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Ministry 

of 

Education 


Sean Conway, Minister 

Bernard J. Shapiro, Deputy Minister 


Curriculum Guideline 


Design and Technology 


VALIDATION 

DRAFT 


Draft document for discussion purposes 


September 1989 








Curriculum Guideline 


DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY 


Design and Technology 

Grades 7 - 12 

Design Studies 

Grades 9-12 

Elements of Technology 

Grades 9 - 12 


VALIDATION 

DRAFT 


Draft for discussion purposes 


September, 1989 





PREFACE 


% 


1 ■ 


INTRODUCTION . 2 

PART A - PROGRAM PLANNING .. 4 

1. GOALS, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. 4 

1.1 The Goals of Education. 4 

1.2 The Aims of Design & Technology Courses ... 9 

1.3 Student Objectives . 11 

1.4 Sex Equity ..12 

1.5 Core Content ..13 

1.6 Course Objectives . 14 

1.7 Integration of the Technologies into the Core 

Curriculum .. 15 

2. PROGRAM AND COURSE PLANNING . 16 

2.1 Program Planning . 16 

2.2 Course Content.16 

2.3 Safety.17 

2.4 Evaluation.2 0 

2.5 Computers.2 2 

2.6 Language and Learning.2 3 

* 

2.7 Life Skills.24 

2.8 Information on Career Opportunities . 25 

2.9 Co-operative Education . 26 

2.10 Work Experience.2 7 

2.11 Exceptional Pupils . 28 



























* 
















PART B 


DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY COURSES 


Design and Technology . . . . 

1. Grades 7, 8 & 9 . . 

2. Grades 10 to 12 . . 

Design Studies . . . 

1. Grade 9 ...... 

2. Grades 10, 11 and 12 

Elements of Technology . . . . 

Grades 9 to 12 . 


30 ' 
30 
30 
40 
68 
73 
77 
88 
88 


PART C - CONTENT FOR DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY COURSES ...... 89 

Design- and Technology ....89 

Design Studies . . 


100 














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1 . 


PREFACE 

The growing importance of information technology to business and 
industry means that students who participate in technical 
literacy courses today require different types of skills and 
knowledge than students did in the past. The need for skills in 
the trades and service occupations continues, but there is a 
greater demand for knowledge and skills related to ever changing 
technologies. Therefore, the integration of design methodology 
and technical competency should prepare students for employment 
and post secondary education at the same time as it provides them 
with a basic understanding of modern technology. 

The accelerated pace of change in contemporary life also requires 
students to develop a wide range of basic learning and job skills 
with the positive attitudes and feelings of self-worth that will 
allow them to adapt readily to changing employment requirements. 
These needs should be reflected in courses that are developed 
from this guideline. 

This document supercedes and replaces Industrial Arts I. and S. 


19, 1962. 


2 . 


INTRODUCTION 


This document is designated as Module 1 for Design & Technology. 
It includes three subjects: Design and Technology, Design Studies 
and Elements of Technology. 

Design and Technology will be the first formal technology course 
taken by many students, usually in elementary school. Design and 
Technology courses provide opportunities for students to discover 
and use creative abilities in projects that involve tools and 
materials. 

Design Studies courses provide opportunities for students to 
identify, analyze and solve design problems involving products or 
systems that fill particular needs, and that have value in the 
marketplace. 

Elements of Technology courses are broad based programs that 
provide a foundation in Communications, Construction, 
Manufacturing and Transportation technologies. 

Courses from this guideline may also be taught as part of the 
Technological Studies Guideline, Part B7: Materials, Processes 
and Design. 


Note: 


3 . 

These courses may form part of a schools Contemporary 
Studies or Technological Studies program. The credits 
earned in these courses may, at the individual 
students* discretion, be used as (a) credits in 
contemporary studies, or (b) credits in technological 
studies. In addition, credits earned may be counted as 
those of the eight required for concentration in 
technological studies. 


4 c 


PART A - PROGRAM PLANNING 


1. GOALS. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 


1.1 The Goals of Education 


The goals of education for Ontario are stated in OSIS: 

The Ministry of Education in Ontario strives to provide in 
the schools of the province equal opportunity for all. In 
its contribution to programs, personnel, facilities, and 
finances, the ministry has the overall purpose of helping 
individual learners to achieve their potential in physical, 
intellectual, emotional, social, cultural, and moral 
development. The goals of education, therefore, consist of 
helping each student to: 

1. Develop a responsiveness to the dynamic processes of 
learning 

Processes of learning include observing, sensing, 
inquiring, creating, analyzing, synthesizing, 
evaluating, and communicating. The dynamic aspect of 
these processes derives from their source in many 
instinctive human activities, their application to 
real-life experiences, and their systematic 
interrelation within the curriculum. 





5 . 


2. Develop resourcefulness, adaptability, and creativity 
in learning and living 

These attributes apply to modes of study and inquiry, 
to the management of personal affairs such as career 
plans and leisure activities, and to the ability to 
deal effectively with challenge and change. 

3. Acquire the basic knowledge and skills needed to 
comprehend and express ideas through words, numbers, 
and other symbols 

Such knowledge and skills will assist the learner in 
applying rational and intuitive processes to the 
identification and solution of problems by: 

a) using language aptly as a means of communication 
and an instrument of thought; 

b) reading, listening, and viewing with comprehension 
and insight? 

c) understanding and using mathematical operations 
and concepts. 

4. Develop physical fitness and good health 

Factors that contribute to fitness and good health 
include regular physical activity, an understanding of 
human biology and nutrition, the avoidance of health 
hazards, and concern for personal well-being. 


6 0 


5. Gain satisfaction from participating and from sharing 
the participation of others in various forms of 
artistic expression 

Artistic expression involves the clarification and 
restructuring of personal perception and experience. 

It is found in the visual arts, music, drama, and 
literature, as well as in other areas of the curriculum 
in which both the expressive and receptive capabilities 
of the learner are being developed. 

6 . Develop a feeling of self-worth 

Self-worth is affected by internal and external 
influences. Internally it is fostered by realistic 
self-appraisal, confidence and conviction in the 
pursuit of excellence, self-discipline, and the 
satisfaction of achievement. Externally it is 
reinforced by encouragement, respect, and supportive 
evaluation. 

7. Develop an understanding of the role of the individual 
within the family and the role of the family within 
society 

Within the family the individual shares responsibility, 
develops supportive relationships, and acquires values. 
Within society the family contributes to the stability 
and quality of a democratic way of life. 


7 . 


8. Acquire skills that contribute to self-reliance in 
solving practical problems in everyday life 

These skills relate to the skilful management of 
personal resources, effective participation in legal 
and civic transactions, the art of parenthood, 
responsible consumerism, the appropriate use of 
community agencies and services, the application of 
accident-prevention techniques, and a practical 
understanding of the basic technology of home 
maintenance. 

9. Develop a sense of personal responsibility in society 
at the local, national, and international levels 

Awareness of personal responsibility in society grows 
out of knowledge and understanding of one's community, 
one's country, and the rest of the world. It is based 
on an understanding of social order, a respect for the 
law and the rights of others, and a concern for the 
quality of life at home and abroad. 

10. Develop esteem for the customs, cultures, and beliefs 
of a wide variety of societal groups 

This goal is related to social concord and individual 
enrichment. In Canada, it includes regard for: 

a) the Native peoples? 

b) the English and French founding peoples; 

c) multiculturalism; 


8 . 


d) national identity and unity. 

11. Acquire skills and attitudes that lead to satisfaction 
and productivity in the world of work 

In addition to the appropriate academic, technical, and 
interpersonal skills, this goal relates to good work 
habits, flexibility, initiative, leadership, the 
ability to cope with stress, and regard for the dignity 
of work. 

12. Develop respect for the environment and a commitment to 
the wise use of resources 

This goal relates to a knowledgeable concern for the 
qualify of the environment, the careful use of natural 
resources, and the humane treatment of living things. 

13. Develop values related to personal, ethical, or 
religious beliefs and to the common welfare of society 
Moral development in the school depends in part on a 
consideration of ethical principles and religious 
beliefs, a respect for the ideals held by others, and 
the identification of personal and societal values. 

Education should also help each student to develop an 
awareness of those stereotypes and assumptions that 
contribute to the unequal position of women in contemporary 
society. 


9 . 


The preceding goals are not arranged in any hierarchical 
order, nor are they discrete categories from which a 
checklist should be made. The integrated nature of learning 
and the complex pattern of human development preclude such a 
sequential or fragmented approach. The translation of the 
goals into curriculum objectives, however, will undoubtedly 
result in sequences of learning appropriate to the 
particular levels and stages of development of the students 
for whom programs are being planned. 1 

1.2 The Aims of Design & Technology Courses 

The following aims relate to the general goals of education 
for Ontario and focus specifically on the areas of learning 
associated with Design & Technology. 

In design & technology courses, students shall be given the 
opportunity to: 

1. Develop the following understandings and attitudes: 

- a respect for and co-operation with co-workers and 
supervisors in a simulated employment setting; 
an awareness and practice of good safety habits 
through regular use of safety equipment and 


Ontario Schools, Intermediate and Senior Divisions, 
1989, pp.3-4. 


1 




10 . 


accident-prevention techniques in a practical work 
setting? 

a commitment to the responsible use and conservation 
of the sources of energy that provide the motive 
power for sustaining a technological society? 
an appreciation of the relationship between 
technological changes and the quality of life? 
an awareness of the nature and frequency of 
technological changes that affect career plans and 
the ability to adapt to these changes in an 
intelligent manner? 

an appreciation of the aesthetic component of design 
in addition to the basic functional component? 
an appreciation of the pride and satisfaction that 
may be found in quality work through practical 
project exercises? 

- an awareness of the quality of goods and services 
through knowledge of processes and products, so that 
students may become educated consumers? 

2 . Develop the following kinds of technological skills and 

knowledge: 

the ability to analyse and solve problems and to 
plan and perform tasks logically and effectively; 
a capacity for clear and creative thinking and for 


inventiveness in the design and production of 
practical projects? 


11 . 


the ability to produce, maintain, and repair objects 
of value through the development of competence in 
the use of hand tools, power tools, and machines 
related to home maintenance as well as to 
technological fields of interest? 

- the ability to use the correct terminology and 
language in identifying machine parts and describing 
processes ? 

- personal and social skills that contribute to self- 
reliance and positive attitudes. Students should 
learn to organize their time effectively; to develop 
a routine for maintaining clean and neat work 
stations; to become accountable for identifying and 
storing tools? and to become aware of personal 
strengths through exploration and involvement in 
various technological fields? 

3. Prepare for entering: 

further education and the mastery of specific fields 
of technology and design? 

- employment, with marketable design methodology and 
technical competency and knowledge. 

1.3 Student Objectives 

Students may enrol in courses derived from this document for 
a variety of reasons. Many will be continuing a design and 



12 . 


technology program that began in Grade 7. Others could be 
taking the initial step towards a career in the field of 
design. The courses derived from this document will provide 
all students with a wide range of problem-solving 
experiences involving the materials and processes of 
technology and elements of design. While each of the 
subjects outlined in this document deals with content that 
is unique to itself, each also consists of basic conceptual 
content that is common to the subject grouping. For career 
planning purposes, students taking courses under any of 
these subjects should gain some insight into other technical 
subjects. 

1 • 4 Sex Equity 

Equal access for male and female students to all courses in 
the schools is a high priority of both the Ministry of 
Education and society in general. Promotion of this policy 
in technology programs requires a special effort, since 
there is still a psychological barrier to the acceptance of 
sexual equality in vocational areas that have traditionally 
been considered the domain of either men or women. 

Co-operative effort on the part of parents, students, 
administrators, and teachers can help overcome such 
stereotyping. Course calendars, newsletters, and 
informative presentations are useful vehicles for 



13 . 


encouraging students to enrol in non-traditional fields. 
Enrolment can also be encouraged by inviting speakers who 
have experienced success in non-traditional educational 
fields and industrial occupations. 

When planning courses of study, it is important that 
teachers be sensitive to the needs of both sexes. 

