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Practical Forging and 
Art Smithing 


Milwaukee, Wis 
The Bruce Publishing Company 

Copyright, 1915 
The Bruce Publishing Company 


THE present demand for school instruction in the 
industrial arts has made it necessary for the teach- 
ers of industries to have that knowledge of materials 
and methods which can only result from long and care- 
ful experience with the materials of industry. 

This book is the result of a life of such experience 
by a man who is now recognized as a master craftsman 
in wrought metal. 

The author's work in wrought iron is comparable 
in design and finish to the best work that has been pro- 
duced in that material. 

Some pieces of the best German work are before 
me as I make this statement and tho more intricate 
they are no better in execution and far less suitable to 
the material in design than the pieces illustrated in this 
book which I have seen in process of execution and in 
the finished form. 

The author has moreover been a teacher of wrought 
metal work for many years. 

This experience is reflected in the sequence of dif- 
ficulty presented by the exercises and the clear, simple 
statement of the text. 

With such clear and exact statement and with such 
profuse illustration it is evident that the metal worker 
can gather much of the author's long experience from 
this book and take many a short cut to success in an 
accomplishment to which there can be no royal road. 

But the effectiveness of an applied art is measured 
best by its expression of purpose within the limitations 
of the material used. 

4 INTRODUCTION— Continued 

The artistic success of this book lies in the evident 
fact that the work represented appears "Hand wrought 
and fashioned to beauty and use." 

I predict for it increasing usefulness in setting 
right the practice of forging in school shops and as an 
inspiration to teachers, craftsmen and tradesmen. 




The Forge — Forge Tools — The Anvil — Anvil Tools — Making the Fire — 

Cleaning the Fire — Welding — Flux and Its Uses 7 


Electric Welding — Oxy-acetylene Gas Welding — The Fagot Weld — The 
Separate Heat Weld — Scarfing — Upsetting — Making the Weld — Lap 
Welding without Scarfing — Jump Welding — Butt Weld — Split 
Welding — Corner Weld— T-Weld 22 


Corner Weld — Brazing — Fagot Weld — Fuming a Loose Eye — Hammock 

Hook — Finishing Wrought Iron — S-Link — Welded Eye Pin 36 


Staples — Open Links — Welded Chain Lines — Punching — A Grab Hook 46 


Bolts — Cupping Tool — Gate Hook— Hay Hook — Welded Ring— Expan- 
sion of Heated Iron 54 


Making Tongs — Pig Iron — Puddling — The Bessemer Process — The Open 
Hearth Process — Crucible Steel — The Cementation Process — 
Tempering 60 


Making a Flat Cold Chisel — Spring Tempering — Welding Steel — Case 
Hardening — Coloring Steel — Annealing — Making a Scratch Awl — 
Making a Center Punch — Making a Hand Punch — High Speed 
Steel — Annealing High Speed Steel 70 



Wrought Iron Work — Making a Wrought Iron Leaf — Making a Volute 

Scroll— Grilles 83 


Twisting — Braiding — Making a Fire Shovel 93 


Making a Door Latch — Making a Hinge — Making a Candle Stick 99 


Making a Drawer Pull — Chasing — Making a Door Knocker — Repousse — 

Perforated Decoration 107 


Making a Hat and Coat Hook — A Fuller — Jump Welding — Making a 

Wall Hook 117 


Making a Toasting Fork— Inlaying 124 


Making a Lantern — Making a Wall Lamp 130 


Making a Portable Lamp 139 



The Forge — Forge Tools — The Anvil — Anvil' Tools — Making the 
Fire — Cleaning the Fire — Welding — Flux and Its Uses. 

ONE of the most essential things in the school forge 
shop is a good forge and fire; half the work is 
then mastered. A few years ago nearly all of the small 
commercial shops running from one to six or more fires 
were equipped with brick or iron forges. The blast was 
furnished either with a bellows or fan which had to be 
turned by hand. This method was a great drawback, 
which resulted in much loss of time. It was impossible 
to do much work without the aid of a helper. Work 
that required two men in those days is being done now 
by one. Modern invention has played an important 
part in simplifying the labors of the workers in iron and 
steel. At the present time there are various kinds of 
forges in use that lessen the work of the smith. The 
most successful factories are now equipped with modern 
forges and appliances in order that they may be able 
to do work quickly. 

In our manual training schools, where the pupils 
have such short periods in which to do work, it is neces- 
sary that the shops be equipped with modern tools so 
that they can produce work quickly. This will give the 
individual pupil more practice in a shorter length of 
time, which simply means more knowledge. Our 
schools should not be hampered by using forges that have 
been out-of-date for years. 

The best forge for manual training and trade 
schools is the down draft with power driven fans, thus 


eliminating all pipes overhead and doing away with the 
dust and dirt. A boy, working at this kind of a forge, 
can use both hands in the handling of the work being 
heated in the fire; this is a great advantage over the 

Fig. 1. A Typical School Forge. 

old way of turning a crank. Another good feature of 
the mechanical draft forge is that it teaches a boy early 
how to avoid over-heating or burning his iron. This is 
the first thing one must learn in working at forging, 
as one who cannot heat the metal properly cannot work 
it. One must become acquainted with the material, 
and the burning heat must be understood. 


Figure 1 shows an illustration of a down draft : 
forge suitable for schools; it is made of cast iron. A 
pressure fan furnishes the blast for the fire and an ex- 
haust fan takes away the gas and smoke thru an opening 
at the bottom of the hood, and thru a large pipe which 
continues under the floor and out thru a flue. The hood 


Fig. 2. Fire Tools. 

represented at A, can be moved backward and forward 
to catch the smoke. The hood is moved with a crank 
and worm gear as shown at B. The hearth is shown at 
C; a hole in the center is called the tuyere. This is 
where the fire is built and is the outlet for the wind. 
The amount of air needed for the fire is regulated by a 
valve that is moved with a rod shown at D. The coal 
box is always at the right hand of any forge and is shown 
at E. The water box is represented at F. At G is 
shown the pressure pipe and at H the exhaust pipe. 
Notice the large opening under the forge at I. Thru 
this opening any nut or screw under the tuyere can be 
tightened with ease. Notice the slide-rod at J. This 
rod, when pulled, dumps the cinders out of the tuyere, 
and a bucket may be set under the hearth to catch them. 


•In school shops these forges are generally set in pairs in 
order to save room. Figure 2 shows three fire-tools 
needed for the forge fire. These tools consist of a poker 
made from f-inch round stock, 26 inches long with a 
loose eye turned on one end for a handle ; a shovel with a 
flat blade 4 by 6 by 1-16 inches with a handle riveted to 
the blade, and a tool called a scraper. This scraper is 

Fig. 3. Anvil. 

made from the same stock as the poker and is made with 
an eye at one end and a flat hook at the other. It is 
used to scrape the coal and coke onto the fire, and to 
move pieces of coke or coal, so that the iron may be seen 
while heating. 

The anvil should be of wrought iron with a steel 
face, weighing about 125 pounds. This is large enough 
for any work being done in manual training schools. 
In the school shop the anvils should all be of the same 
size and weight so that any tool used with them will 
fit into any square hole. In factories where anvils are 
made, they are forged from wrought iron or soft steel, 
with a carbon steel face welded on; some are cast steel 
thruout and others are cast iron with a steel face. The 
face is generally three-quarters inch thick, and is hardened 



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Fig. 4. 

to resist heavy blows from the hammer and sledge. 
(See drawing Figure 3 of anvil.) The anvil should be 
fastened with iron straps, on a 10 by 10-inch block, 
set into the ground about 3J feet. From the top of the 
anvil to the floor should measure 26 inches. The 
proper place to set the anvil in relation to the forge is 
shown in the drawing, Figure 4. The smith should stand 
between the forge and the anvil, with the horn of the 
anvil at his left when facing it. The anvil edge farthest 
from the smith is called the outer edge and the one 
nearest the smith is called the inner edge. 



Pein or Ball 

Handle ^ 




Fig. 5. Hammer. 

Fig. 9. Punch. 







Fig. 6. Sledge. 


Fig. 7. Hardie. 

Fig. 8. Hand Punch. 



Fig. 10. Center Punch. 


Every anvil should have two ball hammers weighing 
about 1| and 2 lbs. each. (See drawing of hammer, 
Figure 5.) The hammers should be numbered cor- 
responding with a number on the anvil. All the hammers 
should be kept in a rack when not in use. When the 
pupils come into the shop to work, they should be 
assigned to a certain forge and held responsible for the 
care of tools. A ten-pound sledge hammer should also 
be included, perhaps one for every two forges; the 
handle should be 26 inches long. (See Figure 6.) 

A piece of tool steel fitted into the square hole of 
the anvil and sharpened at the top, is called a hardie. 
It is used in cutting iron. A piece of iron is set on the 
sharpened edge of the hardie and struck with the ham- 
mer. The sharpened edge of the hardie cuts into the 
iron, and in this manner it is cut deep enough so that it 
may be broken. (See drawing of hardie, Figure 7.) 

If a piece of steel is pointed on one end, it can be 
hammered thru a flat piece of iron. This is one method 
of punching holes in iron; a steel punch so made is called 
a hand punch. Ordinarily hand punches are made out 
of |-inch to f-inch hexagonal tool-steel bars about 
eleven inches long. (See drawing Figure 8.) For heavy 
punching, a short, thick punch with a hole thru it, 
(called the eye) to receive a wooden handle, is used. 
This kind of punch is struck on with a sledge hammer. 
(See drawing Figure 9.) 

A center punch is used to make depressions in 
metal so that a drill may be started in a given place. 
It is used also to mark places or distances on the surface 
of metal when the metal is to be bent at a certain place. 
Center punches are made from hexagonal tool steel 
about 4 by 5-inch, drawn to a point and ground to a 
short angle. (See Figure 10.) 



Fig. '11. Flat Tongs. 


) 6 

Hot Chisel. Fig. 12. Cold Chisel. 

Fig. 14. Set Hammer. 

Fig. 13. Flatter. 


In heating and handling short pieces of stock, 
tongs are used (see Figure 11) which are made from 
Swedish iron or mild steel; they are made in various 
sizes and shapes according to use. They are called 
pick-ups, flat, round-nose, and bolt tongs according to 
the shape of the lips. Tongs should always be made 
to fit the piece being forged. One cannot hold a piece of 
iron properly with tongs that do not fit the piece. They 
may be heated and fitted to the stock when occasion 
demands. One important reason why tongs should 
fit the piece being hammered, is that when turning and 
striking the piece there is danger of the piece being 
knocked out of the tongs in a whirling motion and the 
flying piece of hot iron is liable to strike someone; this 
danger must be closely watched. Tongs should not be 
heated red hot and cooled in water; this destroys them. 

Hot and cold chisels are used in cutting stock. 
The blade of the hot chisel is made very thin, while the 
cold chisel is made blunt to stand the heavy strain in 
cutting. They are generally made with a hole thru 
them, called the eye, to receive a wooden handle. These 
chisels are struck on with a sledge hammer. (See 
Figure 12.) 

Iron and steel are sometimes smoothed with a tool 
called a flatter. This tool is struck on with a sledge, 
and should not be used to stretch iron. Its purpose 
is only to give the work a smooth finish. Figure 13 
shows a flatter, and Figure 14 a set-hammer. The 
set-hammer is always used to smooth and draw stock. 
All of these tools are made from tool-steel. 

A heading tool is made from a flat piece of soft 
steel with a hole in one end. Sometimes a carbon steel 
face is welded on. The heading tool is used mostly 



in heading bolts. Heading tools are made with different 
sized holes. (See Figure 15.) 

Swages and fullers are used to smooth and form 
iron into various shapes. The swages generally have • 
half round depressions in them. They are made in 

Fig. 15. Heading Tool. 

pairs called top and frottom swage. The bottom one 
fits the square hole of the anvil ; the top one has a hole 
for a wooden handle. (See drawing Figure 16.) The 
fullers are also made in pairs called top and bottom 
fullers. They are used to make depressions in metal. 
(See drawing Figure 17.) When referring to swages, 
fullers, and other tools of this character, blacksmiths 


Fig. 16. Top and Bottom Swages. 

speak of anvil tools. Special anvil tools are used in 
doing various kinds of forging, and are made when 
needed. The anvil tools should be kept in a tool rack 
next to the anvil. These tools should be made from 
tool-steel of about 75-point carbon, or they may be 



purchased from a dealer. Some tools, such as swages, 
that do not require continuous service, are made of soft 

The anvil tool should have a buggy-spoke for a 
handle. The handle should stick thru the eye of the 
hole about one inch and should never be wedged. If the 
handle is wedged it is more liable to be broken when the 
tool is struck a glancing blow with the sledge hammer. 
This is very often the case. The reason the spoke 
should stick thru the tool is that if it should begin to 
work off the handle when struck with the sledge ham- 
mer, the movement can be seen. 

Fig. 17. Top and Bottom Fullers. 

Figure 18 shows a wrought vise suitable for school 
work. A cast iron machinists' vise should not be used 
excepting, perhaps, for bench work. Figure 19 shows 
a cast-iron swage block with various sized holes, and 
depressions around the edge for forming iron. 

The stock used in a forge shop should be kept in 
a rack built for the purpose. The different kinds of 
stock, such as soft and tool-steel, common and Swedish 
iron, should be partly painted with a distinguishing 



Fig. 18. Vise. 

Fig. 19. 
Cast Iron Swage Block. 

color, so that there will be 
no trouble finding what is 
wanted. For instance, all 
soft steel should be painted 
white, tool-steel ' another 
color, and so on. There 
should also be in the shop 
a shears to cut iron. One 
of the ordinary hand-power 
be suitable and may be 

shears in use today would 
purchased from a dealer. 

In lighting the fire in the forge all of the cinders 
are cleaned out down to the tuyere. This is done by 
scraping them to the sides of the fire-place with the 
shovel. All clinkers should be picked out with the 
hands and put under the forge. It is a good plan to 
pick out some of the best pieces of coke and set them to 
one side on the forge, to be used later on. The slide 
rod that controls the ash dump at the bottom of the 
tuyere, is now pulled to allow the cinders and ashes to 
drop thru. Do not allow a boy to pull the valve after 
the fire is started, as this wastes the coke and is a bad 
habit to get into. 


When the tuyere is clean, some shavings are lighted 
in the bottom and when well burned, the coke is raked 
back on the fire. A little wind is then turned on. Wet 
coal is banked around the sides and back of the fire. 
When the fire is well started and loosened up in front 
with the poker and most of the smoke burned, it is 
ready for heating. The coal in the box should be 
thoroly mixed with water before putting it on the fire, 
for the reason that it cokes better, and packs in around 
the sides of the fire, keeping it from breaking thru. 
The coal box is always at the right of the worker when 
he is facing the fire. The box on his left, and between 
the down draft forges, is to hold water — not coal. There 
should be a water cup of some sort hanging on a hook 
so that when water is needed for fire or coal it may be 
handled with the cup. 

A fire, when not properly handled becomes hollow, 
due to' the center burning out. If iron is heated in this 
kind of a fire, it will become oxidized, that is to say, a 
dirty scale will form over the metal. Iron cannot be 
properly heated, and it is impossible to get the welding 
heat with a fire in this condition. The reason a fire 
becomes hollow is that it may be filled with clinkers, 
or too much blast may have been used, and when it 
comes in contact with the' pieces being heated causes 
them to cool and oxidize. Sometimes the fire will not 
be directly over the hole in the tuyere; which is one 
cause of poor heating. This is a common fault with 
boys working at the forge. Always have the fire over 
the hole in the tuyere, and not to one side. 

