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3ll!ata. Kim f ark 



CHARLES WILLIAM WASON 
COLLECTION 

CHINA AND THE CHINESE 



THE GIFT OF 
CHARLES WILLIAM WASON 
CLASS OF 1876 
1918 



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ROYAL COMMISSION ON OPIUM. 



PROCEEDINGS. ^ 



£4>'^..4yTA^ 



VOL. V. // ^ 



APPEl^DICE S 



TOGETHER WITH 



COMESPONDENCE ON THE SUBJECT OF OPIUM 



WITH THE 



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Hi/ rSKo-t- 

VIRGO'S 

LIST OF CONTENTS.* 



Subject. 



I. — Correspondence regarding the recom- 
mendations of the Opium Commission of 
1883. 

II. — Memorandum regarding the comparative 
cost of the cultivation of the poppy and 
other crops, with illnstrative tables by Mr. 
A. G. Tytler. 

III. — Correspondence regarding the use of 
narcotine as a febrifuge. 

IV. — Memorandum on the Opium Excise in 
the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, by 
Mr. Stoker. 

V. — Statement furnished by Mr. Stoker of the, 
profits from the cultivation of the poppy in 
the North- Western Provinces and Oudh. 

VI. — Return of prosecutions for illicit dealings 
in chandu and madak in the North- Western 
Provinces and Oudh during 1892-93. 

VII. — Note on the cultivation of the poppy 
in the Rai Bareli District, by Mr. D. 0. 
Baillie. 

VIII. — Note on the Lucknow opium shops, by 
Mrs. Hauser. 

IX. — Memorandum on the Opium Excise in 
the Punjab, by Mr. Gordon Walker. 

X. — Memorandum on the opium question in 
the Patialtt State. 

XI. — Memorandum on the opium question in 
the Nahan State. 

XII — Memorandum on the opium question 
in the Kashmir State. 

XIII. — Abstract of evidence tendered by Miss 
O.'A. Swaine, M.D. 

XIV. — Memorandum on the use of opium in 
the treatment of animals, by Veterinary- 
Colonel J. A. Nunn. 

XV. — Statement regarding opium -consuming 
prisoners in the Delhi gaol, by Surgeon- 
Major Dennys. 

XVI. — Statistics regarding suicides, and the 
proportion of them due to opium in the 
different provinces in British India. 

XVII. — Memorial from the Behar Land- 
holders' Association. 

XVIII. — Letter from the Secretary of the 
North West India Confei'ence, connected 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. 



Page. 



1-72 
72-76 

76-83 
83-93 

94 

95-96 

97-98 

98-100 
101-123 
123-125 
125-126 

126 

127 

127 

128-131 

132-136 

136 
1.37 



Subject. 



Page. 



XIX.— Letter from the Hon. Secretary of 
the Burma branch of the British Medical 
Association. 



XX.— Letter from 
Lucknow. 



the Archdeacon of 



XXI. — Correspondence with the Government 
of India regarding the terms of the 
document by which advances to opium 
cultivators for the construction of wells are 
secured. 

XXII. — Correspondence with the Govern- 
ment of India regarding the treatment of a 
poppy cultivator at Barni, in Behar. 

XXIIL— Letter from Sir G. H. Des Voeux 
regarding the consumption of opium in 
Hong Kong. 

XXIV. — Letter from the Colonial Secretary 
on the same subject. 

XXV. — Questions regarding the consumption 
of opium, with replies thereto, forwarded to 
the Governors of Hong Kong and the Straits 
Settlements 

Part I.— The Straits 

Part II. — Hong Kong 

XXVI. — Questions regarding opium for- 
warded to Her Majesty's Minister in China, 
with replies. 

XXVII. — Correspondence regarding the con- 
sumption of opium in the French and Dutch 
settlements in the East. 



XXVIII. — Petition from 
residents in Moulmeiu. 



certain Chinese 



XXIX. — Correspondence regarding 
smoking in Perak. 



opium 



XXX., — Memorial from British Missionaries 
in China of over 25 years' standing. 

XXXI —Extracts from " A Sketch of Assam " 
quoted but not printed in the evidence, see 
Question 9,017. 

XXXII.— Results of an inquiry by Mr, Forbes 
into certain allegations of the use of undue 
influence in respect to poppy cultivation. 

XXXIII. — Address of Anti-opium Societies 
to the Chinese Ambassador to England and 
France. 

XXXIV — Correspondence regarding the pro- 
duction of evidence by the Government of 
India. 



137 



138 



139 



140-142 



143-145 



145 



145 



146-184 
184-212 

212-343 



343-344 

345-346 
346-352 

353 

354 

3.Vj.-3(;i 

361 
362-376 



• Niites—(a.) Appendices Nos. XIX., XXVIII., and XXXI, refer to tlie eyidencn recorded in Vol. II. of tlie Prooeedings.andNos. I. to XV., XVII., 
XXI,, XXII,, and XXXII. to that in Vol, III., but they were not printed with it in India. 
(b.) The spoiling of foreign words has been left as in the oritfiniil document. 



ROYAL COMMISSION ON OPIUM. 



APPENDICES. 



APPENDIX I. 

Correspondence regarding the Recommendations of the Opium Commission op 1883. 



App. I. 

Bengal opium 

system (1883). 



No. 1218-52 0., dated 7th April 1884. 

From A. P. MacDonnell, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Government of Bengal, Revenue Department, 
to the Secketary to the Government op India, 
Department of Finance and Commerce. 

With reference to the correspondence ending with 
my letter No. 429 T.— K.. dated the 25th June 1883, 
regarding the remission of outstanding advances in 
the Behar Opium Agency, and Mr. Bolton's letter, 
No. 2344-176 O., dated the 13th November 1883, sub- 
mitting a copy of the Report of the late Opium Com- 
mission, I am directed to submit, for the consideration 
and orders of his Excellency the Governor- General in 
Council, the accompanying copy of a letter from the 
Boai'd of Revenue, No. 55 B., dated the 19th January 
1884, containing an expres- 

Chapter22,PartlI.,aiidChap- gjojj gf their opinion on tbe 
ter 4. Vart III. of the Keport, u- j. jj j.u i v 

and paraRi-aphs 3 to 8 of the subject of the general policy 
coverins letter. Copies of both which should be followed by 

forSyTefere^e.'''^ '''■'''"""' the Government in regard to 
the remission of outstanding 
balances of the Opium Department, and on the recom- 
mendations of the Opium Commission in the matter. 

2. The Commission observe that until 1878 it had 
been customary to allow remiusious of outstanding 
balances to opium cultivators, on proof of the destruc- 
tion of their crops and of their inability to pay their 
debt to Government by the delivery of opium, and that 
this policy was altered in September of that year. They 
condemn this change as tending to reduce the extent 
of opium cultivation and to make it unpopular with the 
ryots, and advocate a reversion of the policy of whole- 
sale remission on failure of crops. To bring home the 
benefit of the new policy to the people, they would 
remit all balances at present outstanding, and would 
refund all the collections that have been made on 
account of last year's crop. 

3. After a careful consideration of the correspondence 
which preceded and followed the issue of the orders of 

the 5th September 1878, 

• Letter to the Board of referred to by the Commis- 

Eevenue, No. 2063, dated 5ih . ^ ,, liRntpnant-Go- 

Septeinber 1878, copy enclosed, sion, tne Ijieutenant-LrO- 

vernor finds that those orders 
were not opposed to the ideas of the most experienced 
ofBcers of the Opium Department. When, in 1878, 
Mr. D'Oyly, then officiating as Opium Agent of Behar, 
recommended, in opposition to tbe wishes of his sub- 
deputv agents, the remission of the entire outstanding 
balances of the Behar Agency for 1877-78, amounting 
to Ks. 6,59,112, the Board of Revenue supported him, 
on the ground that, if some such leniency were not 
shown, the orders which had been issued to reduce the 
price of opium from Rs. 5 to Rs. 4-8 a seer would 
injuriously affect cultivation ; but tbe recommendation 
was negatived by Sir Ashley Eden, who, while enjoin- 
in" leniency in recovering balances, thought the policy 
of^total remission then advocated by the Board (and 
now by the Opium Commission) to be a mistaken and 
mischievous policy, for the reasons stated in the letter 
of the 5th September 1878. 

4. The Commission, I am to observe, do not say 
much to weaken the arguments against the policy of 
entire remission of balances on failure of crops ; while 
the present Board show good reasons in support of 
theii- position, that the collection of outstanding 
balances in 1878 had less to do with the falling off of 
cultivation than the Commission seem to suppose. 
Mr Rivers Thompson himself fears that, if the Govern- 
ment were to support the views of the Commission, it 
would afford a direct incentive to slothful and careless 
cultivation and dishonest dealings. There can be little 
doubt, he thinks, that if an opium cultivator knew that 
a failure in his opium crop would not render him hable 
for the aavances made to him, more advances would 
bo taken and less careful cultivation practised than at 
present. Manv opium cultivators would doubtless cul- 
tivate none the less carefully because they kiiew^ that 
they were protected from the worst effects of failure, 

u 82810. Wt. P. 2150. 



but many, again, would give up all attempt at improve- 
ment when the season seemed to be going against them. 
In a bad season, moreover, there would be no security 
that all the opium produced would be delivered to 
Government if the cultivators were protected from the 
results of short delivery. If the outturn of a field 
were much reduced, through blight or any other 
calamity, the inducement to deliver to the factory the 
whole of the produce would be much weakened, when 
it was no longer incumbent on the cultivator to make 
good the advances received by him. 

5. For these reasons, the Lieutenant-Governor, as at 
present advised, cannot support the propotals of the 
Commission. The interests of the Government involved 
in the matter are so important and extensive that any 
principle of wholesale remission of outstanding balances 
seems to him unjustifiable. Even in land revenue 
cases the rule of suspension rather than of absolute 
remission of the demand has been enjoined both by the 
Secretary of State and the Government of India ; and 
the same principle should, in the Lieutenant-Governor's 
opinion, regulate the action of the Government in 
dealing with opium transactions. In cases of proved 
hardship, where leniency of treatment is undoubtedly 
required, remissions should continue to be made as 
hitherto ; and with the- view to prompt disposal of such 
cases some procedure based on paragraph 664 of the 
Commission's report might be adopted. Improvements 
should also be introduced into the khatadari system, 
whereby the industry of one ryot shall cease to be taxed 
for the sloth of his neighbour. 



No. 65B., dated 19th January 1884. 
From C. B. BncKLAND, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
tlie Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Secretary to the Government op Bengal, Revenue 
Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of Govern- 
ment Order No. 2650-196 0., dated 11th December 
1883, forwarding a copy of a letter from the Secretary 
to the Opium Commission, dated 22nd October 1883, 
and requesting an expression of the Board's opinion on 
the subject of the general policy followed by Government 
in regard to the remission of outstanding balances of 
the Opium Department. 

2. In reply, I am to say that immediately on receipt 
of the orders of Government confidential instructions 
were issued to the opium agents to postpone pressing 
for the recovery of outstanding balances, and the Board 
now, in accordance with the orders of bis Honour the 
Lieutenant-Governor, beg to submit their opinion on 
paragraphs 3 to 6 of the letter from the Secretary to the 
Opium Commission. 

3. In the letter in question, the Board observe that 
the members of the Opium Commission express their 
conviction that the policy regarding the realisation of 
balances, which was announced in 1878-79, has caused 
and is causing serious injury to the interests of the 
Department, and that every day during which that 
policy is allowed to remain in force strengthens the 
feeling of dissatisfaction amongst the cultivators. They 
recommend that the Government should accept the 
principle that advances which from no fault of the 
cultivator cannot bo covered by deliveries of opium 
shall be remitted and written off the accounts. It is 
also suggested that not only should the principle be 
announced as an expression of the future policy of 
Government, but thrit it should be extended -with 
retrospective effect to the balance of the present season. 

4. Before proceeding to consider the question of the 
policy to be followed in regard to the realisation or 
remission of outstanding balances, the Board would 
invite the attention of Government to certain state- 
ments and assumptions on Ihe part of the Opium 
Commission regarding the results of the orders passed 
in 1878-79, which seem to be hardly borne out by facts. 

A 2 



4 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. I. 



In paragraph 659 of their report, it is asserted that the 
Orders of 1879 " resulted in so alarming a forecast of 
" decrease of cultiTatiuu for the ensuing season that in 
" the early part of 1880 the need of an increasu in the 
" price to be paid for crude opium (from Rs. 4-8 to 
" Rs. 5) began to be pressed upon GrO^ornmeut." The 
Board are not aware on what evidence this statement 
is based ; but if such wore really the ca-c, it seems 
remarkable that the Behar Agent should not have 
mentioned it ia the reports which were submitted to 
Government, urging an increase in the price to be paid 
for crude opium. Mr. Lewis, the Officiating Agent, in 
a letter dated 1 6th July 1879, attributes the disinclination 
of the ryots to cultivate the poppy (1) to the lowering 
of the price paid by Government for the crude drug ; 
(2)to the growing precariousness of the crop ; and (3) to 
the increasing profit to be derived from other crops 
grown on similar lands. In a report, dated 16th 
January 1880, Mr. Mangles (for whom Mr. Lewis had 
been officiating) stated as his opinion " that whatever 
" other causes may have been at work tending to 
" diminish the extent of our poppy cultivation, the 
" collection of our outstanding balances has had little 
" or nothing to do with it." In the same letter the 
Agent added that, though several deputations of culti- 
vators had waited on him in the different districts 
through which he had passed, in no single instance was 
the remission of balances asked for. The assertion of 
the Commission that the diminution of poppy cultiva- 
tion in tho year 1880-81 may be fairly ascribed to the 
exaction of the debt to Government incurred by the 
cultivators in 1877-78 is not borne out by the official 
reports of those who were in the best position to judge 
of the causes that chiefly influenced the action of the 
cultivators. Again, the Commission, in paragraph 661 
of their report, state that the second consequence of 
this policy was that the price of crude opium had to he 
raised to Bs. 5 per seer throughout the Behar Agency 
in 1880-81, and throughout the Benares Agency in 
1881-82. The Board must here again observe that the 
statement made by the Opium Commission is not borne 
out by any of the official reports snbmitted at the time. 
Mr. Mangles, in a letter dated 5th December 1879, 
whilst endorsing his predecessor's (Mr. Lowis') recom- 
mendation for an increase in the price to be paid for 
crude opium, added that the previous lowering of the 
Government price was received with disfavour, not only 
because the ryots' profits were thereby reduced, but 
because there was no certainty that the reduction would 
stop at Bs. 4-8, and that a further reduction seemed to 
the ryots to be not impossible. An element of ancer- 
tainty was thereby introduced into what had hitherto 
always been regarded as fixed and sure, and these 
reasons caused the cultivators to entertain in their 
minds the question whether the advantages to be 
derived from the cultivation of the poppy were such 
as to induce them to continue it. Mr. Mangles further 
pointed out that the unfortunate results of the past 
two seasons had done much to discourage tho ryots in 
regard to the cultivation of tlie poppy, and that opium 
was no longer, as it had been in former years, the most 
lucrative crop that the ryot could cultivate ; wheat, 
barley, and peas giving as good a return, and potatoes 
and sugar-cane a far better one. The necessity of an 
increase in the price paid by Government for opium 
was strongly pressed by the Agent, but nothing is to 
be found in his reports which can justify the statement 
that this necessity was considered by him to be in any 
way due to the Government orders of 1879 regarding 
the recovery of outstanding balances. 

5. The views expressed by the Agent in the matter 
do not appear to have been onmpletely shared by the 
Board, inasmuch as the lattei-, whilst admitting in 
their letter to Government, No. 1S2 B., dated 15th 
March 1880, that the discouragement which had been 
felt by the ryots was mainly due to the extensive 
failure of the crop, were of opinion that something 
might be due to the recovery of the unprecedented 
large sum of six lakhs of rupees on account of the 
Ijalances of 1877-78. The Board accordingly recom- 
mended that a more definite and liberal policy should 
be adopted in regard to the recovery of advances 
where the crop had failed, but these views were not 
concurred in by his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, 
who directed that the policv laid down in 1879 should 
Ijc adhered to. That the remission of outstanding 
balances amouutins- to more than six lakhs of rupees 
would be an exceedingly popular measure amongst the 
khattadars, if not with tho ussamees themselves (the 
fact of the remissions reaching th( so latter being in 
many cases open to doubt), the Boaid do not, of course, 



question, but their official records fail to show that the 
reduction of the area under cultivation was due to the 
orders of 1878-79, or that, as stated by the Commission, 
they had the effect of compelling Government to raise 
the price of opium earlier than would have been otherwise 
necessary. 

6. It is desirable to refer here briefly to the circum- 
stances under which the orders of 5th September 1878 
and 30th April 1879 were passed, and to state what 
was the policy laid down in those orders, a policy which 
the Opium Commission describe as unwise, unjust, and 
unworthy of Government. 

The proposal before the Lieutenant-Governor Sir A. 
Eden at the time these orders were passed was that the 
entire outstanding balances of the Behar Agency for 
1877-78, amounting to more than 6i lakhs of rupees, 
should be remitted. The Lieutenant-Governor declined 
to accept without reserve the position that the cultiva- 
tion of opium was to be a purely one-sided arrangement, 
under which, when tho season was a good one, the cul- 
tivator was to gain ; when it was unfavourable, the 
Government was to be the sole loser. He held that 
some consideration should be given to the ryot's 
capacity to repay a debt irrespective of his opium crop, 
which in many cases formed taut a small portion of his 
assets, and that those who were able to repay the advance 
they had received should be made to do so, leniency 
and total remission being granted to petty cultivators 
who had Buffered large loss of crops, and were unable 
to repay any portion of the advances they had received. 
Whilst desirous of making all possible concessions to 
the opium cultivators, such concessions must, the 
Lieutenant-Governor held, be consistent with the duty 
of Government to the payers of revenue at large. Sir 
A. Eden was of opinion that the position which Govern- 
ment should hold towards its opium cultivators should 
be similar to that held by a liberal and enlightened 
zemindar towards his tenants ; that in bad seasons every 
possible leniency and consideration should be shown to 
the cultivators ; but that before wholesale and indis- 
criminate remissions were made, the condition of the 
cultivators (many of whom are men of substance), and 
their ability to repay the advances made to them 
by the Opium Department, should be taken into 
consideration. 

7. The members of the Opium Commission, in their 
enthusiasm in favour of the yeoman's service rendered 
to the State by the typical opium cultivator, Bishn 
Koeri, view with some scorn the idea that the ordinary 
tax-payer should grudge him the remission of the 
balances due from him for failure to complete the con- 
tract which he entered into when he received his advance 
on account of opium. Putting sentiment aside, it is 
desirable to consider the question from a practical point 
of view, to see whether there are sufficient grounds for 
tho opinion advanced by tho Opium Commission in 
paragraph 661 of their report, that unless the policy 
enunciated in the orders of 1879 is speedily reversed, 
or the price of crude opium is raised, it will be found 
that the prospects of the opium cultivation in the 
Beliar Agency have been seriously, perhaps irretrievably, 
ruined. 

8. The difference between what is laid down by the 
Commission ifi paragraph 663 of their report as the 
true principle to be observed in dealing with opium 
cultivators and the policy laid down by Sir A. Eden in 
the orders of April 1879 appears to the Board to be as 
follows : The Opium Commission are of opinion that, 
on proof of the inability of the ryot, owing to the failure 
or destruction of the crop, to make good his debt to 
Government, either whole or in part, by the delivery 
of opium, remission of advances should be allowed. 
Sir A. Eden, on the other hand, was of opinion that the 
rcmissidu of the advances should not depend merely on 
the failure of the opium crop, which often forms but a 
very small fraction of a well-to-do ryot's cultivation, but 
that his general ability to liquidate the debt should be 
taken into consideration, all pressure being avoided 
and the greatest tenderness shown to cases of real 
hardshij^. 

9. It seems to the Board that the Opium Commission 
have not, in considering the question, had sufficient 
regard for the altered circumstances of the country, 
and the different position which the opium cultivator 
now occupies throughout a largo extent of the area in 
which it is grown. Some few years ago the poppy 
cultivation was the most lucrative that a ryot could 
engage in. It was the only crop, except indigo, which 
was grown under a system of cash advances, the latter 
crop being notoriously nnremunerative. The cultivator 
had the prestige and protection from zemindar and 



APPENDIX. 



plan Lor which the fact of his being a ryot under advances 
from Government and the presence of gomashtah and 
zilladar afforded him. Theri^ was but little competition 
in the demand for other crops, all of which, probably, 
■went into the hands of the village mahajun, and he was 
well oonieut, looking to the advanlafjes it brought him, 
to give the best of his time and his labour and the 
largest share of the water from his well to his poppy 
cultivation. His chief fear was that he might lose his 
status as an opium ryot. Under such a state of things, 
the departmental officers might rest assured that if the 
cultivator did fail to give the requisite quantity of 
crude opium, it was owing to causes beyond his control, 
and not to any default on his part. 

10. Now, however, there can be no such assurance. 
The railways and other means of communication which 
have been opened out, and the ever-growing demands 
of the commerce of the country, have completely changed 
the state of affaii-s. Opium has lost its place as the 
most lucrative crop a cultivator can grow. The anxiety 
is no longer so mnch on his part to keep his status as a 
Government cultivator, but on the part of the gomashtah 
to retain him. Crops which pay him better compete in 
a year of short rainfall, like the present, with the poppy 
for their share of irrigation from his well. The liberal 
cash advance still forms an inducement to him to con- 
tinue his poppy cultivation, but it seems to the Board 
that the only means by which Government can ensure 
that a full and proper share of attention shall be given 
to the opium crop is by making the ryot understand 
that the meBe failure of his crop of poppy will not, as a 
matter of course, lead to the remission of his unliqui- 
dated debt, without regard to his general circumstances 
and ability to pay what he owes. The circumstances of 
the day appear to the Board more and more to require 
that the opium cultivation should be carried on on a 
proper business footing, and that the loose system under 
which, without detailed inquiry, wholesale remissions 
were made should be put a stop to. They concur in the 
following opinion expressed by Mr. Worsley, the Col- 
lector of ilozufferpore. in his report in connexion with 
the balances of 1877-78, and fully endorsed by the 
experienced Commissioner of the Division : — 

" In my opinion any undue or sentimental leniency is 
always calculated to demoralise a ryot. If contracts 
annually made with ryots be fair, voluntary on their 
part, and likely to prove remunerative to them under 
ordinary conditions, I am satisfied that it is the worst 
possible policy (except in seasons of general distress) to 
release them from their obligations in the few or 
exceptional instances in which they suffer losses from 
such contracts. I have observed that the best ryots 
are those who hold lands on fair and equitable terms, 
and who are required by their landlords to pay their 
rents strictly and punctually." 

11. From paragraph 662 of the Commission's report 
it appears that they advocate the system under which 
large remissions are made in bad seasons in preference 
to that of paying a better price for the crop ; and it is 
on this point that the Board find themselves at issue 
with their conclusions. The Board are of opinion that 
the time has gone by when the opium cultivation can 

. _ , , „ . „ be advantageously continued 

* Paragraph 6(12, Opium Com- , t, -, ^ -, j. j i, j.i, 

mission's report. °" ^"-^ plan advocated by the 

Commission. The system* 
under which the cultivator looked to Government to 
cherish and protect him, must, the Board think, give 
place to a more business-like and practical system, 
under which the ryot will feel that he has entered into 
an agreement which entails some responsibility on him 
for its fulfilment. There are, it is hardly necessary to 
point out, many intermediate stages between a bumper 
crop and that in which blight, hail, or early hot wind.s 
either totally or partially destroy the poppy, in which 
the amouDt of produce must mainly depend on the 
exertions of the ryot, the degree of attention which he 
pays to his cultivation, and the share of the well or 
irrigation water that he. gives the plant. Unless he is 
made to feel that his profits depend on his individual 
exertions, and that he will be a sufferer if his opium 
crop is neglected, the Board are of opinion that the 
temptation will be great for the lyot, whilst taking 
advantage of his position as an opium cultivator to 
obtain advances without interest, to neglect the 
interests of the Government, in favour of those of tlie 
harder taskmaster to whom he is under bond as to his 
potatoes or wheat crop. In cases of real hardship and 
general inability to repay the advance received, the 
Board would advocate the greatest liberality towards 
the opium cultivator, but they would have each case 



treated singly and exceptionally, and the remission 
granted only after full inquiry. 

12. One of the great disadvantages connected with 
the existing system of general remissions in bad years 
is the uncertainty and inequality of its operation. As 
pointed out by Mr. Worsley (Collector of Mozufferpore 
in 1879), if there is one thing more than another which 
makes ryots discontented it is to see wholesale 
remissions made to their fellow ryots after they them- 
selves have had to pay up their own balances. Unless 
general remissions are made to all cultivators, it is 
very bad policy to remit the balances of a considerable 
section of the cultivators by one stroke of the pen. 

l)i. In considering this question it must not 1)0 for- 
gotten that in districts in which the khattadari system 
prevails, the extent to which the remission reaches the 
actual cultivator is always open to doubt. Practical 
experience hardly confirms, the Board are inclined to 
believe, the view expressed by the Commission in 
paragraph 249 of their report, that the confidence 
reposed in the khattadar is seldom abused. Mr. 
Kemble, the opium agent of Behar, in a letter dated 
5th instant, on the subject of the balances of the season 
1882-83, outstanding and realised, reports that in the 
opinion of the sub-deputy opium agent of Tirhoot the 
balances have been recovered from the actual culti- 
vators, but are kept back by the khattadars. Further 
on in the same letter he again refers to the fraudulent 
practices of the khattadars and amlah as amongst the 
causes which have led to land in other districts going 
out of opium cultivation. 

14. The Board are of opinion that much may be done 
to improve the popularity of the opium cultivation by 
the measures proposed by the Commission to remedy 
the admitted inadequacy of the present salaries of the 
kothi establishments. The Board are inclined to think 
that some of the recommendations of the Commission . 
are on a somewhat unnecessarily liberal scale ; but 
they have no doubt that the employment of better paid 
and more honest agency would make the cultivation of 
poppy more popular. The Board fully realise the 
probability that the adoption of the principles of 1879 
instead of that recommended by the Commission will 
lead from time to time to the necessity of some increase 
in the price to be paid for crude opium as the competi- 
tion with other and more remunerative crops becomes 
keener and keener; but they take leave to doubt 
whether in the long run the Government will be a loser 
by placing its dealings with opium cultivation on a 
proper commercial footing. At any rate the Board can 
see nothing in the adoption of such a policy which can 
justify the severe condemnation passed on it by the 
Commission of its being unwise, unjust, and unworthy 
of Government. 

15. In conclusion, I am to state that the policy the 
Board would recommend may be briefly summarised as 
follows : — 

(i.) Aji adequate price to be paid for crude opium, to 
be settled from time to time with reference to the 
competition of other crops. 

(ii.) Wholesale remissions of unliquidated advances 
to be put a stop to at once ; the ryot's general 
a'oility to pay, his previous season's opium crops, 
&c., being taken into consideration before remission 
is granted. 

(iii.) Remissions to be granted liberally in bad 
seasons in cases of real hardship, where found to be 
actually necessary, each case being treated as a 
special one, and remission only made after inquiry. 

(iv.) Adequate salaries to be paid to the nati\e 
establishment, and the abolition of all illegal 
gratification strictly enforced. 



Apr. I. 
Bengal. 



No. 1701, dated 18th June 1884. 

From J. F. FiNLAY, Esq.. Officiating Under Secretary to 

the Government of India, Department of Finance 

and Commerce, to the Sechetart to the Government 

or Bengal, Revenue Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of your 

letter No. 1218-520, dated 7th April 188i, forwarding 

copy of a letter from the Board of Revenue, No. 55B., 

dated 19th January 1884, and conveying an expression 

of the views of his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor on 

the proposals of the late Opium Commission regarding 

the remission of outstanding balances of advances to 

opium cultivators, when a ryot is unable, owing to the 

failure or destruction of the poppy crop, to repay his 

A 3 



6 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



Apr. I. 



debt to Government, either ivholly or in part by the 
delivery of opium. 

2. In reply, I am directed to say that the G-overnor- 
Groneral in CoTincil entirely concurs in the conclusions 
of his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor as set forth in 
the closing paragraph of yonr letter. 

3. His Excellency in Council thinks that on the 
occurrence of such a total failure as to lead to the 
destruction of a ryot's crop (the only case in which 
even under the old practice remission was to be 
allowed), it will be fonnd the better course, in the 
interests both of the Government and of the cultivator, 
to arrange for suspension of demand extending over a 
period proportionate to the ryot's means, and the area 
on which the crop has been destroyed. Kemission in 
part or in whole should be reserved for cases where a 
ryot is known to be so completely deprived of all 
resources as to make the payment of his arrears by 
instalments practically impossible. In cases of serious 
disaster, liberal suspensions and rare remissions will 
probably be found to be the best policy in dealing with 
opium transactions. Ordinarily, and where the 
damage done to the whole or part of a crop is not of a 
nature to bo called destruction (where, in fact, it is 
Only a question of a short crop or indifferent season), 
even suspension should be very cautiously allowed. 

4. In conclusion, I am directed to say that the 
Governor-General in Council desires that arrangements 
may be made for the introduction of field books on the 
plan sketched in paragraph 664 of the Commission's 
report in order to facilitate the disposal of claims to 
remission of advances. 



No. 980 T. E., dated 28th June 1884. 

From A. P. MacDonnell, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Government of Bengal, Revenue Department, 
to the Sechbtary to the Government of India, 
Department of Finance and Commerce. 

In continuation of my letter No. 1218 — 52 0., dated 
7th April 1884, I am now desired by the Lieutenant- 
Governor to submit, for the consideration of his 
Excellency the Governor-General in'Council, the follow- 
ing observations on the Ecport of the Opium Com- 
mission, copies of which have already been forwarded 
to the Government of India 

2, The events connected with the damage which befel 
the Eenares Provision Opium of 1880-1 are known to 
the Government of India, and need not be related here 
in any detail. It will suffice to say that, in order to 
ascertain the exact facts of the case, and apportion 
responsibility for the result, a committee of inquiry 
was appointed, composed of Messrs. Reynolds and 
Monro of the Civil Service, and Dr. Warden, chemical 
examiner to this Government. The report of that 
committee was submitted to the Government of India, 
with my letter No. 9 of 3rd January 1883, a further 
communication being at the same time promised. The 
Government cif India, in acknowledging the receipt of 
the committee's report, expressed an opinion that 
possibly the time bad come for a thorough exami- 
nation and re-organisation of the establishments and 
system of working of both agencies. The opinion on 
these points of the Bengal Government was asked for, 
and generally on the scope and direction such an 
inquiry should take. Accordingly, in my letter No. 
859—80 O. of 10th March 1883, a line of inquiry 
was sketched out hy the Lieutenant-Governor and the 
Bengal members of the Commission nominated. Some 
demi-official correi^pondencc followed, in which the 
Lieutenant-Governor was given to understand that his 
proposals were acceptable to the Government of India, 
and later on a formal expression of this approval and 
the orders of the Government of India appointing the 
Commission were received. Meanwhile the Commission 
had gone to work under authority of the Lieutenant- 
Governor's order No. 1,005 of the 22nd March, as it was 
desirable that they should visit the opium-producing 
districts during the weighing season. They were 
directed to prosecute their inciuiry on the linus of my 
letter (above referred to) dated 10th March, to the 
Government of India ; and as the subsequent detailed 
instructions were not inconsistent with the substance of 
that letter, the Commission's ijroccc<ling=i were in no 
way impedid. Tho (Jomtnission were iit work fur seven 
months, Their repoii, was submitted on 20th October 
1883 ; and though, [lerhaps, it is allowable to think it 
defective in some degree frurji a financial and statistical 



point of view, it must still be pronounced a valuable 
and interesting record of research, industry, and 
observation. 

3. In forwarding their report to this Government (in 
accordance with the instructions of the Government of 
India), the Commission, while requesting that their 
recommendations might be considered as a whole, 
represented that on one question, namely, the policy of 
recovering advances not covered by deliveries of opium, 
immediate orders were necessary. There had been a 
most serious failure in the opium crop in 1883, and the 
Commission were apprehensive that if the policy of 
recovering advances, insisted on by Sir Ashley Eden, 
were followed up, the interests of tho opium revenue 
would be gravely prejudiced. The Commission referred 
to that portion of their Report (Chapter 22, Part II., 
and Chapter 4, Part III,) in which the question was 
discussed, and urgently pressed for the reversal of the 
existing policy of recovery when people became able to 
pay, and the adoption of the " principle that advances 
" which (from no fault of the cultivator) cannot be 
" covered by deliveries of opium shall be remitted and 
" written off tho accounts." In accordance, therefore, 
with the Commission's wish, that question was dealt 
with in the Lieutenant-Governor's letter No. 1218-52 
0., dated 7th April 1884, to the Government of India. In 
that letter Mr. Rivers Thompson, without supporting a 
policy of total remission as urged by the Commission, 
advocated leniency in recovering advances, and remis- 
sion in all hard cases. The Lieutenant-Governor has 
just received the orders of the Government of India, 
No. 1701 of the 18th instant, approving of his 
conclusions upon this point. 

4. In now submitting the Commission's Report to tho 
Government of India, the Lieutenant-Governor is 
obliged to say that he cannot deal finally with it. 
Indeed the Report is so voluminous, and the ground it 
traverses so varied and debated, that it would be hope- 
less to attempt to obtain a satisfactory solution to all 
the questions raised in a single letter. The numerous 
recommendations and reforms suggested involve, too, a 
very large additional expenditure ; and as the charge 
is an Imperial one, it is only the Government of India 
who can decide whether this increased outlay should be 
accepted. It is, however, open to the Lieutenant- 
Governor to comment upon the changes proposed by 
the Commission from a general or departmental point 
of view. 

A further difficulty is found in the fact that the Com- 
mission have not elaborated, in any precise form, an 
estimate of the cost which an acceptance of their pro- 
posals would entail. It would, of course, be possible 
for this Government to ascertain from other sources the 
total additional expenditure involved in the acceptance 
of the Commission's proposals. But this would be a 
waste of time and labour if the Government of India 
declined to consider the principal changes which the 
Comruission would introduce ; or if accepting them as 
regards the chief control of the department, they pre- 
ferred to work out the details with the aid of a 
director-general. Therefore, in the present communi- 
cation, the course the Lieutenant-Governor proposes to 
adopt is to review the main features of the Report, to 
ascertain what the policy of the Government of India 
is on those main features, and thus, having come to an 
understanding with the Government of India, to take 
up the Report in detail, and work the proposals out in 
communication with the local officers and the Board of 
Revenue, stiould it be resolved to maintain the superin- 
tendence which the Board now exercise over the 
Department. 

5. The Commission's Report is divided into three 
parts. Part I. gives a historical summary of the 
Department from the earliest times of which we have 
any information up to the present day. Part II. reviews 
the existing condition of thiogs in all branches of the 
Department ; while Part III. sets forth the recommen- 
dations which tho Commission make " for the purpose 
' ' of placing this important Department of the public ser- 
' ' vice on a satisfactory footing, and for rectifj'ing ,^uch 
' ' errors and supplying such deficiencies as our inquiries 
" have shown to exist in its organisation and workino-." 
Each of these main divisions is sub-divided into minor 
divisions, but it is unnecessary here to enumerate the 
latter. 

6. Illstorical. — The history of the opium monopoly is 
a history of small beginnings and gr eat development 
Less than a century ago it formed an .insignificant 
portion of the East India Company's business, "Now 
" the magnitude of the interests involved is indicated 



APPENDIX. 



II by the fact that more than 1,300,000 ryots cultivato 
the poppy every year under advances from Govern- 
^' ment; and even this number does not adequately 
express the truth, as a large share of the labour 
required for the production of the drug falls to the 
lot of the women and children of the ryot's family. 
We should probably be within the mark in saying 
that the Opium Department calls into activity the 
energies of not less than four million persons of the 
" agricultural classes. The cash paid to the cultiva- 
" tors for opium flower-leaves and trash amounts to 
" about 180 lakhs of rupees a year." The earliest 
authentic reference to opium cultivation is said by the 
Commission to occur in the Ain-i-Alchari (1590 A.D.), 
which states that opium was a staple crop throughout 
what is now the Benares Agency, in Malwa, and in the 
Punjab. The trade in opium in Mogul times was an 
Imperial monopoly, and " was farmed at a quit-rent." 
Until the British acquired sovereignty in Bengal and 
Behar, the Dutch were the chief foreign purchasers of 
opium, though 200 years ago, the first orders were 
given to make opium a part of the East India Com- 
pany's investment. 

7. During the political commotions of the first half of 
the eighteenth century, when the Mogul power was on 
the wane, the opium monopoly fell into abeyance, and 
the cultivation of the poppy seems, at all' events in what 
is now the Behar Agency, to have been carried on by 
the ryots without license, on advances from Patna mer- 
chants, who, in their turn, disposed of the dxug to the 
English and Dutch. The triumphs of Serajudowla, 
however, brought ruin on the English merchants, and 
as there was no competition the Dutch commanded the 
opium market. The price of opium accordingly fell so 
low that the native dealers could no longer make 
advances, and the production of the drug declined. 
This state of things prevailed when the victories of 
Clive enabled the English merchants to recover their 
lost position at Patna. They found the trade dis- 
organised, and, in default of native dealers, the Euro- 
pean merchants began to make advances direct to the 
cultivators. This, however, led to quarrels, which 
resulted in the re-establishment of the monopoly by 
Mr. Hastings in 1773, on the understanding that a 
certain quantity of opium was to be delivered annually 
to the Dutch, Danish, and French companies. Political 
complications subsequently led to the annulment of the 
understanding with the Dutch and the Danes, but that 
with the French is still in force. 

8. From 177o to 1781 the exclusive right to manufac- 
ture opium on account of the Bast India Company was 
sold annually ; and it would seem from the Fifth Report 
of the House of Commons on the affairs of the Bast 
India Company (to which the Commission make no 
allusion) that nnder the first contract Behar opium was 
deliverable at Rs. 320 and Oudh opium at Es. 350 per 
maund. Stipulations were inserted in those contracts 
against oppression of the cultivators, and the Provincial 
Council were enjoined to see that the atipujations were 
observed. From 1781, according to the Opium Com- 
mission, sale contracts were made for four years ; and 
in 1785 the sales became competitive, various stipula- 
tions, designed in the interests of the cultivators, being 
at the same time insisted upon. According to the Fifth 
Report, however, competitive sales and contracts for 
four years were introduced simultaneously in 1785, 
while power was also taken to appoint inspectors to 
superintend the provision and manufacture of opium, 
and collectors were enjoined to protect the cultivators 
against the contractors. These competitive sales, ac- 
cording to the Commission, while for the time benefit- 
ing the revenue, left the contractors a smaller margin of 
profit, and consequently lowered the prices paid by them 
to the cultivators. Adulteration of the drug, and its 
depreciation in the market, ensued, and accordingly, 
say the Commission in 1797, with the object of " restor- 
ing and improving " the character of the opium, the 
contract system was done away with, and the agency 
system, which has lasted ever since, was introduced. 
Doubtless this improvement was a result of that scrutiny 
which Lord Oornwallis instituted in the opium as well 
as in all other Departments of the Administration — a, 
scrutiny which brought to light the fact that the con- 
tract system had developed impositions in the nature of 
abwabs on cultivators " in the same manner " (to quote 
the Fifth Report) "as practised in the land rents." 
This portion of the Report then conveys a valuable 
lesson, and gives us some insight into what may be 
expected if the agitation against the opium monopoly 
should be successful. The early history of the question 
teaches us that the abolition of the monopoly would lead 



to increased production and increased consumption 
among the people of India ; that competition among 
exporters would follow, and, as a natural consequence, 
that the opium produced would be inferior. An inferior 
article would succumb in the competition with the 
Chinese drug, and thus the opium revenue, which now 
depends on the excellent quality and character of the 
drug, would tend to fall ofl" and ultimately become 
extinct. The result would be a heavy loss to the people 
of India and increased taxation. 

9. The agency system, under which the Department 
is at present administered, was thus established in 1797. 
Two agents were appointed, the Behar agent being 
purely an opium officer, while until 1835 the Benares 
agent had other duties to perform in addition to his 
function as opium agent. Until 1833 the agents were 
paid partly by fixed salaries, and partly by commission, 
which was abolished in that year. While it continued, 
the opium agent of Behar was perhaps the best paid 
civilian ofiicer in the service, drawing from commission 
alone in some years nearly a lakh of rupees. The agents 
were at first assisted by independent deputy agents, but 
in 1822 the collectors of the opium districts were made 
deputy opium [agents with a commission on the sale 
profits. In 1835, at Captain Jeremie's suggestion, an 
independent opium service of sub-deputy agents was 
constituted, and the active connexion of collectors with 
opium fell into abeyance. Since that time they have 
remained ex-officio deputy agents, but they now never 
interfere with the work of the Department. 

10. It has been stated that Captain Jeremie was the 
originator of the separate opium service. To him is also 
due ^the introduction of a more scientific method of 
manufacture of the drug in both factories. For the 
first 25 years of the monopoly system, the factory test- 
ing and manufacture were superintended by the agent. 
In 1826 Captain Jeremie. quartermaster of a native 
regiment, who had made certain experiments in opium 
cultivation and manufacture, submitted proposals to 
Government, which ultimately led to his appointment 
as "first assistant to the agent" at Patna, which 
designation was, in 1839, changed to the "principal 
assistant." After Captain Jeremie's time the post was 
held by the civil surgeon of the station, in addition to 
his other duties. But from 1846 in Behar, and from 
1859 in Benares, the post was made a separate one, the 
incumbent being placed wholly ujider the control of the 
agent. 

11. Reverting to the connexion of the Department with 
the Government, it will be seen that when in 1797 the 
agency system was established, the control of the Opium 
Department was at that time vested in the Board of 
Trade, the President of which was e.c- officio a Member 
of Council. The opium accounts, however, were always 
kept distinct from those of the Commercial Department, 
so that when by Regulation IV. of 1819, the " Board of 
Revenue in the Customs, Salt, and Opium Departments" 
was constituted, no difiiculty was experienced in 
transferring the opium business to the new Board at 
Calcutta, which, consisting at first of three, was, from. 
1826, composed of two members. In 1834, on the 
creation of the Government of Agra, the Governor- 
General in Council declared it necessary to retain the 
management of the Benares Opium Agency by the 
Board of Customs, Salt and Opium at Calcutta, " in 
" order to secure that the whole concern, whether in 
" Behar or Benares, may be conducted on one uniform 
" system." By these orders the Benares Agency is 
still governed. To bring this portion of the history of 
the Department down to the present time, it need only 
be added that by Act XLIV, of 1850, the Customs, Salt, 
and Opium Board was merged in the Board of Revenue 
at Calcutta, the number of members in the latter Board 
being at the same time increased from two to three. In 
1865, however, a vacancy in the Board of Revenue 
occurred, which was not filled up, and since then the 
Board in the Lower Provinces has consisted of two 
members only. 

12. Production.— 1 am now to pass on from the history 
of the superior administrative machinery to say a few 
words on the production of the drug — the system of 
dealing with the producers, the grievances the latter 
had against the Government, and the grievances the 
Government had against them. At the beginning of 
the century, the poppy was cultivated on behalf of 
Government in Bengal proper as well as in Behar and 
the North-Western Provinces. The drug produced in 
the Bhagulpore Division, and in the districts of Rung- 
pore, Dingapore, and Cooch Behar was, however, of 
inferior quality, and its production was prohibited by 
Regulation YI. of 1799. The local officers and the 

A 4 



App. I. 
Bongul. 



8 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



App. I. 



people opposed the enforcement of that Eegulation, and 
a long struggle ensued which was terminated l)y the 
enactment of Eegulation XIII. of 1816, which legalised 
the cultivation of opium in Bengal, under the super- 
vision of the Commercial Resident of Eungpore. The 
opium produced was to be used for excise purposes only. 
But it soon turned out that nothing could be made of 
this Bengal opium, and the production of it was again 
abandoned in 1837, only to be revived in Monghyr and 
Bhagulpore between 1830 and 1834, and in numerous 
Bengal districts between the latter year and 1840. 

13. The cause of this expansion of cultivation was 
probably due to the policy adopted in 1830 regarding 
"Malwa" opium produced in the Native States of 
Central India, where cultivation was unrestricted, the 
manufacturers skilful, and the quality of the drug ex- 
ceptionally good. This "Malwa" opium was brought 
via Baroda and Cambay to Diu and Damaun and thence 
exported to China, where it threatened the Bengal 
monopoly in the early years of this century. The Com- 
pany's efibrts having proved futile to restrict the cultiva- 
tion in Central India, or to introduce the Bengal 
monopoly system, the trade was in 1830 thrown open. 
The supervision till then exercised over Malwa opium 
affairs by the Bengal Board of Customs, Salt, and Opium 
was withdi'awn, and the pass system introduced, care 
being taken to fix the duty levied on th e drug brought 
direct to Bombay for exportation to China at a favour- 
able rate compared with the cost of transmission 
through Native States to Diu, Damatm, or Karachi. It 
was anticipated that this change of policy would 
cheapen the Malwa drug in the China market ; and to 
counteract the effect that result would have on Bengal 
opium Government, in 1830, directed that an effort should 
be made to make up for the probable loss in price by in- 
crease in quantity. Accordingly, between 1830 and 
1840, opium cultivation was largely extended throughout 
Benares, Behar, and Bengal ; but in 1840 there was 'a 
collapse, largely due no doubt to the seizure of British 
merchants and the destruction of a large quantity of 
opium by the Chinese in 1839 — events which led to war 
between England and China. The immediate effect of 
events in China on opium in India was the contraction 
of the area of operations in the North- Western Pro- 
vinces, while opium cultivation in Bengal proper was 
finally abandoned. Since then, the number of dis- 
tricts which grow opium has been largely extended in 
the Benares Agency, but in Behar (with the exception of 
the re-introduotion of cultivation into Chota Nagpur in 
1869 and its abandonment again in 1877) there has been 
no change. Prom the statistics given on page 26 of the 
Eejiort, it would appear that the average produce per 
bigha has generally decreased, with any very marked 
extension of the area under cultivation, and this is what 
might be expected from recourse being had to inferior 
soils. 

14. System of dealing with Producers. — The main 
points of the system have not greatly changed during 
the century, and the principles of the first opium law 
(Eegulation VII. of 1799) are not very different from 
those of the present Act (XIII. of 1857). Engagements 
were taken by the agent or his deputy for a specific 
area of cultivation. When the poppy was grown, an 
estimate of its yield was made, and a further engage- 
ment for the delivery of the estimated quantity of drug 
drawn up. The opium, when delivered, was weighed ; 
if found too liquid, an additional quantity or batta for 
consistence fixed by arbitration was deducted from the 
price ; if adulterated, it was confiscated ; and if any of 
it was kept back, the cultivator was liable to fine. 
These were the lines worked upon in the beginning of 
the century, and with additions and modifications, 
notably under the head of batta for consistence, the 
same are followed to-day. The system was worked by 
qomnstas and zilladars on behalf of the agents, while 
sudder inahtoes and gyne mahtoes were supposed to 
look after the cultivatoj-s' interests. The zilladars 
still exist, and perform much the same duties now as 
they did before. The gomasta, though still an im- 
portant ofiicer, has less to do now than formerly, while 
the sudder mahtoes have disappeared. The gyne mahtoe, 
on the other hand, has become the hhatadar or lam- 
bardar, who plays a most important part in the 
economy of the Opium Department, as will subsequently 
appear. 

16. This organisation in early times did not always 
work smoothly, and various complaints were from time 
to time made by the cultivators of the exactions to 
which they were subjected and the inconveniencies to 
which they were exposed. It was urged by the ryots 
that the price of opium (which from 1820 to 1860 varied 



between Es. 3 and Es. 4 the seer) was fixed too low ; 
that nothing was allowed for cost of carriage to the 
weighing places, of which there were too few ; that 
ryots were confined and sold up for arrears ; that the 
various grades of under-officers extorted at weighment 
and other times an unlimited quantity of the drug 
under various pretences, and that when accounts were 
settled the gomastas levied perquisites. Eedress did 
not always follow upon these complaints, the Board at 
first being somewhat apprehensive of interference with 
any custom that had grown up ; and if it is said by the 
CommiBsion that generally the history of the Depart- 
ment is one of improvement, of increasing supervision 
by European officers, of increasing checks upon the mal- 
practices ofsubordinates, andof inoreasingsecurity tothe 
producers, it is more than may be said of every public 
department. The custom of taking batta for consistence 
opened perhaps the widest door to fraud,_ for, as till 
1830 there was no fixed standard of consistence, the 
batta depended on personal caprice. A standard was, 
however, fixed in 1831, and since then the existing 
principle has prevailed in both agencies, viz., that for 
the deliveries below 70 deg. a proportionably decreased, 
and for deliveries above 70 deg. a proportionably 
increased, price should be given. But even in Benares, 
where weighments are elaborately conducted, in- 
stances in which subordinates have been effectually 
punished for defrauding the cultivators are extremely 
rare. This cannot be due to the absence of abuses, for 
admittedly such exist ; but the consideration of these 
abuses, and the best methods of removing them, will be 
dealt with later on. 

16. If the cultivators had thus many grievances 
against the Government, the Government also had 
grievances against the cultivators. Minor grievances 
were the practice of planting of other crops along with 
the poppy, and delay in bringing in the produce ; but 
the chief grievances were illicit cultivation, ' ' paiDer 
cultivation," or drawing advances for poppy land, 
yet growing other crops upon it, and illicit sale of the 
drug. It was illicit cultivation in Northern Bengal 
that led to the re-introduction of the opium system 
there under Eegulation XIII. of 1816, but latterly it is 
said that both illicit cultivation and " paper cultivation " 
have ceased to trouble the Department. Illicit sale, 
howevei', still gives trouble, and the Commission's 
remarks on pages 44-45 show that no effort hitherto 
made to suppress it has been completely successful ; 
while one at least of the methods adopted — the granting 
of large rewards to informers — greatly aggravated the 
evil it was devised to check. 

17. Manufacture and Disposal of the Drug. — The chapter 
which deals with the history of the '' manufacture and 
disposal " of the drug when delivered by the cultivators 
to the opium authorities also demands attention. It 
seems that from the earliest times the crude opium 
when received from the cultivators had been packed in 
earthen jars, each containing about a maund of the 
drug, and in this way forwarded to the factory. This 
mode of conveyance led to considerable evaporation, 
and experiments were therefore tried with leather 
bags, galvanized-irou vessels, and wooden boxes, with 
a view to the prevention of loss of weight — all proving 
unsuitable. The original method of transport in 
earthen jars was reverted to, and is still in force. At 
times loss is experienced by the breaking of the vessels 
in transit, and such loss used originally to fall on the 
cultivators. But the unfairness of this arrangement 
was perceived in 1831, and since then Government 
bears the loss. 

IS. On arrival at the sndder factory it was the 
custom formerly to keep the opium in the jars, and to 
cake from them direct. But so far back as 1830 
wooden tanks were introduced. These proving unsuit- 
able, were replaced by stone vats, which are still in 
use. In the manufacture of opium for the market two 
objects were always aimed at — (a) that the quality of 
the drug should be invariably good ; (b) that the weight 
of pure opium per chest should be always the 
same. In order to secure the first object, it does not 
appear that in the early years of thecentiury any definite 
rules were prescribed, but the practice must have been 
very appropriate to the end in view; for that practice, 
as described in general terms by the agent in 1820, is 
pretty much what it is to-day. As regards point (6), it 
may be said that before Captain Jeremie's time, con- 
sistence, scientifically ascertained and regulated, was 
unknown ; but in 1832 it was determined that Patna 
should cake at 75 deg. and Benares at 70 deg., and 
these average standards have been since adhered to. 
Accordingly it has been since 1832 possible to regulate 



APPENDIX, 



9 



the weight per chest. This is done with reference to 
the Chinese system of weights, which runs in taels, 
catties (16 taels), and piouls (100 catties). A chest of 
opium should contain 1 picul (133 lbs. 5 ozs. 5:^ drs. 
avoirdupois) of pure opium, ami as 40 IjulLs are packed 
in a chest, each Ijnll should contain 3 lbs. SJoas. of thu 
pure drug. 

19. As has been observed, no great change in the 
system of manufacture has been introduced from the 
heginning of the century, though some improvements 
have no doubt been effected. There is, for instance, 
owins' to mechanical appliances, less danger of varia- 
tion in consistence, and owing to better chemical know- 
ledge, less danger of adulteration now than formerly. 
But the greater scientific knowledge of to-day has been 
unable to improve, to any very material extent, on the 
empicism of earlier times, cither in the manufacture 
of the drug or in caking and packing. Numerous 
experiments have been tried under all throe heads ; but 
unless Captain Jeremie's invention of compartments in 
the chest be considered a great improvement, we are 
now pretty much where we were GO years ago. Captain 
Jeremie's aim was, just as the Board's aim now is, to 
pack the cakes without dunnage ; but he had, after all, 
to furnish his compartments with a bed of trash. It is 
unnecessary to summarise any further the Commission's 
remarks on this part of theii' Report ; but that section 
of this chapter which deals with the three great disasters 
which befel the opium provision owing to pre- 
ventible causes is interesting. History repeats itself, 
and in the recital points occur which recall the Benares 
disaster of 1880-81. With this the Commission do not 
deal, as when they wrote it was 'still suhjuilice. 

20. The Commission close their interesting sketch of 
the origin and growth of the Department by exhibiting 
statistics of the general results of the monopoly from 
the establishment of the agency system in 1797 down 
to 1882. These statistics show that the highest price 
ever obtained for the drug was in March 1822, when it 
averaged Es. 4,274-9-7 per chest; the lowest occurring 
in April 1839, when, under the panic caused by the 
news from (^hina, the average per chest was only 
Es. 365-1-11. The net profit to Government from 
opium grown on this side of India has risen since 1797 
from less than five lakhs to more than five crores of 
rupees per annum. On the general uses of their review 
of the past history of the monopoly, the Commission 
make the following remarks, which are worthy of being 
quoted here : — 

"The considerations suggested by this review of the 
past are not, we think, foreign to the questions which 
our instructions direct us to examine. There are 
economists who assert that the Government, without 
incurring a loss, might sever its connexion with the 
production of opium, and confine itself to the levy of an 
excise duty and a tax on exportation. It may be useful 
to remind these gentlemen of the evil days when, under 
the contract system of supply, the quality of the drug 
had fallen so low- that Bengal opium was ofi'ered at 
Es. 50 a chest without finding a purchaser. The history 
of the connexion of the Government of Bengal and the 
Calcutta Board of Eevenue with the administration of 
the Department may be of service in determining what 
answer shall be given to the question whether that con- 
nexion should any longer be maintained. There are 
officers at the present day who advocate a general 
return to the system of remuneration by commission. 
Upon this point, the reasons which led such dis- 
tinguished administrators as Lord William Bentinck 
and Lord Dalhousie to an opposite conclusion seem 
worthy of being reproduced, The diffjoulties with 
which the Department has to contend, the complaints 
made by the cultivators, the practices by which the law 
is violated or evaded, are substantially the same now in 
kind (thongh differing in degree) as they have been for 
many years past. We gladly recognise the fact that 
the record of the opium administration is in the main a 
record of progress and improvement. Much has been 
done to remedy such evils as experience has brought to 
light, and to make the cultivating license a source of 
profit to the ryot as well as to the Government. There 
is not the slightest ground for saying that the officers 
of the Department exercise any undue influence, or that 
the engagements entered into by the cultivators are not 
entirely voluntary. In most matters of detail such 
reforms as are still required will probably be most 
successfully carried out, by working upon the lines 
which have been laid down by the administrators of a 
former day. It has therefore appeared to us that a 
summary of the past history of the Departmemt is a 
u 82810. 



luseful introduction to the inquiry which wo have been 
directed to undertake." 

21. In the preceding remarks the existing constitu- 
tion of the Opium Department has been to some extent 
described ; but the narrative looked more to the genesis 
and hi.'<tory of the Department than to any other aspect. 
It was iiisutHcient as a statement of existing facts with 
a view to determining whether improvements were 
necessary or not. Such a statement the Commission 
give in Part II. of their Eeport. 

The Lieutenant-Governor does not, however, purpose 
to summarise Part II. here, because, in the first place, 
the existing state of things is generally known, and in 
the second place, such a summary would cause useless 
repetition. When stating and examining the Com- 
mission's recommendations, some description of the 
existing facts which the I'ecommendations are intended 
to alter and improve will be necessary, and opportunity 
ean be taken of that necessity to explain facts as fully 
a.s may be needed. In other words, instead of follow- 
ing the Commission through the \ arious stages of their 
Eeport, I am to dincuss Parts 11. and III. together, 
thus saving time without any great sacrifice of 
clearness. 

22. Before entering on the subject of the Com- 
mission's recommendations, I am to call attention to 
their desire (paragraph 602) that their proposals should 
be regarded as a whole, each portion of which is 
naturally dependent on the other ; and to the fact that 
they guard themselves against being umieratood as 
recommending changes except as component parts of a 
complete plan. Having carefully examined all the pro- 
posals made in the Eeport, the Lieutenant-Governor, I 
am to say, is not prepai-ed to follow the Commission in 
thinking that all or none of their proposals should be 
accepted. He thinks that some proposals may be 
adopted at once, while the introduction of others may 
with advantage bo postponed. The Commission's pro- 
posals are not always very clearly put from a financial 
point of view; but as far as the Lieutenant-Governor 
can ascertain, the yearly increase of expenditure which 
they' involve would be about eight lakhs of rupees, 
while the improvements in plant, &c., could hardly cost 
less than five lakhs more. Whether the Government of 
India, in consideration of a better system and prospec- 
tive benefits, will incur such expenditure, rests at the 
threshold of the inquiiy, and if to that question an 
affirmative answer be given, then it beooniea a question 
for his Excellency the Governor-General in Counojl to 
decide whether this Government should not leave all 
action on this Eeport for the Director- General of Opium 
and the Government of India. The doubt on this point 
does not relieve the Lieutenant-Governor from the 
duty of submitting his general views on the whole 
question, and on the Commission's recommendations. 

23. The first recommendation which the Commission 
make in Part III. of their Eeport has reference to the 
questions of general control and administration. Their 
instructions directed them to consider whether the 
Opium Department should continue to be administered 
by the Board of Eevenue at Calcutta, acting under the 
orders of the Bengal Government ; or whether the con- 
trol and administration should be divided between the 
Governments of Bengal and the North- VVestern Pro- 
vinces ; or lastly, whether a single officer, acting under 
the orders of the Government of India alone, should be 
appointed to administer the Department. The Com- 
mission are strongly of the opinion that the third course 
should be adopted, and they justify their viiiw as well 
by illustrating the imperfections and inadequacy of the 
existing system as by maintaining that a aivided con- 
trol, such as the second plan contemplates, would lead 
to even greater difficulties than are at present felt. To 
commence at the head. X'he Commission point out 
that, although the Government of India is alone 
financially interested in the sucoes.'s of the (Jpium 
Department, its connexion with the administration is 
slender. The power of the purse, of course, gives that 
Government an ultimate controlling voice ; but so long 
a& budget requirements are satisfied, it is discretional 
with the Government of Bengal to consult the Govern- 
ment of India, or not to consult it. And in point of 
fact, the Government of India is not often consulted, 
though matters of exceptional importance are reported 
to it Ibi' information. Again, as far as the Govern- 
ment of Bengal is itself concerned, the Commission 
think that the control which it exercises is not a control 
over the actual work of the Department so much as a 
control over the Board's management of that work. The 
administration is mostly- conducted by correspondence 
between the agents and the Board, the Government 

B 



App. I, 

Bengal, 



10 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



iPP. I. 



having no independent means of testing or forming an 
opinion ou the matters reported. Therefore its control 
consists, the Commission say, of comments (mostly 
laudatory) upon the Board's administration, and of 
orders (generally affirmative) on the Board's remarks. 
This is particularly noticeable in the case of tlie 
Benares Agency, the districts comprising which lie 
outside the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal. And if the control of the Bengal Grovernraent 
be, in the Commission's opinion, shadowy, that exei- 
cised by the Board is hardly more real. Under the 
law, inde(.'d, their powers aie full, and in point of fact 
the Board are consulted on almost e\crything that is 
done. Still their knowledge of the wants and I'equire- 
ments of the Department is of a mere routine order, 
the reflex of subordinate officers' opinions, not a living 
opinion of their own. " Tn dealing," say the Com- 
mission, "with every other subject than opium, the 
" Board's Report is an independent I'cview of the 
" administration of the year. The Board lay before 
" Government their own summary of the facts, their 
" own conclusions and recommendations, their own 
" tabular statements of what has Deen accomplished, 
" andof what remains to be done . The scheme 

" of the Opium Seport is altogether ditferent. The 
" reports of the agents and their principal assistants 
" are submitted at length, and form the bulk of the 
" Report, the Board's share in it being confined to the 
" preparation of a brief extract which is prefixed to the 
" local report;! and tables . . It may be added 

" that this practice is not confined to the annual 
" reports, but is the common procedure when the 
" Government calls for information upon any point 
" aii'ecting the working of the Department.'' The 
Commission consider it thus apparent that the Board 
instil no energy of lii'e into the actual work of the 
Department ; while, as the controlling authority origi- 
nates nothing, no advantage results from the control 
which the (novernment of Bengal exercises over the 
Board. And this view is, the Commission think, con- 
firmed by tho consideration that, owing to the enor- 
mous extension of cultivation in the Benares Agency, 
the Calcutta Board of Revenue is no longer the natural 
administrative head of the Department, nor is the 
Bengal Govei-nment any longer the Local Government 
with which the Department is chiefly concerned. 
Therefore, the Commission declare that a change is 
necessary. " Wc have, " they say, "patiently investi- 
" gated the past history and present working of this 
'■ Department, and we are led by our inquiries to 
■' believe not merely that certain epecific cases of dis- 
" aster have been due to faulty administration, but that 
" the general principles on which the existing system 
" is based are unsuited to the circumstances of the 
" present daJ^ If a certain measure of success has 
" been achieved, we are convinced that this result has 
" been attained, not in consequence of the present 
" constitution of the Department, but in spite of it." 
They therefore recommend the withdrawal of the con- 
trol of the Department from the Bengal Government 
and Board of Revenue, and the appointment of an 
Opium Commissioner or Director-General of the Opium 
Department, who would act immediately under the 
orders of the Government of India. To the Director- 
(xeneral thev would attach a, secretary or personal 
assistant, who, after five years' tenure of his office, 
would be eligible for the post of opium agent. The 
latter should, in the Commission's opinion, be able 
and energetic covenanted civilians of from 13 to 15 
years' service, whose pay should be fixed at Rs. 2,200, 
rising to Rs. 2,200 in order to retain them in the 
Department, and for the most successful among whom 
should be reserved the post of Director-General when 
vacancies occur. 

riually, the Commission propose to drop the deputy 
agent (the district collector) out of the sphere of the 
Department altogether; to style the sub-deputies in 
future deputy agents ; to raise the number from '2?> 
to 29 by the creation of six neu- appointments in the 
Benares Agency, and by the addition of three new 
appointments to the 47 appointments of the assistant 
class; to equalise the house allowances they receive ; 
and, lastly, to place at the disposal of the Dircctoi'- 
General the sum of Rs. 13..''i00 to be annually expended 
in bonuses to the most successful deputy and assistant 
agents in liuth agencies. These latter proposals are 
defended on the ground that the present staff in 
Benares is altcjgether inadequate for tho work which 
is to be done there. 

24. In the Commission's recommendation to increase 
the number of sub-deputy agents, the Lieutenant- 



Governor thinks there is much reason, and he, on the 
whole, agrees in them ; while in the recommendation 
to appoint a Director- General of Opium, acting under 
the orders of the Government of India, he entirely 
concurs. The recommendation, it will be seen, is not 
approved by the Board of Revenue, who, in their lette'' 
Mo. ?, B. of the 2iid Januai-y 188i, propose an alterna- 
tive, which the Commission have not noticed. That 
letter (wliich is an imperfect commentary upon the 
(Commission's Report, and might, of itself, be held to 
suggest that some reform is necessary in the constitu- 
tion of the Department) is chiefly remarkable for a 
suggestion which, in the Lieutenant-Governor's 
opinion, is little calculated to improve matters. The 
suggestion is that, instead of having a Diroctor-General 
of Opium, whose whole time would be given up to the 
work of the Department, and who would serve only 
one master, we should have the member of the Board 
in charge of the Opium Department placed under the 
control of the Governor- General in Council, and freed 
from the control of the Government of Bengal in all 
matters connected with opium. This suggestion affords, 
in the Lieutenant-Governor's opinion, no solution of 
the question. It would remove none of the difficulties 
which the Commission so forcibly- dwell upon, unless 
the member is to be constantly on tour making inspec- 
tions to the detriment of his many other duties ; and to 
suppose that he can be constantly on tour, even in the 
present extent of opium cultivation in the Benares 
Division, is to suppose the impossible. There would be 
the disadvantage of a Bengal officer controlling details 
of administration in other Governments, and there 
would be the great objection of allowing this member 
of the Board to be the servant of twi ■ or more masters. 
In writing as they have done, the Board have, the 
Lieutenant-Governor thinks, unduly estimated the 
value of "the official traditions which have hitherto 
" guided the working of the Department;" but the 
report which condemns these traditions has, in Mr. 
Rivers Thompson's opinion, all the greater force in 
that Mr. Reynolds, the president of the committee, 
speaks with the knowledge arising from personal 
experience aci.|uired as member of the Board in charge 
of opium affairs, ^fr. Reynolds' condemnation of the 
system carries conviction to the Lieutenant-Governor's 
mind, not only as it concerns the Board, but as it con- 
cerns the local Government also. In the Lieutenant- 
Governor's belief this Government can rarely do any 
substantial good in connexion with the Department, 
while the financial control is in the hands of the 
Government of India, and while it is dependent on the 
opium agents alone for all knowledge of facts and 
details. And if particular examples to enforce this 
belief are wanting, the report furnishes them. The 
history of the Patna saw-mills, given in paragraph 156 
of the report, is an excellent illustration of how not to 
doit; while the history of the recent misfortunes in 
the Ghazipore Agency, by which Government lost 
several lakhs of rupees, no one being punished except 
an unfortunate mohurir, indicates the necessity of such 
a complete reform as shall bring tfie internal conduct 
of the agencies under a much closer and more direct 
personal sujjervision than now exists. For these 
reasons the Lieutenant-Governor would strongly sup- 
l)ort the recommendation that a Director-General be 
appointed to control the Opium Department, under the 
direct orders of the Government of India. It is per- 
fectl}- clear to his mind, both from practical experience 
of the working of the Department and from this report, 
that the Department must be under the undivided' 
control of one authority ; and looking to the vast extent 
of cultivation extending into the territories of three 
Governments, there seems no room for doubt that the 
central authority should be that of the Government of 
India. The Lieutenant-Governor, further, sees no 
reason why the Director-General should not have the 
charge of the opium godown in Calcutta, and the 
conduct of the periodical sales (as noticed in paragraph 
620 of the report). The courteous relations between 
him and the opium merchants (on which the Board lay 
stress) would. Mi'. Rivers Thompson thinks, be soon 
established. 

2o Turning from the Director-General (to whom the 
Lieutenant-Governor would allot a salary of Rs. 3.000 a 
month, with Rs. 300 as I ravelling allowance) to the 
agents, the Lieutenant-Governor must concur in the 
opinion that the Government of the North- Western 
ProAinccs should have the appointment of the Benares 
agent. Vjvevy consideration seems to justify this, and 
all hough the Civil Service of these provinces, which is 
not \-er)- fortunate now as regards promotion, will 



APPEPfDiXi 



11 



suffer, the intet-ests oP the public service call for the 
change. Mr. Ejivors ThoiupBon, whilo agreeing bo I'ar 
■with the Commission, must, however, differ as regards 
the salary which the agents should draw. He sees no 
reason for thinking that a higher pay than Eg. 1,500 
rising to Es. 2,250 is necessary. Such pay as this would 
practically mean the addition of an ofHcer to the lowest 
grade of magistrates on the Bengal list, rising with 
the promotion of his contemporaries to the highest 
grade. This would secure continuity in administration 
in a special department, which has, in Mr. Rivers 
Thompson's opinion, more to recommend it than 
changes in the office ev^ry five years. 

Finally, the Lieutenant-Governor does not think that 
a strong case is made out for a pei-sonal assistant of 
the covenanted civilian class to the Director-General. 
If help of the kind is wanted it can be got more 
cheaply from the uncovenanted service, as in the case 
of the Inland Revenue and Salt Departments. The 
Lieutenant-Governor, however, doubts whether such 
assistance would be required at all ; if required, it should 
not, he thinks, be liable to the changes which the Com- 
mission recommend in paragraph 618 of their report. 

26. While thus in general accord with the chief pro- 
posals of the Commission on this part of the subject, 
Mr. Rivers Thompson must confess that the want of 
anything like a precise and tabulated estimate of cost 
in the report renders it difficult for him to make 
recommendations with assurance of support from the 
Government of India. Failing such an estimate, he 
can only presume that the pay and travelling allo'sv- 
ances of the Director-General, with the cost of his 
establishment, would be about Rs. 50,000 per annum, 
while the pay of his assistant, if allowed, would come to 
close on Rs. 8,000 more. The additional appointments 
in the deputy grades would probably be scattered over 
all classes, and possibly one appointment of the first 
class, two of the second, four of the third, and five of 
the fourth, at a cost of Rs. 8,300 per mensem, or 
Rs. 99,600 per annum, might be considered appropriate. 
The cost of throe new assistants' appointments (one in 
each of the first, second, and third grades) would be 
Rs. 1,200 per mensem, or Bs. 14,400 yearly. Thus 
excluding house allowances and bonuses, but having 
regard to the saving that wonld be effected in the pay 
of the agents, the cost of the Commission's proposals 
wonld be about Rs. 1,50,000. With bonuses and house 
allowances the cost would be about Rs. 1,70,000, which, 
with costs of additional establishments, may mount u.p to 
nearly two lakhs of rupees. It is for the Government 
of India to say whether for prospective advantages it 
is prepared to incur such an increase of cost. If they 
arc not prepared to accept the Commission's proposals 
as a whole on this head, the Lieutenant-Governor cer- 
tainly thinks that, at all events, a very strong case is 
made out for an increase in the number of sub-deputies 
employed in the Benares Agency, and with reference to 
this point I am to request attention to a letter from tlie 
Board, No. 398 B., dated 14th June 1884 (copy sent 
herewith), in which an application is made to raise the 
number at once by three. The Board point out that 
this can be done without any immediate expense ; but 
the Lieutenant-Governor has preferred to postpone 
orders until the views of the Government of India on 
the whole question were expressed. 

27. Agency and Bisirict Estdblishmenis.—The Lieu- 
tenant-Governor sees no reason why the recommenda- 
tions in regard to the agents' establishments should not 
be accepted in their entirety. At present the cost of 
the Behar Agency establishment is Rs. 1,632; but the 
Commission think that there is no need for the treasurer, 
nazir, and poddar, while the Persian and English 
office can be amalgamated. These alterations would 
lead to a saving, as the maximum cost on the new scale 
would never exceed Rs. 1,.j58 per mensem, the minimum 
of the scale being Rs. 1,128. It is, however, impossible 
to say what the saving would bo compared with the 
present cost, as the Commission do not say whether 
the present establishment approximates to the maximum 
or minimum cost. 

In regard to the Benares Agent's establishment, the 
Commission, in the first place, object to the agent's 
practice of detaching one of the gazetted assistants 
from his proper duties and employing him as a private 
secretary and aide-de-camp. They properly deprecate 
this practice, and the Lieutenant-Governor will at once 
order its discontinuance. Owing to this practice of 
employing an officer away from bis proper duties, to 
the indeflniteness of the line, separating the agent's 
establishment from that of the factory, and to the 
custom of entertaining a large number of clerks at the 



busy season of the year, the Commission find a difficulty 

in understanding what the existing strength of the 
Benai'es Agent's establishment is. This difficulty pre- 
vents them from making more than conjectural recom- 
mendations ; hut they think that an establishment, 
consisting of an accountant and head assistant, 18 clerks 
and menial servants, at u, cost rising from Rs. 1,441 to 
Rs. 1,951 per month, should suffice. They insist on the 
necessity of making the head assistant responsible foi' 
all branches of the office, and doing away with the 
separate staff of menial servants attached to the so- 
called branches into which the present agent has 
divided his office. On those points the Lieutenant- 
Governor would accept the Commission's recommenda- 
tions as far as conjectural recommendations can be 
accepted. If the Government of India also approve, 
the recommendations will have to be examined and 
verified before final orders issue. 

28. The sub-agency establishments are next con- 
sidered under the heads of [a) eudiler offices (b) liotliec 
establishments. There are at present 23 sadder sub- 
agency offices, a number which, as wo have seen, it is 
]iToposed to raise to 29. The establishments main- 
tained at these sub-agency head offices vary greatly, 
being in some places redundant, while the clerks are, 
as a rule, under-paid. The Commission, therefore, 
I'ocommend a standard strength for a sub-deputy 
agent's sudder office in both agencies consisting of five 
clerks, a duftry, four peons, and a sweeper, at a 
monthly cost of Rs. 330 rising to Rs. 400. ,1s far as 
can be gathered from the imperfect statement of the 
cost of existing establishments in Behar and Benares, 
contained in paragraphs 223-236 of the report, the cost 
of this standard scale of establishment would exceed 
the present average by nearly one-half. ( )n this point, 
however, further information is necessary, and all that 
can here be said, with an approach to certainty, is that 
if the Commission's proposals are accepted the standard 
cost of the (29) sub-agency sudder office establishments 
would vary from a minimum of Rs. 9,670 ner mensem, 
or Rs. 1,16,040 per annum, to a maximum of Rs. 11,600 
per mensem, or Rs. 1,39,200 per annum. 

29. It has been already observed that the Commission's 
repoi't is defective in its treatment of the financial 
aspects and results of the proposals made in it, and this 
fact places this Govenmont at a disadvantage in 
criticising those proposals. Still the Lieutenant- 
Governor feels some confidence in saying that the scale 
of pay proposed for the sub-agency establishments is 
too lavish, while the inadequate recognition in it of the 
progressive principle is a blemish. Having regard to 
the pay drawn by the ordiuai-y district executive estab- 
lishments, Mr. Rivers Thompson is disposed to think 
that the following scale, if adopted, instead of that 
proposed iii paragraph 636 of the report, would be con- 
sidered liberal by those affected by it :— 

Rs. Rs. 

Head clerk - - 80 riging to 100 

2nd „ - - 50 „ 75 

3rd ,, - 40 „ 50 

4th „ - 30 „ 40 

5th „ - - 20 „ 30 

Duftry - 5 „ 5 

2 Peons - 12 „ 12 

2 „ - - - 10 .„ 10 

Sweeper - 3 „ 3 



Apr. I. 
Bengal. 



Monthly 250 



32.:. 



This gives for 29 sub-agencies a minimum cost of 
Rs. 87,000 and a maximum of Rs. 1,13,100 per annum, 
and shows a yearly saving of Rs. 29,000 at the lower, 
and of Rs. 26,100 at the higher end of the scale, com- 
pared with the Commission's recommendations. It 
must be confessed, however, that in all ,this there is a 
good deal of guess-work. It is desirable that in this 
portion of the question actual figures worked out by 
the Board and local officers should be prepared before 
any well-considered recommendations can be made to 
the Government of India. All that can at present bo 
safely said is that a .standard scale of sub-agency 
establishment is desirable, if only to remove the 
variations which now exist (apparently without sufficient 
cause), and to admit of the easy interchange of offioer.b 
between one agency and another When the interests of 
the service require it. Therefore the Lieutenant- 
Governor desires to submit the question in its present 
state to the Government of India. If they approve of 
the general idea, the details will be worked out after- 
wards. 

B 2 



12 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSIOM : 



App. I. 30. I am now to ofl'er some remai'ks in connexion 

with the l-ot]icr fstablishments. It will be observed 
from ChapLer III., Part 1 1, of the report, that the unit 
of opium administration in the Behar Agency is called 
the liolhee, and in the Benares Agency the sub-division. 
In Behar there .ire 42 kotliees, each sub-agency con- 
taining from three to six Icothees according to its size ; 
while in Benares the 12 sub-agencies now in existence 
are sub-divided into .?3 sub-divisions and two minor 
outposts. In Behar the usual hoiltee establishment con- 
sists of a gomasta, a mohurir, two mntsudis, and a staff 
of from 10 to 2-"i zilladars. The total pay drawn by 
these officers is about Rs. 75,000 per annum (paragraph 
226) ; but all except the zilladars receive commission 
which, in good years, gives them about Es. 60,000 more. 
The authorised pay and allowances of the kothee 
establishments in Behar, therefore, amount in the 
aggregate to about lis. 1,36,000 yearly. Of course in 
such a bad year as ISSo the establishments suffer 
heavily in commission. 

In Benares the sub-divisional stafi' consists of one 
gomasta, three mohurirs, and about 18 zilladars. The 
total cost of the sub-divisional establishments in 
Benares would therefore seem (from paragraph 229 of 
the report) t" be Rs. 12,05."i per mensem, or Rs. 1, 44,660 
per annum. The Benares staff i-eceive no commission, 
and, as the figures show, are worse off than tlie Behar 
staff in good years. In bad years, however, their 
position is better, as they do not in any way depend on 
commission. 

31. It is on the question of the Icothee and sub- 
divisional cstablishmei.ts' pay that the Commission seem 
to the Lieutenant-Governor to make their strongest 
point. They very reasonably expre.ss the reconviction 
that these establishments are under-paid, and they 
declare their Jiclief that, owing to this uuder-paymeut, 
" every seer of opium ivliich a cultivator delivers pays loll 
" to the amlah, and froin evenj rupee which a cuUwator 
" receivts w percentage is dediirtud for their benefit." 
They declare that it is equally the duty and the interest 
of the Government to see that its promise of Rs. 5 pei' 
seer of opium to tlic cultivator is well kept, and they 
j)oint out that the only way of securing the fulfilment 
of the promise in by paying the amlah adequate salai'ies 
and by abolishing the practice of taking commission. 
The salaries which they consider adequate are stated in 
paragraph 042 ; and applying the scale therein given to 
the number of liothees and sub-divisions, and assuming 
that of the l,59.j zilladars (paragraph 645) employed, 
one-half would get the lower and thr other half the 
higher scale of pay, we get Ea. 6,63,040 and Es. 6,42,840 
as the minimum and maximum cost respectivel)- of the 
Commission's proposals on this head for both agencies. 
"When it is remembered that, as shown above, the 
present authorised scale of pay and allowances for the 
l-othee and sub-divisional establishments in both agencies 
comes (as far as can be made out from the report) to 
Es. 2,79,660, the bold charaotei' of the Commission's 
proposal on this head will be apparent. Tet Mr. K'ivers 
Thompson believes that the case is one which calls for 
liberal measures, and he is not at all prepared to say 
that the Comrt>ission's proposals would not be, in the 
long run, found prudent. As will appear la.ter on, he 
does not, indeed, think that in Behar we are ready for 
introducing the reforms into the khattadari system 
which the Commission (pai'agraph 674 et seq.) reoommend, 
and until we are ready the introducfion of the proposed 
changes lliere muse perforce be postponed. But it 
should be a postponement, not an abandonmonl. As far 
as the Lieutenant-Governor can estimate the gross ccst 
of all the proposals in connexion with superior and 
inferior establishments, a sum of 6 lakhs yearly would 
cover them, and we get six lakhs of rupees for .500 
chests of opium. One way of looking at the ((uestion 
then is : Should we by a wise liberality, by suppressing 
commissions, and b)- prohibiting all irregular imposi- 
tions on the cultivators — in fact, by doing all we can 
to secure to the cultivator the full profits of his culti- 
vation — got 700 chests of opium more than Ave -ntm do ? 
If so, we should, speaking broadly, cover our six lakhs 
plus the price we should pay the cultivators for the 7oO 
chests. We should avoid all loss and ai^d go far to 
strengthen the stability of the opium industry in this 
countiy. Mr. liivers Thompson is strongly disposed fo 
think that the chance of success is worth the price to 
be paid for it. 

32. Settlemenle, Adviiiices, iind Remissions. — Frum the 
improvements suggested in the organisation of the 
Dejjartnn nt, we now come to improvements in its 
working, beginning with settlements, and it is desirable 
that, before going further, a, fe^\■ brief words should be 



said describing the existing state of things in this 
regard. The wording of the Opium Act (XIII. of 1867) 
seems to imply that settlements for cultiAatiug the 
])oppy slionld be entered into between the Government 
officer and the cidtivalor in person ; but in practice this 
is ne\-er done, the settlements being in fact made with 
a sort of village foreman called a hluMada.r in Behar 
and a laiiibardar in Benares. The kbattadar or 1am- 
bardar is a substantial cultivator himself who possesses 
the confidence of the other ryots in his village, and 
represents them in Benares on all occasions except at 
the final settlement of the year's account, and in Behar 
on this occasion also. In return he gets the scrapings 
(hhurchan) of the cultivators' opium pots at weighment 
time, and a fee varying from 12 annas to Es. 2-8 per 
bigha of poppy cultivation, the receipt of which, 
th(jugh illegal, is overlooked by the Department. It is, 
then, with the khattadar or lambardar that the agree- 
ment to cultivate is made by the opium officer, and it 
is to him that the advance is given for distribution 
among the cultivators whom he represents. In the 
Benares Division the lambardar's application to engage 
for so much land is tested by an excellent system of 
maps and records of land fit for opium in the particular 
village ; but in Behar no such test is availalde, inquiries 
by the zilladars, and comparison by the gomastas of 
the results of these inquiries with the records past 
years, insufficiently supplying its place. When the 
lambardar's application for leave to cultivate so much 
land is approved in Benares, and when the zilladar's 
lists arc passed in Behar, a license is given to the 
lambardar or khattadar, as the case may be ; a kabuliyat 
and security bond taken from him ; and the advance 
given. In many Benares districts only one advance of 
Rs. 6 is given; but in some districts of that agency, 
and usually in Behar, Ks. 4 are advanced in 
Se|iteniber andEs. 2 in the following January. A third 
advance on the ifpening of the crops is also occasionally 
made in March. The practice is not invariable, and the 
Commission see no good in giving advances twice. 
The settlements are completed in September. 

Advances for wells are made on a different system, 
and at no special time, but a bond pledging property 
for the repayment of the advance is always taken. On 
these well advances no interest is charged. 

33. .Such being the system already in force in this 
matter, it I'emains to be seen what modifications the 
Commission would introduce. In the first place, it is 
clear that at the present time there is no binding 
engagement at all entered into with the opium culti- 
vator. The agreement with the khattadar or lambar- 
dar may bind him, but it cannot bind the ryot, whom 
the opium officer at settlement time never sees. The 
present rough-and-ready system has worked fairly well 
hitherto ; but for obvious reasons we ought not to pre- 
sume too much upon freedom from loss in the past. 
An eftbrt should now be made to place the system on a 
legal footing, while preserving, as far as possible, the 
advantages of thu lambardari and khattadari system. 
This the Commission hope to do by taking engagements 
in writing from the actual cultivators who may wish to 
attend, while enabling those who prefer staying away 
to engage through the lambardar duly authorised by 
a power of attorney in that behalf There can be no 
doubt in the Lieutenant-Governor's opinion that if this 
were pi'acticable it would be a great improvement, for 
it would at once exempt the industry of a careful ryot 
from being taxed, as it now is, for the sloth of his 
careless neighbour. Each man's responsibility would 
be defined, and thus a stimulus to individual industry 
supplied. To the success of this plan, however, the 
possession by the opium officer of such a knowledge of 
the villages as the Benares opium maps and records 
(paragraph %>!) give is, if not essential, at all events 
most desirable and necessary, and it may well be doubted 
whether without such maps the plan is really practi- 
cable. The Commission, however, seem undeterred by 
the ill-success which attended the experimental intro- 
duction of the system into Behar (paragraph 262), and 
they propose to make another effort in that direction. 
The Lieutenant-Goveiiior has heard something of the 
cITort ^vhich was made to introduce majis, ito. mto the 
Sewan Sub-Agency in Behnr in 188o, and it would 
appear that the ill-success of tiie scheme was in a 
measure due to that want of local information, villao-e 
ma]is, patwari's papers, &o., which meets ns at every 
turn of administration in Bengal. If there is to be a 
cadastral survey of Behar under the Tenancy Bill all 
this will disappear, and it will become as easy to work 
in Behor on the system in question as in Benares. 
Until, however, our opium officers can lie furnished 



APPENDIX. 



13 



with cadastral village maps, the Lieuteiiiuit- Governor is 
doubtful of the use of trying an experiment whicli, 
from the beginning, seems exposed to failure iu Behar 
from causes which seem to have escaped the Commis- 
sion's notice. The case furnishes an addition to the 
multitude of arguments which support the claims of 
this Government for an Agricultural Department. 

34. In regard to advances, the Commission see in the 
practice of giving more than one advance, "noadvan- 
" tage commensurate with the inconvenience to 
" Government in having to arrange for it, and to the 
" cultivators in having to receive it." They accordingly 
recommend that ordinarily only one advance of Rs. 8 
per bigha be given, besides Rs. 4 per maund for leaves, 
and Rs. 16 per 100 maunds of trash when contracts for 
these are given. This advance should, the Commission 
think, be made at time of settlements iu August or 
September, a discretion being allowed to the deputy 
agent to make a further advance of Rs. 4 per bigha on 
special grounds. Settlements and advances should 
be made at each hothee, and not, as now, at the sub- 
agencies ; and opium officers should be relieved of all 
treasury responsibilities by having the requisite funds 
disbursed by the collector at the leofhee under special 
arrangements made i'or thi' purpose. 

35. The proposals to relieve the opium officers of 
treasai-y rcspsnsibilities, and to hold settlements at 
the kothees within eaey reach of the cultivators' 
villages, seem good ; but the proposal to make only one 
advance runs counter to present practice or prejudice, 
and seems insufficiently supported by the Commission. 
No doubt the mere opinion of such a Commission is 
entitled to great weight, but it must not be forgotten 
that the opportuneness of the opium advances (which, 
be it remembered, bear no interest) has always been 
alleged as one of the reasons why the cultivation of the 
poppy is popular, and that this idea of opportuneness 
implied that advances were made at successive rent- 
paying seasons, thus saving the ryots from the maha- 
jun, who charges heavy interest on his loans. It may. 
however, be that too much stress has been laid in local 
reports on this frequency of advances, and the fact that 
in Benares, where it seems only one advance is usually 
given, opium cultivation is no less popular than in 
Behar, would seem to show that there is no magic in 
giving several advances. The truth may lie between 
the extremes, and it may be unwise to lay down any 
general rule. In those districts where the hhareef, 
being the chief crop, has to pay the largest rent kist, no 
doubt one payment in September would be convenient ; 
but where, as in Behar, the largest kist is usually the 
aughani, it may be doubted whether, among an improvi- 
dent people, one advance in September would be best 
calculated to preserve the popularity of the opium cul- 
tivation. After all the labour of making advances is 
not great, and as the lambardars take and distribute 
the money, the cultivators are not harassed. The 
Lieutenant-Governor understands that in this matter of 
distributing advance, it is not proposed to change the 
existing hhattadari or lambardari system, the change to 
assameewar payments noted below being proposed in 
connexion with the payments on delivery of the drug 
only. In the matter of advances, then, it may be a 
wise policy to let well alone, or, at all events, to improve 
by degrees. 

Weighments and Payment for the Drug. — In 
Chapter IX., Part II., the existing state of things is 
described, and attention called to the fact that culti- 
vators have to travel sometimes enormous distances to 
have their opium weighed and their accounts adjusted. 
In the Behar Agency there are only 20 weigbment 
centres, and in Benares 48 ; but though the proportion 
of weighment centres to sub-agencies or kothees is 
larger in the latter than in the former agency, the 
Benares cultivator, owing to the scattered nature of the 
cultivation in this agency, has a far longer distance to 
travel than his Behar neighljour. When he gets to the 
■weighment centre, the Benares man is delayed longer 
than the Behar man, for in Behar weighments are con- 
ducted wholesale, from 12 to 20 scales being at work at 
one time, while iu Beuares only two sets of scales are 
used at a time. Tlie reason of this difference is twofold 

first, in Benares payments are made assamewar, each 

cultivator receiving the sum due to him under the direct 
supervision of the gazetted officer in charge, while in 
Benar payment is made hhattawar, the total amount 
due to the ryots on a hhatfa being made over to the 
khattadar for distribution among them ; secondly, that 
as a rule each set of two scales in Benares is placed in 
oharo-e of a special European officer, whose duty it is to 
keep'^a " check register " in English of the weighments 



of each plate, as a safeguard against fraud by thn 
vernacular register writers, while in Behar no check of 
tho kind is iu force. In the puruh, too, or system of 
testing the opium and recording its character, 
the Benares system is more elaborate and careful than 
that in force iu Behar ; for while in the former 
agency the class of opium is, on being declared, entered 
on the iamljardar's license, on the cultivator's 
miniature license, and on a '" classification sheet " kept 
in English by the opium officer, in Behar )i(i entry is 
made in tho licenses, nor is the " cliiBsification sheet " 
written up till the day's purith is done. The more 
careful and elaborate system in force in Benares on the 
points noted, regarding weighment and puruh, is due to 
the fact that in the Benares Agency payment is made 
to each cultivator in person for the opium he delivers. 
Tho Commission attach the greatest importance to the 
maintenance of this principle, and they strongly 
recommend its introduction into the Belmr Agency. 
The recommendation, if caj-ried into eflect,wou]d be tan- 
tamount to a, revolution iu the ])i'actice which has 
always obtained in Beliar ; but there cannot Ije any 
doubt that, if it can bo effected, the change would be 
beneficial. The question is — can it be at once 
eff'ected p 

:!7. It will be remembered that in the Benares 
Agcn(!y the settlements are made on the basis of village 
maps and village records, which render the opium 
officer independent of his circle or village subordinates. 
On the other hand, in Behar the opium officer is entirely 
dependent on such subordiu;ites, the settlements being 
made on the information sup])lied by the khattadars and 
zilladars. Without the khattadars or zilladars it would 
be, in the present state of our village agency in Behar, 
impossible to make any opium settlements at all. But 
as the proposal to make payments assemee war in Behar 
means depriving the khattadar of his perquisites, it is 
highly probable that the khattadar will be against us if 
we strive to change the existing system. If he be 
against uti our settlements run a very great risk of 
breaking down so long as we are unable to supply 
from other sources the information he now supplies. 
Thus, as has been already observed, even in this 
question of opium administration, we come round to tho 
necessity, which iu Bengal so re])eatedly arises, of 
having a general cadastral survey and record of hold- 
ings. In other words, until the Tenancy Bill is passed, 
and our survey so far completed that we can place in 
the hands of our opium sub-agents copies of village 
maps, with relevant information as to classification and 
proprietorship of fields, we cannot aflbrd to break down 
the khattadari system in Behar, or make any general 
eff"ort to introduce payments assameewar. TheLieutcnant- 
Governor does not doubt the desirability of the change 
on princijile ; he only thinks the present circumstances 
inopportune for introducing it. In any case, it would 
have a better chance of success if gradually and tenta- 
tively introduced by a Director-General in personal 
communication with the agent and his subordinates. 

38. On the question of providing greater facilities for 
weighments, and more careful supervision over the 
scales, the Commission recognise the propriety of 
delay, and of collecting exact knowledge as to the best 
sites for the kothees. This question of moi'c numerous 
and more conveniently-placed weighment centres has 
already come before the Lieutenant-Governor, ^vho has 
sanctioned the experimental establishment of some. 
The question, however, has a financial aspect, as these 
additional weighment centres cost money, and require 
increased establishments. This is a matter, however, 
on which the Commission themselves (paraoraph 671) 
make no definite suggestions, and all that the 
Lieutenant-Governor need do is to approve the jirinciple, 
leaving to the future its ap])lication in practice (should 
the Government of India accept it) as o])portunity suits 
and funds are available. 

39. There are some other points noticed in this 
chapter which may also be briefly mentioned here, 
although, if tlir Lieutenant-Governor is right regarding 
the impracticability of at once abolishing the khattadari 
system of payments in Behar, no immediate action 
can be taken on some of them. The proposals in para- 
graph 667, regarding haves and trash, seem desirable; 
but these, like the preceding proposal, are matters to be 
worked out by local officers teiitativelj-. Until weigh- 
ment centres are conveniently placed, no doubt transit 
allowances would be a boon to the people ; but this 
proposal seems to the Lieutenant-Governor more of a 
luxury than a necessity ; and though it may be kept in 
mind, it need not be given great prominence. The 
subject of miniature licenses should, in Mr. Rivers 

B 3 



Arp. I. 
Meiigul. 



u 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



App. I. 



Thompson's opinion, be again taken up, foi- it is an 
essential part of the sclieme at which we shonH aim, 
and it can be pnslied on, under present circumstances, 
in Behar as well as in Benares. On the abolition of 
Iclmrchaii and khurclut (paragraph 683), the Commission 
make urgent recommendations, and the Lieutcnant- 
G-overnor has no doubt that the subject should receive 
immediate attention. The system, as described by the 
Commission, cannot be defended, and oiu- efforts should, 
in Mr. Elvers Thompson's opinion, bo directed to its 
abolition. With the increase of pay and recognised 
commission, the abolition of the system might be 
enforced in Behar as well as in Benares (paragraph 684). 
Finally, the Lieutenant-Governor ihinks that the 
recommendations in paragraphs 687-689 of the Report 
deserve favourable consideration. 

40. The Suclder Factories. — In Chapter X., Part II., 
the Commission give a detailed description of the 
factories at Ghazeepur and Patna, and in Chapter YI., 
Part III., they sum up their recommendations for 
improA-ing them in various ways. It would be useless 
to criticise these recommendations here, for no action 
can, in the Lieutenant-Governor's opinion, possibl)- be 
taken on any suggestion or proposal made in the chapter 
without subjecting it to careful discussion and exami- 
nation at the hands of local officers and the Public 
AVorks Department. If the Government of India think 
the Commission's views worth following up, and are 
ready to incur the cost, of which no estimate is given, 
it will then be time for this Government to di.scuss 
them, or refer them to local officers in detail. 

41. Fii-ulory TjsiahliKh/menis. — Recent events having 
clearly shown the urgent necessity for reorganising the 
factory establishments, and defining the responsibility 
of the agents and principal assistants, the Commission 
were especially directed to take these questions into 
their consideration. The result is a chapter very cai-e- 
fully worked out, in which the Lieutenant-Governor 
finds nothing to dissent from. In the first place, the 
principle is correctly laid down that " with the agent 
" ought to rest the responsibility for the careful and 
" efficient management of the factory," and as corol- 
laries to that principle it is stated that communication 
between the agents and principal assistants (factor}' 
superintendents as tbe Commission would, to better 
define their status, call them), should be free from 
official formality, and, if not conducted orally, should 
be by half-margin letters or memoranda. While thus 
entirely subordinate to the agent, the factury superin- 
tendent sh(juld be supreme within the factory ; should, 
subject to the agent's veto, have the appointment of all 
officers employed in it at a pay of Es. ir.O and under ; 
and should be consulted on the appointment of others. 
In all this the Lieutenant-Governor sees nothing to 
object to 

42. The next point discussed is the appointment (iF 
the principal assistant ur superintendent himself, and 
on it the Commission's remarks seem to the Lieutcuant- 
Giivcrnnr convincing, and the scheme they propose '\vell 
calculated to secure eiBeicnt men for the important 
post in question. Briefly, they point out, what 
experience, has repeatedly shown, that we cannot rely 
on getting efficient principal assistants from the medical 
department, and they jiropose, therefore, to train up 
men for the post by announcing that it will be open tt,) 
opium officers who qualify themselves at the Royal 
School of Ohemisti-y, South Kensington, and who have 
passed through a workshop course. Men so qualified 
would be appointed assistant factor)' superintendents, 
and would become, i3i course of time, superintendents. 
This plan seems in every w;iy excellent, culculated to 
produce the class of men we want, as well as to afford a 
stimulus and incentive to t,he work in meralicrs of the 
Opium Service. Everything, in Mr. Rivers Thompson's 
opinion, points to the necessity of having scit'iitific 
knowledge for the post, and the Board's su^i^estion 
(paragi-apli 9 of their letter of the 2nd Jiiiiuary 1884) to 
have a single chemist to attend to both agencies ilocs 
not commend itself to his acceptance. Even with 
facilities for communication, he might be away when 
most wanted, and that' would give rise to disputes and 
conflicts between both agencies. Biich agency in this 
respect sliould ]>e self-contained. Besides, as factory 
superi]itcudent (on the Oouimissidu'.s lines) thechomist's 
l)reseiicc at his own agency would be continuously 
reqTiired. The Comiriission's proposal has, indeed, the 
additional merit of fixing individual res|ionsibilil\ for 
the int'i'ior administiation of the factory, which. ui>w 
divided between the agent a.nd his snboidinfitcs, leads to 
mischief. 



43. Next, the Commission deal with the superior a.ud 
inferior factory stall'. At present the pay of the perma- 
nent staff at G-hazeepur seems to range from a minimum 
of Rs. 2,486-8 to Rs. 2.';.:!6-8 per month, while at Patna it 
is Rs. 1,719 per month. It i.s proposed to raise it at 
Ghazecpur to Rs. 2,76:1 — 3,063, and at Patna to 
Rs.2,686-H — :^,038-8per mensem, at the same time doing 
away with the allowances and commission now received, 
and effecting minor savings. This cost, ho^vever, does 
not include the cost of police guards, which it is rightly 
proposed to introduce at Ghazeepur as at Patna, nor the 
cost of temporary establishments. If the Government 
of India sanction the general idea, the details will have 
to be worked out in more detail by means of proposition 
statements. The general scheme, however, seems to be 
good, and might be approved. 

44. Operations subsequent to Weighment. — It was an 
instruction to the Commission to prepare a code of 
rules for the factory. This they have done, printing it 
in a separate volume, both for the sake of haudiness and 
because it was not desirable to publish abroad the pro- 
cess of manufacture. It is, of course, impossible for the 
Lieutenant-Governor to criticise this code. Time and 
experience only can show how far it serves its purpose. 
Meanwhile it reduces to a concise and handy form the 
liractice most approved in both factories, and as such 
may be accepted. Some of its provisions, however, 
contemplate the adoption of proposals made in the 
report, and therefore, until oi'ders are passed on the 
report, it will be hardly possible to sanction the 
code. 

45. One matter, however, which is dealt with in the 
code is also referred to in this chapter, namely, the 
method of clearing up the cultivators' accounts after 
assay of the drug in the factory, and it seems to the 
Lieuteiiant-GovernO]' that a provisional approval m.ay 
be accorded to the proposals on this head oontained in 
paragraphs 765-768 of the report. The matter is tech- 
nical, and the question of working it out in practice 
will have to be considered by the local officers. 

46. In paragraph 770 an impoi-tant point is raised in 
the proposal to impose on the Behar agent the duty of 
providing chests for both factories. The Commission 
treat the point rather briefly, and all that can be said 
on it here is that fuller discussion is needed before a 
decision is possible. When it is remembered that in 
the discussinns connected with the recent damage to 
the Ghazeepur provision opium it was alleged that sal 
chests were unfit for Benares opium, tlie necessity for 
further considei'ation will be evident. It is indeed 
probable that sal wood is no more unfitted for Benares 
than for Patna opium ; but apart from this considera- 
tion, if the supply of mango wood in Behar is de- 
creasing, it seems very questionable whether the duty 
of providing Ghazeepur with chests should be imposed 
on Patna,. The question needs, however, a more 
thorough examination than the Commission give it. 

47. Thi' only portion of the report which now remains 
for consideration is the last, opium laws and their ad- 
ministration ; but before discussing that subject the 
Lieutenant-Governor wishes to call attention to the 
chapters of Part II., which have not indirectly come 
under notice in connexion with the Commission's 
recommendations. These are Chapters 23 (competition 
of other crops with opium poppy) and 24 (consumption 
of excise opium). It will be seen that the Commission 
are strongly of the opinion that opium lias nothing to 
fear from the competition of other crops, and that, 
although handicapped by a bad system of administra- 
tion, it even now more than holds its own. It seems 
clear enough that poppy need not fear competition 
with cereals ; and from the estimates of comparative 
profits which are given, the advantage of poppy over 
tobacco, sugar-cane, and potatoes would appear to be 
established. With due deference, however, for the 
opinion of the Commission (paragraph o72), Mr. Rivers 
Thompson does not place entire faith in their estimates ; 
that for sugar-cane (paragraph 571), for instance, is 
defective in making no allowance for the fibre which 
the crushed stem yields, nor for the sugar-cane leaves 
and refuse or uncrystalizable extract of the cane, both 
of which make excellent food for cattle. The items of 
ex'penditure also are open to question. It is, however 
unnecessary to enter at length on Ihcse points, for it is 
sufficient to know, and this knowledge is confirmed by 
district experience, that opium cultivation is popular. 
If the impiovements recommended by the Commission 
be introduced, there is no doubt that its popularity will 
be increased, and that it will continue to compete on 
nmre than even terms with nfher ciops. 



APPENDIX. 



15 



48. The question of coiisumpiion of excise opiwiii is 
mainly the question of illicit retention and sale of the 
drug. The Commission arc strongly of opinion that 
the drug is very largely kept back, consumed, and 
exported by cultivators and others in the producing 
districts ; and looking, as they do, on the question as 
one of paramount iiuportaiice, the Commission recom- 
mend that an energetic policy should be announced by 
Grovernment and resolutely maintained in regard to it. 
Their figures, and the conclusions they draw from them 
regarding illicit sale in the producing districts, may 
be open to criticism in detail ; but, on the whole, they 
establish the probability that illicit sale and esporfc 
does go on to a very great extent. The question of 
illicit consumption of the drug in the producing 
districts is not so free from doubt ; and the Lieutenant- 
Governor understands that the inquiries of the Excise 
Commission, now sitting, tend to suggest the con- 
clusion that in these opium-producing districts it is 
country spirits, and not opium, which is favoured by 
the people. In other words, those inquiries, instead of 
confirming, weaken the Opium Commission's con- 
clusion. The point is one of great interest, and the 
Lieutenant-Governor has accordingly instrncted the 
President of the Excise Commission to consider how 
far the results of his inquiries coincide with, or differ 
from, those of the Opium Commission on this matter of 
illicit consumption in the opium-growing districts. 