1.5 Core Content 

Separate sections are provided in each subject for planning 
basic, general, and/or advanced level courses. In design 
and technology a separate section is provided for planning 
these courses for Grades 7, 8 & 9. Each section includes 
aims and suggestions to assist teachers with course 
planning. Courses must include the skills and knowledge 
outlined as core content for each section. The core content 
is identified in chart form. All of the core content 
indicated for a particular level of difficulty must be 
included, either in one course or in the sequence of courses 
for the division. 

Although in many cases the core content for the different 
grades and levels of difficulty is derived from the same 
units, the depth and breadth of treatment of this content 
material will vary according to the grade and level of the 
course. It is expected that the content will be developed 



14 . 


to a depth that is appropriate to each level of difficulty 
and that teaching strategies, projects, and evaluation 
methods will reflect both the level of difficulty and the 
grade for which the course is planned. 

L6 Course Objectives 

All courses will be planned to achieve specific learning 
objectives which should be based on the aims for each 
particular course. The nature of -a co- - aims is such that 
teachers can set learning objectives for each aim according 
to the grade and ability of the students. The depth and 
breadth of students' knowledge and skill competence, with 
respect to the core learning, will increase through 
successive courses. 

Together, the aims, learning objectives, and core content 
constitute the core learning for a course. Any remaining 
course time can be structured to amplify the core learning 
and/or enrich the course with optional content. Additional 
topics that are appropriate to particular objectives and 
course themes may be selected from the section entitled 
"Part C - Content for Design & Technology Courses", at the 
end of this module, or from the course content listed at the 
end of any module in Technological Studies Guideline, 


Part B. 



15 . 


1.7 Integration of the Technologies into the Core Curriculum 

The term "technology” is used to describe the ways in which 
theoretical scientific knowledge is put to practical use. 
With the rapid advances that are being made in technology, 
especially in the area of electronics, it is essential that 
all students receive an understanding of technology and the 
effect that it will have on their lives. All subjects are 
influenced by technology. Integrating the technologies into 
other subjects will therefore be of great value to all 
students. 

Design & Technology teachers should work closely with other 
subject teachers to ensure that technological concepts and 
ideas are integrated into the core curriculum. This can be 
achieved by assisting these teachers in developing courses 
of study, and in assisting in the teaching of portions of 
the program. 



16 . 


2. PROGRAM AND COURSE PLANNING 

2.1 Program Planning 

Courses that are developed from this guideline will be 
student-centred, activity based, problem-solving courses. 

The teacher will act as a prime resource for individuals or 
small groups as students complete assigned tasks. The 
theory that is reguired to perform a task will be learned by 
the student as the task is being performed. Students will 
be encouraged to follow projects through all stages from 
initial concept through to design and production. 

Using this approach to learning, students with different 
learning styles, at different levels of difficulty or at 
different grade levels could work together in the same 
class. If this occurs, teachers must ensure that tasks and 
assignments meet the needs of the individual students. 

2.2 Course Content 


Any course based on this document must be awarded a minimum 
of the equivalent of one-half credit. Where a course is 
awarded more than one credit, additional content will have 
to be included to supplement the core learning. This 
additional content must support the objectives planned for 
the course and may be selected from the units listed in the 





17 . 


section entitled "Part C - Content for Design & Technology 
Courses" or from the content listed for other subject 
groupings in the Technological Studies Guideline. For 
example, content from Technological Studies, Part B 3. 
Electrical Grouping may be incorporated into the design 
studies program if an electronic device is the possible 
solution to a design problem. 

Where schools offer courses in more than one subject of this 
grouping, courses will be structured to avoid significant 
overlaps in course content. Courses in Design and 
Technology and Design Studies may mutually reinforce 
concepts that are basic to both courses, but the relative 
emphasis placed on these concepts and the nature of the 
activities that students experience in each course should 
reflect the aims and applications associated with the 
particular subject. The student who successfully completes 
courses in the two subjects should have an increased 
awareness of the types of occupational activities, working 
materials, tools and processes associated with each subject, 
as well as a feeling for the relationships between the 
subjects. 

2.3 Safety 

Safety is an integral part of all activities related to 
Design & Technology courses. The safety implications of 



18 . 


projects should be identified before the projects are 
undertaken. Students should work only with materials and 
machinery that are appropriate to their grade and level, and 
the teacher should decide which of these are within the 
students' capability. Students should also be supervised 
very carefully, and equipment and related guards should be 
checked frequently to assure that safe conditions are 
maintained. Safe practices should be promoted not only 
through initial demonstrations but also through the 
continuing reinforcement of such practices whenever 
materials, equipment, and hand tools are used. 

The safety program can include content related to three 
areass personal safety? the safe use of tools, equipment, 
and machinery? and the establishment of a safe environment 
in the shop and at home. Personal safety includes the use 
of appropriate clothing, the use of protective equipment, 
and personal hygiene. The safe use of tools and equipment 
involves the correct use of normal machine safety devices. 

A safe environment requires not only orderly responsible 
work habits and clean up procedures, but also the 
appropriate procedures related to fire prevention and 
containment, the handling and storage of materials, and the 
use of combustible fluids, glues, and chemicals, as well as 
the recognition and prevention of potential safety hazards. 


19 . 


In planning the safety component of Design & Technology 
courses, teachers shall: 

be familiar with the Workers Health and Safety Act and 
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) 
regulations? 

complete and retain a record of every accident that 
requires local or hospital treatment? 

ensure that students are informed of the procedures that 
must be followed in case of an accident? 
investigate the Industrial Accident Prevention 
Association (IAPA) school safety program? 

develop concise sets of conditions for the safe operation 
of particular machines (e.g., a checklist of conditions 
necessary before turning on a machine lathe) and ensure 
that students understand why such conditions are 
necessary? 

ensure that students understand why and when a hazard 
exists and that they are not simply following a rule 
because it appears to be a safe procedure? 
develop a student-licensing system for the use of tools, 
equipment, and special procedures? 

make students aware of the location, appropriate use, and 
method of operation of fire extinguishers in the shop 
area ? 

use the systematic means of identifying and labelling 
dangerous substances and materials as specified in WHMIS, 
and inform students of this identification system. 


20 . 


Teachers also may: 

display safety posters; 

let students perform the duties of a safety inspector or 
supervisor; 

use videos, newspaper articles, and guest speakers to 

feature aspects of safety related to the shop; 

relate the wearing of protective equipment to aspects of 

life with which the student is familiar (e.g., recreation 

activities, sports figures, work situations); 

promote vehicle maintenance and safety; 

discuss safety associated with the home. 

Most students receive their first formal introduction to 
industrial safety in the shop. The transfer of this 
learning to other experiences in their lives could be of 
immense value to them. 

For safety program to be effective, the classroom teacher 
must act as a role model by adhering to all those safe 
practices that he/she is trying to impart to the students. 

2.4 Evaluation 


Courses in this module are to a large extent based on a 
balance in the acquisition of problem solving and technical 
competency skills. As students acquire these skills, they 



21 . 


are motivated to acquire related knowledge and develop 
desirable attitudes and understanding. The skills are 
reflected in the performance objectives set by the teacher 
when planning the course. It is against these performance 
objectives (which set the expected standards of achievement 
for the particular grade and level of difficulty of the 
course) that student achievement is measured. 

Evaluation of student achievement involves assessment of 
both the process and the product of the skill. Checklists 
may be used by the student for an inventory of new learning 
or for process and time management analysis. Significant 
aspects of the completed operation are identified and 
commonly assessed with rating scales. As the checklists and 
rating scales are available to students, they can use them 
for self-evaluation as they strive for acceptable standards 
of competence. The assessment of design briefs and 
portfolios, technical reports, experimental results, and 
home assignments can also be structured around these 
techniques. 

Comparison of the teacher*s evaluation of a skill and the 
student's self-evaluation can often clarify the standards 
that are expected. Performance tests are a valid and 
effective method for assessing the achievement of a skill. 


22 e 


The success students have in understanding and applying 
theoretical knowledge in courses can be demonstrated and 
subsequently assessed through their planning and 
implementation of projects, work assignments and problem 
solving activities. A variety of assessment techniques, 
including short oral tests, objective tests (e.g., true- 
false and multiple-choice), short-answer completion, and 
regular question-and-answer tests, should be applied as 
additional evaluation processes. Test materials should be 
written at a reading level that is appropriate to student 
ability. The vocabulary used in the test questions should 
reflect that used in the classroom. Although students 
should be encouraged to write answers in proper sentence 
form, questions and answers that involve properly labelled 
diagrams are effective assessment instruments. Individual 
verbal tests may also be used. 

The development of desirable attitudes and interpersonal 
skills are key components to a student's success. The 
assessment of these skills should be made through teacher 
observation. 

2.5 Computers 

Computers and the appropriate software that are available to 
schools increase opportunities for students to successfully 
accomplish independent study activities. The confidence 



23. 


gained through these experiences is particularly important 
to young people, who can expect to face a working life 
characterized by changing technology and the constant need 
to update their skill and knowledge. 

The effective use of computer programs as learning tools in 
the classroom will require adjustments in teaching 
strategies. Students continue to need hands-on experiences 
with the materials, tools, and equipment associated with 
courses in this guideline. Computer programs applied at 
appropriate times can help the teacher to teach, reinforce, 
review, and test the associated learning. Through the use 
of equipment for simulating programmed processes. Design & 
Technology shops may provide students with experiences in 
Computer Assisted Drafting (CAD) and Computer Assisted 
Manufacturing (CAM) paralleling those of larger more complex 
systems used in industry. 

2.6 Language and Learning 

Since the language activities of reading, writing, speaking, 
and listening are the basic means of learning common to all 
subject areas, all teachers must co-operate in ensuring that 
the four aspects of language receive appropriate emphasis 
and treatment in their subject areas. A deliberate attempt 
should be made to foster the student's use of the 
specialized language and terminology of a particular 



24. 


discipline. 

Design & Technology courses provide many opportunities for 
teachers to assist students in language activities; for 
example, by encouraging the correct use of technical 
terminology? by assigning written and oral technical 
reports? by evaluating language in written assignments, 
tests, and examinations? by conducting group discussions on 
technical topics? and by emphasizing effective communication 
skills during question-and-answer periods. Students will 
also better appreciate teachers' efforts to promote language 
skills if they understand the relationship of these skills 
to the expectations of business and industry. 

2.7 Life Skills 


In addition to providing problem solving and technical 
skills, Design & Technology courses provide a variety of 
life skills that will be of use in both personal and private 
life. Students should also be encouraged to develop the 
ability to work co-operatively with others in a productive 
work setting, to deal positively with authority, to acquire 
safe and neat work habits, to recognize the importance of 
punctuality and attendance, and, through taking on group 
leadership roles, to accept responsibility. 



25. 


It is vitally important that all students be given 
opportunities to acquire basic life skills. Educators 
involved in design courses should recognize the contribution 
they can make to this area of student learning. 

2.8 Information on Career Opportunities 

All students must be made aware of the career opportunities 
available through Design & Technology. As well, Design & 
Technology students should have access to current 
information on the educational requirements for 
apprenticeship and other career programs and on employment 
opportunities. Career planning can be facilitated by 
providing students with access to the Job Search Skills 
Program, with information on School-Workplace Apprenticeship 
and Linkage programs, and with information on projected 
employment trends. For these reasons, guidance counsellors 
and Design & Technology teachers should work together to: 

provide students with the information they need to make 

appropriate educational decisions? 

assist students in their subject selections? 

advise students on the most appropriate training routes 

for meeting their needs? 

reinforce students job-search and interview skills. 



26. 


2.9 Co-operative Education 

Co-operative education can provide experiences that not only 
enhance acquired skills but also provide students with 
realistic expectations of the day-to-day practices and 
requirements of business and industry. The parameters 
within which co-operative education can take place are set 
out in Ontario Schools, Intermediate and Senior Divisions 
(OSIS) and Policy and Procedures for Co-operative Education 
in Ontario Secondary Schools: 1989, and include student 
experience and time in the workplace. 

Boards and schools should take advantage of this opportunity 
to provide a more realistic link between school and work. 
Co-operative education can provide all students with 
valuable experiences in career exploration and skill 
development. In some cases the out-of-school component may 
provide the necessary hands-on experience with equipment not 
readily available in the school. 