When the fire becomes hollow and dirty, clean it 
by picking out the clinkers with the poker or scraper, 
then move the sides of the fire towards the center of the 



tuyere with the shovel, keeping the well-coked inner 
sides near the center of the tuyere, and having the cen- 
ter of fire over the hole in the tuyere. Wet coal is now 
banked around the outer sides. Always have a thick 
bed of coke under the piece being heated and regulate the 
blast so as not to burn out the center of the fire at once. 
See drawing of fire with piece about on the same plane 
<\ with bottom of hearth; notice dotted 

\*\ lines representing the wrong way to 
*Vx put stock in the fire. (Fig. 20.) 

Fig. 20. Section of Forge Fire. 

If two pieces of iron are placed in the fire and 
heated, they will become gradually softer until they 
reach a state where the metal has become sticky. If 
touched together the two pieces will stick. This is 
what is known as welding heat. If they were taken to 
the anvil and hammered while in this condition they 
would unite and become one piece. This would be called 
welding. All metals cannot be welded. Iron, soft 
steel, low-carbon tool steel and spring steel can be welded. 


A flux is used in welding steel — this excludes the 
air and forms a pasty surface on the metal which is 
squeezed out from between the surfaces of the metal 
when hammered. Borax and the many welding com- 
pounds are used. Very seldom is it necessary to use a 
flux on iron. Clean sand, which is good, is used by many. 
Borax or welding compound is sometimes used on very 
thin stock. For ordinary welding, such as is being done 
in school shops, borax should never be used. It is poor 
practice, unnecessary, and a useless waste. 

In heating iron, if it is brought beyond the welding 
heat, it will become softer and softer until it will finally 
burn. This may be known by the great number of 
little explosive sparks coming from the fire. These 
little sparks are particles of iron separating from the 
bar and burning. As the heat gradually rises, the 
metal separates. If the bar were now placed on the 
anvil and struck a hard blow with a hammer, it would 
fly to pieces. Therefore, judgment must be used in 
striking the first blow on any welding heat — it should 
be light. The succeeding blows should be made gradu- 
ally harder. A hard blow at the start might make the 
metal fly to pieces, or make the upper piece slip away 
from the under piece. If lighter blows were struck, 
the weld might be made in good shape. 

The principal thing in welding is to have a clean 
fire. All of the clinkers must be kept out. The fire 
should be a well burned one, without much smoke or 
gas, and never any green coal near the pieces being 
heated. Well burned pieces of coke around the metal 
should always be used in raising the welding heat. In 
raising the welding heat very little blast should be used 
at first. Heat the pieces slowly so as to get them hot 


Electric Welding — Oxy-acetylene Gas Welding — The Fagot Weld — 
The Separate Heat Weld — Scarfing — Upsetting — Making the 
Weld — Lap Welding Without Scarfing — Jump Welding — Butt 
Weld— Split Welding— Comer Weld— T Weld. 

A RAPID blast on the start, not only heats the 
outer part of the metal first and not the center, 
but it also burns out the fire and makes it become 
hollow before the metal has the welding heat. There is 
a right and a wrong way of taking a welding heat from 
the fire to the anvil. The pieces must be lifted clear up 
out of the fire, and must not be dragged thru the dirt 
and cinders on the inner edge of the fire. Iron will not 
unite when dirty. It is very easy to get a clean heat if 
one will pay attention to having the fire clean. Do not 
attempt to get the welding heat in a dirty fire; this is 
one thing that must be impressed upon the mind of 
one working at the forge. The skillful worker in iron 
always pays particular attention to the fire, for he knows 
by experience that it must be clean, in order to do good 

Welding is also done with an electric welding ma- 
chine. The pieces to be welded are clamped and held 
in bronze clamps. The clamps are adjusted so that 
the ends of the pieces to be welded touch. They can be 
moved so as to bring the pieces into close contact or 
separate them. When the pieces are in close contact, 
the current is turned on. The pieces are then separated 
a little so that the current jumps across the space be- 
tween them, forming an electric arc. This heats the 



ends to a welding heat, and by forcing them together 
they are welded. 

Another form of welding is by the oxy-acetylene 
gas method. It is being used extensively at present, and 
has been found very valuable and economical in mak- 
ing the lighter welds. It is possible to weld steel, iron, 
cast-iron, copper, brass and aluminum by this process. 
The apparatus consists of a specially designed blow 
pipe, an acetylene tank and an oxygen tank under pres- 

The method of welding is to heat the pieces to be 
welded with the blow pipe until they reach the fusion 
point. For instance, in welding cast-iron, the pieces are 
clamped together, a V shape is cut nearly thru the joint, 
the metal is heated to the fusion point, and a feeder, 
which is a small cast-iron rod, is melted into it. In weld- 
ing steel, the feeder is a steel rod; for copper or brass 
welding, a rod of copper or brass is used. Nowadays 
this method is extensively used in automobile work, 
in repairing cracked cylinders. 

Fig. 21. 

A very simple weld to make by heating in the forge, 
is what is known as the fagot weld. In doing this, two 
or three pieces are welded by simply laying one piece on 
top of the other, or a bundle of pieces of iron of various 
sizes and shapes are bound together, heated and welded. 
For example, if a bar of flat iron is heated and cut half 
thru in several places, doubled over and over, one piece 



on top of the other and then welded in order to make 
a large piece of stock this would be called a fagot weld. 

In Figure 21, the pieces are represented ready to 
make a fagot weld. 

The welding of two pieces of stock by scarfing and 
lapping is known as a separate-heat-weld, so called be- 
cause the pieces are detached while the heat is taken. 
In making any kind of a weld there is more or less stock 
wasted in the raising of the welding heat, therefore 
the parts to be lapped and welded are always upset 
or thickened and then scarfed. The word "scarfed" 
means the shaping of the ends of the bars so that when 
heated and lapped one on top of the other, they will fit 
and make a splice, leaving the stock when hammered 
about its original size. 

The method of upsetting is to heat the ends of the 
bar, then set the hot end on the anvil with the bar . 
vertical and hammer on the other end. This thickens 
the heated end. If it is a long heavy bar, the worker 
churns the bar up and down striking the hot end on the 
anvil. A bar may also be heated on the end, then 
fastened in a vise and the hot part hammered to thicken 
it. In upsetting, the bar must be kept straight as 
hammering will bend it where heated ; if not kept straight, 
it will not thicken. 

Fig. 22. 

Fig. 23. 



When a piece is upset about one inch in diameter 
for a three-quarter inch, round bar, it is scarfed by set- 
ting the hot end on and near the outer edge of the anvil. 
It is then driven back on a bevel by hammering. See 
Figure 22. It is also turned on the side and beveled 
on both sides to nearly a point. See Figure 23. The 
scarf must not be hammered when the piece is held in 
the center of the anvil, (Figure 24), for the reason that 



Fig. 24. 

Fig. 25. 

the edge of the hammer comes in contact with the anvil, 
pecking dents in it or breaking out pieces from the 

Another method of scarfing is to hammer the end 
partly back as previously explained, then set the piece 
on the inner edge of the anvil and hammer it as shown 
in Figure 25. After each blow, it is drawn away from 
the edge of the anvil just a little; this tapers it with a 
series of little steps, not for the purpose of making 
notches in the scarfs to fit together and hold while ham- 
mering, but simply because the edge of the anvil leaves 
it in this condition when tapered. It is also drawn 
pointed by hammering on the outer edge of the anvil. 

Theory teaches that the scarf should be made with 
the beveled part convexed. However, in practice, it is 
made to look like the drawing in Figure 26. Note the 
raised parts at "D". This is forced up when the scarf 
is first driven back with the hammer as shown at "B". 



The reason that the high part should be on the scarf, 
is, that when lapped it gives an additional amount of 
stock at this part of the laps to be hammered. If the 
scarfs are made flat, when hammered, they are not liable 


Fig. 26. 

to finish up without having the pieces thin, or the point 
of the lap exposed. If the scarfs are made concave, 
it is claimed by some workers of iron that dirt will de- 
posit there and result in a poor weld. This is true to 
some extent. However, dirt will deposit on any scarf 

Fig. 27. 

Fig. 28. 

unless the fire is clear. With a concaved scarf when 
lapped, there is not stock enough to be hammered with- 
out leaving the pieces thin, or the lapping too long when 
welded. Scarfs should not be made concave. 

Notice in Figure 27, the incorrect way of scarfing 
and in Figure 28, the correct way. 

The scarfs must not be made too long; this is a 
common fault with all beginners and one to avoid. 


The scarfs should be made a little longer than the thick- 
ness of the iron, perhaps lj times the thickness. 

In raising the welding heat, the pieces must be placed 
in the fire with the scarfs, or beveled part, down. The 
fire must be a clean one. A well burned fire is best. 
A new fire is not a good one to raise the welding heat 
in, as there is too much smoke and green coal that comes 
in contact with the metal. The hammer should be 
placed on the anvil about over the square hole, so it will 
be handy to reach when making the weld. The anvil 
should also be clean. A heavy hammer should be used 
in welding. The proper way to hold the hand hammer 
is with the fingers around the handle and the thumb 
protruding along the side and near the top. The 
thumb should never grip around the handle, but lie 
along the side to guide and direct the blows. When 
using the sledge hammer, stand in front of the anvil 
and not at its side, and let the first blow be a light one. 

In heating a slow blast is maintained. When the 
pieces begin to get about yellow, more blast is used. 
The pieces can be watched without removing them from 
the fire. They should be turned over occasionally, 
moving them nearer to the surface of fire to see how the 
heat is progressing, and then under the coke again. Care 
must be taken to get both pieces heated alike. If one 
piece should get hotter than the other, it can be moved 
over in the fire a little, and the cool one put in its place. 
Perhaps the fire is hotter in one spot than another. 
If one piece is heating much faster than the other, lift 
it clear up and out of the fire for a few seconds to cool 
and give the other piece a chance to become hotter. If 
the points of the scarf are heating too fast for the body, 
the pieces must be pushed thru the fire a little farther. 


It is a good plan sometimes, when the pieces are 
about a yellow heat to shut off the wind for a moment, 
to let the pieces and fire even up and give the heat a 
chance to soak thru them. As the pieces become nearly- 
white, the blast is increased. Welding heat is about 
1900° — 2000° Fahrenheit, and can only be determined 
by experience. When the temperature of the pieces 
reaches the welding heat, they are lifted up and out 
of the fire and taken by the smith to the anvil, without 
the aid of a helper. The smith raps them against one 
another or against the anvil to dislodge any dirt that 

Lrfr Hand 

Fig. 29. 

may be on the scarfs. The piece in the left hand is set 
against the inner edge of the anvil. The piece in the 
right hand is now moved across the anvil until it comes 
under the top one. See Figure 29. The piece in the 
left hand is then placed on the under one, by simply 
raising the hand, teetering the piece on the edge of the 
anvil, and holding it firmly by pressing down. This is 
important. The smith lets go of the piece in his right 
hand, and taking the hammer strikes lightly until the 
two are stuck, after which he welds them together with 
solid blows, first on one side, then on the other and 
finally on the corners. 


It requires some practice to be able to take two 
pieces from the fire and place them in position on the 
anvil to be welded. This should be practiced by the 
pupil under the eye of the teacher, perhaps a dozen or 
more times, with the cold pieces before he undertakes 
to get the welding heat. If one cannot take the pieces 
out and place them in position, he cannot make a weld 
of this kind. 

Two boys should not be allowed to work together 
on this weld. One can do it much better than two. It 
is a one-man job. There is nothing difficult about it, 
after the method is learned by deliberate and persistent 
practice with the cold iron. There is no need of hurry- 
ing when taking the pieces out of the fire to the anvil. 

If the scarfs are too long, they will over-lap one 
another too far and cannot be welded down quickly 
enough. If too short, they hammer down too quickly 
to make a good job, and the weld will be thin. 

If the scarfs are the right length and about the 
same size, which is important, the weld will finish down 
in good shape and make a smooth job, providing the 
ends are clean. When the pieces being heated, look as 
tho they are covered with grease, you may be sure the 
fire is dirty, or is too new. 

Lap Welding Without Scarfing. 
A lap weld is sometimes made without scarfing the 
ends. For instance, pieces of 1 "x| " iron are to be welded 
by the lap method. They are brought to a welding 
heat without upsetting; taken to the anvil as previously 
explained for the scarf weld, lapped about 5-16-inch, 
as shown in Figure 30, and welded. This form of welding 
is used in a hurry-up job where there is no great amount 



of strain on the work. It is impossible to make a 
strong weld this way. Very thin stock, either iron or 
steel, can be welded to advantage in this manner by 
hammering on the fiat sides. The edges, instead of 

Fig. 30. 

being hammered, are cut off with a chisel, then ground 
or filed smooth. In welding very thin stock, a little 
flux is used. Always weld by separate heats, and do 
not rivet or split the stock to hold both ends in place. 
This is not necessary. Try to make the weld with one 
heat. All good welds are made in one heat. 

Jump Welding. 
For example, a piece like the one shown in Figure 
31, is to be made by welding. The pieces should be 
prepared as shown in Figure 32. The square piece is 
1" by 1" by 6", the fiat 
one \\" by \" by 8". The 
square piece is heated di- 
rectly on one end. If the heat 



Fig. 31. 

Fig. 32. 


cannot be taken short enough, it may be cooled in water 
so as to upset it with a lip or projection, as shown. 
This lip can be worked out afterwards with a fuller, 
or it may be driven into a heading tool which has the 
top corners of the hole rounded. This will leave the cor- 
ners of the lip round as shown. The bar at the end should 
also be made slightly convex, so that the center part 
comes in contact with the flat piece first. The flat piece 
is also upset in the center. 

In welding, separate heats are taken. With the 
square bar, handled with the right hand, the pieces are 
brought to the anvil by the smith. The square bar is 
set on top of the flat one, and a helper strikes the top 
piece with the sledge, driving it down into the bottom 
one. The edge of the lip is then welded fast with a 
hand-hammer; or a fuller or set hammer is used, the 
helper striking with a sledge. 

Butt Weld. 
Iron may be welded by butting the ends together. 
In doing this, the bars must be long enough so that they 
can be handled without tongs. For instance, two bars 

j Anvil 

Fig. 33. 

of one-inch round stock, one five feet long and the other 
shorter are to be welded. This size is about as light as 
can be welded with this method. The ends are heated 
and upset a little making them a little high in the center 
so that when they are placed together, the contact is in 


the center. A short heat is taken on the end of each 
bar. The smith takes out the long bar and the helper 
the short one, butting the ends together on the anvil, 
as shown in Figure 33. The helper hammers on the end 
of the short piece with a heavy hammer while the smith 
holds the long one firmly, and hammers on the joint, at 
the same time turning the bar so as to hammer the 
joint all around. In welding heavier stock, a sledge 
should be used requiring more helpers. This method 
makes a good weld, providing the heats are clean. 

Split Welding. 

Figure 34 shows a drawing of round stock prepared 
for a split weld. In making this weld, one piece is 
heated on the end, caught in a vise and split with a 
thin chisel. See Figure 35. 

