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0x UBais 
Mwasnaais 







THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 


A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SEX EDUCATION 
IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED STATES AND GREAT BRITAIN 


A DISSERTATION 

SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES 
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR 
THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION 


FACULTY OF EDUCATION 


BY 

EDWIN ALBERT READ 


GLENWOODVILLE, ALBERTA 
JULY, 194? 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2017 with funding from 
University of Alberta Libraries 




https://archive.org/details/comparativestudyOOread 


‘TABLE OF CONTENTS 


PAGE 

INTRODUCTION 1 

CHAPTER 

I. THE PURPOSES OP THIS STUDY 6 

II. METHODS OP SECURING AND ORGANIZING DATA 11 

III. MINOR SEX EDUCATION PROGRAMS USED IN SOME 13 

SCHOOLS OP THE U. S. A. 

TUlsa, Oklahoma. Public School Sex 13 

Education Program 

Stephenson, Michigan. High School 16 

Sex Education Program 

‘Two Rivers, Wisconsin. High school 20 

Sex Education Program 

New Jersey. Education for Human 21 

Relations and Pamily Living on the 
Secondary School Level 

"Pamily Relationship" Education in Toms 24 

River High School, Toms River, New Jersey 

Sex Education in California Schools 26 

San Prancisco Public schools 27 

Whittier High School 28 

Pico, California 28 

Audubon Junior High school, Los 28 

Angeles, California 

Sex Education in Cincinnati Public schools 28 

Sex Education in Denver Public Schools 30 

Plans for Sex Education in the State of 32 

Michigan 

Sex Education in a Suburban School on 33 

Chicago 1 s North Shore 

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CHAPTER PAGE 

IV. MAJOR SEX EDUCATION PROGRAMS USED IN SOME % 

SCHOOLS OF THE U. S. A. 

Sex Education in Bronxville Public 2& 

Schools, Bronxville, New iork 

Sex Education in Winnetka Public 28 

Schools, Ninnetka, Illinois 

Sex Education in the State of Oregon 46 

Sex Education in Bend, Oregon 48 

Sex Education in San Diego City schools 28 

V. BRITISH PROGRAMS IN SEX EDUCATION 68 

Notes on Typical Schemes of sex 70 

Instruction 

Some Typical Arrangements in secondary 71 

Schools 

Sex Education in the City of Manchester 74 

City of Edinburgh Experiment in sex 75 

Education 

VI. OPINIONS ON SEX EDUCATION OP LEADING EDUCA- 82 

TORS IN THE U. S. A. AND GREAT BRITAIN 

Opinions of the Late Thomas w. Galloway 82 

Opinions of Maurice A. Bigelow 82 

Opinions of the Education committee of 86 

the New Jersey Social Hygiene Association 

Opinions of Prances B. Strain 88 

Opinions of Dr. Paul H. Landis 82 

opinions of Cyril Bibby 21 

opinions of the London county Council 26 


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CHAPTER 


PAGE 


VII. findings ajmd conclusions 103 

The content of Sex Education 103 

Teaching Aids for Sex Education 108 

factors Determining Extent of sex 109 

Educati on Program 

The Fundamental Principles of Sex 111 

Education 

A comparison of British and American 113 

Sex Education Programs 

The Most Successful Methods of Sex 113 

Instruction 

Who Shall Teach Sex Education? 113 

Sex Education for Alberta schools 116 

VIII. A SUGGESTED SSI EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR ALBERTA 11? 
SCHOOLS 

Proposed Sex Education Program for 123 

Alberta Schools 

Suggestions to the Department of Education 129 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 131 

APPENDIX 

A. SAMPLE LECTURES FROM THE “GROWING UP” 137 

MONOGRAPH 

B. SUGGESTED TOPICS ON HUMAN RELATIONS IN HIGH 136 

SCHOOL SUBJECTS 


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INTRODUCTION 


Educators throughout the United States of America 
and Great Britain learned very early in their experience 
to avoid using the term u Sex Education* 1 in connection 
with any course which attempted to clarify the murky ideas 
which children have regarding sex, to replace obscene words 
with scientific terminology, to develop healthy attitudes, 
ideals and habits concerning sex and various human rela¬ 
tions in the family, in the school and in the community. 

In the mind of the general public, ,l sex education” is as¬ 
sociated with the teaching of the physiology of sex and the 
sex life. Many fear that discussions of birth control, the 
use of contraceptives, and sex love will become part of a 
course in ”sex”. In truth, these have no place in ”sex 
education” in the schools. They are considered to lie in 
the province of the marriage counsellor, and to be the 
concern of adults who are contemplating marriage. 

In order to avoid any misinterpretation and unneces¬ 
sary concern on the part of parents and the public at large, 
educators have often used the title “Social Hygiene Educa¬ 
tion” to designate instruction in the factual and moral as¬ 
pects of sex and human relations. 

In this dissertation, “sex education" is used in its 
broadest sense, that is, education which deals honestly and 
impersonally with the physical, biological, hygienic, mental 
and social aspects of sex, and which makes a positive attempt 
to develop desirable attitudes, ideals, habits and tastes 




- 2 - 

regarding the various relations between the sexes within 
the family, the school and the community* 

In a number of the chapters which follow, reference 
will be made to "Human Relations Mu cat ion" and "Family 
Life Education." It should be made clear that "human re¬ 
lation^’ includes much more than "sex relations", and that 
school subjects which are part of an integrated program in 
"Human Relations Education" offer opportunities for inte¬ 
gration of the important topics selected from the field of 
sex education* "Family Life Education" usually takes the 
form of a separate course entitled "Family Living." It 
deals with all aspects of successful family living from 
courtship to budgeting the family income, and therefore 
includes many aspects of sex education* 

The growing awareness for the need of sex education 
becomes apparent when one considers the increasing number 
of newspaper articles, magazine articles and ether forms 
of literature dealing with this subject today. It was the 
multiplicity of this literature which aroused the interest 
of the author in this subject. 

Sociologists point out that marriage on the basis 
of love and romance is a modern invention. Until recent 
times courtship and marriage was carefully controlled and 
arranged by the parents of the parties concerned. Paul 
Landis, an American professor of sociology, advises us 
that in a day when boy-girl relations and marriage are 


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relatively free from parental control, some form of sex 
education is needed to aid young people in the selection 
of healthy and socially acceptable standards of moral 
conduct and to guide them in the selection of suitable 
mates.^ 


Our slowness to recognize the need for such instruc¬ 
tion is an excellent example of a cultural lag. In some 
countries the lag is not as great as in others. Canada, 
for example, has been very slow in recognizing the need 
for sex education in its schools. Cyril Bibby, a British 
educator, compares this particular cultural lag as it ex¬ 
ists in the U. S. A., the U. S. S. R. and Great Britain 

2 

when he writes as follows: 

“Apparently in the TJ. S. A. ! it is accepted 
with comparatively little controversy that there 
can be no complete and comprehensive health or 
character education in our education programme 
which does not give full consideration to the sex 
implications of both T ; while in the secondary 
schools of the IT. S. S. R. T the physiology of the 
growing organism is studied, including the acti¬ 
vity of the sex glands and the elements of embry¬ 
ology; special reference is made to the develop¬ 
ment of the human body during the periods of 
childhood and puberty. 1 In this country there is 
no such unanimity of opinion or universality of 
practice. Those who wish to include sex education 
as part of the normal work of the school are still 
pioneers. Increasingly, however, educationists are 
coming to feel that no schooling is complete if it 
neglects sex education, and the problem now is to 
work out the best methods. n 


Ipaul Landis. “Should Our Schools Teach Sex?“ Better 
Homes, and Gardens . 25 : 14-13. November 1946. 

2 Cyril Bibby. tie 2 LJI to pa ta ..p n j , n .the , scho ol, a reprint from 
“Health Education Journal”, Yol. 1, No. 2 , April 1943. 






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In the 1945 investigation made by the Board of Edu¬ 
cation for Great Britain, it appeared that in the areas of 
approximately half the Local Education Authorities in 
England, and to a lesser extent in Wales, there was care¬ 
fully planned instruction in at least a few of the schools. 
In no areas was it possible to say that sex instruction 
was included in every school* Very much more attention 
was given to this subject in girls* schools than in boys*, 
approximately three girls* schools included sex instruc¬ 
tion in their syllabus for every one boys* school. 1 

According to a survey made by Newsweek Magazine in 
1947, approximately 20 per cent of the schools in the U. 

S. A. gave no sex education. About 33 per cent of the 
schools had teachers who did some kind of personal guid¬ 
ance work with the students. Less than 30 per cent of the 
American schools had separately scheduled lectures given 
by visiting nurses, doctors or social workers, while in 
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0 

cation in an integrated program. This last figure becomes 
significant when one learns that in the opinion of leading 
educators and foremost authorities on sex education, the 
integrated program Is the best way of teaching material 
concerning the sexes. 

^-Board of Education, Sex Education in Schools and Youth 
Organizations . London: His Majesty f s Stationery Office, 
Education Pamphlet No. 119, 1943. p 6. 

2 H. Isaacs. “Shall Our Schools Teach Sex?“ Newsweek 
Magazine , 29: 100 - 2, May 19, 1947 . 









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In addition to our slowness in becoming aware of 
its need, there are other reasons for the absence of sex 
instruction in our schools. One of these is the existence 
of traditional taboos on sex which we have inherited from 
the Victorian Age. Another reason is that few teachers 
have the necessary background or training to give this 
instruction, while yet another is that we are not sure 
just what methods of instruction will prove to be safe 
and effective. It was the problem arising out of the 
last two reasons which induced the author to make the 
investigations necessary for the v^riting of this disser¬ 
tation. 





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CHAPTER I 


THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY 

The growing consciousness of the need for sex in¬ 
struction in our schools presents Alberta 1 s educators with 
a challenging problem. It is their responsibility to de¬ 
velop a program in sex education which will prove to be 
safe and at the same time, effective in meeting the needs 
of our society. The problem which we face at the present 
time in Alberta is that arising out of this challenge. 

What are the essentials of a safe and effective pregram 
in sex education? 

Experience has repeatedly illustrated that it is 
always wise to investigate what has been done and what is 
being done elsewhere before launching out on unfamiliar 
paths. The primary purpose of this study is to male such 
an investigation with a view to providing a basis for set¬ 
ting up a sound program of sex education. The secondary 
purpose of this study is to propose a sex education program 
which might be incorporated into the Alberta Program of 
Studies. 

It should be made clear at this point that it is 
not the purpose of this study to present evidence for the 
need of sex education in our schools. Much has been writ¬ 
ten on the pros and cons of this subject and these can be 
found in the periodicals on almost any news stand. It is 
sufficient to say here that if we are to educate the whole 
child, we cannot ignore such an important part of life as 


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sex. 

Stated more specifically, the purposes of this study 

are: 

1. To present for examination, as many programs in sex edu¬ 
cation as can be secured from the schools of the United 
States of America and Great Britain. These programs should 
provide information concerning what is being successfully 
tried in other schools. The data received should supply 
test-proven methods of presentation and warnings against 
certain pitfalls. It is hoped that the programs presented 
will outline the content of sex education as well as give 
teaching aids and sources of information commonly used in 
this field. 

It is hoped that an examination of a variety of 
programs in sex education will give some indication of the 
types of programs and methods of instruction which have 
been found most effective in various school set-ups. The 
large school, for example, will likely be able to provide 
a much more comprehensive and theoretically sound scheme 
than the small school. 

2. To investigate the opinions of leading authorities in 
this field. Although the opinions of experts often prove 
to be theoretical and tend to border on the Utopian, it 
must be admitted that the very fact that the people selec¬ 
ted are authorities, highly trained and experienced, gives 
value to their suggestions. A number of the programs re¬ 
corded in this dissertation were founded upon the fundamen- 


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tal principles and methods of instruction set forth by 
some of these authorities. 

3. To compare sex education in the schools of the United 
States of America with that in the schools of Great Britain 
and to compare these in turn with the opinions of both 
American and British authorities. Do competent educators 
in both countries agree on the essential principles of sex 
education? Do the programs in one country adhere more 
closely to what we and the authorities believe to be sound 
principles of sex instruction? Do plans for future instruc¬ 
tion seem to indicate that sex education in the two countries 
will become very similar or that they are headed in different 
directions? 

4. To determine, insofar as it is possible to do so, what 
methods of instruction meet with the greatest degree of 
success. It must be admitted that it would be very diffi¬ 
cult indeed, if not impossible, to secure a measure of the 
amount of sexual adjustment, the improved mental health, 
and the betterment of character resulting from the various 
methods of instruction. Despite the difficulty encountered 
here, the opinions of the experts and the plans for future 
instruction of those already experimenting in this field 
may give some indication of the most successful methods of 
teaching sex and human relations. 

3. To seek information concerning the personality and 
other qualifications which the teacher of sex education 


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- 9 - 


should possess. The assumption made here is that a teacher 
requires a particular type of personality to be able to 
stand in front of a class, mixed or segregated, and speak 
truthfully and impersonally concerning matters which pertain 
to sex. This assumption is justified in the light of the 
emotionality more clearly associated with sex in some people 
than in others. Taboos, fears and anxiety make discussions 
of matters concerning sex almost impossible for some persons 
and may even seriously impair their heterosexual relations. 

Another assumption is that a teacher requires special 
training and knowledge before he is qualified to give sex 
instruction. This assumption is justified on the following 
grounds: 

(a) Psychologists have demonstrated that the child 
passes through a number of stages of sexual development 
and that improper handling of sexual matters at any one 
stage may cause fixation at that point and an ultimate per¬ 
sonality maladjustment in adult life. Uertain facts regar¬ 
ding sex are better received at one age than another. The 
child of six or seven, for example, will experience less 
emotion and receive the miracle of birth in a more matter- 
of-fact way than will the adolescent who hears the true 
story for the first time. It is important that the teacher 

of sex education know these and many other facts concerning 
the psychology of sex. 

(b) When one considers the content of a program in 


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10 


sex education it becomes clear that the body of informa¬ 
tion represented there requires special study, 

(@) It seems only logical to assume that a tea¬ 
cher who is to give moral guidance as well as instruction 
in social conventions and family living should have a 
sound background in ethics and sociology. Although it 
would be impractical to demand too broad an educational 
background, some training and experience in guidance and 
mental hygiene might prove to be a definite asset to the 
teacher of sex and human relations, 

6. To investigate the aims and purposes of sex education. 
These will necessarily govern our choice of program and 
methods of instruction. It is a philosophic principle 
that the means should be determined by the ends or goal 
in mind. 

7* To outline a tentative program of sex education and 
to suggest possible steps which might be taken to intro¬ 
duce this program into Alberta schools, taking into ac¬ 
count Alberta’s present school set-up and the qualifica¬ 
tions of her teachers for this type of instruction. 


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CHAPTER II 


METHODS OF SECURING AND ORGANIZING DATA 

Since the investigation was concerned with sex 
education programs in the U. S. A. and Great Britain, 
letters requesting the desired information were sent 
to various sources in those countries. The letters 
varied slightly according to the person or persons ad¬ 
dressed, but in general they requested the same infor¬ 
mation and asked somewhat the same questions. It was 
noticed early in the investigation that answers to 
specific questions were usually avoided and general 
statements sent in their place. 

Comparatively little difficulty was experienced 
in securing information from the U. S. A. because of our 
close proximity and because of the ease with which one 
can secure the names of educators and schools active in 
the field of sex education. These names were obtained 
from Alberta educators, from periodicals and books and 
also from American replies which made reference to other 
programs. 

State Departments and Supervisors of Public Instruc¬ 
tion in the United States were very generous in supplying 
general information regarding sex education in their dis¬ 
tricts, and in providing the names of schools and teachers 
from whom one might secure further information. The Depart¬ 
ment of Public Instruction for the state of Wisconsin was 
kind enough to send an excellent booklet which is used in 


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12 


a number of Wisconsin schools.^ 

Twenty replies were received from various sources 
within the United States. Four of the replies were merely 
courteous recognitions of letters received. They either 
had no information to give or they found the subject too 
comprehensive to deal with by letter. Out of the remain¬ 
ing sixteen replies, fifteen bore information in enough 
detail to warrant our examination. It will be noted that 
sixteen American schemes are dealt with in the study. 

p 

The sixteenth was taken from Coronet Magazine. 

The data received varied in form from letters 
giving a very short and general account of a program to 
mimeographed outlines especially prepared for the use of 
inquiring educators. Some sources sent price lists of 
course outlines while others sent pamphlets and even 
booklets having some bearing on their sex education pro¬ 
grams. 

To secure data from Great Britain, letters were 
written to the Minister of Education, The Society for Sex 
Education and Guidance, University of London Institute of 
Education, The Central Council for Health Education, and 
to several Directors of Education in the counties and 
cities throughout Great Britain. Ho contact was made 

1 Ione Q. Griggs. Growing Up With Jim and. Jean . 

Milwaukee: The Milwaukee Journal, 1945. P 62. 

p 

Donita Ferguson and Carol Gilmer. "Sex Education, Please."' 

Coronet Magazine. January, 1?4?. p 7?• 





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- 13 - 


with specific schools, nor could the names of schools nor 
their head masters be obtained. Sight very courteous 
replies were received. One of the two replies from Scot¬ 
land contained an excellent account of a recent experiment 
in sex education and also the resulting syllabuses. Some 
of the other contacts sent pamphlets* a number of which 
were relevant to this study and very helpful indeed. Most 
of the information on British systems was taken from these 
pamphlets, two of which were official publications sent 
from London. 

The opinions of leading authorities in both coun¬ 
tries were found in pamphlets, booklets, books and other 
articles which they themselves had written. 

The data has been organized into four chapters. 
Chapters III and IY are concerned with the minor and 
major American programs in sex education respectively. 

This procedure was followed for three reasons: To give 
some order and sequence to the data; to facilitate the 
comparison of the smaller and larger programs; and to 
emphasize the varying complexities of the schemes pre¬ 
sented. 

The data received from Great Britain is to be 
found in Chapter V. British and American programs were 
reported separately to avoid confusion while examining 
them and to facilitate comparison. 

The opinions of the authorities in this field 


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14 


constitute Chapter VI. The opinions of the American authori¬ 
ties are presented first for no particular reason except that 
this was the order given to the sex education programs. 

Chapter VII deals with the findings and conclusions 
of this s-tudy. This chapter is divided into seven parts, 
each dealing with one of the expressed purposes of this 
study. 

In Chapter VIII, the final chapter, the reader will 
find a suggested sex education program for Alberta schools. 



CHAPTER III 


MINOR SEX EDUCATION PROGRAMS USED IN SOME SCHOOLS 
OF THE U. S. A. 

This chapter will present a number of the less 
comprehensive sex education programs offered in various 
schools throughout the U. S. A. It will be noted that 
these programs are somewhat conservative, and are limi¬ 
ted in scope, in range, and in the number of grades that 
they include. The courses on sex education included in 
this chapter are presented in order of complexity. It 
must be admitted that such arrangement cannot be very 
exact since the amount of information received from 
various schools varied considerably. It is quite pos¬ 
sible that a school with a very comprehensive program 
may have sent a short reply, thus giving the impression 
that its course was small and elementary. 

The programs listed here vary all the way from 
three isolated lectures on sex to very carefully organ¬ 
ized programs of the integrated type, which include a 
considerable number of grades. The latter programs are 
borderline cases and it is quite possible that they 
should have been dealt with in the next chapter which 
deals with the major sex education programs in United 
States schools. 

I Tulsa,. Oklahoma . Public School Sex Education P rogram 

According to the Director of Curriculum, the direc¬ 
tor of girls T physical education and the school physician 
of the Tulsa Public Schools have been very successful in 




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- 16 - 


giving a series of three lectures on sex and growth to 
all grade ten girls. These are very frank discussions 
and the girls readily accept the opportunity to ask ques¬ 
tions. The program has been in practice for about twenty 
years, and there has been little or no parental objection. 

Some sex education also appears in the biology 
course, but the amount given depends upon the teacher. 
Included in the Tulsa school curriculum is a course in 
,, home living education” which is required of all eleventh 
grade boys and girls. One unit of this course deals with 
boy-girl relationships. Again, the amount of sex educa¬ 
tion given in this unit at present depends somewhat upon 
the teacher. 

II St.Q.pA^SQ.q 4 ,„3 ILcAi ^^. Hiidx_Sch-O.Ql _S.e_x .Education 

Sz. Q g x . rn 

In the Stephenson High School, sex education was 
introduced for the first time in 1^47 when it became part 
of the sociology course offered to seniors. When the 
class was commencing a study of "The Family 51 the teacher 
asked them to submit a list of the things which they would 
like to study in connection with the family. A list was 
compiled and a unit entitled "Preparation for Family Living" 
was the result. The unit was conducted in the form of a 
discussion, and after each topic the pupils compiled their 
decisions. A brief outline of this unit follows: 





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Sociology 

Preparation for Family Living 
I. Choosing a Mate 

A. Physical characteristics 

B. Personal qualities to be considered 
0. Financial status 

D. Family background 

1. heredity 

2. environment 

E. Age-comparison 

F. Part love should play 

1. love vs. infatuation 

2. marrying for companionship 

G. Religion 

1. different faiths 

2. different denominations 

3. lacks one or both 

H. Rationality and racial differences 

I. Social customs and traditions 


II. Courtship 


A. 

B. 

C. 


Length of 
Things to 
Things to 
B-C 1. 

2 . 

4. 

5 . 

6 . 


courtship and engagement 
be discussed 
be agreed upon 
Finances 

Sexual experiences 
Religious views 
Employment of husband 
Employment of wife 
Size of family 

Social customs and traditions 
Hereditary traits 


III. Marriage 


A. Ceremony 

1. Where 

2. By whom 


B. 

C. 

D. 

E. 


F. 


Length of honeymoon 

How can one make love and romance last? 
Should wife continue outside work? 
Adjustment to new relationships 

1. Husband and wife 

2. In-laws (often strangers) 

3. Relatives 
Causes of arguments 



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G. Divorce 

1. Causes and preventions 

2. Effect on children 

H. Religious adjustments 

1. Different faiths and denominations 

I. Why couples tire of each other 

J. Choosing each other T s clothes 

IV. Bex Instruction 

A. How much knowledge necessary 

1. Self 

2. Opposite sex 

B. How obtained 

C. Right attitudes toward each other 

D. How and when given to children 

V. Finance 

A. Family budgeting 

1. Anount necessary for household necessities 

2. Insurance 
2. Recreation 

4. Savings, investments 

5. Education of children 

6. Church and charity 

B. Who does the buying? 

C. Going into debt to buy or build a home 

D. How should budget be set up? 

1. Children included in council 

E. Should man be sure of ample income before 
marriage? 

F. Should parents give financial assistance to 
newly-weds? 

VI. Family Life 

A. How to get along smoothly 

B. How to settle disputes 

C. Division of work in the home 

D. Recreation for family 

1. in home 

2. in neighborhood 
5. commercialized 

E. Mingling with social groups 

F. Participating in community life 

G. Should there be a head of the family 

H. How to spend Sunday 


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VII* Care and Training of Children 

A. Money matters 

1. allowances 

2. teaching value of money 

3* child T s contribution to home support 

B. Religious training 

1. religious adjustment if parents of 
different views 

0. Teaching obedience and respect for parents 

D. Attitudes of parents toward children 
E* Use of car 

F. Reprimanding and punishment 

G. Choosing and entertaining friends 
1. dating 

H* Teaching about sex 

1. when 

2. how 

I. Preventing quarrelling 

J. Difference in city and country 

K. Supplying good reading 

L* Work required of children 

VIII. Location of Home 

A. Living with in-laws 

B. Living near parents 

G. Living in an apartment 

1. adjustment after farm home 

2. adjustment to close neighbors 

D. Buying a Home 

1. before marriage 

2. on small income 

E. Renting 

1. advantages 

2. disadvantages 

IX. Miscellaneous Topics 

A. Consent of one or both of parents 

1. Effect on marriage of parental opposition 

B. Effect of previous bad habits on marriage 
0. Protection of health 

D. Attitude toward drinking 

1. in home 

2. outside 

E. Separate recreations 

1. husband out with M boys n 

2. wife-women T s clubs 

F. Laws governing marriage 


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III. Two Rivers^ Wlaaonsin . High School, S.e_x 

Mu a ^ tL lmJEi^gjcaBL 

The Two Rivers and the Hurley High Schools sponsor 
the best courses on sex education given in Wisconsin 
schools. The State Department of Education finds it dif¬ 
ficult to do much about establishing a state-wide program 
because of the autonomy of the school districts and the 
lack of trained teachers in this field. However, the De¬ 
partment does distribute a booklet entitled ’’Growing Up 
With Jim and Jean” which deals with problems of adolescent 
adjustment. 

The course which is offered only to juniors and 
seniors of the Two Rivers high school is called ’’Growing 
Into Maturity and Family Life”. It has been offered for 
twenty years and according to all reports has been very 
worthwhile. For this course, which is spread over thirty- 
eight weeks, boys and girls are segregated. The course 
consists of the following units: 

1. Knowing Yourself and Others (Psychology) 

2. Living With Others (good manners) 

5. Living Together in the Family (parent-child 
relationships) 

4. Love and Courtship 

3. Your Marriage and Family Living 

6. Life and Growth (physiological and biological) 

7. Child Care and Training 

8. Building Better Bodies (nutrition) 

9. What Shall I Wear (proper dress) 

10. Time Out (Home nursing) 

11. Family Finance (Credit - Savings - Insurance - 
Budgets) 

12. Home Furnishing and Decoration 






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21 


Mr. Fred Bishop, Assistant State Superintendent 
of Schools, who originated this course, writes as follows: 

"My experience in dealing with this course 
in high school at Two Rivers over a twenty year 
period leads me to believe that the mere facts 
about sex education can be taught in a very short 
time. The important thing in connection with 
young people in this field is the attitude which 
must be developed. Somehow in our whole program 
we must give young people a feeling of security 
so that they can face problems in their sex life 
with courage and conviction." 

iv. 

.SocpMailY, fishP.o,3L ..Ley^ 

The Advisory Committee on Social Hygiene Education 
of the Hew Jersey State Department of Public Instruction 
has published a tentative program and correlated outline 
with suggestions for a briefer program of minimum essen¬ 
tials. The correlated program is used in those secondary 
schools which have teachers in each department who are 
qualified to give instruction in sex education. 

Until qualified teachers are available in suffi¬ 
cient numbers for a well integrated program, the above 
mentioned committee has recommended a briefer course or 
series of lessons in which one or more teachers can present 
some general facts of sex education. They advise, however, 
that such a course should be discontinued as soon as enough 
teachers are prepared for a fully correlated program. 

It is suggested that a correlated course of study 
in Education for Human Relations and Family Living might 
center around the following major topics and their sub- 





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22 


headings 

I. The Family in a Democracy 

A. Early history of families and ancient family 
customs 

B. Differing personalitys within the family 

C. Contributions of members to family 

D. Contributions of the family to members 

E. Role of both sexes in the family 

F. Adolescent cooperation results in 

G. Value of family councils 

H. Value of adopted families for neglected 
children 

I. Family living as democracy in action 

II. Problems of Adolescent as a Member of the Family 

A. Mental growth and changes 

B. Physical development 

C. Emotional and social growth 

III. Boy-Girl Relations 

A. Respect for the opposite sex 
B« Normality of sex yearnings 
G. Dating 

D. Petting — r, Wise or unwise”? 

E. M Going steady” 

F. Reproduction on various levels 

IV. Marriage 

A. Courting is a preliminary to marriage 

B. Marriage customs 

C. Divorce 

V. Problems in Home-Making 

A. Place of normal family in relation to 
the community 

B. Economics of the home 

C. Labor unions and trade organizations 1 
effect upon the home 

D. Culture of the home 

E. Management of the home as a vital factor 
in the happiness of the home 

F. Child care 

VI. Social Problems Involving Individual, Family 
and Community 


■^New Jersey State Department of Public Instruction. 

