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north Carolina Slate Library 

Raleigh 

COMMUNITY 

COLLEGES 

SPECIAL BULLETIN 



NORTH CAROLINA BOARD OF HIGHER EDUCATION 
144 Education Building 
Raleigh, North Carolina 
1960 





Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2018 with funding from 
State Library of North Carolina 


https://archive.org/details/communitycollege00nort_7 


COMMUNITY 

COLLEGES 

SPECIAL BULLETIN 



NORTH CAROLINA BOARD OF HIGHER EDUCATION 
144 Education Building 
Raleigh, North Carolina 
1960 



CONTENTS 


Page 

Foreword . 3 

Policy Statement of the Board . 4 

Appendices: 

1. Text of Community College Act . 15 

2. Text of Standards of Southern Association of 

Colleges and Secondary Schools . 26 

3. Text of Principles of North Carolina College 

Conference . 35 


4. Estimated Community College Operating Costs 


38 








FOREWORD 


Governor Luther H. Hodges has said “the State has seen fit to give a 
vote of confidence to community colleges .... There can be little doubt 
about the fact that North Carolina’s three community colleges have made a 
distinct contribution to the progress of the State since their establishment.” 

Speech at Wilmington 
April 1, 1960 

The State of North Carolina has demonstrated its faith in the 
public service of community colleges by making sizable appropri¬ 
ations to aid them in their operation, by providing matching 
funds for capital improvements, and by adoption of an organic 
act relative to organization in the form of a legislative charter, 
signifying recognition of such institutions as an established divi¬ 
sion of the State’s system of higher education. 

In recent years, public opinion throughout the nation has sup¬ 
ported the establishment of community colleges. In addition to 
the potential savings in costs to the student, there is also a 
potential saving in cost to the State by partially relieving the 
more expensive four-year colleges of the necessity of providing 
facilities to care for greater enrollments. However this may be, 
there is a conviction that the community college has a verifiable 
mission and can with full justification stand on its own feet. If 
its work in the arts, the sciences, technology, and in the fulfill¬ 
ment of other educational needs—such as occupational train¬ 
ing—is accomplished with excellence, it will merit growth in 
resources and security in public support. That sort of work done 
with excellence is so rewarding and satisfying that over a long 
future the institution’s pride may well be in remaining a com¬ 
munity college. 


May 2, 1960 


3 


Policy Statement Of The Board 

The Community College Act—H. B. No. 761, Ch. No. 1098—is 
the organic legislation providing a guide for both the Board of 
Higher Education and the community for the establishment and 
operation of “community colleges”. This Act has in consideration 
two possible and initial situations—that of the community in 
which a “college” already exists wherein there is the plan for 
the conversion of this institution into a “community college”; 
secondly, the establishment of a community college anew with¬ 
out any such antecedent institution existent. For the first situa¬ 
tion the Board has the precedent of the three community col¬ 
leges already recognized and in operation. The present statement 
of policy, while including an analysis of the Act, is primarily 
concerned with the second situation and is intended to be a state¬ 
ment of what the Board expects of the community which pro¬ 
jects such a college. There are some conditions to be met, especi¬ 
ally by local authorities seeking to establish new colleges which 
are not specified in detail within the Act but which are implied in 
the statement in Section 12: “The petition shall contain such 
information concerning the proposed location and plans for the 
financing and operation of the college as the Board of Higher 
Education may require.” Further powers of the Board are stated 
in Section 13: “The Board of Higher Education shall have autho¬ 
rity to prescribe minimum standards with respect to student en¬ 
rollment or prospective enrollment in academic courses, facilities, 
and other pertinent matters for approval as a Community Col¬ 
lege under this Act.” The present statement is intended to be 
one of policy representing the thought of the Board and is pre¬ 
sented as affording helpful information to communities. 

I. Analysis of the Policies and Procedures of the Act. 

A. What a “Community College” is 

(Defined in Sec. 3 (a) 

B. Trustees 

Sec. 4 (a), (b), (c), and Sec. 5 and Sec. 6. 

C. State Appropriations 

1. Operating expenses: Sec. 7 (a) 

2. Capital or permanent improvements: Sec. 7 (b) 

D. Provisions for local financing of permanent improve¬ 
ments: Sec. 8 

E. Provision for local financing of current operations: 

Sec. 10 

F. Establishing a new college: Sec. 12 


4 


1. The County Board of Education files a petition. 

2. Written approval of the petition, as to form and 
legality, by the Board of Higher Education, the Ad¬ 
visory Budget Commission and the Attorney Gen¬ 
eral. 

3. Final approval is subject to authorization of an an¬ 
nual tax levy for the operation, equipment and 
maintenance of the proposed college by a vote of 
people of the county in which the college is located. 

4. It is the responsibility of the commissioners of the 
county to submit at an election the question of levy¬ 
ing taxes to finance the operation, equipment and 
maintenance of the college. 

5. Within eighteen months after the approval of the 
petition, the County Board of Education must sub 
mit to the Board of Higher Education a certificate 
of the result of the election, showing approval of 
the levying of taxes for the maintenance of the pro¬ 
posed community college. 

6. The Board of Higher Education would refer this 
document to the office of Secretary of State, from 
and after which the proposed college shall be deem¬ 
ed chartered as a community college. 

II. Analysis of Policies and Procedures Relative to the Estab¬ 
lishment and Operation of New Colleges. 

A. Establishment 

1. Location: The Board will take into account the fol¬ 
lowing factors in approving the location of a new 
college: 

(a) The educational needs of the community as 
determined by a survey; 

(b) The proximity of existing colleges, public and/ 
or private, the consideration being whether or 
not on a commuting basis existing institutions 
can fully satisfy the needs of the community; 

(c) The probable college enrollment, the thought 
being that for a new college to be economically 
and educationally practicable, there should be 
a potential enrollment of not less than 300 full¬ 
time students; 

(d) Local financial resources sufficient to operate 
an accredited community college (or junior 
college). Evidence should be supplied that the 
taxable wealth of the county immediately to 


5 


be served is sufficient to meet the minimum 
costs required by the Board under the Act. 
Evidence should also be supplied as coming 
from both local and private sources that public 
opinion favors such an establishment and that 
the community comprehends the obligations 
entailed. 

2. The Plant: The Board, in approving the projected 
establishments of a new college, will take into 
account plans for the temporary or permanent 
facilities for classes, a library, laboratories, and 
administrative offices. 

3. In approving the petition of a community to pro¬ 
ceed with plans for the establishment of a commu¬ 
nity college, the Board will take into account plans 
for the curriculum that is projected. 

If satisfied as to the foregoing considerations, the 
Board of Higher Education, having in hand a petition 
from the pertinent County Board of Education, may 
approve the petition. It is specified in the Act that the 
Advisory Budget Commission must approve the plans 
for financing the operation, and the Attorney General 
must approve the procedures of the petition as to “form 
and legality”. The certified approval having complied 
with these requirements is a necessary and a prelimi¬ 
nary act. It is, in effect, the authorization to a commun¬ 
ity to proceed with the next steps necessary to 
establish a community college. This is the authorization 
which enables the County Board of Education to re¬ 
quest the Board of County Commissioners to call an 
election to authorize a tax levy by vote of the people of 
the county in which the college is to be located. Should 
this election be called and should the vote of the people 
result affirmatively, the documents respecting the origi¬ 
nal petition, the call for the election, and the results of 
the election must be filed with the Board of Higher Ed¬ 
ucation and with the office of the Secretary of State 
(Sec. 12). 

The community, through the County Board of Educa¬ 
tion and later through a board of trustees for the 
college, is now ready to organize the institution, to ap¬ 
point and commission an administrative staff, obtain 
quarters and facilities, and to employ a faculty of in¬ 
struction. 

