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Note on the Dictionary 

The Dictionary of National Biography comprises the following 
distinct works: 

1. The D.N.B. from the earliest times to igoo. 
In two alphabetical series : 

Vols. I-XXI. 

Vol. XXII (Supplementary). 
At the end of each of the 21 volumes is an alphabetical 
index of the lives in that volume and of those in vol. 23 
which belong to the same part of the alphabet. 

2. The Twentieth-Century D.N.B. 

(a) igoi-igii, three volumes in one. 

(b) igi2-ig2i, with an index covering 1901-1921. 

(c) ig22-igjo, with an index covering 1901-1930. 

3. The Concise D.N.B. One volume. 

An epitome of the main work and its supplement to 1900 
in one alphabet, followed by an epitome of the Twentieth- 
Century D.N.B. in one alphabet. 





Founded in 1882 by 






From the Earliest Times to 1900 


Published since 1917 by the 



Oxford University Press, Amen House, London E.C.4 


Geoffrey Cumberlege , Publisher to the University 

Reprinted at the Oxford University Press 1921-1922 

from plates furnished by Messrs. Spottiswoode & Co. 

and again 1937-1938, 1949-1950 



In reprinting the twenty-two volumes of the main Dictionary in 
1921-2 and again in 1937-8 it seemed best to leave the text unaltered. 
The bulk of the corrections hitherto received or collected by the 
present Publishers is insignificant when compared \\ath the magnitude 
of the work, and would not justify the issue of a 'new edition' pur- 
porting to supersede the editions now in the libraries and in private 
hands. The collection and classification of such corrections for future 
use is, however, being steadily carried on ; and students of biography 
are invited to communicate their discoveries to the Publishers. 

Two changes have been made in reprinting : — 

1. The lists of Contributors originally prefixed to each of the 
sixty-six volumes, and later combined in twenty-two lists, have been 
combined in one list which is now printed in Volume 1 only. 

2. In using the main Dictionary (to 1900) it is necessary to remem- 
ber that it is in hvo alphabetical series: Vols. 1-21, and the supple- 
mentary Vol. 22, in which were added lives of persons who had died 
too late for inclusion in their places (as weU as Hves of some who had 
been accidentally omitted). It has been sought to mitigate the incon- 
venience arising from this by adding to the index at the end of each 
volume those names, occurring in Vol. 22, which belong to the same 
part of the alphabet. These ' supplementary ' names are added at the 
bottom of each page. It is thus possible to ascertain, by reference to 
a single volume, whether any person (who died before 1901) is or 13 
not in the 22-volume Dictionary. 

The opportunity has been taken, in accordance with the wishes of 
the donors, to commemorate upon each title-page the name of the 
munificent Founder. 



1. Memoir of George Smith, by Sidney Lee, first published in September 1901 

in the first volume of the original edition of the Supplement. 

A Statistical Account of the D.N.B., first pubUshed in June 1900 as a 
preface to Volume 63 of the original issue of the Dictionary. 

Abbadie-Beadon = Vols. 1-3 as originally published 1885. 

2. Beal-Browell = 

3. Brown-Chaloner = 

4. Chamber-Craigie = 

5. Craik-Drake = 

6. Drant-Finan = 

7. Finch-Gloucester = 

8. Glover-Harriott = 

9. Harris-Hovenden = 

10. Howard-Kenneth = 

11. Kennett-Lluelyn = 

12. Llwyd-Mason = 

13. Masquerier-Myles = 

14. My liar-Owen = 

15. Owens-Pockrich = 

16. Pocock-Robins = 

17. Robmson-Sheares = 

18. Shearman-Stovin = 

19. Stow-Tytler 

20. Ubaldini-Whewell 

21. Whichcord-Zuylestein = 

22. Supplement = 

With a Prefatory Note, first pubHshed in September 1901 in the first 
volume of the original edition of the Supplement. 

„ 4-6 


„ 7-9 


„ 10-12 


„ 13-15 


„ 16-18 


„ 19-21 


„ 22-24 


„ 25-27 


„ 28-30 


„ 31-33 


„ 34-36 


„ 37-39 


„ 40-42 


„ 43-45 


„ 46-48 


„ 49-51 


„ 52-54 


„ 55-57 


„ 58-60 


„ 61-63 


„ 64-66 


Note. — Vols. 1-21 , as originally issued 1885-1890, were edited by Sir Leslie Stephen; 
Vols. 22-26, 1890-1891, by Sir Leslie Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee; Vols. 
27-66, 1891-1901, by Sir Sidney Lee. 






1887), novelist. [See Mulock.] 

CRAIK, GEORGE LILLIE (1798-1866), 
man of letters, was born at Kennoway, Fife, 
in 1798. He was the son of the Rev. Wil- 
liam Craik, schoolmaster of Kennoway, by 
his wife, Paterson, daughter of Henry Lillie. 
He was the eldest of three brothers, the 
second being James Craik (1802-1870), who 
studied at St. Andrews, was licensed in 1826, 
became classical teacher at Heriot's Hospital, 
Edinburgh, was afterwards minister of St. 
George's Church, Glasgow, and was elected 
moderator of the general assembly in 1863 ; 
and the third, the Rev. Henry Craik (1804- 
1866) of Bristol, who was a Hebrew scholar 
of repute, and author of * The Hebrew Lan- 
guage, its History and Characteristics * (1860), 
and some other books on theology and bibli- 
cal criticism. In his fifteenth year George 
Lillie Craik entered St. Andrews, where he 
studied with distinction and went through 
the divinity course, though he never applied 
to be licensed as a preacher. In 1816 he took 
a tutorship, and soon afterwards became 
editor of a local newspaper, the ' Star.' He 
first visited London in 1824, and went there 
two years afterwards, delivering lectures upon 
poetry at several towns on the way. In 1826 
he married Jeannette, daughter of Cathcart 
Dempster of St. Andrews. In London he 
took up the profession of authorship, devot- 
ing himself to the more serious branches of 
literary work. He became connected with 
Charles Knight, and was one of the most 
useful contributors to the publications of the 
Society for the Diff"usion of Useful Knowledge. 
He lived in a modest house called Vine Cot- 
tage, in Cromwell Lane, Old Brompton, and 
was well known to Carlyle, John Forster, 
Leigh Hunt, and other leading writers of the 
time. In 1849 he was appointed professor of 

VOL. V. 

English literature and history at the Queen's 
College, Belfast. He was popular with the 
students and welcome in society. He visited 
London in 1859 and 1862 as examiner for the 
Indian civil service, but resided permanently 
at Belfast. He had a paralytic stroke in 
February 1866, while lecturing, and died on 
25 June following. His wife, by whom he had 
one son and three daughters, died in 1856. 

