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50 OnV. 



Ministry of Education 
Ontario 

t? 

Sean Conway, Minister 
Bernard J. Shapiro, Deputy 




Minister 


Curriculum Guideline 


Science 


Intermediate and Senior Divisions 

1987 






Part 12 

Biology 

Grade 11, Advanced Level, 
and the OAC 


July 1987 


EDITED DRAFT 


CONFIDENTIAL 











THE LIBRARY 

The Ontario Institute 
for Studies in Education 

Toronto, Canada 








Contents 


Introduction 


The Parts of the Guideline 

Policies and Features That Apply Across the Science Program 

The Science Curriculum Continuum 

Compulsory and Prerequisite Courses 

Curriculum Emphases 

Student Activities 

Safety 

Sensitive Issues 
Locally Designed Units 
Evaluation of Student Achievement 
Cross References 


1 

4 


7 

7 

8 
9 
9 

10 

10 


Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level 
Biology Courses 


Units of Study and Their Time Allocations 11 
Interrelationships Between the Two Courses 12 
Respect for Living Things 14 
Some Special Points About Each Course 15 


Biology, Grade 

Core Unit 1 
Core Unit 2 
Core Unit 3 
Core Unit 4 
Core Unit 5 
Core Unit 6 
Core Unit 7 
Core Unit 8 


11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 

Cell Structure and Processes 
Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 
Genetic Continuity 
Bacteria and Viruses 
Vertebrate Digestive Systems 
Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 
Vertebrate Transport Systems 
Vertebrate Reproduction and Development 


20 

27 

33 

40 

47 

53 

59 

65 


Optional Unit 
Optional Unit 
Optional Unit 
Optional Unit 
Optional Unit 
Optional Unit 
Optional Unit 
Optional Unit 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 


Vertebrate Excretory Systems 
Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems 
Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 
Mycology 

Invertebrate Animals 

The Protist Kingdom 

The Impact of Science on Society 

Locally Designed Unit 


72 

77 

83 

88 

94 

101 

106 

118 


(i) 





Contents 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


Core Unit 1: The Chemical Basis of Life 121 
Core Unit 2: Energy and the Living Cell 126 
Core Unit 3: Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 132 
Core Unit 4: Genetics 138 
Core Unit 5: The Theory of Evolution 145 
Core Unit 6: Homeostasis 153 
Core Unit 7: Ecology 160 

Optional Unit 1: Animal Behaviour 166 
Optional Unit 2: Locally Designed Unit 173 


Appendixes 

Appendix A. Science Courses and Their Course Codes 175 

Appendix B. The Table of Contents of Part 1 176 


(ii) 









Introduction 


The Parts of the Guideline 

This document is Part 12 of a fifteen-part curriculum guideline that 
outlines the science program for the Intermediate and Senior 
Divisions in Ontario schools and describes the science courses that 
can be offered (see the list of courses and their codes in Appendix 
A). The term guideline refers to the entire set of fifteen parts. 


This part must be read and implemented in conjunction with Part 1, 
Program Outline and Policy . When implementing the courses that are 
described in this document, teachers are to incorporate the many 
policies and features outlined in Part 1, which will enable them to 
interpret the overall intent and expectations of the Ministry of 
Education in the science program. The table of contents for Part 1 
is given in Appendix B at the end of this document so that the reader 
may have ready access to the list of chapters and topics therein. 


The provincial science program for the Intermediate 
Divisions comprises the courses described in Parts 


come 

unde 

r the fr 

sciei 

nee g 

uideline 

Part 

1 : 

Prog ram 

Part 

2: 

Science 

Part 

3: 

Science 

Part 

4: 

Science 

Part 

5: 

Science 

Part 

6: 

Science 


amework and poli 
consists of the 
Outline and Pol 
, Grades 7 and 8 

, Grades 9 and 1 

, Grades 9 and 1 

, Grades 9 and 1 

, Grades 11 and 


cy set forth in Pa 
following fifteen 
icy 

0, General Level 
0, Advanced Level 
0, Basic Level 
12, Basic Level 


and 

Senior 

2 t o 

1 5. These 

rt 1. 

The entire 


parts : 


1 







Introduction 


Part 7: 

Environmental Science, Grades 10 to 12, General Level 

Part 8: 

Environmental Science, Grades 10 and 12, Advanced Level 

Part 9: 

Applied Biology and Applied Chemistry, Grade 11, General 
Level 


Part 10: Applied Physics and Technological Science, Grade 12, 
General Level 


Part 11: 

Geology, Grade 12, General and Advanced Levels 

Part 12: 

Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level, and the OAC 

Part 13: 

Chemistry, Grade 11, Advanced Level, and the OAC 

Part 14: 

Physics, Grade 12, Advanced Level, and the OAC 

Part 15: 

Science in Society, OAC 


The chart on the next page indicates the twenty-eight science 
guideline courses that may be offered in Grades 7 to 12 and at the 
OAC level. 


2 




Authorized Science Guideline Courses, 
Intermediate and Senior Divisions 


Grade" 


Science 


Grade 8 


Science 

• 


Basic Level 

General Level 

Advanced Level 

Grade 9 

Saence (SNC IB) 

Science (SNC1G) 

Science (SNC1 A) 

Grade 10 

Science (SNC2B) 

Science (SNC2G) 

Science (SNC2A) 



Environmental Science (SEN2G) 

Environmental Science (SEN2A) 

Grade 11 

Science (SNC3B) 

Applied Biology (SBA3G) 

Biology (SBI3A) 



Applied Chemistry (SCA3G) 
Environmental Saence (SEN3G) 

Chemistry (SCH3 A) 

Grade 12 

Science (SNC4B) 

Environmental Science (SEN4G) 

Environmental Science (SEN4A) 



Geology (SGE4G) 

Geology (SGE-iA)* 



Applied Physics (SPA4G) 
Technological Saence (STE4G) 

Physics (SPH4A) 

OACs 



Biology (SB10A) 

Prerequisite - Biology (SB13A) 

Chemistry (SCHOA) 

Prerequisite - Chemistry (SCH3A) 

Physics(SPHOA) 

Prerequisite - Physics(SPH-tA) 

Science in Society (SSOOA) 




Prerequisite - One of 

Biology (SBI3A) 

Chemistry (SCH3A) 

Environmental Science (SEN^A) 
Geology (SGE4A)* 

Physrcs(SPH-iA) 



i — 


'Since ihcGraoe i2gcolog\ courvJc^bcUinthcguiJdincisccPan 11»ma\- be uught under the antis of 2 gco«raph\ departments 
GcotogviGGE^Ai-note the course-code change- then euh«G«okrgY|SGE-tA) or Geology iGGEHAimas count as a prerequisite to 
Science tn Sooetv tSSOO A i 











Introduction 


Policies and Features That Apply Across the Science Program 

Part 1 of the guideline specifies a great number of policies and 
features that are to be integrated into the design of the science 
program in the Intermediate and Senior Divisions. There are too many 
of them to describe in full in each of Parts 2 to 15, but the 
following points will give the reader some idea of the scope that is 
involved. They include: 

- information about the science credits that are required for the 
earning of the Ontario Secondary School Diploma; 

a list of science courses that are prerequisite to other science 
courses; 

- the policy regarding mandatory student activities in the science 
laboratory; 

a list of the aims of the science curriculum and the various 
emphases that may be used to blend these aims with scientific 
content; 

policy governing time allocations for units of study and the order 
in which core and optional units may be taught; 
stipulations about locally designed units; 

suggestions about preferred routes that students might take 

I 

f 

through the science program in a secondary school; 

policy regarding the introduction of non-guideline courses, which 
are subject to the approval of the Ministry of Education; 
recommendations related to exceptional students, individualized 
instruction, life-management skills, career awareness, the role 
and evaluation of language in science courses, and a balanced 
perspective on the role of both girls and boys in science; 
recommendations on the introduction and handling of sensitive 
issues; 

specific suggestions about resources for the teaching of science;! 


4 



Introduction 


ideas about different modes of delivering science 
courses, including the co-operative education mode; 
policy pertaining to the significant role to be played by 
measurement and metric units in science courses; 
stipulations related to the treatment of symbols, significant 
digits, and mathematical problem solving; 

recommendations concerning the roles to be played by calculators 
and computers in science courses; 
specific directions about safety; 

policy and principles pertaining to the evaluation of student 
achievement; 

policy regarding differences in the treatment of science courses 
at the three levels of difficulty; 

many suggestions about implementing the science program. 

It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that teachers of science must 
integrate the policy and recommendations outlined in Part 1 with the 
teaching of science and cannot simply rely on the course descriptions 
given in Parts 2 to 15 of the guideline. 


The Science Curriculum Continuum 

By the time students have reached the Senior Division, they will have 
experienced first a unified approach in the Primary and Junior 
Divisions, in which science is related to a number of other 
subject areas, and then a diversified approach to a mosaic of science 
disciplines - biology, chemistry, physics, and environmental science 
- in the Intermediate Division. In the Senior Division, they are * 
provided with a specialized approach, in which the science courses 
deal with a single discipline at a time. 


5 






Introduction 


Although these approaches - unified, diversified, and specialized - 
provide different ways of dealing with the subject, the intention is 
to ensure that there is a continuum throughout the years. The two 
advanced-level courses in biology, the Grade 11 course and the OAC, 
build on the biology units of the advanced-level courses in the 
Intermediate years. It is essential that students who wish to attend 
university and continue their study of biology include Grade 11 
advanced-level biology and the biology OAC in their secondary school 
program. 

J 

Biology teachers should be aware of the subject matter contained in 
the biological-science units of the Intermediate Division courses and 
of the way in which Senior biology, chemistry, and physics courses 
relate to one another. 

In all science courses the core units and the prescribed number of 
optional units, if any, are to be included. The time allocation for 
each unit of study should act as a guide in helping teachers devote c 
proportionate amount of time to each of the units in a course. This; 
is important in view of the continuum from one course to another and 
to postsecondary science programs. 

Compulsory and Prerequisite Courses 

In the secondary school program two science courses are required 
among the compulsory subjects that are necessary for the earning of 
the Ontario Secondary School Diploma. It is, therefore, anticipated 
that most of the students who enrol in Senior Division advanced—level 
biology courses will have taken Grade 9 and 10 science also at the 
advanced level. 


6 







Introduction 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level is a prerequisite to Biology, OAC. 
Principals may waive this requirement if the student has taken a 
course that may be considered to be equivalent to the prerequisite or 
if there is good reason to believe that the student can adequately 
cope with Biology, OAC in preparation for university. 

Curriculum Emphases 

It is recommended that teachers organize each of the courses 
described in this document around a particular curriculum emphasis or 
set of emphases. Such emphases give the curriculum a special focus 
that can be introduced in addition to the content and processes 
outlined in the courses. This approach is discussed in subsection 
3.4, "Curriculum Emphases - Blending Curriculum Aims With Content", 
of Part 1 of the science guideline. In table 2 of that subsection a 
list of emphases is given. These emphases will enhance the 
development of the science courses described in this document. A 
particular emphasis that is stressed throughout an entire course or 
for one or more units at a time needs to be highlighted so that it 
becomes a focal or integrating theme. 

Student Activities 

In each unit of study there is a section entitled "Student 
Activities". This section indicates the mandatory laboratory 
activities required of students. Teachers may substitute equivalent 
laboratory activities where appropriate. Those activities that are 
actually to be performed by students themselves are marked with 
asterisks. If time and circumstances permit, the teacher should 
encourage students to do some or all of the unmarked activities as 
well. However, such activities may be demonstrated by a student or 


7 






Introduction 


the teacher or may be discussed in conjunction with a textbook, film, 
computer program, or other learning material used as a resource. In 
any event, the scientific concepts and principles related to such 
unmarked activities and identified in the objectives of the unit of 
study shall be considered to be part of the prescribed course. 

Generally, the best approach to the teaching of science is to ensure 
that the content develops directly from related student activities. 

In each unit of study the skills and processes of scientific work 
should be presented as the central component, from which the subject I 
matter, applications, and implications emerge. 

Safety 

Safety awareness must be developed in all science students. Constant 
attention to accident prevention is to be stressed in all student 
activities and teacher demonstrations in the laboratory. Section 9, 
"Safety", in Part 1 of the science guideline contains the following 
comprehensive subsections: 

Safety in the Laboratory 
Some Recommended Safety Procedures 
Animal Care in Science Courses 
The Safe Use of Plants 

In each unit of study, subsection 6, "Safety Considerations", acts as 
a reminder of some of the safety features that pertain to the unit in 
question. General reference, however, should constantly be made to 
the safety section in Part 1. Schools must always remain on the 
alert in regards to safety and maintain an up-to-date safety- 
awareness program. \ 


8 







Introduction 


Sensitive Issues 

The curriculum outlined in this guideline places a distinct emphasis 
on the science-technology-society connection. For this reason 
scientific applications and societal implications are mandatory 
components in each unit of study. In addition. Part 1 of the 
guideline underlines the need to incorporate morals/values education 
into science courses. Undoubtedly, this will give rise to the 
discussion of some sensitive issues. 

Such discussions are important. Generally, they should be focused 
and should provide an open forum for the expression of different 
viewpoints. In this regard teachers of science are urged to become 
familiar with section 10, "Values in Science Education", in Part 1 
of the guideline and to pay particular attention to the principles to 
be observed in dealing with sensitive issues in the science 
curriculum. These principles are mentioned in subsection 10.2 of 
Part 1. 

Locally Designed Units 

Among the optional units in each of the courses described in this 
document is one entitled "Locally Designed Unit" (LDU). Such a unit 
is included to allow teachers, at their discretion, to introduce an 
appropriate new area of biology not described in the guideline, to 
expand on previous units or topics by adding new work, or to use the 
time allocated to the LDU to extend the time allocations for the core 
units. (See also Part 1, subsection 5.5). 


S 




Introduction 


Evaluation of Student Achievement 

Particular attention must be paid to the opening policy statements 
made in section 14, "Evaluation", in Part 1 of the guideline. The 
evaluation of student achievement in all Intermediate and Senior 
Division science courses must include certain components as follows: 

- laboratory activities and reports . at least 15 per cent 

and, in addition, for the OACs: 

independent study . at least 10 per cent 

one or more formal examinations . from 30 to 40 per cent 


In each unit of study described in the courses outlined in this 
document, subsection 5, "Evaluation of Student Achievement", 
specifies certain items that must be included in students' term marks 
(exclusive of formal examinations) when their achievement is 
evaluated. In most units teachers are required to evaluate students' 
activities and related laboratory reports. However, the proportion 
of the mark assigned will vary from one teacher to another. In order 
that the experimental component of science be emphasized, the overall 
mark for an entire science course must include at least fifteen per 
cent for the evaluation of student achievement in laboratory skills 
and reports. 


Cross References 

In the descriptions of each unit of study in the courses outlined in 
this document, cross references are provided in parentheses. These 
are included to provide some examples of the relationships that exist 
among the parts of the unit. 


10 


















. 















. 
































































■ 










































































Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 

Units of Study and Their Time Allocations 

The following charts provide an overview of the units of study in 
the Grade 11 advanced-level course and the OAC. They also indicate 
the time to be allotted to each unit. 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


Units of Study 

Time Allocations 

Core 


1. Cell Structure and Processes 

1 4 h 

2. Vascular Plants: Growth and 


Structure 

20 h 

3. Genetic Continuity 

16 h 

4. Bacteria and Viruses 

12 h 

5. Vertebrate Digestive Systems 

7.5 h 

6. Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 

7.5 h 

7. Vertebrate Transport Systems 

7.5 h 30 h 

8. Vertebrate Reproduction and 


Development 

7. 5 h 


92 h 

Optional 


Any 18-hour unit or combination of two 


9-hour units from: 


1. Vertebrate Excretory Systems 

9 h 

2. Vertebrate Skeletal and 


Support Systems 

9 h 

3. Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 

9 h 

4. Mycology 

9 h 18 h 

5. Invertebrate Animals 

18 h 

6. The Protist Kingdom 

9 h 

7. The Impact of Science on Society 

9 or 18 h 

8. Locally Designed Unit 

9 h 


1 1 0 h 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


Units of Study 

Time Allocations 

Core 


1. The Chemical Basis of Life 

14 h 

2. Energy and the Living Cell 

14 h 

3. Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 

14 h 

4. Genetics 

14 h 

5. The Theory of Evolution 

14 h 

6. Homeostasis 

14 h 

7. Ecology 

14 h 


UD 

00 

Optional 


One of: 


1. Animal Behaviour 

12 h 

2. Locally Designed Unit 

12 h 12 h 


1 10 h 


























Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 
Interrelationships Between the Two Courses 

The two Senior advanced-level biology courses - Biology, Grade 11, 
Advanced Level and Biology, Ontario Academic Course (OAC) - form a 
continuum. The first course is prerequisite to the second. 

Teachers of either course should be thoroughly familiar with the 

subject material in both in order to ensure that overlap between 
them is minimal and that continuity is provided. 

Both the Grade 11 course and the OAC emphasize a balance between 
substantive content and scientific process ; these are supported by 
hands-on student activities. The two courses require both 

quantitative and qualitative work. The former, which is given less 
emphasis, is accomplished through measurement, graphical analysis, 
and statistical problem solving; the latter is accomplished through 
communication, both verbal and written, of ideas, concepts, 
findings, questions, and opinions. The use of appropriate language 
should be stressed. Balance must also be provided through a 
science-technology-society emphasis. The identification of 
applications and societal implications in each unit of study should 
ensure that biology is perceived by the students to be a relevant 
human endeavour, influencing lives, societies, and nations. 

Both of the biology courses should include references to careers in 
which life science plays a role. This should stimulate an interest 
in human participation in science and lead to some discussion of the 
work, responsibility, and influence of biologists. The achievements 
of Canadian and other biologists should be stressed from time to 

time. 


12 








Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 


Teachers of these two biology courses should impress students with 
the fact that they are surrounded by living matter and that they are 
a part of, and interact with, that matter. In these courses 
students should also seek to understand and look for meaning in the 
interactions among scientists, industry, the environment, and all 
living things. Such meaning should help students to realize that 
biology can enhance life and be directed towards useful, positive, 
and peaceful purposes. 


The order of the units in these two courses may be rearranged or 
integrated at the discretion of the teacher to give the course an 
overall theme or emphasis. For example, in the Grade 11 course, 
approach would be to integrate all of the vertebrate physiology 
units into a continuous sequence in order to consider the 
interrelationships among the systems and the important biological 
principle of homeostasis. T1 is approach would also make it easie 
to co-ordinate the dissections, which could be used as a integrat 
or review activity. 

In the OAC course the units are arranged so that the course begin 
with a study of biological molecules and builds through cells and 
organisms to a final consideration of the ecological relationship 
among organisms. Alternatively, the course could be considered f 
a more holistic point of view by beginning with the study of ecol 
and subsequently considering the place of organisms, cells, and 
molecules in the ecosystem. 


one 



In both courses 
optional unit. 


a locally designed unit may be included as an 
This allows teachers the flexibility to introduce 


a 




13 








Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 

area of biology not described in this guideline, to incorporate 
additional objectives that will expand a previous part of the 
course, or to reinforce various aspects of the core units that may 
require greater emphasis. 

Respect for Living Things 

Respect for living things (non-human organisms as well as human 
beings) should be emphasized in biology courses. Discussions of 
actions and attitudes related to the preservation and destruction of 
living things will undoubtedly raise controversial issues in the 
classroom. Such issues might include the chemical destruction of 
plants and animals; endangered species; the loss of agricultural and 
natural ecosystems; the use of land for highways, transmission 
lines, and pipelines; the "excessive" killing of animals for food, 
clothing, recreation, and research; and the biological effects of 
radiation. 

This also raises the issue of dissection and its role in biology 
courses. It is expected that dissections will be kept to a minimum 
and will be used only where it is considered necessary for students 
to examine at first hand relationships between structure and 
function and the complexity of organisms. 

Some of the student activities in these courses require students to 
dissect a vertebrate. Appropriate dissection skills, safety 
considerations, and attitudes related to respect for living things 
must be emphasized during these activities. The number of organisms 
used for dissections should be kept to a minimum; the obligation to 
preserve natural populations makes it inappropriate to dissect a new 


14 



Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 


vertebrate for each organ system that is studied. Specimens of both 
sexes should be used in laboratory activities. Mammals that can be 
used for dissection include the white rat and fetal pig* A fish or 
a frog could be used as an alternative vertebrate organism. The 
dissection could be done at the end of the study of the various 
vertebrate systems, or it could be done as the study of each organ 
system is completed. In the latter case provisions must be made to 
maintain the specimens over a longer period of time. In some cases 
animal organs obtained from an abattoir can be used to supplement 
the whole-organism dissection. Wild animals or road kills are not 
to be dissected or brought into the school. 


It may seem contradictory to require both the dissection of animals 
and the consideration of respect for living things in the same 
courses. For this reason students should be given the opportunity 
to think about ihe issue and related matters. Questions such as thej 
following might be discussed in the classroom: Under what 
conditions is dissection expedient? Is there needless (although 
legitimate) expenditure of animal life? Do humans exploit non-human| 
animals? Are there alternative ways to meet human needs? What 
alternatives might be considered by humans in order to preserve more 
and destroy less? What will be the long-term effects on all livingj 
things if humans continue the present rate of destruction of wild¬ 
life, domestic animals, forests, arable land, and other 
life-supporting resources? 


Some Special Points About Each Course 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level. This course is new to Ontario 






Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 

and will require careful implementation. Those who teach it must be 
fully aware of the biology units of study that have preceded it in 
the Intermediate Division and also of the subject matter that will 
follow it in the OAC, for which it is a prerequisite. 

Because some students will take only the Grade 11 course and not the 
OAC, this is intended to be a survey course involving a study of 
several areas of biology. Thus, it permits the coverage of a broad 
range of topics rather than an in-depth treatment of a few. For 
example, the core units on vertebrate physiology deal with the 
physiology of both mammalian systems and the systems of other 
vertebrates. These units are not intended to focus solely on the 
human. Although the course offers an introductory treatment, it 
must also provide a foundation for students who wish to take further 
studies in biology at the OAC level. 

In the Grade 11 course the optional unit "The Impact of Science on 
Society" may be allocated either nine or eighteen hours, at the 
discretion of the teacher. The content of this unit can be 
integrated throughout the course when biological issues are 
discussed, and the time can be allocated as appropriate. 
Alternatively, this unit could stand on its own as a nine- or 
eighteen-hour unit. 

Biology, Ontario Academic Course . The biology OAC is more rigorous 
than the Grade 11 course and treats some topics in greater depth. 

It is intended to prepare students for further studies in biology at 
the university level. 


16 



Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 

Since biochemistry is so important in present-day biology, 
biochemical concepts and explanations are introduced and usee 
frequently throughout this course. Although a number of basic 
biochemical topics have been presented together in core unit 1, "The 
Chemical Basis of Life", it is recommended that serious 
consideration be given to integrating this unit into the rest of the 
course and to presenting the biochemical concepts as they are 
needed. 


Independent study in the biology OAC . At least 10 per cent of the 
evaluation of student achievement in the biology OAC is to be based 
on independent study. The following suggestions indicate reports, 
projects, presentations, or other assignments from various parts of 
the course that may be considered for independent study, which need 
not be restricted to only one unit of study. 

Coie unit 1: Since this may be treated as an introductory or 
integrative unit, it may not be appropriate for independent 
study . 