B. The newly organized community college shall observe 
the standards set by the Board of Higher Education and 


6 


should be guided by the standards set by the N. C. Col¬ 
lege Conference and by the standards of the Southern 
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools pertain¬ 
ing to junior colleges. As defined in the Act, a commun¬ 
ity college is an educational institution which, among 
other things, offers “the freshman and sophomore 
courses of a college of arts and sciences and/or the first 
or first and second year courses of a two-year technical 
institute of college grade” or both. While “community 
college” is the proper term, a curriculum of this scope 
and nature makes the institution in effect a junior col¬ 
lege. It should, therefore, meet the standards necessary 
for accreditation as a junior college. A junior college 
may be accredited by two recognized agencies, the N. C. 
College Conference and the regional organization 
known as the Southern Association. Usually “State” 
accreditation precedes regional accreditation, which, 
without exception, is the practice in North Carolina. 
Regional accreditation is a goal which all colleges seek, 
because such accreditation gives a wider academic rec¬ 
ognition. Since that is true, and since the College Con¬ 
ference and regional standards are about the same, the 
community college will be expected eventually to oper¬ 
ate under the junior college standards of the Southern 
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

The Appendix carries both the Southern Association 
standards for a junior college and the College Confer¬ 
ence standards. Since that is true, only the titles of the 
standards or principles are given in the policy state¬ 
ment, to wit: 

a. Southern Association Standards: 

1. Aims and Objectives 

2. Organization 

3. Curricula 

4. Entrance Requirements 

5. Faculty 

6. Instruction 

7. Financial Support 

8. The Library 

9. Laboratories 

10. Physical Plant 

11. General Tone and Stability of the Institution 

12. Student Activities and Student Personnel 

13. Graduation 


7 


14. Records 

15. Association Survey 

b. College Conference: 

1. The School Defined 

2. Admission Requirements 

3. Graduation Requirements 

4. Teaching Staff 

5. Teaching Load 

6. Curriculum 

7. Size 

8. Physical Plant 

9. Laboratories 

10. Library 

11. Financial Support 

12. Salaries 

13. Minimum operation time for accreditation 

Implicit in both sets of standards is that the new col¬ 
lege would operate on a full daytime schedule. Evening 
classes may also be offered. A new college to be ap¬ 
proved by the Board must have the facilities and faculty 
which enable it, according to a projected plan, to oper¬ 
ate independently of the secondary school or any other 
school. By the placement of community colleges within 
the system of higher education the Act would make it 
obligatory that the core of the curriculum adopted, 
the quality of the faculty engaged, and the character of 
facilities provided should be of college grade. 

III. What Community Colleges May Anticipate as Minimum 
Expenditures. 

The word “minimum” should be emphasized in view of ris¬ 
ing costs of living, in the cost of facilities, and in salary 
scales. These minimum estimates are not considered as 
basis justified for the operation of a high quality college. 

A. Southern Association: 

The Southern Association, in its standards for junior 
colleges, announces certain estimates for minimum 
costs for instruction of an institution having 300 stu¬ 
dents are: 

for the first year (150 students) $35,000; 
for the second year (300 students) $65,000. 

This Association makes no estimate of costs for admin¬ 
istration. The usual expectation is that a junior college 
would have an administration with the following: 


8 


a chief executive 
an academic dean 
a business manager 
a registrar 
a librarian 
a clerical staff 
a janitorial staff 

Estimates for administrative costs of various kinds 
range from $35,000 (an unrealistic minimum) to 
$53,000. 

The Southern Association standards require a mini¬ 
mum library of 6,000 volumes as a basis of accredita¬ 
tion. In the very beginning, a community college should 
have made some progress in attaining this goal. The 
Southern Association again would expect an annual 
expenditure for books and periodicals of at least $4.00 
for each student. Furthermore, the Southern Associa¬ 
tion holds that a junior college, for accreditation, should 
have an income—for 300 students—of at least $25,000 
per annum above the revenue produced by student fees. 
No estimate is made of capital outlays in providing 
laboratories for the sciences taught. The provision of 
such laboratories and their maintenance should, how¬ 
ever, be a factor in budget making. 

B. N. C. College Conference: 

The N. C. College Conference standards require that 
there be a minimum of five departments of instruction, 
each in charge of a teacher devoting at least half of his 
time to teaching in his department. There would, 
therefore, be at least five department heads. Sixteen 
credit hours per week constitute the load for a full¬ 
time teacher. From this schedule it would be easy to 
determine the number of teachers required. Another 
basis for determining the number of teachers is the 
pupil-teacher ratio of 15-18 to 1, depending upon the 
number of students and the curricula. 

The standards require a minimum salary of $3,800 for 
departmental heads for a nine months’ term, with no 
full-time teachers receiving less than $3,000 for the 
same period. 

In the North Carolina junior colleges, for 1958-59, the 
lowest salary paid a department head was $3,500 * and 


* Physical Education in a girls’ college. 


9 



the highest was $6,400; the lowest salary for a full¬ 
time instructor was $3,100, and the average for the 
entire teaching staff was $4,113. 

The department head must have at least a Master’s de¬ 
gree. Presently, a large number of the department 
heads in the North Carolina junior colleges have the 
Doctor’s degree, and practically all teachers have at 
least the Master’s degree. 

The N. C. College Conference requires a minimum of 
4,000 volumes in the library. There must be a minimum 
annual expenditure of $25.00 per student for books, 
periodicals, binding, supplies and staff salaries, with a 
minimum annual expenditure of $500 for new books. 
Here again the number of books is unrealistic. In 1958- 
59, the lowest number of books which any North Caro¬ 
lina junior college had was 5,750; the highest was 
35,000, and the average for all was 12,684. With refer¬ 
ence to the laboratory, the standard reads; “The lab¬ 
oratory shall be adequate for the courses offered in 
science, and these facilities shall be kept up by means 
of an annual appropriation in keeping with the curri¬ 
culum.” Until very recently the standard said that the 
value of the laboratory eauipment for each science 
taught should be about $2,000, and it should be $2,500 
if twelve or more semester hours’ work is offered in 
the science. That standard was changed because it was 
unrealistic. If a money value is to be placed upon the 
standard, a better criterion would be the present value 
of the science laboratories. In 1958-59, the value of 
the science laboratories in the North Carolina junior 
college was—biology: minimum $2,500, maximum 
$36,000, average $9,330; chemistry: minimum $3,000, 
maximum $37,028, average $11,278; physics: mini¬ 
mum $2,982, maximum $17,425, average $8,012. 

For a new college, the initial costs for the library 
(books) and the laboratories, of necessity, would be 
quite large. 

IV. State Aid. 

A. Probably all concerned with the founding of a new 
community college would be concerned with the ques¬ 
tion: May State aid be expected during the first year 
of operation? The answer is “Yes, such aid is legally 
possible.” This possibility is contingent. During the 
progress of the first year of operation, will decide 


10 


whether or not the new college is operating under con¬ 
ditions which would meet the minimum standards for 
accreditation. A report by representatives of the Board 
prepared after a visit to and an inspection of the col¬ 
lege subsequent to its opening and after instruction has 
been inaugurated will be considered and appropriate 
action taken. 

B. State Aid for Operating Expenses: 

“Appropriations by the State of North Carolina as 
grants-in-aid to Community Colleges for operating ex¬ 
penses shall be paid on the basis of a specified sum per 
student quarter-hour of instruction [now $3.25] de¬ 
livered in a limited curriculum consisting of courses 
at the freshman and sophomore levels in liberal arts 
and sciences and in the first and second year offerings 
of technical institutes of college grade prescribed by 
the Board of Higher Education. The total annual 
amounts of these grants-in-aid to each college shall 
not, except when the Appropriation Act specifically 
provides otherwise, exceed the total of local public or 
private funds ( exclusive of student fees and charges) 
made available annually to such college for operating 
expenses.” 