These prongs are then spread and scarfed on the 
inside with the ball of the hammer letting them become 
fan shape and as wide as possible. See Figure 36. The 
other piece is upset and both pieces are caught in the 
vise. The scarf is then hammered tight and the ends 
are cut so as not to have them too long. See Figure 37. 
The cutting of the scarf, and partly into the bar, helps 
to bind the pieces firmly while the heat is being taken 
See drawing of piece ready to be welded, Figure 38. 

A heat is now taken, using a little sand or welding 
flux, if the stock is very small. In welding, the first 
blow is struck on the end of the split piece to drive it 
down tight and weld it in the center. See Figure 39. 
The sides are next hammered to weld the laps. It is 
then finished. On heavy work, the heats are taken 
separately and placed on the anvil by the smith, in the 
same manner as described for a jump weld. Another 





Fig. 34. 

Fig. 35. 

Fig 38. 

Fig. 39 



form of split welding is shown in Figure 40. This method 
is used in welding heavy iron and steel, such as picks and 
drills. Notice the little beards cut with a chisel to help 
hold the pieces in position when heating. Heavy tool 
steel is also welded with this form of splitting. The 
first blow struck with the hammer on this weld, is on 
the end, forcing the pieces together; then on the flat part. 

Corner Weld. 
In Figure 41 is shown an angle made by welding 
on the corner; this is called a corner weld. It is generally 
made by using square or fiat stock. Figure 42 shows the 



Fig. 41. 

Fig 42. 

scarfs prepared for a corner weld, using 1" by \" stock. 
The piece at "A" is scarfed with the ball of the hammer. 
The one at B, with the face of the hammer. Separate 
heats are taken and the pieces lapped and welded. 


The scarfs for T- welds are made in just the same 
manner as for the corner weld, excepting that one scarf 
is in the center of the bar. See Figure 43. 

In taking the pieces from the fire to the anvil, the 
one scarfed in the center is handled with the tongs in 



the left hand. The one scarfed on the end is handled 
with the right hand, letting it under the other, and then 




Fig. 43. 

hammered. Notice how wide the scarf is made on the 
end piece at "A". This is done to cover the other 
scarf. All flat "T" scarfs are made in this manner. 


Corner Weld — Brazing — Fagot Weld — Turning a Loose Eye — 
Hammock Hook — Finishing Wrought Iron — S Link — Welded 
Eye Pin. 

A CORNER weld made by using heavy stock, for 
example, one and one-fourth inch square, is to 
have a square corner by welding. See Figure 44. With 
the dimensions six inches from one end, the bar is 
heated and cut about half thru from one side with a hot 
chisel. The bar is then heated and bent to about a 

FIG-** rfj. 


Fig. 44-45. 

right angle, as shown in Figure 45. A piece of f-in. 
square stock is cut on four sides as shown in Figure 46. 
This piece is welded into the corner as shown in Figure 
47. The heat is separate, and the smith takes both 
pieces to the anvil when hot. He places them in posi- 
tion as shown in the drawing, the helper doing the weld- 
ing. The long part of the bar is then broken off, another 
heat is taken and the corner is finished up by the smith. 

Iron and steel can be fastened together by brazing. 
In doing this, the ends are tapered or dove-tailed to- 




gether and bound with wire or a rivet to hold them in 
position. They are then placed in the fire and brought 
to a red heat. Some borax and spelter are put on and 
the heat is raised until the brass flows. The work is 
then taken out of the fire and let cool; then it is finished 
with a file, or by grinding. Spelter is an alloy of copper 
and zinc, and may be purchased from dealers. Brass 
wire may also be used in brazing, and sometimes copper. 
In teaching boys forging, the writer feels that it is 
a waste of time to give a beginner little pieces to make, 
such as staples, hooks, etc. A boy cannot learn to 




Fig. 46-47. 

handle his hammer, or to heat a piece of stock by mak- 
ing small things. What the beginner in forging needs 
is some work that he can swing a hammer on without 
danger of spoiling it. Very few boys on entering a shop 
can handle a hammer, and they certainly do not learn 
about heating metal in a forge, by working at staples, 
etc. The first exercise should be a fagot weld. 

Exercise No. 1. — Fagot Weld. 
In doing this, two pieces of iron \ in. square and 
6 in. long are used. The instructor demonstrates the 
welding of these two pieces before the class. In making 
the weld, one piece is laid on top of the other and both 
are caught at one end with a pair of tongs. The tongs 


should fit the pieces nicely; a ring is placed over the 
ends of handles to bind the jaws firmly on to the pieces. 
A heat is then taken on about one-half of the length of 
the stock; the pieces are welded and at the same time 
drawn to \ in. square. The pieces are now turned 
around in the tongs and the balance is heated and 
welded. While drawing stock always have the bar at 
right angles with the long side of the anvil. If the bar 

In position to weld 

kinch square 

Ends Beveled 

Ring Formed 
Fig. 48. 

is not so held, it will twist on the slightly rounded face 
of the anvil. 

There will be more or less iron burned by the boys 
in making this fagot weld; but this is necessary, for a 
boy can never learn how to work iron until he can heat 
it properly. He must over-heat and burn iron in order 
to understand the heat limitations of the metal. 

After the weld is made and the bar is drawn to 
the original size, the ends must be squared by upset- 



ting them. The bar when finished should be § in. 
square thruout its length, and straight with the ends 

It is then formed into a loose ring by hammer- 
ing it over the horn of the anvil and not on a ring man- 

rig. 49. 

drel. In forming the ring, the ends are upset on an 
angle, so that when bent into ring form, they,, will fit 
together nicely. See Figure 48. 



Exercise No. 2. • 
This exercise will be made in the same manner as 
number one, excepting that the bar is finished to 7-16 
in. square, and a ring is turned on each end. See 
Figure 49. 



Fig. 50. 

The eye is formed by heating and hammering it 
over the horn of the anvil, giving it the shape as shown 
at B. It is then re-heated, set on the horn of the anvil 
and hammered close to the eye as shown at C, which 
bends it central with the shank as shown at D. 

In turning loose eyes of any size stock or dimen- 
sions, on the end of a bar, the ring is first turned into 
a circle of the desired size. It is then sprung central 



with the shank. With this method, no figuring of 
stock is required. 

Exercise No. 3. 
In making a hammock hook, the stock should be 
soft steel, which may be purchased for about the same 

Fig. 51. 

Fig. 52. 

price as iron. It will stand the bending strains better 
than iron. The size of the stock is 7J in. by f in. 
round. The end is heated and a loose eye formed. 
The other end is drawn to a taper with J in. of the end 




Fig. 53. 

Fig. 54. 


turned up as shown. See drawing of hook, Figure 50, 
and the different steps in forming the eye at A, B and 
C. The hook is formed over the horn of the anvil as 
shown in Figure 51. Figure 52 shows the finished hook 
with a dotted line drawn thru the center, indicating 
where the pull should come. In Figure 53 is shown a 
common fault when turning a loose ring at the end of 


a bar, in not bending the extreme end first. Notice 
Figure 54, where the end is bent as it should be. 

The expert worker in iron is very careful not to 
hammer mark and destroy the section of a bar. One 
should remember that bending a ring or iron hook is 
simply holding the bar on the horn of the anvil and 
striking the part that protrudes past it. Never strike 
the bar when it is directly over the horn. This does 
not bend it, but makes a dent in the stock. 


To finish wrought iron, all of the scale and dirt 
should be scraped off with an old file while the piece is 
hot. When the iron is cooled, linseed or machine oil is 
rubbed on. If the work is held over the smoke of the 
fire and then oiled, it will take on a darker color. Never 
paint iron work. This destroys the texture of the metal. 
Do not file work bright. It should be dark — filing is 
not forging. 

Exercise No. 4. — S-Link. 

Figure 55 shows a drawing of an S-Link, which is 
used to splice broken chains. In Figure 56 is shown 

\ m v i 

Cl • o 

Fig. 55. Fig. 56. 

the length and size of the stock. The ends are drawn 
to a short point and the center of the bar is marked 
with a center punch. One-half of the link is then formed, 
bringing the point at the center punch mark and using 



one-half of the 
bar. This is a sim- 
ple link to make. 
The only thing to 
be careful about 
is to not destroy 
the section of the 
bar with hammer 
marks. This may 
be avoided if one 
does not strike the hook directly over the horn of the 
anvil, but to one side of the horn. See in Figure 57, 
the correct blow. 

Exercise No. 5. 
Figure 58 shows a drawing for a welded Eye Pin. 
The eye may be made any size for practice. In mak- 
ing the ring, the bar is heated in the center and ham- 

Fig. 57. 


Fig. 58. 

mered over the outer edge of the anvil, as shown in 
Figure 59. The piece is now turned end for end, and 
jogged down again with the ball of the hammer. See 
Figure 60. The piece should now look like the drawing 
in Figure 61. The center of the piece is heated and 
hammered over the horn of the anvil to make the ring 
round and to bring the shanks together. See Figure 62. 
In welding, the piece is caught by the ring with a 
flat pair of tongs. See Figure 63. It is now placed in 



the fire so as to get the heat close to the ring. The 
tongs are then removed, until the piece reaches a white 
heat; the piece is again caught with the tongs, and the 
heat is raised. It is taken out and set on the edge of 

Fig. 59 (above). Fig. 60 (below). 

Fig. 61 (above). Fig. 62 (right). Fig. 63 (left, below). 

the anvil and hammered as shown in Figure 64. The 
first blow struck is close to the ring in order to weld 
that part first. If it cannot be all welded in one heat, it 
should be re-heated at once. Do not hammer unless 



Fig. 64. 

Fig. 65. 

the heat is a welding heat, as the stock will become too 
thin before it is welded. Do not heat the tongs red as 
this destroys them and the piece cannot be held with 
hot tongs. When the ring is welded, the end is drawn 
to a square point. See Figure 65. 


Staples — Open Links — Welded Chain Links — Punching — A Grab 


Exercise No. 6. 

STAPLES are used for hasps, gate hooks, and for var- 
ious other purposes. They are made from all sizes 
of stock, depending on the use to which they are put. 
On account of its pliability, soft steel is the best stock 
to use in making staples. 

The length to cut stock is shown in the drawing 
of the staple in Figure 66. The stock is caught at one 

end with a pair of light tongs. The piece is then heated 
and drawn out to a point; it is reversed in the tongs 
and the other end is drawn out. The center of the piece 
is then reheated and bent into shape over the horn of 
the anvil. 

In drawing any piece of stock to a tapered point, 
the taper should not be hamraered on one side con- 
tinuously and, when turned over, 'hammered back again. 
To have a taper on all four sides" alike, the bar must be 




Fig. 68. 

raised the proper distance and not laid flat on the anvil. 
Figure 67 illustrates the wrong way and Figure 68, the 
correct way. 

Exercise No. 7. 
In Figure 69 is shown a drawing of an open link. 
Open links are used in the splicing of broken chains. 
In splicing a chain, the link is opened by driving a 
chisel between the laps, or it is opened when made. 
These laps are hooked into links of broken chain and 

® y k 





Fig. 69. 

then driven together. In making the link, one end is 
drawn to a flat point and a hook ip hammered on it. 
See Figure 70. The other end is heated and drawn out 
as in Figure 71. The center of the piece is now heated 
and bent over the horn of the anvil to the desired shape. 

Fig. 70. 

Fig. 71. 



Fig. 72. 

See Figure 72. Notice in 
the drawing that the hooks 
at the open end of the 
link are not very long. 
They should not be made 
longer than shown. 

Exercise No. 8. — Welding a 
Chain Link. 

The form and length of the stock for this exercise 
is shown in Figure 73. The link may be made from 
iron or soft steel. After the stock is cut, it is heated 
in the center and bent over the horn of the anvil into a 

Fig. 73. 

Fig. 74 

"U" shape. See Figure 74. The ends are now heated 
and scarfed by setting them on the anvil as shown in 
Figure 75. The iron is then struck on top with the 
hand hammer. After each blow, it is moved away from 
the anvil just a little, giving the end a bevel, so that, 
when finished, the scarf consists of a series of slanting 

In scarfing, both ends of the links are set on the 
anvil. The end of the one on the right hand side must 
not be moved when scarfing the other. After each 



blow of the hammer, the piece is moved just a little. 
If it is moved too far and the other end of the link is 
fixed it will describe an arc. See Figure 76. This is 
the method used in scarfing links. Sometimes they are 
welded without scarfing, but it is not good practice. 

Scarf here 

Fig. 75. 

Tig. 76. 

Figure 77 shows the link scarfed, lapped and ready 
to be welded. In welding, the heat is taken directly 
on the end of the lap and not on the sides, so as not to 
burn the stock above the laps. When the link has the 
welding heat, it is taken to the anvil and hammered on 
the flat sides, then set on the horn of the anvil, and 
hammered on the corners. See Figure 78. The shape 
of the link at the weld should be just a little pointed for 
a strong link. 






In making chains, 
do not weld two single 
links and then one be- 
tween them. Weld a 
link on the end of the 
chain and keep re- 
peating until finished. 

Fig. 77. 

Exercise No. 9. 
Punching holes thru 
hot iron is not a diffi- 
cult exercise. For instance: A f-in. hole is to be punched 
thru a flat piece of iron or steel. The piece is heated, taken 
to the anvil and a punch set on the spot to be punched. 

Fig. 78. 

The punch is struck three or four blows with the hand 
hammer driving it into the metal as shown in Figure 
79. The piece is then turned over and the punch is 
set over the dark spot which is caused by the former 
blows, and is driven thru. See Figure 80. Square 
and other shaped holes are punched in the same manner. 
Thin stock is punched cold. In doing this, the piece 



to be punched is set on the punch block and the punch 
driven thru the metal into the hole of the block. A 
punch-block is a round or square block of steel with one 
or more tapered holes thru it. See Figure 81. 

Fig. 80. Left. Fig. 79. Center. Fig. 81. Right 

Figure 82 shows some holes that could be punched 
while the metal is hot A hole like the one shown at A, 
is made with a punch of that shape; the next hole is 
made with the same punch. Afterwards the hole is 



Fig. 82. 

upset or shortened by heating and cooling each side of 
the hole. The bar is then hammered on the end. This 
shortens and spreads the metal. The hole is made true 
by driving a round punch thru it. The stock used for 
this exercise should be soft steel. 



Exercise No. 10. — A Grab Hook for a Log Chain. 
Figure 83 shows a drawing of the hook with size of 
stock to be used. The stock should be mild steel, 

1 1 


p. (,£ •" 

C°r^ I 

1 !^\ 

Fig. 83. 

6§ by f by f inches. To form the eye one end is heated 
and shouldered back one inch from the end, by hammer- 
ing it on the anvil as shown in Figure 84. The eye 

Fig. 84. 

is then rounded with the hammer and the hole punched 
with a hand punch. The hole is countersunk by ham- 
mering it on the horn as shown in Figure 85. The 



Fig. 86. 

point is next drawn out and then the hook is heated in 
the center. It is cooled each side of the center and 
hammered over the horn to bend, then on the anvil as 
shown at Figure 86. A piece of f-in. flat iron is set on 
the inside of the hook and the hook hammered to fit 
the iron. This leaves the opening of the hook uniform 
and just the size required. See Figure 87. 



Fig. 87. 


Bolts — Capping Tool — Gate Hook — Hay Hook- 
Expansion of Heated Iron. 

-Welded Ring- 

Exercise No. 11. 