M u cat , 1 pil £q£ Human R fi toSl ong, M JLmilM Li£& m M 
Secondary School Level . Pub. No. A 392. New York: 

The American Social Hygiene Association, 1947* PP 10-20. 












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- 23 - 


A. Securing social acceptance without lowering 
standards of self, family, school, church 
and community 

B. Disastrous results that interfere with happi¬ 
ness when an individual "bucks” social con¬ 
ventions 

0. Difficulties commonly involved when marriage 
is made between differing races, religions 
and nationalities 

D. Individuals responsibilities to the next 
generation 


VII. Governmental and International Problems for the 

Betterment of Mankind 

A. Better housing 

B. Reduction of maternal and infant mortality 

G. Well-planned care and correction of defec¬ 
tives, delinquents and dependents 

D. Recreational facilities for youth to aid 
in their normal development 

E. Medical progress and betterment of human 
beings 

E. International phases of social hygiene 


The possible subjects for correlation in this 


extensive integrated program are: 
Biology 

Physiology and Hygiene 
General Science 
Physical Education 
Extra-curricular Activities 


Social Studies 
English 
Mathematics 
Home Economics 


Esau. Jfi KS fty; 1 progra m 

In those New Jersey secondary schools where there 
is not a sufficient number of qualified teachers to suc¬ 
cessfully teach sex education in an integrated program, 
the following briefer program is given by one or more 
qualified teachers in a series of lessons. 

It is believed by the.Advisory Committee on Social 
Hygiene that "as a large number of high school students 

do not go on with formal education, .the topics 

below represent the minimum of training that should be 




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24 


included and required in the preparation of young people 
for finer personal living and finer family - social 
relationships. 

I. Personal Interests 

(Attractiveness, popularity, charm and poise, 

appearance.) 

II. Why Have Friends? 

(Choice of friends, crushes, heterosexual 
friendships) 

III. What Do We Want as a Career? 

(include homemaking and parenthood as a 
career needing extensive preparation) 

IV. "How Do We Get That Way?" 

(physical, emotional and social changes 
of puberty) 

Y. How Life Begins (unicellular levels) 

VI. How Life Begins (multicellular levels) 

VII. How Life Begins (mammalian and human levels) 

VIII. Homes — Why Have Them? 

(house vs. home, values of, security, pro¬ 
tection, training ....) 

LX. What About Good Times? 

(types of recreation, conventions, choice of 
movies and dances, automobiles, dates, 
drinking and smoking, ...) 

X. What About Petting? 

XI. Thinking About Dates 

XII. Race Poisons 

(alcoholic beverages, prostitution, venereal 
diseases....) 

XIII. Personal Responsibility in Social Relations 

V. tj Q Rm ±&". ..ffliica 

High SchoolToms River- T _ ..Hew. X ersay 

The course in Family Relationships given at the 
Toms River High School combines features of the corre¬ 
lated program and the briefer lecture course suggested 
by the Advisory Committee on Social Hygiene Education 


iNew Jersey State Department of Public Instruction. Edu¬ 
cation £££ Emm Relations and Family Life on the Second - 
S:chool Level . Pub. Ho. A3?2. New York: The American 
Social Hygiene Association, 1?47. PP- 21-23. 




















. - 


to J 








. 


• ' \ 







- 25 - 


for New Jersey. It is like the correlated program on sex 
education in that it covers the same general topics as 
found in that program. It is like the briefer lecture 
course because it is a separate course in itself and is 
not integrated with other subjects. This course on 
Family Relationships, however, consumes a full year, not 
just a few lessons or a semester. The material in this 
course is presented by a qualified teacher or teachers in 
both formal and discussion type lessons. 

An outline of the major topics and sub-headings 
of the Toms River course in Family Relationships is 
presented below* 1 

Unit I. The Origin and Development of the Family 

A. Biological 

B. Anthropological foundations of family 
Unit II. Baclsground of Modern American Family 

A. Influence of ancient civilizations 

B. The colonial family 

C. Modern American family 

Unit III. Structure of the Family 

A* Mating 
B. Marriage 
G. Family 

Unit IV. Adjustments Before Marriage 

A. Finding a Mate 

B. Courtship 

G. Legal preparation for marriage 


Edgar M. Finck. T:,entotlmJIo_urse- .of Study> Family 
Relationship . Toms River, New Jersey: Dover Township 
Public Schools, 1947• PP J?2 








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- 26 - 


D. Marriage 

E. Early Marriage 

Unit V. Adjustments After Marriage 

A. For happiness (sexual adjustment and 
sex knowledge emphasized here) 

B. Family disorganization 

C. Family reorganization 

Unit VI. Functions of the Family 

A. Primary common functions 

B. Biological functions 

C. Economic aspects 

D. Family relationships 

Unit VII. Leisure and its Opportunities 

A. Meaning 

B. Commercialized recreation 

C. Standardized play (tennis, golf, etc.) 

D. Leisure used to advantage 

E. Fun in home 

F. Fun outside the home 

Unit VIII. The Family and the Community 

X A. Advantages provided by community 
B. Family responsibility to community 



Throughout the State of California in recent years 
there has been a growing interest in sex education. People 
throughout that progressive state are generally agreed that 
a sound program in sex and family living education is nee¬ 
ded in the school. As a result, many public schools and 
colleges in California have developed various programs in 
sex education. Many of these courses are yet young, but 
they are growing with the school, the community and the 
teachers. 

It may be of interest to the reader to know that 


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the accepted policy, now, in the building of California 
schools, is to include a special toilet off the kinder¬ 
garten room which is used by both boys and girls. 

Children who have not had brothers and sisters soon dis¬ 
cover sex differences, and the teachers are increasingly 
prepared to deal with the matter of sex differences in a 
normal way. From the kindergarten through the elementary 
school, California teachers are increasingly using the 
hatching of chicks, the birth of the rabbit, the develop¬ 
ment of the silkworm, and so forth, to develop a sense 
of the miracle of reproduction in all of its forms. 

A very brief account of the programs in sex educa¬ 
tion used in various schools throughout California 
follows. The course in Human Relations Education given 
in the San Diego schools will be dealt with in the next 
chapter. 

1. S aiL -F^a A C AS A Q, .^ b lJjL-^-P hoolA 

There is no separate course of study in sex edu¬ 
cation in the San Francisco Public Schools. This, of 
course, is a sound policy and would be heartily endorsed 
by most, if not all, authorities on sex education. Fac¬ 
tual information regarding sex and reproduction are in¬ 
tegrated with Science, Biology, Physiology, and Physical 
Education in grades nine to twelve. Ho course in "Family 
Relations" is offered except in the Adult Education 


program. 







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2. Whittier High, School , Whittier, Califo rnia 

One of the required courses in Whittier High 
School is a Senior Problems Glass, This course is com¬ 
posed of a number of units, one of which is entitled 
"Family Relations". This unit has recently been ex¬ 
panded until it consumes nearly one entire semester. 

3. Pico, California 

In the little town of Pico, just east of Los 
Angeles, the P. T. A. has authorized the use of the 
Oregon film "Human Growth” which will be shown to all 
grades from five to eight, inclusive. 

4. Audubon Junior High School , Los Angeles, California 

Audubon Junior High School has for several years 
attempted to have each faculty member make a contribu¬ 
tion to the youngsters thinking in relation to his family 
and its importance, and to assist in the acquisition of 
adequate knowledge and the development of wholesome at¬ 
titudes regarding his or her development during adoles¬ 
cence. Social science classes are dealing with the 
problems of human relations, family relations and boy- 
girl relations. Such classes also deal with the rules 
for winning and keeping friends and with the develop¬ 
ment of an attractive personality. 

VII. Sex Education in Cincinnati Pub lic Schools 

Unfortunately, the information received from Cin¬ 
cinnati was very general, and as a result we fear that 







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- 29 - 


their program appears to be less comprehensive than it 
actually is. However, in general, the policy has been 
to integrate and treat the topic of sex education when 
it arises in a natural situation in all subjects from 
the kindergarten through grade twelve. The treatment 
of this topic in the Cincinnati schools has been an 
incidental, gradual and progressive matter. 

borne of the places in the Cincinnati school 
curriculum where emphasis is definitely focused on sex 
education are listed below: 

1. In grades seven and eight sex education is dealt 
with more specifically in the Health Education course. 

2. Most of the grade ten pupils take a course in 
Biology which deals with the physical aspects of sex. 

3. Physiology and Health, an elective subject which 
usually has an enrollment of approximately 640 pupils 
in grades eleven and twelve, is recommended for stu¬ 
dents who have not taken biology or zoology. This course 
deals with the structure and function of the reproductive 
organs in animals and human beings. 

4. Zoology, an elective course in the eleventh and 
twelfth grades, also handles some topics related to sex. 
3- Various aspects of home and family life are well 
defined and developed in the teaching outlines for Ame¬ 
rican Problems, Home Economics, Economics, Sociology, 
and Homemaking. 


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6. All seniors are required to take a semester course, 
meeting one period a week, called Social Hygiene. The 
work consists of lectures designed to aid in preparing 
for efficient management of personal living through 
social health education. Boys and girls are segregated. 
VIII. Sex Educa tion in Denver Public Schools 

1. At the elementary school level, sex education is 
part of the instruction in social living, science, and 
physical education. Most of the actual factual informa¬ 
tion is given here. It is intended at the elementary 
school level to help the children to understand their 
bodies, how they grow, the differences between boys and 
girls, and how life is handed on. The story of repro¬ 
duction is dealt with frankly but rather simply. Girls 
are helped to have a clear idea of the significance of 
menstruation in the growing-up process. 

The following books are provided for the elementary 
school children: 

(i) Baruch, Dorothy W. and Reiss, Oscar. Mv Body 
and How it Works . Hew York: Harper, 19J54. 

(ii) Levine, Milton I. and Seligam, Hean H. The 

Wonder o_f Life . Hew York: Simon and Schuster, 
1940. (Upper elementary grades) 

(iii) Selsam, Millicent E. Egg to Chick . New York: 
International, 1946. 

2. In the junior high schools, sex instruction is handled 








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- 31 - 


primarily through general education classes. General 
education is a core-type program dealing with the solu¬ 
tion of problems of real concern to boys and girls. 

Some instruction is included in general science and 
home economics classes. 

For the girls, additional instruction in men¬ 
struation makes use of the pamphlet, Very Personally 
Yours , published by the International Cellucotton 
Products Company, Chicago, Illinois. Use is also made 
of this company T s film, ffhe__Story _ of Menstruation. 
a Walt Disney color film. 

3. In the senior high schools there are two courses 
dealing with sez education: A Health Education course 
at the grade ten level, and a course called Senior 
Problems at the twelfth-grade level. The latter course 
includes all aspects of sez education that are of con¬ 
cern to boys and girls. Each class determines the 
scope and the general topics to be covered with that 
class. Generally this includes dating, choosing a mate, 
social diseases, emotions, ethical behavior patterns, 
marriage, reproduction, family finance and budgeting, 
child care, consumer education, and many other topics. 
Discussions on the methods of contraception are avoided 
as it is felt that this is the province of the family 
doctor. This, by the way, is the attitude generally 
taken by authorities on sez education. 





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The film entitled "Human Reproduction", which is 
published by the McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, has 
proven to be an excellent teaching aid in Denver Secon¬ 
dary schools. 

ix. E U aa j Cqk Jiie. Jjtiy^^ 

It would seem that not a great deal has been done 
along the lines of sex education in the schools of Michi¬ 
gan. This state has, however, drawn up a set of policies 
and a program in Social Hygiene Education which is now 
being put into practice. The program is essentially the 
same as those which will follow in the next chapter. The 
facts of sex and the proper attitudes and habits associated 
with it will be taught in an integrated program from the 
kindergarten to grade twelve. In the senior high school 
classes a course in "Preparation for Family Living" will 
be offered to give the necessary guidance for a success¬ 
ful personal and family adjustment. In addition to this, 
sex will take its natural but inconspicuous place within 
such subjects as physical education, homemaking, social 
studies and the sciences. 

The policies of this state regarding "Social Hygiene 
Education" have been stated in this brief form for three 
reasons. In the first place, it would be a waste of space 
to go into greater detail when similar programs, which are 
actually in use, are to be presented in the following 
chapter. Secondly, the adoption of these policies and 



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- 33 - 


the program briefly listed above may indicate that the 
larger programs to be found in the next chapter have 
proven, throughout the many years of their practice, 
to be sound and safe* Thirdly, it is felt that em¬ 
phasis should be given to the fact that this program 
makes provision for one or more periods during the 
school life for synthesizing what has been learned in 
the areas of social hygiene and hpman relations. Be¬ 
cause of the amotionality attached to sex after the 
onset of puberty, Michigan T s program will not delay 
the synthesis beyond the tenth to twelfth year of the 
child. To this end, the first synthesis will take 
place during the sixth year of school through special 
units of study. 

Many educators pay lip service to this psycho¬ 
logically sound policy of synthesizing all the physio¬ 
logical facts of sex just before the onset of puberty, 
but it will be noted from the studies recorded that most 
school systems, because it is easier to administer, 
leave this important part of sex education to the junior 
high school teacher. According to the best psychologists 
and authorities on sex education this is too late. 

In January of 1949 the Coronet magazine made a 
brief survey of the field of sex education in the U. S. A. 
Among other things they investigated the number of States 



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- 34 - 


which were supporting programs in sex education. As 
representative of the best in this field of education, 
Coronet selected the program set up some years ago by 
a suburban school on Chicago’s North Shore. 1 

At this school, the whole subject of sex is 
integrated into various courses — just as sex is an 
integral part of living. In biology, children study 
heredity and reproduction; in hygiene, they learn of 
venereal diseases, the nervous system, erogenous zones. 
Anatomy and physiology teaches them the construction of 
the human organs. 

Sex education also becomes part of studies far 
removed from pure science, giving those studies fuller 
meaning. In history, the pupils learn of women’s 
status through the ages, of the Puritan movement and 
its causes, and of divorce (via Henry VIII). In home 
economics, they learn about housing, budgeting, inter- 
racial marriages. In English literature, they learn 
about elopement through n Romeo and Juliet’ 1 , chivalry 
through ’’Lancelot and Guinevere”, disastrous marriages 
through ’’Silas Marner”, bad environment through ’’Studs 
Lonigan”, and the case against premarital relations 
through ”An American Tragedy.” 

A number of the alumni wexQ given the opportunity 

^Donita Ferguson and Carol G-ilmer. ”Sex Education, 
Please I” Coronet Magazine . January, 194?. pp 73-80. 




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- 35 - 


to weigh their education against the demands of adult 
living. According to the Coronet, a young housewife 
sums up the feeling of most alumnae when she says: 
'•The straightforward attitude I acquired toward sex 
has enabled me to discuss the subject freely with my 
children. I am convinced that putting such a system 
in all schools would be a blessing for the next gene¬ 
ration. " 


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CHAPTER 17 


MAJOR SEX EDUCATION PROGRAMS USED IN SOME SCHOOLS 
OE THE U. S. A. 

This chapter will present a number of the larger, 
more comprehensive programs used in the United States 
of America. These programs include all grades from 
kindergarten to grade twelve. They are carefully 
planned, well organized, and administered with resolu¬ 
tion and apparent success. The programs to follow are 
not necessarily arranged in order of merit. The judg¬ 
ment as to the relative values of these programs will 
be left to the reader. 

I. Sex Education in the. BronxvillaAPu blic Schools, 
JgsLJCarfc • 1 

Sex education was introduced to the Bronxville 
schools in 1^26 when that topic appeared in the sev¬ 
enth grade science course. It was realized at the 
time, however, that such education was a little late 
to do the maximum amount of good for children as old 
as those in the seventh grade. In addition, it was 
obvious that while sex had a tremendously strong 
emotional reaction upon adolescent youngsters, it was 
considered quite impersonally by pre-adolescents. 
Realizing these facts, the administrators set about 
to restore sex to its normal place in the intellectual 

hi. W. Beatty, B. G. Greuenberg, H. ¥. Smith. Sex 
Instruction in Public Schools . New York: The innerican 
Social Hygiene Association, Pub. No. 971, 1?26. pp 6-7. 












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- 31 - 


work of the school. In the elementary school, they 
built an animal cage and provided indoor shelters 
within the building in which they began to raise rab¬ 
bits, guinea pigs, pigeons, and chickens. At diffe¬ 
rent times during the past few years, they have raised 
white rats, white mice, raccoons, canary birds, silk 
worms, insects of all kinds, tropical fish, and frogs, 
living and reproducing in the various school rooms. 

From the nursery school throughout the grades and high 
school, the function of sex is discussed frankly, and 
without embarrassment whenever the need to do so arises 

In the seventh grade of Bronxville’s junior high 
schools, pupils take a course in Advanced Life Science 
where they participate in discussions on human repro¬ 
duction. Boys and girls take separate classes for this 
course to eliminate a certain amount of community criti 
cism. Reports from these schools claim that there is 
little out-of-class discussion on sex because, as the 
children reply when questioned, there’s nothing 

much to talk about. Everyone knows as much as every¬ 
one else.’* 1 

In the laboratories of the junior high school, 
animals, birds and insects are studied with great in¬ 
terest by the students. Some of the animals live to 

^Margaret S. Funk. Integration of Sex Education with 
the Teaching of Biology . New York: The American Social 
Hygiene Association, Pub. No. A-15?, 1?^8. j? pp. 









, 




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- 38 - 


reproduce and raise their young there, while others 
are dissected in the interest of science, so to speak. 

Eggs are removed from the incubator from time to time 
so that the youngsters may study the embryonic develop¬ 
ment of the bird. When the topic arises in these 
classes, it is regarded as an integral and perfectly 
natural part of life to be dealt with in the same 
interesting and wholesome way as any other topic of 
interest. 

In the high school, again in segregated classes, 
pupils take a course in which many pertinent factors 
of their sex life are reviewed on a much more mature 
level. In this course many additional problems that 
have to do with intelligent preparation for marriage 
are introduced. Under this heading they discuss econ¬ 
omic problems that have a bearing on marital happiness 
as well as a large number of psychological questions 
which enter into the matter of personal adjustment. 

It is reported that students who have completed this 
course are uniformly of the opinion that it has aided 
materially in resolving many of their own internal 
conflicts. 

II. Hex .Education ..in Winnetka Public schools, Winnetka,Ill . 

Sex education has been taught in all the grades of 
the ?7innetka Public Schools, with special courses at the 
fifth and seventh grade levels. In the fifth grade the 



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- 39 - 


text, "My Body and How It Works", by Dorothy W. Baruch, 
published by Harpers, is used in mixed classes. At the 
seventh grade level boys T and girls 1 classes were, until 
recently, taught separately, just as they were in chorus 
and physical education. Current experiments with mixed 
classes will probably be adopted as a permanent policy 
according to winnetka J s superintendent of schools. 

In the junior high school there is an elective 
called "Care of Children", open to both boys and girls. 

The biology and homemaking courses are also oriented 
to family life. The nursery school which Is located 
in the junior high school building, is a very useful 
accessory. One of the nursery school teachers assists 
the biology and homemaking teachers in the instruction 
of the junior high school children. 

Mr. Harold G-. Shane, superintendent of schools 
for Winnetka, makes the following statement regarding 
sex education in the Winnetka schools: 

"Sex education is apparently established 
here beyond any question. We no longer hear 
any objection but often strong endorsement." 

The main features of the Winnetka program have 
been touched upon briefly in order to give an overall 
picture of the same. A more detailed description of 
the program will now be added in the form of a summary 
of the courses on sex education taught in the Winnetka 
Public Schools during the year 1?47- T 48. It is an exact 
reproduction of a summary prepared by Elizabeth W. Meadows. 


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"In the Winnetka Public Schools, a course in sex 
education called Biology, for want of a better name, 
was started when Carleton W. Washburne became superin¬ 
tendent in 1919. That course continued to be given a 
half-hour a day to seventh grade boys and girls sepa¬ 
rately. Many changes have been made throughout the 
years. At the present time there is very little re¬ 
semblance to the courses taught in the earlier years. 

Now in three of the five seventh grade groups boys and 
girls take the course together, though they are segre¬ 
gated for a few weeks to talk more intimately about 
growing up, bodily changes, boys and girls, men and 
women. Our comparatively short experience with the 
combined classes seems to indicate that the boys and 
girls can share discussions during most of the course 
in a normal, wholesome way. 

"Sex education really begins in the nursery school 
in the daily routine of bathroom experiences and in con¬ 
versations about new babies coming. Each teacher in sue 
ceeding grades continues the work in casual, informal 
ways. Raising small animals in the room gives occasion 
for answering many questions that arise about reproduc¬ 
tion. 


"It was found that children of about the fifth 
grade level have a decided interest in their bodies and 
elementary physiology is explored at that level. The 
text Mv Body and How It Works by Dorothy Baruch and 
Oscar Reiss k is used along with educational films. 
There is a chapter on reproductive organs. Since that 
course has been established we find the children coming 
into seventh grade need much less help with vocabulary 
than formerly. ' Words such as ovary, vagina, birth 
canal, penis, testicles, egg cell, sperm cell, navel, 
cord, sexual reproduction, need only a cursory review. 
Their thinking has led them to further questions. Some 
of the most commonly repeated ones are: 

How do you get twins? 

Why in the movies does a woman have to tell her 
husband they are going to have a baby? 

Do boys do anything like girls, (Meaning seminal 
emissions and menstruation.) 

Why do we have hair? 

How do you get a boy or girl? 

Why are there two-headed cows or six-fingered 
babies? 


k Harpers, 1934. 



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41 


"Following is the outline for the seventh grade 
Biology course (,194 7-4 8), including units taught, ap¬ 
proximate time allotted, texts used or referred to, 
and films chosen* This year T s course is quite dif¬ 
ferent from that of 1946-47 and probably will be 
different from 1948-49. 

Sub.iect ___ Texts __ Films __ 


I. General Survey (4 wks) 


Plants and Animals 

Field Work 
Insects 

Seed Gases and 
Distribution 
Balance of Nature 
Cell Structure and 
Division 

Protozoa and Hydra 

II. Evolution (3> weeks) 
(and) 

Likenesses and 
Differences in People 
(2 weeks) 

We compared complex¬ 
ions, hands and feet 
in our own class. We 
also saw blood cor¬ 
puscles, of what 
race we do not know. 



Parker & 
Buchsbaum 


What is 
Science? 

Supersti¬ 

tion 


D. D. T. 


Climbing Our Fingers & 

Family Tre_e . Thumbs 

Novikoff 



Public Affairs 
(100) Pamphlet, 


Ruth Benedict 


& Gene Weltfish 


Brotherhood 
of Men 


b III. Human Physiology (9 weeks) 


A. The Digestive System 


B. Respiration 
G. Urinary System 
D. Heart and Circulation 


Two Little Rats and 
How They Grew 
Digestion of Foods 


Heart Action 

How the Heart Works 


E. The Skeleton and Muscles. 


Body Framework 
Muscles 


F. The Nervous System 


Life Begins Again 
(Hearing) 

Light Makes Sight 












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G. Reproduction 

Here we discuss and answer 
all questions concerning: 

1. The genito-urinary organs of 
the male and female. 

2. Secondary sexual character¬ 
istics. 

3. Growing up - steps of de¬ 
velopment from infancy to 
childhood to adolescence, 
and to adulthood. 

4. Glands. 

a. Digestive 

b. For growth and develop¬ 
ment 

c. Reproductive and mammary 

5. Menstruation and the 
menopause. 

6. Seminal Emissions. 

7. Handling Oneself - which is 
common to all at some time, 
usually forgotten at an early 
age, and usually is of no 
consequence. The taboo con¬ 
cerning masturbation must 

be broken down. 

8. Sexual Intercourse. 

Prenatal Development 

10. Birth and Care of Baby 

a. Establishing breathing, 
if necessary. 

b. The umbilical cord, 
e. Silver Nitrate drops 

to prevent gonorrhea. 

d. Bathing, weighing, 
dressing, etc. 

11. Care of Mother - including 
rejection of placenta. 


(' Films') _ 

Human Development 



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- 43 - 


12. Nursing 

(EUmsO_ 

13. The baby as a member of 
the household 

Bathing the Baby 
(Walt Disney) 


Early Social 
Behavior(Gesell) 


"Dr* Karl de Schweinetz’ book, Growing Up , is 
usually read by each class as a summary and review of 
our discussion. Excellent motion pictures demonstrate 
ovulation, fertilization and implantation of the enbryo. 
We also use Being Born by Prances Bruce Strain* 

"The children frequently introduce questions 
concerning prostitution, illegitimacy, abortions, here¬ 
dity, extra-marital relations and venereal diseases. 
Every question is treated as an important one and 
answered as fully as possible, great care being taken 
not to frighten the young adolescent listener or in 
any way to make him feel less secure in a confusing 
world. The normal and accepted standard of living in 
our society is that of the family and the emphasis in 
this study is made on family relationships. The 
child is urged to confer with his parents, both of 
them if he will, for his answers, for there is where 
real help and security should lie. 

"In our discussions we hold that the family is 
basic in our society. We think of marital relations 
as family relationships. After we have studied the 
prenatal development we do what we can by demonstra¬ 
tion and reading and with the help of the school nurse 
on care of the infant. This is followed by a study of 
the pre-school child. 

"Por the state of Oregon, where sex education is 
now being taught at all levels, a series of films is 
being prepared, edited by Eddie Albert of Hollywood. 

The first of the series to be completed is an excellent 
film for the pre-adolescent as well as very helpful to 
the teacher. It will probably be ready for distribu¬ 
tion early in 1948. Films to follow will be adopted 
to the primary levels and the high school age. 

IY. Use of Nursery School. 

Skokie Junior High School is fortunate to have a 
nursery school in the same building. We work, 
observe and help them in many ways. 






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A. Purpose. 

1. To become aware of the young child, his abili¬ 
ties, his needs, his learnings. 

2. To develop knowledge, techniques and interests 
in the task most people assume - that of bring¬ 
ing up babies. 

3. The junior high school child observing habit 
formation and training of the three-year-old 
may think about these problems in the light of 
his own experience. He learns about himself. 

B. Attendance. 

1. All children in Biology classes observe at 
least one hour. Many repeat their visits as 
often as possible. Discussion on observation 
and problems follow. 

2. An elective course schedules a number to regu¬ 
lar work and help with 2-^-4-year-olds, fol¬ 
lowed by discussion periods under the guidance 
of the Nursery School staff. 

3* Shop and Homemaking classes build, repair, sew 
and cook for the Nursery School. 

"Enthusiasm of seventh and eight graders in their 
work with little children is delightful. The interest 
carries over to children and situations in their own 
family and neighborhood. Respect for people of all ages 
seems to grow. A few have been recommended by Nursery 
School for paid work. 

"In our regular Biology classes we discuss case 
studies, written for us by the Nursery School staff, con¬ 
cerning such situations as temper tantrums, shyness, cry¬ 
ing for attention, sex interests, anti-social behavior, 
etc. Our children try to figure out how the situation 
might best be handled and then turn to the solution given 
by the staff. These cases are of real interest to the 
tYfelve-year-old. 

Y. Health {J> weeks) (Films) Body Defense Against 

Invasion 
Defense Against 
Invasion (Disney) 

YI. Safety (2 weeks) Red Gross Booklets 






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- 45 - 


VII. The balance of the year is to be spent on a variety 
of subjects, pertaining to biology, according to the 
interest of the class and teacher. Nature study may 
fill a large share of that time. 


A Study of Human Relations 
for 

Older Children 

"The faculty believes that a study of human rela¬ 
tions at the eighth grade level would be most beneficial. 
Older children may have personal questions bottled up 
inside themselves which we must help them uncork. Ob¬ 
servation in the Nursery School may be a means to that 
end. Also, in the Nursery School, one may observe all 
sorts of human experiences. There children bully, de¬ 
mand something from another, wait their turn, ignore 
someone. Race problems, minority groups, sex problems, 
fear, friendliness, cooperation manifest themselves. 