Core unit 2: Students can find information on energy 
transformations in the cell. 

Core unit 3: Students can prepare a report on the development of 
current knowledge about photosynthesis. 

Core unit 4: Students can do a library project for student 
activity 2c or prepare a report on some aspect of biological 
research (see 8c). 

Core unit 5: Students can do activity 2b as independent study. 
Some may wish to present an alternative view of biological 
origins. 


17 





Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 

- Core unit 6: Students can gather and summarize information 
within a specified time limit on the anatomy and physiology of 
the nervous system (see 8e). Some students may wish to report on 
the role of the kidney in the homeostatic process, provided they 
did not study the excretory system in Grade 11 under optional 
unit 1. 

- Core unit 7: Any of the student activities may be conducted as 
an independent-study exercise. 

- Optional unit 1: Any of the student activities is appropriate 
for independent study. 

- Optional unit 2: A variety of projects involving independent 
study can satisfy the requirements for a locally designed unit. 

- Throughout the OAC some students may prepare an in-depth report 
on the present scope and status in Canada of careers and 
employment opportunities that are related to biology. 


18 










,-,r. | / : x -O $ * PW| 

- 


* 































. 


























Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


Core Units (92 hours) 

1. Cell Structure and Processes 

2. Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 

3. Genetic Continuity 

4. Bacteria and Viruses 


5. Vertebrate 

Digestive Systems 

6. Vertebrate 

Gas-Exchange Systems 

7. Vertebrate 

Transport Systems 

8. Vertebrate 

Reproduction and Development 

Optional Units 

(18 hours) 

1. Vertebrate 

Excretory Systems 

2. Vertebrate 

Skeletal and Support Systems 

3. Vertebrate 

Integumentary Systems 

4. Mycology 



5. Invertebrate Animals 

6. The Protist Kingdom 

7. The Impact of Science on Society 

8. Locally Designed Unit 
















' 





















































































































Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI 3A) 

Core Unit 1 

Cell Structure and Processes 

Time: 14 hours 

This unit focuses on a detailed analysis of the structure of living 
cells and the function of identified cell organelles. The topics 
covered in this unit build on the work done in the Grade 9 science 
course and prepare students for the biochemical approach to cell 
physiology in the biology OAC. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

Cell structure and function 
Cell and tissue types 
Passive and active transport 
Cellular respiration 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a curiosity about the cell as the smallest unit of structure 
capable of showing all the attributes of living things (2b, 2c, 
8b, 8d ) ; 

b) an appreciation of both the similarity and the diversity in the 

structure of plant and animal cells (2b, 2c, 8b); 

c) an appreciation of the importance and complexity of new 
techniques and instruments that enable scientists to expand 
their knowledge of cellular structure and function (2b, 4b); 

d) an appreciation of the limits of our knowledge concerning the 
structure and capabilities of the living cell (2b, 4b). 


20 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit Is Cell Structure and Processes 


Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) preparing and examining microscope slides of various plant and 
animal tissues (2c); 

b) using a variety of ways to prepare and stain tissues to be 
observed on a microscope slide (2c); 

c) identifying, drawing, and labelling what they observe through 
microscopy (2b-2d); 

d) identifying cell structures by means of electron micrographs 
and describing them (2b); 

e) estimating and measuring the dimensions of observed cells and 
their components (2e); 

f) preparing simple experiments to demonstrate osmosis and 
dlffusion (2 f); 

g) predicting the net movement of solutes and solvents across cell 
membranes in various cell environments (2f). 


Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the structure and function of the following cell 
organelles: nucleus, nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, chromatin 
network, nucleolus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, lysosome, 
endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, centriole, vacuole, Golgi 
apparatus, plastids, chloroplasts, and cell wall (2b, 2c); 

b) explain how the generalized cell is a model that is useful in 
describing and understanding the structure of cells (2c); 

c) explain and use correctly the following terms: solution, solute 
solvent, isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic (8e); 

d) compare passive transport and active transport and describe the 

transport processes of diffusion, endocytosis, exocytosis, and 

III 

osmosis; 


21 










Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 1: Cell Structure and Processes 

e) describe how the ratio of surface area to volume of cells 
determines maximum cell size; 

f) describe the effect of the concentration of solvents and solutes 
on the rates of movement of substances across cell membranes 

( 2 f) ; 

g) define cells , tissues , organs , and organ systems and 
differentiate among them (2b, 2c); 

h) name and describe four common plant tissues and four common 
animal tissues (2b, 2c); 

i) using word equations, explain how cells obtain usable energy 
from food through cellular aerobic and anaerobic respiration. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) demonstrate the proper care and use of the microscope (8a); 

*b) identify and gather information on the cell components that are 
visible in electron micrographs (5d); 

*c) using various preparation techniques such as thin-slice, 

peeling-of-tissue, maceration, and dilution and a variety of 
stains, prepare and examine microscope slides of a variety of 
plant and animal cells (5b, 5c, 6, 8d, 8g); 

*d) make labelled diagrams of what they observe through the 
microscope (5a, 6a, 8i); 

e) estimate the dimensions of various cells and cell components 

and, assuming a regular shape such as spherical or cylindrical 
of the entities observed, calculate their approximate volume; 

*f) perform simple experiments to investigate the effect of 

temperature and concentration on osmosis and diffusion (8c-8e). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 


22 







Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit Is Cell Structure and Processes 


3. Applications 

a) The principles of osmosis and diffusion as they relate to living 
cells and cell environments are employed in food preservation 
and in dialysis machines. Isotonic solutions are used after 

surgery. 

b) Basic cell physiology provides the foundation for medical 
research at the subcellular level (e.g., genetic manipulation 
such as gene splicing). 

c) The role of cellular symbiosis in the development of organisms, 
can be derived from an understanding of cellular ultrastructure. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Food-preservation techniques have increased the availability of 
food by increasing our ability to store and transport food 
effectively. 

b) Substances such as nicotine and alcohol can diffuse through 
placental tissue and have an effect on embryo development during 
gestation. 

c) Techniques involving tissue cultures are playing an increasing 
role in cancer research. 

d) Careers in microbiology, medical laboratory technology, and 
electron microscopy involve a knowledge of cells. 

5 . Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students 1 : 

a) laboratory investigations (e.g., analysis of results of 
experiments on diffusion and osmosis; 

b) ability to identify cells and tissues from prepared slides; 

23 









Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 1: Cell Structure and Processes 

c) preparations of wet mounts; 

d) ability to identify cell components from electron micrographs; 

e) laboratory records and notes. 

Safety Considerations 

a) Glass microscope slides and cover slips must be handled with 
caution and, if broken, disposed of in an appropriate container. 

b) Toxic stains and solvents must not be used. 

c) See section 9, "Safety", in Part 1 of the guideline for 
information about laboratory activities involving the use of 
human body fluids such as blood and saliva. 

Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) examine the effects of stains and different salt solutions on 
the movement of protozoa; 

b) prepare a report on topics such as the propagation of plants 
by means of tissue cultures, methods of food preservation, or 
the development of the electron microscope; 

c) make a simple microtome and prepare tissue sections; 

d) visit a location such as a university, community college, 
science centre, or hospital that has an electron microscope; 

e) examine under a microscope yeast cells that have been grown in 
the presence of carmine powder. 

Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Relevant topics from the Grade 9 advanced-level science course, 
including the cell theory, cell activities and the proper care 
and use of the microscope, should be reviewed in this unit. 


2 4 







Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 1: Cell Structure and Processes 


b) The importance of the cell theory as a basis for understanding 
the unity of all life on earth should be emphasized. 

c) Acitivity 2f requires a simple treatment, probably more 
qualitative than quantitative. A more in-depth treatment is 
required in Biology, OAC, core unit 2, student activity 2a. 

d) Yeast is easily grown and provides a good source of cells for 
microscope work (including the practising of proper microscopic 
techniques) and diffusion experiments. 

e) Fresh materials, such as aquatic plant leaves and epithelial 
tissue, can be used with distilled water and various salt 
solutions to demonstrate osmosis. In salt solutions plasmolysi 
is quite evident. However, strong salt solutions may cause 
cell-membrane damage and should be avoided. 

f) Tubers can be used to make an osmometer. 

g) Fresh meat products from the grocery stc re are one source of 
animal tissue (e.g., blood, muscle fibres, blood vessels). 

h) Students can use the school's resource centre to gather 
information about food-preservation techniques, dialysis 
machines, the effects of nicotine and alcohol on embryo 
development, and the societal implications of medical research 
into the structure and function of the cell. 

i) Appropriate sketching and labelling techniques should be 
emphasized throughout the unit. Evaluation should be based on 
the accuracy of students' drawings rather than on their artisti 
abilities. 

j) Aquaria filled with pond water, aquatic plants, and substrate 
are a continuous source of plant and protist material if 
succession is allowed to take place. 


25 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 2 


Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 
Time: 20 hours 

In this unit the relationships between the structure and function of 
seeds, roots, and stems in common vascular plants are examined. The 
emphasis in this unit should be on the characteristics observed in 
these structures that permit populations of plants to develop in 
many different environments. The material presented builds on the 
more general considerations found in the Grade 9 advanced-level 
science course and prepares students for the detailed examination of 
plant physiology and photosynthesis in the biology OAC. It is 
important that students gain a good working knowledge of plant 
structures and functions so that they can understand the complex 
relationships that exist between plants and their environment. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

Plant growth 
- Seed germination 
Meristems 

Plant-growth regulators 

Vascular tissue: structure and function 

Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation for the variety of environmental factors that 
affect plant growth (2b); 

b) curiosity about plant growth and the structure and function of 
plant parts and tissues (2a-2c); 


26 











Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 2: Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 

c) an appreciation of the sophistication of plant structure, 
function, and growth; 

d) an interest in the uses of vascular plants (e.g., for food, 
fibre, paper, drugs, dyes, growth regulators). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in : 

a) preparing plant materials for experimentation; 

b) identifying, measuring, comparing, and drawing plant parts, 
tissues, and cells; 

c) performing experiments to examine plant growth and germination; 

d) hypothesizing about, designing appropriate tests of, and drawinc 
conclusions about plant responses to external stimuli, for 
example, light, gravity, soil, water, and chemicals (2d); 

e) inferring the adaptive value of the various plant structures 
that they observe. 

► 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) compare the structure of a dicotyledon and a monocotyledon seed 
(2a) ; 

b) describe the role in the germination process of the seed coat, 
micropyle, endosperm, cotyledons, radicle, apical meristems, 
plumule, and hypocotyl (2a, 2b, 8a); 

c) describe the conditions necessary for plant germination (2b); 

d) compare the structures of a monocot and a dicot stem and of a 
herbaceous and a woody stem (2e) ; 

e) describe and compare the structure and function of xylem and 
phloem tissues (2e, 8b); 

f) describe how the structure of root hairs complements their 
function (2f); 


27 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 2: Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 

g) account for the movement of liquids through xylem cells (2g); 

h) state one theory to account for the movement of liquids through 
phloem cells; 

i) describe the location and development of meristematic regions in 
a herbaceous and a woody plant (2c, 3a); 

j) describe two or three examples of tropisms in plants and explain 
the role of auxins in these responses (2d, 2h); 

k) name and describe the effects of two plant-growth regulators 
other than auxins, for example, gibberellins or cytokinins (2h, 
3a) ; 

l) compare and contrast the structural features of plants 

from different environments and infer their adaptive value (2i); 

m) identify several plant species common to two Ontario biomes and 
infer the relationship between the species and the abiotic 
conditions. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect and then identify and compare the parts of 

representative monocotyledon and dicotyledon seeds (6); 

*b) perform experiments to examine the process of germination and 
initial plant growth (5a, 8a); 

c) perform experiments to identify the location of meristematic 
tissue in seedlings; 

*d) design and perform experiments to study plant responses to one 
or more external stimuli, such as the quality, photoperiod, and 
intensity of light (5a, 8d); 

28 


.i 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 2: Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 

*e) using prepared slides, describe and compare the structure of a 
monocot and a dicot stem, a herbaceous and a woody stem, and 
phloem and xylem cells (6); 

f) draw diagrams of root hairs as observed with a microscope; 

g) perform experiments to examine and measure the movement of 
liquids through xylem tissue and water loss through 
transpiration from leaves (8b); 

h) perform experiments to investigate the effect of one or more of 
the plant-growth regulators on plant growth, for example, 
auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, or abscisic acid (5a, 6); 

*i) examine and compare prepared slides of leaf tissue from various 
aquatic and terrestrial environments (5b). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 7. 

3. Applications 

a) Plant-growth regulators are used for a 
purposes, including weed control and fr 

b) Knowledge of the location and character 
tissue has led to improved grafting and 
techniques. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Improved plant-propagation, growing, and storage procedures hav 

led to the increased availability of food and desirable plant 
types. 

b) Many careers make use of a knowledge of plant structure and 
function (e.g., forestry, horticulture, agriculture). 

J 

] 

. 

29 | 

' 


variety of useful 
uit storage . 
istics of meristematic 
plant-propagation 









Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 2: Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 

The deforestation of large areas of the earth's surface (e.g., 
rain forests) affects air quality. 

d) The preservation of plant life on earth needs to be 
considered much more seriously than it has been in the past if 
life on the planet is not to be endangered. 

e) Selective use of herbicides can improve plant productivity for 
human consumption. 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 
on students': 

a) design, performance, and reporting on plant-growth experiments; 

b) descriptions of plant tissue. 

Safety Considerations 

Students should be instructed in the proper handling of dissecting 
tools, microscopes, and chemicals. 

Possible Extensions 
Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on current techniques for the 
study of plant physiology; 

b) compare plants from different environments to identify their 
adaptations to different abiotic factors; 

c) perform one or more of the following additional experiments or 
investigations related to plant growth: 

i) a comparison of the responses of plants to a given 
stimulus 

ii) an investigation of the factors that initiate flowering 


30 







>1 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 2: Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 

iii) an investigation of the mechanism of photoperiodism 

iv) a report based on a library search into the experiments of 
Darwin, Boysen-Jensen, and Went and their contributions to 
the knowledge of the chemical regulation of growth in 
plants 

d) gather information and report on the discovery of giberellins; 

e) describe the benefits and risks associated with the use of 
herbicides such as 2,4-D or 2,4-5-T or agent orange; 

f) investigate the use of plant hormones in agriculture; 

g) investigate the potential of hydroponics as an alternative 
method of growing plants; 

h) investigate the use of plants as a source of fuel for 
automobiles. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Plant growth experiments can be time-consuming and can take up 
considerable laboratory space. The activities described here 
have been designed so that they can be done with seedlings andJ 
relatively few mature plants. However, careful advance planning 
will still have to be done to ensure the availability of plant! 
materials at appropriate times. 

b) The stems of coleus or impatiens and the leafy stalks of celery 
provide good material for an examination of transport in xylemj 
tissue. 

c) This unit can be enhanced by a field trip to a greenhouse or a 
classroom visit by a horticulturist to discuss plant-propagatio 
techniques. 

d) A field trip to observe plant adaptations in different natural 
habitats can add interest to this unit. 

3 ]| 













Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 3 


Genetic Continuity 

Time: 16 hours 

This unit introduces students to the basic concepts of genetics. 

The material presented builds in part on the study of the cell begun 
in Grade 9 advanced-level science and continued in core unit 1 of 
this course. It also lays the groundwork for the unit in the 
biology OAC on the transmission and expression of genetic 
information. The work of Gregor Mendel is highlighted, not only 
because it provides the basis for the study of genetics but also 
because it demonstrates several important aspects of the scientific 
process. Students should gain an understanding of the links among 
the following major biological concepts: 

- Living organisms in the present come from pre-existing 
organisms. 

Hereditary factors are passed on and rarely change from 
generation to generation. 

Sexual reproduction allows for genetic recombination and genetic 
variability in a population. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- Mendel's experiments 

Genetic continuity and inheritance 
Sexual and asexual reproduction 

- Mitosis and meiosis 
Genetic traits in humans 


32 




1 

Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 3: Genetic Continuity 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a curiosity about our knowledge of heredity and the scientific 
studies on which this knowledge is based (3a-3c); 

b) a respect for the differences among people that result from 
genetic variability (2e); 

c) an appreciation for the complexity of the issues surrounding 
contemporary research in genetics (8d). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) preparing, staining, and examining microscope slides of plant 
tissue, such as onion root tips, to observe various stages of 
mitosis (2a); 

b) examining commercially prepared microscope slides of plant and 
animal cells as well as diagrams that show mitosis and meiosis, 
comparing mitosis in plant and animal cells, and comparing 
meiosis and mitosis (2b, 2c); 

c) identifying, observing, and describing three or more examples of 
asexual reproduction (2d, 8a); 

d) using a Punnett square to solve problems involving monohybrid 
and dihybrid crosses (2e). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the experiments of Gregor Mendel, including his 
purpose, techniques, manipulation of variables, data, hypothesis 
based on his observations, and the ability of his hypothesis to 
predict the outcome of his test crosses (3a); 

b) on the basis of a description of Mendel's procedures and 
techniques, explain how his work is an example of good 


33 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 3: Genetic Continuity 


scientific processes; 

c) using pea-plant characteristics identified by Mendel, 
demonstrate two or more monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, 
including the F-] and F 2 generations (2e); 

d) using diagrams and word descriptions, describe the processes of 
mitosis and cytokinesis in plant and animal cells (2a, 2b); 

e) describe and compare sexual and asexual reproduction and list 
three organisms that illustrate each method of reproduction (2d, 
8a) ; 

f) describe the process of meiosis, including the purpose of, and 
the major events in, the two meiotic divisions; tetrad 
formation; crossing over; and the formation of four haploid 
cells (2b, 2c); 

g) state the differences between meiosis and mitosis (2a-2c); 

h) explain the meaning of the following terms: gene, allele, 
dominant and recessive alleles, incomplete dominance, 
homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype, genotype (2e); 

i) describe the relationships among a gene, a chromosome, and DNA 
in the transmission of traits from one generation to another 
(2a, 2b); 

j) describe how the meiotic process accounts for Mendel's 
observations and conclusions concerning factor (gene) 
segregation and independent assortment (2a, 2b); 

k) using human blood types (ABO), describe the associated dominant 
and recessive alleles, possible inheritance patterns, and 
resulting phenotypes (2e, 3c); 

l) explain sex determination in the human and in some other 
organism, such as a fruit fly, a bird, or a bee; 


34 



Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 3: Genetic Continuity 


m) 

n) 

o) 


explain how some human traits are sex-linked and describe the 

phenotype of one or more of these traits (2e) ; 

describe one or more human disorders that result from the 

inheritance of a deleterious allele (3b, 3d, 8d); 

demonstrate and describe one or more crosses to show dominance, 

incomplete dominance, and sex-linked traits (2e, 3b). 


2. Student Activities 
Students are to: 

*a) examine the phases of mitosis, using microscope slides of plant 
tissue prepared and stained in the laboratory (5a, 5b, 6); 

*b) examine mitosis and meiosis in plant and animal cells, using 
commercially prepared microscope slides; 
c) draw diagrams of the phases of mitosis and meiosis, showing 
chromosomes and other cell constituents involved in the 
processes ( 5a ) ; 

*d) examine asexual reproduction in three or more different types of 
organisms (8a ) ; 

e) trace inheritance patterns to the F 2 generation in monohybrid 
and dihybrid crosses involving examples of dominant and 
recessive alleles, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, and 
sex-linked traits. 


*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities 


on page 


7. 


■1, 


3. Applications 

a) The laws of inheritance are 
to select favourable traits 

b) A knowledge of genetics and 


used to direct breeding programs 
in domesticated plants and animals 
human heredity enables people to b 


35 













Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 3: Genetic Continuity 

counselled regarding the risks and safeguards associated with 
hereditary diseases. 

c) An understanding of blood types has made blood 
transfusion, transplantation of organs, and a number of other 
medical procedures possible. 

d) Newborn babies are screened for genetic disorders that result in 
such diseases as Tay-Sachs, Mediterranean anemia, and 
phenylketonuria (PKU). 

Societal Implications 

a) Research in plant and animal genetics has led to the development 
of new crop species that have desirable features (e.g., high 
quality of fruit, early maturation rate). 

b) Society will need to address the moral and ethical issues 
surrounding human genetics (e.g., use of sperm banks, in vitro 
fertilization, medical uses of recombinant DNA). 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on student s ' : 

a) records of laboratory work (e.g., diagrams of mitotic stages); 

b) laboratory techniques (e.g., preparation of microscope slides). 

Safety Considerations 

Students should be instructed in the careful handling of the 

chemicals used to fix and stain plant tissue. 


36 








Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 3: Genetic Continuity 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) trace the inheritance of a characteristic through several 
generations of a family (e.g., haemophilia in the royal families 
of Europe); 

b) examine commercially prepared microscope slides to observe 
human blood cells; 

c) do a survey of a group of individuals to determine the frequency 
of four or more human traits (8b); 

d) study the inheritance of specific traits in such organisms as 
Drosophilia, corn, or tomatoes. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Examples of asexual reproduction might include the following: 
simple cell division - protozoa; budding - yeast, hydra; spore 
formation - moulds; vegetative reproduction - moss, potatoes, 
strawberries, grass; fragmentation - alga. 

b) Students can do surveys on, or pedigrees of, common human trait: 
(e.g., blood type, attached ear lobes, widow's peak, 
hitchhiker's thumb, bent little finger, pigmented iris, 
mid-digital hair). Students must be warned to exercise 
discretion and sensitivity towards others when making a survey 
or doing a pedigree. Controversial issues related to students' 
traits are to be avoided. 

c) Microcomputers could be used to analyse survey data. 

d) Class discussions could be held on such controversial topics as 
eugenics and genetic disorders in order to promote student 
awareness, understanding, and empathy in these areas. 


37 




Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 3: Genetic Continuity 

e) Teachers should plan co-operatively with the teacher-librarian 
to identify and make available current publications and 
pamphlets on genetic issues. 


38 










. 

. 





































i; 




















































































































































Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 4 


Bacteria and Viruses 
Time: 12 hours 

This unit deals with the extensive topic of bacteria and viruses. 

In particular, it focuses on the basic structure of bacteria and 
viruses, their role in the biosphere, and how they interact with 
humans. It is expected that students will already have a working 
knowledge of the structure and function of the cell and will know 
how to use a microscope. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- Bacteria and viruses: structure, variety, and reproduction 
Pathogens and their diseases 

- The roles of bacteria in the biosphere 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation that bacteria and viruses play an essential role 
in the biosphere (4a, 4b); 

b) an appreciation and a respect for both the beneficial and 

harmful effects of bacteria and viruses on their lives (3a, 3c); 

c) curiosity about the diversity, structure, and reproductive 

processes of bacteria and viruses (2a, 2d); 

d) a commitment to personal hygiene, health, and food-handling 
habits designed to minimize exposure to the harmful effects of 
bacteria and viruses (3c). 


