 






64 


Common Trees 


SHINGLE OAK 

Quercus imbricaria, Michaux 

HE Shingle Oak, also called Laurel Oak, Peach Oak, 
Jack Oak and Water Oak, is among the unique oaks 
of North America. At first glance it appears to be an over¬ 
size laurel because of its laurel-like leaves, but a close exam¬ 
ination reveals acorns, placing it definitely among the oaks. 

The leaves are simple, al¬ 
ternate, 4 to 6 inches long, 

1 to 2 inches wide, wedge- 
shaped at base, sharp-pointed 
at apex, smooth along mar¬ 
gin. 

The flowers are similar to 
those of Red Oak. 

The fruit is a small acorn 
maturing in two seasons. 

The nut is egg-shaped, about 
Yz of an inch long, dark 
brown. The cup is saucer¬ 
shaped, reddish-brown, en¬ 
closing almost ^2 of nut. 

The bark is light to gray¬ 
ish-brown becomes rough with shallow furrows. On young 
trunks it is smooth and shiny. The twigs are smooth, 
shiny, and dark brown. The buds are about of an inch 
long, chestnut-brown. 

The wood is rather heavy, hard and strong. It is similar 
to Red Oak, but inferior. 

The Shingle Oak is found from Pennsylvania to Michigan, 
south to Georgia and Arkansas. It occurs throughout 
Indiana, becoming frequent to common in the southwest¬ 
ern part. This tree is usually found on low ground, but 
sometimes occurs near the base of slopes, and in the “knob 
area” it is found on the crest of ridges. 

The Shingle Oak may reach a height of 80 feet and a 
diameter of 3 feet. The attractive form and beautiful foli¬ 
age of this tree recommend it for ornamental planting. 



SHINGLE OAK 







of Indiana 


65 


OTHER INDIANA OAKS 

T HE Cow Oak—Quercus Michauxii, Nuttall—also 
called Basket Oak, is one of the most beautiful oaks of 
Indiana. It is more or less frequent in the flats of south¬ 
eastern Indiana and in the bottoms of the southwestern 
part. It is a tree of the lowlands. When grown in the open 
it forms an ovate head and its autumnal coloration is a gor¬ 
geous hue of red and brown. It should become one of the 
principal trees of the farmers’ woodlot. It resembles the 
Chestnut Oak but the lower surfaces of its leaves are vel¬ 
vety to the touch and its gray bark is scaly like that of the 
White Oak. 

****** 

The Over-cup Oak—Quercus lyrata, Walter—is one of 
the rarest oaks of Indiana. It is found only in inundated 
areas about river sloughs and swamps in the southwestern 
part of the State. Among its associates are the Pecan and 
Pumpkin Ash. It resembles the Bur Oak but lacks the 
fringed acorn cups, and the apex of leaf lobes are gen¬ 
erally sharp-pointed. 

****** 

The Black Jack Oak—Quercus marilandica, Muenchhausen 
—is a small tree found only on the very poorest soils of 
Indiana. It occurs chiefly in the hill country and on a 
few ridges in the southwestern part of the State. It can be 
distinguished by its large leaves which usually spread abruptly 
near the tips, are widest between the tip and the middle, 
and hairy on the lower surface. They resemble those of 
the Black Oak. The leaves of the latter are more deeply 
lobed and its mature twigs are smoother. 

****** 

A form of the Red Oak with leaves cut more than half 
way to the midrib is sometimes referred to as Schenck’s Oak 
—Quercus Schenckii, Britton. It is more or less frequent 
throughout the Wabash valley of Indiana. 




66 


Common Trees 


AMERICAN ELM 

Ulmus americana, Linnaeus 

O F all trees native to North America, the American Elm, 
also called White Elm and Water Elm, is probably 
the best known and most admired. For beauty, grace, and 
stateliness this tree has no superior. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 4 to 6 inches long, un¬ 
equally based. The 
veins run straight 
from the midrib to 
the doubly toothed 
margins. 

The flowers appear 
early in spring before 
the leaves. They are 
greenish and occur in 
small drooping clus¬ 
ters. 

The fruit is a 
small seed, surround¬ 
ed completely by a 
thin, flat, membrane¬ 
like wing. It ma¬ 
tures after the flow¬ 
ers, and is about ^ 
of an inch across. 

The bark is grayish-brown, rather thick, roughened by 
shallow furrows, sometimes flaky or corky. The twigs are 
smooth or sometimes hairy, reddish-brown, marked with 
obscure pale breathing pores. The leaf-scars are marked 
with three distinct bundle-scars. The buds are egg-shaped, 
usually smooth, covered with 6 to 10 overlapping reddish- 
brown scales with darker margins. 

The wood is heavy, hard, tough, rather durable, dark 
brown to red with lighter sapwood. It is used for barrels, 
agricultural implements, posts, ties and novelties. 

The American Elm has a total range of more than 2,500, 
000 square miles. It extends from Newfoundland west to 
the Rocky Mountains, a distance of 3,000 miles, and south 
to Florida and Texas, a distance of 1,200 miles. It is fre¬ 
quent to common on low ground in all parts of Indiana. It 
often reaches a height of 80 to 100 feet and a diameter of 
2 to 4 feet. 

Its wide range, good wood, rapid growth, and adaptation 
to a wide range of soils, suggest good care and protection in 
places suited to its growth. For ornamental and roadside 
planting this tree is especially desirable. 



AMERICAN ELM 
One-fourth natural size. 




of Indiana 


67 


SLIPPERY ELM 

Ulmus fulva, Michaux 

T HE Slippery Elm, also called Red Elm, has been a well- 
known tree ever since the pioneer hunters and early 
travellers learned that its bark has excellent properties for 
quenching thirst and staying hunger. The bark is still held 
in esteem for the treatment of throat trouble, fevers and in¬ 
inflammation. 

The leaves are sim¬ 
ple, alternate, 5 to 7 
inches long, rough, 
unequally based, 
doubly toothed on 
margin. 

The greenish flow¬ 
ers appear early in 
spring before the 
leaves. They occur 
in few-flowered clus¬ 
ters along twigs. 

The fruit is a 
small seed surround¬ 
ed completely by a 
thin, flat, membrane¬ 
like wing. It is 
about Y? of an inch 
across and matures 
shortly after the 
flowers. 

The bark is dark 
brown tinged with 
red, becomes rough 
and furrowed. Inner bark is slippery, fragrant, mucila¬ 
ginous. The twigs are grayish and rather rough when 
mature. The buds are dark chestnut-brown, covered with 
about 12 hairy rusty-brown scales. 

The wood is heavy, hard, tough, dark brown to red, with 
light sapwood. It is used for barrels, agricultural imple¬ 
ments, posts, ties, and novelties. 

The Slippery Elm is found from the Valley of the St. 
Lawrence, south to Florida and west to North Dakota and 
Texas. It is found in all parts of Indiana, preferring moist 
soil. Like the American Elm, it is becoming more abundant 
in many places in the State. 



SLIPPERY ELM 
One-fourth natural size. 

Twig section, leaf-scar and flowers, enlarged. 




68 


Common Trees 


ROCK ELM 

Ulmus racemosa, Thomas 

T HE Rock Elm, also called Hickory Elm, sometimes 
reaches a height of 100 feet and a diameter of 5 feet. 
The leaves are alternate, simple, 3 to 6 inches long, 
coarsely toothed along the margin, unequally based, thick 
and firm in 
texture. The 
flowers ap¬ 
pear in 
March and 
April before 
the leaves in 
slender stalks, 
drooping, ra- 
c e m e-1 i k e 
clusters. The 
fruit matures 
in May. It is 
a small one- 
seeded sam- 
a r a, sur¬ 
rounded with 
a thin mem- 
braneous 
wing about 
one-half o f 
an inch long &*$$$ 
and hairy all 

over. The rock elm 

bark on the 
main trunk is 

thick, ridged with wide furrows separating flat scaly ridges. 
The twigs are at first light brown and hairy, become shiny 
reddish-brown finally grayish-brown with corky winged 
projections. The buds are alternate, egg-shaped, brownish, 
about one-fourth of an inch long, with minutely hairy bud- 
scales. The wood is heavy, very strongs tough, light reddish- 
brown with light sapwood. It is used for purposes requir¬ 
ing toughness, solidity and flexibility. 

The Rock Elm is found from Quebec, westward to On¬ 
tario, Michigan and Wisconsin and northeast Nebraska and 
southward through the New England states to New York 
and central Indiana. This tree occurs in practically all 
parts of Indiana. It prefers a rich well-drained soil. In 
the glaciated region it becomes large. It is a valuable timber 
tree and locally is planted for ornamental purposes. In 
southwestern Indiana the beautiful Winged Elm—Ulmus 
alata, Michaux—is found locally. 















of Indiana 


69 


HACKBERRY 


Celtis occidentalis, Linnaeus 


T HE Hackberry, also called Sugarberry, belongs to the 
Elm family. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, ovate, 2 to 4 inches long, 
finely toothed along margin, sharp-pointed, rounded and 
often lopsided at base, rough on upper surface, with promi¬ 
nent primary veins. 


The flowers are small, 
greenish and borne on 
slender stalks. The fruit 
is a round, dark purple 
berry about J4 of an inch 
in diameter. It matures 
about September, hangs 
far into winter, and is 
eaten freely by birds and 
other animals. 

The grayish brown 
bark ranges from smooth 
when small to very rough. 

Hard wart-like bark pro¬ 
jections are common on 
medium-sized trees. The 
twigs are slender, tend to 
zigzag, and are often 
grouped in dense clusters 
known as “w itches- 
brooms.” They contain a 

pith that is made up of Twig section, flowers and leaf-scar, enlarged. 

thin white plates separated 
by wide air spaces. This 
is known as “chambered pith." 



HACKBERRY 
One-fourth natural size. 


The wood is yellowish, rather heavy, and coarse-grained. 
It is used chiefly for crates, boxes, handles and agricultural 
implements. 


The Hackberry is generally distributed in the United 
States east of the Rocky Mountains. It occurs throughout 
Indiana, generally along streams. It is rarely over 90 feet 
high. Another Sugarberry (Celtis mississippiensis) is found 
in the lowlands of southwestern Indiana. It has smoother 
bark, cherry-red fruit, and leaves with smooth margins 
towards the base. 