His works, distinguished by careful and 
accurate research, are as follows: 1. 'The 
Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties,' 
published in 2 vols. 1830-1 ; there are 
several later editions, and in 1847 appeared 
a supplementary volume of ' Female Ex- 
amples,' as one of Knight's ' Monthly Volumes.' 
2. ' The New Zealanders,' 1830. 3. ' Paris 
and its Historical Scenes,' 1831. These three 
are part of the ' Library of Entertaining 
Knowledge ' published by the Society for the 
Diffxision of Useful Knowledge. 4. * The 
Pictorial History of England,' 4 vols. 1837- 
1841 (with C. MacFarlane). The ' History 
of British Commerce,' extracted from this, 
was published separately in 1844. 5. ' Sketches 
of the History of Literature and Learning in 
England from the Norman Conquest,' 6 vols. 
1844-5, expanded into 6. ' History of Eng- 
lish Literature and the English Language,' 

2 vols. 1861. A ' manual ' abridged from 
this appeared in 1862, of which a ninth edi- 
tion, edited and enlarged by H. Craik, ap- 
peared in 1883. 7. ' Spenser and his Poetry,' 

3 vols. 1845 (in Knight's ' Weekly Volume'). 
8. 'Bacon and his Writings,' 3 vols. 1846-7 (in 
Knight's ' Weekly Volume '). 9. 'Romance 
of the Peerage,' 4 vols. 1848-50. 10. ' Out- 
lines of the History of the English Language,' 
1851. 11. ' The English of Shakespeare il- 
lustrated by a Philological Commentary on 
Julius Csesar,' 1856. 

Craik contributed to the 'Penny Maga- 
zine' and 'Penny Cyclopaedia,' and wrote 


many excellent articles for the biographical 
dictionary begun by the Society for the Dif- 
fusion of Useful Knowledge. He also wrote 
a pamphlet upon the ' Representation of Mi- 

[Gent. Mag. 1866, ii. 265-6 ; private informa- 

1624), divine, was born at or near Strick- 
land in Westmoreland in 1567, and at the 
age of sixteen was admitted as a student 
at Queen's College, Oxford. According to 
"Wood he was first a 'poor serving child,' 
then a tabardar, and at length in 1598 be- 
came a fellow of that college. In the latter 
part of the reign of Elizabeth the university 
of Oxford was very puritanical, and the in- 
fluence of Dr. John Reynolds, president of 
Corpus, the very learned leader of the puri- 
tans, was supreme. It would appear that 
Crakanthorpe at once fell under his influence, 
and became closely attached to him. He pro- 
ceeded in divinity and became conspicuous 
among the puritanical party for his great 
powers as a disputant and a preacher. Wood 
describes him as a ' zealot among them,' and 
as having formed a coterie in his college of 
men of like opinions with himself, who were 
all the devoted disciples of Dr. Reynolds. That 
Crakanthorpe had acquired a very consider- 
able reputation for learning is probable from 
the fact that he was selected to accompany 
Lord Evers as his chaplain, when, at the com- 
mencement of the reign of James I, he was 
sent as ambassador extraordinary to the Em- 
peror Rudolph II. It appears that he had 
preached an ^Inauguration Sermon' at Paul's 
Cross on the accession of James, which pro- 
bably brought him into notice. Crakanthorpe 
had as his fellow-chaplain in the embassy 
Dr. Thomas Morton [q. v.], afterwards well 
known as the bishop of Chester and Durham. 
The two chaplains could hardly have been 
altogether of the same mind, but Wood tells 
us that they ' did advantage themselves ex- 
ceedingly by conversing with learned men of 
other persuasions, and by visiting several uni- 
versities and libraries there.' After his return 
Crakanthorpe became chaplain to Dr. Ravis, 
bishop of London, and chaplain in ordinary 
to the king. He was also admitted, on the 
presentation of Sir John Leverson, to the rec- 
tory of Black Notley, near Braintree in Essex. 
Sir John had had three sons at Queen's Col- 
lege, and had thus become acquainted with 
Crakanthorpe. The date of his admission to 
this living in Bancroft's ' Register ' is 21 Jan, 
1604-5. Crakanthorpe had not as yet pub- 
lished anything, and with the exception of 
his ' Inauguration Sermon,' published m 1608, 
the earliest of his works bears date 1616, 

'■ Crakanthorpe 

when he published a treatise in defence of 
Justinian the emperor, against Cardinal Ba- 
ronius. His merits, however, and his great 
learning seem to have been generally recog- 
nised, and in 1617, succeeding John Barkham 
[q. v.] or Barcham, Crakanthorpe was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Paglesham by the 
Bishop of London. He had before this taken 
his degree of D.D. and been incorporated at 
Cambridge. It was about this time that the 
famous Mark Anthony de Dominis [q. v.J, 
archbishop of Spalatro, came to this country 
as a convert to the church of England, having 
published his reasons for this step in a book 
called ' Consilium Profectionis ' (Heidelberg 
and Lond. 1616). With this prelate Cra- 
kanthorpe was destined to have his remark- 
able controversial duel. His most important 
previous works were : 1. ' Introductio in 
Metaphysicam,' Oxford, 1619. 2. * Defence of 
Constantine,with aTreatise of the Pope's Tem- 
poral Monarchy,' Lond. 1621. 3. 'Logicse 
libri quinque de PraBdicabilibus, Prasdica- 
mentis,' &c., Lond. 1622. 4. ' Tractatus de 
Providentia Dei,' Cambridge, 1622. The ' De- 
fensio Ecclesiae Anglicanae,' Crakanthorpe's 
famous work, was not published till after his 
death,when it was given to the world (1625) by 
his friend, John Barkham, who also preached 
his funeral sermon. It is said by Wood to 
have been held ' the most exact piece of con- 
troversy since the Reformation.' It is a trea- 
tise replete with abstruse learning, and writ- 
ten with excessive vigour. Its defect is that 
it is too full of controversial acerbity. Cra- 
kanthorpe was, says Wood, ' a great canonist, 
and 80 familiar and exact in the fathers, coun- 
cils, and schoolmen, that none in his time 
scarce went before him. None have written 
with greater diligence, I cannot say with a 
meeker mmd, as some have reported that he 
was as foul-mouthed against the papists, par- 
ticularly M. Ant. de Dominis, as Prynne was 
afterwards against them and the prelatists.' 
The first treatise of De Dominis (mentioned 
above) had been received with great applause 
in England, but when, after about six years' 
residence here, the archbishop was lured back 
to Rome, and published his retractation ('Con- 
silium Reditus '), a perfect storm of vitupe- 
ration broke out against him. It was this 
treatise which Crakanthorpe answered in his 
* Defensio Ecclesise Anglicanae,' taking it sen- 
tence by sentence, and almost word by word, 
and pouring out a perpetual stream of invec- 
tive on the writer. The Latin style of Cra- 
kanthorpe's treatise is admirable, the learning 
inexhaustible, but the tone of it can scarcely 
be described otherwise than as savage. Its 
value as a contribution to the Romish con- 
troversy is also greatly lessened by the facfc 



of its keeping so closely to the treatise which 
it answers, and never taking any general 
views of the subjects handled. The book 
having been published without the author's 
final corrections, in consequence of his illness 
and death, the first edition was full of errors. 
It was well edited at Oxford in 1847. Crakan- 
thorpe died at his living of Black Notley, 
and was buried in the chancel of the church 
there on 25 Nov. 1624. King James, to 
whom he was well known, said, somewhat un- 
feelingly, that he died for want of a bishopric. 
Several works written by him on the Romish 
controversy, in addition to his great work, 
the ' Defensio,' were published after his death. 
[Wood's Athense Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, vol. i. ; 
Crakanthorpe's Defensio Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 
Oxford, 1847 ; M. Ant. de Dominis, Keditus ex 
AngliA Consilium Sui, Rome, 1622.] G. G. P. 