39 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 4: Bacteria and Viruses 


Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using electron micrographs to identify and describe the 
structure of bacteria and viruses (2a); 

b) drawing and labelling diagrams of bacteria and viruses (2a, 2d); 

c) using proper aseptic techniques and appropriate personal 
hygienic procedures in handling bacterial cultures (2b, 2c); 

d) preparing and sterilizing basic bacteria growth media, such as 
nutrient agar (2b); 

e) observing and describing characteristics of bacterial growth, 
for example, the number, variety, and appearance of colonies; 
rate of growth; and inhibition of growth (2c). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the general structure of a virus, including shape, for 
example, rod and polyhedral (2a); 

b) describe the general structural characteristics of bacteria, for 
example, size, shape, cell arrangement, and cell structure (2a, 
2d) ; 

c) define the terms prokaryote and eukaryote ; 

d) describe how viruses infect a host cell and reproduce; 

e) compare cell reproduction in bacteria with that in eukaryotic 
cells; 

f) explain the terms transformation , transduction , and conjugation 
as they relate to reproduction in bacteria; 

g) describe the mechanism and purpose of spore formation in 
bacteria (8a ) ; 

h) explain how viruses display characteristics of both a living anc 
a non-living entity; 


40 











Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 4: Bacteria and Viruses 

i) explain why aseptic techniques are required in the handling of 
bacteria and viruses (8a); 

j) briefly describe the importance of at least two bacterial or 
viral diseases that infect plants and animals; 

k) describe two or three human bacterial or viral diseases in terms 
of disease transmission, symptoms, and effects and describe the 
function of innate defences such as the skin, mucous antibodies, 
and white blood cells (8c); 

l) describe the use of vaccines, antibiotics, and antiseptics and 
their effects on bacteria and viruses (2e) ; 

m) with specific reference to autotrophic, heterotrophic (saprobes 
and parasites), and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, describe the roles 
of bacteria in the biosphere; 

n) through reference to current research on tumor-causing viruses, 
explain the probable link between some forms of human cancer and 
viral agents (8c). 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) describe the structure of viruses and bacteria on the basis of 
an analysis of electron micrographs; 

b) use sterile techniques to prepare growth media and to culture 
non-pathogenic bacteria (5b, 6, 8a, 8b); 

*c) examine and describe the growth of bacteria, for example, 

number and type of bacteria, characteristics of the colonies, 
and colour of the growth medium (5b, 6); 

d) use commercially prepared slides to compare different types of 
bacteria (6f ) ; 


41 



Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 4: Bacteria and Viruses 

e) test the effects of one or’more antibiotics and disinfectants on 
bacterial growth (5b, 6, 8a). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 7. 

3. Applications 

a) Some industries rely on the activities of bacteria (e.g., the 
dairy industry, biotechnology industries). 

b) Beneficial as well as harmful micro-organisms in the human body 
are affected by vaccines and antibiotics (e.g., antibiotics 
inhibit intestinal bacteria). 

c) Appropriate personal hygiene and health-care habits can minimize 
exposure to the harmful effects of bacteria and viruses. 

d) Food-packaging and processing techniques are aimed at minimizing 
the growth of bacteria. 

e) Bacteria are fundamental to ecosystems and the biosphere. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Improved water treatment, sewage disposal, public-education 
programs, and personal hygiene have enhanced public health 
significantly. 

b) The use of bacteria to produce essential enzymes, hormones, and 
other biochemicals, such as insulin, the growth-hormone 
vaccines, and interferon, will be of great benefit. 

c) A knowledge of micro-organisms is required in many career areas 
(e.g., brewing, microbiology, medicine, and agriculture). 

d) Although artificial preservatives extend the storage and shelf 
life of many food products, some of these additives may be 
harmful to some people. 


42 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 4: Bacteria and Viruses 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) laboratory exercises and reports; 

b) use of proper aseptic techniques. 

Safety Considerations 

a) Students must not culture or study living pathogens in the 
laboratory. 

b) The accidental growth of pathogens on simple growth media such 
as nutrient agar at room temperature is minimal. However, all 
cultures should be handled as if pathogens were present. 

c) All students must understand the safe handling of bacterial 
cultures and know how to use aseptic techniques when culturing 
bacteria. 

d) Appropriate procedures should be used for the safe disposal of 
discarded cultures and for the sterilization of contaminated 
equipment. 

e) Caution should be exercised in the use of an autoclave or 
pressure cooker. 

f) PCB-free oils should be used for oil-immersion work. 

g) Bacteria should be cultured only at room temperature. 

h) Petri dishes containing growing bacteria should be kept sealed 
and should be sterilized before disposal. 

i) Commercially prepared slides should be used for microscope work. 


43 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 4: Bacteria and Viruses 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) investigate the effect of temperature, light, or nutrient 
supplements on bacterial growth; 

b) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 
(i) the biotechnical industries in which bacteria are used to 
produce useful chemicals, (ii) the causes and effects of food 
contamination and poisoning by bacteria and ways of guarding 
against such contamination, (iii) bacteria as decomposers in 
sewage treatment or in a septic-tank system; 

c) list and briefly describe occupations that are related to human 
interaction with bacteria or viruses. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Aseptic techniques and proper handling procedures should be 
emphasized as students work with bacteria in the laboratory. 

The application of these techniques to personal hygienic habits 
should be encouraged. Some time should be taken to ensure that 
students understand and have mastered the appropriate 
procedures. The following steps should be followed as part of 
aseptic laboratory procedures but should not be considered as 
all-inclusive: 

Heat or a disinfectant should be used to sterilize all 
equipment before and after use. 

Students should wash their hands at the conclusion of the 
activity. 

Students should keep equipment, pencils, and hands 
away from their mouth during laboratory work. 


4 L . 








Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 4: Bacteria and Viruses 

In the culturing of bacteria, Petri dishes should be taped 
shut and test tubes stoppered at all times. 

Cultures should never be taken from the laboratory. 
Specialized growth media designed to grow pathogens should 
not be used. 

Laboratory work surfaces should be wiped clean with 
disinfectant before and after an activity. 

b) An autoclave or pressure cooker can be used for sterilizing 
growth media and equipment. 

c) Reference to the Epstein-Barr virus can be useful in a 
discussion of the probable link between human cancer and 
viruses . 

d) A class trip to a hospital laboratory might allow students to 
observe culturing procedures. 

e) A public-health officer can be invited to discuss his/her role 
in the control of viral and bacterial diseases. 


45 

















a ■. ■ 











■ 




1 r " J?' 













































































































































Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 5 


Vertebrate Digestive Systems 

Time: 7.5 hours 

The purpose of this unit is twofold: first, to allow students to 
study and compare vertebrate digestive systems, and second, to help 
them develop a sound working knowledge of the human digestive 
process and human nutritional requirements. The topics covered and 
emphasized in this unit complement related material considered in 
the Grade 10 advanced-level science course and develop concepts that 
are necessary for the biochemical treatment of cell metabolism in 
the biology OAC. Emphasis should be placed on understanding the 
physiology of the human digestive system and the importance to 
personal health of good nutritional habits. 

Note : The various vertebrate physiology units in this course can be 

integrated and presented as one combined unit in order to emphasize 
the interrelationships among the systems. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- The structure and function of the vertebrate digestive system 
The human digestive system 
Nutritional requirements of cells 

Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 
a) an appreciation of, and curiosity about, the intricacies of 
vertebrate digestive processes (2a, 2d); 


46 







Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 5: Vertebrate Digestive 


Systems 


b) an appreciation for the interrelationship of good health, 

nutrition, and a properly functioning digestive system (2e, 3a, 

3b, 3d); 

c) a commitment to practising good nutrition (3a). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill ins 

a) dissecting a vertebrate in order to identify and examine the 
components of the digestive system (2a), 

b) identifying, drawing, and labelling the parts of vertebrate 
digestive tracts and associated organs (2b); 

c) analysing food materials for the presence of carbohydrates, 

fats, and proteins (2c); 

d) collecting and analysing data on nutritional intake (2e, 8o) . 
Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) compare the structure of the digestive system of a mammal withj 
that of another vertebrate (2a); 

b) list the parts of the vertebrate digestive tract and describe 
how the structure of each part is suited to its function (2b), 

c) describe the special adaptations of the digestive system of ar 

ungulate to its herbivorous diet (3c); 

d) identify the essential nutrients of a balanced diet, food 
sources for each, and the role each nutrient plays in the bod 

( 2c , 2e ) ; 

e) describe the mechanical breakdown of food and the swallowing 

process, including peristalsis (8c); 

f) describe some of the important chemical characteristics of 
enzymes and hormones and outline their role in the body; 









Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 5: Vertebrate Digestive Systems 

g) describe how fats, proteins, and carbohydrates are chemically 
broken down and absorbed into the blood system as they pass 
along the digestive tract (2c); 

h) explain how food moves along the digestive tract and how the 
release of digestive chemicals is controlled during the 
digestive process (8b); 

i) describe how fats, proteins, and carbohydrates are stored in the 
body and released as needed; 

j) report on the causes, symptoms, and cures for three or more 
disorders of the digestive system. 

Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect a vertebrate to examine and identify the parts of its 
digestive system (6b, 8f); 

*b) make a drawing of one or more vertebrates and identify the 
structures of the digestive system; 

*c) perform tests to identify the presence of fats, proteins, and 
carbohydrates in different food materials (6a, 6c, 6d); 

d) perform tests to determine the effect of amylase on one or more 
types of food, such as a cracker or raw potato (6c); 

e) record and analyse the nutritional value of the food they 
personally consume over a one-week period and relate this to 
energy requirements (8d); 

f) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the processing of 
food (8e). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 7. 


48 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 5: Vertebrate Digestive Systems 

3. Applications 

a) A knowledge of how the body uses and stores foods provides the 
basis for designing nutritious diets. 

b) A knowledge of the structure and function of the human digestive 
system is used in the treatment of digestive-system disorders. 

c) A knowledge of the digestive processes in domestic animals is 
used to provide better nutrition and care for them. 

d) An understanding of how foods are digested and absorbed can be 
used to evaluate both potential diets and the nutritional value 
of different food products. 

e) An awareness of the various factors (e.g., basal metabolic rate 
and exercise) that affect daily energy requirements makes it 
possible to plan an appropriate diet. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) The development of new food types based on a knowledge of human 
nutritional requirements will continue to help alleviate world 
food shortages. 

b) Some research is focused on the possible links between diet and 
the causes, cure, and prevention of disease. 

c) The production and sale of specialized dietary products is a 
significant industry in North America. 

d) In some regions of the world the large amount of meat 
consumed per capita may be of concern. Dietary and health 
considerations, employment, the killing of animals, and other 
factors need to be weighed in dealing with this issue. In 
contrast, there is a lack of sufficient protein in human diets 
in various parts of the world, which can have a profound effect 
on physical and mental development. 


49 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 5: Vertebrate Digestive Systems 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) laboratory experiments and reports; 

b) diagrams of vertebrate digestive systems. 

Safety Considerations 

a) Students should use protective eyewear when heating liquids. 

b) During dissections students should exercise care when handling 
instruments and should use protective eyewear and disposable 
gloves. Appropriate ventilation should be provided. Students 
should wash their hands before and after handling preserved 
specimens. 

c) Chemicals should be handled with care, and tests for food types 
that involve the use of hazardous chemicals should be avoided. 

d) Foods used in nutrient analyses should be disposed of 
immediately after use. 

Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) investigate the intake and digestion of food materials by 
protozoans ; 

b) gather information on, evaluate, and report on one or more of 
the following: a popular diet, a vegetarian diet, the apparent 
problems related to the consumption of fats and cholesterol, two 
or more dietary products, the advantages and disadvantages of 

food additives; 

c) investigate how aspirin and alcohol affect the digestive system; 


50 









Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 5: Vertebrate Digestive Systems 


d) report on the possible links between the development of stomach 
ulcers and lifestyle; 

e) investigate how nutritional requirements change with age in 
humans. 


8 . 


Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit provides an opportunity to teach in collaboration wit 
teachers of family studies and physical and health education. 


e) 


Care should be taken to avoid undue overlap in the treatment of 


mutual topics. Where topics are similar, they should be treate 
from different perspectives. 


b) There are many excellent charts, electron micrographs, and film 


on the structure and function of the human digestive system. 


c) The stories of some of the early scientists (e.g., William 


Beaumont, who investigated the digestive system) could be 
introduced into a discussion of the structure and function of 


the stomach. 


d) In conjunction with the analysis of personal nutrition, student: 


can also survey others in their peer group (e.g., do an on-the- 
spot survey of the food actually consumed during a lunch period 
in the school cafeteria). 


A field trip to a local food-producing or processing industry 
or, alternatively, a talk from a dietitian, a medical person 
specializing in digestive-system disorders, a vegetarian, or a 
health-food advocate can add interest to this unit. 


f) Models can be used in place of, or in addition to, the 

dissection, particularly for a comparison of a variety of 
vertebrates. 


51 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 6 


Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 

Time: 7.5 hours 

The role played by oxygen in cellular catabolism and the subsequent 
removal of carbon dioxide was established in core unit 1 of this 
course. This unit extends this knowledge by providing students with 
an understanding of how the oxygen is brought into the bodies of 
vertebrates and delivered to body cells and how carbon dioxide is 
then removed. An introduction to the role played by blood in this 
process provides a link to the consideration of the circulatory 
system in the next unit of study. The topics and activities 
included here complement, but do not repeat, the study of 
respiratory systems begun in the Grade 10 advanced-level science 
course. Finally, this unit enables students to gain an 
understanding and appreciation of the structure and function of 
their own respiratory system and the personal habits and care that 
facilitate its well-being. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

The structure and function of vertebrate gas-exchange systems 
Inspiration and expiration 

Factors affecting the gas-exchange system 

Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and curiosity about, the adaptive variations 
and intricacies of vertebrate gas-exchange systems (2a); 


52 












Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 6: Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 

b) an appreciation of, and a concern about, the detrimental effects 
of air pollution on the respiratory system of living organisms 

( 2e , 3b, 3c , 4a ) ; 

c) a commitment to learning about and practising personal habits 
that enhance the health of their respiratory system (3b, 3c). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) dissecting a vertebrate to identify and examine the components 
of its gas-exchange system (2a); 

b) identifying and stating the function of the parts of the gas- 
exchange system of different vertebrates (2a, 2b); 

c) using the microscope or electron micrographs to examine 
vertebrate respiratory tissue (2b); 

d) measuring, recording, and analysing data on the relationships 
between lung capacity and other physical characteristics -r 
factors and the rate of breathing (2c, 2d). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) recall the meaning of the terms respiration (breathing), gas 
exchange , and cellular respiration and distinguish among these 
processes ; 

b) compare the structure of a gas-exchange system of a mammal with 
that of at least one other type of vertebrate (2a, 2b); 

c) explain how the structure of each part of the gas-exchange 
systems examined is suited to its function (2a, 8b); 

d) describe the physical principles and mechanics of human 
inspiration and expiration (2c, 2d); 

e) explain how and why oxygen and carbon dioxide move across the 

alveolar membrane in the lungs and across the cell membranes ir 

53 











Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 6: Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 

the rest of the body; 

f) explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the 
blood of humans; 

g) briefly describe how breathing in humans is affected by various 
factors, such as carbon dioxide concentration, smoking, and 
exercise (2d ); 

h) on the basis of their knowledge of the structure and function of 
the human gas-exchange system, identify physical changes that 
would interfere with or enhance its operation (8d); 

i) explain the effects on the human gas-exchange system of two of 
the following: (i) regular vigorous physical exercise, (li) 
three or more common diseases or disorders (e.g., the common 
cold, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, emphysema), (ni) rarified 
air at high altitudes, (iv) tobacco smoke and carbon monoxide 
(8d); 

j) describe the appropriate first-aid steps for choking and 
drowning victims. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect a vertebrate in order to examine and identify the parts 
of the gas-exchange system (5a, 6, 8a, 8b); 

*b) using electron micrographs, commercially prepared slides, or 

microscope slides of tissue prepared in the laboratory, examine 
and describe the structures of lung and other types of tissue 
from vertebrate respiratory systems (8b); 

* c ) measure their own lung capacities (including tidal, expiratory, 
and inspiratory reserve volumes and the vital capacity) and 
then, by comparing their results with those of other students, 


54 



Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 6: Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 

determine if there are any apparent relationships between lung 
capacity and factors such as physical fitness, smoking, sex, 
height, weight, and chest volume (8f); 

d) investigate the effect of various factors on the breathing rate 
in humans (e.g., concentration of carbon dioxide in the air 
breathed, vital capacity, deep breathing, physical fitness); 

e) gather information and report on the effects on human 
respiratory-tract tissue of at least two airborne pollutants in 
the environment or the workplace (8d). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 7. 

Applications 

a) A knowledge of the structure and function of the human 
respiratory system has led to effective diagm sis and treatment 
of diseases and allergic reactions involving the respiratory 
system and to the development of life-saving devices and 
procedures, such as respirators, resuscitators, and 
cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 

b) An understanding of the effects of tobacco smoke on respiratory- 
system tissue has caused many people to stop smoking or to avoic 
inhaling second-hand smoke. 

c) Safeguards and protective procedures in the workplace have been 
developed as a result of an understanding of the effects of 
airborne contaminants on the respiratory system. 

d) A knowledge of the health benefits that result from an 
effectively operating gas-exchange system has led many people t 
exercise regularly and has resulted in a heightened concern 
about air pollution. 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 6: Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 

Societal Implications 

a) The control of air pollution is essential and is a task that 
must be shared by individuals, industry, and governments. 

b) Occupational health and safety problems involving airborne 
contaminants are a major concern in many industries and 
institutions, and careful analysis and sound decision making 
will be required if the problems are to be resolved. 

c) The debate continues concerning the right of smokers to smoke in 
public places and the right of non-smokers to enjoy a smoke-free 
environment. 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 
on student s ' : 

a) demonstration of proper dissection techniques and identification 
of biological structures; 

b) laboratory exercises and reports. 

Safety Considerations 

Students should use gloves and appropriate eyewear when dissecting 
preserved specimens. Appropriate ventilation should be provided 
during the dissection. 

Possible Extensions 
Some students might: 

a) examine and analyse X rays or photographs of vertebrate 
respiratory systems; 

b) ask a qualified instructor to discuss and demonstrate methods of 
artificial respiration and ways to treat choking; 


56 







Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 6: Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 

c) measure, analyse, and report on air quality and air pollutants 
at various locations in the community and in the school; 

d) construct a bell-jar model to demonstrate lung operation; 

e) investigate how the pollution index is determined and relate 
pollution readings to the incidence of respiratory ailments. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The various vertebrate physiology units in this course can be 
integrated into one combined unit in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships among the systems. 

b) A sheep or pig pluck obtained from an abattoir can be used to 
demonstrate the inflation of the lungs and to show the structure 
of tracheal, bronchial, and lung tissue. 

c) The issue of the rights of smokers versus those of non-smokers 
can be debated. 

d) Speakers can be invited to make presentations on such matters as 
aerobic exercises, occupational-health issues related to the 
respiratory system, respiratory-tract disorders and diseases, 
air pollution (types, effects, and controls), and the position! 
of industry on the need to control air pollution and the costs 
of doing so. 

e) The physical and health education teachers in the school should 
be consulted regarding the teaching of lifesaving techniques. 

f) An examination of the class results in student activity 2c can 
facilitate a correlation between lung capacity and various 
related factors. Students with health problems should not be 

1 , 

involved in strenuous exercise but should participate in the 
collecting of experimental data in activity 2c. 


57 









Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 7 


Vertebrate Transport Systems 

Time: 7.5 hours 

Aspects of the structure and function of the vertebrate circulatory 
system were introduced in core unit 3 (blood types), core unit 5 
(food transport), and core unit 6 (oxygen and carbon dioxide 
transport). The structure of circulatory systems in general was 
considered briefly in the Grade 10 advanced-level science course. 
This unit,is designed to complement the work done previously and to 
examine the important and extensive topic of vertebrate, especially 
human transport systems in more detail. This unit provides students 
with a working knowledge of the structure and function of the human 
circulatory system in particular, along with a brief overview of 
vertebrate transport systems in general. A consideration of those 
personal habits that enhance the health of the circulatory system is 
also included. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 
Vertebrate circulatory systems 

- Blood vessels and blood flow 
Vertebrate hearts 

- Lymphatic systems 
Disorders of transport systems 

Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 


a) an appreciation of, and curiosity about, the structure and 
function of vertebrate transport systems (2a, 2b); 


58 










Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 7: Vertebrate Transport Systems 

b) a commitment to learning about, developing, and maintaining 

personal cardiovascular fitness (2d, 3a, 3b); 

c) curiosity about the causes and symptoms of common circulatory- 
system disorders (3c, 4a). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) dissecting a vertebrate to identify and examine the major 

components of the transport system (2a, 2b); 

b) identifying the parts and comparing the structure of the heart 
and the pulmonary circulatory system of a mammal with that of 
another type of vertebrate (2a, 2b); 

c) using the light microscope or electron micrographs to examine, 
analyse, and describe the structure of blood, blood cells, and 
circulatory-system tissues (2c). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) describe in general terms the basic roles of the circulatory 
system in vertebrates (e.g., transport of materials, protection 
maintenance of homeostasis); 

b) explain how blood flows in a closed circulatory system in 
mammals (8c); 

c) describe and compare the structure and function of arteries, 
capillaries, and veins (8b, 8c); 

d) describe and compare the pulmonary, cardiac, and systemic 
circulatory systems in humans (2a, 8b); 

e) describe and compare the structure of a mammalian heart and tli 
of a fish or amphibian (2b, 8a, 8b, 8f); 

f) trace the route and explain the mechanics of blood flow throug 
the human heart (2b, 8b); 







Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 7: Vertebrate Transport Systems 

g) explain how the heart beat is initiated and controlled in 
humans (2d ) ; 

h) compare diastolic and systolic blood pressure in humans (2e); 

i) briefly describe the origin, structure, and function of red and 
white blood cells and platelets (2c); 

j) briefly describe the structure and function of the lymphatic 
system; 

k) describe the causes of, the methods (where applicable) of 
reducing personal susceptibility to the effects of, and the 
treatment for three or more common diseases or disorders of the 
human circulatory system (e.g., hypertension, heart attack, 
stroke, leukemia, anemia); 

l) describe the effect on the human transport system of such 
factors as alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and adrenalin. 

Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect a vertebrate and examine the heart, the pulmonary 

circulation system, the aorta, and other main arteries and veins 
(5a, 6, 8a, 8b, 8f); 

b) examine, describe, and compare the heart of a mammal and that of 
another type of vertebrate (5a, 6, 8b, 8c); 

*c) using commercially prepared microscope slides or electron 

micrographs, examine and describe the size and structure of red 
and white blood cells and a variety of blood vessels (5b, 5c); 

d) use a stethoscope to listen to heart sounds; 

e) measure pulse rates and relate these measurements to such 
factors as physical condition, body size, and sex (8g). 


*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 





Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 7: Vertebrate Transport Systems 

Applications 

a) A personal knowledge of one's blood pressure, pulse rate, and 
other indicators of circulatory-system function is an effective 
way to monitor the health of this vital organ system. 

b) Regular physical exercise can enhance the health of the 
circulatory system. 

c) Moderation in the amount of cholesterol and salt in the diet may 
help to prevent circulatory-system disorders. 

Societal Implications 

a) Diseases and disorders of the circulatory system are a major 
cause of death and disability in North America. 

b) Through modern medical advances the quality of life of many 
people has been enhanced, and their life span increased. 

c) There are a number of ethical problems associated with the cost 
of the medical procedures and the selection of recipients for 
heart transplants. 

d) The costs for the health care of those with circulatory-system 

disorders are significant. , 

e) Careers associated with this unit of study include medical 
technologist. Red Cross worker, cardiologist, nutritionist, and 
paramedic. 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based I 

on students' : 

a) dissections, descriptions, and comparisons of vertebrate hearts 
and pulmonary circulatory systems; 





Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 7: Vertebrate Transport Systems 

b) identification and description of blood cells; 

c) identification of major arteries and veins. 