70 


Common Trees 


RED MULBERRY 

Morus rubra, Linnaeus 

T HE Red Mulberry, also known as “Mulberry,” came in 
the limelight in the early days of American history.. 
The early pioneers were inspired with the false hope that it 
was a new source of food for the silkworm. The outcome 
was altogether disappointing. 

The leaves are simple, 
alternate, 3 to 5 inches 
long, roundish, short-tip¬ 
ped, deep green and with 
deeply sunken veins on up¬ 
per surface. Some leaves 
are lobed and resemble an 
ordinary mitten. The 
leaf-stalks give a milky 
secretion upon being 
squeezed. 

The flowers are of two 
kinds. Pollen-bearing and 
seed-producing occur in 
short drooping tassels. 

The fruit is a soft, 
fleshy, dark red to black 
aggregation of many- 
seeded berries. They are 
sweet, juicy, and greatly 
relished by man, birds, and various other animals. 

The bark is rather thin, dark, grayish-brown, begins to 
roughen about the third year, peels off in thin scales. The 
twigs are smooth, clean, light greenish-brown, and bear 
oval, hollowed-out leaf-scars dotted with numerous bundle- 
scars. The bowl-shaped leaf-scars are helpful in recognizing 
this tree in winter. 

The wood is soft, light, not strong, orange yellow to 
brown. It is durable in contact with soil, and used chiefly 
for fence posts. 

The Red Mulberry rarely exceeds 50 feet in height and 2 
feet in diameter. It grows from Massachusetts west to Kan¬ 
sas and south to Texas and Florida. It is found through¬ 
out Indiana but is not common anywhere. It is usually 
found as a solitary tree. Rich moist soil of valleys and foot¬ 
hills is its favorite home. The tree should be protected to 
insure a food supply for birds. 



RED MULBERRY 
One-fourth natural size. 

Twig section, natural size. Leaf-scar, 
enlarged. 







of Indiana 


71 


CUCUMBER TREE 

Magnolia acuminata, Linnaeus 

T HE hardiest Magnolia native to eastern North America 
is the Cucumber Tree. In appearance it suggests a trop¬ 
ical tree for its leaves and flowers are large. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, thin, egg-shaped, 4 to 12 
inches long, pointed at apex, smooth ajong margin. They 
fall in response to 
first frost. 

The flowers are 
large, upright, soli¬ 
tary, bell-shaped 
about 3 inches long, 
greenish tinged with 
yellow, difficult to 
see among foliage. 

The fruit is a red 
cucumber-like mass, 

2 to 3 inches long, 
containing scarlet, 
pea-size seeds sus¬ 
pended by long slen¬ 
der white threads at 
maturity. 


The bark is gray¬ 
ish to brown, breaks 
up into long furrows. 
The twigs are 
smooth, shiny, bitter, 
rather stout, brown, 
marked with cres¬ 
cent-shaped leaf-scars. 



CUCUMBER TREE 
One-fourth natural size. 

Seeds and twig section, enlarged. 

The buds are conical, sharp-pointed, about of an inch 
long, and pale silky. 


The wood is soft, not strong, brittle, light yellowish to 
reddish-brown. It is used for same purposes as Yellow 
Poplar. 

The Cucumber Tree is found from western New York 
south to Illinois, Georgia and Arkansas. It occurs locally 
throughout southern Indiana, especially southward of Frank¬ 
lin and Knox counties. Rich moist woods with abundant 
sunlight is its favorite home. Good wood, rapid growth, 
few foes are among its principal merits. It is a beautiful 
tree for lawns and parks. It is too rare in Indiana to be 
of economic importance. 








72 


Common Trees 


TULIP TREE 

Liriodendron Tulipfera, Linnaeus 

T HE Tulip Tree, also called Yellow Poplar, and White- 
wood, is one of the most distinctive of American trees, 
and has been adopted as the State Flower of Indiana. 



TULIP TREE 


Leaf and flower, one-third natural size. Twig, two-thirds natural size. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, usually 4-lobed, 4 to 6 
inches across, appear to have tips cut off at right angle to 
stem, and are long-stalked. At the base of each leafstalk are 
two leaf-appendages. The flowers are tulip-like, 1 34 to 2 
inches deep, greenish-yellow with 3 reflexed sepals and 6 
petals. The fruit? is made up of long winged nutlets arranged 
in light brown, cone-like clusters 2 J4 to 3 inches long. 

The bark when young is smooth, bitter, ash-gray to 
brown, mottled with light blotches. On old trunks it be¬ 
comes thick, brown, deeply furrowed. The twigs are 
smooth, shiny, stout, reddish-brown, marked with pale ob¬ 
scure breathing pores. Complete rings of stipule-scars sur¬ 
round twigs. The buds are smooth, flattened, 34 to Yz of 
an inch long, blunt-pointed, reddish-brown, covered with 
one pair of bud-scales. Within buds are small miniature 
leaves. The wood is soft, not strong, light, white-yellowish 
to brownish, works easily. It is used for furniture, interior 
finishings, woodenware, novelties, and veneer. 

The Tulip Tree is found from Rhode Island to Michigan, 
south to Florida and Arkansas. It occurs throughout In¬ 
diana, becoming rare in the northern part. Deep rich moist 
soil is its favorite home. It frequently reaches a height of 
100 feet and a diameter of 5 feet. It is well adapted for 
use in Indiana woodlots. 







of Indiana 


73 


PAPAW 

Asimina triloba, Dunal 

T HE Papaw is a dainty tree rarely exceeding 30 feet in 
height. A mere glance at it in summer suggests that it 
has escaped from the tropics, for its leaves are truly tropical 
and its fruit resembles a stubby banana. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 4 to 12 inches long, thin 
in texture, short- 
pointed, long taper¬ 
ing at base, smooth 
on margin. 

The flowers are 
large, 1 to 1 54 inches 
wide, solitary, at first 
green, later reddish, 
occur below leaves, 
are borne on short 
stalks. 

The fruit suggests 
a stubby banana, 3 to 
5 inches long, at first 
green, yellowish to 
dark brown when 
ripe, contains many 
dark brown shiny 
flat seeds scattered 
throughout flesh. 

The bark is thin, 
smooth, dark brown, 
often dotted with 
light blotches. The 
twigs are rather slen¬ 
der, smooth, olive 
brown, enlarged at 
nodes. The buds are 
brown, naked, hairy. 

The terminal bud is 
large and flattened. 

Flower buds are round, 1 /6 of an inch in diameter, very 
hairy, dark brown. 

The Papaw is found from western New York and New 
Jersey south to Florida and west to Michigan and Texas. 
It occurs throughout Indiana but becomes rare in the hill 
country. This tree is of no commercial value on account of 
the! wood it produces, but deserves to be planted ornamentally 
because of its tropical leaves, unique flowers, and peculiar 
fruit. The fruit with white pulp is rather insipid, that with 
yellow pulp is tasty. 



PAPAW 

One-fourth natural size. 
Twig section and bud, enlarged. 












74 


Common Trees 


SASSAFRAS 

Sassafras variifotium, ( Salisbury ) Kuntze 

T HE Sassafras is a distinctive tree. It is recorded that 
Sassafras bark and roots were among the first cargoes 
shipped from the American colonies. The bark and roots 
are still used locally in the manufacture of Sassafras Tea. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, egg-shaped, 4 to 6 inches 
long, usually smooth 
along margin. Some¬ 
times 2 to 5-lobed 
leaves are found on 
same twig with the nor¬ 
mal leaves. The glove 
form of leaves are dis¬ 
tinctive. 

The flowers appear 
with the leaves and are 
of two kinds. They 
are greenish-yellow, and 
arranged in loose, short- 
stalked clusters. 

The fruit is a dark 
blue, shiny berry borne 
on a stout red stem. It 
is excellent bird food. 

The bark becomes 
rough early. On old 
trunks is reddish- 
brown, deeply fur¬ 
rowed, separates in thin 
scales. The twigs are 
rather brittle, yellow- 
ish-g r e e n, aromatic, 
sometimes hairy. The 
inner bark is very muci¬ 
laginous. The buds are about 3/5 of an inch long, slightly 
hairy, greenish, covered with a few bud-scales. 

The wood is soft, brittle, durable, aromatic, dull orange- 
brown, with light sapwood. It is used for posts, furni¬ 
ture, interior finishing, crates, coffins. 

The Sassafras is found from Massachusetts to Florida 
and west to Michigan and Texas. It is occurs throughout 
Indiana but is commonest in the southern part, where it 
often forms thickets in abandoned fields. It can be recom¬ 
mended for ornamental planting. Authentic records show 
that a Sassafras tree once grew near Butlerville, Indiana, 
that was over 4 feet in diameter. 





SASSAFRAS 
One-fourth natural size. 
Single flowers and bud, enlarged. 






of Indiana 


75 


FIRE CHERRY 

Prunus pennsylvanica, 1 Linnaeus 

HE Fire Cherry, also called Wild Red Cherry, Bird 
Cherry, and Pin Cherry is a small slender tree seldom 
more than 30 feet high and 12 inches in diameter. 

The leaves are alternate, sometimes paired but never oppo¬ 
site each other. They are simple, 3 to 5 inches long and 
44 to 134 inches 
wide, finely 
toothed along 
margin, bright 
green and shiny on 
upper surface and 
paler below. The 
flowers appear 
about May. They 
are white, about 
one-h a 1 f inch 
across and ar¬ 
ranged in 4 to 5- 
flowered clusters. 

The fruit is a 
round, juicy, light 
red berry, about 
34 of an inch in 
diameter. The skin 
is thick and the 
flesh sour. It rip¬ 
ens in July-Aug¬ 
ust. The bark on 
young trunks is 
reddish - brown, 
rather smooth. 

The outer bark 
peels off readily in 
thin layers and ex¬ 
poses the green very bitter inner bark. The twigs are slen¬ 
der, smooth, bright red, often covered with a thin gray coat¬ 
ing which rubs off easily. The twigs and bark are marked 
with numerous pale to yellowish breathing pores. The 
wood is light, soft, close grained, with light brown heart- 
wood and thin yellowish sapwood. 