CRAKELT, WILLIAM (1741-1812), 
classical scholar, was born in 1741. From 
about 1762 until his death he held the 
curacy of Northfleet in Kent. He was also 
master of the Northfleet grammar school, 
and was presented in 1774 to the vicarage of 
Chalk in Kent. He died at Northfleet on 
22 Aug. 1812, aged 71. Crakelt published 
various editions of Entick's Dictionaries, as 
follows : 1. * Entick's New Spelling Diction- 
ary, a new ed., enlarged by W. C.,' 1784, 
12mo ; other editions in 1787 obi. 12mo, 1791 
Bvo, 1795 12mo (with a grammar prefixed). 
2. 'Entick's New Latin-English Dictionary, 
augmented by W. C.,' 1786, 1 2mo. 3. ' Tyronis 
Thesauriis ; or Entick's New Latin-English 
Dictionary ; a new edition revised by W. C, 
1796,' 12mo ; another ed. 1836, obi. 12mo. 
4. * Entick's English-Latin Dictionary . . . 
to which is affixed a Latin-English Diction- 
ary . . . revised and augmented by W. C.,' 
1824, 16mo. 5. ' Entick's English-Latin 
Dictionary by W. C, 1825,' 12mo. 6. * En- 
tick's English-Latin Dictionary ' (with ' an 
etymological paradigm ' annexed), 1827, 4to. 
He also published (1792, 8vo) a revised edi- 
tion of Daniel Watson's English prose trans- 
lation of ' Horace,' and translated (1768, 8vo) 
Mauduit's ' New . . . Treatise of Spherical 
Trigonometry.' Crakelt was intimate with 
Charles DiUy the bookseller, who left a 
legacy to his wife and to her daughter, Mrs. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 191-2, viii. 438; 
Gent. Mag. 1812, vol. Ixxxii. pt. ii. p. 298 ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

(1772-1848), violinist, the second son of 
WUhelm Cramer [q. v.], was born at Schwet- 
zingen, near Mannheim, in 1772. He joined 
his father in London when very young. As 

a child he was so delicate that he was not 
allowed tostudy,but,his health improving, he 
studied the violin with his father, by whom he 
was placed in the opera band without salary 
at the age of seventeen. In 1793 his name 
occurs as leader of the second violins at the 
Canterbury festival, and in the following year 
he was elected a member of the Royal So- 
ciety of Musicians. On his father's death 
he succeeded to his post as leader of the An- 
tient concerts, and it is related that George IH 
used to give him the right tempi when Han- 
del's compositions were performed. He also 
acted as leader at the Philharmonic concerts, 
most of the provincial festivals, and at the 
coronation of George IV, and on the foun- 
dation of the Royal Academy of Music was 
appointed one of the first professors. In 1834 
he succeeded Christian Kramer as master of 
the king's band. Towards the end of his life 
Cramer sustained a severe shock in the death 
of his second son, Francois, who died of con- 
sumption just after taking his degree at Ox- 
ford. He never recovered from this blow, 
though he continued working almost until 
the last. He retired from the conductorship 
of the Antient concerts in 1844, and died at 
Westboume Grove, Tuesday, 2-5 July 1848. 
Cramer was a respectable performer, but no 
genius ; he rarely attempted solos, and had 
no talent for composition. He was all through 
his life overshadowed by his celebrated elder 
brother, to whom he was much devoted. 
There is an engraved portrait of him by 
Gibbon, after Watts, and a lithograph by 
0. Motte, after Minasi, published in Paris. 

[Pohl's Mozart und Haydn in London ; Fetis's 
Biographies des Musiciens ; Musical World,5 Aug. 
1848 ; Cazalet's Hist, of the Eoyal Academy of 
Music ; Musical Recollections of the Last Century; 
Life of Moscheles.] W. B. S. 

1858), pianist and composer, the eldest son 
of Wilhehn Cramer [q. v.], was born at 
Mannheim 24 Feb. 1771. He came with his 
mother to London in 1774, and when seven 
years old was placed under the care of a 
musician named Bensor, with whom he stu- 
died for three years. He then learned for a 
short time from Schroeter, and after a year's 
interval had lessons from Clementi, until the 
latter left England in 1781. In 1785 he 
studied theory with C. F. Abel, but otherwise 
he was entirely self-taught, and seems to 
have had no lessons after he was sixteen. 
But he was assiduous in the study of the 
works of Scarlatti, Haydn, and Mozart, and 
it is probable that his father, who was an 
admirable musician, supervised his education 
throughout. Although originally intended 



for a violinist, his talent as a pianist soon 
asserted itself, and in 1781 he made his first 
appearance at his father's yearly benefit con- 
cert. In 1784 he played at one concert a 
duet with Miss Jane Mary Guest ; at another 
a duet for two pianofortes with Clementi. 
In the following year he played at a concert 
with Dance, and in 1799 with Dussek. In 
1788 Cramer went abroad. At Vienna he 
made Haydn's acquaintance, and in Paris, 
where he stayed for some time, he became 
first acquainted with the works of Sebastian 
Bach, which he obtained in repayment of a 
loan. He returned to England in 1791, but 
in 1798 he again went abroad, renewing his 
friendship with Haydn at Vienna, and making 
the acquaintanceship of Beethoven, with 
whom, however, he seems to have been in 
little sympathy. On his return to England 
he married. He remained in England until 
1816, when he went to Germany, but re- 
turned in 1818. On the establishment of the 
Royal Academy of Music in 1822 Cramer 
was appointed a member of the board of 
management. In 1828 he founded the firm 
of music publishers ' J. B. Cramer & Co.,' but 
in 1835 he resolved to retire from active in- 
terest in the business and settle in Munich ; 
he accordingly gave a farewell concert and 
left England. He did not stay in Germany 
long, but returned to London, afterwards 
living in retirement in Paris. In 1845 he 
once more came back to England, where he 
remained for the rest of his life. In June 1851 
he was present with Duprez and Berlioz at 
the festival of charity children at St. Paul's. 
Berlioz, disguised in a surplice, obtained ad- 
mission among the bass singers. On meet- 
ing Cramer after the service he found the 
old musician deeply affected ; forgetting that 
Berlioz was a Frenchman, he exclaimed, 
' Cosa stupenda ! stupenda ! La gloria dell' 
Inghilterra ! ' Cramer died in London on 
Friday, 16 April 1858, and was buried at 
Brompton on the Thursday following. He 
wrote an immense amount of music for the 
pianoforte — sonatas, concertos, and smaller 
pieces — all of which are now forgotten ; but 
one work of his, the ' Eighty-four Studies,' is 
still an accepted classic. As a pianist he oc- 
cupied the foremost rank of his day ; his 
power of making the instrument sing was 
unrivalled, and the evenness of his playing 
was remarkable. As a musician he was more 
in sympathy with the school of Haydn and 
Mozart than with that of Beethoven. The 
latter in one of his letters alludes to a report 
that had reached him of Cramer's want of 
sympathy with his music, and it is said that 
in later years Cramer was fond of praising 
the days when Beethoven's music was not 