Subject teachers must be directly involved in co-operative 
education programs to ensure a relationship between the in- 
and out-of-school components. In addition to their in¬ 
school instruction, teachers should actively monitor 
students in out-of-school situations as part of their 
regular assigned duties. In this way teachers, too, can 
foster and maintain the necessary links with the world of 



27. 


work. Students should have opportunities to reflect on how 
their workplace experiences are linked to their in-school 
component. 

In all cases, the in-school and out-of-school components of 
a co-operative education course must maintain the integrity 
of the course's stated educational objectives. Both school 
officials and employers have a responsibility to monitor the 
out-of-school component to ensure that the total course 
objectives are being met. The establishment and maintenance 
of meaningful evaluation procedures are to be a co-operative 
effort involving the classroom teacher, the supervisor in 
the work setting, and the teacher-monitor. 

2.10 Work Experience 

Whereas in a co-operative education course the time for the 
out-of-school component must be built into a student's 
timetable, work experience is an integrated part of a 
specific course. As a component of the student's course, 
work experience gives the student opportunities to exercise 
and reinforce the technical skills and knowledge acquired in 
school. It also provides an orientation to the workplace 
and opportunities for additional career exploration through 
discussions with experienced workers. It has been found 
that work experience is most beneficial to students in their 
third or fourth year of secondary school. 



28. 


All work experiences should reflect good planning and should 
normally be limited to one or two weeks in any one school 
year. Exceptions may be made for basic-level programs, but 
in such cases the time of the work site should never exceed 
a total of four weeks in any one school year. The student 
does not normally receive pay when participating in work 
experience. 

The activities and objectives of the learning experiences 
for the student must be discussed beforehand by the teacher 
and the employer or supervisor. Both the employer and the 
student are required to prepare evaluation reports on the 
student's experience. 

Every precaution must be taken to ensure the safety and 
protection of students while they are on a job site. 

Planning for a work experience should, therefore, 
incorporate provisions for safe work stations, special 
instruction on safe practices and proper clothing, and the 
coverage required through the Workers' Compensation Board. 

2.11 Exceptional Pupils 

Exceptionalities are categorized in the Education Act, as 
behavioural, communicational, physical, intellectual, and 
multiple, with identification of exceptionalities to be made 



29. 


by a school board's identification, placement, and review 
committee (IPRC). Curriculum modifications for exceptional ' 
pupils must accommodate their individual needs. Some 
modifications may be relatively simple? others may be 
extensive and require the use of specially designed 
equipment. Additional assistance may be required for 
severely handicapped students. 

When recommending exceptional pupils for placement in a 
Design & Technology course, the IPRC, in consultation with 
appropriate personnel, should consider the following 
questions: 

- Is enrolment in the course in the student 1 s best 
interest? 

- Are there adequate safety precautions? 

- Are the facility and equipment appropriate for the nature 
of the exceptionality? 

Can provision be made for adequate supervision? 

- Is the teacher adequately trained and prepared to make 
appropriate program modifications? 

An exceptional pupil's program must be based on and modified 
by continuous assessment and evaluation. Evaluation 
techniques, such as observation and teacher-student 
interviews, should supplement the more formal types of 
assessment, so that a more personal and complete picture of 
the student's progress may be obtained. 


30. 


PART B - DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY COURSES 


Design and Technology 


Courses in this subject provide opportunities for students to 
discover and use their creative abilities in projects that 
involve tools, machines and materials. Students enrolled in the 
Design and Technology program enjoy directed experiences that 
enable them to design and build projects that meet specific 
needs. The application of problem-solving and design procedures 
to meaningful projects stimulates students* analytical talents, 
creativity, and inventiveness. In this way, students acquire 
basic knowledge and skills in the manipulation of tools, machines 
and materials and become aware of the various fields of 
technology, current industrial practices, and potential career 
opportunities. 


r~ “ ~ ” “ 3 

I l 

j Elementaryj 

j Program ^--> 
L_ __ J 


D&T 

—> 

B 

D&T2G 

—> 

B 

D&T3G 

—> 

B 

D&T4G 

Gr.7,8 & 9 


A 


A 


A 


up to 2 credits up to 3 credits per year 
per year 


1. Grades 7, 8 & 9 


Many students beginning a formal Design and Technology 
program in Grade 7 will have had some introduction to tools 
and materials either through their experiences outside of 
the school or as part of their work at interest centres in 









31. 


the science and art programs or other technology related 
activities in earlier years. In earlier grades some 
students may also have been introduced to the Design and 
Technology shop and given opportunities to design and make 
three-dimensional projects and to apply simple scientific 
and technological concepts. These experiences, which help 
students to develop some familiarity with and confidence in 
technology at an early stage in their development, should be 
supported wherever possible by Design and Technology staff 
and administration. 

This section deals with courses for Grades 7, 8 and 9, and 
contains aims and suggestions for developing courses. The 
core content is identified on pages 89-99 of this document. 
The depth and breadth of treatment of each unit of content 
identified as "core" depends on both the grade and the 
length of the course being offered. If only the minimum 
time is available, then some of the core content will 
necessarily be given superficial treatment. It is suggested 
that fuller treatment be given to those core items related 
to safety? design; fabrication - materials and processes; 

careers; engineering, power, and control technology 

(mechanical and/or electronic kits) . 

The core learning in each of Grades 7 and 8, is designed for 
a minimum of 60 hours of classroom time, while the Grade 9 
core is built on a minimum of 110 hours of classroom time. 





32 » 


This allows for optional material to be included so that 
courses can be designed to meet a local need. 

Aims 


All courses in Grades 7, 8 & 9 will provide students with 
opportunities to develop: 

a sense of pride in the application of good work habits 
to a job or project, a capability for critically 
evaluating the results of their own work, and a sense of 
satisfaction in the completion of a job that is well 
done ? 

an intellectual curiosity related to fields of design and 
technology and the imagination needed for continued 
learning, decision making, and problem solving; 
the ability to use safely and confidently a variety of 
hand and power tools, equipment, and materials in a 
practical work setting? 

an awareness of a wide range of processes used in 

industry through experiences in the school shop? 

an awareness and appreciation of the need for the 

conservation of energy and materials? 

the ability to co-operate when working with others? 

initiative in completing assigned tasks? 

an awareness of their personal aptitudes and interests 

related to fields and careers in technology? 



33. 


the ability to plan and perform tasks efficiently using a 
logical sequence of operations? 

some capabilities for creative thinking related to the 
process of designing? 

awareness of career and occupations related to 
technology. 

Suggestions for Teachers 

The core content for these years is intended to provide 
students not only with introductory skills and knowledge 
related to this technology but also with successful 
experiences in design and constructive activities. Safe 
work habits, a positive attitude towards good work, and 
confidence in using technology should be objectives of every 
Design and Technology program. To achieve this, these 
courses are project-oriented? the projects are planned 
around objectives that reflect both the core learning (i.e., 
aims and core content) and the stage of the students' 
development. 

The Design and Technology program in Grades 7, 8 & 9 should 

* 

be organized around three major areas: (a) problem solving, 
designing, and planning? (b) fabrication and production 
processes? and (c) engineering, power, and control 
technologies. In this way a unifying framework is provided 
for the various student activities involved. Consideration 



34 . 


should also be given to fostering in students a concern for 
safety, providing for the needs of exceptional students, 
evaluating student achievement, and providing students with 
information on career opportunities. 

Design . Design links research, problem solving, planning, 
and project solution. Problem-solving skills may be 
developed using real and everyday problems. For example, 
students are easily motivated by problems that they or their 
friends may encounter in real life. In developing a problem 
statement, students should be able to identify and attain a 
solution within a reasonable period of time. The process 
should involve them in a personal investigation of potential 
solutions. In this way students should develop both inquiry 
and reporting skills. 

Initially, students should be involved with designing at a 

level they can achieve conceptually and technologically. 

Success in solving the initial problems and in producing 

simple, useful products is very important to the novice 

Design and Technology student. For this reason such 

activities should be completed early in the Grade 7 course. 

» 

When projects are well designed and constructed, the young 
learner's satisfaction and confidence increases. While 
teachers should limit the scope of design problems at the 
outset, controlling the number of possible alternatives 
within the time available, they should recognize the need 



35. 


for student involvement in the selection of the final 
design. Partial designing focuses student input, while 
redesigning (e.g., of a poorly designed model or product) 
may stimulate a broader input. In all cases the design 
investigation should encourage consumer and product 
awareness. As well, a discussion of the creativity of 
designers, inventors, and their products could add to 
students* understanding of the role of the designer. A 
thematic approach focusing on design themes such as Canadian 
designers and inventors, achievements of the aerospace 
industry, and international design projects may interest 
some students. 

The planning phase may include the project sketch, the bill 
of materials and the identification of the fabrication steps 
and processes necessary for construction. Free-hand 
sketching of the project may be supplemented with an 
introduction to orthographic and pictorial projection. 

Simple dimensioning may also be included. Students may 
further develop the project design three-dimensionally by 
making a mock-up, prototype or model. These provide ideal 
ways to communicate a problem solution and encourage 
creativity and inventiveness. From a model it is very easy 
to visualize the bill of materials, the design, the 
fabrication steps, and the processing techniques required. 
Materials such as scraps of wood, plastic, and cardboard can 
be easily developed into a mock-up of the intended project. 


36. 


The core content on problem solving, designing, and planning 
can help students to develop their communication skills. 

The abilities that students develop in designing, inventing, 
creating, and presenting novel solutions to problems should 
give them the confidence to tackle many of the problems that 
they will continue to encounter in our dynamic technological 
society. 

Fabrication - materials and processes . The core content 
outlined on pages3^^^§P rov> i des f° r the selection of 
materials and the application of processes in the 
fabrication of a product. When students are first 
introduced to the Design and Technology program, they are 
more intrigued with the processes of making things. This 
initial enthusiasm can be used as an introduction to a more 
theoretical study of design, materials and processes. 
Initially a hands on approach should be encouraged. 

Projects that require a variety of materials and involve a 
range of processes contribute to the integrative aspects of 
the learning in design and technology. The materials 
provided should include wood (processed and natural), 
plastics (resin, pellet, sheet, and bar stock), and metals 
(sheet and bar stock). Materials such as leather, natural 
and synthetic fibres, and minerals (ceramics and concrete) 
may also be provided as resources. As students work with 



37. 


the different materials, they should not only develop an 
awareness of the origin, qualities, and general uses of 
each, but practice conservation of resources, and 
environmental responsibilities. 

Engineering. Power and Control Technology . This core¬ 
content area should provide students with an opportunity to 
build structures, and work with electromechanical devices 
and sources of energy. It is important that students use 
safety precautions for these applications, not only for 
activities that take place in the school shop but also for 
possible activities outside of the school. The section on 
safety (page^SU of this module and page 18 of Technological 
Studies, Part A: Policy for Program Planning) provides 
suggestions that are useful in this regard. 

Electronics, microcomputers, robotics, hydraulics, and 
pneumatics offer many potential enrichment challenges that 
may be explored by gifted students who are interested in 
this content area. Topics related to technology in the home 
may also be included where appropriate. Students may 
acquire basic skills related to simple electromechanical 
services in the home. These should be treated as problem¬ 
solving challenges and should be limited to those that can 
be solved safely and efficiently. 



38. 


Planning for exceptional students . The Design and 
Technology program planned for students with special needs 
must provide for the exceptionalities and abilities of these 
students. As these students often require short periods of 
individual instruction, it is important to plan their 
learning activities while other students are creatively 
occupied. Students within this group require simple life 
skills, that may be broken down by sequencing and task 
analysis. In this setting, technology may be viewed simply 
as a "tool box” and design as a "process of choices". 

Support teachers should also be encouraged to provide 
support, along with the shop instructor, during the class 
sessions in the shop. 

Gifted students may be highly receptive to independent study 
of a theoretical nature in Design and Technology. They 
should be stimulated and challenged by innovative design 
problems that will develop their creative and inventive 
abilities. They may require less time to master the 
necessary basic skills related to problem-solving and 
fabrication processes. Additional suggestions for 
instructional strategies and other considerations for 
dealing with exceptional students, including the 
intellectually gifted, are provided on page 2g&of this 


document. 