The Fire Cherry is a widely distributed tree. It is found 
from Newfoundland to British Columbia,i southward to 
Georgia and Colorado. In Indiana it is frequent on the black 
oak ridges about Lake Michigan, but reported only from 
Lake, Porter, Laporte, St. Joseph and Lagrange counties. 
It is a short-lived tree of little commercial importance, but 
acts as a nurse tree to other valuable species. It furnishes 
food for birds and other wild life. 



FIRE CHERRY 








76 


Common Trees 


WITCH-HAZEL 


Hamamelis virginiana, Linnaeus 

T HE Witch-hazel is a very interesting small tree or shrub. 

It has the unusual habit of blossoming late in autumn 
and a full year elapses between the appearance of its flowers 
and the maturing of its unusual fruit. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, oval, 4 to 6 inches long, 
usually rounded at apex, oblique 
at base, coarsely toothed along 
margin, with prominent veins. 

The flowers appear in Octo¬ 
ber or November. They are 
bright yellow, and occur in few- 
flowered clusters. 

The fruit ripens in October 
or November with the flowers. 

It is a yellowish-brown woody 
pod with two cells in which 
black shiny seeds are produced. 

The seeds are often propelled 
five or more feet when seed pods 
burst open. 

The bark is light brown, 
somewhat mottled with light 
blotches. The twigs are light 
brown, smooth, zigzag. The 
buds are flattish, curved, brown, 
hairy. The terminal bud is 
sickle-shaped, about one-third 
of an inch long. Flower buds 
are small, round, occur on slen- witch hazel 

der Stalks. One-fourth natural size. 

Single flower and fruit pod. enlarged. 

The wood is hard, light 
brown, close-grained. It is not 
used commercially. 



The Witch-hazel is found from Nova Scotia to Minnesota, 
south to Florida and Texas. It is common in northern 
Indiana, decreasing southward, and becoming rare in the 
southwestern part. Moist and rocky situations are its favo¬ 
rite home. It is very tolerant of shade, which accounts for 
its being found commonly in the understory of the forest. 






of Indiana 


77 


SWEET GUM 

Liquidambar Styracifl.ua, Linnaeus 

T HE Sweet Gum, also called Red Gum and Liquidambar, 
is a handsome and symmetrical tree native to Indiana. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 3 to 5 inches; long, 
broader than long, star-shaped, six-pointed. In autumn they 
turn to a pale orange to deep red, ^nd when crushed give off 
fragrant odor. 

The flowers are green 
and of two kinds. Pol¬ 
len-bearing are arranged 
in tassels 2 to 3 inches 
long. See d-producing 
occur in long-stalked 
heads. 

The fruit is a long- 
stalked round head 
made up of many cap¬ 
sules each containing 
many small seeds. 

The bark on older 
trunks is deeply fur¬ 
rowed grayish-brown, 
and scaly. On younger 
trunks it is smoother 
and dark gray. The 
twigs are stout, angular, 
smooth, with corky 
winged projections. The 
buds are sharp-pointed, 
lustrous brown, fra¬ 
grant when crushed. 

The wood is rather hard, strong, reddish-brown, with 
white sapwood. It is used for boxes, crates, furniture and 
interior finishing. Large quantities are used in imitation of 
Circassian Walnut. 

The Sweet Gum grows naturally from Connecticut to 
Florida and as far south as Guatemala. It is native to the 
southern half of Indiana and will grow in the entire state 
if planted. It is common in the flats and lowlands of south¬ 
western counties, and rare in the hill counties. It should be 
favored in the low-lying woodlots. This tree is handsome, 
has a symmetrical form, grows rapidly, produces unique 
leaves, and has few enemies. It deserves to be planted widely 
for ornamental and shade uses. 



SWEET GUM 
One-fourth natural size. 









78 


Common Trees 


WILD BLACK CHERRY 

Prunus serotina, Ehrhart 

T HE Wild Black Cherry, also called Wild Cherry, and 
Black Cherry, is the only native cherry that reaches 
large tree size. It often attains a height of 75 feet and a 
diameter of 3 feet. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, 2 to 5 inches long, long- 
pointed, finely toothed 
along margin, rather thick, 
shiny on upper surface 
and paler below. v 

The flowers are white, 
about of an inch 

across, arranged in spikes 
3 to 4 inches long. 

The fruit is a purplish- 
black juicy berry, about 
one-third of an inch in 
diameter, grouped in 
drooping clusters. 

The bark on young 
trunks is smooth, glossy, 
reddish-brown marked 
with conspicuous white, 
horizontally e 1 o ngated 
breathing pores, peels off 
in thin film-like layers ex¬ 
posing green inner bark. 

On old trunks it becomes 

black, rough, breaks up into thick plates. The twigs are 
smooth, reddish-brown marked with numerous small whit¬ 
ish breathing pores. Twigs and inner bark have bitter taste 
and unpleasant odor. The buds are about y& of an inch 
long, smooth, glossy, reddish-brown, covered with about 4 
visible scales. 



WILD BLACK CHERRY 
One-fourth natural size. 


The wood is moderately heavy, hard, and strong, fine¬ 
grained, with reddish-brown heartwood. It is durable and 
used for furniture, interior finishings, tools, ties, implements 
and high-class panels. 

The Wild Black Cherry is found from Nova Scotia south 
to Florida and west to Kansas and Texas. It occurs in 
all parts of Indiana. Rich bottomlands and moist hillsides 
are its favorite home, but it also grows on dry soil. Locally 
it is a pest along fences and in clearings. We need its fine 
wood, the birds eat its fruit, and the bees frequent its flowers. 




of Indiana 


79 


WILD PLUM 


Prunus americana, Marshall 


T HE Wild Plum, also called Wild Red Plum, is an in¬ 
teresting small round-topped tree reaching a height of 
25 feet and a diameter of 8 inches. 



WILD PLUM 


The leaves are simple, alternate, 1)4 to 4 inches long, 
taper-pointed at apex, sharply toothed along margin, usually 
smooth on upper and lower surfaces. 

The flowers are white, about one inch across, occur in 
clusters of 2 to 5 on slender stalks. They appear in April 
or May. 

The fruit is a roundish drupe, about 1 inch in diameter, 
with tough skin and oval stone, becoming red at full matu¬ 
rity in August or September. 

The bark is at first smooth and grayish-brown, becoming 
rough and dark brown. The twigs are smooth, reddish- 
brown and bear numerous sharp spines. The wood is hard, 
heavy, close-grained, and reddish-brown. 

The Wild Plum is found from New York to Florida and 
west to Montana, Colorado and Texas. It occurs in all 
parts of Indiana, but is rather local in its distribution. One 
usually finds it along streams and in low places in the forest. 
Locally it forms “plum thickets.” They are usually the 
result of root shoots. When once established it is hard to 
exterminate. 

Closely related to the Wild Plum is the Canada Plum— 
Prunus nigra, Aiton—found in northern Indiana. It flowers 
earlier than the Wild Plum, has less sharp teeth on leaf-mar¬ 
gins, and bears two glands on the leaf-stalks. 











80 


Common Trees 


THE HAWTHORNS—Crataegus 


HE Hawthorns comprise a big group of small trees. 



JL There are more than one thousand described species in 
the~United States. In Indiana there are about 40 species. If 
one observes their flowers and fruit it is easy to see that they 
are closely related to the apples, plums and peaches. The 
most distinctive feature of their make-up is their stiff thorns 
on the zigzag branches. Thorn Tree, Thorn Apple and 
Haw are among the widely used common names. 



The two commonest and most distinctive Hawthorns of 
Indiana are the Cockspur Thorn and the Red Haw. The 
Cockspur Thorn (Crataegus crus-galli, Linnaeus) may be 
recognized by its long, usually unbranched, chestnut brown 
thorns, its inversely ovate leaves, and its small nearly spher¬ 
ical buds. The white flowers are grouped in round-topped 
clusters, and the bright apple-like scarlet fruit persists far 
into winter. This small tree, rarely over 20 feet high, is 
found throughout Indiana. The Red Haw—Crataegus 
mollis—has broadly ovate leaves with heart-shaped to wedge- 
shaped base and serrate or twice serrate margins. They are 
1 Yi to 5 inches long and 1 ^ to 4 inches wide. The flow¬ 
ers are white, appear about May, and are arranged in many- 
flowered clusters. The fruit is scarlet, nearly round, to 
1 inch thick, with yellow edible flesh, ripens in September. 
The Red Haw is a frequent tree throughout Indiana, except 
in the extreme northwestern part. It reaches a height of 15 
to 35 feet and a diameter of 4 to 10 inches. 




of Indiana 


81 


AMERICAN CRAB APPLE 

Malus coronaria, Linnaeus 

T HE American Crab Apple is an attractive small tree 
reaching a height of 20 feet and a diameter of 8 inches. 
The fragrance of its blossoms is one of its distinctive char¬ 
acteristics. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, ovate, 3 to 4 inches long, 
sharply toothed on 
margins, usually 
smooth. The ter¬ 
minal ones on ster¬ 
ile branches are 
sometimes lobed. 

The flowers are 
fragrant, rosy- 
white, 1 Yi to 2 
inches across, ar- 
ranged in few- 
flowered clusters, 
appear in May. 

The fruit is a 
small, yellowish- 
green bitter apple, 
ripening about Oc¬ 
tober. 

The bark is red¬ 
dish-brown and 
becomes furrowed. 

The mature 
twigs are smooth, 
r e d d i sh-brown, 
sometimes bear 
stubby spurs or 
sharp spines. The 
brown. 



AMERICAN CRAB APPLE 

wood is hard, heavy, light, reddish- 


The American Crab Apple is found from Ontario to 
Michigan and south to Alabama and Louisiana. It occurs 
in all parts of Indiana, chiefly in the glaciated area on mo¬ 
rainal ridges and slopes along streams. 

The Western Crab Apple—Malus ionesis, (Wood) Brit¬ 
ton—also occurs throughout Indiana. Its lower leaf-sur¬ 
faces and leaf-stalks are densely covered with fine hairs. It 
rarely exceeds 15 feet in height and usually has a pyramidal 
crown. ■ ••• 




82 


Common Trees 


JUNE BERRY 


Amelanchier canadensis ( Linnaeus ) 


Medicus 


T HE June Berry, also called Shad Bush and Sarvice Berry, 
is one of the most conspicuous small trees when in full 
bloom early in spring. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, egg-shaped, 3 to 4 inches 
long, sharp-pointed, finely toothed along margin, when 
young finely hairy. 