BOLTS may be made in one piece by upsetting the 
end of a bar, then squaring the head by driving the 
piece into a heading tool. A bolt may also be made 
by welding a collar around the end of a bar after which 
the head is squared. 

Figure 88 shows a welded bolt head. After the 
stock is cut to proper length, the collar for the head 
is made. It is heated and hammered over the horn of 
the anvil to make it round. The end of the collar is 
now cut off on the hardie, cutting clear thru from one 
side and giving it a bevel. The other end is cut from 
the opposite side giving it a bevel also. See drawing 
at A. The collar is driven on the end of the bar while 


the collar is cold and the bar is hot. When the collar is 
hammered on the end of the bar, there should be about 
§-in. crack. See drawing at B. The reason is that, 
in welding, the collar is lengthened: Hammering 
stretches the metal, and it must have end room. When 
the collar is ready the bar is' heated on the end and up- 



Fig. 89. 

set just a little. A heat is then taken, and the collar is 
welded by striking it on four sides, letting the opening 
form one of the corners. The bolt is then inserted into 
a |-in. hole in a heading tool to smooth the end of the 
head with a hammer. A cupping tool is next set on 

to the head and given a few 
good blows with the hammer. 
This bevels the top corners of 
the square head. A cupping 
tool is a piece of tool steel 
,, ir , i(l with a half round depression 

in one end. See Figure 89. 
The heads of bolts can be beveled with the ham- 
mer, instead of with a cupping tool. Figure 90 shows 
a tool to be used in the vise to make heads on light 
rods. The rod is heated and inserted into the hole; 
then the vise is tightened after which the ends are 
hammered down. 

Exercise No. 12 — Forging a Gate Hook. 
Figure 91 shows the length and size of stock which 
should be of soft steel. One and one-half inches from 
each end of the bar is marked with a center punch. 



One end is drawn round to a point. The other is ham- 
mered round for the eye. See Figure 92. In the draw- 
ing Figure 93, the eye and the hook are shown turned. 

K — 




* — 


— i 










Z y Z- 

Fig. 91 (above). Fig. 92 (below). 

The center part of the hook is square and is to be twisted. 
This is done by heating the square part to a uniform 
heat and cooling each end. The hook is then twisted 

Fig. 93. 

Fig. 94. 

with two pairs of tongs, or it may be caught in a vise 
and twisted with one pair of tongs. See drawing of 

. the finished 
hook, Figure 

Figure 95 

shows a tool 

called a 

horn; it fits 

into the 

square hole of the 

anvil. It is used 

to turn very 

small eyes at the 

end of a bar. A 

Fig. 95. 



piece of lf-in. round soft steel is used in making it, by 
drawing the end square to fit the hole in the anvil. It 
is afterwards bent over and the taper drawn as shown. 

Exercise No. 13 — Making a Hay Hook. 
Figure 96 shows the stock which should be soft 
steel, to be used in making a Hay Hook. The eye is 




® : 






** — 


— //' > 

first turned, using 11 inches of the bar. The end is 
then heated and drawn to a point after which it is bent 
as shown in the drawing. 

Exercise No. 14 — Welding Ring. 
Figure 97 shows a drawing for a ring to be made 
from §-in. round stock cut 10 inches long. The whole 


FIG 11 

Fig. 97. 




is heated red at one time and then formed into shape 
by hammering it over the horn as shown in Figure 98. 
The ends are now heated and scarfed in the same manner 
as described for the welded link. When they are lapped 
and ready for welding, they should look like Figure 99. 
Notice that the ring is made egg shape so that a heat 
may be taken directly on the ends of the scarfs and not 
at the sides. The ring when welded is formed round. 

Another method of welding rings is to upset the 
ends and then form the rings. It is scarfed as explained 
above. This is seldom done in practical work because 
it is too slow, and the other method is about as strong. 

Fig. 98. 

Fig. 99. 

In welding the ring, it is handled in the same 
manner as in welding links. To find the amount of 
stock for rings, the inside diameter plus the thickness 
of stock is multiplied by 3.1416 or 3 1-7. To this is 
added enough stock for the lap of the weld. For ex- 
ample a ring is required of one-inch stock. The inside 
measure is 10 inches. Solution: (10 + 1) x 3 1-7 = 
11 x 3 1-7 = 34 4-7 i \ inch for welding. 

In heating a piece of iron to be formed into a ring, 
it should never be heated to the welding heat. A 
welding heat on any piece of work that is not to be 



hammered destroys the texture of the metal. Any 
piece of work to be formed, should be heated evenly 
and not too hot. 

Iron when heated expands. For example, if a piece 
of stock 12 by 1 by 5-19 in. is heated red its entire length 
and then measured, it will be about 12J in. long. When 
the piece is cooled it will go back to. its original length 
of twelve inches. 

In making bands or tires for wagons, they are made 
a little short, then heated and put on, letting them 
shrink to their original size, which makes them tight. 

Wrought Iron Lantern. 


Marking Tongs — Pig Iron — Puddling — The Bessemer Process — 
The Open Hearth Process — Crucible Steel — The Cementation 
Process — Tempering. 

Exercise No. 16. 

IN forging tongs, stock f-in. square of Norway or 
Swedish iron may be used, as it is much easier for 
a beginner in welding the handle on to the jaws. Soft 
steel may be used later on if desired. Figure 100 shows 

Fig. 100. Blacksmith's Tongs. 

the drawing of a finished pair of flat tongs. Figure 101 
shows the size of stock used and the dimensions of the 
rough forgings. It is not intended that the dimen- 
sions given are to be accurately followed, but they are 
given as an idea of what may be forged from this size of 
stock. In forging the jaws, no helper is required to 
handle a sledge hammer after the piece is cut from the 
bar for the reason that it is time lost for the one who 
handles it, besides one man can do it. 

In forging the jaws a heavy hand hammer is used, 
and the bar is heated to the welding heat, or near it. 
One and one-eighth inch of the bar is set on the inner 
edge of the anvil and the lip is hammered as shown in 
Figure 102. The lip must not be turned and ham- 



mered on its edge. Let it get as wide as it will, and do 
not hammer it too thin. After the shoulder has been 
started for the length of the lip, it must not be moved. 
A common fault is to start the shoulder and then to 
find that the lip is not long enough and proceed to 







Rivet -^ 1 E3 "N 

Fig. 101. 

make another shoulder. The result of the second 
shoulder is that when nearly finished a crack will be 
discovered. The reason that second shoulder starts 
a crack is that the metal stretched over the first shoulder. 




Yirjt Moulder 

Fig. 102. 

Fig. 103. 

This is called a cold shut. See Figure 103. Another 
common fault is to lower the bar when making the lip. 



This pulls the lip on an angle with the bar and when it 
is straightened, another crack is formed in the corner. 
See Figure 104. The bar must be on the same plane 
with the anvil face at all times. When the lip is made, 
the bar is turned to the left, setting it on the outer edge 

Fig. 104. 

Fig. 105. 

of the anvil and hammering to form the shoulder for 
the eye. See Figure 105. It is then turned again to 
the left hand and hammered down for the last shoulder. 

At this time the stock required for the eye is beyond 
the outer edge of the anvil. See Figure 106. 

The rough forging should always be made a little 
larger than the finished tongs; finishing it to size when 
the handle is welded on. When both jaws are forged, 

Fig. 106. 

Fig. 107. 

they are cut in the center and the handles are welded 
on. When the handles are well upset and scarfed, the 
shanks of the jaws are drawn to equal size. Care must 
be taken in having the scarfed ends equal in size or a 


poor weld will result. The handles at the weld are 
drawn square with the corners tapered off. The jaws 
are now drawn and fitted to size. Notice that the lip 
tapers on the edge, also on the flat part. A small 
flute is fullered lengthways on the inside of the lip so that 
round as well as flat iron may be held. The hole is next 
punched thru the eye with a hand punch. A piece of 
f-in. rod of soft steel is cut to the proper length and used 
for a rivet. It is heated and inserted into the holes in 
the jaws and hammered on both sides with hard blows. 
The jaws of the tongs are now heated red and worked 
back and forth to loosen the rivet in the eye. The jaws 
are fitted to the size of the stock they are to handle as 
in Figure 107. The regular stock rivets should not be 
used in tongs. The f-in. round piece headed from both 
sides fits the holes thru the eye best. 


Fig. 108. 

In making tongs to hold a larger piece of stock, 
the square bar should have an offset. The jaws should 
then be forged as in Figure 108. Notice where the ham- 
mer strikes the bar to offset it. 

In forging tongs, the handles should be welded to 
the jaws to give practice in welding. 


Pig Iron. 
Pig iron is made by smelting the iron ore in a 
blast furnace. The ore is charged in a furnace mixed 
with lime stone as a flux, and melted by using coke 
or coal as fuel. The resulting metal is called pig iron. 
It contains from three to five per cent of carbon, two 
to four per cent of silicon and various small amounts 
of sulphur, phosphorus and manganese. 


Wrought iron is made by melting the pig iron in 
a puddling furnace; about one-half ton is charged at 
a time. After it is softened, it is stirred with large 
iron hooks by the puddler and his helper. It is kept 
kneaded to expose every part to the action of the flame, 
so as to burn out all of the carbon. All the other im- 
purities separate from the iron and form what is known 
as the puddle clinker. 

Pig iron melts at about 2100° F., steel at 2500° F., 
and wrought iron at 2800° F., so the temperature of 
the puddling furnace is kept high enough to melt pig 
iron but not hot enough to keep wrought iron in a 
liquid state. Consequently, as soon as the iron becomes 
pure it forms a spongy mass. This mass of sponge is 
divided into lumps of about 100 or 150 pounds which 
are taken to a squeezer and formed into blocks. In 
the operation of squeezing the greater proportion of 
impurities left in the iron after the puddling, are re- 
moved. While these blocks are still hot they are rolled 
into flat musk bars. The bars are now cut and heated 
to white heat in a furnace, taken to the rolls, welded 
and rolled into merchant bars. In the welding and roll- 
ing the cinder coated globules of iron are forced close 


together as the iron is welded. This gives the iron a 
fibrous structure increasing its strength. 

Bessemer Process. 
In making steel by the Bessemer process, the pig 
iron is put into a large pear shaped vessel called the con- 
verter. The bottom is double; the inner casing is per- 
forated with holes called tuyeres, to admit air forced 
under pressure. From ten to fifteen tons of molten 
iron at one time are poured into the converter while 
it is lying on its side. The compressed air is now turned 
into the double bottom as the converter rises to a 
vertical position. The air has sufficient pressure to 
prevent the metal from entering the tuyeres, and it 
passes up and thru the metal, burning out the carbon. 
After the blast which lasts about ten minutes, the 
metal is practically liquid wrought iron. The converter 
is now laid on its side and the blast is shut off. A cer- 
tain amount of molten spiegeleisen (white cast iron con- 
taining much carbon or ferromanganese is added so as to 
give the steel the proper amount of carbon and man- 
ganese to make it suitable for its purpose. The steel 
is then poured into ingots and rolled into rails, girders, 
etc. Carbon is pure charcoal; manganese is a chemical 
element very difficult to fuse, but easily oxidized. 

Open Hearth Process. 
The open hearth process of steel manufacturing 
is similar to the puddling process. The carbon is re- 
moved by the action of an oxidizing flame of burning 
gas. The furnace has a capacity of forty or fifty tons 
and is heated with gas or oil. The gas and air needed 
for its combustion are heated to a temperature of over 


1000° F. before entering the combustion chamber, 
by passing thru so-called regenerative chambers. Ow- 
ing to the preheating of the gas and air a very high 
temperature can be maintained in the furnace so as to 
keep the iron liquid after it has parted with the carbon. 
The stirring up of the metal is not done with hooks 
as in puddling furnace but by adding certain propor- 
tions of iron scales or other oxides the chemical 
reaction of which keeps the metal in a state of agitation. 
With the open hearth process the metal can be tested 
from time to time. When it contains the proper amount 
of carbon it is drawn off thru the tapping hole at the 
bottom of the hearth, leaving the slag at the top. As 
steel is produced in a liquid form, from which impuri- 
ties have been removed in the form of slag that rises 
and floats at the top, the metal is homogeneous and 
practically without grain. Wrought iron will outlast 
steel when exposed to the weather. 

Crucible steel, or tool steel, also called cast steel, 
is made by using high grade, Swedish, wrought iron and 
adding carbon which is low in phosporus content. The 
oldest method is called the "Cementation Process." The 
iron bars were packed in air-tight retorts with powdered 
charcoal between them. They were put in a cementa- 
tion furnace, heated red and kept at this temperature 
for several days. The bars, in this way, absorbed the car- 
bon from the charcoal. The carbonized bars (called 
"blister steel") were then cut into small pieces, remelted 
in a crucible, poured in ingots and rolled into bars. 

The newer method is to melt small pieces of Nor- 
way or Swedish iron base with charcoal in a graphite 
or clay crucible. It is then poured into moulds and 
made into ingots, after which it is forged or rolled into 


The crucible process enables the manufacture of 
steel to almost exact analysis and insures a clean and 
pure material. It also absorbs the carbon much faster 
than steel made the old way. 

In the school forge shop, the tool steel used should 
be of an inexpensive kind. High priced steel should 
not be used as more or less is wasted by the pupils in 
working. A carbon steel should be used for all forge 
shop tools. About 75 to 95 point is suitable. High- 
speed tool steel should be used only to give the pupils 
instruction in its handling and use, and to familiarize 
them with the different kinds of steel and their 

To the steel maker, temper means the percentage of 
carbon in the steel. The word point means one-hun- 
dredth of one per cent, thus 10 point carbon means ten 
one-hundredths of one per cent. One hundred and 
fifty point carbon contains one and one-half per cent. 
This is about as high as is generally made. One hundred 
and fifty point is known as high temper; low temper is 
about 40 point. Steel containing less than 40 point 
does not harden to advantage and is classed with ma- 
chinery steel. There is a range of tempers between 
high and low point which are used for different kinds of 

In the forge shop the term temper means the de- 
gree of hardness given to a piece of tool steel. As an 
example, a piece of steel is heated to a dark red color 
and cooled in water or oil. This is called hardening. 
If this piece is too hard for the purpose intended, it is 
then tempered to reduce some of its hardness, and to 
give the steel elasticity and strength. In doing this, 
it is subjected to heat, (the more heat the softer the piece 


becomes). In the forge shop, in tempering steel, the 
metal is polished bright after hardening. If it is a 
small piece, it is then held on or near a piece of hot 
iron. As the piece becomes heated, the steel heated 
in the air assumes colors; at first a very faint yellow 
and gradually darker, until all of the color has dis- 
appeared leaving the steel without any trace of hardness. 

These different colors as they appear on the sur- 
face of hardened steel represent different degrees of 
hardness. The following simple list of colors applies 
to the different tools and carbon to use: 

Light straw — 430° F. Lathe tools — 130 point car- 

Dark straw — 470° F. Taps and dies — 120 point 

Purple gray — 530° F. Chisels and blacksmiths' 
tools, 75 to 95 point carbon. 

Of course there are other colors than these. As the 
heat advances every few degrees the color keeps chang- 
ing to a darker which indicates the tool is becoming 

The hardening heat is about 1300 to 1400 degrees 
Fahrenheit, or a cherry red. About 400 degrees Fah- 
renheit relieves the strain in a hardened piece of steel; 
600 degrees leaves a trace of hardness and is about right 
for springs. 