49. The measures which the Commission propose for 
the suppression of illicit practices form, with the 
necessary naodifications in the law, the subject of the 
last chapter. 

In paragraphs 774 and 779 the Commission express a 
strong opinion that Act I. of 1878 need not be touched 
at all. Sections 14 and 15 (search and seizure) have, 
they say, been abused in some districts of Behar ; but 
this can be met by executive order or by amendment 
of the rules. 

Act XIII. of 1857 the Commission propose to 
"recast'' rather than revise. Their proposals in 
respect of this Act fall into two classes : — 

(i.) Those alterations which would be necessitated by 
the reorganisation of the Department which the 
Com.mission advocate, 
(ii.) Alterations suggested by administrative ex- 
perience of the working of the Act and indepen- 
dent of the departmental changes proposed by the 
Commission. 
Paragraphs 254 to 259 and 647 to 650 point out the 
legal defects in the present system of giving advances, 
and to these reference has already been made with sufB- 
cient fulness. Section 8 of Act XIII. contemplates 
engagements direct with the cultivators, and only such 
direct engagements can be legally enforced by penalty 
under section 10. The Commission suggest arrange- 
ments for dealing direct with the cultivators, and they 
propose to amend section 10 so as to provide for — 
jia.) Complaint by sub-agent with written consent of 

agent. 
(b.) Trial by a magistrate, as in section 3 of the 

Opium Act of 1878. 
(c.) Maximum penalty of Es. 50, or three times the 

advance, whichever might be the larger. 
(d.) Payment of costs of prosecution and unliquidated 

advance out of the fine, 
(e.) Double maximum punishment in case of second 

ofi'ence. 
(/.) Becovery of the penalty for which section 10 

does not provide. 
The Lieutenant-Governor can find no specific re- 
commendation on this last point, but it would seem 
reasonable to prescribe simple imprisonment for the 
terms set forth in section 67 of the Penal Code, i.e. :— 
Up to Es. 50 - 2 months ] 

,, 100 - - 4 ,, ^Maximum. 

Any other case - - 6 ,, J 

Section 11 the Commission do not propose to alter. 
In section 16 they would introduce the modern sys- 
tem of recovery as arrears of land revenue, but would 
allow no process to issue without the authority of the 
agent. 

In section 18 the Commission would raise the penalty 
for illegal exactions of rent from three times to ten 
times the amount of the illegal cess or excess rent 
exacted, and would provide a "cheap and speedy 
" method of adjudication." Their recommendation in 
regard to illegal exaction of rent has been sufficiently 
met by section 86 of the revised Tenancy Bill. The 
question of providing a " cheap and easy method of 
adjudication " is a difficulty which is still unsolved. It- 



may well be doubted whether it is wise to cherish a 
belief ill the possibility of devising a " cheap and speedy 
adjudication " oi' anj disputed question relating to rent, 
and these questions would necessarily be dispated. 

It is proposed to strike out entirely sections 24 and 
i!5 as being liable to abuse. The proposal is in accord, 
ance ivith the general lines of policy laid down by the 
Commission for dealing with the cultivators. If those 
lines are approved, the repeal of these sections would 
follow. 

In respect of section 29, the Commission propose that 
the provisions regarding imprisonment in the civil gaol 
should not extend to persons convicted of the illegal 
purchase of opium from a cultivator. It would be 
necessary then to insert in section 20 a provision corre- 
sponding to that suggested above for section 10. 

50. The preceding are the points upon which the 
Lieutenant-Governor has thought it right to express 
his views to the Government of India. In conclusion 
he would again express his appreciation of the report as 
a whole, and his sense of the obligation under which 
the members of the Commission have placed the 
Government by their zealous and exhaustive inquiry 
into the condition of a very important department of 
the public service. 



App. I. 
Bengal, 



No. 3 B., dated 2nd January 1884. 

From 0. E. Buckland, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Eevenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Sboketabt to the Govebnmekt op Bengax, Revenue 
Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge receipt of Mr. Bolton's 
letter. No. 2501-187 O., dated 28th November, forward- 
ing, for an expression of the views of the Board, a copy 
of the report on the working of the Opium Department, 
drawn up by the Commission, appointed by the Govern- 
ment of India, and to reply as follows. 

2. It is not, the Board presume, the intention of the 
Government of Bengal, when asking whether the 
Board would wish to make any remarks in regard to 
the report, that they should enter on any detailed 
examination and discussion of the numerous proposals 
submitted by the Commission. The time, moreover, 
ivithin which it has been directed that the Board's 
views should be expressed would preclude the possibility 
of their so doing. They will therefore only offer a few 
observations on some of the more important changes 
proposed by the Commission in Part III. under the 
heading of " Eecommendations." 

3. It would be unbecoming on the part of the Board 
to criticise minutely the reasons on which the Com- 
mission have based their proposal to remove the control 
of the Opium Department from the Board of Eevenue, 
in whom it is now vested by law, and to place it under 
a Director-General, who would act immediately under 
the orders of the Government of India. But they may 
perhaps be permitted to make the following observations 
on this recommendation for the consideration of his 
Honour the Lieutenant-Governor. In the first place, 
with reference to the appointment of a Director- 
General, I am to remark that it is evidently intended 
that the appointment should be a highly paid one, and 
it is for the Government to decide whether the reasons 
for creating such an office are sufficiently cogeut to 
warrant a large increase of expenditure in the adminis- 
tration of the Department at a time when the opium 
revenue is falling. The Board are inclined to doubt 
whether, unless he virtually supersedes to a great 
extent the agents in what are now I'eoognised as their 
duties, the Director-General will have enough work to 
occupy his time thi'oughout the year. If it is regarded 
as essential to shorten the chain of official communi- 
cation between the agents and the Government of India, 
aad to place the administration of the Opium Depart- 
ment immediately under the control of the Governor- 
General in Council, this object might, the Board would 
venture to suggest, be effected by placing the Board in 
respect of their duties in connexion with this Depart- 
ment in direct subordination to the Government of 
India. The Board do not think that this arrangement 
would present any administra,tive difficulty, and by its 
adoption the loss of touch, if it may be so expressed, 
with the local officers and administration, which would 
certainly result from placing the control in the handq 

B4 



16 



TXDiAN opium: COMMISSTOX : 



{^raph 5-20 Uepnrt. 



App. I. oi a Director-General, would, so far at lea^t, as the 

province of Bohar is concerned. ]_i3 avoided, 

■i. In till' nrxt place, if the diitie.s of tlie Boai'd arc as 
proposed by the Commission, to be confined to tiic 
functions of auctioneer and godown-keeper, and their 
connexion with the general control and direction of 
ihis important branch of the revenue is to be completely 
severed, the ill-effects of such a measure will, the 
Board are inclined to think, be felt in the complete 
cessation of the friendly unofficial communications 
which at present constantly take place between the 
Board and the leading opium purchasers and shippers 
in Calcutta in all matters connected with this Depart- 
ment. On questions concerning the manufacture and 
packing of the drug these gentlemen have hitherto 
been in frec(uent communication with the Board; they 

are at all times most courteous 
^^piis-'u 1119, nam- i,i placing at the Board's* 

disposal any information which 
they may receive from their friends and correspondents 
in (Jhina, ami ai any time ivhon unfounded rnmours are 
sjiread abroad regarding the intentions of Government, 
they are able, in personal interview with the member 
or secretary, to ascertain at once what the intentions of 
Government are. With a Director-G-eneral stationed 
at Lncknow, or on tour within the limits of the oj)ium 
districts, any such free intercommunication will be 
impossible, and the Board are of opinion that, looking 
to the special characteristics of the opium trade — for 
instance, our want of knowledge of the demand in 
China, or the speculative nature of the o]ieration in this 
drug — thi-' interests of Government are liable to suiter 
from disconnexion with the gentlemen engaged in the 
trade. 

C. With reference to the scheme sketched by the 
Commission in paragraph 615 of their report, the Board 
desire to be allowed to point out that there is nothing 
very novel in the arrangement indicated of one of the 
members of the Board proceeding on tour to the 
agencies. For, with the exception of the appeals which 
it devolves upon the Board to hear, it is open to either 
member to arrange that all business requiring his 
orders be submitted to him while absent from the 
Presidency (as, in parallel case, oEBcial business follows 
the Lieutenant-Governor while on tour). There would 
indeed be no need for an acting officer to be appointed 
in Calcutta in the place of the temporarily absent 
member, who might without difficulty absent himself 
fiom the Presidency for a time sufficient to admit of 
his making a very complete inspection of both agencies. 
The Board do not quite understand what is meant by 
the visit degenerating into a mei'C cold-weather tour ; 
or why this result should be more likely to occur in 
the case of a member of the Board proceeding on a tour 
of inspection than in the case of an inspector-general 
of gaols, or police, or registration. It is well known 
that for some time past Government have attached 
much value +o cold-weather tours ; and it would be 
easy for the Government to ensure that the inspection, 
conducted by the membei'S of the Board, should be of 
a complete and searching description. 

6. The emoluments suggested for opium agents in 
future are set out in paragraph 619, with the proposed 
conditions of tenure of the appointments. I am to 
obseivc that if the view propounded above in para- 
graph ;l be admitted, viz.. thai an energetic Director- 
G-eneral will virtually supersede the agents in many of 
their functions, and relieve them of much of their 
responsibility, then there seems to be no necessity to 
])la.ce the salaries of the two agents on so high a scale 
as that indicated. These ofBcers will in fact be nothing 
more than assistants to the Director-General. The 
Commission have not explained the grounds on which 
they proposed to limit the term of their appointments 
to five years, and the Board see no object in prescribing 
such a limitation. 



7. The ]jroposal made in pai-agraph 018, to attach a 
covenanted civilian as jiers )nal assistant to the 
Direccor-Geneval (should such an appointment be 
created), is, the Board are inclined to think, unneces- 
sary, the number of covenanted civilians sent yearly to 
India is now, the Board apprehend, so small that one 
can ill lie spared for such duties. Moreover, with the 
ample leisure which the Director-Genei-al will have at 
his disposal, the personal assistant should have no 
duties to perform which cannot well bo carried out by 
an officer taken from the lower ranks of the subordinate 
executive service. 

8. The subject of remissions and recovery of advances 
dealt with in Chapter IV. of Part Til. of the Report, 
forms the subject of a separate correspondence. It is 
therefore not necessary to refer to it particularly in 
this letter. 

9. The Board would venture with some diflSdence to 
record their dissent from the proposals made by the 
Commission in paragraphs 720-729 of (.'hapter Vll. of 
Part III. regarding the appointments of principal 
assistants at the factories. The Commission appear to 
recoynise the necessity of having a thoroughly in- 
structed cheniist appointed to the post, Avhich they 

would designate as that of " .Superinlendent of the 

Factory ; " but their recommendations seem to the 
Board quite inadequate to secure the services of an 
officer of even moderate scientific attainments. An 
army surgeon of some eight or ten years' service may 
not possess high attainments as a chemist, but his 
services are, it seems to the Board, preferable to those 
of an assistant agent of the Opium Department, who 
has after a nine months' course of study, obtained a 
certificate from the Royal School of Chemistry. Such 
an officer can, the Board venture to say, have but a 
smattering ot the science of which he is presumed to 
have acquired a competent knowledge. It may be true, 
as stated by the Commission, that from the ranks of the 
medical service a highly scientific chemist is not 
ordinarily procurable ; but the Board believe that 
among the members of that service will always be 
found some who have a natural inclination for that 
branch of science, and have devoted time and attention 
to its study. Such men, with the advantage that their 
medical training gives them, will, the Board are of 
opinion, discharge the scientific portion of the duties 
ot principal assistant in a more efficient manner than a 
promoted assistant cf the Opium Department. The 
Board are fully aware of the drawback which the want 
of experience of the working of an opium factory 
imposes on the medical officer ; but this seems to be 
unavoidable, if scientific attainments are to be con- 
sidered as an essential qualification. The Board would 
throw out the suggestion that perhaps it might bo 
sufficient to have a medical officer possessed of scientific 
attainments as a chemist at only one of the factories, 
the similar post at the other factory being taken by a 
qualified assistant of the Opium Department. Com- 
munication between the factories by rail is ni.nv easy, 
and the medical officer could easily either pay frequent 
visits 10 the other factory, or cases requiring special 
inquiry could be sent to him. 

10. In conclusion, I am to say tho Board observe that 
the adoption of the recommendations made by the 
Commission will involve a very largely increased 
expenditure, but the report gi\es no estimate of the 
probable amount which their acceptance will entail. 
A large majority cf them appear, if the Board may be 
allowed to express an opinion, to be well considered 
and worthy of introduction. The changes advocated in 
Chapter TIL. paragraph 632 et seq., require, the Board 
think, a full and complete scrutiny. The salaries 
proposed for some at least of the establishments appear 
at first sight to be on a somewhat unusually liberal 
scale. 



APPENDIX. 



17 



No. 398 B., dated 14th June 1884. 

From C. E. Btjcklakd, Esq,, Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Seceetaby to the Govebnment ot Bengal, Kevenue 
Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter, No. 150 T. E., dated 30th April, communicating 
the consent of his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor to 
the Board of JRevenue taking into consideration and 
submitting suggestions for giving effect to the recom- 
mendations made by the late Opium Commission on 
certain minor matters connected with the administration 
of the Opium Department. 

2. I am accordingly to submit, for the consideration 
and orders of Government, a proposal submitted by the 
opium agent, Benares, for the formation of three new 
sub-agencies in the Benares Opium Agency. The pro- 
posal in question was submitted by the opium agent 
some months ago, but was referred to the late Opium 
Commission, and kept in abeyance pending their 
report. 

3. The Opium Commission, in paragraph 629 of their 
report, consider the proposals of the Benares agent, 
stated in their paragraph 627, insufficient to meet the 
requirements of the Benares Agency. They are of 
opinion that the scheme proposed by the agent for the 
Oudh districts may be adopted, though even then the 
charge of the Fyzabad sub-deputy agent will be in- 
conveniently large. But in the North-Western Pro- 
vinces they consider that, as a rule, not more than two 
revenue districts should be assigned to an opium sub- 
agency, and they recommend that the Benares Agency 
should be divided into 18 sub-agencies. 

4. The large increase recommended by the Opium 
Commission must, the Board presume, await the orders 
of Government of their report. Mr. Carnac has, how- 
ever, pointed out that three new sub-agencies can be 
formed at once without increase of expenditure, and it 
is for the formation of these new sub-agencies that the 
orders of Government are now requested. 

5. The opium agent in submitting his proposal 
recommended that the three new sub-agencies should 
be formed as follows : — 

(1.) By severing the Btawah sub-division from the 
Cawnpore Sub-Agency and the Mainpuri sub- 
division from the Fatehgarh Sub-Agency, and 
forming them into a new sub-agency, to be called 
the Etawah Sub-Agency. 

(2.) By separating the Sitapur, Hardui, and Kheri 
sub-divisions from the Lucknow Sub-Agency, and 
forming them into a new sub-agency, to be called 
the Sitapur Sub- Agency. 

(3.) By separating the Rai Bareilly and the Saloun 
sub-divisions from the Sultanpur Sub-Agency, and 
forming them into a new sub-agency, to be called 
the Eai Bareilly Sub-Agency. The agent, in sub- 
mitting his proposals, gives the following reasons 
for his selection of the sub-divisions which it is 
proposed to transfer to form the new divisions. 

Etawah, the agent states, is an extensive and im- 
portant district, with nearly 20,000 bighas under poppy 
cultivation, and an outturn of over 2,500 maunds of 
opium, and is in charge of an assistant subordinate to 
the sub-deputy agent at Cawnpore. In Etawah there is 
room for extension of cultivation, where an experienced 
officer could do much good. After the severance of the 
Btawah sub-division from the Cawnpore Sub-Agency, 
the sub-deputy agent of Cawnpore will still have charge 
of the sub-divisions of Humipur, Jaloun, and a portion 
of JhaEsi, which is, the agent thinks, a charge of suffi- 
cient magnitude for one officer. The agent also states 
that Fatehgarh, which is a heavy district, should be 
relieved of Mainpuri ; if the Lucknow division be 
relieved of Sitapur, Hardui, and Kheri, the agent 
thinks that the remaining portion will still be a charge 
of adequate extent for one officer. 

Rai Bareilly and Saloun have a cultivation of 30,800 
bighas, with an outturn of 5,142 maunds, and are under 
the charge of an assistant sub-deputy agent. 

6. Maps showing the existing and proposed sub- 
agencies of the Benares Opium Agency are enclosed, 
together with a statement showing the area nf cultiva- 
tion and the outturn of opium in each sub-division. 
From this statement it will be seen that the total 
cultivation and outturn of the existing sub-agencies of 

u 82810. 



Cawnpore, Fatehgarh, Lucknow, and Sultanpur will be 
affected as follows by the formation of the three new 
sub-agencies of Etawah, Sitapur, and Eai Bareilly. The 
total cultivation of the Cawnpore Sub-Agency amounts 
to 34,369 B— 96, and of the Fatehgarh Sub- Agency to 
46,972 B— 166, and the total outturn to 3,>i38 maunds 
31 seers 3 chittacks, and 6,237 maunds 33 seers 
8J chittacks respectively. When, however, Etawah 
and Mainpuri have been separated from these sub- 
agencies, their cultivation and outturn will be reduced 
to 1,420 B — 106 and 1,302 maunds 15 seers 3 chittacks 
and 32,411 B — 36 and 4,193 maunds 12 seers 8 chitf.aoks 
respectively, while the total cultivation of the new snb- 
agency of Btawah will be 33,510 B — 126, and the total 
outturn 4,580 maunds 36 seers 6:1: chittacks. The total 
cultivation of the Lucknow Sub- Agency will be reduced 
from 52,245 B— 176 to 28,946 B— 76, and the total out- 
turn from 6,586 maunds 8 seers Hi chittacks to 3,970 
maunds 18 seers 2| chittacks by the formation of the 
new sub-agency of Sitapur, which will have a total 
cultivation of 23,299 B — 106, and a total outturn of 
2,615 maunds 30 seers 84 chittacks. 

The total cultivation and outturn of the Sultanpur 
Sub- Agency will be reduced from 51,596 B — 126 to 
20,774 B — 146, and from 8,225 maunds 7 seers 3 chit- 
tacks to 3,083 maunds 1 seer 6i chittacks respectively, 
giving the new sub-agenoy of Rai Bareilly a total cul- 
tivation of 30,821 B — 18 6, and a total outturn of 5,142 
maunds 5 seers 12J chittacks. 

7. In respect of the establishments necessary for the 
working of the three new sub-agencies, the agent 
reports that they can be provided for without increased 
expenditure to the State by the redistribution and 
transfer of staff from the old to the new sub-agencies. 
He accordingly proposes (as will be seen from the pro- 
posit on statement which has been submitted through 
the Accountant-General, Bengal, for verification of the 
present scale of establishment) to transfer one mohurrir 
from Cawnpore and one mohurrir, one clerk, and one 
peon from Fatehgarh for the Etawah Sub- Agency ; one 
clerk, two mohurrirs, and one peon from Lucknow for 
the Sitapur Sub-Agency ; and two mohurrirs, two bur- 
kundzes, and one peou from Sultanpur for the Rai 
Bareilly Sub-Agency. The existing establishments of 
the sub-divisions of Etawah, Mainpuri, Satipur, Hardui, 
Kheri, Rai Bareilly, aud Kaloun are unaffected by the 
transfers above mentioned. These transfers, it will be 
seen, are to be used tor the purpose of forming new 
sudder offices of the three new sub-agenoiea. The 
agent states, that though these establishments for the 
sudder offices are smaller than those usually sanctioned 
for large divisions, yet they will be sufficient for the 
present for the requirements of the new sub-agencies. 

8. It will be observed that the increased expenditure 

on account of the cost of the 

* Etawah - WO sudder office establishments 

Sitapur - 111 of the sub-deputy agents of 

Eai Bareilly JM ^^le three new sub-agencies 

Total 312 will amount to Rs. 312,* of 

which amount Es. 232 will be 

met by a corresponding reduction in the other 
sub-agencies of the Benares Agency, which will be 
affected by the changes indicated in the proposition 
statement. The balance of Rs. 80 will, the agent 
reports, be met from the saving of the pay of the 
treasurers of the Fyzabad, Lucknow, and Basti sub- 
agencies. The agent states that^ the Fyzabad .and 
Lucknow sub-agencies have been without treasurers for 
some time, and the treasurer of the Basti Sub-Agency, 
who has attained the age of 55 years, will retire, and 
that, as under the existing system no inconvenience 
will be felt by the abolition of these appointments, they 
will not be filled up. 

9. With regard to the appointments to bo created 
by the formation of the three new sub-agencies, the 
agent's proposal is that three of the assistant sub- 
deputy opium agencies of the first grade on Rs. 500 a 
month should be transformed into sub-deputy opium 
agencies of the fifth grade on Rs. 500 a month. The 
effect of this change would be to entail no additional 
charge on the State, while the independence of their 
position would both conduce to the officers taking 
greater interest in their work and be an administrative 
convi-nience. Instead of four sub-deputy opium agents 
of the fifth grade and four assistant sub-deputy opium 
agents of the first grade there would thus be seven sub- 
deputies of the fifth grade and one assistant of the first 
grade, each in receipt of Es. 500 a month. 

c 



App.I. 

Bengal. 



18 



INDIAN OPIUM commission: 



Ap». I. 



10. Under these circumBtances I am to request three new sub-agencies being carried out on an early 
that the sanction of Government may be given to date, 
the Benares agent's proposals for the formation of 



Existing Divisions and Sub-Divisions. 



Division. 



Ghaiipub - 



AEiuacsH 



BilBTI 



AU.AHABAD 



Oawspobb 



Fatihoake 



GosucKHpnR -i 



Sub-Division. 



Ghazipur ■ 

Ballia - 

Zamaneah 

Benares 

Sayyedpur 

Chandauli 

Mlrzapur 



Azamgurh 
Ghosi - 
Na^ra 
Jaunpur 



Goruckhpur 
Patherwah 
Bha^ulpur 
Golab - 



Basti 

Amorah 

Banal 

Domeriaganj 

Khalilabad 



r Allahabad - 
Patehpur 
Sarsa 
Ban da - 



Cawnpore 

Eura 

Hamirpur 

Jalonn 

Etawah 



Fa1:«hgarh - 
Bhoipnr 
Aukin 
Mainpuri 



Arfa under 

Cultivation 1 n 

1881-82. 



Outturn. 



B. B. D. 

7,645 i 

6,859 1 

7,091 

900 5 

6,880 15 

4,930 19 

6,088 12 



9,396 16 



4,073 

6,096 8 

4,632 

2,492 3 



M. e. (J. 

799 12 6i 

786 39 9J 

1,077 8 6i 

86 22 Hi 

695 26 4} 

749 22 a 

672 12 44 



Proposed Divisions and Sub-Dlvisions. 



Division. 



Sub-Division. 



Cultivation. 



Outturn. 



Ghazipok 



4,767 23 14 



560 34 1 

794 6 01- 

661 34 5J 

2.'!2 23 2i 



16,292 11 



6,881 

8,606 10 

9,329 16 

7,686 



32,462 6 



12,732 12 

10,192 6 

3,002 12 

5,206 2 

6,545 12 



2,239 16 9} 



767 6 li 

721 38 14i 

1,295 10 Oi 

1,221 14 4i 



4,005 28 5 



36,679 4 



4,265 12 

9,079 7 

4,866 IS 

1,561 18 



19,762 16 



3,624 10 

6,478 1 

1,199 

3,518 19 

19.948 19 



34,i'69 9 



7,8*8 16 

10,140 10 

14,421 18 

13,561 13 



45.972 16 



1,610 26 12i 

1,291 33 4i 

268 27 Oi 

448 31 16i 

691 29 14i 



4,109 28 4i 



675 5 04 
1,416 10 13J 
1,087 23 8} 

181 11 Of 



3,359 10 7} 



3S7 31 8} 

617 7 14J 

66 26 i] 

230 30 li 

2,636 15 6 



3.8 



I 31 3 



937 16 Hi 

1,394 32 34 

1,861 4 9 

2,044 21 Oi 



6,237 33 8i 



Azamgurh 



GOEUCKHPUK 



Basti 



Ghazipur • 

Ballia - 

Zamaneah 

Benares 

Sayyedpur 

Chandauli 

Mlrzapur - 



Azamgurh 
Ghosi 



Allahabad 



Cawnpoke 



Etatvah - 



Fatehoaeh 



Jaunpur 



Goruckhpur 
Patherwah 
Bhapulpur 
Golah 



Basti 

Almorah 

Bansi 

Domeriaganj 

Khalilabad 



Allahabad 
Fatehpur - 
Sar.sa 
Banda 



Cawnporo 
Rura 
Hamirpur 
Jaloun 



Eatwah 
Mainpuri 



Fatchgarh 
Bhojpur - 
Aukin - 



B. B. D. 


M. s. C. 


7,645 4 


799 12 64 


6,869 1 


786 39 9f 


7.091 


1.077 8 64 


900 6 


86 22 114 


5,880 15 


595 26 44 


4,9;i0 19 


749 22 44 


6,088 12 


672 12 44 


39,395 16 


4,767 23 14 


4,073 


660 34 1 


6,095 8 


794 5 01 


4,632 


061 34 6i 


2,192 3 


232 23 24 


16,292 11 


2,239 16 9f 


6.881 


7B7 6 14 


8,606 10 


721 38 Hi 


9,329 16 


1,295 10 04 


7,636 


1,221 14 44 


32,462 6 


4.005 28 6 


12,732 12 


1,510 25 124 


10,192 6 


1,291 33 44 


3.002 12 


2CS 27 64 


5,206 2 


-nr, 31 164 


5,.545 12 


591 29 144 


36,679 4 


4,103 28 d; 






4,265 12 


675 5 04 


9,079 7 


1.415 10 13i 


4,855 18 


1,087 23 8f 


1.561 18 


181 11 ii; 


19.762 16 


3 Sr.'.l 10 7} 


3,624 10 


337 31 SJ 


6,478 1 


617 7 14} 


1,199 


60 26 44 


3.218 19 


280 30 li 


14,420 10 


1,302 IS 13 


19,948 19 


2,536 15 6 


1.3,601 13 


2.014 21 04 


33,510 12 


4,680 36 64 


7,848 16 


937 15 114 


10,140 10 


1,394 32 34 


14,421 18 


1,861 4 9 


32,411 3 


4,193 12 8 







APPENDIX. 



19 



Existing Division! and Sub-Divisions. 


Proposed Divisions and Sub-Divisions. 




Division. 


Sub-Division. 


Area under 

Oiltivation in 

1881-82. 


Outturn. 


Division. 


Sub-Di vision. 


Cultivation. 


Outturn. 


BakeilIy "' 

1 

I. 


Bareilly 
Shahjehanpur 
Budaon 
Moradabad 

Aligurh 

Agra 
Muthra 

Etah - 

Lucknow or TJnao 
Sitapur 
Hardui 
Barabanki 
Kheri - ■ - 

Paizabad 

Gondah 

i Bahraich 

Sultanpur 
Partabgarh 
Bai Bareilly 
Saloun 


B. B. D. 

8,928 5 

12,705 5 

10,379 10 

329 1 


M. s. c. 

283 14 65 

1,609 li 

1,297 37 6i 

18 38 4i 


Bakbilly -i 

I 

C 
Aliqueh 

LncKifOW -< 
Sitapur 

Paizabad 

L 

Sultanpur -\ 
E,Ai Bareilly - < 


Bareilly 
Shahjehanpur 
Budaon 
Moradabad - - 

Aligurh - 
Agra - ■ 
Muthra - 
Etah - - - 

Lucknow cum 

Unao. 
Barbanki - 

Sitapur 
Hardui 
Kheri 

Paizabad 

Gondah 

Bahrich 

Sultanpur - 
Partabgarh 

Eai Bareilly 
Saloun 


B. B. D. 

2,928 fi 

12,706 5 

10,379 

329 1 


M. 8. c. 

283 14 e{ 

1,609 IJ 

1,297 37 6i 

18 38 4i 




26,342 1 


3,109 10 2} 


26,342 1 


3,109 10 2} 


Alioueh 


300 4 

347 2 

B32 16 

S,719 7 


16 37 6} 

16 36 16i 

8 14 

504 28 12 


300 4 

347 2 

632 16 

3,719 7 


15 37 ej 

16 86 16i 
SOU 

504 28 12 




4,899 8 


646 23 3i 




4,899 8 


645 23 Si 




14,097 8 
14,848 19 






14.097 8 
10,324 

9,998 9 
14,848 19 

2,977 1 


1,904 32 Hi 

942 19 12i 

1,486 9 8i 

2,066 25 7i 

188 1 4 


1,904 32 m 
2,066 25 n 




28,946 7 


3,970 18 2i 


LucKirow - 


10,324 
9,998 9 
2,977 1 


942 19 12t 

1,486 9 Si 

188 1 4 




53,245 1? 


6,686 8 Hi 






23,299 10 


2,615 30 8i 




12,298 3 
17,627 3 
8,644 


1,961 .<! 14i 

1,774 17 lOi 

689 4 Oi 




r 

■PttZABAD 


12,298 3 
17,627 3 
8,644 


1.961 3 14t 

1,774 17 lOi 

689 4 Oi 


'- 


38,469 6 


4,424 25 9} 




38,469 6 


4,424 25 9i 






8,211 15 
12,662 19 






8,211 16 
12,562 19 
20,193 18 
10,628 


1,185 34 2i 
1,897 7 4i 
3,329 21 4i 
1,812 24 8i 


1,186 34 2i 
1,897 7 41 




20,774 14 


3,083 1 6i 


StTLTAKPUE 


20,193 18 
10,623 


3,329 21 4i 
1,812 24 8J 




'61,696 12 


8226 7 3 


30,821 18 


6,142 6 12i 



ACT. I. 

Bengal, 



No. 51, dated 17th February 18S5. 

From the Goveknment op India to the Seceetaky oi' 
State fok India. 

We have the honour to address your Lordship in 
regard to the proposals submitted by the Commission 
appointed in 1883 to inquire into the organisation of 
the Bengal Opium Department and into the working of 
the Patna and Ghazipur Opium Agencies. 

2. The instructions given to the Commission are 
contained in onr resolution in the Department of 
Finance and Commerce, No. 713, dated 4th May 1883, 
a copy of which was forwarded with our Despatch, 
No. 44, dated 27th June 1884. Tour Lordship, in 
Despatch Ko. 81 (Bevenue), dated 2.'5th September 
1884, leferred with approval to our proceedings on the 
tubject. 

3. We now forward a copy of the report of the Com- 
mission, with copies of the letters containing the views 
of the Board of Eevenue, Lower Provinces, and the 
Government of Bengal on the propo.sals submitted by 
the Commission. 

4. The report of the Commission is divided into four 
parts : — 

Part I. explains the origin and progress of the Opium 
Department in Bengal and the North- Western 
Provinces ; 

Part II. reviews the existing condition of the Depart- 
ment ; 



Part III. contains the recommendations of the Com- 
mission ; and 

Part IV., which is separately printed as a code, lays 
down rules for the working of the Patna and 
Ghazipur opium factories. 

The Commission have dealt in a careful and exhaus- 
tive manner with the various questions referred for their 
consideration, and have submitted in Part 111. of the 
report their suggestions for the improvement of the 
organisation and working of the Opium Department. 

5. The most important recommendation made by the 
Commission is the proposal to withdraw the control of 
the Opium Department from the Board of Revenue, 
Lower Provinces, and to place the Department under 
the control of a single officer directly subordinate to 
the Government of India. 

It is to this proposal that we desire immediately to 
confine ourselves in our present communication to your 
Lordship. The general revision of the Opium Act 
recommended by the Commission as well as other 
matters of importance cannot be completely dealt with 
until the question of the control of the Department is 
decided. 

6. Some of the minor measures recommended by the 
Commission may be advantageously considered, and 
perhaps introduced without waiting till the imporlaint 
general question of the future control of the Depart- 
ment is settled, and the Government of Bengal has 
therefore been requested to have these measures 

C 2 



20 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



App^I. considered in detail in view to the sanction and intro- 

duction of Bucli of them as need not be postponed. The 
more important reforms ' recommended are of a nature 
to render it advisable that they should be gradually 
introduced alt;T the appointment of the new licad of 
the Department. A copy of our letter to the Grovern- 
ment of Bengal is annexed. We do not at present ask 
for your Lordship's orders on any of these questions. 

7. The recommendations of the Commission regard- 
ing the control of the Opium Department will be found 
in Chapter II. of Part III. of the Report. The Com- 
mission recommend that the Board of Bevenue and the 
Government of Bengal should be relieved of the control 
of the Department so far as concerns the growth and 
manufacture of opium, and that this control should bo 
entrusted to an officer to be styled the Director- G-eneral 
of the Opium Department, who will work directly 
under the G-overnment of India in the Financial 
Department. Their reasons are fully set forth in 
paragraphs 605 to 617 of the report, and we need not 
repeat them. The Government of Bengal concurs in 
the conclusions of the Commission on this point. This 
change was also recommended by a Committee which 
considered the question in 1871. We are of opinion that 
the proposed transfer of control would result in in- 
creased efficiency, and we solicit your Lordship's 
sanction to the proposal. 

8. The control of the Department is vested by law in 
the Board of Kevenue, Bengal, and the Act XIII. of 
1857 does not give Government any power to transfer 
that control to any other authority. It will therefore 
be necessary to amend Act XIII. of 1857 so as to give 
this power to the Government of India, and we request 
your Lordship's sanction to the necessary legislation 
on the subject. 

9. The control of the operations connected with the 
growth and manufacture of opium need not necessarily, 
in our opinion, be in the same hands as the arrange- 
ments for the storage and sale of opium. As to the latter, 
the Commission recommend that the Board of Bevenue 
should continue to discharge the duties connected with 
the custody and sale of opium in Calcutta. The Go- 
vernment of Bengal considers that these duties also 
might be transferred to the Director-General. We are of 
opinion that it is very desirable that these duties should 
be performed by some authority permanently located in 
Calcutta. The Board of Bevenue has satisfactorily 
discharged this duty hitherto, and neither the new 
Director-General nor any other authority has such 
facilities as the Board of Revenue for the proper per- 
formance of the work. We do not consider that the 
withdrawal of the control of the totally distinct opera- 
tions connected with the growth and manufacture of 
opium in any way gives ground for supposing that the 
Board will conduct the duties of the custody and sale 
of opium in Calcutta less satisfactorily than the}' have 
conducted them in the past. It is, moreover, of great 
importance that merchants concerned in the opium 
trade, who have no direct concern with the growth and 
manufacture cf opium, but who are intimately and 
essentially concerned in the sale, should not be 
disturbed in their present relations with the local 
authorities. 

10. We are therefore of opinion that the chests of 
opium when packed at the two agencies should be 
consigned, as at present, to the Board of Bevenue, 
Calcutta, and that the Board should continue to 
undertake the custody and sale of the opium. 

11. With regard to the office of the Director- eneral 
of the Opium Department, we are of opinion that his 
status and salary should be such as to place him on an 
equality with Commissioners of Revenue in Bengal and 
the North-Western Provinces. Accordingly wo con- 
sider the proposals of the Bengal Government as to the 
pay and allowances of the Director-General to be 
appropriate. 

12. The appointment of a Director-General will 
effect an important change in the position of the two 
agents at Patna and Ghazipur. These officers have now 
a higher standing and greater responsibilities than they 
will have when the Director-General assumes charge 
of his duties. The Directoi'-General will himself, to 
some extent, share in the performance of duties, such as 
the inspection and control of operations in the Provinces, 
which are now left entirely to the agents, and which 
they will under the new system ur.durtake only under 
the orders of the Director-Genci-al, and to such an 
extent as the Director-General may consider necessary. 
It is essential that, as their work will be controlled by 
that officer, the agents should be distinctly subordinate 
to the Director- General, who will be responsible for all 



that takes place in the two agencies. We accordingly 
propose to alter the designation of these two officers 
from " Agent " to " Deputy Director-General," and to 
assign to the junior officer a salary of Ks. 1.500, rising 
to Rs. 1,800, and to the senior a salary of Rs. 2,250. 
These officers would, when Government considered it 
desirable, or circumstances render it necessary, revert 
to the ordinary line of service in the Province to which 
they belong. 

13. Our present reference to your Lordship is limited 
to the points above explained, the settlement of which 
we consider necessary before we can take up for 
disposal the many other important recommendations. 

14. The several recommendations of the Commission 
will, undoubtedly, if adopted, invoh'e an increase of 
expenditure. But till we have considered and come to 
a linal decision on each of the recommendations, we 
cannot state what increased expenditure may be found 
necessary. The increased expenditure involved in the 
particular proposals which we now submit for sanction 
may be estimated as follows : — 



Present Cost. 



Rs. 



Two Agents on Rs. 2,500 — 100 — 3,000 

= 2,800 X 12X2 - 67,200 



Proposed Cost. 



Rs. 



One Director-General on Rs. 3,000 - 3,600 
Travelling allowance, Rs. 300 3,600 

Establishment 5,000 

One Deputy Director- General on 

Rs. 2,250x12= 27,000 

One Deputy Director-General on 

Rs. 1,500 — 60 - 1,800 = 1,700 

X 12 = - 20,400 



Increase 



92,000 
24,800 



But from this amount a deduction can no doubt be 
effected by reduction of the establishment of the Board 
of Revenue in consequence of the transfer of the 
control of the Opium Department from the Board. On 
the other hand, the salaries of the present agents will 
not be reduced at once, unless the present incumbents 
revert to the ordinary line on the introduction of the 
new organisation. 

15. Finally, in asking your Lordship's sanction to 
the proposals now made, we would desire to guard 
against any possible misapprehension of the effect of 
our proposals by pointing out that they do not con- 
template any change in the nature of the connexion 
between Government and the Opium Department, (.r 
involve any extension of the operations of the Depart- 
ment. Whatever the merits of the questions from time 
to time raised as to the monopoly of opium oultivatiou 
and sale by the Government of India, it is desirable 
that in this, as in other branches of administration, 
efficiency should be aimed at. The proposals wo no\\- 
lay before your Lordship have for their sole object the 
improvement of existing administrative machinery, 
and are not open to objection on any important ground 
of principle. 



No. 843, dated 17th February 1885. 

From J. F. FisLAY, Esq., Officiating Under Secretary 
to the Government of India, Department of Finance 
and Commerce, to the Seceetakv to the Govekn- 
MENT or Bengal, Revenue Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of your 

letter, No. 980 T. B., dated 28ch June 1884, containing 

the views of his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor on 

the proposals submitted by the Commission appointed 

in 1883 to inquire into the organisation and system of 

working and administration of the Opium Department 

.^T „ 15 w 1 „ : T i"^ Bengal and the North- 

*No. 3 B., dated 2nd Jammry -itt„„j. ° ,, ■ , V 

1884. Western Provmces, and for- 

No. 398 B., dated nth June warding copies of two letters* 

^^^^- from the Board of Revenue 

bearing on the report of the Commission. 

2. In reply I am directed to enclose, for your infor- 
mation, a copy of a Despatch addressed to the Secretary 
of State, and with reference to par;i.graph 6 thereof I 
am to request that, with the permission of his Honour 
the Lieutenant-Governor, such of the minor recom- 
mendations of the Commission as have the approval of 
his Honour, and which his Honour considers may bo 



APPENDIX. 



21 



advaiitageonsly taken up without waiting for the intro- 
duction of the changeB recommended in the Despatch, 
may be considered in detail in consultation with the 
Board of Revenue and the local officers. As each pro- 
posal is mncured, the recommendations of his Honour 
the Lieutenant-Governor should be separately sub- 
mitted to the Government of India if the sanction of 
tiie Government oi India is necessary. 

3. The following are the matters which, in the 
opinion of the Governor-General in Council, it will be 
desirable to deal with as suggested in the preceding 
paragraph. References to the paragraphs of the report 
and of the letter under reply which deal with the 
matters included in the list are given :— 

(«.) The formation of additional sub-agencies and 
the grant of certain allowances to deputy and 
assistant agents : — 

paragraphs 621-630 of the report ; 
paragraphs 24 and 26 of the letber under reply. 
Letter from this Department No. 2620, dated 
4th August 1884, sanctioning the formation of three 
new sub-agencies without increase of expense. 
(6.) The establishments of the agents — 
paragraphs 633-635 of the report ; 
paragraph 27 of the letter under reply, 
(c.) The establishments of deputy agents and of 
assistants in charge of sub-divisions — 
paragraphs 636-637 of the report ; 
paragraphs 28-29 of the letter under reply, 
(i.) The Mofussil or Kothee establishments — 
paragraphs 638-641 of the report ; 
paragraphs 30 and 31 of the letter under reply, 
(e.) The provision of greater facilities for weighments 
and the establishment of new weighment centres — 
paragraphs 668-670 of the report ; 
paragraph 38 of the letter. 
(/.) The delivery of and payment for leaves and 
trash — 

paragraph 667 of the report ; 
paragraph 39 of the letter. 
{g.) Miniature licenses — 

paragraph 679 of the report ; 
paragraph 39 of the letter. 
(Ii.) The abolition of kurchan and kurcha — 
paragraphs 683-684 of the report ; 
paragraph 39 of the letter, 
(■i.) Payment to cultivators at time of weighment — 
paragraphs 687-689 of the report ; 
paragraph 39 of the letter. 
(j.) The factory buildings at Ghazipore and Patna — 
paragraphs 690-715 of the report ; 
paragraph 40 of the letter. 
(k.) The factory establishments — 

paragraphs 716-759 of the report ; 
paragraphs 41-43 of the letter. 
(I.) Supply of chests from Behar for both agencies — 
paragraph 770 of the report ; 
paragraph 46 of the letter. 

4. The measures which his Honour the Lieutenant- 
Governor may ultimately decide to introduce in con- 
nexion with some of the matters noted in the preceding 
paragraph will no doubt be within his competence 
without reference to the Government of India. In that 
event, and if his Honour does not consider a reference 
to the Government of India to be necessary or desirable, 
orders may, of course, be issued by the Government of 
Bengal without a previous reference to the Government 
of India. 

5. I am also to say that the Governor-General in 
Council concurs with the Government of Bengal in 
thinking that the appointment of a personal assistant 
to the Director-General will not be necessary. 

6. In conclusion, the Governor-General in Coaucil 
desires me to express his high sense of the value of the 
report of the Commission, and to request that you will 
convey to the president and members of the Commis- 
sion the thanks of the Government of India for the 
careful and exhaustive inquiry which they have made 
into the whole subject. 



No. 47, dated 18th June 1885. 
From the Seceetabt oe State for India to the 

GOVEKNMENT OE lUllIA. 

I HAVE considered in Council the letter of your 
Excellency's Government in the Department of Finance 
and Commerce, No. 51, dated 17th February last, with 
accompanying report of the Commission appointed to 
inquire into the organisation of the Bengal Opium 
Department. 



a. In this letter you confine yourself to the proposal 
of that Commission to withdraw the Department in 
question from the control of the Board of Revenue, 
Lower Provinces, acting under the orders of the Local 
Government, and to substitute the supervision of a 
single officer directly subordinate to your Excellency's 
Government, a proposal whiclj, with some modification, 
you recommend for my sanction. 

■J. Had it been shown that the present means of 
control is really inefficient, and that a more effective 
system can be devised, I should not have been prepared 
to deny that, having regard to the importance of tho 
opium revenue, it would be desirable as well on 
administrative as economical grounds to re-organise 
the whole working of the Department, even should the 
measures introduced involve some additional expense 
in the first instance. I can find, however, no evidence 
that the system now in force has fiiiled, at any rate to 
such an extent as to justify the radical change which is 
proposed in your despatch under review. 

4. The administration of the Opium Department has 
been in the hands of the Board of Opium and Revenue 
ever since 1797, during which time the net receipts 
have increased from 25 lakhs a year to a sum consider- 
ably in excess of five crores of rupees. It is, indeed, 
admitted in the report of the Commission appointed by 
your Excellency's Government in 1883 to inquire into 
the circumstances under which a considerable loss had 
recently been incurred by the use of damp chests 
by the Benares agent, that the Department has yielded 
great financial results, and there are grounds for 
believing that it has been exceptionally popular with 
the agricultural commiinity with which it has been 
brought into contact. It would be difficult in fact to 
find any large quasi-commercial undertaking which 
has been carried on for so long a time with more 
remarkable and uniform success, there having ap- 
parently been but five cases of loss, all arising from the 
same cause, viz., damping of cakes, in the period of 
nearly u, century during which the Department has 
been on its present footing. 

6. It must not, too, be overlooked that the Committee 
to which allusion has been made, while censuring the 
Benares agent for his neglect in not pre\'enting tlie 
use of damp chests, attached no blame to the action of 
the Board of Revenue as a controlling authority, a 
decision which seems to have commended itself to 
your Excellency's Government, for I observe that in 
the course of the corie^pondence you have more than 
once acknowledged the ability with which the Depart- 
ment has been administered, and disavowed any 
intention of imputing want of efficiency to the system 
on which it is conducted. Experience, too, has shown 
that there is no department of the Government in 
India in which change of system is more dangerous, the 
most trivial alterations having at times produced great 
mischief. 

6. The proposal to which your Excellency now asks 
my sanction is practically to substitute for the control 
of the Opium Department by the Local Governmeu t 
and Board of Revenue, which costs nothing, the super- 
vision of a Director-General, under the immediate 
orders of the Government of India, at an annual 
charge of Rs. 44,000. It is true lliat it is contemplated 
that this large additional expenditure will, in part, be 
made up by a reduction in the salaries of the opium 
agents, who are the executive officers responsible for 
the working of the Department ; but even allowing for 
a saving by this means, the wisdom of which is open to 
question, there would still remain a net sum of 
Rs. 24,800 per annum to be defrayed consequent on the 
changes now contemplated. 

7. After a careful consideration of all the circam- 
stances of the case, I regret that 1 am unable to 
sanclion the proposals of your E.^cellency's Government. 
It is scarcely necessary to remind you that a similar 
scheme was suggested in 1871, but, on the strong 
representation of Sir G. Campbell, abandoned as 
inexpedient. I am unable to find in the circumstances 
of the present time any reasons which would lessen tho 
weight of the arguments then employed. 

8. Nor can I see any grounds for considering that 
the system now in force has failed, or that the measures 
which are contemplated would be likely to prove more 
effective, at any rate to a degree commensurate with 
the cost which they would entail. 

9. It is also, I think, a matter for question whether, 
in the absence of the strongest reasons for such a 
course, there is not serious objection to centralising in 
the hands of your Excellency's Government^ the direct^ 
administration of a Department which involves a 

& 



App. I. 
Bergal, 



2'i 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSTON: 



App. I. considerable degree of minute and detailed supervision, 

as well as immediate contact with largo commercial and 
agricultural interests. 

10. It niusi, not be overlooked thiit tbc proposed 
changes would necessarily trnd lo lower the position of 
the superior officers on whom the executive working oF 
the agencies really depends, and would have the eti'ect 
of subsLituting for the present class of agents younger 
officers of less general experience and shorter training. 

11. In any case, I am of opinion that, before sub- 
stituting untried measures, involving a considerable 
outlay of money, for the present system which has 
worked well and successfully, and with which so little 
fault has been found for nearly loO years, a further 
trial should be made of the existing form of control. 
As suggested in the alternative proposal of the Com- 
mission, it might be advisable that the Member of 
the Board of Revenue in charge of the Opium Depart- 
ment should be instructed to visit each agency once in 
every half-year, for the purpose of conferi-ing with the 
agent and with the principal subordinates of the estab- 
lishment, but it will probably not be considered 
necessary that he should spend so much time in his 
visits as the Commission appear to contemplate. It is 
also worthy of consideration whether in future, on the 
occurrence of a vacancy, the Benares agent should not 
be selected by the Lieutenant-G-overnor of Bengal in 
communication with the Lieutenant-Governor of the 
North- Western Provinces, from the list of officers 
serving under the latter authority. 

12. The disposal of the other recommendations of the 
Coramission is in the hands of your Excellency's 
Government, but they will probably need some modifi- 
cation consequent on the orders now conveyed to you. 



No. 2565, dated 20th August 1885. 

From J. F. Finlay, Esq., Officiating Under Secretary 
to the Government of India, Department of 
Finance and Commerce to the Sechjstary to T];e 
Government of Bkngal, Financial Department. 

In continuation of my letter No. 843 of 17th February 
1885, I am directed to forward a copy of the Despatch 
No. 47, dated 18th June 1885, received from the 
Secretary of State in reply to the despatch from the 
Government of India, of which a copy was forwarded 
with that letter. 

2. In my letter of 17th February 1885, his Honour 
the Lieutenant-Governor was requested to consider in 
detail such of the minor recommendatiims of the Opium 
Commission as his Honour thought might be advan- 
tageously taken up without waiting for the sanction to 
the changes recommended to the Secretary of Slate in 
the despatch of 17th February 1885, and to sanction, or 
recommend for the sanction of the Government of 
India, such measures as might appear to be desirable. 
A list of some of the matters, which it was thought 
might be appropriately considered without further 
delay, was given in my letter of 17th February. 

3. It will be seen that the Secretary of State has 
refused to sanction the changes recommended by the 
G-overnment of India. The control of the Department 
will therefore continue, as at present, in the hands of 
the Board of Revenue and the Go\'ernnient of Bengal, 
and the position !i.nd salary of the two opium agents will 
remain unchanged. 

4. In reference to the remarks made in paragraph 11 
of the despatch above quoted, I am directed to request 
that the Member of the Board of Revenue in charge of 
opium be instructed to visit each agency at least once 
ii yeai' for such period as his Honour may consider 
necessary, in order that he may have an opportunity of 
conferring with the agents and the principal sub- 
ordinates of the staff oi the Department. 

5. 1 am also to say that the Gover-nment of India has 
decided that in future the appointment of the Benares 
agent shall except with the previous sanction of the 
Government ol' India, be filled by the Government of 
Bengal from the covenanted civilians serving in the 
North-Western Provinces and Oudh. In selecting 
officers for this appointment, his Honour the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor will, of course, consult and act in 
accord with the (j(jv'ernment of the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh. A copy of a letter addressed to 
the Government of the North-Western Provinces and 
Oudh on the subject is enclosed. 

6. The various recommendations of the Opium Oom- 
m.i3sion rcgaiding the woiking of the Department 
should now be taken into consideration, and dealt with 



in due course. In addition to the matters mentioned 
in paragr'aph 3 of my letter No. 84:!, dated 17th 
February 1885, the fjllowing appear to require 
attention: — 

Settlement and advances fjiaragraphs 254 to 259, 647 
to 656, and 666 of the Commission's Report; 
jiaragraphs 32 to 35 of the letter from the Govern- 
ment of Bengal, dated 28th June 1884). 

Weighments and payment for the drug (paragraphs 
672 to 678 of the Report ; paragraphs 36 and 37 of 
the letter). 

Ajiplicatinn of the iodine test (paragraphs 680 to 686 
of the Report f 

[This matter has not been separately noticed in the 
letter.] 

Adjustment of cultivators' accounts (paragraphs 765 
to 768 of the Report; paragraph 45 of the letter). 

Amendment of the opium laws, and remarks and 
suggestions as to their administration (paragraphs 
621, 673, and 774 to 790 of the Report ; paragraph 
49 of the letter). 

Code of rules for the working of the factories (para- 
graph 671 of the Report ; paragraph 44 of the 
letter). 



No. 2600—1,300, dated the 18th December 1886. 

Prom P. Nolan, Esq., Officiating Secretary to the 
Government of Bengal, to the Secretary to the 
Government of India, Department of Finance and 
Commerce. 

The views of the Lieutenant-Governor on the general 
proposals made by the Commission appointed in 1883 
to inquire into the administration of the Opiam 
Department in Bengal and the North-Western 
Provinces were submitted for the consideration of the 
Government of India, in Mr. Mac Donnell's letter. 
No. 980 T. R., dated 28th June 1884. With Mr. Pinlay'a 
letter No. 843, dated 17th February 1885, the Govern- 
ment of India forwarded a copy of a despatch to the 
Secretary of State, supporting the Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor's recommendation that a single officer, acting 
under the orders of the Government of India, should 
be appointed to administer the Opium Department. 
At the same time the Lieutenant-Governor was asked 
to consider in detail such of the minor suggestions of 
the Opium Commission as might be advantageously 
taken up without waiting for orders on the changes 
recommended to the Secretary of State, and to sanction, 
or recommend for the sanction of the Government of 
India, such measures as might appear to be desirable. 
A list of some of the matters recommended for 
immediate consideiation was given in Mr. Finlay's 
letter of 17th February 1885. The Secretary of State 
in his Despatch No. 47, dated 18th June 1885, declined 
to sanction the change of organisation recommended by 
this Government and the G overnment of India ; and in 
Mr. Finlay's letter No. 2565, dated 20th August 1886, it 
was stated that the control of the Department would, 
therefore, continue in the hands of the Board of 
Revenue and the Government of Bengal, the position 
and salary of the opium agents remaining unchanged. 
The Government of India, however, 
A V^T^n^i {i°- i'.^l'^" desired that the other proposals 

Board's No'. 37B., made by the Opium Commission 
dated I3tli .luimaiy should be taken into consideration 
'"If.'.rrd's ^I^ITb., ''°<i dealt with in due course ; and a 
dated 1st, Ma.v 188.5] Supplementary list was given of 
'"nY,'.i';^™ T"- ,0-D inatters which they considered to 
dated 3lst Janaaiy require attention. The subject was 
i^s3, with enclosures, referred to the Board of Revenue, 
dated 23'i-d Se^emte" '^''^ ''■°Pi'=s of the reports received* 
i^si. are annexed. Some of the minor 

a^^!r^I^S&: ^>'eom'"endations of the Commis- 

B>.anfs No. iiB., «10" have already been disposed of 
dated i)th January by this Government ; but as regards 

'"Board's No. 694B., ^}'^ l'?}^^^ ^"^ ^'^ich the orders of 

daii'd nth July l^sc. the Government of India are 

daiTst'a NivJuTer V'^^^^''^, ^he Lieutenant-Governor 

1881. '^^^ prcl erred .to take them up as a 

Board'.s No. 955B., whole, rather than deal with them 

dated 2tth November ^^^^ ,^y ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^,^^ therefore 

reserved his proposals for the 
present letter. 

2. In the fourth paragraph of the letter of this 
Government, dated the 28th June 1884, it is stated 
that the reoommendatious of the Commission involve a 
very large additional expenditure, and, the charge 



APPENDIX. 



23 



being Imperial, it is for the G-overnment of India to 
decide whether the increased outlay should bo 
accepted. The financial pressure at present felt in all 
departments, and the steps which are being taken in 
some for the reduction of expenditure, render the time 
somewhat inopportune for the consideration of pro- 
posals which, though designed in the long run to 
improve the revenue, must have the immediate effect of 
increasing the cost of administration. A. succession of 
gOv^d seasons has, moreover, changed the situation as it 
affects the cultivators, who arc now fully prepared to 
supply opium on the present terms in a quantity even 
beyond the requirements of the Department. The 
following renxarks are offered in the desire to complete 
the examination of the recommendations made by the 
Commission appointed by the Governmont of India, 
and on the supposition that the Governor-Genoral in 
Council, is not unwilling to incur some initial expense 
in the hope of preserving and increasing the large 
receipts from this branch of the revenue. If it is con- 
sidered that funds are not now available for the 
purpose, the proposed changes, which are almost all 
in the direction of increasing establishments, will have 
to be deferred to a more suitable season. 

3. It is stated in paragraph 622 of the report of the 
Commission to be an open secret that the officers of the 
opium service are out of heart throughout on account of 

House rent allowances the slowness of promotion. While 
of opium officers. considering it unnecessary to re- \ 

open the question of salaries, which was discussed and 
determined in 1882, the Commissioners were of opinion 
that, at a comparatively small cost to Government, the 
condition of opium officers might be improved, and the 
head of the department placed in a position to reward 
merit, by equalising the house rent allowances of 
opium district officers, and permitting the award of a 
few bonus allowances yearly. In describing the 
existing state of things in the matter of house rent, the 
report explains that of 61 district officers employed 
under the two agencies, 16 have offices provided by 
Government, and live in private houses, of which they 
pay the entire rent ; 45 live in houses belonging to or 
rented by Government, and of these latter, 28 pay rent, 
averaging Ks. 18-5 a month, and 17 pay no rent at all. 
The Commissioners recommended that, in order to 
remove those anomalies, officers for whom separate offices 
are provided by Government, l^ut who are obliged to 
live in private houses, should be allowed Rs. 20 a 
month, if the officer is a sub-deputy opium agent, 
and Rs. 15 a month if he is an assistant; that to 
officers housed in buildings, which are the property of 
Government, no rent be charged ; and that to officers for 
whom no separate office is given an allowance out of 
which they must provide sufficient office accom- 
modation be made, to a sub-deputy agent of Rs. 30 per 
mensem, and to an assistant of Rs. 20 per mensem. 
These suggestions have been considered bj- the opium 
agents and the Board of Revenue, and I am to request 
a reference to their remarks on the subject contained in 
paragraphs 2 to 5 of the Board's letter No. 385B., dated 
10th May 1886. The agents observe that the grant of 
fixed allowances for house-rent will not improve 
matters, as at some stations such charges are very 
high, while at others a good bungalow can be obtained 
at a low rate. They therefore suggest, as the only 
way to meet the difficulty, that ■ houses should be 
provided by Government, and the officers charged rent 
at a uniform rate. The Board concur in ihis sugges- 
tion, and recomm.end that the rent payable by a sub- 
deputy agent should be fixed at Rs. 30, and that 
payable by an assistant at Rs. 10 per mensem. Neither 
the Opium Commission nor the Board have made any 
calculation of the cost of their respective proposals, 
but from an estimate mnde in this office from the best 
materials available it would appear that the whole 
annual cost to be incurred by Government in giving 
effect to the recommendation of the Commission would 
be about ten thousand rupees, which capitalised at 20 
years' purchase would represent a sum of two lakhs, 
while the expense of building houses, as proposed by 
the Board, would be about one lakh, against which 
there would be a set-off in the form of an annual rent 
of Rs. 3,840. It will thus be seen that the Board's 
proposals, though involving an initial expenditure of 
Rs. 96,000, would in the end prove less costly than 
those of the Opium Commission ; and as they are more 
likely to secure the desired result, viz., equalisation of 
house rent, the Lieutenant-Governor would recommend 
them for adoption to the Government of India, so far as 
they relate to the provision of houses where none are at 
present supplied, and the rates of rent to be char,9,ed to 



the occupiers. As regards the Governmont houbesnow 
occupied by opium officers, it appears to the Lieutenant- 
Governor that to place matters on the same footing 
throughout, a rentcharge should ho made If tlie 
Government of India is not prepared at present to 
incur the expenditure involved in providing 1 6 addi- 
tional houses, the Lieutenant-Governor would suggest 
the adoption of the Opium Commission's proposal to 
allow Rs. 20 a month to every sub-deputy opium agent, 
and Rs. 15 to every assistant at nresent unpiovided 
with a house. These gentlemen are employed at the 
head-quarters of districts, where it is improb;ib]e tha+ 
they can obtain accommodation for loss than Ri. 50 
and Rs. 25 a month respectively, and the grant of the 
allowances proposed would place them apjiroximately 
on a level with their colleagues paying Rs. 26 and 
Rs. 10 as rent for the Government houses occupied liy 
them. In some cases, no doubt, the allowance granted 
will not represent the whole dillorence between the 
rent paid and the rent they wouM have to jmy for 
Goveniment houses ; but such inequalities can only be 
redressed .by adoption of the Board's suggestion to 
build additional houses and charge uniform rates of 
rent. 

4. As regards bonus allowances, the Opium Oommis- 

T,„ „ „ sion recommended that Rs. 13,500 

Bonua allowances. , it , ,, -,• , -, . \ 

should be annually distributed as 

follows : — 

Rs. 

To five deputy agents, Rs. 1,000 each 6,000 

To six asssistant agents, Rs. 500 ,, 3,000 

To ditto ditto Ks. 250 ,, l,5Ut) 

To deserving lumberdars and zilladarc, 

Rs. 2,000 in each agency - 4,000 



App. I. 
Bengal. 



Total 



13,500 



The Behar agent is not in favour of these [jroposals, 
and the Benares agent states that he apprehends great 
difficulty in giving satisfactory effect to the scheme, so 
far as the European officers of the Department are con- 
cerned. The Board concur in the views expressed by 
the agents on the proposal to grant bonuses to the 
superior officers of the Department, and support, in 
preference, Mr. Bivett-Carnac's alternative suggestion 
to add to the existing establishment a grade of nub- 
deputy agents on Rs. 1,000 a month. The Lieutenant- 
Governor's views on this point will be stated iu the next 
paragraph of this letter in connexion with the recom- 
mendation to increase the number of sub-agencies. Sir 
Rivers Thomi3Son agrees with the Board that bonus 
allowances would be tmdesirable in the case of sub- 
deputy or assistant sub-deputy opiuni agents. The 
grant of such allowances to the inferior executive 
officers, viz., lumberdars and zilladars. stands on a 
different footing. The Board and the Benares opium 
agent are in favour of the suggestion, to which there 
seems to be no objection in principle ; and, in the 
Lieutenant-Governor's opinion, a maximum outlay of 
Rs. 3,000 or Rs. 4,000 a year for this purpose might be 
advantageously incurred. 

5. The Opium Commissioners were not disposed to 
Remodelling of opium districts recommend the establish- 
and increaJin o^ the district staff. ment of any new Sub- 
agency in Behar. In Benares they proposed to increase 
the number of sub-agencies from 12 to 18 by a re- 
arrangement of the existing divisions, as shown iu 
paragraph 629 of their report ; and they considered a 
staff of less than 18 sub-deputy agents insufficient 
for the large extent of country which the Benares agent 
is required to superintend. They also recommend 
that the number of assistants should be raised from 47* 

•Thisnumberliassinoebeen ^° 50, and that of these, 35 
reduced to 43 {vide paraj^raph should be attached to the 
ti of tliis letter). Benares agency and 15 to 

Behar. For the reasons given in paragraph 8 of the 
Board's letter No. 385B., dated 10th May 1886, the 
Benares agent does not consider the Opium Commis- 
sion's scheme to be sufficient. He proposes to increase 
the number of sub-agencies to 2G, with 26 sub-deputy 
agents and 27 assistant sub-deputy agents, besides an 
additional officer of the latter class as his personal 
assistant. Statements showing the distribution of the 
sub-agencies and the area of cultivation in each agency, 
as proposed by the Opium Commission, and by the agent, 
are enclosed vnth the Board's letter No. 387B., dated 
10th May 1886. The Board support the proposals of 
the Opium Commission for the Benares agency, remark- 
ing that it may be assumed that the Commission have 
gone carefully into the whole question, and satisfiied 
tben.iselvrs as to the sufficiency of the staff' they propose 

C 4 



24 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. I. They support also the Commission's proposals regard- 

iBg tho number of assistants to be employed in 
each agency. These conclusions have the approval of 
the Lieutenant-Governor, subject to the qualification 
indicated in the second paragraph of this letter, and I 
am now to proceed to discuss the means by which they 
can best be carried out. 

6. Of the six additional sub-agenoiea recommended, 
three have already been sanctioned by the Government 
of India in Mr. Pinilay 's letter No. 2fi20, dated 4th August 
1884, and the Board now submit proposals for officering 
the remaining three, and for effecting the desired increase 
in the number of assistants. The grades of sub-deputy 
and assistant sub-deputy opium agents were re- 
arranged under the orders of the Secretary of State in 
1882. According to this arrangement, the numbers 
and salaries were as follows : — 



in the fifth ; and the cost would compare thus with that 
proposed by the Board : — 



8ub-dep^ity Opium Agents (23). 



Two 1st grade on 
Five 2nd 
Six 3rd 
Six 4th 
Tour 5th 



Bs. 

900 
800 
700 
600 
500 



Assistants (47). 



Four 1st grade on 500 

Ten 2nd „ 400 

Twelve 3rd „ - - 300 

Fifteen 4th „ - 250 

Six probationary grade on - - 200 

Three out of the four assistant sub-deputy opium 
agents of the first grade on Bs. 500 a month were made 
sub-deputy agents of the fifth grade on the same pay 
under the orders of the_ Government of India in the 
Financial Department, No. 2620, dated 4th August 
1884, in order to provide officers for the three new sub- 
agencies of Mainpuri (the name now assigned to the 
proposed Etawah Division), Sitapur, and Bai Bareilly. 
There are, therefore, seven instead of four sub-deputy 
agents of the fifth grade, and one assistant sub-deputy 
agent of the first grade, each on Bs. 500 a month. 
Under the orders of the Government of India in the 
Financial Department, No. 214, dated 14th April 1885, 
one appointment in the third grade of assistant sub- 
deputy opium agents was abolished, and in its place the 
appointment of an assistant opium examiner at the 
Ghazipore Factory on a salary of Bs. 250, rising to 
Bs. 350 a month, was sanctioned. Accordingly, there 
are at present 26 deputy agents and 43 assistant 
sub-deputy agents of various grades employed in the 
two agencies. To give effect to the Commissioners' 
proposal to increase the number of sub-agencies in 
Benai'es the Board of Revenue recommend — 

(a.) The creation of a grade of two sub-deputy agents, 

Bs. 1,000 a month. 
(6.) The addition of a sub-deputy agent in the grade 

of Bs. 900. 
(c.) The abolition of the single appointment in the 

first arade of assistant sub-deputy agent at Bs. 

500. ^ 
(d.) The addition of eight appointments of assistant 

sub-deputy agents — one in the grade of Bs. 400, 

four in the grade of Es. 300, and three in the grade 

of Es. 250. 
Tho Lieutenant-Governor desires to support the 
recommendations of the Board, on the ground that if the 
number of assistants is raised, a corresponding increase 
should be made in the superior appointments. The 
financial effects of those proposals will best be seen by 
placing side by side statements of the expenditure 
involved in the Board's scheme, and of that to be in- 
onj-red in any alternative plan of increasing the number 
of appointments to the required extent. A reference 
to page 1 of the enclosed proposition statement will 
show the number of officers now in each grade, and the 
number proposed under the revised scli«me. It will 
prrhaps be conceded that the new appointments in the 
grades of assistant sub-deputy agents could not be 
otherwise distributed without unduly swelling tho 
number in one grade, and if so, it is only necessary to 
consider the appointment of the three new sub-deputy 
opium agents. If the creation of the extra grade on 
Es. 1,000 were disallowed, these appointment might be dis- 
tributed as follows ; — One in the first grade on Bs. 900, 
one in the fourth grade on Bs. 600, and one in the fifth 
grade on Bs. 500. Tho number in each grade would 
tbon stand as follows : — Three in the first, fivo in the 
second, six in the third, seven in the fourth, and eight 



As recommended by the Board. 


According to the Alternative Scheme. 


Number ot 

Appointments. 


Monthly 
Bate. 


Annual 

Cost. 


Number of 
Appointments. 


Monthly 
Bate. 


Annual 
Cost. 


Two 
One 


Es. 

1,000 

900 


Bs. 

24,000 

10,800 


One 
One 
One 


Es. 

tlOO 

600 

soa 

Total . 


Es. 

10,800 

7,200 




Total 


34,800 


6,000 




24,000 



7. The cost involved in the changes now recom- 
mended amounts to Bs. 57,000 per annum. To this 
will have to be added the expense of the office estab- 
lishments for the three sub-deputy agents and for two 
assistants to be placed in charge of two sub-divisions 
in the Benares Agency. As will be seen below the 
Lieutenant-Governor proposes to fix a scale of office 
establishment at a mean cost of Bs. 306^ per mensem 
for a sub-deputy agent, and a scale costing Rs. 62 a 
month for an assistant. The total cost of office estab- 
lishments for the three sub-deputy agents and two 
assistants will therefore amount to Bs. 1,042-12 per 
mensem, or Bs. 12,513 per annum. 

8. The Commission suggested in paragraph 630 of 

,. , , , , , the report that the number 

Number and employment of f ^ ■ , , , , i , 

assistants. «* assistants should be 

raised from 47 to 50, that 
35 of these should be attached to Benares and 16 to 
Behar, that until he has passed his examinations an 
officer should be considered as a probationer only, and 
should not be placed in charge of a sub-division until 
he has passed and also been in the service for three 
years. The Board support these recommendations in 
paragraph 12 of their letter No. 386B., dated 10th May 
1886, and the Lieutenant-Governor is disposed to 
concur. 

9. The revision of the Behar agent's office establish- 
ment, resulting in a saving of Bs. 1,968 a year, was 

, .. , t „• V i sanctioned by the Govern- 

Agents establishments. , o t Ji ■ ■ --" " ^^ ■" 

ment of India m a letter 
from the Financial Department, No. 4390, dated the 
6th November 1884. The present cost of the Benares 
Agent's office establishment amounts to Bs. 2,189-8 
per month, inclusive of the pay of his personal 
assistant. The Opium Commission, in paragraphs 634 
and 636 of their report, proposed to abohsh the post of 
personal assistant, and to recast the office establish- 
ment on the soaleofBs. 1,441 risingto Bs. l,961amonth. 
Their proposals, however, were admittedly tentative, 
owing, it was said, to the difficulty of obtaining data 
in consequence of the indefiniteness of the line which 
separates the establishment of the agent from that of 
the factory, and the practice of entertaining a large 
number of temporary clerks at busy seasons of the 
year. In his letter* No. 164—2,064, dated 23rd July 

. „ , , . _ ^, , „ 1884, Mr. Bivett-Carnac pro- 
* Enclosed m Boards letter ,,r.oo^ n oool„ „e * t.T i 
No. 37B., dated 12tli January Posed a scale of eatablish- 
1886. ment tor his office, costing 

Es. 2,325-8 per mensem, in- 
cluding Bs. 300, the pay of a personal assistant whom 
he would retain. He also included in his scheme the 
Treasury stafi' shown by the Commission in the Factory 
establishment, but which has hitherto always been 
considered part of the agent's office. On the retire- 
ment recently of Mr. W. A. Byrne, Head Accountant, 
Benares Opium Agency, Mr. Bivett-Carnac has, with 
the approval of the Board of 
Revenue, t prepared a scheme 
for a further revision of his 
office establishment, resulting 
in a saving on the present scale of Bs. 19-8 per mensem 
or Rs. 234 per annum, which saving will be increa'sed to 
Bs. 69-8 per mensem, or to Es. 834 per annum, on the 
retirement of one of the clerks to whom it is proposed 
to give a personal allowance of Bs. 60 per mouth. The 
Lieutenant-Governor desires to support these proposals 
which have been included in the proposition statement 
submitted with this letter. In paragraph 27 of Mr 
McDonnell's letter No. 980, dated 28th June 1884 the 
Lieutemmt- Governor agreed with the Opium Com 
mission m thinking that the employment of a personal 
assistant should be prohibited, but it now appears that 
this recommendation was made under a misapprehen- 
sion as to the true nature of the duties entrusted to 



t Stated in their letter No. 
955B., dated 24th Noveni ber 1886. 
Copy with enclosure annexed. 



APPENDIX. 



25 



that officer, who hns been employed since the year ISW, 
and, under the ciroiimstanoes stilted liy Mr. Rivet t- 
Carnac, in hi-j letter of 23rd July 1884, Sir Rivers 
Thompson thinks that a good case is made out in 
support of the retention of a pei-sonal assistant. His 
Honour, however, coiioiirs in the Board's suggestion 
that the agent be allowed the services of an officer us 
personal assistant only on the distinct understanding 
that the number of sanctioned assistants will not be 
increased on that account, and that no officer is to be 
appointed to that post who is in receipt of a salary of 
more than Es. 300 per mensem. 



10. In Behar 



Officii evStablishnients of sub-ilcpiity 
ojiiuiii ap:eiits and ol' assistants in cliarfii' 
of sub-divisions. 





Rs. 


1 Native assistant on 


- 4U pins commis- 




sion. 


1 Clerk on 


- .«! 


1 Do. on - 


- 20 


IMolnirir im 


- 15 


1 Ditto on 


- 10 


1 Ditto on 


S 


1 Naib naxir on - 


I'l 


1 Poddar on 


- 10 


1 Chapi-assi on 


6 


2 Chapnvssis at Rs. t ea( 


■ll- S 


Sweeper 


2-8 


Total 


lUt-8 per mensem. 







Rs. 


Head clerk 




50 


2nd do. 




30 


3rd do. 




20 


Sheristadar 




60 


1st Mohurir 


- 


20 


2nd ditto 




- 10 


3rd ditto 




12 


1 Treasurer 




20 


1 Duftry - 


- 


5 


1 Jemadar 




S 


i Hurkundazes 


, at Rs. 5 each 


20 


3 Peons on Rs. 


5 each - 


15 


1 Sweeper 


- 


3 



Total 



meiisom. Tlio Commission would allow, in such cnscs, 
tlie establishiiieiirr noted lielow. — 

Rs. Rs. 

1 Ulerlc on 50 

1 ,, „ - liO riting (o 40 

1 Peon ,, (i 

1 „ ,. S 



Arr. T. 
Itengal. 





Rs. Rs. 


Head clerk and sheristadar 


- 100 rising to 150 


Second ,, - 


70 


Third „ 


60 


Fourth „ - 


- 50 


Fifth ,, - 


- 20 rising to -10 


Duftry 


- 5 


Two peons (each) 


6 


Two „ 


5 


Sweeper 


■ - 3 



Total 



330 rising to 400 



The mean cost of this establishment is Rs. 382-8 
per mensem. For an assistant employed at the head- 
quarters of the division, the Commissioners recom- 
mended no separate establishment beyond one peon on 
Rs. 6 a month. For an assistant in charge of a sub- 
division, a single clerk only is at present provided, who 
in Behar is paid Rs. 20 ; in Benares Rs. 12 only per 

u 82810. 



Total 



81 rising to 101 



the standard scale of a sub-deputy 
opium agent's 

office establishment 
is as noted on the 
margin ; and there 
are only two cases 
in which even a 
slight deviation is 
permitted from the 
standard. The 

native assistant 

performs the duties 
of sheristadar and 
treasurer, and is 
required to give 

security to the 

amount of Rs. 5,00C. 
His fixed salary is Rs. 40, but he also receives a com- 
mission on the opium produced in his sub-agency at 
a rate which the Commission estimated at ten annas 
per maund, with a maximum of Rs. 1,500 per annum. 
His maximum paj' is therefore Rs. 165 per month, but 
the actual amount varies according to the yield of the 
season, and according to the productiveness of the 
sub-agency in which he is employed. None of the 
other officers receive any commission. The Opium 
Commissioners stated that it was unnecessary that the 
native assistant in Behar should be required to perform 
the duties of treasurer, and they remarked that he was 
properly the head clerk and sheristadar, and should be 
so designated. They also thought that the posts of 
naib nazir and poddar in Behar might be abolished. 
In the Benares Agency, the establishments are paid by 

salaries alone. A 
sub-deputy opium 
agent in this 
agen cy has gene- 
rally an office 
establishment on 
the scale noted on 
the margin. The 
treasurer has 

15 already been dis- 
pensed with in all 
the sub-agencies, 
except Ghazipore, 
Gorruckpore, and Fatehgurh ; and the Commissioners 
considered that he was not wanted in those places. 
The Commissioners think also that the jemadar is not 
required ; that the staff of peons and burkundazss is in 
excess of the real requirements of the offices ; and that, 
while the staff of clerical employes is numerically more 
than sufficient, the salaries are inadequate to secure 
the services of competent and respectable men. The 
Commissioners recommended the following establish- 
ment as the standard stiength of a sub-deputy opium 
agent's sudder office in both agencies :-- 



The mean eost of this establishment is Rs. 96 per 
mensem. 

11. The views of the Benares Agent on these pro- 
posals are contained in his letter, No. 163-2063, dated 
22nd July 1884, a co])j of which is enclosed with the 
Board's letter No. 78B., dated :ilst January 1885. Mr. 
Rivett-Carnac concurs generally in the opinions ex- 
pressed by the Opium Commissioners on the subject. 
Ho admits that the scheme submitted by them entails 
a great increase of expenditure, and that it would not 
be difficult to suggest small reductions ; but this would 
be with the certain prospect of reducing the results 
aimed at by the Commission. He adds that if Govern- 
ment is unwilling to give so much as the Commission 
have recommended, he will do his best to arrange his 
proposals accordingly, on being informed of the amount 
which Government may be disposed to sanction. The 
Board say that they were at first inclined to consider 
the proposed scale of salaries too high, but that, on a 
full consideration of the matter, they have accepted the 
Opium Commission's proposals. 

The total eost of the sudder office and sub-divisional 

establishments in 
Sudclar Office Establishments. 
i2.5. a. p. 
* Benares 3.13't o per mensem 
Rehar 1,855 8 „ Bs. a. p. 
4,!I89 8 



Sub-divisional Establislimen ts . 



Benares 
Behar 



t Benares 
Behar 



Total 



J Benares 
Beliitr 



Total 



Ss. a. p. 
412 per mensem 
46 8 



Rs. n. p. 
6,7.W 8 » 

4,207 8 


- 0,045 


Rs. n. p. 

2,4US 

102 


- 2,6ss 



Total 



488 8 
6,478 



Benares and Behar 
amounts to Rs. 5,478 
per mensem, or Rs. 
65,736 per annum, 
as shown on the 
margin. * If the 
Opium Commis- 
sion's proposals were 
accepted, the 26 
sub-deputy agent's 
office establishments 
wouldcostRs.9,945t 
per mensem, and the 
establishments of 
the 28 assistants in 
charge of sub-divi- 
sions Rs. 2,688:1: a 
month. The total 
cost of both estab- 
lishments would 
therefore come to Es. 12,633 per mensem, or Rs. 161,596 
per annum. Adding the cost of the establishments 
required for the three additional sub-agencies, which 
it is proposed to establish in Benares, the total cost of 
office establishments for the 29 sub-deputy agents, and 
30 assistants in charge of sub-divisions would, on the 
scales proposed by the Commission, be Rs. 13,972-8 jier 
mensem, or Rs. 107,670 per annum. The Commission'.s 
pro])osals would therefore entail an increase of Rs. 
8,494-8 per mensem, or Rs. 1,0 J, 934 per annum. 

12. In paragraph 29 of Mr. MacDonnell's letter No. 
980 T. R., dated 2Stli June 1884, the Lieutenant-Governor 
observed that a standard scale of sub-agency establish- 
ment is desirable, if only to remove the variations which 
now exist (apparently without sufficient cause), and to 
admit of the easy interchange of officers between one 
agency and another when the interests of the service 
require it. He thought, however, that the scale pro- 
posed by the Opium Commission was too lavish, and 
that the inadequate recognition in it of the progressive 
jirinciple was a blemish. He was of opinion that the 
following scale would be considered liberal by those 
affected by it : — 

Rs. Es. 

Head clerk - 80 rising to 100 

Second „ 50 „ 75 

Third „ - - 40 „ 50 

Fourth ,, - 30 „ 40 

Fifth ,, - 20 „ 30 

Duftry 5 5 

Two peons - - 12 12 

Ditto - 10 10 

Sweeper - 3 3 



Monthly - 260 



325 



D 



26 



INDIAN OPIDM COMMISSION: 



App. I, 



The mean cost of this establishment is Es. :>06-4 per 
mensem. From the Benares agent's willingness to 
accept a smaller increase than that recommended by 
the Commission, and from the Board's doubts on the 
point, it seems to the Lieutenant-Governor that he was 
right in deprecating an unreserved acceptance of the 
Commission's full proposals. The scale noted above, 
which was drawn up with reference to the ordinary 
sub-divisional establishments in these provinces, seems 
to be fair, and I am desired to recommend it for the 
favourable consideration and orders of the Government 
of India. With regard to the cost of the oifice establish- 
ment of assistants in independent charge of sub-divisions, 
1 am to say that Sir Rivers Thompson thinks that the ad- 
dition of an English clerk on Rs. 30, rising to Rs. 50, to 
the existing scale of one mohurir and one peon would 
be sufficient. The total cost of office establishments for 
the 29 sub-deputy agents and 30 assistants in charge 
of sub-divisions will, therefore, if the Lieutenant- 
Governor's views are accepted, amount to Rs. 10,741-4 

per mensem, or Rs. 
Isub-deputy agent's Es. u. 1 9R SQ"^ npv mmnTn 

esUiblisliments (Es. i,J8,oyo pel annum, 

306-4x29) - - =,s,881 4. per mensem, as shown on the mar- 

Assistunt's estab- cr^■n TVii'a o-i-u-aq '1 

lishm™ts(Rs.(Wx 30) =1,860 „ S"i- iiiisgivesa 

yearly saving of 

Total - 10,7-ti -t „ Rs. 38,775 compared 

Rs. 10,711-1 X l2=Es. I2s,sii.j pev annum, '^it^ the Commis- 
sion's recommenda- 
tions, and a yearly increase of Rs. 63,159 on the cost of 
the existing establishments. From this increase, how- 
ever, must be deducted the amount of commission paid 
annually to the " native assistants " in Behar, which it 
is proposed to abolish. 

3. The duties of the gomashtas and the system on 
which they are remur.erated 
''"'*'"' ;i,re detailed in Part XL, 
Chapter III. of the Opium 
Commission's Report ; and the exact strength of the 
establishment now maintained at each kothee in the 
two agencies is shown in the proposition statements 
accompanying this letter. The total annual cost of the 
present establishments is in Behar about Es. 1,41,300, of 
which R.S. 81,300 represent salaries, and about Rs. 60,000 
commission, and in Benares Rs. 1,44,444, no part of which 
is commission. (These totals correct the totals shown 
iu Jfr. MacDonnell's letter of the 28th June 18B4, 
paragi-.aph 30.) The Behar gomashta receives Rs. 30 as 
salary, but his commission brings up his average 
earnings from Rs. 70 to Es. 100 a month, and the mohurir 
and mutSLiddi receive in salary and commission from 
Es. 20 to Es. 30 a month, and from Es. 12 to Es. 18 a 
month respectively. In Benares the gomashta receive 
from Es. 50 to Es. 80, and the mohurirs from Es. 10 to 
Es. 16 a month. 

14. In the report of the Opium Commission a con- 
viction is expressed that these establishments are 
underpaid, and that, owing to this underpayment, 
" every seer of opium which a cultivator delivers pays 
" toll to the amlah, and from every rupee which a 
" cultivator receives a percentage is ^deducted for 
" their benefit." The Commissioners considered that 
it was equally the duty and the interest of the 
Government to see that its promise of Es. 5 per seer 
of opium to the cultivator was well kept, and they 
pointed out that the only way of securing the ful- 
filment of the promise was by paying the amlah 
adequate salaries, and by abolishing the practice of 
taking commission, which now obtains in Behar. They 
recommended that the strength and cost of a kothee 
establishment should be fixed upon the following 
scale : — 



Tilt' mofuss 
establishment. 







Es. 


Gomashta 


. 


- 150 or Es. 200 


First mohtlrir 




70 


Second ,, 




60 


Third ,, 




50 


Fourth ,, 


. 


20 rising to Es. 40 


Zilladars 




- 7 or Es. 8 


Three peons (o; 


loh) 


6 



The Commissioners considered that there should be 
two grades of gomashtas, the lower grade of Es. 150 
and the higher grade of Rs. 200, and that the numbers 
of the two grades should be about equal. They pro- 
posed that the security required from a gomashta, 
which at present varies from Rs. 1,250 to Rs. 2,000, 
should be fixed at Es, 1,500. They :i,lso recommended 
that the three naib gomashtas who are now in charge 
of the outposts of Shahabad, Lucknow, and Hissamporo 
in the Benares Agency should be replaced by mohurirs. 



They were stronglj' of opinion that a staff of four 
mohurirs was required for each kothee, and that if this 
stalf were given there would be less necessity for the 
engagement of temporary hands at the time of weigh- 
ments. As to the mohurirs' salaries, the Commissioners 
considered that Rs. 20 rising to Rs. 40 in five years 
should be the minimum pay. They did not propose 
increments of salary for any bnt the lowest grade, as 
higher pay would be obtainable by promotion. The 
Commissioners thought it unnecessary to require 
security from mohurirs, as in their opinion such officers 
ought not to be entrusted with public money. As 
regards zilladars, they recommended that there should 
be two grades, the lower on Rs. 7 and the higher grade 
on Es. 8, and that the appointment of -44 sudder 
zilladars on Rs. 10 in the Benares Agency should bo 
discontinued. The total cost of the kothee establish- 
ments in the two agencies, as recommended by the 
Opium Commission, would amount to Rs. 50,710 per 
mensem, or Es. 6,08,620 per annum, against Es. 2,25,744 
which is the total annual cost of the establishments at 
present employed. The Board of Eevenue support the 
Commission's proposals, and point out that the 
gomashtas in some good sub-agencies, such as 
Nowada, Gya, Tehta, Belkhana, and others in the 
Behar Agency, where the practice of part payment by 
commission still obtains, draw with commission on an 
average from Es. 102 to Es. 164 a month. The Board 
remark that as the object of the proposed increase of 
salaries is to improve the status of t'nese officers 
generally, and to fix a scale of salaries adequate to the 
responsible duties which de\'olve on them, the 
proposed scale cannot be considered excessive. They 
add that should the scale of salaries proposed by the 
Commission receive the .sanction of Government, the 
existing practice of payment by commission will be 
discontinued in all departments. 

IS. The proposal to raise the pay of the kothee staff 
is the most important iu the Opium Commission's 
Eeporl. In paragraph 31 of Mr. MacDonnell's letter 
ISTo. 980 T. E., dated 28th June 1884, the Lieutenant- 
Governor stated his conviction that the case is one 
which calls for liberal measures ; but having regard to 
the financial exigencies of the present time, he recog- 
nises that it would be inopportune to press for the 
immediate introdnction of so large and expensive a 
reform. Impressed, howeyer, with a .sense of the 
desirability of abolishing the system of part remunera- 
tion by commission, and of placing the establishments 
in both agencies on a better footing. Sir Elvers Thomp- 
son suggests, for the consideration of his Excellency 
the Governor-General in Council, the following modifi- 
cations in the scale proposed by the Commission : — 

(1.) That there should be three grades of gomashtas 

Rs. Rs. 

1st grade, 150 rising to 200 
2nd „ 100 „ 150 

3rd ,, 50 ,, 100 

(2.) That of the 94 gomashtas in the two agencies 

25 should be in the 1st grade 
30 „ ,, 2nd „ 

39 ,, „ 3rd „ 

(3.) That there should be four grades of mohurirs — 
Rs. Rs. 

1st grade, 50 rising to 75 
2nd ,, 40 ., 50 

3rd ,, 30 ,, 40 

4th ,, 20 „ 30 

the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th mohurirs in each kothee 
being in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades respectively. 
(4) That the pay of zilladars be re-arranged on the 
scales suggested by the Commission, i.e., two 
grades on Rs. 7 and Es. 8, instead of four on Es. 5, 
Rs. 6, Rs. 7, and (iu the Benares Agency alone) 
Rs. 10. 

The total cost on account of the salaries of gomashtas 
and mohurirs in all the kothees in the two ao-encies in 
accordance with the Commission's and the Lieutenant. 
Ss. n.p. Gi-O'^ernor's proposals, would 
•Gomaiilitas 16,4,011 li amount respectively to 

Mohurirs 2 0.470 Rs. 36,870* and Rs.29,520-12t 

Tobil .36,870 P*^^' mensem. The proposal of 

the Lieutenant-Governor will 

'^^St' ]S^ li ;; tl^'^'-'^'ore, if accepted, result in 

?— »■ saving of Es. 7,349-4. per 

Total 29,520 12 mensem, or Es. 88,191 per 

. . annum, compared with the 

< ommissions recommendations, and the total increase 



APPENDIX. 



trill be B,8. 2,94,381 per annttm instead of Rs. 3,82,776. 
Sir Rivers Thompson agrees with the Commission in 
thinking that the security required from a gomashta 
should be fixed at Es. 1,500, and that no security should 
be taken from moburirs. 

16. The present system of settlements is described in 

«ofri„, * 1 J paragraphs 264 to 259 of the 

betUcuients and advances. r\ ■ ° n ■ • > -r> i 

Opium Commission s Report. 

The wording of the Opium Act (XIII. of 1867) seems to 
imply that settlements for cultivating the poppy should 
be entered into between the G-overnment ofBcers and 
the cultivator in person ; but in practice this is never 
done, the settlements being, in fact, made with a 
middleman, called a khattadar in Behar and a lumber- 
dar in Benares. In Benares a system of maps and 
other records of land supplies in each village a test to 
the lumberdar's application, but in Behar, unfortunately, 
no such records are available. In paragraph 33 of 
Mr. MaoDonnell's letter, dated 28th June 1884, the 
Lieutenant-Governor expressed his opinion that anoflbrt 
should now be made to place the system on a legal 
footing, while preserving its special advantages ; but 
he, at the same time, expressed a doubt whether, with- 
out such detailed local knowledge as can be obtained 
only by reference to correct maps and records, any 
icheme for dealing directly with the ryots would be 
really practicable. The cadastral survey of Behar, 
which would have supplied such records, has now been 
suspended under the orders of the Secretary of State ; 
and under the circumstances the Lieutenant-Governor 
is not disposed to recommeud a radical change, the 
success of which could only be assured under conditions 
which do not exist. 

17. Chapter V., Part II. of the Opium Commission's 
Report describes the system of advances now in force, 
and recommendations on the subject are given in para- 
graphs 661 and 662 of the report. It is suggested 
that only one advance should ordinarily be made, on 
the ground of inconvenience to Government, and 
harassment to the cultivators in arranging for frequent 
payments. In the Benares Agency this is already the 
practice, while in Behar two are always given, and 
sometimes three. The Board, concurring with the 
Behar agent, deprecate any alterations of the present 
system for reasons stated in paragraphs 6 and 6 of the 
letter of the 23rJ September 1884. The office letter 
of the 28th June 1884, paragraph 36, expressed the 
doubts of the Lieutenant-Governor whether any change 
would be advisable ; and as, if his recommendation to 
adhere to the khattadari system be approved, the 
argument of harassment to the cultivator in frequent 
payments and receipts disappears, Sir Rivers Thompson 
is still inclined to adhere to the views previously ex- 
pressed by him, and to recommend a continuance of 
the present practice in the matter of the number of 
advances given. 

18. Besides the advances referred to above which are 
regularly given every year, special advances are made 
on the application of the cultivators for the construction 
and repair of wells. The rules under which well 
advances (which are termed '"extraordinary ") are now 
given are sketched in paragraph 267 of the Opium Com- 
mission's Report. The Lieutenant-Governor agrees 
with the Board of Revenue in supporting the Com- 
mission's suggestion in paragraph 665 that, as a rule, 
"extraordinary" advances should be made for the 
construction of wells only, and that they should 
require the sanction of the agents, but that the Board 
of Revenue should have a discretion to make extra- 
ordinary advances for other purposes. 

19. In paragraph 652 of the report it is recommended 
that opium officers' treasuries should be abolished ; 
that settlements and advances should be made at each 
kothee, and not, as now, at the sub-agencies ; that 
when the kothee are at places where a treasury or sub- 
treasury exists, as would be the case in most instances, 
the opium officer should drair each day the amount 
which he proposes to spend before evening ; that when 
the kothee is not at the head-quarters, or at a sub- 
division of a district, the sub-deputy agent should draw 
from the nearest sub-divisional or head- quarters 
treasury ; and that there should be no guard beyond 
that of the kothee peons except where payments 
are made elsewhere than at places where treasuries 
exist, when a police guard should be supplied. The 
Board of Revenue were at first in favour of adopting 
these proposals, but, on receipt of fuller information on 
the subject from the agents (as contained in Ihe Board's 
letter No. 283 B., dated Ijth April 1886 a (jopy of which 
is enclosed) they are strongly of opinion that the abolition 



of opium officers treasuries would seriously interfere 
with the working of the departments. As the facts 
stated by the Board indicate the necessity of frcqu(;ntly 
keeping large balances in the hands of the sub-deputy 
opium agents at the close of the day the Lieutenant- 
Governor concurs m thinking it undesirable l-o alter the 
existing practice. 

20. The form of field register of measurements sug- 
gested by the Opium Commission in paragraph 623 of 
their report will be brought into use in both agencies ■ 
but the Lieutenant-Governor agrees with the Board 
that the question of the use of chains or poles is one 
that may be left to the agents tor decision. 

21. The proposals made in piiragraph 654 to introduce 
into Behar the system of opium maps in use in the 
Benares Agency, and to supply sub-deputy ao-encts 
with copies of the Revenue field registers and maps, 
cannot now be fully carried out. The abandonment of 
the cadastral survey leaves Behar still without maps 
and records of the kind required; and though opium 
maps have been prepared and are used by the sub- 
deputy agents as described in paragraph 9 of the 
Board's letter of the 23rd September 1884, they are 
clearly insufficient for the purposes contemplated in 
paragraph 251 of the Commission's Report. The dis- 
trict authorities will be directed to allow sub-deputy 
opium agents and their assistants free access to such 
maps and village records as exist, and to supply them 
with copies when lequired, but the Lieutenant-Governor 
does not anticipate that practical benefit will result from 
this arrangement. 

22. The Lieutenant-Governor unites with the Board 
of Revenue in recommending, in the case of discovery 
of unlicensed cultivation, the adoption of the procedure 
set out in paragraph 655 of the Opium Commission's 
Report. The rules regarding such cultivation are laid 
down in paragraph 17a, page 23, of the Opium Manual, 
and do not difi'er materially from the Commission's 
recommendations. 

23. With reference to paragraph 656 of the report, I 
am to say that the Lieutenant-Governor has approved 
the Board's action in directing the discontinuance of 
the prepiiratiou of taidads in the Behar Agency. 

24. Orders on the subject of the remission of the 
R,™i,ssionoroulsian.linK outstanding balances treated 

balances. ' m paragraphs 667 to 664 of the 

report were passed by the 
Government of India in Mr. Finlay's letter No. 17u8, 
dated 18th June 1884, and they have been communicated 
to the Board of Revenue for information and guidance. 

25. In paragraph 667, the Commission stated that the 
The delivery of and payment ?-ates paid for leaves were not 

for leaves and trash. msuflicient, but those paid for 

trash were generally com- 
plained of in Behar, though in Benares the lumberdars 
were not dissatisfied. In Benares the lumberdars' 
contracts bind them to deliver the trash at the factory 
at a nominal rate of 10 annas a maund, but in conse- 
quence of the present system of classing the trash more 
highly than its quality justifies, the price paid at 
Ghazipore in reality more nearly approaches 12 a 
maund. In Behar four annas a maund is paid for 
trash, and very nearly four annas a maund more is 
allowed for its conveyance from the village to the sub- 
agency head-quarters. The price for delivery at the 
sub-agency is, therefore, eight annas per maund. The 
Commission recommended that trash delivered at the 
factory should be paid for at the rate of 12 annas a 
maund in both agencies, and that six annas a maund 
should be paid for trash delivered at the sub-agency 
head-quarters under the system which prevails at 
present in Behar, the conveyance charges from the 
village to the sub-agency being paid as now by Govern- 
ment. The Board, in recommending these enhanced 
rates for the sanction of Government, state that the 
average extra expenditure involved would amount in 
Behar to Rs. 2,726-14, and in Benares to Rs. 3,609-6. 
The Jjieutenant-Governor desires me to su])port the 
Board's recommendation that the proposals of the Opium 
Commission to raise the price of trash be sanctioned. 

26. In paragra])hs 669 to 671 the Commission adverted 

„, ,, , to the difficulty felt in the 

The nrovjsion ol ^realei" -r, a - j. 

facilities for ^vei^'luuent and Benares Agency urrangnig for 
the establishment of new the weighmeut of opium at 
weiBhnient centres. pj^^^^g convenient to the officers 

of the Opium Department and the cultivators, owing 
to the objections raised by the civil and military autho- 
rities to ihe congregation of ryots within or near civil 
and military stations. The subject is one which can be 
dealt with only in detail, as new weighing stations are 
established. On such occasions the Lieutenant- 

D 2 



Arr. I. 
Uengal. 



28 



INDIAN OPJUJl COMMISHHIN 



App. I. 



Governor -will always be ready to support the Opium 
Depai'tmeut by drawing the attention of tho Uovorn- 
ment of the North-Western Provinces to any unreason- 
able objeetioiis raised by local officers. The Commis- 
sioners further recommended that some additional 
kothees should be provided on a standard plan, probably 
two or three iu Beliar, and a greater number in the 
Benares Agency, adding that this need not be done 
immediately, 'i'ho opium agent of Benares, on being 
consulted by the Board of Revenue on the subject, has 
stated that the Commission's recommendations follow 
bis own views, but has not specified how many kothees 
•(vill be required, and where they should be located. 
The Behar a;Tent lays much stress on the need of 
having more weighing sheds, and of thus lessening the 
great distances which some ryots have to travel over to 
get their opium weighed. He recommended the con- 
struetiou of 13 more weighing sheds. T'Lre Board, who 
generally approved the recommendations of the Com- 
mission, promised a further report as to the number of 
weighing sheds really required, and have stated in a 
more recent communication that they are still in cor- 
respondence with opium agents on these proposals. 
The Lieutcnant-Grovernor has always been iu favour of 
increasing the number of weighmenc sheds, particularly 
by opening a station at every existing kothee, and I am 
to say that on the receipt ot the Board's furDher report 
(letinite proposals on the subject will be submitted to 
the Government of India. 

'11 . In paragraph 672 tha Commissioners stated that 

no arrangements can bo made 

Transit allow.-mce.s and which Would bring the weigh- 

fei™es''°" '""" ^°"*' ""'' ments close to tho home of 
every cultivator. They there- 
fore proposed that the practice which prevails in some 
of the Benares districts, of granting an allowance of the 
ryots for travelling expenses when conveying opium to 
the weighing stations, should be made general through- 
out both agencies, and shotild bo extended to all ryots 
living at a. distance of more than 10 miles from the 
weighing stations. An allowance of one pice per seer 
of opium for every 5 miles or fraction thereof beyond 
tho first 10 miles travelled by the ryots would, the 
Commission conbidered, be sufficient, and its grant 
would be a popular measure involving no great expense 
to the State. They also recommended that cultivators, 
when taking their opium to the weighment stations, 
should be deemed to be travelling on public duty, and 
shoidd be exempted from the payment of tolls at public 
ferries and bridges. The Board have entered fully 
into this question in their letter of the oth March 188.5 
(enclosed), to which I am to invite a reference. The 
Board's argument against the grant of travelling 
allowances to cultivators in the Behar Agency seem to 
the Lieutenant-Governor to be valid. Until the assumi- 
war system can be introduced into Behar (and its 
introduction is at present impossible) such small pay- 
ments would no doubt be absorbed by the amlah, 
and khattadars and the cultivators would derive little 
or no benefit from the proposed concession. In regard 
to Benares, the extension of such allowances would uo 
doubt be popular, but it is not urgently needed. The 
present season, moreover, is not opportune for intro- 
ducing such changes, inasmuch as more opium than 
is required c;i n be obtained without increasing the cost to 
Government. The fjieutenant-Governor recommends 
that upon these points, and also in legard to the sug- 
gested exemption from tolls, matters should remain as 
they are at present in each agency. 

28. The recommendation made in paragraph 673 of 
the report that tlie Benares 
rules regarding the summoning 
of lu)iiherti, issue of attendance 
tickets, and the determination of the oi-der of weighing 
the lumbers, should be introduced in the Behar Agency 
als(j, has been adopted, and the orders necessary for the 
purpose of giving efiect to the suggestion have been 
issued by tho Board. 

2f». In paragraph 674 the Commissioners recommended 

that the procedure to be 

Assamiwar payments ami adopted at opium weitjhments 

menr""""" ™' should be based entirely upon 

the principle that each in- 
dividual cultivator is to be paid for the opium he 
delivers. They attached the greatest importance to the 

maintenance of this principle. 

" By the system of khattadar 
■■ payments as now prevalent in Behar," they said, " the 
'■ law is evaded, and the skilful i.nd industrious culti- 



ProccssPs previou.s to 

weij^luTieiit. 



W(.'if^hm('nts and ii:i> ments. 