The flowers appear 
just when the leaves 
start to come out. They 
are white, stalked, ar¬ 
ranged in drooping dus¬ 
ters 3 to 5 inches long. 

The fruit is a red¬ 
dish-purple sweet berry, 
about one-third of an 
inch in diameter, coated 
with whitish bloom 
when fully ripe, ma¬ 
tures in June or July. 

The bark is usually 
smooth, grayish, often 
marked with black 
streaks. The twigs are 
slender, bright green to 
p u r p 1 i s h-b r o w n, 
smooth, marked with 
scattered dots. The 
buds are slender, conical, Y\ to x / 2 of an inch long, 3 to 4 
times as long as wide, sharp-pointed, greenish-brown. 



JUNE BERRY 
One-fourth natural size. 

Flower, fruit, and twig section, enlarged. 


The wood is heavy, hard, light to dark brown, checks 
and warps easily. It is rarely used for commercial pur¬ 
poses. 

The Juneberry is found from Newfoundland west to Kan¬ 
sas and south to Florida and Louisiana. Closely related is 
the Smooth Juneberry (Amelanchier laevis, Wiegand). Its 
leaves are nearly or quite smooth throughout the year. These 
two small trees occur locally throughout Indiana and rarely 
exceed 23 feet in height and 12 inches in diameter. Their 
fine floral beauty recommends their protection. They also 
yield delicious berries for man, birds and other animals. 








of Indiana 


83 


SYCAMORE 


Platanus occidentalis, ] Linnaeus 


T HE Sycamore, also called Buttonball, is the largest tree 
of Indiana. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, broadly ovate, 3 to 5- 
lobed, 4 to 8 inches across, bright green above, pale green 
and white woolly below. The leaf-stalks are about 2 inches 
long, enlarged and hol¬ 
lowed at base. 

The flowers are of 
two kinds, occur in 
dense ball-like heads, 
attached to twigs by 
long slender stalks. 

The fruit consists of 
tiny seeds, arranged in 
ball-like heads about 1 
inch in diameter, at¬ 
tached to twigs by long 
slender stalks. 

The bark on old 
trunks is rather thick, 
dark brown, peels off in 
broad scales. On young 
stems and the upper 
part of larger trunks it 
peels off in thin scales 
exposing white, green¬ 
ish and yellowish inner 
bark. The twigs are 
rather stout, at first 
green and fuzzy, later 
grayish to brown and 
smooth. The buds are 
about of an inch 

long, conical, dull-pointed, smooth, reddish-brown. Ter¬ 
minal bud is absent. 



SYCAMORE 
One-fourth natural size. 
Flowers and twig sections, enlarged. 


The wood is hard, strong, reddish-brown. It is used for 
boxes, furniture, novelties, charcoal, chemicals. 

The Sycamore is native from Maine to Minnesota and 
south to Florida and Texas. Moist to wet fertile soil are 
its favorite home. It is found throughout Indiana. Near 
Worthington, Indiana, stood the largest hardwood trees in 
the United States. It was a Sycamore with a circumfer¬ 
ence of 42 feet and 3 inches. It was blown down in 1925. 
The Oriental Plane Tree, a close relative of our Sycamore, 
has been planted in Indiana for ornamental purposes. 





84 


Common Trees 


COMMON LOCUST 

Robinia Pseudo-Acacia, Linnaeus 


T HE Common Locust, also called Black Locust and Yel¬ 
low Locust, is a beautiful forest tree when in full 
bloom. Everywhere in Indiana the locust borer is damag¬ 
ing it heavily. It is unquestionably the best-known Amer¬ 
ican pod-bearing tree. 


The leaves are alternate, 
compound, with 7 to 21 
leaflets, 8 to 14 inches 
long. Leaflets are usually 
odd in number, short- 
stalked, 1 to 2 inches 
long. 

The flowers appear in 
May or June, are cream- 
white, fragrant, resemble a 
pea blossom, are arranged 
in drooping clusters 4 to 5 
inches long. The fruit is 
a small, dark-brown, thin 
pod, 2 to 4 inches long, 
y 2 of an inch wide, con¬ 
tains 4 to 8 small brown 
seeds. The bark on both 
young and old trunks is 
red dish-brown, becomes 
thick, deeply furrowed. 

The twigs are stout, brit¬ 
tle, greenish to reddish- 
brown, bear two short 
spines at each node. The 
buds are small, imbedded 
in bark, and 3 to 4 occur 
above each other. The 

wood is yellowish-brown, very heavy, hard and durable. It 
is used for posts, insulator pins, ties, fuel and shipbuilding. 



COMMON LOCUST 
One-fourth natural size. 
Twig sections, enlarged. 


The Common Locust is found from the mountains of 
Pennsylvania south to Georgia, west to Iowa and Kansas. 
It is doubtful if this tree is native in any part of Indiana, 
but it has been planted extensively and locally it has escaped 
cultivation. The most vigorous growth is made on moist 
fertile soil. Its valuable wood and rapid growth recom¬ 
mend it for planting where the Locust Borer need not be 
feared. ■ ■ 



of Indiana 


85 


HONEY LOCUST 

Gleditsia triacanthos, Linnaeus 

T HE Honey Locust, also called Thorn Tree, is the most 
beautiful pod-bearing tree found in Indiana. 

The leaves are alternate, singly or doubly compound, 7 to 
8 inches long. When singly compound they have 18 to 28 
leaflets, and when doubly compound have 8 to 14 pinnae 
each with 18 to 20 leaf¬ 
lets. 

The flowers are 
greenish, appear about 
May or June, and are of 
two kinds. The pol¬ 
len-bearing are arranged 
in short tassels; the 
pod-bearing occur in 
few-flowered clusters. 

The fruit is a thin, 
flat, more or less twist¬ 
ed, reddish-brown pod, 

10 to 18 inches long, 
containing many small 
flat seeds and often per¬ 
sist far into winter. 

The bark on young 
stems is smooth, brown¬ 
ish, dotted with many 
oblong breathing pores. 

On old trunks it be¬ 
comes grayish-brown to black and roughened with shallow 
furrows and firm ridges. The branches and trunk usually 
bear large, three-pronged sharp-pointed thorns. The twigs 
are smooth, glossy, greenish-brown. The buds are very 
small, usually 3 at a node, and placed above one another. 

The wood is hard, heavy, strong, reddish-brown with 
pale sapwood. It is used for posts, rails and general con¬ 
struction work. 

The Honey Locust ranges from Ontario to Kansas and 
south to Pennsylvania, Florida and Texas. It occurs 
throughout Indiana except near Lake Michigan. The thorn¬ 
less variety is recommended for ornamental and street plant¬ 
ing. It is a handsome park tree. The Water-Locust—Gled¬ 
itsia aquatica—occurs in a few counties in southwestern In¬ 
diana. It has undivided spines except on trunks and short 
pods with only one seed. 



HONEY LOCUST 

Twig, natural size. Leaves, pod and thorn, 
One-fourth natural size. 








86 


Common Trees 


REDBUD 

Cercis canadensis, Linnaeus 

T HE Redbud, also called Judas Tree, is one of the most 
attractive small trees native to Indiana. No tree has 
more striking distinguishing characteristics. 

The leaves are simple, 
inches long, pointed at ape 

The flowers appear be¬ 
fore the leaves, resemble 
sweet peas, are brilliant 
red, occur in numerous 
clusters of 4 to 8 along 
twigs. 

The fruit is a small 
rose-c o 1 o r e d to light- 
brown, short-stalked, thin, 
flat pod, 2 1 /- to 3 inches 
long, about J4 of an inch 
wide, contains 4 to 8 light- 
brown fiat seeds. 

The bark is thin, red¬ 
dish-brown, peels off into 
thin scales. The twigs are 
slender, smooth, light- 
brown, buds are small, 
spherical, % of an inch 
across, dark purplish-red, 
usually occur one above 
another and often are 
grouped in small clusters at base of lateral branches. 

The wood is heavy, hard, dark reddish-brown with light 
sapwood. It is of no commercial importance. 

The Redbud is found from Ontario to Minnesota, south 
to Florida and Arkansas. It is frequent throughout Indiana, 
except in the Lake Michigan section. Rich fertile lowlands 
and moist hillsides are its favorite home. 

It is difficult to tell at which season of the year the Red¬ 
bud is most beautiful. Its spring robe of brilliant red blos¬ 
soms is glorious, its summer dress is resplendent, its autumn 
garb of yellow trimmed with purplish pods is truly beautiful, 
and its winter appearance is most charming. It is planted 
extensively for ornamental purposes. 


alternate, heart-shaped, 3 to 5 
entire on margin. 



REDBUD 

One-fourth natural size. 
Twig sections, enlarged. 






of Indiana 


87 


THE COFFEE TREE 

Gymnocladus dioica, ( Linnaeus ) Koch 

T HE Coffee Tree, also called Coffee Nut Tree attracts at¬ 
tention because of its unusual features. Its only close 
relative is native to China. 


The leaves are alter¬ 
nate, twice and some¬ 
time thrice compound, 

1 to 3 feet long, 1 J4 to 

2 feet wide. Leaflets 
are egg-shaped, about 2 
inches long, sharp- 
pointed at apex, smooth 
to wavy along margin. 

The flowers appear 
about June, are greenish 
white and arranged in 
clusters 3 to 8 inches 
long. The fruit is a 
broad, stubby, reddish- 
brown pod, 4 to 10 
inches long, 2 to 4 
inches broad. Pods con¬ 
tain 6 to 9 marble-like 
brown seeds. The bark 
is dark gray to blackish- 
brown. The twigs are 
very stout, greenish- 
brown, often covered 
with a crusty coating 
marked with large, 
heart-shaped leaf-scars, 
contain wide pinkish to 
brown pith. The buds 
are small, downy, al¬ 
most entirely imbedded 
in twigs, surrounded by 
hairy ring of bark, often 
placed above one another. 



THE COFFEE TREE 
One-fourth natural size. 
Twig section, natural size. 


The wood is rather heavy, coarse-grained, light brown to 
reddish-brown. It is used for posts, rails, and locally for 
general construction work. 