understood. But against these stories must 
be set an account of a meeting of Hummel, 
Kalkbrenner, Moscheles, and Cramer, when 
Cramer played a work of Beethoven's to 
such perfection that Hummel rapturously 
embraced him, exclaiming, ' Never till now 
have I heard Beethoven ! ' 

The following is a list of the portraits of 
Cramer : (1) Oil painting, by Marlow, in the 
possession of Messrs. Chappell & Co.; (2) oil 
painting, by J. C. Horsley, in the possession 
of Messrs. Broadwood & Sons ; (3) drawing 
by Wivell, engraved (a) by Thomson in the 
' Harmonicon ' for 1823, and {b) by B. HoU, 
published 21 July 1831 ; (4) oil painting by 
J. Pocock, engraved by E. Scriven, and pub- 
lished 14 June 1819 ; (5) drawing by D. 
Barber, engraved by Thomson, and published 
1 March 1826 ; (6) lithograph drawn and en- 
graved by W. Sharp, published 15 Nov. 1830 ; 
(7) medal by Wyon, with Cramer's head on 
the obverse, and heads of Mozart., Raphael, 
and Shakespeare on the reverse ; engravings 
of this medal are in the Print Room of the 
British Museiim. 

[Pohl's Mozart und Haydn in London ; Fetis's 
Biographies des Musiciens; Musical World, 
24 April 1858 ; Musical Recollections of the Last 
Century, i. 75; Life of Moscheles, i. 318; Ries, 
Notizen iiber Beethoven ; Harmonicon for 1823, 
p. 179; Evans's Oat. of Portraits ; Grove's Diet, 
of Musicians, i. 414, in -which there is an excel- 
lent estimate of Cramer's position as a pianist 
and composer.] W. B. S. 

1848), dean of Carlisle and regius professor 
of modem history at Oxford, was born at 
Mittoden, Switzerland, in 1793. He was 
educated at Westminster School, entered 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1811, obtained 
first class honours in both classics and mathe- 
matics in 1814, graduated B.A. in that year 
and M.A. in 1817, B.D. in 1830, and D.D. in 
1831 ; was appointed tutor and rhetoric 
reader of his college ; was perpetual curate 
of Binsey, Oxfordshire, from 1822 to 1845, 
but did not leave Oxford ; and was public 
examiner there in 1822-4, and again in 1831. 
He was also vice-principal of St. Alban Hall 
1823-5, public orator 1829 to 1842, principal 
of New Inn Hall 1831-47, succeeded Arnold 
as regius professor of modern history in 1842, 
and became dean of Carlisle 1844. For the 
previous thirteen years he resided at New Inn 
Hall as principal, and rebuilt the place at his 
own expense. He died at Scarborough 24 Aug. 

Cramer was a good classic, and published 
the following: 1. 'Dissertation of the Pas- 
sage of Hannibal over the Alps ' (with H. L. 
Wickham), Oxford, 1820 ; 2nd edit. 1828. 

Cramer i 

2. 'Description of Ancient Italy/ 2 vols. 
1826. 3. 'Description of Ancient Greece,' 
3 vols. 1828. 4. ' Description of Asia Minor,' 
2 vols. 1832, 5. 'Anecdota Graeca Oxoni- 
ensia,' 4 vols. 1834-7. 6. ' Anecdota Grseca 
e codicibus manuscriptis Bibliothecse Regise 
Parisiensis,' 4 vols. 1839-41. 7. 'Catenae 
Grsecorum Patrum in Novum Testamentum,' 
8 vols. 1838-44. 8. Inaugural lecture ' On 
the Study of Modern History,' delivered 
2 March 1843. He also edited for the Cam- 
den Society the ' Travels of Nicander Nucius 
of Corcyra in England in the reign of Henry 
VIII,' 1841. Cramer left three sons and a 

[Gent. Mag. 1848, ii. 430; "Welch's Alumni 
Westmonast. 473.] 

CRAMER, WILHELM (1745 P-1799), 
violinist, generally said to have been born 
at Mannheim in 1745, was the second son of 
Jacob Cramer (1705-1770), a flute-player in 
the band of the elector. Gerber, however 
( Lexikon der Tonkiinstler, i.310, ed.l790), says 
that from 1750 to 1770 Cramer was playing 
at Mannheim. If this is the case, he could 
not well have been born so late as 1745. 
According to the accepted accounts he was 
a pupil of the elder Stamitz, of Cannabich, 
and of Basconni. When only seven years 
old he played a concerto at a state concert, 
and in his sixteenth year went on a concert 
tour in the Netherlands, and on his return 
was appointed a member of the elector's band. 
He married at Mannheim, but in 1770 ob- 
tained leave to travel, the elector. Prince 
Maximilian, allowing him 200/. a year during 
his absence. He travelled through Germany, 
Italy, and France, and on the invitation of 
Johann Christian Bach he came to London 
towards the end of 1772. He lived for some 
time with Bach, first at Queen Street, Golden 
Square, and then at Newman Street, and 
Bach is said to have corrected and tinkered 
his compositions. His first appearance in 
London took place at a benefit concert under 
Bach and Abel in Hickford's Rooms, 22 March 
1773. His success was so great that he re- 
solved to settle in London, whither he was 
followed in 1774 by his wife and eldest son, 
Johann Baptist [q. v.] His second son, Franz 
[q. v.], followed somewhat later. His wife 
appeared at a concert in 1774 as a singer, 
pianist, and harpist ; Michael Kelly {Remi- 
niscences, i. 9-10), who describes her as a 
beautiful woman and a charming singer, says 
that she sang in Dublin in his youth. On 
7 Dec. 1777 Cramer was admitted a member 
of the Royal Society of Musicians. In 1780 
he succeeded Hay as leader at the Antient 
concerts, in 1783 he was leader at the Pro- 