Safety Considerations 

Students should use gloves and protective eyewear when dissecting 

preserved specimens. Appropriate ventilation should be provided in 

the classroom during the dissection. 

Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on the mechanism of blood clotting 
and relate this to haemophilia; 

b) discuss or debate the ethical issues surrounding heart 
transplants; 

c) discuss the potential effects of diet (salt, cholesterol, red 
meat) on the health of the circulatory system. 

Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The various vertebrate physiology units in this course can be 
integrated into one combined unit in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships among the systems. 

b) A sheep or pig pluck obtained from an abattoir can be used for 
an examination of the mammalian heart and pulmonary circulatory 
system. 

c) Beef hearts are readily available at most food stores. 

d) Sample electrocardiograms can be examined and analysed. 

e) The causes, effects, and treatments of circulatory-system 
disorders can be investigated through a trip to a medical 
facility or by inviting a guest speaker to the class. 


62 







Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 7: Vertebrate Transport Systems 

f) The similarities and differences in the transport systems of tl 
various classes of vertebrates can be studied. For example, tl 
systems of frogs, birds, reptiles, and fish might be examined. 

g) Pulse rates should be measured when the body is at rest and 
immediately before and after vigorous activity. Students with 
health problems should not be involved in strenuous exercise bi 
should participate in the collecting of experimental data in 
activity 2e. 


63 









Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Core Unit 8 


Vertebrate Reproduction and Development 

Time: 7.5 hours 

The purpose of this unit is to provide students with an 
understanding of the structure and function of the reproductive 
system in vertebrates, with an emphasis on mammalian systems. The 
topics covered here complement and provide the background for a 
consideration of human sexuality and family planning, which is part 
of the health-education program in schools. Science teachers should 
present this unit in collaboration with those teaching the 
appropriate health courses. Aspects of this unit, namely, a 
consideration of hormonal control and embryology, relate to topics 
to be considered in core units 5 and 6 of the biology OAC. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- Structure and function of the vertebrate reproductive system 
-' The human reproductive system 
Menstrual and ovarian cycles 
Disorders of the human reproductive system 

Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and a curiosity about, the similarities and 

differences among the reproductive systems of different types of 
vertebrates (2a, 2b, 3c); 

b) a commitment to gaining an accurate understanding of the 
structure and function of the human reproductive system (2a-2c, 
3a, 3b, 4a); 


64 










Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 8: Vertebrate Reproduction and Development 

c) an appreciation of the contributions and limitations of science 
in discussions of moral and ethical perspectives associated wit! 
the human reproductive process (3b, 4a, 4b); 

d) an appreciation for the importance of good health habits during 
pregnancy (2a, 3e). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using the microscope to examine and describe vertebrate gonadal I 
tissue, sperm, eggs, and embryos (2a); 

b) using data, diagrams, and graphs to describe the human menstrual 
cycle (2c); 

c) performing a dissection of a vertebrate to identify and examine 
the major components of the reproductive system (2b). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) recall and explain the differences between, and the advantages 
and disadvantages of, sexual and asexual reproduction; 

b) describe the structure and function of a male and a female 
mammalian reproductive system (2a, 2b); 

c) compare the structures of the reproductive systems of humans 
(male and female) with those of a marsupial pair and another 
mammalian pair (2b); 

d) describe the human menstrual cycle in terms of hormonal, 
uterine, and ovarian changes (2c); 

e) describe the process of mammalian egg fertilization and three or 

more stages of embryonic development to the fetal stage (3d, 4d, 

8c); | 

f) compare the human ovulation cycle, egg fertilization process, 
and gestation period with those of two or more different 
vertebrates; 


65 




Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 8: Vertebrate Reproduction and Development 

g) briefly describe the hormonal control of, and the physiological 
changes that occur during, human puberty (8e); 

h) list several possible natural and artificial methods of 
preventing and facilitating fertilization in humans and briefly 
describe the physiological mechanisms involved (3d, 8e); 

i) name and briefly describe the physiology of at least three 
malfunctions of the human reproductive system and at least three 
sexually transmitted diseases (8e). 

Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) using prepared microscope slides or electron micrographs, 

examine and describe gonadal tissue and various types of sperm 
cells and embryos in different stages of development for a given 
vertebrate (5a, 8c); 

*b) dissect a vertebrate in order to examine and identify the parts 
of the reproductive system (5b, 8a, 8b); 

*c) using diagrams and graphs, describe the hormonal, uterine, and 
follicular changes that occur during the human menstrual cycle 
(5b, 8 f); 

d) gather information and report on the reproductive cycles of 
three or more agricultural animals and the methods and 
applications of control of reproductive cycles in such animals. 

★ See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 


66 



Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 8: Vertebrate Reproduction and Development 

3. Applications 

a) An understanding of the structure and function of the human 
reproductive system provides the necessary basis for a positive, 
healthy attitude towards one's own sexuality and human sexuality 
generally. 

b) A knowledge of the human reproductive system helps individuals 
to make informed personal decisions concerning family planning 
( 8d ) . 

c) An understanding of the reproductive system and cycles of 
animals allows for efficient production of livestock, selective 
breeding, and management of wildlife populations. 

d) A knowledge of embryonic development in vertebrates and, in 
particular, in humans helps us to understand the effects of 
frequently consumed chemicals such as caffeine, nicotine, and 
alcohol on human fetal development. 

4. Societal Implications g 

a) Techniques for the control of human procreation have significan 
moral, ethical, and legal implications (8d). 

b) As a result of reproductive-system and fetal research, many 

individuals have enjoyed healthier and more meaningful lives 
than they would otherwise have had. -j 

c) The incidence and variety of sexually transmitted diseases in 
North America have increased dramatically over the past decade; 
such diseases have become a very serious health problem. 

d) The ability to prevent or to detect fetal disorders during the 
gestation period has increased the chances of a child's being 
born healthy. 


67 














Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 8: Vertebrate Reproduction and Development 

e) Biotechnology now makes it possible to freeze, preserve, and 
reanimate human sex cells. This new technology has many 
significant ethical and legal implications. 

f) People with careers in the area of reproduction and development 
include family-planning counsellors, health nurses, biologists, 
farmers, pharmacists, microscopists, gynecologists, 
obstetricians, and family doctors. 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 
on students 1 : 

a) descriptions of reproductive tissue observed by means of the 
microscope ? 

b) dissections, descriptions, or comparisons of vertebrate 
reproductive systems. 

Safety Considerations 

Students should use protective eyewear and disposable gloves when 
dissecting preserved specimens. Appropriate ventilation should be 
provided in the laboratory during dissections. 

Possible Extensions 
Some students might: 

a) observe fertilization and subsequent zygote development, using 
prepared slides of gametes from frogs, fish, or sea urchins; 

b) observe a film on vertebrate fertilization and embryonic 
development; 

c) gather information and report on (i) the development of the 
human embryo and fetus from fertilization to eighteen weeks and 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 8: Vertebrate Reproduction and Development 


d) 


the hypotheses concerning the mechanisms controlling development 
or (ii) the effect of ingested chemicals such as nicotine, 
alcohol, and psychoactive drugs on human fetal development; 
investigate recent scientific advances designed to enhance 
reproductive viability, such as in vitro fertilization and the 


use of fertility drugs 


8 . 


Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The various vertebrate physiology units in this course can be 


integrated into one combined unit in order to emphasize the 


interrelationships among the systems, 

b) Students should be given an opportunity to compare dissections 


of both sexes of the vertebrates chosen. 


c) There are many good films and pictorial documentaries on 


fertilization and fetal development in humans and a variety of 


other vertebrates that could be used to advantage in this unit. 


These may be obtained through a local family-planning clinic, a 


hospital prenatal program, a school nurse, or a pharmaceutical 


company. 


d) The use of scientific knowledge to assist with the resolution o 


sensitive issues surrounding human sexuality and the control of 
human procreation should be stressed. However, many other kind 
of knowledge and perspectives impinge on such issues, which mus 
be handled with discretion and sensitivity. Some issues should) 
not necessarily be resolved but should remain open-ended and 
tentative. 


e) This unit should provide students with an accurate understandin 


of the structure and function of the vertebrate (particularly 


the human) reproductive system. An inordinate amount of time ; 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Core Unit 8: Vertebrate Reproduction and Development 

should not be devoted to the discussion or debate of the 
sensitive and wide-ranging issues surrounding human sexuality 
and reproduction. These issues are an appropriate part of the 
family studies and health education programs. It is highly 
recommended that teachers of this course confer with those 
teaching family studies and health education prior to 
presenting this unit in order to clarify what each course will 
accomplish and to reduce or eliminate overlap in content, 
f) Students can portray and thus better understand the menstrual 
cycle by graphing hormonal-concentration changes over time and 
by drawing diagrams to depict the follicular and uterine changes 
corresponding to and controlled by the hormones. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 1 

Vertebrate Excretory Systems 

Time: 9 hours 

In this unit students are introduced to the important biological 
concept of homeostasis. As well, the structure and function of the 
kidney and its role as a homeostatic organ are examined, and 
vertebrate excretory processes are compared. The related topics of 
osmosis, diffusion, and active transport were considered in core 
unit 1 of this course and should be reviewed here. The concept of 
homeostasis is reintroduced in core unit 6 of the biology OAC, but 
there it is presented in association with an examination of the 
endocrine and nervous systems rather than the excretory system. 

From their study of this unit students should gain an understanding 
of the role of the kidney in maintaining homeostasis and the 
importance of homeostasis for all living things. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

Movement of materials into and out of cells 
Homeostasis 
- The kidney 

Disorders of the excretory system 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the need for homeostatic mechanisms in living 
organisms; 

b) a curiosity about, and an appreciation for, the excretory 
process in humans and its role in maintaining homeostasis in the 

body (3a); 

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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit Is Vertebrate Excretory Systems 

c) an appreciation for the relationships between the excretory 
process of different vertebrates and the environmental 
conditions under which they live. 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) dissecting a vertebrate to identify and examine the major 
components of the excretory system (2a); 

b) identifying, drawing, and describing the parts of vertebrate 
excretory systems (2b); 

c) gathering information and reporting on the causes, effects, and 
treatment of human excretory-system disorders and diseases (2c). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) recall and explain the processes of osmosis, diffusion, and 
active transport in living cells; 

b) describe the meaning of the term homeostasis and, using specific 
examples, explain why it is so important in the body (3c); 

c) explain the term excretion and how excretion occurs in the lung 
skin, colon, and kidney; 

d) describe the structure of the human kidney and nephron (2b, 8b) 

e) briefly describe how urea is formed in the liver and outline wTv 
it is formed; 

f) describe how urine is formed in the nephron and how it is 
eliminated from the body (2b); 

g) describe the influence of chemicals such as alcohol on the 
process of water reabsorption by the nephron; 

h) explain how the concentration of water, salts, and other 
chemicals in the body is regulated and homeostasis maintained 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 1: Vertebrate Excretory Systems 

, 

by the excretory system in humans (2d); 

i) compare the excretory system of a freshwater fish, a marine 
fish, a reptile, and a desert-dwelling mammal and describe how 
the excretory process of each is adapted to its environment; 

j) describe the causes, effects, and treatments for three or more 
diseases and disorders of the human excretory system, for 
example, kidney stones, cystitis, enlarged prostate gland, gout, 
and nephritis. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect, identify, and examine the kidney, renal arteries and 
veins, and urinary tract of a vertebrate (5a, 5b, 6, 8a); 

b) using information gathered from electron micrographs or prepared 
microscope slides and diagrams, draw a labelled diagram of a 
human nephron (8b); 

*c) gather information and report on the causes, effects, and 
treatment of three or more human excretory-system 
disorders or diseases (8d); 

d) perform a urinalysis, using provided samples of simulate! urine 
(8c) . 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

3. Applications 

a) Urinalysis provides a convenient method of detecting renal and 
other types of disorders (e.g., diabetes). 

b) A number of effective procedures have been developed to treat 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit Is Vertebrate Excretory Systems 

renal diseases or disorders (e.g., antibiotics, dialysis, kidney 
transplants). 

4. Societal Implications 

a) The effective treatment of excretory-system disorders and 
diseases has enhanced the quality of life and increased the life 
span of many people. 

b) High medical costs and a limited number of donors present 
ethical issues regarding the selection of recipients for kidney 
transplants. 

c) Many careers in the biological and health sciences (e.g., 
veterinarian, fisheries biologist, medical technologist, and 
X-ray technician) require knowledge of vertebrate excretory 
systems. 

5. Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) dissection of a vertebrate excretory system; 

b) identification of the structures of a vertebrate excretory 
system; 

c) oral and written reports on assignments and projects. 

6. Safety Considerations 

a) Students should use protective eyewear and disposable gloves 
when performing dissections. Appropriate ventilation should be 
provided in the laboratory during dissections. 

b) Students should wash their hands after handling preserved 

74 


specimens. 







Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit Is Vertebrate Excretory Systems 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 
(i) the excretory processes of two or more non-vertebrate 
animals (e.g., protozoans, insects), (ii) the latest methods of 
dialysis, (iii) kidney transplants - the selection of recipients 
and donors, transfer procedures, the operation, post-operative 
care, and control of rejection; 

b) discuss or debate one or more of the ethical issues surrounding 
kidney and organ transplants. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This optional unit can be integrated with the core units that 
deal with vertebrate physiology in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships among the systems. 

b) Anatomical models can be helpful in a study of the structure and 
function of the kidney and nephron. 

c) The teacher and students should feel free to choose whether they 
wish to participate in the urinalysis activity. Students should 
realize that urinalysis is an accepted standard diagnostic 
technique used in medicine. 

d) A trip to a medical centre or a visit by a guest speaker to the 
school can provide the basis for a discussion on urinalysis, 
dialysis, or other medical procedures involved with the analysis 
and treatment of diseases of the excretory system. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 2 


Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems 

Time: 9 hours 

In this unit students examine the structure and function of 
representative vertebrate skeletal and muscle systems. Because of 
the extensive nature of this topic, the emphasis is placed on the 
structure, mechanics, and health of the human systems. Although a 
detailed consideration of vertebrate systems is not possible, 
students are asked to examine and compare homologous skeletal 
structures in various vertebrates. This study of the skeletal and 
muscular systems should provide students with an insight into the 
basic biological principles of adaptation and of the relationship of 
structure to function. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

Structure and function 
- Joints and movement 
Disorders 
Adaptations 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and a curiosity about, the structure and 

function of vertebrate skeletal and support systems (2a, 2c, 

2g) ; 

b) an appreciation for the homologous nature of various parts of 
vertebrate skeletons (2g); 

c) a commitment to the maintenance of the health and physical 
fitness of their skeletal and muscle systems (2f, 3a). 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 2: Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) performing a dissection of a vertebrate to identify and examine 
the major components of the muscular and skeletal systems (2a); 

b) using the microscope or electron micrographs in examining and 
describing bone, muscle, and connective tissue (2d); 

c) investigating and describing bone structure and movement in the 
appendages of vertebrate skeletons (2e). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the functions of vertebrate skeletal and muscle 
systems; 

b) describe the structure of bone tissue, three types of muscle 
tissue, and three types of "modified" connective tissue (2c, 

2d); 

c) describe the structure of a typical movable joint, including the 
role of ligaments, cartilage, and synovial fluid (2d, 8d) ; 

d) describe how muscles are attached to bones (2a, 2c, 8b); 

e) explain, with reference to antagonistic muscle pairs and the 
nervous control of muscle contraction, how body parts are moved 
and how that movement is controlled (2b, 2e, 8b); 

f) explain the term biophysics and describe how the mechanics of 
the movement of appendages in vertebrates can be described in 
terms of first-, second-, and third-class levers (2e); 

g) compare at least one homologous structure on three or more 
different vertebrates and explain how the structure of each 
appendage is adapted to its function (2a); 

h) describe the cause, effects, and treatment of three or more 
disorders or diseases of the human skeletal and muscle systems, 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 2: Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems 

such as osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, muscular dystrophy, 
rheumatoid arthritis, and three or more injuries, for example, 
bone fractures, sprains, dislocation of bones, torn cartilage, 
and ruptured vertebrate discs (2f, 8d ); 

i) describe muscle fatigue and how the body responds to reduce or 
eliminate it. 

Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect a vertebrate, such as a fetal pig, in order to examine 
large muscle masses and the movement of appendages and movable 
joints (5a, 6, 8a, 8b); 

b) identify and examine an antagonistic pair of muscles, the origin 
and insertion points of a muscle, and one or two examples of 
cartilage, ligaments, and tendons (8b, 8c); 

c) examine and describe cleaned and dried bones and bone pieces, 
noting characteristics such as nerve and blood-vessel openings, 
points of attachment, shape, size, and internal structure (8c); 

*d) using prepared microscope slides or electron micrographs, 

examine and describe the structure of muscle, bone, and modified 
forms of connective tissue; 

e) construct models or use an articulated skeleton to demonstrate 
how muscles move appendages such as the leg (8c, 8f); 

f) collect information and report on one or more of the following: 
the effects of jogging on bones and muscles, the development of 
a prosthetic device, the causes of lower-back injuries; 

g) examine a variety of vertebrate skeletons, noting homologous 
structures and adaptations related to function. 

★ See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 2: Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems 

3. Applications 

a) A knowledge of the causes of injuries to the skeletal and muscle 
systems makes apparent the need for personal habits of good 
nutrition and regular physical exercise. 

b) An understanding of the structure and the mechanics of the 
skeletal and muscle systems has led to the development of many 
new prosthetic devices. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Modern medical technology has improved and prolonged the lives 
of individuals suffering from skeletal and muscle disorders and 
severe injury. 

b) Rickets is endemic in countries where food supplies are limited 
and nutrition is poor. 

c) Awareness of the physical health problems that can result from 
a sedentary lifestyle has caused many individuals to begin a 
regime of regular physical exercise. 

d) The current emphasis on physical fitness has been beneficial for 
many, but it has also led to an increase in skeletal- and 
muscle-system injuries. 

e) The research effort to develop new prosthetic devices and to 
find cures for bone and muscle diseases is extensive and has 
expanded the variety of careers in the field of biotechnology. 

f) Extreme violence in some body-contact sports, such as ice hockey 
and football, has caused serious injury and much debate. 

g) Careers that involve knowledge of vertebral skeleto-muscular 
systems include chiropractor, chiropodist, osteopath, 
physiotherapist, and wildlife artist. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 2: Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) performance of a dissection in order to examine and describe a 
vertebrate skeletal system; 

b) laboratory investigations and reports. 

Safety Considerations 

a) Students should use protective eyewear and disposable gloves 
when performing dissections. Appropriate ventilation should be 
provided in the laboratory during dissections. 

b) Students should wash their hands after handling preserved 
specimens. 

Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) assemble the skeleton of a particular vertebrate; 

b) learn the names and locations of the main bones in the human 
body; 

c) perform tests to confirm the structural strength of bones and 
the skeletal assembly; 

d) construct a model of a joint, showing bone and muscle 
combinations that illustrate a first-, second-, or third-class 
lever; 

e) conduct tests to demonstrate the mineral composition of bone; 

f) investigate differences in the human skeleton based on sex. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 2: Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This optional unit can be integrated with the core units that 
deal with vertebrate physiology in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships that exist among the systems. 

b) A model of a human skeleton can be very useful for purposes of 
demonstration and reference. The memorization of bone 
nomenclature should not be overemphasized. 

c) Cleaned and dried bones and whole skeletons can be obtained from 
biological-supply houses. Fresh specimens can be obtained from 
a local butcher or an abattoir. 

d) Current issues concerning the health of the human skeletal and 
muscle systems, such as the causes and treatment of lower-back 
pain, the pros and cons of jogging, and the causes and effects 
of osteoporosis, are very relevant and should be discussed. 

e) Students should be made aware of the great variety of careers 
that are related to the study and health of the skeletal and 
muscle systems. 

f) Models of bones and muscles can be constructed out of common 
materials; for example, wood strips, straws, or cardboard can be 
used for bones, pins for joints, and thread for muscles. 



31 





Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 3 


Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 

Time: 9 hours 

In this unit students consider the structure and function of 
vertebrate integumentary systems, with an emphasis placed on the 
human system. The role of the integumentary system in homeostasis 
is also emphasized. Homeostasis was considered in optional unit 1 
of this course and will be studied again in the biology OAC in 
connection with the endocrine and nervous systems. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- Vertebrate integumentary systems 

- The human integumentary system 
Skin disorders 

Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appeciation of the diverse roles of vertebrate integumentary 
systems and the interrelationships each has with other organ 
systems in the animal's body (2c); 

b) concern about the effects of external factors such as solar 

radiation or chemicals (e.g., cosmetics) on the skin (3b, 3c, 

3 f) . 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 
a) using the microscope or electron micrographs to examine 

integumentary-system tissue and accessory structures (2a); 


32 












Biology/ Grade 11/ Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 3: Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 

b) describing and drawing diagrams of integumentary-system tissue 

and accessory structures (2a/ 2b); 

c) designing and carrying out an investigation to detect glands anc 
sensory receptors in the integumentary system (2c). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) explain the terms homeostasis / homeothermic / and poikilothermic 
and relate these terms to the integumentary system (2d, 2e); 

b) describe the structure of the human integumentary system (8b); 

c) state the functions of vertebrate integumentary systems (2c, 

2e) ; 

d) describe the structural and functional aspects of one or more 
epidermal characteristics that are unique to each of mammals, 
amphibians, reptiles, and birds (2a); 

e, explain the mechanisms of temperature regulation in humans and 
note the role played by the integumentary system (2d, 2e); 

f) describe how the human integumentary system acts as a barrier tc 
the harmful effects of such external agents as pathogens, 
chemicals, and radiation (2a, 2b); 

g) explain how the integumentary system acts as a sense organ (2c); 

h) describe skin pigmentation with reference to moles, liver spots, 
freckles, and tanning (3c); 

l) describe the causes, effects, and treatment of three or more 
skin disorders, diseases, or injuries, for example, acne, 
blackheads, athlete's foot, psoriasis, cuts, burns, and scar- 
tissue formation (8c). 




33 












Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 3: Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 

Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) by means of one or more commercially prepared microscope slides 
or electron micrographs, examine and describe the integumentary- 
system tissue and epidermal accessory structures (e.g., hair, 
scales, feathers, hooves, horns, fur) of various vertebrates; 

b) using a hand lens, examine and describe the surface of human 
skin; 

*c) design and perform investigations to detect glands and sensory 
receptors for heat, cold, and pressure in the integumentary 
system and map them at various locations on the body's surface 
(6a, 8a); 

d) investigate the cooling effect of liquid evaporating from a 
surface; 

e) observe skin colour in the hands and account for the effects 
of placing them in warm and cold water (6b). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

Applications 

a) The knowledge of the structure, function, and natural repair 
mechanisms of the human integumentary system has led to the 
development of better treatments for burns. 

b) Proper skin-care habits, such as frequent cleansing, as well as 
a proper diet, can reduce the incidence of skin disorders such 
as acne and blackheads. 

c) Certain changes in the skin, such as the darkening of a mole or 
a cut that does not heal, may signal the presence of disease. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 3: Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 

S°c:i e tal Implications 

a) The production and sale of cosmetics is a major industry in our 
society. 

b) The claims of manufacturers as to the beneficial effects of 
cosmetics must be carefully scrutinized and evaluated by the 
public. 

c) Modern advances in skin grafting have saved the lives of many 
burn patients. 

d) Careers that depend on knowledge of the skin include 
cosmetologist and dermatologist. 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) laboratory work and reports; 

b) design and performance of investigations. 