The Coffee Tree is found from central New York to 
Tennessee, west to Minnesota and Oklahoma. It occurs 
locally in most parts of Indiana, but usually occurs alone. 
It is rarely found in groups, is of little economic import¬ 
ance, and has few merits as an ornamental tree. 






88 


Common Trees 


AILANTHUS 

Ailanthus glandulosa, Desfontaines 

T HE Ailanthus, also called Tree of Heaven, Chinese Su¬ 
mac, and Paradise Tree, is an interesting tree immi¬ 
grant that came to this country from China about 150 years 
ago, and was planted first near Philadelphia. 



AILANTHUS 
One-fourth natural size. 

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf-Bear, slightly enlarged. 

The leaves are alternate, compound, with 11 to 31 leaf¬ 
lets, usually 1 to 2 feet, but occasionally 3 feet long. Leaf¬ 
lets are 3 to 5 inches long, egg-shaped, long-pointed at apex, 
smooth along margin except for a few teeth near base. They 
produce unpleasant smell when crushed. Glands are usu¬ 
ally present near base of leaflets. 

The flowers are small, greenish, of two kinds and ar¬ 
ranged in loose clusters. Pollen-bearing and seed-producing 
occur on different trees. The fruit is a thin winged seed 
produced in large clusters. The bark on young trees is 
smooth, thin, light gray. On older trunks it becomes dark 
gray to black and shallowly furrowed. The twigs are very 
stout, yellowish-green to brown, covered with a velvety 
down, marked with ochre-colored breathing pores and large 
heart-shaped leaf-scars with 8 to 14 groups of bundle-scars. 
The buds are small, round, reddish-brown. The wood is 
light, soft, weak, white to pale yellow. It is well adapted 
to the manufacture of paper pulp. The Ailanthus has been 
planted in all parts of Indiana. In many places ft has escaped 
cultivation and now forms dense thickets, especially along 
the bluffs of the Ohio River in Jefferson county. 






of Indiana 


89 


SUGAR MAPLE 

Acer saccharum, Marshall 

T HE Sugar Maple, also called Hard Maple and Rock 
Maple, is probably the best known American hardwood 

tree. 

The leaves are simple, opposite, 3 to 5 inches long, coarse¬ 
ly toothed, dark green above and pale below. 

The flowers are yel¬ 
lowish-green, appear in 
April and May with the 
leaves. Both pollen¬ 
bearing and seed-pro¬ 
ducing occur in droop¬ 
ing, slender-stalked clus¬ 
ters on the new growth. 

The fruit is a two¬ 
winged maple key. The 
wings are about an inch 
long and are almost par¬ 
allel to each other or 
slightly divergent. 

The bark is grayish- 
to brownish black, 
roughened with shallow 
furrows. The twigs 
are slender, smooth, red¬ 
dish to orange brown, 
marked with pale dots. 

The buds are brown, 
conical, sharp-pointed, 
covered with 8 to 10 
exposed scales. 

The wood is heavy, 
hard, close - grained, 
light brown to reddish. 

It is an all-purpose 
wood, being manufactured into not less than 500 articles 
of commerce. 

The Sugar Maple is found from Newfoundland to Man¬ 
itoba, south to Florida and Texas. It occurs in every State 
east of the Mississippi, but is rare in the South. It occurs 
throughout Indiana. Under favorable conditions it reaches 
a height of 100 feet and a diameter of 4 feet. As a timber 
tree the Sugar Maple has no superiors, as a memorial tree it 
is among the best, and as an ornamental and street tree it is 
in the front rank. 



SUGAR MAPLE 
One-fourth natural size. 

Twig, one-half natural size. Single flowers, 
enlarged. 








90 


Common Trees 


BLACK MAPLE 

Acer nigrum, F. A. Michaux 

T HE Black Maple, also called Black Sugar is one of the 
most interesting and attractive trees of southern Indiana. 

The leaves are simple, opposite, 3 to 6 inches long, often 
wider than long, with 3 main lobes and 2 smaller lower 
lobes, yellow green 
beneath and rich 
green above. The 
lower lobes of the 
leaves have a ten¬ 
dency to droop. 

The base of the 
leaf-stalks of the 
terminal leaves are 
enlarged at the 
base and smooth 
or somewhat hairy 
about the enlarged 
base. By maturity 
a scale-like append¬ 
age often develops 
on each side of the 
base of the leaf¬ 
stalks. 

The flowers, 
fruit, twigs, buds, 
and wood are sim¬ 
ilar to those of the 
Sugar Maple. The 
bark is darker, and 
narrower and shal- 
lower furrowed 
than that of the 
Sugar Maple. 

The Black Maple is found from Quebec west to South 
Dakota and south to Georgia and Louisiana. It occurs in 
all parts of Indiana and is invariably associated with the 
Sugar Maple and to a lesser degree with Beech. It is a med¬ 
ium to large tree which produces good wood, lives long, 
holds its foliage long, is relatively free from insect and fung¬ 
ous attack, and develops an attractive form. It is one of 
the most desirable trees for shade, street and ornamental 
planting. 



BLACK MAPLE 













of Indiana 


91 


RED MAPLE 


Acer rubrum, Linnaeus 


A T all seasons of the year the Red Maple is a beautiful 
red. In autumn it is at its best. Then it stands out 
among its associates as a flaming torch of scarlet and crimson. 


The leaves are simple, 
opposite, about 3 inches 
long, 3 to 5 lobed, pale 
green to whitish on lower 
surface. The clefts be¬ 
tween lobes are shallow 
and sharp-angled. 

The flowers are red, ap¬ 
pear early in spring before 
the leaves, and are arranged 
in numerous small clusters. 

The fruit is a typical 
two-winged maple key. 
The wings are less than an 
inch long, and not wide 
spreading from each other. 



The bark on branches RED MAPLE 

. . . One-fourth natural size. 

and young trunks isj. 
smooth and gray; on older 

trunks is grayish brown and shags off in thin plates. The 
twigs are smooth, red, marked with light dots. The buds 
are round, red, covered with 6 to 8 exposed scales, clustered 
in groups along twigs. 


The wood is moderately hard, rather brittle, close-grained, 
light brown with wide and white sapwood. It is used in 
the manufacture of paper, berry baskets, box-boards and 
many small household articles. 


The Red Maple is one of the most widely distributed trees 
of North America. It is found throughout Indiana. It 
usually occurs on low ground, about lakes, in marshes, and 
in low woods. In southeastern Indiana it grows with Sweet 
Gum in the “flats.” In the hill country it grows on dry 
ridges. 

The Red Maple has rare beauty, produces good wood, and 
grows to a height of 100 feet and a diameter of 4 feet. For 
ornamental planting it is superior to the Silver Maple. 






92 


Common Trees 


SILVER MAPLE 

Acer saccharinum, Linnaeus 

T HE Silver Maple, also called Soft Maple and River Ma¬ 
ple, is one of the best known American trees on account 
of its wide natural range and its general use for shade and 
ornamental planting. 

The leaves are simple, opposite, 5-lobed, silvery white on 
lower surface, divided by 
deep clefts with rounded 
bases. The base of the 
clefts of the Red Maple 
are sharp-angled. 

The flowers are reddish 
to crimson, occur in com¬ 
pact clusters along twigs 
early in spring before the 
leaves appear. 

The fruit is a typical 
two-winged maple key. 

The wings are 2 to 3 
inches long and wide- 
spreading. 

The bark on branches 
and young stems is smooth 
and gray; on old trunks 
it becomes grayish brown 
and separates in thin flakes. 

The twigs are slender, glossy, reddish-brown, have disagree¬ 
able odor if broken, are marked with many light dots. The 
buds are round, red, covered with 6 to 8 visible scales, clus¬ 
tered in groups along twigs. 

The wood is moderately hard, rather brittle, close-grained, 
light brown with wide white sapwood. It is used in the 
manufacture of paper, berry baskets, box-boards and many 
small household articles. 

The Silver Maple is found from New Brunswick to Flo¬ 
rida and west to the Dakotas and Oklahoma. It is found 
throughout Indiana. In the lower Wabash bottoms it some¬ 
times forms pure stands. Moist to wet soils, stream banks, 
and borders of ponds and lakes are its favorite home. This 
tree grows rapidly and may reach a height of 80 feet and 
diameter of 3 feet. Formerly it was planted extensively for 
ornamental purposes, but now it is rarely planted for it is 
short-lived, has many enemies, and suffers much from the 
wind, snow and ice. 



SILVER MAPLE 
One-fourth natural size. 




of Indiana 


93 


BOX ELDER 

Acer Negundo, Linnaeus 

T HE Box Elder, also called Ash-leaved Maple, is the only 
Indiana maple with compound leaves. All other 
maples have simple leaves. 

The leaves are opposite, compound, with 3 to 5 leaflets. 
Leaflets are 2 to 4 
scars completely 
encircle the twigs. 

The flowers are 
yellowish - green 
suspended on slen¬ 
der stalks in small 
open clusters. The 
pollen-bearing and 
the seed-producing 
occur on different 
trees. 

The fruit is a 
typical two-wing- 
ed maple key, 
which matures 
about September, 
occurs in drooping 
clusters, often per¬ 
sists far into win¬ 
ter. The wings 
are 1 to 2 inches 
long, and usually incurved. 

The bark on branches and young trunks is smooth and 
grayish-brown; on older trunks becomes dark and breaks up 
into shallow furrows. The twigs are stout, greenish to 
purplish green, smooth, often covered with a whitish crusty 
coating. The buds are rather large, egg-shaped, short- 
stalked, white-woolly, grouped at nodes in clusters of 2 to 3. 
The outer pair of bud-scales completely covers the inner pair. 

The wood is light, soft, close-grained, creamy white, not 
durable. It is used in the manufacture of pulp, wooden- 
ware, barrels, and cheap furniture. 

The natural range of Box Elder is equalled by few Amer¬ 
ican trees. It covers almost three million square miles from 
New England to Alberta, south to Florida, Texas and Mex¬ 
ico. It is found throughout Indiana. In many places it is 
abundant. It escapes so freely that it is impossible to tell 
where it was native. One finds it chiefly along streams and 
in low woods, but sometimes is found on dry soil. It cannot 
be recommended for ornamental planting. 


inches long, coarsely toothed. The leaf- 



BOX ELDER 

Leaf, one-third natural size. Twig and fruit, 
two-thirds natural size. 