C. State Aid for Capital or Permanent Improvements: 
“Appropriations by the State of North Carolina for 
capital or permanent improvements for Community 
Colleges shall, except when the Appropriation Act 
specifically provides otherwise, be on an equal match¬ 
ing fund basis, the monies raised by a particular Com¬ 
munity College from public or private sources being 
matched by an equal amount of State funds, up to but 
not in excess of appropriations therefor. The sole pur¬ 
pose for which such appropriations may be expanded 
shall be to acquire real property and to construct and 
equip classrooms, laboratories, administration offices, 
utility plants, libraries, cafeterias, and auditorium faci¬ 
lities, in such order of priority as the Board of Higher 
Education and the Advisory Budget Commission shall 
determine.” 


11 


































































APPENDICES 


Page 


1. Text of Community College Act . 15 

2. Text of Standards of Southern Association of 

Colleges and Secondary Schools . 26 


3. Text of Principles of North Carolina College Conference . 35 

4. Estimated Community College Operating Costs . 38 


13 








































Ch. No. 1098 


H.B. No. 761, 

AN ACT TO PROVIDE A PLAN OF ORGANIZATION AND 
OPERATION FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGES 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. This Act shall be known as “The Community Col¬ 
lege Act”. 

Sec. 2. The purpose of this Act is to provide a plan of organi¬ 
zation and operation for community colleges, to serve as a legis¬ 
lative charter for such colleges, and to authorize the levy of taxes 
and issuance locally of bonds for the support thereof. 

Sec. 3. As used herein: 

(a) The term “Community College” is defined to be an educa¬ 
tional institution (1) dedicated primarily to the particular 
needs of a community or an area (2) offering the freshman and 
sophomore courses of a college of arts and sciences and/or the 
first or first and second year courses of a two-year technical in¬ 
stitute of college grade, and (3) organized and operating under 
the provisions of this Act. In addition to the courses above re¬ 
ferred to, such college may also offer a variety of occupational, 
vocational, avocational and recreational training programs. Such 
college may consist of one or more units operating within the 
boundaries of one county. 

(b) The term “Board of Higher Education” refers to the North 
Carolina Board of Higher Education. 

Sec. 4. (a) Each Community College shall be governed by a 
board of trustees consisting of twelve (12) members, appointed 
as follows: 

Two (2) members by the governing board of the municipality 
in which the Community College is located; provided, that, if 
the College is not located within the corporate limits of a muni¬ 
cipality, then such appointment shall be by the governing board 
of the largest municipality, according to population, in the county 
in which the college is located. 

Two (2) members by the board of commissioners of the coun¬ 
ty in which the Community College is located. 

Two (2) members by the board of education of the administra¬ 
tive school unit of the municipality in which, or partially in 
which, the Community College is located; provided, that if the 
college is not located within the corporate limits of a municipa¬ 
lity, then such appointment shall be by the board of education 
of the administrative school unit of the largest municipality, ac¬ 
cording to population, in the county in which the college is locat¬ 
ed, if there be such an administrative unit. 


15 


Two (2) members by the board of education of the county in 
which the Community College is located; provided, however, 
that it shall appoint four (4) members if there is but one board 
of education for the county in which the college is located. 

Four (4) members by the Governor of North Carolina. Trus¬ 
tees appointed by the governing board of a city or by a city board 
of education shall be residents of such municipality. Those ap¬ 
pointed by a board of county commissioners, or by a county 
board of education shall be residents of the county (including 
the municipality) in which the college is located. Those appoint¬ 
ed by the Governor shall be residents of the county (including 
the municipality) in which the college is located, or of a county 
contiguous thereto. 

(b) Trustees shall be appointed for terms of six (6) years, 
except that of the first board of trustees of each college appoint¬ 
ed pursuant to this Act, each of the four (4) members appointed 
by the city and/or county boards of education shall be appointed 
for a six (6) year term, each of the four (4) members appointed 
by the governing board of the municipality and/or the board of 
commissioners of the county shall be appointed for a four (4) 
year term, and each of the four (4) members appointed by the 
Governor shall be appointed for a two (2) year term, plus such 
additional months as to each appointee as shall be necessary in 
order for their respective terms to expire on June 30th. After 
the first appointment of the first board of trustees of each col¬ 
lege under this Act, all terms of all trustees shall commence on 
July 1. The authority appointing a particular member shall, 
in the event a vacancy occurs through the loss of such member 
as a trustee, appoint a member to fill the vacancy for the un¬ 
expired term. 

(c) The trustees shall elect annually from among their num¬ 
ber a chairman and a vice chairman. They shall also elect a 
secretary and a treasurer who may, but need not be, trustees. 
One person may be elected to serve as both secretary and treas¬ 
urer. The officers so elected shall each serve for one year or until 
their successors in office shall be duly elected. The meeting for 
the election of such officers shall be held not earlier than July 1 
and not later than September 1 of each year. 

Sec. 5. The board of trustees of each Community College shall 

be known as “The Trustees of.” 

filling in the name of the college; and such designation (“The 

Trustees of.”) shall constitute 

the official corporate name of the college. Such board shall be a 
body corporate, with all the powers usually conferred upon such 


16 




bodies and necessary to enable it to acquire, hold and transfer 
property, make contracts, sue and be sued, and to exercise such 
other rights and privileges as may be necessary for the manage¬ 
ment and administration of the college, and for carrying out the 
provisions and purposes of this Act. 

Sec. 6. The trustees of each Community College shall have 
authority, in the exercise of which they shall be subject to the 
provisions of Article 16, Chapter 116 of the General Statutes: 

(a) To employ a president, dean or other chief administrative 
officer of the college upon such terms and conditions as the 
trustees shall fix and determine. 

(b) To employ, or to delegate to the chief administrative 
officer the authority to employ subject to the approval of the 
trustees, all such other officers, teachers, instructors and em¬ 
ployees as may be necessary for the operation of the college and 
to prescribe their titles and duties. 

(c) To prescribe the curricula which shall be offered, and the 
certificates or degrees which shall be awarded upon satisfactory 
completion of any given course of study. 

(d) To do all things necessary or proper to comply with any 
conditions which may be prescribed by the State of North Caro¬ 
lina or the United States of America in order to be eligible to 
receive monies or other assistance appropriated or designated for 
the benefit of such institutions. 

(e) To fix tuition, fees, and other charges for students attend¬ 
ing or applying for attendance at the college. 

(f) To prescribe and require the use of entrance examinations. 

(g) To provide for an adequate system of accounting for all 
funds and property received, held, managed, expended or used 
by the college, and to require persons directly responsible for 
the handling of such funds to be adequately bonded. 

(h) To purchase any land, easement or right of way which 
the trustees determine to be necessary for the proper operation 
of the college and, if the trustees of the college are unable to agree 
with the owners thereof for the purchase of such land, right of 
way or easement, to condemn same in the same manner and 
under the same procedure as is provided in Chapter 40 (Eminent 
Domain), Article 2 (Condemnation Proceedings), of the General 
Statutes of North Carolina. The determination of the trustees of 
the land necessary for such purpose shall be conclusive. 

(i) To receive and accept private donations for such purposes 
and upon such terms as the donor may prescribe and which are 
consistent with the provisions of this Act. 


17 


(j) To utilize, pursuant to agreement with any local admini¬ 
strative school unit, any service, property or facilities of any 
such unit, and, in their discretion, to employ personnel jointly 
with any such unit on a cooperative, cost sharing basis. 

(k) To perform such other acts and do such other things as 
may be necessary or proper for the exercise of the foregoing 
specific powers, including the adoption and enforcement of all 
reasonable rules, regulations and bylaws for the government and 
operation of the college under this Act and for the discipline of 
students. 

