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Ministry 

of 

Education 


Curriculum Guideline 


Ontario 




Chris Ward, Minister 

Bernard J. Shapiro, Deputy Minister 


3 



Science 

Intermediate and 
Senior Divisions 

1987 




• • • • 


• • ••• • • i 



Biology 

Grade 11, Advanced Level, 
and the OAC 

























Contents 


Introduction. 3 

The Parts of the Guideline. 3 

Policies and Features That Apply Across the Science 

Program. 3 

The Science Curriculum Continuum. 5 

Compulsory and Prerequisite Courses. 5 

Curriculum Emphases. 5 

Student Activities. 3 

Safety. 6 

Sensitive Issues. 6 

Locally Designed Units. 6 

Evaluation of Student Achievement. 6 

Cross References. 6 

Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level 

Biology Courses. 7 

Units of Study and Their Time Allocations. 7 

Interrelationships Between the Two Courses. 8 

Respect for Living Things. 8 

Some Special Points About Each Course. 9 


Biology, Grade 1 1, Advanced Level 

(SBI3A). 11 

Core Unit 1: Cell Structure and Processes.12 

Core Unit 2: Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure.14 

Core Unit 3: Genetic Continuity.16 

Core Unit 4: Bacteria and Viruses.19 

Core Unit 5: Vertebrate Digestive Systems.21 

Core Unit 6: Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems.24 

Core Unit 7: Vertebrate Transport Systems.26 

Core Unit 8: Vertebrate Reproduction and Development.28 


Optional Unit 1: Vertebrate Excretory Systems.31 

Optional Unit 2: Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems.33 

Optional Unit 3: Vertebrate Integumentary Systems.35 

Optional Unit 4: Mycology.37 

Optional Unit 5: Invertebrate Animals.39 

Optional Unit 6: The Protist Kingdom.41 

Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society.43 

Optional Unit 8: Locally Designed Unit.47 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course 

(SBIOA) . 49 

Core Unit 1: The Chemical Basis of Life.50 

Core Unit 2: Energy and the Living Cell.52 

Core Unit 3: Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis.54 

Core Unit 4: Genetics.56 

Core Unit 5: The Theory of Evolution.59 

Core Unit 6: Homeostasis.6l 

Core Unit 7: Ecology.64 

Optional Unit 1: Animal Behaviour.66 

Optional Unit 2: Locally Designed Unit.69 


Appendixes. 71 

A. Science Courses and Their Course Codes.73 

B. The Table of Contents of Part 1.74 


































































3 


Introduction 


Introduction 


The Parts of the Guideline 

This document is Part 12 of a fifteen-part curriculum guideline that 
outlines the science program for the Intermediate and Senior Divi¬ 
sions in Ontario schools and describes the science courses that can 
be offered (see the list of courses and their codes in Appendix A). 
The term guideline refers to the entire set of fifteen parts. 

This part must be read and implemented in conjunction with 
Part 1, Program Outline and Policy. When implementing the 
courses that are described in this document, teachers are to incor¬ 
porate the many policies and features outlined in Part 1, which will 
enable them to interpret the overall intent and expectations of the 
Ministry of Education in the science program. The table of con¬ 
tents for Part 1 is given in Appendix B at the end of this document 
so that the reader may have ready access to the list of chapters and 
topics therein. 

The provincial science program for the Intermediate and Senior 
Divisions comprises the courses described in Parts 2 to 15. These 
come under the framework and policy set forth in Part 1. The 
entire science guideline consists of the following fifteen parts: 

Part 1: Program Outline and Policy 

Part 2: Science, Grades 7 and 8 

Part 3: Science, Grades 9 and 10, General Level 

Part 4: Science, Grades 9 and 10, Advanced Level 

Part 5: Science, Grades 9 and 10, Basic Level 

Part 6: Science, Grades 11 and 12, Basic Level 

Part 7: Environmental Science, Grades 10 to 12, General Level 

Part 8: Environmental Science, Grades 10 and 12, Advanced Level 

Part 9: Applied Biology and Applied Chemistry, Grade 11, 

General Level 


Part 10: Applied Physics and Technological Science, Grade 12, 
General Level 

Part 11: Geology, Grade 12, General and Advanced Levels 
Part 12: Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level, and the OAC 
Part 13: Chemistry, Grade 11, Advanced Level, and the OAC 
Part 14: Physics, Grade 12, Advanced Level, and the OAC 
Part 15: Science in Society, OAC 

The chart on the next page indicates the twenty-eight science 
guideline courses that may be offered in Grades 7 to 12 and at the 
OAC level. 

Policies and Features That Apply 
Across the Science Program 

Part 1 of the guideline specifies a great number of the policies and 
features that are to be integrated into the design of the science pro¬ 
gram in the Intermediate and Senior Divisions. There are too many 
of them to describe in full in each of Parts 2 to 15, but the following 
points will give the reader some idea of the scope that is involved. 
They include: 

information about the science credits that are required for the 
earning of the Ontario Secondary School Diploma; 
a list of science courses that are prerequisite to other science 
courses; 

the policy regarding mandatory student activities in the science 
laboratory; 

a list of the aims of the science curriculum and the various 
emphases that may be used to blend these aims with scientific 
content; 

policy governing time allocations for units of study and the 
order in which core and optional units may be taught; 

► stipulations about locally designed units; 
suggestions about preferred routes that students might take 
through the science program in a secondary school; 
recommendations related to exceptional students, individual¬ 
ized instruction, life-management skills, career awareness, the 
role and evaluation of language in science courses, and a bal¬ 
anced perspective on the role of both girls and boys in science; 
recommendations on the introduction and handling of sensitive 
issues; 

specific suggestions about resources for the teaching of science; 
ideas about different modes of delivering science courses, 
including the co-operative education mode; 
policy pertaining to the significant role to be played by measure¬ 
ment and metric units in science courses; 






4 


Science, Part 12 


Authorized Science Guideline Courses, 
Intermediate and Senior Divisions 


Grade 7 


Science 


Grade 8 


Science 



Basic Level 

General Level 

Advanced Level 

Grade 9 

Science (SNC IB) 

Science (SNC 1G) 

Science (SNC 1 A) 

Grade 10 

Science (SNC2B) 

Science (SNC2G) 

Science (SNC2A) 



Environmental Science (SEN2G) 

Environmental Science (SEN2A) 

Grade 11 

Science (SNC3B) 

Applied Biology (SBA3G) 

Biology (SBI3 A) 



Applied Chemistry (SCA3G) 
Environmental Science (SEN3G) 

Chemistry (SCH3A) 

Grade 12 

Science (SNC4B) 

Environmental Science (SEN4G) 

Environmental Science (SEN4A) 



Geology (SGE4G) 

Geology (SGE4A)* 



Applied Physics (SPA4G) 
Technological Science (STE4G) 

Physics (SPH4A) 

OACs 



Biology (SBI0A) 

Prerequisite - Biology (SBI3A) 

Chemistry (SCHOA) 

Prerequisite - Chemistry (SCH3A) 

Physics (SPHOA) 

Prerequisite - Physics (SPH4A) 

Science in Society (SSOOA) 




Prerequisite - One of: 

Biology (SBI3A) 

Chemistry (SCH3A) 
Environmental Science (SEN4A) 
Geology (SGE4A)* 

Physics (SPH4A) 





’Since the Grade 12 advanced-level geology course described in the guideline (see Part 11) may be taught under the aegis of a 
geography department as Geology (GGE-tA) - note the course-code change - then either Geology (SGE4A) or Geology (GGE4A) 
may count as a prerequisite to Science in Society (SSOOA). 














5 


stipulations related to the treatment of symbols, significant dig¬ 
its, and mathematical problem solving; 
recommendations concerning the roles to be played by calcula¬ 
tors and computers in science courses; 
specific directions about safety; 
policy and principles pertaining to the evaluation of student 
achievement; 

► policy regarding differences in the treatment of science courses 
at the three levels of difficulty; 

many suggestions about implementing the science program. 

It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that teachers of science 
must integrate the policy and recommendations outlined in Part 1 
with the teaching of science and cannot simply rely on the course 
descriptions given in Parts 2 to 15 of the guideline. 

The Science Curriculum Continuum 

By the time students have reached the Senior Division, they will 
have experienced first a unified approach in the Primary and Junior 
Divisions, in which science is related to a number of other subject 
areas, and then a diversified approach to a mosaic of science disci¬ 
plines - biology, chemistry, physics, and environmental science - 
in the Intermediate Division. In the Senior Division, they are pro¬ 
vided with a specialized approach, in which the science courses 
deal with a single discipline at a time. 

Although these approaches - unified, diversified, and specialized - 
provide different ways of dealing with the subject, the intention is 
to ensure that there is a continuum throughout the years. The two 
advanced-level courses in biology, the Grade 11 course and the 
OAC, build on the biology units of the advanced-level courses in 
the Intermediate years. It is essential that students who wish to 
attend university and continue their study of biology include 
Grade 11 advanced-level biology and the biology OAC in their sec¬ 
ondary school program. 

Biology teachers should be aware of the subject matter contained 
in the biological-science units of the Intermediate Division courses 
and of the way in which Senior biology, chemistry, and physics 
courses relate to one another. 

In all science courses the core units and the prescribed number of 
optional units, if any, are to be included. The time allocation for 
each unit of study should act as a guide in helping teachers devote a 
proportionate amount of time to each of the units in a course. This 
is important in view of the continuum from one course to another 
and to postsecondary science programs. 


Introduction 


Compulsory and Prerequisite 
Courses 

In the secondary school program two science courses are required 
among the compulsory subjects that are necessary for the earning 
of the Ontario Secondary School Diploma. It is, therefore, antici¬ 
pated that most of the students who enrol in Senior Division 
advanced-level biology courses will have taken Grade 9 and 10 sci¬ 
ence also at the advanced level. 

Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level is a prerequisite to Biology, 

OAC. Principals may waive this requirement if the student has 
taken a course that may be considered to be equivalent to the pre¬ 
requisite or if there is good reason to believe that the student can 
adequately cope with Biology, OAC in preparation for university. 

Curriculum Emphases 

It is recommended that teachers organize each of the courses 
described in this document around a particular curriculum empha¬ 
sis or set of emphases. Such emphases give the curriculum a special 
focus that can be introduced in addition to the content and pro¬ 
cesses outlined in the courses. This approach is discussed in sub¬ 
section 3.4, “Curriculum Emphases - Blending Curriculum Aims 
With Content”, of Part 1 of the science guideline. In table 2 of that 
subsection a list of emphases is given. These emphases will 
enhance the development of the science courses described in this 
document. A particular emphasis that is stressed throughout an 
entire course or for one or more units at a time needs to be high¬ 
lighted so that it becomes a focal or integrating theme. 

Student Activities 

In each unit of study there is a section entitled “Student Activities”. 
This section indicates the mandatory laboratory activities 
required of students. Teachers may substitute equivalent labora¬ 
tory activities where appropriate. Those activities that are actually 
to be performed by students themselves are marked with asterisks. 
If time and circumstances permit, the teacher should encourage 
students to do some or all of the unmarked activities as well. How¬ 
ever, such activities may be demonstrated by a student or the 
teacher or may be discussed in conjunction with a textbook, film, 
computer program, or another learning material used as a 
resource. In any event, the scientific concepts and principles 
related to such unmarked activities and identified in the objectives 
of the unit of study shall be considered to be part of the prescribed 
course. 





Science, Part 12 


6 


Generally, the best approach to the teaching of science is to ensure 
that the content develops directly from related student activities. 

In each unit of study the skills and processes of scientific work 
should be presented as the central component, from which the 
subject matter, applications, and implications emerge. 

Safety 

Safety awareness must be developed in all science students. Con¬ 
stant attention to accident prevention is to be stressed in all student 
activities and teacher demonstrations in the laboratory. Section 9, 
“Safety”, in Part 1 of the science guideline contains the following 
comprehensive subsections: 

► Safety in the Laboratory 

► Some Recommended Safety Procedures 
i Animal Care in Science Courses 

► The Safe Use of Plants 

In each unit of study, subsection 6, “Safety Considerations”, acts as 
a reminder of some of the safety features that pertain to the unit in 
question. General reference, however, should constantly be made 
to the safety section in Part 1. Schools must always remain on 
the alert in regard to safety and maintain an up-to-date safety- 
awareness program. 

Sensitive Issues 

The curriculum outlined in this guideline places a distinct empha¬ 
sis on the science-technology-society connection. For this reason 
scientific applications and societal implications are mandatory 
components in each unit of study. In addition, Part 1 of the guide¬ 
line underlines the need to incorporate morals/values education 
into science courses. Undoubtedly, this will give rise to the discus¬ 
sion of some sensitive issues. 

Such discussions are important. Generally, they should be focused 
and should provide an open forum for the expression of different 
viewpoints. In this regard teachers of science are urged to become 
familiar with section 10, “Values in Science Education”, in Part 1 of 
the guideline and to pay particular attention to the principles to be 
observed in dealing with sensitive issues in the science curriculum. 
These principles are mentioned in subsection 10.2 of Part 1. 


Locally Designed Units 

Among the optional units in each of the courses described in this 
document is one entitled “Locally Designed Unit” (LDU). Such a 
unit is included to allow teachers, at their discretion, to introduce 
an appropriate new area of biology not described in the guideline, 
to expand on previous units or topics by adding new work, or to 
use the time allocated to the LDU to extend the time allocations for 
the core units. (See also Part 1, subsection 5.5.) 

Evaluation of Student Achievement 

Particular attention must be paid to the opening policy statements 
made in section 14, “Evaluation”, in Part 1 of the guideline. The 
evaluation of student achievement in all Intermediate and Senior 
Division science courses must include certain components as 


follows: 

laboratory activities and reports.at least 15 per cent 

and, in addition, for the OACs: 

independent study.at least 10 per cent 

one or more formal examinations.from 30 to 40 per cent 


In each unit of study described in the courses outlined in this docu¬ 
ment, subsection 5, “Evaluation of Student Achievement”, speci¬ 
fies certain items that must be included in students’ term marks 
(exclusive of formal examinations) when their achievement is eval¬ 
uated. In most units teachers are required to evaluate students’ 
activities and related laboratory reports. However, the proportion 
of the mark assigned will vary from one teacher to another. In 
order that the experimental component of science be emphasized, 
the overall mark for an entire science course must include at least 
fifteen per cent for the evaluation of student achievement in labo¬ 
ratory skills and reports. 

Cross References 

In the descriptions of each unit of study in the courses outlined in 
this document, cross references are provided in parentheses. 

These are included to provide some examples of the relationships 
that exist among the parts of the unit. 







7 



Particular Features of the 
Senior Advanced-Level 
Biology Courses 


Units of Study and Their Time 
Allocations 

The following charts provide an overview of the units of study in 
the Grade 11 advanced-level course and the OAC. They also indi¬ 
cate the time to be allotted to each unit. 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


Units of Study 

Time Allocations 

Core 


1. Cell Structure and Processes 

14 h 

2. Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 

20 h 

3. Genetic Continuity 

l6h 

4. Bacteria and Viruses 

12 h 

3. Vertebrate Digestive Systems 

7.5 h \ 

6. Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 

7.5 h I 

7. Vertebrate Transport Systems 

7.5 h > 30 h 

8. Vertebrate Reproduction and 


Development 

7.5 h / 


Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 



Units of Study 

Time Allocations 

Optional 

Any 18-hour unit or combination of 
two 9-hour units from: 

1. Vertebrate Excretory Systems 

9h N 


2. Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems 

9h 


3. Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 

9h 


4. Mycology 

9h \ 

18 h 

5. Invertebrate Animals 

18 h j 

6. The Protist Kingdom 

9h 


7. The Impact of Science on Society 

9 or 18 h 


8. Locally Designed Unit 

9h ) 

llOh 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 

Units of Study 

Time Allocations 

Core 

1. The Chemical Basis of Life 


14 h 

2. Energy and the Living Cell 


14h 

3. Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 


14 h 

4. Genetics 


14 h 

5. The Theory of Evolution 


14 h 

6. Homeostasis 


14 h 

7. Ecology 


14 h 



98 h 

Optional 

One of: 

1. Animal Behaviour 

12 h ) 

12 h 

2. Locally Designed Unit 

12 h I 



llOh 


92 h 



















8 


Science, Part 12 


Interrelationships Between the Two 
Courses 

The two Senior advanced-level biology courses - Biology, 

Grade 11, Advanced Level and Biology, Ontario Academic Course 
(OAC) - form a continuum. The first course is prerequisite to the 
second. Teachers of either course should be thoroughly familiar 
with the subject material in both in order to ensure that overlap 
between them is minimal and that continuity is provided. 

Both the Grade 11 course and the OAC emphasize a balance 
between substantive content and scientific process', these are sup¬ 
ported by hands-on student activities. The two courses require 
both quantitative and qualitative work. The former, which is given 
less emphasis, is accomplished through measurement, graphical 
analysis, and statistical problem solving; the latter is accomplished 
through communication, both verbal and written, of ideas, con¬ 
cepts, findings, questions, and opinions. The use of appropriate 
language should be stressed. The identification of applications and 
societal implications in each unit of study should ensure that biol¬ 
ogy is perceived by the students to be a relevant human endeavour, 
influencing lives, societies, and nations. 

Both of the biology courses should include references to careers in 
which life science plays a role. This should stimulate an interest in 
human participation in science and lead to some discussion of the 
work, responsibility, and influence of biologists. The achieve¬ 
ments of Canadian and other biologists should be stressed from 
time to time. 

Teachers of these two biology courses should impress students 
with the fact that they are surrounded by living matter and that 
they are a part of, and interact with, that matter. In these courses 
students should also seek to understand and look for meaning in 
the interactions among scientists, industry, the environment, and 
all living things. Such meaning should help students to realize that 
biology can enhance life and be directed towards useful, positive, 
and peaceful purposes. 

The order of the units in these two courses may be rearranged or 
integrated at the discretion of the teacher to give the course an 
overall theme or emphasis. For example, in the Grade 11 course, 
one approach would be to integrate all of the vertebrate physiology 
units into a continuous sequence in order to consider the interrela¬ 
tionships among the systems and the important biological princi¬ 
ple of homeostasis. This approach would also make it easier to co¬ 
ordinate the dissections, which could be used as an integrative or a 
review activity. 


In the OAC course the units are arranged so that the course begins 
with a study of biological molecules and builds through cells and 
organisms to a final consideration of the ecological relationships 
among organisms. Alternatively, teachers could structure the 
course in a more holistic way, beginning with the study of ecology 
and subsequently considering the place of organisms, cells, and 
molecules in the ecosystem. 

In both courses a locally designed unit may be included as an 
optional unit. This allows teachers the flexibility to introduce an 
area of biology not described in this guideline, to incorporate addi¬ 
tional objectives that will expand a previous part of the course, or 
to reinforce various aspects of the core units that may require 
greater emphasis. 

Respect for Living Things 

Respect for living things (non-human organisms as well as human 
beings) should be emphasized in biology courses. Discussions of 
actions and attitudes related to the preservation and destruction of 
living things will undoubtedly raise controversial issues in the 
classroom. Such issues might include the chemical destruction of 
plants and animals; endangered species; the loss of agricultural and 
natural ecosystems; the use of land for highways, transmission 
lines, and pipelines; the “excessive" killing of animals for food, 
clothing, recreation, and research; and the biological effects of 
radiation. 

The issue of dissection and its role in biology courses must also be 
considered. It is expected that dissections will be kept to a mini¬ 
mum and will be used only where it is considered necessary for 
students to examine at first hand relationships between structure 
and function and the complexity of organisms. 

Some of the student activities in these courses require students to 
dissect a vertebrate. Appropriate dissection skills, safety considera¬ 
tions, and attitudes related to respect for living things must be 
emphasized during these activities. The number of organisms used 
for dissections should be kept to a minimum; the obligation to pre¬ 
serve natural populations makes it inappropriate to dissect a new 
vertebrate for each organ system that is studied. Specimens of both 
sexes should be used in laboratory activities. Mammals that can be 
used for dissection include the white rat and fetal pig. A fish or a 
frog could be used as an alternative vertebrate organism. The dis¬ 
section could be done at the end of the study of the various verte¬ 
brate systems, or it could be done as the study of each organ system 
is completed. In the latter case provisions must be made to main¬ 
tain the specimens over a longer period of time. In some cases ani¬ 
mal organs obtained from an abattoir can be used to supplement 
the whole-organism dissection. Wild animals or road kills are not 
to be dissected or brought into the school. 






Particular Features of the Senior Advanced-Level Biology Courses 


It may seem contradictory to require both the dissection of animals 
and the consideration of respect for living things in the same 
courses, For this reason students should be given the opportunity 
to think about the issue and related matters. Questions such as the 
following might be discussed in the classroom: Under what condi¬ 
tions is dissection expedient? Is there needless (although legiti¬ 
mate) expenditure of animal life? Do humans exploit non-human 
animals? Are there alternative ways to meet human needs? What 
alternatives might be considered by humans in order to preserve 
more and destroy less? What will be the long-term effects on all liv¬ 
ing things if humans continue the present rate of destruction of 
wildlife, domestic animals, forests, arable land, and other life¬ 
supporting resources? 

Some Special Points About Each 
Course 

Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level. This course is new 
to Ontario and will require careful implementation. Those who 
teach it must be fully aware of the biology units of study that have 
preceded it in the Intermediate Division and also of the subject 
matter that will follow it in the OAC, for which it is a prerequisite. 

Because some students will take only the Grade 11 course and not 
the OAC, this is intended to be a survey course involving a study of 
several areas of biology. Thus, it permits the coverage of a broad 
range of topics rather than an in-depth treatment of a few. For 
example, the core units on vertebrate physiology deal with the 
physiology of both mammalian systems and the systems of other 
vertebrates. These units are not intended to focus solely on the 
human. Although the course offers an introductory treatment, it 
must also provide a foundation for students who wish to take 
further studies in biology at the OAC level. 

In the Grade 11 course the optional unit “The Impact of Science on 
Society” may be allocated either nine or eighteen hours, at the 
discretion of the teacher. The content of this unit can be integrated 
throughout the course when biological issues are discussed, and 
the time can be allocated as appropriate. Alternatively, this unit 
could stand on its own as a nine- or eighteen-hour unit. 

Biology, Ontario Academic Course. The biology OAC is 
more rigorous than the Grade 11 course and treats some topics in 
greater depth. It is intended to prepare students for further studies 
in biology at the university level. 


Since biochemistry is so important in present-day biology, 
biochemical concepts and explanations are introduced and used 
frequently throughout this course. Although a number of basic 
biochemical topics have been presented together in core unit 1, 
“The Chemical Basis of Life”, it is recommended that serious 
consideration be given to integrating this unit into the rest of the 
course and to presenting the biochemical concepts as they are 
needed. 

Independent study in the biology OAC. At least 10 per 
cent of the evaluation of student achievement in the biology OAC is 
to be based on independent study. The following suggestions 
indicate reports, projects, presentations, or other assignments 
from various parts of the course that may be considered for 
independent study, which need not be restricted to only one unit 
of study. 

► Core unit 1: Since this may be treated as an introductory or inte¬ 
grative unit, it may not be appropriate for independent study. 

► Core unit 2: Students can find information on energy transfor¬ 
mations in the cell. 

► Core unit 3: Students can prepare a report on the development 
of current knowledge about photosynthesis. 

► Core unit 4: Students can do a library project for student activity 
2c or prepare a report on some aspect of biological research 
(see 8c). 

► Core unit 5: Students can do activity 2b as independent study. 
Some may wish to present an alternative view of biological 
origins. 

► Core unit 6: Students can gather and summarize information 
within a specified time limit on the anatomy and physiology of 
the nervous system (see 8e). Some students may wish to report 
on the role of the kidney in the homeostatic process, provided 
they did not study the excretory system in Grade 11 under 
optional unit 1. 