94 


Common Trees 


NORWAY MAPLE 

Acer platanoides, Linnaeus 

T HE Norway Maple is one of the most popular street 
trees in the United States. There are very few towns 
and cities in which this tree is not found. It comes to us 
from Europe where it is found from Norway to Switzerland. 

The leaves resem¬ 
ble those of the Sugar 
Maple but are deeper 
green in color and 
firmer i n texture. 

One characteristic by 
which it can always 
be distinguished is 
the presence of milky 
sap in the leaf-stalks. 

If pressed or twisted 
the leaf-stalks always 
yield a few drops of 
milky sap. In early 
spring the yellowish- 
green flowers ar¬ 
ranged in clusters 
along the twigs are 
distinctive. In win¬ 
ter the large, red, 
blunt-pointed glossy 
buds are a sure means 
of identification. In 
late summer the large 
fruit keys with wide- 
spreading wings ripen 
and may hang on the 
tree for months. 

The Norway Maple has many merits as a street tree. It is 
hardy, rather free from insect attacks, retains its leaves longer 
than the native maples, and endures well the smoke, dust 
and drought of the city. The maple wilt disease has been 
attacking this tree heavily in recent years. 

Another European maple occurs locally in Indiana. It is 
the Sycamore Maple (Acer Pseudo-platanus, Linnaeus). It 
can be distinguished easily by its firm, 3 to 5-lobed leaves 
with sharply toothed margins and its large, blunt-pointed 
green buds. The fruit keys are smaller than those of the 
Norway Maple. It does not thrive on all kinds of soil and 
has not been planted extensively in Indiana. 



NORWAY MAPLE 
One-half natural size. 





of Indiana 


95 


BUCKEYE 

Aesculus glabra, Willdenow 

I N Indiana this tree is usually called “Buckeye.” Else¬ 
where it is called American Horse Chestnut, Fetid Buck¬ 
eye, Stinking Buckeye and Ohio Buckeye. 

The leaves are opposite, compound, with 5, rarely 7 leaf¬ 
lets. The leaflets are 
egg-shaped, 3 to 6 
inches long. If 
crushed the leaves are 
ill-smelling. This is 
one of the first of our 
trees to put out leaves 
in spring. The flow¬ 
ers are small, yellow¬ 
ish or greenish, with 
4 upright petals. 

They are arranged in 
upright clusters 5 to 
6 inches high and 2 
to 3 inches wide. The 
stamens project be¬ 
yond the corolla. 

This is one character¬ 
istic by which the 
Ohio Buckeye can be 
distinguished from 
the Sweet Buckeye. 

The fruit is a thick- 
round or pear-shaped 
prickly or warty cap¬ 
sule, about 1 inch in 
diameter, containing 
a large, smooth, 
shiny brown nut. It resembles closely the fruit of the com¬ 
mon Horse Chestnut. The wood is soft, weak, whitish to 
pale yellow. It is used for paper pulp, woodenware, artifi¬ 
cial limbs, and occasionally as lumber. The bark is grayish, 
breaks into scaly plates. The twigs are stout, ashy-gray to 
reddish brown, ill-smelling if bruised. The buds are oppo¬ 
site, two-thirds of an inch long, sharp-pointed, covered with 
reddish-brown resinous scales. The Ohio Buckeye ranges 
from western Pennsylvania south to Alabama, west through 
Ohio to Illinois, Iowa and Oklahoma. It is found in all 
parts of Indiana. It prefers rich moist soil, but in southern 
Indiana it occurs on bluffs bordering streams. It is often 
planted for ornamental purposes, but is now too rare in 
Indiana to be of economic importance. 



BUCKEYE 









96 


Common Trees 


SWEET BUCKEYE 

Aesculus octandra, Marshall 

T HE Sweet Buckeye, also called Yellow Buckeye, and Big 
Buckeye is the largest member of this interesting tree 
group. It may reach a height of 110 feet and a diameter of 
four feet. The leaves are opposite, compound, with 5 and 
sometimes 7 leaflets. Its leaves, flowers, fruits, bark, twigs 
and buds resem¬ 
ble those of the 
Ohio Buckeye. 

It can be distin¬ 
guished from 
the latter by its 
smoother and 
lighter colored 
bark. The cap¬ 
sule of its fruit 
is smooth while 
that of the Ohio 
Buckeye is war¬ 
ty or spiny. 

The anthers of 
its flowers re¬ 
main within the 
corolla, while 
those of the 
Ohio Buckeye 
extend out be¬ 
yond the corol¬ 
la. The entire 
lower leaf sur¬ 
faces are more 
permane h t ly 
pubescent in 
this tree than in 
the Ohio Buck¬ 
eye, and the 
buds are non- 
resinous. The 

latter characteristic is very helpful in distinguishing this tree 
from the Horse Chestnut which has very resinous buds. 

The wood is light, soft, weak, whitish to pale yellowish. 
It resembles yellow poplar, for which it is often sold. It is 
used for paper pulp, woodenware, slack cooperage, artificial 
limbs, and locally for lumber and interior finishing. 

The Sweet Buckeye ranges from western Pennsylvania 
through southern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois to Iowa and 
Oklahoma and south to Georgia and Texas. In Indiana it 
is confined to a few counties along the Ohio River, extend¬ 
ing westward to Spencer county. On account of its poison¬ 
ous fruit it has practically been exterminated in Indiana. 



SWEET BUCKEYE 







of Indiana 


97 


HORSE CHESTNUT 


Aesculus Hippocastaneum, Linnaeus 


T HE Horse Chestnut has been carried by man from its 
original home in the mountains of Greece over a con¬ 
siderable part of the civilized world. 


The leaves are opposite, compound, with 5 to 7 leaflets. 
The leaflets are 5 to 7 inches long, about 2 inches wide, in¬ 
versely egg-shaped, arranged in fan-like form. 



HORSE CHESTNUT 

One-third natural size. Twig, one-half natural size. 

The flowers appear in May or June, are large, white, with 
throats dotted with yellow and purple, arranged in upright 
clusters 8 to 12 inches high. The fruit is a leathery round 
capsule, about 2 inches across, roughened with spines, and 
contains 1 to 3 shining brown nuts. 

The bark is dark brown, breaks up into thin plates which 
peel off slowly. The twigs are stout, reddish-brown, smooth 
obscurely dotted with breathing pores, marked with large 
horseshoe-like leaf-scars each with 5 to 7 groups of bundle- 
scars. The buds are large, sticky, varnished, reddish-brown. 
The wood is soft, light, weak, whitish. It is a rapid¬ 
growing tree found in every state of the Union, and planted 
locally as a street shade and ornamental tree in Indiana. 













98 


Common Trees 


BASSWOOD 


Tilia americana, Linnaeus 


T HE Basswood is a tree of many names. Among them 
are Linden, Linn, Lime-tree, White-wood, Beetree and 
Whistle-wood. 


The leaves are simple, alternate, egg-shaped to round, 4 
to 7 inches long, firm in texture, toothed along margin, un¬ 
equally heart-shaped at 
base, tufts of rusty hair of¬ 
ten occur in axils of veins. 

The flowers appear in 
June or July. They are 
small, yellowish-white, 
sweet, fragrant, 5 to 20 
in a cluster, attached to a 
wing-like bract by a slen¬ 
der stalk. 

The fruit is a woody, 
nut-like berry about the 
size of a pea. It usually 
occurs in small clusters at¬ 
tached to a wing-like bract 
by slender stalks, often 
persists far into winter. 

The bark on young 
stems is smooth and dark 
gray, on older trunks it is 
thick and clearly furrowed. 

The twigs are smooth, 
shiny, rather stout, bright 
red. The buds are egg- 
shaped, 2-ranked, stout, 
blunt-pointed, usually 
deep red, with 3 visible 
bud-scales. Twig, 



BASSWOOD 

One-fourth natural size, 
one-half natural size. Flower, leaf-sear 
and twig section, enlarged. 


The wood is light, soft, 
light-brown to nearly white. It is used in the manufacture 
of paper pulp, crates, furniture, kegs, pails, berry baskets. 


The Basswood is found from New Brunswick to Man¬ 
itoba, southward to Georgia and Texas. It is common in 
the woods of northern and central Indiana, and occasional 
southward in the State. Rich, moist bottomlands and hill¬ 
sides are its favorite home. It reaches a height of 70 to 80 
feet and sprouts freely. 


In the counties of Indiana near the Ohio River is found 
the White Basswood (Tilia heterophylla, Vent.). Its 
leaves are densely white or grayish hairy on lower surfaces. 






of Indiana 


99 


FLOWERING DOGWOOD 

Corrnis florida, Linnaeus 


T HE Flowering Dogwood is among the best-known trees 
of eastern North America. 


The leaves are simple, opposite, 3 to 5 inches long, 2 to 3 
inches wide, smooth 
or wavy along mar¬ 
gin, often clustered 
at end of twigs. In 
autumn they become 
a beautiful red. 

The flowers appear 
about April in green¬ 
ish clusters surround¬ 
ed by large white 
bracts. 

The fruit is a scar¬ 
let berry about three- 
fifths of an inch long 
arranged in clusters 
of 2 to 5. 

The bark on 
young stems i s 
smooth, light brown 
to reddish-gray; on 
old stems becomes 
reddish-brown and 
divides into squarish 
blocks. 

The twigs are usu¬ 
ally smooth, red, 
tinged with green, 
often glossy. The 
flower buds are gob¬ 
let-like, about two- 
fifths of an inch in 
diameter. The leaf 
buds are smaller, flat¬ 
tened, slightly hairy. 

The wood is hard, 
heavy, strong, red¬ 
dish-brown to pink¬ 
ish, with light sapwood. It is used for tool handles, en¬ 
gravers’ blocks, shuttles, golf stick heads. 



FLOWERING DOGWOOD 
One-third natural size. 


The flowering Dogwood is found from Massachusetts to 
Michigan, Florida and Texas. It is occurs in all sections of 
Indiana. 





100 


Common Trees 


BLACK GUM 

Nyssa sylvatica, Marshall 


T HE Black Gum, also called Sour Gum, Tupelo, and 
Pepperidge, is at its best in autumn when the entire 
crown is often clothed with a complete garment of flaming 
red. In winter when the foliage is off it has a strikingly 
picturesque form. The stem often continues from the base 
to the tip without di¬ 
viding. In young and 
middle-aged trees the 
top branches take an up¬ 
right position, the low¬ 
er ones droop, while 
those along the middle 
stand out horizontally. 