" vator is discouraged.'' " There is no leform," in 
their opinion, " more imperatively called for, and more 
" likely to be beneficial, than tho general introduction 
" of a system of assamiwar payments." It is obvious 
that if the assistance of the middlemen is to be dis- 
pensed with, an increased establishment will be neces- 
sary for the classification and weighment of opium, 
and for paying the cultivators, and the Commissioners 
recommended that this should be sauctioned. The 
Benares agent has accepted the scheme as following 
the system introduced by himself, and has proposed to 
try it tenlatively in one or two divisions during the 
current year, and to report the result of a- practical 
trial. The Behar agent, as stated in paragraph 16 of 
the Board's letter of the 5th March 1885, has reported 
that both he himself and all the officers of his agency 
attach the greatest importance to the principle of 
assamiwar payment at the time of delivery of opium ; 
but the Icliatfadari, system has become so firmly estab- 
li.shed in Behar that great caution is required iu intro- 
ducing the proposed reform, He proposes that, as a 
preliminary measure, khattadars should be compelled to 
settle their accounts with cultivators in the presence of 
the opium gomashta. The Board are opposed to this 
suggestion, considering that the system recommended 
by the Commission should be introduced in its entirety, 
or not at all. This important question was discussed 
by the Lieutenant-Governor in paragraphs 36 and 37 
of Mr. MaoDonnell's letter of the 28th June 1884, and 
Sir Rivers Thompson still adheres to the views then 
recorded The more exact and direct system of Benares 
is right, and of the desirability of introducing it into 
Behar there can be no doubt; but in tho abseiice of 
village maps and records, and with the defective village 
agency available, it would be impossible to get rid 
of the kliattadari arrangements of Behar in a day 
without serious risks. The proposals of the Commission 
include an increase in the cost of establishments, for 
which there would be no immediate return. There is 
also much force iu tlie objection made by the Board 
to the tentative measures advocated by the Behar 
agent, that it wouhl be impracticable to maintain the 
system of dealing through middlemen in the matter of 
advances, while abandoning it in regard to payments. 
The want of a proper cadastral survey of districts in 
the Lower Provinces of Bengal affects good administra- 
tion in this, as in many other departments. If the 
cadastral survey- of Behar is ever resumed it will then 
be advisable to make an attempt to assimilate the Behar 
system to that of the Benares Agency, but till then the 
Lieutenant-Governor is reluctantly compelled to re- 
commend the postponement of the scheme. Meanwhile 
it is expedient to await the result of the experiment 
which is being tried in the Benares Agency, before 
deciding whether the proposed system is in its details 
the best which can be adopted, where circumstances 
permit, of direct dealings with the cultivators 

30. The Commissioners in paragraph 677 of their 

Report recommended th a i; these 
™cnT?oJwl^«.tcntt^''"^'- establishments should be more 

judiciously selected and more 
adei(uately paid; that the nsbiive purkhea (examiner), 
who has responsible duties, should be trained and 
nominated by the factory superintendent, appointed by 
tho agent, and sent out from head-quarters to each sub- 
ageney at the beginning of the wcighments. Tlie Com- 
missioners would I'aiso the pay of the temporary mo- 
hurii-.s from Us. 10 to Rs. 15, aud of the davdidars from 
Rs. U to Rs. 7, and would give the head karkhanniiis 
three annas a day, aud the other karl-hannias two and 
a half annas each. The Benares agent has submitted 
to the Board a statement showing the increase of cost 
involved in these proposals to be Rs. 3,648-2-2 per 
annum, and, as this increase is Small, the Lieutenaut- 
Governoi- agiees with the Board in recommendinc the 
proposals of the Cotnmission so far as they concern the 
Benares Agency. The Board have promised to submit 
a further report on the subject with regard to the Behar 
Agency. 

31 . The recommendation contained in paragraph 678 
of the report, that only tagaras of uniform weight and 
size should be used has been accepted by the Board, 
and both agents have been requsted to see that it is 
carried out. 

32. With reference to the Commissioner's proposal 
Miniatnrolioen..,.s. ^"^""^"^ ''^ Chapter IV. and 

. , ^, , , . . paragraph 679) to introduce 

into Behar the miniature licenses in use in Benares 
the Behar agent has reported that previous attempts 
made m this direction have proved failures, and that 



APPENDIX. 



29 



BO long as the hhaitadcuri system continues the procedure 
recommondod by tho Commission will have no chance 
of success. The Board propose to issue orders for tho 
introduction of the system of miniature licenses, but 
only if the assamiwar system meets with tho approval of 
Government. The point was discussed in paragraph 33 
of the letter of 28th June 1884, and it is only necessary 
to state here that in the opinion of tho Lieutenant- 
Grovernor the adoption of miniature licenses, as well 
as assamiwar weighments and payments, should be 
postponed until the cadastral survey of Behar can be 
completed. 

33. In paragraph 680 the Commission, to meet the 
„, . ,. ^ , , growing evil of adulteration, 

.ue'Jll^orttpoSry wev"^'"''- especially in Behar, proposed 
that a tester on Be. 1^ a 
month should be annually appointed by the agent, and 
sent to each sub-agency for the weighment season, to 
assist in determining the presence of alloy by the 
application of cincture of iodine to a solution of a few 
grains of opium taken from each plate. This test is 
carried out throughout the Benares Agency, but in 
Behav in the Patna Sub- Agency only. There are now 
26 sub-agencies, and in paragraph 4 the Lieutenant- 
Governor has recommended the establishment of three 
more in Benares. The cost of 29 testers would, there- 
fore, amount to Rs. 435 a month, or, say, for about 
three months Rs. 1,305. The Lieutenant-Governor 
approves the Board's proposal to cairy out the recom- 
mendations made by the Commission in this matter. 

34. In paragraph 681 the Commission suggested that 

, „ , . , . opium of inferior quality 
opur.' " ^'"'"™«f<«''"f'^™'- should be sent with separate 
challans. At present opium 
is classified according to consistence, not quality ; and 
inferior opium, unless actually adulterated, is sent to 
the factory under the same challan with good opium. 
It is passed at the weighment station according to its 
consistence, but is liable to the imposition of a penalty 
by the opium examiner at the sudder factory. This 
procedure appeared to the Commission to be opposed 
to the spirit of the law, Act XIII. of 1857, section 12 
of which gives the cultivator a right to object, if he 
pleases, to the classification of his opium by the district 
officer. The Commission considered that when opium 
has been passed as good by the district officer the 
examiner at the sudder factory should have no power 
to impose a penalty upon it as being of inferior quality. 
In such a case the cultivator receives no notice ; the 
proceedings of the examiner are conducted in his 
absence, and he gets no intimation of them till the 
final adjustment of his account, when inquiry is im- 
possible and remonstrance useless. This the cultivator 
naturally looks upon as a hardship. The Commission, 
therefore, recommended that a separate challan form 
should be used for opium, which the testing officer at 
the weighment station may class as inferior, notice 
being given to the cultivator at the time in the same 
manner as is done in the case of suspected opium. 
Opium sent in from the district as inferior should be 
liable to such penalty as the opium examiner may 
adjudge ; but no opium passed as good by the testing 
officer should be subjected to any penalty at the sudder 
factory. When opium iis found at the factory liable 
to penalty, the Commission propose that a notice 
should be sent to the district officer, and through him 
to the cultivator concerned. The Board have directed 
the agents to adopt the recommendation to send in 
inferior opium with separate challans ; but it does not 
appear that they have finally accepted the whole of 
the Commission's suggestions under this head. The 
Lieutenant-Governor has requested the Board to favour 
him with a report on the working of the new system 
when it has been in operation for a year. 

35. The Commission's suggestion (in paragraph 682) 

to cause the surface of the 

Surface opium in the lar to be „„•-,,„ •„ „v, •„„ i„ i 

smoothea. opmm ni each jar to be 

smoothed, to prevent the 
upper layer drying up in a temporary .=tate and 
becoming unfit for manufacture into a provision cake, 
has been adopted in both agencies. 

36. KhurcJia, which is confined to Behar, is a cess 
„, ,.,... . ,, , , paid by the cultivators to the 

IcMan '^""" hhattadars, and eventually it 

is shared between the Ichatta- 
dars and the hothee amlah. The rate varies from 
annas 12 to Rs. 2-8 per bigha, and the whole sum is 
supposed not to fall short of 4 lakhs of rupees. Kurchan, 
or the first scrapings of the cultivators' plates, is a 
recognised perquisite of the lumherdar. The maximum 



rate allowed is 14 chittacks per maund of opium. In 
Behar the hhaltiuiar who gets hhwraha is comparatively 
indiilcrent about the khurclmn, and receives much less 
on this account than the lumberdar in Benares. Tho 
latter, who gets no khuroha, that cess being unknown 
in tho Benares Agency, insists upon his scrapings, and 
in some divisions his main remuueration is derived 
from this source. In 1881-82 the khattadars in Behar 
received about Rs. 50,000, or Rs. 2 each, on account of 
hhurchan, while the Benares lumbcnlars received about 
Rs. 1,80,000, or Rs. 6 each, in this way. The lumberdars 
in both agencies receive from Go^'ernment a commission 
of Rs. 1 a maund for all good opium delivered by their 
assamis, the aggregate annual amount of which averages 
about Re. 1,00,000. In the Benares Agency hhurohan 
appears to be regarded as a grievance by the cultivators, 
and the Commission received numerous complaints in 
regard tcj it, but the Behar ryots acquiesce in both 
cesses, and preferred no objection before the Commission. 
The Opium Commission recommended that the levy of 
both kliurcha and hhurohan be forbidden, and that the 
commission paid by Government to the lumberdars 
should be raised from Rs. 1 to Rs. 4 a maund. The 
amouiit of commission drawn annually by the lum- 
berdars being estimated at an average a lakh of rupees, 
the adoption of this proposal would entail an additional 
cost of three lakhs a year on Government. The Opium 
Commission insist strongly on the necessity of the 
reform, which they say could be carried out without 
difficulty in the Benares Agency, though in Behar the 
suppression of khurclia could only be effected by reso- 
lute determination on the part of Government and 
its officers. In paragraph 39 of his letter of 28th June 
1884, Sir Rivers Thompson remarked that the system, 
as described by the Commission, cannot be defended, 
and that our efforts should be directed to its abolition. 
It appears, however, that the ryots, even after the 
deduction of the dues of the middlemen, get a fair 
price for their opium, and at present at least more of 
the drug than is required can be got on the terms now 
offered. It would, therefore, be a mere waste of public 
money to give away three lakhs of rupees without 
receiving some equivalent. The opportunity of the 
next revision made in the ]irice of opium may be taken 
to fix it with reference to the proposed abolition of 
kliurchii and kliwrclian, and the proposed change can 
then be introduced without actual loss. 

37. jSTo change in the present practice wiU be made 
in respect of the second application of the iodine test, 
discussed by the Commission in paragraph 605 of their 
report. Their recommendations in the matter of jars 
and baskets (contained in paragraph 686) have been 
commended to the attention of both agents ; and the 
suggestion made in paragraph 287, that paynients 
should be made in whole rupees, has received the 
support of the Board at the approval of the Lieutenant- 
Governor. 

38. In paragraph 688 the Commission remark that 

,. ^ , .^ the rates of payment at 

Pavnieuls according to classm- ..„„;„t . .-^^ ^ A u p i 

caiiunattlie time of weighment. weighment time should fol- 
low the purrukhing or testing 
officer's classification. The present rule is to pay at 
the rate of Rs. 5 per seer for opium of Class I. and 
above. There are three classes above Class I., and the 
Commission recommend that opium of Class I. 
should be paid for at the time of weighment at Rs. 6, 
that four annas a seer should' be added or deducted for 
each claps above or below Class I. The Board, after 
consulting the opium agents, are of opinion that no 
change should be made until the strength of the 
European establishment can be materially increased. 
They add that when this is done the question might be 
reconsidered. The Lieutenant-Govei'nor accepts the 
Board's view on this point. 

39. In paragraph 689 the Commission suggest that 

the stamp duty chargeable 
Remission of stam}i duty on on the receipts given by 
^ald™*?hem:""'^*' '"' ™™'^ opium cultivators or thei'r 
representatives for money 
received from Government may be remitted by an 
order under section 8 of the Opium Act I. of 1879. 
The Board of Revenue point out that by notifications 
issued by the G overnment of India, from time to time, 
the following instruments have been exempted from 
stamp duty : — 

(1.) Agreements by ryots for poppy cultivation ; 

(2.) Bonds executed by the sureties of lumberdars 

and khattadars for advances ; and 
(3.) Security bonds from gomashtas and other native 
employes for personal attendance. 

D 3 



App. I, 
Bengal. 



m 



Indian opium commission : 



Apt. I. The Board now recommend that the lnmberdars and 

khattadars (the representatives of the ryota) should be 
exempted from the payment of stanap duty on receipts 
given by them. The Lieutenant-Governor desires to 
support this recommendation. 

40. The recommendations of the Opium Commission 

in paragraphs (590 to 715 of 
The factory buildings at ^n ■ „p„„rt, rpo-nT-rliTio- the 
Ghazipore and Patna. l'^^^^ report; 1 egaramg vne 

raotory buildmgs at Grbazi- 
pore and Patna, have been considered by this Govern- 
ment in communication with the Board of Revenue and 
the agents. The work recommended by the Commission 
at the Patna Factory, with the exception of extension 
of the reservoir supply, as to which the Public Works 
Department of this Government have made further 
revised proposals, have been sanctioned, and most of 
them have already been carried out. With regard to 
the works recommended for the Ghazipore Factory, 
I am to say that administrative sanction has been 
accorded to them, and the Government of the North- 
Western Provinces and Oudh have been requested to 
issue the necessary orders for their execution as soon 
as funds can be provided by the Government of India. 

41. It is stated in the report that the responsibility 

for the careful and efficient 

The relative positions of the management of the factory 

asents and of ,the factory , °, ^ -ii .i f 

officers. ought to rest with ;the agent, 

and as corollaries to this 
principle it is recommended that communication be- 
tween ■. the agents and principal assistants (factory 
superintendents as the Commissioners would call them) 
should be free from official formality, and if not con- 
ducted orally, should be by half-margin letters or 
memoranda. While thus entirely subordinate to the 
agent, the factory superintendent should be supreme 
within the factory ; should, subject to the agent's 
veto, have the appointment of all ofiicerB employed in it 
at a pay of E.s. 160 and under, and should be consulted 
on the appointment of others. The Board of Bevcnue, 
after consulting the agents, lecommend that the pro- 
posals of the Opium Commissioners in paragraphs 718 
and 719 of their report maybe sanctioned, "Boai'd" 
being substituted for " Director-General." The Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, in paragraph 41 of the letter of the 
28th June 188 1, expressed his entire concurrence in those 
recommendations. The Board have already instructed 
the agents to desist from correspondence with the 
principal assistant by official letters, and to adopt the 
form of communication recommended by the Com- 
mission. The agents have also been told that in 
addressing the Board copies of notes or letters from 
the principal assistants should not be submitted, but 
the pdrport of all communications from these officers 
should be embodied in one complete report from the 
agents, except in cases in which the principal assistant 
reports in the capacity of opium examiner, and in such 
cases the Board have directed that the statements sub- 
mitted and the views expressed by the principal assist- 
ant should be forwarded with any remarks the agent 
may have to offer. 

42. In paragraphs 720 to 729 of their report, the 

Opium Commissioners ex- 

The qualifloations to be pos- press their views in regard 

Sents!' ■■' "'''""■ to the qualifications that 

should be expected from the 
officer appointed to the post of factory superintendent, 
and the means to be adopted to secure qualified candi- 
dates for the appointment. The Lieutenant-Governor, 
in paragraph 42 of the letter of the 28th June 1884, 
has given his entire support to the proposals made 
under this head by the Commission. 

43. In paragraphs 730 and 731, the Commissioners 

recommended that the posts 
tendeiC* '"*'"''' '""'""" of assistant factory super- 

tendent (as they would call 
the " head assistant " at both factories) should be filled 
from the junior ranks of the opium service, and that 
the pay of the appointments should bs Es. 4-50 for the 
junior and Bs. 500 for the 'Senior man; that candidates 
for the appointment should be required to produce a 
satisfactory certificate of a six months' workshop course, 
and of having passed an examination in chemistry of a 
standard to be from time to time laid down ; that the 
assistant factory superintendent being considered 
completely subordinate to the factory superintendent 
under whom he is serving, all communications between 
the two officers should be by word of mouth or by hali- 
margin order book or notes ; and that the assistant 
factory superintendent should be from time to time 
transferred from one factory to the other. The views 



of the agents and the Board of Revenue on these pto- 
])03als are detailed at length in the Board's letter of 
the 9th January 1886, to which a reference is solicited. 
The Board give a general support to the Commission's 
proposals. In the Lieutenant-Governor's opinion the 
changes proposed form a necessary corollary to the 
suggestions made in connejdon with the appointment 
of factory superintendent. The appointment of as- 
sistant junior superintendent should be made by the 
Board, subject to the control of this Government, who 
should also determine the standard of chemical know- 
ledge to be required, 

44. At Ghazipore the office establishment of the 

principal assistant is at pre- 
Kactoryofaee establishments. ^^^^ divided into a corre- 
spondence branch and an audit department. The Com- 
missioners, in paragraph 733 of the report, expressed 
their opinion that there are objections to drawing any 
definite line of this kind between departments of the 
same office, and they therefore proposed to abolish the 
distinction now maintained at Ghazipore, and to orga- 
nise, at both factories, an establishment sufficient for 
the entire office work, which properly devolves upon 
the factory superintendent, including the audit of the 
cultivators' accounts. They considered that the salaries 
of several of the clerks and mohurirs might be raised, 
especially those of the head auditor and the head 
mohurir, who, they remarked, have important and 
responsible duties to perfoi-m. A statement showing 
the office establishment which they recommend for 
each of the factory superintendents is given in para- 
graph 734 of their report. There is at present no 
separate audit office in the Behar Agency, and the 
Board agree with the agent in holding that none is 
required. For the office establishment of the principal 
assistant at this agency the Board submit a proposition 
statement prepared by the agent, showing a total cost 
of Rs. 522 as compared with the Rs, 615 rising to 
Es. 715 recommended by the Commission. The pro- 
posals are submitted for the orders of the Government 
of India, with the proposition statement annexed ; but 
the Lieutenant-Governor cannot support them. There 
seems no special reason why the salaries of the officers 
specified should be raised, and an addition made to the 
ministerial staif, at a time when the tendency is to the 
reduction of the cost of administration. 

45. The assamiwar system of payment for opium in 
force in the Benares Agency no "doubt renders the 
audit of mofussil accounts a matter of greater importance 
and difficulty than it is in Behar, and the Lieutenant- 
Governor agrees with the Board and Mr. Eivett-Carnac 
in thinking it undesirable to amalgamate the audit 
office at Ghazipore with the principal assistant's 
office, and give the head auditor other duties of a 
general nature to perform. As to the other details of the 
proposed changes in office establishment, which resolve 
themselves into u, general increase of salaries. Sir 
Elvers Thompson considers that the proposal of the 
opium agent (endorsed by the Board) to raise the cost 
of the establishment from Es. 488 (not, as stated by 
the Commission in paragraph 734 of their report, 
Rs. 559) to Es. 800 is not sustained by adequate reasons', 
and that no increase is required in the present scale. 

46. At the Patna Factory there are an assistant 

The factory assistaal.' °Pi^™ examiner on Es. 300 
establishments. and a laboratory supormtend- 

ent on Rs. 1 50. At Ghazipore 
the appomtment of an assistant opium e.\aminer on 
Rs. 250 rising to Rs. 350 a month was sanctioned by 
the Government of India in the Financial Department's 
orders, No. 2 14, dated 14th April 1885. The Commission 
recoinmended that the salary of the assistant opium 
examiner at each factory should be fixed at Rs. 250 
rising by annual increments of Rs. 20 to Rs. 35o'; and 
that failing a competent candidate from the ranks of 
the Opium Department, the appointment should be 
thrown open to persons of good character and physique. 
In Benares there is no permanent officer to assist the 
assistant opium examiner in the laboratory work • 
and the Commission suggested that the number of 
permanent factory assistants should be increased bv 
one, and that at both factories the assistant best quali- 
fied for the duty should lie selected to act as labora- 
tory superintendent, and should continue to do so until 
he attains the rank of second factory superintendent 
on a pay of Es. 175 a month. As reg^irds the pay and 
position of 1h<j rest of the factojy assistamts, the Oom- 
raission recommended the abolition of the house-rent 
allowances, and (at Patna) of the commission on the 
outturn of chests, by which the present salarifs are 



APPENDIX. 



81. 



supplemented. A statement, allowing the existing 
establialimoni and'tho changes recommciidod bj- the Com- 
mission, is given in paragraph 739 of the report. About 
one-half of the proposed increase in expenditure in Patna 
will bo covered by savings to be effected in the cost of 
extra establishment (which in 1881-82 amounted to 
TAs.2,6A4),plu8 a fuvthoi- annual saving of some Rs. 700 
owing to the proposed abolition of the commission now al- 
lowed to the factory employes. TheLieutenaut-Guvovnor 
sees no objection to the substitutionof fixed for occasional 
establishments, or of increased salaries for charges in 
the form of commission ; but it is not apparent why 
the occurrence of snch a change should be taken ioc 
augmenting the total cost to Government. He is not, 
therefore, able to support these recommendations iu 
their present form. 

47. It is stated iu paragraph 74-1 of the report of the 

Commission that the snbor- 
Jt^^^^^T'''"^ dinate native establishn.ent 

(purkheas, sirdars, Ac), at the 
Patna Factory requires thorough revision, both as re- 
gards strength and rates of pay. The establishments 
as at present sanctioned, and as recommended by the 
Commissioners, axe shown in paragraph 741 of the. 
report. Tlie total yearly cost of the e.'jtablishment 
recommended by them will come to Rs. 6,318 as against 
E.S. 2,Vi28, the present cost ; but against this increase 
must be set a saving in temporary establishments esti- 
mated at Rs. 883. If the scale proposed by the Com- 
mission is accepted, the net annual increase in ex- 
penditure will amount to Rs. [6,318— (2,928 + 885)=] 
2,505. The Board of Revenue, after consulting the 
Behar agent, support the Commission's proposals; with 
the following modifications : — (1) that the first and 
second purkhea and the head sirdar should receive pro- 
gressive salaries of Rs. 26 to Rs. 50, Rs. 15 to Rs. 30, 
and Rs. 20 to Rs. 30 respectively, instead of the fixed 
salaries of Rs. 50, Rs. 30, and Rs. 30 recommended by the 
Commission ; and {-] that in place of the compounder 
recommended by the Commission, a selected assistant 
hospital compounder, deputed from the regular m.edical 
staff, be employed. The Lieutenaut-G-overnor does not 
consider that the necessity for any increase in the cost 
of establishment has been established, and the proposals 
of the Commission, which include the raising of the 
pay of the two purkheas fourfold, seem to be extrava- 
gant. 

48. The Commission would reduce the salaries of the 

two purkheas at the G-hazipore 
The subordinate native staff Factory from Rs. 70 and Rs. 50 
at the Gazipore Factory. , „ r>n j -n Ar\ 

to Rs. 60 and Rs. 40, respec- 
tively ; and they think Rs. 45 an unnecessarily high 
salary for the head sirdar, for whom they would fix pay of 
Rs. 35. There are 54 sirdars on the permanent staif at 
Ghazipore, a number which, for the reasons given in 
paragraph 746, the Commission would reduce to 45. 
The existing subordinate establishment at G-hazipore, 
and that proposed by the Commission are shown in 
paragraph 747 of the Commission's Report, the total 
monthly cost of the former being Rs. 705-8, that of 
the latter R?. 610. The Benares agent, while concur- 
ring in the Commission's recommendations, suggests a 
regrading of the factory sirdars at an extra cost of 
Rs. 17 per month compared with the Commission's 
proposals. He also recommends that the laboratory 
stoker, who is employed all the year round in cleaning 
the factory boiler, should be brought on the permanent 
establishment on Rs. 7 a inonth. The Board of Revenue 
have accepted the modifications proposed by the agent, 
and they are approved by the Lieutencnt-G-overnor. 

49. The present establishments are described in 

paragraphs 346, 357, and 358 
Fire-brigade establishments, of the Opium Commission's 
Report. The Commission re- 
commended that the strength of the Ghazipore corps 
should be raised from 24 to 48 men, at an increased 
monthly cost of Rs. 24 ; that at Patna an allowance of 
Rs. 30 a month should be made to one of the factory 
assistants for taking charge of the fire-brigade ; that the 
monthly allowance to the Patna corps should be 
increased from Rs. 1-4 to Rs. 1-8 per man, at a 
monthly cost of Rs. 12 ; and that the allowance of Rs. 2 
to the khalasie should be withdrawn, and the pay of each 
of the two mates increased from Rs. 6 to Rs. 6. The 
Behar agent recommends that the proposals of the Com- 
mission be carried out. The steam-engines, the agent 
states, should remain in charge of the superintendent 
of the saw-mills, who is the only person at present 
competent to keep the machinery in working order, and 



a man should be employed on a salary of Rs. 12 to work 

them. The only uniform required will be a coloured 
topee and a badge to be worn on the arm, the cost ,of 
which is estimated by Mr. Zemble at Rs. 1 per man, or 
Rs. 50 per annum. The Benares agent is strongly in 
iavour of the Commission's recommendations. The 
Lieutenant-Governor agrees with the Board of Revenue 
iu recommending that the proposed increase in the 
fire-brigade establishment in both factories may be 
sanctioned, as also the annual expenditure of Rs. 50 for 
the uniforms required for the fire-brigade at the Patna 
Factory. The increased establishment now recommended 
has been included in the proposition statement sub- 
mitted. 

50. The Opium Commissioners recommended the 

siibstitntion of a police guard 
Tlio Gliazipore Facloiy Kuard. for the burkundaz guard at the 

Ghazipore Factory ; and the 
agent concurs in their views. He has submitted a 
proposition statement, showing the cost of the proposed 
police guard, the strength of which, he says, has been 
fixed by the Deputy Inspector-General of Police, North- 
Western Provinces, on visiting the factory and seeing 
tbe number of sentries required. The statement shows 
that 77 men are to be employed at a total yearly cost of 
Rs. 7,338. With regard to the question of searching, 
the agent states that as the Police Department hold that 
a police sentry armed with a musket cannot satisfac- 
torily conduct the search of persons leaving the factory, 
he I'ecommonds that a special establishment be employed 
for the purpose. This establishment will consist of one 
duffedar searchej' and five searchers, and its total yearly 
cost, including clothing charges, will be Rs. 550. 
The present establishment costu Rs. 5,652 a year, 
so the total increase per annum will be Rs. 2,236, the 
details of which are shown in the appended proposition 
statement. The Lieutenant-Governor has no objection 
to the substitution of a police guard for the present 
burkundaz establishment, but considers that the cost of 
protecting the factory should not exceed the present 
limit of expenditure. 

51. The Commission recommend considerable in- 

creases to the wages of cake- 
The wn,i,-s of cnke-mnkcrs makers at both factories. The 

jBoard ot Revenue, however, 
and both agents, are opposed to any increase in the 
rates at present paid for cake-making ; but the Board 
support a suggestion made by the Behar agent that an 
increased lale of five annas per 100 cakes, or 320 cakes 
per rupee, in place of the present rate of 520 cakes per 
rupee, should be given for the repair of cakes at the 
Patna factory. At this rate the extra cost is estimated 
at Rs. 1,252 per annum. ,. The Lieutenant-Governor 
supports the Board's recommendations. 

62. The Commission considered the salaries of the 

oflBcers employed in the saw- 

Savi--raill establishniMits i,t ^^^ ^.q be sufficient, but they 

the Patna Factory. i. • j /! i ii- •' 

t refrained from submitting any 

definite recommendations on the subject, as arrange- 
ments were at the time in progress for the extension of 
■the mill. This extension has since been completed, and 
the Behar agent has now submitted his scheme for in- 
creasing the strength of the establishment at an addi- 
tional cost of Rs. 353 per mensem, or Rs. 4,236 per 
annum. It is proposed — 

(1.) To raise the salary of Mr. Girling, the superin- 
tendent and engineer of the saw-mill, from Rs. 400 
to Rs. 500 per mensem ; 
(2.) To employ an assistant engineer on Rs. 125 iu lieu 
of one assistant to engineer on Rs. 60, and one 
boiler-maker or second assistant to engineer on 
Rs. 40 per mensem ; and 
(3.) To increase tlie number of circular sawyers, &c. 
in consequence of extension of the saw-mill. 

With regard to Mr. Gir ling's pay I am to say that the 
Opium Commission, in paragraph 759, while considen. 
ing a salary of Rs. 400 sufficient for the post of super- 
intendent, observed that should it be thought desirable 
to reward the good service which the present superin- 
tendent has rendered, such recognition should be made 
in the form of a personal allowance. The Behar agent 
now strongly recommends that an addition of Rs. 100 
be made to Mr. Girliiig's salary from 1st January 1886. 
Mr. Girling was appointed as engineer to the Patna 
Faciiory on the 1st June 1869 on a salary of Rs. 300 per 
mensem ; and when the Saw-mill and Chests Depart- 
ments were amalgamated, his salary was raised to 
Rs. 400 per month from 15th February 1878 under 
sanction of the Goverpment of India in their Financial 

D 4 



AppI. 



3i2 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. I. 



Department letter, No. 3303, dated 2Gth Septem)3er 
1877. The Board now recommend that this salary maj' 
either be raised to Rs. 500 per mensem, or that a pei'- 
sonal allowance of Rs. 100 a month be granted to him. 
The Lieutenant- Grovernor thinks that Mr. Girling's long 
and meritorious service in a responsible post justifies 
this increase, lie approves the other proposals of the 
Behar agent regarding the increase of the saw-mill 
establishment. 

63. With regard to the code of rules for the working 
of the factories referred to in 
faSls. ""' ™*'"« °' paragraph 761 of the report, 1 
am to say that the Lieutenant- 
Grovernor can only re])eat the j-emark made in paragraph 
44 of Mr. MaoDonnell's letter of the 28th June 1884, 
that it may be provisionally accepted, but that until 
orders have been passed on the report, it will not be 
possible to formally sanction the code. 

54. The question of purchasing Malwa opinm for 

excise purpose (vide paragraph 
Purchase of Malwa opium. 762 of the report) has formed 

the subject of a separate corre- 
spondence with the Government of India, and the 
Lieutenant-Governor has, in my letter, No. 1433 T. R., 
dated 22nd October 1886, recommended the discontinu- 
ance of the scheme. The orders of the Government 
of India on this recommendation are now awaited. 

55. After consulting the agents, the Board of Revenue 

bave issued the necessary in- 
accountsr"*"* "^ cultivators' gtructions for carrying out the 

following recommendations of 
the Commission : — 

(1.) That the form of ohallan register in use in the 

Benares Agency should, in a 

nftifjpn''"^"^'^-"?'"'''^'; modified form, be introduced 
or tlie Commission s report. . ,., , ' 

m Behar. 

(2.1 That in Behar the assay of the challan jars and 

the calculation of damdetta contents of each jar 

should, as in Benares, be based upon the re-classi- 

floation of the jars at the factory. 

(3.) That the Behar system of ascertaining the value 

of each cultivator's opium should be followed in 

Benares. 

(4.) That the accounts of the cultivators should be 

audited at agency head-quarters, as is now done in 

the Benares Agency. 

The Board have also directed the Behar agent to have 

a set of tables showing the value of different quantities 

of opium at different rates per seer drawn up for use in 

his agency, as recommended by the Commission, and to 

introduce the system of adjusting the accounts of each 

jar separately into the Behar Agenc}'. 

56. The Commission recommended in paragraph 770 

of the report that the supply of 
Supply oi che.'-t'i. chests for both agencies should 

be left ill the hands of the Behar 
agent. In paragraph 46 of this Government letter of 
28th June 1884, it was pointed out th&t the question 
needs a more thorough examination than the Commis- 
sion gave it ; but the Board of Revenue bave treated 
the subject as briefly as the Opium Commission did. 
The Board have been asked to submit u. full report on 
the subject after consulting the two agents, and a copy 
of the report, when received, will be submitted to the 
Government of India with an expression of the 
Lieutenant-Governor's views thereon. It may be said 
that, so far as the correspondence has been carried at 
present, no case has been made out for a change in the 
existing practice. 

57. The Commission recommended that the reserve 

should never be raised to an 
th?'?f ort P"™*""'"''' "^ °' amount greater than would 

supply the sales of six months, 
and that the proper quantity would be represented by 
the number of chests required for the sales of three 
months, or calculating according to the number of 
chests to be offered for sale in_ 1884, 12,000. The 
Government of India in letter JNo. 1634, dated 30th 
June 1880, concurring with the Government of Bengal, 
had previously prescribed six months' supply, or (60,000 
chests having been sold in the previous year) 30,000 
chests as the minimum number of provision chests to be 
kept in reserve ; and the question has not since been 
re-opened. The Board of Revenue have consistently 
advocated the maintenance of " a substantial reserve," 
but have left the question of its amount to be decided 
by Government with reference to financial considera- 



tions. The Lieutenant-Governor recognises the fact 
that it is impossible to prescribe any definite number of 
chests as the number to be kept in reserve. The quan- 
tity of opinm available for sale must depend in great 
measure on the year's ])oppy crop, which varies with 
good and bad seasons ; and farther elements of uncer- 
tainty are introduced by fluctuations in the Chinese 
market, and, perhaps, by the conditions of the Imperial 
finances, which may reader it desirable to put into the 
market a larger quantity of the drug in one year than 
in another. Sir Rivers Thompson, I'owever, considers 
that both in order to avoid the necessary locking up of 
capital, and with a view to save the opium from the 
deterioration caused by storage for more than one rainy 
season in Calcutta, the principle laid down by the Opium 
Commission should be accepted, that the reserve should 
never be less than a three months' supply, or ordinarily 
oxeeed a six months' supply. 

.58. The Commission proposes that arrangement- 
should, as in paragraph 771 of 
The French concession. the report, be made with the 
French Government to sur- 
render, on equitable terms, the right which it enjoys of 
requiring 300 chests of provision opium to be annually 
reserved for it. This recommendation has already 
been carried out, and a convention entered into for the 
payment to the French authorities at CJhaudernagore of 
Rs. 3,000 per annum for five years, commencing from 
the 1st January 1884. 

59. The Commission's recommendations on this 

subject will be considered in 
Amendment of opium laws, detail as soon as the report 

and remarks and suggestions which has been called for from 

as to ihcir administration. j_t_ t-, j c -d 

the Board of Revenue is re- 
ceived. 

60. With reference to paragraph 4 of Mr. Finlay's 

letter. No. 2565, dated 20th 
Remfue."™ '''' ■^°'''''' "^ August 1885, on the subject of 

the member of the Board of 
Revenue in charge of the Opium Department visiting 
each agency at least once a year, in order that he may 
have an opportunity of conferring with the agents and 
the principal subordinates on the staff of the Depart- 
ment, I am to state that it does not seem to the 
Lieutenant-Governor desirable that a definite time 
should be fixed for the periodical visits of the members 
to the agencies. The Board, however, have been desired 
to give timely notice to Government on each occasion 
of the member's intended visit, in order that such com- 
munications and instructious may be addressed to him 
as circumstances may require. 

61. I am to add a brief summary of the total cost of 

Sumiinrv ^^''' <'^.'^°ges suggested in the 

foregoing paragraphs : — 

(a.) Building of houses for 16 sub-deputy and assis- 
tant sub-deputy opium agents (paragraph 3); 
initial expenditure Rs. 96,000 ; Rs. 3.840 recoverable 
annually as house-rent. 

(6.) Bonus to zilladars and lumberdars (paragraph 4), 
Rs. 4,000 a year. 

(c.) Appointment of additional sub-deputy and assis- 
tant sub-deputy opium agents (paragraphs 5, 6, and 
7), annual cost Rs. 57,000. 

(d.) Establishment for five additional ofiicers (para- 
graph 7), annual cost Rs. 12,513. 

(e.) Increase in establishments of sub-deputy opium 
agents and their assistants (paragraph "12), Rs. 
63,159, subject to a deduction on account of with- 
drawal of the "native assistants' " commission, the 
amount of which has not been precisely estimated. 

(/.) Revision of salaries of the kothee establishments 
(paragraph 1,")), increase of Rs. 2,94,381 per annum. 

((J.) Enhanced rates for trash (paragraph 25), annual 
cost Rs. 6,336-4. 

(li.) Increased pay to tempoi^ary native establishments 
at weighments (paragraph 30) ; in Benares Rs. 
3,648-2-2 annually; in Behar not yet estimated. 

(i.) Employment of iodine testers (paragraph 33), 
annual cost Re. 1,306. 

(j.) Factory buildings at Patna and Ghazipore (para- 
grajih 49). Most of the additions and alterations 
required in the Patna factory have already been 
carried out, and administrative sanction has been 
accorded to all the changes recommended for 
Ghazipore, which are being proceeded with as 
funds are made available. The total cost involved 



IS — 



Ghazipore 



Rs. 

2,20,858 



Patna 



Rs. 

83,176 



APPENDIX. 



83 



fis. 

' (a) 96,000 

01 2,20,868 

83,17(i 



•t,00,031. 



Annually recnrriufi increases. 



{h.) inoreat-e to fire-brigade establishment (paragraph 

49), Es. 986 annually. 
(I.) Incrciisod rates for repair of cakes (paragraph 51), 

Kb. 1,252 per annum. 
TO.) Increase in saw-mill establishment rendered 

necessary by the extensicm of tho mill fjiaragraph 

52), annual cost Rs. 4,236. 

The whole oxpendifcu re 
to be incurred once for 
all amounts to Rs. 
4,00,034,* of which Ra. 
3,04,034 are represented 
by the cost of addition.s 
lo and alterations of 
factory Imildings. The 
annually recurring in- 
creases aggregate Rs. 
4,4S, 816-6-2 (as shown 
in the margin), f of 
which increased cstiib- 
lishments account for 
Rs 4,37,228-2-2, and 
other items of expendi- 
ture, viz., (b),{g), and {I}, 
for the remaining Rs. 
411,588-4. Against tliis 
additional expenditure 
must be set a small 
saving of Rs. 6,900:1 per 
aniiiim in the Behar a)id 
Benares agent's office 
subordinate native staff at 



lis. i 
4,000 
57,000 
12,61S 

2,9-i,;i.si 

(i,3,"ili 
§3,648 



V- 

0(i) 

0(<:) 

0(rf) 

0(e) 

0(/) 

0(sr) 

2(A) 



Es. 

1,305 

SI8I1 

1.262 

K23l> 



P- 

0(i) 

0(A) 
0(() 
0(m) 



•MS.sifi 6 3 



t Behar agent's otRco 
Benares agent's office 
Subordinate native slntt 

at (rhazipoi-e 
Rents recoverable Iroiii 
otficers occupying (lo- 
vcrnmcnl houses - 



Rs. 

1,!M>8 
234, 



3.8W 
C.OOO 
ildilccl 



§ Something will have to be 

for increaiied pa.v of temporiiry 
establishment in Behar. 



establishments and the 

Ghazipore, and on account of rent recoverable from 

officers occupying Government houses 

I have, etc. 
(Signed) P. Nolan, 
Officiating Secretary to the Government 
of Bengal. 



No. 385 B., dated 10th May 1886. 

From C. E. Buckland, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Secketary to the Government of Bengal, Revenue 
Department. 

With reference to Government order No. 150 T. R., 
dated 30th April 1884, communicating the consent of 
his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor to the Board, 
taking into consideration and submitting suggestions 
for giving effect to the recommendations made by the 
Opium Commission on certain minor matters connected 
with the administration of the Opium Department, and 
in continuation of paragraph 3 of the Board's letter 
No. 25B, dated I3th January last, I am directed by the 
Board of Revenue to submit, for the orders of Govern- 
ment, the following suggestions in connexion with the 
Commission's proposals in paragraphs 622 to 624, 629, 
and 630 of their report. 

2. In paragraph 622 of their report the Opium 
Commission recommend that — 

(1.) The house-rent allowances to opium district 

officers be equalised. 
(2.) The Director-General be permitted to award » 
few bonus allowances yearly. 

With regard to (1), the Commission recommended in 
paragraph 623 of their report that to officers for whom 
separate offices are provided by Government, but who 
are obliged to live in private houses apart from their 
offices, should be allowed — 

Rs. 20 a month, if the officer is a deputy agent ; 
Rs. 15 a month, if he is an assistant agent ; 

that to officers housed in buildings which are the pro- 
perty of Government no rent be charged ; and that to 
officers for whom no separate office is provided, an 
allowance, out of which they must provide sufficient 
office accommodation, be made, to a deputy agen t of Rs. 30 
per mensem, and to an assistant agent of Rs. 20 per 
mensem. As regards bonus allowances the Commission 
recommended, in paragraph 624 of their report, that 
Rs 13,500 should be placed annually at the disposal of 
u 82810. 



the Dii'ector-General, to be distributed by him with the; 
advice and counsel of the agents as follows -.— 

Rs. 
To 5 deputy agents, Rs. 1,000 each - . 5,0(J0 

To 6 assistant agents, Rs. 500 each - - 3,000 

To 6 ditto, Rs. 250 each - - 1,500 

To ilcscrving lunibardars and zilladars, Rs. 

2,000 in eacli agency - . . 4,000 



A pp. I. 
Bengal. 



Tot; 



13,500 



Both opium agents wore asked to consider these 
recommendations, and to lurnish tlie Board with any 
remarks they might have to offer. 

3. The Behar agent is strongly in favour of equalising 
the houso-rent allowances for opium officers, both for 
sub-deputy agents and for assistants. He reports that 
in the Behar Agency no officer receives any house-rent 
allowance ; officers Ijiving at the head-quarters of dis- 
tricfs have, as a rule, to provide their ow;i houses. At 
Arrah, and up to the present time at Mozafferpore, the 
sub-deputy agents living as single men have been 
allowed to reside in a portion of the opium building, 
paying about Rs. 30 per mensem as rent ; but at other 
opium stations, which may be also the head-quarters of 
civil districts, no suitable accomodation is available in 
the opium buildings, and the opium officers, being 
married men, have to pay a high rent for their houses. 
At opium stations which are not head-quarter." of civil 
districts, such as AUeegunge, Tehta, Burhurwa, and 
lia,jeepore, commodious bungalows are providetl by 
Government at a rent of Rs. 30 per mensem. This dis- 
tinction, the agent says, is invidious. If he wishes to 
move the sub-deputy agent from AUeegunge, where he 
occupies an excellent bungalow with commo lions out- 
officts and a vciy large garden, the propeii y of fiuvcrn- 
ment, at an almost nouiinal rent, to, say Bankip,;re, 
where lie would have to pay at least Rs. 80 fur a small 
ill-situated house, he naturally makes objections. The 
agent does not think that the proposal made by the 
Commission will improve matters. He is of opinion 
that the fairest and most liberal plan would be to have 
a bungalow for the sub-deputy and a smaller one for 
the assistant attached to the opium offices at evci-y head- 
qnartei'; and where this cannot be done, he suggests 
that Government should hire a house in the station. 
In either cise the sub-deputy should pay, as at present, 
a cent of Rs. 30, and the assistant of R^. 10 per mensem. 

4. The Benares agent is of opinion that any step to 
equalise house rent will be a luuve in the right direction, 
a.-, the eharge on this account is now very unequal at 
different places, lie thinks, however, that the pro- 
jMisals of the Commission will hardly constitute an 
ihipMivement, as at some stations house rent is very 
high, while at others a good bungalow can be obtained 
at a very low i-ate. He says that to give sub-deputies 
Rs. 20 a month all round towards house rent would suit 
an officer stationed at Sitapore, but would be no con- 
cession to a sub-deputy stationed at Allahabad. The 
best plan, Mr. Carnac thinks, would be to provide, as at 
present, a suitable house for office and residence, the 
rent being paid by the Opium Department, ihe sub- 
deputy being charged Rs. 25, and the assistant Rs. 10 
per mensem towards the rent. Mr. Carnac adds that the 
accommodation available for assistants in some places' 
is hardly worth the Rs. 10 now paid, and the rooms 
would have to be improved. 

5. From the above it will bo seen that the proposals 
of the Commission in paragraph 623 of their report will 
not meet the difficulty by equalising the house-rent 
allowances of opium offices. The only way this could 
be done appcirs to be that suggested by both agents, 
viz., that nouses should be provided and the officers 
charged rent at an equal rate ; and the Board recom- 
mend that this suggestion be .lanctioned in preference 
to the proposals of the Opium Commission; the rent 
payable by a sub-deputy they would tix at Rs. 30, and 
t'lat by an ass'stant at Rs. 10 per mensem. The Board 
consider that such an .arrangement is desirable for the 
improvemcuit of- the present state of affairs, and in the 
interests of the public service. 

6. The Behar agent is not in favour of the Com- 
mission's proposals to grant bonus allowances. He is 
<if opinion that the distribution of bonus allowances to 
a few specially selected officers is certain to lead to 
jealousy, heart-burning, and discontent, and will render 
the service generally more out of heart than it is at 
present. The agent thinks that the members of the 
service will be well satisfied if they feel that, if they 



:U 



INDIAX OI'U;.M CiiM-MISSlOX 



App. I. work honestly, 1 hey will be duly ailvauced to the hi^lR■I■ 

grades iu their tiiiiu, and thattho controlling authorities 
will be able to secure discipline and got good enough 
work out of their subordinates by keeping back pro- 
motion from ihose who are Lizy and inefficient. Tbo 
agent does not think that the gift of a bonus yearly of 
a few hundred rupees will either strengthen the hands 
of the Board or the agent, secure better work from the 
Bub-deputies, or put any heart into the Department 
generally. Much more satisfaction, he thinks, would 
be created by increasing the i)ay of the higher grades, so 
as to place the officers in the C)pium Deiiartment more 
on an equality with those in 'the police. The agent 
adds that even the otlicer who is entrusted with the 
allotment of the bonus bo ever so well-intentioned, 
he must be more or less influenced by favouritism. 
Possibly, if he wa^ a personal friend of the man 
generally considered the best sub-deputy, he would 
hesitate to allot the bonus to him. Anyhow, the allot- 
ment of such a bonus would be a difficult and invidious 
duty. 

7. The Benares agent states that he apprehends 
great difficulty in giving satisfactory eil'ect to the 
scheme so far as the Europe.an officers of the Depart- 
ment are concerned. The money might, he thinks, be 
more profitably spent in creating a higher grade. He 
is in favour of providing one or two appointments in 
his agency of lis. 1,000, or even Es. 1,200 a month, 
the promotion to which would not depend upon 
seniority, but for which officers would be selected in 
recognition of real good work. He says that this would 
not only mean increased salary, but increased pension, 
and many oliiccrs in the Department would lie induced 
to work steadily for this goal from an early period of 
their career. Mr. (Jarnac is in favour of granting 
rewards to lunib:iidaiv and zilladars. The Board, I 
am to state, agree in the objections urged ])y the 
agents against the Commission's proposal to grant 
bonuses to the superior officers of the Opium Depart- 
ment, but they advocate the proposal to grant rewards 
to lumbardars and zilladars. Whilst admitting the 
objections to again re-adjnsting the salaiios of the 
several grades of bub-deputj' opium agents, the 
Board would ask Government to make a gi-ade of two 
officers on Es. 1,000 a month, to be divided between the 
two agencies. The proposition statement sulimitted 
with reference to the Commission's proposals to increase 
the number of sub-agencies has been prepared in 
accordance with this recommendation. The Board 
think it necessary at present to discuss the mode iu 
which selections for promotion to the vacancies in this 
grade should be made. They leave this matter to the 
consideration of Government, should the proposal 
receive the sanction of the Secretary of State. 

8. The Board also requested the Benares agent to 
report on the recommendations of the Opium Com- 
mission contained in paragraph 629 of their report, to 
increase the immber of sub-agencies in the Benares 
Agency. Tlie agent reports that, though the t'mn- 
mission's proposals, if adopted, would be an inipi-ove- 
mcnt in the position of the agenc}'^ as it at piesent 
exists, he does not think that their sclieme, large as it 
is, is sufficient. Mr. Carnac remarks : — 

"Inlaying the subject before the Commission, and 
in j-eporting for the information of the Board and the 
Government, I have o^er and over again presented the 
disadvantages under which we labour in this agency 
as compared with liehar. It appears necessary to state 
briefly again hero the position of the two agencies, 
without noticing which the insufficiency of the present 
proposals would be hardly apparent, 

" The system obtainiTig iu Behar, and in which I 
believe the agency was originally started, is somewhat 
as follows : — A sub-deputy opium agent is entrusted with 
a circle of cultivation of such a size as can conveniently 
be overlooked. This officer settles with the cultivators, 
receives and weighs their opium, assisted by the native 
staff. If the cultivation of a district is very consider- 
able, the district is divided among two offictrs. 
Generally, however, ». charge is conterminous with 
the district. In Behar the sub-de[iuty agent is a dis- 
trict officer who is responsible for the work in his district, 
and by whom the settlements and weighments are con- 
ducted. The sub-deputy has an assistant attached to 
his division, but this officer is an assistant properly so- 
called, that is to say, hois entrusted with no independent 
work ; he assists the sub-deputy working under his eye, 
and performing .such duty as may be assigned to him. 
He has thus an opportunity of learning his work nnd 
gaining experience before he is placed in indcpcjidunt 



c;harg(;. In the Benares Agency, however, the system 
is quile different. In the beginning, I nndersland, the 
sub-deputy had bis circle and his assistant. By degrees 
however, as the agents desired to increase the cultiva- 
tion, and to obtain results as cheaply as possible, the 
assistants were pnshed into ont-districts, and by degrees 
became sub-deputies on their own account, with tho 
salary and title of assistant. Matters have improved 
of late years, but when I first joined the agency the 
sub-deputy, besides having a circle of his own, conter- 
minous with the revenue district, would also have four 
so-called assistants under him, each in charge of the 
opium in a revenue district. Besides the pay and name 
already noticed, the only difference between the sub- 
deputy and assistant was that the assistant corres- 
ponded through the sub-dcpufcy with the agen-t, and 
that the sub-deputy was supposed to exercise a general 
control over his semi-independent assistants. This 
control consisted, and still consists, in the sub-deputy 
opium agent marching during the cold weather through 
the assistant's charge, and inspecting his work. But 
as a svdj-deputy has a circle of his own his hands are 
(|uite full during the weighments and the settlements, 
so that during these all-important times, when control 
is most necessary, the assistants are quite independent, 
and perform the work of sub-deputy opium agents. 

"All this is ))ad enough, and the objection is fully 
recognised by the Commission. But a sjsecial dis- 
;idvantage of the .system has perhaps not been fully 
brought out. The staff of this agency is so strictly 
limited that even with the four probationers there is 
absolutely no margin to veer and haul upon. The 
assistants here do not pass Ihruneh several jears of 
apprenticeship under the instruction of the sub-dejjuty 
opium agent as in Behar. If the season is sickly, and 
several officers have to go on leave, it miiy be iiccessary 
to place an inexperienced assistant in charge of the 
weighments, and to expect a young man, who has 
worked perhaps not six months in the Dcp irtment, to 
undertake duties which iu Behar would be entrusted to 
a full-blown sub-deputy, with an assistant to help him. 
The system in this agency, bad as it is, has more by 
good luclc than anything else worked without any 
disaslcr. But tho insnilicicncy of the staff in this 
agcne\ , and the great risk at wbich the work is carried 
on, has necessarily impressed itself on the Commission. 
'Pheir recommendations, though they go some waj', do 
not, I would submit, go far enough. It sounds well 
enough to have two districts grouped together under a 
sub-deputy with the assistant to help him. If these 
two districts would be thoroughly worked by a sub. 
deputy, with an assistant in training under him, the 
proposal would be good enough ; but the area of a dis- 
trict is quite as mucb, indeed a great deal more, than 
an officer can supervise. If two districts arc joined 
together, it must then come to this, that as regards the 
supervision, the assistant will be nearly independent. 
As regards the settlement and the weighments, the 
Commission seem hopeful that the sub-deputy with 
one assistant will gene'rally be able to supervise these, 
and by the increase in the rnpidity of the weighments 
it is hoped that tlie sub-deputy and his assistant will 
be able to weigh first in one disti-ict, and then go into 
the other, and that the cultivators and every one will be 
satisfied. 

" Eegarding this, however, I am not so sanguine. 
In some of the smaller districts this would be possible, 
but in most of the others the difficulties would be very 
great. Tube, for instance, tbe first in the list, Ghazipur 
and Ballia. If the sub-deputy and assistant were to 
commence to weigh at Ballia, and then go on to 
Ghazipur, or vlce-versii, the cultivators in one or other 
ol' those districts would be kepi waiting at least a 
fortnight, and the discontent would be very great, to 
say nothing of the risk of delay inducing the cultivators 
to part with the drug illicitly. If the districts weigh 
separately, the assistant is .i, sub-deputy in everything 
but name, and if the present system is retained, he will 
be pitch-forked into a semi-independent charge before 
he has had any training." 

9. The agent states further that if full and satis- 
factory arrangements are to be made, and if the 
Benares Agency is to be placed on the same footing 
as the Behar Agency, the proper plan would be to 
place all the larger districts in charge of 8ub-dep:ity 
0]iium agents. To some of those an assistant would 
be given; others would not recpiire a second officer; 
while in some cases, ^vhere the eultixation is small, two' 
districts might be formed into one sub-agency. A 
staJ.emeut is submitted herewith, showing the tlis- 
Iribulion of the sub-agencies as p'opused by the agent, 



APPENDfX. 



35 



and the area of oultivjition in each, from which it will 
be seen that, according to Mr. Carnac"s ])r(jiios;ils, tlicro 
will he 26 Kub-agcncies, with '16 snb-deputy opium 
agents, and 27 assistant suli-ilcputy opium agents. 
It will also be seen from this statement that the area nf 
oialtivation in the proposed sub-agencies of Eallia, 
Hamirpur, and Agra-, will bo comparatively small. Bo- 
sides the 27 assistants above referred to, the agent 
proposes to employ an additional assistant as his 
personal assistant. A second statement showing- the 
distribution of the. sub-agencies, and the area of culti- 
vation in each as proposed by the Opium Commission, 
is also submitted. I am to state that the Board, al'tcr 
carefully considering the question, would support the 
proposals of the Opinni Commission, as it may be 
assumed that they have gone carefully into the whole 
question, and satisfied themselves as to the sufficiency 
of the staff they propose. The Board's views on the 
subject of the appointment of a personal assistant to 
the Benares agent ha\e already been expressed in 
paragraph )i of their letter, No. 37B., of 12th January 
1885, to which I am to invito attention. 

10. The attention of both agents was iilsn drawn to 
paragraph 630 of the Opium Commission's report, re- 
garding the increase in the number of assistaniis to be 
employed, and they were requested to favour the Board 
with their opinions on the proposals contained thei'ein. 
A reference to the paragraph quoted above will show 
that the Commission's proposals are that there should 
be 36 assistants attached to the Benares Agency, and 
10 to the Behar Agency ; that appointments to the 
grade of assistants should be made by Government, 
but till he has ])asscd his cxaminatiojis, an officer 
should rank aa a probationer only; Ihat the agent 
should see that a. probationer has proper opportunities 
for qualifying himself to conduct settlements, &c. ; and 
that it should be made a rule that an assistant is not lo 
be placed in charge of a snb-division, unless he has 
been at least three years in the Department, and has 
passed his examinations in all subjects, and then only 
when the agent has certified him to be competent to 
undertake the duties. 

11. The Behar agent reports that be is most decidedly 
in favour of allowing a permanent assistant to cacLi 
sub-deputy agent. He states that if the districts are 
properly looked after, there is work for more than one 
assistant, e.(/., in 0,\a and Shaliabad. in Patna there 
has hitherto been no assistant ; but from the ex])crience 
he has gained, the agent is satisfied that one European 
officer cannot properly supervise this large and im- 
portant district. The agent is of opinion that if the 15 
assistants are allowed to Behar, there should be no 
necessity for employing temporary extra hands at 
weighments — a system which he does not approve. 

12. The Benares agent thinks it necessary to place 
assistants under sub-deputies to learn the work and 
gain experience before they are given the work of 
weighments , and settlements. He agrees with the 
Opium Commission that until an officer has parsed 
his examinations he should rank as a probationer 
only ; but he advocates that it should also be insisted 
on that all candidates for the Opium Department 
should pass through the test of extra assistants during 
the weighments, during which period, he says, an 
excellent opportunity is afforded of judging the young 
man's merits. He states that the number of candidates 
is large, and from the best workers among the extra 
assistants a good selection might be made. Mr. Carnac 
is of opinion that no assistant should be placed in semi- 
independent charge until he has had an opportunity of 
learning his work under a competent sub-deputy opium 
agent ; but he thinks that the three years' probation is 
quite impossible, when there are no spare officei'S in 
training, and when the number of officers is only the 
same as the number of posts to bo filled, bo that when a 
vacancy takes place it must be filled fvom outside. 
This difficulty, it is said, is enhanced by the system of 
competitive examination for admission into the Opium 
Depai'tment recently ordered by Government. 1 am 
to state that the Board would support the proposals of 
the Opium Commission, contained in paragraph 630 of 
their report, regarding the number of assistants to be 
employed in each agency. 

13. The agent's proposal that candidates for the 
Opiv.m Department should pass through the test of 
extra assistants during the weighments is, I am to 
say, inconsistent with the existing rules according to 
which candidates for a.ppointment to the Depai'tment 
have to j)ass a preliminary examination at Calcutta, 
and is therefore admissible. 



14, A proposition statement prepared in accordance 
with the proposals contained in paragraphs 629 and 6;iO 
of the Opium Commission's report, and paragraph 7 
■s/ijmt has been submitted through the Accountant- 
General of Bengal for verification of the present scale 
of establishment. 



Distribution of the Sub-Agencibs pboposed by the 
Opium Agent, Benaees. 



App. I. 
Bengal. 



No 



Remiii-k.s. 



Division. 



Sill'-lH\ isicm. 



1 (rliazipore - 



2 Bulliah 



I 



Ghazipnrr 

Sycdiiorc - 
Z am a 111 ah 

Bulliah 



3 Kr 



Azani^arh- 



5 Gorakpnrc 



f BL-)i;in's 

.-{ ' Cbfindowli 

1 ' 

L. ^lii-7,ti,porr 



f Ay/iiiiiL-.-irli - 

I Ghoosi 
J I 

j Nuprah 

L Jaunpore 



f riin-ikpon- - 

I l'!l(.■l■^^.■lh 

i BhaKiilpurc 

I Gnlali - 



Fat eh pore 



I Cawiiport- ■ 



10 



Hamirporc 



11 I Manipuri 

12 I Etawah 

13 Bareilly- 

It ^[oonnlabnrl 



Tat eh pore 
Bandah 

! 

fl Cawnpore 

I ! 

-■{ Aukiii - 

L, Rurah 

I 

r I Hainirpore - 

- ' Manipuri - 

1 

Etiiwali - 



liiirliris, JJigliiis. 



.-,,(MX 
7,SHl 



l'i,'i;i-J 



l.d.ll 
B.is:i 
7,1 ;i3 

•VJlii 
(i,.5:ir, 
S^47 

7,lll(i 
7,s.-jS 
S,li7.j 



f 


Bmli 


- 1 llWtl 




Bans! 


.1 IWoS 


Busti 


Donipriasunj 


- 1 ^fiiU 




Khnllilaba 


6,U17 




Amorah 


ll,34fi 


Allahabad - - j 


Allahabad 

Sars;i 


' 6.293 
.5,660 



■iii.a.jii 1 



11,943 I 1 



11, .174 

1.491) ' 
12,R-3 I I 

2,746 
14,7)4 I 

5,410 1 

22,6711 ' 1 

I 

1,017 
3.176 



16,786 



4,193 



i6,7Si; , 1 



20,805 
I 20,803 



Shahjehanpore ■ I 10,216 
Barellly 16,678 



26,894 



!Mooradabad 



902 



i^ Budaon 



2ll,,5:i4 ; 
1 21,436 ! 1 



E 2 



36 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. I. 



No Division. 



Sub-Division. 



ir> Ah'A-drh 



16 Atrni 



17 Sitapore 



19 Luckuow 



20 Barubanki 



Aligarh 
Etah 

A'^r.i 
:\lullira 

r Sitiipore 
L Kheri 

Harfloi 

I Lucknaw - 

( Unnn 

I Bai'Mliiinki 



Tolal. 



Remarks. 



Bigiias. JJiL-^lias. 
1,604 : 



■-',5 IS 




50(1 


.'i.lli'S 


1 i,k:ji 




■i',i;i.3 


r.i.i7!i 


1*,I01 


it.dii 




31.924 


21!i2i 


■21.7117 





No; Divigioii. 



21 F.yzabad 



22 j Gondah 



2'3 SuUanpoi'o - 
21 PiTlaliKaih 



I . Rji.i Barcil'y 



2ti i Fatehgavh 



Sub-Diviiion. 



- ' F,yzabad 

{Gondah 
Bahraitch 

- Sultanpore 

Pertabgarli 

( I B.a.i Bareill.v 
(, j Salono ■ 

Fateligarh 
Bhoz])ore - 

Grand total - 



Bighas. 
17,152 



22,081 

7,364 

12,136 



27,232 
13,884 

9,.966 
12..542 



Total. 



Bighas, 

17,162 I ,1 

t 

2'J,435 ' 1 

12,43(3 ; 1 

20,031 I 1 

41,066 1 

22,-KIS 1 



Remarks. 










Zi 












p 




JH 


"m 






V/ 


< 



2(J I 27 
I 



DlRTKIBUTION OF THE SuB- AGENCIES I'KOrOSED TiY THE Ol'lU.M CoM :i[I.S^10.N 



Ghazipoff 



(nirakliyjorc 



Bitsti 



A^.fin.f^arh 



Siili-Division. 



fj Gliazipore 
Sycilpuic 



L Ealliali 



r 



Gornkhpovc 

riolali 
I lili;i^ni!pnrp 
I I l';iMi.T\v,i]i 

Ban SI 

Dooinei'ingunj 

Khjililabad 

Ainorah 

.\7iiiiip:ai'li 
NuKi-a 

Jaunporo - 



Benarrs 

Chniiifouli 
L Mir/aixii'' 



.'\lhl,ll 

Aiva of 
l.aiiil 


uiidi'j- 
I'lipi'.v 
Ciiiliva- 

tioii. 


Bighas. 

i;,32.S 


.-,,ois 


7.si.:i 


— :,^-'^' 


7.0 k; 


(;,:i.5o 


s,ii7.j 



:i(i.«20 

i:i.:i44 
3,')58 
5.(104 
."i,'.ll7 

ii,.'i4(; 

4(i,-M0 

.1.21(1 
3.047 
(1..-.3.5 

:i.2(;2 
2o,i;.i t 



1,031 
0.1.S3 j 

7. 1 0.1 
14.100 



I)i\fbinn. 



.\nalialad 



Fiilrli|„,ie 



( awoifHire 



Ktawah 



Fariikhahad 



Aligai-h 



Moradabad 



Sub Uiviyioo. 



' Sar.si 



C Fali'lijioiT 
C I Biiiida 



^ Caw iipni-c 
; Kuni - 
Jalour 
Hamirpoie 



L 



Etawah 
Agii, 



fi Falchgarh 
Bobjporn » 



-■1 
I I Aukir 

L IMainpury 



A dual 
A era of 
l.and 
under 

l'n|,py 
Cultiva- 
tion. 



( R'^mnrks, 



Bigbas. 

6,293 I Including 

Kerwi sub- 

5,650 I division of 

1 Banda. 

11,94;! : 



11.374 
1,490 
12,873 

2.746 
5,410 
3,176 
1,017 
12.349 

20,S05 
2.54S 



23,353 



9,866 
12,.543 
14,714 
16,786 



63,908 



p Aligarh 




1,604 


1 Flab 




«,S13 




1 8,417 


C jMofadal 


id 


902 


( Budooii 




20..-34 



APPENDIX. 



37 



DivisioiT. 



Suh Divi^'on. 



Actual 
Area of 
Land 
llinlc.r 
I'lippy 
Cnltivii- 
lion. 



Rareilly 



SiUpore 



■{ 



Jj\icVnow 



Rai BareiUy 



Sultanpore 



Fyzabad 



■{ 



BareiUy 
Shahiehanporu 



Sitapori' 

Hardoi 

Klieeri 



Luck now 
TJnao 
Bara Banki 



Ejii Barcilly 
Salone 



Sultanpore 
Partabgarh 



BiKlias. 
10,21(i 

16,«78 




21,921 



1 1 



C Fyzabad 
J, I Gonda 
Bahraich 



Tot a; 




that tho agent must know better than anyone what his 
require III onts are, and tho Board arc therefore inclined 
to accept Mr. Carnac'e proposals. The agent has, 
accordingly, under the Board's orders, prepared and 
submitted a proposition statoinunt (forwarded through 
tho Accountaut-G-eneral for verification of the present 
scale of establishment), showing the establishment 
according to the scale proposed by him, and from which 
it will be seen that there will be an annual increase in 
the cost, amounting to Rs. 1,632, ana I am to request 
the sanction of G-overnment thereto. 

;i. As regards the question of allowing a personal 
assistant to the Benares agent, 1 am to say that the 
Board are inclined to think that Mr. Carnac has made 
out a good case in support of the retention of this 
appointment. The Benares agent has a larger' number 
ot ofKoors to deal with in his aj^'oncy, and his travelling 
over a wider area necessitates a longer absence from 
head-quarters than in the Behar Agency. If, there- 
fore, his Honour the Lieuteniiut-Governor is pleased to 
allow the Benares agent the services of an officer as 
personal assistant, the Board would suggest that it 
should be on the distinct uuderetanding that the 
number of sanctioned assistants will not be increased 
on that account, and that no officer is to be appointed 
to that post who is in receipt of a salary of m.ore than 
Rs. 300 per mensem. This will, the Board consider, 
ensure at least au occasional change in the personnel 
of the appointment. 

4. The Board also agree with the Benares agent in 
the view expressed in paragraph 7 of his letter, that 
the Treasury office should be part of his own office, and 
they have accordingly included it in the proposition 
statement. 



Ape. I. 
Bengal. 



JSTo. 37 B., dated 12th January 188.5. 

From 0. B. Buckland, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Secketabt to the Government op Bensal, Revenue 
Department. 

Undeb the sanction conveyed in Government order, 
No. 150 T. R., dated 30th April 1884, to the Board's 
taking into consideration and submitting suggestions 
for giving effect to the recommendations made by the 
late Opium Commission on certain minor matters con- 
nected with the administration of the Opium Depart- 
ment, the Board called upon the opium agent, Beniires, 
to report whether tho proposals made by the Commission 
in paragraphs 634 and 63-5 of their report in regard to 
his office establishment could be carried out at once, 
and, if so, to submit a proposition statement in the 
usual form. 

2. The Benares agent has submitted a report,* a copy 
of which is herewith submitted for 

2Srd Juf ^ir''' '^''^''^ *^® information and orders of 
' ^^ ■ Government, from which it will be 

seen that Mr. Oarnac's views on the subject are not in 
accord with the recommendations of the Commission, 
and it is not easy for the Board, who can have no know- 
ledge of the detail working of the Benares agent's 
office, to decide between the two. The question, more- 
over, is not made clearer by the hesitating manner in 
which the Commission's proposals are put forward. In 
paragraph 634 the Commission state that it is some- 
what difficult to understand the existing strength and 
cost of the establishment of the Benares agent, and in 
paragraph 635 they only submit a provisional estimate. 
Qjl the other hand, it would not, the Board consider, 
be unreasonable under the circumstances to concede 



No. 164—2064, dated 23rd July 1884. 

Prom H. Rivett-Carnac, Esq., C.I.B., Opium Agent of 
Benares, to the Secketary to tjie Boaed or 
Revenue, Lower Provinces. 

1 have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter, No. 182 B., dated 19th ultimo, calling for a 
proposition statement of my office establishment if the 
proposals regarding the establishment made by the 
Commission can be carried out at once. 

2. In my opinion it is impossible to carry out the 
proposed changes at once, or indeeil at all, owing to 
reasons to be detailed further on. 

3. The remarks of the Commission in regard to my 
office appear to have been based on a misapprehension. 
During the whole period of the Commission's stay here 
they did not go through any single branch of my office, 
and the subject was never discussed with me. Had 
this been done, it might have been possible to have 
saved the Commission from some of the misconceptions 
into which they have fallen. 

4. It docs not appear to me that the great difference 
between the work of this agency and Behar has 
received sufficient notice. The Benares agent has to 
deal with work in 39 districts with 60 European sub- 
deputy and assistant sub-deputy agents, exclusive of 
those at the factory. Nearly all the assistants are in 
semi-independent charge, and each suVimitting reports 
on important subject-j. The Behar agent has to deal 
with nine districts and 22 officers, while of the assist- 
ants one only ;s, I believe, in semi-independent charge. 
The difference will be understood when it is explained 
that in each district questions continually arise regard- 
ing weighments, settlements, buildings, &c. The 
personal work in regard to promotions, leave, transfers, 
&c., is increased by the number of the officers. The 
large number of the sub-divisions, necessitating ac- 
counts, travelling allowance, bills, &c., and the deal- 
ings with 39 treasuries, make account work very heavy, 
and nearly all these subjects have cimtinually to come 
up before the agent, 'fhe agent himself, having an 
enormous area to supervise, has to be absent from 
Ghazipore for a great part of tho year, and cannot 
remain in the centre of the ring fence of his cultiva- 
tion as the Berar agent can. For all these reasons he 
certainly requires a stronger office establishment than 
Behar ; and a personal assistant is also necessary. It 
is beUeved that no head of a department, with the 
number of European officers with which the Benares 
agent has to communicate, is without a personal 
assistant. Having been here a long time, and knowing 

E 3 



3S 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App.I. 





. Cosscrat. 
, ( ),slifiriie. 


rrrvious to my) , 
joininfi: tliR De-1 ,; 
partnicnt. 


, Genua?, dr 
, lUi!iMlh;im 

, .litnii'S 
, I'l-ati. 
, 'J'.\tlcr. 

, i;rotP. il'T 
, KiiN.lMl.'. 




1,1,0-,!. 
, i';itr]-son. 




, Luanl 

. Hastings. 

, Ivfiinedy, 



names given will show. The 
quite mistaken in sui^posing 



the districts and officers personally, I may not require 
a personiil assistant drawn from the line of the Depart- 
ment so much lis an opium agent newly appointed 
might. But an .-igent who is not drawn from the body 
of the Department, and who has no knowledge or 
experience of the weighments, the settlements, and 
their complicated forms and procedure, should certainly 
have some officer at hand who has served in every 
branch, und knows each detail, of the district work 
thoroughly. Apart from this, the large body of Euro- 
pean officers of the Depai'tment can communicate more 
easily on many points with the personal assistant, one 
of themselves, than they can with the agent, and a 
good personal assistant can do mucli to advise and 
inform the agent on points that might otherwise not 
come to his notice. 

•J. The Commission labnur under an entire mistake 
in regarding the appointment of personal assistant as 
having been created by myself. The mistake appears 
to have originated .from one of the Commission having 
once been stationed at G-bazipore, and having had an 
idea that no personal assistant then existed. As a fact, 
however, Mr. Paterson, an assistant in the line, was 
the personal assistant wlicn J joined in 187-^, and had 
been acting in that capacity from several years pre- 
viously, and the sub-deputies and as.si.^tants named in 

the margin have all 
fJIr. .5.nnsti'oiiK. at difi'erent times 

served in the agent'.s 
office as head assist- 
ant or personal assist- 
ant, be the post called 
what it may. Had 
the Commission in- 
quired on tlie subject, 
it would ha.ve been 
found that in reality 
the appointment dates 
back to 1837, or nearly 
50 years ago, as the 
Commission, too, are 
that I have unfairly 
deprived the district of the services of a good nffioci-. 
Of the personal ah'sistants of m)^ time, Mr. Patterson, 
on going hi the districts, was succeeded by Mr. Luard. 
wiUi whom I went fully into the question of settle- 
ments, resulting in the drawing up of the detailed 
rules, nuips, register,-, &c.. wliich have since been 
adopted in b(ith aL^oncios. Then came Mr. liryson, 
\^lio accompanied me tin'ough the dislrjcts of the 
Aligarh Division, was shown by me on the spot what 
was required, and tiierc and then sent to start the new 
Aligarh Division. .Eis smoessDr, Mr. Hastings, in like 
manner accompanied me to Snltaupore, was set to 
work, and assisted me in unravelling the Sultanpore 
frauds, was employed on special duty in prosecuting 
the case, and then sent to form the new division there. 
Subsequently, on his return to me as personal assistant, 
he was thoroughly instructed in the details of the 
Malwa scheme, which he has since successfully worked. 
and in connexion with wliich he has constantly been 
absent fi'om my office. Although it may be said that 
good men have been selected by me and instructed so 
as to take up urgent and special work, the results of 
which have fully justified my action, it cannot fairly bu 
said that I hare nu necessarily taken away good men 
from the districts to assist me in my personal work. 
The remark about my liaving appointed an officer who 
is a sort of private secretary and aide-de-camp i.- 
deserving of notice on account of its inaccuracy. The 
personal assistant is undoubtedly a sort of secretary to 
the agent, but the appointment was created years before 
I came here as opium agent, and has been utilised 
with advantage. As to the aide-de-camp, there are, 
perhaps, few officers who i-equire less than myself that 
such duties, ii' to be performed at all, should be under- 
takiii Ijy the personal assistant, inasmuch as 1 have 
ai-tachod to me an officer of the Army, as Adjutant of 
the Volunteers, who could most efficiently perform the' 
duties of aide-de-camp, if required. 

6. For these reasons I would propose to retain the 
personal assistant, more in the interests of my successor 
than of myself. 

7. The office certainly cannot be reconstituted as pro- 
p.isixl with the head accountant in charge of both 
accounts a,nd correspondence offices. In Beliar, where 
wiirk i^ much less heavy, and the system has Ijcen iu 
foi'ce for many years, the arrangement may work well 
enough. But the liead accountant here is an officer of 
28 years' service, who has never done anything but 
])urely account work, a.nd has no sort of knowledge of 



the correspondence and records, without which he will 
be of little use as head of the office. On his retirement 
some ari'angement might be possible. But the heavy 
account work of this agency would always necessitate 
an experienced and well-paid officer in special charge of 
that branch. The agent's office is in reality weak and 
ill-paid, and insufficient for the growing wants of the 
agency. It stands now on the same footing as when 
reconstituted more than 25 years ago, when this agency 
was a sort of outlying work of Patna, yielding but 
20,000 maunds with 160,000 bighas of cultivation, and 
employing 10 officers. Now wo have grown above 
50,000 maunds of opium with a cultivation of more 
than 400,000 bighas scattered over :!9 districts, while 
thi.s year we have reached 68,000 maunds. There are 
therefore, I consider, good grounds and excellent 
reasons for strengthening the office by endeavouring to 
attract men of a better stamp than we can at present 
obtain with the very small salaries which we offer. With 
this object I would propose, for the consideration of 
the Board and the Government, the scheme shown in 
the annexed statement A, in lieu of tliat suggested by 
the Commis.sion. The increase in expenditure, which 
it exhibits over the latter, is due mainlj' to what I have 
above said in regard to the retention of the personal 
assistanceship. If my proposal in. regard t(j the latter 
be accepted, it will be necessary to continue the present 
arrangement of having two distinct offices, and con- 
sequently two separate superintendents. Even if the 
offices were to be rolled into one, the necessitj- for two 
superintendents would remain, and, in fact, would be 
even greater than under the proposed arrangements, 
for the work of the two branches is so distinct, and 
complex that one man, even under the orders of the 
head of the office, could hardly be expected to properly 
supervise both. Moreover, the Treasury statt', which 
has been included by the Commission in the factory 
establishment, has hitherto always been considereil 
part of the agent's office, and I have accordingly, for 
purposes of comparison, included it in the scheme. 
The salaries I have proposed for the clerks in the office 
are, on the whole, rather lower than those recommended 
by the Commission ; but I do not think they will be 
insufficient to attract the services of good men, espe- 
cially if the hope be held out to them of rising in time 
to a well-paid superintendentship, instead of as would 
be the case if the Commission's recommendations were 
adopted to a head clerkship only. In regard to the pay 
of the superintendent, I do not think the rate proposed 
b}- me is too high. The work of a superintendent in an 
office like this is extremely onerous, and requires a man 
of both ability and education to perform it satisfactorily. 
Indeed, on him a very great part of the heavy work 
falls. It being also the highest post a member of the 
ministerial stall can hope to attain to, it is highly 
desirable to attach to it a salary which may induce 
good men to enter the office. 

8. The present sanctioned e-vpenditure of the office 

(including the Treasury) 

*^;:lts: ■^;ri^^^; 7>"::::!, ii^^- -202. The cost of 

Audi's Office ,',s it stood in ilic tUs establishment, ac- 
uearWM. cording to the scheme 

proposed by me, will 

rise from Es. i,0&i to 

itspoiidence Jiranch— Ks. i!,413, Or a mean cost 

v^sl;:^a';r'd;«o'™' ^^ of es^ 2,-38. The add. 

ALcoimts BianL'h ;i3y tional expenditure will 

Tve;isiir.v - i,-,.s accordingly be purely 

,2',|,,x nominal, while it will 
i — be seen that if the Oom- 
mission's proposals be 
accepteil, the cost will actually be considerably below 
that at present sanctioned. Moreover, it will be seen 
from the figures given in the margin that for the past 
30 yeai-s there has Ijeen practically a very slight increase 
lu the cost of the office, so that I trust that at a time 
when it is proposed to increase largely the expenditure 
on account of the other establishments of the agency, 
the very slight additional charge proposed by me 
in regard to my own office may not l)e considered 
unreasonable. 

9. I have in my No. 1(53—2063 of this day's date 
spoken strongly as to the necessity of increasing the 
]iay of the Native officers of the district establishments. 
What I have said in regard to thcni applies equally to 
my own office staH'. 

10 As th- lucre.iscd expenditure propnscd by me is 
snnill, I would ask whether it would not be possible to 
lii-mg the revised scale of pay into operation without 
Jrlay. It IS obvious that the sooner a change, which i,= 



.\gent's Office. 



Total sanctioned 



Rs. 



Al'I'KNDlX. 



39 



sure to bring w Ith it suoli a dooidod iiiiTeasc in I'llicii'ncy, 
is Lnlrodiicrd tlie 1ieU,ei' ; uud altlioui;ii tlio licavy addi- 
tioiaal expeiidilnrc involved in tho (limiMiission's pro- 
posals in regard to the district ostablishmonts may 
retard the introduction of the improved scale of pay 
into the districts, this consideration does not a,fl[Vct the 
scheme I have now proposed. 



1SS4. 



No. 78 B., dated 31st January 1885. 

From C. E. Buckland, Esq., Officiating- Secretary to 
the Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Secretarv to the Govjsenmknt of Bengal, Revenue 
Department. 

With reference to the proposals of the Opium Com- 
mission, described at length in paragraphs 636 to 645 
of their report, for the revision of kothee establishments 
and establishments of sub-deputy and assistant salj- 
deputy opium agents, I am directed to submit hi're- 
with, for the consideration and orders of Government, 

a copy of a liitter noted in 
\o, iia- iiiiiS, (lilted 22.UI July the margin, from the opium 

agent, Benai'os, setting 
forth his views on the subject. A copy of a proposition 
statement in the prescribed form, showing the proposed 
scale compared with the ])resent sa.nctioued scale of 
establishments in the Benares Agency, has Ijcen i\)r- 
wardcd to the Accountant-General of Bengal for 
verification of tho present scale and submission to 
Government. The proposals for tho revision of estab- 
lishments in the Behar Agency will bo submitted later, 
as soon as revised statements, which some mistakes and 
discrepancies rendered neoessai-y, are received from tho 
agent. 

2. The Board were at first inclined to consider the 
proposed scale of salaries too high, but on a full con- 
sideration of the matter they have accepted the Opiam 
Commission's proposals. In recommending these pro- 
posals for the sanction of Government, I am to point 
out that the gomasta in some good sub-agencies, such 
as ISTowada, Gya, Tehta, Belkhana, and others in tho 
Behar Agency, where tho ]u-actice of part payment by 
commission still obtains, draw, witk commission, on an 
average from Rs. 102 to Rs. 164 a month. As the object 
of the proposed increase of salaries is to impro^-e thi' 
status of these officers generally, and to fix a Scale of 
salaries adequate to the responsible duties which di.'vnlve 
on them, the proposed scale cannot be considered 
excessive. 

3. As regards the sub-deputy agent's clerks, I am 
to observe that the salaries proposed for them exceed 
by Rs. 10 only those fixed for the clerks of district 
officers, and that as pointed out lay Mr. Carnac, tho 
prospects of clerks in the Opium Department are not 
nearly so good as those of officers of the same class in 
district offices, 

4. Should the scale of salaries proposed by the 
Commission receive the sanction of Government, the 
existing practice of payment by commission will be 
discontinued in all departments. 



No. 163—2063, dated 22nd July 1884. 

From H. Rivett-Caunac, Esq., C.T.E., Benares Opium 
Agent, to the Seceetaby to the Boaed or Revenue, 
Lower Provinces. 

I HAVE the honour to s cknowledge the receipt of your 
letter. No. 181 B., dated 19th ultimo, calling for a report 
on the recommendations of the Commission regarding 
the office establishments of the sub-deputy and assistant 
sub-deputy opium agents of this agency. 

2. In reply, I would commence by stating that I 
concur generally witli the opinions expressed by the 
Commission on the subject, with the members of which 
the position was discussed by me. The insufficiency of 
the salaries allowed to tho ministerial staff of this agency 
has been long and universally acknowledged, and the 
Board are aware that both my predecessor and myself 
have, on several occasions, made strong representations 
on the subject. 

3. The sohenae submitted by the Commission entails 
a great increase of expenditure. But that such increase 
will ensure efficiency, I have no doubt. It is quite true 
that the work has long been carried on at a much lower 
cost, and that sufficiently successful results might per- 
haps still bo obtained without any great increase. Still 
if the subject is to be thoroughly considered and the 



Department placed on a souiul footing, I agree with the 
rennxrks of the Commission thai, " half tho benelit will 
" not accrue liy spending half the money." It would 
not bo difficult to suggest a little cutting down hei'o and 
a small reduction thei-e. But this wenld be with the 
certain prospect of reducing tho results aimed at by the 
Commission. The amounts entered show, I believe, 
what is really required. If the Government say that so 
much cannot be gixen, and that only a certain sum can 
bo granted, then on learning that sum I will do my best 
to arrange my proposals accordingly. 

4. As regards the salaries proposed for the clerks 
„ , ,, , ', . , ... ,^^ noted in the margin, and 

to which my special at- 
2ndclork 70 tention has been drawn 

Sfd „ 80 by tho Board, I would 

5th :; - ai, rising to lis. 111. de.sire to state that after 

comparing the proposals 
with the salaries drawn by i Icrks in other departments, 
I am not inclined to recommend any alteration in tlie 
Commission's recommendations. 

The junior clerks on the establishment of the district 
officers in the North- Western Provinces and Oudh draw 
at the rate oF Rs. 60, Rs. 50, and Rs. 40. It would 
therefore appear that the Commission recommend in 
the case of the second clerk of the sub-deputy agent's 
office only Rs. 10 in excess of what a clerk of the same 
grade receives in the district office. But, as a fact, the 
clerks of the Revenue, Judicial, and Civil Courts are 
much better off than those of this Department. The 
clerk in the district office commences at Rs. 40 it is 
ti'ue, but he has not onlj' one head elerk.ship in the office 
to look to. He may rise to the head clerkship of any 
one of the departments in the office; and, il a good 
man, he has before him the chance of a tchsildarship, 
or even a deputy collector.ship, besides a prospect of 
being selected for a post in the office of the Commis- 
sioner or Board of Revenue, or secretariat. For the 
collector under whom he serves and who knows liis 
merits, may become commissioner, or secretary, or 
member of the Board of Revenue, and may remember a 
really useful man. The chances of a clerk employed 
in the office of a sub-deputy opium agent are quite 
different. 

6. Now, too, that deputy collectors are being selected 
from amongst the ministerial officers, the prospects of 
this class of officers have very considerably improved. 
But even if a clerk could not rise to a gazetted 
appointment, there is such a large number of higher 
appointments in the establishments of the district ad- 
ministration in tho North-Western Provinces and Oudh 
that his promotion must necessarily be very much more 
rapid than a clerk in the Opium Department can expect. 
If the scheme proposed by the Commission be sanc- 
tioned in its entirety, there will be only 18 head clerk- 
ships on Rs. J 00 to Rs. 150 and a few better paid 
appointments in the offices at Ghazipur to which a 
qualified junior clerk could aspire. This limited num- 
ber cannot bear am' comparison with the number of 
higher appointments in the district administration for 
which the clerical establishment is considered eligible. 

7. The Opium Department, as at present constituted, 
is not at all popular in these provinces. No native of 
any education would think of seeking employment as a 
clerk. We, as a rule, get third-rate men with very little 
education. Considering that the standard of qualifi- 
cation is constantly rising, and having regard to tho 
fact that knowledge of the English la.nguage, not only 
of copying English word, is becoming essential in 
every office of imijortance, I am of opinion that the pay 
in the lower grades should be fixed at the rates pro- 
posed by the Commission to induce men of education 
and of good family to enter the Department. 

8. I have no knowledge how the rates proposed com- 
liare with those sanctioned for the offices .in Bengal. 
But it must be remembered that the circumstances of 
these provinces differ from those in Bengal, and that 
the salaries paid here, and not those of Bengal, must 
be the standard of comparison. 

9. I hardly understand that I am called upon to 
remark upon the allusions made by the Commission to 
the prevalence of " dustoori " among all grades. It is 
an undoubted evil, and every endeavour has been and 
is made to check it. Although endeavours should not 
be relaxed, I must state my conviction that the evil will 
never be thoroughly eradieated until the character of 
the people of India is entirely changed by the advance 
of education, and until the climate on which that 
character to some extent depends, also undergoes a 
change. 

E 4 



App. I. 
Bengal. 



40 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



App. 1. No. r,:.^ B., d;itpd Calcutta, the 2:!rd September 1884 

From C. E. Huokland, Esq., Offioiating Secretary to 
the Board of Revenue, Lower Piovinces, to the 
Seceetaky to tub Government or Bengal, Revenue 
DeiKirtmont. 

With reference to Governmbnt Order, No. 150 R., 
dated 30th ^Vpril 1884, communicating the consent of 
his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor to the Board's 
taking into consideration and submitting suggestions 
for giving effect to the recommendations made by the 
late Opiu7n Commission on cerlain minor matters con- 
nected with the administration of theOpium Department, 
I am directed to state that the Board have obtained the 
opinions of the opium agents, Behar and Benares, in 
regai'd to the recommendations contained in Chapter 
IV. of the Commission's leport, ami to submit the 
following for the consideration and orders ol' Govern- 
ment. 

■2. In paragraphs 647 to 650 of their report, the Opium 
Commission discuss the present system of settlements 
and advances in the Behar and Benares (ipium agencies, 
and give their opinions as to the best means of securing 
valid engagements between the cultivators and the 
Government, and the measures that should be taken to 
compel the cultivators to keep to their engagements. 
To carry out the Commission's proposals fi-esh legisla- 
tion will, the Board observe, be necessary, and under 
these circumstances the subject docs not appear to be 
one which can bo disposed of at once. 

1). Again iu paragraph 6.^1 the Commission recom- 
mended that ordinarily one advance only should be 
given of not more than Rs. 8 per bigah plus, in cases 
where ^eaf and trash contracts are given, lis. 4 a maund 
for leaves and Rs. 16 a hundred maunds for trash, and 
that the advance should be made in August or Septem- 
ber at tbe time of settlements ; that no further advance 
should Ije made without special application for it, though 
the Commission thought it might be left to the discrc- 
Dion of the sub-deputy opium agents to make a further 
ordinary advance of Rs. 4 per bigah on special applica- 
tion being made to them if they consider the circum- 
stances of the case make it advisable that it should be 
granted. The opium agents were asked to submit their 
opinions on I be proposals made by the Commission, and 
were requested to consider the fact that in a bad season 
the system advocated by the Commission would be 
likely to cause heavy outstanding balances. 

4. The Benares agent has now reported that the 
( !ommission's recommendations represent the procedure 
followed in thi' Benares Agency, and that they are in 
aci^OTxl with his own views on tbe subject. Save under 
exceptional cireumstaiiees, Mr. Cariiac 'States, one ad- 
vance rinly is given. In exceptional cases, when the 
season is bad <n- the cultivation is uncertain, a small 
first advance is given, followed by a second advance ; 
but when this is done officers are enjoined to make 
inquiries on the s])ot and to make payments at central 
points in camp. The agent adds that as a rule there is 
little chance, save in an altogether extraordinary season, 
of balances accruing on the advance of Rs. 8 per bigah. 
The advance represents an outturn of a little ovit 1 J seer 
per Vjigah, and if the sowings are in any way near tbe 
engagements, the low average of 4 seers per bigah far 
more than covers the advance. 

6. The Beliai' agent is not, however, in favour of the 
recommendations made by the Opium Commission. He 
states that under the present system for irilgated lands 
a first advance of Rs. 5 is made and a second advance 
of Rs. 3 as soon as the condition of the crop is ascer- 
tained. He is of opinion that, if Rs. 8 per bigah is 
given as the first advance, thei-e will certainly accrue 
heavy balame? at the end of the year which will not be 
easily realised, and that there will be no inducement to 
the cultivator to tiike pains with bis cultivation, for he 
will have received the whole advance, and the balances 
will probably be double the amount which has at prescmt 
to be realised. The tendency for speculative cnltivation 
will, the agent thinks, be increased, and the present 
system of check over the cultivation will be lost. The 
present advance is said to be quite sufficient to induce 
the cultivator to undertake poppy cultivation, and no 
increase is tberefore rerpiired. For non-irrigated land 
the agent slates that an advance is made of Rs. 3-8 a 
bigali and a sei ond advance is made only when the crop 
has received several waterings. In some districts the 
oiirturn is said to be very small, and in miiny places in 
Chniiiparun insufficient to cover an advance of Rs. 3. 
The agent also reports that som(^ khattadars, who were 
consulted on the advisability of an advance of Rs. 8, 



expressed their unwillingness to take such a sum, aa 
they considered it might lead to great difficulties. 

6" In respect of the Commission's proposal that poppy 
leaves should be paid for at Rs. 4 a maund, the agent 
reports that the price at present paid in some districts 
is Rs. .5 pel- maund, and that to reiluc-e it to Rs. 4 would 
probably tend to diminish the outturn. Under the 
circumstances therefore, and in view of the opinion 
expressed by the Behar agent, the Board presume the 
Opiutn Commission's recommendations in paragraph 651 
of their rei)ort can hai-dly be given effect to, so far as 
concerns the Behar Agency, and they are of opinion that 
it would be wiser to adhere to the present plan. 

7. In paragraph 652 the Commission record their 
I'ccommendations with regard to the manner in which 
the money for advances to the cultivators should be 
provided and the places where and the time at which 
the advances should be made. The Board, I am to say, 
see no objection to the proposal to abolish the opium 
officers' ti-easuries, and they would also recommend 
that the other proposals in this paragraph may be 
introduced by reading " the Board'' for " the Director- 
General." 

8. In paragraph 653 the Commission submit their 
views in regard to the manner in which the opium 
measurements should be conducted. The Board are of 
ophiion that the question whether chains should be used 
instead of poles, as suggested by the Commission, is 
one that may be left to the agents to settle, and they 
wouhi also recommend that the form of field register, 
as propo.-ed by the Commission, may be adopted in l)oth 
the agencies. 

9. Witli reference to the Commission's proposals in 
paragraph 654. I am to say that the Board would support 
the recommendation that sub-deputy agents should be 
furnished with copies of the revenue field registers and 
field maps. The plan of not employing temporary 
surveyors will, however, depend entirely on the orders 
passed by Government on the proposal to increase the 
Kothce establishments. With regard to the proposal to 
introduce village opium maps into the Behar Agency, 
the agent who was asked to leport on the subjcc't writes 
as follows : — 

" The plan adopted in the Benares Agency of mapping 
each pergunnah separately w;is found to be unsuited 
to the circumstances of this agency, where lands of 
pei-gannahs are so mixed ; accordingly instructions 
were first issued for the preparation of a illage maps ; 
this too was found inconvenient. Next, instructions 
were issued in a.ccorjanoe with Government orders of 
the yeai- 1880, to pi-efiare block majis showing extent of 
cultivation in each khatta in colours on a scale of 1 inch 
for every .'lO bighiis ; the villages comjirised in the block 
were then serially inimbered and zillahdari beats were 
shown. Registers in the prescrib'd foi-m were also 
opened in connexion with these maps. The Ijlcciv maps 
are retained in the office of the sub-deputy. Zillahdari 
maps are yearly supplied to the agent's office, together 
with the register which shows by comparison the area 
of culti^'ation of each zillah, the outturn, the number of 
licenses, and the a\erage per bigah." 

Piom the above it will be seen that a system of 
opium-maps and field-registers has already been 
introduced into the Behar Agency, and the Board 
presume that no further action is required in connexion 
with this matter. 

10. I am to say that the Board would also recom- 
mend, in the case of the discovery of unlicensed culti- 
vation, the adoption of the procedure set out in 
paragraph 656 of the Opium Commission's Report. 
The rules regarding such cultivation are laid down in 
paragraph 17a, page 23, of the " Opium Manual," and 
do not differ materially from the Commission's 
recommendations. 

11. With reference to paragraph 656 of the Report, I 
am to say that, in view of the opinion expressea by the 
Commission therein, the Board have directed the dis- 
continuance of the preparation of taidads in the Behar 
Agency, and the Board trust that their action may be 
approved by the Government. 

12. Paragraphs 657 to 664 of the Commission's 
Report treat of the subject of the remission of out- 
standing balances. This matter has already formed, the 
subject of a separate correspondence with Government, 
and the Board's views have been fally expressed in 
their letter No. .'i5b., dated 19th January last, to 
Government. The orders of the Government of India 
are now awaited on the subject. 

13. In regard to paragraph 665, 1 am to say that the 
Board would recommend the suggestion of the Com- 
mission, that, as a rule, extraordinary adxances should 



APPENDIX. 



41 



be made for the construction of wells only, and that 
they should require the sanction of the agents; but 
that they would leave to the Director -General a dis- 
cretion to make extraordinary advances i'or other pur- 
poses than wells, " tho Boai'd" being read for the 
Director-General, Extraordinary advances, the Beh:ir 
agent reports, are never made for any other purpose 
than the construction of wells. The Benares agent 
also states that only in special cases, such as after a 
famine or bad cattle disease, would he authorise the 
sub-deputy agents to submit special applications, and 
would consider such cases, and sanction advances 
according to circumstances. 



No. 173 B., dated Calcutta, the 6th March 188.5. 

From 0. E. BucKLANi), Esq., Officiating Secretary to the 
Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to tho 
Secretaky to the Government of Bengal, Revenue 
Department. 

With reference to Government Order No. 150 T. R., 
dated 30th April last, communicating the consent of 
his ilonour the Lieutenant-Governor to the Board 
taking into consideration and submitting suggestions 
for giving efl'eot to the recommendations made by the 
late Opium Commission on certain minor matters con- 
nected with the administration of the Opium Depart- 
ment, I am directed by the Board of Revenue to sub- 
mit, for the orders of Government, the following 
suggestions in connexion with the Commission's 
proposals in Chapter V. of their Report. 

2. In paragraph 667 of their Report the Opium Com- 
mission recommended that trash should be paid for at 
the rate of 12 annas a maund in both agencies, and that 
an attempt should be made in Behar to obtain contracts 
for the delivery of trash at the factory. For trash 
delivered at the sub-agenoy head-quarters under the 
system which prevails at present in Behar, the Com- 
mission thought that six annas per maund would be a 
fair price, the conveyance charges from the village to 
the sub-agency being paid as now by Government. 
Both opium agents were asked to consider the Opinm 
Commission's recommendations, and to furnish the 
Board with their opinion whether the increased rate is 
necessary. 

3. The Benares agent has reported that his principal 
assistant does not consider the enhanced rate recom- 
mended by tbe Opium Commission necessary; the 
agent, however, looking to the fact that the trash con- 
tracts are no longer popular, and to the great import- 
ance of the trash supply, is in favour of the concession. 

The Behar agent reports that everywhere it is ad- 
mitted there is at present a difficulty in getting trash 
for the following reasons : — 

(a) because it forms a valuable manure for the fields, 

and the cultivators are loath to part with it ; 
(6) because the cultivator is insufficiently paid for its 

cartage ; 
(c) because deductions are made for impurities, 
which materially lessen the amount which is paid 
to the cultivators ; 
{d} because some khattadars take the trash from the 
cultivators and regard it as their perquisite, appro- 
priating all the payments ; therefore the cultivator 
takes no interest in preserving it ; 
(e) because payments are deferred, and such deferred 

payments seldom reach the cultivators ; 
(/) because the cost of three pies per maund per koss 

allowed for carriage is too low. 
The opinion of the majority of the sub-deputy opium 
agents is that if the cultivators were better paid they would 
supply the trash readily; the officers are unanimou s against 
the employment of contractors, who, it is said, to pro- 
tect themselves against deduction for impurities, would 
be led to pay low prices, and thus leave themselves a wider 
margin between the price paid to the cultivator and 
that received from Government. It is also said that 
contractors could only buy through khattadars, who 
would benefit as well as the contractors, but the culti- 
vator would be in the same position as at present. 

4. The agent states that at present difficulty is ex- 
perienced in procuring trash, and that after a careful 
consideration of the matter, the best course seems to be 
that the sub-deputies nearest to the head-quarters 
should arrange for the largest quantities, that they 
should make advances to the khattadars for trash, and 
contract for the delivery of good trash at six annas a 

11 82810. 



maund for good, and four annas a maund for inferior 
quality, plus the charges of carriage to be fixed by 
each sub-deputy agent, the trash to be weighed and 
examined at tho nearest weighing-shed and passed by 
the Bub-dcputy opium agent. The agent recommends 
that tliis course should be followed, and that it should 
be widely proclaimed that the khattadars are authorised 
to buy trash. I am to state that tbe average extra ex- 
penditure, if the increased price were given, would 
amount in Behar to Rs. 2,726-14, and in Benares to 
Rs. 3,609-6 ; and to recommend that tho proposals of the 
Opium Commission to riiisc the price of trash may be 
sanctioned. 

6. The suggestion in the latter part of paragraph 668 
of the Oommission's Report, that care should be taken 
at every step of the suoceesive processes of weighmont 
to guard against the possibility of fi'aud or mistake, to 
protect the assamee from illegal exaction, and to 
satisfy him that he is being fairly and equitably dealt 
with, is, I am happy to say, a matter that can bo dealt 
with by the opium agents. 

6. With regard to the Commission's proposals con- 
tained in paragraphs 669 to 671 of their Report, I am 
to state that the Benares agent reports that they follow 
his own views and recommendations. He does not, 
however, state how many kothees will be required, and 
where they should be located. The Behar agent 
reports that the want of weighing-sheds is the great 
want within the Behar Agency ; that the distances 
which some of the cultivators have to travel to get their 
opium weighed is great, and the exertion required in 
their journeys renders the cultivation unpopular ; and 
he recommends the construction of 13 new weighing- 
sheds. I am to state that the Board approve generally 
of the Commission's recommendations to provide addi- 
tional weighing-sheds in both agencies, and have 
requested the Benares agent to state how many new 
sheds will be required, and where they should be 
erected ; and as the suggestion made by the Behar 
agent for 13 more weighing-sheds appears to the Board 
extravagant and quite beyond the Commission's sug- 
gestions at the beginning of paragraph 671 of their 
Report, that officer has also been called upon to con. 
sider the point again, and to submit further recommen- 
dations as to the number of weighing-sheds required by 
him. A further report will be submitted on receipt of 
this information. 

7. The Board would invite the attention of Govern- 
ment to the remarks of the Opium Commission in 
paragraph 669 of their Report regarding the treatment 
of the Opinm Department in respect of the establish- 
ment of weighing stations by both the civil and the 
military authorities, and to the remedy proposed in 
paragraph 670 of their Report. 

8. In paragraph 672 of their Report the Commission 
recommend (1) the payment of transit allowances under 
certain conditions to the opium cultivators, and (2) the 
exemption of cultivators, taking opinru to weighment 
stations, from payment of tolls at public ferries and 
bridges. I am to state that both agents were consulted 
with regard to these proposals, and a report on the 
subject was called for. It was, however, at the same 
time pointed out to the agent that the Board were of 
opinion that if the second of the above proposals was 
carried out, it would be likely to cause considerable 
friction between district officers and the Opium Depart- 
ment. The measure, the Board thought, was certain 
from its very nature to be viewed with dislike by 
district magistrates, leading, as it must, to a reduction 
in the priers ofi'ered by contractors at the annual bids. 
Complaints from the contractors and the opium culti- 
vators would, it was considered, be of constant occur- 
rence, resulting in making the Opium Department 
extremely unpopular with district officers. It was 
suggested by the Board that it would be much simpler 
to let the charge in question be added to the transit 
allowance account. The bridges and ferries that culti- 
vators travelling upon any of the main roads in a district 
would have to pass over must, the Board were of opinion, 
be well known to the local opium officers, and the mere 
addition of tolls to the payment to be made on account 
of transit allowance would cause no delay or difficulty. 
The agents were requested to consider the above re- 
marks in furnishing the reports called for in connexion 
with the Oommission's recommendations. 

9. The Board have now received the reports called 
for from the agents. With regard to the payment of 
transit allowances to the cultivators, the Behar agent 
states that such a measure would lead to complications 
and disputes, and would only be popular with the 
amlah. The payments, Mr. Kemble reports, would be 

F 



App. I, 
Bengal. 