In order to know the results of heating and cooling 
steel one should take a small bar and cut nicks in it 
with a chisel every half inch. The bar is then heated 
from a white heat at the end to a very dark red some 
inches back. It is then cooled in water, the pieces 
broken and the grain noted. The heat that leaves the 
steel file hard and a very fine grain is the hardening 



heat of that steel. The hardening heat is a dark red. 
The hotter it was when cooled the coarser the grain 
shows on the end of the broken pieces. 

In further demonstrating hardening and tempering 
of tool steel, the making of a flat cold chisel will be 
considered. The principles involved are about the same 
in all hardening and tempering. 


Making a Flat Cold Chisel— Spring Tempering— Welding Steel- 
Case Hardening — Coloring Steel — Annealing — Making a 
Scratch Awl— Making a Center Punch— Making a Hand Punch 
— High Speed Steel — Annealing High Speed Steel. 

Exercise No. 17 — Flat Cold Chisel. 

A GOOD cold chisel is an indispensable tool in a 
shop, and one that is very much abused. There- 
fore, it should be made with the greatest care. In 
the forging of a good chisel a piece of f-in. octagonal 
tool steel, from 75 to 95 point carbon, is used. The 
piece is cut six inches long. In doing this the bar may 

Fig. 109. 

be nicked with a chisel. The nicked part is then set 
over the outer edge of the anvil. A chisel with a handle 
is set on the nicks and given a good blow with a sledge 
hammer, shearing the piece from the bar. See Figure 




109. This method of cutting is quite dangerous, so 
care must be taken. Perhaps, a less dangerous method, 
tho not so practical, is to heat the bar red and cut the 
piece off with a hot chisel and sledge, or on the hardie, 
if one has no helper. The end is then hammered. 
See Figure No. 110. 

Fig. 110. 

When cut off and hammered round on one end, the 
piece is caught with a fluted-lip pair of tongs that will 
hold it firmly and a ring is placed on the ends of the 
reins to bind them. The end is now heated in a well 
burned fire, letting the heat soak in slowly, and not forc- 
ing it with too much blast. 
If the fire is lively hardly 
any blast is used on the start. 
The piece is brought to a 
heat somewhat beyond what 
is commonly called cherry 
heat. It is then taken to the 
anvil and drawn out square 
with hard blows of the hammer, to a long taper, and 
nearly to a point. This taper should be about If inches 
long. See Figure No. 111. 

Fig. 111. 


Hammering must cease before the red heat has 
left the steel. It is again heated and hammered on two 
sides; in drawing the chisel bends edgewise. Do not 
strike it on the edge; it will fracture the grain of the steel. 
To straighten the blade, it should be hammered on the 

__ flat side near the con- 

C j *~— _ T~~""~") cave e ^ e - ^ ee Figure 
Hammer her fO ' No. 112. This 

F '£- 112 - stretches the metal 

an d straightens the 

C 3 '^ T". II blade. Care must be 

Fig. ii3. taken in hammering 

not to make the chisel 
wider in one place than in another. 

When finishing the chisel, it is hammered lightly 
until the red is nearly but not quite gone. This ham- 
mering packs the grain and makes it fine. The end 
of the chisel is set on a hardie and cut half thru, so that 
when it is hardened and tempered it may be broken 
to note its grain and also require less grinding in sharpen- 
ing. See Figure No. 113. The chisel is now heated 
very slowly to a dark red and set in a dry place on the 
forge to anneal. This annealing relieves the strain in 
the tool due to hammering. 

When the chisel is cold it is reheated to harden and 
temper. Over-heating does not make the tool harder 
when cooled in water, but increases its brittleness, so 
care must be taken when heating. The heating must be 
very slow, and to a dark red, 2\ inches long. The chisel 
should be cooled as the heat is going up. A common 
practice of heating the steel more than a cherry red and 
holding it out of the forge until the heat goes down, 
before dipping, is wrong. When properly heated the 





chisel is held in a vertical position and dipped about 
1§ inches into 16 gallons of salt and water, heated from 
60° to 70° F. See Figure 114. The tool is kept in 
motion when dipped. When cooled it is removed, and 
the hardened part is rubbed bright with an emery stick 
or sand paper. This is done so 
that the temper colors may be seen. 
Tempering increases the tool's elas- 
ticity and strength, and -reduces 
f^tv the brittleness. The temper color 

" will show just a faint yellow 

against the edge of the remaining 
heat that was left in the tool after 

In hardening the tool, it is 
heated 2 J inches of its length and 
1| inches is cooled in water to 
harden. The remaining heat grad- 
ually runs thruout the whole chisel 
and may be noted by the faint yel- 
low color on the bright part of 
the tool traveling towards the cut- 
ting end. This faint yellow temper 
color, due to the heat and air, is 
followed with darker colors; if let 
run too much all of the hardness 
would be taken out of the tool. 
Four hundred and thirty degrees Fahrenheit would 
be about a light straw color, leaving the steel very 
hard. About 600° F. would be the darkest color, 
nearly black. This is as hot as steel can be made and 
still leave a trace of hardness. This temper is too soft 
for a chisel but about right for springs; therefore, when 

Fig. 114. 


the very dark purple temper color covers the whole 
bright part of the chisel the point is dipped in water. 
The chisel is then set in a dry place on the forge to cool 
slowly. The temper color must run to the end of the 
chisel very slowly. The reason for this is that if the 
temper color comes slow, the chisel is tempered farther 
back from the point. The temper colors on the surface 
of the bright steel are obtained by different degrees of 
heat, as it travels from the remaining heat left in the 
tool when the piece was hardened. The less heat al- 
lowed to travel toward the end of chisel, the paler the 
temper color and the harder the chisel; therefore, the 
faint yellow color indicates that the steel is very hard. 
The darker the temper color becomes the softer the tool. 
The best chisels are those that are file proof. If, 
after hardening and tempering a chisel, it cannot be 
cut with a file, it is too hard and the temper must be 
run out more. If the grain of steel is very fine when 
broken the chisel had the proper heat when quenched, 
but if it looks coarse the tool was too hot when cooled 
and must be annealed, rehardened and tempered. A 
little judgment will enable one to determine the proper 
hardness for all tools of this character by noting these 
temper colors. The above explanation in a general 
way applies to the working of all carbon steel tools. 

Spring Tempering. 

There are many kinds of springs that are hardened 
and tempered. The methods of handling are about 
the same with all. As an example, a piece of spring steel 
5 by 1 by 1-16 inches is to be tempered. In doing this, 
the piece is caught at one end with a pair of light tongs. 
The steel is heated to a dark red and dipped into a can 


of sperm oil, or equal parts of lard and tallow. When 
cool it is held over the fire until the surplus oil takes 
fire and blazes off. It is redipped in the oil, and the oil 
is burned three times in all. It is then partly cooled 
in the oil and set on the forge until cool, when it is ready 
for use. Steel is manufactured especially for springs. 
It is called spring steel. It is made in a different way 
from tool steel, by the open hearth process. It differs 
in quality and cannot be absolutely guaranteed. The 
steel is never free from all foreign elements which might 
be detrimental to its quality. 

Tempering Thin Pieces of Steel. 

In hardening thin pieces of steel such as knives, 
very thin milling cutters, etc., there is always difficulty 
in preventing warping after hardening. Two heavy 
surface plates, planed on one side, are used. On one 
of these plates equal parts of tallow and lard are spread 
\ inch thick. The knife is heated in a steam pipe with 
one end plugged and having fire under and over it. 
When an even red heat is reached, the knife is brought 
out and set on the oil and at the same time the top 
plate is set onto the knife until cool. This hardens the 
blade and keeps it from springing. The knife is bright- 
ened and the temper is drawn to a dark straw color by 
holding it on a hot iron. 

Very small pieces of steel are packed into an iron 
pipe or box surrounded with charcoal. The whole is 
then heated red and the pieces are dumped out and 
cooled in water. To draw temper, they are put in an 
iron ladle filled with lard oil that is heated on the fire. 


Welding Steel. 
All small pieces of tool and spring steel should be 
welded with separate heats. A little practice and a 
clean fire, with some good welding compound, are 
necessary. In separate heat welding of flat steel, the flat 
sides of the scarfs are put together instead of the beveled 


Fig. 115. Welding Thin Steel. 

ones. The scarfs are shown in Figure No. 115. The 
method of riveting and splitting small pieces of fiat 
steel to hold them together while taking the heat is not 
to be recommended because after they are put together 
in this manner the lap is double thick, and in raising 
the heat there is always danger of over-heating each 
side of the lap. Separate heats and a clean fire is the 
best method to use to make a good weld, unless the steel 
is heavy. In this case, it is split and forked as previously 

Case Hardening. 
The difference between wrought iron and tool 
steel lies in the absence of carbon in the iron. Tool 
steel can be hardened because it contains carbon, and 
when heated and suddenly cooled becomes hard thru- 
out. The surface of wrought iron or mild steel can be 
carbonized and then made very hard. This is called 
case hardening because about 1-16 inch or less of the 


outside of the bar is made hard while the center is soft. 
There are several methods. One is to place the articles 
in a tight cast iron box and surrounded with ground 
bone before placing in a furnace. The box is then 
brought to a high heat of about 1700 degrees Fahren- 
heit. It is held at this heat for several hours and then 
let cool. When cool, the pieces are reheated and dipped 
in salt water to harden them or they may be cooled with 
the first heating. By another method the pieces are 
placed in an iron ladle with cyanide of potassium and 
heated. Iron may be heated red and rolled in the 
cyanide, then reheated and plunged into water. Care 
must be taken in handling cyanide as even the fumes 
are poisonous. 

Coloring Steel. 
Very bright pieces of soft steel can be case hard- 
ened and colored at the same time. In doing this, 
cyanide is heated in an iron box, and the steel articles 
are put into it. When heated they are removed and 
dipped into a solution of water and salt peter to cool 
and harden them. This gives them a mottled effect 
with many colors. A pint of salt peter to about four 
gallons of water makes a solution strong enough. This 
bath becomes poisoned from the cyanide. It should 
be kept clean and labeled "Poison." 

A piece of metal of any kind is said to be "an- 
nealed" when made very soft. Steel should be annealed 
before it is filed, drilled, or machined, as it is a very 
hard metal to work when cold. The method of an- 
nealing is first to heat the piece to a red heat. It is 
then covered with warm, slacked lime so that the air will 



not come in contact with it until cool. A simple way 
to anneal, when in a hurry, is to heat the steel red, set- 
ting it in a dry place on the forge until black. It is 
then plunged into water quickly and brought out. This 
operation is repeated until the piece is cool. Steel is 
also annealed by heating the piece red and setting it 

stock / f 


■ /#-■ 




Fig. 116 (above). Fig. 117 (below). 

on the forge until cool. The slower steel is cooled, 
the softer it becomes. Wrought iron and mild steel 
forgings should always be annealed when used in work 
where there is danger of breaking them. 


Fig. 118. Scratch Awl. 

Exercise No. 18 — Scratch-Awl. 
This tool is used to scratch holes on the surface of 
metal, and also to lay out shapes on metal. Figure 
116 shows the dimensions of stock. The piece should 
be carbon steel. One and one-half inches from one end, 
the bar is drawn out until it measures 2\ inches in 
length, as shown in Figure 117. It is then bent on an 
angle as shown in Figure 118. This part is now heated 
and hammered over the horn of the anvil to form the 



Fig. 119. Scratch Awl Complete. 

eye or ring. It is then twisted by catching one end 
in the vise and twisting to the right. The point is next 
drawn out as shown in Figure 119. The point is then 
ground or filed and the awl tempered hard. 

Exercise No. 19 — Center-Punch. 
Figure 120 shows the size of stock and Figure 121 
shows the center-punch completed. The top part is 
first made, then the bottom is drawn out to a taper. 

Fig. 120 (above). Center Punch. Fig. 121 (below). 

In doing this, it is first drawn square, then eight sided 
and finally rounded. The point is ground and the 
punch is tempered to a purple color. For heavy center- 
ing a larger size steel should be used. 

Exercise No. 20 — Hand- Punch. 
Hand-punches are made of various sizes of stock, 
f in., f in. and f in., and are used for hot punching. 



Figure 122 shows the size of stock for a punch that will 
be useful in the school shop, and Figure 123 shows 
the completed punch. It is made in the same manner 
as described for the center-punch. This punch must not 
be tempered. For punching square holes the punch 
is drawn square, and the ends of all hand-punches are 
made smaller than the hole to be punched. 

k#4 6" 


j/4' ■ 

Fig. 122. Stock for Punch. 

Fig. 123. Completed Punch 

High speed steels, due to their hardness and dura- 
bility, retain their edge when cutting at extremely 
high speeds. 

It has only been of recent years that high speed 
steels came into use. Before this time self-hardening 
steels were made by Jessop and Mushet which were in 
general use. They were tempered by heating to a dark 
red and left to cool in the air. The high speed steels 
of today are heated to 2,000° or 2,200° Fahr., or a 
white heat bordering on a welding heat. 

The chemical composition of these new steels are 
only known by their makers. However, it is said that 
they contain carbon, tungsten, chromium, manganese 
and other elements. 

The great advantage in using high speed steel, is 
that a machine can be run three times as fast as one 


using carbon steel, without destroying the edge of the 
tool. The output is therefore greater. Of course, in 
order to force this steel to do a great amount of work 
the machine tools should be constructed to stand heavy 
strains. All kinds of tools are now being made from 
high speed steel. 

For light lathe work, high speed steel is used in 
the adjustable tool holder. The most common tool for 
doing heavy work is the round nose which is made from 
various size steel. 

High speed tool steel is sold under many brands. 
The method of handling is about the same for all. How- 
ever each manufacturer will give the method which is 
best for his particular make of steel. In forging high 
speed lathe tools, a furnace or clean fire with plenty of 
coke is used. The steel is heated to a bright red heat, 
holding the steel at this heat as nearly as possible when 
hammering. Forging at a low heat is liable to cause 
the steel to burst. When the tool is forged, it is laid 
in a dry place on the forge to cool. When hardening, 
the point of the tool is brought to a white welding heat, 
about 2,100° Fahr., and this is noticeable by the appear- 
ance of melted borax, forming on the nose. The tool is 
now held in a compressed air blast, or dipped into 
sperm, linseed or lard oil until cool. 

Annealing High Speed Steel. 

The process is the same as the one used for carbon 
steel, heating to a red heat and covering the piece with 
slacked lime until cold. 

In cutting high speed tool steel, the bar may be 
nicked with the emery wheel, then broken. 



In working tool steel or iron of any weight the 
blows of the hammer must be heavy. Light blows 
stretch the outer part of the metal and not the center. 
This is liable to fracture it. The blow must be heavy 
so as to penetrate thru the bar. A trip hammer of 
ordinary size run by a belt is a very economical tool for 
the school shop. It is inexpensive and can be used to 
advantage in drawing out large pieces of stock, especially 
tool steel. 

Every pupil should have more or less practice in 
the handling of a trip or steam hammer. 



Wrought Iron Work — Making a Wrought Iron Leaf — Making a 
Volute Scroll— Grilles. 