Safety Considerations 

a) If a pressure probe is used to map sensory receptors, students 
should be cautioned not to use excessive force. 

b) In the investigation involving the immersion of the hand in hot 
water, the temperature should be carefully checked to avoid the 
risk of scalding. 

Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) examine and compare the structure of hair from several 

individuals and investigate the effects on different hair 
samples of products that colour and curl the hair; 

85 








Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 3: Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 

b) examine and compare prepared slides of healthy and cancerous 
skin tissue; 

c) gather information and report on cosmetics and the cosmetic 
industry (e.g., on the physical and psychological effects of 
cosmetics, the process of developing new products, the size of 
the industry); 

d) examine fingerprints and investigate their use in criminology; 

e) investigate the adaptations of body coverings of different 
vertebrates to specific environments. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This optional unit can be integrated with the core units that 
deal with vertebrate physiology in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships among the systems. 

b) There are a number of laboratory manuals and biological resource 
books that describe methods for the detection, testing, and 
mapping of glands and sensory receptors in the skin. 

c) A model showing a cross section of the skin would be helpful in 
teaching the structure of the human integumentary system. 

d) A dermatologist or a cosmetician can be invited to speak to the 
class on skin care. 

e) Practical applications, such as the use of skin-care products, 
should be emphasized in this unit where appropriate. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 4 


Mycology 
Time: 9 hours 

This unit introduces students to the study of fungi. The time 
allocated for the study of this unit dictates that only a brief 
consideration of a number of topics is possible. The emphasis here 
is placed on the general characteristics of fungi and their economic 
and environmental importance. The taxonomy of the kingdom Fungi is 
considered only briefly. As a result of studying this unit, 
students should gain an appreciation for, and an understanding of, 
the important roles played by these organisms. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- General characteristics of fungi 
Fungal groups 
The importance of fungi 

Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and a curiosity about, the variety of 
important roles played by fungi in the environment (3a-3d, 4a, 

4b) ? 

b) an appreciation of how fungi affect and are used by humans (3a- 
3c) ? 

c) a curiosity about the characteristic structure, growth, and 

reproduction of fungi that act as natural decomposers (2c, 2d); 

d) a respect for the problems of food spoilage caused by fungi that 

act as natural decomposers (3e, 4b). 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 4: Mycology 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using a variety of laboratory techniques to examine and analyse 
the structure of various fungi (2a, 2b, 2d, 2e); 

b) dissecting fungi and preparing fungal tissue for examination 
(2b, 2d); 

c) culturing fungi (2a, 2c); 

d) designing and performing experiments to investigate factors 
affecting fungal growth (2c). 

Knowledge ♦ Students will be expected to: 

a) describe in general terms the differences in structure and 
function between flowering plants and fungi by comparing 
vascular tissue with hypha and mycelium, the body of a flowering 
plant with the body of a fungus, seeds with sexual and asexual 
spores, and an autotroph with a heterotroph (2b, 2d, 8a); 

b) using one or two examples of fungi that fit into each category, 
explain the terms saprophyte , parasite , and symbiont (8b); 

c) describe how fungi obtain their food from the substrate on which 
they are growing (2b, 2c); 

d) describe the structural and reproductive characteristics of the 
following classes of true fungi and give examples of each: 
Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Basidiomycetes (2a, 2d); 

e) describe the characteristics and name common examples of the 
class Deuteromycetes (or Fungi Imperfecta); 

f) describe the structure of slime mould and lichens (2e); 

g) explain the importance of fungi as decomposers, in terms of the 
growth of lichens, and in mycorrhizal associations (2e, 2f); 

h) describe the effects, means of control, and economic importance 
of three or four fungal plant diseases, food spoilage by fungi. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 4: Mycology 

and the formation of mildew on useful materials (2f); 

i) describe the causes and effects of athlete's foot and ringworm 
and give examples of human poisoning through the consumption of 
fungi; 

j) describe how fungi are used by humans (e.g., in the preparation 
of food and alcoholic beverages, in the production of 
antibiotics). 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) culture bread mould (5b, 6a, 6b, 8d); 

*b) use a microscope or a stereoscopic microscope and a hand lens to 
examine, identify, and describe the vegetative and reproductive 
parts of bread mould (5b, 8e); 

*c) design and perform experiments to investigate factors, such as 

heat, light, and moisture, that affect the growth of one or more 
types of mould (5b, 6a, 6b, 8d); 

d) examine and dissect a commercially produced mushroom, 
identifying and describing its various parts, and, using a 
microscope, examine and describe tissue from the stalk, cap, and 
gills (6a, 8e); 

e) collect lichens and, using a hand lens and a microscope, examine 
and describe their structures (8e); 

f) examine and describe fungal infections of plant tissue, using 
prepared slides of tissue sections. Examples can include apple 
scab, corn smut, and stem rust (8b). 

★See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 4: Mycology 

3. Applications 

a) Fungi are used to produce antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids, 
enzymes, and other useful biochemical products. 

b) Yeasts are used in the production of baking products and 
alcoholic beverages, and in research such as genetic 
engineering. Moulds are used in the making of cheeses. 

c) Mushrooms, truffles, puffballs, and morels are popular foods. 

d) Farmers and horticulturists rely on fungi and other 
micro-organisms to decompose compost and return nutrients to the 
soil. 

e) A knowledge of the life cycle and susceptibility to fungicides 
of fungi that produce plant disease is necessary to control the 
spread of these diseases. 

f) Serious human allergy problems are often caused by exposure to 
airborne fungal spores. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Fungi are of great economic importance because of the role they 
play in certain food industries. 

b) Fungal plant disease results in considerable crop damage each 
year. 

c) The use of fungicides helps to control the spread of fungal 
disease but causes a secondary problem of environmental 
contamination. 

d) Careers requiring a knowledge of fungi include dermatologist, 
mushroom farmer, horticulturist, mycologist, and allergist. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 4: Mycology 


Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) laboratory work and reports; 

b) design and performance of mould-growth investigations. 

Safety Considerations 

a) Students should be cautioned about possible allergic reactions 
to fungal spores. 

b) Aseptic conditions should be maintained in the culturing and 
handling of fungi. 

c) Students should prevent the excessive release of fungal spores 
when working with cultures. 

Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 

(i) the causes and social effects of the potato blight in 
Ireland that occurred between 1845 and 1869, (li) the modern 
production of antibiotics from fungi, (iii) the types of 
poisonous fungi and their effects on humans; 

b) discuss the balance between the beneficial roles of fungi in the 
environment and the problems of plant disease and food spoilage; 

c) grow a pure culture of a mould; 

d) identify and list or bring samples to class of a variety of food 
materials that result from the growth or effects of a fungus; 

e) make a spore print, using the inverted cap of a fresh mushroom. 







Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 4: Mycology 


8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The plant-structure information covered in core unit 2 of this 
course should be reviewed when fungi are compared with flowering 
plants. 

b) Wherever possible, students should examine actual specimens of 
fungi. 

c) There are many audio-visual aids that can be used to supplement 
the study of fungi. 

d) The aseptic techniques recommended for use were introduced in 
core unit 4 of this course. 

e) The stereoscopic microscope is a useful tool for examining 
mycelium and spore-producing structures. If these structures 
are to be examined in compact fungal tissue, it is usually 
necessary to tease out the tissue in a mounting medium such as 
lactophenol. 

. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 5 


Invertebrate Animals 
Time: 18 hours 

In this unit students move beyond the study of vertebrates to look 
at the physical characteristics and ecology of other groups in the 
animal kingdom. In particular, six of the larger and better-known 
phyla are considered. At the same time the taxonomic process is 
briefly explored. Although the process of classification was 
considered in Grade 7, formal biological taxonomy was not 
addressed. An emphasis should be placed on providing students with 
an understanding and an appreciation of the large diversity of the 
non-vertebrate groups of animals and the variety and vital nature of 
the roles they play in the biosphere. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

Taxonomy: five kingdoms 
Invertebrate phyla 

- The importance of invertebrates to humans 
Arthropods 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appeciation of the fact that the vertebrates are only one of 
a large number of diverse groups that make up the animal kingdom 
(2a); 

b) an appreciation of, and a curiosity about, the biology and the 
biological success of invertebrate animal groups (2a, 2e); 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 5: Invertebrate Animals 

c) a respect for, and a curiosity about, the wide variety of 

important roles invertebrates play in the biosphere (2e, 2g); 

d) a concern about the fact that there are both positive and 
negative aspects of human interaction with invertebrates (3, 4), 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) dissecting and describing invertebrate specimens (2a); 

b) using a microscope to examine a variety of parts and tissues 
from invertebrates (2c); 

c) maintaining live invertebrates and observing and describing 
their behaviour (2d, 2g); 

d) recognizing and describing the distinguishing external 
characteristics of animals from various phyla of invertebrate 
animals (2a, 2f); 

e) performing a literature search and gathering information from 
other sources to report on relevant topics related to 
invertebrates (2e). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) define taxonomy and briefly explain the taxonomic process; 

b) list the taxonomic divisions from kingdom to species and, as an 
example of these divisions, provide the complete taxonomic 
designation for humans; 

c) name and describe in general terms the five kingdoms of living 
things and note that the majority of invertebrates are part of 
the animal kingdom; 

d) explain the use of the term invertebrates in relation to the 
phylum designation Chordata; 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 5: Invertebrate Animals 

e) describe four or five of the structural characteristics used to 
identify different phyla in the animal kingdom, for example, 
body symmetry, the number of body layers, and the presence or 
absence of segmentation, an exoskeleton, a coelom, a digestive 
tube, or discrete organs (2a); 

f) describe three or four distinguishing characteristics and 
representative organisms for each of the following phyla: 
Porifera, Cnidaria (Coelenterata), Platyhelminthes, Annelida, 
Mollusca, and Arthropoda (2a); 

g) describe the feeding habits, means of gas exchange, life cycle, 
and importance of each of the following and give one or two 
common examples of each: Porifera, Cnidaria (Coelenterata), 
Platyhelminthes, Annelida, and Mollusca (2a, 2e); 

h) describe three or four distinguishing characteristics and name 

two or three examples for each of the classes Arachnida, 
Crustacea, and Insecta of the phylum Arthropoda (2b, 2e); 

i) using selected examples from the phylum Arthropoda, explain why 
many arthropods are ecologically successful, how humans rely on 
and compete with arthropods, and how some are parasites or 
disease vectors (2e). 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) observe and describe functional attributes of live or preserved 
specimens from the following phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria 
(Coelenterata), Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, and 
Arthropoda (6, 8b, 8e); 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 5: Invertebrate Animals 

*b) dissect, identify, and describe the parts and organ systems of 
an insect or a crustacean such as the lubber locust or crayfish 
( 6 ); 

*c) use the microscope and commercially prepared microscope slides 
or slides produced in the laboratory to examine tissue sections 
and body cross sections from representative invertebrates; 

*d) work co-operatively with other students to develop a method to 
house and keep alive or culture one or more invertebrates and 
observe and describe such aspects as locomotion, feeding habits 
and life cycles (5b, 8e); 

*e) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 
(i) the effects, life cycle, and control of one or more worm 
parasites of humans, (ii) the ecological importance of the 
earthworm, (iii) the ecological importance, uses by humans, and 
culture of _he honey bee, (iv) one or more of the life cycle, 
physiology, ecology, and importance to humans of another 
invertebrate organism (5c, 8b, 8f); 

f) use an identification key to identify representative 
invertebrates from one of the phyla, such as Arthropoda; 

g) go on a field trip to observe and describe invertebrates in 
their natural setting (8b, 8e). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

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3. Applications 

a) In Canada invertebrates such as lobster, scallops, oysters, and 
clams are harvested and used for food. 

1 

b) A knowledge of the life cycle, feeding habits, and 
susceptibility to chemicals of certain invertebrates has made 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 5: Invertebrate Animals 

possible the treatment and control of external and internal 
parasites of humans and domestic animals and the control of 
invertebrate pests that consume our food crops. 

c) The products of a number of invertebrates, such as bees, 
sponges, and silkworms, are used by humans. 

d) The presence and population fluctuations of some invertebrates, 
such as tubifex worms and shellfish, indicate the levels of some 
kinds of environmental pollution. 

Societal Implications 

a) Future supplies of desirable aquatic invertebrates will depend 
on society's ability to control water pollution and encourage 
conservation. 

b) In the region of Canada where the economy depends heavily on the 
harvesting and sale of invertebrates, conservation methods must 
be practised in order to prevent depletion of stocks. 

c) The control of invertebrate pests will continue to be a major 
problem throughout the world. As well, control measures that 
involve the use of toxic chemicals create a secondary problem of 
environmental contamination. Society will need to promote and 
support research efforts that will lead to environmentally safe 
ways to control invertebrate pests. 

d) Those who have careers involving knowledge of invertebrates 
include pest-control workers, foresters, parasitologists, 
beekeepers, and greenhouse workers. 


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Biology/ Grade 11/ Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 5: Invertebrate Animals 


5. Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 


on 

students 1 : 


a) 

laboratory work and reports; 


b) 

co-operative participation with other students in a 

laboratory 


activity; 


c) 

reports based on a library search on a topic related 

to 


invertebrates. 



6. Safety Considerations 

Students should use gloves and protective eyewear when handling and 

dissecting preserved specimens. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on the work of Linnaeus and the 
binomial system; 

b) use field observations and other sources of information to 
describe the role of selected crustaceans and insects in the 
ecology of a pond or other ecosystem; 

c) dissect and describe other invertebrates (e.g./ squid, clam, 
insect); 

d) examine the complete classification of some common 
invertebrate (e.g., honey bee, lobster); 

e) create and use a classification key or a computer program based 
on the characteristics of various invertebrate phyla and 
classes; 

f) report on a group of insects that have a significant impact on 
the biosphere (e.g., malaria-bearing mosquitoes). 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 5: Invertebrate Animals 

5. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The unit should begin with a review of students' knowledge of 
invertebrates from previous studies. 

b) Films and filmstrips can be shown to demonstrate the various 
invertebrate groups and to illustrate their roles. 

c) The economic importance of oil spills and pollution in terms of 
their effects on oyster beds, lobsters, shrimp, and other 
shellfish should be discussed. 

d) Students should have available for examination live and 
preserved invertebrate specimens that exhibit a variety of 
adaptations. 

e) Teachers should ensure that care is taken to provide proper food 
and habitats for the culture and maintenance of all live 
invertebrates. A number of biology laboratory manuals and 
resource books have considerable information on the culturing 
and maintenance of invertebrates. 

f) The teacher should work with the teacher-librarian in the school 
to ensure that the necessary reference material is available to 
students to help them complete the information search that is 
assigned. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 6 


The Protist Kingdom 

Time: 9 hours 

This unit introduces students to the diverse group of organisms that 
make up the kingdom Protista. The study of the structure and 
physiology of protists provides a meaningful way to review and 
solidify the concepts concerning the cell that were presented in 
core unit 1 of this course. This unit also furnishes students with 
an ideal opportunity to practise microscope skills, culture 
micro-organisms, and perform experiments to investigate the effects 
of environmental stimuli and conditions on living things. The 
importance of protists in aquatic food webs and as agents of some 
human diseases and the ability of many of them to live and multiply 
effectively as independent single-celled organisms should be 
emphasized. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- The protist kingdom 

Movement, feeding, and reproduction of protists 

- Protists in the ecosystem 

- Diseases caused by protists 

Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the important role protists play in the lower 
trophic levels of aquatic food webs (3a); 

b) a concern about the harmful effects of diseases caused by 
protists in the tropical regions of the world (3b, 4b); 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 6: The Protist Kingdom 

c) curiosity about the apparently simple, yet effective, structure 
and physiology of protists (2b-2d). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) preparing and maintaining cultures of mixed protists (2a); 

b) using the microscope and various microscope techniques in 
examining and describing protists (2b, 2c); 

c) drawing and identifying cell structures as observed through the 
microscope (2b, 2c); 

d) designing and performing experiments to investigate the effect 
of various stimuli on the behaviour of protists (2d). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) state four or five general characteristics of protists (2b, 2e); 

b) name, briefly describe, and identify examples of the phyla that 
make up the kingdom Protista (2e); 

c) compare the mechanics and characteristics of movement by cilia, 
flagella, and pseudopods (2c); 

d) compare the way in which paramecia, amoebas, and euglena ingest 
and digest food (2b); 

e) explain the role of the contractile vacuoles in paramecia (2b); 

f) describe the sexual and asexual reproduction of paramecia and 
compare this reproduction with that of the euglena and amoeba 
(2c); 

g) describe the make-up of plankton and explain its importance to 
aquatic food webs and to the world at large; 

h) explain the cause, effects, and control of malaria, amoebic 
dysentery, and African sleeping sickness. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 6: The Protist Kingdom 

Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) establish and maintain protist cultures, using samples collected 
in the field, obtained commercially, or produced from a hay 
infusion (6a, 8a); 

*b) employ a variety of techniques, such as staining, using methyl 
cellulose, hanging drop slides, and using indirect lighting, to 
examine microscopically the structure and behaviour of protists, 
and then describe their observations (8a, 8b); 

c) use prepared microscope slides to examine the cilia and flagella 
of protists as well as stages in protist reproduction (8b); 

*d) design and perform experiments with ciliated protists to 

investigate the effects of such stimuli as light, chemicals, 
gravity, heat, and electricity on the protists (6b); 

e) use a classification key to identify protists in a mixed 
culture; 

f) observe, describe, and account for population fluctuations over 
time in a mixed culture of protists. 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

Applications 

a) A knowledge of the importance of plankton in marine food webs 
and in the carbon and oxygen cycles in the biosphere makes clear 
the potentially devastating effects of water pollution. 

b) A knowledge of the life cycles and means of spread and entry 
into the body of disease-causing protists helps in the control 
and treatment of certain diseases. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 6: The Protist Kingdom 

c) It is thought that a significant part of our fossil fuels has 
come from the protists and plankton of past ages. 

Societal Implications 

a) Individuals, industry, and governments must work together to 
control water pollution in order to maintain natural plankton 
populations. 

b) Protist diseases continue to cause considerable human death and 
suffering in many parts of the world. 

c) Careers related to this unit include bacteriologist, physician, 
and health service worker. 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) use of microscopes to examine and subsequently describe 
protists; 

b) design, performance, and reporting of experiments. 

Safety Considerations 

a) Aseptic procedures should be used in the culturing of protists. 

b) Experimental designs should be checked by the teacher for 
possible dangers in planned procedures or in the use of 
hazardous materials. 

Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 
(i) the incidence and societal impact of malaria and other 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 6: The Protist Kingdom 

diseases caused by protists, (ii) the concept that protists form 
an evolutionary link between prokaryotic and eukaryotic 
organisms, (iii) the importance of protists in the digestive 
tract of termites and herbivorous mammals; 

b) prepare fixed and stained slides of protists; 

c) go on a field trip to a local pond and investigate various 
aspects of protist ecology; 

d) isolate and culture a single type of protist. 

Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Protist cultures are started easily from hay infusions, 

pond water and sediment, or material purchased from a biological 
supply house. 

b) Techniques such as using indirect light, reducing the light by 
means of the microscope's iris diaphragm, and introducing food 
colouring or carmine red under the coverslip can help students 
in observing the cilia and flagella of live protists. 

c) If one can be borrowed or is available, either a phase-contrast 
microscope or a microscope-camera assembly is very useful in 
studying protists. 

d) The feeding action of paramecia is easily observed when yeast 
cells are stained with Congo red. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 7 


The Impact of Science on Society 

Time: 9 or 18 hours 

The purpose of this unit is to provide students with opportunities 
to explore issues related to the impact of biological science on 
society. Many of these issues are related to the societal 
implications of biology that are studied in each unit of this 
course. This unit focuses on decision-making processes that 
students may follow to help them clarify the appropriate courses of 
action to take as a result of their understanding of various aspects 
of an issue. 

This unit is allocated a total of nine or eighteen hours, which may 
be used as a single block of time or divided into smaller components 
and distributed throughout the course. It is strongly recommended 
that the work of this unit be integrated into the other units in the 
course. This approach provides opportunities to reinforce various 
societal implications as the relevant content is being studied. If 
this approach is followed, course outlines in the school must 
indicate how -it is to be accomplished. 

In subsection 3, "Student Activities", three possible approaches 
to the study of science-in-society issues are outlined for this 
unit. Teachers may wish to modify these approaches or to use other 
alternatives that would be appropriate to the content selected. 
Teachers should also note subsection 8, "Some Teaching Suggestions", 
where additional topics on science-related issues are listed. This 
unit may be designed to provide opportunities for students to do 
some independent study. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- Issues involving science and society 

- Processes for analysing issues involving science and society 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a commitment to making informed decisions, although they may be 
tentative, on issues surrounding the impact of science in 
society; 

b) an open-mindedness concerning the views and values of others; 

c) a co-operative attitude towards analysing issues in 
collaboration with others and towards trying to reach a 
consensus on preferable courses of action; 

d) an appreciation of the fact that science-in-society issues are 
multifaceted; 

e) a commitment to the critical appraisal of data and opinion as 
they relate to solutions to science-in-society issues; 

f) a willingness to explore their own personal values. 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using a variety of sources to gather information on, and gain 
insight into, science-in-society issues; 

b) analysing, identifying trends in, extrapolating from, and 
displaying the data collected; 

c) evaluating evidence and opinions or interpretations based on th 
evidence; 

d) systematically choosing the best solution to a 
science-in-society problem; 

e) defending their choices and decisions; 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 

f) identifying and describing the consequences of alternative 
solutions to environmental and social problems; 

g) working co-operatively with others to analyse and interpret a 
science-in-society issue and to arrive at a possible solution. 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) explain the relationships among knowledge, concepts, 
interpretations, and values in the analysis of issues; 

b) describe an approach to resolving a science-in-society issue; 

c) describe two or more techniques that can be used to predict 
future courses of action; 

d) explain the mechanics and purposes of role-playing and 
brainstorming techniques in the analysis of issues. 

2. Student Activities 

*Students are to explore and report on one or more issues related to 

the impact of science and technology on society or the environment, 

using approaches similar to those outlined below. 

A. A Clarification-of-Values Model 


Purpose 

The purpose of this approach to issue analysis is to help students 
explore their personal values relating to an issue and at the same 
time become aware of the opinions and values of others. The intent 
is not necessarily to work out a final solution or conclusion 
concerning the issue but to clarify and understand the values 
related to it. The focus is on the individual student. Some 

★See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 

appropriate techniques include: 

discussing the issue with individuals or groups; 
surveying relevant articles in newspapers and magazines; 

- interviewing experts and others whose work is involved with the 
issue; 

taking action on the issue (e.g., writing letters, informing 
others, reducing or stopping personal use of products, 
appliances, and machines that are perceived as having a negative 
effect on society or the environment). 

Format 

Students should: 

identify and describe an issue; 

explore their own reactions to the issue; 

- decide on and describe a te itative position on the issue; 

- clarify the reasons for their stated position; 

explore the personal values that influenced their position; 
discuss their position with other individuals; 

- consider the consequences of their position and make needed 
revisions; 

prepare a brief on their feelings and beliefs about the issue. 