42 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. I. 



in such infinitesimal sums that they would never reach 
the assamees. The exclusion of fractions of a seer in 
the accounts would, moreover, be misunderstood by the 
cultivators, and would lead to complications and 
jealousies, and would be a bar to a large number of 
small cultivators who stand most in need of assistance, 
receiving any allowance. The plunder by the amlah, 
already excessive, would, the agent thinks, be increased. 
To make the ^.scheme of any practical use, he is of 
opinion that steps should .be taken to see that an allow- 
ance, however small, proportionate to the distance 
travelled, was paid to each cultivator. This would, 
however, involve most minute calculations, and is not 
recommended by the agent. Mr. Kemble is also of 
opinion that the modified scheme proposed by the Com- 
mission will in no way tend to make the cultivation of 
poppy more popular with the ryots. The extra allow- 
ance, it is stated, might reach the hands of the 
khattadars, but it would never reach the individual 
cultivators. No change in this direction, the agent 
thinks, is necessary. Travelling allowances have never 
been asked for nor expected, and the want of them has 
never been considereil a grievance. Mr. Kemble is of 
opinion that when the cultivation of poppy ceases to be 
popular, and falls off in consequence, there is only one 
remedy which can be of any use, and that is raising the 
price paid to the cultivators for the crude drug. Mr. 
Kemble also is not in favour of the Commission's recom- 
mendation to exempt cultivators from payment of tolls 
at public ferries and bridges. The concession, he 
states, though it would load to fewer complications than 
the payment of tiansit allowances, would be very dis- 
tasteful to the local committees, and might be con- 
sidered illegal if the scheme for local self-government 
be fully carried out. The exemption, moreover, of all 
poppy cultivators from payment of tolls would no doubt 
very consideraly reduce the receipts of the local funds. 
10. The Benares agent states that the transit allow- 
ance will be very popular with the cultivators, and will 
equalise the position of men in all divisions. The cost 
of the scheme is estimated by the agent at Es. 65,000, 
or an average of Re. 1-4 per maund of produce. This 
calculation is, however, only a rough one ; a correct 
estimate cannot be arrived at unless the deliveries and 
distances for each single district are worked oat. Mr. 
Oarnac has also furnished the Board ^vith figures, from 
which it appears that in the seven sub-agencies in 
which transit allowances are now paid the amount 
disbursed last year on this account amounted to 
Bs. :!l,108-4— 7, or an average of Be. 1-0-9 per maund, 
being 3 annas 3 pie less than the estimated rate 
according to the Commission's proposals. This proposed 
increase may, on the whole, the agent states, be con- 
sidered sufiioient to insure the oljject aimed at by the 
Commission, and would be popular among those culti- 
vators to whom the grant of transit allowances has not 
hitherto been accorded. But if the rule is introduced 
limiting payments on this account to those who reside 
beyond a i-adius of 10 miles from the weighing-shed, a 
considerable number of cultivators in the Ghazipore 
Division will, the agent states, be deprived of the 
allowance. The Ghazipore cultivators, it is said, have 
from time immemorial drawn a small allowance, even 
when carrying their opium only a mile from their 
houses ; and it would be, the agent thinks, undesirable 
to change a system that has so long prevailed, causing, 
as it must, much discontent among a valuable and 
influential class of cultivators. Mi-. Carnac is also of 
opinion that even in the case of these cultivators who 
have not hitherto enjoyed this allowance, the strict 
adoption of the 10-mile rule would have its drawbacks, 
and that instead of the good effect of the Commission's 
recommendation being universal, the proposed change 
might cause no inconsiderable heartburning and dis- 
content. The agent accordingly recommends that if 
the system of transit allowances is extended to all 
districts, it should also bo extended to all cultivators; 
those living near the place of weighiaent receiving an 
allowance at a low rate, calculated in proportion to the 
rate projjosed for those living at 10 and 16 miles 
from the opium centre. The rates proposed by the 
agent are as follows : — 

Es. a, p. -^"^ , 
'^ maund 



1 to ■". mill 


es 1 pie iior 


seer 




- 3 


4 


6 to 10 „ 


2 „ 






G 


8 


11 to 15 ., 


3 „ 






- 10 





ieto20 ,, 


'> .. 






1 4 





21to2.^ ,, 


9 ,, 






- 1 14 





26 to 30 ,, 


1 anna 






2 8 





31 to 35 „ 


1 anna and 3 


pie 


per seer 3 2 





36 to 40 „ 


1 ,, 


6 


?l 


3 12 





41 to 45 „ 


1 „ 


9 


f 1 


,, 4 6 






According to the above, the average rate would, be 
Es. 2 per maund, and the approxi- 

'The average outtnrn ^ ^ calculated on 52,000* 

fov the past 10 years. ^^^^^,_ j^g. i,04,000. The actual 

increased cost would, however, amount to about 
Es. 74,000, as about Es. 30.000 arc stated to be the 
annual amount now paid on account of transit allow- 
.■mces to the cultivators. 

The Benares agent also states that the exemption of 
culti\ators from tolls is desirable, and has his strong 
support. The achemc, he thinks, if introduced, will 
remove all difficulty. 

11. It will be seen from the above that the two agents 
hold directly opposed views in regard to the desira- 
bility of carrying out the recommendations made in 
paragraph 672 of the Opium Commission's Eeport, and 
the Board, I am to say, can see no reason why one 
hard-and-fast rule should be made applicaljle to the 
cultivators in both provinces, considei'ing what a 
marked distinction there is in the system of cultivation 
in the two agencies. In the Behar Agency, where 
opium is cultivated under the khattadari system, the 
agent is of opinion that the proposed allowance, 
amounting to 2 pice per seer, would not make any 
sensible addition to the actual profits of the cultivator. 
It is the kind of allowance from which the amlah would 
be certain to take their pickings, and the srcall balance 
would probably never get beyond the khattadar, who 
would consider it a legitimate addition to his perqui- 
sites. In the Benares Agency the circumstances are 
diflerent. In some divisions a transit allowance is 
already given, and the syatem is found to work well. 
The cultivation is assameewar, and there is no difficulty 
experienced in giving each cultivator the amount he is 
entitled to according to the distance travelled by him. 
Taking into consideration the views expressed by the 
agents, and the dilference of system in the two agencies, 
the Board are disposed to recommend that the system 
of granting transit allowances should be extended to the 
whole of the Benares Agency, but with the modification 
proposed by Mr. Carnac. Tlie withdrawal of the allow- 
ance from those cultivators whose homes are within a 
radius of 10 miles from th? weighing-shed in districts 
where a transit allowance has been drawn from time 
immemorial, without reference to the distance the 
cultivator might have had to tra-\-ol, would, the Board 
have little doubt, be a cause of much discontent, and 
they would therefore recommend for the entire 
Benares Agency the adoption of the scale of rates pro- 
posed by the agent and quoted in paragraph 10 of this 
letter. 

12. For the Behar Agency the Board would accept 
the agent's view, that no such allowance as that recom- 
mended by the Opium Commission is necessary. It 
may, the Board think, be fairly assumed that the allow- 
ance, if granted, would never reach the actual cultivator, 
and would therefore not affect any view he maj- enter- 
tain as to the profitable character of opium cultivation. 
A Bsuming that the allowance is not likely to go beyond 
the pocket of the khattadar, it seems unnecessary to add 
to his unrecognised profits, which, as stated by the 
Commission, already include a cess of 12 annas to 
Es. 2-8 per bigah of cultivation. 

13. As regards the exemption of cultivators taking 
o])ium to weighnieut stations from the jiayment of tolls 
at public ferries and bridges, I am to state that the 
Board are not prepared to recommend any concession 
of the kind. Such a measure could not, the Board 
think, be insisted on without an alteration in the exist- 
ing Acts, which do not give the Government power to 
grant ;my such concession. The exemption would 
seriously affect the i-eceipts at many ferries, and would 
bo an exceedingly unpopular measure with local officers 
and with local committees. Its enforcement would 
moreover lead to (•on^tallt disputes certain to produce 
friction between the district and departmental officers, 
which would be very undesirable. If it is considered 
desirable to make good to the opium cultivators the 
charges incurred as tolls at ferries, it should, the Board 
think, be arranged for by adding the charge to the 
transit allowance ; but the Board are inclined to doubt 
■whether the concession is one really called for or that 
Would lie much appreciated bj' the cultivator, and they 
do not therefore support the Commission's proposals on 
this point. 

14. As the Behar agent is in favour of their intro- 
duction , he has been directed to introduce into the Behar 
Agency the rules in force in the Benares Agency for 
operations preliminary to weighments as recommended 
by the Opium Commission in paragraph 673 of their 
report. 



APPENDIX. 



4B 



IS. in paragraph 674 of their report the Commission 
suggest that each individual cultivator should be paid 
for the opium he delivers, and in paragraph 676 they 
reconamond that three European officers, two permanent 
and one temporary, should bo employed at r;ioh place of 
weighment for the reasons stated by the Comiaissioii. 
They also recommend the temporary employment of 
three clerks on Ru. 50 each, and that the weighments 
and payments should be made kothee by kothee in suc- 
cession. The opium agents were requested to furnish 
the Board with their remarks on the Commission's 
recommendations. The Benares agent states that the 
recommendations follow the system introduced by him- 
self. The proposals, he says, include a considerable 
increase of establishnient, to which he gladly subscribes, 
as the work at weighments at present is very heavy ; 
and he proposes to try the new rules tentatively in one 
or two divisions next year, and to report further after 
giving them a practical trial. 

16. The Bchar agent reports that all the officers of 
the agenc}- attach the greatest importance to the 
principle that each individual cultivator should at the 
time of delivery be paid for the opium which he delivers. 
The assameewar principle is acknowledged to be the 
best that can be devised, but the khattadari system has 
become so firmly established that he feels the need of 
great caution in proposing a procedure which in practice 
might break down. He states that a reform is im- 
peratively called for, but the question is how it may 
best be effected. The proposal of the Commission, it is 
said, strikes at the I'oot of the present system. The 
agent states that the proposal of the Commission to 
increase the rate of commission payable to khattadars 
will prevent a change in their relation to zemindars and 
to Grovernment ; but if payments are suddenly made 
assameewar, it is feared the khattadars will no longer 
have the power to realise balances that may become due 
to Government, or the money due to themselves. In 
certain cases, it is said, paymentwould have to be made 
to the khattadars ; for many cultivators, such as the 
widows, the aged, and the indebted entrust their opium 
to the khattadar, who delivers it and receives payment 
on account. In the final settlements too the khattadar 
is the receiver of all balances due to the cultivate!- ; he 
ascertains the result of the final purrukh at this go- 
down, and conveys the information to the village, so 
that even if the payment were made separately to each 
assamee, j'et practicallj' some of the money would still 
pass through the khattadar's hands. Again, the 
assamees of the Beliar Agency are said to have become 
so accustomed to trusting the khattadars in every 
matter of account that it is doubtful if they would all 
willingly receive payment independently of the khat- 
tadars, without some preliminary introduction to a new 
system. The Commission's proposals, the agent writes, 
might be introduced gradually in the following manner. 
As each pot passes the scales, and the quantity of 
opium weighed out and the amount due, less the 
previous advance, is entered in the register, a payment 
order might be given to each assamee delivering the 
opium ; when the weighments of each khatta are com- 
pleted, the mutsuddee would total the payments for the 
khatta and enter it in his register of totals. The 
account wonld also then be stamped " paid " by the 
European assistant, and taken to the treasurer, who 
would pay the amount to the khattadar. Each khattadar 
would be instructed to bring his account, together with 
all his cultivators and their pay order tickets, before the 
gomashta of his kothee, who should be held responsible 
that the disbursement of separate payments is made by 
the khattadar in his presence to each assamee after 
settlement of account. 

17. I am to state that the Board are of opinion that 
there will be considerable difficulty at first in intro- 
ducing the assameewar system, but when introduced it 
will assuredly become popular, as the evils of the 
khattadari system are patent to everybody in Bohar. 
The Board do not see how the payments can be made 
assameewar and the settlements and advances for culti- 
vation khattadari at the same time. If this were done, 
the contingency of certain payments baring still to be 
made through the khattadar would continue to exist, 
and a double system of the kind could not succeed. 
The proposal of the- Behar agent for gradually intro- 
ducing the Commission's proposals would not, the Board 
are aifraid. secure the desired result. The Ichattadar 
and his assamees have probably innumerable debtor and 
creditor accounts to adjust, separate from the opium 
account, and it can scarcely be directed that all these 
should be gone into and adjusted in the presence, and 
on the responsibility of, the opium gomashta ; and the 



khattadar with a persoiial deniand on an assamee is not 
likely to let the latter secure the full amount of his 
due for opium, on the chance of future recovery of his 
own claims upon the man. The Board are therefore of 
opinion that if there is to be a change, that change will 
have to be in its entirety and immediate throughout 
the present system, and I am to request the orders of 
Government upon the subject. 

18. With regard to the proposals of the opium Com- 
mission, contained in paragraph 676 of the report, the 
Behar agent states that it would not be possible for one 
treasurer to make separate payments so as to keep pace 
with the weighments, and he shows that it would occupy 
nearly three days to pay for the weighments of a 
single day. The agent also states that the agency 
officers unanimously express the opinion that the whole 
work of weighment will be delayed if the Commission's 
recommendation to work only six scales and confine 
the weighments to 1,500 pots a day is adopted. This 
delay, it is feared, will tempt the cultivators to sell 
their opium to smugglers, or they would lose it by 
theft ; each day's delay would also raise the consistence, 
and thereby be a loss to Government, and retard the 
settlement of accounts. The agent would rather 
employ more supervising agriicy and facilitate the 
work. It is said that it is feared that any sudden 
change in the number of scales would lead to discontent 
among the cultivators, who have been accustomed to a 
more rapid system of working. The agent thinks that 
when more weighment sheds have been constructed, 
and each shed is placed in charge of a competent 
asfcistant, and all are working at the same time, it will 
be possible to reduce the number of pot weighments ; 
till then he recommends tbafc one European assistant 
be employed for every sis scales, and that the weigh- 
ments, instead of being held at each kothee in succes- 
sion as recommended by the Commission, should be 
made simultaneously, each kothee being visited by the 
sub-deputy to determine doubtful cases of purrukh, 
and to decide all disputes. The agent also proposes to 
have a clerk on Rs. 25 for each scale, instead of a clerk 
on Ks. 50 for every two scales as proposed by the Opium 
Commission, for the following reasons :^ 

(1.) The noise and hubbub at the weighments are dis- 
tracting, and the mohurrir often becomes confused 
if Ids attention is occupied with two scales. 

(2.) If a mistake occurs at one scale, the work of both 
scales will be. stopped till it is rectified, for the 
clerk must attend to the mistake. 

(3.) The work of a scale is often stopped because the 
assamee who has previously weighed his opium 
with a kutcha weight cannot understand why the 
weighment should be less with a pucca-weight, and 
it takes a few minutes to explain it to him. 

19. With regard to the employment of European as- 
sistants to conduct the weighments, I am to state that 
the opium agent of Behar has been requested to report 
how many extra assistants would be required for weigh- 
ments as compared with the present number. The 
Board are, however, of opinion that -with more weigh- 
ment-sheds there would be no difficulty whatever for 
the sub-deputy opium agent to make arrangements by 
notice beforehand for the dates on which weighments 
would be taken up at the several kothees and weighing- 
sheds separately in turn. The sub-deputy opium 
agent and his assistants could all attend each weigh- 
ment-shed together. The agent has also been requested 
to report how many extra assistants will be required if 
this plan were adopted. With regard to the agent's 
proposal to employ a clerk on Rs. 25 per month for 
each scale instead of a clerk on Rs. 50 per month for 
every two scales as proposed by the Opium Commission, 
I am to state that the Board see no objection to this 
change; and I am to recommend that the proposals 
contained in paragraph 676 of the Commission's report 
may bo introduced throughout both agencies at once 
before the ensuing weighments. 

20. In ]iaragraph 077 of their report the Opium Com- 
mission recommend that the pay of the native tem- 
porary establishment employed at weighments should 
be increased, and the members of the establishment 
more judiciously selected ; also that the native purkhea 
should be appointed by the agent. With reference to 
these recommendations, the agents were asked to submit 
a statement showing the number of temporary mohurirs, 
dandidars, and karkhannias employed during the 
weighments at each place of weighment, and the period 
for which they are employed, together with the pay 
drawn by them, as well as the increased cost that would 
have to be incurred if the Commission's proposals were 

F 2 



Apr. 1. 
Bengal. 



44 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



Arp. I. adopted. The Benares agent has submitted a state- 

ment which shows that the increased cost that would 
have to be incurred if the Ccmmission's proposals were 
adopted is estimated to amount to Ks. 3,648-2-2 only 
per annum, and as the increase is small, the Board 
recommend that the proposals of the Commission, so 
far as they ooncei-u the Benares Agency, may be 
sanctioned. As the statement submitted by the Behar 
agent does not give the information required, he has 
been requested to submit a proper statement, and a 
further report on this point will be submitted to 
Government. 

21. With reference to the recommendation contained 
in paragraph 678 of the Commission's report that the 
tagars shoiild be of uniform size and weight, I am to 
state that both agents have been desired by the Board 
to have the Commission's recommendations carefully 
and strictly carried out during the next weighments. 
The Benares agent states that effect has already been 
given to the Opium Commission's views. In fact, it 
has been the rule in the agency to check and examine 
the tagars in use, and to return them to the Grhaziporc 
factory when necessary. He adds that care will be 
taken that all are in thorough order by the next year. 
The Behar agent reports that steps have been taken 
to carry out the recommendations of the Opium 
Commission. 

22. The Commission recommend, in paragraph 679 of 
their report, that particulars of the opium should be 
entered in the miniature license at the time of weigh- 
ments, and that the classification sheet in the Behar 
Agency should be written up in the manner now in use 
in the Benares Agency. The Board drew the Behar 
agent's attention to paragraph 649 of the Commissioner's 
report, and inquired whether there is any objection to 
the introduction into the Behar Agency of miniature 
licenses such as are in use in the Benares Agency, and 
if not, what steps are necessary to give eft'ect to the 
Commission's recommendations. That officer reports 
that the system of miniature licenses was tried in the 
Behar Agency under two selected officers. The result 
of the experiment wau that the ryots disliked the 
arrangement, left the license in the hands of the khat- 
tadar.s, and regarded it as a hardship that they should 
have to keep the licenses which they could neither read 
nor understand. He states that an attempt was made 
to measure the field and check the licenses, with the 
result that the cultivators could not be found when it 
was attempted to fill up the miniature licenses with the 
weight of the opium, and the delay was so great that 
the work fell rapidly into ai-rears. It was found that so 
long as the arrangements for cultivation were made 
khattadari, the proposed miniature license procedure 
would not answer. The agent states that under the 
khattadari system the proposal will not work. The 
khattadar is really the means of keej)iug up the culti- 
vation, and many would not undertake the cultivation 
unless under the influence of the khattadar. The agent 
adds that the present system is one to which the culti- 
vators cling ; and as they have no care for the legal 
aspect and are quite indifferent to valid engagements, 
they will take readily to a paper procedure, which has 
no pecuniary value for them, but which necessitates 
some trouble and exertion. The agent points out that 
the miniature licenses were introducedinto the Benares 
Agency to put a stop to unauthorised cultiviition, as it 
was found that the total area undoi' poppy cultivation 
was very often in excess of the area for which licenses 
had been granted, and fields were found under cultiva- 
tion which were not even mentioned in the licenses ; and 
he states that there is no evidonoe thii.t illicit cultivation 
is carried on in Behar, but he admits that more direct 
relation with the cultivator is desirable. 

2y. Mr. Metoalf, while officiating as agent, re- 
. _ ^ m 7 / ported tlial a valid contract 

might be entered into m 
(ohverso.) the following manner : — 

'^'-'-""- The khattadar shall pre- 

Kiimbn-oUiiTase— Sent a petition ((in a litho- 

graphed'*' form to be siipplicd 
Hnh-Biimin Opium Afftut. |jy the agency free) from 
(IlevLTse.) ^^°^ cultivator, on whose 

behalf he is acting, asking 
for a license ; the khattadar 
shall fill up the ai'ca to be 
cultivated, and thoprobaljle 
outturn of opium. The form 
of jjctition shall on tliu 
reverse contain a foi'm of 
license which shall be rati- 
fied by the sub-deputy, and 



Nutno of cultivator 
First aflviinec 

Si'rnilil ;ifl\ant'r 

AViMji-liI III' oiiinm delivered 
(Jonsistoncy 



A'aluf- 



Pa,y the sum of Us. 



A.s^istit)ii Stth-Bijuity (fju 
Alfvul. 

Sated. 



may be filed in his office. This plan, he stated, will 
save clerical labour, and be intelligible to the cultivator. 
A ticket in the form given on the margin, bearing a 
serial number to correspond with the number on the 
license, shall be given to each cultivator, the ticket to 
be produced at the weighment, and the quantity of 
opium weighed and the price to be paid shall be entered 
on the back, which shall then be stamped "pay" by 
the assistant in charge of the weighments. 

24. I am to state that it seems to the Board essential 
that there should be a valid engagement with the 
cultivator as required by law ; it also seems necessary, 
if assameewar payments are to be introduced, that the 
system of miniature licenses should be simultaneously 
adopted. The Board would attach more weight to the 
views of the Opium Commission than to those of the 
oflBciating agent, and they accordingly propose, if the 
suggested assameewar system meets with the approval 
of the Government, to issue orders for the introduction 
of the system of miniature licenses into the Behar 
Agency. 

3.5. In paragraph 680 of their report the Commission 
recommend that iodine test should be applied in all the 
sub-agencies, and that a tester on Es. 1,5 a month should 
be annually appointed by the agent to each sub-agency 
during the weighment season. It will be seen ^ from 
paragraph 301 of the Commission's report that this test 
is carried out as a general rule throughout the Benares 
Agency, but in Behar, in the Patna Sub- Agency only. 
There are now 26 sub-agenoie.'^ ; the cost of the testers 
would therefore amount to Bs. 390 a month, or, say, for 
about three months, Es. 1,170. As this amount is not 
large, and as the Board can sanction the employment of 
temporary establishments, they propose, with the ap- 
proval of Government, to direct the opium agents to 
carry out the recommendations made by the Com- 
mission. 

26. The agents were also asked by the Board if they 
had any objection to the adoption of the Commission's 
proposal, contained in paragraph 681 of their report, 
that inferior opium should be separately challaued. As 
the agents have no objection to the proposal, the 
Benares agent thinking it on the contrary a good one, 
the Board have directed them to adopt the Commission's 
recommendation. 

27. The Board have also directed the agents to carry 
out the suggestion in paragraph 682 of the Commission's 
report, that the surface of the opium in the jar should 
be smoothed. The Benares agent has informed the 
Board that orders were issued before the past weigh- 
ments on this subject, and the practice is observed in 
the agency ; and the Behar agent has stated that steps 
have been taken to carry out these orders. 

28. In paragraphs 68o and 684 of their report the 
Opium Commission recommend that the receipts of 
khui'cha or of khurchaii by the lumberdar,s should be 
entirely stopped, and the commission paid to them by 
Government should be raised from Rs. 1 to Rs. 4 per 
maund. With regard to this recommendation, I am to 
state that the maximum amount of khurchan allowed to 
lumberdars was fixed by the Board in 1876 at 14 chit- 
tacks per maund of opium. The levy of khurchan from 
the cultivators by the lumberdars is said to be distaste- 
ful to the former; and the cost to Government on 
account of the commission of Es. 1 per maund is said 
to amount to Rs. 1,00,OUO a year. The enhanced rate 
of commission now recommended will therefore entail 
an additional cost of Rs. i!, 00,000 a year on Govern- 
ment. As this recommendation involves considerable 
increase of expenditure, the Board would await the 
orders of the Government of India on the Commission's 
report before making any recommendation on this 
matter. 

29. From paragraph 8.5ii of their report it will be seen 
that the Opium Commis.slou are of opinion that if the 
recommendations in paragraph 680 of their report are 
carried out, there is no necessity for the second iodine 
tost at the factory, and they recommended that it should 
Ije discontiuui'd. The Board, however, doubt the 
advisability of this measure, and would not at present 
take any steps in the matter. 

30. With reference to paragraph 680 of the Com- 
mission's report, I am to state that both opium agents 
were directed by the Board to take steps at once for 
giving effect to the Commission's recommendations on 
the subject of the jars and baskets used for conveying 
opium from the weighment stations to the sudder 
factory. The Benares agent states that the subject has 
received attention on various occasions, and specimen 
jars and baskets have been supplied to the divisions, 
and new sets will again be forwarded. He also states 



APPENDIX. 



4,5 



that annually the condition of jars and baskets supplied 
by each sub-division is reported on by the principal 
assistant, and the subject is reviewed by the agent. 
The Behar agent reports that steps have been taken to 
carry out the Board's orders. 

31. In paragraph 687 of their report the Commission 
recommend that payment in fall at weighment time 
should not be made, but that whole rupees should be 
paid, the balance in annaa and pies being kept in hand 
until the final adjustments. The question of paying 

the cultivators in full for 

Qoo l°^"'^* *?allT™™?';=V?'°- their opium at weighment 
392 B., dated 9th August 1873. . . , r • , j. 

Boai-d to Government, No. time has, I am to point out, 
400 B., dated 12th Aumst 1873. already formed the subject of 
a.^Tm^7^,^im°- '''''"" correspondence* between the 
Government and the Board. 
The Board approve the Commission's suggestion and 
would recommend its adoption. 

32. The Opium Commission in paragraph 688 of 
their report recommend that payment for opium at 
weighment time should be made according to the 
purrukhing officer's classification ; and that opium of 
Class I. (awalj should be paid for at weighments at the 
rate of Rs. 5, and that 4 annas a seer should be added 
or deducted for each class above or below Class I. The 
Benares agent reports that after fully considering the 
matter and consulting some of the sub-deputy opium 
agents, he is of opinion that where the ofiioers are 
experienced the proposal may be carried out without 
difficulty or an.'ciety ; where, however, an officer is 
inexperienced, which under the present system of 
appointing comparatively inexperienced assistants to 
weigh opium is often the case, there might be a danger 
of his over-purrukhing, and thus causing considerable 
balances within his charge ; and the cultivator, once 
paid at high rate for his opium, would be very dis- 
contented at having to refund because it was found out 
at the factory that the assistant had over-estimated the 
consistence of the drug. Mr. Carnao states that if the 
Commission's suggestion regarding the increase of the 
European stafi were adopted, this danger would be 
removed, as the purrukh would then be done by the 
sub-deputy opium agent. The Behar agent reports 
the present practice is to pay Es. 5 a seer at the 
weighing-shed for all consistencies above 69°, the 
more accurate test of consistency being determined at 
the sudder factory. He does not think it safe to make 
the sub-deputy agents purrukh the final test; for 
instances are numerous where opium condemned at 
the weighments is found to be thoroughly good at 
the I'actory, and opium passed by the sub-deputy 
agents is found at the factory to be adulterated. It is 
also said that the ryots have greater faith in the 
factory purrukh ;than in the classification of the 
weighing officer, and sometimes cultivators take their 
opium direct to the factory to be tested, and that 
there would be a universal feeling of dissatisfaction if 
the weighing-shed purrukh were te be final. The 
agent shows that the rates proposed to be paid are 
higher than the rates sanctioned for the several 
degrees of consistency, and states that if opium paid 
for at Es. 6-12 is found to be worth only Es. 10-6, 
there must be a greater or less amount of balances to 
recover, and this could not be done easily. He states 
that calculations show it would be safer for the 
present to pay Es. 5-2 instead of Rs. 5-4> recommended 
by the Commission for Class IXI. (73°, 74°, and 75°), 
Es. 6-6 for Class IXI. (76°, 77°, and 78°) instead of 
Es. 5-8 ; and Es. 6-8 for Class IXI. (79°, 80°, and 
81°) instead of Es. 6-12, and recommends that these 
rates may be adopted. It has been pointed out to the 
agent that the object of the Commission is not to make 
the Bub-deputy opium agent's purrukh final, but to 
ensure the payment at weighments being closer than 
it now is to the real value of the opium. I am to 
state that the Board are of opinion that it would not 
do to have different systems of payment for opium at 
weighment time in different districts, and I am to 
suggest that no change should be made until the 
strength of the European establishment is materially 
increased. Then the question might be reconsidered. 

33. In paragraph 689 of their report the Opium 
Commission state that it would be politic for the 
Grovernment to pass an order under section 8, Act I. of 
1879, remitting the stamp duty chargeable upon 
receipts given by opium cultivators, or their repre- 
sentatives, for money paid to them on account of 

Government. I am to re- 
No. 1228. dated 17th Veh 1870. quest a refei'ence to the 
lfo°;l,u'7:'i:uS/M;rc\fl|-78. Government of India notifi- 

cations cited on the margin, 



from which it will be seen that the following instru- 
ments have already been exempted from stamp duty : — 

(1) agreements made by ryots in opium-producing 
districts for the cultivation of the poppy for 
Government ; 

(2) bonds executed by the sureties of middlemen 
(liimberdars and kbattadars) taking advances for 
the cultivation of the poppy for Government 
within the limits of the Benares and Patna 
Agencies ; 

(3) security bonds (hazir-zamini) executed to secure 
the personal attendance of gomashtas and other 
native employ(?s of the Opium Department ; 

and I am to state that the Board would recommend 
that lumberdars and khattadars in the Benares and 
Behar Agencies should also bo exempted from the 
payment of stamp duty on receipts given by them. 



App. I. 
Bengal, 



No. 14 B., dated 9th January 1886. 

Prom C. A. Samuels, Esq., Officiating Seci'etary to the 

Board of Eovenue, Lower Provinces, to the 

Seoeetaey to the Goveknment or Bengal, Eevenue 

Department. 

With reference to Government Order, No. 159 T. E., 

dated 30th April 1884, communicating the consent of 

his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor to the Board 

taking into consideration and submitting suggestions 

for giving eff'ect to the recommendations made by the 

late Opium Commission on certain minor matters 

connected with the administration of the Opium 

Department, I am directed by the Board of Eevenue 

to submit, for the orders of Government, the following 

suggestions in connexion with the Commission's 

proposals in Chapter VII. of their report. 

2. In paragraph 718 of their report the Opium 
Commission recommend that the responsibility for the 
careful and efficient management of the opium factories 
should rest with the opium agents, and that the officer 
in charge of the factories and answerable for its efficient 
working should be answerable, not to the head of the 
Opium Department, but to the agent, and should in no 
sense be in independent charge of the factory. Both 
opium agents were asked to consider the Opium 
Commission's recommendations, and to furnish the 
Board with any remarks they have to offer. 

3. The Behar agent states that the recommendations 
of the Opium CommisRion as to relations between the 
agent and principal assistant, as expressed in paragraph 
718, are entirely in accordance with his own views. 
The only modification he would recommend is in the 
proposal (in paragraph 719) to vest the factory superin- 
tendent with power to appoint factory employes 
drawing salaries of Es. 60 and upwards. The agent is 
of opinion that temporary assistants employed during 
the weighments should be appointed by the agent. At 
present, he states, the practice has been to appoint old 
pensioners and relations of the officers on the per- 
manent staff. Such appointments, it is said, are in 
some ways objectionable, and the agent should be 
allowed a voice in the selection. He would limit the 
power of the factory superintendent to appoint em- 
ployes drawing salaries up to Es. 60. Beyond that the 
appointment should be made by the agent. The Board 
have pointed out to the agent that the recommendations 
of the Opium Commission have apparently been mis- 
understood. What they recommend is that the factory 
superintendent should appoint and have power of 
punishing departmentally and of dismissing all 
employes drawing less than Es. 10 per mensem ; and 
that as regards such men, his orders should be final. 
The Commission go on to say that— 

" Subject to the concurrence of the agent, whose veto 
should be final, we would allow the factory superin- 
tendent to appoint all factory employes drawing Es. 10 
per mensem and upwards to Es. 160." 

From this it will be seen that the agent will be 
" allowed a voice in the selection " of temporary and 
other assistants drawing salaries from Es. 60 to 160, 
though they may, in the first instance, be appointed by 
the factory superintendent. 

4. The Benares agent states that he has always 
admitted that inasmuch as the agent is in command he 
must accept the responsibility when things go wi-ong, 
in the same way as he receives credit when all goes 
right. He quite agrees that the principal assistant is 
responsible to the agent, and not to the Board. He 
sees no objection to the change in the style of his 
office, and he is quite in favour of the powers recom- 
mended in paragraph 719 of the Commission's' report, 

F 3 



46 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



App. I. 



by which the pi-incipiil assistant will appoint, dismiss, 
and punish. The agent is also in favour of confining 
the duties of the principal assistant exclusively to 
factory work. But he says that if it is intended by the 
Commission in these proposals to make the responsi- 
bility of the agent for the management of the factory 
more direct than heretofore, he demurs. It appears to 
him that the Commission's recommendations have the 
opposite tendency. When it is considered that the 
agent has a territory extending over a length of 500 
miles, and including 53 sub-divisions, with enormous 
native establishments to supervise, it is physically 
impossible for him to keep " daily touch " of a factory 
situated at the very end of his charge, and at the same 
time to superintend the work of extension of culti- 
vation, &c., in the districts. That the agent is 
responsible for the proper working of the factory is 
admitted. He is equally responsible for the working 
of every one of the sub-divisions. But no one 
man can, he states, possibly undertiike all the details 
himself. He must trust largely to the officers in 
immediate charge, and by constant inspection satisfy 
himself that all are working up to the mark. 'Pov the 
management of the factory, he says, it is necessary to 
obtain a really good man, and to assist him, supervise 
him, and trust him. If the agent, who must be 
continually absent from Ghazipore, is suddenly to 
come back, and is to attempt to take everything into 
his own hands, he will assuredly disgust the principal 
assistant, and throw out the whole of the work. For 
these reasons Mr. Oarnao is of opinion that the prin- 
cipal assistant's position towards the agent should be 
the same, or nearly the same, as that of the sub- 
deputies to their chief ; or to take another example, 
the officer in charge of the factory would stand in the 
same position to the agent as, say, the superintendent 
of the Cawnpore factory does to the Inspector-General 
of Ordnance. 

5. I am to state that, taking all the circumstances 
into consideration, the Board recommend that the 
recommendations of the Opium Commission in para- 
graphs 718 and 719 of their report may be sanctioned, 
" Board " being substituted for " Director-General." 

6. With regard to the recommendation of the Com- 
mission in paragraph 719 of their report, that no 
communication between the agent and the chief factory 
officer by official letter should be permitted, that when 
the agent is at head-quarters all comimunications 
botwcun him and the factory officer should be by word- 
of-inouth, or by half-margin order book, and that 
when the agent is absent from head- quarters they 
should be by half-margin notes, I am to state that the 
Board have requested the agents to desist from corres- 
pondence with the principal assistant by official letters 
and adopt the form of communication described in 
paragraph 719 of the Commission's report. They have 
also been told that in addressing the Board copies of 
notes or letters from the principal assistants should not 
be submitted, but the ])urport of ;i,ll oommunication^^ 
from these officers should bo embodied in one complete 
report from the agents, except in casos in which the 
principal assistant reports in the capacity of opium 
examiner, and in such cases the Board htive directed 
that the statements submitted and the views expressed 
by the principal assistant should be forwai-ded to the 
Board with any remarks the agent may have to oll'or. 

7. In paragraphs 720 to 729 of their report the 
Opium Commission express their views in regard to 
the qualifications that should be expected from the 
officer appointed to the post of factory superintendent 
(principal assistant). On this subject I am tn refer to 
paragraph 9 of the Board's letter, JSTo. 3 B., dated 2nd 
January 1884, in which the Board have ali'sady 
recorded their opinion. 

8. The agents were also requcslicd to fnrnish the 
Board with their opinion on the rec(jmmoudations 
made by the Commission in paragraphs 7'-'0 and 731 of 
their report in regard to the appointment of assistant 
factory superint'indent, and the pay to bo drawn by 
those officers. The IJehar agent statrs that there is a 
feeling at present prevailing among the gazetted 
officei'S of the Bebar Agency that the duties of the head 
assistant at the factory are below the ]JOsition of a 
gentleman, ;ind this feeling is shown bj'a disinclination 
on the part of as.sistant sub-deputy opium agents to 
accept the ai)pointment on tbe orcasioii of any vacancy. 
He sin B that the appointment, owing to the absence of 
piopc7' house accominodati(m and local circumstances, 
is no doubt attended with much inconvenience. The 
officer finds hiniHell' isolated and with no rompanions 
about him; the duties are ii'kscjnic, ami reiniire 



activity, good temper, and patience. The officer draws 
no travelling allowance, and has no cold- weather 
camping. All these disadvantages cause the post to be 
shunned . He recommends that every gazetted officer 
on joining the Department should go through a course 
in the laboratory and in the factory ; that officers who 
have evinced during their early training the quality of 
good temper with their subordinates and skill in 
chemical manipulation should be selected when 
vacancies occur for the post of head assistant, receiving 
a salary above their graded pay, and on the completion 
of two years' service at the factory should revert to 
district work, receiving promotion to officiating sub- 
deputyships ; that the officer should be selected, not by 
the test examination only, but for known characteristics, 
such as patience under irritation, forbearance with 
native stupidity and wickedness, power of dealing with 
large bodies of natives, considerable bodily activity and 
aptitude in investigating cases and detecting rascality, 
and that he should be entirely subordinate to the 
factory superintendent as at present. As regards the 
question of pay, the agent is of opinion that the head 
assistant should receive Bb. 500 the first year and 
Rs. 600 the second year, besides free quarters ; and as 
there is no house available near the factory, he 
proposes to provide suitable house accommodation. 

9. The Benares agent states that the question of the 
appointment of assistant factory superintendent some- 
what hangs together with that of the appointment of 
medical officers to the post of principal assistants. 
Unless the appointment is reserved for officers of the 
Opium Department, he doubts whether any assistant 
would care for the drudgery of factory work, and he is 
by no means in favour of laying down a rule that no 
medical man, however well qualified, can be appointed 
to the management of the factory, should he be willing 
to undertake the duties. With respect to the pay of 
the first factory assistant, the agent states that he 
understands that Es. 7.j0 a month is reserved for a 
medical officer, who shall be placed in training for the 
post of supriintendent (principal assistant). 

10. I am to observe that the Board do not agree with 
the Behar agent on the following points : — 

I. — That the factory assistant superintendent 
appointed from the gazetted staff should hold the 
appointment for only two years. 
II. — That every gazetted officer on joining the Depart- 
ment should go through a course in the laboratory 
and in the factory. 

With regard to the first point, the agent has accn- 
rately described the requisites for an assistant 
superintendent. So far as chemical knowledge is 
coucernc'cl, that which an opium officer has shown to 
piissess by the test of the departmental examination 
should be sufficient to make him eligible for appoint- 
ment to the post. Practical knowledge will be gained by 
him in the course of his duties under the further 
instruction of the superintendent, and it is this 
practical kuowh'dge which will, with the other qualifi- 
cations, render him an efficient assistant to the 
superintendent in the onerous duties the latter officer 
has to ]ierform. By removing an assistant superin- 
tendent at the end of two years he will be taken away 
just at the time when he is becoming really useful and 
of service to the factory, and the burden of beginning 
over again the instruction of a new assistant will be 
thrown on the superintendent. An assistant superin- 
tendent to be of use should be conversant with all the 
routine of the factory administration and with the 
subordinates he has to deal with. Continual changes 
in the appointment will, the Board think, act very 
injuriously on the administration of the factory, for 
of necessity the superintendent, who is the hardest 
worked nian in the place, must depend much upon and 
entrust much to his assistant. If a good man can be 
got as an assistant, there seems to be every reason why 
he should bo retained as such as long as is conducive to 
efiiciency. The Board do not see either that the 
training of the assistant superintendent at the factory 
will in itself alone secure an officer more efficient in his 
duties as district officer, and there Kcoms no necessity 
why he should on that account be deputed to district 
work against his wish, merely on the face of the pro- 
posed two yrars' rule. 0ns of the results of adopting 
the ai;ent's proposals would alsd be to put the assistant 
after two years' service at the factory over the head of 
his roiiti'uiporariew for the rest of his service. This the 
Board think would be unfair. 

11. As rci;a.rils tlic second poini, 1 am to obsei've that 
llie Dnaril understand tliat some years ago the plan that 



APPENDIX. 



47 



every gazetted officer on joining the Department should 
go through a factory course was in existence, and it was 
abandoned after a time, as it was found that the 
young officers merely idled their time and did no good. 
They were of no partioular.use at the factory, except per- 
haps during the weighments, but they gained no practical 
knowledge of their future duties in tko mofuasil. The 
Board were of opinion that if this plan were followed 
again, the sub-deputy opium riigents would lose the 
services of these young officers in the district for the 
period they remained at the factory, and when the latter 
joined their appointments in the mofussil they would 
be not more useful to the district officers than if they 
had joined at once on first appointment; both agents 
Were therefore consulted on this point. The Behar 
agent reports that on the institution of departmental 
examinations the system of keeping young officers at 
the factory on the supposition that they there gained a 
practical knowledge of chemistry was very properly 
given up. The Benares agent states that in former 
days young assistants were attached to the factory on 
first joining the Department, and spent part of their 
time there. The system had, however, altered consider- 
ably before Mr. Carnac joined the agency. He states 
that the extension of the work of the Department has 
long since absorbed the reserve of assistants which used 
to be available at the factory, and no assistants are now 
in training for semi-independent charges. The system 
has been to place as a rule the last comer in charge of a 
sub-division, which weighed at head-quarterp, and 
thereby in some measure to reduce the young officers" 
responsibilities. It has been the practice, the agent 
states, to bring inexperienced officers down to Ghazipore 
after the weighments of their sub-divisions, and during 

,_. ^ ^. , , , . . that slack time to instruct 

*Tne testms and classifving of .i -, , ■ i_t ■ 

opium. them and to examine them m 

the *purrukJi of opium and 
in testing for impurities. Mr. Carnac proposes to 
adhere to the present system ; and should the Depart- 
ment hereafter be increased as proposed by the Commis- 
sion, and some spare assistants be available, he would 
attach them to the districts and not to the factory. 
These officers would as now come down to the factory 
for a short time after the payments, and go through a 
course of parrukhing, &c., and Mr. Carnac proposes to 
add to this short course some instructions in the system 
of keeping the agency vernacular accounts. 

12. I am to state that the Bqard would recommend 
no change from the present practice beyond those put 
forward by the Opium Commission in paragraphs 730 
and 731 of their report. The Board, however, would 
observe that there are no workshops to grant certifi- 
cates, and that there is no Director-General. 

13. The Board also requested the agents to submit 
any remarks they may have to oflfer on the proposals 
contained in paragraphs 733 to 735 of the Opium Com- 
mission's report in regard to the revision of the factory 
office establishment. 

The Behar agent (Mr. Metcalf) reported that there is 
no objection to the proposal made in paragraph 7S3 of 
the Opium Commission's report that the factory superin- 
tendent should be left entirely free to employ the mem- 
bers of his office establishment in any manner which he 
may think proper, but the proposal to place under him 
the establishment for the audit of the cultivators' 
accounts in the sudder factory is open to strong objec- 
tions for the following reasons : — {a) the principal 
assistant has not the leisure to attend to this work ; and 
(6) in practice it is found that the sudder factory and 
the sub-deputy opium agents are often at variance 
owing to mistakes arising out of the receipt of opium, 
whioh afi'ect the cultivators' accounts and have even- 
tually to be adjusted by the agent after personal inquiry 
into challans. Mr. Kemble, however, after visiting 
Ghazipore, and inquiring into the working of the audit 
officer there, reports that if such an office is to be em- 
ployed at Bankipore it will be necessary to build a new 
bungalow and to engage a new staff' of clerks, and he 
doubts if the benefits to be gained are worth the expen- 
diture. He states that from what he heard and saw at 
Ghazipore he learnt that all that the audit office does is 
to ensure that the accounts of all the assamees are 
properly kept, and that the sub-deputy agent has 
testified to the final payments of each assaraee. As far 
as Mr. Kemble can see, the first duty can be as efficiently 
carried out by a sub-deputy agent, who is a gazetted 
European officer, as by the head auditor ; and if the sub- 
deputy cannot be trusted to sign his papers correctly he 
is not fit for the post. During the months of August, 
September, and October this examination and auditing 
of the assamees' papers is all that the sub-deputies have 



to do. Mr. Kemble has looked into this pint of the 
work of the officers subordinate to him, and has no 
reason to be dissatisfied with it, and he feels sure that if 
any Bul)-deputy agent for any reason failed to pay each 
hhaltadar his due, the agent would hear of his short- 
comings long before the auditor detected them. Mr. 
Kemljle remarks that if a clever sub-deputy were in- 
clined to be dishonest, he doubts whether tLe audit 
ollioe could detect him. So far as the sub-deputies' 
accounts go, Mr. Kemble is not convinced of the neces- 
sity for any further check than that already exorcised 
in his office, and he is of opinion that an audit office in 
the Bihar Agency would be a piece of useless extrava- 
gance. Looking to these objections, and the expense 
whioh, giving eff"ect to the recommendations for an 
audit office in Behar would entail, the Board would not 
recommend its adoption. The Behar agent also dis- 
sented from the opinion of the Opium Commission as to 
the strength and cost of the establishment that would 
be necessary for the office of the principal assistant. 
The Board approved the agent's recommendation, and 
a proposition statement prepared accordingly (which 
has been forwarded to the Aocountant-Goneral for 
verification of the present scale of establishment) is 
submitted for the sanction of Government. 

14. The Benares agent reports that he understands 
from the Commission's recomiuendations that it is pro- 
posed to amalgamate the existing audit department of 
the agency with the other offices of the factory under 
the principal assistants and organise an establishment 
sufficient for the entire office work, which properly 
devolves upon the factory superintendent, including the 
audit of the cultivators' accounts. This recommendation 
is, the agent believes, based on a misapprehension. The 
audit of the cultivators' accounts, he states, is not a part 
of the factory superintendent's duties, and in this view 
Dr. Weir agrees. He says that the audit office has 
never been a part of the factory establishment properly 
so called. It is true that the head auditor's office is at 
the factory, and that for a [lart of the year, i.e., whilst 
opium is coming in from the districts, the calculations 
of da/mdetta, a work devolving on the principal assistant, 
are worked out by the audit office under the orders of 
the principal assistant. During the rest of the year, 
however, the duties of the audit office have no con- 
nexion with the factory whatsoever, save when the factory 
accounts are audited under the orders of the agent. 
The agent states that the head auditor's duties include 
the checking of outstanding balances, advances for 
wells, the vernacular accounts of the sub-deputies, and 
also the store accounts of the factory. He is, however, 
of opinion that the head auditor's duties should be con- 
fined to accounts and audit under the arrangements as 
they now exist, and that it is undesirable to entrust to 
him the superintendence of all the factory offices, and 
practically to impose upon the factory superintendent the 
responsibility for the audit of the whole of the cultivators' 
accounts. The agent says the proposal to place the 
audit office under the principal assistant is open to the 
following objections : — (a) If the offices are amalgamated, 
the present head auditor, instead of confining his atten- 
tion to audit and accounts, which give him ample 
employment, may be required to assist in many duties 
connected with the factory ; and (J) not only will his 
attention be diverted from his most important duties, 
but he might by degrees acquii-e an undue influence at 
the factory. The Benares agent also diff"ered with the 
Opium Commission with regard to the details of the 
establishment to be employed in the office of the prin- 
cipal assistant and in the audit office. The Board 
having agreed with the agent and approved his pro- 
posals, a proposition statement (which has been for- 
warded to the Accountant-General for verification of 
the present scale of establishment) has been pi-epared 
accordiugly, and is submitted for the sanction of Govern- 
ment. 

15. With regard to the proposal contained in para- 
graphs 736 to 740 of the Commission's report in con- 
nexion with the revision of the factory assistants' estab- 
lishments, the Behar agent states that no objection 
can be urged against the proposed salaries for factory 
assistants, and he has no objection to make to the 
proposal that the laboratory superintendent should be 
selected from the factory assistants, and considers the 
proposal a good one. The agent suggests that the post 
of assistant opium examiner should be held by a duly 
qualified assistant surgeon selected from amongst the 
candidates who may have distinguished himself in 
chemistry during his medical course, and he states that 
he has carefully considered if there would be any 
advantage in selecting an officer from the regular staflT 



Apr. I. 
Bengal. 



48 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



App. 1. of assistant sub-deputy opium agents ; but, iit'ter woigh- 

iiig the considerations be would support the Commis- 
sion's proposals. Tlic Benares ;igont, however, rooom- 
mends that a thoroughly qualified Jiluropcan should be 
selected for this appointment iis the duties of assay 
registrar, which will be performed b}- him, are \ery 
delicate, onerous, and responsible. The appointment 
of opium examiner at the Ghazipore factory has already 

been sanctioned by Grovernment of India uiV/f! enclosure 

to Government order No. 181 T. E., dated L!3rd April 
1885, and i am now to submit (through the jVccountant- 
General for verification of the present establishment) 
proposition statement of the factory assistants' estab- 
lishments at both the Goolzarbagha and the Ghazipore 
factories. 

16. Paragraphs 741 to 744 of the Opium Commission's 
report contain their recommendations regarding the 
revision of the subordinate native establishment at the 
Patna factory. On this subject the agent reports that 
the only modifications he would propose to the Commis- 
sion's recommendations are (1) that the first and second 
•purhhea and the head sirdar should receive progressive 
salaries of Us. 25 to Rs. 50, Rs. 15 to Rs. yO, and Rs. 
20 to Rs. 80 respectively, instead of the fixed salaries of 
Rs. 50 and Rs. 30 recommended by the Commission, as 
he is of opinion that a progressive salary will encourage 
the men to conduct themselves properly ; (2) that in 
place of the compounder, recommended bj' the Commis- 
sion, a selected assistant hospital compounder deputed 
from the regular medical staff b:j employed, as if this 
is done the place could easily be filled in ease of 
sickness ; and (3) that the salaries of the blacksmith and 
carpenter should be Rs. 15 rising to Rs. 20, instead of 
Rs. 10 and Rs. 8 respectively, as recommended by the 
Commission, as the demand for good workmen is said 
to be so great that there is a diflBculty in securing, and 
a still greater diflfioulty in retaining, their services. The 
agent states that the Commission's recommendations 
regarding the re-organisation of the staff of factory sir- 
dars are excellent, and he strongly recommends them for 
adoption. The Board agree with the agent that the pay of 
the first and second jiiW'fc/tea and the head sirdar should, 
be progressive instead of fixed. They also would support 
his recommendation with regard to the appointment of 
an assistant hospital compounder. The Board, how- 
ever, doubt the necessity of raising the pay of the 
blacksmith and carpenter from Rs. 10 and Rs. 8 res- 
pectively to Rs. 15 rising to Rs. 20, and a proposition 
statement, prepared in accordance with these views, is 
submitted(throughAccountant-General) for the sanction 
of Government. 

17. The recommendations of the Opium Commission 
regarding the subordinate native establishment at the 
Ghazipore factory ai'e Contained in paragraphs 745 to 
747 of their report. The Benares agent states that the 
recommendations of the f'ommission will, on the whole, 
be found to work well. He is of opinion, however, that 
the proposals regarding the staff of factory sirdars 
require some slight change. The pay proposed for the 
sirdars of the last two grades is, he thinks, inadequate 
for the following reasons : — (-i) The sweeper is to receive 
Rs. 5, the cooly-mate Rs. 6 ; it ivill therefore hardly 
do to pay the sirdars, who have to assist in the godowns, 
and whose position in the factor}' is respoiisiltle, at the 
same rate as the swei-per and a lower rate than 
the cooly-mate, and (ii) the sirdars are selected from 
the cake-makers. Unaerthe Commission's recommen- 
dations a eake-maker may now make as much as Rs. 12 
a month; it will therefore be no promotion to a cake- 
maker to be appohited a sirdai', and there will lie a 
difficulty in getting good men. He therefore recom- 
mends that the lowest pay of the sirdars should be fixed 
at Rs, 6 a month, and he would ix'^rade the sirdars 
as shown Ijclow, at an extra cost of lis. 17 per month, 
com])ared with the Commission's I'ecommendations : — 

Rs. a. Rs. 

1 Head sirdar at 35 - - - 35 

1 Sirdar „ 15 - 15 

8 Sirdars „ 10 - - 80 

4 Ditto „ 9 8 - - - 38 

4 Ditto „ 9 - - 36 

4 Ditto ,,88-- 34 

4 Ditto „ 8 - - - 32 

4 Ditto ,,7 8 - 30 

4 Ditto „ 7 - - 28 

4 Ditto „ G 8 - 26 

8 Ditto ,, 6 - - - 24 



46 



Total 



402 



He also slates that in the Commission's rooommenda- 
tions the laboratory stokei' has been omitted. This man, 
it is said, is emploj'od all tlie year round in cleaning 
the factoiy boiler, and he considers that he should be 
l)rought on the piM'manent estaljlisliment on Rs. 7 per 
month. The modifications proposed by the agent were 
approved liy the Board, and a proposition statement 
]n-ep;ued aceordingly is snljiuitteil (through the 
AceonntiULt-General) iorthe sanction of Goveninieiit. 

18. The agents were also asked to report on the re- 
commendations of the Opium Omumission, contained in 
pai-aiir.'iph 748 of their report, regarding the fire-brigade 
cstablishmeut.s at the opium factories. Tlie Beliar 
agent recommends that the proposals of the Opium 
Commission may be carried out. He also recommends 
that the fire-brigade be placed in charge of the first 
factory assistant, and the montl/ allowance of Rs. 30 be 
paid him to look after the manual engines and to drill 
the firemen. The steam fire-engines the agent states 
should remain in charge of the superintendent of the 
saw mills, who is the only person at present competent 
to keep the machinery in working order. He also re- 
commends that a man may be employed on a salary of 
Rs. 12 to work the steam engines. With regard to the 
uniform recommended in paragraph 357 of the Com ■ 
mission's renort, the agent states that the only uniform 
required will be a coloured topee and a badge to be 
worn on the arm, and he estimates the cosd at Re. 1 per 
man, or Rs. 50 per annum. The Benares agent states 
that the increase in the fire-brigade establishment was 
urged during the sittings of the Commission at Ghazi- 
pore, and was warmly suppoi'ted by both Dr. Weir and 
himself. The proposed increase in the fire-brigade 
establishment in both factories has been included in the 
proposition statement submitted, and the Board recom- 
mend that it may be sanctioned, as also the annual 
ex])enditure of Rs. 50 for the uniforms required for the 
fire-bi-igade at the Patna factory. 

19. The Board also referred the Benares agent to 
paragraphs 749 to 752 of the Commission's report in 
which they recommend the substitution of a police 
guard for the burkandaz guard at the Ghazipore factory, 
and he was requested to submit any remarks he may 
have to offer on the proposal, and to report the strength 
and cost of the guard that would be necessary. The 
agent was also desired to ascertain from the Inspector- 
General of Police, North- Western Provinces, whether 
that officer still has objections to the police searching 
the workpeople leaving the factory. Mr. Carnac states 
that the Commission have adopted his views. He is of 
opinion that a well-disciplined police guard ought to be 
preferable for the purposes of watc-h and ward to a per- 
manent resident burkandaz guard. It is said that the 
bitrkandaz guard, under the orders of the principal 
assistant, is undoubtedly more easily managed and con- 
venient, but these men are continuously employed on 
one ditty, havi'. greater opportunities of combining 
together and conniving nr a^Kisting■ at irregularities 
than a police guard could have. The agent says that if 
the number of sentries is sufficient, and the sentiies are 
respectable, they should be able to check any irregu- 
larities. Thci-e may be, he says, some friction between 
the police guard and the factory native establishment, 
but this is not to be deplored if it tends to check irre- 
gularities. Mr. Carnac has submitted a proposition 
statement, which is forwarded (through the Accountant 
General for verification of the present establishment) 
for the sanction of Government, showing the cost of the 
proposed police guard, the strength of which, he says, 
has been flxedby the Deputy Inspector-General of Police, 
North-Western Provinces, on visiting the factor\ and 
seeing the number of sentries required. The statement 
shows that 77 men are to be employed at a total yearly 
cost of Rs. 7,333. The agent states that the guard will be 
on the same footing as those of central gaols, witli the 
exception that the relief will be left to the discretion of 
the District Superintendent of Police. The relief will 
generally be one-third of the guard monthly, and this 
constant change will, it is said, be a check on the possible 
collui-ion of the guard and the factory employe's. It is 
proposed to relieve the present burkandaz gradually, 
LO that the police nniy learn the work from the burkan- 
da7.es. The Deputy Inspector-General of Police was, it 
is said, much pleased with the physiqtieand drill of the 
burkandaz guard, which he considered superior to that 
of the police ; and in the e^'ent of the scheme being 
sanctioned, the present burkandaz guard will be 
transferred bodily to the police reserve. 



APPENDIX 



49 



20. With regard to the question of searching, the 
agent states that the Police Department hold that a 
police sentry armed with a musket cannot satisfactorily 
conduct the search of persons leaving the factory. Ho 
therefore recommends that a special establishment be 
employed for the purpose. This establishment will 
consist of one duffadar searcher and five searchers, and 
its total yearly cost, including clothing charges, will be 
Rs. 550. This establishment also has been included in 
the proposition statement submitted to Government for 
sanction. Besides the police guard and searchers, it 
will be necessary to employ temporary men at certain 
seasons of the year, such as the weighments, when the 
factory is crowded to overflowing. The agent says 
that the Police Dopartinent recommend that these men 
should be employed as required by the agent and the 
principal assistant, and should be placed under the 
orders of the sub-inspeotor of the guard at the factory. 
The agent concurs with this opinion, and states that 
the number of temporary men employed vary with the 
varying demands of the season. In 187.5, from January 
to July the average number of posts supplied by tem- 
porary men was 8f ths, while during the same months 
in 1885 the average was 4f-ths only. 

21. The recommendations of the Opium Commission 
to increase the wages of the cake-makers at the fao- 

* Behar 763 to 756. *°"^^ f%.°,°''>'^?o '^ P^^" 

Benares 757 and 758. graphs* 753 to 758 of their 

report. The attention of both 
agents was drawn to this subject, and they were re- 
quested to submit any remarks they may have to oifer, 
together with an estimate of what the extra cost under 
the scale proposed by the Commission is likely to be. 
The Behar agent points out that in the Commission's 
report no distinction has been made between the cost 
of manufacture and of repairing. He states that at 
the present rates the cake-makers are very well paid, 
and he does not recommend the increased rate of one 
anna for six cakes, or 96 cakes per rupee, proposed by 
the Commission. He says that the caking rate now 
paid has only very recently been raised, and there 
seems no necessity for a further immediate increase. 
It is said that the workmen are quite satisfied with the 
present rate of 128 cakes per rupee, and ask for no 
increase. A cake-maker can earn Rs. 12 monthly, and 
this rate is found sufiicient to secure the best work- 
men, and need not therefore be increased. With 
regard to the repairing of cakes, the agent states that 
at the present rate of 520 cakes per rupee the men can 
earn three annas a day only, and this is found insuffi- 
cient to attract the best men, and only inferior men 
present -themselves for employment, and he recom- 
mends that the rate be raised to five annas per 100 
cakes (or 320 per rupee), which is the out-turn per day 
permitted. 

The Benares agent reports that the arguments that 
higher salaries should be paid to cake-makers at 
Ghazipore than at Patna, since Patna is the school and 
home of cake-makers, cannot stand nowadays, as three 
only of the Ghazipore cake-makers are Patna men, all 
the rest being residents of Ghazipore. With the pro- 
posed increase of pay for cake-makers, the agent says 
it will be diflBcult to find cake-makers willing to be 
promoted downwards to the lower grades of sirdar, 
as a cake-maker of the lowest grade would earn in six 
months Rs- GO, while a sirdar of the lowest grade would 
have to work 12 months to earn the same amount. 
Under the circumstances represented by the agents, I 
am to state that the Board do not support the proposals 
of the Opium Commission to increase the wages of 
the cake-makers at the Patna and Ghazipore factories. 
They would, however, recommend an increased rate 
of five anna? per 100 cakes being given for the 
repair of cakes at the Patna factory. At this rate 
the extra cost is estimated at Rs. 1,252 per annum. 

22. With regard to the recommendations in para- 
graph 759 of the Opium Commission's report in con- 
nexion with the sa-.v-miil establishments at the Patna 
factory, I am to stato ihat the Behar agent has been 
requested to refer to these proposals when submitting 
any scheme for the revision of this portion of the 
factory establishment rendered necessary owing to the 
recent extension of the saw-mill. This matter will be 
dealt with separately by the Board on receipt of the 
agent's report. 



u 82810. 



No. 694 B., dated 17th July 1886. 

From C. E. Bucklanb, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Seoeetaky to the Government of Bengax, Revenue 
Department. 

In continuation of paragraph 22 of the Board's letter 
14 B., dated 9th January last, I am directed by the 
Board of Revenue to submit for the orders of Govern- 
ment the following suggestions in connexion with the 
saw-mill establishment at the Patna factory, together 
with a proposition statement (which has been forwarded 
to the Acoountant-General for verification of the 
present scale of establishment). 

2. In paragraph 759 of their report the Opium Com- 
mission expressed their views with regard to the saw- 
mill establishment as follows: — 

" The salaries of the saw-mill establishment have 
been stated in paragraph 501, and we have there re- 
marked that we consider the pay to be insufficient. 
The present superintendent of the saw-mill has held the 
appointment for 14 years, and has received no increase 
of pay since 1878, when his salary was raised from 
Rs. 300 to Rs. 400 on the amalgamation of the saw-mill 
and chest departments. As residence in the saw-mill 
compound is compulsory, we think that house-rent 
should not be charged to the superintendent ; but we 
consider that a salary of Rs. 400 is sufficient for the 
appointment. Should it be thought desirable to re- 
cognise the good service which the present superinten- 
dent has rendered, such recognition should, in our 
opinion, be made in the form of a personal allowance. 
The salary of the store keeper should, in our opinion, 
be raised from Rs. 20 to Rs. 35. The pay of the sawyers 
appears to us to be inadequate ; but when the arrange- 
ments now in progress for the extension of the mill are 
completed it will be necessary to revise the entire 
establishment, and we therefore refrain from sub- 
mitting, in this report, any definite recommendations 
on the subject. We are not at present in a position to 
say what the strength of the establishment should be ;' 
but we have no doubt that such salaries as Rs. 7 and 
Rs. 6 are insufficient for skilled workmen, such as 
sawyers and saw-fitters." 

3. The Behar agent has now submitted his scheme 
for increasing the strength of the saw-mill establish- 
ment at an additional cost of Rs. 353 per mensem, or 
Rs. 4,236 per annum. The proposition statement 
shows that it is proposed to raise the salary of Mr. 
Girling, the superintendent and engineer of the saw- 
mill, from Rs. 400 to Rs. 500 per mensem. On 
this question Mr. Kemble submitted the following 
remarks : — 

"Though I have given over charge of my office to 
Mr. D'Oyly, I take the liberty before leaving for 
England of bringing to the notice of the Board the 
very excellent work done by Mr. Girling, the superin- 
tendent of the saw-mill, in fitting up and bringing 
into work the new boilers, engines, and machinery 
which have arrived from England during the past 
year. 

" The officers of the Public Works Department built 
for us the chimney, the engine-hoase, and the reser- 
voirs ; the stone beds for the machinery, which are sunk 
about 20 feet into the earth, and the masonry beds for 
the three enormous boilers, each weighing about 
13 tons, were built up by Mr. Girling. These large 
masses of ironwork were carried from the railway 
station and placed in position, and all the complicated 
fittings of the most recent invention were put together 
by him with his own hands or under his immediate 
superintendence during the hottest and most trying 
months of the year. 

" The general work done by him during the year 
has been also satisfactory ; he has to carry out most 
responsible duties in examining and passing timber 
and chests to the value of many thousand rupees. The 
late Commission, in paragraph 759 of their report, and 
my predecessor have recommended that his salary 
should be increased, and I have waited till the new 
machinery was in working order for making a formal 
recommendation to the same effect. I trust that, 
Board will support my proposal that an addition 
of Rs. 100 be made to his salary from 1st January 
1886." 

4. Mr. Girling was appointed as engineer to the 
Patna factory on the 1st June 1869 on a salary of 



App. I. 
Benga/l. 



50 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. I. 



Eb. 300 per mensem. His salary ■was raised to 400 per 
montli from 15th February 1878 under sanction of fhe 
Government of India in their Financial Department 
letter, No. 3:503, dated 26th September 1877. Con- 
sidering the strong recommendation made by the agent 
in favour of increasing Mr. Girling's salary, the Board 
would recommend that nis salary may oithei- be 
raised to Es. 500 per mensem, or that a personal 
allowance of Es. 100 a month be granted to him ; and 
on this point I am to request that early orders may be 
passed. 

5. The proposition statement also shows that it is 
proposed to employ an assistant engineer on Es. 125 in 
lieu of one assistant to engineer on Es. 60, and one 
boiler-maker or second assistant to engineer on Es. 40 
per mensem, and to increase the number of circular 
sawyers, &o., to be employed. This is rendered neces- 
sary by the recent extension of the saw- mill. 

6. In conclusion, I am to request that the pay of the 
duftries in the vernacular department of the Patna 
factory oiHce shown under tlie proposed scale in the 
proposition statement submitted to Government with 
the Board's letter No. 14 B., dated 9th January last, 
may be corrected from Es. 6 and Es. -'j, total Es. 11, 
to Es. 8 and Es. 5, total Es. 13, and that the neces- 
sary corrections may be made in the totals of the 
statement. 



No. 720 B., dated 3rd November 1884. 

Prom C. E. Buckland, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Eevenue, Lower .Provinces, to the 
Secretaky to the Government oe Bengal, Eevenue 
Department. 

WiTiT reference to Government Order, No. 150 T. E., 
dated 30th April last, communicating the consent of 
his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor to the Board's 
taking into consideration, and submitting suggestions 
for giving efi'ect to, the recommendations made by the 
late Opium Commission on certain minor matters 
connected with the administration of the Opium 
Department, I am directed by the Board of 
Eevenue to submit, for the orders of Government, 
zhe following snggestions in connexion with the 
Commission's proposals in Chapter VIII. of their 
report. 

2. In paragraph 762 of their report the Opium Com- 
mission consider that it would be advantageous to 
purchase a certain amount of Malwa opium for excise 
manufacture, but they are of opinion that no attempt 
to manufacture excise opium at Indoie, Ajmere, or 
Jubbulpore should be made. The Commission also 
thinlc til it the supply of excise opium to Local Govern- 
ments should bo regulated by the terms of the contracts 
periodically made under the system of provincial 
finance, and that the quantity of excise opmm to be 
supplied at cost price should be determined, and 
supplies in excess of those limits should be paid for at 
the market %'alue of opium for provision purposes. As 
the question of the purchase of Malwa opium for excise 
m.anufacture has formed the subject of separate cor- 
respondence, it is hardly necessary to go over the same 
ground in connexion with the report of the Opium 
Commission. The question of manufacturing excise 
opium at Indore, Ajmire, or .lubbulpore has also been 
before Government and the Board, and it will be seen 
from paragraph 10 of their letter No. 38 B., dated 14th 
January 1884, that it was not supported by the Board. 
As the Opium Commission is not in favour of the 
scheme, no furthei- allusion ro it is required. The 
Commission's proposals regarding the supply of excise 
opiiim to locaJ governments are, the Board consider, 
matters for Government to decide. 

3. In paragraph 765 the Commission recommended, 

for reasons given in that para- 
th'e S=S Z^- °' p-^Ph. that the form of chal- 

Ian I'egister m use m the 
.Benares Agency should in a modified form be intro- 
duced in Behar. I am to state that the Behar agent 
was consulted in the matter, and as he states that the 
introduction of the rc'-^istcr will be a decided improve- 
ment on the present practice followed in the Behar 
Agency, the Board have directed the agent to issue the 
necessary instructions for its introduction during the 
ensuing ■weiglnurnl.s, 

4. The next pro|.i,js;i,l8 of the OomTuisslun are eou- 
tained m paragraph 768 of l-hetr report. lu it they 



recommend (1) that the accounts of each cultivator 
should be separately adjusted ; (2) that the Benares 
form of challan register should (with some modifica- 
tions) be adopted ; (3) that the assay of the challan jars 
and the calculation of the damdetta contents of each 
jar should be based upon the re-classification of the jars 
at the factory; (l,i that the Behar system of ascertain- 
ing the value of each cultivator's opium should e 
followed ; (5) that no compensation should be allow ed 
for loss by dryage in transit ; and (6) that the accounts 
of the cultivators should be audited at the agency 
head-quartere. as is now done in the Benares Agency. 
The first of these recommendations will be dealt with 
in connexion with Chapter V. of the Opium Commis- 
sion's report. The second has been noticed in para- 
graph 3 above. The reasons for the third recommen- 
dation are given in paragraph 434 of the Commission's 
report, and from the footnote at page 295 of the report 
it will be seen that it has been provided for in the code 
of rules prepared by the Commission. As the Behar 
agent reports that he has no objection to the assay of 
the challan jars and the calculation of the damdetta 
contents of each jar being based upon the re-classifica- 
tion of the jars at the opium factory, he has been 
directed by the Board to introduce this system into the 
Behar Agency. The reasons for the fourth recommen- 
dation are given by the Opium Commission in para- 
graph 766 of their report, and as the Benares agent 
has no objection to the introduction of the Behar 
system of ascertaining the value of each cultivator's 
opium into the Benares Agency, he has been directed 
to introduce it during the ensuing weighments. 

6. The fifth recommendation of the Commission is 
that no compensation should be allowed for loss by 
dryage in transit. The question of loss by dryage is, it 
will be seen, discussed in paragraph 767 of the Com- 
mission's report, and apparently no compensation is 
now given. The recommendation does not therefore 
appear to call for any notice. 

6. With regard to the sixth recommendation. 1 am 
to state that the Behar agent was asked if he Uad any 
oVjjection to the accounts of the cultivators being 
audited at the agency head-quarters, and as he reports 
that he has no objection, and that at present it is felt 
that there is no sufficient audit of such accounts, and 
that the introduction of the Commission's proposal will 
be a decided improvement on the present practice fol- 
lowed in the Behar Agency, he has been directed by 
the Board to introduce the system during the next 
weighments. The Behar agent has also been requested 
to have a set of tables showing the valne of difi'erent 
quantities of opium at different rates per seer drawn 
up for use in his agency, as recommended by the 
Opium Commission, and to introduce the sysbem of 
adjusting the accounts of each jar separately into the 
Behar Agency during the ensuing weighments. The 
suygestions which relate to the different forms of re- 
gisters contained in paragraph 768 of the Opium Com- 
mission's report have apparently been adopted in the 
code of rules, and do not, the Board are of opinion, 
rec|uire furthei- notice in this letter. 

7. In paragraph 769 of their report the Opium Com- 
mission recommend that no change should be made in 
the form, size, or composition of the provision opium 
cake. Se^■eral experiments in the manner of manufac- 
turing and packing provision opium have recently been 
made, and a report on the subject was submitted to 
Government in Board's letter No. 177 B., dated 2Ist 
March 1884, in the last paragraph of which it \A"as said 
that the Board's opinion is in favour of keeping to the 
existing system of both manufacture and packing, and 
that the existing system is shown by all that has 
passed to be equal, if not superior, to any of the sug- 
gestions made by scientific experts. As the Boa.rd are 
stiill of the same opinion, they consider that no further 
action is necessary on this paragraph of the Commis- 
sion's report. 

8. The recommendation that the supply of chests for 
both agencies should be left in the hands of the Behar 
au'ent, made in paragraph 770 of the Opium Commis- 
sion's report, has been in force for some years, and the 
Board consider that no further orders are at present 
called for. The Behar agent's attention has been 
drawn to this jiaragraph. 

9. In paragraph 771 of their report the Commission 
express an opinion that it is expedient to maintain a 
vi'sevve, but recommend that the rese'i-vc should never 
be iMised to ail amount greater than would supply the 
Sales of six months, and the proper quantity would be 



APPENDIX. 



51 



represented by the number of chests required for the 
sales of three months, or 12.000. The Government of 
India ia their letter No. 1,534, dati^d' 30th June 1880, 
prescribed 30,000 as the miuimnm number of provision 
opium chests to bo kept in reserve, while iu will be 
seen that the maximum reserve recommendod by tbo 
Commission is six months' sale, or say 24,000 to 25,000 
chests. The point was again put before Government in 
the Board's letter No. 463 B., dated 15th July last, 
when discussing the question of the number oi chests 
to be sold in 1885, and the Government of India replied 
in their letter No. 2,446, dated 25th July 1884 (a copy 
of which was received with the Government order 
No. 1,506-65 O., dated 30th idem), that the addition of 
15,000 chests to the reserve would be sufficient for one 
year. But as they did not deal with the question of the 
reserve, the Board consider it necessary to re-open it 
on this occasion. 

10. The Commission also suggest that in storing the 
chests in the Calcutta godowns a narrow passage 
should be left through the centre of each godowu so as 
to reduce the breadth of the stacks and facilitate the 
examination of the innermost chests. The Bonid have 
considered this suggestion, and have issued the neces- 
sary orders for stacking the provision chests for the 
season 1883-84 accordingly. 

11. The recommendation in paragraph 772 of the 
Opium Commission's report that arrangements should 
be made with the Fi-ench Government to surrender 
on equitable terms the right which it enjoys of re- 
quiring 800 chests of provision opium to be annually 
reserved for it has already been carried out, and a 
convention entered into for the payment of Bs. 3,000 
per annum for five years, commencing from the 1st 
January 1884, to the French authorities at Ohander- 
nagore. 



4. As the proposals under consideration are intended 
to supersede those submitted in connexion with the 
Opium Commission's recommendation, I am to request 
that the proposition statement now submitted may 
be substituted for that furnished with the Board's letter 
No. 37 B., dated 12th January 1885. 



Arp. I, 
Bengal. 



No. 955 B., dated 25th November 1886. 

Prom 0. E. Bttckland, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Revenxie, Lower Provinces, to the 
Secretajbt to the Government or Bengai, Revenue 
Department. 

On the retirement recently of Mr. W. A. Byrne, head 
accountant, Benares Opium Agency, the opium agent 
applied to the Board tor sanction to the submission of 
a scheme for the revision of his office establishment,. 
This was granted by the Board, and Mr. Carnac has 

. ,, „„ , ^ , „^, now submitted the accom- 

* ^^o. 259-3005, dated 15tli ■ 4. * 4. iv, 

September 1SS6. panymg report,* together 

with a proposition statement 
showing the present scale and reorganisation of the 
agent's office establishment now proposed, which has 
been submitted through the Accountaut-General. 

2. It will be observed that the opium agent proposes 
to reduce the salary of the post of head accountant 
from Rs. 500 to Ks. 300 per mensem, rising by an 
annual increment of Rs. 20 to Rs. 400, and to improve 
the position of the superintendent of the correspondence 
branch of the agent's otfice Ijy raising his salary to that 
to be drawn by the head accountant. It is also proposed 
to appoint the superintendent of the standard com- 
puting office to be head auditor, and to grant him a 
personal allowance of Rs. 60 per mensem, in order to 
bring up his pay to the amount drawn by him in the 
former appointment, viz., Bs. 200, until such time as 
the revised establishment for the Ghazipore factory, 
recommended to Go^■crnment in the Board's letter 
No. 14 B., dated 9th January 1886, has been sanctioned, 
when the personal allowance will lapse. The standard 
computing office will, under the present scheme, be 
entirely abolished, as well as the post of treasurer, and 
that of ninth clerk in the head accountant's office. The 
net saving to Government which will be effected by 
the revision of establishment proposed will, as shown 
in the proposition statement, amount to Bs. 19-8 per 
mensem, or Rs. 234 per annum, and this saving will, in 
the event of the scheme for the revision of the factory 
establishment referred to above being sanctioned, be 
increased, as explained by the agent in paragraph 10 
of his letter enclosed, to Rs. 69-8 per mensem, or Rs. 834 
per annum. 

3. The Board, I am to add, see no objection to the 
agent's proposals, and they would recommend that the 
early sanction of Government may be given to the 
revised scheme now submitted with effect from the date 
oE Mr, Byrne's retirement. 



No. 259-3005, dated 15th September 1886. 

Prom J. H. Ruvett-Oaenac, Esq., O.I.E., Opium Agent 
of Benares, to the Secebtaey to the Boaei) or 
Revenxte, Lower Provinces. 

As already reported in my letter No. 247-2899, dated 
8th instant, I have, in accordance with the provisional 
sanction given by the Board of Revenue, made the 
following arrangement, subject to approval, on the 
retirement of Mr. Byrne. 

2. Por the charge of the accounts office I have selected 
Babu Gugan Chunder Bae, who for 11 years has been 
in charge of the audit branch of this agency. Babu 
Gugan Chunder was for four years in the Accountant- 
General's office. North- Western Provinces, where he 
earned a high character. He is well up in the orders 
and procedure of the Accounts Department. His 
good service has been frequently brought to the notice 
of the Board of Eevenue, and the Commission have 
noticed the valuable assistance rendered by him. In 
my opinion he is thoroughly well fitted for the work. 

3. The salary drawn by Mr. Byrne was Rs. 500. I 
would propose to reduce it to Rs. 300 per mensem, 
rising by annual increments of Rs. 20 to Rs. 400. The 
manner in which the savings from this reduction and 
others in the establishment will be utilised will be 
noticed in a later paragraph. 

4. To the post of head auditor Babu Sidheshwar 
Chatterjee has been appointed. He has hitherto held 
the appointment of head of the standard computing 
office on Rs. 200 per mensem. This appointment I now 
propose to abolish, as the retirement of Mr. Byrne 
enables me to distribute the work hitherto performed 
by the Babu between the head accountant's and head 
auditor's offices. 

5. I have appointed Babu Jugadishwar Chatterjee to 
be the superintendent of the agent's correspondence 
office. In this particular branch his knowledge and 
experience is invaluable. He is also a good accountant ; 
and had it been determined to unite the two offices, 
his long and excellent 8er\'ico and knowledge would 
have entitled him to the highest post. But it is no 
disparagement to the Babu to say that his experience 
has been chiefly in the correspondence branch, as Babu 
Gugan Chunder has been in accounts, and that the 
offices being separate, offers an excellent opportunity 
for providing, with advantage to the public service, 
for two excellent men in the two departments for which 
they are especially fitted. 

6. Having leg.ard to the services rendered by Babu 
Jugadishwar Chatterjee, and the onerous and respon- 
sible duties of his office, it is right, I consider, that 
this opportunity should be taken of raising his salary 
to that to be drawn by the head accountant, viz.. Re. 300 
per mensem with an annual increment of Rs. 20 up to 
Bs. 400 per mensem. Not only has the size and work 
of this agency increased, but owing to the necessity 
of the agent's personal assistant being continually 
deputed to assist in the disti-icts, it is particularly 
necessary to retain in the correspondence branch of 
this office a really capable man with knowledge and 
experience of the work. Even though I have worked 
12 years as agent, I find how necessary this is. And 
I have no hesitation in saying that next year, when 
I hope to take furlough, the officiating opium agent 
will be in real difficulty if he has not in hand Babu 
Jugadishwar Chatterjee in charge of the office. The 
men below him, whose salaries range from Rs. 80 to 
Bs. 35 are nothing but copyists, and are quite unable 
to supply his place. The services of the personal 
assistant are not, as the Board are aware, a constant 
quantity, and in the present state of the Department 
there seems little chance of improvement. But no 
personal assistant from the line could supply the 
knowledge possessed by the officer in question. 

7. I may be permitted to state that I have little hope 
of retaining Babu Jugadishwar Chatterjee's services 
unless his position be improved. He is naturally enough 
desirous of earning something more than the average 
of about Bs. 1 50 he has drawn during the past 16 years 

G 2 



52 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



.App- I- and wMcli is not, I consider, commensurate with the 
ability he possesses and the work he has lo perform. 
Recently, just as Mr. Porter was appointed, I prevailed 
upon Babu Jugadishwar Chatterjee to decline the offer 
of a post of Es. 400 in Cashmere, as it was most un- 
desirable the ofl&ce should be deprived of its head just 
as a new agent was expected. 

8. A proposition statement in the prescribed form, 
showing the present scale and the re-organisation of 
the agent's office, as now proposed in consequence of 
Mr. Byrne's retirement, is submitted. 

9. It will be seen from the statement that the re- 
organisation will cause a saving of Es. 19-8 per month, 
or Es. 234 per annum. 

10. As stated in paragraph 4, the superintendent of 
the standard computing office has been appointed to 
the post of head auditor. The present maximum pay 
of the post is Rs. 150, and the pay now drawn by Babu 
Sidheshwar Cl:iatterjee as superintendent of the standard 
computing office is Es. 200. I would therefore propose 
that a personal allowance of Es. SO may be granted 
to him till the revised scheme for the factory, proposed 
by the Opium Commission, is sanctioned. In this 
scheme Es. 250 has been recommended as the pay of 
the head auditor. In the event of the factory scheme 
being sanctioned, the personal allowance will lapse, 
and the actual saving by the re-organisation now 
proposed will amount to Es. 69-8 per month, or Es. 834 
per annum, instead of Es. 234 as shown in the accom- 
panying statement. 

11. Gabu Gugan Chunder Eae will, as directed in 
Board's letter No. 221 B., dated 6th ultimo, draw the 
minimum pay of the post of head accountant, viz., 
Es. 300 only, from the date of Mr. Byrne's retirement, 
i.e., 6th September 1886. 

12. As the revision causes no extra expenditure to 
Government, but, on the contrary, shows an actual 
saviiig, I trust the Board will allow Babu Jugadishwar 
Chatterjee to draw the minimum pay of his post as 
superintendent of the correspondence branch, viz., 
Es. 300, with effect from the date of. Mr. Byrne's 
retirement, i.e., 6th September 1886, the date from 
which he has held not only the post of superintendent 
of the office, but also had charge of the office of personal 
assistant. 



No. 283 B., dated 16th April 1885. 

Trom P. Nolan, Esq., Officiating Secretary to the 
Board of Eevenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Secbetatjy to the Government or Bengal, Eevenue 
Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of Govern- 
ment Order No. 1697-760, dated 8th November 1884, 
drawing attention to the practice which prevails in 
most sub-deput}- opium agencies in Behar and Benares 
of keeping in hand large cash balances at the close of 
each month, particularly during the season when 
weighments are going on and advances are being made, 
and requesting a report from the Board on the practi- 
cability of carrying out a suggestion made by the 
Accountaut-General, Bengal, that rules should be framed 
fixing the maximum balance to be kept at each sub- 
agency, the method by which the balances should be 
recouped, and the manner in which the' money should 
be safeguarded. 

2. I am to express the regret of the Board at the 
(l(;lay which has occurred in submitting a reply. The 
Behar ngeut thought it necessary to defer expressing 
an opinion on the subject until he had had an oppor- 
tunity of discussing the subject with the most ex- 
perienced officers in the agency during his cold weather 
tour, and his report was not received until the 10th 
March. 

3. With reference to the allegation made by the 
Accountant- General that sufficient care is not taken to 
keep the balance down to the lowest figure compatible 
with efficient work, I am to state the Behar agent 
reports that at times the daily paynaents at the weighing 
sheds amount to as much as Es. 16,000, and that where 
the weighing sheds are at a distance from a treasury, 
as they |are, for instance, at Burharwah, Tehta, and 
Sewan, the head-quarters of the Bettiah, Tehta, and 
Alleegunge sub-ngencies, it is absolutely impossible 
to keep the balances low. The amount, the agent 
states, is regulated by the quantity of opium expected to 
be brought in and paid for. When payments are being 



made at the head-quarters of a district, it is possible, 
the agent states, to send daily for money that may be 
required; but e\-en then, Mr. Kemble thinks, some 
balances must be shown. The agent adds : — 

" I find that in two head-quarter weighing places on 
the last day of April last year the sub-deputy agents 
had in their possession Es. 13,786 and Es. 12,465 
respectively, and on the morning of the 1st of May, 
before they could have had time to send to the treasury 
to cash their cheques, they had paid away all except 
Es. 80 and Es. 33-8, respectively. Weighments begin 
in the early morning, and money must be drawn the 
previou.s day." 

Orders have been issued by the agent to the effect 
that where a postponement of the weighments will not 
occasion inconvenience to cultivators, or loss to Govern- 
ment, they shall not commence till the 2nd of April in 
each year ; but, so far as has been ascertained, the 
Gya Sub-Agency is the only one in which this could be 
done. 

4. The Benares agent states that the practice of 
officers retaining large balances for months after the 
weighments, and clearing them off by degrees in their 
monthly payments, has long since been put a stop to. 
Any excess at the end of the weighments is returned 
to the treasury, and is not, as formerly, kept by the 
opium officers. Moreover, as the responsibility and 
inconvenience attending the custody of large sums of 
money are great, officers are glad to reduce their 
balances as far as possible. The circumfetances which 
render it necessary that large sums should be kept 
during the settlement and weighments are explained in 
the following extract from the agent's letter : — 

"In the first place, the daily payment at these 
seasons are very large. Then it is now the rule rather 
than the exception to conduct these operations at a 
distance from the district head-quarters. Lastly, the 
whole of the opium staff is fully engaged during this 
period in the weighments of opium, payments to 
cultivators, and preparation of many accounts. 

" It will be readily understood that where the work 
is carried on at a distance from a Government treasury, 
it is absolutely necessary that the opium officer should 
retain a considerable balance in hand sufficient for the 
payment of the cultivators, whilst the treasure party 
is moving between the treasury and the opium godown. 
At first sight it may appear that this does not apply 
to cases where the opium office is close to the civil 
station. But although this view is partly correct, there 
are strong objections to the procedure, which I myself 
at first proposed, and which I now see the Accountaut- 
General has suggested, a system of obtaining each day 
or even eveiy two or three days required amount from 
the collector's treasury. The fact is that owing to the 
objections to the presence of large bodies of cultivators 
in the ci\il station, the opium godowns are always 
situated at some distance from the cutcherry. The 
civil offices during the hot weather constantly close 
for holidays, whereas with us during the working 
season holidays are unknown. The treasury hours do 
not always run with our working hours, which during 
the weighments extend from 5 o'clock in the morning 
to 6 at night, and e\on later. The trouble and delay 
in sending for the money, counting it at the treasury, 
carrying it in carts, and then re-weighing it and placing 
it in safe custody at the opium treasury are not incon- 
siderable. But this is not the chief difficulty. The 
officers responsible for the money are the gomashta and 
the European sub-deputy or assistant. Even were 
each day's requirements to be drawn on the day of 
payment, or on the preceding day, the sums are so 
large that the gomashta himself attended by some 
of the staff must go to the treasury and take delivery 
of the money, and the European officer must on receipt 
personally count it, or weigh it and lock it up. During 
the weighments, when the gomashta is busy with his 
accounts, and with the management of a large staff and 
crowds of cultivators, he certainly could not be spared 
for the additional duty. The continual taking in and 
counting the treasure also would be a serious additional 
tax on the already over-worked European officer. Of 
this I was convinced when attempting to alter the 
system some years ago, and I ivas forced to abandon 
my original idea, and to return to the system which 
experience has shown to be necessary, and to draw 
large suras at a time, so as to save the gomashta being 
taken away from his duties at a most busy season." 

5. As regards the arrangements made by the sub- 
de]inty agents for the safe custody of the balances in 
theii' hands, I am to state that Mr. Kemble reports 



APPENDIX. 



53 



that at every weighment kothee there are buildings 
for the storage of opium jars and treasure. Tlie 
treasure rooms are not, however, as strong as the agent 
would like to see them and Mr. Kemble accordingly 
suggests that a strong iron safe with double looka°bo 
supplied to each, and that it may be embedded in the floor 
of the verandah of the building. By this arrangement 
the sentry on guard would have to walk up and down 
close by the chest, thereby rendering the treasure 
more secure than if it were kept in a dark room in the 
bungalow. On this point the Benares agent reports 
that all due precautions are taken for the safe custody 
of the treasure. The balances are kept in safes under 
double locks of which one key is with the gomashta and 
the other with the European assistant or sub-deputy 
agent. A sufBcient armed police guard is, the agent 
states, always employed during the weighments and 
settlements, which seldom extend over five or six 
weeks. Any other system than that now in force 
would, Mr. Carnac thinks, delay the weighments and 
settlements, and cause great inconvenience to the 
cultivators. During the past season, the agent states, 
efibrts were made to reduce the drawings on the 
treasuries until the May instalment of revenue had 
been collected. In more than one instance, however, 
the weighments were delayed by treasuries being 
unable to cash the sub-deputy's credit. Even when 
weighing near a civil station an opium officer, the 
agent reports, may be placed in great difficulties if he 
does not keep a considerable balance in hand. As an 
illustration in point, the agent cites the case referi-cd 
toin the foot-note at page 115 of the Opium Com- 
mission's report, the circumstances connected with 
which are explained by the agent in the following 
words : — 

" The case referred to in the report happened under 
my own observation the season before the last, at a 
station where the opium godown is not more than two 
miles from the collector's treasury. I arrived early 
on a Saturday morning to find that through a delay 
in the post the assistant had not received the necessary 
cheque on the treasury, and that he had not enough 
cash for the day's payment. On my proceeding to see 
the collector and obtain the necessary funds on my own 
order, I found that the day being a holiday the treasury 
was closed and ihe treasury oflicer absent." 

" Before I left that evening the cheque had arrived 
and it was understood that the money would be paid 
out on Monday morning. But when the Commission 
arrived on the Monday, they found the assistant still 
without money, and the payments stopped. The 
treasury offieer had been detained by the sudden death 
of a near relative. I do not mean to say that such 
contretemps are not exceptional, but where the import- 
ance of paying off the cultivators quickly and allowing 
them to return to their homes is so great, a good 
balance to guard against accidents is certainly desirable. 
So long as the sums required by the opium ofBcer for 
his payments during the busy season are properly 
guarded, there is little objection, I think, to the balance 
being large, and to the staff being thus saved the loss of 
time which the constant sending for and taking in of 
treasure involves." 

6. It will be observed that in paragraph 652 of their 
report the Opium Commission recommend (1) that the 
payments to the cultivators should ordinarily take 
place at stations where a treasury or sub-treasury 
exists, and that the amount drawn each day should be 
that which it was proposed to spend before evening ; 
(2) that the amount should be recouped by drawing on 
the nearest treasury against a credit granted by the 
Accountant-General ; and (3) that there should be no 
guard beyond that of the kothee peons, except where 
payments were made elsewhere than at places where 
treasuries existed, when a police guard should be 
supplied. When dealing with these proposals in 
paragraph 7 of their letter No. 653 B,, dated 23rd 
September 1884, the Board were in favour of adopting 
the Commissioner's recommendations and abolishing 
the opium officer's treasuries. But the fuller and more 
detailed information now laid before them by the 
agents has convinced the Board that the adoption of 
any such change would seriously interfere with the 
working of the Department. 

7. Pending a decision on the proposal of the Opium 
Commission that the opium treasuries should be 
abolished, the Board deem it unnecessary to frame 
general rules for the safeguarding of the balances, as 
any alteration in the existing arrangements_ would 
probably lead to considerable expense. No difficulty 



has been found in recouping the balances when 
necessary, and, therefore, no orders aro required on 
this subject. The Board propose to request the agents 
to pay special attention to keeping down the balances 
to the lowest point consistent with efficiency. 



App. I. 
Bengal. 



No. 281.-13 O., dated 28th January 1887. 

Prom W. C. Macphekson, Esq., Under Secretary to the 
Groverunient of Bengal, Eevcnue Department, to 
the Secbetary to the Goveknment of India, 
Department of Finance and Commerce. 

In continuation of paragraph 30 of Mr. Nolan's letter 
No. 2,600-130 0., dated 18th December 1886, I am 
directed to submit copy of a letter No. 64 B., dated 15th 
January 1887, from the Board of Revenue, and to say 
that, subject to the qualification stated in paragraph 2 
of Mr. Nolan's letter of 18th December 1886, the 
Lieutenant-Governor recommends that the sanction of 
the Government of India may be accorded to the ad- 
ditional expenditure of Rs. 5,016 per annum on account 
of the remuneration of the native temporary establish- 
ment employed at weighments in the Behar Opium 
Agency at the increased rates proposed by the Opium 
Commission in paragraph 677 of their report. 



No. 54 B., dated 15th January 1887. 

From C. E.BucKLAND, Esq., Officiating Secretary to the 
Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the Secue- 
TAKY TO THE GOVERNMENT or BENGAL, Revenue 
Department. 

In continuation of paragraph 20 of this office letter 
No. 173 B., dated 5th March 1885, and with reference to 
Government Order No. 2,717-135 0., dated 31st Decem- 
ber 1886, I am directed to report, for the information of 
Government, that the annual cost of the native tem- 
porary establishments employed at weighments in the 
Behar Opium Agency at the rates proposed by the 
Opium Commission will amount to Rs. 11 ,193, while the 
cost of the establishment at present employed in the 
agency amounts to Rs. 6,177 as reported by the agent. 
The extra cost will, therefore, be Es. 5,016. 



No. 630-31 O., dated 28th February 1887. 

From W. C. Macpheeson, Esq.. Under Secretary to the 
Government of Bengal, Revenue Department, to 
the Seoretaky to the Goyeenment of India, 
Department of Finance and Commerce. 

In continuation of paragraph 62 of Mr. Nolan's letter 
No. 2,600-130 O., dated 18th December 1886, I am 
directed to submit copy of a communication No. 140 B., 
dated 12th February 1887, from the Board of Revenue, 
and to say that under the circumstances therein stated 
the Lieutenant-Governor has, in anticipation of the 
approval of the Government of India, sanctioned the 
increase of establishment for the saw-mill and cheat 
department at the Patna opium factory, which was 
recommended by the Board of Revenue, and which is 
shown on page 52 of the proposition statement enclosed 
with Mr. Nolan's letter above-mentioned, with the 
exceptions of the proposed increases — 

(1) to the pay of the superintendent and engineer ; 

(2) to the pay of the storekeeper ; 

(3) to the pay of the four chuprasis ; 

(4) by appointment of an assistant engineer on Rs. 
125 in place of an assistant to engineer on Rs. 50, 
and a boilermaker on Bs. 40. 

With regard to these increases, the Lieutenant- 
Governor has informed the Board of Revenue that the 
orders of the Government of India must be awaited. 



No. 140 B., dated 12th February 1887. 

Memo, by C. E. Buokland, Esq. , Officiating Secretary 
to the Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces. 

Copy submitted to the Secretary to the Government 
of Bengal, Revenue Department, in continuation of the 
correspondence ending with this office letter No. 594 B., 
dated 17th July 1886, with request that the Board, may 
be favoured with the early orders of Government on the 
subject. 



G 3 



64 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION; 



App^I. No. 6 A., dated 9th February 1887. 

From W. Kemble, Esq., Opinm Agent of Behar, to the 



Seoeetaky to the Boabd op Eevenue, 
Provinces, 



Lower 



I HAVE the honour to call your attention to the corres- 
pondence ending with my No. 240, dated 15th June 
1886, on the subject of revising thfs establishment at 
the opium factory, and beg earnestly that m.y proposals 
may be sanctioned without delay, in order that the new 
arrangements may be brought into working order 
before the commencement of the manufacturing season. 

2. I have received a pressing letter from Dr. Whit- 
well, pointing out the difficulty of carrying on work 
underhanded as he is at present. 



No. 1,485-85 0., dated oth May 1887. 

From P. Nolan, Esq., Secretary to the Government of 
Bengal, Revenue Department, to the Sbcreiaet to 
THE G-OVEENMENT OF Indta, Department of Finance 
and Commerce. 

In continuation of paragraph 34 of my letter No. 

, T *.».., T, , ,-o 2,600-130 0., dated the 

1. Letter to the Board of Uevenne, t qxi -r\ i„ i ooi^' t 
No. 2.134-106 O., dated the 15th lota December 1886, 1 am 
November 1886. directed to submit, for the 

2. letter from the Board of infr,rTnatir.Ti oi'fhn fl-mrprn 
fievenue.No. 76 B., dated the 22ud iwormation 01 tne Uovern- 
January ]887, and iU enclosure. ment of India, copy ot the 

8. Letter to the Board of Ee- correspondence noted in 

venue. No. 425-18 O., dated the 9th ,, ^ ■ j- ii, 

February 1387. t^e margin, regarding the 

4. Letter from the Board of transmission of inferior 
Eevenue, No. 3'.K B., dated the 14th „„;„™ tn tViP fnr-t.nrv in 
April 1887, and its enclosure. Opium to tne lactory m 

5. Letter to the Board of Eevenue, separate despatches, and 
No. l,484r-84 O., dated the 6th May regarding the continuance 

of the system of imposi- 
tion of fines by the opium examiner on opium sent in as 
good by the district officers, but found at the factory to 
contain pussewah. 



No. 7-40, dated 10th January 1887. 
From J. H. Eivett-Caknao, Esq., C.S., C.I.E., Benares 
Opium Agent, Ghaziporc, to the Secbetaky to the 
BoAED OF Eevenue, Lower Provinces. 

I HAVE the honour to submit the report called for by 
the Government of Bengal in their secretary's No. 
2,134-105 0., dated 15th November 1886, received with 
your No, 310 B., dtited 23rd ultimo, on the subject of 
the recommendation of the Opium Commission regard- 
ing the separate invoicing and despatch of inferior 
opium to the factory. 

2. The system of transmitting inferior opium to the 
factory by itself in challans or despatches separate from 
those of good opium came into general practice in this 
agency during the opium weighments of season 1885-86. 
I was absent during the greater part of the season, but 
I find that on the whole the system has worked well. 

3. The year was noticeable for the great quantity of 
pussewah found in the opium, and the officers of the 
Department had thus considerable difficulties to deal 
with. But out of 5y,562 maunds despatched as good, 
but 0'246 per cent, wag found to be below the mark, 
0'240 of this being on account of pussewah. The 
results during the first year's working of the system, 
and that during a difficult season, may be regarded as 
satisfactory. 

4. Great care, however, is necessary ; and as I under- 
stand the orders of Government to be that fines con- 
sidered necessary by the opium examiner will not be 
levied on the cultivators, there will be some loss to 
Government if the classification by district officers is 
not exact. 

5. The officers of the Department have again had 
their attention drawn to the subject. At the present 
moment I am marching through the districts, (Perta- 
bgarh, Sultanpur, &c.,) which are most noted for 
pu^Kewah, and special measuj'es are being taken this 
season to improve the out-turn in this respect. 



No. 2,134-105 O., dated 15th November 1886. 

From G. K. Lyon, Esq., Officiating Under Secretary to 
the Go\-ernment of Bengal, Revenue Department, 
to the Secretakt to the Board or Keventje, 
Miscellaneous Eevenue Department. 

With reference to paragraph 26 of your letter No. 
173 B., dated 5th March 1886, stating that the Board 
have directed the opium agents to adopt the Opium 
Commission's recommendation contained in paragraph 
681 of their report, that inferior opium should be 
separately challenged, I am directed to request that the 
Board will be good enough to submit a report on the 
working of the new plan after the expiry of a year from 
the date of its actual introduction. 



No. 76 B., dated 22nd January 1887. 

Prom 0. E. Bfokland, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Eevenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Secretaiiy to the Government op Bengal, 
Revenue Department. 

With reference to Government OrderNo. 2,1.34'-105 0,, 
dated 15th November J 886, I am directed to submit 
herewith, for the infomation of Government, a copy of 

a report* from the opium 
♦ No. 7-40, diitel lOth .Tanuary agent, Benares, on the 

result of the introduction, 
durin,£r the opium weighments of season 1885-86, of the 
system recommended in paragraph 681 of the Opium 
Commission's report for the transmission of inferior 
opium to the factory in separate despatches, and to 
state that the Board are of opinion that, notwithstand- 
ing the difficulties that had to be contended with, owing 
to the very largo quantitj' oi pussewah in the opium of 
the season, the new system lias worked satisfactorily. 

2. The officiating opium agent, Behar, Mr. D'Oyly, 
has reported that it appears that the Board's orders 
directing the inti eduction of the change of practice in 
question in the Behar Agency were hy an ovej sight not 
communicated lo the district officers, Tlio necessary 
instructions have now, ho states, been issued, and a 
report will be funiisbed by the agent on the subject 
after the conclusion of next year's weighments. 



No. 425-18 O., dated 9th February 1887. 

Prom W. 0. MACPHERpriv, Esq., Under Secretary to the 
Government of Le.'ijjal, Eevenue Department, 
to the Seceetaby to the Board op Reventje, 
Miscellaneous Eevenue Department. 

With reference to your letter No. 76 B., dated 22nd 
January 1887, and enclosure, reporting the result of 
the introduction in the Benares Opium Agency, during 
the opium weighments of season 1885-86, of the system 
recommended in paragraph 681 of the Opium Com- 
mission's report for the transmission of inferior opium 
to the factory in separate despatches, I am directed to 
inquire to what orders of Government the Benares 
agent alludes in paragraph 4 of his letter No. 7-40, 
dated lOtli idem, to your address. I am also to ask 
whether, with reference to the remarks made in 
paragraphs 26 and 32 of your letter. No. 173 B., dated 
5th March 1885, the Board approve of the district 
testing officer's classification being final in favour of 
the cultivator, so far as regards payment to him of the 
price of his opium. 



No. 298 B., dated I4th April 1887. 

From 0. E. Buckland, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Eevenue. Lower Provinces, to the 
Seceetaby to the Government op Bengal, 
Eevenue Department. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of Govern- 
ment order No. 425-18 O., dated 9th February last, in- 
quiring to what orders of Government the Benaxes 
agent alludes in paragraph 4 of his letter No. 7-iO, 
dated 10th January 1887, and asking whether, with 
regard to the remarks made in paragraphs 26 and 32 of 
their letter No. 173 B., dated 5th March 1885, the 
Board approve of the district testing officer's classifica- 
tion being final in favour of the cultivator so far as 
regards payment to him of the price of his opium. 

2. In reply, I am to submit copy of a letter No. 
79-1074, dated -JOlh ultimo, from the opium agent of 
Benares, from -which it will be seen that it iias a mistake 
on his part to refer to any orders of Government, as he 
now finds that [no such orders exist. It will also bo 
observed that the agent raises the question of the im- 
position of fines on opium sent in as good by the district 



APPENDIX. 



55 



officers, but found B,t the factory to contain pussewah. 
The agent states that the Opium Commissiou recom- 
mended that opium which had been passed as good by 
the district officers should not be liable to penalty ; that 
in practice it has been found at the factoi'y that owing 
to many circumstances, such as the rapidity with which 
weighmonts must be conducted in the districts, the 
difficulty in detecting pussewah, and in some cases 
the comparative inexperience of officers, opium which 
contains pussewah is often sent down as good. The 
opium examiner has continued to impose penalties in 
the cases in which they have appeared necessary ; and 
the agent proposes that this procedure should be 
continued. 

3. Under the circumstances represented by Mr. 
Eivett-Carnac in paragraphs 7 to 14 of his letter, the 
Board would recommend that the opium examiner at 
the sudder factory should continue the practice of 
imposing fines, with the sanction of the agent in each 
case for pussewah, on opium sent in as good by the 
district officers, but which is found at the factory to be 
inferior, and the agent has been instructed accordingly 
in anticipation of the approval of Government. 

4. "With regard to the latter part of the Govern- 
ment order under acknowledgment, I am to refer to 
paragraph 32 of the Board's letter No. 173 B., dated 5th 
March 1885, in which the Board expressed their opinion 
that the object of the Commission's recommendation in 
paragraph 688 of their reporb was not to make the sub- 
deputy opium agent's pnrrukh final, but to ensure the 
payments at weighments being closure, than it now is, 
to the real value of the opium, and that no change 
should be made in the system of payment for opium at 
the weighment time until the strength of the European 
establishment is materially increased. Proposals to 
increase the European staff of the Opium Department 
were submitted to Government in the Board's letter 
No. 85 B., dated 10th May 1886, but no orders on the 
subject have as yet been received. I am to state 
that under these circumstances the Board would 
not now advocate the change of system suggested 
by Government, especially as it goes far beyond the 
recommendation of the Opium Commission. 