Sec. 7. (a) Appropriations by the State of North Carolina as 
grants-in-aid to Community Colleges for operating expenses shall 
be paid on the basis of a specified sum per student quarter-hour 
of instruction delivered in a limited curriculum consisting of 
courses at the freshman and sophomore levels in liberal arts and 
sciences and in the first and second year offerings of technical 
institutes of college grade prescribed by the Board of Higher 
Education. The total annual amounts of these grants-in-aid to 
each college shall not, except when the Appropriation Act speci¬ 
fically provides otherwise, exceed the total of local public or 
private funds (exclusive of student fees and charges) made 
available annually to such college for operating expenses. Certi¬ 
fication on forms prescribed by the Board of Higher Education 
shall be made to said board and upon approval by said board 
payments shall be made by the State disbursing officer to each 
Community College in amounts not in excess of appropriations 
therefor. 

(b) Appropriations by the State of North Carolina for capital 
or permanent improvements for Community Colleges shall, ex¬ 
cept when the Appropriation Act specifically provides otherwise, 
be on an equal matching fund basis, the monies raised by a par¬ 
ticular Community College from public or private sources being 
matched by an equal amount of State funds, up to but not in 
excess of appropriations therefor. The sole purposes for which 
such appropriations may be expended shall be to acquire real 
property and to construct and equip classrooms, laboratories, ad¬ 
ministration offices, utility plants, libraries, cafeterias, and audi¬ 
torium facilities, in such order of priority as the Board of Higher 
Education and the Advisory Budget Commission shall determine. 
Such appropriations shall not be expended for any other purpose, 
it being expressly intended that the construction of all other 
facilities and procurement of all other equipment shall be the 
sole obligation and responsibility of the Community College. 


18 


Preliminary studies and cost estimates for the construction of 
all buildings or other capital improvements and proposals for 
the purchase of all original equipment to be installed or used 
therein, involving the expenditure of State funds, shall be first 
submitted to and approved by the Board of Higher Education and 
the State Budget Bureau. 

After approval by the Board of Higher Education and the 
Budget Bureau, payments shall be made by the State disbursing 
officer to the Community College, within authorized appropria¬ 
tions, according to procedures established by the Budget Bureau. 

Sec. 8. When the State of North Carolina has made appro¬ 
priations for the purpose of financing the cost of capital or 
permanent improvements for the benefit and use of one or more 
Community Colleges on such terms as shall require funds from 
other sources to supplement that part of said appropriations 
allocated to a particular Community College and the amount of 
such funds available therefor is insufficient, the board of trustees 
of said Community College may request the board of commis¬ 
sioners of the county in which said Community College is situated 
to provide such funds. Upon receipt of such request said board of 
commissioners shall, within a reasonable time thereafter, proceed 
with providing sufficient funds either by appropriation in a man¬ 
ner consistent with the provisions of the County Fiscal Control 
Act or by issuance of bonds voted in an election called by said 
board of commissioners, or by both, as said board of commis¬ 
sioners may deem expedient. Any such bonds shall be issued 
pursuant to the County Finance Act, as amended, and shall be 
subject to the provisions of the Local Government Act. The 
board of commissioners shall not be required to call an election 
for the issuance of bonds for the benefit of a Community College 
within two (2) years after the date of the last preceding election 
for such purpose. The request to the board of commissioners 
shall specify the amount of funds required to be provided in 
order to match State appropriation: Provided the board of 
trustees may at the same time request an amount in addition to 
the amount required to match State appropriation either for the 
same or for different purposes for which such State appropria¬ 
tion is made and may at any time request the board of com¬ 
missioners to proceed to provide funds to meet such requests 
for funds not required to match State appropriation by county 
appropriation or bond issue as hereinabove provided or may 
modify such request and proceed or may deny such request. 
Bonds may be authorized for such amount required to match 
State appropriation and for such additional amount by a single 


19 


bond order or by separate bond orders in the discretion of the 
board of commissioners. 

Sec. 9. The proceeds of the sale of bonds issued by a county 
for a Community College, after deducting therefrom the cost of 
preparing, issuing and marketing said bonds and the amount of 
any accrued interest and premium contained therein, may be 
turned over to the board of trustees of such Community College, 
in which event no member of the board of commissioners of the 
county nor any county officer shall be liable for a penalty under 
the provisions of G. S. 153-107 with respect to the application of 
such proceeds. 

Sec. 10. Notwithstanding any constitutional limitation or limi¬ 
tation provided by any general or special law, taxes may be levied 
by the board of commissioners of a county for the purpose of 
financing the cost of operation, equipment and maintenance of 
any Community College situated within the boundaries of the 
county, and the special approval of the General Assembly is here¬ 
by given for the annual levying of taxes for such special pur¬ 
poses: Provided, that the levy of such special taxes shall be 
approved by the vote of a majority of the qualified voters of such 
county who shall vote on the question of levying such taxes in 
an election held for such purpose. The board of trustees may 
request the board of commissioners of the county to call an 
election, as hereinafter provided, upon the question of levying 
such taxes and shall specify in such request the maximum rate 
or amount of such taxes. Upon receipt of such request the board 
of commissioners of the county shall, within a reasonable time 
thereafter, submit the question of the authorization to levy such 
taxes at an election. The question of levying such taxes may be 
submitted at the same time as the question of issuance of bonds 
referred to in Section 8 of this Act is submitted, or such question 
may be submitted at a separate election. A ballot shall be fur¬ 
nished to each qualified voter at said election, which ballot may 
contain the words “For Community College maintenance tax 
(briefly stating any other pertinent information”, and “Against 
Community College maintenance tax, (briefly stating any other 
pertinent information)”, with a square in front of each proposi¬ 
tion, in one of which squares the voter may make a cross mark 
(X), but any other form of ballot containing adequate informa¬ 
tion and properly stating the question to be voted upon shall be 
construed as being in compliance with this Act. Such election 
may be held at the same time and in the same manner as elec¬ 
tions held under Article 9, Chapter 153 of the General Statutes, 


20 


the same being designated as the County Finance Act, beginning 
with G. S. 153-69 and Sections following, or said election may be 
held at any time fixed by the board of commissioners of the 
county. 

On or before the 1st day of May of each year the board of 
trustees shall notify the board of commissioners of the county 
of the amount of such taxes to be levied in such year and it shall 
be the duty of the board of commissioners of the county to levy 
such taxes accordingly. Such taxes shall be levied and collected 
in the same manner as other taxes of the county are levied and 
collected, and the collections thereof shall be turned over to the 
board of trustees by the end of each month. 

Sec. 11. Any college now or hereafter eligible, or desiring to 
become eligible, to receive the benefit of any direct appropria¬ 
tions of the State of North Carolina as a Community College, and 
which desires to take advantage of such appropriations, must 
first elect to come under the provisions of this Act. Such election 
shall be duly made by the governing board of the college and by 
such other group or body as may be necessary under the pro¬ 
visions of any charter or bylaws applicable to the college in 
question. 

The resolutions of election to come under the provisions of this 
Act shall include appropriate resolutions (a) electing to come 
under the provisions of this Act and to have this Act, as written 
and as subsequently amended, serve as the charter of said college 
in lieu of any existing charter or other authority under which 
the existing college is operated, (b) designating the name by 
which the Community College shall be known, (c) providing for 
the transfer and conveyance of all assets owned or used by the 
existing college to the Community College (authority is hereby 
given to any board of education, board of county commissioners 
or governing board of any municipality owning funds and 
properties so used, to transfer and convey same to a Community 
College in the county, without consideration, upon authorization 
of an annual tax levy for the maintenance of such college), (d) 
petitioning the State of North Carolina to approve it as a Com¬ 
munity College, and (e) providing that all such resolutions of 
election are adopted subject to approval of such institution by 
the State of North Carolina as a Community College and subject 
to the authorization of an annual tax levy by a vote of the people 
of the county in which the college is located. The petition of the 
college for approval, accompanied by a copy of all resolutions 
of election to come under the provisions of this Act, duly certified 
by the president or chairman of the governing board of the col- 


21 


lege and attested by the secretary, shall be submitted to the Board 
of Higher Education for approval. Written approval of the 
petition by the Board of Higher Education and the Advisory 
Budget Commission, and by the Attorney General as to form and 
legality, shall constitute approval by the State of North Carolina, 
subject to an authorization of an annual tax levy as aforesaid. 