► Core unit 7: Any of the student activities may be conducted as an 
independent-study exercise. 

► Optional unit 1: Any of the student activities is appropriate for 
independent study. 

► Optional unit 2: A variety of projects involving independent 
study can satisfy the requirements for a locally designed unit. 

► Throughout the OAC some students may prepare an in-depth 
report on the present scope and status in Canada of careers and 
employment opportunities that are related to biology. 





















































A 

w 











































c 

Biology, 

Grade 11, 
Advanced Level 

(SBI3A) 


Core Units 


Cell Staicture and Processes 
( Vascular Plants: Growth and 
Structure 

Genetic Continuity 
Bacteria and Viruses 
Vertebrate Digestive Systems 
Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 
Vertebrate Transport Systems 
Vertebrate Reproduction and 
Development 


(92 hours) 


Vertebrate Excretory Systems 
Vertebrate Skeletal and Support 
Systems 

Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 
Mycology 

Invertebrate Animals 
The Protist Kingdom 
The Impact of Science on Society 
Locally Designed Unit 


(18 hours) 






12 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


Core Unit 1 


Cell Structure and Processes 

Time: 14 hours 


This unit focuses on a detailed analysis of the structure of living 
cells and the function of identified cell organelles. The topics cov¬ 
ered in this unit build on the work done in the Grade 9 science 
course and prepare students for the biochemical approach to cell 
physiology in the biology OAC. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Cell structure and function 

► Cell and tissue types 

► Passive and active transport 

► Cellular respiration 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a curiosity about the cell as the smallest unit of structure capa¬ 
ble of showing all the attributes of living things (2b, 2c, 8b, 8d); 

b) an appreciation of both the similarity and the diversity in the 
structure of plant and animal cells (2b, 2c, 8b); 

c) an appreciation of the importance and complexity of new tech¬ 
niques and instruments that enable scientists to expand their 
knowledge of cellular structure and function (2b, 4b); 

d) an appreciation of the limits of our knowledge concerning the 
structure and capabilities of the living cell (2b, 4b). 


Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) preparing and examining microscope slides of various plant 
and animal tissues (2c); 

b) using a variety of ways to prepare and stain tissues to be 
observed on a microscope slide (2c); 

c) identifying, drawing, and labelling what they observe through 
microscopy (2 b-2d); 

d) identifying cell structures by means of electron micrographs 
and describing them (2b); 

e) estimating and measuring the dimensions of observed cells and 
their components (2e); 

f) preparing simple experiments to demonstrate osmosis and dif¬ 
fusion (2f); 

g) predicting the net movement of solutes and solvents across cell 
membranes in various cell environments (2f). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the structure and function of the following cell organ¬ 
elles: nucleus, nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, chromatin 
network, nucleolus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, lysosome, 
endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, centriole, vacuole, Golgi 
apparatus, plastids, chloroplasts, and cell wall (2b, 2c); 

b) explain how the generalized cell is a model that is useful in 
describing and understanding the structure of cells (2c); 

c) explain and use correctly the following terms: solution, solute, 
solvent, isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic (8e); 

d) compare passive transport and active transport and describe 
the transport processes of diffusion, endocytosis, exocytosis, 
and osmosis; 

e) describe how the ratio of surface area to volume of cells deter¬ 
mines maximum cell size; 

f) describe the effect of the concentration of solvents and solutes 
on the rates of movement of substances across cell membranes 

(2f); 

g) define cells, tissues, organs, and organ system and differentiate 
among them (2b, 2c); 

h) name and describe four common plant tissues and four com¬ 
mon animal tissues (2b, 2c); 

i) using word equations, explain how cells obtain usable energy 
from food through cellular aerobic and anaerobic respiration. 






13 


Core Unit 1: Cell Structure and Processes 


2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) demonstrate the proper care and use of the microscope (8a); 

*b) identify and gather information on the cell components that 
are visible in electron micrographs (5d); 

*c) using various preparation techniques such as thin-slice, peel¬ 
ing of tissue, maceration, and dilution and a variety of stains, 
prepare and examine microscope slides of a variety of plant and 
animal cells (5b, 5c, 6,8d, 8g); 

*d) make labelled diagrams of what they observe through the 
microscope (5a, 6a, 8i); 

e) estimate the dimensions of various cells and cell components 
and, assuming a regular shape such as spherical or cylindrical of 
the entities observed, calculate their approximate volume; 

*f) perform simple experiments to investigate the effect of temper¬ 
ature and concentration on osmosis and diffusion (8c-8e). 

3- Applications 

a) The principles of osmosis and diffusion as they relate to living 
cells and cell environments are employed in food preservation 
and in dialysis machines. Isotonic solutions are used after 
surgery. 

b) Basic cell physiology provides the foundation for medical 
research at the subcellular level (e.g., genetic manipulation 
such as gene splicing). 

c) The role of cellular symbiosis in the development of organisms 
can be derived from an understanding of cellular 
ultrastructure. 

4- Societal Implications 

a) Food-preservation techniques have increased the availability of 
food by increasing our ability to store and transport food 
effectively. 

b) Substances such as nicotine and alcohol can diffuse through 
placental tissue and have an effect on embryo development 
during gestation. 

c) Techniques involving tissue cultures are playing an increasing 
role in cancer research. 

d) Careers in microbiology, medical laboratory technology, and 
electron microscopy involve a knowledge of cells. 


5. Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) laboratory investigations (e.g., analysis of results of experi¬ 
ments on diffusion and osmosis); 

b) ability to identify cells and tissues from prepared slides; 

c) preparations of wet mounts; 

d) ability to identify cell components from electron micrographs; 

e) laboratory records and notes. 

6- Safety Considerations 

a) Glass microscope slides and cover slips must be handled with 
caution and, if broken, disposed of in an appropriate container. 

b) Toxic stains and solvents must not be used. 

c) See section 9, “Safety”, in Part 1 of the guideline for informa¬ 
tion about laboratory activities involving the use of human 
body fluids such as blood and saliva. 

7, Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) examine the effects of stains and different salt solutions on the 
movement of protozoa; 

b) prepare a report on topics such as the propagation of plants by 
means of tissue cultures, methods of food preservation, or the 
development of the electron microscope; 

c) make a simple microtome and prepare tissue sections; 

d) visit a location such as a university, community college, science 
centre, or hospital that has an electron microscope; 

e) examine under a microscope yeast cells that have been grown 
in the presence of carmine powder. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Relevant topics from the Grade 9 advanced-level science 
course, including the cell theory, cell activities, and the proper 
care and use of the microscope, should be reviewed in this unit. 

b) The importance of the cell theory as a basis for understanding 
the unity of all life on earth should be emphasized. 

c) Activity 2f requires a simple treatment, probably more qualita¬ 
tive than quantitative. A more in-depth treatment is required in 
Biology, OAC, core unit 2, student activity 2a. 


’See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




14 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


d) Yeast is easily grown and provides a good source of cells for 
microscope work (including the practising of proper micro¬ 
scopic techniques) and diffusion experiments. 

e) Fresh materials, such as aquatic plant leaves, can be used with 
distilled water and various salt solutions to demonstrate osmo¬ 
sis. In salt solutions plasmolysis is quite evident. However, 
strong salt solutions may cause cell-membrane damage and 
should be avoided. 

f) Tubers can be used to make an osmometer. 

g) Fresh meat products from the grocery store are one source of 
animal tissue (e.g., blood, muscle fibres, blood vessels). 

h) Students can use the school’s resource centre to gather infor¬ 
mation about food-preservation techniques, dialysis machines, 
the effects of nicotine and alcohol on embryo development, 
and the societal implications of medical research into the struc¬ 
ture and function of the cell. 

i) Appropriate sketching and labelling techniques should be 
emphasized throughout the unit. Evaluation should be based 
on the accuracy of students’ drawings rather than on their artis¬ 
tic abilities. 

j) Aquaria filled with pond water, aquatic plants, and substrate are 
a continuous source of plant and protist material if succession is 
allowed to take place. 


Core Unit 2 


Vascular Plants: Growth 
and Structure 

Time: 20 hours 


In this unit the relationships between the structure and function of 
seeds, roots, and stems in common vascular plants are examined. 
The emphasis in this unit should be on the characteristics observed 
in these structures that permit populations of plants to develop in 
many different environments. The material presented builds on 
the more general considerations found in the Grade 9 advanced- 
level science course and prepares students for the detailed exami¬ 
nation of plant physiology and photosynthesis in the biology OAC. 
It is important that students gain a good working knowledge of 
plant structures and functions so that they can understand the 
complex relationships that exist between plants and their 
environment. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Plant growth 

► Seed germination 

► Meristems 

► Plant-growth regulators 

► Vascular tissue: structure and function 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation for the variety of environmental factors that 
affect plant growth (2b); 

b) curiosity about plant growth and the structure and function of 
plant parts and tissues (2a-2c); 

c) an appreciation of the sophistication of plant structure, func¬ 
tion, and growth; 

d) an interest in the uses of vascular plants (e.g., for food, fibre, 
paper, drugs, dyes, growth regulators). 






15 


Core Unit 2: Vascular Plants: Growth and Structure 


Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) preparing plant materials for experimentation; 

b) identifying, measuring, comparing, and drawing plant parts, 
tissues, and cells; 

c) performing experiments to examine plant growth and 
germination; 

d) hypothesizing about, designing appropriate tests of, and draw¬ 
ing conclusions about plant responses to external stimuli, for 
example, light, gravity, soil, water, and chemicals (2d); 

e) inferring the adaptive value of the various plant structures that 
they observe. 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) compare the structure of a dicotyledon and a monocotyledon 
seed (2a); 

b) describe the role in the germination process of the seed coat, 
micropyle, endosperm, cotyledons, radicle, apical meristems, 
plumule, and hypocotyl (2a, 2b, 8a); 

c) describe the conditions necessary for plant germination (2b); 

d) compare the structures of a monocot and a dicot stem and of a 
herbaceous and a woody stem (2e); 

e) describe and compare the structure and function of xylem and 
phloem tissues (2e, 8b); 

f) describe how the structure of root hairs complements their 
function (2 f); 

g) account for the movement of liquids through xylem cells (2g); 

h) state one theory to account for the movement of liquids 
through phloem cells; 

i) describe the location and development of meristematic regions 
in a herbaceous and a woody plant (2c, 3a); 

j) describe two or three examples of tropisms in plants and 
explain the role of auxins in these responses (2d, 2h); 

k) name and describe the effects of two plant-growth regulators 
other than auxins, for example, gibberellins or cytokinins (2h, 
3a); 

l) compare and contrast the structural features of plants from dif¬ 
ferent environments and infer their adaptive value (2i); 

m) identify several plant species common to two Ontario biomes 
and infer the relationship between the species and the abiotic 
conditions. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect and then identify and compare the parts of representa¬ 
tive monocotyledon and dicotyledon seeds (6); 

*b) perform experiments to examine the process of germination 
and initial plant growth (5a, 8a); 


c) perform experiments to identify the location of meristematic 
tissue in seedlings; 

*d) design and perform experiments to study plant responses to 
one or more external stimuli, such as the quality, photoperiod, 
and intensity of light (5a, 8d); 

*e) using prepared slides, describe and compare the structure of a 
monocot and a dicot stem, a herbaceous and a woody stem, 
and phloem and xylem cells (6); 

f) draw diagrams of root hairs as observed with a microscope; 

g) perform experiments to examine and measure the movement 
of liquids through xylem tissue and water loss through transpira¬ 
tion from leaves (8b); 

h) perform experiments to investigate the effect of one or more of 
the plant-growth regulators on plant growth, for example, aux¬ 
ins, gibberellins, cytokinins, or abscisic acid (5a, 6); 

*i) examine and compare prepared slides of leaf tissue from var¬ 
ious aquatic and terrestrial environments (5b). 

3- Applications 

a) Plant-growth regulators are used for a variety of useful pur¬ 
poses, including weed control and fruit storage. 

b) Knowledge of the location and characteristics of meristematic 
tissue has led to improved grafting and plant-propagation 
techniques. 

4- Societal Implications 

a) Improved plant-propagation, growing, and storage procedures 
have led to the increased availability of food and desirable plant 
types. 

b) Many careers make use of a knowledge of plant structure and 
function (e.g., forestry, horticulture, agriculture). 

c) The deforestation of large areas of the earth’s surface (e.g., rain 
forests) affects air quality. 

d) The preservation of plant life on earth needs to be considered 
much more seriously than it has been in the past if life on the 
planet is not to be endangered. 

e) Selective use of herbicides can improve plant productivity for 
human consumption. 

5- Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) design, performance, and reporting of plant-growth 
experiments; 

b) descriptions of plant tissue. 


’Sec the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




16 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


6- Safety Considerations 

Students should be instructed in the proper handling of dissecting 
tools, microscopes, and chemicals. 

7_ Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on current techniques for the 
study of plant physiology; 

b) compare plants from different environments to identify their 
adaptations to different abiotic factors; 

c) perform one or more of the following additional experiments 
or investigations related to plant growth: 

i) a comparison of the responses of plants to a given stimulus 

ii) an investigation of the factors that initiate flowering 

iii) an investigation of the mechanism of photoperiodism 

iv) a report based on a library search into the experiments of 
Darwin, Boysen-Jensen, and Went and their contributions 
to the knowledge of the chemical regulation of growth in 
plants; 

d) gather information and report on the discovery of giberellins; 

e) describe the benefits and risks associated with the use of herbi¬ 
cides such as 2,4-D or 2,4-5-T or agent orange; 

f) investigate the use of plant hormones in agriculture; 

g) investigate the potential of hydroponics as an alternative 
method of growing plants; 

h) investigate the use of plants as a source of fuel for automobiles. 

8 - Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Plant growth experiments can be time-consuming and can take 
up considerable laboratory space. The activities described here 
have been designed so that they can be done with seedlings 
and relatively few mature plants. However, careful advance 
planning will still have to be done to ensure the availability of 
plant materials at appropriate times. 

b) The stems of coleus or impatiens and the leafy stalks of celery 
provide good material for an examination of transport in xylem 
tissue. 

c) This unit can be enhanced by a field trip to a greenhouse or a 
classroom visit by a horticulturist to discuss plant-propagation 
techniques. 

d) A field trip to observe plant adaptations in different natural hab¬ 
itats can add interest to this unit. 


Core Unit 3 


Genetic Continuity 

Time: 16 hours 


This unit introduces students to the basic concepts of genetics. 

The material presented builds in part on the study of the cell begun 
in Grade 9 advanced-level science and continued in core unit 1 of 
this course. It also lays the groundwork for the unit in the biology 
OAC on the transmission and expression of genetic information. 
The work of Gregor Mendel is highlighted, not only because it pro¬ 
vides the basis for the study of genetics but also because it demon¬ 
strates several important aspects of the scientific process. Students 
should gain an understanding of the links among the following 
major biological concepts: 

► Living organisms in the present come from pre-existing 
organisms. 

► Hereditary factors are passed on and rarely change from genera¬ 
tion to generation. 

► Sexual reproduction allows for genetic recombination and 
genetic variability in a population. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Mendel’s experiments 

► Genetic continuity and inheritance 

► Sexual and asexual reproduction 

► Mitosis and meiosis 

► Genetic traits in humans 






17 


Core Unit 3- Genetic Continuity 





1- Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a curiosity about our knowledge of heredity and the scientific 
studies on which this knowledge is based (3a-3c); 

b) a respect for the differences among people that result from 
genetic variability (2e); 

c) an appreciation for the complexity of the issues surrounding 
contemporary research in genetics (8d). 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) preparing, staining, and examining microscope slides of plant 
tissue, such as onion root tips, to observe various stages of 
mitosis (2a); 

b) examining commercially prepared microscope slides of plant 
and animal cells as well as diagrams that show mitosis and 
meiosis, comparing mitosis in plant and animal cells, and com¬ 
paring meiosis and mitosis (2b, 2c); 

c) identifying, observing, and describing three or more examples 
of asexual reproduction (2d, 8a); 

d) using a Punnett square to solve problems involving monohy¬ 
brid and dihybrid crosses (2e). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the experiments of Gregor Mendel, including his pur¬ 
pose, techniques, manipulation of variables, data, hypothesis 
based on his observations, and the ability of his hypothesis to 
predict the outcome of his test crosses (3a); 

b) on the basis of a description of Mendel’s procedures and tech¬ 
niques, explain how his work is an example of good scientific 
processes; 

c) using pea-plant characteristics identified by Mendel, demon¬ 
strate two or more monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, includ¬ 
ing the F, and F, generations (2e); 

d) using diagrams and word descriptions, describe the processes 
of mitosis and cytokinesis in plant and animal cells (2a, 2b); 

e) describe and compare sexual and asexual reproduction and list 
three organisms that illustrate each method of reproduction 
(2d, 8a); 

f) describe the process of meiosis, including the purpose of, and 
the major events in, the two meiotic divisions; tetrad forma¬ 
tion; crossing over; and the formation of four haploid cells (2b, 
2c); 

g) state the differences between meiosis and mitosis (2a-2c); 

h) explain the meaning of the following terms: gene, allele, domi¬ 
nant and recessive alleles, incomplete dominance, homozy¬ 
gous, heterozygous, phenotype, genotype (2e); 

i) describe the relationships among a gene, a chromosome, and 
DNA in the transmission of traits from one generation to 
another (2a, 2b); 


j) describe how the meiotic process accounts for Mendel’s obser¬ 
vations and conclusions concerning factor (gene) segregation 
and independent assortment (2a, 2b); 

k) using human blood types (ABO), describe the associated domi¬ 
nant and recessive alleles, possible inheritance patterns, and 
resulting phenotypes (2e, 3c); 

l) explain sex determination in the human and in some other 
organism, such as a fruit fly, a bird, or a bee; 

m) explain how some human traits are sex-linked and describe the 
phenotype of one or more of these traits (2e); 

n) describe one or more human disorders that result from the 
inheritance of a deleterious allele (3b, 3d, 8d); 

o) demonstrate and describe one or more crosses to show domi¬ 
nance, incomplete dominance, and sex-linked traits (2e, 3b). 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) examine the phases of mitosis, using microscope slides of plant 
tissue prepared and stained in the laboratory (5a, 5b, 6); 

*b) examine mitosis and meiosis in plant and animal cells, using 
commercially prepared microscope slides; 

c) draw diagrams of the phases of mitosis and meiosis, showing 
chromosomes and other cell constituents involved in the pro¬ 
cesses (5a); 

*d) examine asexual reproduction in three or more different types 
of organisms (8a); 

e) trace inheritance patterns to the F, generation in monohybrid 
and dihybrid crosses involving examples of dominant and 
recessive alleles, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, and 
sex-linked traits. 

3- Applications 

a) The laws of inheritance are used to direct breeding programs to 
select favourable traits in domesticated plants and animals. 

b) A knowledge of genetics and human heredity enables people to 
be counselled regarding the risks and safeguards associated 
with hereditary diseases. 

c) An understanding of blood types has made blood transfusion, 
transplantation of organs, and a number of other medical pro¬ 
cedures possible. 

d) Newborn babies are screened for genetic disorders that result 
in such diseases as Tay-Sachs, Mediterranean anemia, and 
phenylketonuria (PKU). 


'See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




18 


4, Societal Implications 

a) Research in plant and animal genetics has led to the develop¬ 
ment of new crop species that have desirable features (e.g., high 
quality of fruit, early maturation rate). 

b) Society will need to address the moral and ethical issues sur¬ 
rounding human genetics (e.g., use of sperm banks, in vitro fer¬ 
tilization, medical uses of recombinant DNA). 

5- Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) records of laboratory work (e.g., diagrams of mitotic stages); 

b) laboratory techniques (e.g., preparation of microscope slides). 

6 - Safety Considerations 

Students should be instructed in the careful handling of the chemi¬ 
cals used to fix and stain plant tissue. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) trace the inheritance of a characteristic through several genera¬ 
tions of a family (e.g., haemophilia in the royal families of 
Europe); 

b) examine commercially prepared microscope slides to observe 
human blood cells; 

c) do a survey of a group of individuals to determine the fre¬ 
quency of four or more human traits (8b); 

d) study the inheritance of specific traits in such organisms as Dro- 
sophilia, corn, or tomatoes. 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level(SBI3A) 


8 - Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Examples of asexual reproduction might include the following: 
simple cell division - protozoa; budding - yeast, hydra; spore 
formation - moulds; vegetative reproduction - moss, potatoes, 
strawberries, grass; fragmentation - alga. 

b) Students can do surveys on, or pedigrees of, common human 
traits (e.g., blood type, attached ear lobes, widow’s peak, hitch¬ 
hiker’s thumb, bent little finger, pigmented iris, mid-digital 
hair). Students must be warned to exercise discretion and sensi¬ 
tivity towards others when making a survey or doing a pedi¬ 
gree. Controversial issues related to students’ traits are to be 
avoided. 

c) Microcomputers could be used to analyse survey data. 

d) Class discussions could be held on such controversial topics as 
eugenics and genetic disorders in order to promote student 
awareness, understanding, and empathy in these areas. 

e) Teachers should plan co-operatively with the teacher-librarian 
to identify and make available current publications and pam¬ 
phlets on genetic issues. 




19 


Core Unit 4: Bacteria and Viruses 


Core Unit 4 


Bacteria and Vimses 

Time: 12 hours 


This unit deals with the extensive topic of bacteria and viruses. In 
particular, it focuses on the basic structure of bacteria and viruses, 
their role in the biosphere, and how they interact with humans. It is 
expected that students will already have a working knowledge of 
the structure and function of the cell and will know how to use a 
microscope. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Bacteria and viruses: structure, variety, and reproduction 

► Pathogens and their diseases 

► The roles of bacteria in the biosphere 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation that bacteria and viruses play an essential role 
in the biosphere (4a, 4b); 

b) an appreciation and a respect for both the beneficial and harm¬ 
ful effects of bacteria and viruses on their lives (3a, 3c); 

c) curiosity about the diversity, structure, and reproductive pro¬ 
cesses of bacteria and viruses (2a, 2d); 

d) a commitment to personal hygiene, health, and food-handling 
habits designed to minimize exposure to the harmful effects of 
bacteria and viruses (3 c). 


Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using electron micrographs to identify and describe the struc¬ 
ture of bacteria and viruses (2a); 

b) drawing and labelling diagrams of bacteria and viruses (2a, 2d); 

c) using proper aseptic techniques and appropriate personal 
hygienic procedures in handling bacterial cultures (2b, 2c); 

d) preparing and sterilizing basic bacteria growth media, such as 
nutrient agar (2b); 

e) observing and describing characteristics of bacterial growth, 
for example, the number, variety, and appearance of colonies; 
rate of growth; and inhibition of growth (2c). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the general structure of a virus, including shape, for 
example, rod and polyhedral (2a); 

b) describe the general structural characteristics of bacteria, for 
example, size, shape, cell arrangement, and cell structure (2a, 
2d); 

c) define the terms prokaryote and eukaryote; 

d) describe how viruses infect a host cell and reproduce; 

e) compare cell reproduction in bacteria with that in eukaryotic 
cells; 

f) explain the terms transformation, transduction, and conjuga¬ 
tion as they relate to reproduction in bacteria; 

g) describe the mechanism and purpose of spore formation in 
bacteria (8a); 

h) explain how viruses display characteristics of both a living and 
a non-living entity; 

i) explain why aseptic techniques are required in the handling of 
bacteria and viruses (8a); 

j) briefly describe the importance of at least two bacterial or viral 
diseases that infect plants and animals; 

k) describe two or three human bacterial or viral diseases in terms 
of disease transmission, symptoms, and effects and describe 
the function of innate defences such as the skin, mucous anti¬ 
bodies, and white blood cells (8c); 

l) describe the use of vaccines, antibiotics, and antiseptics and 
their effects on bacteria and viruses (2e); 

m) with specific reference to autotrophic, heterotrophic (saprobes 
and parasites), and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, describe the roles 
of bacteria in the biosphere; 

n) through reference to current research on tumor-causing 
viruses, explain the probable link between some forms of 
human cancer and viral agents (8c). 