XT the present time great interest is being taken 
j^\ in the teaching of art work in our public schools. 
Every school of importance is doing something in the 
way of giving the pupils a knowledge of art. One work- 
ing in the school crafts should study art. There is no 
craft work that one can do well without this training. 
With art training one can see defects in his work much 
quicker than without such training. In fact, it opens 
up a new world of possibilities to the workman. The 
more one is convinced of the value of thoro acquaint- 
ance with the medium in which he is working, the 
higher the class of work he produces. 

All fine workmen in any craft have more or less 
ability to draw. This not only gives them power to 
transfer their conceptions to paper, but it also helps 
them in the execution of the work. The iron- worker 
in particular should practice free-hand drawing. It 
enables him to form his material into proper shape. As 
a general thing, forge work is fashioned into shape by 

Wrought iron-work is one of the oldest of the 
handicrafts. It was extensively practiced by the an- 
cients and carried to a high degree of excellence, both 
in execution and design. During the Middle Ages 



and up to the seventeenth century some of the finest 
examples were produced. A study of the older forms, 
especially those of Medieval German production, shows 
iron fashioned in keeping with its properties and with 
the spirit of the craftsman. It is impossible to utilize 

Fig. 1. Forged Leaf. 

natural forms in wrought iron without convention. 
Realistic iron flowers are inconsistent with the material 
in which they are executed. They kill the strength 
and destroy the character of the metal. This should 
be learned early by one working in iron. When the 
iron-worker of the past imitated nature too closely in 
leaf and flower, he failed as a designer and his work dete- 
riorated. Iron as a crude metal must be fashioned into 
shapes that are suitable and practical for the material. 
For instance, it readily allows itself to be worked into 
graceful curved forms which can be used to advantage 



in grille work. It may be surface-decorated by using 
chasing tools. This may be done on hot or cold metal, 
depending upon the depth wanted. Iron may also be 
punctured with openings thru the metal which give 
the play of light and shadow that is very pleasing. 

Fig. 2. 

Grotesque figures and an endless variety of leaf forms 
may also be worked in iron. These should be conven- 
tionalized. Embossed or repousse work may be done 
to advantage. In doing this the metal while hot is 
hammered on the end grain of elm wood and on forms 
made from iron. When cold it is hammered on lead, 
and steel tools are used to sharpen up the detail. 

In Figure 1 is shown a leaf made from Number 16 
sheet steel and Figure 2 shows a pattern of the same 



leaf. In making a leaf of this kind, a full-size drawing 
is made just as it should look when modeled. From 
this drawing a pattern is developed as the leaf would 
look when in the flat. It is impossible to lay it out 
accurately. The method used is to find the stretch 
out of the leaf by measuring along its greatest length. 

Fig. 3. Cutting Tool. 

This can be done by using a pair of dividers. The 
length found is then laid off on the metal. The widest 
parts of the leaf are then measured and laid on the 
metal. Having the length and width, the rest can be 
sketched in. The leaf is now cut out with a narrow 
cold chisel that can be made to follow the curved line. 
This cutting should be done while the metal is cold. 

Fig. 4. Modeling Hammer. 

The leaf shown in the illustration has been fluted with 
a steel hand-tool. In doing this a tool as shown in 
Figure 3 is used. This tool is made smooth, rounded 
at the base like an ordinary fuller and then hardened. 
The fluting is also done while the metal is cold. Lines 


are marked on the metal with a slate pencil and then 
sunken with the tool and hammer. In modeling the 
leaf a hammer like the one shown in Figure 4 is used. 
It is called the modeling hammer. This hammer has 
a ball on one end and a pein on the other, both of which 
are made very smooth and without sharp corners. 
These hammers are made in various sizes. In model- 
ling the leaf it is heated and hammered on the back side 

Fig. 5. Grille with Leaf. 

with the ball of the hammer, using the elm block to 
hammer on. The ends of the lobes are then formed 
to give the whole a decorative effect. These leaves 
are generally used in grille work and are welded into 
position. In Figure 5 is shown part of a grille with a 
similar leaf welded on. In welding leaves to the mem- 
bers of grille work the bottom part of the leaf is formed 
around the bar; caught with a pair of tongs, it is heated, 
using a flux when hot. It is then taken to the 


anvil and welded. A small collar is finally welded in 
front of the leaf as shown in the illustration. 

The leaves shown in the illustrations are made to 
cover the grille on but one side. If a grille is to be seen 
from both sides when in place, the leaves are cut out 
symmetrically and then bent and modeled to fit over 

the top and sides of the bars 
so that they appear fin- 
ished from both sides. Fig- 
ure 6 shows the pattern of 
such a leaf. 

The following exercises 
will be of a simple nature 
to give the beginner an 
idea of the tools and pro- 
cesses used in producing 
this kind of work by hand. 
The writer does not claim 
that the following method 
is the only one to be used 
in doing this work. There 
are many other ways to 
execute these exercises and 
one should use his own in- 
genuity in designing and 
executing individual pieces. 
It is hoped that pupils will 
be encouraged to originate 
work out in this interest- 

Fig. 6. Pattern of Leaf. 

designs of their own to 
ing metal. 

The tools used in making these exercises will be 
the ordinary forge shop tools that can be made, and 
will be described later on, as they are needed. 

Exercise No. 1. 


Volute Scroll. This exercise is given in order to 
familiarize one with the bending of curved forms and 
also to train the hand and eye in doing freehand work. 
No metal lends itself more readily to the bending of 


Fig. 7. Volute Scrolls. 

curves than wrought iron. The scroll is an important 
element in the designing of iron doors, window grilles, 
etc. In bending, the scroll must not have kinks or 
flat places, but a gradual curve. If it is desired to sug- 
gest strength, the scroll is coiled tightly; or if lightness 
of effect is desired, it is coiled loosely. In making a scroll 
to fit some particular place a drawing is made with 
chalk on a surface plate. The scroll is then measured 
along the line with a string to find its length. In 
Figure 7 are shown drawings of typical scrolls. The 
one at A shows too much space between the coils. The 
scroll at B is top-heavy owing to the coils being equal 
in size. The one at C has a continuous curve with 



unequal coils which balance better. In bending a 
scroll from a flat piece of stock, as shown in Figure 8, 
the end is heated and hammered on the corners to make 
it round at one end. It is then bent over the outer 
t . ,. edge of the anvil, as 




shown in Figure 9A 
and B, to form the 
eye. It is then heated 
for a considerable 
part of its length and 
rolled up as shown at 
C. If any kinks get 
into the bar they can 
be rectified by hammering on the horn. This is the 
method used in forming a scroll with the hammer. In 
heating the bar to be rolled into scroll form, it must not 
be heated to a white heat. Scrolls are also bent over 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 

forms when a great number are wanted. Heavy scrolls 
are formed by bending in a bending fork that fits 
into a square hole in the anvil. (See fork in Figure 
10.) A monkey wrench is used to bend the bar when 
in the fork. 



In Figure 1 1 and Fig- 
ure .12 are shown grilles 
which are made from 
flat stock. The scrolls 
in this case were made 
after the bars had been 
welded in place. They 
could be made first and 
then riveted or fast- 
ened with iron bands, 
but welding of course makes a better job. 

In Figure 13 is shown a drawing for a welded scroll. 
Notice the dotted line at A. This is where the weld 
is made. At B, the pieces are shown in position to be 

Fig. 10. Bending Fork. 

Fig. 11. Grille. 

welded by the separate heat method. In doing this 
the length is measured on the drawing with a string, 
and the three pieces cut. The two short ones are 
upset; and one is laid on top of the other; then heated 
and welded at the same time they are scarfed. The 



Fig. 13. 

long piece is upset and welded to the short one. They 
are then formed. 

Fig. 12. Grille. 


Twisting — Braiding — Making a Fire Shovel. 

Exercise No. 2. 
WISTING. A piece of one-half inch square stock, 
nine inches long, is heated its entire length, one end 
caught in a vise and with a monkey wrench or heavy 
pair of tongs on the other, it is twisted to the right. 
If the heat is an even one and not too hot, the spacing 
of the twist will be uniform. In case one part twists 
faster than another, a little water is used to cool that 
part. The beauty of twisted work depends on having 
the spacing uniform between the turns. (See Figure 14.) 

Fig. 14. 

Flat stock can also be twisted in this manner. To 
straighten twisted work, it is heated red, set on the end 
grain of elm wood and hammered with a wooden mallet. 
The mallet used in this work should be made from 
hickory. For heavy striking a little band of iron can be 
put on the mallet a half-inch from one end, so that 
the mallet will not split. The block on which to 
straighten the iron should be about ten inches in diam- 
eter and three feet high. A short block about eight 



inches wide and twelve inches long may be set into the 
coal box, having coal under and around it to hold it in 
place. This makes a very handy block on which to 
bump up light pieces of metal or to straighten metal. 

Exercise No. 3. 
Figure 15 shows the dimensions of stock for a twisted 
poker-handle. The four i-inch rods are upset on one end 
until they measure six inches. They are then welded 

~1 f~_ ->>|C0 





Fig, 15. 

together on this end. This is done by first twisting 
a strong binding wire around the rods to keep them in 
place while taking the heat. (See Figure 16.) In 

Fig. 16. 

welding, they are welded directly on the ends and 
scarfed as shown in Figure 15. 



Notice that the scarf is made so that the point of 
the scarf on the other piece will come onto a one-quarter 
inch rod and not between the two. The scarf must 
not be hammered farther back from the ends than 4-inch. 



Fig. 17. Poker Handles. 

The f-inch bar is now upset on one end and scarfed. 
The two parts are then welded, smoothing the weld 
with the hand hammer. The end of the handle is 
welded directly at the ends of the rods. The entire 
handle is heated uniformly, caught in a vise and twisted 



to the right. If any part twists faster than another, 
that part is cooled with water dropped from a hole in 
the bottom of a tin cup. In twisting the handle, the 
| bar is caught in the vise. A strong pair of tongs are 
used on the end of the handle to twist it, or the end of 

Fig. 18. Shovel. 

the handle can be caught with a monkey wrench. The 
point of the poker is drawn to a square point and then 
flattened. In making pokers or shovels, the stock may 
be either round or square. In Figure 17 are shown 
some handles that are suitable for pokers or shovels. 

ctun cf ftoac/le 

Fig. 19. Shovel Handle. 

A method of braiding the last handle shown in the il- 
lustration is to weld four 3-16-in. rods of either round 
or square stock to a piece of f-inch round stock. Two 
of the rods are then bent over at right angles to the one- 
half inch piece. The others are bent over them, and 



so on until finished. The four rods are then welded 
at the top and a ring turned. The last illustration 
shows the method of bending the rods. 

Exercise No. 4. 
Shovel. — Figure 18 shows the dimensions and form 
of the exercise. In making the handle, f-in. square 
stock is used. The piece is cut 25 inches long. On 
one end the piece is upset considerably in order to get 
a good sized head. Five inches from the end of the head 
a line is cut on four sides with a chisel. This part is 

Fig. 20. 

then hammered with a ball hammer while hot to give 
it a rough texture as shown in Figure 19. The other 
end of the handle is upset a little, bent on an angle and 
flattened, letting it get as wide as it will. 


The development of the pattern for the shovel 
blade is shown in Figure 20. At the top is shown a 
side and end elevation of the shovel. The dimensions 
should be drawn full size. The shapes of the sides 
and of the ends are found by measuring from the eleva- 
tion. The pattern should be made from sheet iron and 
kept for future use. 

In forming the shovel, the sides are first bent up 
by using the vise and heel of the anvil. This forming 
must be done while the metal is cold. The end of the 
shovel may be bent by hammering it over a heavy, 
flat piece of iron. The corners are hammered around 
the sides by catching the shovel in the vise. They 
are fastened by drilling holes thru both pieces and rivet- 
ing them, using a rivet set to finish the rivets. In 
fastening the handle to the blade or shovel, three Num- 
ber 10 round-head rivets are used. If desired, the 
handle can be made from larger stock, also increasing 
the size and the thickness of the shovel. 

Fig. 21. Door Latch. 


Making a Door-latch — Making a Hinge — Making a Candle-stick. 

Exercise No. 5. 

DOOR LATCH.— In Figure 21 is shown a latch for a 
double door. In Figure 22 are shown the dimen- 
sions of the two plates and the bar latch. In making 
the plates, a piece of soft steel, 2 in. wide and §-in. 
thick is used. The design is sketched on the metal 
and five 9-32-in. holes are drilled in each plate where 

q n.o 

Fig. 22. 

the square holes come in the design. The plates are 
then heated and a square punch is used to drift out the 
holes. The outside edges are then cut. The plate is 
heated and with a square punch the metal is set down 
to give it the interlaced effect as shown in Figure 23. 

The plates are now filed to straighten the square 
holes, and the holes on the corners for screws are drilled. 



Figure 24 represents the catch, which can be made as 
shown, and the knob which is worked out on the end of 
a rod, as shown in Figure 25. It is hammered on the 



Fig. 23. 

outer edge of the anvil. After each blow it is turned 
until finished. Then it is cut off and the tenon is filed. 
The guard shown in Figure 26 is cut from a flat piece 







**■ Wm 



j _ps 



Fig. 24. 



as represented. The bar is made from \ by 3-16-in. 
stock, drilled, and a slot is sawed for the spring. The 
spring is about \ by 3-32-in. and can be made from spring 

Fig. 25. 

Figure 27 represents a hinge that can be made from 
f-in. soft steel. After the design is sketched with a 
slate pencil on the metal, the open parts are drilled 
and cut out. The outside is next cut with a chisel and 


r 1 

... 1 

■«s> \ 



i (*r*" 





Fig. 26. 

the edges are filed smooth. The eye or joint of the 
hinge is formed without welding, by hammering it 
around an eye pin of the desired size. The prongs or 
projections to form the knuckle are filed so that they 
fit into one another. The interlacing is done with a 
square end punch in the same manner as explained for 



the latch. A great variety of designs of this kind can 
be made to advantage in iron. A drawing of a simple 
strap hinge is shown in Figure 28. The part of the strap 
at A on the drawing is made greater in length than width 
for appearance. This gives the strap apparent strength 
and emphasizes its length. 


Fig. 27. 

The hinge can be made any length desired but should 
be carefully proportioned; the eye can be made loose 
or welded. In welding a hinge-eye the lap should al- 
ways be on the back. Note the drawing of the eye 

Fig. 28. 

ready for welding in Figure 29. In making hinges, 
the making of the eye is always the first operation. A 
welded eye makes the strongest hinge; but it can be 



made with a loose eye if desired. In bending and 
finishing; the eye, an eye-pin should be used to true the 
hole. An eye-pin is a piece of round steel of the desired 
size drawn tapering on each end so that it can be driven 
thru a hole. The projections that form the joint for 
a loose eye hinge should be cut out before the eye is 




fteadyto we/d, 

Fig. 2!) 

made. If the stock is light, the joint in either a. loose or 
a welded hinge can be filed or sawed after the eye is 
turned. In a heavy eye the projections are laid off 
ami marked on the metal while flat. The bar is then 
heated and split lengthwise from one side, starting 

Fig. 3D. Candle-stick. 



|-inch from the end, and cutting long enough to make 
the eye. The eye is then formed and welded, and pieces 
are cut out leaving alternating projections which can 
be filed to fit. 

Exercise No. 6. 
Exercise No. 6 • is a candle-stick. The reproduc- 
tion, Figure 30, shows the finished piece. The drawing, 

— *^-t— . ,-t 
?#" ile-^-J 



Candle Stick 

Fig. 31. 