fessional concerts, in 1787 at the Musical 
Fund concerts, and about the same time at 
the Nobility's concerts. He also directed the 
court concerts at Buckingham Palace and 
Windsor, and was leader, until Salomon's 
arrival, at the Pantheon, Italian Opera, and 
the Three Choirs festivals. He led at the Han- 
del festivals in 1784, 1787, 1791, and 1792, 
and at the concerts given in the Sheldonian 
Theatre on Haydn's visit to Oxford in 1791. 
Indeed, there is scarcely a musical perform- 
ance at this time in which he did not appear. 
About 1797 he retired from the Italian opera, 
owing, it was said, to the machinations of 
Banti and Viotti. In spite of his brilliant 
career his latter years were clouded with 
pecuniary embarrassments, and his aff'airs 
became so involved that a * friendly commis- 
sion of bankruptcy was issued ' in order to 
extricate him from his difficulties. His last 
public appearance was at the Gloucester fes- 
tival in 1799 ; and he died in Charles Street, 
Marylebone, 5 Oct. in the same year. He 
was buried 11 Oct. in a vault near the en- 
trance of the old Marylebone burying-ground. 
Cramer was married twice. His second wife 
was a Miss Madan, of Irish origin, and by 
her he left four children. The eldest of these, 
Charles, appeared as a violinist in 1792, when 
barely eight years old, at a benefit concert 
of his father's. He was said to show great 
promise, but died prematurely in December 
1799. A daughter of Cramer's married a Cap- 
tain John D'Esterre. Cramer was an excellent 
if not phenomenal performer. His tone was 
full and even, his execution brilliant and 
accurate, and his playing at sight was cele- 
brated. He wrote a good deal of music for 
his instrument, but none of this has survived. 
A portrait of him by T. Hardy was published 
by Bland in 1794 ; a copy of this, by J. F. 
Schroter, appeared at Leipzig, There is also 
a portrait of him by T. Bragg, after G. Place, 
published in 1803, A pencil vignette of him 
by J, Roberts, drawn in 1778, is in the posses- 
sion of Mr, Doyne C, Bell, 

[Pohl's Mozart und Haydn in London ; Fetis's 
Biographies des Musiciens ; Mendel's Musik- 
Lexikon; Gent, Mag. 1799; Parke's Musical 
Memoirs, i. 179, 254, 277 ; Records of the Royal 
Society of Musicians ; Marylebone Burial Re- 
gister.] W, B. S. 

1881), baptist minister, son of Rev. Thomas 
Cramp, founder of the baptist church at St. 
Peter's in the Isle of Thanet, and its pastor 
for many years, who died 17 Nov. 1851, aged 
82, was born at St. Peter's 25 July 1791, and 
educated at Stepney College, London. In 
1818 he was ordained pastor of the baptist 
chapel in Dean Street, Southwark, and from 


1827 to 1842 assisted liis father in the pasto- 
rate of St. Peter's. The baptist chapel at 
Hastings had the benefit of his services 
from 1842 to 1844, when he removed to Mont- 
real, Canada, having the appointment of pre- 
sident of the baptist college in that city. 
During part of his tenure of that post he was 
associated with Dr. Benjamin Davis, the dis- 
tinguished Semitic scholar. Cramp Settled 
at Accadia College, Nova Scotia, in June 
1851, as its president, and did much by his 
exertions to increase the utility and insure 
the success of that institution. He originated 
the endowment scheme and threw himself 
vigorously into the work of placing the col- 
lege on a sure financial basis by helping to 
raise forty-eight thousand dollars during eight 
months in 1857. After his resignation in 
1869 he devoted himself to theological litera- 
ture, and besides his printed works left in 
manuscript a ' System of Christian Theology.' 
He edited the ' Register,' a Montreal weekly 
religious journal, from 1844 to 1849, when it 
ceased to exist. In conjunction with the 
Rev. W. Taylor, D.D., he conducted the 
' Colonial Protestant,' a monthly magazine, 
from 1848 to 1849, when it was discontinued, 
and he was general editor of the * Pilot ' 
newspaper from 1849 until he removed to 
Nova Scotia. In the ' Christian Messenger ' 
of Halifax he published * A History of the 
Baptists of Nova Scotia,' and contributed to 
a large extent to various other religious and 
secular journals. 

He died at Wolfville, Nova Scotia, 6 Dec. 
1881, undoubtedly the most learned man of 
the baptist denomination who ever resided in 
the lower province of Canada. 

Cramp was the author or editor of the fol- 
lowing works : 1. ' Bartholomew Day Com- 
memorated,' a sermon, 1818. 2. ' Sermon on 
Day of Interment of George III,' 1820. 
8. ' An Essay on the Obligations of Chris- 
tians to observe the Lord's Supper every 
Lord's Day,' 1824. 4. ' On the Signs of 
the Times,' 1829. 5. < The Inspiration of 
the Scriptures.' 6. * Sermon on Death of 
George IV,' 1830. 7. ' A Text-book of Popery, 
comprising a history of the Council of Trent,' 
1831, several editions. 8. ' Sermon on Death 
ofWilliamIV,'1837. 9. ' Lectures on Church 
Rates,' 1837. 10. ' The Scripture Doctrine 
of the Person of Christ.' 11. ' The Reforma- 
tion in Europe,' 1844. 12. ' Lectures for these 
Times,' 1844. 13. * Inaugural Address and In- 
troductory Lecture to the Theological Course 
at Accadia College,' ISol. 14. 'Scriptures and 
Tradition.' 15. ' A Portraiture from life, by a 
Bereaved Husband,' 1862. 16. ' The Great 
Ejectment of 1662/ 1862. 17. 'A Catechism 
of Christian Baptism,' 1865. 18. ' Baptist 


History from the Foundation of the Christian 
Church to the Eighteenth Century,' 1868, 
several editions. 19. 'The Lamb of God,' 
1871. 20. ' Paul and Christ,' a portraiture, 
1873. 21. ' Memoir of Madame FeUer, with 
an account of the origin of the Grande Ligne 
Mission,' 1876. 22. ' Memoir of Dr. Cot6.' 

[Morgan's Bibliotheca Canadensis (1867), p. 
84 ; Morgan's Dominion Annual Register, 1880- 
1881, p. 403; Times, 26 Dec. 1881, p. 7.] 

a. C. B. 