39. • 


Evaluation of student achievement . The evaluation process 
is an important aspect of all student projects. Joint 
assessment by both the student and the instructor can be 
most effective. This involves an overall examination of the 
various aspects of a project from the development of the 
project solution to the completion of the product. The 
final score should represent a co-operative assessment, 
which could be an average or a negotiated compromise of the 
two assessments. Additional comments about the evaluation 
of student achievement are outlined on page 20 of this 
module. 

Career planning . Design and Technology offers a range of 
experiences involving the creative use of the hands and mind 
and provides students in Grades 7, 8 & 9 with unique 
opportunities to test their aptitudes and interests for 
different vocations. Information related to possible 
occupations and further training options associated with the 
different technological fields can be effectively presented 
to students during informal discussions. For this reason it 
is useful for teachers to be familiar with the programs in 
both Grades 7 to 9 and Grades 10 to 12, as well as 
postsecondary programs. 




40. 


2. Grades 10 to 12 

Courses in Grades 10 to 12 build on the skills and knowledge 
acquired in Grades 7 to 9. Together, the Design and 
Technology courses in the two divisions form a program that 
has common aims and a natural learning sequence. In 
comparison with students in Grades 7 to 9, those in Grades 
10 to 12 undertake more complex problems, develop more 
sophisticated solutions, and become more self-reliant in the 
process. It is expected that all students enrolled in 
Grades 10 to 12 will have acquired competence in the core 
learning specified for Design and Technology courses in 
Grades 7 to 9. 

The focus of Design and Technology courses in Grades 10 to 
12 is on the development and construction of projects that 
are designed to meet specific needs. The nature of project 
solutions will reflect the types of needs or problems to be 
solved. For example, projects can include objects to take 
home, products made to sell, improvements to existing 
products, repairs, audio-visual aids, experiments, 
presentations, design folios or reports. 

Students should be encouraged to communicate information 
associated with their projects in a variety of ways. 
Experimentation, literature-search, notetaking, and 
presentation and demonstration techniques can be used by 



41. 


students to explain particular processes or machine 
operations to other students. As well, the preparation of a 
design folio on a particular project might serve several 
purposes. It could include a record of the time spent, of 
developments and decisions on various aspects of the job, 
and of product evaluation. As well, if students initially- 
prepared the estimates necessary for tenders to contract the 
jobs, their reports could serve as a basis for analysing 
their success in a simulated contracting venture. 

Career exploration can be an aspect of many activities that 
make up Design and Technology course work. Students should 
be aware of the career information that may be obtained 
through the Job Search Skills Program, and course calendars 
from colleges and universities. They may also investigate 
local occupations related to Design and Technology and 
report on them as an additional source of career 
information. 

Safety is an important part of all Design and Technology 
courses. The nature of Design and Technology requires that 
correct safety practices be established when students 
commence their studies and continue throughout the course. 

It is the responsibility of the teacher to ensure that all 
students are aware of hazards in shops and that established 
procedures are followed. Special safety requirements 
relating to specific operations, machines, and situations 


42 . 


should be identifies as these problems arise. When group 
projects are undertaken, safety films, posters, and other 
resources, available through groups such as the Industrial 
Accident Prevention Association (IAPA) and the Construction 
Safety Association, may be used to increase student 
awareness of safety. In general, students should be 
provided with opportunities to develop: 

the ability to use all equipment, including hand tools 
and portable electric equipment and accessories, 
correctly and safely? 

an awareness of the potential safety hazards in the home 
and industry? 

the ability to lift and carry objects related to common 
domestic and industrial applications safely; 
an understanding of elementary first-aid and fire-safety 
procedures ? 

a knowledge of the mechanics of Workers' Compensation for 
industrial employees? 

through the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information 
System (WHMIS), an understanding of the need for the safe 
storage and use of combustible fluids, glues, chemicals, 
and their containers? 

an awareness of provisions for environmental safety in 


the community. 


43 . 


Additional safety considerations are outlined for course 
planners on page 17 of this guideline and on page 18 of 
Technological Studies. Part A: Policy for Program Planning . 

Considerations relative to evaluation of student achievement 
in Grades 10 to 12 Design and Technology Courses are 
outlined for course planners on page 20 of this guideline. 

Courses in Design and Technology are authorized for Grades 
10, 11 and 12 at the basic, general, and advanced levels of 
difficulty. The core aims and suggestions for designing 
courses at these levels are provided in the subsections that 
follow. The core content is identified on page 89 of this 
document. The time allotted to Grades 10 to 12 courses may 
vary and credit may be offered for up to 2 credits in Grade 

10 and up to 3 credits of in-school work in each of Grades 

11 and 12. If only the minimum time is available, then some 
of the core content will necessarily be given superficial 
treatment. It is suggested that fuller treatment be given 
to those core items related to safety? design? fabrication - 

materials and processes? careers? engineering, power, and 
control technology. The Grade 11 course is a prerequisite 
for the Grade 12 course. 



44 . 


Design and Technology - Basic Level 

(Grades 10, 11 and 12) 

Aims 

All courses at the basic level will provide students with 
opportunities to develop: 

safe work habits and a positive attitude towards the safe 
and correct use of tools, equipment, materials, and 
protective clothing? 

competence in the communication skills required to 
understand and record ideas, plans, and information? 
an appreciation of good design and high-quality work? 
pride in the quality of their work and the ability to 
work co-operatively with others? 

problem-solving skills related to applications of 
technology and the self-confidence they require to apply 
them to home maintenance and other personal uses? 
insights into industrial applications of technology and 
related career opportunities. 

Suggestions for Teachers 

Project work . In the project work associated with Design 
and Technology courses in Grades 7 to 9, students will have 
acquired some knowledge of materials, the basic skills 
required for processing those materials, and some awareness 






45 . 


of the planning and design processes involved in producing a 
product. Grades 10 to 12 courses build on these skills and 
knowledge. Projects in Grades 10 to 12 should account for 
at least 70 per cent of the course time. 

Four major phases of the design process can be distinguished 
from the numerous stages employed in all Design and 
Technology projects. These are initiation, synthesis, 
implementation, and evaluation. Specific projects and 
exercises may emphasize one or more of the phases or stages 
in greater depth. Each phase of the process should be 
experienced by every student. The sophistication of the 
activities undertaken in each phase can vary with the level 
of understanding of the student, but should increase 
progressively with each new project. 

The initiation phase includes the selection of the project 
and the organization of the people and resources required to 
carry out the task. Initially, a teacher-initiated planning 
sequence, which includes selected input from students, may 
be appropriate. In some cases, it may be necessary to 
provide a prescribed project idea that is suited to a 
specific need or interest of the student. Projects that are 
made from a variety of materials and that involve several 
processes are recommended since they integrate various 
aspects of production. 


46 . 


In the synthesis phase, the project is defined in specific 
terms and the requirements, resources and restrictions may 
be identified. Possible solutions are suggested, and these 
are analyzed and evaluated until one solution is selected to 
be developed and ultimately constructed. 

The following suggestions may be considered in planning and 
initiation and synthesis phases: 

Projects may be completed by the individual or by small 
groups, using their own ideas, prototypes developed by 
the teacher, cutouts, mock-ups, or models. 

Sources of suitable projects may be found within the 
home, the school system, or the community at large. 

- When students are applying basic design principles to the 
development of their projects, their general problem¬ 
solving ability is also being fostered. 

- Projects may take the form either of a full-size model 
(involving the application of the principles of 
ergonomics) or a scale model (involving the use of 
precision instruments). 

Geometric construction may be taught when it is 
appropriate to particular projects. 

- Students should become proficient in developing freehand 
sketches of their planned projects in pictorial and 
orthographic style. 


47 . 


Some projects should include cost analysis and production 
alternatives. 

Orientation sessions should clarify for students the 
various phases and stages in the design process, and 
provide information on procedures related to the project 
and the scope of the available resources (human and 
technological) within the school and the community. 

The implementation phase includes the fabrication of the 
product associated with the project. It begins with a set 
of sketches and drawings and ends with the completed 
product. In the evaluation phase, the student tests and 
modifies the product and assesses whether it satisfies the 
identified needs. 

Fabrication - materials and processes . Project activities 
must be planned to assure that each student accomplishes the 
core learning that has been identified for the fabrication 
processes related to wood, metals, and plastics. Specific 
exercises on skill development may be planned to provide 
students with introductory experiences in carrying out 
operations and working with materials that may be involved 
in the implementation of their projects. To challenge 
students of different abilities, the degree of difficulty of 
these practical exercises and the number of exercises 
assigned may vary. 



48c 


Some operations can be accomplished more accurately, 
rapidly, and effectively by machine? other operations can be 
accomplished with more refinement and delicacy by hand. 
During the course students should be provided with 
opportunities to make such choices and to select the most 
appropriate hand or power tool for each of the various tasks 
that they undertake. 

The following are some additional suggestions related to the 
core learning associated with fabrication - materials and 
processes: 

- Films, videos, tours, and research assignments can be 
used to explore materials and processes where equipment 
is not available. These approaches may also be used to 
examine methods of production and careers. 

Parents and other members of the community who have 
specialized knowledge or skills related to a particular 
core area are a good resource. Such individuals are 
often willing to participate in the program by giving 
talks or demonstrations and by providing examples of the 
materials used in manufacturing processes. 

One effective approach that involves students in a co¬ 
operative effort is the manufacture of a product using 
mass-production techniques. The design process leading 
to the prototype to be mass-produced may involve small 
groups of students working on different problems. The 


49. 


mass-production process will involve a large group of 
students in the repetitive processes required to make the 
individual components, assemble them, and tests the final 
products. Where it can be arranged, a visit to a local 
manufacturing concern may contribute to student learning 
related to this type of activity. 

Engineering, power and control technology . Students working 
at the basic level can be most effectively introduced to 
power and control technology through practical experiences. 
Simple mechanical transmissions, gears, levers, and wheel 
principles may be introduced through studies of the bicycle. 
The principle of fluid power may be introduced through an 
examination of hydraulic jacks and pneumatic drills. 

Students should be able to identify the various form of 
energy that they may encounter during their shop 
experiences. Films, tours and pamphlets may be used to 
provide students with some insights of how electrical energy 
is generated. 

Projects and practical exercises related to simple 
electronic circuits and systems involving bells, buzzers, 
and relays can provide an effective introduction to the 
knowledge and skills students should acquire in electricity 
or electronics. The gathering, organizing, and interpreting 
of performance data from an existing circuit provides an 
excellent assignment. 



50. 


Students can also build a simple system on a previously 
prepared circuitboard and do minor repair work. The reading 
of simple pictorial, schematic, and connection diagrams can 
be one aspect of the construction exercise. The appropriate 
use of hand tools, soldering, and test equipment are other 
aspects of the core learning that can be built into such 
projects. 

Home technology . Activities related to home maintenance and 
repair can provide learning experiences that reinforce basic 
core skills and introduce new skills and knowledge. 

Optional content related to building construction may be 
selected from the list of course content associated with the 
construction subjects of the Technological Studies 
Guideline. 



51. 


Design and Technology - General Level 

(Grades 10, 11 and 12) 


Aims 


All courses at the general level will provide students with 
opportunities to develop: 

good work habits, a capability for critically evaluating 
the results of their own work, and a sense of 
satisfaction in doing a good job? 
good safety procedures? 

an attitude of respect for the achievement of others and 
a willingness to co-operate with fellow workers and 
supervisors? 

the ability to record and understand technological 
information, ideas, and plans? 

an appreciation of good design and excellent work? 
competence in the basic skills required for the care and 
use of hand and power tools? 

the clear and creative thinking necessary for successful 
problem solving and decision making related to 

9 

applications of technology? 

the ability to plan and perform tasks efficiently, using 
a logical sequence of operations? 

insights into industrial applications of design and 
technology, related career opportunities, and the 




52. 


implications of rapid technological change for 
occupations. 

Suggestions for Teachers 

Project work . The development and implementation of 
projects should account for at least 60 per cent of the 
course time at the general level of difficulty. These 
projects should build on the skills and knowledge that 
students acquired in earlier courses in Design and 
Technology. 

Projects may be structured around four major phases: 
initiation, synthesis, implementation, and evaluation. All 
students should experience each phase of the process, and 
the activities involved in each phase should be increasingly 
challenging as students undertake projects of increasing 
sophistication and should be planned to assure that the core 
learning will be accomplished. 