Figure 31, at A, gives the dimensions; at B, is shown 
the pattern of the bottom in the flat. The bottom is 
cut from a sheet of soft steel, using a narrow cold chisel. 
The edge is then filed and bent up about one-quarter of 



an inch. In doing so, it is hammered over a round 
block or iron which fits into the square hole of the an- 
vil. See Figure 32. The handle is formed by heating 
it, and hammering it over the horn of the anvil. In 
making the socket to hold the candle as shown at C, 
Figure 31, the piece is cut from number 20 soft steel. 
At D, is illustrated the stock cut ready for forming. 

Fig. 32. 

In cutting this piece, the shape is sketched with a 
slate pencil on the metal. Five holes are now drilled, 
the center hole, 5-32 in. in diameter and four 3-16-in. 
holes at the base of leaves. A narrow cold chisel is 
then used which will cut on a curved line. The edges 
of the pieces are then filed; the piece is heated and ham- 
mered on the elm block to raise it. In raising the socket, 
it is heated in the center, set over a depression in the 
block and hammered. This brings the wings or leaves 
up. They are brought up until they overlap one another, 



the leaves forming a square box. The whole piece is 
then heated, placed on the end of a f-in. round bar, 
setting the whole into a swage, and the leaves are 
fitted around the bar by hammering. The socket is 
then riveted in place. A rivet is put in the end of the 
handle to hold it in place. The candle-stick is now 
smoothed with a file and smoked over the fire, then oiled. 

Wrought Iron Lantern. 


Making a Drawei Pull — Chasing — Making a Door-knocker — 
Repousse — Perforated Decoration. 

Exercise No. 7. 

DRAWER pulls can be of one part, the handle 
being fastened directly to the drawer, or they 
may be of two parts, the handle and plate. The handle 
can be made stationary on the plate or movable. In 
Figure 33 are shown some hinges, drawer pulls and 

Fig. 33. 

key escutcheons. The open work is cut out while the 
stock is hot, or if light stock is used, it may be drilled, 
cut and filed while the plate is cold. 




The stock used in making a plate for a pull, some- 
what like those illustrated, is represented in Figure 
34. After the plate is cut to size, which is done cold 
with a hand chisel, the outside surface is hammered 
while hot with a ball hammer, drawing the plate a 

Fig. 34. 

Fig. 35. 

little thinner near the edge. This hammering gives 
the surface a rough texture. The edges are now ground 
or filed to shape and the holes are drilled as shown in 
the drawing. The round holes are for screws to fasten 
the pull, and the square holes are to fasten lugs, on 
which the handle is to swing. The lugs are shown in 
Figure 35. The tenon can be filed, the top rounded, 

Drawer Jfcmalie, 

Fig. 3fi. 

Fig. 37, 

the holes drilled, and the lugs riveted into the plate. 
When riveting the lugs, they are caught in a vise, the 
plate set on and the tenons are riveted tight into the 



holes. The square holes in the plate should be counter- 
sunk a little on the back before the lugs are riveted. 
The handle is a movable one, and the drawing is 
shown in Figure 36. The different steps in making the 
handle are represented in Figure 37. When the stock, 
which should be soft steel, is cut, the ends are heated 
and drawn out tapering to 3-16 inch at the end. One- 
and-a-half inches from each end of the bar is marked 
with a center punch. The ends are now bent over 
j inch, then the bar is bent at the center marks. When 
the handle is formed to fit the plate it is smoothed with a 
file. If desired, a line can be chased on the handle and 

fihasin o. 

Fig. 38. 

around the edge of plate. In doing this a short, light 
chisel is used. After lines are traced on the plate with 
a slate pencil the chisel is set on the line and struck with 
a light hammer; at the same time it is drawn towards- 
the worker with the lead corner of the cutting edge 
directly on and above the line. 

The chisel should receive rapid, light blows and 
be continually moved toward the workman. The lead 
corner of the chisel should be guided onto the line 
while the other corner is doing the cutting. See Figure 
38, a rather large sized drawing of the cutting edge of 
the'chisel. When the lines are chased with the chisel, 



they should be gone over again with quite hard blows 
of the hammer, forcing the chisel down to make the 
lines quite pronounced. 

To put the handle in place on the plate, it is heated 
and sprung into the holes of the lugs. The last thing 
to do in finishing all work of this kind is to heat it to 
a dark red. All scale and dirt is then scraped off; 
when cool, some oil is put on. For this kind of work, 
machine oil is good The reason it is heated to a dark, 
even red heat is that when cool the handle and the 
plate will have the same color and texture. 

Fi K . 39. 

Exercise No. 8. 
In Figure 39 are shown some hinges, latches and 
door knockers. Figure 40 is a drawing of a simple 



knocker. The plate is cut out and the line around the 
edge is chased with a tool. The chasing tool is simply 
a cold chisel ground to a short bevel and rounded some- 
what like a fuller, as shown in Figure 41. A short 





Chased. Jme 




— *J Door Knocker? 

Fig. 40. 

chisel is used for cold work and a longer one for hot 
work. The chasing can be done while the metal is cold. 
If it is to be very deep or wide the plate is heated and 
a longer chisel is used. The lug at Figure 42 is made 
and riveted into the plate. The top of the hammer is 
filed to straddle it. A hole is then drilled and a rivet 
put thru. Holes are drilled around the edge of the plate 
for screws or nails. 



In making the hammer a piece of f-inch square, 
soft steel is used. It is upset on one end to get the 
stock large enough for the bottom of the hammer. The 



Fig. 41. 




Fig 42. 

bar is then drawn out on the horn as shown at Figure 
43. The top part is formed as shown at Figure 44. 
Lines are chased on the front of hammer as shown in 
the drawing; this can be done after it is formed. If 
the lines are to be very deep it should be done while 
the' piece is straight and heated. 

Fig. 43. 

Fig. 44. 

There is ample room for design in the making of 
door knockers, both for outside and inside doors of 
dwellings. Knocker plates for doors on the inside of 
dwellings can be elaborated by a combination of re- 
pousse, chasing and perforated decoration which give 




a variety of light and shadow. Perforated plates 
be backed up with colored leather or cloth which g 
a very pleasing contrast to the metal. 

In Figure 45 is 
shown an interior 
door knocker. It 
is backed up with 
colored leather. 
The plates are 
made of |-in. thick, 
soft steel. After the 
plates are cut out, 
the openings are 
marked with a slate 
pencil and gone 
over with a short 
cold chisel to mark 
them. The plate is 
then heated, and 
the part enclosed 
by the chisel line 
is cut out. A very 
narrow chisel, 12 
in. long, is used to 
do the cutting. The 
cutting is all done 
from the outside. 
This gives the edge 
a slight bevel. The 
edges of open 
places are trued up 

with a file. The openings must not be filed too 
exact and smooth. The most essential thing to look 



after is form; the work looks best when it shows 
handwork and is not mechanical. 

Fig. 46. 

Handwork is most in keeping with the design and the 
material. The lines on the plate are chased with a 
narrow chisel and the foliated form bumped out from 



the back by hammering on the end grain of the elm 
block. The hammer that does the knocking is hinged 
on the top plate so that the bottom part moves out and 
in when knocking. Very thin red leather is glued on 
the back of the plate with fish glue. The diameter of 
the top plate is 4|-in., the bottom 2j-in., and the hammer 
is 6|-in. long. 

A good method of working out ideas for pieces of 
this character is to make numerous rough sketches on 
paper with a lead pencil, making one line over another 
without erasing. When one gets what he thinks is good 
it is redrawn and perfected. It may then be worked 
in the material. 

Fig. 47. 

At Figure 46 is shown a door knocker hinged at 
the top. The plate is one piece. At Figure 47 are 
shown the dimensions of the plate. After the shape of 
the plate is sketched on the metal, the lines are traced 
with a chisel. The open work is then cut out,, and the 
outside of the plate is cut and filed. The center leaf 
at the top of the plate is indicated by forcing the metal 
down along the top edge of the leaf with a punch, also 



at the bottom to form the interlace. The plate should 
be hot when this is done. The hammer shown in Figure 
48 should be forged from |-in. square, soft steel. The 

lug shown on the drawing is to^be made and riveted 
into the top'of the plate. The hammer is then placed 
over the lug, and the lug is drilled to conform to the 
drilled holes in the hammer. 

The chasing on the plate and hammer is done with 
a chisel as previously explained. A gauge should be 
made from a piece of steel to scratch the guide lines on 
the plate for the chasing as shown in Figure 48. These 
lines are then cut with the chisel. 


Making a Hat and Coat Hook — A Fuller — Jump Welding — Making 
a Wall Hook. 

Exercise No. 9. 

FIGURE 49 represents a hat-and-coat hook. In the 
making of this piece, the plate should be made from 
No. 14 soft steel. The dimensions are shown in Figure 

I it:, -li). Hat and Cunt Hook. 



50. The shape of the plate can be drawn on heavy paper, 
which is afterward cut out and used as a pattern when 
making the plate from metal. After the plate is cut 
out with a cold chisel, it is ground or filed on the edges. 
The holes are next drilled, and the lines are cut on the 
surface as shown in the drawing. In cutting the lines, 


jjh^Z^- jf Section of leaf 



Fig. 50. 

a short, narrow cold chisel is used for chasing in the 
same manner as. previously described. The lines 
on the leaf should be made quite deep. A fuller is 
shown in Figure 50, which is used to make the lines 
still deeper. The fuller should have the edge smooth, 
and without sharp corners. The plate should be 
clamped on to a surface plate while making the lines. 



The fuller is then set on the cut lines and struck with 
the hand hammer, chasing the tool to the ends of the 
lines. This work can, also, be done to advantage by 












Fig. 51. 

heating the plate and having a helper hold it on the an- 
vil while fullering the lines. When all the lines are 
made, the leaf is heated, set on the elm block and ham- 


Fig. 52. 

mered on the back to raise the end of the lobes as shown 
in the illustration. 



The hook is made from iron. Figure 51 represents 
the dimensions of stock for the hook. The lug is welded 
on, and the ends of the bar are rounded ready to be 
formed. After the stock is cut, it is upset six inches from 

Fig. 53. 

one end to enlarge it so that the lug can be welded on. 
The stock from which the lug is made is cut 3| inches 
long, upset on end, and split in the vise J inch deep as 
shown at Figure 52. The split end should be formed 



Fig. 54. 

as shown. In welding, separate heats are taken, and 
the lug is jumped onto the bar as shown in Figure 53. 
The first blows are struck directly on the end of the lug, 
then the lips are welded. Figure 51 shows the length 



of the piece before the knobs are formed. In making 
the knobs at the end, they should be upset as shown in 
Figure 54. They are then hammered as shown, and 

Fig. 55. 

finally rounded. The lug is next cut the proper length, 
and a shoulder is filed at the end. The chased lines 
are now cut on the front side. In forming the piece, 
it is heated and hammered over the horn of the anvil, 

Fig. 56. 



starting to bend at the end first, and working toward 
the center. In bending anything of this kind, always 
start at one end, and finish as you work toward the other 
end. See the drawing of the bent hook at Figure 55. 


3 C 


w 3-% 

&6 /fo/es. 

Fig. 57. 

The end of the lug is next heated and caught in a vise, 
the plate is set on and riveted tightly. The work is 
smoothed with a file, heated to darken it, and oiled. 

Exercise No. 10. 
A wall hook, suitable to hang a bird cage or fern 
dish, is shown in Figure 56. In Figure 57 are shown the 
length and size of stock, and the piece ready to form. 
In making the ball, the piece is shouldered at one end 
by hammering it on the outer edge of the anvil as shown 

Fig. 58. 



in Figure 58. It is then hammered on the corner, to 
make it round. The other end is drawn to a square 
point, and is then flattened as shown in Figure 59, 
letting it become as wide as it will. This flat end is then 
veined suggesting a leaf form. In doing this, a long 

Fig. 59. 

chisel, made round somewhat like a fuller, is used. 
The piece is heated, and a sunken line is made with the 
chisel, as shown by the drawing of the leaf end. The 
piece is then heated, and the leaf end is formed. The 
holes should now be drilled. The balance of the hook 
is heated and formed by hammering it over the horn of 
the anvil. 

Hall Lanterns. 


Making a Toasting-fork — Inlaying. 

Exercise No. 11. 

AVERY interesting and useful article to make 
is a toasting fork. The stock used can be spring 
steel. A disadvantage in using this steel is that it is 
too hard to work out a design on the handle. If one 
can weld quite well, the fork should have the handle 
made of soft steel and the balance of carbon steel. In 
doing this, the weld is the first thing to do while the stock 
is straight and full size. If one without much welding 
experience is to make the fork, it should' be made of 

\~ ■Stock ' doftSteef. // fx%" | 

Fig. 60. Stock for Toasting Fork. 

soft steel, and when finished the prongs should be case 
hardened. In making a fork of this kind, a piece of 
soft steel as shown in the drawing in Figure 60 is used. 
On one end, the stock is enlarged a little, by upsetting 
for a distance of five or six inches. This end is to be used 
for the handle. The other end of the bar is then heated, 
and a hole is punched lf-in. from the end. The piece 



should then look somewhat like the drawing at A, Fig- 
ure 61. In drawing out, the shoulder is hammered 
as shown at B, Figure 61. The shank (the part between 
the handle and the shoulder) is next drawn out. It 
should be a scant j-in. thick so as to finish to the di- 
mensions given in Figure 60. Care must be taken to 
avoid getting too much stock in the shank. It is a very 

~ Upset J jHZ of* 




Fig. 61. 

easy matter to get too much stock between the handle 
and the shoulder which, when drawn out, is too long. 
The prongs are roughly made by cutting the stock out 
as shown by the dotted lines in Figure 61. When this 
is done the prongs are hammered out to the correct 
size, allowing for finishing. 

In Figure 62 are shown reproductions of similar 
forks. The line shown running around the rectangular 
open parts is inlaid copper. A channel is sunken and 
the copper driven into it. In making the handle, the 
three oblong holes are punched while hot with a punch 
about 3-16 in. by | in. at the end, making a series of 
punchings to cut out the holes. The holes should be 
small enough so that they may be finished to size with 
a file. Notice that the openings are not of the same 
size; but two short ones, with a longer one in the center, 
give variety. Notice, also, that the shape of the 
handle is in keeping with the long, slim shank and the 
slender, two-tine fork at the end. 



\ I 

Fig. 62. 
Toasting Forks, Spoon and Cake Turner. 



After the handle is shaped, and the holes are punched, 
including the one at the top' to hang the fork by, the line 
to receive the copper is marked. (See Figure 63.) 
The marking should be done with a scratch awl. The 
line is then cut with a small chisel. This cutting should 
be quite deep and exact. This is important if the work 
is to be true and straight. All of the marking should 
be done while the handle is cold. It is now heated and 
taken to the anvil. A small punch, as represented in 

Fig. 63. 

Figure 63, is then set onto the cut line and given a blow 
with the hammer, sinking the punch about 1-16 of an 
inch. One-half of the punch is now raised up and out 
of the channel. While it is directly on the chased line, 
it is given another blow with the hammer and so on 
until the end is reached. The particular thing to watch 
is to have the lead corner of punch directly on the chased 
guide line, while the other edge of the punch is in the 
channel in order to keep the finished line straight. Keep 
the punch in good order, straight and square at the end. 
The punch should not have much taper and should not 
be used after the red heat leaves the metal. After 
the entire line has been sunken 1-16 in. deep, the handle 
is reheated and the line is sunken perhaps f in. deep. 