TWISLETON (1805-1886), diplomatist, 
born on 12 Aug. 1805, was the elder son of 
Sir Philip Crampton [q. v.], M.D., F.R.S., 
surgeon-general to the forces, and surgeon in 
ordinary to the queen, in Ireland, who was 
created a baronet on 14 March 1839. He 
entered the diplomatic service as an unpaid at- 
tache at Turin on 7 Sept. 1826, and was trans- 
ferred to St. Petersburg on 30 Sept. 1828. He 
became a paid attache at Brussels on 16 Nov. 
1834, and at Vienna on 9 May 1839, and was 
promoted to be secretary of legation at Berne 
on 13 Dec. 1844, and transferred to Wash- 
ington, where his most important diplomatic 
services were rendered, in the same capacity 
on 8 July 1845. He served at first under 
Sir Richard Pakenham, and then under Sir 
Henry Lytton Bulwer, successive ministers 
plenipotentiary, and acted as charg6 d'affaires 
from May 1847 to December 1849, and again 
from August 1850, when Sir Henry Bulwer 
left America after concluding the well known 
Clayton-Bulwer treaty, until January 1852, 
when Crampton was himself appointed minis- 
ter plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary 
to the United States of America. He did 
not succeed in making himself agreeable to 
American statesmen, and at the time of the 
Crimean war nearly caused an open rupture 
between Great Britain and the United States. 
At that time the exigencies of the Crimean 
war brought about the raising of various 
foreign corps in English pay, notably the Ger- 
man, Swiss, and Italian legions, and Crampton 
actively forwarded the schemes of his governs 
ment by encouraging and even engaging in the 
recruiting of soldiers within the territories of 
the United States. It was not until the very 
close of the Crimean war, in 1856, that the be- 
haviour of Crampton was seriously regarded. 
It has been said that the whole proceedings 
were encouraged by President Franklin Pierce, 
in order to gain popularity and possibly a fresh 
term of office, by showing a vigorous front to- 
wards, and even inflicting an insult on, Eng- 
land. At any rate ]\[r. Marcy, the American 
secretary of state, while accepting Lord Cla- 
rendon's apologies for the breach of American 



law in enlisting soldiers in the United States, 
declared nevertheless that Crampton and three 
English consuls, who had been active in the 
proceedings, must be recalled, and on 28 May 
1856 President Pierce broke off diplomatic 
relations with the English minister. Cramp- 
ton at once returned to England, and rumours 
of a war became rife, especially as a large 
reinforcement was sent to the North Ameri- 
can squadron by Lord Pabnerston. Mr. Marcy 
justified the conduct of his government in an 
elaborate despatch, in which he argued that 
Crampton had been ' from the beginning the 
prime mover in a scheme which he had full 
means of knowing was contrary to the law of 
the United States; ' and that 'Mr. Crampton 
had continued the recruiting after it had been 
pronounced unlawful, and in fact did not de- 
sist until commanded by his government so 
to do.' The British nation was certainly not 
inclined to go to war on account of the per- 
sonal affront to Crampton, and so, in spite of 
Lord Palmerston's threatening attitude, he 
had to consent to the appointment of a suc- 
cessor at Washington. Nevertheless Lord 
Palmerston insisted on rewarding Crampton, 
who was made a K.C.B.^on 20 Sept, 1856 and 
appointed minister plenipotentiary and envoy 
extraordinary at Hanover on 2 March 1857. 
He was transferred to the embassy at St. 
Petersburg on 31 March 1858, and succeeded 
his father as second baronet on 10 June of the 
same year. On 31 March 1860 he married 
Victoire [see Crampton, Victoiee], second 
daughter of Michael Balfe, the composer, 
from whom he was divorced in 1863, and on 
11 Dec. 1860 he was appointed minister 
plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary at 
Madrid. He remained there until 1 July 
1869, when he retired on a pension, after 
more than forty years' diplomatic service. 
He died, at the age of eighty-one, at his 
seat, Bushey Park, near Bray, co. Wicklow, 
on 5 Dec. 1886. 

[Foreign Office List ; Foster's Baronetage ; and 
the newspapers of 1856 for the dispute regarding 
bis conduct at Washington.] H. M. S. 

CRAMPTON, SikPHILIP (1777-1858), 

surgeon, descended from a Nottinghamshire 
family settled in Ireland in Charles II's reign, 
was born at Dublin on 7 June 1777. He 
studied medicine in Dublin, early entered the 
army medical service, and left it in 1798, 
when he was elected surgeon to the Meath 
Hospital, Dublin. In 1800 he graduated in 
medicine at Glasgow. He soon after com- 
menced to teach anatomy in private lectures, 
and maintained a dissecting-room behind his 
own house. His success was marked, both 
in his private and in his hospital teaching. 

He was an excellent operator and an attrac- 
tive practitioner, being ready in resource, 
successful in prescribing, and cultivated in 
medical science. He was for many years 
surgeon-general to the forces in Ireland and 
surgeon in ordinary to the queen, a member 
of the senate of the Queen's University, and 
three times president of the Dublin College 
of Surgeons. In 1839 Crampton was created 
a baronet. After retaining a large medical 
and surgical practice almost to the close of 
his life, he died on 10 June 1858, being suc- 
ceeded in the baronetcy by his eldest son, 
John Fiennes Crampton [q. v.], then British 
ambassador in Russia. 

Crampton was much interested in zoology, 
and in 1813 published in Thomson's * Annals 
of Philosophy ' (i. 170) a ' Description of an 
Organ by which the Eyes of Birds are ac- 
commodated to different distances,' for which 
he was shortly after elected F.R.S. He waa 
prominent in the foundation of the Royal 
Zoological Society of Ireland, and secured 
the grant to it of the ground in the Phoenix 

[Freeman's Journal, 11 June 1858; Lancet, 
19 June 1858, p. 618 ; Diet. EncyclopMique dea 
Sciences Medicales, vol. xxii. Paris, 1879.] 

G. T. B. 

1871), singer, second daughter of Michael 
William Balfe [q. v.], was born in the Rue 
de la Victoire, Paris, 1 Sept. 1837, and evinc- 
ing a passionate taste for music, even when a 
child, received early and able instruction in 
that science. She entered the Conservatoire 
de Musique while very yoimg, and studied 
the pianoforte for about two years. She was 
then removed to London and placed under the 
care of Sterndale Bennett. In the meanwhile 
her father watched and carefully trained her 
voice. Her vocal studies were at first entirely 
superintended by him, but when it appeared 
that her organ was developing into a pure 
soprano, in 1853, the assistance of Emmanuel 
Garcia was secured. In a short time she ac- 
quired a perfect mastery over her voice, and 
a visit to Italy and a series of practising les- 
sons from Signor Busti and Signor Celli com- 
pleted her education. When eighteen yeara 
of age she again studied in Italy, and after- 
wards returning to London, made her appear- 
ance under Frederick Gye's management at 
the Lyceum Theatre on 28 May 1857. Her 
character was Amina in * Sonnambula,' and 
a more successful debut could scarcely be 
imagined. Her voice proved to be a high 
soprano, fresh and pure in quality, ranging 
from low C to C in alt, and remarKable for its 
great flexibility and even sweetness through- 




out. Her next role was that of Lucia in 
Donizetti's opera on 21 July, when the au- 
dience were charmed with her exertions, and 
recalled her many times. At the conclusion 
of the season she proceeded to Dublin, then 
to Birmingham, and afterwards to Italy. At 
Turin in 1858 she achieved a brilliant suc- 
cess, and added the part of Zerlina in ' Don 
Giovanni ' to her repertoire. On coming back 
to England she commenced an engagement 
under E. T. Smith at Drury Lane on 25 April 