The leaves are simple, 
alternate, 2 to 5 inches 
long, oval, blunt-point¬ 
ed, wedge-shaped at the 
base, smooth along mar¬ 
gin. 


The twigs are 
smooth, grayish-brown, 

a " d . t°“i , W ‘J b BLACK CTO 

Cent-Shaped leaf - scars Leaves and fruit, one-third natural size, 
each marked with three Twig, natural size. Bud and leaf-scar, enlarged 
distinct bundle - scars. 

The buds are reddish-brown and scattered alternately along 
twigs. 



On young trunks the bark is smooth to scaly. It breaks 
into squarish reddish-brown to black blocks on older stems. 

The fruit is a dark blue fleshy berry about two-thirds of 
an inch long. Each berry contains a single hard-shelled 
seed. Several berries usually occur in a slender-stalked clus¬ 
ter. Some birds eat the berries freely. 

The wood is very tough and cross-grained. It is hard to 
work, warps easily, and is not durable in contact with the 
soil. Farmers have disliked the wood ever since they at¬ 
tempted to split it for rails. In the hard coal mines it is used 
for rollers carrying ropes and cables. 

The Black Gun is found from Maine to Florida, west to 
Michigan and Texas. It occurs throughout Indiana, being 
rare in the northern part. It generally grows on moist 
ground. In the southwestern counties it grows on slopes and 
sandy ridges. It reaches a height of 80 feet and a diameter 
of 3 feet. 







of Indiana 


101 


SOUR-WOOD 

Oxydendrum arboreum ( Linnaeus ) De Candolle 
HE Sour-wood, also called Sorrel Tree and Sour Gum 
has appropriate common names for its foliage is very 
sour. Its scientific name “Oxydendrum” means acid tree. 

The leaves are simple, alternate, 5 to 7 inches long, 1 to 
2 ]/\ inches wide, very smooth, long-pointed at apex, smooth 
to finely toothed along margin. 

The flow¬ 
ers are small, 
white, and 
urn - shaped; 
arranged i n 
racemes 6 to 
8 inches long, 
occur at end 
of twigs, ap- 
p e a r from 
June to July. 

The fruit is a 
5-s i d e d, 5- 
valved cap¬ 
sule. It often 
persists far 
into winter. 

The bark is 
grayish and 
roughened by 
deep furrows, 
on old trunks 
often tinged 
with red. 

The twigs 
are yellowish 
green to red¬ 
dish-brown, 
marked with 
numerous 
raised breath¬ 
ing pores. 

The buds are 

small, partly imbedded in bark, covered with several opposite 
reddish scales. The wood is heavy, hard, reddish-brown 
with lighter sapwood. It is used for home-made sled run¬ 
ners, mine props, charcoal, tool handles and fuelwood. 

The Sour-wood ranges from southwestern Pennsylvania, 
southern Ohio and southern Indiana to Florida and western 
Louisiana. In Indiana it is definitely known to occur only 
on the Van Buren ridge about seven miles southeast of Can- 
nelton. Here it is common over an acre or two. The largest 
tree on the area was 40 feet high. 









102 


Common Trees 


PERSIMMON 

Diospyros virginiana, Linnaeus 

T HE Persimmon is best known by its fruit, which is 
the largest berry produced by any American forest tree. 
There is no better way to get acquainted with this tree than 
to try to eat its fruit before it is ripe. Its harsh puckery 
taste draws the lips and chokes the throat. 



The fruit is a reddish-yellow pulpy berry, one to one and 
one-half inches in diameter. The bitterness disappears with 
maturity of fruit. The leaves are simple, alternate, oval, 
shiny, 4 to 6 inches long, sharp-pointed, smooth along mar¬ 
gin. The twigs are reddish-brown, with rather large pith. 
They bear broadly egg-shaped buds, are marked with half¬ 
moon shaped leaf-scars with only one bundle-scar. The 
bark is deeply furrowed, breaks into dark gray to black 
squarish blocks separated by furrows that are cinnamon-red 
along the bottom. 

The yellowish to white flowers appear in May. 

The wood is hard, heavy and strong. The heartwood 
is brown to black; the sapwood is wide and white to yellow¬ 
ish. It is used for golfstick heads and shuttles. 

The Persimmon is found from Rhode Island to Florida, 
west to Kansas and Texas. It thrives best on the light 
sandy soil of the warm South. It is frequent to common in 
parts of southern Indiana. Locally it forms thickets in 
abandoned fields. 







of Indiana 


103 


WHITE ASH 

Fraxinus americana, Linnaeus 

T HE White Ash, also called Gray Ash, is the most beau¬ 
tiful and useful of our native Ashes. It stands among 
the most important forest trees. 

The leaves are opposite, about 10 inches long, compound, 
with 5 to 9 leaflets. Leaflets are 3 to 5 inches long, evidently 
stalked, smooth or obscurely 
toothed on margin, smooth 
and dark green above, silvery 
white below. 

The flowers are of two 
kinds. The pollen-bearing 
occur in dense reddish-purple 
clusters, the seed-producing 
in rather open pinacles. 

The fruit is a winged seed, 

1 to 2 inches long. The 
wing is long, narrow, at¬ 
tached to the end of seed. 

The seeds are grouped in 
loose drooping clusters. 

The grayish-brown, and 
rather thick bark soon be- white ash 

comes rough, dividing into One-fourth natural size. 

diamond-shaped fissures. The 
twigs are smooth, grayish- 

brown, flattened at nodes, marked with scattered pale dots. 
The buds are opposite, egg-shaped, dark brown, blunt- 
pointed. Terminal buds are larger than the laterals. 

The wood is very heavy, hard, tough, elastic, with light 
sapwood and brownish heartwood. It is used widely, par¬ 
ticularly for athletic equipment, agricultural implements, 
tools, furniture, and interior finishings. 

The White Ash is found from Nova Scotia to Minnesota 
to Florida and Texas. It is common in all parts of Indiana, 
being most abundant in the glaciated region, that is, the 
northern two-thirds of the State, where it is associated with 
Beech, Sugar Maple, Linn, Slippery Elm and Red Oak. It 
grows best in rich moist soils. It becomes a large tree, often 
70 to 90 feet high and 3 feet in diameter, grows rapidly, is 
easily propagated. 





104 


Common Trees 


BLACK ASH 

Fraxirms nigra, Marshall 

T HE Black Ash is a tree of the swamps or other moist 
places. The early settlers called it Hoop Ash and the 
Indians called it Basket Ash. 

The leaves are opposite, 10 to 14 inches long, compound, 
with 7 to 11 leaflets. The leaflets are 3 to 5 inches long, 
finely toothed along mar¬ 
gin, all are stalkless except 
the terminal one. 

The flowers are similar 
to those of White Ash. 

The fruit is a winged 
seed similar to that of 
White Ash, but is broad¬ 
er winged, notched at 
apex, and the wing com¬ 
pletely surrounds the flat¬ 
tened seed. 

The bark is thin, gray¬ 
ish, very shallowly fur¬ 
rowed, peels off in thin 
scales, and if rubbed or 
crushed becomes powdery. 

The twigs are smooth, 
stout, light-gray. The 
buds are opposite, black, 
sharp-pointed. 

The wood is soft, 
rather coarse-grained, with white sapwood and dark brown 
heartwood. It is used for baskets, hoops, furniture, and 
interior finishings. 

The Black Ash is found from Newfoundland to Manitoba, 
south to Virginia and Arkansas. It is found in all parts of 
Indiana except in the southern counties. Bur Oak, Red 
Maple and White Elm are among its chief associates. In 
swampy woods it is sometimes the principal tree. It is one 
of the first trees to invade extinct Tamarack swamps. 



BLACK ASH 
One-fourth natural size. 



of Indiana 


105 


BLUE ASH 

Fraxinus quadrangulata, Michaux 

T HE Blue Ash is perhaps the easiest of all our nauve ash 
trees to recognize. At all seasons of the year it can be 
identified by its four-sided twigs with four ridges projecting 
out from the bark. On very vigorous shoots corky wings 
extend out from these ridges. In summer its inner bark 
yields a blue color¬ 
ing if mixed with 
water, whence its 
name Blue Ash. 

The leaves are 
opposite, greenish- 
yellow, compound 
with 7 to 11 leaf¬ 
lets borne on very 
short stalks or 
sometimes stalk¬ 
less. The veins, 
midribs and leaflet 
stalks are perma¬ 
nently pubescent. 

The rest of the 
leaf is generally 
smooth. 

The fruit is 
winged to the base. 

The wing com¬ 
pletely surrounds 
the seed. It re¬ 
sembles that of the 
Black Ash. 

The bark is 
light gray, scaly 
or flaky, not fissured. It is similar to that of Black Ash. 

The wood is intermediate in quality between that of 
White Ash and Black Ash and is generally sold as White 
Ash. 

The Blue Ash ranges from southern Ontario to Iowa and 
south to northern Alabama and Arkansas. This tree is found 
sparingly in all parts of Indiana, except the northwestern. 
It is most abundant in the southeastern part. One usually 
finds it on the bluffs of streams or well up on the slopes of 
ridges. It is generally found on high ground. This tree is 
becoming too scarce in Indiana to be of commercial impor¬ 
tance. 













106 


Common Trees 


OTHER INDIANA ASH TREES 

Closely related to the White Ash is the Biltmore Ash— 
Fraxinus biltmoreana, Beadle. It can be distinguished from 
the former by its twigs and axis of leaves which are velvety 
pubescent, at least when young. This tree is found in all 
parts of Indiana, except in the extreme northern counties. 
It nearly always grows on dry soil. Its wood is sold as 
White Ash. 

* * ~jf * 

Another tree rather closely related to the White Ash is the 
Green Ash—Fraxinus Ianceolata, Borckhausen. It is also 
called Swamp Ash and White Ash. It is a tall, straight tree, 
but does not reach the dimensions of the true White Ash 
with which it is closely associated. One always finds it in 
swamp woods, and it is quite common in the lake region and 
on the river bottoms of Indiana. Its twigs are smooth or 
nearly so, and the body of the fruit is flattened, passes grad¬ 
ually into the wing, and is usually winged for more than 
1 /3 its length. It has been planted extensively in the West 
and Northwest. 