A wider punch is now used in the long channel to 
straighten it and make it deeper. The wide punch 
should have no taper and should be a scant 3-32 in. 
thick so that the line will be about 3-32 in. wide. If 
any part of the channel should be too wide, the handle 
should be hammered on the edge with a light hammer 
to close the channel a little. When the channel is 

Fig. 64. File. 

finished, the handle should be filed fiat on the channel 
side. This will give one a better view of the straight- 
ness of the channel. 

In case the channel is not as straight as it should 
be, a small flat file is heated and bent at the end and 
rehardened. (See Figure 64.) This file is used to 
straighten up the edges of the channel. A small cold 


Fig. 65. Cross Section of Fork Handle 

chisel can also be used for this purpose. The channel 
must be straight along the top edge. When the channel 
is well straightened, strips of copper are filed to fit the 
channel, letting them project above the channel about 



3-32 of an inch and also having each piece a little short 
in length. When the pieces are all in place, the handle 
is set on the anvil and with a heavy hammer they are 
driven down forcing the copper to fill the whole of the 
channel. The entire handle is filed to the dimensions 
given in Figure 63. 

Notice Figure 65 which shows a sectional drawing 
of the handle, with the copper in place and a chased line 
running along between copper and steel. A channel 
without copper is shown at the right of the illustration. 

Wrought Iron Lamp. 


Making a Lantern — Making a Wall-lamp. 

Exercise No. 12. 

THE lantern shown in Figure 66 consists of four 
sides which are fastened together with angles and 
rivets. The top is made from four pieces, with angles 

Fig. 66. Lantern. 

also riveted to them. The stock is cut with a pair 
of snip shears, No. 06§. (See Figure 67.) The sides 



must be cut to the same size or there will be trouble 
in putting them together. After they are cut, the open 
work is marked with a slate pencil. Holes are drilled 
in the corners of each opening, and they are cut out 

3nijO -Shears 06%. 
Fig. 67. 

with a sharp chisel. The edges are filed and all holes 
are drilled for No. 12 rivets. At Figure 68 is a drawing, 
with dimensions of one of the sides as it should be in 
the flat. Notice the section of the sheet bent at the 

Fig. 68. 

top for the roof and at the bottom to hold the glass. 
The glass is held in position at the top with a little strip 
of copper, with a rivet to hold it. The glass is set into 



the groove at the bottom, and the copper cleat is bent 
over the top of the glass. The copper cleat should be 
l by f in., made from No, 26 soft copper. The bottom 
of the sheet is first bent at right angles, then a flat piece 





1" • 

Fig. 69. 

3-16 in. thick is laid on the inside of the sheet, and the 
whole is placed on the anvil. The end of the sheet is 
now hammered over the 3-16-in. piece with a mallet 
to make the pocket to hold the glass. All of the holes 
for rivets to fasten the angles should be countersunk 

• Fig. 70. 

a little on the inside. The angles are made from one 
inch wide No. 20 hoop iron. They are formed by plac- 
ing them between two pieces of flat iron as shown in Fig- 
ure 69, and holding the whole in a vise while hammering 
with a wood mallet. 



In fastening the angles to the sides, the heads of 
the rivets are on the outside, and the inside is smooth. 

lantern top. 


Fig. 71. 

In doing this, the heads of the rivets are held in a rivet 
set while hammering on the inside. 

The rivet set is caught in a vise as shown in Figure 
70. A rivet set is a piece of steel with the shape of a 
rivet head sunken into one end. In making this, a 

iffi \l i-y ftp ca t °ff f or hole, 

Fig. 72. 



punch is filed the shape of a rivet head and is then driven 
into the end of a hot piece of steel. In Figure 71 is 
shown a simple method of developing a pattern of one 
section for the top of a lantern. A-B of the pattern is 
first drawn. The length of X-B of the elevation is the 
length of C-D of the pattern. Lines are then drawn 
from C to A and B. The point of each section at the 
top is cut off so that when the four pieces are riveted 
to the angles there will be a 7-16-in. hole thru the top. 

JtocZ. %x!fe 
Length. 6" 

Fig. 73. 

(See Figure 72.) In this hole is put a piece of |-in. 
steam pipe with a lock nut on the top and another on 
the bottom to hold it in place. (See Figure 73.) The 
pipe is for the socket to screw onto under the top, and 
also for the wire to come thru. The loop at the top is 
to suspend the lantern by. It is made of f by |-in. 
stock, 6 inches long. Two No. 10 rivets are put in each 
end to fasten it to the roof. The lamp is to hang by a 
chain suspended from the ceiling. In doing this a ceil- 



Caattron Crowfoot" 


TAread for '/£ 
ste-am pipe. 

Fig. 74. 

Fig. 75. 

== ^ 5 *^ ZX'ak « cut ■SHi'Dia, 

^s? Cast-iron, 

Fig. 76. 

Fig. 77. 



ing cap is necessary. This may be a piece of -|-in. steam 
pipe threaded on one end and a hook made on the other. 

Fig. 78 

(See drawing, Figure 74.) A cast iron piece is screwed on 
the end of the pipe and is then fastened to the ceiling by 
three screws, which supports the chain and lamp. The 


wires go thru the pipe and connect with other wires in 
the ceiling. (See drawing of the casting, Figure 75.) 
When the lamp is wired and the casting is fastened to 
the ceiling, it must be covered with something to hide 
the wires and its rough appearance. In Figure 76 is 
shown a drawing for a cap to cover the casting and wir- 
ing. The cap has a hole in the center for the pipe to 
pass thru, leaving it movable on the pipe. A collar of 
cast iron, with a set screw in the side, is to go under 
the cap and the screw tightened when the cap is against 
the ceiling. (See drawing of the collar, Figure 77.) 
In making the cap, it is heated and hammered over a 
hole in the swage block. A hammer with a large-sized, 
rounded face is used. The disk is driven into the hole 
until it becomes bowl-shaped and the right height. 


'."" v - ■■■ 

Fig. 79. 

At Figure 78 is represented a lamp that is to be 
fastened to the side of the wall, instead of hanging from 
the ceiling with a chain. The light is inverted, the lamp 
being open at the top and closed at the bottom. 

The stock used in the construction of the lamp is 
very heavy, No. 14 soft steel being used. The angle 
plates on the corners are made from No. 20 soft steel. 
The plate that is on the back of the lamp has a cup- 
shaped pocket hammered into it to cover the wiring 
when the lamp is in place, and on which the light socket 
is fastened. 



In Figure 79 is shown a cross-section of the back 
plate, with the depression and socket in place. 

This kind of lamp is very simple to make and can 
be made in various shapes and sizes. The back of the 
lamp can be made of wood instead of metal, if desired. 

Wrought Iron Table Lamps. 


Making a Portable Lamp. 

IN Figure 80 is represented a portable lamp. This 
kind of lamp can be made in various sizes with one 
light. The lamp shown in the illustration, consists of 
two parts; the standard, and the shade, which can be 

Fig. 80. 

removed. The standard consists of a box-shaped 
bottom, with a pipe screwed into it for the upright 
piece. The arms that the shade rests on, are separate 




and are held in position by the lamp socket, which is 
screwed down on them. The strips running over the 
bottom of the base and up the pipe are riveted in place 

Fig. 81. 

Fig. 82. 

to support the pipe. This gives the whole standard a 
more substantial appearance, and relieves the plain 
round pipe. 

Fig. 83. 

Fig. 84. 

In making a very simple lamp of this character, 
we may eliminate the strips running up the pipe, and 
make the bottom • with a round pipe screwed into it. 
Of course a square standard would be more in keeping 



with the square base and shade. In making the 
box-shaped base, soft steel should be used. Figure 81 
shows the dimensions of the fiat stock. The plate is 
heated and an inch of the edge is bent over the outer 
edge of the anvil, as shown in Figure 82. The outer 
edges of the plate can be bent over the end of the anvil 
as shown in Figure 83. When all the edges are bent 

\5^37zc?a7-e? "2$- Steetmjoijoe. 


^£f %Wpe. I11SMI-® 




Fig. 85. 

the piece will look somewhat as in Figure 84, The cor- 
ners are now ground off, and the bottom is made level. 
A hole is drilled in the center and threaded for a f-in. 
steam pipe. Two inches from the center hole, another 
hole is drilled and tapped for a J-in. or f-in. rubber 
bushing. In wiring the lamp, the cord should enter 
thru the bushing from the outside, and under and up thru 
the pipe to the socket. The drawing for the pipe is 
shown at Figure 85, also a bushing which is brazed into 
the top of the pipe and threaded for a f-in. pipe. The 
f-in. steam pipe and bushing are shown in position in 
the illustration at one end of the pipe. This small pipe 



is for the lamp socket to be screwed onto. The other 
end of the large pipe is to be threaded and screwed into 
the base. The pipe should be screwed into the base 
far enough, so that the threads will not be exposed to the 
outside and the surplus cut off. The pipe when screwed 
tight should be brazed to the base. In doing this, the 

Fig. 86. 

Fig. 87. 

borax and spelter should be applied to the under side, 
after the base is well heated, as the brass will discolor 
the iron on the top side. When the pipe is brazed it 
should be made to stand vertical. 

In Figure 86 is shown the lamp standard with the 
shade support in position. The support has a hole in 
the center to fit the |-in. steam pipe at the top of the 
standard. When the support is in place another f-in. 
hole is drilled thru it into the pipe. A pin is driven into 



the hole so that the support cannot be moved around. 
The lamp socket when screwed down makes the support 
tight. In making the support the center part is cut 
from a plate 3-16 in. by 4 by 4 in. and 3-16 in. round 
soft steel bars are welded on for the arms. In Figure 

jLamp •ska da 

ip ■s ftada 

dtoc/t "20 

Fig. 88. 

Fig. 89. 

87 is shown the drawing which does not need explanation. 
The drawing for the pattern is shown at Figure 88 and the 
pattern for one section at Figure 89. In developing 
the pattern which is very simple the top drawing, Figure 
88, represents the shade which should be drawn full size. 
The length from A to B is then laid off on the center line 
of the pattern, which in this case measures 1\ in. The 
top and bottom of shade shows a return of f in. which 



should be added to the length of the pattern. The 
width of the top and bottom of the shade is then drawn, 
also diagonal lines which will complete the pattern. 
The edge view of the pattern is shown at C. The 
|-in. bend at the top is made so that the cap can be 
riveted on. The one at the bottom is to receive the 
glass. This was explained on a previous page in de- 
scribing the making of a hall lantern. In assembling 
the shade, corner angles are used to fasten the sections 
together, which was also explained for the hall lantern. 
The top cap is put on last and fastened with rivets. 


Annealing, 77 

Annealing high speed steel, 81 

Anvil, construction of, 10 

how to fasten, 11 

tools. 13 
Awl, scratch, 78 
Ball hammer, 13 
Bessemer process, 65 
Blast, control of, 27 
Bolts, heading, 55 

making of, 54 
Bottom fuller, 17 
Bottom swage, 16 
Braiding, 96 
Brazing, 36 
Butt welding, 31 
Candle-stick, making of, 104 
Case hardening, 76 
Cementation process, 66 
Center punch, use of, 13 
Chain links, welding of, 48 
Chasing, 109 
Chisels, hot and cold, 15 

making of cold, 70 
Coal, method of handling, 19 
Cold Chisel, use of, 15 
Coloring steel, 77 
Crucible steel, making of, 66 
Cupping tool, 55 

Door knocker, making of, 110, 113 
Door latch, making of, 99 
Drawer pull, making of, 107 
Expansion of iron, 59 
Eye-pin, use of, 103 

welding of, 43 
Eyes, welding of hinge, 102 
Fagot welding, 23, 37 
File, used for inlaying, 128 
Fire, making of forge, 18 

cleaning of, 19 
Fire shovel, making of, 97 
Flatter, use of, 15 
Fluting tool, 86 
Flux and its uses, 21 
Forge, the, 7 

tools, 10 
Forging a cold chisel, 70 
Forming a loose eye, 40 
Fuller, 16, 118 
Gate hook, forging of, 55 
Grab hook, making of, 52 
Grilles, making of, 87, 91 
Hammer, ball, 13 

danger of, 25 

modeling, 87 

proper way to hold, 27 

round-faced modeling, 137 

set, 15 

sledge, 13 

sledge, danger, 71 

Hammock hook, making of, 41 

Handle, twisted poker, 94 

Hardening cold chisel, 72 

Hardie, 13 

Hat and coat hook, making of, 117 

Hay hook, making of, 57 

Heading tool, 15 

Heating, method of, 22, 27 

Hinge, making of, 101 

Horn, 56 

Hot chisel, 15 

Inlaying, 125 

Jump welding, 30, 120 

Lamp, portable, making of, 139 

wall, making of, 137 
Lamp ceiling cap, 137 
Lamp shade, making of, 143 
Lantern, assembling, 133 

fittings of, 135 

making of, 130 
Links, open, 47 

S, 42 
Open hearth process, 65 
Perforated decoration, 112 
Pig iron, making of, 64 
Puddling, 64 
Punch block, 51 
Punch, hand, 13, 79 

used for inlaying, 127 
Punching, method of, 50 
Repousse, 112 
Scarf, correct and incorrect, 26 

theory of, 25 
Scarfing, meaning of, 24 
Scraper, 10 
Scroll,, volute, 89 
Separate heat weld, the, 24 
Shovel handle, making of, 96 
Shears, kinds of, 18 
Snip shears, 131 
Spring tempering, 74 
Staples, 46 
Steel, annealing of, 77, 81 

Bessemer process, 65 

case hardening, 76 

cementation, 66 

crucible, 66 

high speed, 80 
Steel, making of, 65 

open hearth process, 65 

temper colors of, 68 

tempering of, 67, 75 

welding of, 76 
Stock, storage of, 17 
Swages, 16 
Swage block, 17 
Tempering thin steel, 75 
Toasting fork, making of, 124 
Tongs, danger in-handling, 15 

making of, 60 

INDEX — Continued 

Tools, anvil, 13 

center punch, 79 

cupping, 55 

eye-pin, 103 

flatter, 15 

forging, 10 

fuller, for deepening lines, 16, 118 

hand punch, for heavy punching, 79 

hardie, 13 

heading, 15 

horn, 56 

punch for inlaying, 127 

punch block, for cutting holes, 51 

round-faced hammer, 137 

scraper, 10 

scratch-awl, 78 

snip shears, 131 

swages, 16 
Tongs, danger in handling, 15 
Top fuller, 16 
Top swage, 16 
Tuyere, 9 
Twisting, 93 

handles, 94 
Upsetting, 24 
Vise, 17 
Volute scroll, making of, 89 

Wall hook, making of, 122 
Welding, bolt heads, 54 

butt, 31 

chain links, 48 

corner, 34, 36 

electric, 22 

eye-pins, 43 

fagot, 23, 37 

heat, determining, 28 

hooks, 41 

jump, 30, 120 

lap, 29 

making the, 27 

method of, 20 

oxy-acetylene gas, 23 

ring, 39, 57 

scarf, 24 

scroll, 91 

separate heat, 24 

split, 32 

steel, 76 

T, 34 
Wrought iron, finish of, 42 

manufacture of, 64 
Wrought iron leaf, making of, 85 
Wrought iron work, 83