"Our eighth grade classes this year have institu¬ 
ted the following plan: 

"Pour or five older children observe an hour a 
day for a week. The director of the Nursery School fol¬ 
lows with an hour’s discussion with all in that eighth 
grade class, bringing in case studies illustrating the 
subjects about which the Social Studies teacher plans to 
stimulate thinking. They may pertain to leadership, bul¬ 
lying, struggles for independence, prejudices, razzing, 
need for interdependence, attitudes toward property, at¬ 
tention getting devices, attention span, learning through 
experience, cleanliness, etc. Similar situations may be 
noticeable in our own Skokie Council, in the U. N., or in 
the Continental Assemblies. Each child In each class 
during a mont|i or six weeks’ time will make observations, 
and there will be at least four discussions led by the 
Nursery School director. At a later time the Social 
Studies teacher may recall experiences of the three-year- 
olds in an effort to understand the difficulties which 
arise among older people. 

!, To date only one eighth grade class has had these 
experiences. Their responses have been most favorable. 
Parents have reported that much of the conversation at 
the dinner hour was devoted to the subject. In that class 
several members were reported for bullying in the lunch¬ 
room and on the playground. Watching and discussing the 
same type of behavior in the nursery school an older 
child might hold a mirror to himself. The discussion 
of the three-year-olds includes a rather complete analysis 
of the family and school situation. 


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- 46 - 


"Also it was hoped to develop leadership among the 
potential leaders in the group. Interest in the stories 
of the very young child, why and under what circumstances 
he began to tell others what to do was apparent. 

"We hope to broaden the scope of human relations, 
to encourage less hasty judgment and to give boys and 
girls an opportunity to help solve their own personal 
and social relationships." 

A brief account will no?/ be given of the program 
on sex education outlined by the Oregon State Department 
of Education. The purpose of the account is to give an 
overall picture of the program which is advocated by the 
state, and to correct any false impressions about the 
Oregon program which might have been given by careless 
publicity. This general report will be followed by a 
more specific Oregon program; that used in Bend, Oregon. 

Contrary to what a great deal of publicity would 
indicate, sex education is not compulsory in Oregon. 

There is a law in that state requiring health and physi¬ 
cal education to be taught in ail schools at all grade 
levels, but this law makes no reference to sex education. 
Nevertheless, Oregon has allowed for a pretty thorough 
sex education content in the various units in the health 
course of study. Planned work does not start until the 
seventh grade. The information is integrated with the 
general areas of health education and taught' where it 
naturally follows. For instance, the unit on "Structure 
and Function of the Human Body" deals with the structure 


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- 47 - 


and functions of the reproductive system in its natural 
place along with the other systems of the body. This 
unit also includes information on development into 
puberty. 

The units on personal hygiene encompass the care 
of the genital organs as well as other parts of the 
body. The units on communicable diseases include the 
venereal diseases in the material they present. 

Only one unit, the one on “Mental Hygiene and 
Family Life Education” (which is presented at the grade 
twelve level), deals with the subject of family rela¬ 
tionships alone. 

The Oregon Health Education Program : - The article in 
Better Homes and Gardens magazine, September 1?47, was 
misleading in that it stressed the Social Hygiene phase 
of Oregon 1 s health education. The program of health 
education in Oregon elementary and high schools is a 
twelve year integrated program requiring instruction 
in the following eleven areas: 

1. Personal Hygiene 

2. Nutrition 
Mental Hygiene 

4. First Aid 

5<> Safety Education 

6. Communicable diseases 

7. Physiology of exercise 

o. Community health and sanitation 

9. Structure and functions of the human body 

10. Choice and use of health products and health 
services 

11. Effects of alcoholic drinks, stimulants, and 
narcotics 



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- 48 - 


For convenience in presentation, these eleven 
areas have been combined into nine units. These are 
taught on a cycle-plan so that each unit is repeated 
approximately four times in the twelve years of school 
thus avoiding needless repetition and allowing more 
time to be spent on a field at each time of presenta¬ 
tion. 

When this program is seen in its true light, 
as an extensive health education course, it becomes 
clear that there is no special provision for Social 
Hygiene education (sex education in this thesis). It 
is covered in the ninth area (Unit I in the cycle- 
plan) under Structure and Functions of the Human Body 
at the seventh and tenth grade le vels. 

It might be added that at the seventh grade 
level Oregon schools make use of the E. C. Brown Trust 
film entitled, "Human Growth." In a straightforward, 
unemotional manner this beautifully colored film 
treats the following concepts: the differences between 
boys and girls in rate of physical and sexual matura¬ 
tion; the glands which control physical and sexual ac¬ 
tivity; the male and female sex organs; menstruation; 
fertilization; pregnancy and birth. 

IV. S.ex Education d.n._-Bend,. .Orego n 

In the main, the Bend schools adhere to the pro¬ 
gram as outlined by the State Department of Education. 
They use the tv^elve year integrated health education 



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- 49 - 


program with its eleven major areas which are combined 
into nine units for teaching convenience. That part 
of the health program dealing specifically with sex is 
taught at the seventh and tenth grade levels. 

Sex Education i n the Seventh Grade : -- As the seventh 
grade youngsters work through their course in health, 
they study the structure of the major body systems. 
Instead of leaving out the reproductive system, as is 
often the case, they study and discuss it the same as 
they do the other systems. No emphasis is placed upon 
function at this level. An effort is made to present 
information in connection with seminal emission for 
boys and the menstrual cycle for the girls, since 
these are problems they are facing or soon will be 
facing at this age. This unit is divided into two 
parts: (a) Structure and Function of the Body, and 
(b) Adolescent Growth and Development (12-14 year 
old group). The film, “Human Growth”, is used in 
connection with this unit. 

sex Education in the Tenth ^ Grajla : -- The unit enti¬ 
tled “Structure and Function of the Human Body” is 
repeated in this grade but with a more advance pre¬ 
sentation. Reproduction is taught as a natural 
function at this level, but stress is placed on the 
fact that it is part of a larger experience Involving 
love, marriage, and parenthood - an experience which 













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- 50 - 


should be guided by high moral and religious principles 

An allied problem is instruction concerning the 
development of the secondary sex characteristics. The 
changes in body structure that start during the junior 
high school years continue in the 15 - 1? age period, 
and adolescents still have an absorbing interest in 
their own bodies. They are deeply concerned about 
height, weight, body proportions, facial features, 
changes in skin and hair, body odors, and the like. 
Adolescents view all such matters in terms of patterns 
of masculinity and feminity. Hence they are interested 
in health, attractiveness, sports prowess, and general 
fitness. The Bend schools emphasize that because of 
these pupil interests and attitudes, the teacher in 
this unit has an opportunity to guide students into 
a more advanced study of structure and functions of 
the body, so that they may have the necessary factual 
background for understanding and applying health facts 
and principles. 

The outline for instruction includes these 
three parts: 

1. Structure and functions of the body. 

2. Adolescent growth and development - 15-1 9 age group 
5. Interpretation of, and adjustment to changes in 

body structure and functions in the 15 - 15 age 

period as related to irrlividual and social patterns 


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- 51 - 


Ment al Hygiene ixi._Cxr.ade_ XIX : — The next unit in which 
sex education appears is that entitled, "Mental Hy¬ 
giene 11 . The unit is included under the cycle-plan 
for grade XII. One of the purposes of this unit reads 
as follows — "developing affection and heterosexuality 
as expressed in love, courtship, marriage, parenthood, 
and family life." 

A. The Objective and Purpose of the Unit 

The emphasis should be upon the promotion of 
good mental health and upon preparation for marriage 
and family life. The teacher T s objective should be 
to maintain a definite sense of direction in planning 
and teaching this unit. The desired sense of direction 
can be maintained by keeping in mind the purposes of 
the unit: 

The primary purpose of the unit is to help each 
studenti 1 

1. To develop a healthy adult personality. 

2. To understand the common signs indicative of 
normal mental health. 

3. To understand the most important factors that 
affect personality and behavior. 

4. To understand that normal behavior encompasses 
a wide range of individual differences. 

^Taken from an outline of the Bend, Oregon health pro¬ 
gram, prepared by Claude T. Cook, Supervisor, Dept, of 
Health and Physical Education, Bend, Oregon. 






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- 52 - 


j?. To appreciate the relationship between mental 
health, personal fitness, and healthful living. 

6. To appreciate that healthful living is centered 
in work, play, love, and worship. 

7. To develop a code of conduct in which the sex 
impulse becomes a constructive force in worthy, 
enjoyable living. 

8. To interpret the physiological and psychological 
manifestations of sexual maturation as a part of 
his or her developing personality. 

9. To prepare himself or herself for courtship, 
love, marriage, parenthood and family life. 

10. To develop heterosexuality and affection as 
expressed in courtship, love, marriage and 
parenthood. 

11. To understand the significance of the family as 
the basic social unit of Western civilization. 

12. To realize that adolescents may achieve adult 
status without harmful riots against, and with¬ 
out loss of respect for, their parents or other 
persons in positions of guidance and authority. 

13. To develop ethical and religious standards by 
which to guide thought and action. 

B. Outline for the Grade XII Unit 

The outline for instruction includes two major 
sections. The complete outline for this unit is given 


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since it provides a good picture of the approach and 
concept of this field. 


RECOMMENDED COMMON BASIC CONTENT 

I. Mental Health — 15-19 age group. 

A. Compo nents, personality 

1. Mental 

2. Physical 

The teacher should not include the three 
following topics as part of this unit: 

(i) birth control (ii) venereal disease and 
prophylaxis (iii) sexual techniques. 

3 • Eniot i onal 

4. Motor 

5. Spiritual 

B. lactoxs, tMt. affect 

1. Environment 

2. Heredity 

3. Reactions and behavior of the adolescent group 

4. Individual differences - personality types 
5* Intelligence and aptitude 

6. Temperament and disposition 

7. Personal fitness - personality types 

8. Attitudes and emotions 

9. Interests, motives, drives, "aspirational level* 1 

10. Ideals and moral standards 











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- 54 - 


11. Character traits 

12. Religious and philosophic beliefs 
13 • Clothes, make-up, and manners 

14. Personal habits 

c. lteY.e.tapm3Jrt ma t at l3kaaJL3hJuL 

1. Appraisal of normal personality - acquired 
versus inherited traits of both sexes. 

2. Development of emotional, intellectual, and 
social maturity. 

5. Achievement of economic independence and 
emancipation from the family. 

4. Development of personal integrity. 

5. Development of ability to get along well 
with others. 

6. Attainment of mature attitudes and habits. 

7. Solution of problems involving frustrations 
and emotional conflicts. 

8. Dealing successfully with undesirable mental 
or physical tendencies, such as: 

(a) Worry 

(b) Pear 

(c) Lack of self-control 

(d) Lack of self-confidence 

(e) Peelings of inferiority 

(f) Peelings of guilt 

(g) Use of compensation mechanisms 





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- 55 - 


(h) Feelings of superiority 

(i) Use of ”sour grapes” mechanism 

(j) Feeling of persecution 

(k) Rationalization 

(l) Homesickness 

(m) ”Passing the buck” 

(n) Fantasy and daydreaming 

(o) Compulsions 

(p) Phobias 

Development of a life role, a philosophy of 
life, and satisfying religious beliefs. 

10. Development of a practical plan for achieving 
a successful life centered in work, play, love 
and worship. 

II. Pr eparation £,Qfc ffl&3GXjL3g.e, pax eja . t ]lQ. Q ,4 aM family life 
— 12. . z .,JL2.. a ^,e..„g,r.o.up 
A. Human repr oduction 

1. Structure and functions of the male and female 
reproductive system. 

2. Fertilization and pregnancy: 

(a) Ovulation 

(b) Sperm maturation 

(c) Fertilization 

(d) Pregnancy — embryonic and fetal growth 
and development 









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- 56 - 


3. Birth — maternal and infant care 

(a) Birth process 

(b) Dependency of the newborn infant 

(c) Medical care 

4. Sources of information 

(a) Visual and written information 

(b) Guidance personnel 

(c) Marriage counselors 

5. Relation to parental love and family life 

6. Relation to moral codes and to religious 
ideals and creeds. 

B. £aEaoflal qL af f e cti o r; M ses 

1. Relation to personal fitness 

2. Relation to adulthood 

3. Relation to emotional maturity 

4. Relation to moral and religious life 

5. Relation to premarital continence 

6. Relation to “gang standards 31 and the desire 
to be popular 

7. Relation to personal tendencies, character 
traits, and ideals: 

(a) Modesty, inhibitions, conflicts, and 
guilt feelings. 

(b) Conscience and personal integrity 

(c) Social, moral, and religious ideals 

(d) Goal of a happy, successful marriage, 
parenthood, and successful living 











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- 57 - 


o. L&y-s..,P. Q . U 3 A ahaja, 

1* Boy-girl relationships: 

(a) Dating 

(b) Petting 

(c) Courtship 

(d) Engagements 

(e) Choice of a husband or wife 

(f) Significance of courtship, marriage, 
and parenthood to the individual and 
to society. 

2. Marriage: 

(a) Nature 

(b) Purpose 

(c) Value - to the individual, to the children, 
and to society. 

(d) Moral, religious, and social basis. 

(e) Premarital health examinations. 

Success or failure in marriage: 

(a) Love and affection as the best basis of 
marriage. 

(b) Importance of proper attitudes towards 
marriage. 

(c) Importance of personal mental health and 
character. 

(d) Importance of sound information on marriage. 

(e) Importance of fidelity. 




- 58 - 


(f) Importance of children. 

(g) Other factors making for success in 
marriage. 

(h) Other factors making for failure in 
marriage. 

4. Relation to moral codes and religious ideals 
and ereeds. 

In connection with each of these units there is 
a suggested vocabulary list with which the students 
are expected to familiarize themselves and use in the 
classroom. 

v. Mu aa t tan la Dle&Q, £L&x s&i & q qXs 1 

In the San Diego schools this topic is called 
H Human Relations Education 11 , a title well chosen to 
describe the course and to avoid public disapproval. 

The San Diego program, like those of Winnetka and 
Bronxville, was begun many years ago. It was in 1?57 
that plans for such a program began. A number of San 
Diego educators felt that sixth grade pupils about to 
go from the elementary environment where children 
were younger, with small child interests, to a junior 
high school where children were older and beginning 
to have adult social interests, needed help in making 

^G-. Gr. Wether ill. Human Relations Education . New York: 
The American Social Hygiene Association, Pub. No. A-639, 
1946. 60 pp. 








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- 59 - 


this transition. The school nurse realized that about 
this time boys and girls were beginning to develop 
secondary sex characteristics about which they were 
intensely concerned and needed understanding. It was 
agreed that if proper information were given at this 
important time to meet the interests of this age group, 
more wholesome attitudes toward sex would develop. 

One of the school principals then set to work to 
prepare a series of three lessons to be given to the 
sixth grade. These lessons were presented to girls and 
boys separately, and the response of the children and 
the community was so good that it was decided to make 
the lessons available to the other city schools. Du¬ 
ring the summer following the first experimental year, 
these lessons were developed into a famous little mono¬ 
graph entitled "Growing Up 1 *. 

It was generally agreed that giving sex education 
in several special lessons was inadequate. However, in 
the beginning of the program when teachers had no expe¬ 
rience and there was not sufficient background from 
which to construct a well integrated general program, 
the monograph, "Growing Up", was very useful. 

The next step was to develop an integrated pro¬ 
gram for the elementary school. This program was to be 
synthesized at the sixth grade level by using the Grow¬ 
ing Up monograph. 


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The San Diego schools next developed a unit in 
human relations for the junior high school and this 
was followed by the structuring of an integrated pro¬ 
gram in Human Relations Education in the secondary 
schools. 

The latest addition to the San Diego City School 
Program provides for group counselling in the secondary 
schools. A specially trained man and woman teacher 
meet with groups of twenty-five students for informal 
discussions of social problems. 

The preceding report has been given in order to 
provide the reader with an overall picture of the de¬ 
velopment of the San Diego program in sex education. 
Each phase of this program will now be developed in 
some detail. 

(A) Sex Education _in the Primary Grades 

Sex education in the elementary school is taught 
by integrating family life information with the curri¬ 
culum in such a way that it becomes a contributive pro¬ 
cess, rather than an obvious approach. Understanding 
the family, the part different members play, what makes 
home a happy place, and the role of the father and the 
mother in home life, including simple facts about re¬ 
production are important ingredients of family life 
education. In addition to this, how the animals and 
birds build homes and nests, have their young, take 



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- 61 - 


care or their young, teach them to play and fly, and 
so forth, may be developed into interesting and infor¬ 
mative discussions. Simple, but correct, answers to 
common sex questions of pupils have been developed as 
classroom aids to teachers. 

Such information becomes part of the elementary 
integrated program as it is related to the social 
studies, language, reading, music, physical education 
and art. 

(B) Sex Education, in the Sirfch,OcMa. 

In the sixth year, all of the sex information 
is "tied together 11 in a series of six lessons which 
are outlined in the "Growing Up" monograph. & Special 
training is given to teachers who are to use this mono¬ 
graph. Specimen lectures are included in the monograph 
to be used as a guide for the teacher. The information 
in "Growing Up" covers friendships, names of the parts 
of the body, reproductive organs, how we become alive, 
are born and grow up, menstruation, masturbation, at¬ 
titudes and practices, and good health. The parents 
of these children are given the same lessons their 
children are to receive, which encourages discussion 
of social problems in the home and favors understand¬ 
ing between parent and children. 


A Sample lessons from this monograph can be found in 
Appendix A 




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- 62 - 


The information contained in the monograph, 
"Growing Lfp", was originally divided into three les¬ 
sons. 1 Lesson I dealt with the various parts of the 
body and their respective functions. Diagrams were 
provided which showed plainly the body parts under 
discussion. Some of the terms used in this lesson 


are listed below: 

breast 

nipple 

navel 

buttocks 

anus 

rectum 

bowel 

moving of the bowels 


stool 

labia 

bladder 

urination 

urine 

vagina 

uterus 

womb 

penis 


Lesson II is entitled "An Appreciation Lesson". 


It consists of the teacher reading the entire book on 
"Growing Up", by Karl de Schweinitz. This takes about 
forty-five minutes. Since the purpose of this lesson 
is appreciation, no oral questions or discussions are 


included. If the children have any questions to ask, 
they are invited to write them on a piece of paper and 


put them in the question box. 

The pictures in Marie Hall Lts f book entitled, 
"The Story of a Baby 14 , have proven to be a splendid 


aid in teaching how the baby grows within the mother. 


X G. G. Wether ill. human Relations jjdJifiatijatt* New York: 
The American Social Hygiene Association. Pub. No. A-659, 
1946. pp 38-59. 





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- 63 - 


Lesson III, for the girls, was concerned with 
menstruation and the proper attitudes and health 
habits to be observed in connection with that function. 

Lesson ill, for the boys, dealt with such topics 
as semen, erection, nocturnal emission, masturbation, 
healthy attitudes concerning boy-girl relations and 
the sex urge, and proper health habits which are es¬ 
sential for the development of strong, healthy bodies. 

As it has been mentioned earlier in this sec¬ 
tion, this information is now taught in a series of 
six lessons instead of three, boys and girls are 
segregated for these lessons. 

IU) Human relations aducation in iM jjaaLSE and 

senlQK High iasJiflsL 1 

The San Diego schools suggest that in the junior 
and senior high schools sex education be integrated in 
the courses of the curriculum. A carefully selected 
list of topics on human relations to be integrated 
with high school subjects has been developed and will 
be presented in Appendix B. The suggested topics as 
set up for certain courses of study overlap in many 
cases, uertain topics suggested under one course of 
study may be determined to belong more appropriately 
in another course. This should be decided by a com¬ 
mittee of teachers; and the decision will depend to 

1 Ibid. pp 12 - 14. 








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- 64 - 


some extent upon the types and arrangement of courses 
within the curriculum, 

San Diego educators recommend that the teacher 
committees set aside those topics they do not wish to 
include in their courses, and consider those topics 
for inclusion in a course in human relations and family 
life. Such a list of topics might be found to form a 
basis for the major portion of the human relations and 
family life courses. These courses may be held either 
at the end of junior high school or at the end of 
senior high school, or at both times. “At this time 
of the awakening of social consciousness and responsi¬ 
bilities among students, the human relations and family 
life courses serve to bring together important irf orma- 
tion for a better understanding of the problems boys 
and girls are meeting from day to day or will meet in 
the future.’* 1 2 

The Stephen Kearny Junior-Senior High School 

in San Diego has planned its program of human rela- 

2 

tions education, using the following approach: 

1. Human relations topics already included in 
courses of study were checked against the lists of 
topics already covered in the curriculum, through the 
following courses: 


1 Ibid. P. 13 

2 Ibld. p 13 - 14 













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63 


Biology- 


Social Problems 


Home Economics Physical Education 


General science Mathematics of Personal 


Physiology 


Bookkeeping 


Hygiene 


Social Studies 


English 


2. All seventh grade students take physical educa¬ 
tion. The physical education instructors selected 
topics to be discussed with seventh grade students 
from the lists of topics recommended for physical edu¬ 
cation. These instructors also agreed to cover such 
special topics as masturbation, seminal emissions, 

and care of the body during menstruation. 

3. All eighth grade students take home economics. 
The teachers made up lists of topics they agreed to 
discuss, and then checked their lists for duplications 
against the topics presented by physical education in¬ 
structors in the seventh grade. 

4. All ninth grade students take science. The 
teachers selected a list of topics from those recom¬ 
mended for science. The topics selected by the science 
teachers were checked, for duplications, against the 
lists of topics for physical education, and home econ- 
omi c s. 


3. All tenth grade students take English. The 
teachers selected a list of topics from those recom- 


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- 66 - 


mended for English. The topics selected by Jiinglish 
teachers were checked, for duplications, against the 
lists of topics for physical education, home economics 
and science. 

6. All eleventh grade students take social studies. 
The teachers selected a list of topics from those recom¬ 
mended for social studies. The topics agreed to be 
covered by social studies teachers were checked, for 
duplications, against the lists of topics for physical 
education, home economics, science, and English. 

7. All twelfth grade students take human relations 
(" T teen age problems" "Senior problems"). The teach¬ 
ers chose topics not selected by the other courses 
which assures rather complete coverage of desirable 
information. The course in human relations may review 
all social hygiene topics discussed in grades 7* 8, 9, 
10, and 11, as a part of the course. Having discussed 
these topics in their relations to other interests and 
from various points of view, the general review of all 
topics will provide a concept of human relations values 
as a way of life. 

(.D) Groua G . QUU s a.IILa& is. Me bsssiM&zx schools : 

The latest addition to the Han Diego (Jity school 
Program provides a specially trained man teacher and 
woman teacher who meet with groups of 2J? students for 
informal discussions of social problems. The groups 






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meet for one hour each week for six weeks. There is 
no predetermined curriculum plan. These counsellors 
begin with the immediate sex and social problems of 
the students and carry on the discussions from there. 
They report that there is little similarity in the 
development of the content of the discussions. Each 
group has a unique experience which comes out of the 
needs and interests within that group. 


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©lid: *X,.> . wo 

, 


CHAPTER V 


BRITISH PROGRAMS IN SEX EDUCATION 
British educators have had less experience 
than their American counterpart in the field of sex 
education. It would appear from the information 
received that British educators have only recently 
felt inclined to encourage teachers to cautiously 
experiment in the field of sex education. 

The London County Council T s views on factual 
sex instruction were first expressed as long ago as 
1914, when it was resolved rt that the teaching of 
sex hygiene as a class subject in public elementary 
schools be not approved.It was not until 194^ 
that the Board of Education published Educational 
Pamphlet No. 119 entitled 11 Sex Education in Schools' 
and Youth Organizations”, in which warm support and 
encouragement were given to all those in schools, 
youth organizations, and training colleges, and to 
local education authorities, who were giving serious 
attention to this subject. 

It would be a mistake, however, to conclude 
that during those thirty-five years nothing whatso¬ 
ever had been done in the line of sex education. 

During that period, various educators and teachers 
studied and experimented in the field of sex instruc- 

^London County Council. Some Notes fki Eex Education . 

Westminster, S.W. 1: Staples Press Limited, 1949* p.6. 





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- 6 ? - 


tion and several books were written dealing with this 
subject. As might be expected, the war gave greater 
meaning and urgency to this study. 

The pamphlet, "Some Notes on Sex Education", 
mentioned earlier, gives some positive suggestions 
regarding the giving of factual sex information and 
the promotion of desirable attitudes toward sex. 

These suggestions bear a marked resemblance to the 
programs which are actually being used in some 
American schools. 

The different methods of instruction and 
guidance employed in the elementary schools of Great 
Britain in 1943 may be summarized shortly as follows: 1 

1. Physiological Instruction to Groups and Glasses 

(a) Carefully planned, objective sex teaching 
as an integral part of a biology or other 
science course. 

(b) Some biological instruction, including 
reproduction in small animals but without 
reference to human beings. 

(c) The keeping of livestock — as a part of a 
planned course, or alternatively, leaving 
children to observe for themselves and 
draw their own conclusions. 

(d) Personal hygiene talks to girls, often 
limited to menstruation. 

(e) Mothercraft courses for girls, related to 
future possibilities of parenthood. 

(f) The treatment of the subject by frank 
answers to questions asked by children 
during scripture, history, and literature 
lessons. 


1 Board of Education. Bex Education in Schools and Youth 
■Organizations . London: His Majesty ! s Stationery 
Office, Education Pamphlet, No. 119, 1943. p.8. 





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- 70 - 


(g) Special talks given by the staff or by 
visiting lecturers. 

2. Advice and Guidance to Individuals or Groups 
on the Social and Moral Implications of Sex 
Conduct. 

This special contribution is usually made by 
the head teacher. 

IlQA..as_,_Qn_TxD-lc.a.I._3.c. hemes of. Sex Instruction 

The following notes by H. M. Inspectors illus¬ 
trate some of the methods employed:' 1 * 

Mixed school : "Biology mistress includes 
thorough instruction in her biology scheme. Some 
livestock is kept. The children accept the instruc¬ 
tion without any embarrassment." 

Senior girls T school : "Domestic science 
teacher gives special talks to leaving girls based 
on mothercraft and biology. The maternal responsi¬ 
bilities are emphasized and the foundations of family 
life considered. Parents are very keen. The talks 
appear to have a very happy effect. Girls adopt a 
more sensible attitude to sex relations and take 
marriage more seriously, as well as having a happier 
approach to menstruation and child-birth." 

senior girls T school : "Lectures are given in 
two stages — at 11 and 13 years. Parents are very 
favorable and the attitude of the girls is good. If 

necessary the head teacher gives individual talks as 
well. 

1 Ibid. pp 10 - 11 






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- 71 - 


■Senior girls.!. _scJiq.q1 : "A good biology course 
with the school medical officer co-operating in regard 
to sex instruction. Parents are much in sympathy and 
old scholars express appreciation.” 

SlElal A s ME itmsat, m l sa l .fcc hQ . o .1: "The head 
mistress has arranged, through the L. E. A. (London 
Education Association), for a local woman practitioner 
to give a lecture to leaving girls. Parents and head 
mistress think the scheme is successful.” 

Senior bovs T school : "The superintendent of 
the local hospital co-operates with the school 
biology master by giving special lectures to school 
leavers. The biology scheme and the lectures are 
impressive. 11 

Mixed school : "Boys and girls in their last 
year meet separately for lectures by a representative 
of the Central Council of Health Education. The 
scheme is a full one. Parents approve and very few 
withdraw their children. The boys in particular 
like the lectures and questions are asked freely. 
Parents say that the course makes it easier to deal 
with things at home. The girls follow up by visits 
to maternity and child welfare clinics." 
borne Tvnical Arrangements in Secondary Schools ^ 

A girls T high school : "The lessons fit into 
the general programme in biology, connecting up with 


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- 72 - 


the methods of fertilization and of pre-natal and 
post-natal care in types already studied. The part 
played by the human father before and after birth 
in the care of mother and child is used to explain 
marriage. The possibility of infection is also 
explained. n 

A.bovs T grammar school : "Sex instruction is 

linked up with teaching of biology and the animal 
world to whole classes throughout the course. It 
is later treated by the head master himself in the 
age ranges 14-J- - l6-|-, and then in the VI Torn as 
part of the preparation for life, and it arises 
naturally in Christian and moral instruction like 
other sections of such instruction. It is also 
connected with physical education and games based 
on the boys 1 knowledge of physiology. A reasonable 
and broadminded view is taken of boy and girl friend¬ 
ships with the knowledge of both sets of parents ... 