In the initiation phase the project is selected? students, 
individually or in groups, make a commitment to complete the 
project. Then the available requirements, resources, and 
restrictions for the project are identified, orientation 
sessions should be used to provide students with a review of 
the particular aspects of the four phases that may require 
reinforcement of further clarification. Any special 




53. 


requirements for the design and accompanying folio should be 
clearly identified. 

Problems suitable for project work can come from many 
sources: a student's particular interest, the home, the 
school, the community or some other source. Products, 
designed as particular solutions to a defined problem, may 
take the form of full-size models (requiring ergonomic 
considerations) or scale models (involving the use of 
precision instruments). 

In the synthesis phase students should be provided with 
opportunities to practise the various stages in the design 
process - from defining the problem to completing the final 
design (i.e., the product solution). To provide these 
practice opportunities, the teacher can use various 
strategies, involving cutouts, models, mock-ups, and 
prototypes. Eventually, each student should be able to 
develop a final design to respond to a problem of his/her 
choice, generating several possible solutions within the 
given constraints and then selecting and further refining 
the "best" solution. The process used by students to 
investigate and solve design problems may be fostered in an 
orderly flow of ideas or more randomly (as in "brain 
storming"). In addition to preparing perspective drawings 
and plans of their final products, students should be able 
to interpret drawings and working diagrams from other 


54. 


to interpret drawings and working diagrams from other 
sources. 

When design problems are such that students must conduct an 
information search, all available resources should be used. 
These include textbooks, reference materials, libraries, 
periodicals, magazines, and community contacts in business, 
industry, or government. 

The understanding of the principles of design can be 
enhanced through the analysis of well-designed products and 
the redesigning of other products to improve particular 
features. The content units listed on pages\ lQQ-~fffi^ for 
design studies may be a useful resource when planning these 
activities. 

The implementation phase begins with a set of sketches and 
drawings and ends with a model or prototype. The core 
content related to the materials and processes of 
fabrication is an important part of this phase. The final 
phase - evaluation - includes the testing and possible 
modification of the product. It should assess whether the 
product has satisfied the need that was identified in the 
beginning. 

Fabrication - materials and processes . The sequence of 
projects should be planned to provide recurring 



4 


55. 


plastics and other synthetic materials. They should acquire 
some feeling for the characteristics of these materials 
through processing activities and gain some insights into 
the range of their applications in manufacturing. 

Specific exercises or mini practicals may be planned to 
provide students with introductory experiences in carrying 
out operations and working with materials that may be 
involved in the implementation of their projects. 

Students should become aware of the fact that manufacturing 
often brings together a variety of materials, energy 
sources, and control elements and uses a wide range of 
related technological processes to produce a product. For 
example, a television set is a product in which wood, metal, 
plastics, and electronics are used in conjunction with 
electromagnetic radiation and electrical energy to form 
images. The basic processes experienced in the shop can 
often be related to the more sophisticated processes used in 
industry. 

The following are some additional suggestions related to the 
core learning associated with fabrication - materials and 
processes: 

Course planning should provide opportunities for student 

to work independently and in small groups. Different 


56. 


groups of students can work on different problems, which 
can involve the special knowledge and skills of 
individual students. 

- When necessary, students may be taught how to design and 
construct special jigs or holding devices, to increase 
safety, accuracy and proficiency. 

Large student groups may be involved in mass-production 
techniques to manufacture a product. In such cases the 
design stage should include mass-production requirements, 
restrictions, and control processes. The design process may 
involve small groups of students working on specific 
problems related to the whole. The analysis of the design 
selected for mass production should lead to clear sequences 
of separate fabrication activities that can be performed 
repetitively. The end result of this sequence of activities 
should be the final assembly, testing and evaluations of the 
products. The necessary planning and organizational 
considerations involved in the mass-production process can 
be used to nurture student skills in leadership and group 
dynamics. To accomplish the overall process successfully, 
students must learn to function effectively as a group and 
to assume individual commitments that serve the goals of the 
group. Visits to a local manufacturing concern can also 
contribute to the learning of students involved in mass- 
production activity. 


57. 


Engineering. Power and control technology . At the general 
level power and control technology should be examined 
through a variety of applications. Students should examine 
mechanical devices, such as clutches, drive shafts, belts, 
universals, and gear trains, to identify basic machine 
principles and to increase their understanding of how 
mechanical power is transmitted. Similarly, pumps, valves, 
and cylinders may be examined in relation to the control and 
transmission of fluid power in simple hydraulic and 
pneumatic systems. Students may undertake individual 
research topics in order to explore topics related to heat 
energy, such as the use of turbines, electrical-energy 
generation, the use of solar devices, and the conservation 
of energy in the community. 

Students at the general level can be expected to develop 
their knowledge and skills in electricity or electronics in 
a variety of ways. They can use test instruments to study 
circuits that include magnetic-field components such as 
solenoids, relays, motors, generators, and transformers. 

They can design and build electronic circuits such as light- 
or sound-controlled alarm circuits. They can repair 
electrical or electronic appliances and become familiar with 
the use of simple circuit boards, schematic and connection 
diagrams, component-specification sheets and other 
communication devices that can assist in problem-solving 
tasks related to repair. Students should be able to build a 



58. 


simple low-voltage power-supply system and adapt it to suit 
a need. They should also be able to design, assemble, and 
test at least one circuit involving the power supply and a 
load. Reference materials, films, components, kits, and 
other resources can all contribute to student learning in 
the electrical or electronic area. 

Home technology . The core learning related to home 
maintenance and repair should provide students with the 
skill and knowledge they require to undertake some specific 
tasks. This learning should also instil in students the 
confidence they require to research and undertake other 
home-maintenance problems. 

Optional content related to building construction may be 
drawn from list of course content for construction subjects 
in the Technological Studies Guideline. A model of a house 
may be built as a group project. Each group could be 
responsible for the organization and planning of one or more 
stages in the project. 



59. 


Design and Technology - Advanced Level 

(Grades 10, 11 and 12) 

Aims 


All courses at the advanced level will provide students with 
opportunities to develop: 

a positive attitude towards safety in the work 
environment and safe work habits in the proper use of 
tools, equipment, materials, an protective clothing? 
respect for the achievements of others and a willingness 
to co-operate with fellow workers and supervisors in 
achieving a common goal? 

the ability to express and interpret technological ideas, 
plans, and information through sketches, instrument 
drawings, and reports ? 

an appreciation of quality design and the inherent work 
involved? 

problem-solving skills related to applications of 
technology? 

the ability to plan and perform tasks efficiently using a 
logical sequence of operations? 

the self-confidence they require to undertake simple 
home-maintenance and repair tasks and insights into 
particular applications of technology through research on 
available literature and other resources? 




60. 


insights into industrial applications of technology, 
related career opportunities, and the implications of 
rapid technological change on occupations. 

Suggestions for Teachers 

Project work . The exploration of theoretical concepts and 
knowledge that provide the necessary background for the 
development of projects should take at least 50 per cent of 
the course time. The remaining time should be devoted to 
acquiring and applying hands-on skills related to the 
processing of materials and the fabrication and testing of 
projects. 

The overall emphasis of the project activity will be on 
practical problem solving and the application of design 
principles to the product solution. The problems to be 
solved should reflect students' interests or needs. 

Projects may culminate in either full-size or scale-model 
products and may involve students working individually or in 
groups. Projects should be planned so that the core content 
is adequately covered. 

Project work should be structured around four major phases: 
initiation, synthesis, implementation, and evaluation. The 
initiation phase involves the selection of the projet, 
identification of the team members if it is a group project. 




61. 


and orientation sessions that clarify the available 
resources, identify particular skills and knowledge that 
could be useful, and outline clearly the expectations for 
evaluation purposes (e.g., a report or a presentation). 

The synthesis phase involves problem-solving, the 
application of the principles of design to determine the 
"best” solution, and the production of instrument drawings 
that can communicate the proposed product solution to others 
and serve as a basis for preparing the cost analysis prior 
to implementation. Students can analyse existing prototypes 
and commercial products to identify good features and 
recommend improvements to other features in order to further 
develop their problem-solving and designing skills. This 
approach should also lead to some discussion of design- 
problem solutions as they would be applied in factory 
production. 

Synthesis may involve exercises that are planned to provide 
students with the necessary skills and knowledge that they 
may require in carrying out operations and working with 
materials as they implement their projects. These exercises 
lead to the production of a demonstration workpiece. 

Drafting skills may be enhanced through the use of CAD in 
projects related to electrical, architectural or mechanical 
fields. The following are four possible approaches that 


62. 


reflect different interests of students in the architectural 
field: 

- The "nuts and bolts” approach . Students read blueprints 
and copy dr mgs of various types. 

The consultative service approach . Students meet a 
prospective client, interview the client to get ideas, 
and then provide the client with possible solutions to 
his/her design problem. This could involve a new 
kitchen, bathroom, patio, or spa. 

The ,t dream-house ,t approach . Each student completes a set 
of drawings of a dream house, including floor plans, 
elevations, plumbing, and electrical layouts. 

- The scientific approach . Students study the energy 
implications in present-day construction. Such a unit 
could involve experimentation with building material, 
research, presentations, and report writing, in addition 
to drawing. 

In working with the full range of materials and processes 
specified in the core learning, students in advanced-level 
courses should have opportunities to make decisions in the 
synthesis phase related to the stress that the final product 
is expected to bear and the physical capability of the 
materials being considered to sustain that stress. In some 
cases simple apparatus may be designed to compare these 
materials under appropriate tension, compression, shear, or 
other force as required. Such apparatus could also be used 






63. 


to test joints that students have made as mini-practicals. 
Hardness and other metal properties that may be altered by . 
treatment in the shop may also be investigated. Where 
laboratory investigations of materials are undertaken, the 
possible industrial applications and processing methods for 
the materials could also be examined. 

As an optional activity, some students may wish to research 
and prepare papers on individual designers, their products, 
and their role in business and industry. The patent process 
may also be of interest to some students. 

The implementation phase involves extensive hands-on 
activity associated with the processing and fabricating of 
materials and results in a completed product. In all 
activities associated with the implementation phase, safety 
considerations are important. 

The evaluation stage provides an opportunity for the student 
to critically examine the final product. This may include 
earlier testing of a prototype or the testing of the final 
product and making recommendations for improving the product 
to better satisfy the identified need. 

Fabrication - materials and processes . The core related to 
fabrication - materials and processes should not be 
perceived in isolation from the content listed for 



64 e 


engineering and control technology. Since the modern 
products of our manufacturing industries combine materials, 
energy sources, and control devices, the problem-solving and 
design activities associated with the development of student 
projects will tend to contain similar mixes. 

The ability of students in advanced-level courses to 
undertake independent study and the diversity of their 
interests should be nurtured through the use of optional 
content. The use of out-of-school resources, including 
specialists in the community and available resources in 
other institutions, can also be used effectively to expand 
the technological opportunities available to students. 

The suggestions related to activities with wood, metals, and 
plastics outlined in the previous section for general-level 
courses may be adapted for advanced-level courses. Such 
adaptations could involve students in the design of jigs and 
fixtures for off-centre work, fluting, and centring in wood¬ 
turning, as well as in the design and manufacture of moulds 
for fibreglassing. 

Students should participate in at least one group or mass- 
production project. See the suggestions related to this 
type of activity in the suggestions for teachers for 
general-level courses. 


65. 


Engineering. Power, and Control Technology . Investigations 
of power and control technology at the advanced level should 
initially examine some typical ways in which energy and 
power are converted to alternate forms (e.g., mechanical to 
electrical, electrical to fluid, and fluid to mechanical). 
Such conversions can be discussed using devices (electrical, 
hydraulic, and pneumatic), components, schematic diagrams, 
pictorials, and other resources. The use of such 
conversions in robotic devices can be taught through audio¬ 
visual materials, kits (including computer interfaces), or 
visits to local industries. Students may also undertake 
individual research topics to explore further such topics as 
the use of nuclear energy to generate electricity, energy 
conservation in the home and industry, and alternate energy- 
sources . 