Sample Analysis 

Issue . Organ transplants in humans 

Issue description . The transplanting of organs such as kidneys has 
proved to be an effective way of saving the lives of those with 
diseased or malfunctioning organs. However, many who might be saved 
by an organ transplant die because there is not a sufficient 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 

number of organs for transplants. At the present time potential 
donors need to give prior consent for the use of their organs, and 
even then the next of kin can deny their use. Transplant operations 
cost many thousands of dollars. Animals are used in organ 
transplant research. The object, then, is to summarize personal 
opinions, beliefs, and values related to human transplants. Note ; 
Such a summary can indicate a tentative or open-ended position on 
the issue. 

Dealing with the issue . Students should explore their reactions; 
they should be asked to state a position and describe the reasons 
for their decision. Such questions as the following might be posed: 

- Who should decide who will receive organ transplants? 

- How should the decisions be made? 

Who should have the final say as to whether organs should be 
taken from a cadaver? 

- Who should pay the fees for organ transplants: governments, 
those who can afford them, societal associations? 

Should animals be used in organ-transplant research? 

Reflection on positions taken . To explore their own decisions, 
students might: 

interview doctors, lawyers, politicians, or religious leaders to 
find out their feelings and attitudes; 

investigate and discuss the details of, and the rationale for, 
the present procedure for identifying donors and recipients; 
analyse the influences that determined their position; 
consider a personal decision to donate one or more organs. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 


An Analytical Decision-Making Approach 

Purpose 


The purpose of this approach is to have students methodically 
attempt to reach a decision on the most appropriate solution to a 
problem. Often group decision making is involved. Students might 
use techniques such as the following: 

gathering data from the literature on the problem 

- seeking the opinions of experts 

- evaluating the data and opinions they have gathered 
brainstorming alternatives and their consequences 

Format 

Students should: 

- identify and clearly state the issue; 

record facts and the opinions and explanations of others 
concerning the issue; 

evaluate the validity, relevance, bias, and usefulness of the 

information gathered; 

identify alternative solutions; 

- evaluate the consequences of each alternative; 

- tentatively propose a solution and state the advantages and 
disadvantages of the solution proposed; 

apply the proposed solution to the issue in question on a small 
scale or through a simulation, predict the consequences, and 
reevaluate the choice made. 

Sample Analysis 

Issue. Should recombinant DNA research be controlled? 


A range of facts, opinions, explanations. 








Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 

and theories should be assembled (e.g., definitions; data on 
scientific successes and failures, the possibility of the accidental 
production and release of dangerous pathogens, the benefits from DNA 
research, the freedom of scientists to do research). The 
information gathered should then be evaluated. Such factors as the 
basis and logic of arguments, the factual material supporting 
positions, and the general support for various opinions could be 
considered. 

Dealing with the issue . Usually several possible solutions will 
have been identified earlier in the process; these should be 
clarified. Novel solutions should also be considered. The 
consequences of each alternative should then be evaluated. This 
might be done by designing and using a set of criteria for judging 
the viability of each solution. 

Select Lon of a solution . On the basis of careful judgment, students 
should select the best solution, apply it to the problem through a 
simulation exercise, and then reevaluate its acceptability. The 
solution may be decisive, tentative, open-ended, subject to 
revision, or rejected. 

C. A Science-and-Social-Change Approach 


Purpose 

Beyond, but related to, a consideration of the values surrounding 
science-in-society issues is a consideration of the interaction 
between science and human culture and the way in which each has 
influenced and will influence the other. While past and present 
influences are a matter of record, and a number of authors have 
described what seems to have happened or is happening, future 
developments and interactions can be only a matter of speculation. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 

However, there are methods for attempting to predict the future or 

to describe probable futures. Appropriate techniques that students 

might use to help them consider how various scientific issues may 

influence social change include the following: 

- seeking expert opinion 

- gathering data: identifying trends and extrapolating 
examining past events to identify similar or analogous events 
using and analysing simulations 

- developing models 

- using computer analyses 

- participating in games that have been designed around specific 
issues 

- conducting interviews and using questionnaires 

Format 

Having explored several possible societal issues, students should: 

- identify one issue or area of change to investigate in depth; 
gather data on past and present trends, effects, causes, 
concerns, social forces, relevant research, political opinions, 
financial implications, and present laws related to the issue 
under consideration; 

identify the key variables involved; 

on the basis of expert opinion, extrapolation, and present 
trends, describe how the key variables might change over time; 

- considering various combinations of key variables and their 
effects on the aspects of the society or environment that are 
being studied, describe several possible future scenarios; 
identify the future that they would prefer and map out a personal 
activity that might help to realize that future. 


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Biology/ Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of .Science on Society 

Sample Analysis 

Issue . The effects of acid rain on the biological environment and 
the resulting impact on society 

Considering the variables . Students should identify some key 
variables that they wish to consider in regard to this issue. Such 
variables might include the types of air contamination by industrial 
effluent, the kinds of living organisms affected, the ability of 
industry to respond to alternatives, the impact of change on 
employees and their families, the future health of people in the 
affected area, and government willingness to create and enforce 
antipollution laws. 

Dealing with the issue . Students should gather information on the 
history, severity, causes, and effects on living things of acid 
rain; the attitudes and actions of industry that exacerbate or 
alleviate the problem; the work of environmental groups and 
government commissions; existing laws and regulations; projections 
about future effects of the problem; the time lines that would be 
needed for various kinds of action; the changes that might occur in 
local employment as a result of acid rain; its long-term effects on 
aquatic and terrestrial life; and ways in which other communities 
have dealt with the problem. They should determine the kind of 
information that they would want and that they could obtain. 

Future outcomes . After students have defined the acid-rain issue 
and recorded relevant findings, opinions, and reactions in a report, 
they should address possible outcomes related to the issue of acid 
rain and its ecological impact. The suggested outcomes will be 
predictions based on the key variables and possible changes in those 
variables. Students can consider a variety of combinations of 
variables in describing future outcomes resulting from acid rain. 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 

Finally, on the basis of the trends they have predicted, students 
should propose a means of facilitating the realization of the future 
that they favour. 

,3. Appl ications 

Because of the nature of this unit, specific applications are not 
listed here. Aplications identified in this or other units may be 
included in this unit or treated in other units by means of a 
science-and-society-issues approach. 

4. Societal Implications 

For this unit, the directions in subsection 3, "Applications", apply 
also to this subsection on societal implications. 

5. Evaluation of Student Achievement 

The term mark for this unit is to be based on students': 

a) gathering and interpretation of data; 

b) suggestions for possible courses of action; 

c) reports, seminars, and presentations. 

6. Safety Considerations 

If experiments are performed, students are to observe general 
laboratory safety procedures and specific safety precautions 
outlined by the teacher. 

7. Possible Extensions 
Some students might: 

a) design and use a questionnaire to assess public knowledge and 
attitudes concerning a science-in-society issue; 


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Biology/ Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 

b) identify and describe the activities of three or more 

organizations in the community that monitor and take positions 
on the impact of science and technology on society and the 
environment. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) It is recommended that the work in this unit be integrated 
throughout the rest of the course. 

b) Where appropriate, this unit should be planned in co-operation 
with other subject departments in the school. 

c) Suggestions relating to dealing with sensitive issues are 
contained in Part 1, section 10, of this science guideline. 

d) A wide variety of models and approaches can be used in the 
analysis of the types of issues considered in this unit. 

e) The following are additional examples of issues that could be 
discussed in this unit. They are arranged in accordance with 
various components of this course. 

Plants : environmental contamination and its effects on 

plants; the use of pesticides and herbicides; the development 
of new agricultural-crop hybrids 

Genetics : eugenics, selective breeding, and the selective 

use of sperm banks; genetic diseases; the pros and cons of 
genetic engineering; animals for research 
Bacteria and viruses : the extent and cost of medical 
research; the treatment of disease around the world (costs, 
improvement in the quality of life, population fluctuations); 
accidental pathogen production from DNA research 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 

Digestive systems : the effects of diets; dietary foods 
(production, sale, and use); world population and food 
production and distribution 

- Gas-exchange systems : air pollution and the health of the 
respiratory system; the effects of smoking; the rights of 
smokers and non-smokers 

Excretory and circulatory systems ; lifestyle, hypertension, 
and heart disease; organ transplants (risks, costs, selection 
of donors and recipients); artificial organs (development, 
uses, life expectancy) 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 8 


Locally Designed Unit 

Time: 9 hours 

This unit is to be designed at the local level as desired. It can 
be used (a) to introduce a new area or topic in biology that is not 
described in this guideline, (b) to incorporate additional 
objectives that will expand a previous part or parts of the course, 
or (c) to reinforce various aspects of the core units that may 
require greater emphasis. The following are examples of new areas 
or topics that might be considered: 

- Careers in biology - Marine biology 

- Ecological relationships - Microscopy 

Environmental biology - Taxonomy 

- Human biology - Vitamins and minerals in diets 

This unit may provide an excellent opportunity for students to 
engage in independent study on a topic in science that is of 
particular interest to them. Students' topics and work should be 
approved, monitored, and evaluated by the teacher. Students may 
work individually or in small groups. Care should be taken not to 
allow the work to overlap with subject matter in other science 
courses that the students have taken or are likely to take. Topics 
from the biology OAC are to be avoided. The unit could be started 
after students have had some experiences in the laboratory and are 
well aware of accident prevention. If a series of short topics is 
considered, such topics may be fitted into the program from time to 
time throughout the course. 

It is expected that the local design of this unit will incorporate 
components similar to those adopted in the core units, namely, 


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Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level 
Optional Unit 8: Locally Designed Unit 

objectives, student activities, applications, and societal 
implications. A description of the unit is to be included with the 
school's course outline and kept on file so that it is available to 
interested students and parents. 







Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


Core Units (98 hours) 

1. The Chemical Basis of Life 

2. Energy and the Living Cell 

3. Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 

4. Genetics 

5. The Theory of Evolution 

6. Homeostasis 

7. Ecology 

Optional Units (12 hours) 

1. Animal Behaviour 

2. Locally Designed Unit 















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Biology, OAC (SBI OA) 
Core Unit 1 


The Chemical Basis of Life 
Time: 14 hours 

This unit deals with some of the basic chemical concepts and 
principles that are relevant to biochemistry. It is essential that 
students gain an understanding of these concepts and principles, 
since comprehension in later units depends on this knowledge. In 
fact, the material in this unit is so closely linked with that in 
subsequent core units that serious consideration should be given to 
incorporating this work into relevant sections of these other units. 
Ideas on how to do this are given in the teaching suggestions at the 
end of this unit. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- Basic chemical concepts 
Chemical bonds 
Chemical reactions 

Biologically important organic molecules 

Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) curiosity about the biochemistry of cellular processes (2b, 4a); 

b) an appreciation, for the ways scientific models and theories 
related to atoms and molecules can be used to assist them to 
visualize the structure of biological molecules (2a, 3b); 

c) an interest in the biochemical nature-of-1lfe processes (2b, 

4a) ; 

d) a realization that biochemistry provides one of several possible 
approaches to an understanding of living organisms. 

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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 1: The Chemical Basis of Life 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) building molecular models (2a); 

b) making solutions that have specific concentrations (2b, 2d); 

c) measuring the pH of solutions (2c); 

d) designing and performing experiments to investigate the action 
of enzymes and factors that affect enzyme activity (2b, 8b); 

e) organizing in tabular form data from experiments on enzyme 
activity and chemical reactions (2b, 2c). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) explain the meaning of the following chemical terms as they 
relate to the chemical basis of life: atom, ion, isotope, 
electronegativity, molecule, isomer, chemical reaction, 
functional group, polymer, pure substance, mole, acid, base, pH, 
buffer (2c, 2d, 8b, 8c); 

b) briefly explain in terms of electronegativity and stable 
electron configurations why atoms interact (8b, 8c); 

c) identify and describe examples of oxidation and reduction 
reactions that occur in living organisms (8a-8c); 

d) describe the formation of the following bonds between atoms: 
ionic, covalent, polar covalent, hydrogen (8b-8d); 

e) explain the concept of bond energy and use this concept to 
account for exergonic and endergonic chemical reactions (8b, 

8c); 

f) describe, using representative examples and structural formulas, 
the general structural features, the key subgroups, functional 
related linkages, and the main functions in living organisms of 
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (2a, 8d) ; 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 1: The Chemical Basis of Life 

g) compare condensation (dehydration synthesis) and hydrolysis 
reactions and describe their role in the synthesis and 
degradation of polymers (8b, 8c); 

h) describe, in general terms, the components of protein structure 
and the importance of this structure in the role of such 
biologically active proteins as enzymes and hormones (2a, 2b). 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) build molecular models of simple carbohydrates, ammo acids, 
simple polypeptides, and functional groups (8d); 

*b) design and perform experiments to investigate the effects of one 
or more of the following factors on enzyme activity: 
temperature, concentration of substrate, concentration of 
enzyme, pH (5a)• 

*c) determine the pH of various common substances (e.g., milk, 
saliva); 

d) prepare and test a buffer solution. 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

3. Applications 

a) The nutrition of organisms should include proteins, 
carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water. 

b) Our ability to determine the structure of proteins through 
genetic research involving DNA has led to the successful 
production of important enzymes and hormones (e.g., insulin). 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit Is The Chemical Basis of Life 

Societal Implications 

a) Increased knowledge of biochemical processes has led to 
significant advances in medical procedures and health care 
generally. 

b) An understanding of biochemical processes has led to theories 
that attempt to explain ageing. 

c) Biochemists, medical researchers, pharmacists, nutritionists, 
dentists, and medical technologists are among those whose 
careers require a knowledge of the chemical basis of life. 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) design and performance of experiments; 

b) organization of uata from experiments. 

Safety Considerations 

Standard safety procedures appropriate to the experiments selected 

should be followed in the laboratory. 

Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) discuss various scientific hypotheses relating to the origin o 
complex organic molecules (e.g., those of Urey-Miller, Oparin, 
and Fox); 

b) discuss the possibility of finding living organisms on other 
planets of the solar system; 

c) investigate recent advances in biochemistry, choose one for a 
written project, and include an account of the purpose of, and 







Biology, OAC 

Core Unit Is The Chemical Basis of Life 

the techniques used in, this kind of research. 

Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) It may be best to integrate the material in this unit into the 
other units of this course so that it is directly relevant to 
the content being considered. The following are examples of how 
this may be done: 

- The important concepts of redox reactions, bond energy, and 
endergonic and exergonic reactions are the basis for 
understanding the significance of metabolism in cells (core 
units 2 and 3). These basic concepts can be introduced 
first. Then, selected examples from the citric-acid cycle, 
the electron-transport chain, or photosynthesis can be used 
to illustrate how the basic concepts apply to cellular 
metabolism. 

Enzyme activity can be considered in a variety of contexts 
in core units 2 and 3, while the structure and synthesis of 
proteins fits appropriately with the consideration of the 
role of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in core unit 4. 

- The structure and role of the major biochemical groups can be 
considered in conjunction with their metabolism (core units 2 
and 3). 

b) Students in this course will have varying backgrounds in 
chemistry. When it is appropriate, provision will need to be 
made for students with little chemistry background to acquire a 
basic understanding of chemical concepts. 

c) The importance of understanding concepts and not merely 
memorizing the concepts presented should be emphasized. 

d) Molecular models are useful in helping students to visualize the 
structures of biological molecules. 






















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Biology, OAC 
Core Unit 2 


Energy and the Living Cell 

Time: 14 hours 

The material in this unit builds on the topic of the "living cell", 
introduced in the Grade 9 advanced-level science course and 
continued in Grade 11 advanced-level biology. It is assumed that, 
as they begin work on this unit, students already have a good 
working knowledge of the cell theory and the structure and function 
of the cell. Here the emphasis is placed on the biochemical aspects 
of energy in the cell and on a detailed examination of mitochondria 
and cell membranes. It is expected that, as a result of the work 
done in this unit, students will consolidate their knowledge of 
energy use and transformations in living cells. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- Cell membranes 

- Active and passive transport 

Mitochondria: structure and function 

Energy transformations in the cell 

Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the relationship between structure and 

function in cell membranes and mitochondria (2a, 2b); 

b) an appreciation of how scientific models can be used to help 
them visualize and understand the functions of cell organelles 
(8a, 8b). 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 2: Energy and The Living Cell 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) interpreting the detailed structure of cellular membranes and 
mitochondria from electron micrographs (2b, 8a, 8b); 

b) designing and performing experiments to investigate the effects 
of environmental factors on the movement of materials through 
cell membranes (2a, 8d); 

c) designing and performing experiments to investigate the 
catabolism of food materials in cells (2c); 

d) interpreting and graphing data from experiments on the movement 

of material through membranes and catabolism in cells (2a, 2c). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) explain how a model for the cell membrane, such as the 
fluid-mosaic model, accounts for experimental data relating to 
the structure of the membrane and the observed movement of 
materials through the cell membrane as a result of passive 
transport (2a, 2b); 

b) explain the effect of temperature, pH, and the type and 
concentration of solute on the movement of materials through 
cell membranes and predict the direction of particle movements 
across membranes (2a, 8d); 

c) define active transport and use a current theory to explain 
observations from experimental work (8a, 8b); 

d) describe, in general terms, how the first and second laws of 
thermodynamics apply to energy use and transformation in the 
biosphere and in the living cell (8c); 

e) explain the following terms: metabolism, catabolism, anabolism, 
aerobic metabolism, anaerobic metabolism; 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 2: Energy and The Living Cell 

f) describe the synthesis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and its 
use in the cell (8b, 8c); 

g) explain the relationship among glycolysis, the citric-acid 
(Krebs) cycle, and the electron transport (respiratory) 

chain and indicate the reactants, products, and location of each 
in the cell (8b, 8c); 

h) explain and compare the release of energy and the production of 
ATP that results from the anaerobic (glycolysis and lactic-acid 
fermentation) and the aerobic (citric-acid cycle) catabolism of 
glucose; 

i) explain the significance of anaerobic catabolism and the build¬ 
up of lactic acid in active muscle tissue, resulting in muscle 
fatigue; 

j) describe, in general terms, how derivatives of fats and proteins 
can enter the glycolytic and citric-acid cycle pathways to 
produce usable energy. 

Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) design and perform experiments to investigate the effects of 
temperature, pH, and the type and concentration of solutes on 
the movement of materials through differentially permeable 
membranes; 

*b) use electron micrographs to interpret the structure of cell 
membranes and mitochondria; 

* c ) perform experiments to investigate the type and quantity of end 
products (e.g., carbon dioxide, alcohol) of aerobic and 
anaerobic catabolism in living organisms. 

★See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 2: Energy and The Living Cell 

Applications 

a) The preparation of a number of common foods and beverages (baked 
goods, liquor, dairy products, vinegar) involves the use of the 
fermentation process, which has, thus, become the basis for 
substantial food industries. 

b) The knowledge of anaerobic catabolism in active muscle tissue 
provides an understanding of muscle fatigue and oxygen debt and 
has generally contributed to an improvement in conditioning 
techniques. 

c) The knowledge of the structure and function of cell membranes 
has increased our understanding of the effects of poisons and 
bacterial toxins and has been applied effectively in cancer 
research and treatment. 

Societal Implications 

a) Industries whose products are based on the fermentation process 
make an important contribution to the economy. 

b) The application of our knowledge of cells has led to improved 
medical, dietary, and physical-fltness procedures. 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) laboratory experiments; 

b) interpretation and graphing of data from experiments. 

Safety Considerations 

Standard safety procedures appropriate to the experiments selected 

should be followed in the laboratory. 






Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 2: Energy and The Living Cell 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) examine catabolism in prokaryotes; 

b) trace and explain the development of the present model (i.e., 
the fluid-mosaic model) of the structure of the cell membrane; 

c) investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and muscle¬ 
cell respiration with respect to energy efficiency; 

d) examine the relationship of cellular respiration to biological 
phenomena such as the decomposition of organic matter and warm¬ 
bloodedness . 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The formulation, use, and limitations of scientific models such 
as the fluid-mosaic model of the cell membrane should be 
emphasized. 

b) Since there continue to be significant changes year by year in 
the working explanations of many biological phenomena, such as 
cell-membrane structure and function, mitochondrial activity, 
and ATP production, it is important that current references and 
textbooks be used. 

c) Students should be able to explain biochemical processes 
in terms of basic concepts and laws (e.g., thermodynamics, 
controlled energy release, bond energies, redox reactions, 
electronegativity). The memorization of chemical formulas and 
long chains of chemical reactions should not be overemphasized. 

d) The investigations concerning the effects of environmental 
factors on the movement of materials through differentially 
permeable membranes provide a good opportunity for students to 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 2: Energy and The Living Cell 

practise problem solving. On the basis of available 
information, students can create hypotheses that predict the 
effects of changing a variable. They can then design and 
perform appropriate experiments. 


130 


Biology, OAC 
Core Unit 3 


Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 

Time: 14 hours 

In this unit students will learn how plants use light energy and 
other raw materials in the process of photosynthesis to produce 
energy-rich organic molecules. The material presented builds on the 
initial introduction to plant structure and photosynthesis presented 
in the Grade 9 advanced-level science course and the more detailed 
study of plant growth, structure, and function in the Grade 11 
advanced-level biology course. Emphasis is placed on students' 
acquiring an understanding and an appreciation of the chemical 
principles involved in photosynthesis and its significance in the 
biosphere. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 
Photosynthesis: light and dark reactions 
The plant structures involved in photosynthesis 
Conditions influencing the rate of photosynthesis 

Objectives 

Attitudes. Students should be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation for plants as extremely useful living organisms 
that require care and preservation (3a, 3c, 4a); 

b) an appreciation for the fact that all living organisms depend on 
plants for their survival (3c); 

c) an awareness of careers that are based on the propagation, care, 
and study of plants (3c); 

d) curiosity about the physiological mechanisms that govern plant 
growth and response (2e). 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 3: Plant -Physiology and Photosynthesis 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) preparing and examining wet-mount slides of algae and leaf 
tissue to identify the location, shape, and size of chloroplasts 
(2a); 

b) examining prepared slides or electron micrographs of leaf 
sections to study stomata, the structure of chloroplasts, and 
the location and structure of various leaf tissues (2b, 2c); 

c) designing and performing experiments to study the effects on the 
rate of photosynthesis of variations in one or more of carbon 
dioxide concentration, temperature, and quality and intensity of 
light (2e); 

d) interpreting data obtained from experiments on photosynthesis 
(2d, 2e). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) describe how materials are transported throughout plants in 
phloem and xylem tissue and also describe one model that 
accounts for the behaviour of water in these tissues; 

b) describe the structure of a leaf, the role and operation of the 
stomata, and the role each different kind of leaf tissue plays 
in photosynthesis (2a, 2c); 

c) compare, in general terms, the "light" (light-dependent) and 
"dark" (light-independent) reactions of photosynthesis; 

d) explain why plants are essential in the biosphere; 

e) recall the structure of a chloroplast and describe the locations 
where light-dependent and light-independent reactions take place 
(2a, 2b); 

f) explain the role of a photosynthetic pigment and compare the 
structure and absorption spectra of chlorophylls a and b (2d, 

8d); 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 3: Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 

g) in terms of photosystems I and II and the chemiosmotic theory of 
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, describe how light 
energy is converted into the chemical potential energy of ATP 
and NADPH + H + (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 
phosphate) during the light-dependent reactions of 
photosynthesis ( 8 d); 

h) describe how the ATP and the NADPH + H + from the light-dependent 
reactions are used to fix carbon and produce 
phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL) in the Calvin (C 3 ) cycle ( 8 d); 

i) including appropriate comparisons to aerobic catabolism, 
describe how PGAL can be used to produce glucose, sucrose, 
starch, and other products ( 8 d); 

j) on the basis of evidence from experiments and in terms of the 
relationship between the light-dependent and light-independent 
reactions of photosynthesis, describe how the rate of 
photosynthesis is affected by carbon dioxide concentration, 
temperature, and the intensity, type, and duration of light 

(2e); 

k) describe the techniques used by Calvin to determine the carbon 
fixation (C 3 ) cycle. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

★ a) examine algae or other appropriate plant material, using a 

microscope to observe the size, shape, location, and quantity of 
chloroplasts; 

b) observe the structure of chloroplasts, using electron 
micrographs; 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 3 : Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 

*c) examine prepared slides and, if available, electron micrographs 
of leaf sections to identify tissue structure, stomata, and 
chloroplasts; 

d) extract photosynthetic pigments from leaf tissue and use paper 
chromatography to separate the pigments in the leaf extract or 
observe and analyse the passage of light through a solution of 
the pigments (6a); 

*e) design and perform experiments to investigate the effects on the 
photosynthetic process of variations in one or more of light 
(including quality, intensity, and photoperiod), carbon dioxide 
concentration, and temperature ( 5 c); 

f) search available literature to gather information and report on 
the development of current knowledge about photosynthesis (8b). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

Applications 

a) An understanding of the principles of the photosynthetic process 
has led to improved plant cultivation and conservation 
practices. 

b) Any environmental factor that inhibits photosynthesis on a large 
scale will have disastrous consequences in the biosphere. 

c) Plants are a major source of the necessities of life (food, 
oxygen) and provide such important products as lumber, paper 
fibre, and medicines. 