I give the final message to the boys when they leave 
with special reference to the dangers they will meet, 
venereal diseases, etc." 

A girls \ jsxammar school where instruction is given 

bv a ..0 ent r.a3— c aun c l I fox. Health Education_lecturer. : 

"A series of three lectures is given to the 
whole group in groups of at a time. A considerable 
time is allowed at the end of each lecture for girls to 





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- 73 - 


ask individual questions privately, an opportunity 
of which the girls avail themselves very freely. 

The instruction is closely linked up with the work 
in biology. Parents are informed that they are at 
liberty to withdraw their daughters from lectures 
if they wish. In practice we find that 99 per cent 
of parents are willing and a great many anxious for 
this instruction to be given. The instruction is 
given in two stages. First to all girls in the 
summer term of their first year (average age 11 - 
12). The subject is taken from a biological point 
of view and it is hoped by this method to give the 
children the facts before they become emotionally 
involved. Later in the last term of the V Form year 
-- for many girls the last year of school — in the 
form of a single lecture followed by individual 
questions asked privately. The social aspect of 
marriage and the family unit is the subject here: 
and we find the question of venereal disease usually 
touched on. It seems to be generally felt by the 
staff and parents that the general tone and attitude 
toward these matters has definitely improved since 
the lectures were given . I find that mass instruc¬ 

tion helps girls to approach the subject in a more 
natural and impersonal way than individual instruc¬ 
tion. 11 











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- 74 - 


A large_Iioys_ y school having day boys and boarders : 

"The boys in the preparatory department up to 
the age of 11 years have a general course in nature 
studies. When they enter the main school about 12 
years of age, they then have a course of general 
biology, including a range of animals from the sim¬ 
plest unicellular creatures through the worm, frog, 
bird, rabbit up to man. In this last they study 
muscles and limbs, heart and blood, lungs and brea¬ 
thing, the alimentary system and the reproductive 
system. At the end of the course the head master 
has a talk to the form as a whole and then gives 
out a sample questionnaire asking what part of the 
course has interested them most, and whether they 

would like to learn more about any parts of it. 

There have been no objections from parents, but 
many have written and spoken appreciatively. With 
regard to the older boys, the head master gives a 
talk to the whole of them as a group. He is a be¬ 
liever in class instruction." 

Sex Edunation in the City of Manchester* Ana:land 

The Director of Education for the city of 
Manchester writes that in the Manchester Primary 
Schools the general practice is to keep pets and 
to observe their habits and mode of life. "The 
birth of puppies or kittens are events which please 















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- 75 - 


and interest the children and they are freely and 
intelligently discussed. The mother T s care for 
the young, both before and after birth, is compared 
with the protection afforded to human babies. In 
some schools aquaria of tropical fish are maintained 
and the observation of live-bearing types at once 
fascinates and instructs the children." 

In those Secondary Schools which handle the 
problem at all, it is felt that sex instruction is 
best dealt with by competent teachers of biology and 
from a comparative and evolutionary standpoint. 

■Gita -of. Edinburgh. Experiment in sex Education 

During the years of 1?47 and 1?48 important 
experiments in sex education were carried out by the 
Director of Education for the City of Edinburgh. 

These experiments were conducted in the urban schools 
of Edinburgh and the rural schools of Aberdeenshire. 
The resulting syllabuses and the conclusions drawn 
up by the Committee concerned are outlined below. 

All of this information was to be presented in detail 
before a large National Conference in April or May of 
194 ?. 

"Up to the present,” writes James B. Frizell, 
Director of Education., "practically nothing had been 
done of a direct nature although in many schools the 
indirect approach through nature study and biology 




- 76 - 


was prevalent." 

Accordingly, Mr. frizell offered to conduct ex¬ 
periments in sex talks of a more positive nature, lie 
began in May of 1?47 by engaging the services of a 
qualified woman, Miss A. P. Duncan. Miss Duncan spent 
the three weeks from May 16 to June 6, 1?47, lecturing 
twelve to fifteen year old girls of the Norton Park 
Secondary School. During each of the three weeks, she 
saw every girls 1 class for one period of forty minutes. 

These talks proved to be so successful that 
similar talks were given in 1948 by Miss Duncan to the 
girls of Leith Academy, while the head master and four 
men teachers gave a similar set of three lectures to 
the boys of Norton Park Secondary School. The syl¬ 
labuses for these sex education talks are printed 
below exactly as they were received from Edinburgh. 

(Synopsized) 

Minhurgli Lxp.QT.imejit.s. la M u . Q A ti .Qa: Oixls 

The courses, adopted for girls aged 12 to 16, 
were conducted by Miss A. P. Duncan at the Norton 
Park school and Leith Academy respectively. The 
schemes of instruction were, for practical purposes, 
identical. Three talks were given in each series. 
first talk . Introduction. The need for a high stand¬ 
ard of general health. The various factors which in- 








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77 - 


fluence general health. Cleanliness, including care 
of the skin, teeth and hair. Rest and sleep and their 
importance for health. Diet, and the necessity for 
effective elimination. Fresh air and exercise and 
their role in promoting fitness. The body a complex 
machine which needs every care if it is to run smooth¬ 
ly and efficiently. Cleanliness of the mind no less 
important than that of the body, character formation. 
second talk . (For younger girls this talk was illus¬ 
trated by a film strip dealing with simple biology. 

A more advanced film strip entitled "Men and Women" 
was employed for the girls of years V and VI.) The 
act of growing up. A simple exposition of the facts 
of development in animals and in man. The meaning 
of the secondary sexual characters. The menstrual 
cycle and its hygiene. The need for good health and 
character during the r growing up 1 period. Behavior 
toward the opposite sex. Chastity and moral purity. 

A brief statement of the essential Ihcts of mammalian 
and in particular of human reproduction. The sex 
function a wonderful thing, possession to be jealously 
guarded. 

Third talk . Briefly recapitulatory, after which time 
is spent dealing with written questions sent in anony¬ 
mously by the girls. Questions allowed to deal with 
sex matters in general, whether covered by Miss Duncan 


or not 






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SyJ L La bu g 

(Synopsized) 

Mlnb-umti ffxperimnt.jja JdexJftfooation: Boys 

Conducted at Norton Park School by the Head 
Master ana selected teachers, based on material, both 
text and diagrams, approved by the School Medical Of¬ 
ficer. As in the case of the girls, three talks were 
given. These were illustrated by diagrams specially 
prepared for the purpose by an art master and since 
reproduced in the form of film strip. 

First talk . The initial talk followed closely the 
lines of the first lesson for girls, and dealt with 
the importance of healthy living and fitness, as 
follows: -- 

The body a wonderful structure which, if kept 
fit, works harmoniously in all its parts, each of 
which has a specific task to perform. The boy who 
is proud of his bicycle keeps it clean and in good 
order, so it should be with the body. The keys to 
fitness are cleanliness, active elimination, suffi¬ 
cient fresh air and exercise, adequate rest and sleep, 
and a balanced diet. Cleanliness of the mind is no 
less important than that of the body. The body must 
be taken care of even more than the bicycle or any 
other machine, because no T spare parts 1 are available 
for animals when they break down. 





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- 79 - 


Second talk . The idea of reproduction. Inanimate 
things cannot reproduce. The humblest of living 
creatures must have a parent of some sort. In the 
simplest forms, reproduction is by mere fission in¬ 
to two parts.. This is 'asexual T breeding, and it 
is found only amongst elementary types of plant and 
animal life. As the scale of living things was as¬ 
cended and animals became more complex, the asexual 
method was obviously unsuitable. There thus arose 
the sexes, male and female. The female became 
specialized to produce eggs, and the male acted as 
the fertilising agent through the medium of sperma¬ 
tozoa. In the simplest forms, fertilization takes 
place completely external to the body. Example of 
the fishes. Then more elaborate means of ensuring 
that the eggs shall be fertilized, as in the frog. 
Kext the nurture of the egg within the body while 
it is most delicate, as in the reptiles and birds. 
Finally, the peak of complexity reached in the 
higher mammals where the egg and young remain within 
the body until sufficiently mature to lead an inde¬ 
pendent existence. Intricate union between mother 
and young. 

Third talk . Mammalian reproduction and its elaborate 
mechanism. The specific organs and their functions. 
The ovum and the sperm. The phenomenon of ovulation. 


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The process of fecundation. Vast numbers of spermato¬ 
zoa produced at each attempt. Gestation. The various 
stages of development and the perfection of each part 
within the womb. The placenta and the foetal circula¬ 
tion. Preparation for birth. The mechanism of birth 
and the importance of muscles. The essential need for 
physical fitness during pregnancy. The arrangements 
for nourishing the young after birth. Lactation and 
breast feeding. 

A word to older boys anent the necessity of 
clean living. The menace of the venereal diseases. 

Moral purity the only real safeguard. 

,S.o.QciAs.io.ag. Pxam.Xr.Qja -the. 

The Committee which is drawing up the scheme 
of health education has concluded that: — 

(1) As a result of the pilot experiments in sex 
teaching the Committee is convinced that, given the 
right type of instructor, this subject can be taught 
with profit, and without embarrassment, to children. 

(2) Notwithstanding that sex teaching is here men¬ 
tioned apart, the Committee is strongly opposed to 
its separation from the instruction in general health 
education. It may usefully be linked also with biology, 
to which it is a logical sequel. They are further of 
the opinion that sex education is best presented against 



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- 81 - 


the wider background of personal and social relations, 
the family unit and the home. 

(3) It is essentially necessary that the children be 
given every opportunity to ask questions. Only by this 
method can the many prevalently false or distorted ideas 
on the subj.ect be corrected. 

(4) Talks on sex to senior pupils should include some 
reference to venereal diseases, and the paramount need 
for clean living. 





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CHAPTER VI 


OPINIONS ON SEX EDUCATION OP LEADING EDUCATORS IN THE 


U. S. A. AND GREAT BRITAIN 


i&LaLoii^gX^tii^ 

The late Thomas W. Galloway, Education Consul¬ 
tant, American Social Hygiene Association, and author 
of "Sex and Social Health", "Parenthood and the Train¬ 
ing of Children", and many other works, was considered 
an authority on sex education. A brief account of some 
of his opinions on this topic are recorded below.*** 


(i) To cut off vulgar and exciting interpreta¬ 
tions of sex as it comes increasingly into the con¬ 
sciousness of the boy or girl. 

(ii) To provide the child, at the appropriate 
age, with the knowledges, the interpretations, the 
inspirations and personal influences which seem best 
fitted to bring out clean and upbuilding meanings and 
behavior. 


II 


Easic. 


"Sex education," writes Dr. Galloway, "does not 
consist primarily in imparting facts to the child, — 
whether about biology, physiology, anatomy, or hygiene. 
Much less is it giving information about vice and the 
venereal diseases and other results of anti-social sex 
expression ..." Sex education is one aspect or part 


^T. W. Galloway. Sex Education in Home and School . 
New York: The American Social Hygiene Association, 
Pub, No. A-171x, 1 939 . 5 PP. 









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- 83 - 


of character education. It is a matter of developing 
sound habits, desires, likes and dislikes, tastes, at¬ 
titudes and purposes in relation to our most imperious 
and socially valuable powers.” 

Dr. Galloway goes on to say that although essen¬ 
tial, relevant facts are necessary, the main task is 
the interpretation of these facts and of the sex ele¬ 
ments in the child T s environment. 

He points out that the most important contribu¬ 
tions to sex education can be ma.de during the extra¬ 
curricular activities where one finds boy-girl, teacher 
teacher and teacher-pupil relationships® Next, the 
curriculum carries such subjects as physiology, hygiene 
nature study, biology, psychology, the social studies, 
home science, agriculture, literature and so forth, 
which if taught without obvious omissions make an im¬ 
portant contribution to sex education. Obvious omis¬ 
sions of sex information from courses only add to 
prudery or pruriency, the two extremes of vulgarity. 


Opinions _af_ . 

Dr. Bigelow, Chairman of the American Social 
Hygiene Association Committee on Education, is one of 
America 1 s greatest authorities on sex education. 

In one of his many papers, this educator made 
an important remark concerning courses in Health and 
Human Relations which might be worth quoting, since 
many schools, when considering the teaching of sex 



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- 84 - 


information, look immediately and almost exclusively 

to their health course. 1 Bigelow states that the 

close connection between certain aspects of health 

and mental-social relations has led some schools to 

experiment with a program under the heading "Health 

and Human Relations." Although this is theoretically 

sound it does not work if ell in practice because the 

health teachers are not prepared to deal with more 

than the physical aspects of health. 

"These considerations have led many educators 
to the conclusion that there should be parallel school 
programs in health education and human relations with 
correlations at appropriate points. Such a plan of 
parallel programs is proving workable in the schools 
of San Diego, California." 2 

This leads to Bigelow T s outline of an ideal sex 

education program; it can be found in the pamphlet 

referred to in the footnote on this page. 

Sex Education 

A. Sex Education Topics in Health Education 

(1) Personal sex hygiene: health as affected by 
normal functioning of the reproductive organs. 

(2) Yenereal Diseases: health as affected by these 
communicable diseases. 

B. Sex Education Topics in Human Relations Education 

"The normal relations of the sexes are biologi¬ 
cal, mental and social. These are primarily personal 

1 M. A. Bigelow. Sex Education in School Programs on 
Health and Human Halations . New York: The American 
Social Hygiene Association, Pub. No. A-M6, 1?47. pp 2-5 

2 Ibid. 








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- 85 - 


or individual, but they naturally lead toward a center 
in family life, hence in planning the teaching concer¬ 
ning sex in human Kelations education, we should present 
the biological, the mental and the social relations of 
the sexes with due regard for the interests of the indi¬ 
vidual ana the family, as in the following outline: 

U) iilQLQEl ca l HfileAlc ma * (.Heredity and eugenics, 
biology of reproduction, biological basis of 
the family;. 

(2) Mental-social relations. (A fertile field which 
is not yet well cultivated in schools. Educa¬ 
tion for inter-personal relations is desirable 
as foundation for family social relations;. 

(3) £ amU y-£Qa.i&l relations. . (This should be the 

center of family-life courses and books for 
schools and colleges. 11 

Bigelow believes that the approach through human 
Kelations Education is, in general, the most logical 
and acceptable basis for sex education. The fields of 
science which are obviously most concerned with human 
relations are social biology (biology applied to human 
relations;, sociology, cultural and social anthropology, 
psychology, human geography, political and economic 
science, it is through the medium or these subjects 
that sex should be presented as a natural, integral 
part of life. 

This same educator believes that it is most 
important that venereal disease control be dissociated 
from education in normal human relations, venereal 
diseases should be taught along with the other com¬ 
municable diseases which appear in the health course. 


This same author, in another of his papers, 








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- 86 - 


makes it quite clear that isolated lessons or talks on 
sex given by special teachers or visitors are no longer 
approved by competent educators, instead, there should 
be a well-planned program in which instruction concern¬ 
ing normal human sex relations is integrated in harmony 
with the tact that sex is an integral part of normal 
living. 1 2 

itPl fl L o aa ££ .thfl M u ..Q. 9 , ti ga uommittee ££ bha iNiew J ersey 

!• AJ^oal-QiL^fix.-M.uo.ation ; -- 

The New Jersey Social hygiene Association has as 
the goal of its sex education program, "the preserva¬ 
tion of the family and the improvement and enrichment 
of family life." 

It is also felt that a well integrated program 
should help to develop (1) satisfactory attitudes, 
experience and emotional controls, (2) finer present 
home and community understandings and co-operation, 
and {3) all this ultimately helps in the wise selec¬ 
tion of life partners, constructive marriage, home making 
and parenthood, or fine adult living outside of marriage. 


1 M. A. Bigelow. Mu cat ion and guidance concerning Human 
Halations . New York: The American social hygiene Assoc¬ 
iation, Pub. No. A-b01, 194J?. p 1. 

2 The New Jersey Social hygiene Association. An Approach 
to Sex Hiducation in pahools . New York: The American 
Social Hygiene Association, Pub. No. a-^ 6>, 1?48. pp 4-7* 
















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- 87 - 


II. Basic Principles of S ex Education: — 

The New Jersey Social Hygiene Association feels 
that the following principles are basic for a sound sex 
character education program in the schools: 

1. The positive aspects of sex should be stressed 
by giving pupils an appreciative understanding of the 
important role which this creative force plays in the 
life of the individual and of society. 

2. Sex education should be integrated with appro¬ 
priate subjects from the kindergarten through the 
twelfth grade. Until qualified teachers are available 
in sufficient numbers for such an integrated program, 
some other introductory procedure may be adopted, es¬ 
pecially in the secondary schools. Such a program may 
begin by one or more qualified teachers introducing 
the proper aspects of sex education into their course, 
or by preparing a series cf classroom talks. 

5. There should be no course in the curriculum 
labeled "Social Hygiene" or "Sex Education." 

4. Talks given by outside speakers are not advocated 
because of the danger of attracting too much attention 
to the subject and of presenting it as an isolated part 
of life. 

III. .assential reacher_Qualificatfons : 

The Association considers a pleasing personality 
and sound character to be absolutely essential qualifi- 







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- 88 - 


cations of a teacher of sex education. 

Other important qualifications include: 

1. A sound emotional attitude toward sex as a normal 
factor in life, neither minimizing nor exaggerating its 
importance. 

2. A recognition of the need for this kind of educa¬ 
tion and of the teacher T s opportunity to aid the child 
or youth to make satisfactory sex adjustments. 

3. A knowledge of the biological, physiological, 
psychological and sociological aspects of sex, with the 
ability to interpret the sexual needs of the child in 
the light of this knowledge. All teachers should be 
aware of the place of sex education in the entire 
school curriculum. 

4. A faculty for inspiring confidence and aspira¬ 
tion toward high ideals without seeming sentimental or 
” preachy. 11 

5. The ability to accept reality and maintain a 
constructive attitude and a sympathetic understanding 
of the problems of children and young people, 

6. Respect for differing ethical, legal, and 
religious views, and for changing scientific knowledge. 
Opinions of Frances jC.-.stjmin . 1 

Frances Strain, noted American author and authori- 

1 F. B. Strain. New Patterns, in Sex Teaching . New York: 

D. Appleton - Century Co., 1941. 





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- 8 ? - 


ty on sex education believes that in the pre-adolescent 
years, sex instruction should emphasize anatomical 
structure and physiological functions. One can safely 
go into considerable detail at this age if one proceeds 
impersonally and objectively. 

Strain asserts that there sire two or three ex¬ 
planations that must be accomplished before adoles¬ 
cence begins. The age between ten and the teens, when 
the children are just rounding the corner from child¬ 
hood, is a good time to accomplish them. The explana¬ 
tions referred to are menstruation in girls, seminal 
emission in boys, and when desired, the venereal 
diseases and masturbation. It is to avoid anotional 
response and personal reference that this authority 
advocates the pre-adolescent period as the best one for 
these instructions. 

Opinions of i)r. Paul a. Landis . 1 

In a magazine article entitled "Should Our 
Schools Teach Sex" Dr. Landis reminds us that sex, a 
universal animal appetite, has been elevated in civi¬ 
lized society to a point where it is surrounded by 
an elaborate social ritual — dating, courtship, 
marriage ceremonials, religious rites, parental de¬ 
votions, and family loyalty. He points out that the 

^Paul H. Landis. "Should Our Schools Teach Sex", Better 
Homes and G-ardens . 2^: 14 - lj?. November 194 6. 






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- 90 - 


transformation of a powerful biological into a refined 
social institution requires a persistent, and very 
vigilant educational program. Being a Professor of 
Sociology in an American college, Landis regards sex 
education as a social tool which is necessary for the 
preservation of such values as premarital chastity, 
monogamous marriage, and life-long family ties. He 
asserts that we cannot depend upon taboos and fears 
because they are not taken seriously by modern edu¬ 
cated youth. 

Placing the emphasis again upon marriage and 
the family, Dr. Landis states that recent studies of 
the effect of sex instruction on happy married life 
has shown a distinct relationship between adequate 
sex instruction and marital happiness. 

He feels that boys and young men are weak in 
their knowledge of the psychological and social im¬ 
portance of sex and in their preparation for marriage 
and parenthood. Girls are weak in their knowledge of 
physiology and they need a little more information on 
the social and psychological importance of sex. 

M Sex education should begin with the birds 
and the bees in the earlier grades, but it must 
be carried through the entire school program to 
direct instruction in the high school and col¬ 
lege on the biology of sex reproduction, and to 
preparation for dating, courtship, marriage, and 
parenthood. w 


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- ?1 - 


.Q p inions of C yr il _Bib.by . 

Cyril Bibby, Education Officer of the Central 
Council for Health Education in England, is Britain's 
foremost authority on sex education. His book entitled 
'•'Sex Education" and his many papers on the same subject 
are widely read by those parents and educators who are 
interested in sex instruction. 



Bibby defines the aims of sex education along 
these lines: 

"That our people should grow up learning 
the appropriate facts in the best possible way; 
that their general attitude to sex should be a 
completely healthy one; that they should draw 
up for themselves a code of conduct after care¬ 
ful consideration of all the issues involved 
and should endeavour to behave according to this 
rationally determined code; and that they should 
react to the behavior of others with sympathy, 
tolerance and charity, but without spineless 
acquiescence in a code inferior to their own." 

II* Basic ..Er ihc .ipl^s.. Qf ,3ex..Mlicatioa 

1. Like other authorities on this topic, Gyril 
Bibby agrees that sex education should not be consid¬ 
ered as an isolated subject. He believes that in its 
integration with the rest of education it has two as¬ 
pects. One aspect is that of sex education as a part 
of health education generally, and the other is that 
of sex education as part of a wider education for 


^Cvril Bibby. Sex Education : Aims, Possibilities and 
Elans . A reprint from Fat ure, Vol. 1^6, p. 413, 

Oct. 6, and p. 4^8, Oct. 1J, 1945 . 








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family life. 

2. The topic of venereal diseases should not 
loom large in school courses. 11 If it is hoped to 
bring up'children to look on sex as something clean 
and healthy, it is clearly unwise to give emphasis 
to pathological aspects of the subject." These dis¬ 
eases should be dealt with in the health course 
along with the other diseases of the body. 

3. In order to avoid the possibility of 
arousing emotions and causing embarrassment to the 
child, the physiological facts of sex should be 
taught before the age of puberty when the child is 
becoming emotionally interested in the subject. Such 
subjects as biology, health and general science can • 
be the medium for this instruction.^" 

4. Bibby has given the approximate ages at 
which certain facts and aspects of sex should be 
imparted to the child. By about the age of two or 
three years, children should be learning the polite 
terminology for the sex organs. At about age five, 
they should in most cases know that the baby grows 
inside the mother and is born u via an opening be- 
tween her legs. 11 During the next two or three years 
the child should learn that the father contributes 

^Cyril Bibby. Sex Education in the School . A reprint 
from Health Education Journal, Yol.l, Ho. 2, April 1945. 




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- 93 - 


the sperm cell which fertilizes the mother T s egg, and 
that the penis is placed in the vagina during mating. 

Sometime from about the age of twelve onwards 
a girl will begin her menses, and she needs to be 
prepared in advance by a simple biological explana¬ 
tion at the age of about eleven. Boys, too, should 
have an idea of the significance of menstruation so 
that they might develop an healthy and synpathetic 
attitude toward this normal function of the female 
organs. But more important for the boys is a pre¬ 
paration for the changes that will occur in them¬ 
selves during adolescence, and in particular for the 
onset of seminal emissions which causes many boys 
considerable anxiety. 

After the onset of puberty, say about age 
fourteen when the adolescent is experiencing deeper 
sexual feelings, some explanation should be given 
regarding the influence of the endocrine secretions 
on the body and the emotions. This is probably the 
best time for discussing such questions as court¬ 
ship and marriage, ^necking and petting 1 , promis¬ 
cuity and prostitution; and for imparting the ele¬ 
mentary facts about the venereal diseases. 

J?. In the article mentioned on the previous 
page, !, Sex Education in the School 51 , Bibby proposes 
that sex education might well be characterised as 


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the three I T s -- sex information, sex interpretation 
and sex inspiration. Sex information would provide 
the appropriate physiological facts, sex interpre¬ 
tation would aim for the promotion of desirable 
attitudes, while sex inspiration would aim at the 
establishment of a high standard of moral conduct 
within the child. 

6. In order to establish the attitude that 
sex is a normal wholesome topic, sex instruction, in 
mixed schools, should normally take place in mixed 
classes. There are times however when certain topics 
are of more personal concern to one sex than to the 
other. In such cases the topic can be handled in 
classes which are usually held separately, such as 
physical training classes. 

7. We should not stand idly by until the 
time when there are a sufficient number of qualified 
teachers to carry out this larger, more adequate pro¬ 
gram. In the meantime,, as a temporary measure, 
specially devised lessons should be given in the 
schools by the regular teaching staff. If no one 

on the staff is qualified to give this instruction, 
Bibby considers the subject to be important enough 
to warrant the engagement of a skilled lecturer who 
has been thoroughly trained in all aspects of sex. 

This authority does not approve of inviting 


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- 95 - 


medical practitioners to lecture on sex. While they 
have the skill appropriate to their profession of 
healing, it cannot be assumed that they also have 
the skill of the profession of teaching. They lack 
the necessary training in the fields of pedagogy, 
psychology, and sociology, and in addition to this 
their presence has the disadvantage of focusing 
special attention on the topic. 


Ill 


According to Cyril Bibby, the first essential 
is personal sex adjustment and an absence equally of 
a prudish disinclination to discuss sex and prurient 
tendency to discuss it to excess. "Hypocrisy and 
narrow-mindedness are fatal." Honesty, tolerance 
and a sympathetic understanding of the feelings of 
the child and the perplexities of the adolescent 
are also essential. He adds one other quality — 
that of a sense of humour. It is his belief that 
the occasional laugh at an innocent joke relieves 
any strain which might exist in the class. 

IT. Ideal Training for Bex Educators . 

In addition to his normal professional 
training, the teacher, in order to give sex in¬ 
struction, should have training in physiology, 


1 Cyril Bib by. Sex Education : Aim s f Poss.ibiliti es and 
Plans . A reprint from Nature To. 1J?6, p 413, Oct. 6, 
and p 438, Oct. 13, 1943• 









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psychology (.which will include the psychology of sex;, 
human and social biology. Some training is also nee¬ 
ded in the technique of sex education, and the way in 
which the various subjects of the school curriculum 
may be utilized as media of sex instruction. Special¬ 
ist teachers, such as biologists, will naturally need 
still further preparation. 

in the meantime, while we await teachers with 
such training, we need courses of instruction by speci¬ 
alists, dealing in part with those physiological and 
psychological aspects of sex which are not normally 
covered in university syllabuses, and in part with the 
technique of sex instruction in the school. 

the . 

In a recently published pamphlet, the London 
County Council under the direction of Mucation Offi¬ 
cer, Graham savage, has expressed its opinions regar¬ 
ding the methods, technique, and content of sex Mu- 
cation.^ All opinions recorded below were taken 
from this pamphlet entitled “Some Notes on sex Lduea- 
tion.” A very general statement made by the council 
with regard to sex education may be of interest if 
quoted at this point. 

^London county council, some Notes on sex education . 

Westminster, S.W.l: Staples Press Limited, 194?. 

16 pp. 