No. 79-1074, dated 26th March 1887. 

Prom J. H. ElVETT-CiBNAC, Esq., C.8., C.I.B., Benares 
Opium Agent, Ghazipore, to the Secretary to the 
Board op Bevenub, Lower Provinces. 

With reference to your letter No. 52 B., dated 24th 
Eebruary 1887, inquiring thts number and date of the 
Government Order noticed in paragraph 4 of my letter 
of the 10th January, No. 7-40, on the subject of the 
chullaniug of inferior opium, I find that the remark 
written by me in camp was made by inadvertence, and 
that no Government order should have been referred 
to, as none is found to exist. 

2. I have since my return been into the whole 
question of the measures to be taken to limit the 
deliveries of pussewah opium and have consulted with 
Dr. Weir on the subject, and I now submit the following 
report based on his opinion and my own. 

3. The Opium Commission in paragraph 681 of their 
report recommended that inferior opium should be 
separately chullaned, and remarking as what appeared 
to them to be the objections of levying fines for 
pussewah, on what had been passed as good opium by 
the district officer, recommended that such opium 
should not be liable to penalty. 

4. Orders were duly issued to district officers, in 
accordance with the recommendation in this paragraph, 
in regard to the chuUaning of opium mixed with 
pussewah as inferior opium. 

6. This was duly carried out to the best of their 
ability by district officers. But in practice it ha.s been 
found at the factory that owing to many circumstances 
the rapidity with which weighments must be con- 
ducted in the districts, the difficulty of detecting 
pussewah, and in some cases the comparative inex- 
perience of officers, opium is often sent down as good 
which contains pussewah. 

6. The opium examiner has continued to impose 
penalties in such cases as have appeared necessary, and 
it is proposed that, unless ruled by the Board to the 
contraiy, this procedure should be continued for the 
following leasons. 



7. The report submitted from time to time will have 
shown how seriously the admixture of pussewah with 
the opium of this agency affects the factory operations 
and the provision manufacture, and that special 
measures have had to be adopted to prevent this result. 
Extra officers have been employed during the collecting 
season in the districts which are the worst as regards 
pussewah, and every precaution has been enjoined on 
the local officers. Last season the results, owing to a 
very damp season, were unfavourable. This year there 
has been so little east wind that the opium is likely to 
be of much better quality, that is, with much less 
pussewah, and thanks chiefiy to this, and partly to 
the precautions taken, there is small likelihood of the 
pussewah difficulty being so prominent this year. 

8. Pines for pussewah imposed by the opium 
examinei' have, in the opinion of Dr. Weir and myself, 
a salutary effect ; and if imposed with care they are 
not open to objection, and are not unfair to the culti- 
vators. On the contrary, unless an assami is fined for 
pussewah in proportion to its amount, he is in fact 
overpaid for his opium ; he gets more than Rs. 5 per 
seer when it is estimated at standard pure opium. 
Opium mixed with pussewah is distinctly of less value 
to the Department than opium free from this ad- 
mixture, and if the cultivator, through carelessness, 
omits to take proper precautions to prepare the drug, 
he should pay the penalty, and the penalty, if felt, will 
tend to make him more careful in the future, and will 
improve the quality of the out-turn. 

9. On the other hand it may be held that the district 
officers should detect the admixture at once, and send 
all inferior opium down in the separate chuUan ordered 
for that purpose. Practically it has been found that 
there is considerable difficulty in carrying this out 
efficiently. There might also be a danger of a timid 
officer going to the opposite extreme, and sending 
down as inferior opium opium not liable to fine. Any 
incorrect or even ill-judged action in this respect 
might cause great discontent and even alarm among 
the cultivators, and u, serious hitch during the weigh- 
ments. 

10. Thus, then, if fines be not levied on opium mixed 
with pussewah and sent down as good by district 
officers, there is a risk of Government being a con- 
siderable loser. As regards the cultivator who on the 
factory purruck gets paid rather less for opium mixed 
with pussewah than opium free from this substance, 
his case, even although the opium has been passed by 
the district officer as good, is not harder than the case 
in which an officer at the weighments passes the opium 
as at 700 consistence which at the factory is declared 
to be, say, 680. And the cultivator who has been 
careless and who escaped the notice of the officer at the 
purruck will no longer have the reminder in the 
shape of a small fine that he must be more careful next 
year. 

11. Dr. Weir in fact advises me that — 

" I am apprehensive that in the course of a few years, 
if fines as heretofore are remitted, the quality of the 
opium of our agency will steadily deteriorate until at 
last the greater part of the produce will arrive largely 
charged with pussewah, and I can affirm that should 
this prove to be the case, it will be impossible to turn 
out at the factoiy, at our present caking standard, 
cakes equal in quality to those hitherto exported to 
China. In fact. I would have grave doubts as to the 
fitness of the cakes made of opium largely mixed with 
pussewah to stand storage in Calcutta for any length 
of time in hot weather as our cakes now have to do." 

12. It may of course suggest itself that the district 
officer who makes the mistake should be held respon- 
sible. But unless they were paid partly by commission 
this could not be done. A.nd any such rule would bear 
hardly on an officer with very heavy weighments in a 
district where the conditions are such that pussewah is 
more abundant and more subtle in the manner in 
which it mixes itself into the drag than in other parts 
of the agency. The principal assistant informs me 
that in some classes of opium from certain districts 
the difficulties of detecting pussewah are much more 
difficult than in otliers. The examination, it will be 
understood, is less difficult at the factory than in the 
districts where the weighing officer works under great 
disadvantages with a large and noisy crowd around 
him claiming to have their opium weighed off. 

13. Being of opinion then, after consultation with 
Dr. Weir, that there are great difficulties in ensuring 
all opium mixed with pussewah being sent down 

G 4 



App, I. 
Bengal, 



56 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



App. I. 



separately ; that the levy of a fine in cases in which 
the admixture escapes the notice of the district officers 
is not a real hardship, whereas the failure to levy sxich 
a fine will cause some loss to Government, and will 
remove a salutary means of reminding the cultivators 
of the necessity of careful preparation of the drug, I 
would continue the practice of fining in all cases in 
which the opium examiner considers the course 
necessary. 

14. I am strengthened in this view by the considera- 
tion of the great difficulties which have to be en- 
countered in this agency with pussewah, and which are 
not so much felt in Behar, where the conditions of soil 
and climate are difi'erent, and where the cultivators are 
nearly all old and experienced in the management of 
the crop. 

16. I find that during my absence on leave Mr. 
Porter, officiating opium agent, ruled that the opium 
examiner should not, under any circumstances, levy 
fines on any opium sent down as good. Dr. Weir 
recently brought the subject to my notice in connexion 
with arrangements for the ensuing weighments, with a 
strong recommendation that the powers should be 
retained by the opium examiner, in view of the circum- 
stances noticed above ; and supporting this view I have 
now to invite the early orders of the Board on the 
subject. 



No. 1484^4 O., dated 6th May 1887. 

From P. Nolan, Esq., Secretary to the Government of 
Bengal, Eevenne Department, to the Secretaky to 
THE Board or Eevenue, Miscellaneous Revenue 
Department. 

With, reference to the correspondence ending with 
the Board's letter No. 298 B., dated the 14th April 
1887, lam directed to say that the Lieutenant-Governor 
accepts the views stated in that letter regarding the 
system of payment for opium at weighment time, and 
regarding the continuance of the system of the imposi- 
tion of fines by the opium examiner at the sudder 
factory on opium sent in as good by the district 
officers, but found at the factory to contain pussewa. 

2. I am to add, with reference to the last sentence of 
the Board's letter under acknowledgment, that the 
suggestion therein referred to was not made by Govern- 
ment, but by the opium agent of Benares in paragraph 
4 of his letter No. 7-40, dated the 10th January 1887, 
enclosed in the Board's letter No. 76 B., dated the 2-.;nd 
idem. 



No. 1500-^7 0., dated 7th Mi.y 1887. 

Prom P. NoLAK, Esq., Secretary to the Government of 
Beng:il, Eevenne Department, to the Secretary to 
THE (jovERNMEXT OE India, Department of Finance 
and Commerce. 

In paragraph 56 of my letter No. 2600-130 0., dated 
18th December 1886, in which the Lieutenant-Governor 
examined the proposals of the Opium OommiBsiou, it 
was stated that no case had been made out in the 
correspondence, so fur as it had then gone, for intro- 
ducing any change in the existing practice under ^^■hieh 
the supply of chests for the packing of opium in the 
two agencies is left in the hands of the Behar agent. 
I am now to submit copy of a letter No. 2.j7 B., dated 
25th March 1887, from the Board of Revenue, with 
enclosure, and to say that the more complete informa- 
tion therein furnished points to the same conclusion. 
The Board will be instructed to continue to give 
attention to the subject, which, in the Lieutenant- 
Governor's opinion, would form a suitable matter for 
inquiry during the annual tour of the member of the 
Board in charge of the Opium Department. As, how- 
ever, the Benares agent doubts the suitability of sal 
wood chests for the packing of the Benares provision 
opium, and as sal chests arc more expensive than 
mango wood chests, it seems to the Lieutenant- 
Governor to be unnecessary to press for introduction 
of sal wood chests in the Benares Agency. 



No. 267 B., dated 26th March 1887. 

Erom C. E. Bockland, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Board of Eevenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Secretary to the Government op Bengal, Eevenue 
Department. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter No. 2728-139 O., dated 31st December 1886, 
calling for a report regarding the proposal of the 
Opium Commission to impose on the Behar agent the 
duty of providing chests for both agencies, and stating 
than, in view of the supply of mango wood in Behar 
decreasing, it seems very questionable whether the 
duty of providing the Ghazipore Agency with chests 
should be imposed on the Patna Agency ; and in reply 
to report as follows. 

2. In paragraph 44 of the Board's report on the 
administration of the Opium Department during the 
year 1880-81 it was stated that the despatches of pro- 
vision opium of season 1880-81 from the Benares 
Agency were temporarily interrupted in consequence of 
the chest contractors having failed to sujjply a sufficient 
number of mango wood chests for packing the opium ; 
that a very serious difficulty had only been avoided by 
the Behar agent being able to supply 10,000 chests at 
a short notice from the reserve of the Patna saw-mill ; 
and that the whole question of the future supply of 
chests to both agencies was under the consideration 
of the Board. A full report on the subject was sub- 
mitted to Government in the Board's letter No. 266J, 
dated 6th April 1882, and in it the Government was 
informed that it had been decided at a conference held 
by the agents that the Behar agent should alone go 
into the market for the mango wood chests required. 
Since 1882 the Behar agent alone has entered into 
contracts for the supply of mango wood chests required 
for both agencies, and the arrangement has been found 
to work well, no complaints having been received to 
the effect that the supply had fallen short during any 
year. 

3. The Government order under acknowledgment 
was sent to both opium agents for any remarks they 

might wish to offer, and 
•Behar agent's No. 9 A., copies of their reports* are 
'teL'res IgenV^N^ ' 66-60., Submitted herewith for the 
dated 3rd March 1837. information of Govern- 

ment. Prom the Behar 
agent's report it will be seen that Mr. Kemble is of 
opinion that there is no reason to apprehend that the 
supply of mango wood in Behar is failing, but that for 
very many years yet there will be no difficulty in pro- 
curing an abundant supply of mango timber. On the 
other hand, the Benares agent reports (vide paragraph 
10 of his letter) that it has been found impossible to 
obtain, in the North-Western Provinces, chests at the 
rate for which they can be procured in Behar, and that 
endeavours to obtain mango wood chests at a compara- 
tively low rate have not been successful, it having been 
found that if the purchases of mango wood were liniitec? 
to the North-AV'estern Provinces, chests cannot be 
made at the saino rate as they can ]>& purchased at in 
Behar. 

-i. Under these circumstances the Board are of 
opinion that there is no advantage to be gained by 
altering the present arrangement under which the 
Behar agent undertakes the supply of the chests 
required for packing the Benares opium. 

5. With rcgaid to the proposal in paragraph 3 of 
i\[r. Kemble's letter that in order to keep the saw-mills 
fully emplo)-ed a certain number of sal wood chests 
should be supplied to the Benares Agency, I am to 
observe that it will be seen that Mr. Eivett-Oarnac is 
not in favour of packing the Benares provision opium 
in sal wood chests. Should, however, the Government 
desire, the subject will be further considered, and the 
Benares agent directed to submit a full report on it. 



No. A., dated 16th February ls87. 

From W. Kemble, Esq., Opium Agent of Behar, to 
the Secretary to the Board of Revenue, Lower 
Provinces. 

In reply to your No. 13 B., dated 10th January 1887, 
I have the honour to report that, in my opinioji, and 



APPENDIX. 



57 



that of Dr. Whitwell, sal wood cheats would not bo 
found more unfitted for Benares than for Patna opium, 
or rathor, I should say that, properly seasoned, thoy are 
equally well fitted for the produce of both agencies. 
Sal is a much loss sappy wood than mango. TJndei- 
present arrangements all sal timber is sawn into planks 
in our own yard, and there stacked till it is thoroughly 
well seasoned ; whereas the mango trees are cut down, 
sawn up and made into chests at once by conlractors in 
their own villages in the damp North Ganges disti-iots. 
Dr. Whitwell finds from his experience in both 
agencies that mango wood chests lose far more weight 
in drying than those made of siil wood ; it is probable, 
therefore, that, if exposed to a dam]) atmosphere, they 
would imbibe more moisture and would be in all 
respects inferior to sill. 

■2. It has often been reported that the supply of 
mango wood is failing to a serious extent in Behar. 
This, though the opinion of many ofBcors of experience, 
is one in which I am unable to concur. No doubt it is 
scarce near the Ganges opposite Bankipore, in parts 
near iMozulferporc, and in a few other places; but 
speaking from what I have seen and heard from 
Europeans and natives during extended tours in these 
districts, I think that generally it is as good as ever — 
perhaps contractors may have to go further for their 
requirements ; but in Chuprah Chumparuii, in North 
Tirhoot, in Dtirbhungah, North Bhugulpore, Monghyr, 
and Purneah, there will be for very many years yet no 
difficult^' in procuring abundant supply of mango 
timber. New plantations are being made, not in such 
numbers as I could wish, but still they are made ; and 
I think no fears need be entertained of a failure of 
supply to the Opium Department. A few years ago this 
cry of scarcity of wood was raised, and the contractors 
increased their prices ; they have now fallen again, and 
Dr. W hitwell reports that there is far greater fear of 
the s?il wood supply running short than that of mango 
wood. 

3. In determining our future policy we must re- 
member that new and expensive machinery has now 
been erected capable of turning out in nine months 
enough sfil wood boxes for one year's use of the Patna 
factory ; to keep this machinery fully employed we 
ought to send a certain number of sal wood chests to 
Benares, unless it be considered advisable to use the 
saw-mills for other work. The use of both mango and 
sal wood chests is advantageous to us in keeping down 
prices. Were sal wood only used, the price of that 
timber would go up immediately on the ground that the 
supply was failing, or that the Nepal Government 
had prohibited export, or " closed their forests," as it is 
called. 

4. Provided that the Benares Agency undertake to use 
as many sal wood chests as our mills can send them, I 
Bee no objection whatever to the agent making his own 
contract for the delivery at Ghazipore for so many 
mango wood chests as he may require. There is 
nothing whatever to be gained by having these chests 
landed and examined at the Patna factory, when the 
same work might be done once lor all at Ghazipore. 
This is a mattei- for the Benares agent to decide. If it 
is thought that the present arrangement should con- 
tinue, I have nothing to urge against it, except that it 
gives much extra trouble to Dr. Whitwell and the 
factory establishment, who have all for . the last four 
years done this work excellently. 



No. .56-604, dated 3rd March 1887. 

Prom J. H. Eivett-Caknac, Esq., O.S., CLE., Benares 
Opium Agent, to the SECHETAJi.Y to the Boaed of 
Eevenue, Lower Provinces. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of 
your endorsement, forwarding for report copy of a 
letter No. 2728-139 0., dated the 31st December 
last, and calling for report on chest supply of this 
agency. 

2. The letter from the Government of Bengal raises, 
I understand, two chief questions, (1) whether sal wood 
chests should be used for the packing of the provision 
cf this agency ; (2) assuming that the mango cheats be 
adhered to for Benares opium, whether the arrange- 
ments to supply those chests be imposed on the Patna 
Agency. 

!i. In respect to the first question, the use of sM wood 
chests in this agency, I understand this depends on (a) 
a 82810. 



whuClier this class of wood is suited to our provisions 
and d b) whether the Patna Agency could supply our 
demand for such chests. 

4. Benares opium has hitherto, save on exceptional 
occasions, been packed in mango wood, and this class of 
chest has been found to suit the Benares provision 
excellently. Without desiring to re-open the contro- 
versy, as to whether the damage to Benares opium 
arose from the use of sal wood, it is undoubted that 
the o])ium packed in sal did not fare so well as that 
packed in mango wood. And it is not impossible that 
as Benares opium contains more than 5 per cent. 
more of moisture than Patna opium, that special 
precautions in respect to the wood used for the 
chests of this agency may be necessary here, which 
are not essential for the comparatively dry Patna 
opium. 

5. Mango wood chests are much cheaper than those 
made from sal at the Patna Agency. Thus it is 
undesirable to use sal wood chests here, unless some 
special reason exists, of which I have no information. 

6. I am equally without information as to the 
capabilities of the Patna saw-mills. If it would be an 
advantage to them to supply this agency with sal chests, 
a change in the class used here might be worthy of 
consideration. But the objections already noticed will 
have to be surmounted. My impression is that Patna 
cannot conveniently do mnch more than supply its own 
wants. But the saw-mills are a distinct advantage to 
this agency, as they leave the mango wood chests market 
free for our supply. 

7. Next as regards the manner in which the contract 
for mango wood chests for this agency should be made. 
The Behar agent being close to the source of supply, 
and he and his people having great experience of the 
wood market, have great advantages, which the ofiicers 
of this agency do not possess, and it was for this reason 
that, in the interests of Government, the arrangements 
which now exist, by which the Behar agent provides for 
the mango wood chest supply of this agency, were 
sanctioned. 

8. The arrangement has worked well, and the interests 
of Government and of this agency have been well cared 
for and advanced under the supervision of the Behar 
authorities. If the burden imposed by this arrange- 
ment is found too heavy by the Behar agent, it would 
be only fair to reconsider it. But I gather from Mr. 
Kemble that this is not the case and that he does not 
object to the continuance of the plan by which the 
contracts are made at Patna. 

9. I am altogether without detailed information, save 
that contained in the Behar agent's annual reports re- 
garding the mango wood supply of Behar, and whether 
that province is being denuded of trees, so that it may 
be necessary to adopt some other wood for provision 
chests. On this subject the Behar agent, who marches 
through the Behar districts, must have full information. 
And for this reason, as already indicated, it is desirable 
that the mango chests supply should remain in his 
hands. The price paid does not suggest any greatly 
increased difiiculty during past years in obtaining this 
class of chest in Behar. 

10. On the other hand, it has been found impossible 
to obtain in these provinces chests at the same rate as 
obtainable in Behar. This is doubtless partly owing to 
the industry in Behar being of long standing, and 
having taken firm root ; but the comparatively plentiful 
supply of both wood and of labour must, I think, have 
much to do with it. In these provinces endeavours 
have been made by me to obtain a supply of mango 
chests at a comparatively low rate, but the attempt has 
not been successful. Messrs. Burn & Co. put up steam 
machinery at Ghazipore, but found that if their 
purchases of mango wood were limited to the North- 
western Provinces, they could not make chests at the 
rate at which they can be purchased in Behar. The 
superintendent at the Central Gaol at Naini undertook 
an experimental contract with this agency, but after 
making 400 chests has written that he cannot supply 
any more under Bs. 3 each. Etforts in other directions 
have hardly been more successful, and it suggests itself 
that, if the superintendent of the Great Central Gaol at 
Naini, with all the advantages possessed by that institu- 
tion, cannot manufacture chests at a lower rate than 
Es. 3 each, that private contractors cannot afibrd to do 
the work at a lower rate. It is thus, as matters now 
stand, cheaper and better to obtain our supply from 

H 



Apr. I. 
Bengal. 



58 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION ; 



App. I. 



Patna, unless the supply of wood is decreasing there, 
and there is danger of the supply of mango wood being 
exhausted. 

11. Ill that case, and as already indicated, the Behar 
authorities are in the best position to report on the 
subject. It would be necessary, I apprehend, to pay at 
least R 3 per chest in the Nortb-Western Provinces," Ihe 
condition being that the wood should be the produce of 
these provinces. Not only is the industry comparatively 
new, and the wood supply inferior as compared with 
Behar, but there have been very heavy drains on it 
from the railways and great public works, which have 
been carried out and are being carried out in these 
provinces. 

12. The price of mango wood has risen considerably 
of late years, and indigo planters and the manufacturers 
of shellac, whose requirements are infinitesimal, as 
compared with those of this factory, have assured me 
that the difficulty of obtaining chests for their produce 
has much increased of late j'ears. My inquiries ha\ e 
been confined to the districts coiiqiaratively near 
Ghaziporo, as td bring chests from any great distance 
would not be remunerative. The building of the Ganges 
Bridge, the great junction station at Mogul 8:i.rai, near 
Benares, and the new lines of raih\ ay opened out in 
these districts, have undouljtedly affected the mango 
wood supply. 

VS. It seems to me, therefore, that it must depend on 
the information at the disposal of the Behar agent 
whether it is desirable that the arrangements that have 
worked so well in Behar for the supply of our chests 
should undergo any alteration. 



No. 21(56-120 0., dated 21st July 1887. 

Trom P. Nolan, Esq., Secretary to the Government of 
Bengal, Revenue Department, to the Seoketary 
TO TBE Government of India, Department of 
Finance and Commerce. 

In continuation of paragraph 16 of my letter No. 
2600-130 0., dated 18th December 1886, I am directed 
to submit, for the information of the Government of 
India, copy of the correspondence noted on the margin, 

from i\ hich it will be seen 

Letter from the Board ol Reve- fV,a+ fl^o T ,'Qn+Q,no^+ n^^-r.-- 
Hue, No, 479 B.. dated 27th June thattbe Ijieutenant-GoT er. 
is,s7, with enclosures. nor has approved the sug- 

v'*','JJ' !?,,";? '^'IT'i^'iPf'T";'' gestion of the Board of 

AG. 2t)5-119 O.. dated 21st July ^ , , .. 

1887. Heveuue that aconterencu 

should be held either at 
Patna or Ghazipore, at which the member of the Board 
in charge of the Opium Department should preside, and 
both the agents, with any experienced officer of the 
Department whom they may select, should attend, t(.) 
discuss the question of ]il:ioing on a legal footing the 
present practice of granting licenses for the cultiva- 
tion of the poppy in the Behar and Benares Opium 
Agencies. 



No. 471) B., dated 27th June 1887. 

Prom K. G. Gupta, Esq., Officiating Secretary to the 
Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the 
Seoiieiaky TO THE GovEHNMENT OF Bbngal, Revcnui' 
Department. 

I am desired by the Board of Revenue to refer for 
the orders of Government the following questions 
regarding the practice at present prevailing both in the 
Behar and Benares (.)pium Agencies of granting 
licenses for the cultivation of the poppy, not to the 
actual cultivators, but to middlemen or reiiresentative 
ryots. 

2. The facts of the cases which give rise to this 
reference are stated in detail in the Board's No. 638 B., 
dated L7th May 1887, to the Solicitor to Government, 
copy of which is annexed. Briefiy stated, the |)oint at 
issue is this. Section 8 of the Opium Act (XIII. of 
18f'7) provides that licenses shall be issued to cultiva. 
tors who may choose to cultivate the poppy, and that 
counterpart engagements shall be taken frsm them. It 
is, however, the practice in both agencies not to issue 
licenses to individual cultivators direct or to take 
counterpart agreements Irnm them. The licenses arc 
issued to, andrugagements taken, from one man, culled 
in Beiiarrs a Inmiber'lar, in Behar hliattadar, Avho 
engages to cultivate a certain area, and sulisequcntly 
divides this area between a number of actual cultivatoi's 
or shihmi ryots. The advances also ure made to the 



middlemen, and by them distributed among the culti- 
vators. The systems are fully explained in Part II., 
Chapter V. (sections 248-265) of the Opium Commis- 
sion's Report. 

3. Oases occurred in the Behar Agency in which 
cultivators failed to grow poppy after receiving (through 
the hhaltaiJarr:) advances from Goverjimenc for that 
purpose, and on their being sent up for trial under 
section 10 of the Act the Collector of Mozufferpore 
refused to punish them on the ground that engagements 
had not been entered into directly with them or 
counterparts taken from them as contemplated by 
section 8 of the Act. They could not therefore 
he held be regarded as being under engagements to 
Government. 

4. Similarly in the Benares Agency a cultivator was 
prosecuted before tlie ilagistrate of Basti. under section 
19, for illegally disposing of the opium supposed to have 
been produced by him. The .Magistrate refused to con- 
vict on the same grounds as those taken by the Collector 
of Mozufferpore. viz., that no engagement had been 
executed by the cultivator. The Collector and the Legal 
Remembrancer of the North-Western Provinces held the 
same view. 

•5. On these facts being reported, the Board consulted 
the Advocate-General, whose ojjinion is appended to 
this letter. Although, us will bo seen from paragraph 8 of 
the Board's letter to the Government Solicitor, the actual 
systems differ in some parti.-^ulars in the two agencies, yet 
the principle in both is the same, namely, that the en- 
gagements are not made with the actual cultivators but 
with a middleman or representative, and the systems 
are, in the opinion of the Advocate-General, with whom 
the Board entirely agree, not in accordance with the 
provisions of the law. 

6. Anticipating that this would be the opinion of the 
Advocate -General the Board in paragraph 9 of their 
letter reproduced the suggestion originally made by the 
magistrate nf Basti, that perhaps lumberdars and 
khattadars might be brought within the scope of 
section 8 by being regarded as " other officers entrusted 
"with the superintendence of the cultivation." The 
suggestion was not very clearly put in the Board's letter, 
and the Advocate- General merely states his opinion that 
the lumberdars and khattadars are not included within 
the expression quoted ii-om section 8. Whether it is in 
the power of Government to invest them with powers 
under that section is quite another question, regarding 
which no opinion is given. 

7- It may perhaps i^c thought that cases in which it 
is necessary to prosecute under the penal sections of 
the Act are of such rare occurrence that no great harm 
is likely to result from leaving matters as they stand, 
and that it is not desirable to open up so important a 
questiou^ at the present time. Apart, however, from 
the obvious impropriety of continuing a system, the 
illegality of which has been so prominently brought to 
notice, there is the risk that the failure of the prosecu- 
tions in the cases mentioned may become generally 
known, and cultivators maybe emboldened to dis- regard 
the engagements made on their behalf from the know- 
ledge that they can do so with impunity The difficulty 
in the way of the snb-deputy agents and their assistant 
personally issuing licenses direct to each cuiti^■ator 
consists 111 the immeuse number of men each officer 
would have to deal with. It would be impossible to 
carry out such a system without very largely increasino- 
the staff of oflScers. This stej) would probacy be iin^ 
liracticable, not only for general financial reasons but 
tor the special reason that the selling price of opium 
shows a tendency steadily to declhio. in consequence of 
the increase in the growth of the poppy in China, and 
the unlavourable ettect on the trade in the Indian druo-, 
resulting from the new opium agreement with the 
Chinese Government. On this point a reference is 
requested to Board's No. 794 B., dated l6th September 
1880. 

8. On Ihe other hand it is very .loiibtful whether the 
lumbcrdavs or khattadars eould lie safely trusted to issue 
licenses under section 8, even if it should be held to be 
legal to invest them with such powers. 'I'hey are not men 
of any social standing or respectability, l)'eiii.r in many 
cases mere ordinary ryots like the rest oi the enllivators 
To entrust to them such extensive powers ars arc con- 
veyed hy sections 8 and 9 would probably lead to 
serious comphoations. It would also in most cases be 
dillicult to assemble all I he cultivators of one khatta or 
of one village in order that they might sign their names 
or make their mark upon a joint license in which all 



APPENDIX. 



59 



their names wore entered, and on a joint counterparb 
similarly prepared, because it appears that in many, if 
not most cases, the khattadav first comes to the opium 
officer and arranges for a lump area, and then goes and 
divides it betAveen the assamees or actual cultivators. The 
ultimate decision of how much land is to bo given for 
poppy by each cultivator i« not arrived at till after con- 
siderable haggling, and wrangling, and the officers uf 
Government could not possibly spare time to sit out these 
endless discussions. 

9. The document called a " miiuaturc license " in use 
in the Benares Agency is intended to serve in some sort 
as a direct engagement with the actual cultivator, but 
from the copy annexed it will be been that it is, as the 
Magistrate of Basti remarks, a mere memorandum con- 
veying no permission on the part of Government to 
the ryot to cultivate, nor any undertaking on the part 
of the ryot to deliver the opium prodaoed. It would not 
be accepted as such by either the collector or the 
criminal courts. 

10. It seems advisable to treat this important and 
difficult question separately from the other points 
raised in the Opium Commission's report, because 
although in paragraph 64'7 of their report the Commis- 
sion point out that the present systems are not in 
accordance with the law. yet the remedy they propose 
is in the opinion of the Board quite inadequate. The 
Commission's proposal is based upon the assumption 
that Act XIII. of 1857 will be repealed. But this step 
would be somewhat injudicious at the present time, as 
it would render the passing of a new Act necessary, and 
would thus afford opportunities for raising a variety of 
questions as to the whole working of the Government 
Opium Department. But whether the Act be repealed 
or not, the proposal of the Commission in paragraph 
649, that such cultivators as cannot attend personally to 
receive licenses and advances should be represented by 
an attorney is one which seems to the Board quite im- 
practicable. The remarks in paragraphs 16, 17, and 22 
of Beard's No. 173 B., dated 5th March 1885, though 
directly referring to other matters, sho^v how great 
would be the difficulty of introducing the system of 
dealing direct with cultivators, and how deeply rooted 
the present khattdari system is in Behar. The plan of 
supplying printed forms of powers of attorney would 
probably not be understood by the ryots, and if the 
forms were used at all they would probably all be 
executed in favour of the khattadar, thus perpetuating 
the present system . In fact in the footnote to section 
649 the Comnussion express this opinion, though 
seemingly they fail to see that their proposal would 
only secure a nominal or apparent legality, while 
leaving the abuses of the khattadari system virtuallj' 
untouched. 

11. The onl,y suggestion which it occurs to the Board 
to make is that a conference should be held tither at 
Patna or G-hazipore, at which the member of the Board 
in charge of the Opium Department should preside, and 
both the agents, with any experienced officer of the 
Department whom they might select, should attend 



le whole question might then be thoroughly 
jcusscd, and probably some practical conclusionB 

dved at. 



Tlie whole 

discussed 

ai'r' 



App. I. 
Bengal. 



Dated 30th May 1887. 

Opinion by Honourable; G. C. Paul, Advocato- 
Gcnr^ral, 

Tub preamble of Act XIII. of 1857 recites that the 
law relating to the cultivation of the poppy in force to 
the time of introduction of the Act is iii some respects 
inconsistent with the practice obtaining with regard to 
agreements between opium ancnts and cultivators, and 
it declares that it is expedient that such inconsistency 
shiiuld be removt'il. 

Seotidu 8 provides that the sub-deputy agents or 
"(her officers entrusted with the superintendence of the 
cultivation shall, at the proper period of the year, issue 
licenses to the cultivators who may choose to cultivate 
the poppy, and to deliver the produce to the officers ot 
Government at the established, rates ; and the section 
further requires that a counterpart engagement in con- 
formity with the tenor of the license shall be taken from 
the cultivator. Having regard to the intention of the 
Legislatm-e as expressed in the preamble, and also to the 
words of the section itself, I am of opinion that the 
section is imperative and not directory. 

The practice is to be made consistent with the terms 
of the law, and the method of entering into engagements 
is then expressly provided in section 8. 

Section !' clearly contemplates that the suli-depaty 
agent or the officer, covenanted or uncovenanted, whom 
Government may from time to time entrust with the 
superintendence of the cultivation, shall deal person- 
ally with epich cultivator and exercise a discretion in 
the case of each with regard to granting or withholding 
a license. Section 8 requires a counterpart engagement 
to be taken from the cultivator clearly with the view of 
binding him by a specific undeitaking, and thereby 
bringing him within the operation of the penal sections 
of the Act. I am of opinion that the words " any cul- 
tivator " in section lU must be taken to mean "any 
'■ cultivator duly licensed under the Act." 

In section 19 the expression used is " any cultivator 
" entering into engagements for the cultivation of the 
" poppy on account of Government," the engagements 
entered into being those expressed in the counterpart eur 
gagement, in conformity with the terms of the license 
referred to in section 8. 

I am of opinion that the systems in operation in the 
Behar and Benares Agencies are not such as to comply 
with the requirements of the Act, nor such as to bring 
the cultivator within the operation of the penal sections. 
I am further of opinion that the lumberdars and khat- 
tadars are not included in the expression " other officers 
" entrusted with the superintendence of the culli- 
" vation " in section 8. 



MINIATURE LICENSE (D). 



Koti Pargana 

Extract from License No. 
Assami Son of 



Village 

Sub. 



No. 
Caste 



No. 



1 

Cultivation, 


2 
Estimate. 


.3 

Quantity of 

Opium delivered. 


4 

Quahtj' of 

Opium. 


5 
Value of 
Opium. 


6 
Deduct 
advance. 


r 

Net due at 
WeighmeatB. 


8 

Amount paid 

Chuktis. 


1 













Date 



Muhirrir. 



Assistant. 



H2 



60 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



App. I. 



No. 638 B., dated 17th May 1887. 

Prom C. E. Buckland, Esq., Officiating Secretary to the 
Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the 

SOIIOIIOE 10 GOVEKNMENT. 

I AM directed by the Board of Revenue to request that 
you will be good enough to obtain the opinion of the 
Advocate-General on the following oases which were 
instituteJ in the Behar and Benares Opium Agencies, 
respectively, under sections 10 and IT) of Act XIII. of 
1857, in which questions have been raised respecting 
the legality of the engagements made on behalf of 
Government with the opium cultivatoi's. 

2. In certain cases in which cultivators in the Behar 
Agency had been sent up for punishment under section 
10, Act XIII. of 1S57, for failure to cnltivate poppy after 
receipt of advances from Government for that purpose, 
the officer trying the cases recorded an order that, un. 
less separate agreements (kabulyats) executed by the 
cultivators were produced, they could not be punished. 
Mr. Kemble, the Behar opium agent, directed the 
sub-deput}' opium agent to see the officer " trying the 
cases," and to " explain to him the procedure in the 
" Opium Department of taking written agreements from 
" the khattadars or middlemen only." Ho added that 
" to show that the cultivators were parties to the con- 
" tract, it may be necessary to call the khattadars to 
'' prove that they gave advances to them." Thereupon 
the sub-deputy opium agent wi'ote to the collector, ex- 
plaining the procedure under which cultivators arrange 
to cultivate poppy. Mr. Norman, the collector, replied 
that the cultivators who had been prosecuted under 
section 10, Act XIII. of 1857, had not been licensed 
under that Act, and he entertained grave doubts of the 
legality of convicting them under the circumstances. 
He added : — " It seems to me that it is clear th;it the 
" provisions of section 10 apply only to cultivators 
" licensed under the provisions of the two preceiling 
" sections, but you admit that the requirements of section 
" 8 have not been carried out, inasmuch as no counter- 
" part engagements -vvere taken from the cultivators in 
" question. Moreover, there is nothing before me to show 
" that these cultivators in any way agreed to or authorised 
" the khattadars signing a counterpart on their behalf." 
When a copy of the collector's letter reached the agent, he 
wrote to Mr. Norman and inquired whether he meant 
that the licenses granted to khattadars, in which are 
included the names of cultivators licensed thereby to 
grow ])oppy, and the khattadars' agreements oi' counter- 
parts of the licenses are not in themselves sufficient 
proof that the cultivators named in the license agreed 
to cultivate poppy, or whether he meant that even 
when the Opium Department proves that a cultivator 
has cultivated poppy in previous years and that such 
cultivator has again for the current year accepted 
advances to cultivate poppy, he, the collector, would 
still decline to punish the cultivator if he failed to cnl 
tivate, simply because such cultivator had not received 
a separate license and <'xecuted a sepai'ate agreement. 
In reply, Mr. Norman wrote as follows: — " Section 10 
" of Act XIII. of 1857 appears to authorise the imposition 
" of penalties upon cultivators licensed in accordance 
'■ with the provisions of the Act, who have received 
" advances from Government. Section 8 appears to oon- 
" template the issue of a license to each cultivator and the 
" taking of a counterpart from him. In the cases in 
" question it seems that the cultivators had not received 
" licenses, nor given counterpart engagements. All that 
" was shown was that licenses v.'ore granted to middle- 
" men known as khattadars, and that counterpart en- 
" gagements were taken from such middlemen ; it was 
" not even shown that the cultivators had authorised oi 
" agreed to the middlemen entering into contracts on 
•' their behalf." 

3. The opium agent of Behar was of opinion that the 
general license given to several eulti\'ators, in which 
the name of each and the area of land to be cultivated 
by each are mentioned, is sufficient, and that the fact 
that a cultivator has not given a separate agreement 
should not be held to be a bar to his punishment under 
.section 10, All the deputy agent (collector) has to do, 
in the agent's opinion, is to satisfy himself that the culti- 
vator sent up for punishment has actually accepted an 
advance of a certain sum ; and as the advance is always 
cultivated on the area to be cultivated, it is easy to see 
for what area the advance has been given. If the 
deputy agent is not satisfied that the cultivator in ques- 
tion has received an advance, he should either send 
back the papers to the sub-deputy opium agent for further 
inauirv, or he should call for further evidence himself. 



The agent stated that it is the practice for khattadars 
when distributing tho advances to the several culti- 
vators, to draw out what is called a butwara paper 
(copy sent herewith), which shows the names of the 
several cultivators in his khatta, the area of land they 
agree to cultivate with poppy, and the amount of 
arhance ui\en; and each cultivator signs or puts his 
marks to tlie entries opposite his name, and such marks 
or signatures are attested. The production of these 
])apers. and if necessary, of witnesses, should, the agent 
was of opinion, suffice to satisfy a deputy opium agent, 
if he does not afcept the report alone of his sub-deputy 
opium agent. When the case came before them, the 
Boai'd observed that it was desirable that Mr. Norman 
should remember that ho was dealing with the.se cases as 
deputy opium agent and that it was lor him to sup- 
port the action of the opium. officers unless they are 
manifestly wrong ; as the action of the sub-deputy opium 
agent in sending up the cases for jiunishment of the 
defaulting culti\ators was, it seemed to the Board, in 
accordance Avith the law, it was not open to Mr. Xormau, 
in his position as deputy opium agent, determining the 
penalty in the cases to raise, as if he were a judicial 
officer, a question affecting the long-established system 
of the opiam cultivation. The Board said that in rais- 
ing the objections Mr. .Xorman had overlooked the 
provision made iu section VIII. of Act XLII. of 1857 that 
the license " shall be in such form as the agent, with 
" the sanction of the Board of Revenue, may direct," 
and that the counterpart engagement shall be " in con- 
" formity with the tenor of the license." It was 
pointed out that the form of the engagements on both 
sides has for years been determined under the approval 
of the Board for carrying on the special system of 
cultivation of opium ol^taining in the Behar Opium 
Agency ; and the collector and agent were informed 
that, in the opinion of the Board, it is sufficient for the 
deputy opium agent to see that the cultivator's name 
was duly entered in the khatta with the area to be cul- 
tivated by him, and that the advance was duly made to 
the khattadar. The butwara papers, it was said, should 
be filed in each case and the mark of each cultivator, 
attested by witnesses, should be produced before the 
deputy opium agent, and that there is no occasion 
whatever for a judicial trial in each case, but if a trial 
is held it must be Ijy the collector himself as deputy 
opium agent. 

4. The above correspondence took place six mouths 
ago, and nothing more has been heard of the question 
in the Behar Agency. But a very similar reference has 
now come up from the Benares Agency, necessitatiuo- a 
further examination of the jioint. Tlie facts are as 
follows. One Badal Chamar of Basti engaged through 
his lumberdar in the usual way took an advance of 
Re. 1 and sowed eight biswas of land with poppy. No 
portion of the produce was, however, delivered to 
Goveimment, and the man was consequently prosecuted, 
under section 19 of the Opium Act for illegally disiiosino- 
of the drug. 

5. 'Llie " usual way " referred to above is as follows : 
— A license is given to the lumberdar only, and he 
alone executes a " kabulyat." The names of the culti- 
vators engaging are not entered until the measurements. 
The cultivators receive at the measniements what is 
called a miniature license. This procedure (since 
amended by the miniature license) has been in vcMi-ue 
in both agencies for a long period, and has not been 
called into rjuestion until i-ecenth-. 

6. The joint magistrate who tried the case held, and 
the collector agreed with him, that the pi-esent system 
oi: issuing licenses is only binding on the lumberdar, 
and that the sub-cultivators cannot be ]jrosecuted for 
its breach as the Opium Department hold no counter- 
part agreement. He accordingly acquitted the accused. 
Considering the great importance of the case, the 
decision was referred to the Legal Remembrancer, 
North-Western Provinces, for his opinion. 

That officer, whilst allowing that the law does not 
require that the defendant should have filed an agree- 
ment in the Opium Department, proceeded to say°that 
no person can be punished under section IM, Act XIII., 
until the Department can ju-ove that he has entered 
into an engagement for the cultivation of poppy on 
account of Government. This he thought, cannot be 
done under the existing system. The only per,sons who 
can be touched he held are the luniberdars. 

The law only enacts that licenses should be given to 
cultivators and counterparts taken from them. No form 
is i)reHcribed in it, this matter being left in the hands of 
the Board of Revenue, vide sections, Act XIII. of 1857- 



APPENDrX. 



01 



and in accordance Tvith t,ho puwovs so vested in them, 
the Board direetoil tiie issue of a general license to 
" khatitadars " or " liimberdars,'' oovcriiiK- a certain 
aiea which they, and their sub-ryots through them, 
agree to cultivate. The Board have also issued rules 
directing sub-deputy agents and goraashtuB to make 
svich engagements and to pay over the advances to such 
middlemen, vide sections 14 to 16, pages 21 and 22 (siib- 
deputy agent's duties), and 11 to 15, pages 32 and 33 
(gomashta's duties) of the manual sent herewith. This pro- 
cedure, moreover, has been in force for very many years, 
and it was not unfairly assumed that custom had given 
it nearly tlio force of law. It may therefore be fairly 
assumed that the onus of pi'oving ignoran(.'c of his 
liabilities should rest on the c'ultivator and not on the 
Departmeiii. It cannot I'airly be contended that any 
cultivator nowadays can possibly be ignorant of the fact 
that he is by law required to deliver t > the (")])ium De- 
partment the produce^ of his field. It may also fairly 
be contended that the lumberdar is only a channel of 
communication between the Department and his ryots, 
and receives money from the Department on trust for 
the latter. The fact of the ryot taking an advance from 
a lumberdar should therefore be prima facie proof 
that he lias engaged to cultivate for the Department, 
and that it is the cultivator's duty to acqiiaint himself 
with the terms on which he is to cultivate, and that the 
fact of liis ignorance should not bar his liability. 

7. The opium agent subsequently instituted proceed- 
ings under section 9, clause {g) of Act I. of 1878, against 
Badal Ohamar ; but in this instance also the case was 
dismissed, the following judgment being given by the 
magistrate of Basti, who tried the cajo : — 

"Badal Chamar was prosecuted last year under 
section 19 of Act XIII. of ISST for making away with 
the produce of eight biswas of pop]i>' crop, and was 
discharged by Mr. Reynolds, officiating joint magis- 
trate, on ]3th September 1886, because the inquiry 
showed that the accused was not a cultivator under 
agreement with the Opium Department, and that couse- 
quentlj' Act XIII. of 1857 did not apply to the case. 

" I submiited the papers in the case to the opium agent 
with my letter No. 1856— V-58, dated 17th September 
1886. The opium agent consulted the Legal Remem- 
brancer, who agreed with the interpretation put on the 
law by Mr. Reynolds and myself, and by memorandum, 
dated 11th February- 1887, the opium agent requested 
the sub-deputy opium agent to prosecute Badal Chamar a 
second time undei- clause {g) of section 9 of Act I. of 
1878. The Legal Remembrancer's opinion is not on the 
lile, but I understand that this second prosecution has 
been undertaken on his advice. 

" It is unfortunate that it should be, for clause (g) of 
section 9, Act I. of 1878, utterly inapplicable to the 
case. That clause renders penal an omission to ware- 
house opium, and it is desirable to obtain a conviction 
against Badal for not warehousing his opium, because 
he did not bring it or cause it to be brought to the 
Bas'ti opium godown. 

" But the warehouse referred to in clause (g) of 
section 9, Act I. of 1878, is not the Basti opium godown, 
nor any such place. It is the warehouse referred to in 
sections 7 and 8 of the same Act, and means a frontier 
warehouse established under orders of Government for 
the receipt of opium from foreign territory. 

"Badal Chamar must therefore be again discharged, 
and the court hereby orders his discharge. 

" These observations dispose of the case before me, 
and there can be no doubt that the law is as I have 
interpreted it. It seems, hovve^'er, desirable to add a 
few remarks in order to invite the attention of the Opium 
Department to the urgent need for reform in its 
procedure. 

" The opium agent is mistaken in saying that Badal 
escaped in the first instance, owing to a flaw in the law. 
There is no flaw in the law ; the flaw is in tlie pro- 
cedure of the Opium Department which ignores the law. 
Act XIII. of 1867 amply provides for the due flelivery 
of opium by licensed cultivators but the cultivators 
must first be licensed. The practice of the Opium De- 
partment is not to license the cultivators but to grant 
licenses to certain headmen who sublet the lands in- 
cluded in the license. Thus in this case the headman 
(lumberdar) Dalthuman Lai has convenanted to culti- 
vate 63 bighas of poppy and to deliver its produce to the 
Opium Department. Inasmuch as he failed to deliver 
the produce of Badal's eight biswas, he might probably 
have been legally, though not equitably, convicted 
under section 19 of Act XIII. of 1857. 



" Badal w.is under no contract whatever with Gnvern- 
msnt and was under no obligation whate\er to deliver 
the opium produced by his crop. His legal position 
was that of a person cultivating uitliout a license, and 
the opium produced in his field was legally though not 
equitablj' liable to confiscation, except the very small 
area given in by lumberdars themselves, the entire 
opium cultivation in this disti iot illicit. I believe the 
case is the same throughojit the provinces. 

" Act XIII. of 1857 is drawn on the supposition that 
the cultivators enter into engagements with the Opium 
Department, that is to say, that each cultivator receive,? 
a written license, and accepts its terms by a written 
kabulyat or counterpart. No formal license is given at 
present to any cultivator except the lun.berdar. 

" The so-called miniature license rcicntly introduced 
is a niemorandum. not a license, and no connterpai't oi 
any sort is taken Irom the cultivators. 

" It is ])erfectly easy for the Opium Department to 
make its jirocedure acccjrd with the law. An obvious 
method of doing so is to empower lumberdars as 
' officers euDrusted with the superintendence of the 
' cultivations ' to issue licenses under section 8 of Act 
XIII. of 1857. 

" Act XIII. of 1857 is the law applicable to cases like 
Badal's, and there is no use in attempting to strain 
Act I. of 1878, so as to cover them, which it cannot 
do." 

8. The systems under which settlements and advances 
ai'e made in the Behar and Benares Agencies differ 
slightly. In Behar the advances are given to the 
khattadar, but the license is not a license to the khatta- 
dar alone. It gives permission to him and the assamees 
of his khatta to sow popp.y, and produce 0])ium over a 
tertain defined area, and the names of all the assamees, 
and the area to l.'C cultivated by each of them, are 
entered in both the license and the kabulyat. The 
documents are, however, executed by the khattadar 
alone, and the assamees arc not even present. In 
Benares the license is granted to the lumberdar, the 
column which shows the cultivator's names and the 
area cultivated by each being left blank. This infor- 
mation is filled in at the time of measurements by the 
measuring officer, and the document known as the 
miniature license is given to each cultivat<jr. The first 
advances are made in September each yar, and the 
measurements take place in November and December. 
A list of the enclosures forwarded is appended to this 
letter. Their return with your i'e])ly is re(juested. 

9. The ((uestion on which the Board wish to be 
favoured with the opinion of the Advocate- General is 
whether these licenses are sufficient to enable the 
departmental officers to secure the punishment of the 
cnltivalois of the po])py in the event of their commit- 
ting the offences desoi ibed in sections 10 and 19 of Act 
XIII. of 18-j7, and, if not, whether the lumberdars and 
khattadars can be held to be included in the expression 
in section 8, " otlier officers entrusted with the sujier- 
" intendence of the cultivation ? " 



App. I. 



No. 2165-119 0., dated 1st July 1878. 

From P. Nolan, Esq., Secretary to the Government of 
Bengal, Revenue Department, to the Secret.-iry to 
THE BoAKD OF Bevenije, Miscellaneous Revenue 
Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter. No. 479 B., dated 27th June 1887, with enclosures, 
and in reply to refer the Board to the enclosed 
extract (paragraph 16) from letter No. 2600--130 O., 
dated 18th December 1886, addressed by this Govern- 
ment to the Government of India in which an opinion 
was expi-essed identical with that now communicated 
by the Board, that an cH'ort should be made to place on 
a legal footing the present system of granting licenses 
for the cultivation of the poppy, but that any radical 
change would be inexpedient. The Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor approves the Board's suggestion that a conference 
should be held either at Patna or Ghazipore. at which 
the member of the Board in charge of the Opium 
Department shonld preside, and both the agents, with 
any experienced officer of the Department whom they 
may select, should attend to discuss the matter. Sir 
Steuart Bayley thinks that it may nob be impossible to 
bring the present practice into accordance with the law, 
and he would be glad to receive advice from the 
conference in this direction, 

H 3 



62 



(NDUN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



App. I. 



Ko. 2793- 



(latcd 8th Septemlier 1887. 



From W. C. Macphekson, Esq., Officiatiug Secretary to 
the Government of Bengal, Revenue Department, to 
the Secketary to the Goaeenmekt oi India, Depart- 
ment of Finance and Commerce. 

In continuation of paragraph 59 of Mr. Nolan's letter 

No. 2600-130 0., dated 18th December 1886, I am 

(lirocted to submit, for the 

JA'ttBi- from the Board of iTifnrTnnt-imi nf iho rj-rixoTn 

Revenu,., No. .j;i7 B.. dated I4tli iMormatiou ot ttie brO\ern- 

Jiil.v 18S7. ment of India, copy of the 

Letter to the Board of Reve- correspondence noted on the 

niie. No. 2702-1520, dated 8th • .i. i. ■ x ^ xi 

September 1887. margin, on the subject of the 

recommendations of the 
Opium Commission contained in Chapter IX., Part III. 
of their report, regarding the opium laws and their 
administration. 

To facilitate reference, the correspondence with the 
Government of India on the subjects named in para- 
graphs :j, 4, 6, 7, and 8 of my letter to the Board of 
Revenue of this date is indicated below. 

Paragraph 3. — Vide corres|iondeiice submitted with 
my endorsement No. 713-36 0., dated 5th March 
1887. 

Paragraph 4. — Vide paragraph 32 of Mr. Nolan's 
letter No. 2600-130 0., dated 18th December 1886, 
and Mr. Nolan's letter No. 2166-120 0., dated 
21st July 1887. 

Paragraph 6. — Vide correspondence submitted with 
Mr. Risley's endorsement No. 1449-114 O., dated 
27th July 1885, and Mr. Harbour's demi-official 
note dated 27th August 1885. 

Paragraph 7. — Vide paragrajih 31 of Mr. MacDonnell's 
letter, No. 980 T. R., dated 28th June 1884, and 
paragraph 15 of Mr. Nolan's letter dated 18th 
December 1886. 

Paragraph 8. — Vide paragraphs 20 and 23 of Mr. 
Nolan's letter of 18th December 1886. 

Ko. 537 B., dated 14th July 1 S87. 

From K. G. Gupta, Esq., Officiating Secretary to the 
BoAUD OP B.E\ENUE, Lower Provinces, to the 
Secbetahy to the Goveknment op Bengal, Revenue 
De]iartment. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of Govern- 
ment order No. 2718 — 136 0., dated 31st December last, 
requesting that the Board's report on the recommenda- 
tions of the Opium Commission contained in Chapter 12. 
of Part III. of their report regarding the opium laws 
and their administration may be submitted, and to 
report as follows : — 

2. The proposals in paragraph 773 of the Opium 
Commission's report contemplate the repeal and re- 
euactment of Act XIII. of 1857. The proposals relating 
to the appointment of a Director-General having been 
negatived by the Secretary of State, the Board are of 
opinion that nothing need be said about that or the 
subsidiary proposals based upon the assumption that 
such an appointment will be created. 

3. With regard to the repeal and I'e-enactment of Act 
XIII. of 1857, I am to state that the Benares anont is 
in favour of the measure, liut the Behar agent with a 
keener sense of the difficulties that attend legislation in 
the present day, considers that it ^vould be impolitic to 
pass an entirely new Act — a step which would probably 
" bring up the whole question of a Government 
" monopoly," and give rise to hostile criticism regard- 
ing the grant of special powers to departmental officers. 
In order to judge whether the improvements which 
fresh legislation would introduce are of sufficient 
importance and urgency to justify Government in 
havini^' recourse to legislation, it will be advisable first 
to examine the changes in the law recommended by the 
Opium Commission and discussed by the agents iu 
their reports now before the Board. These are as 
follows : — 

(1.) That the collector should cease to be e,it officio 
deputy opium agent and the present " sub- 
deputy opium agents " and " assistant sub- 
deputy opium agents," should be styled " deputy 
agents " and " assistant agents " respectively. 
The Behar agent has expressed no opinion on this 
point, but the Benares agent is strongly opposed 
to the elimination of the collector. It is true, he 
remarks, that the collectors are very seldom called 
on to intei-fere, but it is at time's necessary to ask for 
their assistance, and on such occasions much 
advantage to the Department results. The reten- 
tion of the collector as deputy agent does not 



take up much of his time, liut adds considerably to 
tlie prestige of the Department, as the official head 
of the district administration naturally exercises 
far more power, and his orders carry far more 
weight than those of a departmental officer. The 
advantage of having less clumsy titles for some of 
the officers of the Department would be too dearly 
purchased by the loss of the collector's support. 
It is true that, even when no longer deputy agent, 
the collector would of course support and assist 
the officers of the Opium Department, as he would 
those of any other Government Department ; but 
he would have to do so from outside as ic were, and 
relying on his general powers, Avhich, especially in 
the Lower Provinces, are more liable to be questioned 
by the public in these times than formerly. His 
poAver of intervention when called for would be 
much more effectually exercised, and its legality 
far less liable to be questioned, if he remained an 
officer of the Department. Under the provisions of 
section 3 of Act XIII. of 1857, it is at any time 
ivithin the power of Government to declare that a 
collector shall not be deputy agent, and to appoint 
an officer of the Opium Department to such post, 
so that if thought advisable the experiment of 
eliminating the collector from the Department 
might be tried without having recourse to legislation. 

4. The second recommendation of the Opium Com- 
mission is that the provision in section 10, imposing a 
penalty for not cultivating, should be replaced b}- one 
making pro\'ision for the I'ecovery as well as imposition 
of the penalty. In paragraph 650 of their report the 
Commission recommend that such cases should be tried 
by a magistrate, as in section 3 of the Opium Act of 
1878, in which case there would be no difficulty about 
recovery of the penalty. Both the agents agree in this 
view. The Behar agent points out that under the 
present law if the penalty be not paid the collector can 
only apply to the magistrate, who can confine the 
defaulter in the civil gaol under section 27 — a process 
which brings him no nearer to payment than before. 
He adds " such penalties ai'e practically irrecovci-able 
" if the defaulters do not continue to grow poppy." 

5. The third recommendation is that the exemption 
of opium under section 11 of the Act from distraint by 
a landlord, or attachment by a creditor, should be 
retained. This evidently does not require fresh legisla- 
tion. But the agents both point out that, as the Act 
stands, there is nothing to prevent a zemindar or 
creditor attaching the poppy plant while growing, and 
thus preventing the ryot from lancing the poppy heads 
and drawing off the opium. Neither of the opium 
agents states that any eases of the kind have ever 
occurred, but the Benares agent says that he has been 
told that it has been held (he does not say by what 
court or authority), that such attachment is not illegal. 
He considers the apprehension of such occurrences as 
not a very real one, and in this view the Board concur, 
for it is difficult to see what a zemindar would gain by 
attaching a crop from which neither he nor anyone who 
might purchase it could make any profit, while if he 
allowed the cultivator to extract the opium and deliver 
it he might attach the sum due to him for it in the 
hands of the the sub-deputy opium agent. This 
suggestion, I am to state, seems to the Board rather 
fanciful. Had there been any real difficulty in this 
point, it would not have escaped the notice of the Opium 
Commission. 

6. The next recommendation is that in section 16 of 
the Act, balances should be made recoverable as arrears 
of land revenue; but no process should be issued 
without the authority of the agent. Both agents agree 
with this ; but the Behar agent observes that practically 
balances are recovered from the next advances which, 
as the cultivation of opium is generally conducted by 
the same men from year to year, and by their sons and 
successors after them, affords a sufficient protection to 
the department from loss. 

7. The fifth recommendation is that the penalty 
imposed by section 18 should be increased to ten times 
the amount of the excess and a cheap and speedy method 
of adjudication should be adopted. This question has 
recentlybeen before Government on a reference from 
the Behar agent, and in Mr. Risley's letter No. 1448- 
113 0., dated 27th July 1885, the Lieutenant-Governor 
expressed his opinion that, "the new Tenancy Act 
" provides adequate security to the ryot in Behar, both 
" against excessive demands and illegal exactions." 
No further legislation on this subject is therefore 
necessary. The next recommendation that no prosecu- 
tion under section 19 of the Act shall be permitted, 



APPENDIX. 



63 



except at the instance of an officer of the Department, 
also does not call for legislation as it is already practi- 
cally enforced by executive order. 

8. The seventh reoommeudation of the Commission 
is that sections 2 !• and 25 of the Act need not be re- 
tained. The Benares agent is opposed to the repeal of 
these sections, and in Behar they are said to be a dead 
letter. Under the circumstances, there seems to the 
Board no necessity for any action in regard to these 
sections. The last recommendation, that the provisions 
of section 29, regarding imprisonment in the civil gaol, 
should not be extended to persons illegally purchasing 
opium from a cultivator is, the Board consider, a point 
which may be left to be dealt with by executive action. 

9. Prom the above it will be seen that, out of the 
eight amendments in the law proposed by the Commis- 
sion none, with perhaps the exception of No. 2, is such 
as to call for legislation, And even in regard to No. 2 
there is much reason for doubt whether the difficulty is 
really serious. Before an opinion could be given on 
this point, it would be necessary to ascertain from both 
agents in how many cases the Department had suffered 
loss from the imperfect state of the law. It must be 
borne in mind that in their reports both the agents 
were answering the question "if the Act is to be 
" repealed and re-enacted, what amendments or im- 
'■ provements can you suggest? " and not the question 
" do you really suffer from the imperfections of the 
" present law, and are you unable to get on without 
" fresh legislation ? " If the question had been put in 
the latter form, probably the answers might have been 
different. On the whole the Board are not of opinion 
that the defects of the present law are such as to call 
for legislation, and this portion of the Commission's 
proposals may, they think, be allowed to stand over for 
the present. 

10. In paragraph 77-i of their report the Opium 
Commission say that there is reason to believe that the 
provisions of sections U and 15 of Act I. of 1878 have 
been seriously abused, especially in some of the districts 
of Behar. But this abuse, they were of opinion, could 
be remedied by an amendment of the rules, or by an 
executive order of Government without any alteration 
of the substantive law. They recommended that the 
powers of search, arrest, and seizure given by the 
sections referred to should be retained, but orders 
should be passed to prohibit any officer of excise or 
police from putting the provisions of these sections in 
force against licensed cultivators of the poppy, except 
under the instructions, or iu the presence of such 
officers of the Opium Department as may be authorised 
on that behalf. With regard to this recommendation, I 
am to invite a reference to the Board's letter No. 668 B., 
dated 5th August 1886, in paragraph 5 of which it 
was suggested that the police subordinates should 
refrain from arresting any poppy cultivator found in 
possession of contraband opium, but take his personal 
recognizance (unless the quantity of opium was con- 
siderable, in which case the accused should be required 
to find bail), and that the recognizance and bail should 
be for the appearance of the accused, at not any given 
date, but whenever he might be summoned by the 
magistrate ; that the police officer should then submit 
his . report in the case to the district superintendent, 
who should foiw^ard it to the sub-deputy opium agent 
for his opinion as to whether a prosecution should be 
instituted or not, and dispose of the case in accordance 
with the decision of the sub-deputy opium agent on 
this point. This procedure was approved in Grovem- 
ment order No. 1324 T. R.. dated the 7th October 1886, 
with the reservation that the police should retain the 
power of sending up to the magistrate for trial at once 
very important or urgent cases. It was said that the 
Inspector-General of Police would be asked to issue the 
necessary instructions, and that the matter would be 
brought to the notice of the Government of the North- 
Western Provinces and Oudh, with a view to the issue 
of similar instructions as regards the districts of the 
Benares Agency. From the enclosure of Government 
order No. 711-34 0., dated 5th March 1887, it appears, 
however, that the Government of the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh arc averse to the introduction of 
the procedure into those provinces. I am to state that 
the Board consider that no further action in this matter 
is required at present. 

11. In paragi-aph 776 of their report the Commission 
mention the six objects aimed at by the opium law, and 
in paragraph 777, they state the measures taken by the 
executive to attain those objects. Of the six, two, they 
conside'-ed in paragraph 778, are successfully attained. 



viz., the maintenance of the free agency of the ryot and 
suppression of adulteration. Only partially attained, 
and that by injudicious measures are two other objects ; 
the cultivation of the area stipulated for ■■md repression 
of unlicensed cultivation. With regard to the former 
the Commission remark that failure to cultivate is 
seldom the fault of the ryot or lumberdar. It is often 
the fault of the settling officer. The Beliar agent 
cannot concur with this view. Mr. Kemble writes : — 

" The great evil I have to contend against is what is 
known in the Department as paper or dummy cultiva- 
tion, that is, taking an advance and making a mere 
pretence to sow. It is only to enable officers to cope 
with this that, I think, some additional powers should 
be given to deputy agents or collectors under the law. 

I ask for no special powers for sub-deputies. No doubt 
much may bo done, and I flatter myself has been done 
to stop this pi'aotioe by improved administration, but 
some means for imposing and enforcing penalties for 
continued neglect of orders is much wanted. 

12. This point has been considered under liead (2) (in 
paragraph 4 above) of the Commission's suggestions for 
the amendment of the Act. Mr. Kemble, in the extract 
from his letter given above, asks that additional powers 
be given to collectors as deputy agents, though in his 
remarks, quoted in paragraph 4 of this letter, he has 
shown that ])enalties for not cultivating are usually 
recovered from the next advances. The defects in the 
license have formed the subject of a separate cor- 
respondence in the Board's letter No. 479 B., dated 
27th June 1887, and the Board are of opinion that it 
would be better to discuss this question simultaneously 
with that regarding licenses as suggested in paragraph 

II of the letter referred to as the information supplied 
by the agents is not sufficient to enable the Board to 
judge of the extent of the evil or of the best measures 
for repressing it. 

13. Eegarding unlicensed cultivation the Behar agent 
remarks that it is unknown in his agency and measure- 
ments of lands by revenue officers are not made. Mr. 
Kemble thinks they would led to oppression. The 
Benares agent remarks as follows : — ■ 

" Some years ago the measurement of opium lands by 
the Kevenuc Department was advocated by me but 
negatived by the Board. The arguments in favour of 
the scheme were, that the Revenue Department has a 
large and competent staff' in every part of the district, 
trained to the work and jirovided with village maps, 
and that this staff for revenue purposes measures all 
the fields. Also that the measui'ement Ijy an indepen- 
dent department would be a salutary check. I am, 
however, quite with the Commission in the view that 
the double measurement is undesirable, pro\ided that 
the departmental measurement is properly performed. 
"For undoubtedly the culti\ator is put to inconvenience 
even if he escapes exactions by the double arrangement. 
I am doubtful, however, whether the revenue authorities 
in these provinces would forego the existing procedure. 
Per no crop measurement for statistical purposes would 
be complete which omitted poppy lands. If the two 
departments would work together in the mattei' the 
result might be good, and this could only be attained by 
the opium officer being recognised as part of the district 
machinery. As matters now stand, the " putwaries " 
and others will not be at the beck and call of an opium 
officer. And the idea of opium assistant, village map 
in hand, ticking off the fields, though excellent in 
theory, is almost impossible in practice. With some 
experience in settlement work I have put the idea into 
practice, and although strongly prejudiced in favour of 
a system which 1 myself suggested I have been obliged 
to recognise tbat with our present staff' the work cannot 
be done ad ungucm. With a European assistant and 
kothee staff in each purguuah, or with a few hundred 
bighas of cultivation, such as an indigo assistant would 
have, the work could be done. But it must always be 
remembered, when dealing with suggestions for the 
improvement of the work, that cur stall', roughly 
speaking, means one assistant, with a gomashta and 
three mohurirs, and a ceitaiu number of zillahdars to a 
whole revenue district with perhaps from 15,000 to 
20,000 bighas of cultivation. That the result is not 
much less satisfactory than it now is, is to me a marvel. 
I cannot certainlj' be debited with having failed tn 
urge this over and over again. And the report of the 
Commission has most strongly supported my continuous 
representations. ' ' 

There seems to be a general consensus of opinion 
that the measurement of poppy lands by officers of the 
Eevenue Department is harassing and vexatious, and as 

H 4 



Arp. I. 
Bengal. 



64 



INDIAX OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Arr. I. 



there seems no reason to suspect unlicensed caltiviitiou, 
the Boiird are disposed to recommend that it should he 
discontinued. There is, however, this difficulty, if thi' 
Board rijijhtly understand Mr. Rivett-Carnac's statement 
that he is doubtful whether the revenue authorities in 
the North-Western Provinces would forego the existing 
procedure. Tf it l-i:' the case, as seems to be implied by 
the wording of the next sentence, that in the j\orth- 
Western PTovinees all lands under crop are measured 
for statistical purposes, the ryots of those provinces 
would feel it no greater hardship to have their popi)y 
lands measured than their wheat or rice lands. The 
Uoard are of opinion that before finally deciding on this 
point it would be advisable to consult the Government 
of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh. 

14. Of the two remaining objects which in the opinion 
of the Opium Commission (vide paragraphs 780 and 71-^1 
of their report) are not attained at all, the first is the 
protection oF the ryot from illegal exactions. With 
legard to this it lia< .already been pointed out in 
paragraph 7 above that, as rcgai'ds the Behar Agency, 
the Tenancy Act may be expected to afford the cultivator 
of opium, as nmch as any other ryot, the necessai-y 
protection. As regards the Benares Ageircy, where the 
Tenancy Act is not in force, the Board lab;iur irnder 
the difficulty of not being sufficiently informed as to 
the relations c\isting lietA\e(m landlord and tenant. 
Mr. Bivrtt-Carnac doubt.s whether the exaction oi' 
illegal cesses is common in the North-Western Provinces. 
Ho writes : — 

" In this p iragraph reference is made to officers of 
the Departmejit notsuing zeniindarsfor illegally exacting 
cesses from cultivators, and I doubt such cesses being 
common in these jirovinces. The opium cultivators are 
the very cT'?am of the agricultural community, and 
their rerj' presence in the village is a delight to the 
zemindar. They hold the l)rst land, and if they willingly 
pay a good rate for such land, interference on the part 
of the opium officer would be undesirable. It woulil set 
a very powerful class against us. An indigo planter 
would be very careful in touching a similar case, and 
an opium officer should act on the same ])rinciple. It 
must not he foj-gotten, on the other side, that apart 
from the good rents paid, the opium cultivator finds 
favour with the zemindar from the regularity with 
which he pays rent. The 0])ium weighments and pay- 
ments take place just before one of the " kists,' and 
uidess there has been some desperate failure in the 
out-turn the zemindar is certain of the iiromjit payment 
of a portion of the rupees counted out at the opium 
godowns. Men who jiay so regularly are riches to the 
zemindar, and establish for themselves a position, and 
can command fair treatment." 

On this ])oint the Board in the absence of full in- 
formation, or of any light gained by experience, are 
unable to offer any oi)inion. 

16. The exaction of bribes and gratifications by the 
amlah is, 1 am to state, not cmifined to the Oi)ium 
Depurtraeut, and is not likely to cease either in that 
or m any otber department of the administration, until 
the practice of taking such gratifications is i}rononnced 
dishonourable by native public opinion, and tmtil tbe 
givers learn to disbelieve in the efficacy or expediency 
of offering tbem. The Bnard fnlly endorse the remarks 
on this subject made by both agents. Mr. Kemble 
writes : — 

" The only matter remaining to be discussed is tbe 
abolition of illegal gratification. 1 do not, and nevei- 
shall believe, that the grant of increased salaries will 
stop the evil ; every one will have what is called his 
"lmq,"the higher the pay the higher the " huq." 
When the exactions exceed the usual rate or the 
recipients commit unusual e.xtortions, act dishonestly, 
or make themselves otherwise unpoi)ular, coni])laints 
are made. If measures are taken to have these com- 
])laints promptly and carefully inquired into all that 
can Ije done is done. I consider that with commission 
all the native staft' are liberally and adequately paid, 
hut I cannot say the same of the Eurojjean staff. When 
men in the ]iosition of European gentlemen after 12 or 
14 years' service only receive Es. 3(10 a month, and when 
the pay of the highest appointment they can hope to 
attain is only Es. 900, and there are onlytwo of these 
appointmeniis, it is not surprising that discontent and 
grumbling prevail, and charges of conduct which is 
not strictly correct are occasionally brought to notice. 

"Illegal cxactiims can only he stojipcd when the 
people who give them find it to their interest to dis- 
continue the practice ; when large sums of money ])ass 



through u, large number of hands it is hopeless to 
cxp.'ct that all of it will reach the cultivators." 
Mr. Rivett-Oarnac remarks : — 

"When the country and people are both more 
advanced it will lie less difficult to l)Ut a stop to this 
universal custom. All that can be done ought un- 
doubtedly to be done to advance an improved state of 
things. But I lca,vc it to the Board to judge what 
measure of success can be expected from a European 
officer in a district isolated from the people, against 
the amlah who belong to the people and who live 
amongst the people, and against the people, brought 
up in and sympathising with the system. I am 
inclined to believe that the people at present would 
resent a change of system. They give a small per. 
centage willingly. That small per-centage is given to 
ensure consideration and make the work go smoothly. 
It is "diistoory " or a customary offering. It is " huq " 
or the zillahdar's right. Eecently I received a petition 
from a lumbei'dar, who had fallen out with the zillahdar, 
complaining that the man "had taken E. 1 "/tug" 
("illegal gratification"), i give the words of the 
petition as showing the native and British rendering 
of the ti-ansaction. The payment is " hiiq " or the 
zillahdar's right as long as he behaves fairly in other 
respects. It is illegal gratilication when any ditlerence 
of opinion aiises between the two # * # 

entii-ely hold Ihat, so far in our powerlies, the cultivator 
should be protected in this respeet, but with the staff' 
at our command, and the present pay of tlie native 
subordinates, their opportunities, and the sympathies 
of the people to help them, I cannot hope for any great 
or immediate results." 

16. In ])aragraph 781 of their report the Commission 
are led from considering the question of illegal gratifi- 
cation into what seem to the Board to be proiiosals not 
naturally connected therewith. The necessity of giving 
to the opium cultivator a higher status and more 
vigorous protection by officers of Government is insisted 
on with some force. Both the agents view these pro- 
posals with a certain amount of distrust, and the Board 
are of the same opinion. It would certainly be 
dangerous and almost as certainly unnecessary to lead 
the ryot who cultivates opium to consider that b}' so 
doing he earns the special favour of Government and 
places himself in a position to defy or defraud his 
zemindars. 'I'here are many ways in which a discreet 
and active opium officer can assist a ryot with advice 
and even with more active help in cases where he is 
really oppressed ; but if the Tenancy Act is to be of 
any real use in putting a stop to oppression of ryots by 
their zemindars and leading to a more equitable adjust- 
ment of theii' relations than at present prevails, it 
ought to be able to do this quite as much for the man 
who grows opium as for the man who grows any 
specially valuable crop, and any support over and above 
what the ordinary law affords is not only an admission 
that the law itself is too weak to protect the jjeople, 
but is a step which would in all probability lead the 
landlords to discourage the growth of poppy in their 
estates, lest it should bring down on them the inter- 
vention of officers of Government and interfere with 
their legitimate business. In the Benares Agency it is 
said that there is no necoseity for such intervention, as 
the zemindars find it to their interest to encourage the 
opium cultivators who willingly pay a high rent for 
their land, and being well-paid by Government for 
their opium, are always able in their turn to pay 
their rents punctually. There seems no reason to offer 
protection where it not only is not required but would 
introduce a feeling of hostility between landlord and 
tenant where none exists at present. In matters of 
irrigation, famine relief, and tuccavi advances where 
no interests but those ef Government and the ryots are 
concerned, Government can be as liberal as it pleases, 
and if any cases of oppression are brought to light, the 
officeis of the Dei)artment would naturallv do their 
Ijest to procure redress for the sutt'erers ; but nothing, 
the Board consider, can be more dangerous than to 
create a pampered class who are or fancy themselves to 
be under the special protection of Government. 

17. The last point, the securing for Goveimment the 
entire produce of the cultivation, is discussed by the 
Commission in paragraphs 7S4 to 7&!' of their report ; 
and the folowing six remedies are proposed : — 

(1.) Bringing the cultivators into more direct relation 
with the Government. 

(2.) Improvement of the i>osition of the ryots. 

(:1.) Purification of the subordinate native establish- 
ment. 



APPENDIX. 



66 



(4.) Improvements oi the present metlind of mpasm'ing 
the lands and ot tctstiug the raeasuroiafnts. 

(5.) SecMu-ing a trnstworlhy ostimafcG of the yield of 
eacVi assataee's crop. 

(6.) Biigorons oni'ovcemont of the law against persons 
rccoiviug coiitvabaiul opium. 

The fii-st of these remedies is in oii'ect the (jnestion 
of giving licenses direct to the oultivatoi's and abolishing 
the lumberdars and khattadars. The detailed recom- 
mendations of the Opium Commission in regard to this 
point are contained in paragraphs (J7-f to 677 and 679 
of their report, and the subject has already been reported 
on in paragraphs 1 ^i to 20 and 22 of the Board's letter 
No. 173 B.", dated 'ith March 1885, to which a reference 
is invited. The second and third remedies have been 
noticed in paragi-aphs 15 and 16 above. 

18. The proposals of the Opium Oommission in 
connexion with the fourth remedy are contained in 
paragraphs 653 and 054 of their report, and the Board's 
views on them have Ijeen furnished to C-rOvernment in 
paragraphs 8 and 9 of their letter No. 653 B., dated 
23rd September IsSf. On this subject ihc Benares 
agent writes : — 

"Paragraph 7'^7 treats of impri)veinents in the 
measurements, and in testing measurements, in respect 
to which there cannot be two opinions. As regards 
second advances, the Commission have rightly stated 
the pi'ocedure enjoined by me. In the last part of this 
paragraph the Commission I'oturn to what must be 
advanced in respect to this agency whenever improve- 
ment of any sort is mentioned, i.e., large and better 
staff. The importance of concentration of the cultiva- 
tion is dwelt upon, but by no one has this been more 
strongly urged than by myself. I can with contidence 
refer to all I have written on the subject, and to all I 
have attempted to do in this respect. This ivas one of 
the first points that recoi-i'ed my attention. A system 
of inspection and record and mapping out of the lands 
was instituted by me, which received the approval of 
the Board, and which has since been universally adopted 
in both agencies. The object in view was to get rid of 
inferior cultivation and to concentrate where possible. 
Officers were enjoined to keep this object steadily in 
view in their inspections. 

"A scheme for concentrating the cultivation and 
massing the staif was matured. Then came the neces- 
sity for extending the cultivation. The reserve was 
reduced, it appeared difficult, the cultivation was 
hardly likely to be extended. It thus became necessary 
to take up almost every bigha that could be possibly 
secured in these parts, and this being the position, 
concentration and massing of the stafi' became an 
impossibility. No one would more gladly welcome a 
reduction in the unwieldy proportions of this agency 
than I myself. The magnificent out-turns of recent 
years and the second string to the bow provided bj- the 
Malwa scheme may render some improvement possible. 
Nothing can well be done this year even if the Ciovern- 
ment determine later that a reduction is desirable. 
But during the approaching cold weather tour, I pro- 
pose to consider in detail whether cultivation cannot 
be entirely given up in some districts, and the staff 
now employed theie massed in that part of the agency 
where culti^-ation is thickest. This must, however, 
depend on the policy of the Gro\ernment and the state 
of the leserve after the housing of this year's crop, the 
exact out-turn of which cannot be known for a month or 
two to come." 

19. With regard to the fifth remedy Mr. Rivett- 
Oarnac remarks as follows :— 

"Paragraph 788 deals with the fifth remedy, i.e., to 
secure a trustworthy estimate of each assamee's crop. 
Now could this Utopian view be put into execution; i.e., 
had we a. sufficient staff'— a staff" sufficiently experienced, 
sufficiently trustworthy, and sufficiently controlled for 
the purpose— little would be left to be desired. ^ The 
Commission state that to make an independent estimate 
of the probable yield of each .field would not be im- 
possible or even difficult. In this view 1 believe that 
they are so far mistaken that the little margin that 
oven the best estimate would leave would bo quite 
sufficient to affect the excise revenue. And that a 
detailed investigation and estimates with our present 
staff is practically impossible. The 'taidad ' has never 
been adopted in this agency, and the results in Behar 
have, I have always learnt, been most unsatisfactory. 
I do not believe that, save in rare cases, any individual 
cultivator retains any considerable quantity of opium. 
Those who do are the cultivators with the best out-turn, 

u f^3810. 



and it will always bo difficidt to catch, with the asfiist- 
.■mcc ol an estimate, any man the produce of whose 
Held is la-ge. What is done I behove is that small 
portions of the out-turn are kept back by a largo number 
of cultivators, and that in the aggregate the quality so 
I'otained is considerable.' Moreover, that the excise 
rc\ onue is materially all'ectod by the e.^tcusive use of 
a,n extract of opium obtained by breaking up and 
boiling the small caTthern \'esBels in which the cro|) is 
collected. J\ly views on this subject will be found fully 
stated in ])aragraph 27 of my annual report for 1885-86. 
The raising of the standard of integrity of the inferior 
establishment of the agency will doubtless advance the 
end whii'h must always be kept in view. And we must 
hope for better results from an increased establishment. 
And there can be no ]iossibility of doubt that strenons 
efforts should be made oven with our present staff to 
improve the position as it now is. But I repeat that 
extreme caution is necessary in dealing with the 
cultivators." 

The opinion of the Opium Commission regarding 
" taidads " has been expressed in paragraph 656 of 
their report, and Go\ernnient were informed in para- 
graph 11 of the Board's letter No. 653 B., dated 23rd 
September 1884, that " taidads " had been discontinued 
in the Behar Agency. No further orders seem to the 
Board to be called for on this point. 

'20. In connexion with the sixth remedy the Benares 
agent remarks : — 

" Against those dealers who collect from the culti- 
vators, and retail to opium-eaters, no such caution is 
necessary. Nor would any crusade against the opium- 
eaters affect our cultivation. The cultivator may use 
a small quantity as medicine, but is seldom an opium- 
eater. If he is, he will put his finger into the pot, and 
nothing will prevent it. I have always urged concerted 
action against the dealers. A suggestion, made by 
some officers of the Departn^ent consulted on the sub- 
ject, is worthy of consideration, that the district 
authorities should keep up a list of opium-caters and 
see where they obtain their supplies.'' 

The Board note that section 9 of Act I. of 1878 awards 
the same maximum punishment to the receiver or 
possessor of the cpium as it does to the seller of the 
drug, and they an' of opuuon that it will be sufficient 
if it is impressed on the officers tiying the cases that 
the heavier punishment should, us a rule, be imposed 
on the receiver of the opium. "With this view I am to 
suggest that the purport of paragraph 789 of the 
Opium Commission's report may be circulated among 
the magisterial officers. 



App. I. 

Bengal. 



No 2792-15211, .iated 8th September 1887. 

From W. C. Macphekson, Esq., Officiating Secretary to 
the Go^'crnment of Bengal, Eevenue Department, 
to the Secketaby to hie Boahd op Revenue, 
Miscellaneous Revenue Department. 

With reference to your letter No. 537 B., dated the 
14th July 1SS7, in which the Board revie^i- the recom- 
mendations of the Opium Commission regarding the 
opium laws and their administration, contained in 
Chapter IX., Part III., of their report, lam directed to 
make the following remarks : — 

2. The Lieutenant-Grovernor accepts the Board's con- 
clusions, stated in paragraph 9 of' your letter, that 
the defects of Act XIII. of 1857 are not such as call for 
fresh legislation at present. Sir Stcuart Bayley is 
opposed to having recourse to such an expedient except 
in the case of the law, as it stands, being found to be 
absolutely unworkable, and he is of opinion that no 
improvement of the law in details would counterbalance 
the mischief of bringing before the Legislature the 
whole question of the connexion of Government with the 
cultivation of opium. I am to point out that the last 
sentence of paragraph 8 of your letter appears to have 
been written under a misapprehension, as the matter of 
imprisonment under section 29 of Act XIII. of 1857 is 
ndt one which can be dealt with by executive action so 
long as the section remains unaltered. Even on this 
point, howe\-er, the Lieutenant-Governor is not prepared 
to recommend legislation. 

3. With regard to paragraph 10 of your letter on the 
subject of the operation of sections 14 and 15 of Act I. 
of 1878, I am to observe that this matter was disposed 
of in the correspondence resting with my endorsement 



66 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



App. IJ 



No. 711-340, dated the 5th March 1887, and that further 
action would appear to be unnecessary. 

4. The recommendations of the Oommission, made 
with a view to improving the system under ivhioh 
Government deals with opium cultivators, are discussed 
by the Board in paragraphs H to 20 ol' j'ouv letter 
under reference. The most important subject con- 
sidered is that of bringing the ryot into more direct 
relations with Government, ajid, in order to ett'eot this, 
the first step proposed is the introduction of -what the 
Commission describes as miniature licenses. The 
Lieutenant-Governor would desire that this subject 
should be considered at the conference which is to be 
hold under the instructions given in Mr. Nolan's letter 
No. 2165, dated :^lst .July 1887, for the purpose of dis- 
cussing the question of placing on a legal footing the 
present ])racfcice of granting licenses for the cultivation 
of the poppy. The Board's suggestion that the means 
by which the cultivation of tlie full area stipulated 
for should be practically enforced should also be con- 
sidered at the conference is proved by the Lieutenant- 
Governor. 

5. With advertence to paragraph 13 of your letter 
regarding the measurement of poppy laicds by officers 
of the Revenue Department, I am directed to ask for 
precise information as to the point or points on which 
the Board wish that the Government of the North- 
Western Provinces should be consulted. It is under- 
stood to be suggested that, instead of the existing 
practice of double measurements, the oflBcers of the 
Opium Department should work with the measure- 
ments of revenue officers, or that officers of the Eevcnue 
Department should work with the measurements of 
opium officers. Of these courses, the only one of which 
it would appear desirable to consult the Government of 
the North- Western Provinces is the second, and it is 
doubtful whether such a proposal would be acceptable 
to that Government. If, however, the Board wish to 
pursue the inquiry further, it would be necessaiy to 
show that the maps and records of the Benares Agency 
are suflBcient for purposes of revenue assessment and 
statistics. 

6. Paragraphs 14 and 16 of your letter deal with the 
Commission's recommendations in the direction of 
affording special protection and patronage to opium 
cultivators, and in the views therein expressed the 
Lieutenant-Governor entirely concurs with the Board. 
The opium cultivator of Behar is, in common with 
other ryots, sufficiently secured against excessive de- 
mands and illegal cvactions on the part of zemindars by 
the provisions of the Bengal '['enancy Act ; while, in 
the Benares Agency, Mr. Eivett-Ciirnac's repoit shows 
that he is a highly valued tenant who is in iqiparently 
a better position than his neighbours to command fair 
treatment and protect his own interests. In the corre- 
spondence ending with Mr. Bisley's lettei- No. 1448- 
1130, dated the 27th July 1^85, instructions were issued 
as to how far officers of the Opium Dei)aitment might be 
allowed to assist cultivators in suits in which it was 
believed that the illegal enhancement of the rent ol' 
poppy lands was aimed at. 

7. Beferring to paragraph 15 of your letter, I am to 
state that the proposals made by the ( )pium Commissioi i 
with the object of laising the pay of the kothi staff, 
together with the Lieutenant-Govenor's remarks there- 
on, have been submitted to the Governor of India, 
under whose consideration they still remain. Sir 
Steuart Baylc}- is of opinion that, until the jiay of the 
subordinate amlah of the Opium Department is raised, 
it will be difficult for Government to insist on ])urity 
in the lower ranks of a service in which the oppor- 
tunities for demanding and exacting illegal gratifi- 
cations are probably greater than in any other bi'anch 
of the executive. 

8. As regards paragraphs 18 and I'.i of your letter on 
the subject of measuring the lands and estimating the 
field of each assamee's crop, 1 am to say that the 
Lieutenant-Governor concurs with the Boai-d in the 
view that the question of the use of chains or poles is 
one which may be left to the agents for decision, and 
also approves of the Board's action in directing the 
discontinuance of the preparation of taidads in the 
Behar Agency. 

U. In order to the proper enforcement of the law 
against persons receiving contriiband opium, to which 
subject reference is made in jiaragraph 20 of ^oui- letter, 
I am to add that the Lieutenant-Governor approves the 
Board's suggestion that ]iaragraph 789 of the Com- 
mission's report should be circulated among magisterial 



officers. A circular will be addressed to Commissioners 
to this effect. 



No. 5,685, dated 26th October 1887. 

Prom E. T. Atkinson, Esq.. Ofiiciating Secretary to 
the Government of India, Department of Finance 
and Commerce, to the Sechetary to the Goveen- 
MENT OF Bengal, Revenue Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of yoitr 
letter No. 2600-130 O., dated the 18th December 1886, 
referring for orders certain proposals in connexion with 
the recommendations made by the Commission ap- 
pointed in 1883 to inquire into the administration of the 
Opium Department in Bengal and the North-Western 
Provinces. 

2. The jiroposais are briefly as follows : — 

A. — As regarrU the higher Officers— 

(1.) The creation of three new opium districts in 
the Benares Agency, and a corresponding in- 
crease from 26 to 29 in the number of district 
officers, and from -13 to 50 in the number of 
assistants. 

(2.) The equalisation of the house-i-ent allowances 
of these officers. 

B. — As regards Estahlishmenls — 

(1.) In the Benares agent's office a revision with- 
out increase of cost, with the retention of tho 
personal assistant. 

(2.1 The cost of the district office establishments to 
lie increased from Rs. 5,478 to Rs. 10,741-4 a 
month. 

('■).) Mofussil establishments — A complete revision 
at a cost of Rs. 2,94,381 a year ; payments by 
commission to be discontinued. 

C. — Dealings with Asamis — 

(1.) The continuance of the present praelios as to 
the number of advances. 

(2.) New procedure as regards unlicensed culti- 
vation. 

(3.) Enhanced payments for trash (Rs. 6,336-4 a 
year). 

(4.) Improvements in the weighing establishment 
(yearlv addition.il cost Rs. 3 Glb'in Benares and 
Rs. 5,016 in Behar). 

(5.) Iodine testers at Rs. 15 a month, and for three 
montlis but apjiarently only ten are wanted. 

(6.) The formal exemption from stamp-dutj- of re- 
ceipts i;iven by culti^-ators lor money paid tu them. 

The iollowing proposals are not entirely recommended 
by the Government of Bengal ; — 

'7.) Payment of transit allowances to asumis. 

(8.) Aliolitiou of the system of payments to culti- 
^aturs through hhaHadars in Behar and middle- 
men in Benares, a system which it is considered 
im])Ossible at present to do away with. 

(9.) Abohtion of hhurrlia and Muirhan, or ilasturi 
paid by cultivators, which .should Vie deferred 
nntil the price nf opium is ohanned. 

D. — Ghar.ijiur Factor;/.— The following proposals are 
recommended ; — 

(1.) Better regulation of the relations of agent, 
factory su])erintendent, and assistant superin- 
touident. 

(2.) (^ertain small changes in tho subordinate native 
staff. 

(3.) A small impro\-ement in the fire engine estab- 
lishment at both the factories (Ghazipur and 
Patna). 

(4.) The substitution of regular police for the bur- 
kundaz guard without increase of cost. 

(5.) The enhancement of pay to cake-makers, 



costin,!4' Rs. 1 ,'2 



a year. 



The following proposal is not recommended by the 
local Government : — 

(6.) Increase in the office establishment of the 
principal assistant. 

7S. — Patna Saw-miU. — Increase of Rs. 100 to the 
salary of i\lr. Girhiig, and some other changes in the 
establishment. 



APPENDIX. 



67; 



F. — The following lyemeraJ matters are also discuisaed : — 

(1.) The introduction of a code for the working of 

the factories. 
(2.) The amount of the I'eservc of chests of opium. 
(3.) The FreiK'h concession (already disposed of). 
(■!'.) Inspection of opium agencies by a memliev of 

the Board of Kevenue every year. 

3. Supplementary Questions. — Since the receipt of the 
general ease above stated, the following letters have 
been received from the Government of Bengal : — 

No. 630-31 0., dated 'J8th February 1887, ivhich has 
reference to the reeommendation E. abo\e. The saw- 
mills were being extended and the extension involved 
an increase in the cost of establishment from E,s. 791 to 
Es. 1,144, or of Es. 363 a month This consisted of — 

Es. 
(1.) Proposed increase to the salary of Mr. 

Girling - - . - 100 
(2.) Assistant engineer on Es. 1-25 instead of 

on Es. 50 - . - . 70 

(3.) Storekeeper on Rs. 35 instead of on Rs. 20 15 

(4.) Increase to petty establishments - - 159 

(5.) To four chuprasis, R. 1 each - 4 

Total 353 

Tlie Ciovcrnment of Bengal intimate that the cost 
under No. i has been sanctioned in anticipation of 
orders. The proceedings of the Government of Bengal 
are confirmed. 

4. No. 1485-85 0., dated the 6th May 1887.— This 
letter has reference to paragraph 681 of the report, and 
paragraph 34 of the letter from the Government of 
Bengal, No. 2600-130 0., dated the 18th December 1886, 
the question being whether the opium examiner should 
retain the power that he possesses at present to impose 
a fine on opium sent in as good by the district officers, 
but found really to contain an excess o^ pussewah. The 
Govei-nment of India concurs in the opinion of the local 
authorities that this power should remain. 

5. No. 1,500-87 0., dated 7th May 1887.— On con- 
sideration of the question whether the Patna factory 
should continue to supply chests for the Benares ^Vgency 
or whether the latter should make its own arrangements, 
all the authorities (including the Commission) a,gree 
that the present practice, whereby Behar undertakes 
the whole supply of chests, should continue, and I am 
to state that the Governnaent of India concurs in that 
opinion. 

6. No. 2166-120 0., dated 21st July 1887, has refer- 
ence to 0. (8). The system of payments through 
middlemen not being in accordance with law, it is 
found that tde cultivator cannot be punished for iiiis- 
doings, as he is not licensed under the law. It is stated 
by the Government of Bengal that a conference of 
opium officers is to be held to consider the question of 
bringing the present procedure into harmony with the 
law. The Government of India will therefore await 
the result of these deliberations before considering this 
question. 

7. No. 2793-153 0., dated 8th September, 1887.— This 
letter deals with legal ((uesdons and includes the above. 
The Commissioners made some suggestions (eight in 
number) for improvement of the law, hvA none of them 
bear on impoi-tant matters, and the Board of Eevenue, 
Lower Provinces, and the GoTciiiment of Bcjigal agree 
that there is in them no such urgency, and that no such 
difficulty in working the existing law exists, as to 
make it necessary for the Government to bring these 
matters before the Legislature. 

Of the six objects aimed at by the law, two are 
successfully attained, viz., free agency of the ryot and 
suppression of adulteration. 

In two, viz., the cultivation of the stipulated area and 
the prevention of unlicensed cultivation, the success is 
partial ; and furthei' informatioii is promised by the 
Government of Bengal under those two heads. The 
first question depends partly on the general question 
of direct licenses ; and as regards the second, unlicensed 
cultivation does not seem sufficiently prevalent to war- 
rant harassment of the cultivators by measurements. 

The remaining two matters, the protection of the 
ryot fromi illegal exactions and the securing for 
Government of the full return on the crop, depend to 
a large extent upon the improvement of the mofussil 
establishment. The Government of Bengal has, it is 
stated, issued a circular impressing upon magistrates 



the necessity of properly enforcing the law against L ' 

receivers of contraband opium. Bengal. 

8. As regards the less important of the proposals 
enumerated in paragraph 2 above, I am to communicate 
the following orders of the Government of India:— 

9. B. — (1.) The Benares agent pi'(jposes — 

(1.) To reduce the salary of his head accountant 
from Rs. 5(J0 to Ra. 300-20-400. 

the 



(2.) To abolish 
Rs. 110. 



appointment of treasurer on 



(3.) To abolish the " standard computing" branch 
of the office costing Es. 297-8, and to distribute 
these reductions in the form of — 

(i.) A personal allowance of Es. 50 to one man ; 

(ii,) "Various other increases. 

The Government of India, I am to state, accepts 
these proposals on the conditions that the changes are 
introduced only gradually as funds become available by 
reductions, and that compensation ponsions or gratuities 
are not given. The agent may also be authorised to 
take as his personal assistant an assistant on a salary 
not exceeding Es. 300. 

10. C. — (1 and 2.) The Government of India agrees 
that the present number of advances be continued; 
that opium treasuries be not closed ; aiid that the 
procedure proposed as regards unlicensed cultivation 
be adopted. 

(3.) The rates foi' trash may be enhanced as proposed. 

(4.) The better payment of the temporary weighing 
establishments is agreed to by the Government of India, 
on the understanding that better methods of selection 
of weighmen recommended by the Commission aie 
introduced. 

(5.) The proposals regarding the iodine testers are 
sanctioned, and I am to saj- that as these testers already 
exist in all but a feiv sub-agencies, the num.ber of 
additional testers required appears to be only about 10, 
costing for three months Es. 450. 

(6.) A notification will be issued exempting from 
stamp duty the recei])ts ibr money received fi'om 
Governmeiifi )-iy opium cultivators, luinbardars, and 
lihattridars. 

(7.) The jiroposal is to make transit allowances more 
general in Benares, but not to extend them to Behar. 
As regards the latter, it is shown to be very doubtful 
whether tliey would ever reach the cultivator. As 
regards the former, the Government of India desires 
that the principle upon whieli allowances are at present 
given in Benares and the cost inv olved by the proposed 
extension should be stated. The necessity seems 
doubtful considering that the price of crude opium in 
Benares was raised a few years ago, only because it 
had been raised in Behar. Prom this it would appear 
that there is no urgent necessity for giving the Benares 
cultivators more than is given in Behar. 

11. The question of increase in the number of weigh- 
ment stations awaits further detailed proposals from 
the Government of Bengal, and that of dsdmiwdr pay- 
ments a-\vaits the consideration of the general question 
of middlemen. 

12. D. — (1.) The proposals for future selection of 
factory superintendents and assistants are agreed to. 

(2.) The new scale of establishment for the native 
subordinate staff at Ghazipur factory as modified bj' 
the agent may be introduced, the i-eductions being 
effected as soon as convenient. 

(:;.) The increases in the allouaiiees for the fire 
brigade establisliment, and the allowance of Es. 50 
for uniform at the Patna factory are sanctioned. 

(4.) The substitution of a police for a 1 lurkundaz guard 
at the Ghazipui- factory may be cairied out, provided 
there is no increase of cost. 

(5.) The rates proposed by the Government of Bengal 
for cake-making may be adopted. 

13. E. — The proposals about the Patna saw-mill are 
agreed to, but the increase proposed to the salary of Mr. 
Girling will be referred to the Secretary of State not, 
in the form of an enhancement of pay, but as a 
personal allowance on account of the increase of 
work and responsibility and the long service of Mr. 
Girling. 

The other proposals contained in your letter No. 
2,600-130 0., dated the 28th December 1886 (that is, A. 
(1), A. (2), B. (2), and B. (3), including the proposal to 
spend Es. 3,000 or Es. 4,000 on bonuses to lumbardars 

I 2 



68 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION I 



App. I. and ziladars) are still undev the consideration of the 

Govern ment of India. 

Copy, with copies of the letters tu which it is a reply, 
forwarded to the Acoonntant-Geueral, Bengal, for 
information. 



No. 3ii9, dated 20tli Deoemlier 1887. 

From the Goyernmekt or India to the Secketaby of 
State foe, India. 

With reference to paragraphs 11 and 12 of Lord 
Kimberley's Despatch No. 47, d,it<il the 18th June 
1885, we have honour to forward, for your Lordship's 
information, copy of tho correspondence detailed in 
the accompanying schedule with the Government of 
Bengal, from wliich it will be seen that we have 
sanctioned some of the proposuls in connexion with 
the recommendations made Ijy the (Jommission up- 
pointed in 1883 to inquire into the adniiniatration of 
the Opium Department in Bengal and the North- 
Wcstern Proxince.s. 

2. We now lieg to recommend, with reference to 
paragraph 13 B. of the letter to the tTOvernuKiit of 
Bengal, No. 5,685, dated the 2Gth October 1887, a cojiy 
of which is herewith forwarded, that a jiersonal allow- 
ance of Ks. 100 a month maybe granted to j\lr. Girling, 
the superintendent and engineer of the Patna saw- 
mill, in addition to his pay, in consideration of the 
increase of his work and responsibility, as also of 
the long and good service he has rendered to the 
Government, 



No 9 Revenue, dated India Office, London, 
the 2nd February 1888. 

From the Secretaey oe Statt, iok India to the 

GOVEENMENT 01' InDIA. 

I HAVE to convey to you my sanction to llic grant of 
a pcrscnal allowance of Rb. 100 per mensem to Mr. 
Girling, the superintendent and engineer oi the Patna 
saw-mill, as reported in the letter of your E.xcellency's 
Govcrnm.ent in the Separati; Beveimc Opium Depart- 
ment, No. 329, dated 2nrh December 1887, 



RE^ ENUE Depabtment. 

Mis. Revenue, No. 2,ti03-] 51 O. 
From H. J. S. Cottox, Esq,, Officiating Secretary to 
the Government of Bengid, to the Sixkeiary to 
THE Govi-.rnmknt oe Iniih. Department of Fiiiauce 
and Comirieiee, 

cj n 1 i f Dated the 3th August ly8S, 

Bib, Ualcucta-^ t i ^i, a < isoo 

' tissued the August 1^88, 

WlTlt reference to paragraph (j of your letter. No. 



Lettur Irriiu flic 1 Si civil nf J!cMnni', 



5,685, dated the 2Gth 

Lower I'll. viiic-i-s, No, <I7() i;.,i.bui'il October IS'^7, I ;ii'i 

Both IX'friiilifi- J,ss7. directed to submit, for 

LbttiT to the r.oiird of Euvcniir, ^^ information of the 

T,nwer Provinces, rso. 4.j()-lli O,, ,, ,> t t • 

(lilted 7th I'rlirunry isss. (joxernment of Indnt, a 

Li'tlurnoiii theiioardol KiMiiur, copy of the correspondence 



Lower Provinces, No. ."i7:i P 



lilril 



noted on the margin, in- 



ISth July las.S, Willi ilirloslUTS. 

Letter to Uie Jioarcl ol Krveimc, dilating ihe measures 
Lower Provinces, j\o. ;;,(iO-J-15n ()., ,|.lnnterT bv tbi- fi-nvr^vii 
rtated the .sth .VuLMisi 1M8S. .laoptCQ uy rnr ij-OACiu- 

mcnt witii ii. \ lew to bring 
into harmony with the law the present system of 
granting licenses for the cultivation of poppy, 

Iba\e, &e. 
(.Sig-ned) H, J, S. Cotton, 
Officiating Seeretary to ihe 

Government of Bengal. 



No. !)70 1^, 

From K. G, Gupta, Esq,, I 'ffioiatiiig Seere|,:i ry to tin/ 
i .oard oF Revenue, Lowe.i- Provinces, to tiie Secretaky 
TO Tin; GoviiiiN.uExr of Benoal, Roverme I )epa.rLmeut, 



Calcutta- 



j' Dated the 3oili Deccmljer IS87, 
Sib, "-"""^ ""'"'' tissued Janiriiy 1888, 

I AM directed to acknowledge tlie receipt of 

Gijveriiinent Older No. 21(i5- 

"I""'"- 11!I0, dated 21st July bS,S7, accepl- 

F. M. ihilli(i;iA.E,M|. i"g •"■ suggestion miide ]<^ llie 

Boa. d tliiit a CDiil'eriMice be held 

eitlier :it I'atna (ir fvhazijioi (, at which the member ol 

the Board in charge of the 0]iium Department should 



preside, and both the agents, with any experienced 
officers of the Department whom they might select, 
should attend to discuss the question of placing on a 
legal footing the present system of granting licenses 

for the cultivation of jioppy, 

2. Ju conformity « itli the ulxn e cndcrs of Government 
a conference was held at Bankipore in October last, at 
which were present: — 

The Mcmiier of the Board in ohiirge of the Opium 

Department (F, M. Halliday, Esq,), presiding. 
The opium agent, Behar (W. Kemble, Esq.), 
The officiating opium agent, Beiiares (A. Cadell, 

Esq.), and 
Mr. Tytler, ] 

Mr. Ridsdale, . j t * 

Mr. Drake, ^sub-deputy opium agents. 