20 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level(SBljA) 


2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) describe the structure of viruses and bacteria on the basis of an 
analysis of electron micrographs; 

b) use sterile techniques to prepare growth media and to culture 
non-pathogenic bacteria (5b, 6,8a, 8b); 

*c) examine and describe the growth of bacteria, for example, 
number and type of bacteria, characteristics of the colonies, 
and colour of the growth medium (5b, 6); 

d) use commercially prepared slides to compare different types of 
bacteria (6f); 

e) test the effects of one or more antibiotics and disinfectants on 
bacterial growth (5b, 6,8a). 

3- Applications 

a) Some industries rely on the activities of bacteria (e.g., the dairy 
industry, biotechnology industries). 

b) Beneficial as well as harmful micro-organisms in the human 
body are affected by vaccines and antibiotics (e.g., antibiotics 
inhibit intestinal bacteria). 

c) Appropriate personal hygiene and health-care habits can mini¬ 
mize exposure to the harmful effects of bacteria and viruses. 

d) Food-packaging and processing techniques are aimed at mini¬ 
mizing the growth of bacteria. 

e) Bacteria are fundamental to ecosystems and the biosphere. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Improved water treatment, sewage disposal, public-education 
programs, and personal hygiene have enhanced public health 
significantly. 

b) The use of bacteria to produce essential enzymes, hormones, 
and other biochemicals, such as insulin, the growth-hormone 
vaccines, and interferon, will be of great benefit. 

c) A knowledge of micro-organisms is required in many career 
areas (e.g., brewing, microbiology, medicine, and agriculture). 

d) Although artificial preservatives extend the storage and shelf 
life of many food products, some of these additives may be 
harmful to some people. 


5- Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) laboratory exercises and reports; 

b) use of proper aseptic techniques. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

a) Students must not culture or study living pathogens in the 
laboratory. 

b) The accidental growth of pathogens on simple growth media 
such as nutrient agar at room temperature is minimal. However, 
all cultures should be handled as if pathogens were present. 

c) All students must understand the safe handling of bacterial cul¬ 
tures and know how to use aseptic techniques when culturing 
bacteria. 

d) Appropriate procedures should be used for the safe disposal of 
discarded cultures and for the sterilization of contaminated 
equipment. 

e) Caution should be exercised in the use of an autoclave or pres¬ 
sure cooker. 

f) PCB-free oils should be used for oil-immersion work. 

g) Bacteria should be cultured only at room temperature. 

h) Petri dishes containing growing bacteria should be kept sealed 
and should be sterilized before disposal. 

i) Commercially prepared slides should be used for microscope 
work. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) investigate the effect of temperature, light, or nutrient supple¬ 
ments on bacterial growth; 

b) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 
(i) the biotechnical industries in which bacteria are used to pro¬ 
duce useful chemicals, (ii) the causes and effects of food con¬ 
tamination and poisoning by bacteria and ways of guarding 
against such contamination, (iii) bacteria as decomposers in 
sewage treatment or in a septic-tank system; 

c) list and briefly describe occupations that are related to human 
interaction with bacteria or viruses. 


*See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




21 


Core Unit 5: Vertebrate Digestive Systems 


8 . Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Aseptic techniques and proper handling procedures should be 
emphasized as students work with bacteria in the laboratory. 
The application of these techniques to personal hygienic habits 
should be encouraged. Some time should be taken to ensure 
that students understand and have mastered the appropriate 
procedures. The following steps should be followed as part of 
aseptic laboratory procedures but should not be considered as 
all-inclusive: 

► Heat or a disinfectant should be used to sterilize all equip¬ 
ment before and after use. 

► Students should wash their hands at the conclusion of the 
activity. 

► Students should keep equipment, pencils, and hands away 
from their mouth during laboratory work. 

► In the culturing of bacteria, Petri dishes should be taped shut 
and test tubes stoppered at all times. 

► Cultures should never be taken from the laboratory. 

► Specialized growth media designed to grow pathogens 
should not be used. 

► Laboratory work surfaces should be wiped clean with disin¬ 
fectant before and after an activity. 

b) An autoclave or pressure cooker can be used for sterilizing 
growth media and equipment. 

c) Reference to the Epstein-Barr virus can be useful in a discussion 
of the probable link between human cancer and viruses. 

d) A class trip to a hospital laboratory might allow students to 
observe culturing procedures. 

e) A public-health officer can be invited to discuss his/her role in 
the control of viral and bacterial diseases. 


Core Unit 5 


Vertebrate Digestive 
Systems 

Time: 75 hours 


The purpose of this unit is twofold: first, to allow students to study 
and compare vertebrate digestive systems, and second, to help 
them develop a sound working knowledge of the human digestive 
process and human nutritional requirements. The topics covered 
and emphasized in this unit complement related material consid¬ 
ered in the Grade 10 advanced-level science course and develop 
concepts that are necessary for the biochemical treatment of cell 
metabolism in the biology OAC. Emphasis should be placed on 
understanding the physiology of the human digestive system and 
the importance to personal health of good nutritional habits. 

Note-. The various vertebrate physiology units in this course can be 
integrated and presented as one combined unit in order to empha¬ 
size the interrelationships among the systems. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► The structure and function of the vertebrate digestive system 

► The human digestive system 

► Nutritional requirements of cells 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and curiosity about, the intricacies of verte¬ 
brate digestive processes (2a. 2d); 

b) an appreciation for the interrelationship of good health, nutri¬ 
tion, and a properly functioning digestive system (2e, 3a, 3b, 
3d); 

c) a commitment to practising good nutrition (3a). 















Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 



Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) dissecting a vertebrate in order to identify and examine the 
components of the digestive system (2a); 

b) identifying, drawing, and labelling the parts of vertebrate diges¬ 
tive tracts and associated organs (2b); 

c) analysing food materials for the presence of carbohydrates, 
fats, and proteins (2c); 

d) collecting and analysing data on nutritional intake (2e, 8d). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) compare the structure of the digestive system of a mammal 
with that of another vertebrate (2a); 

b) list the parts of the vertebrate digestive tract and describe how 
the structure of each part is suited to its function (2b); 

c) describe the special adaptations of the digestive system of an 
ungulate to its herbivorous diet (3c); 

d) identify the essential nutrients of a balanced diet, food sources 
for each, and the role each nutrient plays in the body (2c, 2e); 

e) describe the mechanical breakdown of food and the swallow¬ 
ing process, including peristalsis (8c); 

f) describe some of the important chemical characteristics of 
enzymes and hormones and outline their role in the body; 

g) describe how fats, proteins, and carbohydrates are chemically 
broken down and absorbed into the blood system as they pass 
along the digestive tract (2c); 

h) explain how food moves along the digestive tract and how the 
release of digestive chemicals is controlled during the digestive 
process (8b); 

i) describe how fats, proteins, and carbohydrates are stored in the 
body and released as needed; 

j) report on the causes, symptoms, and cures for three or more 
disorders of the digestive system. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect a vertebrate to examine and identify the parts of its 
digestive system (6b, 8f); 

*b) make a drawing of one or more vertebrates and identify the 
structures of the digestive system; 

*c) perform tests to identify the presence of fats, proteins, and car¬ 
bohydrates in different food materials (6a, 6c, 6d); 

d) perform tests to determine the effect of amylase on one or 
more types of food, such as a cracker or raw potato (6c); 


e) record and analyse the nutritional value of the food they per¬ 
sonally consume over a one-week period and relate this to 
energy requirements (8d); 

f) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the processing of 
food(8e). 

3- Applications 

a) A knowledge of how the body uses and stores foods provides 
the basis for designing nutritious diets. 

b) A knowledge of the structure and function of the human diges¬ 
tive system is used in the treatment of digestive-system 
disorders. 

c) A knowledge of the digestive processes in domestic animals is 
used to provide better nutrition and care for them. 

d) An understanding of how foods are digested and absorbed can 
be used to evaluate both potential diets and the nutritional 
value of different food products. 

e) An awareness of the various factors (e.g., basal metabolic rate 
and exercise) that affect daily energy requirements makes it 
possible to plan an appropriate diet. 

4, Societal Implications 

a) The development of new food types based on a knowledge of 
human nutritional requirements will continue to help alleviate 
world food shortages. 

b) Some research is focused on the possible links between diet 
and the causes, cure, and prevention of disease. 

c) The production and sale of specialized dietary products is a sig¬ 
nificant industry in North America. 

d) In some regions of the world the large amount of meat con¬ 
sumed per capita may be of concern. Dietary and health con¬ 
siderations, employment, the killing of animals, and other 
factors need to be weighed in dealing with this issue. In con¬ 
trast, there is a lack of sufficient protein in human diets in var¬ 
ious parts of the world, which can have a profound effect on 
physical and mental development. 

5- Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) laboratory experiments and reports; 

b) diagrams of vertebrate digestive systems. 


‘See the subsection entitled "Student Activities" on pages 5-6. 




23 


Core Unit 5: Vertebrate Digestive Systems 


6 - Safety Considerations 

a) Students should use protective eyewear when heating liquids. 

b) During dissections students should exercise care when han¬ 
dling instruments and should use protective eyewear and dis¬ 
posable gloves. Appropriate ventilation should be provided. 
Students should wash their hands before and after handling 
preserved specimens. 

c) Chemicals should be handled with care, and tests for food 
types that involve the use of hazardous chemicals should be 
avoided. 

d) Foods used in nutrient analyses should be disposed of immedi¬ 
ately after use. 

7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) investigate the intake and digestion of food materials by 
protozoans; 

b) gather information on, evaluate, and report on one or more of 
the following: a popular diet, a vegetarian diet, the apparent 
problems related to the consumption of fats and cholesterol, 
two or more dietary products, the advantages and disadvan¬ 
tages of food additives; 

c) investigate how aspirin and alcohol affect the digestive system; 

d) report on the possible links between the development of stom¬ 
ach ulcers and lifestyle; 

e) investigate how nutritional requirements change with age in 
humans. 


8 - Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit provides an opportunity to teach in collaboration 
with teachers of family studies and physical and health educa¬ 
tion. Care should be taken to avoid undue overlap in the treat¬ 
ment of mutual topics. Where topics are similar, they should be 
treated from different perspectives. 

b) There are many excellent charts, electron micrographs, and 
films on the structure and function of the human digestive 
system. 

c) The stories of some of the early scientists (e.g., William Beau¬ 
mont, who investigated the digestive system) could be intro¬ 
duced into a discussion of the structure and function of the 
stomach. 

d) In conjunction with the analysis of personal nutrition, students 
can also survey others in their peer group (e.g., do an on-the- 
spot survey of the food actually consumed during a lunch 
period in the school cafeteria). 

e) A field trip to a local food-producing or processing industry or, 
alternatively, a talk from a dietitian, a medical person specializ¬ 
ing in digestive-system disorders, a vegetarian, or a health-food 
advocate can add interest to this unit. 

f) Models can be used in place of, or in addition to, the dissection, 
particularly for a comparison of a variety of vertebrates. 




24 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SRI}A) 


Core Unit 6 


Vertebrate Gas-Exchange 
Systems 

Time: 7.5 hours 


The role played by oxygen in cellular catabolism and the subse¬ 
quent removal of carbon dioxide was established in core unit 1 of 
this course. This unit extends this knowledge by providing stu¬ 
dents with an understanding of how the oxygen is brought into the 
bodies of vertebrates and delivered to body cells and how carbon 
dioxide is then removed. An introduction to the role played by 
blood in this process provides a link to the consideration of the cir¬ 
culatory system in the next unit of study. The topics and activities 
included here complement, but do not repeat, the study of respira¬ 
tory systems begun in the Grade 10 advanced-level science course. 
Finally, this unit enables students to gain an understanding and 
appreciation of the structure and function of their own respiratory 
system and the personal habits and care that facilitate its well¬ 
being. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

The structure and function of vertebrate gas-exchange systems 

Inspiration and expiration 

Factors affecting the gas-exchange system 


1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and curiosity about, the adaptive variations 
and intricacies of vertebrate gas-exchange systems (2a); 

b) an appreciation of, and a concern about, the detrimental effects 
of air pollution on the respiratory system of living organisms 
(2e, 3b, 3c, 4a); 

c) a commitment to learning about and practising personal habits 
that enhance the health of their respiratory system (3b, 3c). 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) dissecting a vertebrate to identify and examine the compo¬ 
nents of its gas-exchange system (2a); 

b) identifying and stating the function of the parts of the gas- 
exchange system of different vertebrates (2a, 2b); 

c) using the microscope or electron micrographs to examine ver¬ 
tebrate respiratory tissue (2b); 

d) measuring, recording, and analysing data on the relationships 
between lung capacity and other physical characteristics or fac¬ 
tors and the rate of breathing (2c, 2d). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) recall the meaning of the terms respiration (breathing), gas 
exchange , and cellular respiration and distinguish among these 
processes; 

b) compare the structure of a gas-exchange system of a mammal 
with that of at least one other type of vertebrate (2a, 2b); 

c) explain how the structure of each part of the gas-exchange sys¬ 
tems examined is suited to its function (2a, 8b); 

d) describe the physical principles and mechanics of human inspi¬ 
ration and expiration (2c, 2d); 

e) explain how and why oxygen and carbon dioxide move across 
the alveolar membrane in the lungs and across the cell mem¬ 
branes in the rest of the body; 

f) explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the 
blood of humans; 

g) briefly describe how breathing in humans is affected by various 
factors, such as carbon dioxide concentration, smoking, and 
exercise (2d); 

h) on the basis of their knowledge of the structure and function of 
the human gas-exchange system, identify physical changes that 
would interfere with or enhance its operation (8d); 

i) explain the effects on the human gas-exchange system of two 
of the following: (i) regular vigorous physical exercise, (ii) three 
or more common diseases or disorders (e.g., the common 
cold, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, emphysema), (iii) rarified 
air at high altitudes, (iv) tobacco smoke and carbon monoxide 
(8d); 

j) describe the appropriate first-aid steps for people who are 
choking or drowning. 






25 


Core Unit 6: Vertebrate Gas-Exchange Systems 


2 - Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect a vertebrate in order to examine and identify the parts 
of the gas-exchange system (5a, 6,8a, 8b); 

*b) using electron micrographs, commercially prepared slides, or 
microscope slides of tissue prepared in the laboratory, examine 
and describe the structures of lung and other types of tissue 
from vertebrate respiratory systems (8b); 

*c) measure their own lung capacities (including tidal, expiratory, 
and inspiratory reserve volumes and the vital capacity) and 
then, by comparing their results with those of other students, 
determine if there are any apparent relationships between lung 
capacity and factors such as physical fitness, smoking, sex, 
height, weight, and chest volume (8f); 

d) investigate the effect of various factors on the breathing rate in 
humans (e.g., concentration of carbon dioxide in the air 
breathed, vital capacity, deep breathing, physical fitness); 

e) gather information and report on the effects on human 
respiratory-tract tissue of at least two airborne pollutants in the 
environment or the workplace (8d). 

3 - Applications 

a) A knowledge of the structure and function of the human respi¬ 
ratory system has led to effective diagnosis and treatment of 
diseases and allergic reactions involving the respiratory system 
and to the development of life-saving devices and procedures, 
such as respirators, resuscitators, and cardiopulmonary 
resuscitation. 

b) An understanding of the effects of tobacco smoke on 
respiratory-system tissue has caused many people to stop 
smoking or to avoid inhaling second-hand smoke. 

c) Safeguards and protective procedures in the workplace have 
been developed as a result of an understanding of the effects of 
airborne contaminants on the respiratory system. 

d) A knowledge of the health benefits that result from an effec¬ 
tively operating gas-exchange system has led many people to 
exercise regularly and has resulted in a heightened concern 
about air pollution. 


4 . Societal Implications 

a) The control of air pollution is essential and is a task that must be 
shared by individuals, industry, and governments. 

b) Occupational health and safety problems involving airborne 
contaminants are a major concern in many industries and insti¬ 
tutions, and careful analysis and sound decision making will be 
required if the problems are to be resolved. 

c) The debate continues concerning the right of smokers to 
smoke in public places and the right of non-smokers to enjoy a 
smoke-free environment. 

5 . Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) demonstration of proper dissection techniques and identifica¬ 
tion of biological structures; 

b) laboratory exercises and reports. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

Students should use gloves and appropriate eyewear when dissect¬ 
ing preserved specimens. Appropriate ventilation should be pro¬ 
vided during the dissection. 

7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) examine and analyse X rays or photographs of vertebrate respi¬ 
ratory systems; 

b) ask a qualified instructor to discuss and demonstrate methods 
of artificial respiration and ways to treat choking; 

c) measure, analyse, and report on air quality and air pollutants at 
various locations in the community and in the school; 

d) construct a bell-jar model to demonstrate lung operation; 

e) investigate how the pollution index is determined and relate 
pollution readings to the incidence of respiratory ailments. 


‘See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




26 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


8 - Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The various vertebrate physiology units in this course can be 
integrated into one combined unit in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships among the systems. 

b) A sheep or pig pluck obtained from an abattoir can be used to 
demonstrate the inflation of the lungs and to show the struc¬ 
ture of tracheal, bronchial, and lung tissue. 

c) The issue of the rights of smokers versus those of non-smokers 
can be debated. 

d) Speakers can be invited to make presentations on such matters 
as aerobic exercises, occupational-health issues related to the 
respiratory system, respiratory-tract disorders and diseases, air 
pollution (types, effects, and controls), and the position of 
industry on the need to control air pollution and the costs of 
doing so. 

e) The physical and health education teachers in the school 
should be consulted regarding the teaching of lifesaving 
techniques. 

f) An examination of the class results in student activity 2c can 
facilitate a correlation between lung capacity and various 
related factors. Students with health problems should not be 
involved in strenuous exercise but should participate in the col¬ 
lecting of experimental data in activity 2c. 


Core Unit 7 


Vertebrate Transport 
Systems 

Time: 7.5 hours 


Aspects of the structure and function of the vertebrate circulatory 
system were introduced in core unit 3 (blood types), core unit 5 
(food transport), and core unit 6 (oxygen and carbon dioxide trans¬ 
port). The structure of circulatory systems in general was consid¬ 
ered briefly in the Grade 10 advanced-level science course. This 
unit is designed to complement the work done previously and to 
examine the important and extensive topic of vertebrate, espe¬ 
cially human, transport systems in more detail. This unit provides 
students with a working knowledge of the structure and function 
of the human circulatory system in particular, along with a brief 
overview of vertebrate transport systems in general. A considera¬ 
tion of those personal habits that enhance the health of the circula¬ 
tory system is also included. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Vertebrate circulatory systems 

► Blood vessels and blood flow 

► Vertebrate hearts 

► Lymphatic systems 

► Disorders of transport systems 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and curiosity about, the structure and func¬ 
tion of vertebrate transport systems (2a, 2b); 

b) a commitment to learning about, developing, and maintaining 
personal cardiovascular fitness (2d, 3a, 3b); 

c) curiosity about the causes and symptoms of common 
circulatory-system disorders (3c, 4a). 






27 


Core Unit 7: Vertebrate Transport Systems 


Skills . Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) dissecting a vertebrate to identify and examine the major com¬ 
ponents of the transport system (2a, 2b); 

b) identifying the parts of the heart and the pulmonary circulatory 
system of a mammal and comparing the structure of this system 
with that of another type of vertebrate (2a, 2b); 

c) using the light microscope or electron micrographs to exam¬ 
ine, analyse, and describe the structure of blood, blood cells, 
and circulatory-system tissues (2c). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe in general terms the basic roles of the circulatory sys¬ 
tem in vertebrates (e.g., transport of materials, protection, 
maintenance of homeostasis); 

b) explain how blood flows in a closed circulatory system in mam¬ 
mals (8c); 

c) describe and compare the structure and function of arteries, 
capillaries, and veins (8b, 8c); 

d) describe and compare the pulmonary, cardiac, and systemic 
circulatory systems in humans (2a, 8b); 

e) describe and compare the structure of a mammalian heart and 
that of a fish or amphibian (2b, 8a, 8b, 8f); 

f) trace the route and explain the mechanics of blood flow 
through the human heart (2b, 8b); 

g) explain how the heartbeat is initiated and controlled in humans 
(2d); 

h) compare diastolic and systolic blood pressure in humans (2e); 

i) briefly describe the origin,' structure, and function of red and 
white blood cells and platelets (2c); 

j) briefly describe the structure and function of the lymphatic 
system; 

k) describe the causes of, the methods (where applicable) of 
reducing personal susceptibility to the effects of, and the treat¬ 
ment for three or more common diseases or disorders of the 
human circulatory system (e.g., hypertension, heart attack, 
stroke, leukemia, anemia); 

l) describe the effect on the human transport system of such fac¬ 
tors as alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and adrenalin. 

2- Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect a vertebrate and examine the heart, the pulmonary cir¬ 
culation system, the aorta, and other main arteries and veins 
(5a, 6,8a, 8b, 8f); 

b) examine, describe, and compare the heart of a mammal and 
that of another type of vertebrate (5a, 6,8b, 8c); 


*c) using commercially prepared microscope slides or electron 
micrographs, examine and describe the size and structure of 
red and white blood cells and a variety of blood vessels (5b, 5c); 

d) use a stethoscope to listen to heart sounds; 

e) measure pulse rates and relate these measurements to such fac¬ 
tors as physical condition, body size, and sex (8g). 

3- Applications 

a) A personal knowledge of one’s blood pressure, pulse rate, and 
other indicators of circulatory-system function is an effective 
way to monitor the health of this vital organ system. 

b) Regular physical exercise can enhance the health of the circula¬ 
tory system. 

c) Moderation in the amount of cholesterol and salt in the diet 
may help to prevent circulatory-system disorders. 

4 - Societal Implications 

a) Diseases and disorders of the circulatory system are a major 
cause of death and disability in North America. 

b) Through modern medical advances the quality of life of many 
people has been enhanced, and their life span increased. 

c) There are a number of ethical problems associated with the 
cost of the medical procedures and the selection of recipients 
for heart transplants. 

d) The costs for the health care of those with circulatory-system 
disorders are significant. 

e) Careers associated with this unit of study include medical tech¬ 
nologist, Red Cross worker, cardiologist, nutritionist, and 
paramedic. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 
students’: 

a) dissections, descriptions, and comparisons of vertebrate hearts 
and pulmonary circulatory systems; 

b) identification and description of blood cells; 

c) identification of major arteries and veins. 

6- Safety Considerations 

Students should use gloves and protective eyewear when dissect¬ 
ing preserved specimens. Appropriate ventilation should be pro¬ 
vided in the classroom during the dissection. 


*See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




28 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level(SBI3A) 


7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on the mechanism of blood clot¬ 
ting and relate this to haemophilia; 

b) discuss or debate the ethical issues surrounding heart 
transplants; 

c) discuss the potential effects of diet (salt, cholesterol, red meat) 
on the health of the circulatory system. 