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“The terra T sex education 1 is convenient, 
but it is undesirable that this element in 
education for living should be isolated under 
any such title. It is a long and continuous 
process which begins in the nursery or infant T s 
school with the encouragement of sensible atti¬ 
tudes towards such matters as excretion and sex 
differences. At the junior and secondary stages 
many parts of the curriculum and many aspects of 
the life of the school can contribute to it. It 
is not, therefore, a matter for special courses, 
or as a rule, for visiting lecturers, or for any 
one member of a school staff. Where T sex educa¬ 
tion T is touched on in many activities and sub¬ 
jects throughout the school life, it is obvious¬ 
ly impossible to seek parental permission, as is 
sometimes done in the case of the isolated course, 
When a s.chool has decided what it can usefully 
and wisely do, it is, ho?/ever, very desirable to 
talk the matter over with the parents, for it is 
one for mutual understanding and co-operation. 51 

The Education Committee of the London County 
Council concerns itself with two aspects of T sex educa¬ 
tion 1 , namely, Factual Instruction, and The Promotion of 
Right Attitudes. 


I 



As a sound maxim for the factual teaching of sex, 


the Council supports the following: “Whatever the age 
of the child, and whatever the question he asks, answer 
him to the fullest extent that he is capable of under¬ 
standing at that stage.” 


(1) The 



The answers to the 


children T s questions will be the only source of informa¬ 
tion here, since they feel that formal instruction is 
out of place at this stage. Teachers should answer ques¬ 
tions briefly and in a matter-of-fact way. 








































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(2) -The. Junior School : — (school for children about 
six to eleven years of age) It is recommended that 
pets be kept in the junior school and that the teacher 
answer any questions provoked by the presence of the 
pets. In addition to this, the nature study lessons 
will provide some opportunity for a more direct ap¬ 
proach to the facts of reproduction. If simple tea¬ 
ching about the working of the human body, including 
reproduction, can usefully be included in nature study 
for the T top class 1 , the children will leave the junior 
school familiar with the fact that most animals develop 
from eggs, and that young mammals, including humans, 
develop inside the mother. n If these facts provoke 
further questions, e.g., on the part played by the 
father, these can be answered in a simple but truth¬ 
ful way, though without going into detail.** 

(3) The Secondary Scho ol: — (for children age eleven 
years and over) It is suggested that a simple outline 
in physiology, including reproduction, be given in the 
first year general science course. This suggestion is 
made for two reasons. First, if left until later the 
onset of puberty will cause some embarrassment to be 
felt when these facts are taught for the first time. 
Secondly, the anxiety felt by many boys and girls at 
the onset of puberty may be offset to some extent, 

in advance, if children have prior knowledge of what 







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to expect. "For example, if girls are given some 
simple instruction of the biological function and 
hygiene of menstruation, and if boys receive a 
simple explanation of nocturnal emission, a healthy, 
unfearful attitude towards puberty may be established 
in good time. 1 * Head masters, it is suggested, may 
want to say a few words of reassurance on masturba¬ 
tion to boys of 13 or 14, to set this matter in a 
proper perspective, as something which is undesirable 
if it becomes a habit, rather than a major sin or 
serious danger to health. The purpose of this, of 
course, is to relieve anxiety and shame which often 
causes serious mental illnesses. 

Many of these aspects of puberty and adoles¬ 
cence which are not suited to discuasion in mixed 
classes might well be touched on in the physical 
education lesson, when the sexes are normally sepa¬ 
rated. 

"Separation of the sexes for the teaching 
of the broader biological facts of reproduction 
has not been found necessary if the essentials 
of the subject have been taught by the age of 
twelve; nor is it desirable if a sensible atti¬ 
tude to the facts is to be encouraged." 

At a later stage in the secondary education of 
girls, the Council favors giving some information in 
mothercraft courses regarding ante-natal physiology 
and hygiene, so that a sensible attiuude might be 


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established toward child-bearing, buch courses might 
also give some valuable guidance on the psychology as 
well as the physical care of young children. It is 
also felt that something should be done to give boys 
some factual preparation for the responsibilities of 
fatherhood and family life. 

"Parenthood courses for both sexes might 
well include some discussion of the personal 
relationships within the family, including 
those between children of different ages and 
between parents and children, for there is no 
more urgent and important task in these times 
than that of helping men and women to create 
united, happy families; they are the founda¬ 
tion of any healthy society." 

If venereal diseases are taught at all, they 
should be taught along with the spread of disease in 
general, rather than in the context of T sex education r 

In conclusion, the Council warns that factual 
instruction in sex education should take its place, 
but no more than its place, in the teaching of biology 
Sex is only one part of living and must not be over¬ 
emphasised. 

II. The Promotion of Right Attitudes 

"factual instruction may go some way in 
itself towards establishing healthy moral and 
social attitudes. If the natural curiosity 
of children can be satisfied stage by stage, 
there is less danger that it will take an 
unhealthy form." 

If the proper information is not given by the 
school or the home, the child will pick up, bit by bit 





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101 


a body of half knowledge which will present an ob¬ 
scene picture of sexuality. 

Notwithstanding the value of factual instruc¬ 
tion in the promotion of right attitudes, a more 
positive approach is needed to help young people to 
acquire a respect and consideration of the other 
sex based on knowledge and understanding. Social 
functions and out-of-school activities can be used 
for moral and social education of this kind. 

n In secondary schools, discussions, 
whether in lessons or in discussion clubs, 
might sometimes touch on such questions as 
the right age to marry, the size of fami¬ 
lies, whether married women should work, 
personal relationships within the family, 
and provision for the aged. u 

Many valuable opportunities for building up 
good attitudes also arise in the daily lessons in 
such subjects as religion, literature and social 
history. Literature, for example, oftimes gives a 
foretaste of life, M and the English lesson may some¬ 
times provide an opportunity for discussion of the 
relations between the sexes, and often conflicting 
obligations of adult life.” In social history, such 
topics as the changing position of women through the 
ages, the growing consideration for the needs of 
children, the development of maternity and child 
welfare services, and other examples of a nevf res¬ 
pect for the welfare of mother and child may be 


discussed. 


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102 


The Council seems to feel that the talks given 
by the heads of secondary schools to school - leavers 
act as an excellent synopsis of all the wider discus¬ 
sions on sex and community relations which have devel¬ 
oped throughout the school program. It is felt that 
such a summing-up will help prepare young people for 
love, courtship and marriage on the basis of know¬ 
ledge and understanding. 

The names and opinions of only a few authori¬ 
ties have been given space in this chapter. It should 
be understood that there are several other educators 
such as Dr. Hoyman, Professor of Health Education at 
the University of Oregon; Dr. Paul Popenoe, Director 
of the American Institute of Family Relations, Los 
Angeles, California; and Roy E. Dickerson, Executive 
Secretary of the Cincinnati Social Hygiene Society, 
Cincinnati, Ohio to mention only a few, who are 
widely recognized throughout the United states as 
authorities on sex education. 


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CHAPTER VII 


FINDINGS iiND CONCLUSIONS 
From the data assembled in Chapters III - VI 
certain general findings and conclusions can be 
drawn. These are divided into seven groups accor¬ 
ding to the expressed purposes of this study. 

I. A. THE CONTENT OE SEX EDUCATION 

The content of sex education will be given 
under the headings of the five aspects of sex which 
should be covered by any program in this field. 

These five aspects of sex are; the physiological 
and hygienic, the biological, the mental-social, 
the family-social, and the moral-religious. 

Physiolo g ica l and Hyj gie.3i.ic 

1. Physiology of the Reproductive Organs 

(a) Male reproductive organs 

(b) Eemale reproductive organs 

2. Hygiene of the Sex Organs 
(a) Personal sex hygiene 

(i) Cleanliness 

(ii) Hygiene of menstruation 

(iii) Seminal emission 

(iv) Masturbation from a health standpoint 

3. Venereal Diseases 

(a) Health as affected by these communicable 


diseases. 







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104 


BlQ lo & jcAl 

1. Biology of Reproduction 

(a) Function of the reproductive organs 

(i) Sperm manufacture in the male 

(ii) Seminal emission in the male 

(iii) Ovulation in the female 

(iv) Menstruation in the female 

(b) Fertilization 

(c) Growth and development 

(i) Pregnancy — embryonic and fetal 
growth and development 
(ii) Post-natal growth and development 

(d) Birth 

(i) Birth process 
(ii) Medical care 

2, Heredity and Eugenics 

Mental-Social 

1. Emotions 

(a) Understanding our emotions 

(b) How and why they should be controlled 

(c) Difference between love and infatuation 

(d) The place of love in courtship, marriage, 
parenthood and the family. 

(e) Normality of sex yearning. 








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- 105 - 


2. Mental Conflicts 

(a) Guilt feelings 

(b) Solving mental conflicts 

(c) Dealing with obsessive thoughts 
5. Wholesome and Happy Relationships 

(a) How to win friends 

(b) Dealing with inferior feelings 

(c) Being well groomed and attractive 

(d) Respect for t he opposite sex 

(e) Conduct in heterosexual relations 

4. Understanding Secondary Sex Characteristics 

(a) Adolescent development 

(i) Development of the breasts 

(ii) Development of the sex organs 

(iii) Growth of pubic hair 

(iv) Change in voice 

(v) Change in emotions 

(b) Development of healthy attitudes toward 
adolescent changes. Adolescents should 
realize that these are normal and impor¬ 
tant signs of growing up. 


1. The Origin and Development of the family 

(a) Biological 

(b) Anthropological foundation of the family 






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- 106 - 


2. Background of the Modern American i'amily 

(a) Influence of ancient civilizations 

(b) The colonial family 

(c) Modern American family 
3* Boy-girl Relations 

(a) Respect for the opposite sex 

(b) Normality of sex yearnings 

(c) Dating 

(d) Petting - why it is unwise and how to 
avoid it 

(e) Courtship 

(i) Its purpose 

(ii) Social conventions surrounding it 

(f) Choosing a mate 

(i) Physical characteristics 

(ii) Personal qualities 

(iii) Cultural background 

(g) Things you have in common 
(i) Religion 

(ii) Nationality and race 

(iii) Culture 

(iv) Interests 
4. Marriage 

(a) Social customs and traditions 

(b) Adjustments after marriage 
(i) Sexual adjustments 


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- 107 - 


(ii) Give and take of new relationship 

(iii) In-laws and relations 
(c) Making a successful marriage 

(i) Hints on preserving love and respect 

(ii) Culture of the home 

(iii) Management cf the home as a vital 
factor in the success of marriage 

(iv) Seriousness of divorce 
j?. Family Life 

(a) Biological aspects 

(i) Human needs 

(ii) Birth of the child 

(iii) Child care and training 

(b) Hints on making family life a success 

(A large unit concerned mostly with Human 
Relations Education). See "Preparation 
for Family Living 11 , a unit in sociology at 
the Stephenson High School, btephenson, 
Michigan, found in Chapter III, page 17 
The subgroup "Family Life 11 deals with this 
topic to some extent. 


1. Personal Interpretation of Affection and bex 
(a) Relation to moral and religious life 

2. Human Reproduction 
(a) Moral code 










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(b) Religious significance 

3. Marriage 

(.a) social, moral and religious basis 

4. Family Life 

(a) Moral and religious basis 

B. TEACHING AIDS FOR SEX EDUCATION 

Motion picture films seem to be the most common 
and the most valuable teaching aid in this field. 

Below is a list of films used in various sex education 
programs across the United States. 

Efims 

1. The Story of Menstruation - International Cellu- 
cotton Products Co., 919 N. Michigan Avenue, 

Chicago 11, Illinois. 

2. Human Reproduction - McGraw-Hill Co., New York. 

3. Human Growth - Curtis Avery, Director E. C. Brown 

Trust, Education Genter Bldg., Portland 4, Oregon. 

4. Plant Growth - Encyclopaedia Britannica Films Inc., 
20 N. Waeker Dr., Chicago 6, Illinois. 

3. From Flower to Fruit - Encyclopaedia Britannica 

Films Inc., 20 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago 6, Illinois. 

6. The Sun Fish - Encyclopaedia Britannica Films Inc., 

20 N. lacker Dr., Chicago 6, Illinois. 

The bibliography contains a number of books which 
are valuable teaching aids. 




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G. FACTORS DETERMINING EXTENT OF SEX EDUCATION PROGRAM 

The type of sex education program used seems to 
depend upon the qualifications of the teaching staff 
rather than upon the size of the school organization. 
All schools, regardless of size, have several subjects 
with which sex education can be integrated. The com¬ 
pleteness of the program is determined by the number 
of teachers who are willing and able to undertake the 
task of sex instruction. Where there is no one on the 
staff capable of giving such instruction, some schools 
have adopted the expediency of calling in a special 
lecturer, a school nurse or a local physician to per¬ 
form this service. Three lessons are usually given 
dealing with reproduction, and the physiology and 
hygiene of the reproductive organs. Some moral 
guidance often forms a small part of such a series 
of lectures. Question periods are provided during 
which the problems and inquiries of pupils are dis¬ 
cussed. 

This method of introducing sex into the school 
curriculum has been employed extensively in England 
and was also used in ban Diego schools ?;hen the edu¬ 
cators of that city were experimenting in this field. 

In schools where the need for sex education is 
felt, and where the biology teacher has the necessary 
qualifications, biology often becomes the fountain of 




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sex knowledge. In other schools the health teacher 
might introduce the information about sex and rep: o- 
duction. Such is the approach used in many British 
schools today, i'he reader may remember that sex 
education is very ably handled by the health teachers 
of Bend, Oregon. 

It is not a very long step from teaching the 
human reproductive system in the health and biology 
courses to teaching sex and human relations in an 
integrated program. Before sex education can be 
integrated with the whole curriculum, the entire 
teaching staff must be trained and an outline drawn 
up indicating the topics inherent in each course. 

Most of the integrated programs presented in Chap¬ 
ters III and IV developed in this way. 

A course in "Family Life Education" can be 
offered where one of the staff members, having the 
desirable personal qualities, has been well trained 
in the fields of sociology and psychology. Such was 
the origin of the unit entitled "Preparation for 
Family Living" in Stephenson High School in Stephenson, 
Michigan. The reader will no doubt remember that the 
Hew Jersey Advisory Committee on Social Hygiene recom¬ 
mended the "Family Living" course when a sufficient 
number of qualified teachers are not available for a 
fully integrated program. 


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The Senior Problems courses used in a number of 
high schools throughout the United States are somewhat 
similar in nature and origin to the Eamily Life courses 
The former, ho?/ever, deals with a wider field of human 
relations than the latter. The Whittier High School in 
Whittier, California and the Denver High schools offer 
courses in Senior Problems. 

A. school in which sex education has been success 
fully established for a number of years may use all of 
the above methods of instruction with the exception of 
the first one mentioned. Like the San Diego schools, 
it may integrate sex education into all appropriate 
subjects, give a series of lessons at the end of the 
elementary school to synthesize all sex knowledge pre¬ 
viously acquired, and then offer a course in Pamily 
Life education at the Junior and/or Senior high school 
level. 

II. THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OE SIX EDUCATION 

The outstanding feature to be found in Chapter 
VI is the almost complete agreement among authorities 
in this field. Sex educationists of both Britain and 
the United States seem to support the following funda¬ 
mental principles of sex education: 

1. Sex education must be incidental. There should 
be no course entitled Sex Education or Social Hygiene. 


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112 


2. Sex education should be integrated with the ap¬ 
propriate subjects in the school curriculum. 

3. The physiological facts should be taught to 
children before the onset of puberty. 

4. The physiological and biological facts are only 
a small part of sex education. The most careful and 
detailed consideration must be given to the development 
of wholesome attitudes, habits, ideals and practices 
regarding sex. 

Educators in this field agree that sex education 
should be broadened to include education for family 
living. 

6. Tenereal diseases should not loom large in school 
courses. They should be taught from a health standpoint 
along with the other communicable diseases. 

7. Sex instruction can be given in mixed classes. 
Certain parts of such instruction, however, will be of 
greater concern to one sex than to the other and should 
therefore be taught during classes in which boys and 
girls are usually separated. 

8. Special talks on this subject given by visiting 
speakers are neither adequate nor conducive to proper 
attitudes. 

9. The support of the parents should be secured 
before proceeding with a program on sex education. 
Ideally, the parents should be shown the same films.and 




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- 113 - 


given the same information as the children will receive. 

III. A COMPARISON OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN SEX EDUCATION 
PROGRAMS. 

A study of sex education in Gfeat Britain reveals 
that in the main, it takes two forms. Either the biology 
teacher handles the biological facts of sex, or a series 
of special talks are given on health and reproduction. 
There are also seme schools where mothercraft courses 
touch upon phases of this subject. It is also quite 
common for the head teacher to give talks to ’’school 
leavers” on sex and human relationships. Generally, 
then, sex education in Great Britain consists primarily 
of instruction in the biological and physiological as¬ 
pects of sex. 

Although competent British educators realize 
that this is insufficient, they feel that until the 
public at large gives its wholehearted support and 
until there are qualified teachers in sufficient num¬ 
bers to offer a better program, the least that they 
can do is to impart sound wholesome information about 
sex to children before fear, anxiety and obscene 
ideals take firm root. 

In the United states where sex education has met 
with less opposition, emphasis has been given less to 
the biological and physiological aspects of sex and 
more to the development of desirable attitudes and to 






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114 


preparation for family living. 

It will be remembered that authorities in this 
field agree that if youngsters are to develop whole¬ 
some attitudes toward sex, and if fears and anxieties 
are to be intercepted, the ‘'facts of life" must be 
taught before the onset of puberty. In the majority 
of American programs, however, sex education is not 
given before the junior or senior high school level. 

In only five of the sixteen American programs repor¬ 
ted in this study is sex education a part of the 
elementary school programme. 

On the whole, however, the American programs 
enbody most of the basic principles laid down by the 
authorities and experienced teachers of both countries. 

It is v/orth noting that British educators are 
encouraging the integration of sex instruction into a 
greater number of appropriate subjects. They are also 
emphasizing the importance of parentcraft courses and 
discussions on family life for both sexes in secondary 
schools. 1 

In the light of these observations it can be 
concluded that the basic principles of sex education 
are generally agreed upon in the United States and 
Great Britain and that the actual programs in both 

^London County Council, some Notes on,_S&x_L ducation. 
Westminster, S.W.l, Staples Press Limited, 1949• p. 9* 





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- 115 - 


countries will eventually become very much alike, 

IV. THE MOST SUCCESSFUL METHODS OF SEX INSTRUCTION 

It is difficult to determine what method of 
sex instruction gives the greatest and surest success 
since the promoters of all the programs reported in 
this dissertation claim to have had encouraging res¬ 
ults. 

By careful observation, however, one can 
notice a tendency for schools to expand their sex 
education programs from one which consists of a series 
of lectures or an integration of sex information with 
one subject to a larger and more comprehensive inte¬ 
grated program which includes all grades from I - XII. 
This development is reported to have taken place in 
schools of Bronxville, New York, and ban Diego, 
California. Now the State of Michigan is adopting 
a similar program. This would seem to indicate that 
experienced educators consider the integrated program 
throughout %he entire school to be the most effective 
type of sex education. 

V. TOO SHALL TEACH SEX EDUCATION 

The suggested personal qualities and scholastic 
qualifications of the sex educationist have been out¬ 
lined in Chapter VI, pp 87 and 88 , and page 95. 


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- 116 - 


VI. AIMS AND PURPOSES OP HEX EDUCATION 

Similarly, the suggested aims and purposes of 
sex education can be found in the preceeding chapter, 
pages 82 , 86 and ?1. 

VII. SEX EDUCATION FOR ALBERTA SCHOOLS 

It is felt that the considerations of, and the 
suggestions for, a sex education program in Alberta 
schools are important enough, and must be detailed 
enough, to warrant a separate chapter. Por this 
reason, these considerations and suggestions are 
dealt with in the next chapter. 






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CHAPTER VIII 


A SUGGESTED SEX EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR ALBERTA SCHOOLS 
Before embarking upon any practical scheme for 
sex education in Alberta schools, there are five fac¬ 
tors which must be considered: 

1. The qualifications of Alberta school teachers 
for this kind of instruction. 

2. The Alberta Programme of Studies. 

3. The minimum essentials of sex education. 

4. The content of sex education. 

3. The grade levels at which children should 
receive certain information and guidance. 

It is not likely that any more than a very 
small percentage of the teachers in any Canadian 
province will possess all of the qualifications of 
a sex educator. This is understandable when we con¬ 
sider that very few members of our generation have 
received proper sex education, and that the techniques 
of sex education have not been a part of teacher train¬ 
ing. This consideration is an important one to keep 
in mind considering the possibility of a province-wide 
program of sex education. Quite obviously we cannot 
expect to begin with a fully integrated program or 
even a very elementary program in all of our schools 
when we do not have a sufficient number of qualified 


teachers 




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118 - 


There is, however, scattered throughout the 
province, a considerable number of teachers posses¬ 
sing fine personal qualities and an excellent know¬ 
ledge of all phases of the Physiology and Hygiene, 
the Health and Physical Education, and the Biology 
courses. It should not be forgotten that the Prov¬ 
ince is developing a guidance pregram and is sending 
into the field a number of well trained guidance 
teachers and counsellors. Most of these guidance 
teachers should make excellent sex educationists. 

Turning now to the second factor, one can say 
that the Alberta Programme of Studies includes all 
the subjects necessary for a completely integrated 
pregram of sex education. One can look with parti¬ 
cular favor upon the health courses which appear 
throughout the school life. We can also regard 
with favor the guidance program, because sex edu¬ 
cation is in many ways sex and human relations gui¬ 
dance. The study of science and nature is found in 
every division of Alberta’s school set-up. Such a 
study is an excellent medium for sex instruction. 
Similarly, the enterprise activities could be used 
to great advantage in this field. 

Looking next at the third point to be con¬ 
sidered before setting up a sex education program 
in Alberta, it might be well to observe that the 


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- 11 ? - 


fundamental principles laid down in Chapter VI are 
those necessary for the ideal sex education program. 

It will he remembered that most of the programs ap¬ 
pearing in Chapters III - V did not embody all of 
the principles laid down by the leading authorities 
in this field. It seems reasonable to assume that 
there are certain minimum essential principles which 
are sufficient to insure a successful scheme. Before 
going further, these bare essentials should be known. 
It should be understood that we seek for the minimum 
essentials only because it is usually wise to start 
with a simple program and work toward the more com¬ 
plex. 

The minimum essential principles for our 
purpose can be stated as follows: 

1. Sex education should be incidental. There 
should be no course entitled tt Sex Education 11 or 

11 Social Hygiene. u 

2. The physiological facts should be taught to 
children before the onset of puberty. 

3. The pathological side of sex should not be 
given emphasis. Venereal diseases should be taught 
from a health standpoint along with other communicable 
diseases. 

4. The support of the parents should be secured 
before proceeding with any program on sex education. 


. 

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120 


3* A constant effort should be made by the teacher 
to help her pupils develop wholesome attitudes, habits, 
and ideals regarding sex. 

with regards to the content of sex education, 
the reader may remember that the same was given under 
five headings in the previous chapter. These five 
headings represented the various aspects of sex, namely, 
the physiological and hygienic, the biological, the 
mental-social, the family-social, and the moral- 
religious. Although it may not be possible to give 
detailed consideration to every aspect, the program 
should be flavoured with a little of each, 

Finally, it might be wise to outline, very 
briefly, the information and guidance which children 
are ready to receive at various educational levels. 

1. Correct terminology for the sex organs. 

2. The story of prenatal growth and of the birth 
of the baby. 

3>. The part played by the father in mammalian 
reproduction. (Grade III) 

ilizis.i.oiLJl 

1. Hygiene of the sex organs. 

2. Menstruation and its significance. 

. Seminal emission. 


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121 - 


Intermediate Grades 

1* Explanation of their deeper sexual feelings -- 
caused by the action of the endocrine secre¬ 
tions upon the body. 

2. Secondary sex characteristics -- body growth 
and development, and changes in attitudes and 
interests during adolescence. 

Farther explanations to give a better under¬ 
standing of and a better adjustment to menstru 
ation and seminal emission. 

4. Discussions with boys regarding masturbation - 
attempt to relieve anxiety and guilt feelings 
and to view the practice in its proper perspec 
tive; that it is a natural but infantile prac¬ 
tice which should be overcome as soon as 
possible. 

5. Discussions on dating, courtship, "necking and 
petting", marriage, promiscuity and prostitu¬ 
tion. Venereal diseases discussed in health 
lessons. "Family Living" topics such as the 
purpose and religious significance of family 
life, happy family living, co-operation and 
consideration in the home, accepting responsi¬ 
bilities in the home, care of the baby, accep¬ 
ting advice of parents, and so forth. 



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122 


Senior High school 

1. A more advanced study of the biology of repro¬ 
duction. 

2. A more advanced consideration of family life 
problems and human relations generally. The 
outline given in the previous chapter under 
Family-Social could be used to advantage in 
the senior high school. An attempt .should be 
made in discussions to gain the pupils r support 
of our monogamous family system and our social 
conventions. 

Having considered the five basic factors men¬ 
tioned earlier in this chapter, an attempt can now be 
made to suggest a sex education program for Alberta 
schools. It should be understood at the outset that 
the following program is not considered to be the 
ideal sex education scheme. It would be' relatively 
simple to outline the ideal, comprehensive program, 
but this would be of little practical value to a 
school system which is in no way prepared to use it. 
Instead, the following outline is offered as a pro¬ 
gram which satisfies the minimum essential principles 
of sex education, which makes provision for teaching 
of the basic content of sex education at the proper 
grade levels, and which could possibly be put into 
effect with a minimum number of changes and additions 


in our curriculum. 









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- 123 - 


PROPOSED SEX EDUCATION PROGRAM EOR ALBERTA SCHOOLS 

.Div.i §.i Qfl. I 

Enterprise activities in Alberta schools provide 
an excellent medium for sex education. In grade one or 
in grades one and two (where the two-year cycle is used), 
enterprise topics such as "Our Family" and "Pets" pro¬ 
vide ample opportunity for treating, in an incidental 
way, the sex knowledge which children should have at 
this age. 

The enterprise on "Pets", for example, would 
give rise to questions concerning the birth of puppies 
or kittens to the pets of several children in the 
class. The care and feeding the young before and 
after birth would also become a matter of discussion. 

The enterprise entitled "Our Family" would give 
rise to similar topics. The arrival or expected ar¬ 
rival of a new baby would open the way for discussions 
on how babies start to grow, how they develop, how they 
are born, sex differences and so forth. Further study 
about family life would provide opportunities for dis¬ 
cussing the care of the baby, and the part played in 
the family by the mother, father and child. 

Again, the enterprise activities will provide 
the medium for an incidental treatment of sex educa- 






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124 - 


tion topics at this age. When any questions concerning 
sex arise during the school activities of grades IV, V, 
and VI, they should be answered honestly and impersonal¬ 
ly in language and detail suitable to the child*s age. 
Grade VI - Psychologists and educators who are experi¬ 
enced in this field agree that if we are to establish 
wholesome attitudes in children regarding sex, and if 
we wish to avoid the possibility of causing embarrass¬ 
ment to the child, the physiological facts about sex 
and the sex organs must be taught before the onset of 
puberty. Most children in grade six will be about 
twelve years of age. borne time from this age onwards 
a girl will begin her menses, and she needs to be 
prepared in advance by a simple biological explana¬ 
tion. For many girls it would be better if this 
explanation were given in the fifth grade. The boys 
need to be prepared for the onset of seminal emission 
which will undoubtedly cause some anxiety in many of 
them. 

This makes grade six a very important one in 
the field of sex education. Before a child leaves 
Division II, he or she should have had instruction 
on the physiology and hygiene of the reproductive 
organs. If no such instruction has been given in 
previous grades, then an enterprise, a health pro¬ 
ject, or a series of health lectures should supply 



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- 125 - 


this information in the sixth grade. If the simple 
"facts of life" have been integrated throughout the 
enterprises of Division I and II, a synopsis of these 
facts should be made by the Grade VI teacher with the 
aid of a film such as Oregon’s "Human Growth”. 

-i!he Intermediate school 
If the information mentioned above has been 
given during the first two divisions or at least in 
grade six, the physiological and hygienic aspects 
and the simple biological aspect of sex will have 
been fairly well taken care of. 