The petition for approval as a Community College of any 
existing college which, prior to the effective date of this Act, has 
received appropriations from State funds and is receiving public 
support from county and/or municipal tax or nontax revenues 
may be approved, and may operate as a Community College under 
this Act, without an authorization on an annual tax levy by a 
vote of the people of the county in which the college is located. 

For good cause shown, the Board of Higher Education and 
the Advisory Budget Commission may approve the petition of 
the petitioning college without requiring the transfer of all funds 
and properties used by it to the Community College, provided 
that the petitioner shall comply with such conditions as said 
board and commission may impose to assure the provision of 
adequate facilities for the Community College. Following ap¬ 
proval of the State of North Carolina as aforesaid, the board of 
commissioners of the county in which the college is located shall, 
within a reasonable time after receiving a request from the 
governing board of the college therefor, submit at an election 
the question of levying taxes to finance the operation, equipment 
and maintenance thereof. Such election shall be called and held 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 10 of this Act. 

If the governing board of the existing college shall submit to 
the Board of Higher Education, within eighteen months after 
the approval of the college by the State of North Carolina as 
aforesaid, a certificate of the result of such election showing 
approval of levying of taxes for the maintenance of the college 
as a Community College, the Board of Higher Education shall, 
upon receipt thereof, file the resolutions of election, together 
with written approval thereof as aforesaid, and the certificate of 
the result of the election in the Office of the Secretary of State. 

From and after the filing of said documents in the Office of the 
Secretary of State, said college shall be a Community College 
under this Act; the existing governing board shall continue to 
act pending appointment of the first board of trustees under this 
Act; said existing board shall take all such action as shall be 
necessary and proper to transfer the funds and properties owned 
or used by the former institution to the new Community College 
and to dissolve or otherwise terminate the former corporation, 


22 


if such there be. From and after the organization of the new 
Community College this Act shall serve as its charter. 

Asheville-Biltmore College, Charlotte College (including Carver 
College), and Wilmington College (including Williston unit) may, 
by filing with the Board of Higher Education a petition for 
approval as a Community College, receive during the fiscal year 
July 1,1957 through June 30, 1958 any appropriations from State 
funds for operating expenses for Community Colleges in the 
manner provided in Section 7 (a) of this Act. Such funds may be 
paid, with the approval of the Board of Higher Education, to the 
college or to the county or city administrative school unit operat¬ 
ing such college. The petitioner shall, prior to June 30, 1958, 
comply with all of the applicable provisions of this Act for quali¬ 
fication as a Community College. If the Board of Higher Educa¬ 
tion shall find that the petitioner is not proceeding with reason¬ 
able diligence to comply with the provisions of this Act, it is 
hereby authorized to withhold from such college State Appropri¬ 
ations. 

Sec. 12. In any county not having a college supported by local 
public funds which would be eligible for establishment as a Com¬ 
munity College under this Act, the county board of education 
may petition the State of North Carolina for authority to estab¬ 
lish a Community College under this Act in said county. The 
petition shall be submitted to the Board of Higher Education and 
shall contain such information concerning the proposed location 
and plans for the financing and operation of the college as the 
Board of Higher Education may require. Written approval of the 
petition by the Board of Higher Education and the Advisory 
Budget Commission, and by the Attorney General as to form 
and legality, shall constitute approval by the State of North 
Carolina, subject to the authorization of an annual tax levy for 
the operation, equipment and maintenance of the proposed col¬ 
lege by a vote of the people of the county in which the college is 
to be located. Following approval of the State of North Carolina 
as aforesaid, the board of commissioners of the county in which 
it is proposed that the college shall be located shall, within a 
reasonable time after receiving a request from the petitioning 
county board of education therefor, submit at an election the 
question of levying taxes to finance the operation, equipment and 
maintenance of such college. The election shall be called and held 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 10 of this Act. 

If, within eighteen months after the approval of the petition 
by the State of North Carolina as aforesaid, the petitioning 
county board of education shall submit to the Board of Higher 


23 


Education a certificate of the result of such election showing ap¬ 
proval of the levying of taxes for the maintenance of the pro¬ 
posed Community College, the Board of Higher Education shall 
file the petition, together with the written approval thereof as 
aforesaid, and the certificate of the result of the election in the 
Office of the Secretary of State. 

From and after the filing of said documents in the Office of the 
Secretary of State, said proposed college shall be deemed 
chartered as a Community College under this Act; provided, 
however, that unless and until appropriations shall be made by 
the State of North Carolina for the benefit of said college the 
trustees who would otherwise be appointed by the Governor of 
North Carolina, under Section 4, (a) of this Act, shall be ap¬ 
pointed by the petitioning county board of education and then- 
successors in office and shall all be residents of the county in 
which the college is located. 

Approval of the petition by the State of North Carolina as 
aforesaid shall become null and void at the end of eighteen 
months from the date of such approval if the election herein¬ 
above provided for authorizing the levying of taxes for the 
maintenance of the Community College shall not have been held 
and voted upon favorably w-ithin that time. 

Sec. 13. The Board of Higher Education shall have authority 
to prescribe minimum standards with respect to student enroll¬ 
ment or prospective enrollment in academic courses, facilities 
and other pertinent matters for approval as a Community College 
under this Act. 

Sec. 14. The cost of any special election held under authority 
of this Act shall be paid out of the general fund of the county 
or, in the discretion of the board of commissioners of the county 
and with the concurrence of the board of education of the county, 
out of the school current expense fund of the county, and the 
authority to appropriate from said school current expense fund 
for such cost is hereby given. 

Sec. 15. A Community College may, by appropriate resolu¬ 
tions of its trustees and of the board of commissioners of the 
county in which it is located elect to discontinue its existence and 
operation as a Community College under this Act as of the end 
of any regular school year; provided, however, that any Com¬ 
munity College which shall have accepted funds from the State 
of North Carolina for capital or permanent improvements shall, 
upon its discontinuance as a Community College under this Act, 
pay to the State of North Carolina a sum equal to all appropria- 


24 


tions made by the State to said college for capital or permanent 
improvements, less per annum from the date of payment 

of each such appropriation by the State to the date of such dis¬ 
continuance as a Community College; provided, further, that 
such payment may, for good cause, be waived in part or in total 
by the Governor and the Advisory Budget Commission, acting 
jointly. If such payment, not being waived, is not made within 
ninety days after the discontinuance of the college as a Com¬ 
munity College under this Act, such failure to pay shall work an 
automatic forfeiture of all the assets and property of the college 
to the State of North Carolina. 

Sec. 16. G. S. 153-77 is hereby amended by inserting the 
following as a new, additional subsection at the end of said 
Section. 

“Erection of Community Colleges, including the purchase of 
land and the erection of classrooms, laboratories, administration 
offices, utility plants, libraries, cafeterias and auditoriums and 
the purchase and installation of equipment therefor: Provided, 
bonds for such purpose shall be deemed to be school bonds and 
the statement filed with the clerk after introduction and before 
final passage of an order authorizing such bonds shall be filed 
pursuant to the provisions of G. S. 153-83.” 

Sec. 17. This Act is in addition to and shall not be construed 
as superseding or repealing any prior Act of the General Assem¬ 
bly establishing or authorizing the establishment of any college 
or the levy of taxes or the appropriation of local public funds 
for the support of any college. 

Sec. 18. All laws and clauses of laws in conflict with this Act 
are hereby repealed. 

Sec. 19. This Act shall become effective upon its ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified, this 
the 5th day of June, 1957. 