8 - Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The various vertebrate physiology units in this course can be 
integrated into one combined unit in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships among the systems. 

b) A sheep or pig pluck obtained from an abattoir can be used for 
an examination of the mammalian heart and pulmonary circu¬ 
latory system. 

c) Beef hearts are readily available at most food stores. 

d) Sample electrocardiograms can be examined and analysed. 

e) The causes, effects, and treatments of circulatory-system disor¬ 
ders can be investigated through a trip to a medical facility or by 
inviting a guest speaker to the class. 

f) The similarities and differences in the transport systems of the 
various classes of vertebrates can be studied. For example, the 
systems of frogs, birds, reptiles, and fish might be examined. 

g) Pulse rates should be measured when the body is at rest and 
immediately before and after vigorous activity. Students with 
health problems should not be involved in strenuous exercise 
but should participate in the collecting of experimental data in 
activity 2e. 


Core Unit 8 


Vertebrate Reproduction 
and Development 

Time: 7.5 hours 


The purpose of this unit is to provide students with an understand¬ 
ing of the structure and function of the reproductive system in ver¬ 
tebrates, with an emphasis on mammalian systems. The topics 
covered here complement and provide the background for a con¬ 
sideration of human sexuality and family planning, which is part of 
the health-education program in schools. Science teachers should 
present this unit in collaboration with those teaching the appropri¬ 
ate health courses. Aspects of this unit, namely, a consideration of 
hormonal control and embryology, relate to topics to be consid¬ 
ered in core units 5 and 6 of the biology OAC. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Structure and function of the vertebrate reproductive system 

► The human reproductive system 

► Menstrual and ovarian cycles 

► Disorders of the human reproductive system 






29 


Core Unit 8: Vertebrate Reproduction and Development 


1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and a curiosity about, the similarities and 
differences among the reproductive systems of different types 
of vertebrates (2a, 2b, 3c); 

b) a commitment to gaining an accurate understanding of the 
structure and function of the human reproductive system 
(2a-2c, 3a, 3b, 4a); 

c) an appreciation of the contributions and limitations of science 
in discussions of moral and ethical perspectives associated with 
the human reproductive process (3b, 4a, 4b); 

d) an appreciation for the importance of good health habits dur¬ 
ing pregnancy (2a, 3e). 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using the microscope to examine and describe vertebrate gon¬ 
adal tissue, sperm, eggs, and embryos (2a); 

b) using data, diagrams, and graphs to describe the human men¬ 
strual cycle (2c); 

c) performing a dissection of a vertebrate to identify and examine 
the major components of the reproductive system (2b). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) recall and explain the differences between, and the advantages 
and disadvantages of, sexual and asexual reproduction; 

b) describe the structure and function of a male and a female 
mammalian reproductive system (2a, 2b); 

c) compare the structures of the reproductive systems of humans 
(male and female) with those of a marsupial pair and another 
mammalian pair (2 b); 

d) describe the human menstrual cycle in terms of hormonal, 
uterine, and ovarian changes (2c); 

e) describe the process of mammalian egg fertilization and three 
or more stages of embryonic development to the fetal stage (3d, 
4d, 8c); 

f) compare the human ovulation cycle, egg fertilization process, 
and gestation period with those of two or more different 
vertebrates; 

g) briefly describe the hormonal control of, and the physiological 
changes that occur during, human puberty (8e); 

h) list several possible natural and artificial methods of preventing 
and facilitating fertilization in humans and briefly describe the 
physiological mechanisms involved (8d, 8e); 

i) name and briefly describe the physiology of at least three mal¬ 
functions of the human reproductive system and at least three 
sexually transmitted diseases (8e). 


2 , Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) using prepared microscope slides or electron micrographs, 
examine and describe gonadal tissue and various types of 
sperm cells and embryos in different stages of development for 
a given vertebrate (5a, 8c); 

*b) dissect a vertebrate in order to examine and identify the parts 
of the reproductive system (5b, 8a, 8b); 

*c) using diagrams and graphs, describe the hormonal, uterine, 
and follicular changes that occur during the human menstrual 
cycle (5b, 8f); 

d) gather information and report on the reproductive cycles of 
three or more agricultural animals and the methods and appli¬ 
cations of control of reproductive cycles in such animals. 

3 - Applications 

a) An understanding of the structure and function of the human 
reproductive system provides the necessary basis for a positive, 
healthy attitude towards one’s own sexuality and human sex¬ 
uality generally. 

b) A knowledge of the human reproductive system helps individ¬ 
uals to make informed personal decisions concerning family 
planning (8d). 

c) An understanding of the reproductive system and cycles of ani¬ 
mals allows for efficient production of livestock, selective 
breeding, and management of wildlife populations. 

d) A knowledge of embryonic development in vertebrates and, in 
particular, in humans helps us to understand the effects of fre¬ 
quently consumed chemicals such as caffeine, nicotine, and 
alcohol on human fetal development. 

4 . Societal Implications 

a) Techniques for the control of human procreation have signifi¬ 
cant moral, ethical, and legal implications (8d). 

b) As a result of reproductive-system and fetal research, many 
individuals have enjoyed healthier and more meaningful lives 
than they would otherwise have had. 

c) The incidence and variety of sexually transmitted diseases in 
North America have increased dramatically over the past dec¬ 
ade; such diseases have become a very serious health problem. 

d) The ability to prevent or to detect fetal disorders during the ges¬ 
tation period has increased the chances of a child’s being born 
healthy. 


*See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




30 


e) Biotechnology now makes it possible to freeze, preserve, and 
reanimate human sex cells. This new technology has many sig¬ 
nificant ethical and legal implications. 

f) People with careers in the area of reproduction and develop¬ 
ment include family-planning counsellors, health nurses, biol¬ 
ogists, farmers, pharmacists, microscopists, gynecologists, 
obstetricians, and family doctors. 

5 . Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 
students’: 

a) descriptions of reproductive tissue observed by means of the 
microscope; 

b) dissections, descriptions, or comparisons of vertebrate repro¬ 
ductive systems. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

Students should use protective eyewear and disposable gloves 
when dissecting preserved specimens. Appropriate ventilation 
should be provided in the laboratory during dissections. 

7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) observe fertilization and subsequent zygote development, 
using prepared slides of gametes from frogs, fish, or sea 
urchins; 

b) observe a film on vertebrate fertilization and embryonic 
development; 

c) gather information and report on (i) the development of the 
human embryo and fetus from fertilization to eighteen weeks 
and the hypotheses concerning the mechanisms controlling 
development or (ii) the effect of ingested chemicals such as 
nicotine, alcohol, and psychoactive drugs on human fetal 
development; 

d) investigate recent scientific advances designed to enhance 
reproductive viability, such as in vitro fertilization and the use 
of fertility drugs. 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SB13A) 


8 - Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The various vertebrate physiology units in this course can be 
integrated into one combined unit in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships among the systems. 

b) Students should be given an opportunity to compare dissec¬ 
tions of both sexes of the vertebrates chosen. 

c) There are many good films and pictorial documentaries on fer¬ 
tilization and fetal development in humans and a variety of 
other vertebrates that could be used to advantage in this unit. 
These may be obtained through a local family-planning clinic, a 
hospital prenatal program, a school nurse, or a pharmaceutical 
company. 

d) The use of scientific knowledge to assist with the resolution of 
sensitive issues surrounding human sexuality and the control of 
human procreation should be stressed. However, many other 
kinds of knowledge and perspectives impinge on such issues, 
which must be handled with discretion and sensitivity. Some 
issues should not necessarily be resolved but should remain 
open-ended and tentative. 

e) This unit should provide students with an accurate understand¬ 
ing of the structure and function of the vertebrate (particularly 
the human) reproductive system. An inordinate amount of time 
should not be devoted to the discussion or debate of the sensi¬ 
tive and wide-ranging issues surrounding human sexuality and 
reproduction. These issues are an appropriate part of the 
family-studies and health-education programs. It is highly 
recommended that teachers of this course confer with those 
teaching family studies and health education prior to presenting 
this unit in order to clarify what each course will accomplish 
and to reduce or eliminate overlap in content. 

f) Students can portray and thus better understand the menstrual 
cycle by graphing hormonal-concentration changes over time 
and by drawing diagrams to depict the follicular and uterine 
changes corresponding to and controlled by the hormones. 




31 


Optional Unit 1: Vertebrate Excretory Systems 


Optional Unit 1 


Vertebrate Excretory 
Systems 

Time: 9 hours 


In this unit students are introduced to the important biological 
concept of homeostasis. As well, the structure and function of the 
kidney and its role as a homeostatic organ are examined, and verte¬ 
brate excretory processes are compared. The related topics of 
osmosis, diffusion, and active transport were considered in core 
unit 1 of this course and should be reviewed here. The concept of 
homeostasis is reintroduced in core unit 6 of the biology OAC, but 
there it is presented in association with an examination of the 
endocrine and nervous systems rather than the excretory system. 
From their study of this unit students should gain an understanding 
of the role of the kidney in maintaining homeostasis and the impor¬ 
tance of homeostasis for all living things. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Movement of materials into and out of cells 

► Homeostasis 

► The kidney 

► Disorders of the excretory system 


1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the need for homeostatic mechanisms in liv¬ 
ing organisms; 

b) a curiosity about, and an appreciation for, the excretory pro¬ 
cess in humans and its role in maintaining homeostasis in the 
body (3a); 

c) an appreciation for the relationships between the excretory 
process of different vertebrates and the environmental condi¬ 
tions under which they live. 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) dissecting a vertebrate to identify and examine the major com¬ 
ponents of the excretory system (2a); 

b) identifying, drawing, and describing the parts of vertebrate 
excretory systems (2b); 

c) gathering information and reporting on the causes, effects, and 
treatment of human excretory-system disorders and diseases 
(2c). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) recall and explain the processes of osmosis, diffusion, and 
active transport in living cells; 

b) describe the meaning of the term homeostasis and, using spe¬ 
cific examples, explain why it is so important in the body (3c); 

c) explain the term excretion and how excretion occurs in the 
lung, skin, colon, and kidney; 

d) describe the structure of the human kidnev and nephron (2b, 
8b); 

e) briefly describe how urea is formed in the liver and outline why 
it is formed; 

f) describe how urine is formed in the nephron and how it is elim¬ 
inated from the body (2b); 

g) describe the influence of chemicals such as alcohol on the 
process of water reabsorption by the nephron; 

h) explain how the concentration of water, salts, and other chemi¬ 
cals in the body is regulated and homeostasis maintained by the 
excretory system in humans (2d); 

i) compare the excretory system of a freshwater fish, a marine 
fish, a reptile, and a desert-dwelling mammal and describe how 
the excretory process of each is adapted to its environment; 

j) describe the causes, effects, and treatments for three or more 
diseases and disorders of the human excretory system, for 
example, kidney stones, cystitis, enlarged prostate gland, gout, 
and nephritis. 






Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


32 


2 - Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect, identify, and examine the kidney, renal arteries and 
veins, and urinary tract of a vertebrate (5a, 5b, 6,8a); 

b) using information gathered from electron micrographs or pre¬ 
pared microscope slides and diagrams, draw a labelled diagram 
of a human nephron (8b); 

*c) gather information and report on the causes, effects, and treat¬ 
ment of three or more human excretory-system disorders or 
diseases (8d); 

d) perform a urinalysis, using provided samples of simulated urine 
(8c). 

3 - Applications 

a) Urinalysis provides a convenient method of detecting renal and 
other types of disorders (e.g., diabetes). 

b) A number of effective procedures have been developed to treat 
renal diseases or disorders (e.g., antibiotics, dialysis, kidney 
transplants). 

4 . Societal Implications 

a) The effective treatment of excretory-system disorders and dis¬ 
eases has enhanced the quality of life and increased the life span 
of many people. 

b) High medical costs and a limited number of donors present eth¬ 
ical issues regarding the selection of recipients for kidney 
transplants. 

c) Many careers in the biological and health sciences (e.g., veteri¬ 
narian, fisheries biologist, medical technologist, and X-ray 
technician) require knowledge of vertebrate excretory 
systems. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) dissection of a vertebrate excretory system; 

b) identification of the structures of a vertebrate excretory 
system; 

c) oral and written reports on assignments and projects. 


6 - Safety Considerations 

a) Students should use protective eyewear and disposable gloves 
when performing dissections. Appropriate ventilation should 
be provided in the laboratory during dissections. 

b) Students should wash their hands after handling preserved 
specimens. 

7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 
(i) the excretory processes of two or more non-vertebrate ani¬ 
mals (e.g., protozoans, insects), (ii) the latest methods of 
dialysis, (iii) kidney transplants - the selection of recipients and 
donors, transfer procedures, the operation, post-operative 
care, and control of rejection; 

b) discuss or debate one or more of the ethical issues surrounding 
kidney and organ transplants. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This optional unit can be integrated with the core units that 
deal with vertebrate physiology in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships among the systems. 

b) Anatomical models can be helpful in a study of the structure 
and function of the kidney and nephron. 

c) The teacher and students should feel free to choose whether 
they wish to participate in the urinalysis activity. Students 
should realize that urinalysis is an accepted standard diagnostic 
technique used in medicine. 

d) A trip to a medical centre or a visit by a guest speaker to the 
school can provide the basis for a discussion on urinalysis, 
dialysis, or other medical procedures involved with the analy¬ 
sis and treatment of diseases of the excretory system. 


‘See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




33 


Optional Unit 2: Vertebrate Skeletal and Support Systems 


Optional Unit 2 


Vertebrate Skeletal and 
Support Systems 

Time: 9 hours 


In this unit students examine the structure and function of repre¬ 
sentative vertebrate skeletal and muscle systems. Because of the 
extensive nature of this topic, the emphasis is placed on the struc¬ 
ture, mechanics, and health of the human systems. Although a 
detailed consideration of vertebrate systems is not possible, stu¬ 
dents are asked to examine and compare homologous skeletal 
structures in various vertebrates. This study of the skeletal and 
muscular systems should provide students with an insight into the 
basic biological principles of adaptation and of the relationship of 
structure to function. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Structure and function 
►Joints and movement 

► Disorders 

► Adaptations 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and a curiosity about, the structure and 
function of vertebrate skeletal and support systems (2a, 2c, 2g); 

b) an appreciation for the homologous nature of various parts of 
vertebrate skeletons (2g); 

c) a commitment to the maintenance of the health and physical 
fitness of their skeletal and muscle systems (2f, 3a). 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) performing a dissection of a vertebrate to identify and examine 
the major components of the muscular and skeletal systems 
(2a); 


b) using the microscope or electron micrographs in examining 
and describing bone, muscle, and connective tissue (2d); 

c) investigating and describing bone structure and movement in 
the appendages of vertebrate skeletons (2e). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the functions of vertebrate skeletal and muscle 
systems; 

b) describe the structure of bone tissue, three types of muscle tis¬ 
sue, and three types of “modified” connective tissue (2c, 2d); 

c) describe the structure of a typical movable joint, including the 
role of ligaments, cartilage, and synovial fluid (2d, 8d); 

d) describe how muscles are attached to bones (2a, 2c, 8b); 

e) explain, with reference to antagonistic muscle pairs and the 
nervous control of muscle contraction, how body parts are 
moved and how that movement is controlled (2b, 2e, 8b); 

f) explain the term biophysics and describe how the mechanics of 
the movement of appendages in vertebrates can be described 
in terms of first-, second-, and third-class levers (2e); 

g) compare at least one homologous structure on three or more 
different vertebrates and explain how the structure of each 
appendage is adapted to its function (2a); 

h) describe the cause, effects, and treatment of three or more dis¬ 
orders or diseases of the human skeletal and muscle systems, 
such as osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, muscular dystrophy, rheu¬ 
matoid arthritis, and three or more injuries, for example, bone 
fractures, sprains, dislocation of bones, torn cartilage, and rup¬ 
tured vertebrate discs (2f, 8d); 

i) describe muscle fatigue and how the body responds to reduce 
or eliminate it. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) dissect a vertebrate, such as a fetal pig, in order to examine large 
muscle masses and the movement of appendages and movable 
joints (5a, 6,8a, 8b); 

b) identify and examine an antagonistic pair of muscles, the origin 
and insertion points of a muscle, and one or two examples of 
cartilage, ligaments, and tendons (8b, 8c); 

c) examine and describe cleaned and dried bones and bone 
pieces, noting characteristics such as nerve and blood-vessel 
openings, points of attachment, shape, size, and internal struc¬ 
ture (8c); 

*d) using prepared microscope slides or electron micrographs, 
examine and describe the structure of muscle, bone, and modi¬ 
fied forms of connective tissue; 


’See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 






34 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBtfA) 


e) construct models or use an articulated skeleton to demonstrate 
how muscles move appendages such as the leg (8c, 8f); 

f) collect information and report on one or more of the follow¬ 
ing: the effects of jogging on bones and muscles, the develop¬ 
ment of a prosthetic device, the causes of lower-back injuries; 

g) examine a variety of vertebrate skeletons, noting homologous 
structures and adaptations related to function. 

3 - Applications 

a) A knowledge of the causes of injuries to the skeletal and muscle 
systems makes apparent the need for personal habits of good 
nutrition and regular physical exercise. 

b) An understanding of the structure and the mechanics of the 
skeletal and muscle systems has led to the development of 
many new prosthetic devices. 

4 . Societal Implications 

a) Modern medical technology has improved and prolonged the 
lives of individuals suffering from skeletal and muscle disorders 
and severe injury. 

b) Rickets is endemic in countries where food supplies are limited 
and nutrition is poor. 

c) Awareness of the physical health problems that can result from 
a sedentary lifestyle has caused many individuals to begin a 
regime of regular physical exercise. 

d) The current emphasis on physical fitness has been beneficial 
for many, but it has also led to an increase in skeletal- and 
muscle-system injuries. 

e) The research effort to develop new prosthetic devices and to 
find cures for bone and muscle diseases is extensive and has 
expanded the variety of careers in the field of biotechnology. 

f) Extreme violence in some body-contact sports, such as ice 
hockey and football, has caused serious injury and much 
debate. 

g) Careers that involve knowledge of vertebral skeleto-muscular 
systems include chiropractor, chiropodist, osteopath, phy¬ 
siotherapist, and wildlife artist. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) performance of a dissection in order to examine and describe a 
vertebrate skeletal system; 

b) laboratory investigations and reports. 


6. Safety Considerations 

a) Students should use protective eyewear and disposable gloves 
when performing dissections. Appropriate ventilation should 
be provided in the laboratory during dissections. 

b) Students should wash their hands after handling preserved 
specimens. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) assemble the skeleton of a particular vertebrate; 

b) learn the names and locations of the main bones in the human 
body; 

c) perform tests to confirm the structural strength of bones and 
the skeletal assembly; 

d) construct a model of a joint, showing bone and muscle combi¬ 
nations that illustrate a first-, second-, or third-class lever; 

e) conduct tests to demonstrate the mineral composition of bone; 

f) investigate differences in the human skeleton based on sex. 

8. Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This optional unit can be integrated with the core units that 
deal with vertebrate physiology in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships that exist among the systems. 

b) A model of a human skeleton can be very useful for purposes of 
demonstration and reference. The memorization of bone 
nomenclature should not be overemphasized. 

c) Cleaned and dried bones and whole skeletons can be obtained 
from biological-supply houses. Fresh specimens can be 
obtained from a local butcher or an abattoir. 

d) Current issues concerning the health of the human skeletal and 
muscle systems, such as the causes and treatment of lower-back 
pain, the pros and cons of jogging, and the causes and effects of 
osteoporosis, are very relevant and should be discussed. 

e) Students should be made aware of the great variety of careers 
that are related to the study and health of the skeletal and mus¬ 
cle systems. 

f) Models of bones and muscles can be constructed out of com¬ 
mon materials; for example, wood strips, straws, or cardboard 
can be used for bones, pins for joints, and thread for muscles. 




35 


Optional Unit j: Vertebrate Integumentary Systems 


Optional Unit 3 


Vertebrate Integumentary 
Systems 

Time: 9 hours 


In this unit students consider the structure and function of verte¬ 
brate integumentary systems, with an emphasis placed on the 
human system. The role of the integumentary system in homeosta¬ 
sis is also emphasized. Homeostasis was considered in optional 
unit 1 of this course and will be studied again in the biology OAC in 
connection with the endocrine and nervous systems. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Vertebrate integumentary systems 

► The human integumentary system 

► Skin disorders 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the diverse roles of vertebrate integumen¬ 
tary systems and the interrelationships each has with other 
organ systems in the animal’s body (2c); 

b) concern about the effects of external factors such as solar radia¬ 
tion or chemicals (e.g., cosmetics) on the skin (3b, 3c, 3f). 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using the microscope or electron micrographs to examine 
integumentary-system tissue and accessory structures (2a); 

b) describing and drawing diagrams of integumentary-system tis¬ 
sue and accessory structures (2a, 2b); 

c) designing and carrying out an investigation to detect glands 
and sensory receptors in the integumentary system (2c). 


Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) explain the terms homeostasis , homeothermic , and poikito- 
thermicmd relate these terms to the integumentary system 
(2d,2e); 

b) describe the structure of the human integumentary system 
(8b); 

c) state the functions of vertebrate integumentary systems (2c, 

2c); 

d) describe the structural and functional aspects of one or more 
epidermal characteristics that are unique to each of mammals, 
amphibians, reptiles, and birds (2a); 

e) explain the mechanisms of temperature regulation in humans 
and note the role played by the integumentary system (2d, 2e); 

f) describe how the human integumentary system acts as a barrier 
to the harmful effects of such external agents as pathogens, 
chemicals, and radiation (2a, 2b); 

g) explain how the integumentary system acts as a sense organ 

(2c); 

h) describe skin pigmentation with reference to moles, liver 
spots, freckles, and tanning (3c); 

i) describe the causes, effects, and treatment of three or more 
skin disorders, diseases, or injuries, for example, acne, black¬ 
heads, athlete’s foot, psoriasis, cuts, burns, and scar-tissue for¬ 
mation (8c). 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) by means of one or more commercially prepared microscope 
slides or electron micrographs, examine and describe the 
integumentary-system tissue and epidermal accessory struc¬ 
tures (e.g., hair, scales, feathers, hooves, horns, fur) of various 
vertebrates; 

b) using a hand lens, examine and describe the surface of human 
skin; 

*c) design and perform investigations to detect glands and sensory 
receptors for heat, cold, and pressure in the integumentary sys¬ 
tem and map them at various locations on the body’s surface 
(6a, 8a); 

d) investigate the cooling effect of liquid evaporating from a 
surface; 

e) observe skin colour in the hands and account for the effects of 
placing them in warm and cold water (6b). 


"See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 






36 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


3- Applications 

a) The knowledge of the structure, function, and natural repair 
mechanisms of the human integumentary system has led to the 
development of better treatments for burns. 

b) Proper skin-care habits, such as frequent cleansing, as well as a 
proper diet, can reduce the incidence of skin disorders such as 
acne and blackheads. 

c) Certain changes in the skin, such as the darkening of a mole or a 
cut that does not heal, may signal the presence of disease. 

4- Societal Implications 

a) The production and sale of cosmetics is a major industry in our 
society. 

b) The claims of manufacturers as to the beneficial effects of cos¬ 
metics must be carefully scrutinized and evaluated by the 
public. 

c) Modern advances in skin grafting have saved the lives of many 
burn patients. 

d) Careers that depend on knowledge of the skin include cosme¬ 
tologist and dermatologist. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) laboratory work and reports; 

b) design and performance of investigations. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

a) If a pressure probe is used to map sensory receptors, students 
should be cautioned not to use excessive force. 

b) In the investigation involving the immersion of the hand in hot 
water, the temperature should be carefully checked to avoid 
the risk of scalding. 


7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) examine and compare the structure of hair from several indi¬ 
viduals and investigate the effects on different hair samples of 
products that colour and curl the hair; 

b) examine and compare prepared slides of healthy and cancer¬ 
ous skin tissue; 

c) gather information and report on cosmetics and the cosmetic 
industry (e.g., on the physical and psychological effects of cos¬ 
metics, the process of developing new products, the size of the 
industry); 

d) examine fingerprints and investigate their use in criminology; 

e) investigate the adaptations of body coverings of different verte¬ 
brates to specific environments. 

8- Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This optional unit can be integrated with the core units that 
deal with vertebrate physiology in order to emphasize the 
interrelationships among the systems. 

b) There are a number of laboratory manuals and biological 
resource books that describe methods for the detection, test¬ 
ing, and mapping of glands and sensory receptors in the skin. 

c) A model showing a cross section of the skin would be helpful in 
teaching the structure of the human integumentary system. 

d) A dermatologist or a cosmetician can be invited to speak to the 
class on skin care. 

e) Practical applications, such as the use of skin-care products, 
should be emphasized in this unit where appropriate. 




57 


Optional Unit 4 


Mycology 

Time: 9 hours 


This unit introduces students to the study of fungi. The time allo¬ 
cated for the study of this unit dictates that only a brief considera¬ 
tion of a number of topics is possible. The emphasis here is placed 
on the general characteristics of fungi and their economic and 
environmental importance. The taxonomy of the kingdom Fungi 
is considered only briefly. As a result of studying this unit, students 
should gain an appreciation for, and an understanding of, the 
important roles played by these organisms. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

General characteristics of fungi 
► Fungal groups 
The importance of fungi 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and a curiosity about, the variety of impor¬ 
tant roles played by fungi in the environment (3a-3d, 4a, 4b); 

b) an appreciation of how fungi affect and are used by humans 
(3a-3c); 

c) a curiosity about the characteristic structure, growth, and 
reproduction of fungi that act as natural decomposers (2c, 2d); 

d) a respect for the problems of food spoilage caused by fungi that 
act as natural decomposers (3e, 4b). 


Optional Unit 4: Mycology 


Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using a variety of laboratory techniques to examine and analyse 
the structure of various fungi (2a, 2b, 2d, 2e); 

b) dissecting fungi and preparing fungal tissue for examination 
(2b, 2d); 

c) culturing fungi (2a, 2c); 

d) designing and performing experiments to investigate factors 
affecting fungal growth (2 c). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe in general terms the differences in structure and func¬ 
tion between flowering plants and fungi by comparing vascular 
tissue with hypha and mycelium, the body of a flowering plant 
with the body of a fungus, seeds with sexual and asexual 
spores, and an autotroph with a heterotroph (2b, 2d, 8a); 

b) using one or two examples of fungi that fit into each category, 
explain the terms saprophyte,parasite, and symbiont (8b); 

c) describe how fungi obtain their food from the substrate on 
which they are growing (2b, 2c); 

d) describe the structural and reproductive characteristics of the 
following classes of true fungi and give examples of each: Zygo¬ 
mycetes, Ascomycetes, and Basidiomycetes (2a, 2d); 

e) describe the characteristics and name common examples of 
the class Deuteromycetes (or Fungi Imperfecta); 

f) describe the structure of slime mould and lichens (2e); 

g) explain the importance of fungi as decomposers, in terms of 
the growth of lichens, and in mycorrhizal associations (2e, 2f); 

h) describe the effects, means of control, and economic impor¬ 
tance of three or four fungal plant diseases, food spoilage by 
fungi, and the formation of mildew on useful materials (2f); 

i) describe the causes and effects of athlete’s foot and ringworm 
and give examples of human poisoning through the consump¬ 
tion of fungi; 

j) describe how fungi are used by humans (e.g., in the preparation 
of food and alcoholic beverages, in the production of 
antibiotics). 

2- Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) culture bread mould (5b, 6a, 6b, 8d); 

*b) use a microscope or a stereoscopic microscope and a hand lens 
to examine, identify, and describe the vegetative and reproduc¬ 
tive parts of bread mould (5b, 8e); 

*c) design and perform experiments to investigate factors, such as 
heat, light, and moisture, that affect the growth of one or more 
types of mould (5b, 6a, 6b, 8d); 


’See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 







38 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


d) examine and dissect a commercially produced mushroom, 
identifying and describing its various parts, and, using a micro¬ 
scope, examine and describe tissue from the stalk, cap, and gills 
(6a, 8e); 

e) collect lichens and, using a hand lens and a microscope, exam¬ 
ine and describe their structures (8e); 

f) examine and describe fungal infections of plant tissue, using 
prepared slides of tissue sections. Examples can include apple 
scab, corn smut, and stem rust (8b). 

3- Applications 

a) Fungi are used to produce antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids, 
enzymes, and other useful biochemical products. 

b) Yeasts are used in the production of baking products and alco¬ 
holic beverages, and in research such as genetic engineering. 
Moulds are used in the making of cheeses. 

c) Mushrooms, truffles, puffballs, and morels are popular foods. 

d) Farmers and horticulturists rely on fungi and other micro¬ 
organisms to decompose compost and return nutrients to the 
soil. 

e) A knowledge of the life cycle and susceptibility to fungicides of 
fungi that produce plant disease is necessary to control the 
spread of these diseases. 

f) Serious human allergy problems are often caused by exposure 
to airborne fungal spores. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Fungi are of great economic importance because of the role 
they play in certain food industries. 

b) Fungal plant disease results in considerable crop damage each 
year. 

c) The use of fungicides helps to control the spread of fungal dis¬ 
ease but causes a secondary problem of environmental 
contamination. 

d) Careers requiring a knowledge of fungi include dermatologist, 
mushroom farmer, horticulturist, mycologist, and allergist. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) laboratory work and reports; 

b) design and performance of mould-growth investigations. 


6 . Safety Considerations 

a) Students should be cautioned about possible allergic reactions 
to fungal spores. 

b) Aseptic conditions should be maintained in the culturing and 
handling of fungi. 

c) Students should prevent the excessive release of fungal spores 
when working with cultures. 

7- Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 
(i) the causes and social effects of the potato blight in Ireland 
that occurred between 1845 and 1869, (ii) the modern produc¬ 
tion of antibiotics from fungi, (iii) the types of poisonous fungi 
and their effects on humans; 

b) discuss the balance between the beneficial roles of fungi in the 
environment and the problems of plant disease and food 
spoilage; 

c) grow a pure culture of a mould; 

d) identify and list or bring samples to class of a variety of food 
materials that result from the growth or effects of a fungus; 

e) make a spore print, using the inverted cap of a fresh mushroom. 

8- Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The plant-structure information covered in core unit 2 of this 
course should be reviewed when fungi are compared with 
flowering plants. 

b) Wherever possible, students should examine actual specimens 
of fungi. 

c) There are many audio-visual aids that can be used to supple¬ 
ment the study of fungi. 

d) The aseptic techniques recommended for use were introduced 
in core unit 4 of this course. 

e) The stereoscopic microscope is a useful tool for examining 
mycelium and spore-producing structures. If these structures 
are to be examined in compact fungal tissue, it is usually neces¬ 
sary to tease out the tissue in a mounting medium such as 
lactophenol. 




39 


Optional Unit 5: Invertebrate Animals 


Optional Unit 5 


Invertebrate Animals 

Time: 18 hours 


In this unit students move beyond the study of vertebrates to look 
at the physical characteristics and ecology of other groups in the 
animal kingdom. In particular, six of the larger and better-known 
phyla are considered. At the same time the taxonomic process is 
briefly explored. Although the process of classification was consid¬ 
ered in Grade 7, formal biological taxonomy was not addressed. 

An emphasis should be placed on providing students with an 
understanding and an appreciation of the large diversity of the 
non-vertebrate groups of animals and the variety and vital nature of 
the roles they play in the biosphere. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Taxonomy: five kingdoms 

► Invertebrate phyla 

► The importance of invertebrates to humans 

► Arthropods 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the fact that the vertebrates are only one of a 
large number of diverse groups that make up the animal king¬ 
dom (2a); 

b) an appreciation of, and a curiosity about, the biology and the 
biological success of invertebrate animal groups (2a, 2e); 

c) a respect for, and a curiosity about, the wide variety of impor¬ 
tant roles invertebrates play in the biosphere (2e, 2g); 

d) a concern about the fact that there are both positive and nega¬ 
tive aspects of human interaction with invertebrates (3,4). 


Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) dissecting and describing invertebrate specimens (2a); 

b) using a microscope to examine a variety of parts and tissues 
from invertebrates (2c); 

c) maintaining live invertebrates and observing and describing 
their behaviour (2d, 2g); 

d) recognizing and describing the distinguishing external charac¬ 
teristics of animals from various phyla of invertebrate animals 
(2a, 2f); 

e) performing a literature search and gathering information from 
other sources to report on relevant topics related to inverte¬ 
brates (2e). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) define taxonomy and briefly explain the taxonomic process; 

b) list the taxonomic divisions from kingdom to species and, as an 
example of these divisions, provide the complete taxonomic 
designation for humans; 

c) name and describe in general terms the five kingdoms of living 
things and note that the majority of invertebrates are part of the 
animal kingdom; 

d) explain the use of the term invertebrates in relation to the phy¬ 
lum designation Chordata; 

e) describe four or five of the structural characteristics used to 
identify different phyla in the animal kingdom, for example, 
body symmetry, the number of body layers, and the presence 
or absence of segmentation, an exoskeleton, a coelom, a diges¬ 
tive tube, or discrete organs (2a); 

f) describe three or four distinguishing characteristics and repre¬ 
sentative organisms for each of the following phyla: Porifera, 
Cnidaria (Coelenterata), Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, 
and Arthropoda (2a); 

g) describe the feeding habits, means of gas exchange, life cycle, 
and importance of each of the following and give one or two 
common examples of each: Porifera, Cnidaria (Coelenterata), 
Platyhelminthes, Annelida, and Mollusca (2a, 2e); 

h) describe three or four distinguishing characteristics and name 
two or three examples for each of the classes Arachnida, Crus¬ 
tacea, and Insecta of the phylum Arthropoda (2b, 2e); 

i) using selected examples from the phylum Arthropoda, explain 
why many arthropods are ecologically successful, how 
humans rely on and compete with arthropods, and how some 
are parasites or disease vectors (2e). 







40 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SB13A) 


2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) observe and describe functional attributes of live or preserved 
specimens from the following phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria (Coe- 
lenterata), Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, and Arthrop- 
oda(6,8b,8e); 

*b) dissect, identify, and describe the parts and organ systems of an 
insect or a crustacean such as the lubber locust or crayfish (6); 

*c) use the microscope and commercially prepared microscope 
slides or slides produced in the laboratory to examine tissue 
sections and body cross sections from representative 
invertebrates; 

*d) work co-operatively with other students to develop a method 
to house and keep alive or culture one or more invertebrates 
and observe and describe such aspects as locomotion, feeding 
habits, and life cycles (5b, 8e); 

*e) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 
(i) the effects, life cycle, and control of one or more worm para¬ 
sites of humans, (ii) the ecological importance of the earth¬ 
worm, (iii) the ecological importance, uses by humans, and 
culture of the honey bee, (iv) one or more of the life cycle, 
physiology, ecology, and importance to humans of another 
invertebrate organism (5c, 8b, 8f); 

f) use an identification key to identify representative inverte¬ 
brates from one of the phyla, such as Arthropoda; 

g) go on a field trip to observe and describe invertebrates in their 
natural setting (8b, 8e). 

3- Applications 

a) In Canada invertebrates such as lobster, scallops, oysters, and 
clams are harvested and used for food. 

b) A knowledge of the life cycle, feeding habits, and susceptibility 
to chemicals of certain invertebrates has made possible the 
treatment and control of external and internal parasites of 
humans and domestic animals and the control of invertebrate 
pests that consume our food crops. 

c) The products of a number of invertebrates, such as bees, 
sponges, and silkworms, are used by humans. 

d) The presence and population fluctuations of some inverte¬ 
brates, such as tubifex worms and shellfish, indicate the levels 
of some kinds of environmental pollution. 


4. Societal Implications 

a) Future supplies of desirable aquatic invertebrates will depend 
on society’s ability to control water pollution and encourage 
conservation. 

b) In those regions of Canada where the economy depends heav¬ 
ily on the harvesting and sale of invertebrates, conservation 
methods must be practised in order to prevent depletion of 
stocks. 

c) The control of invertebrate pests will continue to be a major 
problem throughout the world. As well, control measures that 
involve the use of toxic chemicals create a secondary problem 
of environmental contamination. Society will need to promote 
and support research efforts that will lead to environmentally 
safe ways to control invertebrate pests. 

d) Those who have careers involving knowledge of invertebrates 
include pest-control workers, foresters, parasitologists, bee¬ 
keepers, and greenhouse workers. 

5- Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) laboratory work and reports; 

b) co-operative participation with other students in a laboratory 
activity; 

c) reports based on a library search on a topic related to 
invertebrates. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

Students should use gloves and protective eyewear when handling 

and dissecting preserved specimens. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on the work of Linnaeus and the 
binomial system; 

b) use field observations and other sources of information to 
describe the role of selected crustaceans and insects in the ecol¬ 
ogy of a pond or other ecosystem; 

c) dissect and describe other invertebrates (e.g., squid, clam, 
insect); 


’See the subsection entitled “Student Activities" on pages 5-6. 




41 


Optional Unit 6: The Protist Kingdom 


Optional Unit 6 


d) examine the complete classification of some common inverte¬ 
brate (e.g., honeybee, lobster); 

e) create and use a classification key or a computer program based Time: 9 hours 

on the characteristics of various invertebrate phyla and classes; 

f) report on a group of insects that have a significant impact on 
the biosphere (e.g., malaria-bearing mosquitoes). 



8 - Some Teaching Suggestions 



a) The unit should begin with a review of students’ knowledge of 
invertebrates from previous studies. 

b) Films and filmstrips can be shown to demonstrate the various 
invertebrate groups and to illustrate their roles. 

c) The economic importance of oil spills and pollution in terms of 
their effects on oyster beds, lobsters, shrimp, and other shell¬ 
fish should be discussed. 

d) Students should have available for examination live and pre¬ 
served invertebrate specimens that exhibit a variety of 
adaptations. 

e) Teachers should ensure that care is taken to provide proper 
food and habitats for the culture and maintenance of all live 
invertebrates. A number of biology laboratory manuals and 
resource books have considerable information on the culturing 
and maintenance of invertebrates. 

f) The teacher should work with the teacher-librarian in the 
school to ensure that the necessary reference material is avail¬ 
able to students to help them complete the information search 
that is assigned. 


This unit introduces students to the diverse group of organisms 
that make up the kingdom Protista. The study of the structure and 
physiology of protists provides a meaningful way to review and 
solidify the concepts concerning the cell that were presented in 
core unit 1 of this course. This unit also furnishes students with an 
ideal opportunity to practise microscope skills, culture micro¬ 
organisms, and perform experiments to investigate the effects of 
environmental stimuli and conditions on living things. The impor¬ 
tance of protists in aquatic food webs and as agents of some human 
diseases and the ability of many of them to live and multiply effec¬ 
tively as independent single-celled organisms should be 
emphasized. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► The protist kingdom 

► Movement, feeding, and reproduction of protists 

► Protists in the ecosystem 

► Diseases caused by protists 



1- Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the important role protists play in the lower 
trophic levels of aquatic food webs (3a); 

b) a concern about the harmful effects of diseases caused by pro¬ 
tists in the tropical regions of the world (3b, 4b); 

c) curiosity about the apparently simple, yet effective, structure 
and physiology of protists (2b-2d). 






42 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) preparing and maintaining cultures of mixed protists (2a); 

b) using the microscope and various microscope techniques in 
examining and describing protists (2b, 2c); 

c) drawing and identifying cell structures as observed through the 
microscope (2b, 2c); 

d) designing and performing experiments to investigate the effect 
of various stimuli on the behaviour of protists (2d). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) state four or five general characteristics of protists (2b, 2e); 

b) name, briefly describe, and identify examples of the phyla that 
make up the kingdom Protista (2e); 

c) compare the mechanics and characteristics of movement by 
cilia, flagella, and pseudopods (2c); 

d) compare the way in which paramecia, amoebas, and euglena 
ingest and digest food (2b); 

e) explain the role of the contractile vacuoles in paramecia (2b); 

f) describe the sexual and asexual reproduction of paramecia and 
compare this reproduction with that of the euglena and 
amoeba (2c); 

g) describe the make-up of plankton and explain its importance to 
aquatic food webs and to the world at large; 

h) explain the cause, effects, and control of malaria, amoebic dys¬ 
entery, and African sleeping sickness. 

2. Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) establish and maintain protist cultures, using samples collected 
in the field, obtained commercially, or produced from a hay 
infusion (6a, 8a); 

*b) employ a variety of techniques, such as staining, using methyl 
cellulose, hanging drop slides, and using indirect lighting, to 
examine microscopically the structure and behaviour of pro¬ 
tists, and then describe their observations (8a, 8b); 

c) use prepared microscope slides to examine the cilia and flagella 
of protists as well as stages in protist reproduction (8b); 

*d) design and perform experiments with ciliated protists to inves¬ 
tigate the effects of such stimuli as light, chemicals, gravity, 
heat, and electricity on the protists (6b); 

e) use a classification key to identify protists in a mixed culture; 

f) observe, describe, and account for population fluctuations 
over time in a mixed culture of protists. 


3- Applications 

a) A knowledge of the importance of plankton in marine food 
webs and in the carbon and oxygen cycles in the biosphere 
makes clear the potentially devastating effects of water 
pollution. 

b) A knowledge of the life cycles and means of spread and entry 
into the body of disease-causing protists helps in the control 
and treatment of certain diseases. 

c) It is thought that a significant part of our fossil fuels has come 
from the protists and plankton of past ages. 

4. Societal Implications 

a) Individuals, industry, and governments must work together to 
control water pollution in order to maintain natural plankton 
populations. 

b) Protist diseases continue to cause considerable human death 
and suffering in many parts of the world. 

c) Careers related to this unit include bacteriologist, physician, 
and health-service worker. 

5- Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) use of microscopes to examine and subsequently describe 
protists; 

b) design, performance, and reporting of experiments. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

a) Aseptic procedures should be used in the culturing of protists. 

b) Experimental designs should be checked by the teacher for 
possible dangers in planned procedures or in the use of hazard¬ 
ous materials. 


‘See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




43 


Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 


7, Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on one or more of the following: 
(i) the incidence and societal impact of malaria and other dis¬ 
eases caused by protists, (ii) the concept that protists form an 
evolutionary link between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organ¬ 
isms, (iii) the importance of protists in the digestive tract of ter¬ 
mites and herbivorous mammals; 

b) prepare fixed and stained slides of protists; 

c) go on a field trip to a local pond and investigate various aspects 
of protist ecology; 

d) isolate and culture a single type of protist. 

8 . Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) Protist cultures are started easily from hay infusions, pond 
water and sediment, or material purchased from a biological 
supply house. 

b) Techniques such as using indirect light, reducing the light by 
means of the microscope’s iris diaphragm, and introducing 
food colouring or carmine red under the coverslip can help stu¬ 
dents in observing the cilia and flagella of live protists. 

c) If one can be borrowed or is available, either a phase-contrast 
microscope or a microscope-camera assembly is very useful in 
studying protists. 

d) The feeding action of paramecia is easily observed when yeast 
cells are stained with Congo red. 


Optional Unit 7 


The Impact of Science on 
Society 

Time: 9 or 18 hours 


The purpose of this unit is to provide students with opportunities 
to explore issues related to the impact of biological science on soci¬ 
ety. Many of these issues are related to the societal implications of 
biology that are studied in each unit of this course. This unit 
focuses on decision-making processes that students may follow to 
help them clarify the appropriate courses of action to take as a 
result of their understanding of various aspects of an issue. 

This unit is allocated a total of nine or eighteen hours, which may 
be used as a single block of time or divided into smaller compo¬ 
nents and distributed throughout the course. It is strongly recom¬ 
mended that the work of this unit be integrated into the other units 
in the course. This approach provides opportunities to reinforce 
various societal implications as the relevant content is being stud¬ 
ied. If this approach is followed, course outlines in the school must 
indicate how it is to be accomplished. 

In subsection 3, “Student Activities”, three possible approaches to 
the study of science-in-society issues are outlined for this unit. 
Teachers may wish to modify these approaches or to use other 
alternatives that would be appropriate to the content selected. 
Teachers should also note subsection 8, “Some Teaching Sugges¬ 
tions”, where additional topics on science-related issues are listed. 
This unit may be designed to provide opportunities for students to 
do some independent study. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Issues involving science and society 

► Processes for analysing issues involving science and society 






44 


1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a commitment to making informed decisions, although they 
may be tentative, on issues surrounding the impact of science 
in society; 

b) an open-mindedness concerning the views and values of 
others; 

c) a co-operative attitude towards analysing issues in collabora¬ 
tion with others and towards trying to reach a consensus on 
preferable courses of action; 

d) an appreciation of the fact that science-in-society issues are 
multifaceted; 

e) a commitment to the critical appraisal of data and opinion as 
they relate to solutions to science-in-society issues; 

f) a willingness to explore their own personal values. 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using a variety of sources to gather information on, and gain 
insight into, science-in-society issues; 

b) analysing, identifying trends in, extrapolating from, and dis¬ 
playing the data collected; 

c) evaluating evidence and opinions or interpretations based on 
the evidence; 

d) systematically choosing the best solution to a science-in¬ 
society problem; 

e) defending their choices and decisions; 

f) identifying and describing the consequences of alternative 
solutions to environmental and social problems; 

g) working co-operatively with others to analyse and interpret a 
science-in-society issue and to arrive at a possible solution. 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) explain the relationships among knowledge, concepts, inter¬ 
pretations, and values in the analysis of issues; 

b) describe an approach to resolving a science-in-society issue; 

c) describe two or more techniques that can be used to predict 
future courses of action; 

d) explain the mechanics and purposes of role-playing and brain¬ 
storming techniques in the analysis of issues. 

2. Student Activities 

* Students are to explore and report on one or more issues related 

to the impact of science and technology on society or the envi¬ 
ronment, using approaches similar to those outlined below. 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


A. Clarification-of-Values Model 
Purpose 

The purpose of this approach to issue analysis is to help students 
explore their personal values relating to an issue and at the same 
time become aware of the opinions and values of others. The 
intent is not necessarily to work out a final solution or conclusion 
concerning the issue but to clarify and understand the values 
related to it. The focus is on the individual student. Some appropri¬ 
ate techniques include: 

discussing the issue with individuals or groups; 
surveying relevant articles in newspapers and magazines; 
interviewing experts and others whose work is involved with 
the issue; 

taking action on the issue (e.g., writing letters, informing others, 
reducing or stopping personal use of products, appliances, and 
machines that are perceived as having a negative effect on soci¬ 
ety or the environment). 

Format 

Students should: 

► identify' and describe an issue; 

► explore their own reactions to the issue; 

decide on and describe a tentative position on the issue; 

► clarify the reasons for their stated position; 

explore the personal values that influenced their position; 

► discuss their position with other individuals; 

consider the consequences of their position and make needed 
revisions; 

prepare a brief on their feelings and beliefs about the issue. 

Sample Analysis 

Issue. Organ transplants in humans 

Issue description. The transplanting of organs such as 

kidneys has proved to be an effective way of saving the lives of 
those with diseased or malfunctioning organs. However, many 
who might be saved by an organ transplant die because there is not 
a sufficient number of organs for transplants. At the present time 
potential donors need to give prior consent for the use of their 
organs, and even then the next of kin can deny their use. 

Transplant operations cost many thousands of dollars. Animals are 
used in organ transplant research. The object, then, is to 
summarize personal opinions, beliefs, and values related to human 
transplants. Note. Such a summary can indicate a tentative or open- 
ended position on the issue. 


*See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




Optional Unit 7: The Impact of Science on Society 


45 


Dealing with the issue. Students should explore their 
reactions; they should be asked to state a position and describe the 
reasons for their decision. Such questions as the following might 
be posed: 

► Who should decide who will receive organ transplants? 