Closely related to the Green Ash and often grouped with 
it is the Red Ash—Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Marshall. It is 
found sparingly in all parts of Indiana. The Red Ash is 
usually distinguished by its velvety twigs, more evenly and 
more numerously toothed leaf margins. 

* * * * 

In the river sloughs and cypress swamps of southwestern 
Indiana is found the Swell-butt Ash—Fraxinus profunda, 
Bush—also called Pumpkin Ash. It has robust, hairy twigs, 
and its fruit is 2 to 3 inches long with wings extending along 
the sides of the body. 



of Indiana 


107 


CATALPA 

Catalpa speciosa. Warder 

T HIS Catalpa, also called C.atalfa, Hardy Catalpa, Indian 
Bean and Cigar Tree, was formerly planted widely on 
account of its reputed rapid growth, and its very durable 
wood. The leaves are simple, opposite or 3 may occur in a 
whorl, heart-shaped! at base, long taper-pointed, 6 to 10 
inches long, 4 to 5 
inches wide. The 
odor of bruised 
leaves is not fetid. 

The flowers appear 
in May or June, 
are white with yel¬ 
lowish and pur¬ 
plish spots within, 
arranged in large 
erect clusters 8 to 
10 inches high. 

The lower lobe of 
the corolla is 
notched. The fruit 
is a long bean-like 
capsule containing 
many flat-winged 
seed. It often per¬ 
sists far into win¬ 
ter. The bark on 
old trees is fissured 
and ridgy, dark 
grayish - brown. 

The twigs are 
stout, smooth, 
yellowish - brown, 
marked with large leaf-scars. The buds are very small, less 
than of an inch long, often imbedded in bark. 

The wood is durable, light brown, with satiny surface 
and kerosene-like odor. It is especially well suited for fence 
posts and rails. The Hardy Catalpa was originally native 
from southwestern Indiana to southeastern Missouri and 
northeastern Arkansas. Insect and frost damage have checked 
the growth of many plantations. It should not be planted 
in any part of Indiana for economic purposes, nor is it a 
desirable street tree—an occasional specimen tree does well. 
Another Catalpa—Catalpa bignonioides, Walter—a native 
of the southern states, is less hardy, remains smaller and its 
stem is usually less straight. 














108 


Common Trees 


A TREE RECORD 

E VERY boy and girl that studies trees will find it in¬ 
teresting to keep a record of every different kind that 
can be found. In years to come this tree record will be a 
precious possession, and serve as a pleasant reminder of days 
among the trees. In any locality one should find 25 differ¬ 
ent trees and in many places 50 or even more can be found. 

List the trees you have met on your hikes, about the camp, 
or along the roadside on this sheet and opposite each tree 
name enter the page of this booklet upon which it is de¬ 
scribed. The boy or the girl who can fill up all the follow¬ 
ing blank spaces will know more than twice the number 
of trees required to pass the tree test in scouting. To know 
25 trees means that you are acquainted with about one-third 
of all the common trees of Indiana. This is an accomplish¬ 
ment of which you will have a right to feel proud. Today 
is the best time to begin your tree record. 


DESCRIBED 

Name of Tree on page 

1. 

2... 

3 . .... 

4. 

5. ........ 

6.... 

7 . 

8 ........ 

9... 

10.. 

11..... 

12..... 

13 ... 

14 ...... 

15 . 

16 ....... 

17 ... 

18 . 

19 .... 

20 ......... 

21. ...... 

22. 

23 . 

24 ... 

25 ... 

Date... 


Name 
























































of Indiana 


109 


TREE TESTS 

T HE best way to find out if you really know trees is to 
organize a tree test among your friends. I know of no 
more delightful out-of-doors pastime for a group of boys 
or girls than to go out among the trees and actually find 
out who can come out on top in a tree-naming contest. The 
first thing to do is to select a leader, if you do not already 
have one. He will select the trees for the test. After you 
have examined the first test tree carefully, you will write 
your answer in the blank space following the number one 
in the blank tree tests that follow. Then, the leader will 
select a second tree and you will write your answer in the 
second blank space following the number two, and so on 
until your first test of ten trees is completed. As soon as a 
test is completed the test sheet of all who took part in the 
contest is corrected, and then you will know just how well 
you know the trees. For thirteen years the author of this 
booklet conducted tree tests in the open, and he remembers 
them as the most pleasant feature of all his teaching experi¬ 
ences. 


TREE TEST—I. 

Name of Tree 

1 .... 

2 .... 

3 ... 

4 ..... 

5 ..... 

6 . 

7 ... 

8 . ....... 

9. .... 

10 ...... 

Name... 

TREE TEST—II. 

Name of Tree 

1 .... 

2 . .... 

3 . 

4 ..... 

5 .. 

6 ... 

7 ..... 

8 ...-. 

9 ... 

10 ... 

Name..-. 


























110 


Common Trees 


INSPIRATION IN TREES 

By Charles Lathrop Pack, 

President, American Tree Association 

T O the trees the poet and the orator have turned all through 
the ages for some of their finest word settings. One that 
has great appeal is that of the Rev. Francis E. Clark, founder 
of the Christian Endeavor Societies of the world, who refers 
to “the Creator as the Great Tree Maker." 

T HEN, too, there is the sentiment the Father of Arbor 
Day, J. Sterling Morton, left in the wonderful memorial 
grove he planted in Nebraska when he arranged for a tablet, 
among the trees he loved, which says: “If ye seek my monu¬ 
ment look around you.” 

T REES, man’s best friend, the friend without whom exist¬ 
ence is impossible, picture life in all its variety. Look 
at the wind-swept coast and there you will find struggling 
for existence among the rocks, the trees. Thus does man, 
buffetted by the winds of fortune, struggle. You will find 
the trees clinging to river banks in their endeavor to hold 
those barriers in place against the flood time. Again you will 
find the trees mothering the springs and protecting them from 
the ravages of the sun that they may feed first the rivulet, 
then the stream that at last becomes the mighty river of com¬ 
merce. 

W E can look back through the ages and find that when 
the trees have gone, civilizations have disappeared. 
Nature is the great teacher, and when man violates her laws 
he must pay a terrible penalty. Nature works slowly, but 
her decisions and ends are sure as the coming and going of 
the sun. To Nature’s laws man must give heed if he con¬ 
tinues to inhabit the earth, for all life is bound up in her 
mandates. 

TT7E see this enthralling mystery of life everywhere; in the 
W seed that becomes the apple blossom: the flower that 
gives its nectar to the honey maker; in the roots of the tree 
that, buried, nevertheless gives back ever renewing life as a 
reward to those who plant. Kilmer pen-pictured this in 
that immortal verse about the “tree that looks at God all day 
and lifts its leafy arms to pray." 



of Indiana 


111 


INDEX 


Page 

Ailanthus . 88 

Alder, Smooth . 50 

American Hornbeam . 49 


American Larch . 

. . 30 

Arbor Vitae . 

. . 31 

Ash, Biltmore. 

. . 106 

Black . 

. . 104 

Blue . 

.105 

Green . 

. . 106 

Red . 

. .106 

White . 

. . 103 

Aspen, Quaking . 

. . 36 

Basswood . 

. . 98 

Beech . 

. . 52 

Birch, Paper. 

. . 47 

River . 

. . 46 

Yellow . 

. . 47 

Black Gum. 

. . 100 

Walnut. 

. . 38 

Box Elder . 

. . 93 

Buckeye . 

. . 95 

Sweet . 

. . 96 

Butternut . 

. . 39 

Catalpa . 

. . 107 

Cedar, Red . 

. . 32 

Cherry, Fire . 

. . 75 

Wild Black . 

. . 78 

Chestnut . 

. . 51 

Coffee Tree . 

. . 87 

Cottonwood . 

. . 37 

Crab Apple, American. . 

. . 81 

Western . 

. . 81 


Page 

Hop Hornbeam . 48 

Hornbeam, American .... 49 
Hop . 48 

Horse Chestnut . 97 

June Berry . 82 

Larch, American 

(Tamarack) . 30 

Locust, Common . 84 

Honey . 85 

Maple, Black . 90 

Norway . 94 

Red . 91 

Silver . 92 

Sugar . 89 

Mulberry, Red . 70 

Oak, Black .53, 61 

Black Jack . 65 

Bur . 5 6 

Chestnut . 58 

Chinquapin . 59 

Over-cup . 65 

Pin . 63 

Post . 57 

Red . 60 

Scarlet . 62 

Schenck's . 65 

Shingle . 64 

Swamp White . 55 

White .53, 54 

Pawpaw . 73 

Pecan . 45 

Persimmon .102 

Pine, Jersey . 28 


Cucumber Tree. 71 

Dogwood, Flowering .... 99 

Elm, American . 66 

Rock . 68 

Slippery . 67 

Flowering Dogwood . 99 

Gum, Black .100 

Sweet . 77 

Hackberry . 69 

Hawthorns . 80 

Hemlock . 29 

Hickory, Big Shellbark ... . 41 

Bitternut . 44 

Pecan . 45 

Pignut . 43 

Shellbark . 40 

Small-fruited . 45 

White. 42 


White . 27 

Plum, Wild . 79 

Quaking Aspen . 36 

Redbud . 86 

Sassafras . 74 

Sour-Wood .101 

Sweet Gum . 77 

Sycamore . 83 

Tulip Tree . 72 

Walnut, Black . 38 

Willow, Black . 33 

Crack . 35 

Pussy . 34 

Weeping . 35 

White . 35 

Witch-Hazel . 76 


































































































Press of 

■ . ' 

JAMES A. MURRAY 


Baltimore, Md. 







- LIST OF - 

American Tree Association 
PUBLICATIONS 

Trees as Good Citizens 
The School Book of Forestry 
Forestry Almanac 

Tree Habits, How to Know the Hardwoods 
The Forestry Primer 
The Forest Poetic 
Town Forests 
Tree Planting Book 
Forestry Legislative Survey 
Common Trees of New Jersey 
Common Trees of New York 
Common Trees of Massachusetts 
Common Trees of Indiana 
Common Trees of Ohio 
Common Trees of Michigan 























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