Mr. Luard, J 

The defects of the existing system, and the practical 
difficulties of making it satisfy the requirements of the 
law, are adverted to in the Board's No. 179 B., dated 
-7th June 1887. 

3. The system which now obtains in the two agencies 
is as follows : — 

In the Behar .\geiicythe settlements are made on the 
system as described in panigraph 251 1. page 95, of the 
Opium Commission's rei^ort, ivhilc those m the Benares 
Agency are made as described in paragraph 251 of the 
report; the chief jioint of difference being that in the 
Behar Agencv the opium officer receives from the 
khattadars lists of the cultivators at the time of settle- 
ment, while in the fJeniires Agency the lambardars only 
appear before the opium officer and conclude settle- 
ments absolutely on their own account for a definite 
area of poppy cuhi\ ation, irre-peetive of any arrange- 
ment as to the number of actual cultivators, whose 
names are given afterwards, who will engage to carry 
out the lambardars' engagement. 

4. In the Behar Agency the license granted to the 
khattadar is not, as in the Benares Agency, a license to 
the khattadar alone, for it gives permi.7siim to him and 
to the assamis of his khatta to now poppy and produce 
opium over a certain area, and the kabuliyat is framed 
in corresponding laiigmige. the names of the assamis 
and the area to be cultixated bj- each of them being 
entered in these documents. But the defect of this 
arrangement is that, in its most complete form, it is not 
sufficient to bind the culti\-ators, as the counterpart 
engagement is entered into by the khattadar alone, 
and tne assamis o.re not even present. Piirther, it 
appears that in some parts of the Behar Agency the 
lists of cultivators put in by the khattadars, at the 
instance of the zilladars, are really altogether erroneous 
and m fact a sham, for they have been sometimes simple 
copies of those of termer years, showing names of men 
wliohavc not even got the quantity of lands in their 
possession for which they are supposed to agree for, 
or of men who have died or left the village. But after 
he has received his first advance, the khattadar prepares 
a paper showing the names of all the cultivators to 
whom ho actuaHy distributes advances, and obtains 
their signatures in attestation of the receipt of the 
adviincc and the engagement to cultivate, 'I'liis jjaper, 
techiucally called the " Bittw.ira paper," is really the 
record of the traiis;iclion as iietween the khattadar and 
the cultivators in his khatta, but a copy of it is sub- 
mitted to the opium officer, and it forms the basis of 
the further transactions between the Department and 
the cultivator. 

5. The weak point in the present svslem, that it fails 
to secure direct dealings with the enltivators ns is con- 
templated in section 8 of Aci XIll. of is."/?, -w as brought 
to the notice of the Board by Mr. Rivett-Oaruao, the 
iicnarc,- agent, in 1S7;I, and the remedy suggested by 
him consisted in the issue to each cultivator i if a ticket 
in the Cnrm gi\-en in A])]icndix A., wliieh he considered 
wiis to .'ill praclieiil purposes a miniature license. 

G. Thi> ticket, it will bo observed, consisted of two 
parts, A and B, the foimer being a niemorandnm of 
aooouitt, and the latter a license to cultivate a certain 
number of bighas. The side IS was to ],c filled up at 
the time ol' ineasnromciu , and the side A was in'aeti- 
cally a re]iroduction of the ticket which is issued to 
every cultivator at the time of weighmcnis. It \vas, in 
lint, merel,\ an extract of th:itparl of the laml^ardiir's 
license wliiili, attei- tlie names ha\e lieen enicrcd, refers 
to thi' individual enltuator, showing Ihe area he is 
uiiilerr-tood to hiive engaged to cnUi\-ale, and what 
amount he has received as ;in advance, and it i outaiiied 
blank columns (to be subsequently fillcLl up) for the 



APPENDIX. 



69 



quantity of opium Aolivered, and the balance payable to 
him by Government after deducting the advance. 

7. For revenue purposes the side A was undoubtedly 
the more important, but for the pnrpoBe of meeting the 
legal difficvuty in reference to section 8 of the Opium 
Act, the side B, Avhen duly filled up, ivould have been 
sufBoient ; it has, however, been found in practice 
that the side A only in the form was retained, that 
apparently being fi'oni a departmental point of view the 
really importiint feature of the license, and the side B, 
which represented the actual license to cultivate, was 
dropped out of use altogether, and the so-called minia- 
ture license became but an improved form of the hatchiia 
already in use. There was another defect in the form, 
viz., though the portion A was to be signed by the 
opium oflBcer, there was no provision made for ha^•ing 
the signature of the officer issuing it in the poi'tion B. 

8. Thus, as a matter of fact, the miniature license, 
originally defective, came, after the disaiipearanoe of 
the portion B, to be no license at all, and it in no way 
met the requirements of section 8 of the Act, while no 
attempt was made to take a kabuliyat m counterpart 
engagement from the actual cultivator. 

9. It !« therefore" manifest that in neither agency can 
the system in force be accepted as satisfactorjr, and this 
was brought prominently to notice by the Opium Com- 
mission in paragraph 647 of their report. The Com- 
mission also suggested certain remedies, all, however, 
based on the assumption that Act XIII. of 1857 will be 
repealed, and they considered therefore it was unneces- 
sary to discuss the phraseology of its provisions, or to 
endeavour to make their suggestions run with it. But it 

has been held by G-overn- 

., t^°??fT''?'°£'^^''iS'?-'''''^"'-^^°' ment* that recourse to 
dated 8th September 1887. n t ^ • i . ■ 4., ■ 

tresn legislation on this 

subject would be highly inexpedient, except in the case 
of the law, as it stands, being found to be absolutely 
unworkable, and that no improvement of the law in 
details would counterbalance the mischief of liringing 
before the Legislature the whole question of the 
connexion of Government with the cultivation of 
opium. 

10. The object which the conference had in view was 
therefore to devise, if possible, some means to bring 
the present practice into accordance with the existing 
law without entailing any radical change in a system 
which has so long worked satisfactorily on the whole. 

After a full discussion of the subject in all its bearings 
the proposals that commend themselves to the con- 
ference are the following : — 

(1.) That the present lambardari and khattadari 

system be continued. 
(2.) That a form of cultivator's license be adopted at 

each agency to be issued by the opium officer. 
(3.) The lambardar in Benares or the khattadar in 
Behar, when coming in to engage, should bring 
with him a list of the cultivators who have agreed 
with him to grow opium. 

Either then, or at some future time, as ma-)' 1)e 
found most convenient, -when the list u! actual 
cultivators who have icceived advances is final and 
complete, licenses to each individual should be 
prepared and signed Ijy the sub-deputy agent or 
his assistant, filled up according to the names in 
the list as complete for distiibution to the cultiva- 
tors engaging. Forms of counterpart are to be 
issued to the lambardar or khattadar iji the same 
way, and he is to be held responsiljle fur having 
them filled up and returned to the opium officer 
either personally or through the Iwtliee mnla. In 
some divisions in one or other agencj the cultiva- 
tors come in themselves to engage, and in such 
cases the issue of the license and execution of the 
counterpart can then be effected direct. It iias 
been considered that though the cultivators' licenses 
should be given separately and individually, the 
requirement of the laiv as regards the counterpart 
or kabnliyat will be sufiiciently met by liaving this 
document executed jointly ^vith the signatares of 
all the cultivators 'under each khattadar on one 
jiaper, the signatures being duly attested. 
(4.) The form of the license should be short and 
simple and might folloiv the portion B in jMr. 
Eivett-Oarnac's miniature license already referred 
to, and the farther details as given in the portion 
A might be added on the reverse, according to the 
requirements of each agiiicy as may be deemed 
desirable, for the interest of the cultivator and the 
Department. 



11. Ill this way the Conference believe the lambardar 
or khattadar wnuld act as the iigont of the Department Bengal. 
in the distribution of the licenses, undci' which the 
Government would be dealing direct with the cultivator. 
It is agreed that it would be most undcsii'ablr to sevi.'i- 
the eenne.xion with khattadars and lunibardars, without 
whose aid and iufimnee the Deijarrtmcnt would find it 
now exceedingly diflScidt, if not impossible, to negotiate 
engagements with tbe cultivators. Experience has 
shown that instances are very rare wl^irr the necessity 
arises for the enforcement el the ])enaf sections of the 
Act againSt cultivators, and tha,t what is wanted is only 
an administrative change to secure the interests of 
G-overnmcut in the few eases \\hi'rc the cultivators fail 
to fulfil their engagements. It is not worth while to 
upset a lung existing system to meet isolated cases of 
infringement of engagements, and it is the opinion of 
the Conference that the piopcsals maile above will meet 
all requirements. 

In ])arts of the Benares Agency the cultivators are 
idnady getting accustomed to a method more recently 
introduced, on the lines now recommended, under which 
their individual responsibilities are beiug more directly 
brought home to them in their engagements Avith the 
Dejiariment, while at the same time the aid and influence 
(-)l' tlio khattadar and lambardar are retained. 
I ba^•e, &c. 
(Signed; K. G. Gupta, 

Officiating Secretary; 



App. I. 



A. Division. 

(Koti) 

(Name of village) 

(Map No. of village) 



(Name of assami). 
(Name of lumberdar). 
(No. of license). 



Cultivation. 



Quantity 
of Opium. 



Villa 
Op II 



Deduct I Net due 
Amount of I at Weigjli- 
Advance. ! ment. 



Moliurii' 



B. 

(Name of assami) 
(Son of) 
(Caste) 



Assistant. 



Appendix A. 



(Name of lumberdar). 

(Name of village). 

(Name of pergunnali). 



(Translation.) 
Lin use. 
Whereas you have of your own free will and pleasure 
submitted an application for permission to cultivate 
poppy, and have agreed to sow beeghas in 

village , pergunnah , this 

license is therefore granted to you. 



No. 450-1 1) 0., dated Calcutta, the 7th February 1888. 

From H. W. (lAKNDurF, Esq., Officiating Under Secre- 
tary to the Government of Bengal, Eevenne 
Department, to the Seohetaky to the Board of 
Revenue, Miscellaneous Revemie Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter No. 970 B., dated 30th December 1887, in which 
the Board report the result of the conference held to 
discuss the f[uestion of placing on a legal footing the 
present system of granting licenses for the culti\ation 
of poppy. 

2. With reference to paragraph 10(:i) of your letter, 
I am to re((uest that copies of the forms of licenses and 
counterparts to be adopted in each agency may be 
forwarded to Government, and to say that the Legal 
Remembrancer should be consulted as to the validity 
of a contract made through the instrumentality of such 
documents, in the mauncr jiroposod by the conference, 
and as to whether the arrangements suggested in 
paragraph 10 of your letter is calculated to fulfil the 
conditions ])rescribed by Act XIII. of lyC)7. 



I 3 



70 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



A^J. No. 573 B., dated Calcutta, the 18th July 1888. 

From K. G. Gupta, Esq., Officiating Secretary to the 
Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces, to the Seobe- 

TAKY TO THE GOVERNMENT OJ BENGAL, Eevenue 

Department. 

I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of Govern- 
ment Order lSro.4.50-160, dated 
F. Jr, Halliday, Esq. 7th February 1888, calling for 
copies of the forms of licenses 
and counterparts for poppy cultivation proTiosed lor 
adoption in the Behar and Benares Agencies, and 
stating that the Legal Remembrancer should be con- 
sulted as to the validity of a contract made through the 
instrumentality of such documents, in the manner pro- 
posed by the Opium Conference, and as to whether the 
arrangement suggested in paragraph 10 of the Board s 
letter No. 970 bV dated 30th December 1887, is calcu- 
lated to fulfil the conditions prescribed by Act XIII. of 
1857. 

2. In reply, I am to submit the enclosed sets of draft 
forms of license and kabuliyat, which have been ob- 
tained from the Behar and Benares agents, and to state 
that the Legal Remembrancer, whom the Board con- 
sulted in the matter, considers that the joint kabuliyat 
submitted by the Benares agent and the license 
Form A. are substantial in conformity with section 8, 
Act XIII., 1857, and if duly signed in the manner 
stated in paragraph 10 of the Board's letter to Govern- 
ment, will satisfy the requirements of that section, and 
aso legally bind the signing cultivators. As regards 
the Behar forms, Mr. Allen sees no propriety in the 
words " and jointly " as applied to cultivators. He 
says " each man agrees separately for himself and no 
" more. He has nothing to do with failures of his 
" fellow villagers." 

3. The Benares forms appear to be more appropi'iate, 
and should, the Board think, be adopted in both 
agencies, such slight verbal alterations as may be 
found necessary being introduced in the forms for the 
Behar Agency in consultation with the agent. 



Beenares 0?idm Agency. 

License Form A. 

Division. 

(Koti) (Name of assami.) 

(Name of village) (Name of lumberdar.) 

(Map No. of village) (No. of license.) 



Cultivation. 



Quantity 
otOpiuui. 



Sort. 



Value of 
Opium. 



Deduct Net flue ' 
Aiuount of at AVoigll- 
Advance. I meni. 



Mohurir. 

(Name of a.ssaQii) 
(Son of) 
(Caste) 



Assistant. 



(Translation." 

License. 



Behae Opium Agency. 

Translation. 

Whereas we, the undersigned cultivators and tenants 
of village . pergunnah , 

district , have received advances from 

Government through khattadar, onr appointed agent, 
on account of growing poppy, we hereby bind our- 
selves severally and jointly to cultivate the full 
quantity of land for which we have received advances, 
and to deliver the whole of the produce thereof to the 
opium godown at 

This to be signed by each oultivalur. 



(Name of Lumlierda 

(Name of village.) 
(Name of pergunnah.) 



Whereas you Lave of your own free will and pleasure 
submitted an application for permission to cultivate 
poppy, and have agreed to sow beeghas in 

village , pergunnah his license 

is therefore granted to you. 

Sub-Deputy Opium Agent, or Assistant 
Sub-Deputy Opium Agent. 



Behar Opium Agency. 

Translation. 

License. 

To cultivate 
Issued to 
village 

(Signed) 



of poppy on account of 18 
, sou of 



Benares Opium Agency. 

Proposed Joint Kabuliyat. 

Whereas we, the lumberdars and cultivators, as 
mentioned in the appended list, of pergunnah , 

out of our free will agree to grow poppy seeds and 
execute this kabuliyat for taking a lease under the 
following terms : — 

In the best pieces of land held by us, as mentioned 
in the appended list, we shall sow poppy seeds, free 
from other vegetation, in due season and take proper 
care in weeding and watering the same. If we cultivate 
less than the land assigned for, the Government will 
have the power, under section 10 of Act 13 of 1857, to 
impose on us a fine amounting to three times the sum 
advanced for the land left uncultivated. When the 
plants will be in full blossom, the flower jjetals will be 
prepared and weighed as usual, and the fixed price will 
be taken by us. Aftei- scratching the capsules and 
collecting the exudation, we shall deliver the pure 
opium, uuder section 11 of the said Act, to the agent 
at any of the factories directed by him. After making 
allowances for the standard solMni (process of heating) 
under section 7 of the said Act, we shall take the price 
at the fixed rate per seer of eighty (80) tolas ; and at the 
time of delivery we shall make over to the office all 
the implements used in preparing opium , to which it 
might have a.dhered. It will be weighed and examined 
under section 12 of the said Act before us and the sub- 
deputy agent or other officers. We shall accept the 
conditions of the pottah as proposed by the head or 
any other Government officer under section 13 of the 
said Act. The forfeiture of the opium, in case of its 
being adulterated, will not be objected to. If out of 
the actual produce of the lana engaged and surveyed 
any quantity of opium is withheld by us, we shall be 
liable to penalty under section 19 of the said Act. We 
shall not take the premium or the whole amount 
without endorsing it on the pottah, or without having 
the endorsement examined by the gomashta. There 
will be no additions and alterations made in ihe pottah, 
otherwise we shall be the losers. If at the time of 
closing the accounts any default be made on our part, 
we shall acknowledge the same, and the Government 
will have the power, under section 16 of the said Act, 
to realise the same by means of the attachment and 
sale of all our moveable and immoveable properties. 
We shall not be al)le to raise any objection to the 
fulfilment of the terms of this l-alulvyai. We shall he 
held responsible for Ruy loss (occasioned by the non- 
performanco of the terms of the Icabuliijat) as well as 
the cultivators who, under section 8 of the said Act, 
have agreed to grow the poppy seeds. Under the 
aforesaid conditions we execute this kabuliyat or lease, 
and it may be used against us if necessary. 



of 



Benarbs Opium Agency. 

This license, together with the pottah in name of 
> son of by caste , 

resident of village , pergunnah 

district is granted in com- 

pliance with his application, forwarded with that of 
his lumberdar for sowing in the land engaged in the 
village , pergunnah " , district 



Sub-Deputy Opium Agent. 



Dated 



188 



APPENDIX. 



71 



Village 



Benakes Opium Agency, 
Proposed License of Cultivators. 
Number of Pottah (Lease). 



App. I. 



Name of the Cultivator. 



To.,.1 ».,„„....) ' Description i Serial Number Gross Weight 
Land engaged. , j,f g^gjl3''jo,,j,' of License. 1 of Opium. 



Value of 
Opium. 



Advance 
deducted. 



Date of 
Delivery of 
tlie Opium. 



Date of 
Chulcii. 



Remark a. 



Benares Opium Agency. 



Name of 
• Cultivatoi'. 



Njiiiu. of Father 
and Caste. 



Place of 
Residence. 



Advance per 
Bceifha. 



Amount of 
Advance. 



Date of 
Payment. 



Signature of 
the Cultivator. 



Signature of 
the Witness. 



Bemarkg. 



Benahes Opium Agency. 
Translation of the Urdu Kabuliyat. 

Petition — Kabuliyat written by Lumberdak under 
Section 8, Act XIII., of 1857. 

Whereas I, named , son of 

, resident of mouzah 
pergunnah , agree ef my own free will to 

cultivate poppy, therefore I, filing this petition to the 
hiozoor for the grant of a pottah, and consenting to the 
terms mentioned below, declare and give in writing 
that in the first class land in an area of , 

together with the land which is found in excess at the 
time of measurement in mouzah , 

pergunnah , I shall sow poppy at the 

fixed time and will take every care, such as brooming 
and irrigating, &c., and will not allow any other kind 
of vegetable to grow on the land. If less land than the 
lands mentioned above is cultivated, the Government, 
under section 10, Act XIII., of 1857, can realise a fine, 
three times the dadni (advance) amount paid to me for 
the portion left uncultivated. When the poppy trees 
blossom, petals will be prepared in accordance with 
usage, and will be weighed wherever ordered, and I 
will take the price at the fixed rate. After lancing the 
capsules and collecting the milky juice, I would prepare 
pure opium under section 11 of the above Act, and have 
the opium weighed wherever oi'dered through the amla 
of the kothee, and will receive the price after its being 
boiled per standard under section 7, Act XIII., of 1857, 
at the weight of the seer of 80 tolahs at the rate of 
E.S. per seer. I would make over to Government 



the opium vessels and the rags in which the juice is 
inspissated, or any otlier pots or cloths used at the time 
of lancing and scraping, &c. The test and weighment 
of opium would be made in my presence and that of the 
sub-deputy opium agent, or any other officer ap- 
pointed for the purpose, under section 12 of the 
aforesaid Act. The classification of pottah and 

premium of the opium fixed by the first assistant or 
other Government officer should be accepted by me in 
every case under section 13 of the above Act. 

If the opium be confiscated for being impure or on 
proof of there being an adulteration I shall have no 
objection to make. If by some trick or otherwise I 
remove any portion of the opium produced in the land 
settled with me and measured, I shall be liable to be 
punished under section ]9 of the Act. Without writing 
on the pottah and the attestation of the gomashta I 
would not take the dadni (advance) and chulcti (settled) 
amount. In the pottah there would not be anything 
erased or struck out or re-wrilten ; if there be any, it 
will be for our loss. After the settlement of accounts, 
if there be any balance due to Government, I would pay 
it ofi" to the gomashta on taking a receipt ; and in case 
of there being any arrear, the Government is authorised 
to realise it by the attachment of my moveable and 
immoveable property. I shall never make any objection 
to the execution of the conditions mentioned in this 
kabuliyat. Until the joint kabuliyat is not executed 
this ekrarnamah would remain in force. Therefore I 
execute these few lines in the shape of petition — 
kabuliyat for the grant of pottah, that it might come of 
use at the time of need. 

Dated the 




Executed by , resident of mouzah 

, pergunnah , zillah 

I have received the amount detailed below for the 

cultivation of poppy for , through 

gomashta of kothee ; therefore I give this 
receipt in writing that it might be of use at the time 
of need. 

For first dadni 



Dated 



18 



Ef.vence Department. 
Mis. Bevenue— No. 2602-1500. 

Prom H. W. C. Caenduff, Esq., Under Secretary to 
the Government of Bengal, to the Secretary to 
the Board of Kevenue, Miscellaneous Kevenue 
Department. 

Sir, Calcutta, the 8th August 1888. 

With reference to the correspondence ending 
with your letter No. 573 B., dated the 18th July 1888, 
regarding the question of placing on a legal footing the 
present system of granting Ijcenees for the cultivation 

I i 



72 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. I. of poppy- 1^ ^™ (liT'eoted lo say thiit the Lieutcnant- 

Goveruoi' saiiotioiis tlic adoption in botli the Ucuarrs 

and the BehorV Opium Agencies cf the forms of liceu^ii' 
and kabnliyat submitted by the Bonai-cs agent, such 
slight \ei-bal alterations as may bo found nucessarj 
being introduced in the forms for the fiehar Agency- in 
consultation with the agent. Tlie joint Icabuliyat and 
the license (Form A.) shou.ld be duly signed in the 
manner stated' in paragraph 10 of your letter No. 970 B., 



dated the 30th Decoml)er 1887, and the proposal,'- of the 
(Jimfercnce, contained in that paragraph, re L,;irilinc 
the issue and dislribution (if the licence and the 
execution of the counterpart, are approved by Govern- 
ment. 

1 have, iV'.c. 
(Signed) H. W. 0. UARNDurr, 

Under Secretary to the Government 
of Bengal. 



App. II. 



APPENDIX II. 



Memorandum on the Comparative Cost of Cultivation of the Poppy and other Crops. 

[Handed in by Mr. A. C. Tytler.] 



A WORKING household of six amongst the true agri- 
culturists is sufficient to entirely cultivate, from first 
to last, one bigahof puppy, i.e., 20kuthas of land. The 
pop]iy cultivation last year in the Sewan sub-division 
amounted to bighas 38,696, and the number of ryots 
who received licenses to cultivate this amounted to 
8j!,G."il. In this densely populated district there aie 
few households that do not contain three working 
hands at least, consequently, roughly speaking, 10 
kullias of poppy could be easily cultivated by each 
household, but if, for argument sake, the total cultiva- 
tion of bitjhas ;_;s,ii9fi be equally divided, it gives about 
nine kuthas per household, or within their working- 
capacity. However, as a fact, some households do 
miirc thiiu they can themselves ni.'Liiagc, ;'.nd nthci'S 
less., ,\lsn some of tlic cultivator.-^ are high caste 
Iiindn'4,u,;ivhose ^vivcK and daughters do not work in 
the field'',' and tlie ,-ame remark applies to the upper 
class of Mnhamedaus, and in such cases the men 
of the household are supplemented by hired labour, 
which is always paid for in grain, excepting during the 
lancing and gathering, when in cash at the rate of li' 
to 1 1 hands Tor the ruijee. 

L'nder the above cipcumstances any statement of the 
co>t of cultivati(ju of cro])S in Sarun must be read moi-e 
with a view to tii^dei-.-tanding their laboriousness thair 
as a true guide as tn what they cost the cultivators, 
who, for the most jiait, do the work themselves, failing 
which they wonld be idling their time, as there is no 
local demand for their labovrr. 

Speaking roughly, about three-fourths of the poppv 
cultivation is done free of cost in Sarun ijy each housi'- 
hold, and one-quarter with an addi I iona I outlay oi about 
I'rnm Ks. 5 to Rs. 8 a bigha, and, cxccptionall}-, Rs. lO 
.1 bigha. The men who i-ngage this hiliour are those 
who have fine lands, large yii-hls, and generally fairly 
large holdings, with spare grain in their granaries. 

In sugar-cane, similarly, the cultivation is mostly 
done with home labour, but a bea-,y deduction has to 
be made for the cost of pressing and boiling, which, in 
the Sewan sub-division, is paid fm- by deduction ii-oni 
the weight or value of the sugar made. If the sugar- 
cane press, Ijoibng pans, pi-ess IjuUooks, jiractised 
stoker, and workmert arc all hired it comes to five 
annas in the i-upce. one anna for each item, while 
there is an equivalent saving for as much as is home 
supplied. 

Lastly, soils differ greatly in Sarun, more so probably 
than anywhere else in India, because the \ ery dry sod 
of the Si'iuth (;i-;tngetie districts, the damp soil of lu'ngal, 
and a medium description, all exist, adding to the 
diiticulty of estimating the cost of cultivation, For 
instance, the first requires, for poppy, seven irrinatioiis ; 



the second, none ; and the third description two, 
I liree, or four, as the case may be. 

Vyith the above explanation the following statement 
will show what some crops wonld cost if only hired 
labour was employed : — 

Poppy per Bigha in iitgulv ii!utcate!i Land. 

Rs. A. p. 



Ploughing 

Poppy seed 

SeA en irrigations 

Four weciliiigs 

Lancing and gathering 



Tol;a 



.", 

II r, 

5 II 

4 

II 

■20 6 



Es. 



A. P. 

6 
9 



SuuAK-CANE in similar Soil. 

Ploughing 

Sjiade work before and after plauting 
Cost of cuttings for planting - 
Labourers for planting- 
Nine irrigations 

Also 5 annas pier rupee for pressing, iVc, as 
described above, say on a crop worth Ks. 80 

Total 47 10 





6 

4 





For ^Vhhat or Batiley on similar Soil. 

Plnuehing 

Seed 

Two irrigations 

One bundle m lIii for the catting 

Also one maund in 20 for treading out 

Total - 



Potatoes in similar Soil. 

Rs. A. p. 

Ploughing . f, ti 

Seeil potatoes - --2-^00 

Labourers for planting, irrigating, earthing 

up, &e. " " 10 



Rs. 


A. 


p. 


:1 








'-> 








■2 


8 





1 








1 








10 


8 






Total 



40 



Tv.B. — In non-in-igated lands the cost of irrigation 
must he deducted, and in partially irrigated" land 
lessened \ij half. 



APPENDIX. 



73 



Bangae, on DiiY and Greatly [bhigated Land. 
Biingar No. 1. — Highest (lass. 







Out-turn 


per B 


gha 




A. — lu Poppy. 




- 






















Produ 


36. 
C. 


Rs. 


.ilui 
a. 




1st year: 




Mds. s. 


P- 


Opium - 




IG 





88 








Poppy seed 


- 


— 




12 








Do. flowers 




1.-, 





3 


12 





Passewa 




1 





9 


8 





The following vain 


crop — 


20 





25 








oheena (kutcha weight). 












Do. straw 




— 




1 


8 





The following rain 


crop — 


15 





15 








Indian corn (kutcha ■( 


veight) . 












Do. stalks 


- 


— 




1 


8 





Total - 


— 


149 


4 





2nd year ; 












Opium - 




8 





44 








Poppy seed 


- 


— 




8 








Do. flowers 




8 





2 








Passewa - 


- 





8 


1 


4 





Now no cheena, only 


Indian 


20 





20 








corn (kutcha weight) 














Do. stalks 


JTAL 


— 




1 








Total 


— 




76 


4 





Grand T( 


— 




225 


8 






B. - The same in Mustard, & 



, &c. 



Out-turn per Bigha. 



Produce. Value. 



1st year: 

Mustard (or sarson) 
The following Indian corn crop 
(kutcha weight). 

Do. stalks 

Total - 

2nd year : 

The following winter crop — 

wheat (kutcha weight). 

Do. bhusa 

Do. sarson 

The following rain crop — 

Indian corn (kutcha weight). 

Do. stalks 

Total - 

Ghand Total - 



Mds. s. c. 
14 
20 



20 







Rs. a. p. 

28 

20 

1 8 



49 8 



32 

3 

4 
15 U 

1 8 



105 



C.— I he same in Wheat. 



Out turn per Bigha. 



Produce. Value 



1st year : 

Wheat (kutcha weight) 

Do. bhusa (chaff) 
Amongst the wheat, sarson, and 

linseed. 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutoha weight). 
Do. stalks 


MdM. s. c. 
20 

15 


Rs. a. p. 

32 
3 
6 

15 

1 8 


Total 


— 


57 8 


2nd year : 

The following winter crop — 

barley (kutcha weight). 

Do. bhusa (chafl!) 

Amongst the barley, sarson 

The following rain crop — 

marua (kutcha weight). 


15 
20 


15 

3 

4 
20 


Total 


— 


42 


Grand Total - 


— 


99 8 



I'.— The same in Barley, &c. 


Out-turn per Bigha. 


Produce. 


Value. 


1st year: 
Barley (kutcha weight) 

Do. bhusa (chaff) 
Linseed and sarson (mustard) 

in the same. 
The ibllowing rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks ■ 


Mds. s. c. 
30 

16 


Rs. a. p. 

30 
4 
4 

16 

1 8 


Total - 


— 


55 8 


2nd year : 

The following winter crop — 
peas (kutcha weight). 
Do. bhusa (chaff) 
Sarson in the same 
The following rain crop — 
marua (millet) (kutcha 
weight). 

Total 


15 
20 


15 

2 

3 
20 


— 


40 


Gkand Total 


— 95 8 



N.B. — Sugar-cane, it planted in such extra fine lands, grows 
splendidly, but the " goor " will not form and the produce is 
dark, and can only be sold as the cheaper " shira " or treacle. 
At the very best, with the succeeding crop of kodo, it would 
realise Rs. 130, while occupying the land for four fasils, or two 
years. 



Bangar No. 2. — Good Land. 







Out-turn 


per Bigha. 


A. — In Poppy. 




















Produce. 


Value. 


1st year : 




Mds. s. 


c. 


Rs. a. p. 


Opium - 




8 





44 


Poppy ived 




— 




8 


Do. flowers - 




8 





2 


Passewa - 







8 


1 4 


The following cheena 


crop 


16 





16 


(kutcha weight). 










Do. straw 




— 




1 


Total 


— 




72 4 



2nd year: 

The following poppy crop 
Do. seed 

Do. flowers 

Passewa 

The following — sawuni muruah 
(kutcha weight). 

Total 

Grand Total 






9 





49 


8 







— 




9 











8 





2 














10 


1 


9 





16 








16 










78 


1 







— 




150 


5 






B. — The same in Sugar-cane. 



Out-turn per Bigha. 
Produce. Value. 



1st year: 
The first rabi or winter crop is 


Mds. ,. c. 

> 


Rs. a. p. 


a fallow, the cane beinpr put 






down in January or Feb- 






ruary. 

The following rain crop — sugar 
grooving. 
2nd year: 

The following rabi also occu- 
pied with it, but pressed in 


50 
■15 


80 

10 

C 8 


January. 
The following rain crop — kodo 
(kutch* weight) . 
Do. straw 






Total for both years 


— 


90 8 



Arp. II. 
Behiir. 



u 82810. 



K 



74 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



App. II. 



C. — The same ia Wheat. 



Out-turn per Bigha. 



Proiluce. 



Value. 



1st year: 

Wheat (kutcha "weight) 

Do . bhusa 
Sar.'5on among.st the wheat 
Tjinseed do. 

*Thc following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 

Total 

2nd yiMr: 

'IMie following winter crop, viz., j 
rahur. 

Do. cotton 

Stalks - 
Kahur bluisu 

Total 

Grand Total 



Mds. 


s. 


c. 


Es. 


a. 


P- 


16 





u 


0.-^ 


8 







— 




3 










— 




4 










— 




2 








8 








8 

1 












— 




4.3 


8 


















10 (1 

s {> 

1 

1 



2U 



63 8 



• Such soil produces less Indian corn, and especially when mixed 
with raliar and cotton, which take up room. Rahar and cotton are put 
down us a rotation to restore the strength of tlie land after wheat, 
which is a ver.v exhaustin',^ crop. 

Banorar No. 3.— Fair Land. 



Oat turn per Bigha. 



A.— In Poppy. 



Produce. 



V.alue. 



1st year: , iNIds. s. c. I I!s. a. p. 

Opium- 5 I 27 8 

Poppy seed — 5 u U 

Do. tlowers 4 0' 100 

Passewa . 4 j 10 

The following rain crop — 13 12 

niurua (kutcha weight). 



Total 

2nd year: 

The following poppy crop at 

4 SL'ers and as above. 
The following cheena and no 
rain crop (kutcha weight). 
Ditto straw 

Total - 

Grand Total 



I .^j 



46 2 

27 S 

is 

1 

43 8 



89 10 



Out-turn per Bigha. 



B. — The same in Barley and 
Peas, &c. 



Produce. 



Value. 



2 O 

3 I) 



10 10 o 

— lion 







1st year: -Aids. s. c. j lis. a. p. 

Barleyand [ieas(kutclia weight) 12 12 

Do. bhnsa — 

Linseed and sarson amongst — 

the barley. 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 

Total 

Snd year: 

The following winter crop — 
barley and wheat (kutcha 
weight) . 

Do. bhusa 
Linseed and sarson amongst 

the barley. 
The following rain crop — 
murua (kutcha weight). 

Total - 

Gra-Nd Total 



12 





14 












2 








— 




3 








15 





15 








— 


34 








— 




02 









C— The same in Wheat, &c. 



Out-turn per Bigha. 



Produce. 



Value. 



1st year : 

rt'heat (kutcha weight) - 

Do. bhusa - 
Sarson an<i linseed amongst 

the wheat. 
The following rain crop — 
rnurua (kutcha weight). 

Total 

2nd year: 

The following rabi — barley, the 
field being worn out. 

Linseed ainoug&t the barley 

Bhusa 

In the second year there can be 
no crop in the rains ; the 
land nntst he fallow, both 
wheat and marua being moat 
exhausting crops. 

Total 

Grand Total 



Slds. s. 


c. 


Ks. 


a. 


P 


10 


(1 


16 








— 




2 








— 




3 









12 



12 



33 



10 



10 


c 





1 








1 









12 



4.< 



Beat, or Lands which retain Moistitke and require 
less Iebigation. 

Bhj'it No. 1.— Fi<?hest Class. 



Out-turn per Bigha. 



A . — In Poppy. 



Produce. 



Value. 



1st year: j jNIds. ^. c. I lis. a. p. 

O'pium j 14 u i 77 

I'.ippy seed ' — 10 

Do." (lowers | 12 j 3 

I'assL-wa 10 2 8 

The following rain crop — 20 25 

cheena (kutcha A^eight). I j 

Do. straw. j — 118 
It would then be ploughed and 

remain fallow till November, i ' 



Total — ' 119 



2nd year; 

Opium 10 ' 55 8 

Poppy seed | — , 10 

Do. iioweis j 8 ] 20 

Passewa ' — ,200 

The following rain crop — 1 20 20 

Indian corn (kutcha weight) 

Do. stalks 

Total 



'eight). 












— 


1 1 










— 


j 90 


8 





Total 


— 


;;09 


8 






Out-turn per Bigha. 



B. — The same in Mustard. 



1st year : 

Sarson (kutcha weight) 
Castor-oil seeds (do.) 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 

Total 



Produce. 


Value. 


Mds. s. 


c. 


Ks. 


a. p. 


13 


n 


26 





8 





15 





20 





20 





— 




2 





— 


64 






APPEND, X. 



^- — 'I'lie same ia Must«nl. 



Out-tum per liiylui. 





Produce. 


Valine. 


2nd year : 

The following winter ci'op — 
wheat (kutcha weight). 
Ditto straw 
Sarson araorgst the wheat 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 


Mds. s. c. 
I.') 

10 


Us. a, p. 
24 

2 

4 

10 

1 


Total 


— 


41 


(..«AND Total 


— 


105 



Out-turn per Bigha. 



C. — The samr in Wheat. 



Produce. 



Value. 



1st year : 
Wheat (kutcha weight) 

Do. hhusa 
Linseed and sarson amongst the 

wheat. 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 

Total 

2nd year: 

The following winter crop — 
barley (kutcha weight "i . 
Do. straw - 
Mustard amongst the barley - 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. , stalks - 

Total 

Grand Total 



Mds. s. c. 
18 



15 



10 



20 



Es. a. p. 

29 

3 

6 

15 

10 



54 



10 

1 8 

3 

20 

10 



35 8 



89 8 



Memo. — Sugar-cane if planted in such extra fine lands 
grows splendidly, but the "' goor " will not form, is 
dark, and can be sold only as tbe cheaper " shira" or 
treacle. At the very best, with the succeediaig crop of 
hodo, it would realise Rs. 130, occupying the land for 
four " fasils," or two years. 



Bhat No. 2.— Good Land, 



A. — In Poppy. 



Out-turn per Bigha. 



Produce. Value, 



1st year: 
Opium 
Poppy seed 

Do. flowers 
Passevra 
The following rain crop — 

cheena (kutcha weight). 
Do. straw - 
Eemains a fallow till next 

poppy crop. 



Total 



Id year: 

Opiuci, &c. as above, at 7 seers 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 

Total 

GuAND Total 



Mds. s. 
8 

8 



12 



10 



Rs. a. p. 

44 

8 







2 
1 
14 



8 



G9 8 



50 
10 



60 8 



130 



B.- -The same in Siigar-c 



Iht year : 

Siit/ar-ranc. — During the first 
rabi or winter crop the land 
lies fallow. Cane is planted 
in January or February. 
The following rain crop : sugar 
growing. 

2nd year : 
The following winter also occu- 
pied with it, but manufactured 
in January. 
The following rain crop of 
kodo and tangani (kutcha 
weight). 

Do. straw 

Total of both years 



App. II. 
Out-turn per i^igha. u„,,^^_ 



Produce. 



Value. 



Mds, 



43 



12 



Ks. a. p. 



70 

8 

8 

78 8 



0. — The same in Wheat. 


Out-turn ] 


)er Bigha 
A^alu 




Produce. 




1st year : 
Wheat (kutcha weight) 

Do. straw 
Mustard and linseed amongst 

the wheat. 
The following raia crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 


Mds. s. 
12 

12 


c. 






Ks. 
19 

2 

12 

1 


a. 









p- 










Total 




37 








2nd year : 

The following winter crop — 
peas. 

Ditto straw 
Mustard and sarson amongst 

the pea». 
The following — cheena 
Do. straw 


10 
15 







10 

1 
3 

18 










a 











Total 


— 


32 


8 





Grand Total 


— 


69 


8 






Bhat No. 3. — Ordinary Land. 



A. — In Poppy. 


Out-turn 


per Bigha. 


Produce. 


Value. 


1st year: 
Opium - 
Poppy seed 

Do. flowers - 
Passewa 

The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 


Mds. s. 
5 

4 



10 


c. 



6 



Ks. 
27 

5 

1 

1 
10 




a. p. 
8 





8 


Total 


— 


45 





2nd year : 

The following poppy crop — 

opium. 
Poppy seed 

Do. flowers - 
Passewa 

The following — cheena (kutcha 
weight). 
Do. straw 


4 

4 



l.j 





6 



22 

4 

1 

1 

15 




8 






8 


Total - 


— 




44 





Grand Total 


— 




89 






K 2 



76 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App II. 





Out-turn per Bigha. 


B. — The same iu Sugar-caue. 











Produce. Value. 

1 


1 St year : 


Mds. s, c. 


Es. ii. p. 


Sugar-cane. — During the first 






■winter crop the land lies 






fallow, the cane being put 






down iu January or Feb- 






ruary. 






The i'ollowiDg rain crop — sugar 






growing. 






2nd year : 






The following winter crop also 


30 


bO 


occupied with it but manu- 






factured in January. 






The followiug rain crop of kodo 


12 


8 


(liutcha weight). 






Ditto straw 




8 


Total for both years 




58 8 



C— The same in Wheat. 


Out-turn per Bigha. 


Produce. 


Value. 


1st year: 
Wheat (kutcha weight) 

Do. straw 
Linseed and mustard amongst 

the wheat. 
The followiug raiu crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 


Mds. s. 0. 
8 

10 


Es. a. p. 
12 

1 8 

2 

10 
1 


Total 


— 


26 8 


2nd year: 

The following winter crop- 
barley and peas, mixed 
(kutcha weight). 
Do. straw 
Linseed and mustard amongst 

the barley. 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 


10 

— 

15 


10 

1 8 
3 

15 

1 8 


Total 


— 


31 


Geand Total 


— 


57 8 



Bhat JSTo. 4.— Poor Land. 



A. — In Poppy. 


Out-turn per Bigha. 


Produce. | Value. 


Ist year: 
Opium - 
Poppy seed 

Do. flowers 
Passewa - 

The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 


Mds. s. c. 
3 

4 

4 

10 


Rs. a. p. 

16 8 
3 
1 
8 

10 

8 


Total 


' 31 8 


2nd year: 

The following poppy crop — 

opium, &c. 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 


— 1 21 

10 10 

1 8 


Total 


— ' 31 8 


Grand Total 


— 6S 



B.— The same in Wheat, &c. 


Out-turn per Bigha. 


Produce. 


Value. 


Ist year: 

"\Vheiit (kutcha weight) 

Do. straw 
Linseed and mustard amongst 

the wheat. 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn (kutcha weight). 
Do. stalks 


Mds. s. c. 
6 

8 


Es. a. p. 
9 8 
1 8 
1 8 

8 

1 


Total 


— 


21 8 


2nd year: 

The following winter crop — 
barley and peas, mixed 
(kutcha weight). 
Do. straw 
Mustard amongst the barley 
The following rain crop — 
Indian corn. 
Do. stalks 


7 



9 


7 

1 
1 
9 

1 


Total 


— 


19 


Gkand Total 


— 


40 8 



App. III. 



APPENDIX III. 



COKRESPONDENCE No. 291C.-787, REGARDING THE USE OF NaRCOTINE AS A FeBRIFUGE. 



From Ci. M. Geegoey, Esq., Sub-Do]5ut,y Opium Agent, 
Ghazipur, to J. P. Hewett, E«q., O.I.E., Secretary 
Royal Opium Commission. 

Sib, Ghazipur, 14tli February 1894. 

In accordance with the request made by the 
President of the Royal Opium Commission during my 
public examination at Benares as a witness, that I should 
submit what papers I could obtain from the opium 
factory at Ghazipur, regarding the use of narootine as 
a febrifuge, and its supply to the Medical Department ; 
I have now the honour to annex the following papers 
in connexion with the subject for submission to the 
Commission : — 
1. Copy of letter No. 79, dated 1.5th December 1858, 
from Dr. Palmer to the Opium Agent, 



2. Copy of letter Xo. 103, dated 13th April 18.J9, from 

Dr. Palmer to the Sub-Deputy Opium Agent of 
Gorakhpur. 

3. Copy of letter No. 16i', dated 19th November 1859 

from Dr. Palmer to the Opium Agent. 

4. Copy of letter No. 192, dated 14th Pisbruary 1860, 

i'rom Dr. Palmer to the Director-General of the 
Medical Department. 

5. Appendix to :ibove letter, containing history of 

cases ti'caled. 

6. Extract of letter No, 2, from Dr. Shepherd to the 

Opium Agent. 

7. Extract of letter No. 74, dated 7th October 1875 

from Dr. Shepherd to the Opium Agent. ' 

8. Extract of letter No. 175, dated 27th March 1877. 

from Dr. Shepherd to the Opium Agent. 



APPENDIX. 



77 



9. Statement showing the issues of narcotine from 

the Ghazipur factory to the Medical Department 

from 1860 to 1894. 

The last item of 4001ba. was issued to the Secretary of 

State. London, in 1883, for sale in the London market, 

but there was no purchaser for it. The issue-s to the 

Medical Department have now ceased, owing to the 

cheapness of quinine. 

I have, &o. 
(Signed) G. M. Gkegoey, 

Sub-Deputy Opium Agent. 



No. V9. 

To H. C. Hamilton, Esq., Benares Opium Agent, 
Ghazipur. 

I HAVE the honour to forward for your orders the 
Annual Statement of confiscated opiuni, and to make 
the following report on the uses to which that of the 
former seasons has been applied, together with a state- 
ment of some important experiments which are still 
being carried on in the laboratory of this agency on 
the manufacture of anarcotine. 

* * * * 

On my arrival here in November 1867s there was 
18 mds 12 seers 2 ch. of confiscated opium in store of 
season 1856-57 ; from this 8 seers 10 cht. of muriate of 
morphia has been made ; its purification is not yet com- 
pleted; as soon as it is I shall have the honour of 
reporting to you, but in the meantime I am anxious to 
call your attention to some experiments which are still 
beino- carried on in this laboratory, and in the hospitals 
round about, which appears to me to be of greater im- 
portance than the mere preparation of morphia, as this 
latter is only a saving of money to Government, while 
the former appears to give a remedy scarcely inferior to 
quinine in the treatment of the fevers and some other 
of the most severe diseases of this country, to solve that 
great diflBculty, " How a substitute for qumme is to be 
•' found," in case all future attempts to introduce the 
cinchonas or quinine-giving trees in this country fail, 
and in case those trees should die out m their own 
country ; and further it appears to justify that old and 
almost universal belief, that wherever a severe disease 
is common there the remedy for that disease exists li 
man can find it out. . 

When morphia has been extracted from opium it has 
been the custom to throw the dregs away ; those dregs 
contained several of the proximate principles of opium 
which have been separated from time to time by chemists, 
but only one of these, called anarcotine or narcotine, has 
been used in medicine, and this only to a very limited 
extent. Some years ago Sir W. B. Shaughnessy made 
some quantities of the alkaloid m question, distributed 
it to some of the most eminent surgeons and assistant 
sureeons on the Bengal establishment, as a remedy 
against the common fevers of this country ; it was tried 
and reported upon favourably by all who had used 
it Dr O'Shaughnessy published these experiments m 
England; the discovery of a substitute for quinine 
excited much interest there, but the actual value of 
the remedy could not well be tested because cases oi the 
same class of diseases were not very common. _ 

In India, however, the remedy had also tallen into 
disuse ; on asking the question why, it appeared to me 
that no regular establishment for its manufacture had 
ever been formed, and its disuse was a necessary conse- 
anence of the departure from this country of Dr. 
O'Shaughnessy; whether this were the correct reason 
or not, ?t appeared to me a subject of such importance 
that further experiments were urgently called for. 
When the morphia had been prepared from the con- 
fiscated opium of season 1856-67, and the dregs were 
about to be thrown away, I felt that these dregs con- 
tained a considerable portion of anarco lue, and was 
anxious to extract some of it in order to put its med.omal 
properties to the test. When the first portion was ex- 
tractedDr. Gibbon was here m medical charge of the 
65th N I. ; he tried it in all the fevers m his hospital and 
reported i^ost favourably upon it. In_ my own practice 
It appeared highly successful, scarcely inferior to quimne 
as a remedy in some cases of fever while m some other 
cases it was decidedly superior. In the Gaol Hospital 
Tr^A Civil Station only h:,\i the usual quantity of qumme 
has been used during the pi.st year, while a much larger 
number of fever cases has been treated than m previous 
years. 



In the Ghazipur Charitable Dispensary anarcotine 
has been used most extensively, and with uniformly 
favourable results. Small quantities have been dis- 
tributed from time to time to surgeons proceeding up 
and down the river in charge of sick, but in consequence 
of the unsettled state of the country no record of these 
has been obtained. 

In all about one seer of anarcotine has been prepared 
during the past twelve months, and most of it has been 
used in the treatment of fevers at this station. 

The result of its use has been so highly satisfactory 
that I am anxious to call your attention to such an 
important subject, and to solicit permission to extract 
the whole of anarcotine, as well as the morphia, from 
the opium confiscated this season. As wo have only 
17 mds. 32 seers 3 cht. this season, it is possible that 
it does not contain more than six or eight seers of 
anarcotine. In case permission is granted to extract 
as much of this as it is possible to obtain, it appears 
to me that two things remain to be done. First, 
experiments have to be made upon the most economical 
mode of separating anarcotine on a large scale. Secondly, 
the anarcotine made has to be distributed so as to obtain 
the most carefully observed results as to its medicinal 
properties. 

I have the honour of further communication with you 
upon both these subjects. 

I have, &o. 
(Signed) W. J. Palmek, 

16th December 1858. 1st Assistant. 



Apr. III. 

Narcotine. 



No. 103. 
To G. OsBOEKB, Esq., Sub-Deputy Opium Agent. 

Gorakhpur. 
SiK, April 13, 1859. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit by this day's post 
one ounce of hydrochloraie of anarcotine as a. remedy 
against fever. I am very anxious to know how it 
answers with the kind of fever which prevails at 
Gorakhpur, and shall be much obliged if you will let 
me know the result of your trial. 

Birections for use.— A dose of purgative medicine 
should always he first administered, then the anarco- 
tine may be given in doses of o?ie grain every six, four, 
or two hours according to the virulence of the fever. It 
may be taken in a little water. 

Precautions. — As it is a very powerf ulremedy, it must 
be used with great care. If the dose is too large it 
causes giddiness and vomiting. Whenever these occur 
it should be given in smaller doses. Whenever the 
fever does not abate quickly the dose should be in- 
creased gradually until the giddiness or vomiting 
comes on. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. J. Palmek, 

1st Assistant. 



No. 169. 

To H. C. Hamilton, Esq., Benares Opium Agent. 

Ghazipur, 
gjj^ November 15, 1859. 

I HAVE the honour to report the despatch, under 
care of Assay Superintendent, Mr. H. Myles, of fifteen 
and a half cbitaks of hydrochlorate of morphia, made 
from the confiscated opium of season 1857-8, to the 
address of Br. Grant, Apothecary-General, also of one 
seer five chitaks of anarcotine, made from part of the 
same confiscated opium to Dr. J. Forsyth, Director- 
General of the Medical Department, under care of the 
Apothecary-General. 

2. The Director-General in his letter. No. 2,760, dated 
12th March 1869, to the Secretary to the Government of 
Beno-al, having pointed out the necessity of estimating 
the cost of manufacturing both morphia and anarco- 
tine at this agency, as soon as the "weighments" of 
past season were over, careful experiments were com- 
menced in this laboratory for the solution of that 
question. The results are appended to this letter 
in two tables, from which it appears that we can 
supply a large proportion of the morphia required by 
Government at 8 annas and 4 pies per oz. 

3 Dr. Forsyth in the letter above alluded to mentions 
the quantity of the salts of morphia annually required by 

K 3 



7S 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



App. III. Go"veriimcnt, and refers to a former recommendation of 
tho Apothecary-General, that the whole of this (Quantity 
should be supplied from the Bebar and IJenares 
Agencies. The quantity we shall be able to supply 
from this auency will, of course, vary with the quantity 
and quality of the opium confiscated. The morphia 
sent down this year was the product of 17 mauuds 
:"'>2 seers of confiscated opium, but in the season just 
ended only 10 inaiinds 9 seers of opium were confiscated, 
and the produce of m.orphia will be proportionately 
diminished. With reference to the quality of the drug, 
I would observe that it can be purified here to any 
degree the Apothecary-General may thinly fit ; the 
drug I have sent down this year appears to me to be of 
fair average commercial purity, but I shall be i;lad to 
have the opinion of the Apothecary-General on this 
point to guide me in future. 

4. The actual amoiint of anarcotinc made in the past 
year has fallen far short of the amount estimated in my 
letter. No. 79, dated 15th December 18.j8. 

A large proportion of anarcotine is lost in our pi'esent 
method of preparing morphia, or rather it is so mixed 
up with the resin of opium, that in the present state of 
our knowledge it would be very expensive to extract it ; 
this is one cause of the diminution, seoondl}', a number 
of experiments were made to extract anarcotine with- 
out the aid of spirit ; and in trying which form of the 
alkaloid could be prepared most economically this was 
another cause of the diminution. 

At first much difficulty was found in making the 
anarcotine pure, and up to the present time there is a 
diflSculty in extracting the whole of it. The specimen 
sent down to the Director-General is a good sample 
both as to the quality andquanlity we are able to obtain 
from a given amount of confiscated opium. 

Under the circumstances I am afraid it will Ije im- 
possible to make enough to supply dispensaries, and I 
would suggest that it be given out on special indent 
only, and that medical officers using it should be 
reriuired to keep records of its therapeutic effects. 

It has been very extensively used here as a. remedy in 
fevers, especially during the late severe visitation, 
from which so largo a proportion of the pr.pulation has 
suffered ; it appears to me hardly inferior to quinine in 
its power of arresting the attack of fever ; indeed, in 
many cases it appears superior, and as the dose re- 
quired is rather smaller than that of quinine, I estimate 
its commercial value as at least equal to that of that 
drug. 

5. I am drawing up an exclusively medical repnrr. on 
the therapeutic effects of anarcotinc, as observed liere 
during the last two years, which I shall have the honour 
of forwarding to ihe Director-General as soon as it is 
completed. 

I have, Ac. 
'Signed) W. J. Palmek, 

1st Assistant and Opium 
Examiner. 



No. 19:!. 

To J. FoRsiiH, Esq., Director-General Medical 
Department. 

Calcutta, 
SiK, Eebruary 14, 1860. 

I HAVE the honour to make the following report 
on the use of narcotino or anarcotine as an anti- 
periodic during the time I was Civil Assistant Surgeon 
at Ghazipur. 

From November 6th, 1857, to the end of September 
1859 one hundred and eighty-eight cases of malarious 
fover were admitted into the Gaol Hospital. Erom the 
formation of the Ghazipur military police in July 1858 to 
the end of September 1859, three hundredand fifty-eight 
cases ui' fever were admitted into the Police Huspital, 
making a total of .546 cases, all of which weru treated 
with anarcotine. Of the 188 admitted in the Ciaul 
Hospital, 184 were cured and 4 died. 

Of the 358 adniittrMl in the Police Hospital, 1157 wn-:. 
cuicd and 1 died. 

The plan oE ticitiiMiit adopted in all cases was uni- 
formly simple. When a patient was admiltud, r - 

plaining of .any one of the forms of malarious iivcr, ,t 
purgativii was first administered. In case the fcvi-'i- 
was not ])r(:sont at tlui time of admission, the jiatiuut 
was allowed to remain without more medicine until the 
attack came on, and was examined. As soon a.s it was 



ascertained beyond a doubt that the patient was suffer- 
ing from malarious fever anarcotine was given in one, 
two, or three grain doses, either alone or dissolved in a 
little dilute svdphuric acid and water, three or more 
times a day in proportion to the severity of the attack. 
The first expected return of the paroxy.sm after tlie 
medicine was commenced, usually came mi, sometimes 
as if no medicine had been taken, generally with less 
severity than bef-jrc. The second expected return 
seldom came, the paroxysm had been arrested. So 
constantly was this the case that I would scarcely 
refrain from assuring the patient in every ease that the 
second return of the paroxysm would never come. 

Of this class of cases I have transcribed the notes of 
six cases, 1, 2, .3, 4, 5, and 6 in the Appendix. Those 
six oases fairly represent the effect of anarcotine as an 
anti-periodic in seventy per cent, of all the cases treated 
by me. 

There is another class of cases where the effect is 
not so quick ; it causes, but not immediately as in the 
above. Cases 7, 8, 9, and 10 in the Appendix are fair 
representations of (his class. The effect of the medicine 
is first seen by postponing the attack. While no 
medicines are being given it is not uncommon to see 
each succeeding paroxysm commence a little earlier, 
continue a little longer, and with more severity than 
the former ones. When these tkree signs are reversed 
under the influence of the medicine, a rapid cure may 
be predicted. The four cases, viz., Xos. 7,8, 9, and 10, 
are a fair representation of 20 per cent, of all the cases 
treated by me. 

The remaining 10 per cent, may be said to form a 
third class, in which anarcotine in the form and doses 
at present given by me does not appear to have any 
curative effect, A specimen is given in Case 11. This 
class contrasts so strongly with the form,]- two that I 
have been constantly led to believe there must be some 
dilfercnce in the character of the fever. I have, how- 
ever, up to the present time sought iu vain for any 
pathognomonic symptom Ijy which they may be dis- 
tinguished before the treatment is commenced. In this 
10 per cent, of all cases other anti-periodics were given. 
The necessity for resorting to them was generally 
assumed when each succeeding paroxysm of fever com- 
menced earlier and lasted longer, or come with more 
violence. 

The jiroportion of deaths which occurred in the Gaol 
was large compared with those in the Police Hospital. 
The policemen were all in the prime of life while the 
prisoners were frequently old and diseased. Of the 
four fatal ca!^es amongst tho prisoners, two were 
admitted in a dying state, and a third was an enfeebled 
old man. The four fatal cases are noted in the margin 
from the Gaol Hospital records. 

Janki Hoy, aged tiO, admitted December 13th, 1857, 
rcmilt. fever, died 16th December 1857. 

Chonee. aged 40, admitted September 1st, 1858, and 
died tlir iie\t day. 

Guiir.e IvOY, "aged CO, admitted JIarch 28th, 1868, 
died from anaemia 7th May. 

Jhutina, aged 32, admitted March 3rd, 1858, died 
12th March. 

2. In addition to the above 516 cases, all of which 
are recorded in the usual ofiicial manner, a large number 
of fever patients have come under my treatment iu the 
following ways: — 

In the ordinary medical practice of a large civil 
station ; 

At the Ghazipur Charitable Dispensary ; 

In the hospital of the 2nd Sikh Infantry, which was 
under my charge from July to October 1858 ; and 

In the hospita.ls of the 4th Madras Light ('avalry and 
of the regiment of irregular cavalry, cailed the Benares 
Horse, both of which were under my medical charfo 
from the end of September to the end of November 
18.58. 

In all cases the results were exactly similar to those 
reported above, and the total uuuiber treated falls little 
short of 1,000. 

3. The above I think contains satisfactory evidence 
of Ihe power of anarcotini^ to cure fevers. The question 
whether it is equal to (luinine as an anti-periodic cannot 
be decided by such a limited numljur of experiments as 
have been liithcrto made, but sufficient I tiust has been 
done to show the desirability of further knowledge on 
such an important subject. Tiiere are cases where its 
efficacy aiipears to bo decidedly sniicrior to quinine, 
viz., wheru there is an intolerance of quinine and 
where quinine has been given without any effect for a 
long time. I will mention two in illustration which 
have come under my observation. 1. A lady had been 



appendix: 



79 



subject to periodical headaclie ; it came every day 
after noon. The smallest dose of quinine caused such 
a ringing in her ears and deafness that she said "the 
" remedy was worse than the disease." One grain of 
anarcotine given three times a day caused no deafness, 
but cured the hcudaoho in three days. The other was 
a pale chlorotic girl aged 16. She had had a rery 
severe attack of fever six months before, from which 
time she had never regained her health and strength ; 
slight attacks of fever returned from time to time, for 
which she took quinine, but it had, to use her expres- 
sion, " lost its effects." This patient was perfectly 
cured after taking anarcotine for a few weeks. 

It may be that there are fevers which are more 
amenable to anarcotine, and others which yield more 
readily to quinine. It may be that larger doses of 
anarcotine could cure a greater number of cases than 
the above small doses ; these and many other questions 
in the treatment of periodic diseases appear to be 
opened up by the above facts, and will, I hope, be 
solved when a sufficient number of cases have been 
recorded by different medical men in various parts of 
the country. 

4. So long as there is an unlimited supply of quinine 
it does not appear pi'obable that anarcotine will evcT- 
supersede it. The former enjoys an established reputa- 
tion, the latter has fallen into disuse partly because it 
is so little known, and partly perhaps from an uncer- 
tainty about its relative cost. 

All that has been used here during the past two years 
has been made from refuse opium, which as opium 
was of no value whatever, so that its cost has only 
been that of raanufacture. But even if it should cost 
more per ounce than quinine when made from good 
opium it appears to be effectual in much smaller 
doses. Again quinine may at any time become very 
much scarcer and dearer than at present ; in such a case 
it is satisfactory to know that we have an indigenous 
product which will cure the fevers of the country, 
almost, if not quite, as rapidly and certainly as quinine. 
6. Among the Ghazipar Police there are many 
natives of the Nepaul hills who had never lived in the 
plains before 18f 8. A large proportion of these men 
suHered from fever and were ver}' subject to relapse. 
, A phenomenon occurred which appears to bear upon 
' the question of the relation of dysentery to ^ the 
malarious fevers. Of every five patients re-admitted 
into hospital within eight or ten days after they had 
been discharged cured two were suff"ering from dysen- 
tery, while the other three had fever again. Both 
diseases appeared to have returned under exactly 
similar circumstances, but they were always sepai-ate ; 
if a patient had fever he seldom had dysentery and 
vice versa. These cases came before me so constantly 
that I felt compelled to assume that the same malarious 
poison was the origin and cause of both diseases, and I 
subjected them to the same treatment. 

Castor oil was first given, then a pill made of two 
grains of anarcotine and a half or one grain of opium 
every four or six hour.s. Prom July 18h8 to end of 
September 1859, 44 cases of dysentery, and some of 
them very severe ones, were treated in this way in the 
Police Hospital. 

All were cured ; there was not one death. This 
result appeared so wonderful that the same treatment 
was applied to the dysentery patients in the Gaol 
Hospital. Out of 39 "cases admitted into the Gaol 
Hospital during the same period 15 died, or 38 per 
cent, of deaths to be treated. The number of dysentery 
cases admitted into the Gaol Hospital in the seven 
months before the anarcotine treatment was tried was 
21, of which six died, or 28 per cent, of deaths totreated. 
These figures tend to invalidate the supposition that 
anarcotine is a specific in dysentery, but the experiment 
is on both sides on too limited a scale to prove anythmg, 
and the great fact that 44 cases of dysentery were cured 
without one fatal result still remains demanding further 
investigation into the therapeutic action of anarcotine 
in this disease. Is there a form of dysentery which 
may be cured by anarcotine, and, if so, how may it be 
known from other forms ? 

6 There is another class of oases m which anarcotine 
has' been given with great benefit, viz., hemecrania 
and periodic headaches; these diseases are in most 
cases rapidly cured by two-grain doses given three to 
six times a day according to the severity of the disease. 

7 I regret that my opportunities of submitting this 
valuable remedy to further experiment are now- so 
limited, but am also glad to be able to inform you that 
Dr Garden, the present Civil Surgeon, has continued to 
use it extensively in both the Gaol and Police Hospitals 
ever since his arrival here in October 1859, and as 



fever has raged with fearful and fatal violence at this 
station and in all the country round about ever since 
his arrival , his experience of its therapeutic effect will 
be especially valuable. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. J. Palmek, 
Assistant Surgeon, 
First Assistant and Opium Examiner, 
Benares Opium Agency. 



APP. III. 

Xarcotine, 



Appenbix. 



Case 1. — An European aged 55, who had lived many 
years in near Ghazipur called me in to see him at 
2 p.m. on 27th of September when he was suffering from 
great heat of the body, skin dry and harsh, burning 
pain in the head, great thirst, urine high coloured. 
P. 98 says he has been in this condition since noon, 
and that between nine and ten o'clock this morning he 
was attacked with a shivering fit, during which his 
whole body was shaken severely and he could not feel 
warm though he was covered with a great amount of 
warm clothing and had hot water bottles to his feet 
and stomach. The great heat, thirst, and febrile 
symptoms generally abated after 3 o'clock and by 
5.30 p.m. they had all passed away with the exception 
of the harsh dry skin, which continued. 

History. — He usually enjoys good health but has 
had an attack sim.ilar to the present one every other 
day for the last ten days, but it has every day increased 
slightly in duration and force. At 6 o'clock p.m. on 
the 27th his skin continued harsh and dry but he said 
this was usual and that he had not perspired for the 
last week. He had himself taken a dose of purgative 
medicine a day or two before, so I immediately 
administered one grain of anarcotine. In 20 minutes 
from this time he felt a warm glow over the whole of 
the surface of his body, but especially about his hands 
and feet, the harsh feel had disappeared, the skin now 
felt soft and was presently covered with minute drops 
of perspiration which gradually increased until his 
whole body was bathed. Continue the powder every 
four hours. 

On the ■29th the fever returned very slightly. On 
the 1st October it did not come at all and the medicine 
was discontinued, contrary to my direction. About a 
week after this time I was again called in to see the 
same patient suffering from a return of the fever. He 
had travelled to an indigo factory ten miles away to 
pack up some indigo. During the time he was there 
he performed an unusual amount of labour for many 
hours and was attacked with a shivering on the spot 
about four o'clock in the afternoon. Of the 28 natives 
who were at work there with him on that day six 
were attacked with fever. The factory was on the 
borders of the Ganges river and the flood of the rainy 
season had just subsided. Under these circumstances 
it was not surprising that he should have caught fever 
again. This attack yielded to the influence of anarco- 
tine exactly as the former one had done. 

Case 2. — Gambheer Bhitiskotee, Goorkha, aged 22, 
admitted into hospital at 8 a.m. February 6th, 1859. 

Has suffered for the last three or four days from 
quotidian ague which commences at midnight and 
continues till the next morning. Ordered a purgative. 
February 7th, 7 a.m. Bowels had, been well moved 
yesterday. The fever had been examined in the night 
by the native doctors, and the man's body was still 
covered with profuse perspiration as an evidence that 
he was really suffering from fever. Ordered anarcotine 
IJ grains every four hours. 

8th. Had fever last night but it was less severe 
than before. 

9th. Had no fever last night. 
lOth. Discharged cured. 

Case 3. — Jus Beer, Goorka, aged 28; admitted 
into hospital on 22nd May ; has been suffering from 
remittent fever for the last two days. 

22nd. Ordered purgative to be followed by anarcotine 
two grains three times a day. 

February 23rd. The fever has continued with 
slight variation in degree throughout the whole day 
and night. 

24th. The fever has been very slight since yesterday. 
26th. The fever scarcely perceptible. 
27th. Fever quite gone. 
30th. Discharged cured. 

Oase 4. — Mohan Sing, aged 26 years, a policeman, 
native of Ghazipur, was admitted info hospital. 

K 4 



80 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. in. ■27th Ootohcr IS-'iH. Suffering from the following 

symptoms : — Skin hot and dry ; pulse frequent, jerk- 
ing, and easily compressible ; urine high coloured ; 
thirst ; no appetite ; tongue coated with brown fur ; 
headache, and great lassitude. Has suffered from 
these symptoms Im- the lat-t six or sovu'.; diM s. 

Ordered purgative powder. 

Anarcotine, two grains three times a da}', to be 
commenced after the operation of the purgative. 

iI8t>i Oetoliei. Has been well purged. Took one 
dose of the anarcotine yesterday. Fever continued the 
whole day. He feels chilled from time to time ; never 
has actual shivering. His skin continues dry. 

•-!9th October. Fever continues, but all the symptoms 
are milder. 

30th Ociober. Complains of nausea after taking the 
medicine yrsterday, and says he perspired all night. 

Slat October. Had no fever during the day yes- 
terday. 

3rd November. Discharged cared. 

Case 5. — Grujraj Sing, policeman, native of Ghazipur. 

Admitted into hospital December 17th, 1858. Says 
he was attacked with ague every day at noon since the 
15th instant, that it lasts about half an hour, after 
which he becomes very hot. This continues till five or 
six o'clock, when he begins to perspire freely, and after 
eight or nine p.m. he feels quite well again. 

Ordered a purgative. 

IStb December. Bowels were moved yesterday freely. 
Fever came on as usual. 

Ordered anarcotine, 2 grs. 

dil. sulph. acid, 5 drops, 
,, water, an oz. To be taken three times a 
day. 

19th December. Fever came on slightly. 

20th December. No fever yesterday. 

21st and 22nd December. Has had no fever. 

23rd December. Had fever again yesterday. Says 
he had not omitted the medicine, but I suspect he had 
not taken it. Ordered the medicine to be given 
carefully. 

24th December. No fi;ver j^csterday. 

27th December. Discharged cured. 

Case 6. — A robust male European, aged 45, who had 
lived in Ghazipur for many years, applied to me for 
medical aid on the 15th Oftnbcr at one o'clock p.m. 
He was then in a burning heat ; his whole body was 
covered with a papular eruption of a lenticular sbap,' 
and a dusky red colour. These papules were distinct 
and varied in size frn-:i one lino to one-eighth of an 
inch in diameter. His whole Ijndy win burning and 
itching. He could scarcely refi'aiu from tearing his 
hands and face with his fingei'-naile. His pulse at this 
time was Bs, but a^ I sat and watched him it uni- 
formly incieased iji fruquo-ry until three o'clock p.m., 
when it beat 125 per minute. At the same time the 
skin became hotter and dryer, the papules increased 
in size, number, and deptli of colour; those which 
measured only a line in diameter bad increased gradually 
and uniformly up to nearly a. quarter of an inch, new 
papules had appeared, faint coloured and small as at 
first, but the whole number had by this time so much 
increased that they had run into each other until the 
whole body was a dusky red colour, and presented a 
bloated appearance ; the lips were much swollen, and 
the tongae had by three o'l lock become quite dry. 
From this time (three p.m.) all these symptoms gradu- 
ally disappeared, and by six o'clock ]).m. the papules 
had all disappeared, the skin was still harsh and dry, 
and he still complained of thirst, but the pulse had 
gradually decreased to 80, and his skin was gradually 
becoming nioist. 

History of the disease. His health generally very 
good a week ago. On the 7th October lie felt a slight 
bnrning on his face and the palms of his hands and the 
soles of his feet, but took no notice of it. Again on the 
9th and 11th ho had similar attacks. The last time (on 
the 11th) he noticed the eruption on his hands and 
face as to-day, but it was very slight. On the 13th, at 
noon, he had a slight shivering fit, followed by gradu- 
ally increasing heat, thirst, itching, and eruption, 
cxar-lly as to-day, but not so severe. The attack com- 
menrril to-day with shiveiing, but the cold stage lasted 
a very short time. 

He was ordered a dose of blue pill and colocynth at 
bedtime, to be followed by a dose of castor-oil on the 
morning of the 6th. 

15th October. His purgative is operating freely. He 
is free from fever to-day. 



Ordered anarcotine, two grains, to be taken every 
four hours. 

17th October. Has taken the anarcotine regularly 
since four p.m. Yesterday at eleven o'clock p.m. 
slight shivering rame on, which was followed by all the 
syQiplo;ns i;oled on the 15th, every one exaggerated in 
degree. The pulse ro.se to 130, and the fever did not 
attain its maximum weight until four o'clock. After 
seven o'clock p.m. profuse perspiration occurred. 
Continue anarcotine. 

18th October. Lives on slop diet. Feels quite well, 
with the exception of weakness and disinclination for 
food. Continue the anarcotine. 

l!Hh October. Between one and two o'clock the 
body iiecame slightly warm, and one or two papules 
appeared on the face, but all passed away in less than 
an hour. Continue the medicine. 

1st November. No symptom of fever appeared 
to-day. 

2nd and 3rd November, Is quite well. 

To leave off medicine gradually. 

Remarks on case. In the above case the eruption, 
the swelling of the lips, and the intolerable itching of 
the hands, feet, and face are uncommon symptoms, but 
they were also manifestly connected with the fever 
poison, increasing and decreasing simultaneously with 
the ordinary signs of an attack of intermittent fever 
that their occurrence in this case appears to throw 
light on the proper treatment of a class of cases by no 
means uncommon in this country. A native applies to 
a mr-dical man, complaining of occasional burning in 
the palms of his hands and soles of his feet, or some- 
times of constant perspiration from the same parts. I 
have olten been puzzled to know how to treat these 
cases. Are they amenable to anti-periodic remedies, 
as quinine or anarcotine ? I havf only had one case of 
the kind since the above case of fever was seen. It 
was a case of constant sweating of the hands. Anar- 
cotine relieved the symptoms very much while it was 
being taken, but did not appear to cure. Although 
this case was not quite favourable, still I hope the 
question is one of sufficient interest to induce other 
practitioners to seek for the true solution of it. 

Case 7 — Pooran Joyseo, a Goorkha Brahmin, aged 
18, admitted into hospital. 

October 27lh, 1858. Says he has had an attack of fever 
every night for the la^t five nights. 

Ordered a dose of ca^t'ir-oil. 

23rd October. His bowels were well acted upon 
}-csterday. In the evening about live o'clock his body 
liccanio very hot, and lii,s heat continued with head'- 
ache, thirst, and great restlessness until three or four 
o'clock this morning, attaining its maximum about 
midnight. The attack did not commence with shiver- 
ing, nor did it terminate with the usual sweatino-. His 
skill conlinues dry and harsh all day. 

^ Ordered anarcotine, one grain, "to be taken three 
times a day. 

2-l.th, 2.^th, 2iJth, 27th, and 28ili October. On all 
these (lays it is reported that I he fever has not 
diminished in any degree. He was therefore ordered 
to take the following draught three times a dav : 

Anarcotine, 2 grains. 

Dil. sulph. acid, 10 drops. 

Water, 1 oz. l\[ix. 

29th October. Says the fever was less severe last 
night. ,» 

3i)th October. The fever still less severe. 

31st Octolrr. Had no fever last nigho. 

3rd November, No fever, but he does not reo-ain his 
strength. Ordered quinine mixture as a tonic. ° 

3rd Deoomber. Discharged cured. 

Case 8,— Eambux Tewary, aged 35, policeman, 
August 2nd admitted into hospital suffcrintr from 
tertian ague. The fit has just passed it off. Savs the 
fever comes every second day; begins at noon with 
shivering, which continues three or four hcnrs ; his 
body then becomes burning hot, and towards' the 
morning his body begins to perspire, after which he 
feels well. 

Ordered a purgative. 

3rd August. Bowels well opened yestordav 

4th August. The a-ne commenced as " usual at 
four ii.m yestei-day. and contimrd till this morning 

Ordered anarcotine mixture, to be taken th 
a day. 

6th August. Fever reiiirned last nio-ht. 

8th August. Continue the mixture. ° 

10th August. Continue. 

12th August. The fever well ; severe last night. 



irec times 



APPENDIX. 



81 



14th August. Had no fever yesterday. 
Oontinued tlie medicine till the 23rd, when he was 
discharged cured. 

Case 9. — Buddhibul Khedroe, aged lO, policeman. 
Admitted into hospital on the 2nd February 18.59. 

He has been sull'eriug Ir )m aguy every d;iy for the 
last three days. It commences in the aftei'uoon, and 
continues all night. 

Ordered a purgative. 

3i'd February. The ague came on at three p.m. 
yesterday. 

The bowels had been well opened. 

Ordered the following draught, to be taken three 
times a day : — 

Anarcotino, 2 grains. 

Dil. snlph. acid, 10 drops. 

Water, 1 oz. Mix. 

4th February. The fever came as usual yesterday. 
~ ' Fever came yesterday. 

Fever came again. 
Reports that the fever yesterday was 



5th February. 
6th February. 
7th February, 
less severe. 
8th February. 
9th February. 



26th December. The fever returned to-day with titill 
greatei' severity. As the constitution was now suffer- 
ing from the repeated attacks of the fever, and as it 
wa.s evident the auarcotiiic did not chock it, but, on the 
contrary, it was increasing in violence, I ordered to 
omir. the anarcotine, and to give 10 grains of quinine as 
soon as the sweating stage commenced. 

27th October, The quinine was given at four o'clock 
this morning, and no distressing head uymptoms having 
followed, the dose was i opeated at noon and again at 
night. 

28th October. At seven o'clock a.m. 10 grains of 
quinine was given, and repeated again at ten o'clock. 
Ordered 10 grains of quinine to be taken three times 
to-morrow and twice on the 30th before noon. 

30th October. No fever came to-day. 

From this time the doses of quinine were gradually 
reduced, and the patient rapidly recovered her health 
and strength. 



No fever yesterday. 
Discharged cured. 



Case 10. — Knaba Beer, Goorkha, agedlS, admitted in 
to the hospital on the 11th October 1858, complaining of 
fever, which comes on every afternoon and continues 
all night. His face, lips, and tongue are all vei'y pale. 
He is very weak, and his spleen is seen and felt 
extending nearly as far forward as the umbilicus. 
Ordered a purgative ; a blister over the spleen. 

12th October. The usual attack of fever came on 
yesterday, passing through the regular stages of 
shivering, hot and dry skin, with thirst and headache, 
succeeded by profuse pjrspiralion. 

Ordered 2 grains of anai-eotino, to be taken iJii-ee 
times a day. 

13th, 14.th, and 15lh October. Same report daily. 
The fever had not abateil, Ijut on the Kith the attack 
yesterday w.is less ccveve. 

17th October. Had no fever yesterday. The sp'.ecn 
is softer but not smaller than it was. 

Ordered the following draught, to be l.aken three 
times day : — 

Anarcotine, 2 grains. 

Sulphate of iron, 1 grain. 

Dil. snlph. acid, 5 drops. 

Water, 1 oz. Mix. 

Another blister to be applied to the left hypschari- 
drium. From this time his health improved regularly, 
and the spleeu had shrunk up under the ribs, where it 
could be felt, a little larger than its natural size. 

29th November. Discharged cured. 

Case 11. , aged 25, called me in on the 18th 

December, 1859, at four o'clock p.m. 8he was then 
shivering and covered up with warm clothing, sitting 
before a fire. The attack had just commenced. After 
an honr the cold stage passed away, and the body 
became gradually hot, the mouth dry, and the pulse 
rose gradually from 74 to 98 beats in a minute. After 
two hours this dryness was succeeded by profuse per- 
spiration, and all the abnormal symptoms passed 
away. She remembered feeling a coldness for the lirst 
time on the ILth inst., and on the 16th she Ijecame 
very cold at four or five o'clock p.m., but had no 
decided shivering until to-day. 

Ordered castor-oil, a tablespoonfal to be taken 
to-morrow morning, to be followed by 2 grains of 
anarcotine every two hours. 

19th December. The bowels have been freely moved. 

Continue the anarcotine. 

20th December, 4 p.m. The ague came again to-day 
•with about the same force as on the 18th. 

Continue the powder. 

22nd December. The fever came a little earlier 
to-day, and continued longer. 

Continue the powder. 

24th December. The fever commenced at two o'clock 
to-day, and continued until 10 p.m. 

Quinine would now have been given but that at the 
outset of the case the patient warned me that I was on 
no account to give her qiiinine, for she had once taken 
it and it had made her almost mad. 

Ordered anarcotine, 3 grains, to be taken every two 
hours. 

u 82810. 



No. 2. 
On Till! Preparation op Nakcotine and Mouphia. 



I. Di'. Palmer, 

History of the maiiu- 
fat-Lure of uinTotnic 
aiul morphia :it tlii^ 
aiient-y. 



IJisconUnMHiK'o of 111 
ilamirui'iurt'. 



» 



* 



Deiiian-l for narco- 
colino is greater than 
thar for morphia. 



App. III. 

Narcotine. 



principal assistant, commenced the 

manufacture of naicotine and 

morphia from confiscated opium. 

Opium which is only slightly 

adulter.ited, or somewhat large)}' 

with additions of articles which can 

bf scpa-ated in the preparation of liOwali, is noi. etnfis- 

cateU, hut passed for Lewah imdci' a line i->ro;>ort,ionalo 

to the nature and extent of the adulterations. 

2. The eonfiscaLed opium of seasons 18^8-59 :ind 

1859-00 was operated on for tlie 
Quantity or niirc.otiiK' ^ 4-- e u- a 

and morpliia. extraction 01 morphia and narco- 

tiiie. its quality is not stated, but 

from it 182 lbs of mmphia and 21 lbs. 14 oz-. of narco- 

tine were obtained. The value of these alkaloids was 

at English rates, according to Dr. Palmer, Us. 18,933, 

while the e.vponsc of preparing them was only Rs. 1,737, 

showing a profit of Rs. 17,196. 

:;. Since 1865 iteither moiphia nor narcotine have 
been manufactured at this agency, 
and the confiscated opium of three 
years has been destroyed, amount- 
ing to 80 mannds. Hence a great loss of two very 
valuable alkaloids has taken place. 

***** 



The demand for narcotine is always considerable 
in India, on account of its febrifuge 
properties, and, as it is used in doses 
ten times larger than those of 
morphia, the consumption is 



much greater. 



Ihav 



, &e., 
(Signed) 



T. W. SllEPPARD, 

Principal Assistant B.O.A. 



No. 74. 

From the Principal Assistast, Benares Opum Agency, 
to the Bexakes Opium Agent. — Dated 7th October 
1875. 

SiK, 

I HAVE the honour to submit the following 
remarks on the preparation of morphia and narcotine 
at the Benares Opium Agency Factory. 



* 
* 



17. Formerly there was but a very small demand for 

this alkaloid. During the last 14 or 

Narcotine. 15 years it has come to be used, 

and has been of late years much 

employed as a febrifuge for malarious fevers * between 

1871-72 and 1874-75. Upwards of 1 cwt. per annum 



• In tho three Presidencies. 



L 



INDIAN OPIUM Cii.MMlSSlOX 



App. III. 



on an avcmgi 
Preaideucics. 



has been supplied to the tlnue 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) T. V\'. SiiEPrAitn, 

Principal Assistant B.O.A. 



ol' morphia, hydrochlorate, and narootine at this 
agency I'actory. 



No. 175. 

From the Pkincipal Assistant, Benares Opium Agency, 
to the Benaees Opium Areni. — Dated G-hazipur, 
the -llth March 1877. 

SiK, 

In a letter, No. 7*a, 7th October 187.j, I had 
the honour to submit some remarks on the preparation 



The demand for narootine has been steady m 1875-76, 

142 lbs. and in 1876-77 137 lbs. 

Narcotite. were issued. These quantities 

show a slight increase over the 

issues of 1873-74 and 1874-75. There are 22 lbs. 7 ozb. 

in stock. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) T. W. Shbppabd, 

Principal Assistant B.O.A. 



Statement showing the Quantity of Narootine issued to the Medical Depaktjient before \8i 




■Uli April ISC.O 
l;3th June IblGO 
liiith ,Vu-u^l 18G0- 
.31st Au{,'ll^t 18CU 
12th Octolifi' 1861) 
■'.1st Octdlii-r 1860 



211(1 Xovnill.t'C 1860 
LlUth July I SGI 

ITtli Janu.iiy ISCS 
U8tli April 18G3 



nth June 1863 
11th Nn\iniljLT 18G3 

8th AuRiist 1864 



19th January 1867 


393 G. 


I9th May 1869 


1011 a. 


i:«h April 1870 


1280 i;. 


^^t August 1871 - 


1711 (J. 


Gth March ls7'J 


1861 G. 


li'Jud April 18 75 


2M:-,; 11. 



24th April 1876 



21.-,:-, F. 


2267 F. 


2339 F. 


2347 F. 


2373 F. 


2389 F. 


2;:ii9 F. 


2723 F. 


31. -,1 F. 


3.271 F. 



3321 F. 
3469 F. 

.'.746 F. 



26 H. 



Sub-deputy opium agent, Goruklipnr 
Siipcrinleiidin^- suri:eon of Hcnarts Circle 
Medical store-ki rpcr. Ailahali'id 
.Mediual-iu-charge, ( iliazipur I'actory 
.Medical store-keeper, L'mbalia - 

,, „ Saugor 

SiLilkot 
Assi-stant-surf^eon (ei\il), Ghazipur 
i Ih. each to the Medical Stori' Deparlment of Saugor, 

Umhalla, Sialkot, and Allahabad. 
.Medical store-keeper, Calcutta 
Principal medical stoi'c-ki eper, ( 'alcutta 
Medical store-keeper, Allahabad 
J, J. Saugor 

„ „ I'ndialla - 

,, ,, Sialkot 

Presidency Medical ^tore Department as per Board's 

letter, iS'o. 2i')2, dated 8th June 1863. 
Medical store-keeper, Sealkot, and the remainiiiL'. T/V/c 
First Assistant's Memo., N 
18G3, to Calcutta. 
i\ledical store-keepei 



1. 4 57, dated lOtb November 



Sialkot 

Umballa 

Allahabad 

Saugor 

Sialkot 



-\llahabad 
jMedical Department, Sialkot 
Medical store-keeper, Allahabad 
I'nncipal medical store-keeper, Calcntla (^including 

supply lor Madras). 
Princijial niedical store-kee|iei , Allahabad depot 

„ ,, Mean Meer ,, 

Medical depot as per Board's letter, No. 136, dated 
13th April 1876. 

Total 



lbs. 


oz. d. 


II 


2 


1 





.3 








1 


o 


U 


1 


(1 


I 





1 








4 


2 





10 





27 





3 





2 


u 


4 





4 





20 





28 





8 





6 





6 





4 


(1 


1 





3 


U 


1 


6 


6 


II 


20 


11 


61 


II 


45 


0^ 


21 





100 





382 






APPENDIX. 



83 



Statement of Naecotine supplied from 1876 to January 1894. 



Number of 
Invoice. 



Date of Invoice. 



1 

4 

.') 

Ij 

7 

8 
10 
11 
12 
13 

n 

16 
17 
21 
22 
25 
26 
27 
29 
30 
:u 
32 
22 
•J 
39 
Hi 



To whom supplied. 



App. III. 
Narcotine. 



Quantity supplied. 



l.'jtli December 1876 

1st March 1877 



10th September 1877 

14th October 1877" 
.■jtb March 1878 
26th May 1878 



12th February 1879 
28th April 1879 
23rd May 1S79 
14th .luly 1879 

19th June 1880 - 
12th August 1880 



?lst May 1886 
November 1887 
9th February 1888 
20th August 1893 
23rd .January 1894 
October 1883 



Brought forward 



Medical stoire-keeper. Mean Meer 

„ „ Calcutta 

,, „ Allahabad 

»» j> j» 

„ „ Mean Mecr 

,, „ Allahabad 

,, „ Calcutta 



„ „ Allahabad 

,, ., Mean Meer 

„ Allahabad 

J, „ Calcutta 

„ „ Allahabad 

,, „ Mean Meer 

,, „ Calcutta 

Surgeon-General, Agra 
Medical store-keeper, Allahabad 

}t 'J yy 

„ „ Mean Meer 

Mr. Francis, Durbhanga 

)) " 

Medical store-keeper, Calcutta 
Civil surgeon. Ludhiana 
Factory superintendent, Behar 
Secretary of State, London 

Total 



lb. oz. d. 
382 



- 


17 










51 








- 


100 










25 










45 








- 


21 










25 





II 




23 








- 


63 








. 


20 





II 


. 


09 





II 




3 










16 










5 










20 










9 










19 










21 


n 







5 








- 


5 










15 










31 










1 










2 


II 





- 





8 










1 










1 







ton 








ll 


1,393 


10 






Benares Opium Agency, Ghazipur, 
14th February 1894. 



G-. M. Gregoky, 

Sub-Deputy Opium Agenl. 



APPENDIX IV. 



App. IV. 



N.W. Prov. 
Excise. 



Mjsmorandum on the History of the Opium Excise 
Administration in the North-western Provinces 
and OuDH, by Mr. Stoker, Commissioner of Excise 
in the North-virestern Provinces and Oudh. 

It may be well to premise by saying that the Govern- 
ment and the revenue officers of these provinces are 
responsible only for the excise administration. The 
cultivation of poppy and the manufacture, &c. of 
opium are under the direct control of the Benares 
opium agent, who is immediately subordinate to the 
Board of Revenue, Lower Provinces. The supplies of 
excise opium required for provincial consumption are 
procured from the Ghazipur factory at a fixed price, 
which is now Es. 7-4 per sir, and the further 
arrangements for control of vend and collection of 
revenue are made under orders of the Local Government. 

But the presence of a large and widely diffused area 
of poppy exercises a very important influence on the 
opium excise administration and on the revenue from 
this source. Notwithstanding the severely restrictive 
character of the present system, a large amount of 
illicit opium both from inside and from outside the 
provinces finds its way into the hands of consumers, 
and a limit is put on the price which can be exacted for 
the duty-paid drug. This will be more fully considered 
hereafter 

2. Up to 1844, the price of excise opium was regulated 
by the price at which the drug sold for export. In 
that year the price rose to Rs. 18-4 per sir, find the 
vendors in these provinces refused to take out licenses. 
The competition of cheap contraband opium, both 
home growa and imported was too great to permit 
sales at so high a rate. The price of excise opium was 
therefore fi.xed at a uniform rate of Ks. 10 per sir. 
Retail sale was then effected through both official and 
non-official agency. The number of licenses is nowhere 
stated, but it cannot have been considerable as the 



total revenue of the North-western Provinces from 
contract fees was only Rs. 23,000. It may be gathered 
that non-ofScial vendors were few in number, and 
limited to large towns in localities where poppy vras 
not grown and supervision could be exercised to 
prevent the sale of illicit opium. The cost price of 
excise opium to Government appears to have then been 
Rs. 5-8 per sir, and if, as seems probable, a discount 
of Re. 1 per sir was allowed to licensed vendors, the 
net profit to excise was Rs. 3-8 per sir. 

3. In 1857, the retail price of excise opium was 
raised to Rs. 12 per sir. The arrangements for retail 
vend seem to have undergone little change. Sale was 
permitted at the collector's office, and such Tahsil 
offices as the collector might select. In districts wheni 
the cultivation of poppy was prohibited, sale by non- 
official vendors was permitted under special circum- 
stances. Such permission was limited to large towns 
and subject to previous sanction of the Board of 
Revenue. The object of this restriction was to guard 
against the sale of illicit opium, and to restrict shops 
to localities where a demand existed, which would 
otherwise be illicitly supplied. This agency seems to 
have been little employed and it had fallen into 
complete desuetude in the seventh decade. Retail 
sales were limited to five tolas, and a register kept 
showing the names, residences, &c. of all purchasers. 
A discount of Re. 1 per sir was allowed to all licensed 
vendors to cover wastage and charges, leaving the net 
profit to excise Rs. 5-8 per sir ; special licenses were 
granted to medical practitioners. The sale of madak 
and other non-medical preparations was prohibited. 

4. These prices remained unchanged till 1861. In 
th'j meantime the demand for excise opium was 
growing, and as the price of provision opium had 
advanced to Rs. 42-11-3 per sir, so the loss on withhold- 
ing opium from export had become very considerable. 

L 2 



84 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. ly. 



N.W. Prov. 
Excise. 



At the pame time the price of crude opium to the 
caltiTators had been increased by 12 annas per sir, and 
the expenses of manufactme had become heavier. 
These circumstances led the authorilics to consider 
whether the rate for excise opium could not be raised 
in the Worth-western Provinces as it had already been 
raised in parts of Bengal. An experiment was made bv 
Mr. A. 0. Hume, the collector of Btawah, who had 
sati.^fied himself that a large amount of illicit opium 
was used in the district. The r:'Cordcd consumption 
was only one maund per annum, and ho estimated that 
it should be at least nine. He had succeeded in raising 
the duty paid sales to two maunds before the Mutiny. 
During the disturbances the cultivation of poppy was 
stopped, and on the restorulion of order tliere was an 
unprecedented demand which led to the .sale of three 
maunds in a few months. This demand ceased when 
the crop of 18-58-59 was ready, and it was observed 
that in spite of a favourable season the recorded out- 
turn of that crop was very small. In order to check 
the illicit consumption to wLich these facts clearly 
pointed, Mr. Hinne introduced regulations of a very 
stringent and inquisitory character. At the same time, 
he raise! the retail price to lis. U, and placed the sale 
entirely in the bands of official vendors. The result of 
thete measures in 18.5i'-60 was to double the recorded 
consumption of excise opium, and Mr. Hume obtained 
permission to raise the retail price to Rs. 16 in 1860-61. 

From the 6th December 1861, this price was made 
general thioaghout the North-western Provinces. 
Opium was issued to the vendors at Es. IS per sir, and 
retailed by official vendors at Ks. 16. Non-official 
vendors were at liberty to charge what retail price 
they lilcod. These prices remained in foi'ce till the 
1-t July 1893. 

For the year 1861 the net |n-ofit to excise was Rs. 
9-8 per sir. 

•5. In 1862, the factory price of excise opium issued to 
Local Grovernments was raised from Es. 5-8 to 
Rs. 7- !■ per sir, at which it still remains. From that 
time up to last July, the profit to the Excise Depart- 
ment on the sale of opium has been Es. 7-12 per sir. 

6. The rules of 18V for vend of pure opium remained 
practically unchanged when these modifications of 
price were cfl'ected in 1861-62. Up to this time the 
sale of madak and other preparations of opium had 
been prohihited with a view of repressing the practice 
of opium-smoking. Bnt protracted experience bad 
shown that it was impossible to prevent the contraband 
manufacture and sale of these preparations, or to 
suppress opium-smoking in private. Moreover, as the 
business escaped direct taxation, and us illicit opium 
was largely used, the habit was not made as expensive 
as it might be to those who practised it. It was, 
therefore, deemed better to bring the trade or habit 
under proper control, wherever it was known to exist, 
and to subject it to taxation which would make it as 
expensive as pjos-sible. With this view it was decided 
in 1862-63 to give licenses to non-official vendois for 
the marmfacture and sale of madak in those localities 
where the sale of the preparation was such as to render 
this step advisable. The licenses were then almost 
exclusively confined to the districts of the Bennres and 
.'^Ua'nabad divisions, and the chief military canton- 
ments elsewhere. In the first year, 1862-63, the 
revenue from these contracts realised Es. 13.657. The 
sums ' aid in such pdaces as Allahabad (Es. 2,988), 
Benares (Rs -i.OOl), Cawnpore (Es. 1,600), G-orakhpur 
(Es. 1,250), indicate clearly thai the practice had 
attained considerable dimensions before it was brought 
under formal control and taxation. 

7. In 1863 and the following years, A-arions changes 
were made in the method of administering the excise 
from country spirits, which had the effect of restricting 
the supply and increasing the ])ricc to consumers. 
It was considered that this curtailment of the supply of 
liquor tended gradually to stimulate the use of ojfiuni. 
Tiie extensions of canal irrigation in the Meerut and 
AgT'a divisions led also to a demand for opium by the 
population whose health had been affected by the 
insanitary conditions which followed an artificial 
disturbance of the water level. 

But the main cause of the progressive increase iu 
the sales of excise opium was the restriction of illidt 
traffic and its displacement by the duty-paid drug. 

8. The existence of a large consumption of illicit 
opium hull always been recognised. In 1845, the Behii.r 
agent belie^'cd that ii„. iiii.ch :is one-seventh of the pro- 
duce of land onltivafi-xJ for his agency ^va.-. diverted 



from the Grovernment stores for illicit consumption. 
This was supplemented by contraband import from 
foreign territory. The constant attention of Government 
and its officers was directed to the leakage, which not 
only involved a large loss levenue but was calculated to 
encourage the use of opium generally, as the illicit drng 
sold much cheaper than the duty paid article. The 
proofs furnished from time to time left no doubt of the 
existence of a large contraband trade. It has been 
shown that the recorded consumption of excise opium 
always dimiiisbes at those times and in those places 
where the facilities for obtaining the illicit drug 
increases. To illustrate this, I may give an extract 
from the Excise Eeport of 1891-92. 

"Alter making due allowance for all special and local 
causes which operate in both directions, I have no 
hesitation iu saying that the increased sales are due 
broadly to nothing else than a corresponding diminution 
iu the use of illicit opium. This again has been deter- 
mined by the character of the poppy harvest and the 
area under poppy cultivation. . . The amount of 

illicit opium consumed in these jirovinces is undoubtedly 
considerable. This is admitted by the unanimous con- 
sent of everyone who is in a position to judge. Figures 
on such a point obviously cannot be procured ; but there 
are certain indications even from existing figures which 
leave no doubt on the point. It has been observed that 
a favourable season for poppy cultivation is accom- 
panied by a fall in the sale of duty-paid opium during 
the past 10 year.s. The best opium crops were in 
1883-84, 1884-85, and 1887-88. The season of 1889-90 
was above average, but not a bumper one. The 
worst out-tuin was in 1882-83 and 1888-89, while 
1890-91 fell below the average. In each of the good 
years the consumption of Cxovernment opium iu these 
])roviuccs fell and in eacii of the bad years it j'osc. 
The following figures illustrate most strikingly the way 
in which the sales of duty-paid opium vary with the 
season, or, iu other words, with the scarcity or abundance 
of illicit opium : — 



Year. 


Out-turn of Opium 
pel- Bigfia. 


Sale Proceeds of 
Government Opium. 




Seers. 


Cliataks. 




Rs. 


1880-81 


4 


3t 




5,.'t7,70l 


l881-*<2 


5 


'2- 




.'5,1.3,27.) 


LSSii-S;', 


4 


1 i 




.5,.3 .5,018 


1884-85 


6 


9" 




5,15,892 


188.5-80 


4 


14J 




5,24,196 


1886-87 


5 


H 




5,28,5,35 


1887-88 


6 


2f 




5,19,190 


IBS') -90 


4 


4| 


' 


5,79,346 


1890-til 


4 


8 




5,76,919 


1891-93 


4 


a* 


i 


5,95,231 



■■ Opium cultivators are compelled to produce a 
certain out-turn at the risk of having their cultivation 
stopped. When the crop is abundant they can keep 
back a large amount. When tne crop is scanty the 
margin available for smuggling is small. The excep- 
tional figures of 1889-90 are ascribed to contraction of 
the area of opium cultivation. No other inference can 
be drawn from these figures, but that a large illicit 
consumption exists which is stimulated by a full opium 
harvest, while in a bad season consumers are forced to 
purchase more of the Government drug. 

" Again it has been observed that the sales of duty- 
paid opium rise and fall with the extensions and con- 
tracting of poppy cultivation. Foj- instance, in Aligarh 
poppy was not .allowed in the Mursan pargana" till 
1887-88. The sales ir'A in that year from 62 maunds 
30 seers, 1886-37, to 68 maunds 16 seers. The next year 
the cultivation was stopped throughout the district, and 
the s.ales rose to 64 maunds 12 seers, and in the follow- 
ing year to 67 maunds and 36 seers. In Agra, the 
cultivation was admitted in 3 parganas in 1887-88, and 
the sales fell from 67 maunds 12 seers in 1886-87 to 
59 maunds 16 seers. Next year it was prohibited 
throughout the district, and sales rose to 67 maunds 
19 seers and in the following year to 67 maunds 21 seers. 
The Moradabad cultivation was permitted e\-erywhero 
up to 1888-89, and ihe sales averaged under 60 maunds. 
In 1888-89 ctdtivation being stopped, they rose to 
66 maunds 15 seers. In 1889-90 they were 61 maunds 
14 K-ers, and iu 1890-Pl were 64 maunds 20 seers. In 
Jaunpnr when cultivation nf poppy was stopped in 
J8^8-J:9. the .sales r.iso from 23 maunds 10 scei s to 
'U maunds 30 seers and increased to 39 maunds 1 2 seers m 
1880-90 and to 39 maunds 18 seer,? in 1890-91. Those are 



APPENUIX. 



85 



representative districts, and the figures indicate niimis- 
takeably the connexion between the use of the illicit drug 
and the facilities for obtaining it. It i« impossible to 
suppose that consumers suddenly gave up or diminished 
the use of opium in 1887-88, or increased it again in 
1888-89. Tbe pi-ice of Government opium remained 
unchanged. They simply took more duty-paid opium 
because they could not smuggle as much as before." 

9. These conclusions will obtain some confirmation 
from a reference to the more extended statistics now 
supplied. A distinct and c instant co-relation may be 
observed between the sales of exise opium and the 
tluctuations in area and out-turn of the poppy crop. 
In some cases this has been obscured by some special 
disturbing influence. For instance, in 1873-74 a sudden 
increase in the average out-turn was not followed by a 
corresponding fall in sales, because the facilitips for 
the sale of duty-paid opium had been increased, and the 
cullivation of poppy stopped in five districts from the 
close of the preceding year. In 1878-79 the usual 
result of a large out-turn and a full area was neutralized 
by a further extension of the licensing system. 

10. In considering the Excise Report of 1876-77, the 
Board and Government dwelt on the suspiciously low 
recorded consumption of opium in those districts where 
poppy cultivation was general. The Government order 
remarks : — 

" In the Meerut division there is no poppy cultiva- 
tion, except in Jaunsar-Bawar, and little or none of the 
opium produced there finds its way into districts of 
these provinces. The Benares division, on the other 
hand, is the home of the poppy. In the Meerut division 
the Muhammadan population which contributes by far 
the largest proportion of opium consumers is 1,058,200, 
and in Benares 889,936. In the Meerut division the 
revenue derived from opium in 1876-77 was Es. 1,08,439 
and in the Benares division it was but Es. .54,390, of 
which the district of Benares alone yielded Es. 40,590. 
In Muttra and Moradabad the cultivation of the poppy 
is prohibited. In Farukhabad and Badaun it is per- 
mitted, with the result that the former districts yield 
Es. 29,829 and Es. 18,655 respectively, and the latter 
Es. 1,461 and Es. 1,760. In 1876 the cultivation oE the 
TDoppy was abandoned in Jaiaun and Jhansi, and the 
immediate result in each case has been enhanced 
revenue. The figures speak for themselves. If the 
rest of the North-western Provinces yielded as much 
revenue in proportion to their population as the Meerut 
division, the revenue from opium would be Es. 6,71,000 
instead of Es. .J, 66,00. In other words, it seems pro- 
bable that licensed cultivators annually deliver to the 
Opium Department nearly 900 maunds less than their 
fields have produced ; and thereby inflict on the revenue 
of these provinces a loss exceeding three lakhs of 
rupees a year. The best means of checking these 
frauds is under the consideration of the Government 
and the Board in a separate correspondence. But in the 
meantime the Board should impress on district officers 
the necessity of punishing with the utmost severity 
cultivators convicted of embezzling produce and 
persons convicted of illegally purchasing it from 
them." 

11. In the following year a table was prepared show- 
ing the registered consumption per 1,000 of population 
in districts where : — 

(a.) Popp3' cultivation was permitted everywhere. 
(b.) Was permitted in part, 
(fl.) Was prohibited. 

The average incidence appeared to be : — 

N.W.P. Ou h. 

(a.) 10 chatt. 2 ohatt. 

(6.) 13 „ 10 „ 

(c.) 35 „ 12 ,, 

The Excise Commissioner estimated that if the entire 
illicit consumption were displaced by duty paid opium, 
the additional revenue would bo in the North-western 
Provinces, Es. 216,168 and in Oudh Es. 168,402 or 
Es. 384,.670 in all. 