1859, and appeared during the season as 
Amina, Lucia, and Zerlina. Her singing, 
however, was not so eflFective as before, her 
physical powers were limited, as they had 
not improved by her practice in Italy and 
elsewhere, and her vocalisation was heard to 
less advantage in Drury Lane than it had 
been in the smaller area of the Lyceum. 
She played the role of Arline in her father's 
opera of 'La Zingara ' (' The Bohemian Girl') 
for his benefit in July 1859. On 31 March 

1860, while fulfilling an engagement in St. 
Petersburg, she was married to Sir John 
Fiennes Twisleton Crampton, bart. [q. v.], 
the British envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary at the court of Russia, but this 
marriage was annulled on her petition on 
20 Nov. 1863 {Times, 21 Nov. 1863, p. 11, 
col. 2). She married secondly in 1864 the 
Due de Frias. She died at Madrid 22 Jan. 
1871, and was buried in Burgos Cathedral. 
She left three children. 

[Drawing-room Portrait Gallery (3rd ser., 
1860), with portrait; Illustrated News of the 
World, 28 May 1869, pp. 323, 328, with portrait; 
Illustrated London News, 25 July 1857, p. 90, 
and 1 Aug., p. 116, with portrait ; Kenuey's Me- 
moir of M. W. Balfe (1875).] G. C. B. 

CRANBORNE, first Viscount (1563 ?- 
1612). [See Cecil, Robert.] 

CRANCH, JOHN (1751-1821), painter, 
bom at Kingsbridge, Devonshire, 12 Oct. 1751, 
taught himself as a boy drawing, writing, 
and music, and while a clerk at Axminster 
also received instruction from a catholic 
priest. Inheriting some money, he came to 
London and painted portraits and historical 
pictures. He failed, however, to get a place 
on the walls of the Academy, but was more 
successful at the Societyof Artists, to which 
he contributed ' Burning of the Albion Mills,' 
and at the British Institution, to whicli he 
contributed eight pictures in 1808. His best 
picture was ' The Death of Chatterton,' now 
in the possession of Sir James Winter Lake, 
bart., who also owns a portrait of Cranch, 
which was engraved by John Thomas Smith. 
He is said to have excelled in ' poker-pictui-es,' 

and to have been befriended by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. Reynolds in his youth had re- 
ceived valuable assistance from a IVIr. and 
Mrs. Cranch of Plympton, Devonshire, who 
were doubtless relatives of John Cranch. 
After residing many years at Bath, Cranch 
died there in his seventieth year in February 
1821. He published two works — ' On the 
Economy of Testaments ' (1794), and ' In- 
ducements to promote the Fine Arts of Great 
Britain by exciting Native Genius to inde- 
pendent Effort and original Design' (1811). 
There is a picture by him in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

[Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880; Gent. Mag. (1821), xci. 189; 
Catalogues of the British Institution, &c.l 

L. C. 

CRANE, EDWARD (1721-1749), pres- 
byterian minister, eldest son of Roger Crane 
{d. 1760), of an old Lancashire family, at- 
tached to the parliamentary party and the 
presbyterian interest, was bom at Preston in 
1721, and was educated for the ministry in the 
academy of Caleb Rotheram, D.D., at Kendal 
(entered inl738). He appears to have preached 
for a short time at Ormskirk on leaving the 
academy. In the summer of 1744 he did duty 
at Norwich in the absence of John Taylor, the 
Hebraist, and in March 1745 he was appointed 
assistant and intended successor to Peter 
Finch, Taylor's superannuated colleague. His 
stipend was 60/., but he was able to board for 
18/. a year (including wine). In 1747 his 
congregation, anxious to see him married, 
raised his stipend to 80/. In 1748 the Dutch 
congregation at Norwich, worshipping in the 
choir of the Dominican church of St. John 
the Baptist, was without a pastor. Overtures 
were made to Crane, who agreed to undertake 
the office, in addition to his other duties. On 
11 Aug. 1748 he sailed from Yarmouth to 
Rotterdam, and applied in due course for ad- 
mission to the Amsterdam classis, with which 
the Dutch ministers of Norwich had usually 
been connected. His certificates of ordina- 
tion and call were satisfactory, but as he 
scrupled at subscribing the Heidelberg cate- 
chism, his admission was refused. This shut 
him out from the privileges of a fund which 
would have secured anannuity to his widow. 
Crane learned Dutch, and began to preach in 
that language in March 1749. His promising 
career was suddenly cut short by a malignant 
fever. He died on 18 Aug. 1749, aged 28, 
and was buried in the Dutch church. He 
married (4 Aug. 1747) Mary Park of Ormskirk, 
and left a daughter Mary (born 1748). A 
posthumous son, Edward, born 1749, became 
an upholsterer at Bury St. Edmund's. Two 



elegies to Crane's memory have been pre- 

[Monthly Repos. 1810, p. 325 ; Browne's Hist. 
Cong. Norf. and Suff. 1877, p. 281 ; Memorials 
of an old Preston Family, in Preston Guardian, 
17 Feb. to 14 July 1877 (gives many of Crane's 
letters and other original papers).] A. Gr. 

CRANE, Sir FRANCIS {d. 1636), was 
the director of the tapestry works established 
at Mortlake under the patronage^of James I. 
His origin is generally assigned to Norfolk or 
Suffolk, but of his early history little is known. 
In April 1606 he had a grant for life of the 
office of clerk of the parliament, and he was 
secretary to Charles I when prince of Wales, 
and during his secretaryship he was knighted 
at Coventry (4 Sept. 1617). C. S. Gilbert in 
his history of Cornwall asserts that Crane 
was a member of the family of that name 
seated at Crane in Camborne, but this state- 
ment is unsupported by any authority. Never- 
theless he was intimately connected with that 
county. His eldest sister married William 
Bond of Erth in Saltash, and his second sister 
married Gregory Arundel, and to the Arun- 
dels his estates ultimately passed. Through 
the influence of these connections and through 
the support of the Prince of Wales as duke of 
Cornwall, he was twice (1614, 1621) returned 
to parliament for the borough of Penryn, and 
for Launceston in 1624. In February 1618 
his name was dragged into the Lake scandal, 
as Lady Lake charged the Countess of Exeter 
with having been on the death of her first 
husband, Sir James Smith, contracted in 
marriage to Sir Francis Crane, and with pay- 
ing him the sum of 4,000Z. in order that she 
might be freed from the bargain. Tapestry 
had been worked in England by fitful efforts 
for some time before 1619, but in that year a 
manufactory was established with the aid of 
the king in a house built by Crane on the 
north side of the High Street at Mortlake 
with the sum of 2,000/. given to him from 
the royal purse. J ames brought over a num- 
ber of skilful tapestry workers from Flanders 
and encouraged the enterprise with an annual 
grant of 1,000Z. The report spread about in 
August 1619 that the privilege of making 
three baronets had been granted to Crane to 
aid him in his labours, and the rumour seems 
to have been justified by the fact. In June 
1623 it was rumoured that ten or twelve 
serjeants-at-law were to be made at the price 
of 500/. apiece, and that Crane would pro- 
bably receive the payment 'to further his 
tapestry works and pay off some scores owed 
him by Buckingham.' In the first year of his 
reign Charles I owed the sum of 6,000/. for 
three suits of gold tapestry, and in satisfac- 