Investigations of control technology in courses at this 
level focus on applications related to electricity and 
electronics. Students should become familiar with the 
current applications of electronic technology associated 
with themes such as audio systems, interface systems, and 
robotics. In the case of audio systems, students could 
examine input and output devices (e.g., microphones, tape 
recorders, speakers, and earphones) and identify the various 
stages in the electronic control of signals between input 
and outputs. The operation of a local ham-radio station 
would also support such a theme. 



66. 


Each student should be involved in the construction of an 
electronic circuit or a device that will produce or modify 
sound, light, or motion. This activity should permit 
students to pursue a topic of interest, require them to use 
electronic test equipment and other measuring devices where 
appropriated, and provide opportunities for the development 
of problem-solving skills related to the troubleshooting of 
a faulty circuit or device. The availability of components 
that demonstrate up-to-date technology, project books, trade 
journals, electronics magazines, circuit boards, kits 
catalogues, schematic circuit diagrams, and data sheets for 
motors, generators, and micro-electronic chips (logic and 
other digital circuits) can motivate students in their work 
with these circuit-construction activities. 

Students can investigate the use of microcomputers in the 
control of simple processes. Where feasible, opportunities 
for discussions with specialist in local industry and in 
other educational institutions would assist students who are 
interested in this area. The application of microprocessors 
in the home for the control of home heating, telephones, 
alarm systems, and particular appliances can also provide 
opportunities for further investigation where such equipment 
is available to students. 


67 . 


At the advanced level students should be encouraged to 
explore the new technologies in house construction, security - 
and home management. 


68 „ 


Design Studies 

Courses offered in design studies provide opportunities for 
students to solve both identified and open-ended problems. The 
solution to these problems lead to products or systems that fill 
particular needs of society and that have value in the 
marketplace. 

Students will have numerous opportunities to participate in the 
design process through a variety of approaches and techniques. 
They will also have the opportunity to compare commercial 
products designed for similar purposes, to identify key design 
features, and to acquire some ability to discriminate between 
good and poor design. 

The identification of appropriate design problems is an important 
aspect of courses in design studies. Ideally these should be 
perceived by students as real problems whose solutions serve 
social or technological needs in the community. A social problem 
may focus on a compassionate service for an individual or on a 
community project identified by a local service group. A 
technical problem, possibly identified by an individual in a 
local business enterprise, may be related to conservation and 
energy or may involve an improvement to quality of life. 

Students will be able to identify literally hundreds of problems 
during their routine activities in the school and the community 
once they develop a sensitivity to recognizing them. 



69 . 


Courses in design studies will also introduce students to the 
role of designers in society and to the various educational and 
training paths that can lead to a career as a designer. The 
emphasis in most courses will tend to focus on industrial design 
and to deal with problems related to the quality of the human 
environment. However, engineering design, graphic design, 
interior design, theatre design, fashion design, or craft design 
might also form an acceptable focus for some courses. 

Design concepts can be offered in separate and distinct courses 
in design studies or they can be introduced into any of the 
technological studies subjects. In either case, the use of the 
design process can help to create interesting themes that will 
often inspire students to delve deeper into particular subject 
content. Presenting students with the opportunity to modify an 
existing design to solve a problem is an excellent way to 
introduce the basic principles of design. However, the teaching 
of design may also focus on the overall design of a new product. 

There are two basic approaches to teaching design. The first 
involves individuals or pairs of students working independently. 
The second involves students working in small or large groups in 

9 

which each student contributes to the planning and implementation 
phases of a project. 

Students working in groups or designs teams can benefit from the 
opportunity to learn about group dynamics and the need to 


70 . 


compromise; the diversity of skills and knowledge provided by 
members of a group? the wide variety of ideas presented by 
members of a group? the balanced decision-making process that 
takes place in groups? and the opportunity to perform the tasks 
for which they are not qualified. Students working as 
individuals can benefit from the ability to work at their own 
speed (which may vary considerably) on different parts of the 
total task? the opportunity to proceed with favourite ideas that 
a group might not find attractive or feasible? and the need to 
participate with reasonable success in all stages of the design 
process and its implementation. In either approach students must 
assume individual responsibility for the completion of required 
tasks. 

At all levels of difficulty, projects that involve a group of 
students can be handled effectively by the use of the project- 
design approach. Process is of prime importance in this 
approach. Project design involves a group process, a design 
process, and project management. It provides a synthesis of 
experiences in which a group of students select, design, 
construct, and evaluate a project that meets specified criteria. 
The design experience is regulated by a series of steps that, if 
followed rigorously, leads to the design and production of 
objects, systems, or environments, along with the appropriate 
documentation. The thirty steps involved in this approach are 
listed under course content for design studies, pages 106 - 107 . 


71 . 


On the completion of a full set of project-design activities by a 
group, each student in the group will have: 

- learned how to contribute his/her best to a co-operative group 
exercise; 

become aware of the personal qualities and functions required 
of a successful group leader; 

- experienced the satisfaction of having completed a project 
with which he/she can identify strongly; 

gained insights into him-/herself as a result of working 
closely with others; 

- learned how to organize and maintain a relatively complex 
group operation; 

- experienced the satisfaction that comes from doing things for 
others for which a real need exists. 

The evaluation of student achievement in a design studies course 
can be particularly difficult. Assessments should reflect the 
individual student's success in achieving the various 
competencies that are essential to the design process. Although 
the process is more important than the product in initial design 
studies courses, the product tends to be the natural focus of 
assessment. One technique is to help students to assess their 
own achievements by leading them through an analysis of the 
functional and aesthetic aspects of their products. For 
reporting purposes, a profile of each student's efforts and 
results is often as accurate an indication of how well the 


72c 


student is doing as is any other form of evaluation. Thus, 
students' written and oral reports and the results of their day- 
to-day progress should be carefully observed and recorded. 
Additional suggestions concerning the evaluation of student 
achievement in these courses are outlined on page 20 of this 
document. No matter what form the evaluation takes, it is 
imperative that students be informed of how they are being 
evaluated and that they be aware of the results of their efforts. 

Courses in design studies are authorized for Grade 9 and for 
Grades 10 , 11 and 12 at the basic, general, and advanced levels 
of difficulty. The aims and suggestions for designing these 
courses are provided in the sections that follow. The core 
content is identified for design studies courses beginning on 
page 100 . The depth and breadth of the treatment of this core 
content should reflect the level of difficulty and grade at which 
a course is being offered. Courses may vary in time allotment 
and may be designed to offer up to 2 credits of in-school work 
each year. The Grade 11 course is a prerequisite for the Grade 
12 course. 




B 


B 


B 

Grade 9 

—> 

D.S.2G 

—> 

D.S.3G 

—> 

D.S.4G 



A 


A 


A 


up to 2 credits per year 






73 . 


1. Grade 9 Course 


Aims 


Courses at this level will provide students with opportunities 

to develop: 

- skills in using the design process; 

- problem-solving skills? 

- the ability to discriminate between poor and excellent 
design? 

- techniques required to gather information and do research? 

- techniques that stimulate creative thinking and idea 
generation? 

- skills in communicating technical ideas through speaking, 
writing, and drawing? 

- skills in planning and timing the stages of production for a 
design project? 

- an attitude of respect and co-operation towards fellow 
workers and supervisors? 

- a capability for critically evaluating the results of their 
own work, and a sense of satisfaction in a job well done? 

- skills required to prepare technical reports on design 
proj ects ? 

- a general understanding of what it means to be a designer? 

- safe work habits and procedures? 

- a knowledge of career and further training opportunities in 


the design field. 




74 . 


Suggestion for Teachers 

The Grade 9 course should provide opportunities for students 
to undertake a number of projects that involve as wide a range 
of core learning experiences as possible within the course 
time allotted. Students should acquire some perspective on 
the complete design process and should become creatively 
involved in one or more of the design stages. The core 
learning focuses on the design process culminating in a plan 
or model. The optional content in these courses should focus 
on the planning and implementation of the design. While the 
goal of initial projects may be a plan, model, mock-up, or 
presentation that can be communicated to others, subsequent 
projects may involve the construction of prototypes that 
require the use of optional content in the implementation of 
the design. 

General shop safety procedures are the responsibility of every 
student. They should be discussed at the beginning of the 
course and closely followed thereafter. Special safety rules 
relating to specific materials, equipment, procedures, or 
environmental situations should be introduced at the 
appropriate time. 

Design studies may be offered in most technological studies 
facilities. The ideal course organization will allow students 



75 . 


to use a variety of technical facilities for the design and 
construction of their projects. In the process a variety of 
specialized areas (e.g., drafting, metalwork, woodwork, 
physics) could be involved, as well as the particular skills 
and knowledge of individual teachers and students. 
Technological studies teachers who have an understanding of 
the design process should be consulted in the establishment 
and operation of these courses. This will be advantageous to 
students taking courses in both design studies and 
technological studies subjects in which a design project, or 
components of it, may be implemented. 

The practical activities in courses based on this section may 
be conducted on an individual or a group basis. When the 
group approach is used, students must acquire the knowledge 
and skills required to function effectively in a group or a 
design team, as well as those necessary to function 
individually. 

Some students may proceed to higher education in the various 
design fields. For this reason the recording of actions and 
decisions made at each stage of a project becomes an important 
part of student learning. The organized recording of 
pictorial and written data at each stage encourages student 
involvement, prevents students from eliminating essential 
steps in the design process, and is useful for project 
evaluation and presentation purposes. 


76 . 


Process is of prime importance in this course. These courses 
should therefore include a planned series of steps that leads 
to the design and production of £ object or system, as well 
as the appropriate documentation of the project activity. 
Although the essential steps in the process are to be dealt 
with in the core learning, alternative course approaches are 
possible, depending on the optional content that is included. 


77 . 


2. Grades 10. 11 and 12 

Design Studies - Basic Level 

(Grades 10, 11 and 12) 

Aims 


All courses at the basic level will provide students with 

opportunities to develop: 

- skills in using the design process? 

- techniques required to gather information and generate ideas 
to support problem-solving and design activities? 

- pride and self-confidence in their ability to solve 
problems ? 

- skills in working co-operatively as members of a group 
involved in a design activity? 

- and practise safe work habits and procedures in shop 
activities ? 

- techniques for estimating material, time, and cost 
requirements for a project? 

- their ability to use technical vocabulary in both written 
and spoken forms? 

- communication skills, including the ability to complete 
drawings and make written and oral presentation? 

- a general understanding of the role of designers and the 
qualities of a well-designed product. 





78 . 


Suggestions for Teachers 

Basic-level courses should build on the core learning that 
students may have acquired in the Grade 9 design studies 
course. Students working at this level need opportunities to 
review the overall design process at each successive stage and 
to improve their techniques for dealing with the major stages 
of the process each time that they undertake a new project. 

The core learning focuses on the implementation of the design 
process. While some projects may lead simply to a plan or a 
model, the opportunity to actually construct prototypes and 
test them is important for students. In addition to the 
specified core content, the planning and implementation of 
designs may involve optional topics that are appropriate to 
particular projects or objectives. These may be selected from 
course content outlined at the end of this guideline or from 
that outlined in any module in the Technological Studies 
guideline. 

The problems and projects identified for courses at the basic 
level should be perceived by students as being relevant and 
worthwhile to them. Through learning to define problems as 
part of a controlled problem-solving process students' ability 
to recognize and identify diverse problems elsewhere can be 
developed. Students soon discover that there are many simple 
problem situations in their home and community environments 



79 . 


that are amenable to technological solutions. Projects that 
can serve the particular needs of individuals or groups in the 
community are particularly appropriate for the consideration 
of students. 

Students who have acquired technical knowledge and skills over 
several years have the potential to implement fairly complex 
designs. The problems and projects undertaken by these 
students should therefore fully challenge them and continue to 
enhance their total design experience. One problem assignment 
could focus on the design of a product that can be mass- 
produced. A selection of one or more student designs could be 
implemented in quantity through an adaptation of mass- 
production methods. A shop facility, equipped to support 
skill development in several trade areas, is ideal for such 
mass production. 

Some of the suggestions for teachers that are made for other 
design courses can be adapted for use in basic-level courses 
in Grades 10 to 12. It is therefore recommended that teachers 
refer to these sections when planning courses for the basic 
level of difficulty. 