The child of the intermediate school is in a 
most trying period or adolescence. His body changes 
and functions and his deeper sexual feelings cause 
him some concern. Tor this reason all aspects of sex 
should be touched upon during these years, some in 
more detail than others. 

Grade VII or/and. Grade VIII Health 

In the grade VII and VIII health course the 
physiological and hygienic reasons for certain func¬ 
tions of the sex organs and for the related practices 
of cleanliness should be given. The girls should be 
taught, for example, how to care for themselves 
during menstruation, and what signs indicate the need 
for medical care. With only slight additions to unit 




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- 126 - 


II and Unit I of the health courses in grades YII and 
VIII respectively, this information would take its 
natural setting in the Intermediate School Programme. 

Item eight under Unit II of the Grade IX health 
course provides a splendid opportunity for discussing 
sex practices, thoughts, and functions which worry and 
confuse hoys. Boys and girls are relieved to find 
that others of their group have the same problems. 
Discussions on masturbation and the mechanism of sub¬ 
limation may improve the mental health of many boys 
in the class. Such units, of course, should be taken 
by segregated classes. The moral and religious as¬ 
pects of sex can quite naturally be discussed here 
also. In fact, it is the responsibility of the tea¬ 
cher to give moral guidance wherever fitting. She 
should avoid sounding n preachy u , however. 

With the appropriate additions to Theme III 
of Section A and Theme II of section B of the Grade 
VII and VIII General Science course, sex education 
could become an integral part of this subject. The 
study of animal life in Theme III and the study of 
plant life in Theme II provides an excellent medium 
for a more extensive treatment of the biology of 
reproduction. If the pupils came from Grade VI with 
the proper background, there would be no need for em- 



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- 127 - 


barrassment on the part of the teacher or her pupils 
when treating this topic. 

Grade I X ■Family Living 

It is suggested that a course, if only a half 
year course, in Family Living be added to the already 
heavy Grade IX programme. Most children in this dif¬ 
ficult period of their lives are in need of some 
guidance in family living. Many don T t understand 
the attitudes of their parents and siblings. Others 
feel as though they are treated unfairly and are 
overburdened with restrictions. Few co-operate to 
the limit in making a happy home, while others go 
out of their way to bring discord to the family. 

The school can do much to help the adolescent adjust 
himself more satisfactorily to home life. 

It must also be remembered that at this age 
dating becomes important in the life of the adolescent. 

If a high standard of conduct and a respect for the 
opposite sex can be established at this stage, there 
will be little cause for concern over later boy-girl 
relationships. A course in ’’Family Living’* could do 
much toward this end. 1 

The health and biology courses provide an obvious 

^■The experimental course entitled ’’Personal Development 11 , 
which is now being given to Grade IX pupils in several 
Alberta Schools, may well become the vehicle for a unit 
on ’’Family Living.” 






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- 128 - 


place for the integration of sex education. It might 
be well to repeat that it is too late to introduce sex 
education at this stage of a person T s development. In 
the high school the treatment of the biological and hy¬ 
gienic factors of reproduction would be more detailed 
than before and would aim at the development of healthy 
attitudes towards sex and child birth. 

The greatest contribution which qualified high 
school teachers could make in this field would be made 
possible through a course in Human Relations Education 
or one in Family Life Education. Few high school 
pupils will become doctors or engineers, but the vast 
majority of them will become marriage partners and 
parents. Slowly we are beginning to realize that 
people need training just as much for membership in 
the institution of marriage as they do for membership 
in any other institution. The outline for the content 
of the Family-Social aspect of sex education given in 
Chapter VII, might, if modified and expanded somewhat 
by the curriculum builders, serve as an outline for 
}| Family Life Education” in the senior high school. 

If the program just suggested should seem too 
extensive to begin with, the very minimum which should 
be considered ought to include the outline for sex 
education in Grade VI, the integration of sex educa¬ 
tion into the Grade VII and VIII science courses, and 




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the proposed Family Life Education course in the high 
school, 

flagfteati&nsL to the Department of Education 

The author suggests that the folio?/ing steps 
might be taken by the Department of Education when 
considering a program in sex education. 

A committee for Family Life Education should be 
called together to outline the Grade IX and the high 
school courses in "Family Living"• This committee 
should also look over the shoulders, as it were, of 
the enterprise, the health, and the science curricu¬ 
lum sub-committees and thus show them where sex edu¬ 
cation could be integrated into their course outlines. 

Literature on this subject should be distribu¬ 
ted to the Superintendents of Schools in order to 
familiarize them with this phase of education and with 
the necessary qualifications of sex educators. After 
careful deliberation these men should be asked to en¬ 
courage suitable teachers to attend summer school 
where a course dealing with the content and techniques 
of sex education should be given along with some psy¬ 
chology of sex. 

Needless to say, films and special bulletins 
would have to be published or secured by the Depart¬ 
ment of Education and distributed to the principals 
and teachers in schools where sex education is to be 



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- 130 - 


taught. These principals and teachers would have to 
secure the support of their local Home and School As¬ 
sociations. 

These have been but a few suggestions for a 
program on sex education and for the possible steps 
which might be taken by those having the authority 
to initiate it. Because they are slightly outside 
the limits of this study, all suggestions have been 
brief and would have to be modified and expanded by 
those in the Department of Education who have more 
wisdom and experience than the writer. 




. - 


■ 































* ■ ■ ' X- ' 61 u ii . .. 6 :. .. .. : ■ . - .0X11- i 01 a.iW 





- X31 - 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 






- 132 - 


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Emerson Books, Inc., 1947. 137 pp. 

3. Cady, Bertha and Vernon. The Wav Life Begins . 

New York: The American Social Hygiene Associa¬ 
tion, 1939 * 74 pp. 

4. De Schweintz, Karl. Growing Up . New York: 

Macmillan, 1928. Ill pp. 

3. Ets, Marie Hall. The Storv of a Baby . New York: 
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6. Levine, M. I. and Jean H. Seligmann. The Wonder 

of Life . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1940. 114 pp. 

7. Stain, Prances Bo Being Born . New York: Appleton- 

Gentury, 1936. 114 pp. 

.Ear Parents, and Jtaaciiors 

8. Bibby, Cyril. Sex Education . A Guide for Parents, 
Teachers, and Youth Leaders. London, 1943* American 
edition, revised, New York: Emerson Books, Inc., 1946. 
311 PP. 

9. Biester, Griffiths and Pearce. Units in Personal 

Health aM Human Relations. Minnesota: University 
of Minnesota Press, 1947* 267 pp. 

10. Bigelow, M. A. Sex Education . New York: The Ameri¬ 
can Social Hygiene Association. 307 pp. 




















« 

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. . .. ■» t . .. . .owOaexiCii:. 

( ..a. 

• r C VL J. I.:' ... ;< . ■ 1. i\i . xDiOQ ., ObO 









- 133 - 


11. Butterfield, Oliver M. Love Problems of xholes - 
■SLSIlce,. New York: Emerson Books, Inc., 1939 * 

212 pp. 

12. Chesser, E. and Z. Dawe. The Practise of Sex 
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13* Lloyd-Jones, Esther and Ruth Redder. Coming of 
Age . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1941. 280 pp. 

14. Mooney, Belle Stoll. How Shall X Tell liv Child . 

Toronto: Blue Ribbon Book Co., 1947* 192 pp. 

15. Strain, Frances B, New Patterns in Sex Teaching . 
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16. Strain, Prances B. sex Guidance in Parnilv Educa ¬ 
tion . New York: Macmillan, 1942. 348 pp. 

17. Swift, Edith Hale. Step bv Step in Sex Education . 

New York: Macmillan, 1938. 207 pp. 

18. The American social Hygiene Association. A Clas ¬ 
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The American Social Hygiene Association, 1948. 

19. Walker, K. The Psychology: of S_e_x . London: 

Penguin, 1940. 

20. Wetherill, Gage G. Human Relations Education. 

New York: The American Social Hygiene Association, 
1946. 60 pp. 

Pamily 


21. Bigelow, W. P. and H. Judy-Bond. The Good House¬ 
keeping Marriage Book . New York: Prentice-Hall, 































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..-k, 0^ . .... 

' ' . . .Jv 

. 

._. * • * ? • ' * 

. . : ? . : . . . _ ■ 

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-i.' . . JLi . . - • . • . ... 

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. . . . ? . : . • . 

. :.rL. .... . ■ ;ic ..... . '. ... . . 

.. . 

• ■ . - t . v - j . ., ,!r;.Vu 


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t . \ : f.i .. 

•i. ; «, . <..... : v .''. ,. 

C 


...V...,-, .. . .... : . .. , 

c ■ -- : . : • . .i.. 






- 134 - 


1938. 182 pp. 

22. Commission on Education for Family Life. Education 
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D. C.: American Association of School Administra¬ 
tors, 1941. 3^8 pp. 

23. Drummond, Laura W. Youth and Instruction in Marri ¬ 

age and Family Living . New York: Bureau Publica¬ 
tions, ‘teachers College, 194 2. . 186 pp. 

24. Goldstein, Sidney M. Marriage and Family Counseling . 

New York: McGraw-Hill, 1943. 437 pp. 

23. Groves, E. R. and Glades H. The Contemporary Ameri ¬ 
can I'amilv . Chicago: Lippincott, 194 7* 838 pp. 

26. Hart, Eornell and Ella B. Personality and the. 

Family . Boston: Heath, revised, 1941. 326 pp. 

27. Osborn, F. C. Preface to Eugenics . New York: 

Harper, 1940. 312 pp. 

28. Popenoe, Paul and R. Johnson, Applied Eugenics . 

New York: Macmillan, revised, 1934. 429 pp. 

29. Schmiedeler, Rev. Edgar, marriage, and the EamilY . 

New York: McGraw-Hill, 1946. 283 PP* 

For Young Men and XoaingLmomeii 

30. Alsop, F. G. and M. F‘. MacBride. Sheds. Off to 

Marriage . New York: Vanguard, 1942. 268 pp. 

31. Corner, G. W. Attaining Manhood . New York: 

Harper, 1939. 93 pp. 




























lJ : .. no 








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.... 3£l. 


i'~,; ^ , j - r; ' ; 




O 0 




oS c 




'.1.0.'. 




e o»o,. • r.j . .v :oo..o 
000.0 .L'jjx 









- 135 - 


32. Corner, G. W. Attaining Womanhood. New York: 
Harper, 1535. 53 pp. 

53. Crisp, Katherine B. Health for You . Chicago: 

Lippincott, 1546. 576 pp. 

54. Dickerson, R. E. Growing into Manhood . New York: 

Associated Press, 1553. 100 pp. 

35* Dickerson, H. E. lo Youth May Know . New York: 
Associated Press, 1533. 100 pp. 

56. Duvall, Evelyn M. and Reuben Hill. When You 
Marry . New York: Associated Press, 1545. 450 pp. 

57. Redder, Ruth. A Girl Grows Up . New York: 

McGraw-Hill, 1535- 235 pp. 

58. Roster, R. G. Marriage and Ramilv Relationshins . 

New York: Macmillan, 1544. 514 pp. 

55. Groves, E. R., Edna Skinner, Sadie Swenson. The 

Family M lid BdldMmdhiPd. Chicago: Lippincott, 
revised edition, 1548. 470 pp. 

40. Johnson, R. H. and others. Looking Toward Marriage . 

New York: Allyn and Bacon, 1546. 55 PP* 

41. McLean, Donald. Knowing Yourself aifd Others . 

New York: Holt, 1558. 275 pp. 

42. Pemberton, Lois. 'The, stork DidnVt. Bring You . 
Toronto: George J. Macleod Ltd., 1548. 

45. Strain, Frances B. Love at the Threshold . 

New York: Appleton-Century, 1535. 345 pp. 

44. Welshimer, Helen. The Questions Girls -isk . 





























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- 136 - 


New York: Dutton, 194-3. 128 pp. 

43. Wood, Mildred Weigley. Living Together in the 

Family , The .American Home economics Association. 

236 pp. 










- 137 


APPENDIX A. 


SAMPLE LECTURES PROM 


THE "GROWING UP" MONOGRAPH 











- 138 - 


SAMPLE LESSONS EOR GIRLS 
Lesson I 

You are growing up. You are getting ready to 
go to junior high school. We are having these classes 
because there are certain things you should know about 
growing up before leaving elementary school. 

a part of growing up is learning to take res¬ 
ponsibility. Now that our country is at war, many of 
your fathers are away from home and your mothers are 
working. The mothers who are working really have two 
jobs, one at home and one away from home. You can 
help them most by doing what they tell you to do. 
Sometimes it is hard to know why we must do certain 
things and why we can T t do others. It will help a 
great deal if you will try to remember that your 
mothers are much older and have had many more experi¬ 
ences than you. 

When your mothers tell your little brothers 
and sisters that they can T t do certain things, you 
can understand the reason because you are older. 

What are some of these things? 

An example that might be harder to understand 
is that of Jane. Jane is 12 years old. bhe wanted 
to go to the Army and Navy War Show in the evening 
with a girl friend of about the same age. Her mother 
would not let her go. Of course, one reason was that 
the next day was a school day and that she would be 
tired and not able to do her school work if she were 
up late. 

Another reason is that san Diego is crowded 
with strangers -- defense workers and service people. 
Until recently, Jane had lived among people whom her 
parents knew. She is a friendly girl. Her mother 
was afraid she might pick up an acquaintance with 
some stranger. Jane and her friend might think that 
the stranger was very nice. He might be, but then 
again he might just appear to be nice. He might talk 
the girls into doing things that might lead to diffi¬ 
culties, even to real trouble for them. Jane T s mother 
did not want to keep her from having a good time, but 
she wanted to protect her to keep her from unhappiness. 

Part of growing up is learning to choose friends. 
We need to know some things about people before we be¬ 
come friends. We want to be with people who think and 




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act the way we do -- people who like things we like. 
Your parents want you to have a good time with your 
friends. They want to help you find friends. Jane's 
mother wanted to protect her. I want to protect all 
of you. I am asking you not to pick up acquaintances 
with strangers. 

Doing as your mother wants you to do is per¬ 
haps the greatest way of helping her, but most of you 
help in other ways also — washing dishes, making 
beds, and helping to care for the baby and younger 
brothers and sisters. Let T s take time to tell some 
of the ways we help at home. 

You are all taking more and more responsibility 
because you are older and your mother can depend on 
you. Some things about growing up are very personal. 
We feel that you are old enough to realize that what 
we are going to discuss is not to be talked about on 
the school grounds. If we hear of your discussing 
them on the grounds, in front of boys, or of your 
acting u silly ,r about them, we will know that we made 
a mistake. You v/ere not old enough to have these 
discussions. 

How many help care for a younger brother or 
sister or a neighbor child? What are some of the 
things you do for them? How many have bathed a little 
brother or sister? Would you like to know the right 
names for certain parts of the body and their purpose? 
The body is the most wonderful machine in the world. 
The body has more parts than an automobile, but the 
body is like an automobile in many ways. If you care 
for it as you should, it will run more smoothly and 
last much longer. If you know the right names of the 
different parts of the automobile and how it should 
run, it is easier to tell the garage repair man just 
what is wrong when it doesn T t run as it should.- The 
same is true of the body: if you know the parts by 
their right names, it is easier to tell your mother, 
the nurse, or the doctor when something is wrong. It 
is less embarrassing also. 

The T breast T is the gland, or the part of the 
body that supplies milk for the baby. The point, or 
the T nipple T , is the mouthpiece of the breast. 

The baby T s breasts are very small, When girls 
are about 11 or 12 their breasts start to grow; they 
become tender and should be protected from injury. 

As the breasts become larger, they should be supported 
by a brassiere. 


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140 


In the center of the abdomen we have a small 
place, often called a button; the right name is r navel 1 . 
I will tell you more about that when we talk about how 
the baby becomes alive and is born. The navel should 
be kept clean and dry. 

The fatty part on which we sit is called the 
T buttocks T . The opening between the cheeks of the 
buttocks through which we get rid of waste material 
is called the T anus T . We often hear this spoken of 
as the r rectum T , but the rectum is really the lower 
part of the ! bowel T . The bowels are the tubes which 
carry the solid waste material from the body. We 
call this act "moving the bowels." The waste mate¬ 
rial itself we call a T stool. T In changing the 
baby r s diaper, if he has had a stool, you should 
wash and dry him before putting on clean diapers. 

If he is not kept clean and dry, his buttocks will 
become red and sore. 

In front of the anus and between the legs, 
we have two folds of skin called the T labia T . The 
other day a girl came to my office; her face was 
red and she was embarrassed. She said she had a 
sore down there, and pointed between her legs. If 
she had known the right name to use she would have 
told me she had a sore on her labia. She wouldn ! t 
have been embarrassed and I would have known just 
where the sore was. Between the folds of the labia 
there are two small openings. The very small open¬ 
ing in the front is attached by a small tube to the 
T bladder. T The*bladder is a bag in which the waste 
water is collected. This water passes through the 
small tube and out the small opening.. We call the 
passing of this water T urination T . The waste water 
is called T urine T . The larger opening between the 
folds of the labia is called the r vagina 1 . The 
vagina is the tube, that leads to the T uterus T or 
! womb T . The uterus is shaped like a pear upside 
down. It is in the uterus that the baby grows. 

The boy does not have the folds of skin called 
the labia that the girl has, but he has a pipe or tube; 
on the outside of the body. This tube is called the 
T penis T . The small tube that carries the urine from 
the bladder passes through this larger tube to a small 
opening at the end. 

One of the most important things in the care 
of the baby and ourselves is cleanliness. In helping 
your mothers care for the younger children, I am sure 




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141 


you will be able to help her more because you will 
understand more about the body. 

Are there any questions about what we have 
discussed today? 


I am putting a question box in the Principal T s 
Office. If any of you have questions you would like 
to have answered, you may write them on a piece of 
paper and put them in the box. You do not need to 
sign your name. 


In our next lesson we are going to have the 
story of the baby -- how it becomes alive and is born. 

Lesson II 


Ml 


ation La&sori. 


Head the entire boo£ on Growing Up . by Karl de 
Schweinitz. It will take about 43 minutes. Since the 
purpose of this lesson is appreciation, no oral ques¬ 
tions or discussions will be included. After you 
finish reading the story, say to the children, "If 
there are parts of this story you have not understood, 
or if you have questions you wish to ask, you may 
write them on a piece of paper, sign your name, and 
put them in the question box." 


Ap&r o a c h UsM TiAh £uua3J£ Book. 


Yesterday, we talked about growing up, taking 
more responsibility, helping your mothers, and choo¬ 
sing friends. I gave you the right names for different 
parts of the body and their functions. 

Today, I am going to read to you a very beau¬ 
tiful story, written by Mr. Karl de Schweinitz. This 
story is called Growing Up . It is the story of how 
we become alive, are born, and grow up. 

Aids kjxicja May Ha&j An Edoafittfelns Lesson XI. 

An Easter lily, or a picture of an Easter lily 
drawn on the blackboard, is helpful in describing pol¬ 
lination. 

The book, The Storv of a Bate , by Marie Hall Ets, 
has splendid pictures for showing the growth of the baby. 
I would suggest the pictures on pages 11, 29, 33, 41, 43, 
47, 49, 31, and 33. 















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142 


Lesson III 


I have asked each of you girls, at the time I 
checked your health card, if you had started to men¬ 
struate, or to have your monthly period. Some of you 
said you had and some of you had not. Menstruation 
is a part of growing up. It is a slight flow of blood 
from the body. This flow will continue for several 
days and then stop. It will happen about once each 
month. It is perfectly natural and normal. Because 
it happens about once a month, it is often spoken of 
as the monthly period, or sometimes just period. The 
word for month in Latin is T mensis T and that is where 
we get our word menstruation. 


(Write on board: 


monthly period 

^tion.; 


mg. A S. ig - 


Before your monthly period starts, you will 
notice changes in your body. Your breasts will start 
growing and hair will start growing under your arms 
and on other parts of your body. 


While these changes are taking place on the 
outside of your body, other changes are going on in¬ 
side the body. There is a little gland at the base 
of the brain that is the main control-center of men¬ 
struation. When you start to mature, this gland 
sends messages through the blood stream to the ovaries. 
The ovaries respond by sending messages to the uterus. 
The lining of the uterus then grows soft, thick, and 
full of blood. While this is happening to the uterus, 
an important change is taking place in the ovary. 
Several of the eggs begin to ripen. When an egg is 
ready, it comes to the surface of the ovary and goes 
into the abdomen. This egg is then picked up by the 
end of the tube and carried through it to the uterus. 

If a male cell or sperm meets the egg within the tube, 
fertilization takes place. That means that the male 
cell and the female egg join. The fertilized egg then 
goes into the uterus and plants itself in the lining 
that has been prepared for it. It then begins to grow 
to be a baby. 

If fertilization does not take place, the egg 
goes on down through the tube into the uterus. It 
gradually dies and passes out through the vagina. 

Nature then has no further need for the carefully pre¬ 
pared lining of the uterus. So the lining with its 
extra supply of blood breaks down and leaves the body 
through the vagina as menstrual flow. 






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- 143 - 


After a few days of flow, the lining gradually 
begins to heal and build up again and get ready for 
the next monthly period. 

Menstruation is a part of growing up. It is 
helping to prepare your bodies so that some day you 
can have babies. 

Menstruation is an normal as eating, sleeping, 
or breathing. I don T t ever want to hear one of you 
girls say you are sick or having your sick period. 

It is not a sick period. It is a perfectly normal 
part of living and growing up. 

Your periods may not be exactly the same as 
those of your friends. But neither are you always 
hungry or sleepy when they are. We weren T t planned 
to be exactly alike. We can be quite different and 
still be normal. For instance, some girls begin to 
menstruate as young as 10. Others begin as old as 
16 or 17. Some girls menstruate every 21 days and 
others may go as long as 42 days between periods. 

Most girls menstruate about every 28 days but even 
this may vary from three to six days and still be 
normal. If you vary more than three to six days 
from your own regular period, you should consult 
your doctor. When the menstrual period first begins, 
it may take a year before you become regular. 

Most girls menstruate about five days, though 
some girls may menstruate only two days and others 
seven days, and still be normal. 

The amount of flow also varies with different 

girls. 


The amount of blood lost during menstruation 
is small. It is not enough to weaken you and it is 
promptly replaced by your blood system. 

It is a good idea to keep a record of the day 
your period starts each month and of how long it 
lasts. You can check your regularity this way, and 
you T 11 know when to expect your next period so that 
you can be sure to have sanitary napkins on hand. 

If you should have to consult a doctor, your 
record will be very helpful. (Demonstrate.) Draw 
a circle around the day your period starts; draw a 
line through the following days of your menstrual 
flow. Repeat each month — and you T 11 have an ac¬ 
curate record. 


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144 


If you are in poor physical condition (and 
sometimes for other reasons), you may stop men¬ 
struating. The stopping of menstruation does not 
cause illness, but it is the illness that causes 
menstruation to stop. This is one of nature T s 
ways of warning you that something is wrong. If 
your periods stop after you have become regular, 
consult your doctor. The only time menstrual 
periods stop normally are when a woman is expec¬ 
ting a baby and when she is nursing her baby. 

Most girls don T t have any warning that men¬ 
struation is coming: they just begin to menstruate. 
Others may have a feeling of heaviness in the lower 
abdomen, or a slight lower backache. This is caused 
by the increased blood in the uterus. The breasts 
may also become a bit heavier and a little more 
tender. These things are entirely normal. While 
they may annoy you, don T t let them give you the 
blues. Just keep yourself busy and fit, and you T 11 
be surprised hov/ unimportant they become. 

Be sensible about menstruation. It will come 
and go and not bother you at all if you don T t think 
about it too much. 

There are certain things that you should do 
and should not do during menstruation. 

Remember that menstruation is not an illness - 
so don T t use menstruation as an excuse to baby your¬ 
self or to get out of doing things you happen to dis¬ 
like doing. If everything is all right, be a good 
sport. If something is wrong, see your doctor. He 
will help you. Food is important. You should eat 
sensibly (not just when you are menstruating but all 
the time). Vegetables, fruits, cereals, butter, meat, 
eggs, and milk should be the foundation of your diet. 
Don T t over-eat. Moderate exercise is good for you at 
this time, but don T t overdo it. Don't let yourself 
get too tired. Your teacher will excuse you from 
games for the first three days during your monthly 
period, and you will be excused from Physical Educa¬ 
tion in junior high school for the first three days 
of your period. 

Poor posture is one of the causes of menstrual 
pain. "Stand tall.' 1 Try to avoid activities that 
make you very nervous or excited. 


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- 145 - 


It is always important to avoid constipation. 
Constipation is caused by the bowels not moving every 
day as they should. The solid waste matter packs in 
the lower bowel. It is especially important to avoid 
constipation during menstruation. It may cause you 
unnecessary pain. You should eat the right foods, 
drink plenty of water, and attempt to empty your 
bowels at the same time every day. 

Get plenty of sleep - at least eight hours 
every night. You will feel much better. 

Bathing is more important than ever during your 
period. The menstrual flow has a slight odor. The 
sweat glands also work overtime during your period. A 
daily bath is necessary. 

Many girls can take tub baths; others prefer a 
shower or sponge bath. A sponge bath is washing the 
parts of the body that might produce an odor as you 
would wash your hands and face with warm water and 
soap at the washbowl. In any case, the water should 
not be too cold or too hot. Hot water may increase 
the flow and chilling may stop it. The room should 
also be warm and free from drafts. 

Wet clothing should be changed as soon as pos¬ 
sible, especially wet shoes and stockings. You are 
much more likely to take cold during menstruation. 

You should avoid chilling from any cause during men¬ 
struation. 

(Show napkin and belt.) 

The longer you vfear a napkin, the greater the 
odor of the menstrual flow. Regardless of the amount 
on the napkin, you should change three or four times 
a day if possible. You should always use a fresh 
napkin when you go to bed and another in the morning. 
If possible, you should wash yourself with soap and 
warm water when you change your napkin. You will be 
more comfortable and you will not offend others by 
having an unpleasant odor. 

Questions? 

This completes our lessons on growing up. If 
there are further questions, you may write them on a 
piece of paper, sign your name, and put them in the 
box in the Principal’s Office. I will arrange a con¬ 
ference with you. 


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- 146 - 


SAMPLE LESSONS FOR BOYS 
Lesson I 

You are growing up. Most of you are getting 
ready to go to junior high school. We are having 
these classes because there are certain things you 
should know about growing up before leaving elemen¬ 
tary school. 

A part of growing up is learning to take res¬ 
ponsibility. Many of your fathers are away from home. 
They expect you to be “the man of the house,” to be 
responsible for the younger children, and to help your 
mother as much as you can. Many of your mothers are 
working. The mothers who are working really have two 
jobs, one at home and one away from home. They are 
tired when they get home from work and they need your 
help. You can help your mother most by doing what she 
tells you to do. Sometimes it is hard to know why we 
must do certain things and why we can T t do others. As 
we grow we gain experience that helps us to understand 
the reasons for doing certain things and not doing 
others. Our mothers are older and have had many more 
experiences than we have had. You are older and have 
had more experiences than your younger brothers and 
sisters. You can understand why your mother will al¬ 
low them to do certain things and why she will not 
allow them to do others. What are some of these things? 

There are certain things that your mother will 
not allow you to do. These things are harder for you 
to understand. They include such things as not allow¬ 
ing you to hang around street corners or pool rooms, 
and not allowing you to go to town at night. She wants 
to know where you are and what you are doing. She ex¬ 
pects you to be home by dark, bhe wants you to go to 
bed early, so you will not be tired the next day and 
will be able to do good school work. She has pride in 
your clean, neat appearance and your good manners. 

Another part of growing up is learning to choose 
friends. Before the war, most of you lived among 
people whom your parents knew. San Diego Is now quite 
a different city than it used to be. It is crowded 
with strangers - defense workers and service people. 

It is harder to choose friends. We need to know aome 
things about people before we become friends. We want 
to be with people who think and act the way we do, 
people who like things we like. Choosing the wrong 
type of friend often leads to trouble. Sometimes they 


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- 147 - 


talk us into doing things that we know are wrong, 
things that may lead to serious difficulties. Your 
parents want you to have a good time with your 
friends. They will help you choose friends. 