Societal Implications 

a) Many careers (e.g., in forestry, horticulture, agriculture, 
nursery management) are based on the proper cultivation of 
plants. 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 3: Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 

b) Industries based on the production, maintenance, and processing 
of plants and plant products make an important contribution to 
Canada's economy. 

c) Prudent management of our plant resources is vital for future 
economic stability. 

5. Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) laboratory techniques and experiments; 

b) interpretation of data from experiments; 

c) designs of experimental investigations. 

6 . Safety Considerations 

Students should exercise caution when using chromatography solvents. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) investigate the role light plays in the synthesis and 
destruction of chlorophyll; 

b) compare the structural formulas of haemoglobin, cytochromes, and 
chlorophyll and account for their different functions in terms 
of their structure; 

c) examine chloroplasts in liverworts and mosses; 

d) gather information and report on the C 4 or Hatch-Slack pathway 
of carbon fixation and its advantages to the plants 

capable of using this process; 


135 





Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 3 : Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 

e) investigate developments in aquaculture (e.g., the feasibility 
of harvesting the ocean as a means of increasing global food 
supplies)r 

f) investigate the importance of plants to human life in terms of 
the production of food, fibre, fossil fuel, and useful 
chemicals. 

8 . Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) References to the history of research surrounding plant growth 
and the photosynthetic process can be used to emphasize aspects 
of the various processes of science. 

b) In conjunction with activity 2 f, teachers should work with the 
teacher-librarian in the school's resource centre to develop 
learning experiences to help students with literature-search 
techniques. 

c) Plant experiments are best done with young plants that are 
growing actively. These should be obtained well in advance of 
the time when they are required. Groups of students can work 
with different plants to investigate photosynthetic activity. 

If it is necessary to conserve space, some of this work can be 
done by students at home. 

d) A broad understanding of the principles involved in the 
conversion of light energy to the energy contained in molecules 
during photosynthesis should be achieved. The biochemistry of 
photosynthesis is to be treated at an introductory level. 
Memorization of formulas and chemical equations is not required. 


136 



Biology, OAC 
Core Unit 4 


Genetics 
Time: 14 hours 

This unit is designed to provide students with an understanding of 
current theory on the nature and mechanism of expression of genetic 
information in the cell. It builds in part on the study of 
genetics and heredity included in the Grade 11 advanced-level 
biology course. However, since the topics considered here deal 
primarily with the biochemistry of genetics, Mendelian genetics and 
the inheritance of traits should be reviewed but not studied in 
detail. In this unit emphasis should be placed on providing 
students with up-to-date information so that they can begin not only 
to understand how genetic information controls the activities of 
the cell, but also to appreciate the important potentials of genetic 
engineering. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- Biochemical genetics 

- Protein synthesis 

- Genetic research and technology 
Genetic diseases 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and curiosity about, current research and 

theories concerning the nature, transmission, modification, and 
expression of genetic Information (2c, 3c, 3d); 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 4: Genetics 

b) a commitment to learning about ethical and moral issues that 
stem from current research and technologies in genetics (2c, 

4b); 

c) an appreciation of the fact that differences among humans result 
from genetic variability and environmental influences. 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) analysing electron micrographs of chromosomes and 
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules (2a); 

b) building molecular models to demonstrate the structure and 
replication of DNA (2b); 

c) using molecular models to demonstrate aspects of protein 
synthesis such as the building of messenger ribonucleic acid 
(mRNA), the linkage of transfer RNA (tRNA) to mRNA, and the 
relationship between mRNA and the ribosome (2b); 

d) using recombination data from test crosses to determine the 
linear seguence of four or more linked genes (2d); 

e) using a variety of references to report on one or more aspects 
of current genetic research (2c). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) recall the meaning of the following terms: gene, allele, 
dominance, incomplete dominance, mitosis, meiosis, heterozygous, 
homozygous, monohybrid and dihybrid cross, sex-linked trait; 

b) describe the molecular structure and configuration of DNA (2a); 

c) describe the process of DNA replication (2b); 

d) describe the structural and functional relationship between DNA 
and RNA (2b); 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 4: Genetics 

e) compare the structure of DNA and RNA (2b); 

f) explain in general terms how the genetic information encoded in 
DNA controls the activities of the cell and the growth and 
development of the organism; 

g) using current theory, including information on transcription, 
translation, mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes, describe how proteins 
are synthesized in the cell; 

h) with reference to environmental influences and, more 
specifically, regulatory genes, operator sites on DNA, and 
repressor proteins, briefly describe how the synthesis of 
proteins might be triggered and repressed and why such control 
is necessary; 

i) describe how mutagens, such as radiation and chemicals, can 
change the genetic material in cells by causing mutations, for 
example, point and frameshift mutations and changes in 
chromosome number (2c); 

j) briefly describe one or more techniques of genetic research that 
make genetic engineering possible, for example, the use of 
restriction enzymes to analyse genes, the use of reverse 
transcriptase to synthesize DNA from RNA, and the synthesis and 
cloning of recombinant DNA (2c); 

k) briefly describe the following phenomena and discuss the social 
issues including the benefits and risks arising from one or more 
of them: 

- gene modification and insertion in prokaryotes so that they 
can be used to produce useful biochemicals; 

the production of desirable hybrids of domestic plants and 
animals through genetic engineering; 

the possible modification and selection of genes in humans; 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 4: Genetics 

- the application of DNA technology in the diagnosis of 
prenatal and postnatal genetic diseases (2c, 8c); 

l ) briefly describe the cause of, effects of, possible solutions 
to, and treatments for one or more human genetic diseases, such 
as Down's syndrome, haemophilia, Klinefelter's syndrome, 

Turner's syndrome, Huntington's chorea, muscular dystrophy, 
Tay-Sachs disease, and cystic fibrosis (2c, 8 c); 

m) briefly describe how the experiments of at least three 
biologists (e.g., Mendel, Feulgen, Mullen, Griffith, Hershey, 
Chase, Watson, Crick, Stahl, Meselson, Chargaff, Sutton, Morgan) 
have contributed to our understanding of genetics. 

2. Student Activities 
Students are to: 

*a) examine and interpret electron micrographs of chromosomes and 
DNA molecules (5a); 

*b) build models of a section of DNA and a complementary RNA 

molecule or manipulate commercially prepared models of DNA (5a, 
8 b); 

*c) do a library project outlining the present knowledge about the 
work of scientists (including Canadians) in genetics, the 
techniques they used in research, and the social impact of one 
of the following: 

human genetic diseases - their causes, detection, and 
treatment; 

- the production of crop species through genetic engineering; 
industrial applications of genetic engineering; 

mutagens in the environment - their types, history, and 
effects; 


140 



Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 4: Genetics 

- some other relevant phenomena (5b, 8c); 

d) construct a gene map from testcross information (8a). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

3. Applications 

a) Through genetic counselling people are better able to make 
family-planning decisions. 

b) Many humans and other forms of life have benefited from improved 
recognition and treatment of genetic disease. 

c) Such technological advances in the selective breeding of 
domestic animals as the use of sperm banks, selective artificial 
insemination, and embryo transplants have led to the development 
of hybrids with specific desirable characteristics. 

d) Genetic engineering has made possible the development of 
disease-resistant and high-yield crop species and the 
development of new biotechnical industries. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) The development of new hybrids in agriculture has enhanced 
global food production and agriculture's contribution to 
Canada's national economy. 

b) The application of genetic engineering to the development of new 
organisms and the possibility of applications to eugenics raises 
difficult moral and ethical problems, which will need to be 
considered. 

c) Careers involving a knowledge of genetics include animal 
breeder, plant geneticist, genetic counsellor, physician, and 
microbiologist. 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 4: Genetics 

5. Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 
• on students': 

a) interpretation of micrographs and work with molecular models; 

b) library projects. 

\ J 

6 . Safety Considerations 

The nature of the activities in this unit is such that no specific 
safety considerations are required unless they arise from the 
possible extensions. 

7. Possible Extensions 
Some students might: 

a) prepare microscope slides or use commercially prepared slides to 
examine the large-salivary-gland chromosomes of fruit-fly 
larvae; 

b) visit a genetic-counselling clinic; 

c) invite a practising geneticist to speak on his/her work; 

d) organize a debate on the pros and cons of genetic engineering; 

e) prepare a report on viruses that utilize RNA and DNA when they 
are active in human host cells. 

8 . Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit should begin with a review of the work on Mendelian 
genetics and heredity considered in the Grade 11 biology course. 

b) Building models of DNA can be simple or complex. Creative 
students could produce the more sophisticated models for class 
use. A variety of common materials can be used (e.g., 


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Core Unit 4: Genetics 

plasticine, cardboard, wire, pipe cleaners, pop beads, cubes, 
tape, ribbon). 

c) This is an ideal unit in which to hold class discussions on 

some important questions in biological research (e.g., the moral 
and ethical aspects of scientific advances, the control of 
scientific activity). 


r 


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Biology, OAC 
Core Unit 5 


The Theory of Evolution 

Time: 14 hours 

The theory of biological evolution has been one of the major 
influences on modern biology. This is the only course in the 
Grade 9 to OAC science continuum in which biological evolution is 
considered in some detail. An understanding of genetics is 
necessary before the modern theory of evolution can be considered; 
hence, the study of this unit should follow that of core unit 4. In 
teaching about biological evolution, there is a tendency to dwell on 
the origins of evolutionary theory, including Darwin's voyage. 
Although this is understandable, such a limited approach is not 
appropriate in an initial study of biological evolution in a Senior 
biology course. Instead, a balanced approach that leads students to 
consider the development and meaning of the modern theory of 
biological evolution, the supporting evidence, the usefulness and 
limitations of the theory, the mechanisms of evolution, and the 
current thinking in the area should be used. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

The development of the theory of biological evolution 
The nature of scientific theories 
- The mechanism for evolution and speciation 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the development and the explanatory value of 
the neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution (2b, 3a, 3b, 

8 d); 


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b) a curiosity about the natural mechanisms that are explained by 
means of the theory of biological evolution and the usefulness 
and limitations of the theory (2b); 

c) an appreciation of the differences between the origin, 
development, and nature of scientific theories and other 
non-scientific modes of explanation, for example, religious 
(4a, 4b, 8 d). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using the library and other sources of information to obtain 
relevant information from various areas of biology for a 
discussion of the theory of biological evolution (2b); 

b) abstracting information from reading selections on evolutionary 
theory and identifying the main ideas, the argument sequence, 
and the authors' points of view (2b); 

c) using beads or other suitable materials to design models of a 
population genotype to show the effect of factors that may alter 
the genetic equilibrium of a population (2a). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) name and briefly describe the lines of evidence from areas of 
biology that support and are explained by the theory of 
biological evolution, for example, evidence from paleontology, 
comparative anatomy (homologous and analogous structures), 
embryology, comparative biochemistry, genetics, selective 
breeding, and the geographical distribution of species (2b, 2c, 

8 b); 


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b) state and explain the Darwin-Wallace theory of natural 
selection; 

c) compare Darwin's theory of the origin of species with that 
proposed by Lamarck (2b); 

d) including reference to Erasmus Darwin, Malthus, Lyell, and the 
voyage of the HMCS Beagle , describe briefly how Charles Darwin 
gathered evidence and developed his ideas (2b); 

e) using the theory of natural selection as an example, 
differentiate among empirical facts, a hypothesis, and a theory 
and describe the origin, purpose, and development of scientific 
theories, giving examples of their usefulness and limitations; 

f) explain why Darwin was unable to account for the mechanism of 
inheritance of traits in his theory (2a, 8a); 

g) explain both the morphological and biological concept of a 
species and explain why it is difficult to give a rigorous 
definition of a species that fits all occasions; 

h) explain with reference to the gene pool of a population why the 
theory of biological evolution applies to populations of 
organisms and not to individuals (2a, 2c, 8a, 8f); 

i) state the Hardy-Weinberg law and explain its significance in 
terms of the development of evolutionary theory (2a, 8f); 

j) describe three or more of the mechanisms that can lead to 

genetic variation in a population, for example, mutation, 
natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow (migration), and 
population increase and decrease (2a, 2c, 8f); 

k) state the relationship between genetic variation and speciation 

and postulate how new species can result, for example, through 
geographical isolation, polyploidy, and introgression (2a, 2c); 


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l) describe the possible origin of Darwin's finches, or some other 
groups of related species, in terms of initially reduced 
selection pressure, increased genetic variation, isolation, 
reuniting of species, competition, and increased selection 
pressure (2a, 8f); 

m) compare speciation with convergent evolution; 

n) explain the concept of adaptation by describing an example such 
as the development in bacteria of resistance to antibiotics 
(8a); 

o) compare Darwin's thinking on the progression of the development 
of species with the hypothesis of "punctuated equilibrium" as 
proposed by S.J. Gould. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) design and manipulate models to demonstrate the effects of one 
or more of the following on the gene pool of a population: 
mutation, natural selection, isolation, genetic drift, gene 
migration (5a, 8 f); 

*b) use available materials, such as literature sources, models, 
photographs, and prepared slides, to gather information and 
report on one of the following lines of evidence that are used 
to support the theory of biological evolution: 
i) paleontology (Students should examine the fossil record 
used to trace the development of a plant or animal and 
include an account of fossil-dating procedures.); 


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Core Unit 5: The Theory of Evolution 

ii) comparative anatomy (Students should identify and trace the 
probable evolution of vestigial structures or the 
development of an organ system or structure in a particular 
organism.); 

iii) comparative embryology (Students should compare embryonic 
development in various vertebrates.); 

iv) comparative biochemistry (Students should investigate 
biochemical similarities among living organisms, for 
example, in metabolic processes, blood molecules.): 

v) chromosome structure (Students should examine similarities 
and differences in the DNA sequences in the same genes of 
closely related species.); 

vi) geographical distribution (Students should outline evidence 
based on a small area, such as the Galapagos Islands, and 
on a large area, such as more than one continent.); 

vii) domestication (Students should trace the development of the 
varieties of a domestic animal or plant.) (5a, 8 e); 

c) measure, record, and graph continuous and non-continuous 
(polymorphic) variation in a population. They might examine, 
for example, variations in size, mass, germination rate, and 
coloration in seeds; or height, blood type, and eye colour in 
humans; 

d) list limitations or problems associated with the theory of 
evolution that might be perceived from different perspectives 
( 8 b- 8 e). 

★See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 


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The Theory of Evolution 


Applications 

a) A knowledge of the mechanisms of speciation may assist in the 
development of new varieties of domestic plants and animals. 

b) The theory of biological evolution is used to postulate 
ancestral links among species. 

c) The theory of biological evolution can be used to illustrate 
some of the characteristics of the nature of science (see Part 
1, subsection 3.2, of the science guideline). 

Societal Implications 

a) Explanations for the origins of species have been the subject of 
considerable debate over the years. 

b) The debate over the theory of biological evolution has 
highlighted, and has encouraged people to distinguish among, 
scientific, religious, and metaphysical argument s and 
explanations of the origins of life. 

c) Scientific theories such as the theory of biological evolution 
can have a profound effect on the guiding concepts of a society. 

d) Paleontologists, biology teachers and professors, museum 
curators, and biological illustrators are among those who 
require a knowledge of the theory of evolution in their careers. 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) design and manipulation of models; 

b) reports on activity 2b; 

c) other investigations or reports. 





Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 5: The Theory of Evolution 

6 . Safety Considerations 

Safety procedures appropriate to the activities chosen should be 

followed. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) investigate theories on the origin of human races and discuss 
the reasons for racial similarities and differences; 

b) describe chronometric and relative dating techniques (e.g. , 
carbon 14, potassium-argon, position in sedimentary rock); 

c) discuss or debate one or more issues related to evolution, for 
example, natural selection in the human population, the fate of 
race distinctions in a global community ( 8 c, 8 d); 

d) visit a museum to examine various forms of evidence for the 
theory of biological evolution, such as fossils and artifacts 
associated with the evolution of hominids ( 8 b); 

e) visit an experimental farm involved in selective breeding or 
invite a breeder to come to the class to discuss breeding 
techniques; 

f) compare the origin and central idea of the concept of the 
evolution of species with that of the immutability of species 
(8d) . 

8 . Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit should be taught after core unit 4 so that students 
will understand the genetic basis of biological evolution. 

b) The role of theories in science should be emphasized in this 
unit. Students should be encouraged to distinguish between 
fact and inference. 


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Core Unit 5: The Theory of Evolution 

c) Students should be given opportunities to evaluate their 
personal beliefs by listening to, reading, and evaluating 
evidence in agreement with, and contrary to, their own values or 
opinions. 

d) Since some students may hold alternative points of view 
regarding the origin of species, the theory of biological 
evolution should be treated with appropriate sensitivity. If 
alternative points of view are discussed, the suggestions and 
policy outlined in Part 1, subsection 10.2, of this guideline 
are to be followed. 

e) To assist students in their literature search, the teacher 
should plan, in consultation with the teacher-librarian, for 
small groups of students to be instructed in the use of science 
indexes, professional journals, microfiche, and automated 
catalogues. 

f) A model of a gene pool can be developed, with coloured beads or 
seeds used to represent the alleles of one or more inheritable 
traits in a population. Working with the model, students can 
design and explore some fairly elaborate scenarios involving the 
effect of environmental factors. Commercial kits for this type 
of simulation are available. 

g) If possible, a class visit to a museum should be arranged so 
that students can observe fossils (e.g., hominids, dinosaurs, 
the various types of plant and animal fossils). 


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Biology, OAC 
Core Unit 6 
Homeostasis 
Time: 14 hours 

This unit focuses on the topics of biological control and 
homeostasis. Although these topics have been considered briefly in 
several previous units on vertebrate and cell physiology, they are 
treated in greater depth in this unit. In particular, the concept 
of a control system and the structure and function of the nervous 
and endocrine systems are examined here. An emphasis should be 
placed on providing students with an understanding of the necessity 
for the maintenance within narrow limits of conditions inside the 
body, the roles and co-ordination of organ systems in this 
regulation, and the impact of their personal habits on the ability 
of their bodies to maintain the necessary homeostasis. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

- Biological control and homeostasis 

- The nervous system: structure and function 

- The endocrine system: structure and function 
Chemical influences on the nervous and endocrine systems 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the need for regulators and stability in the 
external and internal environments of living things (2c, 2e); 

b) a curiosity about the organs and mechanisms involved in 

homeostatic control in humans and other living things (2a, 2b); 

c) an appreciation of the fact that most body functions contribute 


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Core Unit 6: Homeostasis 

in a co-ordinated fashion to the maintenance of internal 
stability (2a, 3a); 

d) a commitment to learning about and practising health and eating 
habits that promote internal dynamic equilibrium (3b-3e). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) recognizing and demonstrating biological regulatory systems (2a, 
2 b); 

b) identifying the main parts of the nervous and endocrine systems 
of a vertebrate (2a); 

c) performing experiments to demonstrate homeostatic mechanisms in 
humans (2c); 

d) measuring, recording, and graphing data from experiments 
designed to explore homeostatic mechanisms (2c). 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) define homeostasis and explain in general terms why the 
maintenance of a stable internal environment is so important to 
living organisms (2c-2e); 

b) explain the concept of a regulatory system, using the following 
terms: stimulus, receptor, regulatory (interpretation) centre, 
afferent and efferent pathways, effector, response, feedback 
(positive and negative) (2b); 

c) list and describe in general terms, including their 
interactions, the components of any two of the following: 
nervous system, endocrine system, kidney, blood, liver (2a); 

d) briefly describe the structural relationships among, and the 
role of, the components of the nervous system, including the 
major sections of the brain (2a); 


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Core Unit 6: Homeostasis 

e) describe the structure and explain the function of a reflex arc 

(2b) ; 

f) describe the structure of a neuron; 

g) explain how nerve impulses travel along and between neurons 
(2b); 

h) explain the following terms: endocrine gland, hormone, target 
organ; 

i) describe the source (including the location of the gland) and 
the role of any two interrelated hormones, for example, 
thyroxin, parathyroid hormone, insulin, glucagon, thyroid- 
stimulating hormone (TSH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), 
adrenalin, noradrenalin, cortisone, aldosterone, sex hormones; 

j) using the body's reaction to a stimulus such as physical 
exertion, describe how the nervous and endocrine systems 
interact to compensate for temporary fluctuations in the body's 
internal environment (2a, 8c); 

k) describe the cause, effects, and treatment of one or more of the 

following: diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyper- and 

hypothyroidism, goiter, Addison's disease; 

l ) briefly describe the work and findings of individuals such as 
Banting, Best, and Selye. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) examine and describe the nervous and endocrine systems of a 
vertebrate (5a, 6 a); 

b) design a model demonstrating the essential components of a 
control system; 


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Core Unit 6: Homeostasis 

*c) perform investigations to demonstrate the maintenance of a 
stable internal environment in the body, for example, 
investigate the body's reaction to exercise (6b, 8c); 

d) perform experiments to demonstrate and measure the cooling 
effect caused by the evaporation of a liquid (e.g., sweat); 

e) perform experiments with invertebrates to examine the internal 
effects of such external factors as heat and chemicals (8d). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

3. Applications 

a) The knowledge of the location, role, structure, and function of 
control systems in the body has allowed for the identification 
and treatment of various disorders (e.g., the use of insulin for 
diabetes r, ellitus, dialysis for kidney breakdown). 

b) The discovery and use of psychoactive drugs has had both 
positive effects (the medical relief of pain) and negative 
effects (drug abuse and addiction). 

c) An awareness of the need to maintain internal homeostasis may 
lead to the maintenance of good health and food habits (e.g., 
consumption of foods containing essential minerals and 
vitamins). 

d) Techniques for keeping warm in the winter and cool in the summer 
are based in part on a knowledge of the body's physiological 
response to temperature extremes. 

e) Menstrual feedback systems can be artificially manipulated by 
means of hormones to increase or decrease the possibility of 
conception. 