► How should the decisions be made? 

ft Who should have the final say as to whether organs should be 
taken from a cadaver? 

► Who should pay the fees for organ transplants: governments, 
those who can afford them, societal associations? 

► Should animals be used in organ-transplant research? 

Reflection on positions taken. To explore their own 

decisions, students might: 

► interview doctors, lawyers, politicians, or religious leaders to 
find out their feelings and attitudes; 

ft- investigate and discuss the details of, and the rationale for, the 
present procedure for identifying donors and recipients; 

» analyse the influences that determined their position; 

► consider a personal decision to donate one or more organs. 

B. An Analytical Decision-Making 
Approach 

Purpose 

The purpose of this approach is to have students methodically 
attempt to reach a decision on the most appropriate solution to a 
problem. Often group decision making is involved. Students might 
use techniques such as the following: 

ft gathering data from the literature on the problem 

► seeking the opinions of experts 

► evaluating the data and opinions they have gathered 

► brainstorming alternatives and their consequences 

Format 

Students should: 

► identify and clearly state the issue; 

► record facts and the opinions and explanations of others con¬ 
cerning the issue; 

evaluate the validity, relevance, bias, and usefulness of the infor¬ 
mation gathered; 

► identify alternative solutions; 

► evaluate the consequences of each alternative; 

► tentatively propose a solution and state the advantages and dis¬ 
advantages of the solution proposed; 

► apply the proposed solution to the issue in question on a small 
scale or through a simulation, predict the consequences, and re¬ 
evaluate the choice made. 


Sample Analysis 

Issue. Should recombinant DNA research be controlled? 

Data gathering. A range of facts, opinions, explanations, 

and theories should be assembled (e.g., definitions; data on 
scientific successes and failures, the possibility of the accidental 
production and release of dangerous pathogens, the benefits from 
DNA research, the freedom of scientists to do research). The 
information gathered should then be evaluated. Such factors as the 
basis and logic of arguments, the factual material supporting 
positions, and the general support for various opinions could be 
considered. 

Dealing with the issue. Usually several possible solutions 
will have been identified earlier in the process; these should be 
clarified. Novel solutions should also be considered. The 
consequences of each alternative should then be evaluated. This 
might be done by designing and using a set of criteria for judging 
the viability of each solution. 

Selection ofa solution. On the basis of careful judgement, 

students should select the best solution, apply it to the problem 
through a simulation exercise, and then re-evaluate its 
acceptability. The solution may be decisive, tentative, open-ended, 
subject to revision, or rejected. 

C. A Science-and-Social-Change 
Approach 

Purpose 

Beyond, but related to, a consideration of the values surrounding 
science-in-society issues is a consideration of the interaction 
between science and human culture and the way in which each has 
influenced and will influence the other. While past and present 
influences are a matter of record, and a number of authors have 
described what seems to have happened or is happening, future 
developments and interactions can be only a matter of speculation. 
However, there are methods for attempting to predict the future or 
to describe probable futures. Appropriate techniques that students 
might use to help them consider how various scientific issues may 
influence social change include the following: 

> seeking expert opinion 

gathering data: identifying trends and extrapolating 
examining past events to identify similar or analogous events 
using and analysing simulations 
developing models 
using computer analyses 

participating in games that have been designed around specific 
issues 

conducting interviews and using questionnaires 




46 


Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level (SBI3A) 


Format 

Having explored several possible societal issues, students should: 

identify one issue or area of change to investigate in depth; 

► gather data on past and present trends, effects, causes, concerns, 
social forces, relevant research, political opinions, financial 
implications, and present laws related to the issue under 
consideration; 

► identify the key variables involved; 

► on the basis of expert opinion, extrapolation, and present 
trends, describe how the key variables might change over time; 

► considering various combinations of key variables and their 
effects on the aspects of the society or environment that are 
being studied, describe several possible future scenarios; 

► identify the future that they would prefer and map out a,per- 
sonal activity that might help to realize that future. 

Sample Analysis 

Issue. The effects of acid rain on the biological environment 
and the resulting impact on society 

Considering the variables. Students should identify some 
key variables that they wish to consider in regard to this issue. Such 
variables might include the types of air contamination by industrial 
effluent, the kinds of living organisms affected, the ability of 
industry to respond to alternatives, the impact of change on 
employees and their families, the future health of people in the 
affected area, and government willingness to create and enforce 
antipollution laws. 

Dealing with the issue. Students should gather information 
on the history, severity, causes, and effects on living things of acid 
rain; the attitudes and actions of industry that exacerbate or 
alleviate the problem; the work of environmental groups and 
government commissions; existing laws and regulations; 
projections about future effects of the problem; the time lines that 
would be needed for various kinds of action; the changes that 
might occur in local employment as a result of acid rain; its long¬ 
term effects on aquatic and terrestrial life; and ways in which other 
communities have dealt with the problem. They should determine 
the kind of information that they would want and that they could 
obtain. 

Future outcomes. After students have defined the acid-rain 
issue and recorded relevant findings, opinions, and reactions in a 
report, they should address possible outcomes related to the issue 
of acid rain and its ecological impact. The suggested outcomes will 
be predictions based on the key variables and possible changes in 
those variables. Students can consider a variety of combinations of 
variables in describing future outcomes resulting from acid rain. 
Finally, on the basis of the trends they have predicted, students 
should propose a means of facilitating the realization of the future 
that they favour. 


3- Applications 

Because of the nature of this unit, specific applications are not 
listed here. Applications identified in this or other units may be 
included in this unit or treated in other units by means of a science- 
and-society-issues approach. 

4. Societal Implications 

For this unit, the directions in subsection 3, “Applications”, apply 
also to this subsection on societal implications. 

5- Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

The term mark for this unit is to be based on students’: 

a) gathering and interpretation of data; 

b) suggestions for possible courses of action; 

c) reports, seminars, and presentations. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

If experiments are performed, students are to observe general lab¬ 
oratory safety procedures and specific safety precautions outlined 
by the teacher. 

7_ Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) design and use a questionnaire to assess public knowledge and 
attitudes concerning a science-in-society issue; 

b) identify and describe the activities of three or more organiza¬ 
tions in the community that monitor and take positions on the 
impact of science and technology on society and the 
environment. 

8- Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) It is recommended that the work in this unit be integrated 
throughout the rest of the course. 

b) Where appropriate, this unit should be planned in co¬ 
operation with other subject departments in the school. 

c) Suggestions relating to dealing with sensitive issues are con¬ 
tained in Part 1, section 10, of this science guideline. 

d) A wide variety of models and approaches can be used in the 
analysis of the types of issues considered in this unit. 








Optional Unit 8: Locally Designed Unit 


47 


e) The following are additional examples of issues that could be 

discussed in this unit. They are arranged in accordance with 

various components of this course. 

► Plants: environmental contamination and its effects on 
plants; the use of pesticides and herbicides; the develop¬ 
ment of new agricultural-crop hybrids 

► Genetics: eugenics, selective breeding, and the selective use 
of sperm banks; genetic diseases; the pros and cons of 
genetic engineering; animals for research 

► Bacteria and viruses: the extent and cost of medical 
research; the treatment of disease around the world (costs, 
improvement in the quality of life, population fluctuations); 
accidental pathogen production from DNA research 

► Digestive systems: the effects of diets; dietary foods (produc¬ 
tion, sale, and use); world population and food production 
and distribution 

► Gas-exchange systems: air pollution and the health of the res¬ 
piratory system; the effects of smoking; the rights of smokers 
and non-smokers 

► Excretory and circulatory systems: lifestyle, hypertension, 
and heart disease; organ transplants (risks, costs, selection of 
donors and recipients); artificial organs (development, uses, 
life expectancy) 


Optional Unit 8 


Locally Designed Unit 

Time: 9 hours 


This unit is to be designed at the local level as desired. It can be 
used (a) to introduce a new area or topic in biology that is not 
described in this guideline, (b) to incorporate additional objectives 
that will expand a previous part or parts of the course, or (c) to rein¬ 
force various aspects of the core units that may require greater 
emphasis. The following are examples of new areas or topics that 
might be considered: 


► Careers in biology 
Ecological relationships 
Environmental biology 

► Human biology 


► Marine biology 

► Microscopy 

► Taxonomy 

Vitamins and minerals in diets 


This unit may provide an excellent opportunity for students to 
engage in independent study on a topic in science that is of particu¬ 
lar interest to them. Students’ topics and work should be approved, 
monitored, and evaluated by the teacher. Students may work indi¬ 
vidually or in small groups. Care should be taken not to allow the 
work to overlap with subject matter in other science courses that 
the students have taken or are likely to take. Topics from the biol¬ 
ogy OAC are to be avoided. The unit could be started after students 
have had some experiences in the laboratory and are well aware of 
accident prevention. If a series of short topics is considered, such 
topics may be fitted into the program from time to time throughout 
the course. 


It is expected that the local design of this unit will incorporate com¬ 
ponents similar to those adopted in the core units, namely, objec¬ 
tives, student activities, applications, and societal implications. 

A description of the unit is to be included with the school’s course 
outline and kept on file so that it is available to interested students 
and parents. 






































































Biology, 

Ontario 

Academic 

Course 

(SBIOA) 


Core Units 


The Chemical Basis of Life 
Energy and the Living Cell 
Plant Physiology and 
Photosynthesis 

j 

Genetics 

The Theory of Evolution 

Homeostasis 

Ecology 

(98 hours) 


Optional Units 


Animal Behaviour 
Locally Designed Unit 


(12 hours) 





50 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


Core Unit 1 


The Chemical Basis of Life 

Time: 14 hours 


This unit deals with some of the basic chemical concepts and prin¬ 
ciples that are relevant to biochemistry. It is essential that students 
gain an understanding of these concepts and principles, since com¬ 
prehension in later units depends on this knowledge. In fact, the 
material in this unit is so closely linked with that in subsequent core 
units that serious consideration should be given to incorporating 
this work into relevant sections of these other units. Ideas on how 
to do this are given in the teaching suggestions at the end of this 
unit. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Basic chemical concepts 

► Chemical bonds 

► Chemical reactions 

► Biologically important organic molecules 


1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) curiosity about the biochemistry of cellular processes (2b, 4a); 

b) an appreciation for the ways scientific models and theories 
related to atoms and molecules can be used to assist them to vis¬ 
ualize the structure of biological molecules (2a, 3b); 

c) an interest in the biochemical nature-of-life processes (2b, 4a); 

d) a realization that biochemistry provides one of several possible 
approaches to an understanding of living organisms. 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) building molecular models (2a); 

b) making solutions that have specific concentrations (2b, 2d); 

c) measuring the pH of solutions (2c); 

d) designing and performing experiments to investigate the 
action of enzymes and factors that affect enzyme activity (2 b, 
8b); 

e) organizing in tabular form data from experiments on enzyme 
activity and chemical reactions (2b, 2c). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) explain the meaning of the following chemical terms as they 
relate to the chemical basis of life: atom, ion, isotope, electroneg¬ 
ativity, molecule, isomer, chemical reaction, functional group, 
polymer, pure substance, mole, acid, base, pH, buffer (2c, 2d, 
8b, 8c); 

b) briefly explain in terms of electronegativity and stable electron 
configurations why atoms interact (8b, 8c); 

c) identify and describe examples of oxidation and reduction 
reactions that occur in living organisms (8a-8c); 

d) describe the formation of the following bonds between atoms: 
ionic, covalent, polar covalent, hydrogen (8b-8d); 

e) explain the concept of bond energy and use this concept to 
account for exergonic and endergonic chemical reactions (8b, 
8c); 

f) describe, using representative examples and structural formu¬ 
las, the general structural features, the key subgroups, func¬ 
tional related linkages, and the main functions in living 
organisms of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids 
(2a, 8d); 

g) compare condensation (dehydration synthesis) and hydrolysis 
reactions and describe their role in the synthesis and degrada¬ 
tion of polymers (8b, 8c); 

h) describe, in general terms, the components of protein structure 
and the importance of this structure in the role of such biologi¬ 
cally active proteins as enzvmes and hormones (2a, 2b). 









51 


Core Unit 1: The Chemical Basis of Life 


2 . Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) build molecular models of simple carbohydrates, amino acids, 
simple polypeptides, and functional groups (8d); 

*b) design and perform experiments to investigate the effects of 
one or more of the following factors on enzyme activity: tem¬ 
perature, concentration of substrate, concentration of enzyme, 
pH (5a); 

*c) determine the pH of various common substances (e.g., milk, 
saliva); 

d) prepare and test a buffer solution. 

3 - Applications 

a) The nutrition of organisms should include proteins, carbohy¬ 
drates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water. 

b) Our ability to determine the structure of proteins through 
genetic research involving DNA has led to the successful pro¬ 
duction of important enzymes and hormones (e.g., insulin). 

4 . Societal Implications 

a) Increased knowledge of biochemical processes has led to sig¬ 
nificant advances in medical procedures and health care 
generally. 

b) An understanding of biochemical processes has led to theories 
that attempt to explain ageing. 

c) Biochemists, medical researchers, pharmacists, nutritionists, 
dentists, and medical technologists are among those whose 
careers require a knowledge of the chemical basis of life. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) design and performance of experiments; 

b) organization of data from experiments. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

Standard safety procedures appropriate to the experiments 

selected should be followed in the laboratory. 


7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) discuss various scientific hypotheses relating to the origin of 
complex organic molecules (e.g., those of Urey-Miller, Oparin, 
and Fox); 

b) discuss the possibility of finding living organisms on other 
planets of the solar system; 

c) investigate recent advances in biochemistry, choose one for a 
written project, and include an account of the purpose of, and 
the techniques used in, this kind of research. 

8- Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) It may be best to integrate the material in this unit into the other 
units of this course so that it is directly relevant to the content 
being considered. The following are examples of how this may 
be done: 

► The important concepts of redox reactions, bond energy, 
and endergonic and exergonic reactions are the basis for 
understanding the significance of metabolism in cells (core 
units 2 and 3). These basic concepts can be introduced first. 
Then, selected examples from the citric-acid cycle, the 
electron-transport chain, or photosynthesis can be used to 
illustrate how the basic concepts apply to cellular 
metabolism. 

► Enzyme activity can be considered in a variety of contexts in 
core units 2 and 3, while the structure and synthesis of pro¬ 
teins fits appropriately with the consideration of the role of 
ribonucleic acid (RNA) in core unit 4. 

► The structure and role of the major biochemical groups can 
be considered in conjunction with their metabolism (core 
units 2 and 3). 

b) Students in this course will have varying backgrounds in chem¬ 
istry. When it is appropriate, provision will need to be made for 
students with little chemistry background to acquire a basic 
understanding of chemical concepts. 

c) The importance of understanding concepts and not merely 
memorizing the concepts presented should be emphasized. 

d) Molecular models are useful in helping students to visualize the 
structures of biological molecules. 


‘See the subsection entitled “Student Activities" on pages 5-6. 




52 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


Core Unit 2 


Energy and the Living Cell 

Time: 14 hours 


The material in this unit builds on the topic of the “living cell”, 
introduced in the Grade 9 advanced-level science course and con¬ 
tinued in Grade 11 advanced-level biology. It is assumed that, as 
they begin work on this unit, students already have a good working 
knowledge of the cell theory and the structure and function of the 
cell. Here the emphasis is placed on the biochemical aspects of 
energy in the cell and on a detailed examination of mitochondria 
and cell membranes. It is expected that, as a result of the work 
done in this unit, students will consolidate their knowledge of 
energy use and transformations in living cells. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Cell membranes 
Active and passive transport 
Mitochondria: structure and function 
Energy transformations in the cell 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the relationship between structure and func¬ 
tion in cell membranes and mitochondria (2a, 2b); 

b) an appreciation of how they can use scientific models to help 
them visualize and understand the functions of cell organelles 
(8a, 8b). 


Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) interpreting the detailed structure of cellular membranes and 
mitochondria from electron micrographs (2b, 8a, 8b); 

b) designing and performing experiments to investigate the 
effects of environmental factors on the movement of materials 
through cell membranes (2a, 8d); 

c) designing and performing experiments to investigate the catab¬ 
olism of food materials in cells (2c); 

d) interpreting and graphing data from experiments on the move¬ 
ment of material through membranes and catabolism in cells 
(2a, 2c). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) explain how a model for the cell membrane, such as the fluid- 
mosaic model, accounts for experimental data relating to the 
structure of the membrane and the observed movement of 
materials through the cell membrane as a result of passive trans¬ 
port (2a, 2b); 

b) explain the effect of temperature, pH, and the type and concen¬ 
tration of solute on the movement of materials through cell 
membranes and predict the direction of particle movements 
across membranes (2a, 8d); 

c) define active transport and use a current theory to explain 
observations from experimental work (8a, 8b); 

d) describe, in general terms, how the first and second laws of 
thermodynamics apply to energy use and transformation in the 
biosphere and in the living cell (8c); 

e) explain the following terms: metabolism, catabolism, anabo¬ 
lism, aerobic metabolism, anaerobic metabolism; 

f) describe the synthesis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and its 
use in the cell (8b, 8c); 

g) explain the relationship among glycolysis, the citric-acid 
(Krebs) cycle, and the electron transport (respiratory) chain 
and indicate the reactants, products, and location of each in the 
cell (8b, 8c); 

h) explain and compare the release of energy and the production 
of ATP that results from the anaerobic (glycolysis and lactic- 
acid fermentation) and the aerobic (citric-acid cycle) catabo¬ 
lism of glucose; 

i) explain the significance of anaerobic catabolism and the build¬ 
up of lactic acid in active muscle tissue, resulting in muscle 
fatigue; 

j) describe, in general terms, how derivatives of fats and proteins 
can enter the glycolytic and citric-acid cycle pathways to pro¬ 
duce usable energy. 










53 


Core Unit 2: Energy and the Living Cell 


2 . Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) design and perform experiments to investigate the effects of 
temperature, pH, and the type and concentration of solutes on 
the movement of materials through differentially permeable 
membranes; 

*b) use electron micrographs to interpret the structure of cell mem¬ 
branes and mitochondria; 

*c) perform experiments to investigate the type and quantity of 
end products (e.g., carbon dioxide, alcohol) of aerobic and 
anaerobic catabolism in living organisms. 

3 - Applications 

a) The preparation of a number of common foods and beverages 
(baked goods, liquor, dairy products, vinegar) involves the use 
of the fermentation process, which has, thus, become the basis 
for substantial food industries. 

b) The knowledge of anaerobic catabolism in active muscle tissue 
provides an understanding of muscle fatigue and oxygen debt 
and has generally contributed to an improvement in condition¬ 
ing techniques. 

c) The knowledge of the structure and function of cell mem¬ 
branes has increased our understanding of the effects of poi¬ 
sons and bacterial toxins and has been applied effectively in 
cancer research and treatment. 

4 . Societal Implications 

a) Industries whose products are based on the fermentation pro¬ 
cess make an important contribution to the economy. 

b) The application of our knowledge of cells has led to improved 
medical, dietary, and physical-fitness procedures. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) laboratory experiments; 

b) interpretation and graphing of data from experiments. 


6. Safety Considerations 

Standard safety procedures appropriate to the experiments 

selected should be followed in the laboratory. 

7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) examine catabolism in prokaryotes; 

b) trace and explain the development of the present model 
(i.e., the fluid-mosaic model) of the structure of the cell 
membrane; 

c) investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and 
muscle-cell respiration with respect to energy efficiency; 

d) examine the relationship of cellular respiration to biological 
phenomena such as the decomposition of organic matter and 
warm-bloodedness. 

8- Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) The formulation, use, and limitations of scientific models such 
as the fluid-mosaic model of the cell membrane should be 
emphasized. 

b) Since there continue to be significant changes year by year in 
the working explanations of many biological phenomena, such 
as cell-membrane structure and function, mitochondrial activ¬ 
ity, and ATP production, it is important that current references 
and textbooks be used. 

c) Students should be able to explain biochemical processes in 
terms of basic concepts and laws (e.g., thermodynamics, con¬ 
trolled energy release, bond energies, redox reactions, electro¬ 
negativity). The memorization of chemical formulas and long 
chains of chemical reactions should not be overemphasized. 

d) The investigations concerning the effects of environmental fac¬ 
tors on the movement of materials through differentially 
permeable membranes provide a good opportunity for stu¬ 
dents to practise problem solving. On the basis of available 
information, students can create hypotheses that predict the 
effects of changing a variable. They can then design and per¬ 
form appropriate experiments. 


‘See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




54 


Core Unit 3 


Plant Physiology and 
Photosynthesis 

Time: 14 hours 


In this unit students will learn how plants use light energy and 
other raw materials in the process of photosynthesis to produce 
energy-rich organic molecules. The material presented builds on 
the initial introduction to plant structure and photosynthesis pre¬ 
sented in the Grade 9 advanced-level science course and the more 
detailed study of plant growth, structure, and function in the 
Grade 11 advanced-level biology course. Emphasis is placed on 
students’ acquiring an understanding and an appreciation of the 
chemical principles involved in photosynthesis and its significance 
in the biosphere. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Photosynthesis: light and dark reactions 
The plant structures involved in photosynthesis 
Conditions influencing the rate of photosynthesis 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students should be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation for plants as extremely useful living organisms 
that require care and preservation (3a, 3c, 4a); 

b) an appreciation for the fact that all living organisms depend on 
plants for their survival (3c); 

c) an awareness of careers that are based on the propagation, care, 
and study of plants (3c); 

d) curiosity about the physiological mechanisms that govern plant 
growth and response (2e). 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) preparing and examining wet-mount slides of algae and leaf tis¬ 
sue to identify the location, shape, and size of chloroplasts (2a); 

b) examining prepared slides or electron micrographs of leaf sec¬ 
tions to study stomata, the structure of chloroplasts, and the 
location and structure of various leaf tissues (2b, 2c); 

c) designing and performing experiments to study the effects on 
the rate of photosynthesis of variations in one or more of car¬ 
bon dioxide concentration, temperature, and quality and 
intensity of light (2e); 

d) interpreting data obtained from experiments on photosyn¬ 
thesis (2d, 2e). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe how materials are transported throughout plants in 
phloem and xylem tissue and also describe one model that 
accounts for the behaviour of water in these tissues; 

b) describe the structure of a leaf, the role and operation of the 
stomata, and the role each different kind of leaf tissue plays in 
photosynthesis (2a, 2c); 

c) compare, in general terms, the “light” (light-dependent) and 
“dark” (light-independent) reactions of photosynthesis; 

d) explain why plants are essential in the biosphere; 

e) recall the structure of a chloroplast and describe the locations 
where light-dependent and light-independent reactions take 
place (2a, 2b); 

f) explain the role of a photosynthetic pigment and compare the 
structure and absorption spectra of chlorophylls a and b (2d, 
8d); 

g) in terms of photosystems I and II and the chemiosmotic theory 
of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, describe how light 
energy is converted into the chemical potential energy of ATP 
andNADPH + H + (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleo¬ 
tide phosphate) during the light-dependent reactions of photo¬ 
synthesis (8d); 

h) describe how the ATP and the NADPH + H + from the light- 
dependent reactions are used to fix carbon and produce phos- 
phoglyceraldehyde (PGAL) in the Calvin (C 3 ) cycle (8d); 














55 

• « r 


i) including appropriate comparisons to aerobic catabolism, 
describe how PGAL can be used to produce glucose, sucrose, 
starch, and other products (8d); 

j) on the basis of evidence from experiments and in terms of 
the relationship between the light-dependent and light- 
independent reactions of photosynthesis, describe how the 
rate of photosynthesis is affected by carbon dioxide concentra¬ 
tion, temperature, and the intensity, type, and duration of light 

Pc); 

k) describe the techniques used by Calvin to determine the car¬ 
bon fixation (C 3 ) cycle. 