L. E. Barnhardt 

President of the Senate. 

J. K. Doughton 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Examined and found correct, 

J. Shelton Wicker 

For Committee. 


25 


Southern Association of Colleges 
and Secondary Schools 

Standards for Junior Colleges 

Introduction —The Southern Association of Colleges and Se¬ 
condary Schools, through its Commission on Colleges and Uni¬ 
versities, evaluates and accredits junior colleges. It is the purpose 
of the Association to extend accreditation to those institutions 
which meet its standards and which voluntarily seek this rec¬ 
ognition. 

Institutions are limited in their organization, objectives, cur¬ 
ricula, and other characteristics, only by the minimum basic 
program required by the Association as a guarantee of excellence 
and worthy accomplishment. 

Member junior colleges are encouraged to exceed the minimum 
program by institutional self-surveys and continuous self-im¬ 
provement. 

Standard One —AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. Each institution 
should define and publish its objectives. These objectives should 
be made also in terms of which the institution desires evalua¬ 
tion: 

1. With regard to courses basic to senior college courses in 
liberal arts and pre-professional fields. 

2. With regard to terminal education, if such courses are 
a part of the curriculum. 

3. With regard to secondary education, if high school work 
is included in the junior college unit. 

4. With regard to student personnel service and guidance. 

Junior colleges should, in addition, list their special objectives, 
if any. Publicly supported junior colleges should, in general, 
follow the pattern of the “community college,” definitely serving 
a community or an area with general and special curricula, in¬ 
cluding a program of adult education. 

Standard Two —ORGANIZATION. Legal evidence for the 
organization of the institution and the character of its control 
and organization should be listed under this Standard. A junior 
college is an institution of higher education (post-high school), 
publicly controlled and operated under statutory provisions, or 
privately controlled and operated under the authority of articles 


26 


of incorporation or a charter. A junior college does not grant 
baccalaureate degrees. It offers: 

1. Two years of work in one or more standard collegiate 
academic curricula. In addition, it may offer one or more 
years of post-high school instruction in curricula terminal 
in nature. 

2. Certain years of high school instruction may be offered. 

Three types of junior colleges are recognized. An institution 
should state clearly which type it is when making an application 
for accreditation: 

1. The Two-Year Junior College. This institution offers two 
years of standard collegiate academic work, with or with¬ 
out additional terminal curricula. 

2. The Three-Year Junior College. This institution offers 
two years of standard collegiate academic work, plus the 
senior year of high school, all administered and accredited 
as a single unit. It may or may not offer additional terminal 
curricula. 

3. The Four-Year Junior College. This institution offers two 
years of standard collegiate academic work, plus the junior 
and senior years of high school, all administered and ac¬ 
credited as a single unit. It may or may not offer additional 
terminal curricula. 

The over-all enrollment of the students on the Junior College 
level shall be sufficient to justify a wholesome educational and 
economic unit. 

Where a junior college is a unit of a public school system, the 
administration, management, financial and student accounting 
and general operation of the college must be such as to reflect 
clearly the situation pertaining to the college as distinguished 
from the other units of the public school system, since the college 
only will be considered and evaluated under these criteria. 

An audit and/or budget for any school year’s operation shall 
be submitted on request. 

Standard Three— JUNIOR COLLEGE CURRICULA. 

Four types of curricula are recognized as valid for any junior 
college. 

1. A curriculum preparing students for senior college courses 
in liberal arts or pre-professional fields. 

2. A program of one or more years of terminal or vocational 
work which may include short occupational and other 
courses. Courses offered at the junior college level in de- 


27 


partments of vocational-technical education should be 
worthy of consideration as a part of the total college 
curricula. 

3. General education. 

4. The junior and senior years of high school, if the junior 
college unit is so organized to include them. 

Standard Four —ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS. The two- 
year junior college shall require for admission to its standard 
academic and general curricula, graduation from an approved 
secondary school with a minimum of fifteen acceptable units or 
the equivalent, as shown by examination, or twelve units from 
an approved three-year senior high school. 

The three-year junior college shall require twelve acceptable 
units or their equivalent, and the four-year junior college shall 
require eight acceptable units, or their equivalent, for entrance. 
Certificates of admission should show the quality of work accom¬ 
plished and give information concerning the personality, charac¬ 
ter, general ability, and health. Psychological and achievement 
test information should also be secured by the college prior to 
or at the time of entrance. 

In general, terminal curricula, including vocational-technical 
courses, shall have the same entrance requirements as those listed 
above. However, students not meeting the requirements for 
admission to standard academic and general curricula may be 
admitted to terminal curricula on individual approval if they are 
at least eighteen years of age. 

Standard Five —FACULTY. The training and experience 
of the members of the faculty are important items in evaluating 
a junior college. 

1. Junior college faculty members should have the back¬ 
ground and knowledge of the junior college afforded by 
graduate courses, workshops, and seminars in the special 
field of the junior college, its history, basic philosophy, 
special problems and methods. Members of the faculty 
should be encouraged by the institution to participate in 
such programs. In selecting new staff members this item 
should be considered. 

2. The college should have a program of in-service training 
for its faculty members. Included in this training should 
be a study of the nature, history, and basic philosophy of 
the junior college. 

3. The junior college instructor of academic subjects shall 
have the Master’s degree or an equivalent degree and the 


28 


courses taught by the instructor shall be in the field of 
specialization. 

4. Each instructor in terminal and terminal vocational-tech¬ 
nical curricula shall possess satisfactory vocational train¬ 
ing, vocational experience, and personal qualifications for 
his specific work. Instructors of vocational-technical sub¬ 
jects should have, in addition to college graduation, at 
least three years of successful experience in the vocation. 
For each year of deficiency in college training, an addition¬ 
al year of vocational experience may be accepted. 

5. Faculty members should belong to learned societies appro¬ 
priate to their special work and should be familiar with 
the publication of the societies. 

6. Faculty meetings should be democratic, stimulating, and 
helpful. 

7. The ratio of faculty members to students should, in general, 
not exceed twenty-five students to one instructor on a full¬ 
time teaching basis. 

8. The salary schedule should be sufficient to secure and re¬ 
tain instructors of thorough preparation. The minimum 
salary of a beginning junior college instructor shall be 
$3,000 for nine months’ work. There shall be appropriate 
increments for additional training experience and respon¬ 
sibility. The faculty remuneration should not include 
housing or living arrangements except on an optional basis. 

9. The standard teaching load in semester hours or their 
equivalent is recognized to be sixteen. The maximum 
teaching load is eighteen semester hours, and only a small 
percentage of the faculty may be permitted to carry this 
maximum. The teaching schedule should be arranged so 
that the total teaching load per week of each instructor 
will ordinarily not exceed 450 student credit hours. Two 
hours of laboratory work shall be counted as one credit 
hour. In three-year or four-year junior colleges, the teach¬ 
ing of a high school class meeting five hours a week will be 
considered the equivalent of three credit hours in an in¬ 
structor’s load. 

Faculty committee assignments, sponsorship of extra¬ 
curricular activities and other non-teaching duties shall 
be given consideration in the teaching load. 

10. Consideration should be given to the following additional 
factors with regard to faculty service: retirement allow¬ 
ances ; sick leave and other leaves; health insurance; meth¬ 
ods of selection and appointment; tenure; and, provision 
for professional growth. 


29 


Standard Six —INSTRUCTION. The junior college should be 
known as an institution in which effective teaching is accom¬ 
plished. The primary interest of the faculty should be sound, 
thorough, and inspirational teaching rather than research. Data 
on instructional efficiency should include information concerning 
classroom methods, tests, examinations, grading systems, 
analysis of instructional results, including the compilation and 
distribution of grades by departments and instructors, the de¬ 
velopment and use of syllabi and their continuous revision and 
adjustment. 