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Core Unit 6: Homeostasis 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Medical advances in the treatment of disorders of the nervous 
and endocrine systems have improved the quality of life and 
increased the lifespan of many people. 

b) The medical use of psychoactive drugs has been beneficial, but 
drug abuse and addiction are major problems in society. 

c) The use of steroids (androgens) to increase body weight and 
muscular strength in athletes has been questioned. 

5. Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) descriptions of vertebrate nervous and endocrine systems; 

b) laboratory experiments and reports. 

6. Safety Considerations 

a) Students should wear disposable gloves and appropriate 
protective eyewear if a dissection is done. Appropriate 
ventilation should also be provided. 

b) Students with cardiovascular health problems should not 
participate in activities that require physical exercise. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on selected aspects of brain 
anatomy and physiology; 

b) investigate the biochemical mechanisms of hormones in plants and 
animals; 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 6: Homeostasis 

c) investigate the impact of regular exercise on the maintenance of 
homeostasis in the body; 

d) perform a risk/benefit analysis on the use of anabolic steroids 
in sports; 

e) explain the following terms and describe the source and the 
effects on the human body of each: psychoactive drug, 
stimulant, depressant, hallucinogenic substance. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit should begin with a review of the effects of 
temperature, pH, ion concentration, and toxic substances on 
enzyme activity and cell physiology. 

b) The work in this unit can be integrated with that of optional 
unit 1, "Animal Behaviour". 

Cj Physical exertion increases a number of body reactions (e.g., 
breathing rate, heartbeat, carbon dioxide concentration in 
exhaled air, blood pressure, body temperature, perspiration), 
which students can observe and measure. Recovery time can be 
related to physical fitness. Students with health problems 
should not be involved in strenuous exercise but should 
participate in the collecting of experimental data in activity 
2c. 

d) The experiments with invertebrates should deal with responses 
other than the avoidance of, or attraction to, stimuli. For 
example, the heartbeat of Daphnia changes in reaction to 
temperature changes and exposure to adrenalin. 

e) Given the vast amounts of information available on the anatomy 
and physiology of the nervous system and the importance of 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 6: Homeostasis 

providing students with a cohesive view of biological control 
and homeostasis, it will be necessary to monitor carefully the 
depth of treatment in this unit in order to complete it in 
fourteen hours. 

f) If the optional unit on the vertebrate excretory system was not 
studied in Grade 11, it would be appropriate to consider the 
role of the kidney in the homeostatic process in this unit. The 
various objectives and activities that deal with the nature of 
the endocrine and nervous systems can be extended to include the 
excretory system. 


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Biology, OAC 
Core Unit 7 


Ecology 

Time: 14 hours 

The study of ecology deals with the temporal and spatial 
distribution of species and examines biotic and abiotic 
interrelationships. This unit moves students beyond the description 
of ecosystems and food webs presented in the Grade 10 advanced- 
level science course to a consideration of population dynamics, 
human ecology, and the concept of energy and matter flow through the 
biosphere. Since ecology is investigative, it is important that 
students be given the opportunity to measure environmental 
variables, analyse data, and weigh the ecological and social 
consequences related to current environmental issues. Students 
should also be made aware of relationships between the theory of 
biological evolution and the study of ecology. For example, 
concepts such as adaptation, genetic diversity, and natural 
selection should be used to help explain the presence and variety of 
species in an area. Finally, an emphasis should be placed on 
helping students develop an informed personal ethic regarding both 
their local environment and the global environment. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 
Ecological concepts 
Biogeochemical cycles 
Energy flow 
Population dynamics 
Human ecology in the biosphere 


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Biology, OAC 

Core Unit 7: Ecology 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a commitment to making informed decisions about societal issues 
associated with environmental problems (2a, 3a, 3c); 

b) an appreciation for the conflicting interests and concerns of 
those involved with commercial enterprises that can have a 
negative impact on the environment and those dedicated to 
preserving that environment (2a, 3a, 4a); 

c) an appreciation of the unique nature of the ecology of the human 
population in the biosphere (2a, 2c, 3a); 

d) a commitment to developing their own informed personal 
environmental ethic (3c); 

e) a responsible attitude towards the direct or indirect effects of 
their actions on the environment (3c, 4a). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) measuring environmental factors and interpreting the data 
obtained in terms of the effects of such factors on populations 
of organisms (2a); 

b) analysing and evaluating data and arguments concerning local and 
world ecological issues (2a, 2d); 

c) making and communicating informed personal decisions about the 
impact of, and solutions to, local environmental problems (2a, 
2d) . 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the meaning of the term ecology and explain the 

following ecological concepts: food web, trophic levels, biome, 


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Core Unit 7: Ecology 

ecosystem, community, population, niche, succession, symbiotic 
relationship (8b); 

b) explain the concept of the cycling of matter in the biosphere 
and briefly describe the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, 
and water biogeochemical cycles; 

c) including the concepts of net production and the first and 
second laws of thermodynamics, describe the flow of energy 
through an ecosystem and account for the biomass at each of the 
trophic levels in an ecosystem; 

d) relate biogeochemical cycles to the flow of energy through the 
biosphere and describe some impacts on the biosphere of human 
activity, such as elevated carbon dioxide production, acid rain, 
and industrial toxins; 

e) compare the use of energy by humans in North America with that 
of humans in developing countries and that of non-human 
organisms; 

f) compare and explain the fluctuations in a population of a wild 
plant, a wild animal, and a micro-organism, including such 
factors as carrying capacity, fecundity, competition, and 
predation (2b); 

g) describe and account for the change in the human population over 
the last few thousand years, including the concept of 
exponential growth (2c). 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) on the basis of tests and measurements done in the field and 

information gathered from other sources, analyse and report on a 
local environmental problem in terms of the factors creating the 


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Core Unit 7: Ecology 

problem, resulting changes in biotic and abiotic elements in the 
ecosystem, and the probable best solution (6a, 8c-8e); 

b) analyse and account for the variety, size, and distribution of 
populations in an ecosystem (8g); 

c) analyse current demographic data and trends for Canada and for a 
developing country and then predict what the populations and 
related social conditions will be like twenty, sixty, and one 
hundred years in the future (8h); 

d) critically analyse a media article or scientific report on an 
ecological issue. 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

3. Applications 

a) Research in ecology has increased our understanding of the 
effects and uniqueness of human intervention in the biosphere 
and has made it possible to consider steps to correct or reduce 
the adverse impacts of human activity on the environment. 

b) The study of ecology enhances our ability to facilitate 
the population growth of endangered species effectively. 

c) A knowledge of ecology makes it possible to develop an informed 
personal environmental ethic and to take responsibility for 
appropriate actions in the environment. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Many ecological problems can be addressed by informed and 
committed citizens acting through local organizations and 
government agencies to influence and regulate the activities of 
industry and other groups that have an environmental impact. 


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Core Unit 7: Ecology 

b) Society will need to support ongoing ecological research, 
pollution and natural-resources management, and environmental- 
assessment and improvement programs if the deterioration of the 
environment is to be brought under control. 

c) Careers involving a knowledge of ecology include conservation 
officer, wildlife biologist, naturalist, forester, and surveyor. 

5. Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit should be based 

on students': 

a) measurements and interpretations of data; 

b) analyses of environmental phenomena. 

6. Safety Considerations 

Appropriate safety precautions should be established prior to 

field trips. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) discuss the ecological and moral issues associated with the 
provision by developed countries such as Canada of food and 
medical and technical aid to developing countries; 

b) create and then discuss or dramatize a scenario in which a major 
industry in an . area decides to close its factory rather than 
instal mandatory pollution controls that are extremely 
expensive; 

c) exorbitant cost; using concepts such as genetic diversity, 
selection pressure, and adaptation, account for the greater 
variety of species of plants and animals in a tropical rain 
forest than in a temperate deciduous forest. 


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Core Unit 7: Ecology 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit might profitably be taught as an interdisciplinary 
unit with the geography and history departments. Content 
overlap among departments should be carefully checked. 

b) This unit should begin with a review or brief consideration of 
the terminology that is used to describe the structure and 
interrelationships in an ecosystem. 

c) It is expected that students will move outside of the school in 
their study of a local environmental problem. However, the 
extent of the field activities will vary with the school 
location, the time of year, and the resources and time 
available. 

d) A variety of simple tests for a number of environmental 
variables are described in biological and ecological resource 
books and field-experiment manuals. The necessary equipment is 
often available in kit form. 

e) In many locations officials from government ministries and 
agencies that deal with the environment are available to discuss 
and demonstrate their work and provide current information on 
environmental factors. 

f) The making of a videotape might be a useful and interesting way 
to document an environmental problem. 

g) The study of populations in an ecosystem can be restricted to 
one plant or animal species. 

h) There is a considerable amount of information available on 
trends in and predictions of human population. 

i) Computer simulations and models can be used in analysing complex 
and long-term problems. 


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Biology, OAC 
Optional Unit 1 


Animal Behaviour 
Time: 12 hours 

Ethology is the study of animal behaviour in nature. It emphasizes 
the evolution and adaptive value of behaviour patterns. In this 
unit students explore and compare the contributions of ethology and 
behaviour psychology to the study of animal behaviour. A number of 
important considerations are introduced, including the need to treat 
and care for animals humanely, the value of careful objective 
observations in the examination and interpretation of animal 
behaviour, the inappropriateness of anthropomorphic thinking in the 
analysis of animal behaviour, and the proper design of ethological 
investigations. The design and performance of relevant laboratory 
investigations by students are central to the learning objectives in 
this unit. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

Animal care and treatment 
Innate behaviour 
Learned behaviour 

The adaptive value of behaviour patterns 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes . Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a concern for, and a commitment to, the well-being of animals in 
the laboratory and in their natural setting (2a, 2e); 

b) an appreciation for the need to be objective in observing animal 

behaviour (2b, 2c, 3d); 

c) curiosity about the origins, modification, and adaptive value of 
animal behaviour (3b); 


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Optional Unit 1: Animal Behaviour 

d) critical-mindedness towards evidence and interpretations of 
animal behaviour that have resulted from poorly designed 
investigations, for example, those that are characterized by 
lack of control of variables, non-replicability, inadequate data 
for objective analysis, and lack of objectivity (3d). 

Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) caring for animals in the laboratory according to legally 
prescribed practice (2a-2c, 8a); 

b) designing properly controlled investigations to test hypotheses 

concerning the innate and learned behaviour of the animals 
available for study (2b, 2c); 

c) accurately and objectively performing investigations and 
describing, recording, and interpreting data concerning animal 
behaviour (2b, 2c); 

d) writing formal reports of laboratory investigations of animal 
behaviour (2b, 2c, 2e); 

e) evaluating interpretations of observed animal behaviour (2b, 2c, 

2e) . 

Knowledge . Students will be expected to: 

a) state the conditions required for the care of animals in the 
laboratory according to prescribed practice; for example, 
animals must be cared for humanely and handled properly, 
discomfort and pain must be minimized, and the environments in 
which the animals are housed must be regulated to enhance the 
animals' welfare (2a, 8a); 

b) describe and compare ethology, behavioural psychology, and 
sociobiology; 

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Optional Unit Is Animal Behaviour 

c) in terms of animal behaviour, compare innate with learned 
behaviour and the environmental (nurture) origins with the 
genetic (nature) origins of animal behaviour (2b-2d); 

d) describe an example of and be able to identify each of the 
following kinds of behaviour: taxis, reflex, instinct, 
imprinting, habituation, conditioning (8a); 

e) describe how animal behaviour can be modified through basic and 
operant conditioning techniques, including the use of positive 
and negative reinforcement and the use of mind-altering 
chemicals (2b, 2c); 

f) briefly describe the ethological work and findings of 
individuals such as Lorenz, Tinbergen, von Frisch, and Goodall 
(2d); 

g) describe, and state the adaptive value of, two or more innate 
behaviours of an invertebrate and a vertebrate, two or more 
examples of learned behaviour in a vertebrate, and two or more 
examples of social behaviour in a primate (2d, 2e). 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) examine the guidelines or excerpts thereof of the Canadian 
Council on Animal Care and the Animals for Research Act and 
identify appropriate procedures for the care and treatment of 
animals in the laboratory (8a, 8c); 

*b) observe the behaviour of an animal over a period of time and 

classify the behaviour(s) as innate (taxis, reflex, instinct) or 
learned (conditioning, imprinting, habituation); 


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Biology/ OAC 

Optional Unit Is Animal Behaviour 

*c) design and perform an investigation to study the development of 
a conditioned response in an animal; 

d) use the library and other information sources to investigate one 
of the following: 

language comprehension by primates such as chimpanzees; 

- communication in bees, including the pioneering work by von 
Frisch and that of more recent investigators; 

- the migration of birds and other animals and the role of 
hormones in this behaviour; 

some other area of current research in ethology (8g); 

e) design and perform investigations to study the behaviour of an 
animal in its natural setting, for example, an animal's feeding, 
mating, escape, or protective behaviour (8g). 

*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on page 6. 

3. Applications 

a) The knowledge of animal behaviour and basic conditioning 
techniques is used extensively to control the behaviour of 
domestic animals and often to teach them desired behaviour as 
well. 

b) Considerable satisfaction can be derived from observing and 
becoming knowledgeable about the behaviour of animals in their 
natural habitat. Some students may go on to work as 
naturalists. 

c) Basic conditioning techniques have been used to study and to 
facilitate human learning. 


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Biology, OAC 

Optional Unit Is Animal Behaviour 

d) The study of animal behaviour has highlighted the need to treat 
animals humanely and to be aware of the fallacies resulting from 
anthropomorphism. 

e) The increase in our knowledge of animal behaviour has 
facilitated the proper management of wildlife and has led to the 
use of appropriate measures to protect and rebuild populations 
of species that are endangered. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) A knowledge of animal behaviour encourages people to treat 
animals humanely. 

b) A knowledge of animal behaviour has provided some insights into 
aspects of human behaviour. 

c) Careers that involve knowledge of animal behaviour include 
veterinarian, zookeeper, animal-care technologist, pet-store 
owner, wildlife biologist, forester, and fisheries worker. 

5. Evaluation of Student Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based 

on students': 

a) designing and conducting of animal-behaviour investigations; 

b) observations and interpretations of animal behaviour; 

c) reports on the results of laboratory investigations. 

6. Safety Considerations 

a) In this unit, the safety of both students and the animals that 
are studied shall be carefully taken into account. 

b) Students are to learn how to handle and care for animals 
properly. 


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Biology, OAC 

Optional Unit 1: Animal Behaviour 

c) Wild animals (dead or alive) are not to be brought into the 
classroom. Animals for experiments should be obtained from 
reputable sources, such as biological supply houses. 

d) Teachers should ensure that students inform them of any 
allergies that they have to animals. 

e) Precautions should be taken to avoid scratches or bites from 
animals. Any scratch or bite is to be reported to the teacher. 

f) Only positive reinforcement is to be used in conditioning 
animals. 

Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) review science and nature magazines in order to gather 
information and report on recent animal-behaviour 
investigatio s; 

b) identify and report on a controversial issue concerning animals 
(e.g., the control of wolf populations, the beaching of whales, 
the migration of caribou) by describing the animal behaviour 
involved and the pros and cons of human involvement; 

c) apply statistical tests to data collected in experiments and, if 
possible, use a microcomputer to display and analyse the data. 

Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) At the outset of this unit, pertinent regulations stated in 

board and government animal-care documents should be reviewed, 
and students should be made aware of proper animal-care and 
handling techniques. Subsection 9.3, "Animal Care in Science 
Courses" in Part 1 of this guideline should also be reviewed. 

In particular, teachers and students should be aware of 




Biology, OAC 

Optional Unit 1: Animal Behaviour 

guidelines from the Canadian Council on Animal Care and the 
Animals for Research Act. 

b) Students should know basic concepts concerning innate and 
learned behaviour as well as appropriate experimental procedures 
before they attempt to design and perform their own 
investigations. Appropriate experimental designs and 
observation techniques are outlined in basic psychology texts 
and in more detailed accounts of the work of practising 
ethologists. 

c) The knowledge that students have gained as a result of designing 
and performing their own investigations will provide them with 
the ability to analyse and evaluate the investigative work of 
others. 

d) Fish, such as the Siamese fighting fish ( Betta splendens ), are 
good animals to use in investigations of innate behaviour. 
Colours and shapes can be used to elicit aggressive behaviour 
from males. Comparisons of the behaviour of males and females 
can be made. Small rodents, such as gerbils, can be used in 
conditioned-response investigations. 

e) Where space, equipment, or some other restriction makes the use 
of vertebrates impossible, invertebrates such as crustaceans, 
insects, or worms can be used to study animal behaviour. 

f) Where time is a problem and the animal-behaviour investigations 
cannot be completed in twelve hours, this unit can be integrated 
with another unit, such as core unit 6 or 7. 

g) There are many good documentary films and videotapes dealing 
with animal behaviour that could be used throughout this unit. 


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Riology, OAC 
Optional Unit 2 


Locally Designed Unit 
Time: 12 hours 

This unit is the same for the biology OAC as optional unit 8, 
"Locally Designed Unit", is for the Grade 11 advanced-level biology 
course. A different set of topics from those selected in Grade 11 
should, of course, be selected for this course. 


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Appendix A: Science Courses and Their Course Codes 


The secondary school guideline courses in science authorized under 
this document have the following course codes: 

Science, Grade 9, Basic Level SNC1B 
Science, Grade 9, General Level SNC1G 
Science, Grade 9, Advanced Level SNC1A 

Science, Grade 10, Basic Level SNC2B 
Environmental Science, Grade 10, General Level SEN2G 
Science, Grade 10, General Level SNC2G 
Environmental Science, Grade 10, Advanced Level SEN2A 
Science, Grade 10, Advanced Level SNC2A 

Science, Grade 11, Basic Level SNC3B 
Applied Biology, Grade 11, General Level SBA3G 
Applied Chemistry, Grade 11, General Level SCA3G 
Environmental Science, Grade 11, General Level SEN3G 
Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level SBI3A 
Chemistry, Grade 11, Advanced Level SCH3A 

Science, Grade 12, Basic Level SNC4B 
Applied Physics, Grade 12, General Level SPA4G 
Environmental Science, Grade 12, General Level SEN4G 
Technological Science, Grade 12, General Level STE4G 
Environmental Science, Grade 12, Advanced Level SEN4A 
Geology, Grade 12, Advanced Level SGE4A 
Physics, Grade 12, Advanced Level SPH4A 


173 



Appendix A: Science Courses and Their Course Codes 


Appendix A: Science Courses and Their Course Codes 


Biology, OAC 


SBIOA 


Chemistry, OAC 


SCHOA 


Physics, OAC 


SPHOA 


Science in Society, OAC 


SSOOA 


The following general rules govern science course codes: 

All science course codes begin with an S. 

- SNC identifies a course that has only the name "Science". 

Where one word other than "Science" describes the course, the first 
two letters of that word follow the S (e.g., SBI means "Science, 
Biology" or simply "Biology"; SEN means "Science, Environmental" or 
"Environmental Science"). 

Where two words other than "Science" describe the course, the 
initial letters of those words are used (e.g., SCA means "Science, 
Chemistry Applied" or simply "Applied Chemistry"). 

- The fourth character in the course code, 1 , 2, 3 , 4 , or 0 , 
represents Grade 9, 10, 11, 12, or an OAC respectively. 

The fifth character represents the level of difficulty: B for 
basic, G for general, or A for advanced. 

For further information on course codes, refer to the Manual for the 
Common Course Code (Toronto: Ministry of Education, Ontario, 1986). 


174 




Appendix B: The Table of Contents of Part 1 


Preface 

Introduction 

The Parts of the Guideline 
Guideline a*»d Non — G - uidel in « Courses 
Superseded Guidelines 


A. Goals and Aims 


1. 

The 

Value and Purpose of Science Education 

2. 

The 

Goals of Education and the Role 

of Science 

3. 

The 

Aims of the Science Curriculum 



3.1 

The Aims 



3.2 

The Nature of Science 



3.3 

Scientific Literacy 



3.4 

Curriculum Emphases - Blending 
Aims With Content 

Curriculum 

Sc 

ience 

Program Framework 



4. Science Courses 

4.1 The Science Continuum from Kindergarten to OACs 

4.2 Levels of Difficulty: Basic, General, and Advanced 

4.3 Science Courses and Credits 

4.4 Units of Study Within Each Course 

4.5 Recommendations Regarding Course Selections 

5. Teaching Policy 

5.1 Content and Process 

5.2 Components in Each Unit of Study 

5.3 Teaching Policy for All Science Units 

5.4 Time Allocations for Each Unit 

5.5 Locally Designed Units 

5.6 The Grade Placement and Naming of Local Science 
Courses 

5.7 Overall Policy for Science Courses 
C. Special Features of the Science Program 

6. Considering the Science Student 

6.1 The Image of the Successful Science Student 

6.2 Program Adaptations for Exceptional Students 

6.3 Individualized Instruction 

6.4 Life-Management Skills 

6.5 Employment Awareness 

6.6 Sex Equity 

6.7 Multiculturalism 


175 







Appendix B: The Table of Contents of Part 1 


7. Language and Science 

7.1 Language Skills 

7.2 Assignments and Evaluation 

7.3 English Vocabulary in French-Immersio 
Courses 

7.4 Immigrant Students 

8. Measurement 

8.1 Estimation 

8.2 Metric Units and Physical Quantities 

8.3 Accuracy and Precision 

8.4 Formats in Solutions to Problems 

9. Safety 

9.1 Safety in the Laboratory 

9.2 Some Recommended Safety Procedures 

9.3 Animal Care in Science Courses 

9.4 The Safe Use of Plants 

10. Values in Science Education 

10.1 The Role of Values Issues in Science 

10.2 Handling Sensitive Issues 

D. Implementation 


11. Curriculum Planning and Staff Development 

11.1 Policy Planning at the Board Level 

11.2 Program Planning at the School Level 

11.3 Course Planning at the Teacher Level 

11.4 School Board Curriculum Documents 

11.5 Staff Development 

12. Resources 


12.1 Science Laboratories and Equipment 

12.2 Library Resource Centres 

12.3 Textbooks and Learning Materials 

12.4 Calculators 

12.5 Computers 

12.6 The Scientific Community 


13. Modes of Delivery 


13.1 Bilevel and Multigrade Classes 

13.2 Co-operative Education 

13.3 Program Packages 

13.4 Adult Education 

13.5 Independent Learning Centre 

13.6 Specialized Schools 


Science 


Courses 



Appendix B: The Table of Contents of Part 1 


14. Evaluation 

14.1 Evaluating Guideline-Implementation Progress 

14.2 Evaluating Student Adhievement 

14.3 Self-Evaluation of Teacher Performance 

14.4 Evaluation of Program Effectiveness 


Appendixes 

A: Science Courses and Their Course Codes 

B: Physical Quantities 

C: Metric Editorial Practice 

D: Some Poisonous Plants 

E: Some OAIP Instrument Types and Learning Domains 


Acknowledgements 


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