You are all taking more responsibility because 
you are older and your mother can depend on you. 

There are many things you do to help at home - going 
to the store, paying bills, cleaning the yard, help¬ 
ing with the housework, and caring for the younger 
children. Let T s take time to tell of some of the ways 
we help at home. 

Some things about growing up are very personal. 

We feel that you are old enough to realize that what 
we are going to discuss is not to be talked about on 
the school grounds. If we hear of your discussing 
them on the grounds or of your acting "silly” about 
them, we will know that we made a mistake. You were 
not old enough to have these discussions. 

How many help care for a younger brother, sis¬ 
ter, or neighbor child? What are some of the things 
you do for them? How many have bathed a little bro¬ 
ther or sister? Would you like to know the right 
names for certain parts of the body, and their purposes? 
The body is the most wonderful machine in the world. 

The body has more parts than an automobile, but the 
body Is like an automobile in many ways. If you care 
for It as you should, it will run more smoothly and 
last much longer. If you know the right names of the 
different parts of the automobile and how it should 
run, it is easier to tell the garage repair man just 
what is wrong when it doesn T t run as it should. The 
same is true of the body: if you know the parts by 
their right names, it is easier to tell your mother, 
the nurse, or the doctor Y/hen something is wrong. 

It is less embarrassing also. 

The T breast T is the gland on the mother T s body 
that supplies milk for the baby. The point, or T nipple I , 
is the mouthpiece of the breast. 

The baby T s breasts are very small. Boys T breasts 
do not develop, but when girls are 11 or 12 their 
breasts start to grow. They become tender and should 
be protected from injury. 

In the center of the abdomen we have a small 
place often called a button; the right name is T navel T . 

I will tell you more about that when we have the story 
of how the baby becomes alive and is born. The navel 
should be kept clean and dry. 


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- 148 - 


The fatty part on which we sit is called the 
'buttocks*. The opening between the cheeks of the 
buttocks through which we get rid of the solid waste 
material is called the T anus T . We often hear this 
spoken of as the T rectum T but the rectum is really 
the lower part of the 'bowel T . The bov/els are the 
tubes which carry the solid waste material from the 
body. We call this act "moving the bowels." The 
waste material itself we call a T stool 1 , when your 
mother changes the baby T s diaper * if he has had a 
stool, she should wash and dry him before putting on 
clean diapers. If he is not kept clean and dry, his 
buttocks will become red and sore. 

In front and between the legs, boys have a 
pipe or tube on the outside of the body. This tube 
is called the T penis T . There is a small tube inside 
the penis which leads to the T bladder. T The bladder 
is a bag in which the waste water is collected. This 
water passes through the tube and out an opening at 
the end of the penis. Yv r e call the passing of the 
water T urination T . The waste water is called T urine T . 


Behind the penis is a pouch , of skin called the 
T scrotum 1 . Inside this pouch or bag are two rounded 
bodies called the T testes T , or testicles 1 . I will 
tell you more about them later. 

The girl does not have the tube on the outside 
of the body as the boy has, but she has two folds of 
skin. Between the folds of skin are two openings. 

The small opening In front is attached by a small 
tube to the bladder, and it is through this that she 
gets rid of the waste water or the urine. The larger 
opening between the folds of skin leads to the T uterus T , 
or the T womb T . The uterus is shaped like a pear upside 
down. It is in the uterus that the baby grows. 


One of the most important things in the care of 
the baby and ourselves is cleanliness. In helping your 
mothers care for the children, I am sure you will be 
able, to help her more because you will understand more 
about the. body. 


Are there any questions about things other than 
those we have discussed today? If you have questions 
about things other than those we have discussed, you 

may write them, sign your name, and put them In the 
question box. I will leave the oox in one on ice 


In our next lesson we are going to have the story 
of the baby - how it becomes alive and is born. 


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- 149 - 


Lesson II 


AJ1 




Read the entire book on Growing Up T by Karl 
de Schweinitz. It will take about 43 minutes# Since 
the purpose of this lesson is appreciation, no oral 
questions or discussion will be included. After you 
finish reading the story, say to the children, "If 
there are parts of this story you have not understood, 
or if you have questions you wish to ask, you may 
write them on a piece of &aper, sign your name, and 
put them in the question box." 

Ap_cr.Q_ach._Us.ed '.Lit_h. PunLLs Before Reading ..-Rook . 

Yesterday, we talked about growing up, taking 
more responsibility, helping your mothers, and choosing 
friends. I gave you the right names for different 
parts of the body and their functions. 

Today, I am going to read to you a very beauti¬ 
ful story, written by Mr, Karl de Sch?feinitz. The story 
is called Growing Up . It is the story of how we become 
alive, are born, and grow up. 

Aids UliicJa May Be. gas& in Presenting L&sson IX. 


An Easter lily, or a picture of an Easter lily 
drawn on the blackboard, is helpful in describing pol¬ 
lination. 


The book, The St or v of’ & Baby . by Marie Hall Ets, 
has splendid pictures on pages 11 , 29, 33, 41 , 43, 47 , 
49, 31, and 33. 


Lesson III 

You have all noticed many changes in yourselves, 
indicating the fact that you are growing up. You are 
growing larger and taller. Hair is starting to grow 
in the armpits, on the face, and on other parts of the 
body. 


When a boy is 13 to 16 years old, his voice 
usually changes. The Adam T s apple gradually becomes 
larger and the voice cords inside grow longer and 
thicker. Since longer cords give the voice a lower 
tone, we say the voice changes# When the change is 
complete, the boy speaks with the deeper voice of a 
















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- 150 - 


man. During the time that the change is taking place, 
the voice may suddenly break into a squeak. This 
happens because the muscles controlling the voice 
cords are not yet used to managing the longer cords 
and sometimes pull them too tight, making the voice 
high. Such breaks are quite common and are nothing 
to worry about. When the voice is changing, it may 
be husky and disagreeable. This condition is only 
temporary and won T t last long. During this period 
there are other changes taking place. The testes or 
testicles, scrotum, and penis are growing. 

The testicles are formed inside the abdomen 
of the baby boy long before he is born. Shortly 
before birth, the testicles pass down into the scro¬ 
tum. Boy babies normally have two testicles in the 
scrotum. Occasionally, either one or both may fail 
to pass down as they should. A boy who finds he 
does not have tv/o testicles (round masses or balls) 
in the scrotum should ask his parents to take him 
to a doctor. The trouble can often be corrected 
without much difficulty. The testes are lined with 
many small tubes and it is in these tubes that the 
sperms, or the male cells, are formed. They are 
very small; they develop long tails and look some¬ 
thing like a polywog. When they are complete sperm 
cells, they break off and are free in the tubes. 

The little tubes in the testicles connect with a 
single larger tube in which there is a fluid called 
T semen T , or T seminal fluid 1 . It is in this fluid 
that the sperm cells are floated and kept in good 
condition. This single tube leads to the same tube 
(urethra) from which the waste water passes through 
the penis to the opening on the end. 

(A diagram of a sperm cell as seen under the 
microscope is in the booklet at this point.) 

The accumulation of fluid in these tubes 
sometimes reaches the point of over-fullness. When 
this happens, the organs empty themselves by a dis¬ 
charge of whitish fluid, or semen, through the penis. 
This usually happens at night and is often accom¬ 
panied by dreams. It is commonly spoken of as a 
"wet dream. M The right name is T nocturnal emission 1 . 
These emissions may not occur for the first time 
until a boy is 15 or 16 years old. It is a natural 
way by which the body disposes of the excess fluid, 
and it happens to practically every boy. There are 
"quack 1 * doctors who advertise that wet dreams are 
harmful, that they are a sign of weakness, that they 




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151 - 


are an indication of loss of manhood. These state¬ 
ments are not true. They are trying to frighten boys 
and men into buying useless medicine or taking useless 
treatment. Remember, these emissions are normal and 
happen to almost all men and boys. Do not go to 
quack or advertising doctors. 

There are times when a good deal of blood ac¬ 
cumulates in the penis, it becomes enlarged and hard, 
and lifts from a hanging to an upright position. 

This condition is known as an 1 erection 1 . It may 
take place at any time. Sometimes it is caused by a 
full bladder. Emptying the bladder and doing some 
physical exercise such as walking or running will 
usually cause it to return to normal. 

All boys discover at some time that handling 
and rubbing the penis causes erection and a pleasant 
feeling. You have probably heard that this practice 
is a dangerous drain on your strength, that you might 
become insane, and other such statements. These 
statements are not true and have caused some boys a 
good deal of worry. Modern doctors know that occa¬ 
sional practice of this act is not harmful. No boy 
should be worried about these false statements and 
ideas or think that he is "dirty" minded or lacking 
in self-control. Worry is not necessary and will 
not help. 

Even though you should not worry over this 
act, it should not be continued or practiced. It 
shows a childish lack of control. All boys take 
pride in learning to manage themselves. A part of 
growing up is learning to manage your mind and body. 
You are -proud when you learn to dive and swim, when 
you can pitch a curve or hit a fly or win a race. 

You are proud when you have learned to control fear 
and anger. You will be proud when you have learned 
to control your sex feelings, just as you have been 
proud in learning to manage your mind and body in 
other ways. The men whom we admire the most, men 
who have made the greatest success in life, are men 
who have learned to manage their minds and bodies. 

I wish we could take time to talk of some of these 
men, like Robert Louis Stevenson and Glenn Cunningham. 

In the story of the baby, we spcke of the eggs 
in the ovaries of the mother. When girls are 12 or 
13 years old these eggs start to ripen, and once each 
month an egg leaves one of the ovaries and goes to 


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- 152 - 


the uterus, which has been prepared for it. Since 
the girl is too young to have married and mated, 
there is no sperm to meet the egg and start it 
growing to be a baby, so it stays in the uterus 
for a little while and then passes out through the 
vagina. Since there is no need for the carefully 
prepared uterus, its walls break down and a flow 
of blood passes from the body. This happens about 
once each month and is spoken of as the monthly 
period, or menstruation. It usually lasts four or 
five days. In most girls, it does not cause any 
inconvenience, but in some it Is accompanied by 
pain and discomfort. Girls should avoid strenuous 
exercise during the first few days of their periods. 
They should not go swimming and should avoid becom¬ 
ing chilled. I am telling you of this change that 
takes place in girls so you will understand why 
there are certain days when girls will not go swim¬ 
ming or will not play the more strenuous games. 

There is a false statement that boys quite 
often hear from older boys and men, and that is "A 
boy does not become a man until he has had sex re¬ 
lations with a girl.” This is not at all true. In 
fact, it is quite the opposite. Boys who have 
learned to master their feelings and emotions are 
much stronger and better men than those who try to 
find a reason for their weaknesses. Sex relation¬ 
ship with a girl before you have grown up and 
married is a cheap thing. There is a feeling of 
doing wrong and a feeling of fear. When you are 
grown up, when you are old enough to choose and 
marry the woman you love and admire and want for 
the mother of your children, then mating or sex 
relations becomes a beautiful thing. It is an ex¬ 
pression of love. 

There are other reasons why boys and girls 
should not mate before they are grown and married. 
The girl may become pregnant; that is, the boy may 
start a baby growing. This causes untold misery. 

As we have mentioned before, every baby needs a 
mother and a father; it needs a home where it is 
wanted and loved. A boy and girl can not give a 
baby the home it needs. They are too young. The 
girl would have to leave school and bear the dis¬ 
grace and unhappiness of having an unwanted baby.^ 

If a boy is really manly, he will be strong enough 
to control himself and not take the chance of caus¬ 
ing so much unhappiness. 


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153 - 


There is another reason boys should not have 
sex relations before they are married. It is one of 
the ways they may catch one or both of two serious 
diseases. The names of these diseases are gonorrhea 
and syphilis. Both of these diseases are very seri¬ 
ous. They cause a great deal of pain and suffering 
and sometimes take a long time to cure, but with 
proper treatment they can be cured. Older boys may 
tell you that there are ways to avoid catching these 
diseases, but these are dangerous and uncertain. 

Your best protection is to have no sex relationship 
until you marry. A person who thinks he might have 
been exposed to one of these diseases should go at 
once to a good doctor. 

If boys want to grow up to be men whom people 
will admire and respect they must learn to use"self- 
control, including the control of sex desire. In 
this way, they can avoid bringing unhappiness and 
injury to themselves and others. 

In addition to learning to control your mind 
and your desires, there are things you can do which 
will help you to build strong bodies. We won T t have 
time to discuss all of these things, but we will 
discuss some of the most important ones. 

Your bodies are growing. You need the right 
kind of food to furnish material for growth and 
energy. You should have the following foods every 
day: at least two glasses of milk, a whole grain 
cereal (preferably a hot cooked cereal for break¬ 
fast), one egg and one serving of meat, fish, or 
fowl, two vegetables other than potato (one a green 
or yellow vegetable), and fruit (one should be 
citrus). You should have three meals at regular 
times. Breakfast is the most important meal of 
the day. Your body has been without food for 12 
to lj? hours. It needs fuel in order to run as it 
should, just as an automobile needs gasoline in 
order to run. Quite a number of boys get up too 
late in the morning to have time for breakfast. 

Around 10 or 11 o T clock they feel tired and irri¬ 
table; their heads-ache and their stomachs hurt. 

Their bodies are trying to let them know that they 
need food. If you are one of the boys who has been 
coming to school without breakfast, try getting up 
earlier and eating a good breakfast. You will feel 
much better. 


Your body needs water 


You should drink six 


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to eight glasses of water every day. Tfater helps 
your body to get rid of waste material. 

In order to keep yourselves in the best con¬ 
dition, boys of your age need at least 10 or 11 hours 
sleep every night. Men who are athletes recommend 
at least 9 hours sleep when in training. A great pole 
vaulter says that during his career he slept 10 hours 
a night. 

Good posture is important to health and people 
admire boys who sit, stand, and walk "tall." Sunshine, 
fresh air, and exercise all contribute to building 
good health. Do not overdo exercise. Quit when you 
are tired. 

The getting rid of body waste material is very 
important. You should form a habit of going to the 
toilet at the same time every day. Eating the right 
food and drinking enough water will help. 

Bathing helps to keep the skin healthy, and to 
prevent body odors which are offensive to others. 

When possible, a daily bath or shower is desirable. 
When bathing, boys should slip back the skin which 
folds over the end of the penis and wash carefully 
the surface underneath. 

Boys who wear rubber-soled shoes, or whose 
feet sweat or perspire very much should wash their 
feet and change their socks every day. They should 
put their shoes in the sun as often as possible. 

Teeth contribute a great deal to good health. 
They should be carefully brushed after breakfast and 
before going to bed. You should visit your dentist 
at least twice a year so that he will find any pits 
and cavities that are starting, and fill them. In 
this way, your teeth can be kept healthy and clean 
and in condition to chew your food properly. 

Today I have told you some of the most impor¬ 
tant things you need to remember if you wish to build 
a strong and healthy body. 

Are there any questions you wish to ask about 
the things we have discussed? 

If there are things you are worried about, or 
things you don T t understand, you should talk them 
over with your parents, your teacher, principal, 


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Scout leader, Boys T Club leader, or some adult in 
whom you have confidence. 

In case questions come to your mind, I am 
leaving a box where you may leave your questions. 
Please sign them so that I may talk with you indi¬ 
vidually about your problems. 


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- 156 - 


APPENDIX B. 


SUGGESTED TOPICS ON HUMAN RELATIONS 
IN HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS 



- 157 - 


Biology 

I. ii&nr Qauction .on various levels . 

1. Kinds of reproduction: division, budding, asexual, 
and sexual. 

2. Hole of both parents in plants, fishes, birds, and 
mammals. 

5* Plant, lower animal, and human structure. 

II. £to9lga,3. ajil fifflakl Q inaJL development . 

1. Specific changes at puberty and their role in the 
process of growing up. 

a. Physical changes in both sexes. 

b. Manifestations of sexual development. 

c. Maturation of reproductive glands and their 
role as part of the system of glands of 
internal secretion. 

d. Relation of glands to reproductive function. 

2. Physical development. 

a. Work of hormones and glands of internal 
secretion. 

3. Differing problems of the sexes. 

a. Differences in manifestations of sex urge 
between the sexes. 

b. Differences in strength of sex impulse. 

c. Current fallacies about sex urge and neces¬ 
sity for satisfying. 

4. Control of sex impulse based upon controlling the 
stimuli to the central nervous system. 

a. Emotional controls, 

b. Effect of alcohol and other agents in reducing 
controls. 

III. Individual as & link from one generation to another 

1. Principles and facts of heredity. 

2. Eugenics and the race. 

3. The individual T s responsibility to his children. 

IV. Growth sL baby . 

1. Development of fetus. 

a. Growth from microscopic cells to full-term baby 

b. Nutrition of fetus. 

c. Fallacious ideas regarding prenatal influences. 

d. Effects of alcohol and narcotics on fetus. 

2. Birth. 

3. Growth after birth. 















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- 158 - 


V. 


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2 . 

3 . 


VI. 


1. 

2 . 

4. 

5. 


VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 


X. 


XI. 


Necessity of good mental hygiene and ill effects 
of abusing or overtaxing the nervous system. 
Menstruation. 

Venereal disease. 

a. Effect on general health. 

b. Sterility. 

lexblos ffieA t. qJL salf in relation to 
ntksx XmLLX members . 

Desire for independence. 

Growth of general intelligence, and reasoning. 
Need for self expression. 

Role of nervous system. 

Reasons and methods for parental restraints or 
adolescent self-expression. 

a. Limitations of adolescent judgment. 

b. Growth of desires. 


JSaaSJB. mils body baling: .to do with renro - 

bn.c.tL o a nad 


The nnimrmllty. m s^x a m o££ animals and -plants . 
Germination m iMs. 


Menstruation : ik la X 


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and -plants . 


Home Economics 


i. EoHslm* 

Better housing. 

Household cleanliness and attractiveness. 
Accident prevention and first aid in the home. 
Social value of slum clearance. 

II. Improved mjxLai b&alth £f families* 

•Reduction of disease among members of family. 
Value of cleanliness to personality. 

Greater pride and civic responsibility among 
people. 

Contribution of family to its members. 

Background for family living and growth. 

How home sets standards, attitudes and ideals 
Of its members. 





































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Family in relation to community. 

Relations of accidents in home to family life. 
Securing social acceptance without lowering 
standards of self, family, school, church, and 
community. 

Participating in community projects. 

Respect for property of others. 

Obeying community laws. 

Disastrous results that interfere with happiness 
when an individual "bucks" social conventions. 
Difficulties commonly involved when marriage is 
made between differing races, religions and 
nationalities. 

Individual’s responsibility to the next generation. 
Preparation for marriage. 

Responsibility of being a parent. 

Role of both sexes in family life. 

Differing functions, activities, and responsi¬ 
bilities of parents. 

Value in two viewpoints. 

Cooperation in family living. 

Family harmony. 

Value of family councils. 

Budgeting. 

Contribution of members to family. 

Sharing work and play. 

Mental attitudes of families. 

House versus home. 

Child care. 

Need for complete understanding between adolescents 
and parents. 

Confidence in parents by children. 

Confidence in children by parents. 

Reasons for lack of understanding. 

Awareness of developing self in relation to other 
family members. 

Growth of general intelligence. 

Growth of reasoning powers. 

Need for self-expression. 

Reasons and methods for parental restraints on 
adolescent self-expression. 

Limitation of adolescent judgment. 

Growth of desires. 

Developing of personality affected by family 
membership. 

Interest in personal appearance. 

Interest in organized clubs, groups, etc. 

Pride in own accomplishments. 

Consideration for others. 

Appreciation of inherent possibilities in fine 
home and family life. 


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The family maintains the social standards of 
conduct in outside relations. 

The family has a responsibility to provide 
proper recreation for youth in order to lessen 
the influence of organized vice. 

Parental tolerance for youths 1 forms of recreation. 
Family council on division of time and space for 
home recreation of all members of the family. 
Influences that tend to weaken the family - alcohol 
auto petting parties, public dance halls, road 
houses, etc. 

Importance of the correct spending for the mental 
satisfaction of family members. 

What comprises the income. 

Family round-table discussion of expenditures and 
household management. 

To meet family needs. 

To assume responsibility in sharing family 
finances. 

To spend wisely for good nutrition, clothing. 

How the mother T s work contributes to the 
finances of the home. 

Wise expenditures of family income. 

Food. 

Clothing for each member of the family. 
Replacement of household necessities. 

Health maintenance. 

Recreation. 

Church and community obligations. 

Culture and luxuries. 

Credit, borrowing, lending, lures of advertising 
Personality development. 

Dress, hair style and make-up. 

How to introduce people. 

Dating. 

Ent ertainment. 

Manners. 

Respect for the opposite sex. 

Normality of sex interests. 

Need for sex modesty. 

Yalue of consideration of others. 

Personality defects as the result of vulgarity 
and obscenity. 

Aping opposite sex detracts from one T s own 
att r ac t i vene s s. 

Desire to please opposite sex expressed by more 
thought of personal appearance and manners. 
Normality of adolescent desire for companions of 
opposite sex. 

Types of dates, including group dating and single 
dates. 


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- 161 - 


What to do and talk about on dates. 

How to act socially. 

Originality and entertaining. 

Popularity. 

Going steady. 

Social values of controlling the urge to fall in 
love. 

Petting. 

Selecting friends. 

Crushes. 

Important considerations to be thought of by 
couples expecting to be married. 

Personality adjustments. 

Economic stability. 

Sense of responsibility for maintaining a family. 
Sharing the work at home. 

Respect for differing skills of individuals. 
Individual responsibility for the cleanliness and 
orderliness of the house. 

Cautions to be maintained by engaged couples during 
courtship. 

Consideration for other partner. 

Evaluation of monogamy. 

Etiquette of engagement and marriage in the United 
States. 

Personality development as a means of social 
attractiveness. 

Friendly atmosphere for entertainment of friends. 
Social value of leisure time. 

The value of periods of relaxation for social and 
physical fitness. 

Manners and conventions of social life. 

Cultural experiences and development of fine ap¬ 
preciations broaden and enrich the individual. 
Cultural arts, hobbies, pets improve family life. 
Selecting a mate. 

The meaning of marriage. 

Parenthood. 

Education for parenthood. 

Heredity and the family. 

Understanding the mental, emotional and physical 
needs of family members. 

Development in adoles-cence. 

Social etiquette. 

Responsibility involved when human beings produce 
children. 

Eugenics and the family. 

Influence of venereal disease on family life. 
Prostitution as a hazard to family life. 


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- 162 - 


Talue of good prenatal care of mothers. 

Necessity for medical and dental care. 
Prevention of infections. 

Check-ups on venereal disease. 

Father T s cooperation needed for mental health 
of mother. 

Development of fetus. 

Birth and postpartum care. 

Danger of birth injuries. 

Need for venereal diseases check-up. 

Danger of infections 
Hygiene of childhood. 

Physical, mental, emotional, and social growth 
from birth to five years. 

Nutrition of childhood. 

Clothing 

Prevention of masturbation. 

Punishments and rewards as methods of con¬ 
trolling child T s behavior. 

Promiscuity and the family. 

Customs and social courtesies attending the birth 
of a baby. 

Growth and needs of a baby. 

Parts of the baby T s body (vocabulary). 
Understanding sex emotions (differences between 
love and infatuation). 

Relationships within the family (understanding) 
and control. 

The meaning of growing up. 

faking your place as a person with others. 

Growing up emotionally. 


General Science 

I. r fre_at j a ofil al M Health jg ? ,jQ. b l em s. 

A. Challenges of society. 

1. Effect of family attitudes toward changing 
social conventions. 

2. Force of influences outside the home which 
pull individuals away from home. 

3. Develop a feeling cf social responsibility. 

a. Express cost to society of social degra¬ 
dation. 

b. Express cost to society in terms of cash 
expenditures as related to social diseases. 

4. Heredity and environment. 

a. Importance and effect of surroundings. 

b. What type of things can be inherited. 

5. Relationship between health and sanitation 
(to the individual and to groups). 





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- 163 - 


B. Health problems as related to social hygiene. 
1. Endocrine and nervous systems as related 
to an individuals reactions to his sur¬ 
roundings. 

a. Reproduction in plants and animals as 
related to higher forms of life. 

Develop a healthy attitude towards 
hoy-girl, man-woman relationships, 
(a) 


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(h) 

(c) 


( 2 ) 


(3) 


Social explanation that response 
in various forms at different 
ages is natural. 

Biological explanation of in¬ 
dividual differences. 

Male-female differences not 
primarily in regard to struc¬ 
tural anatomy but in attitude, 
mental approach, et cetera. 
Discussion in class of the causes 
of feeble-mindedness, venereal 
disease, self-abuse, et cetera. 

(a) Motion pictures, pictures from 
magazines, life insurance 
materials, health department 
materials. 

Glands of the body and their rela¬ 
tionship to one another. 

Alcohol and its relationship to an indivi¬ 
dual^ reactions within his surroundings. 

a. Effects of alcoholism on family and home, 

b. Expenses of alcohol. 

c. Relationship between success and failure 
and alcohol. 

d. Body stability as affected by alcohol 
and drugs. 

e. A complete description physiologically 
and psychologically of the reaction of 
the human mind when intoxication occurs, 
(lj Parts of the brain affected. 

(2) Motor nerve reactions. 

(3) Optic nerve reactions. 

(4) Visual nerve reactions. 

(3; Danger of unaccountable conditions. 

f. Emphasis should be given to the teaching 
of ill effects produced by alcohol on 
living cells, tissues, organisms. 

Tobacco and the high school student, 
a. The effects of tobacco on athletes. 

(1) Use examples of young, well known in¬ 
dividuals (rather than a grandmother 
who lived to the age of 90 without 
touching it). 


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- 164 - 


b. The effects of tobacco on the respiratory, 
circulatory systems, et cetera, 

c. The relation between the use of tobacco 
and growing (or pre-born) children. 

d. "Cost" in terms of dollars and cents as 
well as health loss. 

e. Typical demonstrations. 

(1) Blow cigarette smoke through water 
with goldfish in it (fish sickens;. 

(2) Blow smoke through a silk handkerchief 
(yellowish green ring forms). 

(3) Draw a diagram on the board showing 
the effect of nicotine on the regula¬ 
rity of heartbeats. 

II. gp.3C,:Ul gem -discus sion. 

A. Physical and emotional changes accompanying 
"growing up." 

B. Attitudes toward boy-girl relations. 

C. Late hours and fatigue hazards. 

D. Dangers of "car dating" and petting. 

E. Dates with strangers — "pick-ups." 

P. Reproduction in plants, animals, and humans. 

G. Cars and drivers. 

III. Agencies for promoti ng proper attitude s. 

A. The school -- as a part of the regular curricular 
program — not set aside as a "special" topic. 

B. The home — the parent-teacher association should 
be one means of providing parent education In an 
active practical manner. 

C. Youth groups -- Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., Hi-Y, Boy 
Scouts, Girl Reserves, and others. 

D. Intelligent and direct treatment of issues as 
they arise in the minds of the students. 

1 . Ample use of clean scientific terms. 

2. Avoid vulgar, cheap, and sometimes common 
expressions. 


Physiology 


I. Physiol oct o£ JOSIXcaia £Xst§ia - cjg£b.£ 0 - S , 0 I n al 
and autonomic, systems . 

A. Mental hygiene. 

1. Emotional controls. 

a. Need for emotional stability. 

b. Value of self-control (joy, grief, 
pleasure, anger, sex desire). 








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c. Methods of developing self-control. 

d. Helpful channels for control of the 
fighting impulse. 

2 . Awareness of self in relation to other family- 
members. 

a. Growth of general intelligence. 

b. Growth of reasoning powers. 

c. Need for self-expression. 

d. Role of nervous system. 