Design Studies - General Level 

(Grades 10, 11 and 12) 


80 e 


Aims 

All courses at the general level will provide students with 

opportunities to develop: 

- skills in using the design process; 

- further their problem-solving skills? 

- a knowledge of the criteria of good design so that they can 
rate a commercial product? 

- techniques required to gather information to support 
problem-solving and design studies; 

- a technological perspective on alternative ways of 
fabricating or producing a project? 

- techniques for estimating material and cost requirements for 
a project; 

- planning and organization skills related to the production 
and timing of a design project? 

- the safety habits and attitudes necessary for working in a 
variety of shop situations? 

- a responsible and co-operative attitude towards the 
satisfactory completion of an individual or a joint 
undertaking ? 

- and further improve their skills in communicating 
technological ideas and information through drawn, written, 




81. 


and verbal reports on projects? 

- skills in working co-operatively as a member of a group 
involved in the solution of a design problem; 

- a knowledge of career and further training opportunities in 
the design field. 

Suggestions for Teachers 

General-level courses should build on the core learning that 
students may have acquired in the Grade 9 design studies 
course. Each successive design project should challenge 
students, help them to acquire additional skills and knowledge 
related to design, and involve them creatively in the various 
stages of the design process. 

The identification of appropriate problems is an important 
aspect of good planning in design studies courses. Students 
and other should perceive the problems undertaken in the 
courses as worthwhile projects that relate to personal, 
social, or technological needs in the community. While 
initial projects may be structured to develop particular 
skills in the overall design process, students should be 
involved in the selection or problems whenever possible. They 
should also be encouraged to identify and define problems in 
their home and community environments that are amenable to 
technological solutions. The problems undertaken should 
involve students in searching for information that is 



82. 


pertinent to their solution and should be feasible in terms of 
safety considerations and the resources that are available. 

Some of the suggestions for teachers that are made for other 
design courses can be adapted for use in general-level courses 
in Grades 10 to 12. It is therefore recommended that teachers 
refer to these sections when planning courses for the general 
level of difficulty. 

When the project-design approach (described in the 
introduction to this section), is used with groups of 
students, the teacher must be prepared to act as a project 
manager for the group of students who have committed 
themselves to a project. As a project manager, the teacher 
has many functions to perform, including monitoring, guiding, 
evaluating, and serving as a resource person. He/she must 
also be competent to teach students the criteria for the 
selection of an appropriate project, group-process methods and 
techniques, design analysis, the entire design process 
(including research methods, creative-thinking techniques, 
visualizing and drawing, model and mock-up making, refinement 
techniques, and analysis and evaluation), and implementation 
techniques such as critical-path planning, management styles 
and techniques, technical report writing, and design 
presentation. 


83. 


The responsibility for decision making at each step, however, 
must rest with the students, not with the teacher. This 
applies to all levels of difficulty. Without that 
responsibility students cease to identify themselves with the 
project and lose their motivation. 

Teachers can modify the demand that may be placed on students 
in accordance with students' knowledge and competence, the 
time frame, and the available resources. In order for 
students to reach the objectives set out above, they require a 
minimum of three complete design-process experiences. As they 
become familiar with the process, they can increasingly 
function independently. The ultimate aim will be achieved 
when a group of students can direct themselves through the 
entire process, with the teacher only needed to monitor and 
evaluate their performance. 

The continual evaluation of the group's progress, made at the 
completion of each step, is mandatory in order to assess 
students fairly and to maintain momentum. In addition, each 
individual in the group can be given assignments that reveal 
his/her understanding of the process. Assessments of these 
assignments may be used as part of students' final gradings, 
in combination with their group gradings. In order to ensure 
a sense of group responsibility, the final mark should be 
structured in such a way that the group activity outweighs the 
individual activity? otherwise, the tendency will be for 


84. 


individuals within the group to seek ways of improving their 

status at the expense of group solidarity. 

Design Studies - Advanced Level 

(Grades 10, 11 and 12) 

Aims 

All courses at the advanced level will provide students with 

opportunities to develop: 

- their skill and understanding in using the design process? 

- further their problem-solving skills? 

- a variety of techniques that can be used to gather 
information and to stimulate creative thinking applicable to 
the solution of problems? 

- the management skills required for planning and scheduling 
the development and production stages of a project within 
the total time allowed? 

- a knowledge of the criteria of good design so that they can 
rate a commercial product? 

- techniques for estimating the material costs and the time 
requirements for a project? 

- the safety habits and attitudes necessary for working safely 
in a variety of shop situations? 

“ skills in working co-operatively and responsibly as a member 
of a group involved in the solution of a design problem? 




85. 


- skills in the writing and presentation of technical reports? 

- a knowledge of career and further training opportunities in 
the design field. 

Suggestions for Teachers 

Courses at the advanced level are structured around a sequence 
of projects on which students work individually or in group. 
The design process, when carried through competently, results 
in a well designed process, object, system, or environment. 

Depending on the strategies used to structure the projects, 
the learning can be quite varied. Skills related to problem 
solving? the design process, including creative thinking and 
inventiveness? information search and research? project 
management? prototype construction? and group process can all 
be part of any project. These skills should be introduced as 
part of the overall design process and honed and further 
developed with each successive project. 

Many design projects require students to conduct an 
information search or to apply simple research procedures. 
Students should be encouraged to use all community resources 
in such activities. They can investigate the print resources 
available in libraries, periodicals and magazines, and the 
human resources available through appropriate business, 
industry, government, family, and other community contacts. 



86. 


Since the answers that students will receive from this variety 
of sources can be diverse, representing a mix of abstract and 
practical information, the exercise of judgement is an 
essential part of the process. In some cases it may be 
necessary to develop simple survey instruments to gather and 
analyse opinions or other information that is required at a 
decision stage in the project. 

Project selection is important in design studies courses. 
Students should perceive the projects undertaken in the 
courses as being worth doing from start to finish. Students 
are often more motivated to work on projects that they have 
selected themselves. Their motivation increases when their 
projects are to be used by a needy recipient or group. While 
each successive design project should challenge students, all 
projects cannot exceed the available resources (time, space, 
money, human, information). Some projects may be sponsored 
and thus pay for themselves. For instance, industry will 
sometimes propose problems to be solved and make available 
certain materials for students projects. Unique design 
solutions and inventions can lead to favourable publicity and 
may even be patented. 

Some of the suggestions for teachers that are made for other 
design courses can be adapted for use in advanced level 
courses in Grades 10 to 12. It is therefore recommended that 
teachers refer to these sections when planning courses for the 










■ 


87. 


advanced level of difficulty. 



88. 


Elements of Technology 

(Grades 9 to 12) 


Four different courses may be developed in the Elements of 
Technology series: 

Elements of Technology - Communications 
Elements of Technology - Construction 
Elements of Technology - Manufacturing 
Elements of Technology - Transportation 

Courses may be offered in Grade 9, and at all three levels of 
difficulty in Grades 10, 11 and 12. 

Elements of Technology courses are designed to provide students 
with a broad based of knowledge in a particular technology. 
Students who wish to study a particular subject in greater depth 
must take the corresponding subject from the Technological 
Studies Guideline. 

The course content for Elements of Technology subjects is listed 
in the Technological Studies Guideline, Part B7: Materials, 
Processes and Design. 



89. 


PART C - CONTENT FOR DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY COURSES 


Design and Technology 

x Indicates "core content" for courses in the grades identified 
at the top of the corresponding column. 


Grades 
7, 8 & 9 

Safety 

Proper control and storage of volatile and x 

combustible fluids, glues, cements, and 
chemicals ? 

Safe and correct use, handling, and storage x 

of materials, hand and power tools, 
machines, and equipment; 


Proper use of safety guards and personal x 

safety equipment; 

Proper fire-prevention procedures; x 

Escape routes, fire extinguishers; x 

Awareness of potential safety hazards in the x 

shop and the environment; 

Knowledge of safe practices and the develop- x 


ment of a positive attitude towards safety 


Grades 
10 , 11 & 12 


x 


X 


X 


X 

X 

X 


X 


Design 

Stating the problem; qualifying the x x 

problems; 

Analysing the problem-use, appearance, x x 

economics; 







90. 


Grades Grades 

7, 8 & 9 10, 11 & 12 

Design (cont*d) 

Alternative solutions, resources, freehand x x 

sketches, measurements, partial designs, 
improvement of existing designs, ergonomic 
considerations ? 

Design analysis (various commercial x 

products) 

Design process? x 

Design principles? x 

Final selection—final sketch or drawing, x x 

dimensioning ? 

Orthographic projection, instrument drawing? x 

Interpreting drawings? x 

Bill of materials-materials list and x x 

costing? 

Order of operations? x 

Prototypes ? x x 

Careers - inventors, designers, training in x x 

design technology? 

Design acronyms e.g., SAFE for Safe, x x 

Appropriate, Functional, Economic? and 
BASIC for Brief, Analysis, Solution, 

Implementation, Construction? PRAISE for 
Problem, Resources, Analysis, 

Implementation, Solution, Evaluation? 

SPICE for Situation, Problem, 



91. 


Grades Grades 

7, 8 & 9 10, 11 & 

Design (cont'd) 

Investigation, Construction, Evaluation; 

PAGPAU for Problem as given vs Problem as 
understood? 

Fabrication - materials and processes 

A. Wood technology 

Identification and uses of common x 

construction woods, processed woods? 
furniture woods ? x 

safe and proper tool usage—measuring, x x 

layout, cutting, drilling, planing, 
forming? 

edge tool grinding, table saw? x 

band saw, drill press? x 

basic joining and fastening (mechanical, x 

adhesive)? 

joining and fastening wood—wood joints x 

(dowel, dado, rabbet, edge-to-edge, lap 
and mitre), adhesive fastening (glues, 
clamps), mechanical fasteners, 
miscellaneous hardware (hinges, bolts, and 
catches)? 

wood turning - faceplate x x 


12 


spindle 


x 





92 . 


Grades Grades 

7, 8 & 9 10, 11 & 12 


A. Wood technology (cont'd) 

wood finishing-final surface preparation, x x 

staining, sealing, filling, top coats, 
polishing; 

abrasive papers (types, grades, uses)? x x 

use and care of brushes, solvents? x x 

various finishing materials? x x 

related occupational and career information. x x 


B. Metal technology 


Introduction to metal-working processes in x x 

industry and the shop? 

metal industries and related careers? x x 

stock types-bar, band, sheet? x x 

identification of ferrous and non-ferrous x x 

metals ? 

methods of manufacturing steel, copper, x 

aluminium? 

steel—structure and properties, annealing, x 

tempering? 

ornamental ironwork—design, forming, x 

fastening (rivets, welds), surface 


treatment ? 




B. Metal technology (cont'd) 

metal turning—end facing, parallel turning, 
short tapers, knurling, drilling, 
filling,polishing, use of micrometer? 
oxy-acetylene fundamentals—proper regulator 
and torch adjustments, types of flames, 
flashback and backfire, tip selection, 
brazing techniques? 
spot welding—safety and control? 
metal fastening—tap and die, threaded 
fasteners, rivets? 

metal finishing—buffing, wire brushing, 
etching, surface coating? 
methods of layout—measurement, marking and 
transfer techniques? 
sheet metal—cutting, filing, use of 

metalworking hand tools, folding (brake), 
roll forming, fastening, soldering and 
finishing. 

C. Plastics technology 

Identification and general classifications 
of common plastics? 
acrylics, thermoforming plastics? 
thermosetting plastics, fibreglass? 
industrial production of plastics? 




94 . 


Grades Grades 

7 , 8 & 9 10 , 11 & 12 


C. Plastics technology (cont'd) 

Processes—layout, cutting, measuring, x x 

simple thermoforming (heating, bending, 
forming)? 

fastening mechanically (drilling, tapping, x x 

threading)? 

use of bonding agents? x x 

casting (molds, finishing, polishing, x x 

buffing)? 

transferring patterns; laminating, turning x x 

on lathe, sawing, dressing plastic edges? 

surface decorating—engraving, veining , x 

colouring? 

fibre glassing—materials, molds, attaching x 

material to the mold, mixing and applying 
resin, finishing? 

careers in the plastic industry. x x 


Engineering - Power and control technology 

A. Power and energy 

the relationship of power and energy to work x 

forms of energy; x x 

conservation of energy? x x 

springs ? x 

power transmission (drives, belts, gears, x x 


mechanical kits)? 