12. Besides this retention of opium by cultivators 
for illicit purposes there were circumstRnoes to show 
that contraband opium was introduced from foreign 
territory. Consignments sometimes of a large amount 
were captured on their way from Nepal, while it was 
observed that the abolition of the custom's lino in 
2j,78-89 was followed by an increased smuggling of 
Malwa opium and a fall in the recorded consumption 
in the border district of the Agra division. In 1869 



the Bengal Government and in 1871 the opium agent, 
had called attention to the smuggling into Ijoth the 
North-western Provinces and Punjab of Hill opium 
which had paid no duty. The amount so introduced 
into these (irovinces was said to be of inferior quality 
and limited extent. In 1876 export of Nepal opium 
through Oudh under pass to Bombay was permitted. 
This seems to have facilitated smuggling into these 
parts of India. In 1889 and again in 1890, attention 
was drawn to the prevalence of this smuggling, and 
the contraband opium seized in some cases was found 
not to be crude but concentrated drug fit for use. 

The efforts of the administration were steadily 
directed to the suppression of these various forms of 
illicit traffic. This object seems to have influenced 
most of the changes introduced into the system as it 
existed in 1863. In 1871 the experiment was tried in 
Oudh of farming out in ea,ch district the right to sell 
opium. This led to an increase in revenue ofEs. 18,000, 
]jut the increased consumption of opium was only two 
maunds. The results were hold to show that the 
farmers themselves must hav(3 been selling illicit 
opium and the system was abandoned in 1872. In 
1874 an experiment which originated and had failed 
in Bengal of selling excise opium at the reduced con- 
sistence of 80 degrees and reduced price of Bs. 14 was 
tried in two Oudh districts. The experiment failed and 
was discontinued. Complaints were made that the 
absence of licensed shops, which were practically 
confined to tahsil head-quarters absolutely compelled 
jjeople who requiieil opium to purchase illicitly, be- 
cause they had no reasonable means of procuring the 
duty-paid drug. In 1867 the retail sale of opium at 
collectors' offices had been discontinued. In 1873 it 
was decided to try the experiment in the North- 
western Provinces of granting licenses for retail vend 
at important places in those districts where poppy was 
not grown. The licenses were granted to people of 
respectable character aiid no fees at this time were 
charged. In the case of poppy districts it was feared 
that these licenses might be used as covers for the 
collection nnd sale of crude opium. The rule took 
effect in all the districts of the Meerut division, in 
Bijnor, Moradabad, Muttrd, and Agra. The reports of 
succeeding years show that it was successful. 

13. An examination of the recorded purchases of 
excise opium by the persons licensed to sell chandu and 
madak left no doubt that illicit opium was largely used 
by them in the manufacture of these preparations. 
The nature of the business facilitated such frauds. 
Illicit and excise opium can easily be discriminated in 
their ordinary state, but once prepared for smoking in 
the shape of chandu or madah, recognition of illicit 
opium becomes impossible, and this circumstance gave 
dishonest dealers impvinity in storing smuggled opium. 
To put some check on these malpractices which de- 
frauded the revenue and by cheapening encouraged the 
use of cliandu, an experiment was tried in one district 
in 1872-73 of binding the chandu contractor to purchase 
a minimum amount of excise opium fixed considerably 
below the quantity which it was known must actually 
be consumed. The plan was found successful, it was 
followed by the displacement of illicit opium, and the 
restriction of unlicensed smoking places. In the next 
few 3-ears it was extended to all chandu and madah 
shops throughout the provinces. 

14. In 1877 the excise system generally of these 
provinces came under revision by a committee of 
officers appointed for the purpose. The success of the 
limited? grant of retail licenses in 1873 warranted an 
extension, under proper safeguards, to districts where 
poppy was grown. I'he experience of other branches 
of excise, whore various systems of licensing had been 
tried, led al.so to the conclusion that a considerable 
revenue might advantageously be raised from fees for 
retail sale. In the ease of country spirits the experi- 
ment had been made of issuing licences, first at nominal 
fees and when that failed at moderate fixed fees and 
excluding the competition of open auction. Both 
schemes proved a disastrous failure. If licenses were 
granted to all applicants the number of shops became 
excessive. If the number of shops was strictly limited 
the arrangement amounted to making a money grant, 
sometimes very large, to the favoured licensees. In 
both cases a considerable revenue was handed over to 
the vendors which properly should accrue to Govern- 
ment. Some shops from their position enjoy greater 
advantages than other.-;, and this advantage, it was 
found, could only be taxed by setting the licenses up 
to auction. Such an arrangement for opium had beeu 

L3 



App. IV. 



N.W. Prov. 

Excise. 



86 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION . 



App. IV. 



N.W. Prov. 
Excise, 



suggested by district officers Bomc years before. The 
commifcteo recommended that instead of retail sale 
being allowed on free licenses, such licenses should be 
put up to auction ; in opium producing tahsils only 
with the special authorisation of the Board for each 
person licensed ; in other places with the Divisional 
Commissioner's sanction, provided that the shops could 
be jiroperly supervised and that their number did not 
exceed the demand. The treasurer or his agent wei-c 
still to be allowed to sell opium at a rate not exceeding 
Es. 16 per sir at the tahsll head-quartera ; other 
licensees were allowed to purchase at Rs. 15, and sell 
at what price they could, the treasurer's sale being 
regarded as a check on the sale of adulterated opium, 
:ind on the demand of such exorbitant prices as woulil 
encourage illicit traiEc. 

The system extended also to Oudh, which was 
amalgamated with the North-western Provinces in 
1877, though Oudh excise was not brought under the 
Board of Revenue till 1883. It proved successful. The 
license fees in the first year amounted to Rs. 56,fi5'.<, 
though the issues of opium actually decreased owing to 
the famine which prevailed that year in the United 
Provinces. There wiis, however, some reason to fear 
that these licenses might be used as a cloak for the sale 
of illicit opium. It was therefore decided to extend to 
opium shops the arrangement which had been found to 
work well in the case of chandn shops, of requiring the 
licensed vendor to purchase a. certain fixed minimum 
amount of excise opium. With a view to check the 
licensing of shops in places where they were not actually 
wa.nted, the Board werr empowered to fix a minimum 
sum below which no license would be given. 

1.^. It may hci-e be noted that the system of requiring 
fixed minimum purchases of excise opium was found 
to act as a very useful clxeck on illicit traffic. It was 
rendered more effective in 1SS7 by a clause in the 
license empowering the collector in the case of short 
purchases to resume the license if no satisfactory ex- 
planation were forthcoming. In 1889 objections were 
raised by critics of the administration. The condition 
was relaxed for 1890 in districts not producing poppy, 
and under the orders of the G-overnment of India was 
everywhere withdra^vn with effect from the year 
1893-94, now curreat. In a few cases at the recent 
settlements where the stipulation had been retained by 
an error of the local officials and a re-sale was ordered, 
it ■was found that the licensees were -willing to jia.y 
substantially higher fees when the condition was not 
enforced. There has not yet been sufficient time to 
ascertain the result of this return to the laissez faire 
policy. 

16. While these measures wore introduced by the 
Excise Department, the attention of tin • Opium Depart- 
ment was forcibly drawn to the large amnnut oC opium 
obviously kept bark by the cultivators. Various 
measures wem deviseil to minimise this by more active 
and systematic supervision, by utilising the Land 
E,evenue Records, and by securing the co-operation of 
the revenue with tlie opium officials, in order to 
ascertain the actual o\it-turn of each cultivator's field 
and to weed out those whose returns were so ab- 
normaly low as to justify the suspicion of fraud. 
Under rules franjod by the Bengal G-overnment in 1877, 
the local opium officer (sul)-dc]nj.ty agi-nt) was required 
to report his movements to the collector (cx-offici(j 
deputy agent). Officials of the Opium Department were 
instructed to watch the proceedings in opium cases 
before the criminal courts; and further licensi-s were 
refused to guilty cultivators or even to whole villages 
where irregularities were frequent. Onltivation of 
poppy was prohibited in the vicinity of large towns 
including Luckno^v, Fyzabiul, Purakhabad, Ucnarcs, 
and Cawnpore, and niany others where the facilities for 
smuggling were ]ire-eminently great. The foims of 
licenses to opium cultivators were expressly adapted tn 
IHTiuit easy check of the areas and produce, and 
generally Ihe efforts of the department wore directed to 
stop the embez:alement of ojinrm and its illicit sah- by 
cultivators. The 0})ium Commission of 1883 suggested 
vaj-ious remedies to sup])rcs3 contraband traffic and 
other illegal ]iracticeB. 

17. The Opium Act of 1878 and the rules made under 
it caused no substantive rliniige in the system then in 
fcin-e in these [irovinces, but the new j-iunitive provisions 
of tlie Act gica,tly assisted llie enforcement of the law. 
Ujider lliu Act wh ich il. supersided first offeaces liiul been 
only punishable with fine. Act T. of 1878 made offences 
eonnected with opium ]innishable with rigorous in-i.- 
prisonment up to one year ;i,s well as with fine. The 



legal lijnit of retail sale and possession of opium was at 
the same time reduced from five to three tolas. It was 
observed that after the Act had been a short time in 
force the number of convictions began to fall, because 
habitual offenders had received long terms of imprison- 
ment; and the fear of like punishment acted as a 
deferent to others. 

18. The result of these measures was, that in spite of 
a large increase of the poppy area and its extensionto 
new districts, the sales of excise opium steadily in- 
creased, while a large and growing revenue was gained 
from the license fees for retail sale which have the 
immediate effect of increasing the retail price to con- 
sumers. This growth of revenue and recorded com- 
sumpfcion has been carefully watched, and its causes 
ascertained. A similar and even greater development 
of other branches of the excise revenue lends support to 
the view that the decided increase of general prosperity 
in the provinces has been followed by a larger outlay on 
such luxuries as exciseable commodities. There seems 
little doubt that this cause has contributed to the growth 
of the revenue from opium, just as it has contributed to 
the growth of the revenue from spirits and hemp drugs. 
But a rel'crence to the annual reports and proceedings 
leave no dou.bt that even a more potent cause has been at 
work. The development of excise revenue is mainly 
duo to better admiidstration, and does not by any 
means imply a corresponding extension of the habit of 
opium consumption. It is due to the more efiective 
check exercised by the Opium and Excise Departments 
over poppy cultivators and licensed vendors. 

19. In 1883 the Government of India in order to 
increase the supply of Bengal provision opium, com- 
menced the is^ue of Malwa opium for excise purposes. 
The Malwa opium was at first much disliked and fhcre 
were many complaints of its quality and weight. This 
circumstance coupled with u. large extension of poppy 
cultivation and a large average out-turn arr-estcd the 
sale of excise opium for several years ; its place being 
taken by illicit drug of local growth. In 1886-87, 
Malwa opium was withdrawn and Bengal o]iium again 
made available for sale. The issues at once impro\-(!d 
and only in 1887-8i^. when the crop was unusuall\' large 
and productive it fell back to the old len 1. 

20. In spite of the improvement which has taken 
place it is abundantly clear that the recorded con- 
sumption is still much below the actual consumption, 
and it may yet be possible to add largely to the revenue 
by displacing cheap illicit opium while actually con- 
tracting the general use of the drug. But it may be at 
once admitted that no repressive measures can possibly 
succeed in preventing a considerable illicit traffic. The 
conditions of the country effectually negative such an 
idea. The sources of supply are too numerous and the 
means of smuggling too easy and its results too lucrative 
to render prevention possible. Even if no opium at all 
were ]iroduced within the ])rovinees, the demand would 
be supplied from the product of foreign states lying 
;ilong our borders. The vexatioits and harassing sj'stem 
of espionage which would follow any effective nie.isure 
of reiivossion would be absolutely intolerable. It has 
been deemed better to endeavour to control the use of 
opium by granting reasonable facilities for obtaining 
it in a legal way whcre\-er a real demand for it has been 
shown to exist. 

■21. The Treasury price of opiu-m has, as already stated 
remained unchanged since 1861. The nominal price 
was Rs. 11) per sir, but as Re. 1 discount was granted 
to all licensed vendors, it was practically issued at Rs. 
1.^. The possibility of increasing this price had been 
several times considered, but it was thought that any 
eidianremcnt Avould lead to a larger consumption in the 
shape of illicit opium. In fact, sume officers advised a. 
reduction of the price, and the experiment of issuing 
opium of a lower consistence at Ks. If was aetAially 
tried in two Otidh districts in 1871, but proved unsttc- 
cessful. 

In 1892 a further inquiry ^vas undertaken in con- 
nexion with the orders of the Scei-et-iry of State, 
contained in his Despatch of the L7th December 1S91 . 
A good deal of dilfcreuce of opinion w as found to exist 
ii.inong local officers, many of whom feared the stimulus 
which an enhaneed price would give to contraband 
trade. The Inrge revenue gained from license fees 
since their first imiiosition i[i 1S77-78 had practically 
the sanni effect iis im addition to the Tivasnry price, and 
ga.\ e reason fo believ • that a cautious and gradttal rise 
would not be attended with any very serious risk 
though it might involve a loss of license fees'. In view 
of the different retail rates found to nctually prevail in 



APJ'^NDIX. 



87 



diffei'eut parts ol' the provinces, it was deemed inad- 
visable to impose a uniform issue rate everywliei'c. 
Uififerential rates wore accordingly flxrd as follows : — 

Ha. 
In 12 Eastern districts - - 16 

In 26 Central „ 17 

In 11 Western ,, 18 

This involved a .rise of Ke. 1, Rs. 2, and Rs. M 
according to the class. The offtcial vendors alone 
receive a discount of Re. 1 as before to cover waste 
and expenses. 

These rates came into force on the 1st July 1893. 
There has not yet been time to form an opinion on the 
results of the scheme. At the following annual settle- 
ments there was a fall in license fees substantial in 
itself bat not commensurate with the anticipated 
increase of sale profits. The efTects on consumption 
remain to be seen. 

22. In 1892-93, the rules governing the vend of 
ohandu and madak were altered. The legal limit of 
retail sale and possession was reduced from three tola 
to one tola, and consumption on the premises was 
prohibited. It was decided to reduce the number of 
licensed shops for that year to the narrowest possible 
limits, and to abolish them altogether in the following 
year. This policy was carried into effect, and there 
has been no licensed shop for the manufacture or vend 
of these preparations since the 30th September 1893. 

23. The history of opium-smoking in these provinces 
may be specially noticed. Opium-eating has been 
practised for centuries, but the habit of smoking 
appears to be of very recent origin. The two forms in 
which opium is prepared for the purpose are known as 
madak and chandu. A brief description of the method 
of manufacture and use of each is appended. 

Chaniitj. 

Opium, V/Token into small pieces is mixed with ashes 
of the previous smoking of the chandu pipe. These 
ashes are known as " inchi." The proportion is 
generally two parts of opium to one of " inchi." A 
little water is added and the mixture is slowly boiled 
and stirred till it becomes of a uniform consistency. 
To this is added water in the proportion of four or five 
parts to one part of opium. The whole is boiled and 
strained through a cloth several times till reduced to 
the original weight of the opium used. The refuse 
contains the more insoluble part of the opium and most 
of the " inchi." The pre^iaration is now ready for 
smoking. The pipe is a hollow stem of bamboo, closed 
at one end and with a mouthpiece at the other. If 
thick it is known as " bambo " if thin as " nigali." 
Near the closed ends is an opening (chiila) for receiving 
the bowl (dawat). The bowl is made of clay and is 
solid except for a small hole passing through the 
centre. It is wide at the top anfi slopes in towards the 
bottom, to which a brass holder [Sakat (socket)] is 
attached that fits into the "chiila." A small lamp is 
required : it consists of a burner covered by a glass 
shade generally made from the upper part of a bottle, 
which is so adjusted over the burner that the flame 
almost reaches the orifice at the top of the shade, 
represented by the neck of the bottle. The attendant 
(or the smoker himself) picks up a small quantity of the 
chandu on a wire (thak), and heatiug it for u, moment 
over the lamp fashions it into a pill (chinta). This pill 
is then placed in the hole in the bowl of the pipe. The 
smoker lies down generally on his left side, takes the 
pipe in his hands and holds it, with the bowl inclined 
somewhat downward close to the flame of ' the lamp. 
He then takes a long pull at the pipe and inhales as 
much of the smoke as he can. He retains the smoke a 
second or two and emits it with one puff. The 
" chinta " is exhausted by a single inhalation. After 
the smoke is finished the ashes " inchi " are scraped 
from the bowl and stem to be used in the preparation 
of more chandu. About four " ohintas " weighing in 
all one masha (the twelfth part of a tola, or 15 grains), 
are used by an habitual smoker at one sitting ; but it is 
said that a very seasoned smoker can get through as 
much as a tola (180 grains). Some skill is required both 
in the preparation of the ohandu, and in the adjustment 
of the " chinta " and the lamp. 

Madak. 

24. Opium is mixed with from 8 to 16 times its 
weight in water and boiled and strained. A small 
quantity of sugai', one-tenth or 12th, is sometimes 



added. The whole is boiled till reduced to one and 
half times the quantity of opium used. This syrup is 
then mixed with from one to three times its weight of 
leaves desiccated by parching and reduced to powder, 
but not actually calcined. The most expensive leaf 
used is " pan " which costs more than twice as much as 
the opium ; but guava leaves, babul leaves, cardamum 
husks, even coooauut fibre or grass are used. The leaf 
is broken up into fine pieces mixed with the opium 
liquor, and the whole formed into pills. Flavouring 
matter or essences are said to be sometimes used. 
Madak is smoked in an ordinary tobacco pipe in the 
same way as tobacco, but a bowl of a special make 
(called maira or mahra) is generally used instead of the 
ordinary "chillum."' It is quite flat and the madak 
pill is placed over the hole with a piece of burning 
charcoal. 

2!j. Ohandu is considered more potent in its effects 
than Madak. This I believe is due, first to the circum- 
stance, that it contains a larger proportion of pure 
opium extract. Madak contains from one to three parts 
of foreign matter in addition to the opium. Ohandu is 
pure opium with the addition of a very small quantity 
of its own ash. The ash seems to be added chiefly as a 
basis to regulate the combustion of the opium which is 
said to burn too quickly if "inchi" is not added. 
Probably any other carbon would do this as well, but 
" inchi " is selected because it is said to improve the 
flavour of the chandu, and because a certain amount of 
the less volatile oils or other constituent parts of the 
opium may have escaped combustion in the first 
smoking. In the second place, in ohandu smoking, 
the whole or as nearly as possible the whole of the 
volatile matter reaches the smoker's mouth and lungs, 
but in the madak pipe some of the properties may be 
lost in passing through the long stem and the water in 
the bowl. 

26. The habit of smoking opium seems to have come 
to India from the further East. It spread into these 
provinces from that direction and so recently as 1863 
was confined to the eastern districts, and to those large 
cantonments in other parts where it would naturally be 
first introduced by the movements of troops and their 
followers. Originally the only form known was madak. 
Forty years ago madak smoking and opium-smoking 
were synonymous terms in these provinces. It may be 
safely surmised that the habit first arose from adding 
opium to the tobacco pipe or impregnating tobacco with 
opium liquor. The form of pipe and the method of 
preparation point clearly to this origin. 

27. Ohandu and its use are believed to have been of 
Chinese origin. In 1865 the Commissioner of Excise 
when introducing the Bengal returns reported that it 
was unknown in these provinces. The name first 
appears in the Excise Report for 1871-72, where an 
account of it is transcribed from the Bengal Excise 
Report of the preceding year. It is stated that it had 
already become known in many districts, and was 
gaining ground among the town population, especially 
where the Mohammadan element was strong. At that 
time the consumption of madak in the town of Cawnpur 
was estimated to be rather less than two and a half 
times the consumption of chandu. The habit of opium- 
smoking in one form or another had spread to almost 
every district of the North-western Provinces. Prom this 
time chandu finds increasing mention in the annual 
reports as the form in which opium was usually smoked 
and madak gradually disappeared. In 1883-84 it was 
stated that madak' was then hardly consumed at all. 
I cannot say that its use has been even now entirely 
discontinued, but it has certainly been reduced to 
narrow limits. A short time ago, when I had occasion 
to inquire about the two drugs in Agra, a place where 
opium-smoking is very prevalent, but one man was 
forthcoming who was acquainted with the method of 
preparing madak. In Oudh the mannfacture and sale 
of both preparations was included in the farm of hemp 
drugs down to 1873 when the rules provide for separate 
contracts with a limited number of retail shops. 

28. Up to 1863 the sale of madak and other non- 
medical preparations of opium was absolutely pre- 
hibited in the North-^vestern Provinces. In spite of this 
prohibition, however, the habit of madak smoking 
began to spread in the province. It was carried on in 
private and it was found impossible to prevent the 
contraband manufacture and sale of the drug. After 
the Mutiny the attention of Government was drawn to 
the prevalence of the practice and the necessity for 
taking some measures to I'epress it. The policy of 
absolute prohibition having failed, it was considered 

L 4 



App. IV. 



N.W. Prov. 
Excise. 



88 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. IV. 



N.W. Prov. 
Excise. 



advisable to recognise the sale oi' madak with a view o! 
bringing it under proper control. A provision to this 
effect was included in the rules of 1863, and collectors 
were empowered to grant licenses. The number 
granted was to bo as small as possible, and the 
localities of the shops to be chosen with particular 
regai'd to their careful super\ision. Such licenses were 
granted for the first time in 18G'J-(;3. They were 
confined to 15 districts, nearly iu the Benares and 
Allahabad divisions ; besides the cantonments of 
Meerut and Shajahanpur. The license fees that year 
amounted to Rs. 13,663, but rose to Es. 19,230 in 
1863-61 when the arrangements were in better working 
ordei-. As already remarked, the large sums paid in 
several places indicate the ]irevalerice the habit had 
obtained, and the extent of the contraband trade now 
brought under taxation. The contr(jl was extended to 
some districts of the Agra and Jhansi divisions, but 
the revenue remained about stationary till l.'-;(>li-70. 
Its increase from that year onward coincides with the 
introduction of chandu, which seems to have seized the 
popular taste much more rapidly and completely 
than madalc. In 1871-72 it had become jiecessary to 
ri.'cognise and bring under control the trade in £8 
districts, or ])orfcions of distri'-ts. In the reports for 
that year prominent attention was drawn to the spread 
of opium-siiicking and its deleterious effects. The 
Board of Revenue would have recommended the utter 
suppression of both manufacture and sale of these un- 
doubtedly noxious and demoralising preparations if 
they believed that any such prohibition would effect 
any other rrsult than that of driving the madak and 
chtindu vendors to illicit manufacture and sale, and 
their customers to illicit purchase. They held that 
since it was not possible to prevent tlieir manufacture 
and sale, madak and chandu should be made as ex- 
pensive as possible to the consumer, by taxing the sale 
and compelling the use of only duty-paid opium. With 
the concurrence of the Excise Commissioner who was 
in favour of placing the narrowest restrictions on the 
trade the farms and licenses were discontinued in 
several districts and localities. The revenue continued 
to grow and in 1874-7.5 the Excise Commissioner (Mr. 
Halsey) reported that most officers were of opinion 
that this revenue must eventually full away, as |)eople 
were acquiring the habit of nianufaeturiiiK at home 
suflBcient for their wants. It would be a good thing he 
thought if the manufacture for sale were entirely for- 
bidden. It encouraged smuggling and evoi-j- form of 
idleness and vice, and was jjhyaically, morally, and 
socially to be deprecated. The G-overnment oider on 
thLSjiointed out that the tax operated as a check on 
consnm])tion, and that if home manufacture were in- 
creasing, the licensed shops, e\'idently, did not stimulate 
consumyition. but failed to satisfy the demand. This 
view was taken in the following year by the next Excise 
Commissioner (Mr. Robertson). He agreed in deprecat- 
ing the use of ehandn on social, moral, and physical 
grounds, but did not ihinkthat forbidding its manufac- 
ture for sale would stop its consumptioi.. He feared 
facilities would be ]:rovidedfor its jnivate manufacture, 
and preferred ttie jiolicy of effective control to the 
policy of ineffective prohibition. 

29. For the next few years this policy was pursued, 
•and vigilance was emploj'ed to repress illicit trade and 
cecure the use of only duty-paid o))ium by the licensed 
vendor. It was found that both these ends wci-e aided 
by requiring the license to purchase a certain amount 
of opium from the Treasuiy. It then l)eoame liis 
interest to assist in detecting those unlicensed rivals 
who could undei-sell him by using illicit opium. Jn 
18SLi-83 the Board of Revenue drew jjurticular attention 
to the growth of the revenue from chandu and madal:, 
which had now rea,ched Rs. 46,243 in the North- 
western Provinces, though it was stationai\' in Oudh. 
The district j'eports gave indications that the habit of 
opium-smoking was on the increase, and all autho- 
rities agreed on its injurious results. The Government 
directed the Commissioner of Excise and the Board to 
consider measures to restrict the use of the draus. 
This was done in next year's report (1882-8'!) where tlie 
Excise Commissioner (Mr. Cadell) gave a verj- full 
account of the extent and growth and consequences of 
the habit, and diseussed the best means for checking it. 
" It is comparatively easy," he said, " to prevent the 
" extCTision by needless encouragement of this de- 
" grading vine, but it is difficult to suggest, any moans 
" altogelliei' unobjectionable of les.sening the existing 
" evil, f'f late years sufTieie?it care has not lieen taken 
" to insist on men paying large license fees taking a 



" suitable quantity of excise opium, and to restrict the 
'■ number of shops in towns with regard to the propor- 
" tion of licit opium to fees. Greater care is now being 
" taken, and it rests chiefly with district officers to 
" see that in the centres of population iu which it is 
" necessary to maintain chandu shops, they are not 
" needlessly close to each other. The most obvious 
" means of repressing the growth of the practice is by 
" repressing smuggling, and in this way making the 
" drug an expensive one. . . It is no part of 

" the province of Go\eT-nment to oj:en a chandu shop 
'■ on tlie chance of a demand arising, tiie shop should 
" be established only to meet a considerable existing 
" demand, and where this does not exist it should be 
" closed. The general opinion is that the 

'• vice is of comparatively recent growth, and that 
" except in cities it has not taken wide toot. The 
" general opinion, in which I concur, is that, except 
" where the demand is considerable, licenses should 
'■ refused, and that the chandu smoker should he left 
" to make up his own chandu and smoke it at home." 

Some officers -were in favour of the immediate or 
gradual suppression of all licensed houses, and some 
opjjosed such n measure on the ground that the vice 
would be driven into private houses wher.; it could not 
be regulated, and would he more injurious to sociej'. 
" The most practical question at present," said Mr. 
Cadell, " is which is the least injurious to the people 
" at large, that the manufacture and sale of chandu 
" should be licensed and regulated or that Government 
" shoulil refuse to recognise the vice and drive it into 
" private houses with the likelihood that, in some 
" cases at all events, places for the illicit manufacture 
" and vend of the drug will spring up. It is hoped 
" that the measures experimentally adopted during 
" the current year will afford ground for safer con- 
" elusions than are at present possible. In the mean- 
" time the policy which has been adopted is this, that 
" in larger centres of population, where there is a con- 
" siderable existing demand, the sale must be licensed 
" and regulated ; that where the demand is trifling and 
" of recent growth, the evils of private consumijtion 
" should be faced rather than the popularization (jf the 
" vice should be risked, and that above all things the 
" speculative opening of new shops should be stringently 
" prohibited. ^Vith reference to this as to otner 
" branches of excise, the best service wliich a friend 
*' to temperance can render is to aid in the suppression 
" of the trade in the illicit substitute for the fuUy- 
" taxed article. Illicit chandu can be sold at less than 
" half the price of the taxed drug, and the moie lax our 
" administration is, the more certain i~ the vice which 
'■ is so generally deplored, to flourish and extend 
" The absolute prohibition of the sale of chandu has 
■' already been tried iu tliese piovinces without 
" success." 

On this the Government orders were : — 
" The total prohibition of the practice has been tried 
and faded. It is absurd to attempt to make the private 
use of chandu penal; but the jmblic use of it should be 
diseonraged in every way. Nev,- licenses should not 
be granted without careful inquiry as to the need for 
them, in order to prevent the opening of illicit shops, 
and it seems desirable to reduce the chandu and madak 
shops to the lowest jjossible scale. It is understood 
that considerable reduction has been made durino- the 
cuireut year (1883 1) and that more will be made^ncxt 
year." 

These instructions were carried out. 

30. The Government orders on the report for 1883-84 
referring to the subject says : — 

" The Commissioner writes that repressive measures 
would meet with univei'sal approval among respectable 
natives. So far as can be judged, this seems to be the 
fact ; and it is noticeable that the district officers who 
have alluded to the subject seem to be almost unani- 
mously in favour of repression. The Board have 
directed the Excise f 'ommissioner to ascertain Ijy what 
means a check can be laid on the consumption of this 
drug. . . . Sir A. Lyall is desirous of doing all 

that is possible to check the increasing consumption of 
this pernicious drug. The vend of chandu should be 
put under regulations as rigorous as the law will 
permit ; the number of shops should Ijc very closely 
restricted, and severe penalties should be imposed in 
cases of illicit manufacture. As already observed, the 
law does not allow of absolutely proliibitin;>- pri\ate 
consumption, and such prohibition would "iirob.ibly 



APPENDIX. 



89' 



be ill a great measure futile, besides being somewhat 
beyond the province of excise administration. But in 
the matter of shops the Lieutenant-Governor and Chief 
Commissioner considers that, as a rule, a chandu shop 
should only be licensed where local circumstances 
render it tolerably certain that its place would other- 
wise be supplied by contraband trade, and his Honour 
is prepared to accept the loss of income which may be 
involved in carrying out this principle. District 
ofiioers, in short, should be distinctly authorised and 
required to check, by all means in their power, the 
spread of acknowledged chandu consumption, provided 
they do not do so at the expense of fostering illicit vend 
and use." 

In the following year a further large redarction of 
shops was effected, and seems to have met with 
universal approbation. It was declared by the Board 
that the total abolition of shops would undoubtedly 
foster the contraband trade, but licensed shops would 
be abolished in all places where, but for their existence, 
a shop for illicit sale would in all probability be estab- 
lished. No bad results appeared to have followed 
these reductions, but there were no grounds for be- 
lieving that the habit of opium-smoking had sensibly 
decreased, and it was believed that illicit practices 
still prevailed in some places. Regulations were made 
to ensure more complete supervision of the remaining 
shops. The Grovernment repeated its injunctions to 
continue the policy of restriction. 

31. Next year (188,5-86) a further and very large 
reduction was made in the number of shops which fell 
from 284 to 11'2. In 15 districts there were no licenses 
granted at all. The revenue also fell off considerably. 
The measures appeared from the district reports to 
have met with general approval. Some officers ex- 
pressed apprehension that the private manufacture and 
use of chandu was increasing ; but Grovernment con- 
sidered that the functions of public officers could not 
extend to preventing this. All that could be done was 
to restrict the number of chandu shops and of persons 
directly interested in the trade. 

32. In 1886-87 the number of shops was again 
reduced to 74. There was reason to fear that the con- 
traband trade was extending, and it was suggested 
that f ctrther reductions might foster illicit vend and 
use. In 1887-88 the number of shops had fallen to 57. 
" But,'' the Grovernment order remarked, " the receipts 
" rose by Es. 8,000. It is noteworthy that in 1884-85 
" the amount of drugs taken was much greater than in 
" 1887-88; and that the shops were four times as 
" numerous, whereas the receipts were less than those 
" of the latter year. This implies a large amount of 
" very careful supervision, and the figures rebut the 
" contention of those who charge the Government 
" with encouraging consumption. In 25 districts of 
" the provinces there are now no shops licensed for the 
" sale of these drugs. The way in which the license 
" fees keep up in the face of these sweeping reductions 
" is remarkable. The avowed policy of the Govern- 
" ment is to check in every possible way the consump- 



" tion of these noxious drugs, always provided that 
" illicit vend and use are not fostered thereby. In the 
" current year the number of shops has been further 
" reduced from 57 to 50. Gradual reduction is obviously 
" the right policy." 

33. The district reports of that and the following 
years (1888-89 contained numerous indications that the 
habit was not dying out, and that private or Illicit manu- 
facture and use was spreading. The Board suggested 
that the reductions had gone far enough, and that a 
re-allocation of the existing shops was required. The 
Board and the Commissioner wore desired to consider 
the question . The Board in their covering letter on the 
report of 1889-90, suggested that though it might be 
necessary to keep up some licensed shops as a check on 
illicit consumption, yet that it would be well to prohibit 
the smoking of opium on licensed premises and to 
confine the contractor's license strictly to manufacture 
and vend. The Government in its order of 24th July 
1891 recognised the importance of the suggestion and 
desired that the views of district officers and of the 
Board should be placed before it in the form of a 
special report. Before this could be submitted the 
matter was settled. In September 1891 the Govern- 
ment of India issued orders that opium should not be 
consumed on licensed premises. The settlements for 
1891-92 had then been made, and the number of 
shops reduced to 26. Consumption on the premises 
was stopped where it was possible to do so that 
year, and ceased entirely in 1892-93. The number 
of shops had then been brought down to 14 for the 
whole provinces, and it was decided to close the re- 
mainder on the expiration of the current licenses. 
This was done and there are at present no shops where 
chandu can be legally manufactured or consumed. 

34. This step was taken with the full knowledge that 
the licensed shops would be replaced by unlicensed 
ones ; that opium-smoking would still continue ; that 
there was some risk that the absence of publicity might 
encourage the vice in domestic circles ; that illicit 
opium would be more largely used and a certain 
amount of revenue abandoned. In spite of these draw- 
backs and dangers it has been deemed better to try the 
experiment of again prohibiting the public manufacture 
and sale or consumption of these drugs, in the hopes 
that it may prevent the spread of the habit among 
people by whom and in places where it is not at present 
practised. Many experienced officers doubt the wisdom 
of the measure, and those who favour it do so with 
some hesitation, as possibly the lesser of two evils. 

The experience of the last year does not, it must 
be noted with regret, give any indication that the 
habit of opium-smoking has perceptibly decreased. 
Though consumption on licensed premises was stopped, 
an unlicensed trade sprang up before long, which, in 
spite of constant vigilance, it has not been possible to 
suppress, and it is only in rare cases that convictions 
have been secured. It will take some time before the 
full efiect of this second attempt at the total prohibition 
of opium- smoking can be known. 



Apr. IV. 



N.W. Prov. 
Excise. 



u 82810. 



M 



90 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Arp. IV. 



NAY. Prov. 
Excise. 



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APPENDIX. 



91 



Kemarks. 


a 


CO 


> 

v. 

«3 


from I special statement 
supplied by the opium 
agent. 
Column 8. — The sales to 


J2 'P 

i S 

S o 

j Hid S 

1 I-- lO 00 ^ 

• ■ ^ Ol .-( c 

2 7 

t; r-* CT CO — ■ 
'^ O OS Oi ^ 

PhCS O O) js 

a Qc c» 00 s: 


two previous censuses be- 
fore the census of 1S72, 
viz., in 1853 and 1865, and 
the figures against 1800- 
61 to 1870-71 refer to 


census of 1865. 

Column 15. — The fiijiiivs 
have been arrived :tt hy 
dividing column 14 b}- tliu 
sum of columns 12a!Kl 13. 

Columns 17 and 18. — 'Ihe 
figures ngiiinst 1892-93 
are not at present avail- 
able. 


aber of 
;tions for 
ach of 
n Laws. 

Persons. 


CO 


1 


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INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION ; 



App. IV. 

N.W. Prov. 
Excise. 



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£ X. CO X. cc a:, xj x 



APPENDIX. 
Statistics of Opium for 1892-93. 



93 







Population. 




Poppy 






Con- 

sumptioB 












Cultivation 
permitted in 
whole or part 
of District or 

prohibited. 






per 




Districts. 


Hindus. 


Mohamedans 


Total. 


Sales of 
Opium. 


Annum 
in Tolas 
per 1,000 
of Total 
Popula- 


Bemarke. 
















tion. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 












Mds 


Srs. 




(a.) The area per 


Dehra Dun - 


1,48,239 


19,896 


1,68,135 


Prohibited. 


19 


6 


364 


opium shop (excluding 


Saharanpur 


6,76,848 


3,24,432 


10,01,280 


)» 


56 


2 


179 


madak-ohandu shops) 
is : — 


Muzaffarnagar 


5,53,884 


2,18,990 


7,72,874 




39 


9 


162 


sq. miles. 
N.-W. P. = 99-3 


Meerut 


10,74,487 


3,16,971 


13,91,458 


yt 


88 


18 


203 


Oudh =128-9 


Bulandshar 


7,70,895 


1,79,019 


9,49,914 


» 


51 


31 


174 


United "1 ,„. „ 
Provinces ;=1°*' 5^ 
(b.) The incidence of 


Aligarh - 


9,22,834 


1,20,338 


10,43,172 


it 


71 


27 


220 


Muttra- 


6,50,764 


62,657 


7,13,421 


It 


37 


5 


167 


cost price and license 


Agra - 


8,99,363 


1,04,433 


10,03,796 


„ 


68 


36 


220 


fees per seer of opium 
(including madak- 


Farukhabad - 


7,.59,211 


99,476 


8,58,687 


Whole. 


18 


3a 


70 


chandu, but excluding 
sales to Kampur and 


Mainpuri 


7,20,634 


41,529 


7,62,163 


" 


10 


10 


45 


dispensaries) is : — 


Etawah . . - 


6,85,304 


42,325 


7,27,629 


jj 


27 


22 


121 


Es. a. p. 
N.-W. P. = 18 12 9 


Etah - 


6,29,110 


72,953 


7,02,063 


Part. 


28 


26 


131 


Oudh = 18 6 


Bareilly 


7,95,652 


2,45,039 


10,40,691 


>j 


39 


36 


123 


United I IS in s 
Provinces 1= ^^ ^° ^ 


Bijnor 


5,26,908 


2,67,162 


7,94,070 


Prohibited. 


30 


6 


122 


Budaun 


7,77,309 


1,48,289 


9,25,598 


Part. 


11 


30 


41 


(e.) Column 6 against 
Moradabad, includes 


Moradabad 


7,78,693 


4,00,705 


11,79,398 


Prohibited. 


68 


8 


136 


18 maunds sold to 


Shahjahanpur 


7,89,285 


1,29,266 


9,18,551 


Part. 


30 


23 


107 


Eampur. The sales to 
dispensaries aggregate 


Pilibhft - 


4,02,880 


82,486 


4,85,366 


Prohibited. 


17 


22 


116 


23 seers in K.-W. P., 


Cawupore - 


11,08,154 


1,01,541 


12,09,695 


Part. 


145 


4 


384 


and 10 seers m Oudh. 
(d.) The districts of 


Fatehpur 


6,22,096 


77,061 


6,99,157 


., 


37 


8 


170 


Ghazipur, Gorakhpur, 


Banda 


6,65,170 


40,662 


7,05,832 


Prohibited. 


24 


18 


111 


Basti, Shahjahanpur, 
Budaun, Kheri, and 


Hamirpur 


4,80,439 


33,281 


5,13,720 


„ 


38 


1 


237 


Hardoi though shown 


Allahabad - 


13,48,884 


1,99,853 


15,48,737 


Part. 


98 


5 


203 


as " Part " in column 5 
exclude very small 


Jhansi 


6,54,606 


29,013 


6,83,619 


Prohibited. 


40 


30 


191 


areas — in each case in 


Jalaun - 


3,7o,8fi0 


25,501 


3,96,361 


„ 


30 


16 


245 


which poppy cultiva- 
tion is prohibited. 


Benares - 


8,33,542 


88,401 


9,21,943 


Part. 


140 


14 


487 


Mirzapur 


10,86,2 58 


75,240 


11,01,508 


)» 


46 


3 


127 




aunpur 


11,48,605 


1,16,344 


12,64,949 


Prohibited. 


38 


38 


99 




Ghazipur 


9,75,183 


1,02,7^6 


10,77,909 


Part. 


15 


4 


45 




Ballia 


8,70,112 


60,353 


9,42,465 


Whole. 


2 


27 


9 




Gorakhpur - 


26,92,427 


3,01,630 


29,94,057 


Part. 


34 


18 


37 




Basti 


15,10,115 


3,75,729 


17,85,844 


„ 


9 


21 


17 


V 


Azamgarh 


15,02,986 


2,25,639 


17,28,625 


Whole. 


13 


39 


26 




Almora - 


5,51,212 


11,969 


5,63,181 


Prohibited. 


4 


21 


26 




Garhwal 


4,04,213 


3,605 


4,07,818 


„ 


2 


18 


19 




Naini Tal 


1,35,361 


75,207 


2,10,568 


)j 


13 


38 


212 




Total, Isr.-W. P. 


2,95,28,533 


47,25,721 


3,42,54,254 


— 


1,451 


35 


134 




Lucknow 


6,12,794 


1,61,369 


7,74,163 


Whole. 


143 


24 


594 




Unao 


8,77,716 


75,920 


9,53,636 


Part. 


25 


7 


84 




Uae Bareli 


9,50,556 


85,965 


10,30,521 


Whole. 


15 


11 


47 




Si'tapur - 


9,17,774 


1,57,639 


10,75,413 




19 


38J 


59 




Hardoi - 


9,98,537 


1,14,674 


11,13,211 


Part. 


14 


8 


41 




Kheri 


7,85,558 


1,18,057 


9,03,615 


„ 


29 


1 


102 




Fjzabad 


10,78,498 


1,38,461 


12,16,959 


Whole. 


27 


29 


73 




Gonda 


12,53,804 


2,05,425 


14,59,229 


»> 


11 


13 


25 




Bahraich 


8,30,634 


1,69,798 


10,00,432 


Part. 


13 


37 


45 




Cjultanpur 


9,59,005 


1,16,846 


10,75,851 


Whole. 


11 


32 


35 




I'artabgarh 


8,20,057 


90,838 


9,10,895 




9 


22 


34 




Bara Banki 


9,44,968 


1,85,938 


11,30,900 


" 


10 


29 


30 

84 




Total, Oudh 


1,10,29,901 


16,20,930 


1,20,50,831 


— 


332 


n| 




Total, United Provinces 


4,05,58,434 


63,46,651 


4,69,05,085 


— 


1,784 


6| 


120 





A pp. IV. 

N.W. Prov. 
Excise. 



M 3 



9i 



INDIAN OPIU.M CO.'NrMlSSION 



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Al'PKNDlX. 



APPENDIX VI. 



Statement showing the Cases brought to Trial in the Noeth-wbst Peovinces and Oudh of Illicit Dealings ia 
Ohandtj and Madak from 1st October 1892 to 30th November 1893. 

(Received from Mr. Stoker, Commissioner of Excise, North-west Provinces and Oudh.) 



App. VI. 
N.W. Prov. 





i 

Name, Caste, and 
Occupation of the Person 


Section and 

Clause of the 

Act under 




Sentenced to 


Amount of 
Eeward 


District. 


Nature of Case. 






paid to 




convicted. 

] 


which Punish- 
ment inflicted. 




Imprisonment, simple 
or rigorous. 


Pine. 


Informers 

and Appre- 

henders. 


1 


2 


3 


i 


6 


6 












Es. a. p. 


Es. a., p. 


Shaharanpiir 


Ahmad Husain. caste 
Ohepi, fruit-seller. 


Section 9 /., 
Act I. of 

1878. 


Sale of chandu :— 1 tola - 




Es. 50 or one 
month's ri- 
gorous im- 
prisonment in 
default. 
60 


45 


Meenit 


Abdul Majid, Path an - 


Section 9, Act 


Sale of chandu 


Three months' rigor- 


60 






I. of 1878. 




ous. 






Aligarh 


Amiia and Pida Husain, 


Section 9 /., 


Illegal possession of SJ 
tolas of chandu. 


One month's rigorous 


Es. 5 each 


10 




day labourers, Musal- 


Act I. of 


each. 








mans. 


1878. 










Ditto 


Sitaram Bania, vendor 
.of victuals. 


Sections 3 and 
9, Act I., 
1878. 


Illegal possession of 
chandu and madak t 
seer prepared opium 
and six pills madak. 


Pour months' rigorous 


10 


10 


Ditto - 


Mussamutt Nasiban, 
caste Bhisti. 


Section 9, Act 
I. of 1878. 


Selling madak and chandu 
without license. 


Three ditto 


50 n 


40 


Agra 


Paiz Bultsh Shaik, la- 
bourer. 


Ditto 


Illicit manufacture and 
sale of chandu, 1 chittak. 


Three ditto 


— 


20 


Ditto 


Maula Bania 


Ditto 


Illicit manufacture of 
chandu. 


Three ditto 


Es. 25, or one 
month's ri- 
gorous im- 
jn*isonment in 
default. 


2.'; 


Ditto 


Ahmad Ali Sayed, shop- 
keeper. 


Ditto 


Illicit sale of chandu, 3i 
tolas. 


One year's rigorous - 


Es. 20, or in de- 
fault two 
months' I'i- 


20 


Ditto 


Bliikhan Kaehi 


Ditto 


Illicit possession of chan- 
du, 2 chittaks. 


- 


gOl'OUS. 

25 


15 


Parukhabad 


Sallah Khan, Pathan - 


Ditto 


Possession of chandu, 6 
mashas and apparatus. 


Discharged 


— 


— 


Ditto 


jMohamad Husain, 
tailor. 


Ditto 


Illicit p'^ssession of opium 
and -i phial of chandu, 
and smoking apparatus. 




Es. 10, or in de- 
fault two 
weeks' rigor- 




Ditto 


Chotu Lai, Brahman - 


Ditto 


Illicit possession of 13i 
tolas of opium, includ- 
ino: a phi«l and 10 tolas 
chandu, with apparatus 
of smoking. 


Three months' rigor- 
ous under section 9 
(c). and three 
months under 
clause/. 


ous. 


20 


Budaun 


M;inla Baksh, Sheikh, 
juf?f;ler. 


Ditto 


Illicit possession of chan- 
du, 5 tolas. 


" 


15 


10 


Shahjahanpur 


Mussamut Nanhi and 


Ditto 


Sale of C tolas 11 mashas 


Asad Ali, two months' 


5 0") 






Asad AH Khan, Pa- 




of ehandu. 


rigorous, and 


[ 


15 




than, d.vftr. 






Mussamut Nanhi 


10 J 




Ditto 


Abbas Khan, Pathan, 
beggar. 


Ditfu 


Sale of tolas 10 mashas, 
chandu. 


Two months' rigorous 


5 


6 


Ditto 


(1.) Mussamut Rahima, 

and 
(3.) Khatun, Pathan, 

tailor. 
Pakher Alam Khan, 


Ditto 


Possession of 5 tolas crude 
opium, and 1 tola 
chandu. 


One month's rigorous 


10 


10 


Pilibhit 


Ditto 


Illegal possession of 2 tolas 


. 


30 ■) 

and [ 

10 J 






Pathan, zamindar. 




10 mashas of chandu 




10 




and Sukha, bhisti. 




with smoking apparatus. 






Cawnpore 


(1.) Rhukne - 


1 Ditto ■] 


Illegal possession of Ci 


(1.) 


76 ) 




(2.) Jnni - 


tolas of chandu. 


(2.) 


75 |- 


125 




(3.) Mussamut Kanhi - 


) L 




(3.) Discharged 




Ditto 


Ahmad Ali and three 
others, Mussalmans, 


Ditto . - 


Illegal sale of 6 tolas, 
chandu. 


Discharged 


— 


— 


Ditto 


&c. 
Mussamut Begum, pro- 
stitute. 


Ditto 

and section 
.W. Act 
XXII. of 


Iliegitl sale and possession 
of chandu, weighing 
a annas, and charas, 64 
annas. 


Six months' rigorous - 


100 


60 


Ditto 


Ganesh, goldsmith 


1881. 
Section 9. Act 
1. of 1878. 


Illegsl sale and possession 
of chandu, 8^ annas. 


Pour ditto 


Es. 25 or mouth's 
further in de- 
fault. 


25 


Dittfl 


r.(l.) Khurshed, beggar - 
1 (2.) Amir Ali, labourer 


Ditto 
and section 
109 Indian 
Penal Code. 


Illegal sale and possession 
of chandu, 2 tolas 9 
mashas with pot. 


(1.) Three months' 
regorous. 


f(l.)100 0") 
1{2.) 50 J 


100 


Allahabad - 


Ahmad Ali, cultivator - 


Section S, Act 


Possessing 6 tolas opium 
and making chandu. 


Pour months' rigorous 


— . 


8 






I. of 1878. 








Ditto 
Ditto - 


Khunnoo Syed, shop- 
keeper. 
Zamln, Sayed Eangsaz - 


Ditto 
Ditto 


Keeping chandu more 

than authorised. 
Manufacture and sale of 

chandu. 


Two weeks' rigorous - 

Three months' ri- 
gorous. 


20 
50 


20 
25 


Ditto 


Ashrafuddin, Sheikh, 


Ditto 


Manufacture and sale of 


Six months' rigorous - 


50 


26 


Ditto 


ekkadriver. 
Badlu Gararya, Naicha- 
band. 


Ditto 


chandu. 
Manufacture and sale of 
chandu. 


Two ditto 


30 


15 


Ditto 


Babu, Pathan, service as 
mason. 


Ditto 


Preparmg and selling 
chandu without license. 


Two ditto 


30 


15 


Ditto 


Mussamut Shahzadi, 


Ditto 


Illicit manufacture of 




30 


20 


Jhansi - 


prostitute. 
Mussamut Hora, danc- 


Ditto 


chandu, 2^ tolas. 
Possessing 2i tolas chandu 


Discharged • 


~ 


— 


Ditto 


ing girl. 
Chunnu, labourer - 


Ditto 


Possessing 2J tolas madak 


Six months' rigorous - 


- 


- 


Ditto 


Zulfikar Ali, bookseller - 


Ditto 


Illicit manufacture and 
sale of madak, Es. 3 4 a. 
in weight. 


Three ditto 


' — 


— 


Ditto 


Buche, labourer, Beohua 


Ditto 


Illicit manufaeture and 
sale of madak, "Iv tolas 
in weight. 


Pour ditto 

) 


1 20 
t 





M 



96 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



AVF. VI. 



District. 



Jhansi 

Benares - 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Dirto 
Ditto 

Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Siirzapur 



Kame, Caste, and 

Occupation of the Person 

com ictcd. 



Section and 
Clause of the 

Act under 
which Punish- 
ment inflicted. 



S.ntcnced to 



Mature of Case. 



Imprisonment, simple 
or rigoruus. 



Pine. 



(1.) Kunun, Brahman,^ 
weiKhman. > 

(2.) Mohan .grain dealer J 
(l.)Nnnkhi, Brahman 
(2-; LalMohamad.Joiaha 
Alahu, Rangrcz - 

Valait All Khan - 

Xaljboo Khan - 

Bhaf^wan Dass, shop- 
keeper. 
Husain Ali Dabltai 

GuUa Bakkal 

Mussumat Sarupia, la- 
bourer. 
Madar Bus 

Lalloo, Bangrez - 

Bhaggu, Kasarvvani 

Lachman, Brahman 

Golab, Hajiin), and M an- 

gar, Jala ha. 
Dalmir Khan • 



AbduUa Khan - 
Hassan Khan 

Mani^u. Kusarwani 



(1.) Budhuand(2.)Miis- 
i-amat Gobiudi. 

Miissumal riaue.slii and 

Dhaiivi t<iu!sh. 
SaliLc Sin;;h, silk mer- 

cliiint. 
Parsntani Ahir 



I.-llln, R-miTl"/. 

Rama Xath Ch'ikurbalti 

(1.) Mockan, and si.\ 

others. 
Shfinkar, Sonar, and 

three others. 



Sheikh Asad Ali, and 
four otliers. 



Section !). Act 
I. of 1S78. 

Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 



Ditto 



Jaunpur 


Jamua Kasera,and four 

others. 
Afghan Khan, juggler - 


Ditto 
Ditto 




Gorakhpur 


Ramjan Khan, service - 


Ditto 




Ditto 


Babu Khan, service 


Ditto 


- 


Ditto 


Subrat Julaha 


Ditto 




Lucknow 
Ditto 


jMussamut Xazirjan, and 

others. 
Kurini Khan, Pathan - 


Ditto 
Ditto 




Ditto 


!M;anjo Wasikadar 


Ditto 




Ditto 


Karini Buksh 


Ditto 


- 


Ditto 


AA'aztr Jaincha 


Ditto 




Ditto 


Shankar Zardos 


Ditto 


. 


Ditto 


Mohamad Hussain Sayad 


JiiUo 


■ 


Ditto 1 - 


Murli TeJi 


Ditto 




Ditto 


Mayah Hussain 


Ditto 




Kheri 
Bahraich 


Gur Parshad Shah, and 

five others. 
Jhabbn Khan, labourer 


Ditto 
Ditto 






Majju, labourer 


Ditto 





f Illicit manufacture and 
1 < sale of madu,]:, 4-i tolas 

C in wei^bt. 

lllicil saly of opium and, 
\ chanclu. 

Sale of kcvTrira and opium 

Illicit sale of chandu- 

kfewam. 
Illicit sale of cliandu and 

opium. 
Illicit sale of chanduand 

opium. 
Illicit sale of cliandu 

Illicit sale of kewam- 

madak. 
Illicit sale of kewam- 

iiiadak. 
Illicit sale of chandu 

Ditto 

Illicit sale of madak - 

Illicit sale of kewam- 

opiuTii. 
Selling: chandu without 

license- 
Illicit sale of chandu and 

kewam. 

Illicit sale of chandu and 

kewam. 
Illicit sale of chandu 

Illicit of sale of madak 



Illicit sale of cliandu 



Ditto . 

Illi'irnl sale of chandu, 13 

niMshav, 
lUcL^ai s;ile of chandu, ^ 

WL-itrlit, chandu, 5 

maslifis. 
Illicit sale of chandu 

Ditto 

Illicit snle of chandu, 17 

pico M'eip;ht with vessel. 

Illicit sale of chaiulu, 

and jiossfssmn or illicit 

lipunii. [Is, ■)-?! ill \\'c)fi:lit. 



Illicit sale of chandu, 
JN. 14- ]Sn. in weight, 



Illi'^';il ])("isscs.sion of 

cliandu, Rs. 4i m W('if;-hl . 
lilifit manufacture and 

saliM.t ]\t-j]-A cliandu. 
lll-'ical possession of 

clirindu, l^tola. 
Illf'.iral possession of 

chandu. 4 niashas. 
Illegal possession of 

cliandu, I seer tiiadak, 

T beer kafa. 
Possession and «ale of 

chandu, 1 tola. 
IVissc'^^Mnn of opium and 

eliaiulu : opium, 2i tolas, 

I'liaiidii. 5 tolas. 
IVlsscssioii nf oiiiuni, and 

sale of cliandu. 
I'osscsMoii of iipiuiii, and 

sale n| chandu 
Po^ses^a.n of opium, and 

s;dc ol chandu ; opium, 

■!■' tolas; cliandu, 2i 

tolas. 
Possession of opuim, and 

sale of chandu. 4?, tolas. 
Possession of opium, and 

side of chandu, 8 raashas 

chandu. 
Possession of opium, and 

sale of chandu, 2 toljLs. 
Possession of opium and 

sale of chandu, 2^ tolas. 
Possession of opium, and 

sale of chandu. 
Illegal sale of chandu 

Ditto 



r(l.) One year's ri- 

< gorous 
U3.) ditto 

(l.J Ten weeks' ri- 
gorous, (2.) discharged 
Two weeks' rigorous - 

Discharged 

Three months' ri- 
gorous. 
Three weeks' rigorous 

Discharged 



Two months' rigorous 

One months' rigorous 

Two months' rigorous 

(1.) Discharged (2.) 

live weeks' rigorous. 

Six nionilis' rigorous - 

Three ditto 
Discharged 

Eight weeks' nfz;orous 



{!.) Three months' ri- 
gorous, (2.) 15 aays' 
simple. 

Three months' rigor- 
ous each. 

Discharged 

Six \\'ecks' rigorous - 



Rs. a p. 
20 



Amount of 

Reward 

paid to 

Informers 

and Appre- 

1 lenders. 



Us. a. p. 





— 


2'} 








25 


n 


2S 








30 





30 










- 


19 










— 


- 


- 




2,-, 





20 








23 





25 








30 





30 








30 





30 








25 





30 








30 





32 










— 


20 








50 
or default four 
weeks' rigorous 


- 


~ 





20 
n default two 
weeks' rigorous 


20 
20 


10 
each. 


25 



One year's ric'urous 


100 








100 








iJischarged 


~ 








- 




- 


40 








20 








(1.) Two months' 


10 








~| 






rigorous. 














(2,1 One month's 


2 








y 10 








rigorous. 














{'.i.) One month's 


2 





D 


J 






rigorous. 














(4, J lliscliarL'Pil - 


- 


- 




- 


- 




(1.) Three months' 


10 








~1 






rigmuus. 














(2.) Six weeks' rigor- 


o 


u 











ous. 

(3.) Discharged - 


_ 


_ 




>- 15 








(4.) Six weeks' rigor- 


5 














ous. 








J 






(j.) Six weeks' rigor- 


5 












ous. 














Discharged 

■ 


5 










_ 




- 











3 









Three months' rigor- I 

OU.S. 1 

Four months' rigorous 

Six ditto 

Three ditto 



20 



20 



j Pour iiiniif lis" rigorous 

EiKlit ditto 

Pour [ditto 
One year's rigorous 

Ditto 

Ditto 
."^ix months' rigorous 
Discharged 



20 





20 





- 




2ft 





70 





20 





20 





_ 




- 




20 





15 


ft 


20 






60 
100 
•to ft 



25 
10 



APPENDIX. 



97 



APPENDIX VII. 



APP. VII. 
Bae Bareli. 



Note on Poppy Cultivation in the Eae Baeeli District by Mr. D. C. Baillie, Settlement Officer. 



1. The B;ae Bareli District is the most important as 
regards poppy cultivation in the N.-W. Provinces and 
Oudh. The accompanying Statements A. and B. com- 
pare the area under poppy, and the income to cul- 
tivators from the poppy crop, with the total cultivated 
area and the rental and land revenue of the district. 
Poppy is in general, but by no means invariably, grown 
on land which has been fallow throughout the rains. 
Its importance as regards the area occupied is indicated 
by a per-centage figure lying between that shown in 
the Statement A. as on the total cro]) area and that on 
the total cultivated area. At present poppy probably 
occupies an area equivalent to 3J per cent, of the total 
cultivation. 

2. As regards income the past five years have on the 
whole been unfortunate ; the best of them, 1889-90, is 
as compared with previous years only average. In 
Statement B. I have taken into account only licit 
income from poppy cultivation. The illicit income, 
especially to the less reliable class of cultivators, is by 
no means negligeable. As regards the best class of 
cultivators, the income from sale of illicit opium is 
not large, their dependence on the opium cultivation 
being too great to permit Ihem to run any risk in 
selling illicitly. Almost all cultivators probably keep 
back a comparatively yevj small quantity of opium for 
medical use in their own families. Statement B. 
shows that in a year of average prosperity like 1889-90 
poppy, though in extent less than 4 per cent, of the 
cultivation, pays the whole of the laud revenue of the 
district and 40 per cent, of the rental. A rough 
estimate of the total value of the agricultural produce 
of the district shows that the poppy crop in tin average 
year may be valued at nearly 9 per cent, of the gale 
price of the total produce, deducting the rental and 
working expenses. The available surplus from poppy 
bears a far higher ratio to that for the other crops of 
the district, but I am not prepared to estimate what 
proportion. 

3. It is therefore clear that a most serious Joss would 
be incurred by the cultivators, and through the cul- 
tivators by the landholders of the district, were poppy 
cultivation abolished — unless it were possible to provide 
a substitute crop or crops to take its place, by the 
introduction or extension of which the district surplus 
produce could be raised to the extent it would fall 
from the abolition of poppy. Is this possible ? In my 
opinion it is not. The special features of opium culti- 
vation which render it so specially valuable to Indian 
cultivators are (1.) the high value of the crop per unit 
of area occupied ; (2.) the comparatively small amount 
of labour required, and the fact that labour on poppy is 
m.ainly necessary at seasons when the cultivator has 
time to spare, and that for the best class of opium 
cultivators the labour devoted to opium cultivation 
costs little or nothing. Land for poppy is prepared 
and the seed is sown after the rest of the spring crops 
are down and before irrigation has begun. The opium 
is extracted after cane has been pressed and irrigation 
of spring crops completed, and just before the reaping 
of the opium harvest is begun in earnest. The weeding 
and extraction of the juice is done by the families of 
low caste cultivators, and requires no hired male 
labour whatsoever. It might be considered possible to 
abolish opium cultivation without loss were either of 
two courses possible : {a.) to grow a substitute crop 
with the same available surplus of income, and with 
the same advantages on the same area ; (b.) by extending 
the cultivation of the more valuable crops over a larger 
area than they occupy at present. 

4. The only crops now grown in these provinces to 
any extent which can compare in value per unit of area 
with poppy are (1.) cane, (2.) tobacco, (3.) vegetables. 
As regards cane there can be no doubt of its value to 
the Indian cultivator, and of its beiiig suited to the 
system of agriculture : providing work for the culti- 
vator who "has good bullocks in the hot weather, 
and being pressed when work in irrigating the rabi 
slackens. For an eastern district it is not, however, 
nearly so paying as opium. It wants far more male 
and bullock labour than opium, and provides much less 
for women and children. It interferes also to a con- 
siderable extent with the late watering of the rabi 
" 82810. 



crops. A still more fatal objection to the idea that it 
can be adopted as a substitute for opium is to be fouad 
in the fact that cane is uncertain in the extreme, except 
in stifi' clayey soil with ample irrigation. The crreater 
part of the area of the Eae Bareli District is of light 
soil, in which cane is liable to be destroyed by insects, 
and in which cane cultivation, though tried time after 
time, has been a failure. A local bar to the cultivation 
of cane is almost insuperable in half the district. Oane 
is considered unlucky, and to grow it likely to cause 
the death of a son. The result of this superstition has 
been that though many attempts have been made to 
introduce the cultivation of cane in the Canpuriya 
parganas of this district, the area under it is still 
infinitesimal, and it makes no progress, oven though 
several of these parganas are, in soil, well suited to its 
growth. In Eae Bareli at least any great extension of 
cane cultivation is impracticable for many years. (2.) 
Tobacco need only be briefly mentioned. It is now 
grown on almost as large an area as it can be grown 
on. It can be grown at a profit only on old village 
sites where the soil is impregnated with salt. It is 
never grown elsewhere, and its cultivation cannot 
extend, even did the demand admit of it. (3.) The area 
under vegetables is very small, and yet it is sufficient 
to meet the demand. They take far more labour than 
poppy, and as they have to be carried to bazars or 
towns to be sold, are grown for sale only by a small 
class. 

5. It has now to be considered whether it is possible 
to extend the cviltivation of the more valuable crops, 
such as wheat, over a considerably larger area than 
they now occupy. For wheat in this district the area 
to make up for loss 'from poppy would have to be 
doubled. It maybe at once said that this is impossible, 
as the small size of the holdings in the district, and the 
large cultivating population which has, as a first 
charge, to be fed from the holdings, has made the 
restriction of the area under the cheap food grains 
used by the cultivators and labourers themselves 
impossible. 

6. To estimate the effects of the abolition of opium 
cultivation in the district it is necessary to inquire 
more clearly into the circumstances of opium culti- 
vation and opium cultivators. The loss would not be 
spread uniformly over the district and its population. 
Opium is of the highest importance to certain classes 
of cultivators only. It is' of the highest importance in 
probably less than 60 per cent, of the villages of the 
district. The loss would, therefore, being restricted in 
area, fall with extreme severity on certain classes and 
areas. I am unable to give district figures showing 
exactly the distribution of opium cultivation, but how 
important the cultivation is to certain classes will be 
clear from Statement C, in which figures are collected 
from certain villages in tahsil Salon, in which poppy 
cultivation is of high importance. Some of these 
villages are exceptional, but they are exceptional only 
that in them are collected an unusually large proportion 
of the close cultivating castes which grow poppy best. 
The circumstances of the individual culti\ators in these 
villages are similar to those of culti-\-ators of a similar 
class throughout the distiict. It will be observed that 
throughout these villages the area of the holdings is 
extremely small, and the rental even for a high rented 
district like Eae Bareli (the district incidence per acre 
being Es. 5-12) the rent is in general very high, and 
for the opium cultivators the proportion of income from 
opium very large. These circumstances are general 
amongst the castes which cultivate opium throughout 
the district. 

7. What is considered a fair rent in India is, I 
believe, the surplus produce after defraying cost of 
production and maintaining the cultivator and his 
family in the standard of comfort to which they are 
accustomed. A large holding would mean a large 
surplus and therefore a comparative high rent, and a 
comparatively high standard of comfort. Eeduoing the 
size of the holding without reducing the rent would 
lower the standard of comfort. Reducing the value of 
the produce would have the same effect (if rents did not 
at once fall) of greatly reducing the standard of com- 
fort of the cultivators. The figures for some of the 
villages in Statement 0. indicate how severe would be 

N 



98 



TNDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION; 



Arp. VIII. the effect on the people affected. In Jnsauli, for in- 
RaeBareli. stance, it would imply the loss of oue-flfth of the 
income of the village as a whole, and a considerahly 
larger proportion for many of them. There is not, in 
my opinion, the least doubt that the removal of Lho 
income from opium cultivation would rfdnoe almost 
the whole of the Murais, Lodhs, and Kurniis, and a 
large proportion of the Ahirs and Ohamars in this 
district from the condition of comparatively well-to-do 
people to that of day labourers living from hand to 
mouth, or force them to emigrate, not, in itself a bad 
thing, but a course which would be followed only after 
years of suffering. As to what the tenants say them- 
selves I have frequently made notes. Murais have 
told me that in the Nawabi they, \vith difficulty, piiid 
low rents and lived in poor circumstances, and that 
since they have taken to opium cultivation the) have 
been able to live in comfort and give thoir daughters a 
suitable portion. Several men have told me that if 
opium cultivation were abolished " 'iiav na.n Itirl-r 
niarjaenge " (our small children will die). The effect 
on high caste tenants will be by no means so great. 
Opium cultivation is expensive for them, and the 
proiits therefoie smaller. The}' would lose a small 
snrplus they now find useful, and they wovild lose a 
resource in time of trovible by which they can now raise 
some funds. Of this resource we have an excellent 
illustration this year. .Since the opium settlements 
were made part of the autumn crop turned out to be a 
failure, and many of the tenants are hard up. They 
have in consequence taken to opium, and every village 
is sowing in excess of the area contracted for. 

8. Landlords would be affected by the fall in rents of 
the opium -growing tenants, whose small holdings could 
no longer pay the rents they no do. Land revenue 
would have to fall also. It is difficult to estimate the 
loss which would accrue in ihis way to Government, 
but it would certainly be close on to two lakhs of 
rupees. • 

9. It may be asked in what Rae Bareli is peculiar in 
that opium cultivation is so necessary to it. There are 
western districts which grow no opium, and yet in 
which rent is quite as high as in Rae Bareli. The diffe- 
rence is in the size of the holdings. In Bulandshahr a 
tenant holds probably three times as large an area as a 
tenant does here. The large holding, as already re- 



marked, can pay a full rent with ease, whereas a small 
holding could not. Bae Bareli is one of the districts in 
which the pressure of agricultural population is most 
dense. It is distinguished from the eastern districts 
in which I have served by a difference in the inci- 
dence of the rent, which fully explains the greater 
extent to which tenants h^rc have t:ilvcn to opium 
cultivation. 

10. Several points in connexion w ith opium cultiva- 
tion have not been referred to above, but deserve 
notice. One of them is the system of advances, which 
plays a most important part in connexion with the 
collection of rent and revenue in the district. About a 
lakh of rupees are distributed annually in August, at a 
time when both touauts and landlords are worst off for 
ready money. The autumn rent collections would 
sutler from the absr^nco of these advances, and many 
tenants, now free from debt, be drirrn to get their seed 
from grain-lcmlers, on condition of repayin.L; it six 
months afterwards with interest at .50 jDer cent. 

11. An opinion appears to prevail that the influence 
of Government officers has to be exerted to get tenants 
to cultivate. Here at least the opj)Osite is the case, 
and tenants who are pre\euted from cultivating make 
the greatest efforts to regain permission to do so. To 
indticc cultivators to t.iko U23 on a largo scale a system 
of cultivation the advantanus of which arc not clear to 
them requires more influence than Grovernmenc officers, 
without positive compulsion, could exert. Many officers 
in positions of very much more influence than the 
opium employes have tried to ]iromi)te caue cultivation, 
but have altogether failed. 

12. The oi)inion of the tenants of the district as to 
opium culti\ ation has already been referred to. They 
thoroughly realise its importance to themselves. 

13. Landholders I find often fail to understand the 
intimate connexion between poppy cultivation and 
rent. Some of them, by no means the best, object to 
the opium ofiicerB inquiring minutely into the circum- 
stances of their ti'uants, and trying tu aid oppressed 
tenants. The more intelligent landlords I have con- 
sulted entirely agree with the opinions I have above 
recorded. I have never yet met tenant or landlord 
who was prr]iared to suggest how the loss of opium 
revenue A\as to be compensated foi', or expressed any 
willingness to bear his share of the burden. 



Statement comparin! 



STATEMENT A. 

' the Area under the Poppy Crops in the Rae Bareii Distiikt for the past Five Tears with 
the total Crop and other Areas. 



Year. 



1888-89 (9(1 fixsli) 
1889-90 (97fasli) 
1890-91 C98 fasti) 
1891-92 (99 fasli) 
1892-9.3 (1,300 fasli) 



Poppy. 



Acres. 
22,559 
25,449 
26,132 
21,847 
21,061 



Total Crn[i 
Area. 



827,393 
833,211 
S(i3,y93 
785,132 
785,748 



Total 
Cultivated 

Area. 



Acre.s. 

597,180 

594,011 

586,219 

582,563 

581,146 



( rops only. 



Per-centafje , Pir-tintage i Per-centage 
oil whole i.n Culti- ' on Eabi 

Crops. j vated An-a. Crop Area. 



.Vcie.s. 

370,199 

357,891 

354,419 

334,132 

332,266 



3-54 
3-25 

2-78 
2T,7 



3-77 

4-28 
4-45 
3*75 
3-62 



6-09 
7-11 
7-37 
7-53 
6-33 



Explanation of Variations. 

(1.) Reduction of cultivation was ordered in lS:i(), 
and was cHected by excluding cultivation unprofitable 
to the Department in general, by high caste tenants, in 
land not properly prepared or suited for poppy. 

(2.) A bad yea'r in poppy cultivation tends to reduce 
the area cultivated in the succeeding year. The last 
three years have all been poor. 

(^^ A bad year for other cultivation tends to raise 
the pop])y area in the succeeding year or harvest, e,;/., 
loss of se\ iral crops during the autumn Just jjassed has 



induced cultivators throughout the district to sow opium 
largely m excess of their engagements to make up for 
the loss sustained. 

(4.) Settlement operations lieiug in progress has 
induced landowners, as far as possible, to keep down 
the cultivation m their villages. A large iioppy area is 
a sign of rent-paying capacit\ . and ihev are unwilling 
that the area, should be up to averao-e whilst settlement 
measurements and inspection are iii pi-o£;ress. 

(5.) Variations as a rule affect only the inferior poppy 
cultivation by high caste tenants 



APPENDIX. 



m 



STATEMENT B. 

SiATEStENT showing tke Land Eevbnue, Rent, and Value of Poppy in the Eab Baeeli Disteiot for the past 

Five Tears. 



Year. 


Land Revenue. 


Departmental 
Payments 
for Opium. 


Add Value 

of Seed at 

Rs. 10 per 

Acre. 


Total Value 
of Poppy. 


Proportion 
to Land 
Revenue. 


Proportion 
to Rent. 


Rental 
Demand. 


1888-89 
1889-90 
1890-91 
1891-92 
1892-93 


Rs. a. p. 
12,40,030 3 5 
12,43,731 14 5 
12,41.689 3 .5 
12,39,865 12 5 
12,44,709 13 5 


Rs. 
7,22,917 
10,90,503 
7,46,492 
5,74,696 
6,78,934 


Rs. 
2,25,590 
2,54,480 
2,61,320 
2,18,470 
2,00,620 


Es. 

9,48,507 

13,44,983 

10,07,812 

7,93,166 

8,79,554 


76-49 
108-14 
81-16 
63-97 
70-66 


30-99 
43-94 
32-82 
26-37 
29-06 


Rs. 

30,59,963 
30,60,553 
30,70,265 
30,11,644 
30,26,616 



Rbmaeks. 

(1.) Variations in area have been explained under 
Statement A. 

(2.) Variations in produce are due to tlie somewhat 
precarious nature of tlie poppy crop : — 

(a.) It is ruined by even a slight hailstorm which 
would not materially deteriorate other crops. 

(6.) It is sensitive to frost. 

(c.) It is particularly sensitive to rain. Over irriga- 
tion, or rain after irrigation, is very injurious. 



Kain whilst the poppy is in flower injures the crop 
by preventing full fertilisation ; rain while the 
poppy is being extracted wastes olT a large part of 
the yield of opium. 

(K.) The last three years have been particularly un- 
fortunate for poppy. 1889-90, the yield of which was 
considerably higher than in any other year above shown, 
was only, as compared with preceding years, an average 
one. 



App. vii. 

Has Bareli. 



STATEMENT C. 
Giving figures regarding (Jpi0m Cultivation in certain typical Villages in the Rae Bareli Disteici. 





Total 
Culti- 
vated 
Area. 


Tenant 
Area. 


Number 

of 
Tenants. 


Average 
Ai-ea of 
Hold- 
ing. 


Number 

of 
Opium 
Tenants. 


Poi)p.V 
Area. 


Per-cent- 

age of 
Poppy on 
Culti- 
vated 
Area. 


Rental. 


Tenants' 
Rent-rate. 


Land 
Revenue. 


Estimate 
of Value 

oJ 
Produce. 


Value of Poppy Crops. 


Village. 


Opium 
Pay- 

., . ments. 


Seed. Total. 

1 '■" 


1. Jasauli 


Acres. 
152 


Acres, 
100 


32 


Acres. 
3 


23 


Acres. 
18 


11-84 


Rs. 

908 


Rs. a. p. 
9 12 


Rs. 
296 


Rs. 
3,866 


Rs. 
1,306 


Rs. 
190 


Rs. 

1,486 


3. Katra - 


. 1,017 


1,126 


187 


6 


176 


108 


10-61 


6,807 


6 


1,862 


27,221 


5,483 


1,161 


6,644 


3. Negohan 


163 


161 


56 


3 


45 


19 


12-41 


1,072 


7 1 7 


326 


4,927 


1,191 


221 


1,412 


1. Shukrullapur 


216 


160 


60 


2J 


48 


22 


10-23 


1,098 


6 13 


400 


6,512 


899 


310 


1,'209 


5. Mohanganj 


343 


348 


163 




71 


10 


5-63 


2,169 


6 3 8 


865 


7.976 


1,092 


480 


1,672 


6. Khanpur or 
Beerbhanpur. 


363 


463 


300 


li 


63 


46 


12-39 


3,987 


8 9 9 


668 


18,399 


856 


617 


1,372 


7» Besaia - 


650 


654 


410 


14 


101 


4(j 


7-07 


3,63-2 


6 8 10 


1,417 


14,986 


1.286 


792 


2,077 


8. Matilta 


3S2 


393 


Hi : 2i 


0-1 


03 


13-61 


2,885 


7 6 6 


1,000 


13,691 


1,621 


588 


2,169 


9. Beoli - 


484 


346 


i(;8 ; 3 


70 


17 


9-71 


2,933 


8 7 6 


1,125 


16,130 


1,000 


644 


1,644 


10. Easulpur 


1,272 


1,169 


260 i 4 


300 


163 


13-02 


7,376 


6 4 11 


2,240 


35,540 


4,738 


1,786 


6,624 



APPENDIX VIII. 



Atp. Vlll. 
Lucknow Shops, 



(Handed in by Mrs. J. G. Hauseh.) 
The LuoKNOw Opium Shops, January 10th, 1894. 



The seven shops visited during the day were all 
about alike, from fi to 10 feet square. The floor 
of mud, some •! feut above the level of the road, 
all very dirty. The shoplveeper sat on a bit of mat 
with two or three packages of opium and a cash box 
beside him, also some bits of paper for wraping the 
opium as sold. 

In the first shop in Agha Mirki Deori were three men 
beside the shopkeeper, one of them particularly 
miserable as to clothing, health, and scarcely enough 
spirit to sit up. He held a Mahomedan rosary in his 
fingers which he dropped two or three times from sheer 
stupidity. Li\'es by beggiug, and uses one anna a day 
of opium when he can get so much money. The other 
women were middle-aged and very thin. 

Other purchasers came up, one of them a young man 



belonging to a Kawab's family- He receives Rs. 7 a 
month pension, looked most wretched and was obliged 
to rest his head on the platform while his opium was 
weighed out, then hastened away to use it. 

One man said he used daily one anna of opium and 
half pice of parched grain ; would rather have opium than 
food. All pronounced the habit very bad, and would 
be glad to be rid of it that they might expend the 
money for food. Said it was the fault of their parents 
who had given it to them in childhood. The shop- 
keeper said tbat as long as opium was sold it would be 
used, but it would be "sab log ko bahut faida" — a 
great benefit to the people if the shops were closed. He 
took pains to uncover his license board, which was 
covered for the time with a blanket. The license 
board is seen in all the shops. A boxwala, an itinerant 
notions vendor, who lived in the neighbourhood, came 

N 2 



100 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. VIII. 
tjuckno-w Shops. 



up witli his two children to see what we wished in snch 
a place. He and his children looked healthy and happy. 
He said he did not nse opium, not even gave it to his 
children; and his comfortable, cheerful appearance 
was in strong contrast to the miserable creatures 
about us. 

At second shop in Ahyagunj about a dozen men 
sitting in the shop, some eating parched grain, and 
some stirring their opium in small bowls preparatory to 
drinking. Many more buyers came up. One of them, 
a most miserable, middle-aged man, his clothing in 
rags, his countenance besotted. He spent two pice daily 
on opium. On being asked how his family lived, he 
said that he earned rupees two a month, spent one for 
opium, two iiunas for rent, and had 14 annas, or less 
than two pice a day to feed himself and daughter. He 
regretted the little food, but could not live without the 
opium. What must the daughter suffer, who had not 
even the efTeot of opium to dull the pangs of hunger. 
A cleanly dressed, grey haired old man, intelligent 
looking, but very thin, came up for his daily allowance 
of one anna of opium because it was his taqdir, fate, but 
the habit was no good, only very bad, entirely bad, an 
evil " Shaitani " — from the devil, and they would be 
much better off if they never had opium, but as a slave 
of the habit what could he do, who would cure him 'i 
He was greatly grieved at the increased cost. In the 
King's time, Wajid Ali Shah, which he lemembered, 
opium Avas four rupees a seer, and many used it. Now 
it is Es. 20 a seer, and very many more people use it ; this 
in reply ti) a direct question. On asking why it is so 
much dearer, the shopkeeper particularly, and others 
joining, explained, " tSarkar ke liye " for the Govern- 
ment, and also that since the smoking shops had been 
closed, the shopkeeper had been obliged to raise the 
price to meet the license. The old man said that it cost 
him an anna to produce the desired intoxication. If 
the Government prohibited the sale they then would 
suffer and thousands would die. 1 pointed to the eight 
or ten children standing around, and laughingly ask, 
"Would it not be better if such old opium slaves as 
" yourself should die, that these children may be 
" saved," to which with a laugh and shrug he 
answered, " Beshak," without doubt. By all the crowd, 
both in the shop and on the street, the custom of the 
mothers giving opium to their children was gi-eatly 
denounced, and yet saying, " W^liub could a poor woman 
" do with a crying baby." 

At two shops ill the Chauk, no customers, as it was 
the busiest time of the day. 

At a shop near entrance of Hosainabad only two men 
sitting in the shop, but an hour or more later, on 
returning I'rom Bais Manzil, there were eight or more 
buyers, mostly very miserable. One young man, com- 
fortably dressed, with an intelligent face, Ijut showing 
the eti'eot of opium, on being asked why he Innk it, 
answered, "'Nasha" — drunkenness. He was smoking 
a hukka, and between whifl's stirring thi' o|iium with 
water in a bowl. A miserable bhisti — water carrier, — 
with wretchedest rags for covering was sitting on the 
ground in front of the shop devouring a half pice worth 
of parched grain. Our coachman who had been ^vaiting 
for us outside the Unls Manzil, has just seen this waier- 
oarrier buy se^cn pice of opium and a half pice (jf corn. 
The ])eo])le about said this w.ts his daily custom, and 
his appearance was ample evidence of truth. He was 
too eager ovei- the corn, and Ion besotted to tell whnl- 
bis family had tn -al . An old woman cmiie alonn- 
carrying a hukka and cnnl stand, such as is n^■e(l in 
selling smukes tn passers-by. This w;is her means of 
livelihood. Her ffowing rags were miserable, and her 
countenance haggard. .She bought her daily allowance 
of four pice of opium. Her veil and the gi'eat folds of 
tier divided skirt were burned in dozens of places. The 
bystanders said that she was usually so stupid from 
opium that she was constantly dropping the lighted 
coals on her dress, to which statement she assented. 
Some blamed their mothers for giving them the habit, 
others began for illness, and could leave oif if they 



would, and gladly go to a hospital where they could be 
assured of cure. 

In the Kais Manzil, a sort of refuge for the aged 
members of the former nolile families, we first met two 
old women, mother and daughter, the latter a grey- 
haired woman. They live on a small pension granted 
the mother. One of them takes a pice of opium in four 
days, and greatly regretted the habit, because of the 
e.xpense. It was began on the doctor's order for sick- 
ness. They would do anything to be free from the bad 
habit, but could not give it up without some medicine 
to carry over the illness that would result from stoppage. 
It is verjr hard for Bvxro]ieans to realise that a quarter 
of pice daily can be any ajipreciable loss in supplying 
food, but these two women expressed their loss empha- 
tically, wailing that they had only the feeble mother's 
jiension to live on, with "' no one to take them by hand 

or loot, only in God is our hope." When it is possible 
Ibr a person to maintain existence on ii pice a day, a 
quarter of a pice even counts. 

At another house in Rais jNIaiizil lives an old opium- 
eater, aged about 60, with his wife. They receive Es. 5 
a month, and he spends Es. 1. for opium. He began 
using opium shortly after the Mutiny. He had just 
had his dose of o])iiim and was finishing his noonday 
meal, so his eyes were bright and he at his best, and 
talked a, great deal. He pointed to his worn poor 
clothing, to the wretched tatters and rajgs which served 
for bedding, to the misery of the damji ]ilaoe where he, 
who had once been a man of means and influence, was 
obliged to live, and all oa account of his opium habit. 
He would gladly leave it off if any medicine could be 
given which would cure him. If he lessened his dose to 
any extent, or did without, in two or three days dysentery 
would set in, and jirobably death. He complained 
gi-eatly that he could afford but one meal a day for 
himself and wife, he was heavily in debt, and could not 
work either with opium, or without it. 

bhop in Aminabad. eight or ten people sitting in the 
sho]), among them t\vo women. Many came to buy ; 
those in the shop mostly too stupid to talk. (Jne or two 
talked, saying tlaat opium was only a harm. On askino- 
how some of the most miserable buyers got money, the 
reiily was by begging. Many go out at night to beg as 
they are quite sleepless, and during the day too duU 
with ojiium. 

Another shop in Aminabad full ef men aittino', some 
evidently having taken their dose, others jireparingit in 
a little bowl. Crowds -srere coming and going. I have 
often passed this shop and wonderedwhat the people were 
so eager about as they stood in f rcmt. One rather young 
man of most haggard a]i])earance,came U]i and offered his 
]iice, then was obliged to sit on the ground until his 
opium was weighed. A bright young man who belonged 
to the neighbourhood and knew thoi)eoi)le began telling 
about them. I asked him how the wretch at our feet 
was ever able to get money for ojiium. The reply was 
he never works, his sister dances and earns the money 
for both, giving her brother two annas a day for opium. 
Another buyer belonged to a class of Brahmin priests 
and gets his money by begging, others were night 
beggars. One very pretty, well-dressed girl of eight 
or nine ca.me into the miserable crowd to buy for some- 
one in the house. A mother cami> to buy for her baby, 
and a father for his baby, carried by .an elder boy that 
already liKiked a physical wreck, an elderly man from 
Hais Manzil for opium which his wife would have 
for her baliy ; and many others of all shades of 
misery. 

In conversation later with a ciunpaiiy of Mahome- 
dans, men who are much interested in the daily news 
of their country, they said, "We know that there are 
" many people who care for our good, but the Govern- 
ment cares only for the revenue and not for the 
' pec. pie." 



January 11 th, 1.S94. 



.Tennette G. Hausee. 



APPENDIX. 



101 



APPENDIX IX. 



(Handed in by Mr. T. Gobdon Walker, Commissioner of Excise in the Punjab.) 
Memokandtjm on the System of Excise on Opium in the Punjab, with Details of Consumption, 4c. 



' Arp. IX. 
Punjab Excise, 



Opium Supply. 

The system of excise with regard to opium which is 
, , . , in force in the Punjab differs (at least 

80 lar as the matter of sujiply is con- 
cerned) a good deal from that in other provinces. The 
main feature of the Punjab system projjer is that the 
production of the drug is subject, until it comes into 
the hands of the licensed vendors, to taxation in the 
shape of an acreage duty on poppy cultivation only. 
The cultivation of the poppy is controlled, but there is 
no interference with the manufacture of the drug. The 
rest of the taxation is taken in the form of license fees 
payable by the dealers. 

The above may be accepted as describing the original, 
and what is still the principal, 
enumemted.""'''' °' ^"'^'^''' feature of the system. But it 
has been somewhat obscured and 
the system a good deal complicated by developments 
intended to meet certain special circumstances. lu 
the matter of supply (1) the produce of our own districts 
has been for long supplemented by (2) opium produced 
in the territories of the Kashmir State and in the petty 
Hill States under the political control of the Punjab 
Government, and (3) opium imported from foreign 
territory beyond the Indus to the west. Opium from 
these two latter sources is practically treated as if it 
had been produced in the province, or rather it is 
more favourably treated, because it pays no acreage 
duty. I may here mentioji. that proposals were made 
two years ago and are still under the consideration of 
higher autliority for levying an import duty on (2). 
The supply of (3) is very small. The other sources 
of licit supply are (4) Malwa opium, of which the 
import by dealers is allowed to a defined extent on 
payment of a reduced duty at the Ajmere scales ; and 
(5) a comparatively limited quantity of excise opium 
is supplied by the Bengal Government for issue to 
licensed vendors. There has, besides the above, been 
till within the last three or four years, a very con- 
siderable illicit import of opium from Nepal and 
Malwa. 

3. These various sources of supply will be examined 
in detail ; but I may first give 
Opium -from KashirJr, &c. tjjg following explanation with 
treated as liome-groivn. - ". ^„ 

regard to opium trom sources 

(2) and (3) enumerated above. The definition of Punjab- 
grown opium in the existing rules [1 (xiii)] is to this 
effect : — " Punjab-grown opium means (1) opium 
" manufactured from the i^oppy plant grown in those 
" parts of the Punjab in which the cultivation of the 
" plant is permitted, and (2) opium manufactured 
" from the poppy plant grown in Kashmir or in any 
" Native State under the political control of the 
" Punjab Government, except the States of Bahawalpur 
" and Loharu, the Bahawal, Kanti Narnaul, Kanaundh, 
" and Dadri parganas of the Nabha, Patiala, and Jind 
" States, and the Nhhar villages of the Dujana, States." 
The reason for these exceptions is that the tracts 
enumerated adjoin directly the tei-ritory of the Kaj- 
putana States without the intei-vention of Punjab 
districts. Eule 26 provides that "Punjab grown opium 
' . . . may be imported by licensed vendors 
' . . farmers and holders of licenses for whole- 
' sale vend . . from Kashmir and from all 

' native States or parts of native States under the 
' political control of the Punjab Go^-ernment, excepting 
' the States of Bahawalpur, &c. " (as above). 

Again, under Rule 25 (iii) " opium produced in 
" foreign territory situated to the west of the Indus 
" may be imported by licensed vendors 
" and farmers and holders of . . . licenses for 
" wholesale vend . . . after they have procured 
" from the Deputy Commissioner of the district in 
" which they are licensed to sell opium a written 
" permit authorising such import." The result of the 
arrangements described in the above definition and in 
the rules quoted is that opium from sources (2) and (3) 



comes into our districts free of duty and becomes, at 
all events so far as our system of excise is concerned, 
undistinguishablo from (1). With regard to (2) at least 
it may be said that opium from this source is part of the 
home-grown supply. 

4. Another point which I may mention is that the 
opium falling under heads (11, 

sup^lj. «1p?;red^o"?.SJrab f )> ^^^^ (^l is not all retained 
native States. tor consumption in ourdistricts. 

A very considerable portion of 
it finds its way through any districts into the territories 
of the native States under the political control of the 
Punjab Government which are situated in the plains. 
This transport is specially provided for by the Provincial 
rules. 



Cultivation of the Poppy and Pkoduction of Opium 
and Poppy-heads in Punjab Disikicts. 



S.vstem under which tlie 
cultivatiun o£ the poppy is 
regulated. 

• Delhi, Gui'Kiion Rohtak, 
Hissar, the greater part ot 
Karnal and part of Ferozepore. 



5. The cultivation of the poppy is permitted (under a 
license taken out free of charge 
for each crop) throughout the 
Punjab, except in the district 
and parts of districts noted in 
the margin* (the old " Delhi 
territory"), in which it has 
for long been prohibited. The 

total area under poppy cultivation has usually been 
from 12,000 to 1.5,000 acres ; but there are really only 
five opium-producing districts, viz., Umballa, Simla, 
Kangra, Shahpur, and Dera Ghazi Khan. In the 
remaining districts in which the plant is grown opium 
is either not extracted, or if it is extracted, only a 
small quantity of the drug becomes available for sale 
by licensed vendors, the rest being surreptitiously 
disposed of; and the produce is consumed in the shape 
of poppy-heads (post), either illicitly or after passing 
through the hands of licensed vendors. The cultivator 
may either dispose of his poppy crop standing to 
license holders, or extract the opium himself, and 
dispose of this or of the produce in the shape of poppy- 
heads to licensed wholesale or letail vendors ; but 
consumption of home produce is now a punishable 
ofi'ence. The home-grown supply of opium has, accord- 
ing to the estimates, varied from 1,200 to 2,000 maunds 
23er annum according to the season ; and the whole 
consumption of post or poppy-heads, the sale of which 
is covered by the same licenses as that of o|)ium, is 
met from the area under poppy in British districts and 
adjoining native States. The cultivation of the poppy 
was subject to an acreage duty at the rate of Bs. 2 per 
acre throughout the province from 1860, when this 
system was first introduced up to 1889. Under the 
present rules (1889) power has Ijeen taken to enhance 
this duty up to Us. 8 an acre ; and in view of the illicit 
practices prevailing in connexion with the cultivation 
of the crop, the duty has been I'aised to Re. 4 an acre 
(or Rs. 1 for every quarter of an acre or fraction 
thereof) in 21 districts ; while in the five upium-pro- 
ducing districts (and in Gujrat, as to which see para- 
graph 9) it still remains at Es. 2 an acre. 

6. Thus in six districts popjjy cultivation is allowed 

at the old duty of Es. 2 an 
Opiura-produeirg districts. ^^^^ ,g ^^^^^ f^^, ^^.^^^ quarter 

of an acre or smaller area). In four entire districts 
and parts of two others it is entirely prohibited. In 
the rest of the province the acreage duty has been 
enhanced by Punjab Government Notifications, No. lOOS, 
dated 20th May 1889, and No. 745, dated 8th April 1891, 
to the rate of Es. 4 an acre (Re. 1 for every quarter of 
an acre or smaller area). Dealing with the first of 
these groups, the following details of area and pi oduce 
during the last 10 years may be given : — 

N 3 



102 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. IX. 
Punjab Bxcise. 





1883-84. 


1884-85. 


1885-86. 


1886-87. 


1887-88. 


DistMt. 


Area in 
Acres. 


Produce of 
Opium in 
Maunde. 

794 
479 
250 
107 

12 

16 


Area in 
Acres. 

2,720 

3,621 

1,651 

803 

247 

442 


I'roduce of 
Opium in 
Maunds. 

476 
489 
224 
100 

19 

20 


Area in 
Acres. 

2,737 

3,127 

1,326 

428 

188 

229 


Produce of 
Opium in 
Maunds. 

479 
425 
117 

51 

14 

28 


Arr-!, in ' Produoe of 
'^"'"'- : Maunds. 


Area in 
Acres. 


Produce of 
Opium in 
Maunds. 


Umballa 

Shahpufr 

Kangra 

Dera Ghazi Khan 

Simla 

Gujrat 


4,635 

2,872 

1,843 

760 

295 

385 


3,174 

2,173 

1,419 

314 

320 

159 


574 

350 

173 

40 

17 

7 


3,598 

2,077 

1,538 

497 

222 

132 


630 

330 

160 

75 

IS 

7 


Total 


10,690 


1,658 


9,484 


1,328 


8,035 


1,114 


7,559 


1,161 


8,064 


1,217 



District. 



Umballa 

Shahpur 

Kangra 

Dera Ghazi Khan 

Simla 

Gujrat 

Total 



1888-89. 



Area Produce of 
in ' Opium in 
Acres. Maunds. 



1889-90. 



Area I'roilureof 
in ! Opium in 
Acres. I Maunds. 



4,026 


632 


4,916 


3,151 


473 


4,005 


1,946 


247 


1,662 


689 ^ 


110 


749 


247 


32 


261 


237 


12 


235 


10,296 


1,506 


11,828 



858 
840 
236 
110 
19 
12 



2,075 



1890-91. 



1891-92. 



Area 

in 
Acres. 



3,223 

3,535 

1,773 

.521 

253 

158 



9,463 



Produce of 


Ai-ea 


Opium in 


m 


Maunds. 


Acres. 



1892-93. 



Produce of I Area 
Opium in in 
Maunds. i Acres. 



_ [ Average 
I Produce 



Produce of per Acre in 
Opium in Seers. 
Maunds. , 



712 
707 
232 
100 
21 
5 



1,777 



3,599 

3,946 

2,001 

617 

255 

141 



10,559 



941 

779 

209 

95 

24 
6 



2,054 



3,316 
3,213 

1,294 

509 

182 

85 

8,599 



508 i 


6 


642 1 


8 


96 


3 


70 


5 



1,327 



Uisliici in which the poppy is 7, "W"ith regard to the 21 districts in which the acreage duty has been enhanced, the 
grown but no opmm produced, following figures show the total area in acres under the crop in caoh of the past 10 
years : — 



1 88.3-84. 


1884-85. 
3,625 


1885-86. 
3,208 


1886-87. 
4,123 


1SS7-8S. 
4,023 


1888-89. 
5,195 


1889-90. 
2,630 


1890-91. 

2,578 


1891-92. 


1892-93. 


5,028 


2,084 


1,258 



In the last Excise Eeport I described the state of 
affairs with regard to poppy cultivatioi\ in those districts 
as follows : — " Even allowing for the fact that the 
" season last year was unfavourable, it seems to me a 
'■ fair conchision that the measures already taken have 
" led to the reduction of this area within very limited 
" dimensions; and I should not be stirprised if tbLTc 
" was a fiircher contraction. Two or three years hence 
" it will be possible to speak with greater certainty nn 
" this point; and in the meantime I am not prepared 
" to recommend the virtual prohibition of cultivation 
" by a further enhancement of the acreage duty. It 
" would be a mistake. 1 think, to take immediate action 
" in this direction. The more gradually such a change 
" is introduced the less likely is it to be felt and 
" regarded as a grievance." 

In several of these districts the area under the <rop is 
really nominal. The details forl892-93 arc as follows : — 



No. 



3 

4 

5 

i; 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 



Name of District. 



Liiliorc 
.Inllunder 
Auultsar 
lloshiari)ur 

•,SiaIl<ot 

■ ll:r/,;ira 
( i njraiJA\ n];i 
>!ui'i1C'.)i\irr'y 
( iurdas|Mir 
Kiiwiiipindi 

K'T'lZCpOIC 

.Iliclum 

iM.H,ll:ili 



Aiea in 

Acres under 

Poppy. 



346 

275 

1(12 

S7 

81 

(;6 

51 
41 

40 
29 

28 
27 







Area in 


No. 


N anie of District. 


Acres under 
Poppy. 


14 


Ludliiana 


21 


l.j 


Peshawar 


17 


16 


Jhang 


9 


17 


Panuu 


5 


18 


Karnal 


3 


19 


IMuzaffurduir 


Q 


20 


Kohiit 


1 


21 


Dera Ismail Khan 


1 



No uni!oriui(,\ w 
rr^^iinl to liiiiirt'^ 
prorUn-u liiul price 
itouiu-Ln-dwii opium. 



The total out-turn from the area under imppy in these 
21 districts was in 1892-'.t" shown as 13 maunds. How 
much wa.r illicitly consumed it is impossible to say. 

8. It may here be observed once for all with regard 
to figures nl' produce that Tt is 
a consequence nf lliu la-ovincial 
systi'iii not involving any direct 
interference with the manufacture 
of the drug, or any direct taxation 
on Hi, Ihaf Micrr is no standard of quality, so that in 
doabng wilh (|ucstiiHis uf oiit-lurn, prior. &c. it is 
practically iiu possible t(j givo any accurate information. 
Thus in the Unil)alla disLrict tlie wholesale | irioc ul' opium 
Iiiht yyur was said in \,v Us. ? a scr. But of ev.ry ser 
puvcliasedby the liceiis«heuil.,rs from tho (jroduoers at 
this in-ice 30 or Id j.er ruut. is made up of imiiurities, 
while there is a oousiderablo loss of weight by 
di\ age ; so that by the tim.j it is refined and ready 
for sale to the consumers it has cost Rs. 12 or 
Bs. 13 a sor. 



APPENDIX. 



103 



Question of poppy 
cultivation in the ("ill 
districtb m wliieli it is 
subject to an L-nhanced 
acreajfe duty. 

Amritsar, Sialkot, 



0. In dealing witli the questions of i)0|)pj cultivation 
and the manufacture of opium it 

Importance of (he [^ necessary to keeii the group of 
ciassiflcaLion of districts j- j • j. j ij. 'xi. ■ i c 

described nl«i\ e. districts dealt ^vith m jiaragraph o 

entirely distinct from those dealt 
with in pai'agraph 7. In the latter wu are really pro- 
ceeding in the direction of imijosing a prohibitive 
acreage duty, while in the former things h:i,ve been 
allowed to remain as they have been from the first. 
The figures given in paragraph 6 will show that the 
greater part of the home-grown supply comes from the 
two districts of Umballa and Shahpur. A considerable 
quantity is produced in the Kuln sub-division of the 
Kangra district and in the Eajanpur sub-division of 
Dera Ghazi Khan. The area under the crop and the 
out-turn of Simla are considerable only with reference 
to the small total area of that district (the total jjopula- 
tion is 44,642) ; while it has practically been decided to 
treat G-ujrat like the other districts mentioned in 
paragraph 7. v 

10. With regard to the 21 districts in which cultiva- 
tion is permitted subject to the 
payment of an enhanced duty, it 
will be obsei'ved that the area is 
made up principally by the central 
districts of the province (Lahore, 
.Julluudur, Hoshiarpur). In an 
Appendix (II.) I have given a brief historical account 
of the growth of the jjresent system. Here it will be 
sufficient to state that until quite recently it had been 
the custom, from time immemorial, we may say, for 
the agricultural population of these districts to grow 
patches of poppy for tlie purpose of supplying what was 
required for their o\vn consumption and that of their 
friends in the form either of opium or of poppy-heads. 
On such consumption there was, under native rule, no 
taxation at all, while there was no sort of restriction on 
the cultivation of the crop. Since annexation in 1849 
the only direct taxation has been in the form of a light 
acreage duty. Moreover, although it was not contem- 
plated that such a practice should be recognised, the 
criminal courts of the province held that under the 
Provincial Opium Rules in force uiJ to 1889 consumji- 
tion of his produce by a gro^\ er was not an offence. 
The existing opium rules which came into force in 1889 
contained two important provisions, (1) distinctly for- 
bidding the consumption by a grower of his produce, 
and making such consumption expressly an offence, and 
(2) giving the Local Government power to enhance the 
acreage duty up to a maximum rate of Es. 8 an acre. 
The object of this latter provision was " to meet the 
" case of those districts in which, although there is a 
" large area under poppy cultivation, the produce of 
" the crop is consumed by the growers or otherwise 
" surreptitiously disposed of principally in the form of 
" post or poppy-heads." Since the new rules were 
passed in 1889 the acreage duty has been enhanced to 
EiS. 4 an acre (or as any area less than a quarter acre 
pays the full duty foi' a quarter really to something 
over Rs. 5) with results, so far as the area under the 
crop is concerned, which have been already described 
in paragraph 7. It seems not at all unlikely that the 
cultivation of the poppy will, with the duty at the 
present rate of Rs. 4 an acre, be practically abandoned 
as unprofitable. In considering the question of poppy 
cultivation in these districts the circumstances referred 
to above must be kept in mind that the agricultural 
population aiFected (which is largely composed of Sikhs) 
have been for a very long time accustomed to grow the 
crop, and that they would certainly resent actual pro- 
hibition. The plan of " taxing out " the cultivation 
appears to me to be a very safe way of dealing with the 
matter, because it is gradual in its operation and at all 
events appears to leave an option. It is too early to 
speak with certainty ; but (see the figures in paragraph 
7) it seems very probable that the result of enhancing 
the acreage duty up to half the maximum limit will be 
to leave a very small portion of the cultivation remain- 
ing a few years hence. The necessity for proceeding 
gradually in such a matter in the Punjab at _ least, 
and of avoiding sudden change where the prejudices of 
a population like that of our Sikh districts are involved 
'will, I think, be apparent. With regard to the last few 
districts in tl^e list at the end of paragraph 7, these 
might at any time be included in the list of districts in 
which cultivation is prohibited if it is considered that 
anything will be gained by doing so. As to the others, 
I think it will be safest to respect the objection noticed, 
although it may appear sentimental, and to avoid the 
Eippearanco of giving offence. 