2 . Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) examine algae or other appropriate plant material, using a 
microscope to observe the size, shape, location, and quantity 
of chloroplasts; 

b) observe the structure of chloroplasts, using electron 
micrographs; 

*c) examine prepared slides and, if available, electron micrographs 
of leaf sections to identify tissue structure, stomata, and 
chloroplasts; 

d) extract photosynthetic pigments from leaf tissue and use paper 
chromatography to separate the pigments in the leaf extract or 
observe and analyse the passage of light through a solution of 
the pigments (6a); 

*e) design and perform experiments to investigate the effects on 
the photosynthetic process of variations in one or more of light 
(including quality, intensity, and photoperiod), carbon dioxide 
concentration, and temperature (5c); 

l) search available literature to gather information and report on 
the development of current knowledge about photosynthesis 
(8b). 

3 - Applications 

a) An understanding of the principles of the photosynthetic pro¬ 
cess has led to improved plant cultivation and conservation 
practices. 

b) Any environmental factor that inhibits photosynthesis on a 
large scale will have disastrous consequences in the biosphere. 

c) Plants are a major source of the necessities of life (food, oxygen) 
and provide such important products as lumber, paper fibre, 
and medicines. 


Core Unit 3: Plant Physiology and Photosynthesis 


4 . Societal Implications 

a) Many careers (e.g., in forestry, horticulture, agriculture, nurs¬ 
ery management) are based on the proper cultivation of plants. 

b) Industries based on the production, maintenance, and process¬ 
ing of plants and plant products make an important contribu¬ 
tion to Canada’s economy. 

c) Prudent management of our plant resources is vital for future 
economic stability. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) laboratory techniques and experiments; 

b) interpretation of data from experiments; 

c) designs of experimental investigations. 

6- Safety Considerations 

Students should exercise caution when using chromatography 

solvents. 

7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) investigate the role light plays in the synthesis and destruction 
of chlorophyll; 

b) compare the structural formulas of haemoglobin, cyto¬ 
chromes, and chlorophyll and account for their different func¬ 
tions in terms of their structure; 

c) examine chloroplasts in liverworts and mosses; 

d) gather information and report on the C 4 or Hatch-Slack path¬ 
way of carbon fixation and its advantages to the plants capable 
of using this process; 

e) investigate developments in aquaculture (e.g., the feasibility of 
harvesting plant and animal life from the ocean as a means of 
increasing global food supplies); 

f) investigate the importance of plants to human life in terms of 
the production of food, fibre, fossil fuel, and useful chemicals. 


‘See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 







56 


8 - Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) References to the history of research surrounding plant growth 
and the photosynthetic process can be used to emphasize 
aspects of the various processes of science. 

b) In conjunction with activity 2f, teachers should work with the 
teacher-librarian in the school’s resource centre to develop 
learning experiences to help students with literature-search 
techniques. 

c) Plant experiments are best done with young plants that are 
growing actively. These should be obtained well in advance of 
the time when they are required. Groups of students can work 
with different plants to investigate photosynthetic activity. If it 
is necessary to conserve space, some of this work can be done 
by students at home. 

d) A broad understanding of the principles involved in the con¬ 
version of light energy to the energy contained in molecules 
during photosynthesis should be achieved. The biochemistry 
of photosynthesis is to be treated at an introductory level. 
Memorization of formulas and chemical equations is not 
required. 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


Core Unit 4 


Genetics 

Time: 14 hours 


This unit is designed to provide students with an understanding of 
current theory on the nature and mechanism of expression of 
genetic information in the cell. It builds in part on the study of 
genetics and heredity included in the Grade 11 advanced-level biol¬ 
ogy course. However, since the topics considered here deal pri¬ 
marily with the biochemistry of genetics, Mendelian genetics and 
the inheritance of traits should be reviewed but not studied in 
detail. In this unit emphasis should be placed on providing stu¬ 
dents with up-to-date information so that they can begin not only 
to understand how genetic information controls the activities of 
the cell, but also to appreciate the important potentials of genetic 
engineering. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

» Biochemical genetics 

► Protein synthesis 

► Genetic research and technology 

► Genetic diseases 









57 


Core Unit 4: Genetics 


1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of, and curiosity about, current research and 
theories concerning the nature, transmission, modification, 
and expression of genetic information (2c, 3c, 3d); 

b) a commitment to learning about ethical and moral issues that 
stem from current research and technologies in genetics (2c, 
4b); 

c) an appreciation of the fact that differences among humans 
result from genetic variability and environmental influences. 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) analysing electron micrographs of chromosomes and deoxyri¬ 
bonucleic acid (DNA) molecules (2a); 

b) building molecular models to demonstrate the structure and 
replication of DNA (2 b); 

c) using molecular models to demonstrate aspects of protein syn¬ 
thesis such as the building of messenger ribonucleic acid 
(mRNA), the linkage of transfer RNA (tRNA) to mRNA, and the 
relationship between mRNA and the ribosome (2b); 

d) using recombination data from test crosses to determine the 
linear sequence of four or more linked genes (2d); 

e) using a variety of references to report on one or more aspects of 
current genetic research (2c). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) recall the meaning of the following terms: gene, allele, domi¬ 
nance, incomplete dominance, mitosis, meiosis, heterozygous, 
homozygous, monohybrid and dihybrid cross, sex-linked trait; 

b) describe the molecular structure and configuration of DNA 

(2a); 

c) describe the process of DNA replication (2b); 

d) describe the structural and functional relationship between 
DNA and RNA (2b); 

e) compare the structure of DNA and RNA (2b); 

f) explain in general terms how the genetic information encoded 
in DNA controls the activities of the cell and the growth and 
development of the organism; 

g) using current theory, including information on transcription, 
translation, mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes, describe how pro¬ 
teins are synthesized in the cell; 

h) with reference to environmental influences and, more specifi¬ 
cally, regulatory genes, operator sites on DNA, and repressor 
proteins, briefly describe how the synthesis of proteins might 
be triggered and repressed and why such control is necessary; 

i) describe how mutagens, such as radiation and chemicals, can 
change the genetic material in cells by causing mutations, for 
example, point and frameshift mutations and changes in chro¬ 
mosome number (2c); 


j) briefly describe one or more techniques of genetic research 
that make genetic engineering possible, for example, the use of 
restriction enzymes to analyse genes, the use of reverse tran¬ 
scriptase to synthesize DNA from RNA, and the synthesis and 
cloning of recombinant DNA (2c); 

k) briefly describe the following phenomena and discuss the 
social issues, including the benefits and risks arising from one 
or more of them: 

gene modification and insertion in prokaryotes so that they 
can be used to produce useful biochemicals; 
the production of desirable hybrids of domestic plants and 
animals through genetic engineering; 
the possible modification and selection of genes in humans; 
the application of DNA technology in the diagnosis of pre¬ 
natal and postnatal genetic diseases (2c, 8c); 

l) briefly describe the cause of, effects of, possible solutions to, 
and treatments for one or more human genetic diseases, such 
as Down’s syndrome, haemophilia, Klinefelter’s syndrome, 
Turner’s syndrome, Huntington’s chorea, muscular dystrophy, 
Tay-Sachs disease, and cystic fibrosis (2c, 8c); 

m) briefly describe how the experiments of at least three biologists 
(e.g., Mendel, Feulgen, Muller, Griffith, Hershey, Chase, Wat¬ 
son, Crick, Stahl, Meselson, Chargaff, Sutton, Morgan) have 
contributed to our understanding of genetics. 

2 . Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) examine and interpret electron micrographs of chromosomes 
and DNA molecules (5a); 

*b) build models of a section of DNA and a complementary RNA 
molecule or manipulate commercially prepared models of 
DNA (5a, 8b); 

*c) do a library project outlining the present knowledge about the 
work of scientists (including Canadians) in genetics, the tech¬ 
niques they used in research, and the social impact of one of 
the following: 

human genetic diseases - their causes, detection, and 
treatment; 

the production of crop species through genetic engineering; 

► industrial applications of genetic engineering; 
mutagens in the environment - their types, history, and 
effects; 

► some other relevant phenomena (5b, 8c); 

d) construct a gene map from testcross information (8a). 


*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 






55 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


3 . Applications 

a) Through genetic counselling people are better able to make 
family-planning decisions. 

b) Many humans and other forms of life have benefited from 
improved recognition and treatment of genetic disease. 

c) Such technological advances in the selective breeding of 
domestic animals as the use of sperm banks, selective artificial 
insemination, and embryo transplants have led to the develop¬ 
ment of hybrids with specific desirable characteristics. 

d) Genetic engineering has made possible the development of 
disease-resistant and high-yield crop species and the develop¬ 
ment of new biotechnical industries. 

4 - Societal Implications 

a) The development of new hybrids in agriculture has enhanced 
global food production and agriculture’s contribution to 
Canada’s national economy. 

b) The application of genetic engineering to the development of 
new organisms and the possibility of applications to eugenics 
raise difficult moral and ethical problems, which will need to 
be considered. 

c) Careers involving a knowledge of genetics include animal 
breeder, plant geneticist, genetic counsellor, physician, and 
microbiologist. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) interpretation of micrographs and work with molecular 
models; 

b) library projects. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

The nature of the activities in this unit is such that no specific safety 

considerations are required unless they arise from the possible 

extensions. 


7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) prepare microscope slides or use commercially prepared slides 
to examine the large-salivary-gland chromosomes of fruit-fly 
larvae; 

b) visit a genetic-counselling clinic; 

c) invite a practising geneticist to speak on his/her work; 

d) organize a debate on the pros and cons of genetic engineering; 

e) prepare a report on viruses that utilize RNA and DNA when 
they are active in human host cells. 

8- Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit should begin with a review of the work on Mendelian 
genetics and heredity considered in the Grade 11 biology 
course. 

b) Building models of DNA can be simple or complex. Creative 
students could produce the more sophisticated models for 
class use. A variety of common materials can be used (e.g., plas¬ 
ticine, cardboard, wire, pipe cleaners, pop beads, cubes, tape, 
ribbon). 

c) This is an ideal unit in which to hold class discussions on some 
important questions in biological research (e.g., the moral and 
ethical aspects of scientific advances, the control of scientific 
activity). 






Core Unit 5: The Theory of Evolution 


59 


Core Unit 5 


The Theory of Evolution 

Time: 14 hours 


The theory of biological evolution has been one of the major influ¬ 
ences on modern biology. This is the only course in the Grade 9 to 
OAC science continuum in which biological evolution is consid¬ 
ered in some detail. An understanding of genetics is necessary 
before the modern theory of evolution can be considered; hence, 
the study of this unit should follow that of core unit 4. In teaching 
about biological evolution, there is a tendency to dwell on the 
origins of evolutionary theory, including Darwin’s voyage. 
Although this is understandable, such a limited approach is not 
appropriate in an initial study of biological evolution in a Senior 
biology course. Instead, a balanced approach that leads students to 
consider the development and meaning of the modern theory of 
biological evolution, the supporting evidence, the usefulness and 
limitations of the theory, the mechanisms of evolution, and the 
current thinking in the area should be used. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► The development of the theory of biological evolution 

► The nature of scientific theories 

► The mechanism for evolution and speciation 

1- Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the development and the explanatory value 
of the neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution (2b, 3a, 

3b, 8d); 

b) a curiosity about the natural mechanisms that are explained by 
means of the theory of biological evolution and the usefulness 
and limitations of the theory (2b); 


c) an appreciation of the differences between the origin, develop¬ 
ment, and nature of scientific theories and other non-scientific 
modes of explanation, for example, religious (4a, 4b, 8d). 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) using the library and other sources of information to obtain rel¬ 
evant information from various areas of biology for a discus¬ 
sion of the theory of biological evolution (2 b); 

b) abstracting information from reading selections on evolution¬ 
ary theory and identifying the main ideas, the argument 
sequence, and the authors’ points of view (2 b); 

c) using beads or other suitable materials to design models of a 
population genotype to show the effect of factors that may alter 
the genetic equilibrium of a population (2 a). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) name and briefly describe the lines of evidence from areas of 
biology that support and are explained by the theory of biolog¬ 
ical evolution, for example, evidence from paleontology, com¬ 
parative anatomy (homologous and analogous structures), 
embryology, comparative biochemistry, genetics, selective 
breeding, and the geographical distribution of species (2b, 2c, 
8b); 

b) state and explain the Darwin-Wallace theory of natural 
selection; 

c) compare Darwin’s theory of the origin of species with that pro¬ 
posed by Lamarck (2 b); 

d) including reference to Erasmus Darwin, Malthus, Lyell, and the 
voyage of the HMS Beagle, describe briefly how Charles Dar¬ 
win gathered evidence and developed his ideas (2b); 

e) using the theory of natural selection as an example, differen¬ 
tiate among empirical facts, a hypothesis, and a theory and 
describe the origin, purpose, and development of scientific 
theories, giving examples of their usefulness and limitations; 

f) explain why Darwin was unable to account for the mechanism 
of inheritance of traits in his theory (2a, 8a); 

g) explain both the morphological and biological concept of a 
species and explain why it is difficult to give a rigorous defini¬ 
tion of a species that fits all occasions; 

h) explain with reference to the gene pool of a population why 
the theory of biological evolution applies to populations of 
organisms and not to individuals (2a, 2c, 8a, 8f); 

i) state the Hardy-Weinberg law and explain its significance in 
terms of the development of evolutionary theory (2a, 8f); 

j) describe three or more of the mechanisms that can lead to 
genetic variation in a population, for example, mutation, natu¬ 
ral selection, genetic drift, gene flow (migration), and popula¬ 
tion increase and decrease (2a, 2c, 8f); 

k) state the relationship between genetic variation and speciation 
and postulate how new species can result, for example, 
through geographical isolation (2a, 2c); 








60 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


l) describe the possible origin of Darwin’s finches, or some other 
groups of related species, in terms of initially reduced selection 
pressure, increased genetic variation, isolation, reuniting of 
species, competition, and increased selection pressure (2a, 8f); 

m) compare speciation with convergent evolution; 

n) explain the concept of adaptation by describing an example 
such as the development in bacteria of resistance to antibiotics 
(8a); 

o) compare Darwin’s thinking on the progression of the develop 
ment of species with the hypothesis of “punctuated equilib¬ 
rium” as proposed by S. J. Gould. 

2 - Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) design and manipulate models to demonstrate the effects of 
one or more of the following on the gene pool of a population: 
mutation, natural selection, isolation, genetic drift, gene migra¬ 
tion (5a, 8f); 

*b) use available materials, such as literature sources, models, pho¬ 
tographs, and prepared slides, to gather information and report 
on one of the following lines of evidence that are used to sup¬ 
port the theory of biological evolution: 

i) paleontology (students should examine the fossil record 
used to trace the development of a plant or animal and 
include an account of fossil-dating procedures); 

ii) comparative anatomy (students should identify and trace 
the probable evolution of vestigial structures or the devel¬ 
opment of an organ system or structure in a particular 
organism); 

iii) comparative embryology (students should compare 
embryonic development in various vertebrates); 

iv) comparative biochemistry (students should investigate 
biochemical similarities among living organisms, for exam¬ 
ple, in metabolic processes, blood molecules); 

v) chromosome structure (students should examine similari¬ 
ties and differences in the DNA sequences in the same 
genes of closely related species); 

vi) geographical distribution (students should outline evi¬ 
dence based on a small area, such as the Galapagos Islands, 
and on a large area, such as more than one continent); 

vii) domestication (students should trace the development of 
the varieties of a domestic animal or plant) (5a, 8e); 

c) measure, record, and graph continuous and non-continuous 
(polymorphic) variation in a population. They might examine, 


for example, variations in size, mass, germination rate, and 
coloration in seeds; or height, blood type, and eye colour in 
humans; 

d) list limitations or problems associated with the theory of evolu¬ 
tion that might be perceived from different perspectives 
(8b-8e). 

3 - Applications 

a) A knowledge of the mechanisms of speciation may assist in the 
development of new varieties of domestic plants and animals. 

b) The theory of biological evolution is used to postulate ancestral 
links among species. 

c) The theory of biological evolution can be used to illustrate 
some of the characteristics of the nature of science (see Part 1, 
subsection 3.2, of the science guideline). 

4 . Societal Implications 

a) Explanations for the origins of species have been the subject of 
considerable debate over the years. 

b) The debate over the theory of biological evolution has high¬ 
lighted, and has encouraged people to distinguish among, sci¬ 
entific, religious, and metaphysical explanations of the origins 
of life. 

c) Scientific theories such as the theory of biological evolution 
can have a profound effect on the guiding concepts of a society. 

d) Paleontologists, biology teachers and professors, museum 
curators, and biological illustrators are among those who 
require a knowledge of the theory of evolution in their careers. 

5 . Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) design and manipulation of models; 

b) reports on activity 2b; 

c) other investigations or reports. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

Safety procedures appropriate to the activities chosen should be 

followed. 


’See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




Core Unit 6: Homeostasis 


61 


Core Unit 6 


Homeostasis 

Time: 14 hours 


7 . Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) investigate theories on the origin of human races and discuss 
the reasons for racial similarities and differences; 

b) describe chronometric and relative dating techniques (e.g., car¬ 
bon 14, potassium-argon, position in sedimentary rock); 

c) discuss or debate one or more issues related to evolution, for 
example, natural selection in the human population, the fate of 
race distinctions in a global community (8c, 8d); 

d) visit a museum to examine various forms of evidence for the 
theory of biological evolution, such as fossils and artifacts asso¬ 
ciated with the evolution of hominids (8b); 

e) visit an experimental farm involved in selective breeding or 
invite a breeder to come to the class to discuss breeding 
techniques; 

f) compare the origin and central idea of the concept of the evolu¬ 
tion of species with that of the immutability of species (8d). 

8 . Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit should be taught after core unit 4 so that students will 
understand the genetic basis of biological evolution. 

b) The role of theories in science should be emphasized in this 
unit. Students should be encouraged to distinguish between 
fact and inference. 

c) Students should be given opportunities to evaluate their per¬ 
sonal beliefs by listening to, reading, and evaluating evidence in 
agreement with, and contrary to, their own values or opinions. 

d) Since some students may hold alternative points of view 
regarding the origin of species, the theory of biological evolu¬ 
tion should be treated with appropriate sensitivity. If alternative 
points of view are discussed, the suggestions and policy out¬ 
lined in Part 1, subsection 10.2, of this guideline are to be 
followed. 

e) To assist students in their literature search, the teacher should 
plan, in consultation with the teacher-librarian, for small 
groups of students to be instructed in the use of science 
indexes, professional journals, microfiche, and automated 
catalogues. 

f) A model of a gene pool can be developed, with coloured beads 
or seeds used to represent the alleles of one or more inheritable 
traits in a population. Working with the model, students can 
design and explore some fairly elaborate scenarios involving 
the effect of environmental factors. Commercial kits for this 
type of simulation are available. 

g) If possible, a class visit to a museum should be arranged so that 
students can observe fossils (e.g., hominids, dinosaurs, the var¬ 
ious types of plant and animal fossils). 


This unit focuses on the topics of biological control and homeosta¬ 
sis. Although these topics have been considered briefly in several 
previous units on vertebrate and cell physiology, they are treated in 
greater depth in this unit. In particular, the concept of a control sys¬ 
tem and the structure and function of the nervous and endocrine 
systems are examined here. An emphasis should be placed on pro¬ 
viding students with an understanding of the necessity for the 
maintenance within narrow limits of conditions inside the body, 
the roles and co-ordination of organ systems in this regulation, and 
the impact of their personal habits on the ability of their bodies to 
maintain the necessary homeostasis. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Biological control and homeostasis 

► The nervous system: structure and function 

► The endocrine system: structure and function 

► Chemical influences on the nervous and endocrine systems 

1- Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) an appreciation of the need for regulators and stability in the 
external and internal environments of living things (2c, 2e); 

b) a curiosity about the organs and mechanisms involved in ho¬ 
meostatic control in humans and other living things (2a, 2b); 

c) an appreciation of the fact that most body functions contribute 
in a co-ordinated fashion to the maintenance of internal stabil¬ 
ity (2a, 3a); 

d) a commitment to learning about and practising health and eat¬ 
ing habits that promote internal dynamic equilibrium (3b-3e). 







62 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) recognizing and demonstrating biological regulatory systems 
(2a, 2b); 

b) identifying the main parts of the nervous and endocrine sys¬ 
tems of a vertebrate (2a); 

c) performing experiments to demonstrate homeostatic mecha¬ 
nisms in humans (2c); 

d) measuring, recording, and graphing data from experiments 
designed to explore homeostatic mechanisms (2c). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) define homeostasis and explain in general terms why the 
maintenance of a stable internal environment is so important to 
living organisms (2c-2e); 

b) explain the concept of a regulatory system, using the following 
terms: stimulus, receptor, regulatory (interpretation) centre, 
afferent and efferent pathways, effector, response, feedback 
(positive and negative) (2b); 

c) list and describe in general terms, including their interactions, 
the components of any two of the following: nervous system, 
endocrine system, kidney, blood, liver (2a); 

d) briefly describe the structural relationships among, and the 
role of, the components of the nervous system, including the 
major sections of the brain (2a); 

e) describe the structure and explain the function of a reflex arc 
(2b); 

f) describe the structure of a neuron; 

g) explain how nerve impulses travel along and between neurons 
(2b); 

h) explain the following terms: endocrine gland, hormone, target 
organ; 

i) describe the source (including the location of the gland) and 
the role of any two interrelated hormones, for example, thy¬ 
roxin, parathyroid hormone, insulin, glucagon, thyroid- 
stimulating hormone (TSH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), 
adrenalin, noradrenalin, cortisone, aldosterone, sex 
hormones; 

j) using the body’s reaction to a stimulus such as physical exer¬ 
tion, describe how the nervous and endocrine systems interact 
to compensate for temporary fluctuations in the body’s inter¬ 
nal environment (2a, 8c); 

k) describe the cause, effects, and treatment of one or more of the 
following: diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyper- and 
hypothyroidism, goitre, Addison’s disease; 

l) briefly describe the work and findings of individuals such as 
Banting, Best, and Selye. 


2 - Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) examine and describe the nervous and endocrine systems of a 
vertebrate (5a, 6a); 

b) design a model demonstrating the essential components of a 
control system; 

*c) perform investigations to demonstrate the maintenance of a 
stable internal environment in the body, for example, investi¬ 
gate the body’s reaction to exercise (6b, 8c); 

d) perform experiments to demonstrate and measure the cooling 
effect caused by the evaporation of a liquid (e.g., sweat); 

e) perform experiments with invertebrates to examine the inter¬ 
nal effects of such external factors as heat and chemicals (8d). 

3 - Applications 

a) The knowledge of the location, role, structure, and function of 
control systems in the body has allowed for the identification 
and treatment of various disorders (e.g., the use of insulin for 
diabetes mellitus, dialysis for kidney breakdown). 

b) The discovery and use of psychoactive drugs has had both 
positive effects (the medical relief of pain) and negative effects 
(drug abuse and addiction). 

c) An awareness of the need to maintain internal homeostasis may 
lead to the maintenance of good health and food habits 

(e.g., consumption of foods containing essential minerals and 
vitamins). 

d) Techniques for keeping warm in the winter and cool in the 
summer are based in part on a knowledge of the body’s physio¬ 
logical response to temperature extremes. 

e) Menstrual feedback systems can be artificially manipulated by 
means of hormones to increase or decrease the possibility of 
conception. 

4 . Societal Implications 

a) Medical advances in the treatment of disorders of the nervous 
and endocrine systems have improved the quality of life and 
increased the lifespan of many people. 

b) The medical use of psychoactive drugs has been beneficial, but 
drug abuse and addiction are major problems in society. 

c) The use of steroids (androgens) to increase body weight and 
muscular strength in athletes has been questioned. 