95. 


A. Power and energy (cont'd) 
drive shafts, universals, pulleys? 
measurement of energy consumption? 
internal combustion engines (energy 
transformation)? 
spark and compression ignition? 
external combustion engines (steam)? 
characteristics and principles of fluid 
power (hydraulics and pneumatics), simple 
fluid power circuits (hydraulic jack)? 
applications of fluid power to production 
and control. 


Grades Grades 

7 , 8 & 9 10 , 11 & 12 


x 


X 

X 


X 


X 


X 


B. Power transmission (mechanisms) 

general terms - definitions of force, force x x 

unit, mechanical advantage, velocity 
ratio, efficiency? 

types of motion (linear, rotary, x x 

oscillating, reciprocating)? 

Newton's laws of motion - First law. Third x 

law? 

levers and linkages - types of levers, x 

moments of forces, linkage systems? 
pulleys, belts, sprockets and chains - 
types and applications of pulleys wheels? 
pulley systems (direction change, speed 


x 




96. 


Grades Grades 

7 , 8 & 9 10 , 11 & 12 

B. Power transmission (cont'd) 
change)? 

gears - spur gear, gear train (including the x 

determination of driver and driven 
rotation speeds and direction of driver 
and driven)? 

cams, eccentrics, and ratchets - cams and x 

followers, ratchet and pawl mechanisms, 
applications? 

crank, slider, and screw mechanisms-inclined x 

planes, screw mechanisms applications, 
terms (thread, pitch, and vee, square, and 
buttress thread chapes) use of crank for 
rotary to linear motion); crank and slider 
mechanisms? 

clutches and brakes - single plate friction x 

clutch, dog clutch, centrifugal clutch, 
pad, shoe, disc, and band brakes? 
hydraulic brakes? brake and clutch 
materials lubrication - function of 

lubricating oil and methods of oil x 

distribution? oil viscosity and 
temperature ? 

bearings - types, applications? x 

steering - types? Ackerman angle? castor x 


angle, camber angle? 



97. 


C. Electricity and electronics 

Sources of electrical energy? 
electrical circuits (electrical source, 
conductors, insulators, control switches, 
resistors, fuses)? 
electrical devices for energy 
transformation; 
loads; 

electromagnetism ? 

simple electromagnetic circuits (bells, 
buzzers, relays solenoids)? 
schematics and hook-up diagrams? 
control circuits? 
electrical motors? 
lighting circuits? 
safety requirements? 
test instruments ? 
interface systems and robotics? 
simple electronic circuits, systems and 
kits ? 


Grades 
7 , 8 & 9 


Grades 
10 , 11 & 12 


x x 

X 


X 

X 

X 


X 

X 

X X 

X X 

X X 

X 

X 


X X 

X X 


related occupational and career information. 



Construction Technology 


A. Building construction 

Safety on the construction site; 

layout of structures? 

woodworking materials and processes (truing 
rough lumber by hand and by machine, 
joining and fastening wood). 

Structures 

Examples of common structures (buildings, 
furniture cranes, bridges)? 

structures in nature; 

joints - joining solid and hollow materials 
in stressed furniture? 

reinforcing at joints? force transfer at a 
joint? 

design requirements of a structure 
(structure stability, foundation 
anchoring, flexibility, safety factor, 
stiffness and rigidity)? effect of length 
of structural member, material, and shape 
of cross-section on performance strength, 
stiffness, and weight? testing of 
structures and models. 





99. 


Grades Grades 

7 , 8 & 9 10 , 11 & 12 

B. Home maintenance 

Woodwork tasks—drawer repair, removing x 

finish from wood, refinishing furniture? 

—designing furniture to a known style or x 

period; 

electrical tasks—replacing or repairing an x 

appliance cord, wiring a desk or table 
lamp; 


--wiring home monitoring systems - x 

intercoms, alarms, etc. 

plumbing tasks—repairing a leaky water x 

faucet? 

—planning auxiliary systems - softeners, x 

purifiers, etc. 

mechanical tasks—making minor adjustments x 

on small gasoline engines, sharpening 
tools ? 

electro-mechanical tasks—installation of x 

garage door openers, ramps or lifts for 
physically handicapped persons, etc. 



100. 


Design Studies 

x Indicates "core content” for courses in the grades identified 

at the top of the corresponding column. 

Grade Grades 

9 10 , 11 & 12 

Safety 

Proper control and storage of volatile and x x 

combustible fluids, glues, cements, and 
chemicals; 

safe and correct use, handling, and storage x x 

of materials, tools, machines, and 
equipment," 

proper use of knowledge of safety guards and x x 

personal safety equipment? 

proper fire-control procedures; escape x x 

routes, fire extinguishers; 

awareness of potential safety hazards in the x x 

shop and the environment? 

knowledge of safe practices and the x x 

development of a positive attitude towards 
safety. 

Role of the designer in society 

The role of the professional designer in the x 

development of a new product for the 


market; 






101. 


Role of the designer in society (cont'd) 

the nature of industrial design, engineering 
design, graphic design, interior design, 
fashion design, theatre design, or craft 
design? 

the economic importance of excellent product 
design? 

the historical perspective on the role of 
the designer? 

career opportunities and training paths in 
design. 


Grade Grades 

9 10 , 11 & 12 

X X 


X X 


X 


X X 


Design analysis 

The analysis of existing hardware in order x 


to develop discrimination in design by the 
application of criteria such as 
simplicity, efficiency, optimum use of 
materials, ergonomics, aesthetics, safety? 
plus reliability, serviceability and x 

performance per dollar? 

criteria weighting? x 

systematic comparison of commercial items? x x 

learning to become an intelligent consumer. x x 




102 . 


Grade Grades 

9 10 , 11 & 12 

The design process 

The structured series of decision-making x x 

steps involved in every design activity — 
problem definition, constraints, 
performance, identification, 
specifications, research methods, 
generation of possible solutions, 
evaluation factors, selection of the 
"best" solution, refinement of the 
solution, analysis, implementation, 
report, and presentation. 


A. The problem stage 

Defining the problem clearly and concisely; x 

identify the relevant factors involved or x 

associated with the problem; 
establishing criteria for requirements, x 

restrictions, resources, and evaluation; 
obtaining the required information (facts, x 

and knowledge about the factors). 


Research methods 

Using total community resources for the x 

purpose of gathering information; 


x 

x 

X 

X 


X 


developing interviewing skills; 


x 





103. 


T 


Research methods (cont*d) 
recording data; 
conducting a library search? 
discriminating relevant data? 
analysing statistics? 

designing research to establish validity; 
using computer generated data. 


Grade Grades 

9 10 , 11 & 12 


x 


X 


X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


B. The creative stage 

Using: - techniques of imaginative thinking? 

- awareness exercises? 

- psychological conditioning 
techniques ? 

Generating possible solutions to a problem 
by: - employing Osbornes* rules 

- systematic manipulation of 
variables to produce novel ideas 
(morphological chart); 


solutions lead to other possible 
solutions ? 

- computer modelling. 


x 

x 


X 

X 

X 


X 

X 


- brainstorming? 

X 

X 

- using lateral thinking techniques? 


X 

- using manipulative verbs? 


X 

- visualizing and drawing; 

X 

X 

- collating ideas? 

X 

X 

- letting the evaluation of possible 

X 

X 




104. 


Grade Grades 

9 10 , 11 & 

C. The develop-to-the-optimum stage 

By: - selecting a tentative solution? x x 

- testing the solution and assessing x x 

the results? 

- revising and refining through: x x 

graphic communications? 

models and mock-ups. x x 


D. Implementation of the design 

Through: 

- working drawings? 

- technical illustrations and 
renderings ? 

- prototypes. 


E. Technical reporting and presentation 

By: - planning and recording activities? x x 

- using graphic communication? x x 

- using reproduction methods for x x 

technical drawings? 

- documenting achievements? x x 

- organizing written, oral, graphic, x x 

and demonstration material for 

presentation ? 

- compiling a technical report. x x 


x 

x 


X 

X 


12 





105. 


Grade 

9 10 

Project management 

The effective deployment of human and 
material resources to reach a defined 
goal— preparation and execution of plans 
for simple projects using appropriate 
design criteria and graphic communications 
techniques ? 

correct interpretation of plans and 
specifications ? 
project-management concepts; 
leadership and motivation? 
scheduling methods? 
legal and costing considerations. 


Group process 

Selection of partners? x 
team-forming techniques? x 
stating agreed-upon goals? x 
group task and group maintenance? x 
monitoring progress ? x 
evaluation methods. x 


Grades 
11 & 12 

x 


X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 




106 o 


Thirty steps for regulating a group process in project design 

Phase I: Initiation 

Students: 

1. search for and select a suitable project; 

2. selection partners to work with; 

3. search for information that is pertinent to the solution; 
4 e make a personal commitment to the project. 

Phase II: Design 

Students; 

5. complete a project description; 

6. list any constraint to the project; 

7 . gather information and documentation; 

8. outline performance specifications; 

9. generate a number of possible solutions to the problem 
outlined; 

10 . evaluate the factors involved; 

11. select a solution(s); 

12. refine the solution(s); 

13. finalize the solution(s); 

14. evaluate the finalized design; 
evaluation the group process. 


15. 




107. 


Phase Ills Implementation 

Students: 

16. schedule their project? 

17. produce formal drawings or photographs? 

18. complete a prototype, object, or system? 

19. testing and evaluate their product? 

20. make any necessary modifications to their product? 

21. evaluate the performance of their group. 

Phase IV i Report 

Students: 

22. summarize what took place in the previous three phases? 

23. make a final evaluation of the performance of their product? 

24. make a final evaluation of the performance of their group? 

25. draw conclusions on the basis of their experience? 

26. make recommendations on the basis of their experience? 

27. compile a bibliography of the documentation that they used? 

28. list any resources (both material or human) that were 
involved in the project? 

29. compile their documentation in printable form? 

30. present their report and demonstrate their product. 


108. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The Ministry of Education wishes to acknowledge the contributions 
of the many persons who participated in the development of the 
Design & Technology curriculum guideline. 

Project and Advisory Committee 

Lee Aurini, Hamilton Board of Education 

Bob Buckles, Hastings County Board of Education 

Graham Carr, Project Manager, Curriculum Branch, Ministry of 
Education 

Bertrand Cliche, Carleton Board of Education 
^Ray Corneil, Queens University 

Joan Davis, Wellington Country Board of Education 

Victor Desjardins, Cocharane Iroquois Falls District RCSSB 

Dick Dow, Northeastern Ontario Region, Ministry of Education 

David Ducharme, London and Middlesex County RCSSB 

Lyn Harrington, Hastings County Board of Education 

George Isford (retired), formerly Project Manager, Curriculum 
Branch, Ministry of Education 

Marilyn MacKenzie, Toronto Board of Education 

Guy Monaco, Stelco Inc. 

Brian Oxley, Ford Glass Ltd. 

David Raines, Metropolitan Toronto Separate School Board 

Richard Rancourt, Project Manager (French Language), Curriculum 
Branch, Ministry of Education 

Herb Salter, Project Leader, Curriculum Branch, Ministry of 
Education 

Pat Sweeney, Canadian Paperworkers Union 

Gerald Varteniuk, Algonquin College of Applied Arts and 
Technology 




109. 


* 

0+ 

Resource Persons 

* 

Jonathan Evans, York Region Board of Education, 

Design and Technology Teachers of Ontario (D.T.T.O) 

Charles Kahu, University of Toronto 

Ted Loney (retired), formerly Queens University 

Diedra Lusson, Board of Education for the City of York 

Bob Moulton, Hamilton Board of Education, D.T.T.O. 

Virgil Parvu, Niagara South Board of Education 

Rudy Sramek, University of Toronto 

George Wilson, London Board of Education, D.T.T.O. 


Ontario Industrial Arts Teachers Association Curriculum 
Review Committee: 

Denis Etienne Jim McMillan 

Doug Groom Doug Patillo 

John Flaherty Virgil Parvu 

Jim Handley Bob Rowland 

George Heighington Bert Stinson 

Paul Mayer 


John Williams 





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