11 . The object of this memorandum is to give an 
account of the existing arrange- 

.omeopiunTiproS ^^^f l"",.^^^ ^^""^^h '^'^'^ t^i^ 
districts. ctetailecl discussion with regard to 

possible improvements in those 
arrangements would be out of place here. It may, 
however, be mentioned that many years ago experi- 
ments were made with a view to seeing whether it would 
be possible to introduce the Bengal system of a Govern- 
ment monopoly. The result was at once to enow that 
that system could not be worked in tlie PLinjab. 
A part from other considerations affecting the questions, 
and they are very many, it may be noticed that the 
whole business is on much too small a scale to make it 
possible to work a monopoly profitably, while the areas 
producing opium are far apart from each other. One 
peculiar fact about the Punjab opium that may be 
mentioned in this connexion is its comparatively very 
high cost of production. A grower or manufacturer of 
opium in the Punjab could not sell his ]iroduce profit- 
ably at a lower price than Rs. 10 or Rs. 12 a ser, taking 
the standard of quality of Government excise opium. 
Good Shahpur opium (Kachkara) ivill usually fetch 
this price. It is this fact that accounts for the result 
that Malwa opium with a duty of Rs. 3 a ser can com- 
pete with the home-grown drug, and in many districts 
actually undersells it. Even excise opium, of which 
the cost price on issue from the factory is Rs. 7-4 
would probably at a wholesale price of 'Rs. 12 (or perr 
haps even Rs. 13) compete successfully with that 
produced in the Punjab. 

Another circumstance that may be referred to is the 
comparative importance of the poppy crop to the agri- 
cultural population of the tracts in which it in grown. 
It may in a sense be said to be their most important 
crop, because, although the area under popi)y in a 
holding is usually very small, the produce is so valuable 
(Rs. 60 or Rs. 70 an acre) and can be converted into 
cash more readily than any other form of agricultural 
produce. It supplies in most cases the cash required 
to pay the Government revenue demand, with some- 
thing over for the expenses of the grower. As an 
instance of the importance of the crop, the following 
may be given. In 1889 a recommendation was made 
by the Local Government to have the prohibition 
against cultivation which had been (really by mistake^ 
extended to a portion of the Karnal district removed, 
because it was found that the withdrawal of the per- 
mission had seriously affected the prosperity of the 
tract (see letter, No. 331, dated 11th February 1889, from 
the Punjab Government to the Government of India). 

It is certain that if any attempt were made to enhance 
the acreage duty in the opium-growing districts the 
burden of the taxation would fall on the people who are 
least able to bear it, i.e., the cultivators ; and no steps 
in this direction have ever, so far as I am aware, been 
contemplated. No plan has so far been devised of 
imposing a direct duty on the drug produced in the 
districts under reference, all the taxation being taken 
in the form of a low acreage duty and of license fees, 
the incidence of the latter being, as will be seen further 
on very high. 

12. The only other general facts with regard to the 

cultivation of the poppy and 

Producers sell their opium ^^j^g manufacture of opium 

direct to licensed vendors. j.i j. -j. „ ^ i. 

^^^^ ^j. gggjjjj, necessary to 

mention here are that the cultivator either extracts the 
opium himself or sells the standing crop to a middle- 
man. The cultivator or middleman can only sell his 
produce to a licensed (wholesale or retail) vendor, and 
this is the way that it comes into the market. 



App. IX, 
Punjab Excise. 



Opium from Kashmie and the Hill States and from 
Foreign Teekitoby to the West of the Indus. 

13. There is a large import of opium produced in 
Kashmir territory (Jammu) and 
Opium imported from the Hill States under the political 
Kashmir and the Hill control of the Punjab Govern- 
^^rotthelSs. "" ment. This is favourably treated 
in the matter of taxation even in 
comparison with the supply of the drug manufactured 
in our own districts, for it is not subject to an acreage 
tax and jiays no import duty on entering our territory. 
As already stated, proposals were submitted to Govern- 
ment in 1891 (by Jyir. R. M. Dane, Officiating Com- 
missioner of Excise) for imposing an import duty on 
this opium. Mr. Dane collected and submitted the 

K 4 



104 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Arr. IX 
Punjab Excise. 



following statistics uf imi:oi't from this source during 
tlie five years 1S85-90 : — 



Native .states 
Ironi whu'-h 
Imiiorletl. 



Kiiiihmir 

Chamba - 

.ManLli 

Suki't 

Nahan - 

Bampur Baslmhr 

Theog 

Balsan 

■lubbal 

Other Hill States 
of Simla. 

Ivalsia 



Quantity Imported in Maumls 
18SS-80. lS,si;-H7. 1887-88. lS88-8il. 



Total 



7(1 

ai 

■M 
5 

lO.J 
fifl 
D'J 
11 
11 

140 



106 



173 
1 
1 



3.'! — 

113 .-.I 

8 1 

13 0.-, 

11 ! .[» 



13,) 

1 

!1 

.3 

31 

IIBI 

S.J 

12 

St 



113 

1 

10 



.38 

2M. 

78 

171 
30 



Mr. Dane, in Ms rcjiort observed " the opium grown in 
" these States is classed at ])resent as Punjab-groAvii, 
" aud there are, therefore, no statistics available to show 
" what becomes of it as distinguished from the local 
" produce when it jjasses into our districts." It will 
be seen that the quantity of opium coming in from this 
source is very considerable. Bampur (Bashahr), Theog, 
Balsan, and Jnbbal are -very ]ietty States, under the 
control of the Deputy Commissioner, Simla. In the.sc. 
at all events, and, so far as I am aware, in Kashmir, 
there is absolutely no restriction on cultivation or ]iro- 
duction. The produce of the four small states mentioned 
just above and of the other Simla Hill States passes 
thrjugh Simla, a large ])roi)ortion of it going direct to 
Patiala and the other native States in the ])lains ,- and 
the remainder, in the first instance at least, to our 
districts. 

With regard to opinm coming from independent 
territory west of the Indus, it is sufficient lo s;iy that 
there is an occasional consignment of the drug brought 
in from Kabul. Statistics recently collected show that 
the e.xtent of this during the 16 years 1869-85 was 86 
maunds, of which 60 mauuds, however, came in during 
the single year 1882-8y. As a rule the import does 
not exceed 2 or 3 maunds per annum, aud in laany 
years there is no import at all. 



Malwa and Excise Opium. 

14. The question of tlie import of Malwa opium into 
the Punjab has always been con- 
sidered by the Provincial Govern- 
ment as of very great importance. 
The home-grown supply has from the first been insuf- 
ficient for requirements of the ]irovince (incUiding the 
native States in the plains), and in addition to the opium 
coming from the sources referred to in the preceding 
paragra]jh there was a large imjiort from the Bajputana 
States (Malwa) and Nepal. U]) to 1880 this was subject 
to no duty. From that year the licit supply from Nepal 
"was cut off entirely. I'he policy with regard to the con- 
ditions under which the import of Malwa opium since 
1880 should be piermitted may be said to have varied a 
good deal apparently, according as the views of the 
Supreme or of the Local Government have ))revailed. 
There has always been a strong demand for this drug in 
our cis-Sutlej (i.e , south and west of the Sutlej) districts, 
and specially Ludhiana and Ferozepore, and in the terri- 
tories of the Phulkhian States adjoining. Up to the 
passing of the Opium Act, 1878, and tin: framing of rules 
under that Act by the Local Government in 1880 (Punjab 
Government Notification , No. 2, dated 3rd Januai y 1880), 
Malwa opium appears to have come into the province 
very much as Kashmir, &c. opium now does. No. 32 of 
the rules published with the above Notification, ho«'ever, 
provided that a licensed vendor imjiorting Malwa opium 
must pay to Ihe opium agent at Indoro or Ajmero 
"the duty for the time being leviable on Malwa 
" opium imported into the Punjab.'' In submitting 
the Excise Report of the year 1880-81, Sir James 
Lyall (as Financial Commissioner, Punjab, made cer- 
tain remarks on the effect of the change introduced. 



History of the treat- 
ment of Ttlalwa opium. 



The attention of Deputy Commissiouers had been drawn 
to the rule quoted above, " and especially to that part 
" of it which subjected the importation of Malwa 
" opium to a heavy duty " (the full duty of Rs. 700 per 
chest, or lis. 10 a ser), while '• the tonji Malwa opium 
" had been interj^reted as including opium grown in 
" all States belonging to the liajputana Agency" 
(paragraph 22 of the Report). The result of the change 
was a general dislocation of the provincial arrange- 
ments. " The Financial Commissioner still thought 
" that the best solution of the difficulty lay in the 
" import of a limited quantity of Malwa opium into 
' the Punjab at re uced rates of duty." This view was 
accepted for the time, and " the annual import of 1,200 
" maunds of Malwa opium from tlie ludoreand Ajmere 
" Agencies on payment of one quarter of the full duty " 
was agreed to (paragraph 12 of Government Review of 
the Excise Report for 1881-y2). From the financial 
year 1885-36, however, this policy w.as reversed; and 
the privileged treatment of Malwa opium coming into 
the Punjab was withdrasvn. During the thi'ee years 
1885-1888 this source of supply was practically stopped 
by the imposition of the full duty of Rs. 700 a chest, 
and the licit importation ceased, while a great stimulus 
was given to smtiggling, and with effect from 1st April 
1888 it was found necessary to revert to the old arrange- 
ment.^ A reference to a map of tho province will explain 
our difficulties in connexion with this matter. Not only 
is there a long straggling frontier adjoining the Bajpu- 
tana States, Alwar and Bharatpur, which it is practically 
impossible to guard efiiciently, but we have inside the 
l)rovince the territories of Patiala and the other Phulkian 
Chiefs inextricably mixed up with our own. It has 
always^ been the recognised policy of Government to 
avoid interference in all matters of detail connected 
with the internal administration of these States, so that 
when an illicit consignment of opium was safely across 
a few intervening miles of our territory and into that of 
one of the protected States, it was beyond our reach. 
Although we might ask for and obtain the promise of 
their co-operation in the direction of checking the 
illicit trade, the State authorities had really no interest 
in keeping it out, even if they did not actually connive 
at its introduction. Once inside their territories it was 
liractically impossible tokee]i it out of our own districts. 
Sir James Lyall, in the Excise Administration Report 
of 1880-81, from which I have already quoted, observed 
"to check smuggling direct from Rajputana into the 
Punjab will be difficult, while to stop smuggling 
through native States dependent on the Punjab 
" Government will be imj.ossible.'' Some idea of the 
extent of the illicit trade in Malwa opium duriutr the 
])eriod of ])ractical prohibition may be formed Irom 
the occasional seizures of contraband consignments. 
Thus the Deputy Commissioner of Gurgaon°in 1886 
made a seizure of upwards of 1-10 maunds of Malwa 
opium, of which the avowed destinations were in Patiala 
and Jind territory. 

15. It is quite certain that the full duty on Malwa 
E.xistinK arranKement.s Opil^ni ( Rs. 700 a chest, or Rs. 10 
with regard to :Mal\va a ser) is prohibitive for the 
°'""™- Punjab. This fact has now been 

recognised, and the policy has (I hope I may say per- 
manently) been accepted of allowing its imjjort at such 
a reduced duty as to jiut it on something of an equality 
with the home-grown drug. When Government aban- 
doned m 1888 the experiment of keeping i,ut Malwa 
opium, it supplemented the change with a very im- 
portant measure. It recognised that the cis-Sntlej 
native States were under the same necessity as ourselves 
in the matter of obtaining a supply of Mabva opium ; 
and provision was made for this, the duty realised on 
the opium being credited to the native States importing 
it. The existing rules (passed in 1889) provide for the 
im])ort through the scales at Ajmere, where the duty is 
levied, of opium for the Punjab districts and the native 
States at a reduced duty. Rule 28 is as follows :— "So 
" many maunds of Malwa opium as the Government of 
" India may determine may 1h' yearly imported into 
" the Punjab on payment of a duty, he'i em-after called 
'I the reduced duty^ of such amount per chest of 140J lbs., 
" nr half cticst of 70^ lbs., as may from time to time be 
fixed by the Government of fndia and notified in the 
" 'Gazette of India.' Such opium, after deduction of 
" the amount which the Local Government may reserve 
" for import into the native States under the political 
" control of itself, will be allotted annually by the 
" Pmaiioial Commissioner to the ^arious districts of 
" the Punjab." The reduced duty has been fixed at 
Es. 210 per chest (Rs. 3 per ser) ; and the maximum for 



APPENDIX. 



105 



import into the province is, during the current year, 
for import into our districts 400 chests (701 maunds), 
for import into the native States, 150 chests (263 
maunds). 

16. The history of the policy of .Government in regard 

Tj, ■ ■ to excise opium is also a varied one ; 

Excise opium. -u j. 44. „ 1 . ' 

but It seems scarcely necessary in 

view of the relative importance of the two subjects to 
follow it in the detail in which Malwa opium has been 
dealt with. The following description will therefore 
perhaps suflSoe. It was apparently supposed that when 
the import of Malwa opium, except at the full duty, 
was stopped in 1885, it would be possible to substitute, 
to some extent at least, excise opium for it in con- 
sumption. But there was never any great readiness on 
the part of the Bengal Government to furnish the 
required supply, and the price at which it was offered 
to Vendors was too high to bring it into the market. 
The real cause of the inability of the Punjab vendors to 
pay as much (wholesale price) for excise opium as those 
in the North-western Provinces did not, strangely 
enough, occur to anyone, viz., that under the provincial 
system, as established the incidence of taxation in the 
shape of license fees was so much higher in the Paniab 
than in the North-western Provinces. If the Punjab 
vendor who paid Rs. 5 in license fees was charged even 
as low a price as Rs. 12 a ser for excise opium, he would 
be contributing as much to the revenue (though he might 
not seem to be doing so) as the North-western Provinces 
vendor who paid Rs. 16 per ser for his opium and Rs. 2 
in license fees. Unfortunately attention was only 
directed to the wholesale price charged for opium. 
This is a matter to which I shall have to revert later on. 
A supply of Malwa opium manufactured at the Ghazipur 
factory was for some years furnished to the Local 
Government at a price of Rs. 10-8. a ser, the opium 
being issued from the treasuries to retail vendors at the 
price (usually) of Rs. 15 a ser. The consumption of this 
opium may be said to have been practically confined to 
the districts south and east of the Sntlej. The manu- 
facture of Malwa opium at the Ghazipur factory has now 
ceased, but under arrangements made with the Govern- 
ment of Bengal in November 1889, 200 maunds of 
Benares opium manufactured at Ghazipur are supplied 
at a cost of Rs. 7-4. a ser, plus freight from Ghazi- 
pur to the Punjab. This opium is issued to licensed 
vendors in the districts of the old Delhi division at 
Rs. 15 a ser, and a limited quantity has been sold at a 
somewhat reduced price in a few other districts. It 
should be explained that it was at first (through a mis- 
apprehension, I think) considered necessary to manu- 
facture a special preparation of the Malwa drug for 
consumption in the Punjab, but this, like other details 
of the past, is really of no practical importance. Under 
the existing arra.ugement, then, which has been in force 
since 1889, the Bengal Government supply tliat of the 
Punjab with ordinary excise opium up to a limit of 200 
maunds per annum at the usual factory price of 
Rs. 7— 4i. a ser. This limit of 200 maunds has so far 
been found more than saflficient for the requirements of 
the province. In the districts of the old Delhi division 
(Delhi, Rohtak, Hissar, Karnal, Gurgaon) there is a 
demand for excise opium, and it can be disposed of from 
the treasuries there at the full price of Rs. 15 per cake 
of a reputed ser weight (no allowance being made for 
discount, dryage, and the like), which is the price 
charged in the North-western Provinces. Elsewhere 
in the Punjab there is practically no demand for it at 
this price. The experiment has been tried at Lahore, 
and one or two other places, of lowering the prices to 
Rs. 13 a cake, but this is only a temporary measure, 
and it has had very partial success. 



17. The following statistics of the consumption of 
Consumption of Malwa and of Malwa and of excise oninm 
excuse opu.m. (quantity in maunds) in each 

01 the last 10 years are given at this place in illus- 
tration of what has been written in the preceding 
paragraphs (14-16) : — f & 



Year. 



1883-84 
1884-85 
1885-86 
1886-87 
1887-88 
1888-89 
1889-90 
189U-91 
1891-92 
1892-93 



alwa. 


Excise. 


278 




Ait, 





10 





— 


80 


— 


129 


96 


104 


192 


93 


386 


96 


39.5 


98 


474 


113 



As already explained, the import of Malwa opium 
during the period 1883-1885 was permitted subject to a 
duty of Rs. 175 a chest. During the period 1886-1888 
it was entirely stopped by the full duty; and since 
1888 it has been permitted, subject to a duty of Rs. 210 
a chest. The supply of excise opium commenced in 
1886-87. 

18. It may be convenient at this point to make a 
Incidence of direct ooniparison between the incidence 
taxation on the various of direct taxation under existing 
classes of opium. arrangements on the various 

classes of opium which have been dealt with in the 
preceding paragraphs. A licensed vendor is at liberty to 
obtain his supply from any one of the sources mentioned 
that he finds it most profitable to do so, the incidence 
of the license fees being therefore the same on all sorts. 
On opium falling under classes (2) and (3) (see para- 
graph 2), i.e., imported into our districts from Kashmir, 
the Hill States and from independent territory to the 
west of the Indus, there is at present no direct taxation 
by us, and, so far as I can learn, there is none by the 
authorities of the Kashmir and native Hill States. 
Opium produced in our districts may be said to pay in 
direct taxation the acreage duty which is levied at the 
rate of Rs. 2 an acre; and the incidence of this comes 
to six annas or eiglit annas a ser. These are the facts 
that really determine the rate of duty that we can 
impose on Malwa opium, and the price at which excise 
opium is saleable. We find that there is a very con- 
siderable demand for the Malwa drug, subject to a duty 
of Rs. 3 a ser (as compared with six annas or eight 
annas a ser paid by that produced in our own districts) 
in consequence of the high cost of production of the 
latter. Any considerable enhancement of the duty over 
this figure, the home-grown supply being treated as at 
present, could have but one effect, viz. , that of driving 
Malwa opium out of the market to a greater or less 
extent, and replacing it by the lightly taxed home-grown 
drug. Excise opium, the cost price and carriage 
coming to about Rs. 7-8, pays in direct duty, when 
sold at Rs. 15 a cake, Rs. 7-8., and, even where the 
price is reduced to Rs. 13, the incidence of direct 
taxation is Rs. 5-8. 



Consumption. 



App. IX. 
Punjab Excise. 



Home-grown supply and total 
consumption in The province. 



19. The excise returns 
show the production of opium 
in our own districts during the last 10 years as follows 
(in maunds) : — 



Year. 


1883-84. 


1884-85. 


1885-86. 


1886-87. 


1887-88. 


1888-89. 


1889-90. 


1890-91. 


1891-92. 


1892-93. 


Produce 


1,787 


1,396 


1,150 


1,209 


1,282 


1,572 


2,117 


1,813 


2,083 


1,341 



As explained in paragraph 8, no greit reliance can be 
placed on these figures as showing the actual out-turn, 
because there is no uniform standard of quality for the 
drag. The loss of weight by dryage and by the process 
of refining to which the crude opium is subjected before 
sale to cnnsumora amounts to soniethiug between one 
u 82810. 



half and one third. The same remark applies to opium 
coming from Kashmir and the Hill States. It is an 
incident of our system that we can have no reliable 
statistics of the quantity available for consumption 
except in the case of Malwa and excise opium where we 
have a distinct record of the weight and of tho destina- 

O 



106 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Apf. IX. 
Punjab Bxcisir, 



tion of every ser which enables us to follow it to the 
consumer. Again, as was pointed out by Mr. Dane 
(see paragraph 13 above), we have no means of dis- 
tinguishing how much of the total quantity made up by 
the produce of our own districts and what comes in from 
Kashmir, &c. is retained for hmie consumption, and 
how much passes on to the native States in the plains. 



Of consumption in our own districts we have statistics 
that are to some extent reliable (absolutely so with 
regard to the Malwa and excise drugs) of the weight of 
opium, refined for sale, which is retailed to consumers. 
The following are details (in maunds) for the last 10 
years : — 



Kind of Opium 










Year. 










consumed. 


1883-84. 


1884-85. 


1885-86. 


1886-87. 


1887-88. 


1888-89. 


1889-90. 


1890-91. 


1891-92. 


1892-93. 


Excise 
Malwa - 
Other 


278 
867 


44.5 
746 


10 
1,147 


80 
1,106 


129 
965 


104 

96 

995 


93 

192 

1,150 


96 

386 
949 


98 

395 

1,072 


113 
474 
936 


Total 


1,145 


1,191 


1,157 


1,186 


1,094 


1,195 


1,435 


1,43 I 


1,565 


1,.523 



Up till within the last four or five years, and especially 
during the period (L^85-1888) when the import of Malwa 
opium at a reduced duty was stopped, there was cer- 
tainly a very considerable consumption of contraband 
opium — not less than several hundred maunds per 
annum. 

20. The following is a cjassified statement of the 

Dfetributicn of co.,- popilation of the province by dis- 

sumption by districts tricts and 01 the consumption oi 

and population. oi)ium in each district during the 



last 10 years as shown in the excise returns. In 
giving these figures I would again repeat that it is an 
unavoidable incident of our open system of supply that 
we can have no very trustworthy statistics of con- 
sumption. In the case of excise and of Malwa opium 
we can tell the exact quantity going into consumption 
annually, but for returns of the consumption of the 
home-grown drug we must rely on the accounts which 
the licensed vendors are bound by law to keep. 



APPENDIX. ?107 



Statement showing the Consumption of Opium of all descriptions in each District of 
the Punjab during each of the last 10 years (1883-84 to 1892-93). 



O 2 



108 



App. IX. 

Punjab Excise. 



No. 



District. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

n 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



Hissar 

Rohtak 

Gurgaon 

Delhi - 

Kamal 

Umballa 

Simla 

Kangra 

Hoshiarpur 

JuUundur 

Ludhiana 

Ferozepore 

Mooltan 

Jhang 

Montgomery 

Lahore 

Amritsar 

Gurdaspur 

Sialkot - 



20 ( Gujrat 



21 


Gujranwala 


22 


Shahpur - 


23 


Jhelum 


24 


Rawalpindi 


25 


Hazara 


26 


Peshawar 


27 


Kohat 


28 


Bannu 


29 


Dera Ismail Khan 


30 


Dera Ghazi Khan 


31 


Muzaffargarh - 




Total 



INDIAN' OPIUM COMMISSION : 
Statement showing the Oonstjmption op Opium of all descriptions in each 

5 



Population (1881). 



Muhamma- 
dans. 



Sikhs. 



Hindus 

and others 
except 
Sikhs. 



Total. 



Consumption 



1883-8'). 



1884-85. 



1885-86. 



162,708 
79,510 
198,610 
149,830 
156,183 
304,123 
6,935 
39,148 
290,193 
358,681 
213,954 
354,650 
435,901 
326,910 
830,495 
599,477 
413,207 
391,400 
669,712 
607,525 
452,640 
357,742 
516,745 
711,546 
362,264 
546,117 
169,219 
301,002 
385,244 
315,240 
292,476 



19,043 


479,036 


159 


473,940 


127 


443,111 


970 


492,715 


8,036 


458,402 


68,442 


694,698 


202 


35,808 


738 


690,959 


59,784 


551,404 


90,320 


340,634 



127,143 I 277,738 

! 
181,219 I 211,321 



2,085 

1,477 

11,967 

125,591 

216,337 

72,395 

40,195 

8,885 

36,159 

4,702 

11,188 

17,780 

1,377 

3,103 

2,240 

790 

1,691 

1,326 

2,788 



10,409,307 



113,978 
64,909 
84,067 

199,038 

263,722 
3 59,900 

302,241 
72,705 

128,093 
59,064 
61,440 
91,186 
19,390 
43,454 
10,081 
30,785 
54,714 
46,780 

43,341 



660,787 

553,609 

611,848 

643,515 

622,621 

1,067,263 

42,945 

730,845 

901,381 

789,555 

616,835 

767,190 

651,964 

395,296 

426,529 

924,106 

893,266 

823,695 

1,012,148 
I 
689,115 1 



Mds. s. c. 

23 30 

6 2 6 

6 

51 10 

50 

75 35 

13 

13 6 12 

41 13 



Mds 


s. 


c. 


28 


31 





6 


12 


13 



6 
43 13 
41 21 
71 26 

7 
15 3 12 
47 23 4 



77 Ol 77 



88 IS 8 

171 35 

27 11 3 

5 39 12 
13 23 8 

115 

98 

84 O 

24 

6 



616,893 I 39 17 



1,120,259 



7,198,654 



421,508 
589,373 
820,512 
383,031 
592,674 
181,640 
332,577 
411,659 
363,346 
338,605 

18,818,220 



5 11 
12 
41 9 4 

6 34 1 
24 40 

4 
4 2 13 
6 14 15 
3 33 2 
6 13 12 



1,145 26 



129 8 8 

200 9 

25 32 13 

4 34 
19 35 
87 19 15 

97 18 

98 
28 

5 1 

34 9 
4 23 8 

12 

36 20 2 

4 22 7 

35 17 
4 

4 8 10 

5 1 
4 7 2 

6 10 



1,190 37 15 



Mds. 8. c. 
26 19 9 

8 

8 
38 23 
34 
83 

9 
13 36 14 

58 12 
75 

59 3 
166 

25 4 

5 30 
20 34 

109 25 

107 24 

96 

33 

6 33 

26 3 

5 17 
10 17 
47 14 

6 34 5 
36 29 

5 

4 18 3 

7 22 

5 11 13 

8 2 



1,156 32 13 



APPENDIX. 



1(9 



■l-l 


10XJ\i.^/X \J 


L U 


ilO X JXU V i 


EiKi^ 


C. UUXlUg VUjK. 


11 ui uiiu lim 


U J.U i OU/IH ^ 


J.OOO— o* 


i/U 


lOO^—VO], 








App. IX. 




10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


Punjab Excise 
20 





E Opium in the Year. 
















Average 
Consump- 
tion of the 
10 Years. 


Average 
Consump. 
tion per 
100 of the 
Popula- 
tion in 
Ounces. 


Average 
Consump- 
tion per 
100 of the 
Population 
in 1892-93 
in Ounces. 






1886-87. 


1887-88. 


1888-89. 


1889-90. 


1890-91. 


1891-92. 


1892-93. 


Remarks. 




Mds. s. 
19 a 


c. 



Mds. s. 
17 24 


a. 



Mds. s. c. 
IS 37 


Mds. s. c. 
24 33 


Md. s. c. 
27 13 


Mds. s. 
26 38 


c. 



Mds. s. c. 
27 4 


Mds. s. c. 
23 31 2 


4-6 


4-4 






9 26 





9 29 


7 


12 19 14 


15 14 11 


12 20 


13 32 





15 4 


10 36 2 


2'5 


3-3 






6 1 





4 34 





5 26 


6 33 


7 15 


9 10 





10 28 


7 2 10 


1-4 


2-0 






41 





48 7 





50 18 


48 30 


59 29 


60 8 





39 34 


50 5 3 


9-9 


11-9 






40 23 


8 


22 10 


5 


30 10 


22 22 15 


28 9 


39 4 


8 


48 39 8 


35 29 4 


7-3 


9-2 






78 21 





59 34 


8 


79 15 8 


87 14 3 


94 23 


126 7 





134 12 


89 2 13 


10-7 


16-6 






9 34 





9 13 





9 13 12 


8 18 13 


9 35 5 


11 14 





10 23 1 


9 31 


29-0 


30'3 






15 22 


6 


17 2 


10 


13 23 


11 35 


14 


14 23 





13 9 


14 8 4 


2-5 


2-2 






68 38 


7 


47 34 


12 


48 28 


72 33 13 


71 22 


76 37 


5 


58 34 15 


59 ID 10 


8-4 


7-5 






77 





77 18 





78 21 


89 


93 IS 


90 5 





93 33 2 


82 33 8 


13-4 


13-2 






68 36 


4 


71 25 





97 10 4 


170 21 1 


184 11 8 


193 36 


2 


199 6 3 


126 9 2 


26-1 


39-3 






181 





130 





159 32 


240 


262 25 


245 34 





222 19 


197 38 8 


33 9 


32-1 






23 8 





24 17 


9 


23 11 


25 22 


19 


22 26 





19 


23 21 4 


5-4 


3-8 






5 17 





5 30 





5 31 3 


5 30 7 


6 10 6 


6 4 


7 


4 32 8 


5 25 15 


1-8 


1-4 






15 20 


8 


13 





17 


14 S4 


19 7 3 


20 34 


7 


20 24 6 


17 21 5 


5-2 


5-3 






106 14 





104 33 


3 


104 24 


83 7 10 


100 35 9 


146 8 


9 


1 5 


110 25 5 


15-3 


17-e 






113 9 





86 6 


8 


129 20 


168 18 


113 18 


116 9 





140 3 11 


117 10 


16-7 


18-0 






95 





132 





99 


105 


85 


107 30 


2 


73 8 


97 19 1 


15-1 


9-9 






38 





40 





41 


60 


48 


53 





41 37 


40 27 11 


5-1 


4-8 






7 12 


8 


7 8 





6 26 13 


8 3 11 


9 32 9 


9 16 





8 15 6 


7 18 14 


1-4 


1-4 






29 33 


13 


30 17 


6 


30 2 2 


32 25 10 


34 34 8 


35 25 





35 26 


33 35 9 


J-0 


6-6 






7 35 





7 23 





6 35 


6 6 


6 27 


7 





7 


6 17 12 


1-9 


1-8 






13 





11 18 





15 4 


14 9 


13 13 


13 25 





17 14 


13 10 


2-9 


3-6 






41 19 


1 


45 26 





38 5 


38 12 8 


36 15 8 


40 24 





37 25 5 


40 13 1 


6-3 


5-4 






8 24 


9 


8 12 


15 


10 28 13 


6 12 15 


10 35 4 


11 27 





11 


8 23 4 


2-8 


2-7 






! 28 13 





29 37 





30 2 2 


27 20 


25 


24 20' 





24 


28 24 13 


6-1 


4-3 






6 





5 15 





4 25 


4 30 


4 32 


7 25 





6 20 


5 10 11 


3-7 


2-7 






1 3 1 


4 


6 12 


9 


5 4 


4 8 2 


3 10 


4 6 


2 


4 18 


4 12 8 


1'6 


1-5 






8 30 


1 


10 14 


5 


9 8 10 


11 1 6 


9 10 


8 38 





7 27 11 


8 15 12 


2-4 


2-0 






10 15 





9 29 





10 9 


12 38 


10 16 4 


13 6 





11 23 


9 6 3 


3-2 


3-7 






8 

1 





8 28 





7 38 11 


7 39 11 


8 23 2 


8 13 


8 


9 24 15 


7 38 12 


3-0 


3-2 






1,186 4 


11 


1,102 33 


2 


1,196 5 2 


1,435 15 7 

1 
1 


1,430 1 5 


1,565 27 


2 


1,522 27 4 


1,366 12 1 


9-3 


9'3 





no 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. IX. 

Punjab E seise. 



In this staUment the figures of population given are 
those of the census of 1881, except in column 19, where 
the figures of the census of 1891 are talcen. The 
annexed two maps may be of use as illustrating 
the distribution of consumption over the province. 
Looking at the figures of the first and last years of this 
decade, it might appear that there had been a very con- 
siderable increase of consumption. This increase is, 
however, more apparent than real, and is due prin- 
cipally to the substitution of licit for illicit consump- 
tion and partly also to more correct statistics since the 
creation of an excise department five years ago. The 
best proof of this is, I think, to be obtained by a com- 
parison of the figures of the two years 1888-89 (1,196 
maunds) and 1889-90 (1,435 maunds). It is, of course, 
absurd to suppose that the consumption in Ludhiana 
increased from 97 to 170 maunds, and that in Peroze- 
pore from 160 to 240 in a single year. In these two 
districts, which have always depended on Malwa opium 
for the principal part of their supply, the reported licit 
consumption was only 201 maunds in 1887-88, during 
which year the licit import of the Malwa drug was 
practically stopped. The arrangement for allowing 
the import at the present reduced rate of duty came 
into force rather late in 1888-89, and its full effect was 
not seen till the following year, when the reported licit 
consumption rose to 410 maunds, i.e., more than 100 
per cent. It is quite clear, I think, that these districts 
will have Malwa opium ; and, if there is no arrange- 
ment for a licit supply the drug will find its way in 
from native territory.'^As remarked by Sir James 
Lyall, it is impossible to keep it out. 

21. The high incidence of consumption in the Simla 

district is due to the fact that 

The same continued. the census was taken at a time 

(February) when the hill stations 

and cantonments which the district contains are 

nearly empty. Leaving it, therefore, out of account, 

the districts in which the consumption was heaviest are 

(average of 111 years) : — 



Districts. 



Ounces per 100 
of Population. 



Ferozeporij 


33-9 


Ludhiana 


26-1 


Ararit^ar - 


16-7 


Lahore 


15-3 


Gurdiispur 


15-1 


Jullundur - 


13-4 


Umballa - 


10-7 



These seven districts contribute 881,487 or nearly 80 
l^er cent, of the total Sikh population of the province 
(1,120,25!»). A comparison of the figures in column 18 
with those in column 4 of the statement given in the 
preceding paragraph will sho^iv that there is a close 
connexion between the strength of the Sikh element in 
the population and the consumption of opium. Without 
going very deeply into this matter, I may express the 
opinion that the explanation of this is to be found in 
the fact that with the Sikhs opium-eating takes the 
place of tobacco smoking, in which their creed forbids 
their indulgence. 



■22. Opium-eating 

Forms of consumption, 
Opium-smokinf^. 



is the almost universal form of 
consumption. The use of post 
or popjjy-heads infused as a 
drink is practically confined to 
thelSikhs and ordinary Jats of the 
central districts (Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Siiilkot, 
and Jullundur). The practice of opium-smoking (madak 
and chandu) is of comparatively recent (and at all 
events in the Punjab proper, of foreign) origin. Except 
in the case of Delhi it may be said to have been in- 
troduced by down-country people (from the North- 
western Provinces) coming into the province as 
servants and camp followers, and it never spread 
beyond a few centres in the neighbourhood of canton- 
ments or large civil stations. When Government took 
up the question of stopping the licensed sale of this form 
of the drug, licenses were hold at 16 places. The licenses 
were separate, but they were disposed of along with 
those for the retail of opium. Some doubts were felt 
by Government with regard to the probable effect of 
closing the licensed shops; but orders were passed in 
1884 that licenses should not in future be issued in 
Delhi, Lahore, and Peshawar. The shops at Ludhiana, 
Perozepore, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Jhelum, Hazara, and 
Koha t were closed from 1st April 1889 ; while the 
remaining five at Umballa, Amritsar, Sialkot, Rawal- 



pindi, and Bannu were closed in the following year, 
and since 1st April 1890 the licit sale of the drug in the 
form in which it is used for smoking ceased. It was of 
course to be expected that the practice would be carried 
on surreptitiously, that is, the practice of smoking 
opium in company ; and the place of the one licensed 
shop at each of the centres mentioned was usually taken 
by several private " chandu khanas." The difiiculty in 
dealing with these is that if a few people meet on 
private premises to smoke opium, each contributing or 
using his own preparation for the purpose, and no 
payment being made, there is no offence committed. 
With a view to discourage the practice by making its 
indulgence more diflfioult the quantity of the prepara- 
tion (madak or chandu) which could be legally possessed 
by a person at one time has now been reduced from 3 
tolahs to 1. The following remarks on the subject 
which appeared in the Government review of last 
year's Excise Eeport may be quoted . " The reports 
" regarding the effect of the measures adopted against 
" opium-smoking are satisfactory. In suppressing the 
" establishments in which, as a matter of business, 
" facilities were provided for those already disposed to 
" smoke opium and temptations were held out to others 
" to acquire the practice, and limiting to 1 tolah the 
" amount of any preparation of opium which a private 
" person may possess, we have gone as far as, in the 
" opinion of the Lieutenant-Governor, it is legitimate 
" for a Government, and especially for a foreign Govern- 
" ment like ours, to go towards repressing a vice of this 
" kind. If, as has been suggested by some, we were to 
" attempt to interfere with the smoking of opium in 
" private houses the remedy would be infinitely worse 
" than the disease." 



LlCENSINS AkKANGEMENIS and EeTAIL PfilCE. 

23. Consumers of opium can only obtain the drug 

from licensed retail vendors • 

Import and transport. the latter get their supplies 

Licensing arrani;ements. either direct from the producers 

(and in the case of excise opium 

by purchase from the Treasury), or through the medium 

of wholesale dealers. A licensed vendor (wholesale or 

retail) wishing to import Malwa opium must obtain a 

permit from the Deputy Commissioner of his district 

which certifies that he is authorised to import a certain 

quantity of the drug. On the strength of this he 

purchases the quantity required from the local 

merchants, brings it to the scales at Ajmere, where it 

is weighed and the duty levied, and exchanges his 

permit for a pass which covers the import to his own 

district. In the case of home-grown opium (incktding 

that coming from Kashmir, &c.) transport from the 

district of purchase to that of vend is regulated by a 

system of passes. 

Tlio following is a description of the arrangements 
for licensing vend. 

Licenses, for which a small fixed fee is charged, are 
Wholesale vend. granted by Deputy Commis- 

sioners to persons who purchase 
standing crops from the cultivators and extract the 
drug, or to ivholesale dealers who purchase opium or 
poppy-heads from the cultivators or the licensees just 
mentioned. It is thi-ongh these wholesale dealers who 
can only sell to each other or to licensed retail vendors 
that the produce of the opium-producing districts is 
for the most part distributed to the retail vendors of 
other parts. 

Two systems of licensing retail vend are provided 
Retail , end ^°^ ^^ *'^® ^^^^^S. Under the first 

„ , , (-Rule 52) the number and locality 

of ttie sh.ops m each district are fixed beforehand, and 
the license fees payable for the right of selling at one 
or more than one of these shops is determined" by the 
result of a puljlio auction held before the commence- 
ment of each official year. The second system is that 
of farming the fees (Kule 59) ; and under this the fees 
leviable in a district, or in part of a district, on 
licenses for the retail sale of opium may be let in farm 
for a term not exceeding five year.s. Under this latter 
system power is given to make such reservations or 
restriotioiiB with respect to the grant of licenses by the 
farmer as may bo thought fit; and in practice the 
number and sites of the shops are fixed by the Deputy 
Commissioner Un- the few districts where the arrano-e- 
ments are under this rule. ° 

24. The following statistics of the number of licenses 

" in each of the last 10 years may 

be given. 



Details of the number of 
licenses. 



APPENDIX. Ill 



Statement showing the number of Wholesale and Eetail Licenses for Vend of Opium 
in each of the last 10 Years in the Punjab (1883-84 to 1892-93). 



O 4 



112 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



App. IX. 
Punjal) Excise. 






Statement 


showing the Number of Wholesale and Retail Licenses for Vend 




No. 


Name of Ilisinct. 


1 Population, 
1891. 


Number of Wholesale Licenses including Licenses for purchase of standing Crop. 










1883-8*. 


1881-86. 


1885-86. 


1886-87. 


1887-88. 


1888-89. 


1889-90. 


1890-91. 1891-92. 


1892-93. 






i 


Hissar 


776,006 





_ 


1 

1 

i 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 





_ 


_ 






2 


Rohtak - 


590,475 


— 


— 


— 


— — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






3 


Gurgaon 


668,929 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






4 


Delhi - 


638,689 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






5 


Karnal 

\ 
Umhalla 


683,718 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






6 


1,033,427 


96 


81 


81 


85 


79 


91 


81 


143 


147 


131 






7 


Simla 


44,642 


39 


35 


26 


28 


26 


33 


29 


71 


65 


33 






8 


Kangra - 


763,030 


69 


42 


39 


37 


34 


33 


27 


95 


70 


59 






9 


Hoshiarpiir 


1,011,659 


8 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 9 


9 


8 






10 


JuUuiidur 


907,583 


5 


4 


2 


3 


5 


2 


2 


4 


2 


— 






11 


Ludhiana 


648,722 


1 


2 


1 


4 


4 2 


— 


— 


2 


— 






13 Ferozepoie 


886,676 


3 


2 


2 


3 


5 


— 


2 


4 


4 


— 






13 Mooltan 


631,434 


3 


3 


2 


3 , 2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


2 






14 


Jhang - 


436,841 


2 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 






15 


Montgomi;ry 


499,521 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


1 






16 


I/ahore 


1,075,379 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 


1 


2 


2 


4 


2 






17 


Amritsar 


992,697 


24 


20 


20 


15 


10 


8 


8 


14 


16 


16 






18 


Gurdaspur 


943,922 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


1 






19 


Siiilkot 


1,119,847 


1 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1 






20 


Gil J rat 


760,875 


5 6 


6 


1 


3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


1 






21 


Giijranwala 


690,169 


1 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


1 


1 






22 


Shahpur 


403,588 


201 


138 


92 


124 


135 


110 


269 


196 


511 


92 






23 


Jhelum - 


609,056 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






24 


Rawalpindi 


887,194 


1 




2 


2 


3 


1 


1 


1 





1 




25 


Hazara 


516,288 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 






26 


Peshawai 


703,768 


2 


1 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






27 


Kohat 


203,175 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






28 


Bannu 


372,276 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






29 


Dera Ismail Khan 


486,201 


1 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






30 


Dera Ghizi Khan 


404,031 


81 


36 


32 


27 


23 


25 


23 


25 


28 ! 27 




31 


Muzaffargarh 


381,095 


2 


1 


3 


2 


— 


— 


3 


2 


2 


1 
3 






Total 


20,860,913 


497 


385 


319 


34G 


336 


318 


458 


575 


872 


380 





APPENDIX. 



113 



of Opium iu each of the last 10 Years in the Punjau (1883-84 to 1892-93). 



Number oi Retail Licenses. 



1883-84. 1884r-86. 1885-86. 1886-87. 1887-88. 1888-89. 1888-90. 1890-01. lSOl-92. 1892-93, 



App. IX. 
Punjab Excise. 



Average 
Population 
per Eetail 
ijicense in 

1892-93. 



Bemarks. 



87 


58 


13 


13 


5 


5 


44 


44 


39 


39 


81 


81 


5 


5 


5 





55 


55 


78 


78 


1 


2 


207 


192 


108 


108 


32 


32 


31 


31 


135 


135 


29 


29 


14 


14 


13 


13 


5 


5 


65 


67 


3 


3 


4 


4 


7 


7 


3 


3 


7 


7 


1 


1 



31 

4 



1,177 



31 

4 

63 



1,136 



79 
16 
5 
41 
39 
81 
5 
5 
55 
77 
1 
169 
108 
32 
31 
135 
29 
14 
13 
5 
66 
3 
4 
7 
3 
7 
1 
2 
6 
4 
63 



1,106 



69 

15 
5 

41 

34 

81 
7 
5 
5.5 
76 
91 

164 

108 
36 
31 

138 

29 

14 

13 

5 

66 

3 

4 

3 

7 
1 
2 



63 



1,185 



42 

16 

27 

41 

33 

81 

7 

107 

55 

76 

99 

167 

108 

36 

31 

138 

29 

70 

80 

19 

66 

14 

39 

81 

75 

29 

2 

9 

31 

46 

63 



1,71" 



38 

16 

27 

41 

37 

81 

5 

107 

56 

76 

107 

167 

108 

36 

31 

138 

156 

70 

80 

19 

66 

14 

39 

79 

75 

29 

1 

9 

31 

47 

63 



1,849 



51 

15 

27 

41 

41 

73 

7 

108 

56 

76 

107 

175 

108 

37 

33 

138 

156 

87 

80 

19 

66 

14 

39 

79 

80 

29 

2 

13 

31 

54 

68 



1,910 



59 

15 

27 

41 

48 

70 

7 

lOH 

56 

76 

108 

175 

108 

38 

33 

135 

156 

87 

80 

19 

67 

14 

39 

109 

26 

31 

2 

13 

31 

54 

68 



1,901 



54 

15 

26 

41 

48 

72 

7 

77 

56 

76 

106 

174 

76 

39 

34 

134 

150 

87 

80 

19 

66 

12 

39 

92 

26 

29 

3 

11 

31 

54 

51 



1,785 



52 

15 
22 
41 
43 
86 
5 

77 

56 

76 

105 

175 

76 

39 

34 

135 

150 

87 

80 

19 

66 

12 

39 

92 

24 

29 

3 

11 

26 

54 

51 



1,780 



14,923 

39,365 

30,406 

15,578 

15,900 

13,965 

8,928 

9,779 

18,065 

11,942 

6,178 

5,067 

8,308 

11,201 

14,692 

7,966 

6,618 

10,849 

13,998 

40,046 

10,457 

41,162 

15,617 

9,643 

21,512 

24,268 

67,725 

33,843 

18,700 

7,482 

7,472 



11,799 



u 82810. 



114 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



App. IX. These figures are taken from the annual Excise 

PunjabExcise. ^s™™s, and _ the folloTring explanation with regard to 
the increase in the number of retail licenses shown in 
the year 1887-88 and onwards is necessary. Previous 
to that year, it had been the practice in several 
districts, where one person had the monopoly of a 
number of different shops, to show him in the returns 
as holding only one license for them all ; and in fact 
ho did hold a single license, which covered several 
shops. From 1887-88 a separate license has been 
given for each shop ; and the returns of the last six 
years in the above statement show the actual number 
of shops licensed, while those of the previous four years 
show only the number of licensed vendors in a good 
many districts. Thus, in Kangra there were 107 shops 
in 1886-87 as well as in 1887-88 ; but in the former 
year the entry is five, because all the shops were in the 
hands of five licensees. So also with Amritsar, Sialkot, 
Gurdaspur, and other districts. Inmost districts there 
has actually been a reduction in the number of licensed 
shops in the course of the last 10 years. 

25. A very important point that has invariably, I 
may say, been lost sight of in 
Incidence of license fees on comparing the system in force 
in the Punjab with that in other 



provinces is the comparatively large amount of taxation 
which is, under the existing provincial system, taken 
in the form of license fees. It is only by comparing 
the total amount of taxation that the drug pays before 
it comes into consumption, that a just idea of the rela- 
tive merits of the systems in force in any two provinces, 
so far as the principle of minimum consumption with 
maximum revenue is concerned, can be arrived at. It 
has repeatedly been objected to the Punjab system, 
practically without contradiction, so far, that it en- 
courages "cheap opium." This is a matter that 
requires to be noticed in some detail ; and I think that 
a closer examination of the facts will show that there 
has been a good deal of misapprehension with regard 
to them. Because the wholesale price of the drug in 
the Punjab is comparatively low, it has been concluded 
that the retail price is much lower than it ought to be; 
and the real incidence of the taxation has been lost 
siuht of. The statement on the next page shows tor the 
last 10 years total amount of reveime derived from 
excise on the drug in Bengal, the North-western 
Provinces and the Punjab. 



consuiDption. 



(APPENDIX. 



V. ;■[', 



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ees ftom 
im. 


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CO ft, 

O 


1 


B a 

■3.3 
o 


o 

i 




3 










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n on 
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^ 







App. IX. 
Punjab ^Excise. 



P 2 



116 



INDIAN OPiUM COMMISSION: 



App. IX. 
Punjab Excise. 



Thus the consumption in the Punjab pays more than 
double the taxation under this head (license fees) that 
the consumption in the North-western Provinces does, 
and till I'ecently it paid more than was realised from 
this source in Bengal. Taking the figures of the last 
complete year (1891-92) for the three provinces, we 
have the following result :— 



Province. 



Total 

Coii.sumD- 

tion in 

Wers. 



Amount 

levied iu 

License 

Fees. 



Incidence 

of Licen.se 

Fees per 

Ser. 







Rs. 




Bengal 


80,232 


4,44,167 


5-5 


North-western Provinces 


68,156 


1,53,048 


2-2 


and Oudh. 








Punjab 


62,627 


3,48,055 


5-6 



So that the consumption in the Punjab pays an average 
of 5'6 per ser in taxation under this head as compared 
with 5'5 and '1"1 respectively in Bengal and the North- 
western Provinces. The importance of this matter 
will be shown in the nest paragraph. It may be 
mentioned that the reason for the comparatively high 
incidence of license fees in the Punjab is to bo found in 
the history of the origin of the present system (see 
Appendix II.). Under that system the taxation of 
opium has fi-om the first 1 leen levied almost entirely in 
the form of license fees, while in other provinces the 
revenue has been derived mostly from a direct duty on 
the drug. 

20, In the case of excise opium Government fixes 
the wholesale price to be charged 

Price at which opium ^t the Treasury. For most of the 
IS sold retail. . ^ , i ■ *^ , - n j ■ 

opium of this kmd consumed m 



the Punjab the full price of Es. 15 is charged. The 
quantity sold iu Lahore and two or three other districts 
at the reduced price of Rs. 13 has been small. The 
])rice ol Malwa opium is usually Rs. 7 to Rs. 9 a ser on 
the spot, varying according to season and quality, and 
with the duty, carriage, &c. it costs the importer 
Rs. 11 to Rs. 1.1 a ser. Punjab opium without any 
direct duty except that on cultivation, cohts at least 
Rs. 10 to Rs. 12 a ser wholesale. It is in considering 
the price at which the drug can be jjurohased by the 
consumer that the importance of the subject dealt with 
in the preceding paragraph comes in. Owing to the 
heavier incidence of the license fees, excise opium, 
even if issued in the Punjab at a price of Es. 13 a ser, 
is actually more heavily taxed by the time it reaches 
the consumer than the same opium for which the full 
price of Rs. 15 is paid by ii licensee in the North- 
western Provinces. Thus, when we issue opium at 
Rs. 13 a ser from the Lahore Treasury the licensed 
vendor has to pay Rs. 13 as the price and Rs. 5-4-3 in 
license fees, a total of Rs. 18-4-3 ; the corresponding 
figures for the North-western Provinces being Rs. 15 
and Rs, 2-3-3, total lis. 17-3-3. For all the districts 
(the first five iu the statement below) in which opium 
is issued at the full price of Rs. 15 a ser the incidence 
of price -|- license fees is upwards of Rs. 20 a ser. 
The retail price charged to the consumers is determined 
by (1) the wholesale price which the vendor has had 
to pay, and (2) the amount that he has to pay for his 
license. There is enough competition for the licenses 
in most places to keep down the rate of profit which 
the vendor derives from the business. 



The annexed statement, taken from the annual Excise 
Returns, shows for each district in the province the 
incidence in 1892-93 of the license fees, with the 
wholesale and retail prices charged : — 



Statement showing the Incidehce of License Fees on Opium, with the Wholesale and Retail Prices 

during the Year 1892-93. 



1 

1 


Consumption 


Demand on 


Incidence of 


Wholesale 


Total Cost 
per Ser. 


Retail Price 
per Ser. 


Division. 


District. 


of Opium 


account of 


License Fees 


Price 






in Sers. 


License Fees. 


per Ser. 


per Ser. 








Rs. 


Ks. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


' 


Hissar 


1,084 


9,579 


8 13 5 


15 


23 13 5 


16 10 




Rohtak 


604 


4 222 


6 15 10 


15 


21 15 10 


23 




Gurgaon 


428 


3^642 


8 8 2 


15 


23 8 2 


25 


Delhi 


Delhi 


2,394 


16,000 


6 10 11 


15 


21 10 U 


21 4 




Karnal 


1,960 


11,953 


6 1 6 


14 


20 1 6 


25 




Umballa 


5,372 


23,820 


4 6 11 


7 


11 6 11 


12 


- 


Simla 


423 


4,470 


10 9 


11 


21 9 


22 13 9 


|- 


Kangra 


529 


6,775 


12 13 


11 


23 13 


22 




Hoshiarpur 


2,355 


14,144 


6 1 


12 


18 1 


28 


JuUunder 


Jullundur 


3,753 


18,041 


4 12 11 


10 14 5 


15 11 4 


16 8 




Ludhiana 


7,966 


16,159 


2 5 


13 


15 5 


17 5 4 


, 


Ferozepore 


8,899 


40,410 


4 8 8 


10 15 


15 7 8 


15 11 




Mooltan 


760 


16,900 


22 4 


16 


38 4 


35 




Jhang 


192 


2,129 


U 8 5 


11 13 9 


22 15 2 


23 3 


Lahore - 


Montgomery 


824 


4,583 


5 9 


13 4 


18 13 


20 6 


Lahore 


5,925 


31,223 


5 4 3 


12 12 


18 3 


19 




Amritsar 


5,604 


31,995 


5 11 4 


10 3 10 


16 3 4 


18 


- 


Gurdaspur 


2,921 


15,465 


5 4 9 


11 10 8 


16 15 5 


16 4 7 


r 


Sialkot 


1,677 


12,263 


7 5 


12 


19 5 


20 




Gujrat 


335 


2,364 


7 10 


12 8 


12 8 10 


20 


. 


Gujianwala 


1,429 


8,379 


5 13 9 


12 8 


18 5 9 


20 


Rawalpindi- • 


Shahpur 


280 


1,290 


4 9 9 


12 


16 9 9 


18 




.Ihelum 


694 


3,110 


4 7 8 


12 


16 7 8 


20 




Rawalpindi 


1,505 


20,400 


13 3 11 


13 


16 8 11 


29 


f 


Hazilra 


440 


4,545 


10 5 3 


13 


23 5 3 


30 8 


Peshawar - ■< 


Peshawar 


960 


10,464 


80 14 5 


13 


2.3 14 5 


27 


1 


Kohat 


260 


3,120 


12 


14 


26 


28 


r 


Bannu 


178 


2,710 


15 3 7 


1-10 


29 3 7 


32 


Derajat- 


Dera Ismail Khan 


308 


6,880 


22 6 6 


12 5 


34 11 6 


33 2 2 


Dera Ghazi Khan 


463 


7,177 


I.^ 9 


10 4 


25 12 


29 




MuzafFargarh 
Total 


385 


5,070 


13 2 8 


16 


29 2 8 


36 




60,907 


3,59,282 


5 14 4 


11 11 5 


17 9 9 


18 14 4 



APPENDIX. 



117 



The figures of the important district of Umballa are 
vitiated by the fact that the wholesale price shown is 
that of crude opium.. Taking the standard of excise 
opium, the wholesale price there is certainly not less 
than Rs. 10 or Es. 12 a ser ; but I have left the figures 
as they appear in the Excise Beturns. 

Apart from the above statistics, the recognised price 
of opium, what is actually charged for the drug as sold 
by the licensed vendor is usually 4 annas or 5 annas a 
tolah (i.e., Rs. 20 to Rs. 25 a ser) except in the frontier 
districts, where it is higher. I doubt if inquiry at any 
ordinary licensed shop in the province will show that it 
is lower than this, unless here and there in the vicinity 
of native territory, where the price is forced down by the 



competition of the vendors in that territory. It is by 
such inquiry, rather than by calculations like those given 
above, that the price actually charged to consumers 
can be ascertained. If a purchaser asks for a rupee's 
worth of opium he will in most districts get 3 or 4 tolahs 
according to the extent of the competition in the 
neighbourhood ; but sales are usually of very minute 
quantities, and the price charged is then a good deal 
higher, at the rate, probably, of 2J tolahs for the rupee 
(Rs. 30 a ser). In the frontier districts, and in one 
or two others where there is keen compe:tition for 
the monopoly, and the incidence of license fees is 
consequently high, retail prices are also a good deal 
higher. 



App. IX. 
Punjab Excise. 



P 3 



118 



App. IX. 
Punjab Excise. 



indian opium commission : 

Annexure 

Statement giving Details of Consttmpiion of Opium, Bevenue derived 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


r> 


7 


8 


9 


10 








Population (Census 1891). 


Consumption of Opium (in 


Sers). 




— 


Name of District. 


Muhamma- 
dans. 


Sikhs. 


Hindus and 
others 
except 
Sikhs. 


Total. 


Malwa. 


Excise. 


Other. 


Total. 




1 


Hissar 


199,010 


22,151 


554,845 


776,006 


— 


874 


210 


1,084 




2 


Rohtak 


85,515 


154 


504,806 


590,475 


~ 


604 


— 


604 




3 


Gurgaon 


209,931 


102 


458,896 


668,929 


— 


428 


— 


428 




4 


Delhi 


149,741 


382 


488,566 


638,689 


273 


1,080 


1,041 


2,394 




5 


Karnal 


171,712 


8,037 


503,969 


683,718 


614 


121 


1,225 


1,960 




6 


Umballa 


300,856 


93,679 


638,892 


1,033,427 


3,035 


— 


2,337 


5,372 




7 


Simla 


7,152 


517 


36,973 


44,642 


— 


— 


423 


423 




8 


Kangra 


39,709 


1,461 


721,860 


763,030 


— 


— 


529 


529 




9 


Hoshiarpur 


328,668 


70,709 


612,282 


1,011,659 


— 


— 


2,355 


2,355 




I* 


Jtkaniva 


413,459 


110,790 


383,324 


907,583 


1,023 


— 


2,730 


3,753 




11 


Ladhiana 


>26,687 


141,603 


280,432 


648,722 


5,558 


— 


2,408 


7,966 




12 


Ferozepore 


404,977 


226,361 


255,338 


886,676 


5,115 


15 


3,769 


8,899 




13 


Mooltan 


503,962 


2,832 


124,640 


631,434 


— 


— 


760 


760 




14 


Jhang 


344,433 


3,941 


88,467 


436,841 


— 


— 


192 


192 




15 


Montgomery 


361,923 


16,032 


121,566 


499,521 


— 


332 


492 


824 




16 


Lahore 


645,083 


152,023 


278,273 


1,075,379 


— 


421 


5,504 


5,925 




ir 


Amritsar 


452,237 


261,452 


379,008 


992,697 


3,342 


i 


2,262 


5,604 




18 


Gurdiispur 


459,039 


85,837 


399,046 


943,922 


— 


— 


2,921 


2,921 




19 


Sialkot 


685,342 


49,872 


384,633 


1,119,847 


— 


— 


1,677 


1,677 




20 


Gujrat 


669,347 


19,018 


72,510 


760,875 


— 


— 


335 


335 




21 


Gujranwala 


475,494 


45,316 


169,359 


690,169 


— 


— 


1,429 


1,429 




22 


Shahpur 


417,661 


9,777 


66,150 


493,588 


— 


— 


280 


280 




23 


Jhelum 


542,645 


15,109 


51,242 


609,056 


— 


— 


694 


694 




24 


RiiralpinJi 


768,368 


27,470 


91,356 


887,194 


— 


400 


1,105 


1,505 




25 


Hazara 


488,453 


3,609 


24,226 


516,288 


— 


— 


440 


44(1 




26 


Peshawar 


654,443 


9,125 


40,200 


703,768 


— 


240 


720 


960 




27 


Kohat 


187,661 


4,474 


11,040 


203,175 


— 


— 


260 


260 




28 


Bannu 


337,269 


1,062 


33,945 


372,276 


— 


— 


178 


178 




29 


Dera Ismail Khan 


420,189 


2,840 


63,172 


486,201 


-- 


— 


308 


308 




30 


Dera Ghilzi Khan 


349,587 


1,424 


53,020 


404,031 


— 


— 


463 


463 




31 


Muzaff.irgarh 


327,727 


2,715 


50,653 


381,095 


— 


— 


385 


385 






Total 


11,628,290 


1,389,934 


7,8112,G89 


20,860,913 


18,960 


4,515 


37,432 


60,907 





APPEISDIX. 



119 



fr 


om it, &c., in each Disi 


BICT of the 


Punjab di 


iring the l 


"oar 1892- 


?. 




App. IX. 




11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


Punjab Excise 
19 




Licenses. 




Revenue. 




■ 


Numbei of 
Wholesale 

Licenses , ■» 

including 
furchaae of 

Standing 
Crops. 


P 

[umber of " 
Ketail. 


Average 
opulatiop 
er Retail 
License. 


License 
Fees. 


Duty on ^^"f 
Malwa P'-ojeedson 

Opium. f^?''^ 
'^ Opium. 


Other 
Items. 


Total. 


Remarki. 










Ks. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 






— 


52 


14,923 


9,579 


— 


6,773 


— 


16,3.52 






— 


15 


39,365 


4,222 


— 


4,812 


— 


9,034 






— 


22 


30,406 


3,642 


— 


3,317 


3 


6,962 






1 


41 


15,578 


16,000 


840 


8,370 


— 


25,210 






— 


43 


15,900 


11,261 


1,890 


938 


— 


14,089 






131 


86 


13,965 


24,475 


9,345 


— 


— 


33,820 






33 


5 


8,928 


4,583 


— 


— 


— 


4,583 






59 


77 


9,779 


7,070 


— 


— 


— 


7,070 






8 


56 


18,065 


14,184 


— 


— 


— 


14,184 






-- 


76 


11,942 


18,041 


3,150 


— 


— 


21,191 






— 


105 


6,178 


16,159 


17,115 


— 


— 


33,274 






— 


175 


5,067 


39,960 


15,750 


86 


2 


55,798 






2 


76 


8,308 


16,910 


— 


— 


3 


16,913 






— 


39 


11,201 


2,129 


— 


— 


— 


2,129 






1 


34 


14,692 


4,588 


— 


1,909 


2 


6,499 






2 


135 


7,966 


30,668 


— 


2,111 


— 


32,779 






16 


150 


6,618 


32,075 


10,290 


— 


— 


42,365 






1 


87 


10,849 


15,470 


— 


— 


— 


15,470 






1 


80 


13,998 


12,268 


— 


— 


— 


12,268 






1 


19 


40,046 


2,369 


— 


— 


o 


2,374 






1 


66 


10,457 


8,200 


— 


— 


— 


8,200 






92 


12 


41,162 


1,663 


— 


— 


— 


1,663 






— 


39 


15,617 


3,110 


— 


- 


— 


.3,110 






1 


92 


9,643 


20,405 


— 


2,300 


— 


22,705 






— 


24 


21,512 


4,545 


— 


— 


— 


4,545 






— 


29 


24,268 


10,464 


— 


1,380 


— 


11,844 






— 


3 


67,725 


3,120 


— 


— 


— 


3,120 






— 


11 


33,843 


2,710 


— 


— 


— 


2,710 






— 


26 


18,700 


6,880 


— 


— 


~ 


6,880 






27 


54 


7,482 


7,312 


— 


— 


~ 


7,312 






3 


51 


7,472 


5,085 


— 


— 


— 


5,085 






380 


1,780 


11,799 


359,147 


58,380 


31,990 


15 


449,538 

1 








T. GonEOx Walkeh, 
Commissioner ul' Excifo, Pnnjali 




















T> -1 



120 



INDIAN OriUM COMMISSION 



App. IX. 
Punjab Excise, 



Annbxure B. 



Historical Sketch of the System of Excise on Opium 
in the Punjab. 

1. Before annexation there was no interference of 
any sort with the cultivation of the poppy or the manu- 
facture and consumption of opium. On annexation 
(1849) the Board of Administration made the first 
attempt at taxation by disposing to farmers of the 
monopoly of retail vend over fixed areas, the jiroduoors 
being allowed to sell to none but the farmers. In 1853 
a proposal was started to substitute for this system of 
taxation by license fees the levy of an acreage duty on 
poppy cultivation at the rate of Rs. 2 an acre, the 
grower being allowed to dispose of his produce as he 
liked, i.e., direct to consumers. This proposal was 
carried into effect by Mr. Oust in 1860, the system being 
applied to the four divisions (as then constituted) of 
Umballa, JuUundur, Amritaar, and Lahore (except the 
hill districts of Simla and Kangra). 

2. The original object of the acreage system was 
either lost sight of or abandoned. It was later on 
decidod that free sale was not the intention, but that 
producers must sell to the licensed vendors (see Punjab 
GrOA ernment Notification, No. 68, dated 17th April 
1869). Prom that time the system has been a com- 
bination of cultivation, subject to an acreage duty and 
taxation by means of license fees. 

3. In 1873 new opium rules were introduced by the 
Punjab Grovernment, and they perpetuated the system, 
as above described, of an acreage duty combined with 
license fees. The acreage system was (Rule 2) extended 
to the whole province except the Delhi and Hissar 
divisions (as then constituted). 

4. The home-grown supply of the Punjab was ap- 
parently never sufficient for the requirements of the 
province ; and it was supplemented by import from 
Nepal, the RaJDutana States, Malwa, Kashmir, and 
the native States under the political control of the 
Punjal) Government. On this import there was no 
restriction. Prom 1880 the licit import from Nepal 
was absolutely stopped, and that of Malwa opium prac- 
tically so by subjecting it to the payment of the full 
duty of Rs. 7ii0 per chest, or Rs. 10 a seor {see Ni>. :!2 
of the rules ]iiissed in 1^80). 

5. During theiieriod ISsO-l.SSS there has been a .good 
deal of uncertainty, and several changes of policy in 
regard to the sources from which the home supply 
should be supplemented. The alternatives were (1) 
Malwa opium at a reduced duty, and (2) Government 
excise opium from the Bengal factories, and the un- 
certainty is scai'cely sur])risinir, as the L<'C;il Govern- 
ment had to feel its way in the matter. Prom 1880 to 
1885 the import was permitted of Malwa opium at the 
reduced duty of Rs. 175 a chest (Rs. 2-8 a ser) up to 
a maximum of 1,200 maunds per annum. In 1885 this 
arrangement was st(i)i]ied, and a trial was given to the 
plan of Buljstitu.ting excise opium. Prom 1888 the pre- 
sent arrangement was introduced. This is a combina- 
tion of the two plans, i.e.. the import of Malwa opium 
up to a fixed limit per annum (400 chests or, roughly, 
700 maunds in 1892-3 for consumption in Punjab dis- 
tricts) was permitted at the reduced duty of Rs. 210 a 
chest iRs. :! !i. se'r) ; while the Boigal Government agreed 
to Ru|)|ily u]i to 200 niaunils of evcise opium at the usual 
co.-t piice of Rs. 7- f a ser. 

6. A good deal of misa])prehension has been shown 
in the discussions with regard to the policy of the Local 
Gi5vernment in respect of excise and Malway opium ; 
and this seems to have arisen principally from losing 



sight of the facts stated in the above outline as to the 
origin and history of the system. The Local Govern- 
ment has always looked for its revenue to the license 
fees rather than to direct taxation on the drug. The 
system of taking most of the taxation in this form had 
become firmly established, i.e., a comparatively low 
wholesale price of opium, with comparatively high 
taxation in the form of license fees. The following 
illustration of the misapprehension entertained with 
regard to the provincial system may be given. In 1886 
the finance committee write in their report of the 
provincial system in the following terms: — 

" While Government can supply opium to consumers 
who are willing to pay Rs. 20 to Rs. 30 a ser for it, it is 
clearly a fiscal loss to supply the Punjab consumers with 
opium at half the price." 

There never was any question of supplying the con- 
sumers with opium at Rs. 10 to Rs. 12 a ser. That was 
the highest wholesale price that the licensed vendor 
would then, it was supposed, pay for excise opium, 
because he had to pay in addition such a large amount 
in licensed fees. The actual retail price was little, if at 
all, below that prevailing in the North-western pro- 
vinces (it w;is actually Rs. 22 in 1885-86, and Rs. 24 in 
1886-87) ; only more of the taxation was under the 
established system taken in the form of license fee. 
Thus :— 



Year. 



1885-86 
1886-87 



Wholesale 

Price per 

Ser. 



Ineirlence of 

License Fees 

per .Ser. 



Rs. a. p. 

10 
13 8 



Rs. a. p. 
7 
C 12 



Total 

Taxation per 

Ser. 



Rs. a. p. 

17 
20 4 



7. The opium rules of 1873, referred to in paragraph 3 
above, remained in force till 1880, when new rules, 
framed under the Opium Act of 1878, were introduced. 
While dealing with the sources of supply from outside 
the province, in the manner described in paragraph 4, 
these rules left the arrangements with regard to opium 
produced in Punjab districts as they were. The rules 
of 1880 contained some grave defects, the most im- 
portant being that which was discovered by the criminal 
courts, that it was no offence for a producer to consume 
his own opium. It was found that, although large 
areas were cultivated with poppy in the central districts 
(Lahore, Amritsar, Gnrdaspur, and one or two others), 
little or some of the produce found its way into the 
hands of the licensed vendors, being consumed by the 
growers, or surreptitiously disposed of by them. After 
a good deal of discussion the existing rules were finally 
passed in 1889. These removed the defect with regard 
to consum])tion by producers, making it expressly an 
offence, and prohibiting disposal otherwise than to 
licensed vendors, while at the same time power was 
taken to enhance the acreage duty which had hitherto 
remained at the rate originally fixed of Rs. 2 an acre 
up to a maximum of Rs. 8 an acre. The object of this 
provision was to enable Government to deal with the 
cultivation in those districts where consumption by 
producers and other illicit practices were most rife. The 
steps taken in this direction are described in the body 
of the memorandum. 

(Signed) T. GoEDON Walkee, 

Commissioner of Excise. 



Annexuee C. 



Copy of a Lettbb, No. 265, dated 10th May 1887, 
from Goveenment, Punjab, to the Govehnment of 
India. 

No. 266, dated Lahore, the 10th May 1887. 

From W. M. Young, Esq., Secretary to Government, 
Punjab, to the Sfceetiky to the Government of 
India, Foreign Department. 

In ciuLinuation of my telegram. No. 283, of the 23rd 
instant.. I am desired by the Lieutenant-Governor to 



address you on the subject of opium arrangements in 
the Punjab. The consideration of the Ajmere Oiiium 
Rules could not be conveniently separated from the 
more general question of the opium system which 
should, at least for the present, be adopted in this pro- 
vince ; and this question is largely, if not mainly a 
political one. ' 

2. This general question has also been tor a good 
many months an open one. In former years the Pun- 
jab used 1.0 obtain part of its sup])ly from Nejidl and 



APPENDIX. 



121 



s 



native States to the south and east of the province, but 
both of these sources were closed by the proceedings of 
1878 to 1880, which resulted in the prohibiten of the 
import and transport of opium from Nepal and the im- 
position of the practically prohibitive duty of Rs. 700 
ev chest on the opium of Eajputana and Central India. 
t was at first intended to meet the requirements which 
cultivation in the Punjab could not supply by obtain- 
ing opium from the Ghazipur factory. But experience 
showed that the price which could be obtained for this 
article in the Punjab was very much below what it 
would fetch in the Oa.lcutta market or if exported to 
China; and on this and other grounds, more particularly 
because it was feared that, unless the duty of Rs. 700 
per chest were reduced, opium would be smuggled into 
the Punjab from the Rajputana States to the south of 
the Punjab border, the Government of India in August 
1881 agreed to permit as a temporary measure the 
import, under proper safeguards, of Malwa opium up to 
1,200 maunds a year, on payment of one-fourth of the 
prescribed duty or Rs. 175 a chest, that is, Rs. 2-8 a 
ser. A report was required upon this experiment and 
furnished in January 1884. It was then decided to 
give up the quarter duty system and to revert to the 
plan of obtaining opium from Ghazipur. Difficulties 
again arose about the price ; and Sir Oharles Aitchison, 
when inquiring last summer as to the desirability and 
possibility of extending the cultivation of the poppy in 
the Punjab, recorded the opinion that the arrangemeut 
for the purchase of opium from the Ghazipur factory 
appeared to have ia it elements of failure. The subject 
attracted the attention of the finance committee, who 
have made certain proposals which will be noticed below. 
Finally, in May, June, and July last the active inquiries 
of Mr. Maconachio, the Deputy Commissioner of Gur- 
gaon, established the fact that recently an extensive 
opium trade had been secretly carried on between parts 
of the Jeypore State and certain portions of Patiala and 
Jind which are landlocked by the British territories of 
the Punjab. Three contraband consignments were 
seized, one of 725 maunds at Sahuwas in Jind territory ; 
one of nearly 67 maunds at Narnaul in Patiala terri- 
tory ; and one at Alwar of more than 12J maunds. Alto- 
gether upwards of 140 maunds were stopped on the way 
up to Jind and Patiala. Information received this 
month suggests that the smugglers having sustained a 
a severe check on the Gurgaon and Rohtak border are 
now intending to make their passage further west across 
the old Sirsa district at one or other of its two narrow- 
parts, viz., below Sirsa or near Dabwali. Though this 
opium was being smuggled into Jind and Patiala, it 
would have found its way in part into surrounding 
British districts. The conqjlete stoppage of the legiti- 
mate import of Malwa opium has, as other information 
shows, made it very difficult for the Sikh States to 
supply their contractors. 

3. The finance committee was not acquainted with 
the particulars of the smuggling cases, and the note of 
the committee, communicated to this Government for 
opinion by the Government of India in the Departrnent 
of Finance, with its letter, No. 4460, dated the 3rd 
December last, does not advert to the political aspects 
of the matter. A copy of the note is annexed for 
facility of reference, and it will be seen that the pro- 
posals of the committee are contained in the 16th and 
17th paragraphs of its paper. This note was sent to the 
Financial Commissioner for report, who has promised to 
reply after making inquiries and consulting' local 
officers. A detailed reply to the note will be sent here- 
after, but from his knowledge of the subject the 
Lieutenant-Governor is confident that it will be found 
that there are difficulties of a local nature in the way 
of the adoption of the suggestions made in the note, 
and that all events no immediate changes can be made 
without risk of serious loss. The inelasticity of the 
opium revenue in the Punjab in recent years upon 
which the committee remark is probably due to changes 
and uncertainties in the legitimate supply of opmm 
caused by the orders of the Government of India with 
regard to import of Nepal, Ghazipur, and Malwa opium. 
Uncertainties as to supply, of course, have a most 
depressing effect on the Punjab system of contracts. 

4. In the Lieutenant-Governor's judgment the 
situation requires that, without waiting to decide as to 
possible future changes of system, prompt action should 
be taken, first, to ensure a sufficient supply to opium 
both for Punjab districts and for the Phulkian States ; 
and, secondly, to stop the smuggling that has com- 
menced on a serious scale. There is no chance of 
putting this down without the co-operation of the 

u 82810. 



Phulkian States, and it is impracticable to ask their 
co-operation unless we are prepared to say definitely 
what is to be our own system of supply, at least in the 
immediate future, and how we propose to assist them to 
get a supply. 

5. The main proposal of thu finance committee 
virtually amounts to a suggestion that the opium system 
which is in force in Bengal and the North-western 
Provinces shall be introduced into the Punjab. To remit 
the acreage tax, and to require the cultivators to sell 
to the Government only at a fixed price, would imply 
the existence of an Opium Agency, as the committee 
itself substantially admits. It has, however, always 
been held that the operations of the Opium Department 
ought not to be extended to the Punjab ; and when the 
special conditions of opium production and supply in 
this part of India ai'e understood, there appear to be 
strong reasons for this opinion. With regard to our 
position in relation to native States in and round the 
Punjab, and the Hill States in particular, it would, Mr. 
Lyail considers, be very difficult to change our system. 
This has been felt all along, or we should have changed 
it long ago. If the finance committee's proposal were 
adopted we should be obliged to have an Opium De- 
partment in the Punjab, working not only in the plains, 
but in Kulu and Kotgarh, and dealing with all the petty 
Hill States and with Kashmir and Afghanistan as the 
Opium Department deals with Nepal. On the Rajputana 
side also we should have a constant struggle to prei'ent 
smuggling, where outlying tracts or parganas of the 
Sikh States march with the Northern States of the 
Eajputana Agency. Moreover, in the interests of the 
North-western Province.H. popjiy cultivation is pro- 
hibited in the districts of the old IDelhi Division. Else- 
where it is much scattered; there is a good deal in the 
hills, some in Shahpur, some in Umballa, Lahore, and 
Amritsar and the Southern Derajat, and little patches 
in a great number of districts in every direction. 

6. As to the various alternative courses mentioned in 
the 17th paragraph of the note, Mr. Lyall supposes that 
they have been enumerated for the purpose of ensuring 
that n'me of the bare possibilities oi the case shall be 
overlooked in the discussion. In selecting from those 
alternatives the committee repeats the proposals already 
made in paragraph 16. One sviggestion, namely, that 
cultivators should pay acreage tax and sell to licensed 
vendors only, is merely a description of the existing 
system; another, that licensed vendors should purchase 
duty-paid opium in Malwa, is known to be impracticable, 
because for the purposes of the Punjab market the full 
duty is prohibitive. Mr. Lyall, as already stated, does 
not think that any of the proposals of the finance com- 
mittee could be accepted without considerable risk of 
loss of income ; and the main proposal would involve 
extra expenditure — perhaps large expenditure — on es- 
tablishment. In the present state of the provincial 
finances, Mr. Lyall feels that he would not be justified 
in running the risk ; and for additional outlay he has 
not the funds. On the whole, therefore, it seems to him 
inevitable that for some time to come we must maintain 
the existing system, which has at least the merits of 
being locally understood and of having been in practical 
operation for many years. 

7. If this conclusion is accepted, it remains to be 
decided from what source the Punjab is to obtain the 
supply required over and above its home produc- 
tion. Here Mr, Lyall must frankly own that he thinks 
it was a mistake to abandon the quarter-duty system. 
He is anxious, as already said in my telegram of the 
23rd instant, to see that system revived ; and unless it 
is revived he can suggest no satisfactory basis for the 
communications with Punjab native States, which, if 
we are to suppress the contraband trade, are eminently 
necessary. Mr. Lyall himself as Financial Commis- 
sioner proposed the quarter-duty system to the Punjab 
Government in 1880; and in his secretary's letter 
written on that occasion it was said : — 

"Unless the pass duty is remitted or reduced the 
supply of Malwa opium is practically stopped like that 
of Nepal. If the open and lawful import of Malwa 
opium from Central India and Rajputana is stopped in 
this way, Mr. Lyall anticipates that two things will 
happen. In the first place a strong trade in smuggled 
Malwa opium will grow up all along the very frontiei- 
of the Punjab and Eajputana; the people are born 
smugglers, and our licensed vendors will themselves be 
engaged in the business, and will not therefore be able 
to help us to check it. Now that the said hedge is done 
away with, the Financial Commissioner does not see 

Q 



App. IX. 

Punjab Excise. 



122 



INDIAN OPIUM commission: 



App. IX. 
Punjab Excise. 



liow opium smuggling once established could bo stopped 
iu such u. country. Moreover, the fiirt that the pro- 
tected Sikh States own territory on and near the border 
mixed with our own would add to difficulty. In the 
second place, the price of opium is likely to ri.^e con- 
siderably ill the Punjab, and the Financial Commis- 
sioner does not think this is, on the whole, desirable. 
Such a rise will reduce the bids foi' monopolies of retail 
vend, and a. very large proiwirtiou of the benefit to the 
producer will go to the Hill States, from Kashmir to 
the Jumna, which grow opium. Moreover, a rise in 
price will be very unpopular with the Sikhs, who in 
some parts of the Punjab arc opium eaters almost to a 
man. They firmly believe that moderate doses are 
necessary for their health and certainly it does not seem 
to do most of them harm. They often complain alrrady 
that we have made opium both dear .and bad by our 
system of exci;<c." 

8. Mr. Lyall stil! holds the opinions thus expressed, 
and recent events have certainly justified his anticipa- 
tion that smuggling would result from shutting off the 
Rajputana supply. It is, he thinks, impossible to stop 
this smuggling, unless we keep a way open for lawful 
import. He has refeiTed to the papers of 1884, which 
sliow the reasons why the concession of allowing the 
import of 1,200 maunds of Malwa opium at a quarter 
duty was, at the request of this Government withdrawn. 
It was supposed that consumers disliked the Malwa 
opium and that there was little demand for it; and 
Colonel Davies, the Financial Commissioner, mistakenly 
l^id stress on " the loss of three-fourths of the duty 
formerly realised." Of course consumers do not like 
the Malwa opium as much as the first-rate Ghazipur 
excise opium or some other kinds : but they cannot 
alwaj'S get the kinds they prefer or afi'ord to buy the 
best opium if it is available. The Punjab used to get 
its opium partly homegrown ; partly from the Punjab 
Hill States and Afghanistan ; and, as said above. Malwa 
and, througli the North-westrrn Provinces, from Ne]ial. 
The Malwa kind was not generally liked, but was drawn 
on when other kinds were scarce, it never paid duty, 
so there was no such loss as in 1H,S4 the Financial Com- 
missioner supposed. With the closing of the Nepal and 
Ghazipur supplies the demiind for Malwa opi\un was 
sure to increase, and the only way to prevent wholesale 
smuggling was to allow a supply in a lawful way at a 
moderate cost, and to give the Sikh States their fair 
share of this supply. The demand, it is true, when the 
(|uarter-duty system was iu operation, did not exceed 
tliiie or four hundred maiinds a year, but it would have 
increased to some extent. The quarter-duty system 
was disliked by the Punjab buyers, who h;id previously 
paid no duty, and this checked the demand at first. The 
limit of 1,200 maunds was, of course, fixed as a maximum, 
and it was not supposed that there would beany advan- 
tage to Government if that limit were reached. However, 
the question of demand has been practically settled by 
events; we should not have captured 140 maunds of 
conti-abrand Malwa opium last summer unless there 
had been an oft'ective demand for this article on the 
part of consumers. 

9. It is necessary, no doubt, to meet the objection 
that the Ghazipur opium being preferred, the whole of 
the Punjab demand for an outside supply might be met 
from the Ghazipur lactory. The reply is that if the 
priee fixed for this commodity is adequate with reference 
to the price obtainable for it in other markets it becomes 
unsaleable in the Punjab. If, on the other hand, it is 
supplied to the Punjab Government at cost price, as at 
Rs. 10-8 a ser, the price now fixed for future consign- 
ments, there may, indeed, be no loss in British districts; 
for the deficieuey in price may be covered in part Ijy 
the rates at which the article is sold and in part by 
higher sales of licenses for retail vend and better in- 
come from license fees. But in foreign territory there 
woald be serious loss, and the Lieutenant-Governor 
could not expect the Government of India to agree to 
this Government sharing the Ghazipur supply on 
present terms with the Sikh States, whose require- 
ments must nevertheless be admitted as an important 
factor in the whole problem. We are, Mr. lyall thinks, 
morally bound to consider the loss of revenue to these 
Stales and the inconvenience to their opium consumers 
caused by shutting off the Nepal and Malwa supplies 
under the orders of the Government of India in 1878 to 
l8'-!i). Yet if we give these States Ghazipur opium 
practically at cost price, the whole of the excise profits 
will be theirs, not ours; and the concession would be 
au extravagant one, far exceeding the limits of any 
legitimate claim to consideration. 



10. All these reasons led the Lieutenant-Governor 
to m'tke the recommendation expressed in my telegram 
of the 2.JI il instant. If that is accepted, permit.-: would 
be given to some of our licensed vendors or farmers 
and to agents of the Phulkian States : and the.se men 
would take theii' permits to the collector under the 
Ajmere Rules, who would give them a special order in 
writing under Rule -0 (2), armed with which they would 
buy cither in Ajmere territory or outside in Rajputaua 
and bring in the opium to the Ajmere scales, and then 
get a pass for the Punjab on payment of quarter duty. 
It might be arranged that the passes given should be 
few in number and on Ajmere only, not on Indore. 
Should the Government of India so desire, the maxi- 
mum amount of Malwa opium to be imported in this 
way from the Ajmere scales might be reduced to, say, 
500 maunds, which vrould probably be sufficient. These 
points settled, the Lieutenant-Governor would then 
arrange with the Sikh States the maximum amount 
per annum for which each State might ask for permits 
and the Deputy Commissioner to whom it should send 
the persons it might authorise to apply for permits. 
The Sikh States would, the Lieutenant-Governor thinks, 
agree readily enough; they might demur to the 
quarter duty a little, but not strongly. They have 
never had any authority under any rules or under- 
standing to grant import passes which would hold good 
through British territory. The arrangement would 
therefore be advantageous to them ; and in consideration 
of their being allowed to share in the Malwa supply, 
as well as on the general ground that their excise 
arrangements must not conflict with those of the British 
Government, they would be urged to co-operate with 
us in the suppression of smuggling and to forbid the 
passage of opium into British territory from their out- 
Ij'ing pargauas along the Rajpiitana border. There 
would be no need, so far as the Sikh States are con- 
cerned, to re\'ise the prohibitions issued by the Jeypore, 
Ulwar, and Bikanir States against the passage of opium 
into the Punjab and Punjab native States. These pro- 
hibitions would be quite consistent with the principle 
that liajputana opium for the Punjab must be brought 
to the Ajmere scales. The case of Bahawalpur is some- 
what diiferent ; and Mr. Lyall would be disposed to 
allow the passage of Bikanir opium into Bahawalpur 
territory on condition that (1) it should not pass through 
British territory, and (2) the Bahawalpur State would 
allow no o])ium to pass out of its territory to the British 
or foreign territory of the Punjab. To this extent it 
would probably be advisable to make an exception to 
the principle above mentioned ; but before any final 
proposal is put forward in this behalf, Mr. Lyall would 
communicate with the Bahawalpur Darbar and ascer- 
taiji its wishes and particulars of the Bahawalpur 
opium trade, which is not extensive. Having arranged 
in this way for the Mahva supply, iMr. Lyall would like 
to combiiu' with it, for use in British districts only, a 
small supply, not to exceed 2i)() mounds, of opium from 
Ghazipur at Rs. 10-S a seer as .already agreed to. The 
orders therefore of the Covernment of India iu the 
Finance Tteparlment, communicated to this Govern- 
ment by its ondorscnient, No. 1570, dated the 00th June 
1886, would hold good. It would be necessary, how- 
ever, for the Government of India to issue a notifica- 
tion similir to the Notification of the Finance Depart- 
ment, No. 1001, dated the 12th May 1882 (cancelled by 
Notification, No. 1178, dated the 1st June 1885), to 
the eifect that in exercise of the powers conferred 
by section 6 of the Opium Act, 1878, the Governor 
General in Council directs that duty at the rate of 
Rs. 75 shall be levied on each chest of" opium of 140^ lb. 
avoirdupois net weight imported into the Punjab with 
effect from the date of the issue of the notification. I 
am accordingly to request that this may be done. The 
Lieutenant-Governor requests that the whole arrange- 
ment may at any rate be made for one year certain, 
and till there has been time to communicate fully with 
the native States and to obtain and consider local 
opinions on the proposals of the finance committee. 
If, however, the Government of India is willing to 
sanction the present scheme as a permanent one. subject 
to the understanding that it may, if necessary, be 
modified after considering the finance committee's note 
and after ascertaining the views of the States con- 
cerned and working out the detailed arrangements, the 
Lieutenant-Governor would prefer that course. 

11. In regard to the omission up to the present time 
to come to some understanding with the Sikh States on 
the subject of opium, Mr. Lyall feels that some ex- 
planation is called for. As Financial Commissioner, 
Mr. Lyall recommended in March 1882 that the Patiala, 



APPENDIX. 



123 



Jmd, and Nabha Barbara should be addressed; but the 
ii-unjab b-overnment then felt precisely the same em- 
barrassment that Mr. Lyall has himself experienced on 
the present occasion. There was obvious difficulty in 
commencing negotiations with the States before we 
had put our own system straight and were ready with 
detailed rules for working it. Sir Charles Aitchison, 
theretore, decided that when certain amendments in 
the rules had been made and sanctioned by the Govern- 
ment of India, he would address the native States and 
explain to them the exact provisions which would effect 
them, m the matter of import and transport of opium. 
Mr. Lyall accordingly submitted a draft revising the 
opium rules, and in a letter, No. 123:!, dated the 21st 
November 1882 (extracts from which are appended), 
explained fully the methods by which he proposed (a,s 
he proposes now) to give the Sikh States their fair 
share of the quarter-duty supply. The draft was sent 
on to the Government of India, which, however, was 
not satisfied with its form, and called for a revised 
edition. The Financial Commissioner was then de- 
sired to recast the draft, and he has not yet re-submitted 
it. Mr. Lyall is sorry that the Government of India 
was not prepared to sanction the draft temporarily 



until a better draft could be prepared. He believes 
that the rules, though imporfccMy drafted, would have 
been understood by the local officers and would have 
v.orked well enough ; and he thinks that both then and 
still more now they were urgently wanted. 

12. Intermediately the Financial Commissioner was 
instructed to omit from the revised draft of the rules 
the provisions relating t,o the quarter-duty supply of 
Malwa opium. He has now been asked to insert them 
again in accordance with the proposals made in this 
letter, and to submit his revised draft with the least 
possible delay. On receipt of it Mr. Lyall will loss no 
time in sending it on to the Government of India for 
approval ; and he hopes that; should it still be found to 
be somewhat rough from a technical point of view, 
the Government of India may nevertheless be able to 
[lass it for a year at least, if Mr. Lyall can say that it 
will be understood and will prove workable. 

13. On hearing that the proposals made in this letter 
are generally approved, Mr. Lyall will at once com- 
municate with the Sikh States and Bahawalpur on the 
subject of opium. 

14. A list of enclosures in annexed. 



App. IX. 

Punjab Excise. 



APPENDIX X. 



App. X. 

Fatiala State. 



[Handed in by Khalija Syad Muhamed Hassau, CLE., on behalf of the Patiala State.] 
Memohandum on the Opium Question in the Patiala State. 



rKiOE to Sambats 1906-7=1849-1850, no particular 
duty was levied on opium and poppy, nor was any kind 
of restriction placed (on its sale or cultivation), and as 
a natural result of this freedom in trade, the consumers 
of opium and poppy used to get these articles very 
cheap. Poppy was sold at the rate of 15 to 19 seers 
per rupee, and after separating the seed from it there 
remained between 84 and 94 seers of pure poppy- 
heads, and purified opium wa,s sold at 8 to 10 tolas per 
rupee. 

2. People used to take poppy in this way. For 
nearly 10 or 12 hours poppy -heads were soaked in water, 
then strained through a cloth after squeezing them, and 
the decoction drunk either in the morning or evening, 
or twice a day, with or without sugar. Opium was 
taken in pills, as it is eaten in these days also. 

3. The habit of drinking a decoction of poppies (post) 
is a very ancient one, and very injurious to health, 
because to take a tumbler full of an intoxicating decoc- 
tion every morning and evening, regardless of seasons 
and thirst or hunger, impaired digestion and weakened 
the organs of the body. The injurious effects of this 
decoction are generally admitted. It appears from old 
historical works that during the Moghal Empire such 
princes as were suspected of making political distur- 
bances, and whom it was considered advisable to keep 
under confinement, were forced to drink this poppy 
decoction in order to debilitate them and to destroy 
their material spirit, so that there be no longer any fear 
of their making disturbances. 

4. Since the native States have followed the British 
system of excise administration, and have imposed a 
duty on opium and poppy, &c., which has been enhanced 
from time to time, partly owing to this, and partly 
because of the change for good in the habits of the 
people, the practice of taking the decoction of poppy 
(post) has nearly died away during the last 42 or 43 
years, and its place has been taken by opium. But 
notwithstanding this, the price of poppy-head.s has not 
fallen, and in these days poppy -heads without seeds are 
sold at 2f seers per rupee. The high price of this drug 
is partly due to the increased duty mentioned above, 
and partly because opium is now taken instead of post, 
and therefore the zemindars extract larger quantities of 
opium from the poppy, which becomes useless, and is 
thrown away. 

5. It is needless to explain the method of cultivating 
poppy because the Punjab authorities are fully 
acquainted with such matters. 

'Mode of preparing Opium. — When the poppy-heads 
are ripe enough for procuring opium, the zemindars 
make incisions in them with a knife, when opium in the 
shape of a white liquid comes out of the heads, and 
assuming a brown or blackish colour becomes viscid. 



6. The cause of the increased consumption of opium 
as compared with post is that a much smaller quantity 
of the former gives more intoxication than a cupful of 
the latter, and it does not affect the digestion like post. 
For the above reasons, and because of the heavy duties 
on it, pure opium is sold at 3 tolas for a rupee in large 
towns of the State, and, in villages where people do 
not care much for its purity, it is sold at 4 tolas per 
rupee. 

7. Regarding the cultivation of the poppy and manu- 
facture of opium, I have to say that in that tract of the 
State called the Narnaul Nizamat, which is contiguous 
to the Jeypore and Alwar borders, poppy is not cultivated, 
because the country is dry, the wells are very deep, and 
the inhabitants being Jats, Ahir, and Gujars, with verv 
few Bajputs, are much less addicted to the opium habit. 
Likewise in the western and southern portions of the 
State adjoining the Ludhiaiia, Ferozepore, Karnal, and 
Hissar districts', it is not cultivated for want of sufficient 
rains and the great depth of the wells ; but the people 
of these tracts are much more addicted to opium-eating 
than the people of the other parts of the State. Since 
the opening of the Kotla and Bhatinda branches of the 
Sirhind Canal, some people in these dry tracts have 
commenced the experimental cultivation of poppy, but 
on such a small scale that it is not worth notice. 

In the tracts which lie to the north alongside of the 
hill ranges, where on this account the rainfall is abun- 
dant, and water in the wells is near, poppy and opium 
are produced to some extent, and according to the 
statistics collected in 1891 the total area under poppy 
cultivation at different places in the said tracts was 
286 acres, which yielded not more than 16 maunds of 
opium. 

Although, owing to the quantity of opium produced 
being small, no acreage duty, besides the ordinary 
land revenue, is imposed on poppy cultivation, as is the 
case in the Punjab, yet according to the rules issued by 
the Patiala State for preventing the abuse of opium, 
the zemindars are not at liberty to sell their produce 
to other than licensed vendors called lessees by the 
State. 

8. According to the last census the population of the 
State was as follows : — 

Sikhs - - - 243,362 

Hindus - ... 795,928 

Mussalmans - • - 352,046 

Menial tribes, such as Chamars, 
sweepers, &c., who are included 
in the census papers among 
Hindus and Sikhs, but who are 
disowned by them 228,221 

Though accurate statistics are not prepared by the 
State, a reliable calculation has been made that, out of 

Q 2 



124 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



the total amount of opium consumed in the Siate, one- 
thirr! is consumed by the Sikhs and two-thirds by other 
races. 

9. For the total requirements of the State, which 
amount to 1,100 — 1,200 mauiuls yearly, opium is 
imported from — (1) the Simla Hill States ; (■-) Ladwa 
and Jagadhri, &c., in the Umballa district; and (3) 
Malwa and Eajputana. One hundred and thirty 
maunds of Malwa opium are imported yearly (out of the 
total quantity fixed by the Groverument of India for the 
Punjab) subject to certain conditions and concessions, 
and the payment of a duty at the rate of Es. ? per 
seer, which is eventually refunded to the State from 
the British Treasury. 

10. Opium from the Simla and Umballa districts is 
imported in accordance with the provisions of parii- 
i^.raphs 22 and 23 of Financial Commissioni-r's circular. 
No. 62, dated 26th June 1889, and of Excise Oommis- 
sioner's circular. No. 1, dated 3rd February 1891. 
Those who deal in opium in the State arc given lenses 
(sold by auction to the highest iiidder) on payment of a 
certain amount of money, ,'rnd srrbject to certain con- 
ditions and restrictions, for the monopoly to sell opium 
according to the conditions laid down by the State 
within a fixed area. The conditions bind them not to 
purchase or sell cheap and smuggled opium (see direc- 
tions issued by the Patiala Wizarat Office, dated 21st 
Sawan Sambat 1917, submitted to Puniiib Government; 
in October 1890). 

11. When these licensed vendors wish to import 
Ofiium from British districts, mostly Umbiilhi and 
Simla., besides the lease money which they pay yearly 
to the State, they have to make .i written ajiplication 
for the import of the required cjrrautity of opium on pay- 
ment of a fee of Re. 1-4 for each application, and in 
accnrdanco with the said a]i]ilication to receive a written 
permit, on which i-i noted the amount cil' Djiiirm required 
tn be im])orted into the State from British territory. 
On the ii'itliority of the saiil ]-)crm:t, the licensed 
vendors have to ;ul>mit a written a]))ilicat;on to the 
Dc|raty Oonimissi'.ner of the district for ttie grant of a 
lii euso for ihe despatch of opium, subject to the condi- 
tions ap]ilieab'c to such consignments in British dis- 
tricts {vide para<iT.i])hs -0 to 23 of Financial Commis- 
sioner's cireiilar; No, 26, dated 2tith June 1889). The 

above conditions are bv no 
means light, yet additional 
restrictions* are placed by 
the State on the licensed ven- 
dors which greatl)' interfere 
even with the lawful conveyance of opium freely. 

12. The 130 mannds of ojiium which, in accordance 
with the instructions contained in the letters marg-ii- 

ally noted, are yearly irajiortcd 
from Malwa and Rajjiutana, 
are at present jiurchased by 
the State at Ajmere, and are 
only sold to rhc licenced ven- 
dors of the State on jiayment 
of a moderate ]iriee. .Xime of 
the opium ivhich finds its way 
into the State from the three 
above-mentioned sources can be sold l.)y any per>nn 
other than the licensed vendors of the State. Kven 
those persons who purchase opium and ]ioppy for their 
personal use cannot legally keep more than 4 tolas of 
opium anrl S seers of pop] ly at a time without s|ieci d 
jiermission, which is only given in very special cases. 
To keep all those administrative and i)revenlive 
measures in working order, the Office of Excise and 
Abkari superintendent with the necessary estab- 
lishment has been established in the State, and those 
who act in contravention of the rules are severely 
punished. (Ses his Highness the Maharaja's Murasila, 
dated 29th April 1890, No. 5, addressed to the Punjab 
Government.) Punishments are awarded according to 
thi' directions I'pfen'ed to in jiaragraph 10 of this meiiiu. 
The jirovisions of the said directions are. with a lew 
exce])tions, identital with the opium rules i>>ueil b\- 
the Punjab Government, and are in some cases more 
stringent. 

13, In Patiala territory, indeed throughout the 
Punjab, there is one uniform mode of eating opium, 
viz.,' by taking it in a pill after purifying it as stato(l 
before. Some people take it. as (irescribed liy native 
Hakims, in a cam]iound e-alled " Barsh " and " jadwar " 
pills, Ac. (of which opium forms a ]iart), but this prac- 
tice is rai'u. Here they do not dissolve opium in watei-, 
and then take it like the ])cople of Eajputana, who called 



* M'!c PunjaVi Govfinnir'iit 
Xo, •.il.')9, dated 21st Xnvt'in- 
lipr ISill, and Patuila Molji- 
jiiid's. No. 31, dati^d 16th April 
1891. 



I'linjab Govpi-nnieid. Xe. 
4.57. dated 2i'.lli ,\uKast 1SS7. 

Punjab <-;(]Viiaimeiit, No, 
i:i,-,. dated -I'.ird .luni- IS*. 

I'unia'i (^ovcniunMit, Xo. 
:ii:) S..Vlatfrt .TOth .fuly iss'i. 

I'umali CoveriiM.cnl 

JIuraMla.drilfd'J7lh Xovrni- 
her ISSi). tn llif addre'is dl 
his Hifihafv-i llir Maliaraja 
of Patiala. 



it " Gholua," nor do they take it in the refined form 
called " Reni " in Kathiawar. People do not smoke 
chandu and madak in this country. 

14. Mothers of infant children administer opium to 
their babies. So much is this the ease that there would 
not be found a single child throughout the country who 
has not been given opium during its infancy, and no 
visible bad cllec't is produced by the use of opium on 
the health of such children. But, of course, in rare 
instances, if a boy who is ap|)roaching maturity begins 
taking ojiium it affects the general appearance of the 
body, creates jialeness and symptoms of laziness, short- 
ness of beard ; and the growth and develo]}ment of the 
body are also aii'ected. The number of such youths is 
extremely small, perhaps one or two in every 1,000 per- 
sons, because parents insist on their children abstaining 
from using tliis drug. Those peo])le who commence 
taking opium after the full development of their body, 
before they attain the age of 40, are also very few in 
number, because taking ojiium before the age of 40 is 
considej-ed objectionable and a s])ecies of licentiousness 
by society ; but no bad effects on the health or general 
appearance of such peojile are visible, while the use of 
opium after the age of 40 is not considered improper ; 
but is, on the contraiy, calculated to preserve health and 
prolong life. 

Some persons who are between 40 and tjii years old, 
and who have been eating opium for j-ears, and are 
very health}', active, and industrious, can be produced 
for ins|ieciion in siip])ort of the statements herein 
made. 

No change takes place in the ap])carance or bodies of 
people who eat opium after the}' are full grown, pro- 
videil tliey use it moderatelj' ; and they can do all sorts 
of phy.^ical and mental labour. On the contrary, it is 
generally believed that after eating opium a man 
becomes fresh for doing every Icind of labour ; but, of 
course, if , an o]iium-eater does not get his dose at the 
fi.xed hour, or get- a smaller dose than usual, l;is nose 
and eyes become watery, and he feels uneasy and 
fatigued, and in such a ease he has little inclination for 
taking food, and feels shivery and slee]>luss. But the 
symjitoms of lazine-s ;ind fatigue are not peculiar to 
opium-eaters only, for ])ersons addicted to liquor also 
feel lazy and unfit for work when they do not get their 
usual drink. Kven those who are accustomed to take 
pan (betel leaf), tobacco, tea, or coffee also become 
inactive and sluggish, and feel a strong craving for 
those things when they do not get them at the fixed 
hour. 

■J. Opium-eaters, no matter how large their regular 
do,-es may be, should they even take unusually large 
doses at a time, do not become intoxicated or excited 
like those who drink liquor. Under the influence of 
this drug the eater does not become inebriate, nor does 
he talk nonsense or become quarrelsome as drunkards 
do, but its strongest effect is that the man goes to 
sleep. 

16. The habit of eating opium can be traced to have 
l>revailed in Asia for nta.rly 2,600 )ears, and unlike 
liquor or bhang it is not prohibited by any Asiatic 
religion, which in other words means that the several 
nations in Asia did not consider its use objectionable, as 
by experience they did not find it injurious ; and law- 
givei'S have not forbidden its use socially or religiously. 
In short even if oinum is nob taken for the preservation 
of health, but for the sake of intoxication only, it is, in 
comiiari