Standard Seven —FINANCIAL SUPPORT. Each junior col¬ 
lege shall show conclusive evidence that it is able adequately 
to finance the program proposed in its stated objectives. Finan¬ 
cial support may be derived from endowment, private, state, or 
other public sources, church donations, or student fees. It must 
be clearly demonstrated that this support has been regularly re¬ 
ceived over a period of at least four years and that there is 
reasonable assurance that it will continue. 

This support must be adequate to secure and retain well-pre¬ 
pared instructors with successful experience and be sufficient 
to sustain every educational activity undertaken by the institu¬ 
tion. 

1. The extent to which the institution depends upon student 
fees, the regularity of income from endowment, church, 
taxation, and other stable sources, the avoidance of debt, 
and the financial accounting procedures of the institution 
are all items of importance. The minimum annual income 
from sources other than student fees or student payments 
of any sort shall be $15,000 for the first one hundred 
students, or fraction thereof, in full time enrollment, and 
$5,000 for each additional one hundred students, or frac¬ 
tion thereof. It is recommended that the annual operating 
revenue from all sources for a junior college of less than 
five hundred enrollment be not less than two hundred 
dollars per student as measured on an average daily at¬ 
tendance or full-time equivalent basis. 

2. The percentage of income spent for direct instructional 
purposes is an important factor in measuring the college 
program. To arrive at the direct instructional cost the 
following items should be considered: 

a. The total salaries of the teaching staff, omitting the 
administrative officers. The salaries of laboratory as¬ 
sistants and any others who are directly concerned 
with the instructional activities should be included; 


30 


b. The expenditure for the salaries of librarians, library 
assistants, library supplies, the purchase of books and 
periodicals, the cost of binding, repair, and maintenance 
of library materials; 

c. The expenditure for classroom, laboratory, and any 
other supplies used directly for instructional activities, 
but not permanent equipment; 

d. The total sum thus derived should be divided by the 
average number of full-time students attending the 
institution during the regular session of nine months, 
and the result should show a direct instructional ex¬ 
penditure or not less than $250 for each full-time 
student for the first one hundred students, or fraction 
thereof, and $200 a student for each additional student. 

Standard Eight —THE LIBRARY. The library building should 
be well lighted and have reading room space for at least twenty 
per cent of the student enrollment. It should be fireproof, if 
possible, and have adequate facilities for housing, maintaining, 
and using the library as an important instructional department 
of the college. 

The junior college should have a collection of at least six 
thousand volumes exclusive of public documents, carefully select¬ 
ed, adequately catalogued, and readily available for use. Suffi¬ 
cient magazines and periodicals should be available each session, 
especially selected to serve in the instructional program. Stand¬ 
ard works of general and special reference sufficient to meet 
the needs of the student body should be available. Circulation 
statistics and other data concerning the use made of the library 
should be kept, in addition to the accession book. 

There should be an annual expenditure of at least $500 for 
books, periodicals, binding and audio visual materials, or $4.00 
per student, whichever is greater. 

The library shall be professionally administered by a lib¬ 
rarian who is a full-time employee, and who has a degree in 
library science. The librarian shall have faculty rank. All stu¬ 
dents should receive at least elementary training in the use of the 
library from the librarian or under the librarian’s direction. 

There shall be such assistants as the necessity of administra¬ 
tive efficiency requires. The size of the institution, the adequacy 
of its physical equipment, and the number of hours which the 
library is kept open daily will determine the number of staff 
members needed and will constitute a rough measure of the 
effectiveness of the library service. The collection of books and 


31 


periodicals should be compared frequently with the library list 
of this Association. 

Standard Nine —LABORATORIES. The science laboratories 
and laboratories for vocational-technical and semi-professional 
courses should be equipped for individual instruction in each 
laboratory course offered. If the fine arts, including drawing, 
dramatics, painting, and music, are offered, the equipment in 
these departments shall be considered in accrediting the junior 
college. 

Each laboratory and vocational shop shall be judged upon its 
own merits with regard to its adequacy: 

1. The room shall be large enough properly to house the 
equipment and to provide safe, comfortable working space 
for the students. 

2. The shop or laboratory shall be provided with proper 
equipment with regard to quality, quantity, and recency 
of design. Shops shall provide adequate work experience 
in the vocational-technical field of training to correspond 
with work experience after finishing the course. 

3. The number of work stations provided in a shop must be 
at least equal to ninety per cent of the total number of 
students enrolled in a shop section. 

Standard Ten —PHYSICAL PLANT. The physical plant and 
equipment, including the buildings, grounds, laboratories, ap¬ 
paratus, lighting, heating, ventilation, sanitation, water supply, 
furniture, as well as the general maintenance should be of the 
quality which may be expected of an institution desiring accredi¬ 
tation by a regional accrediting agency. Completeness, appear¬ 
ance, maintenance, and general management, as well as type, 
quality, and avoidance of obsolescence are important factors. 

Standard Eleven —GENERAL TONE AND STABILITY OF 
THE INSTITUTION. The general atmosphere and spirit of its 
administration, the nature of its publicity, the truthfulness of 
its publications and on the part of those who solicit students, its 
code of ethics, and its standing in the estimation of senior col¬ 
leges, universities, other junior colleges and other educational 
agencies shall all be considered in determining the evaluation 
of a junior college. 

The institution should give evidence of permanence and 
stability. It must have pursued a given program long enough 
to make possible a proper evaluation of its work. For this pur¬ 
pose, the records of graduates transferred to higher institutions 


32 


over a period of three or more years shall be considered in 
accrediting a junior college, as well as other pertinent data. 

Standard Twelve — STUDENT ACTIVITIES AND STU¬ 
DENT PERSONNEL. The junior college should encourage 
democratic student life and activities. Student activities should 
be student managed and directed with faculty cooperation. A 
well-balanced program of extra-curricular activities should be 
established which will promote participation by students, but 
not to excess. 

The college should provide a program of pre-registration, 
orientation and guidance with proper emphasis upon acquainting 
the students with scholastic work and the activities and life of 
the college. To this end student personnel service should include 
a program of educational, vocational, personal, and social guid¬ 
ance and counseling. 

“A standardized testing program should be provided, making- 
use of at least a minimum number of the best known and most 
reliable instruments. Placement and followup service should be 
provided, and if students are admitted who work part-time, the 
college should assume some responsibility for their guidance and 
assistance. 

Boarding and rooming facilities, if provided, should be under 
the supervision and instruction of the institution with provision 
made for frequent and regular inspection and proper supervision 
in order to maintain high standards of conduct and sanitation. 

The athletic program of the college shall be under faculty 
supervision and must meet the ethical standards as well as the 
prescribed regulations of the athletic conference of which the 
the institution is a member. 

Standard Thirteen —GRADUATION. For graduation from 
the two-year junior college the student, in addition to meeting 
the entrance requirements for the particular type of curriculum 
he is pursuing, must complete at least sixty semester hours of 
academic credit or the equivalent, with such qualitative require¬ 
ments as each institution may specify. A minimum of two hours 
of laboratory work shall count as the equivalent of one hour of 
regular recitation or test. 

In three-and four-year junior colleges the student will meet 
the local requirements for graduation from high school and the 
requirements listed above. 

In vocational-technical curricula graduation shall depend upon 
the satisfactory completion of the curricula or course. 

The maximum credit for extension courses, correspondence 


33 


courses, and other off campus courses shall not exceed twenty- 
five per cent of the total hours required for graduation. 

Standard Fourteen —RECORDS. The academic, personnel, 
health, activity, and other records of students shall be systemati¬ 
cally kept and protected from fire, loss, or damage. 

The registrar shall keep files of admission, matriculation, at¬ 
tendance, and scholarship records, transcripts received and other 
essential data. 

Individual records should be kept for each faculty member 
showing the period of service, advancements, evidences of pro¬ 
fessional growth, advanced study, research and publications, 
noteworthy achievements, and instructional experience. 