*See the subsection entitled "Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 













63 


Core Unit 6: Homeostasis 


5- Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) descriptions of vertebrate nervous and endocrine systems; 

b) laboratory experiments and reports. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

a) Students should wear disposable gloves and appropriate pro¬ 
tective eyewear if they do a dissection. Appropriate ventilation 
should also be provided. 

b) Students with cardiovascular health problems should not par¬ 
ticipate in activities that require physical exercise. 

7. Possible Extensions 

Some students might: 

a) gather information and report on selected aspects of brain anat¬ 
omy and physiology; 

b) investigate the biochemical mechanisms of hormones in plants 
and animals; 

c) investigate the impact of regular exercise on the maintenance 
of homeostasis in the body; 

d) perform a risk/benefit analysis on the use of anabolic steroids in 
sports; 

e) explain the following terms and describe the source and the 
effects on the human body of each: psychoactive drug, stimu¬ 
lant, depressant, hallucinogenic substance. 

8 - Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit should begin with a review of the effects of tempera¬ 
ture, pH, ion concentration, and toxic substances on enzyme 
activity and cell physiology. 

b) The work in this unit can be integrated with that of optional 
unit 1, ‘Animal Behaviour”. 

c) Physical exertion increases a number of body reactions 
(e.g., breathing rate, heartbeat, carbon dioxide concentration 
in exhaled air, blood pressure, body temperature, perspira¬ 
tion), which students can observe and measure. Recovery time 
can be related to physical fitness. Students with health prob¬ 
lems should not be involved in strenuous exercise but should 
participate in the collecting of experimental data in activity 2c. 


d) The experiments with invertebrates should deal with 
responses other than the avoidance of, or attraction to, stimuli. 
For example, the heartbeat of Daphnia changes in reaction to 
temperature changes and exposure to adrenalin. 

e) Given the vast amounts of information available on the anat¬ 
omy and physiology of the nervous system and the importance 
of providing students with a cohesive view of biological con¬ 
trol and homeostasis, it will be necessary to monitor carefully 
the depth of treatment in this unit in order to complete it in 
fourteen hours. 

f) If the optional unit on the vertebrate excretory system was not 
studied in Grade 11, it would be appropriate to consider the 
role of the kidney in the homeostatic process in this unit. The 
various objectives and activities that deal with the nature of the 
endocrine and nervous systems can be extended to include the 
excretory system. 





64 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


Core Unit 7 


Ecology 

Time: 14 hours 


The study of ecology deals with the temporal and spatial distribu¬ 
tion of species and examines biotic and abiotic interrelationships. 
This unit moves students beyond the description of ecosystems 
and food webs presented in the Grade 10 advanced-level science 
course to a consideration of population dynamics, human ecology, 
and the concept of energy and matter flow through the biosphere. 
Since ecology is investigative, it is important that students be given 
the opportunity to measure environmental variables, analyse data, 
and weigh the ecological and social consequences related to cur¬ 
rent environmental issues. Students should also be made aware of 
relationships between the theory of biological evolution and the 
study of ecology. For example, concepts such as adaptation, 
genetic diversity, and natural selection should be used to help 
explain the presence and variety of species in an area. Finally, an 
emphasis should be placed on helping students develop an 
informed personal ethic regarding both their local environment 
and the global environment. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

► Ecological concepts 

* Biogeochemical cycles 

► Energy flow 

► Population dynamics 

► Human ecology in the biosphere 


1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a commitment to making informed decisions about societal 
issues associated with environmental problems (2a, 3a, 3c); 

b) an appreciation for the conflicting interests and concerns of 
those involved with commercial enterprises that can have a 
negative impact on the environment and those dedicated to 
preserving that environment (2a, 3a, 4a); 

c) an appreciation of the unique nature of the ecology of the 
human population in the biosphere (2a, 2c, 3a); 

d) a commitment to developing their own informed personal 
environmental ethic (3c); 

e) a responsible attitude towards the direct or indirect effects of 
their actions on the environment (3c, 4a). 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) measuring environmental factors and interpreting the data 
obtained in terms of the effects of such factors on populations 
of organisms (2a); 

b) analysing and evaluating data and arguments concerning local 
and world ecological issues (2a, 2d); 

c) making and communicating informed personal decisions 
about the impact of, and solutions to, local environmental 
problems (2a, 2d). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) describe the meaning of the term ecology* and explain the fol¬ 
lowing ecological concepts: food web, trophic levels, biome, 
ecosystem, community, population, niche, succession, sym¬ 
biotic relationship (8b); 

b) explain the concept of the cycling of matter in the biosphere 
and briefly describe the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phospho¬ 
rous, and water biogeochemical cycles; 

c) including the concepts of net production and the first and sec¬ 
ond laws of thermodynamics, describe the flow of energy 
through an ecosystem and account for the biomass at each of 
the trophic levels in an ecosystem; 

d) relate biogeochemical cycles to the flow of energy through the 
biosphere and describe some impacts on the biosphere of 
human activity, such as elevated carbon dioxide production, 
acid rain, and industrial toxins; 

e) compare the use of energy by humans in North America with 
that of humans in developing countries and that of non-human 
organisms; 








65 


Core Unit 7: Ecology 



f) compare and explain the fluctuations in a population of a wild 
plant, a wild animal, and a micro-organism, including such fac¬ 
tors as carrying capacity, fecundity, competition, and predation 
(2b); 

g) describe and account for the change in the human population 
over the last few thousand years, including the concept of 
exponential growth (2c). 


2 . Student Activities 


Students are to: 



*a) on the basis of tests and measurements done in the field and 
information gathered from other sources, analyse and report 
on a local environmental problem in terms of the factors creat¬ 
ing the problem, resulting changes in biotic and abiotic ele¬ 
ments in the ecosystem, and the probable best solution (6a, 
8c-8e); 

b) analyse and account for the variety, size, and distribution of 
populations in an ecosystem (8g); 

c) analyse current demographic data and trends for Canada and 
for a developing country and then predict what the popula¬ 
tions and related social conditions will be like twenty, sixty, and 
one hundred years in the future (8h); 

d) critically analyse a media article or scientific report on an eco¬ 
logical issue. 


4 - Societal Implications 

a) Many ecological problems can be addressed by informed and 
committed citizens acting through local organizations and gov¬ 
ernment agencies to influence and regulate the activities of 
industry and other groups that have an environmental impact. 

b) Society will need to support ongoing ecological research, pol¬ 
lution and natural-resources management, and environmental 
assessment and improvement programs if the deterioration of 
the environment is to be brought under control. 

c) Careers involving a knowledge of ecology include conserva¬ 
tion officer, wildlife biologist, naturalist, forester, and surveyor. 

5 - Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit should be based 

on students’: 

a) measurements and interpretations of data; 

b) analyses of environmental phenomena. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

Appropriate safety precautions should be established prior to field 

trips. 


3 . Applications 


7 . Possible Extensions 


a) Research in ecology has increased our understanding of the 
effects and uniqueness of human intervention in the biosphere 
and has made it possible to consider steps to correct or reduce 
the adverse impacts of human activity on the environment. 

b) The study of ecology enhances our ability to facilitate the pop¬ 
ulation growth of endangered species effectively. 

c) A knowledge of ecology makes it possible to develop an 
informed personal environmental ethic and to take responsibil¬ 
ity for appropriate actions in the environment. 


Some students might: 

a) discuss the ecological and moral issues associated with the pro¬ 
vision by developed countries such as Canada of food and 
medical and technical aid to developing countries; 

b) create and then discuss or dramatize a scenario in which a 
major industry in an area decides to close its factory rather than 
install mandatory pollution controls that are extremely 
expensive; 

c) using concepts such as genetic diversity, selection pressure, 
and adaptation, account for the greater variety of species of 
plants and animals in a tropical rain forest than in a temperate 
deciduous forest. 



‘See the subsection entitled “Student Activities” on pages 5-6. 




66 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


8 . Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) This unit might profitably be taught as an interdisciplinary unit 
with the geography and history departments. Content overlap 
among departments should be carefully checked. 

b) This unit should begin with a review or brief consideration of 
the terminology that is used to describe the structure and inter¬ 
relationships in an ecosystem. 

c) It is expected that students will move outside of the school in 
their study of a local environmental problem. However, the 
extent of the field activities will vary with the school location, 
the time of year, and the resources and time available. 

d) A variety of simple tests for a number of environmental varia¬ 
bles are described in biological and ecological resource books 
and field-experiment manuals. The necessary equipment is 
often available in kit form. 

e) In many locations officials from government ministries and 
agencies that deal with the environment are available to discuss 
and demonstrate their work and provide current information 
on environmental factors. 

f) The making of a videotape might be a useful and interesting 
way to document an environmental problem. 

g) The study of populations in an ecosystem can be restricted to 
one plant or animal species. 

h) There is a considerable amount of information available on 
trends in and predictions of human population. 

i) Computer simulations and models can be used in analysing 
complex and long-term problems. 


Optional Unit 1 


Animal Behaviour 

Time: 12 hours 


Ethology is the study of animal behaviour in nature. It emphasizes 
the evolution and adaptive value of behaviour patterns. In this unit 
students explore and compare the contributions of ethology and 
behavioural psychology to the study of animal behaviour. A num¬ 
ber of important considerations are introduced, including the 
need to treat and care for animals humanely, the value of careful 
objective observations in the examination and interpretation of 
animal behaviour, the inappropriateness of anthropomorphic 
thinking in the analysis of animal behaviour, and the proper design 
ofethological investigations. The design and performance of rele¬ 
vant laboratory investigations by students are central to the learn¬ 
ing objectives in this unit. 

This unit may be divided into topics such as the following: 

» Animal care and treatment 

► Innate behaviour 

► Learned behaviour 

► The adaptive value of behaviour patterns 

1. Objectives 

Attitudes. Students will be encouraged to develop: 

a) a concern for, and a commitment to, the well-being of animals 
in the laboratory and in their natural setting (2a, 2e); 

b) an appreciation for the need to be objective in observing ani¬ 
mal behaviour (2b, 2c, 3d); 

c) curiosity about the origins, modification, and adaptive value of 
animal behaviour (3 b); 








67 
• * • 


d) critical-mindedness towards evidence and interpretations of 
animal behaviour that have resulted from poorly designed 
investigations, for example, those that are characterized by lack 
of control of variables, non-replicability, inadequate data for 
objective analysis, and lack of objectivity (3d). 

Skills. Students will have the opportunity to develop skill in: 

a) caring for animals in the laboratory according to legally pre¬ 
scribed practice (2a-2c, 8a); 

b) designing properly controlled investigations to test hypotheses 
concerning the innate and learned behaviour of the animals 
available for study (2 b, 2 c); 

c) accurately and objectively performing investigations and 
describing, recording, and interpreting data concerning animal 
behaviour (2 b, 2 c); 

d) writing formal reports of laboratory investigations of animal 
behaviour (2b, 2c, 2e); 

e) evaluating interpretations of observed animal behaviour (2b, 
2c,2e). 

Knowledge. Students will be expected to: 

a) state the conditions required for the care of animals in the labo¬ 
ratory according to prescribed practice; for example, animals 
must be cared for humanely and handled properly, discomfort 
and pain must be minimized, and the environments in which 
the animals are housed must be regulated to enhance the ani¬ 
mals’welfare (2a, 8a); 

b) describe and compare ethology, behavioural psychology, and 
sociobiology; 

c) in terms of animal behaviour, compare innate with learned 
behaviour and the environmental (nurture) origins with the 
genetic (nature) origins of animal behaviour (2b-2d); 

d) describe an example of and be able to identify each of the fol¬ 
lowing kinds of behaviour: taxis, reflex, instinct, imprinting, 
habituation, conditioning (8a); 

e) describe how animal behaviour can be modified through basic 
and operant conditioning techniques, including the use of 
positive and negative reinforcement and the use of mind- 
altering chemicals (2b, 2c); 

f) briefly describe the ethological work and findings of individu¬ 
als such as Lorenz, Tinbergen, von Frisch, and Goodall (2d); 

g) describe, and state the adaptive value of, two or more innate 
behaviours of an invertebrate and a vertebrate, two or more 
examples of learned behaviour in a vertebrate, and two or 
more examples of social behaviour in a primate (2d, 2e). 


Optional Unit 1: Animal Behaviour 


2, Student Activities 

Students are to: 

*a) examine the guidelines or excerpts thereof of the Canadian 
Council on Animal Care and the Animals for Research Act and 
identify appropriate procedures for the care and treatment of 
animals in the laboratory (8a, 8c); 

*b) observe the behaviour of an animal over a period of time and 
classify the behaviour(s) as innate (taxis, reflex, instinct) or 
learned (conditioning, imprinting, habituation); 

*c) design and perform an investigation to study the development 
of a conditioned response in an animal; 

d) use the library and other information sources to investigate one 
of the following: 

language comprehension by primates such as chimpanzees; 
communication in bees, including the pioneering work by 
von Frisch and that of more recent investigators; 
the migration of birds and other animals and the role of hor¬ 
mones in this behaviour; 

some other area of current research in ethology (8g); 

e) design and perform investigations to study the behaviour of an 
animal in its natural setting, for example, an animal’s feeding, 
mating, escape, or protective behaviour (8g). 

3- Applications 

a) The knowledge of animal behaviour and basic conditioning 
techniques is used extensively to control the behaviour of 
domestic animals and often to teach them desired behaviour as 
well. 

b) Considerable satisfaction can be derived from observing and 
becoming knowledgeable about the behaviour of animals in 
their natural habitat. Some students may go on to work as 
naturalists. 

c) Basic conditioning techniques have been used to study and to 
facilitate human learning. 

d) The study of animal behaviour has highlighted the need to treat 
animals humanely and to be aware of the fallacies resulting 
from anthropomorphism. 

e) The increase in our knowledge of animal behaviour has facili¬ 
tated the proper management of wildlife and has led to the use 
of appropriate measures to protect and rebuild populations of 
species that are endangered. 


‘See the subsection entitled “Student Activities" on pages 5-6. 





68 


Biology, Ontario Academic Course (SBIOA) 


4. Societal Implications 

a) A knowledge of animal behaviour encourages people to treat 
animals humanely. 

b) A knowledge of animal behaviour has provided some insights 
into aspects of human behaviour. 

c) Careers that involve knowledge of animal behaviour include 
veterinarian, zookeeper, animal-care technologist, pet-store 
owner, wildlife biologist, forester, and fisheries worker. 

5. Evaluation of Student 
Achievement 

At least 30 per cent of the term mark for this unit is to be based on 

students’: 

a) designing and conducting of animal-behaviour investigations; 

b) observations and interpretations of animal behaviour; 

c) reports on the results of laboratory investigations. 

6 - Safety Considerations 

a) In this unit, the safety of both students and the animals that are 
studied shall be carefully taken into account. 

b) Students are to learn how to handle and care for animals 
properly. 

c) Wild animals (dead or alive) are not to be brought into the class¬ 
room. Animals for experiments should be obtained from repu¬ 
table sources, such as biological supply houses. 

d) Teachers should ensure that students inform them of any aller¬ 
gies that they have to animals. 

e) Precautions should be taken to avoid scratches or bites from 
animals. Any scratch or bite is to be reported to the teacher. 

f) Only positive reinforcement is to be used in conditioning 
animals. 

7. Possible Extensions 


8 . Some Teaching Suggestions 

a) At the outset of this unit, pertinent regulations stated in board 
and government animal-care documents should be reviewed, 
and students should be made aware of proper animal-care and 
handling techniques. Subsection 9.3, ‘Animal Care in Science 
Courses” in Part 1 of this guideline should also be reviewed. In 
particular, teachers and students should be aware of guidelines 
from the Canadian Council on Animal Care and the Animals for 
Research Act. 

b) Students should know basic concepts concerning innate and 
learned behaviour as well as appropriate experimental proce¬ 
dures before they attempt to design and perform their own 
investigations. Appropriate experimental designs and observa¬ 
tion techniques are outlined in basic psychology texts and in 
more detailed accounts of the work of practising ethologists. 

c) The knowledge that students have gained as a result of design¬ 
ing and performing their own investigations will provide them 
with the ability to analyse and evaluate the investigative work of 
others. 

d) Fish, such as the Siamese fighting fish {Betta splmdens ), are 
good animals to use in investigations of innate behaviour. Col¬ 
ours and shapes can be used to elicit aggressive behaviour from 
males. Comparisons of the behaviour of males and females can 
be made. Small rodents, such as gerbils, can be used in 
conditioned-response investigations. 

e) Where space, equipment, or some other restriction makes the 
use of vertebrates impossible, invertebrates such as crusta¬ 
ceans, insects, or worms can be used to study animal 
behaviour. 

f) Where time is a problem and the animal-behaviour investiga¬ 
tions cannot be completed in twelve hours, this unit can be 
integrated with another unit, such as core unit 6 or 7. 

g) There are many good documentary films and videotapes deal¬ 
ing with animal behaviour that could be used throughout this 
unit. 


Some students might: 

a) review science and nature magazines in order to gather infor¬ 
mation and report on recent animal-behaviour investigations; 

b) identify and report on a controversial issue concerning animals 
(e.g., the control of wolf populations, the beaching of whales, 
the migration of caribou) by describing the animal behaviour 
involved and the pros and cons of human involvement; 

c) apply statistical tests to data collected in experiments and, if 
possible, use a microcomputer to display and analyse the data. 





69 


Optional Unit 2: Locally Designed Unit 


Optional Unit 2 


# Locally Designed Unit 

Time: 12 hours 



This unit is the same for the biology OAC as optional unit 8, 
“Locally Designed Unit’’ is for the Grade 11 advanced-level biol¬ 
ogy course. A different set of topics from those selected in Grade 11 
should, of course, be selected for this course. 














c 


Appendixes 


Appendixes 


A. Science Courses and Their 
Course Codes 

B. The Table of Contents of 
Parti 










73 


Appendix A 


Science Courses and Their 
Course Codes 


The secondary school guideline courses in science authorized under 


this document have the following course codes: 

Science, Grade 9, Basic Level. SNC1B 

Science, Grade 9, General Level. SNC 1G 

Science, Grade 9, Advanced Level. SNC 1A 

Science, Grade 10, Basic Level. SNC2B 

Environmental Science, Grade 10, General Level. SEN2G 

Science, Grade 10, General Level. SNC2G 

Environmental Science, Grade 10, Advanced Level. SEN2 A 

Science, Grade 10, Advanced Level. SNC2A 

Science, Grade 11, Basic Level. SNC3B 

Applied Biology, Grade 11, General Level. SBA3G 

Applied Chemistry, Grade 11, General Level. SCA3G 

Environmental Science, Grade 11, General Level. SEN3G 

Biology, Grade 11, Advanced Level. S B13 A 

Chemistry, Grade 11, Advanced Level. SCH3A 

Science, Grade 12, Basic Level. SNC4B 

Environmental Science, Grade 12, General Level. SEN4G 

Geology, Grade 12, General Level. SGE4G 

Applied Physics, Grade 12, General Level. SPA4G 

Environmental Science, Grade 12, Advanced Level. SEN4A 

Geology, Grade 12, Advanced Level. SGE4A 

Physics, Grade 12, Advanced Level. SPH4A 

Technological Science, Grade 12, General Level. STE4G 

Biology,OAC. SBI0A 

Chemistry, OAC. SCH0A 

Physics, OAC. SPH0A 

Science in Society, OAC. SSOOA 


A. Science Courses and Their Course Codes 


The following general rules govern science course codes: 

All science course codes begin with an S. 

SNC identifies a course that has only the name “Science”. 

Where one word other than “Science” describes the course, the 
first two letters of that word follow the S(e.g., SBI means 
“Science, Biology” or simply “Biology”; SEN means “Science, 
Environmental” or “Environmental Science”). 

Where two words other than “Science” describe the course, the 
initial letters of those words are used (e.g., SCA means “Science, 
Chemistry Applied” or simply “Applied Chemistry”). 

The fourth character in the course code, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , orO, repre¬ 
sents Grade 9,10,11,12, or an OAC respectively. 

The fifth character represents the level of difficulty: B for basic, 
G for general, or A for advanced. 

For further information on course codes, refer to th t Manual for 
the Common Course Code (Toronto: Ministry of Education, Ontario, 
1986 ). 































74 


Appendixes 


Appendix B 


The Table of Contents of 
Parti 


Preface 

Introduction 

The Parts of the Guideline 
Guideline Courses 
Superseded Guidelines 


A. Goals and Aims 

1. The Value and Purpose of Science Education 

2. The Goals of Education and the Role of Science 

3. The Aims of the Science Curriculum 

3.1 The Aims 

3.2 The Nature of Science 

3.3 Scientific Literacy 

3.4 Curriculum Emphases - Blending Curriculum 
Aims With Content 


B. Science Program Framework 

4. Science Courses 

4.1 The Science Continuum From Kindergarten to OACs 

4.2 Levels of Difficulty: Basic, General, and Advanced 

4.3 Science Courses and Credits 

4.4 Units of Study Within Each Course 

4.5 Recommendations Regarding Course Selections 

5. Teaching Policy 

5.1 Content and Process 

5.2 Components in Each Unit of Study 

5.3 Teaching Policy for All Science Units 

5.4 Time Allocations for Each Unit 

5.5 Locally Designed Units 


5.6 The Grade Placement and Naming of Local Science 
Courses 

5.7 Overall Policy for Science Courses 


C. Special Features of the Science Program 

6. Considering the Science Student 

6.1 The Image of the Successful Science Student 

6.2 Program Adaptations for Exceptional Students 

6.3 Individualized Instruction 

6.4 Life-Management Skills 

6.5 Employment Awareness 

6.6 Sex Equity 

6.7 Multiculturalism 

7. Language and Science 

7.1 Language Skills 

7.2 Assignments and Evaluation 

7.3 English Vocabulary in French-Immersion Science 
Courses 

7.4 Immigrant Students 

8. Measurement 

8.1 Estimation 

8.2 Metric Units and Physical Quantities 

8.3 Accuracy and Precision 

8.4 Formats in Solutions to Problems 

9. Safety 

9.1 Safety in the Laboratory 

9.2 Some Recommended Safety Procedures 

9.3 Animal Care in Science Courses 

9.4 The Safe Use of Plants 










75 


B. The Table of Contents of Part / 


10. Values in Science Education 

10.1 The Role of Values Issues in Science Courses 

10.2 Handling Sensitive Issues 


D. Implementation 


11 . 


12 . 


13. 


14. 


Curriculum Planning and Staff Development 

11.1 Policy Planning at the Board Level 

11.2 Program Planning at the School Level 

11.3 Course Planning at the Teacher Level 

11.4 School-Board Curriculum Documents 

11.5 Staff Development 
Resources 

12.1 Science Laboratories and Equipment 

12.2 Library Resource Centres 

12.3 Textbooks and Learning Materials 

12.4 Calculators 

12.5 Computers 

12.6 The Scientific Community 
Modes of Deli very 

13.1 Bilevel and Multigrade Classes 

13.2 Co-operative Education 

13.3 Program Packages 

13.4 Adult Education 

13.5 Independent Learning Centre 

13.6 Specialized Schools 
Evaluation 

14.1 Evaluating Guideline-Implementation Progress 

14.2 Evaluating Student Achievement 

14.3 Self-Evaluation of Teacher Performance 

14.4 Evaluation of Program Effectiveness 


Appendixes 

A. Science Courses and Their Course Codes 

B. Physical Quantities 

C. Metric Editorial Practice 

D. Some Poisonous Plants 

E. Some OAIP Instrument Types and Learning Domains 














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© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 1987 


ISBN 0-7729-2416-3