3. Need for ability to recognize own powers and 
limitat ions. 

II. Per sonal 

A. Should not be a special topic but the hygiene 
of each system considered with that system. 

III. Physiology of .elim ina tion . 

A. Taken up with respiratory, digestive, and 
urinary systems. 

IV. Mloculae glaaia aM th£.i_£ ctjLoiis. 

V. Phys i ology of the reproductive system . 

A. The importance of heredity in the life of the 
child, the adolescent, the adult. 

1. The individual as a link from one genera¬ 
tion to another. 

2. Principles and facts of heredity. 

3. The individual^ responsibility to attain 
his best for his children T s sake. 

4. Substitution of scientific facts for 
superstitious beliefs. 

B. Enbryology — how human life begins. 

C. Prenatal and maternal care, birth and post¬ 
partum care discussed from the physiological 
standpoint. 

D. Specific changes of puberty and their role in 
the process of growing up. 

1. Physical changes in both sexes. (Physical 
and emotional changes which occur normally.) 

2. Manifestations of sexual development. 

3. Maturation of the reproductive glands. 

4. Relation of glands to reproductive functions. 

5. Physiology and hygiene of menstruation. 

6 . Seminal emissions. 

7 . Vocabulary and proper terminology for 
reproductive system. 









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- 166 - 


E. Physical development of fetus. 

1. Growth from microscopic cells to fill term 
baby. 

2. Nutrition of fetus. 

3* Scientific facts substituted for prenatal 
superstitions. 

4. Effects of alcohol and narcotics on fetus. 

F. Maturation of germ cells. 

1. Chromosomes as carriers of hereditary 
characteristics. 

2. Germ cells have half as many chromosomes 
as have body cells. 

3. Physical causes of sterility. 

Go Structure and functions of male reproductive 
organs. 

1. Formation of internal secretions and rela¬ 
tionship to development of secondary sex 
charact eristic s. 

2. Formation and matur at ion of spermatazoa. 

3* Formation of seminal fluid. 

H. Structure and functions of female reproductive 
organs. 

1. Formation of internal secretions which have 
to do with development of secondary sex 
characteristics. 

2. Formation, maturation of ovum and provision 
for fertilization. 

3. Formation of internal ..secretions necessary to 
maintain pregnancy if fertilization occurs. 

4. Understanding of menstrual cycle. 

3. Physiology and hygiene of the menopause. 

6. Physiology of pregnancy. 

7. Importance of proper prenatal and postnatal 

care and hygiene. 

8. Physiology of the birth of. the baby. 

?. Physical changes following birth of the baby. 
10. Birth and postpartum care. 

a. Yalue of adequate health history of mother. 

b. Importance of preventing infection. 

c. Importance of skilled care to prevent 

injury to baby or mother. 

VI. GoirnmnAcahlii 

A. Prevention versus cure. 

B. Social importance of communicable diseases includin 

venereal diseases. 

G. Physical importance of communicable diseases inclu¬ 
ding venereal diseases. 



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- 167 - 


VII. .Skeletal system . 

A. Structure of pelvis. 

1. Difference in male and female pelvis. 

2. Relation of pelvis to birth of baby. 

B. Pubic and sacro-iliac joints. 

VIII. Muse ul A £ system . 

A. Abdominal muscles — aid in parturition, defeca¬ 
tion, micturition. 


Hygiene 

I. Ms&tal hygiene . 

A. Emotional and social growth. 

1. Need for emotional stability. 

2. Value of self-control (joy, grief, anger, pain, 
pleasure, sex desire). 

3. Methods of developing self-control. 

4. Helpful channels for the control of the fighting 
impulse. 

B. Awareness of self in relation to other family members. 

1. Growth of general intelligence. 

2. Growth of reasoning powers. 

3. Need for self-expression. 

4. Role of nervous system. 

G. Need for ability to recognize own powers and limi¬ 
tations. 

II. Sex hygiene . 

A. Specific changes of puberty and their role in the 
process of growing up. 

1. Emotional and physical changes which occur 
normally at puberty. 

2. Manifestation of sexual development. 

3. Maturation of reproductive glands and their 
role as part of the system of glands of internal 
secretion. 

4. Relation of glands to reproductive function. 

B. Differing problems of the sexes. 

1. Differences in manifestation of sex urge between 
sexes. 

2. Difference of strength of sex urge. 

3. Current fallacies about sex urge and necessity 
for satisfying. 









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- 168 - 


Go The sex impulse. Normality of sex desires, 

1. Effect of alcohol in reducing controls. 

2. Effect of familiarity and licentious literature 
in increasing sex urge. 

3 . Value of self-control for the best interests of 
individuals, family, and society. 

D. Respect for the opposite sex. 

1. Need for sex modesty. 

2. Value of consideration of others. 

3. Personality defects resulting from vulgarity 
and obscenity. 

4. Aping opposite sex detracts from own hetero¬ 
sexualness. 

J?. Desire to please opposite sex expressed by more 
thought to personal appearance and manners. 

S. The importance of heredity in life of child, 

adolescent, adult. 

1. The individual as a link from one generation to 
another. 

2. Principles and facts of heredity. 

3. The individuals responsibility to attain his 
best for his childrens sake. 

4. Substitution of scientific facts for supersti¬ 
tious beliefs. 

III. Hygiene of the re productive system . 

A, Physiology and hygiene of menstruation. 

Bo Seminal emissions. 

G. Proper terminology for reproductive organs. 

D, Value of good prenatal care for mothers. 

1. Necessity of medical and dental care. 

2. Prevention of infections. 

3>. Check-ups on venereal disease. 

4. Rather T s cooperation needed for mental health of 
mother. 

E, Development of fetus. 

1. Growth from microscopic cells to full term baby. 

2. Nutrition of fetus. 

3. Replacing prenatal superstitions with scientific 
facts. 

4. Effects of alcohol and narcotics on fetus. 

F. Birth and postpartum care. 

1. Importance of skilled care in preventing injury 
to baby or mother. 

2. Importance of preventing infection. 

G. Reduction of infant and maternal mortality. 

1. What other countries have hone. 

2. 7/hat local, state, and national agencies have 
' done and can do. 

Value of better prenatal care of mothers. 





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iv. fficslfias a! 

V. P e r s o nal to^Leue. 

VI. fl cam UAlcable disease control . 

A* Control of communicable diseases. 

B. The physical, social, and economic importance of 
venereal diseases and their control. 

VII • £Jldacri.U£ ^Y.£t£ifl. and lia Interrelation with 

Mz ggske ng . 


Social Problems 

I. P.af 4i . I y UJlfi £& a desirable social structure . 

A. Differing personalities within families. 

1. Preschool child. 

2. School child. 

3. Adolescent. 

4. Adult members. 

3. Boarders. 

6. Parents. 

B. Role of both sexes in family life. 

1. Background for family living and growth. 

2. How home sets standards, attitudes and ideals 
for its members. 

C. Awareness of developing self in relation to other 
family members. 

1. Growth of general intelligence. 

2. Growth of reasoning powers. 

3. Heed for self-expression. 

4. Heed for ability to recognize own powers and 
limitations. 

D. Development of personality affected by family 
membership. 

1. Interest in personal appearance. 

2. Interest in organized clubs, groups, et cetera. 

3. Pride in own accomplishments. 

4. Consideration of others. 

3. Desires for entertainment. 

6. Security of belonging to small group closely 
knit together by love. 

E. Reasons for parental restraints on adolescent self- 
expression and methods of accomplishing these. 

1. Limitation of adolescent judgment. 

2. Growth of desire for independence. 

3. Increasing resistance to restraint and dictation. 

















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- 170 - 


Ho Psychology ol .sax . 

A. Emotional and physical changes which occur normally 
at puberty. 

1. Physiology and hygiene of menstruation. 

2. Seminal emissions. 

3. Manifestations of sexual development. 

4. Proper sex terminology. 

B. Normality of sex yearnings. 

1. Differing problems of the sexes. 

a. Differences between sexes in manifestations 
of sex urge. 

b. Difference of strength of sex urge. 

c. Current fallacies about sex urge and neces¬ 
sity for satisfying. 

C. Control of sex impulse. 

1. Effect of alcohol in reducing controls. 

2. Effect of familiarity and licentious literature 
in increasing sex urge. 

3. Value of self-control for the best interests of 
individuals, family and society. 

Do Respect for the opposite sex. 

1. Need for sex modesty. 

2. Value of consideration for others. 

3. Personality defects resulting from vulgarity 
and obscenity. 

4. Aping other sex detracts from own heterosexu¬ 
alness. 

3. Desire to please opposite sex expressed by more 
thought of personal appearance and manners. 

E. Interest in opposite sex. 

1. Normality of adolescent desire for companions 
of opposite sex. 

2. Differences between love and infatuation. 

3. Emotional controls strained by intimacy. 

4. Problems of going steady. 

3. Probable dangers of petting. 

a. Loss of standing in society. 

b. Parental disapproval. 

c. Leads to indiscretions. 

(1) Illegitimate births. 

(2J Venereal diseases. 

F. Preparation for marriage. 

1. Importance of heredity. 

2. Individuals responsibility to next generation. 

3. Personality adjustments. 

a. Love and passion alone not enought for suc¬ 
cessful marriage. 

b. Must be congeniality of interests. 

c. Willingness to acquire sufficient knowledge 
about partner T s consuming interest to share 
it with him. 




































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- 171 - 


4. Cautions to be maintained by engaged couples 
during courtship. 

a. Consideration for other partner. 

b. Too much intimacy raises sex impulses to 
point where control is difficult. 

5* Social values in controlling the urge to fall 
in love. 

6. Responsibilities involved when human beings 
produce children. 

G-. Development of the love emotion from the ego of the 
baby to that of the normal heterosexual adult. 

1. Hero worship; its value and cautions in the de¬ 
velopment of fine personality and chivalry. 

2. Normal heterosexual interests gradually develop. 

a. Need of many friends of opposite sex as part 
of understanding of self and others. 

b. Increasing strength of sex impulses in both 
sexes. 

H. Divorce. 

1. Effect on personality of both parents. 

2. Effect upon children. 

2. Physical and emotional causes of divorce. 

I. Influences that tend to weaken the family. 

1* Alcohol, automobile petting parties, public 
dance halls, road houses, et cetera. 

J. Understanding the mental, emotional and physical 
needs of family members. 

K. Securing social acceptance without lowering stan¬ 
dards of self, family, school, church, and community. 

L. Disastrous results that interfere with happiness 
when an individual "bucks" social conventions. 

M* Eugenics and the human race. 

N. Prostitution and white slavery. 

III. Community Problems . 

A. Local, and state agencies which help the family 
maintain its health. 

B. Reduction of infant and maternal mortality. 

1. What other countries have done. 

2. What local, state, aid national agencies have 
done and can do. 

3. Value of better prenatal care of mothers and 
postnatal and infant care. 

C. Well planned care and correction of defectives, 
delinquents and dependents. 

1. Cost of maintenance of institutions. 

2. Problems of eugenics, e.g., sterilization. 

3. Gost to society of large numbers of feeble¬ 
minded and insane. 

. Provision of adequate facilities for play and 
recreation cheaper than care of delinquents 
which it would prevent. 


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- 172 - 


D. Contributions of medical progress to betterment of 
human beings. 

E. International phases of social hygiene. 

1. Control of narcotics. 

2. Control of immigration. 

3. White slavery. 

4. Eugenics 1 place in world betterment. 

F. Better housing. 

1. Social value of slum clearance. 

2. Improved mental health of families. 

3. Reduction of disease. 

4. Greater pride and civic responsibility among 
people. 


Home ITursing 

I. Value. _o£ urenatal care, of. mothers . 


A. 

B. 

C. 

D. 


Necessity for medical and dental care. 

Importance of adequate care and good maternal hygiene. 

Prevention of infections. 

Father T s cooperation needed for mental health of 

mother. 

1. Prenatal care — baby T s bill of rights (right to 
be well and to be wanted), family unit as posi¬ 
tive force versus promiscuity. Vocabulary of 
reproduction, development of fetus, hygiene of 
pregnancy, medical supervision, process of birth. 


II. 


of fetus . 


A* Growth from microscopic cells to full term baby. 

B. Nutrition of fetus. 

Go Substitution of scientific facts for superstitious 
prenatal beliefs. 

D. Effects of alcohol and narcotics on fetus. 

in. Birth m utp actum ca£q. 


A. Importance of skilled care in preventing injury to 
mother or baby. 

B. Importance of preventing infection. 

G. Need for venereal disease check-ups. 

IV. Reduction of infant and mate 1 nal mortality. 


A. What other countries have done. 

B. What local, state, and national agencies have done 
and can do. 










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- 173 - 


0* Value of better prenatal care for mothers. 

1. The home nurse — social attitudes and physical 
cleanliness, including menstruation, and daily 
routine of the home nurse, the high school girl 
herself. 

2. Care of patient -- bathing and changing bed 
both demonstrated, stressing care of genitalia. 

3* Taking temperatures, discussion of auxiliary 
method and rectal method, affording an opportu¬ 
nity for vocabulary (rectum, colon, anus, enema, 
douche). 

4. -Communicable diseases — including venereal dis¬ 
ease, tuberculosis, and other disabling diseases 
Community and family responsibility in disease 
control, Eugenics. 

3* Care of the baby — genitalia, breasts, navel, 
and prevention of infection. The development 
of security, continuously and consistently from 
conception on. Breast feeding. 

6. Growth and development of child -- differences 
in boy and girl. 

7. Habit formation — toilet training, thumb suck¬ 
ing, handling of sex organ, and bed wetting. 
Vocabulary stressed. 

8. Mental hygiene summary — learning how to get 
along with others. 


Child Care 

I. Hyg iene a£ cjudkLhgM. 

A. Physical, mental, emotional and social growth from 
birth to five years. 

B. Nutrition of childhood. 

C. Clothing. 

D. Punishment and reT/ards as methods of controlling 
child T s behavior. 

E. Prevention of masturbation by proper cleansing of 
genitals. 

II. Pifferiag perSQnal,ltl.es_ within families . 

III. Role Ja&th SAXea i XL £a & ilx li£a. 

IV. Role n£ family In A&y elop i n g of s^cnniVy, a nA 

in developing personality o£ child . 

V. Problems, £f. Mol^sceme. 

VI. Emotional aad aflfli&l gamth,. 



















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- 174 - 


VII. B££e,ct on children . 


Physical Education 

Changes in physical development. 

Skills for posture, sitting and walking. 

Correction for individual needs. 

Games for muscular and organic development. 
Co-recreational activities. 

Social usage and customs. 

Value of cleanliness to lersonality. 

Emotional controls. 

Increase in size and weight. 

Increase in motor ability and muscular controls. 
Physiology and hygiene of menstruation (girls). 

Physiology and hygiene for boys (seminal emissions and 
sust ained erections). 

Seminal emissions. 

Proper sex terminology. 

Emotional growth, stability and control. 

1. Need for emotional stability. 

2. Value of self-control (joy, grief, pain, anger, 
pleasure, sex desire). 

3. Methods of developing self-control. 

4. Social value of pride in self and desire to 
persist in what is considered right by the 
best society. 

3. Helpful channels for the control of the 
fighting instinct. 

Methods of developing self-control. 

Helpful channels for the control of the fighting instinct. 
Respect for the opposite sex interests. 

Value of co-recreational activities, sports, hobbies 
and clubs. 

What to do on dates. 

Originality and entertaining. 

Emotional controls strained by intimacy. 

Body size — proportion the important thing. 

The family maintains social standards of conduct in 
outside recreation. 

The home cooperates with church and school to provide 
good meeting places for youth. 

Friendly atmosphere for entertainment of friends. 

Social value of leisure time. 

Family council on division of time and space for home 
recreation of all members of the family. 

The value of periods of relaxation for social and 
physical fitness. 

Recreational facilities for youth to aid in their normal 
development. 





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- 175 - 


Masturbation — causes, effects, controls, attitudes. 
"Wet dreams” -- causes, effects, controls, attitudes. 
Petting. 

Selecting friends. 

Attitudes toward sex. 

"Crushes”. 

Social etiquette. 

Popularity. 

How to eat socially. 

What to talk about on dates. 

What to do on dates. 

Personal appearance. 

Posture and dress. 

How to introduce people. 

Knowledge of parts of the body (vocabulary). 
Understanding sex emotions. 

Gaining self-confidence and acting your age. 

Getting along with people. 

The meaning of growing up.. 

Taking your place as a person with others. 

Growing up emotionally. 

Avoidance of fatigue. 

Knowledge of child growth and development. 

Education for parenthood. 

Understanding of fundamental social needs. 

Venereal diseases ( understanding and control). 
Interests of family group. 

The meaning of sportsmanship. 


Mathematics of Personal Bookkeeping 
I. JEaa^cmal j & ailz iimae&s,. 

A. Budgeting for family needs (family adjustment to 
income). 

1. Wise expenditure of family income on percen¬ 
tage basis. 

a. Food (proper selection for health). 

b. Clothing (appropriate, adequate, cost). 

c. Replacement of household necessities. 

d. Health maintenance (adequate, cost). 

e. Recreation (costs, values). 

f. Church and community obligations. 

g. Culture and luxuries (costs, values). 

h. Credit, borrowing, lending, lures of 
advertising. 

i. Instalment buying (proper uses, abuses). 

j. Housing (mental and social health of family). 

B. Saving funds (for family future needs). 

Co Insurance and endowments (protection of family). 







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- 176 - 


D. Interest and income. 

E. Taxes and rates of taxation (supporting good 
government). 

E. Personal checking accounts (financial responsi¬ 
bility) . 

G. Personal records of income and expenditures 
(cooperation in family budget, percentage of 
savings). 

H. How much money should one earn before getting 
married. (Costs of keeping a family.) 

II. tfetics, 


A. Depreciation and care of property (family respon¬ 
sibility) . 

B. Community service costs (appreciation of services). 

C. The tax dollar (community services to the family). 

D. Maternal and infant mortality rates (costs of 
health protection). 

E. Costs and numbers of defectives, delinquents, and 
dependents. 

E. Percentage of hospital beds for mentally deficient. 

G. Disease rates (morbidity, mortality). 

H. Housing conditions, slums (delinquency rates, costs 
of crime, costs for correction). 

I. Divorce rates in various localities and relation 
to marriage rates. 


Social Studies 

The history of the family (customs, mores and folkways). 
The home as a background for the individual. 

Manners and conventions of social life (mores and folk¬ 
ways) . 

Mental hygiene and the family. 

Eorces outside the home that tend to break family life. 
Laws concerning homes and families (renting, selling, 
mortgages, responsibility in the ownership of property, 
marriage and divorce). 

Heredity and eugenics. 

Girl and boy relations. 

Marriage customs of all times. 

The institution of marriage. 

Problems of marriage and divorce. 

Effect upon children of broken homes. 

Leisure time. 

Recreational problems. 

Racial tolerance. 

Religious tolerance. 

Labor unions and trade organizations. 

Labor problems of women and children. 




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Care and problems of delinquents and defectives. 
Institutions and their place in society. 

State, national and federal movements for bettering the 
health of individuals and the happiness of the family. 
Rewards and punishments for control of individuals. 
Advances in medical science. 

Propaganda. 

History of families (customs, mores and folkways). 
Differing personalities within families. 

Preschool children. Boarders. 

School children. Parents. 

Adolescents. Relatives. 

Adult members. 

Contribution of members to family. 

Contribution of family to members. 

1. Background for family living and growth. 

2. How home sets standards, attitudes and ideals 
of its members. 

Role of both sexes in family life. 

1. Differing functions, activities and responsi¬ 
bilities of parents. 

2. Value in two viewpoints. 

3* Cooperation in family living. 

Adolescent cooperation results in maintaining securities, 
economic and social. 

Consideration of parental viewpoint. 

Value of adopted families for neglected children, 
family living as democracy in action. 

Challenges of society. 

1. Effect of family attitudes toward changing 
social conventions. 

2. force of influences outside the home which 
pull individuals away from home. 

The individual as a link from one generation to another. 

1. Principles and facts of heredity. 

2. The individuals responsibility to attain his 
best for his childrens sake. 

Emotional growth, stability and control. 

1. Need for emotional stability. 

2. Value of self-control (joy, grief, pain, anger, 
pleasure, sex desire). 

3. Methods of developing self-control. 

4. Pride in own sex said self-development at its 
best. 

'Methods of developing self-control. 

Social values of controlling the urge to fall in love. 
Control of the sex impulse. 

1. Value of self-control for the best interests 
of individuals, family and society. 

Need for understanding between adolescents and parents. 

1. Confidence in parents by children. 


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- 178 - 


2. Confidence in children by parents. 

3. Reasons for lack of understanding. 

Respect for the opposite sex. 

1. Need for sex modesty. 

2. Value of consideration of others. 

3. Personality defects as the result of vulgarity 
and obscenity. 

4. Aping opposite sex detracts from own hetero¬ 
sexualness. 

3* Desire to please opposite sex expressed by 

more thought of personal appearance and manners. 
Normality of sex yearnings. 

Normality of adolescent desire for companions of oppo¬ 
site sex. 

Value of co-recreational activities, sports, hobbies, 
clubs. 

Types of dates, including group dating and single dates. 
Emotional controls strained by intimacy. 

Probable dangers of petting. 

1. Loss of standing in society. 

2. Parental disapproval. 

3* Illegitimate births. 

4. Venereal disease infections. 

Responsibilities involved when human beings produce 
children. 

Important considerations to be thought of by couples 
expecting to be married. 

1. Sense of responsibility for maintaining a 
family. 

2. Education for parenthood. 

3. Hereditary possibilities. 

Customs of former times and foreign peoples as related 
to those of today. 

Etiquette of engagement and marriage in the United States. 
Appreciation of inherent possibilities in fine home and 
family life. 

Divorce. 


1. Effect upon personalities of both partners. 

2. Effect upon children. 

3. Causes of divorce. 

4. Laws controlling divorce. 

The family maintains social standards of conduct in 
outside recreation. 

The home takes responsibility for aiding community 
proj ects. 

The home cooperates with church and school to provide 
good meeting places for youth. 

The family has a responsibility to provide proper recre¬ 
ation for youth in order to lessen the influence of 
organized vice. 


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Influences that tend to weaken the family — alcohol, 
auto petting parties, public dance halls, road houses, 
et cetera. 

Local and state agencies that help the family maintain 
its health. 

Wise expenditures of family income. 

1. Food. 

2. Clothing for each member of the family. 

3« Replacement of household necessities. 

4. Health maintenance. 

3. Recreation. 

6. Church and community obligations. 

J. Culture and luxuries. 

Credit, borrowing, lending, lures of advertising 
Labor unions 1 and trade organizations r effects upon the 
family. 

Racial heritage and tolerance. 

Religious heritage and tolerance. 

Manners and conventions of social life. 

Cultural experience and development of fine appreciations 
broaden and enrich the individual. 

Securing social acceptance without lowering standards of 
self, family, school, church and community. 

1. Participating in community projects. 

2. Respect for property of others. 

3. Obeying community laws. 

Disastrous results that interfere with happiness when an 
individual “bucks'* social conventions. 

Prostitution and white slavery. 

Illegitimate parents are often community responsibilities 
Race poisons spread through community so that innocent 
suffer. 

1. Venereal diseases. 

2. Tuberculosis. 

3. Alcohol and narcotic injuries. 

Difficulties commonly involved when marriage is made be- 

t?/een differing races, religions and nationalities. 
Individuals responsibility to the next generation. 

Better housing. 

1. Social value of sLum clearance. 

2. Improved mental health of families. 

3. Reduction of disease. 

4. Greater pride and civic responsibility among 
people. 

Reduction of maternal and infant mortality. 

1. What other countries have done. 

2. What local, state and national agencies have 
done and can do. 

3* Value of better prenatal care of mothers and 
babies. 





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Recreational facilities for youth to aid in their 
normal development. 

Development and contribution of medical progress to 
the betterment of human beings. 

International phases of social hygiene. 

1. Control of narcotics. 

2. Control of immigration. 

3. White slavery. 

4. Eugenics 1 place in world betterment. 
Venereal disease and sterility. 

Venereal disease and family life. 

Venereal disease and society. 

Prostitution as a hazard to society and family life. 
Promiscuity. 

Petting. 

Selecting friends. 

Attitudes toward sex. 

Sex perversion a social menace. 

"Crushes". 

Selecting a mate. 

The meaning of marriage. 

Sex delinquency, 

Use of leisure time. 

Social etiquette. 

Eugenics and society. 

Popularity. 

How to act socially. 

Attitudes toward childbirth and motherhood. 

Attitudes toward adoption. 

Influence of sex in society, 

Eventual desire for independence from the home. 
Gaining self-confidence and acting your age. 

Getting along with others. 

Interesting things to talk about on dates. 

The meaning of growing up. 

Your place in the community. 

Growing up emotionally. 

Community action for better human relations. 


English 

I. General topics discussed and illustrated . 

Successful individual living. 

Social conventions and manners. 

Emotional controls. 

Hobbies and recreations as factors in control and 
success. 

Family life. 

Family of the past. 

As found in literature. 















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Marriage customs. 

Biography portraying personal and family problems 
Family of the present. 

Family and individual. 

Family in the community. 

Beading as a family recreation. 

Maintaining friendships by letter-writing. 

II. ia&ei£ic topics treated In English classes . 

Early history of families (customs, mores, folkways). 
Relation of these customs to today T s standards and needs. 
Foreign family backgrounds and adaptation to American 
customs and conditions. 

The modern family. 

Differing personalities within the family and needs of each. 
Preschool child. 

School child. 

Adolescents. 

Adult members. 

Parents. 

Relatives. 

Ron-members -- boarders, lodgers. 

Contributions and responsibilities of each member. 

Standards, attitudes, ideals, worked out in family 
councils democratically. 

Maintaining 'family pride before the community. 

Role of both sexes in family life. 

Functions of each sex. 

Value of two viewpoints. 

Development of each personality in family. 

Adolescents. 

Consequences of "falling in love" on family 
standards. 

Control of sex impulse. 

Effect of alcohol in reducing control. 

Effect of moral and immoral literature. 

Respect for opposite sex. 

Modesty. 

Consideration. 

Personality defects resulting from vulgarity and 
obscenity. 

Emphasizing the good qualities of one's own sex, 
not aping the other sex. 

Intimacy strains emotional controls. 

Loss of approval of society and its far- 
reaching consequences. 

Parental and f amily disapproval. 

Illegitimate births. 

Venereal diseases spread by intimacy. 


Young adults 




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- 182 - 


Preparation for marriage. 

Friendship and early love. 

Engagements. 

Suitability. 

Responsibility to maintain family standards. 
Personality adjustments. 

Cautions to be observed during engagement. 

The community and the family. 

The shifting of family responsibility to the community. 
Dependent children, foster homes. 

Recreational activities — clubs, hobbies. 

Juvenile delinquency. 

Community organizations. 

School T s function in teaching social hygiene. 

The church and its standards. 

P. T. A. and other organizations of the community. 
Labour and trade organizations. 

Community standards in tolerance, racial and 
religious. 

Obstacles to intermarriage between young people 
of differing heritage and background. 

The community and the individual. 

Becoming an adult in the community. 

Accepting responsibilities. 

Meeting standards. 

Linking newer generation to the older. 

Passing on the American heritage. 

Self-improvement to meet challenge of the future. 

Using science — medical and sanitary — to improve 
oneself and the community of the future. 

Slum clearance. 

Reduction of disease. 

Control of narcotics. 

Control of alcohol. 

Prostitution. 

Eugenics. 

Other topics which would be discussed as the subjects 
arise. 

Young people and their clubs. 

Consideration for others in specific situations. 
Constructive and destructive recreation. 

Social conventions, useful and outmoded. 

Outside influences taking away from home life (dance 
halls, road houses). 

Mental hygiene in family relations -- parents and 
children. 

Yalue of pride and self-confidence. 

Personality and alcohol and narcotics. 

What to do and say on dates. 

Etiquette of social situations. 


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- 183 - 


Divorce and its effects on family. 

Value of leisure time. 

Culture as personality asset. 

Growing up emotionally; a growth which can be stunted. 
Social hygiene in present-day life. 

Understanding people in various relations. 



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