The records of the business office should provide ample safe¬ 
guard for funds and be easily audited. They should be based upon 
an officially adopted budget. 

Standard Fifteen —ASSOCIATION SURVEY. No junior col¬ 
lege shall be recommended for membership until it has been 
surveyed by a committee regularly appointed by the Commission. 
Any member junior college of the Association shall be open to 
inspection and may be required to make reports at any time. 


34 


North Carolina College Conference 

Principles for Accrediting Junior Colleges 

The principles for accrediting junior colleges are as follows: 

In defining standards for the Junior Colleges the committee 
had in mind an institution covering the first two years of college 
work. At the same time it is not unmindful of the fact that rarely 
is the Junior College confined to this form of organization; 
usually these two years of college work are united with two or 
more of high school work, or with preparatory classes or with 
other collateral courses for teachers. Nor does it desire to ignore 
the possibility that Junior Colleges may offer also courses and 
curricula of college grade not now typically paralleled in the first 
two years of work in standard colleges and universities. For the 
present, however, the committee has not attempted to define 
more nearly these varying types but has suggested as standards 
certain requirements pertaining largely, if not exclusively, to 
those two college years, believing these years to be the essen¬ 
tial part of the work. The existence of these two years alone 
justifies the term “Junior College” and all attempts at standardi¬ 
zation should proceed on the assumed identity of this work in 
scope and thoroughness with similar work done by standard 
four-year colleges. 

1. The requirement for admission shall be the satisfactory 
completion of a four-year course in a secondary school approved 
by a recognized accrediting agency or the equivalent of such a 
course as shown by examination. The major portion of the 
secondary school course accepted for admission should be de¬ 
finitely correlated with the curriculum to which the student 
is admitted. 

2. Requirements for graduation must be based on the satis¬ 
factory completion of thirty year hours, or sixty semester hours 
of work corresponding in grade to that given in the freshman and 
sophomore years of standard colleges or universities. In addition 
to the above quantitative requirements each institution should 
adopt other qualitative standards suited to its individual condi¬ 
tions. 

3. Members of the teaching staff in regular charge of classes 
must have a baccalaureate degree and not less than one year of 
graduate work in a recognized graduate school. In the enforce¬ 
ment of this standard consideration will be given to teachers of 
long standing and effective service. 


35 


4. A schedule of sixteen credit hours a week is recommended 
for teachers with eighteen credit hours as a maximum. The 
teaching of a high school class meeting five hours a week will be 
considered the equivalent of three credit hours in a teacher’s 
load. Two hours of laboratory work shall be counted as one credit 
hour. 

5. The curriculum should provide for breadth of study and 
should have justifiable relation to the resources of the institution, 
but there should be a minimum of five departments, each in 
charge of a teacher giving at least half of his time to collegiate 
instruction in his department. This number of departments, and 
the size of the faculty should be increased with the development 
of varied curricula and growth of the student body. 

6. The number of students in any recitation or laboratory class 
should be limited to the number which can be taught effectively 
in that subject. 

7. The College work should be the essential part of the curri¬ 
culum. No Junior College should be accredited until its registra¬ 
tion in the college work has reached approximately fifty students. 

8. The material upkeep of a Junior College, its buildings, land, 
laboratories, apparatus, and libraries should be judged by their 
efficiency in relation to the educational program. 

(a) The laboratory shall be adequate for the courses offered 
in science, and these facilities shall be kept up by means 
of an annual appropriation in keeping with the curri¬ 
culum. 

A Junior College should have a live, well distributed, profes¬ 
sionally administered library of at least 4,000 volumes exclusive 
of public documents, bearing specifically upon the subjects 
taught. The librarian should be a full time library employee, 
holding a degree in Library Science, and should have faculty 
rank. 

There should be a minimum annual expenditure of $25.00 per 
student for books, periodicals, binding, supplies, and for staff 
salaries. There should be a minimum expenditure of $500 an¬ 
nually for new books. If the library is called upon to provide 
special materials such as records, films, or other audio-visual 
aids, an expenditure distinctly above the minimum must be 
provided. 

9. The minimum annual operating income for the two years of 


36 


Junior College work should be $10,000 of which not less than 
$5,000 should be derived from stable sources, other than students, 
preferably permanent endowments. Increase in faculty, student 
body and scope of instruction should be accompanied by increases 
of income from such stable resources. The financial status of 
each Junior College should be judged in relation to its educa¬ 
tional program. 

10. No Junior College shall be accredited that does not have a 
minimum salary of at least $3,800 for departmental heads for a 
nine months’ term, with no teacher receiving less than $3,000 
for the same period. 

11. The high school department run in connection with the 
Junior College shall be accredited by a recognized accrediting 
agency for secondary school. 

12. A Junior College should operate for a year under Standard 
Conditions (meeting all standards) before being accredited. 


37 


Estimated Community College Operating Costs 

Regular Session for Enrollments of 150 (first year) and 300 
Students (second year) 


Assumptions: 

1. An average expenditure level of $700 per full-time student for 
educational and general purposes for an enrollment in the first 
year of 150 students, and $500 per full-time student in the 
second year for an enrollment of 300 students. 

2. Income from students for educational and general purposes 
estimated to be $200 per full-time student, State grants-in-aid 
at the rate of $3.25 per student quarter hour delivered to 
North Carolina residents, and the balance of income to come 
from local sources. 

3. Income from any auxiliary services will fully support the cost 
of these services. 


Estimated Cost for 150 Students 


Income 


Expenditures 


Student Fees $ 30,000 

State Grants-in-aid 21,938 
Local Funds 53,062 


Administration and 
General 
Instruction 
Library 
Physical Plant 
Operation 


$ 31,000 
47,000 
12,000 

15,000 


Total $105,000 


Total 


$105,000 


Estimated Cost for 300 Students 


Income 

Student Fees $ 60,000 

State Grants-in-aid 43,875 
Local Funds 46,125 


Expenditures 
Administration and 
General $ 

Instruction 
Library 
Physical Plant 
Operation 


31,000 

90,000 

12,000 

17,000 


Total 


$150,000 Total 


$150,000 


38 










Estimated Breakdown of Costs 


Administration and General 

150 

Students 

300 

Students 

Director 

$ 9,000 

$ 9,000 

Business Manager 

6,000 

6,000 

Secretaries (2) 

6,000 

6,000 

Registrar 

5,000 

5,000 

Supplies and other expense 

2,500 

2,500 

Equipment 

2,500 

2,500 

Totals 

$31,000 

$31,000 

Instruction 

Dean (part time teaching) 

$ 8,000 

$ 8,000 

Secretary 

— 

3,000 

Teachers—average $5,000 

35,000 

75,000 

Other expense 

4,000 

4,000 

Totals 

$47,000 

$90,000 

Library 

Librarian 

$ 5,000 

$ 5,000 

Clerical Help 

2,500 

2,500 

Supplies 

1,000 

1,000 

Book Purchases 

3,500 

3,500 

Totals 

$12,000 

$12,000 

Physical Plant Operation 

Salaries—Maintenance 

and Janitorial 

$ 6,000 

$ 6,000 

Heat, Light, Water 

6,000 

7,000 

Supplies 

2,000 

2,000 

Repairs and Equipment 

1,000 

2,000 

Totals 

$15,000 

$17,000 


Notes: 

1. The costs as outlined above were estimated by the staff of the 
Board of Higher Education based on what they considered 
to be present realistic costs. 


39 


















2. The general estimate does not include the original outlay of 
funds for the acquisition of a nucleus of books needed from 
the start. In the light of present costs of books, a sum of 
$10,000 or more will be needed. Furthermore, a librarian 
ought to be among the early appointees in order that this per¬ 
son from the start should participate in purchases, classifi¬ 
cation, and processing of accessions. A start should likewise 
be initiated in acquiring laboratory equipment and supplies. 


40 


STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



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