tion of the debt and ' for the better mainte- 
ance of the said worke of tapestries ' a pen- 
sion of 2,000/. per annum was granted for ten 
years. Grafton and several other manors in 
Northamptonshire were conveyed to Crane 
in February 1628 as security for the sum of 
7,500/. advanced by him for the king's ser- 
vice, but the magnitude of the grant was 
hateful to his rival courtiers, and the trans- 
action caused him much trouble, which how- 
ever seems to have ended at last with his 
triumph (^Strafford Letters and Despatches 
(1739), i. 261, 336, 525). Stoke Park was 
granted to him in 1629, and there he built, 
after designs which he brought from Italy, 
a handsome house, afterwards visited by 
Charles I. As a further mark of royal favour 
he had a joint-patent with Frances, dowager 
duchess of Richmond and Lenox, for the 
exclusive coinage and issue for seventeen 
years of farthing tokens. About 1630 his 
enemies began to allege that he had made ex- 
cessive profits out of his tapestry works, and 
it is difficult to refuse credence to the accusa- 
tion. Crane, however, contended that the 
manufactory had never made a larger return 
than 2,500/., and that he was out of pocket 
in the business * above 16,000/.,' so that his 
estate was wholly exhausted and his credit 
was spent. He suffered from stone in the 
bladder, and for the recovery of his health 
went to Paris in March 1636. Next month 
he underwent the usual operation, and at 
first it seemed successful, but 'the wound 
grew to an ulcer and gangrene,' and he died at 
Paris 26 June 1636. In the whole course of 
his illness, writes John lord Scudamore to 
secretary Windebank, ' he behaved himself 
like a stout and humble christian and mem- 
ber of the church of England.' His body was 
brought to England and buried at Woodris- 
ing in Norfolk, 10 July 1636, a gravestone to 
his memory being placed in the chancel of 
the church. He had bought the lordship of 
Woodrising from Sir Thomas Southwell, and 
it remained with his heirs until about 1668. 
His wife was Mary, eldest daughter of David 
Le Maire of London, a family which came 
from Tournay, and widow of Henry Swinner- 
ton of London, and she survived until 1645. 
Sir Peter Le Maire, his wife's brother, died 
as it seems early in 1632, when Crane wrote 
that he had come * into an inheritance fur- 
ther off than the king of Sweden's con- 
quests are likely to reach.' As he died with- 
out issue, his property in Northamptonshire 
passed to his brother Richard Crane, created 
a baronet 20 March 1642, and that in Nor- 
folk to his niece Frances, daughter of William 
Bond. He gave 500/. to the rebuilding of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, and provided for the main- 




tenance of four additional poor knights at 
Windsor Castle. 

At the time of Crane's death 140 persons 
were employed in the works at Mortlake, and 
the manufactory was carried on long after 
163G. Ruhens and Vandyck are said to have as- 
sisted in the designs, and Klein the German 
was brought over to this country for the pur- 
pose of helping in the operations. For three 
pieces of tapestry, the largest of which de- 
picted the history of Hero and Leander, the 
Slim of 2,872/. was paid from the royal trea- 
sury in March 1636, and Archbishop Williams 
gave 2,500/. for representations of the four 
seasons. The hangings at Houghton with 
whole lengths of kings James and Charles 
and their relations, and the tapestry at Baiole 
wrought in silk with portraits of Vandyck 
and Crane, were woven at Mortlake. The 
masterpiece of the works was the ' Acts of 
the Apostles,' presented to Louis XIV by 
James H, and now in the National Garde- 
Meuble of France. A representation of * Nep- 
tune and Cupid interceding for Mars and 
Venus ' from the Mortlake tapestry is repro- | 
duced in the 21st part of Guifirey's 'General 
History of Tapestry.' A portrait by Vandyck 
of Crane, who was the last lay chancellor of i 
the order of the Garter, was in the possession i 
of John Simco, who published a print of it in 

[Baker's Northamptonshire, ii. 241 ; Bridges's 
Northamptonshire, i. 328 ; Blomefield's Norfolk 
(1809), X. 278-81 ; Manning and Bray's Surrey, 
iii. 302-3 ; J. E. Anderson's Mortlake, pp. 31-5 ; 
Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (Dallaway), i. 
235-7, iii- 488-94; Davis's Translation of 
Miintz's Tapestry, pp. 249, 295, 305 ; State 
Papers, 1603-36, passim; Lloyd's State "Worthies 
(1670 ed.), p. 953; Visit, of London, 1568 
(Harl. Soc. 1869), p. 93; Burke's Extinct 
Baronetcies.] W. P. C. 

CRANE, JOHN (1572-1652), apothe- 
cary, was a native of Wisbech, Cambridge- 
shire. He settled at Cambridge, where he 
became an eminent apothecary, and he ap- 
pears in the latter part of his life to have 
practised as a physician (Pake, liife of Abp. 
Ussher,^-p. 320,321). William Butler (1535- 
1618) [q. v.], the most celebrated physician 
of his age, lived in Crane's house, and left him 
great part of his estate (CoorER, Annals of 
Cambridge, iii. 121, 123, 450). Edward Hyde, 
afterwards Lord Clarendon, when about 
twenty years old, was taken ill at Cambridge, 
and was attended by Crane. In his ' Life ' he 
calls him * an eminent apothecary who had 
been bred up under Dr. IButler, and was in 
much greater practice than any physician in 
the university ' ( Gent. Mag. Ix. pt. i. pp. 509, 
510). Crane used to entertain openly all the 

Oxford scholars at the commencement, and 
to relieve privatelj^ all distressed royalists 
during the usurpation (Lloxd, Memoires, ed. 
1677, p. 634). He was lord of the manors of 
Kingston Wood and Kingston Saint George, 
Cambridgeshire (LxsoNS, Cambridgeshire, p. 
223). In 16 Car. I he served the office of 
sheriff of that county (Fuller, Worthies, ed. 
Nichols, i. 176). 

He died at Cambridge on 26 May 1652, 
aged 80, and was buried in Great St. Mary's, 
in the chancel of which church there is a mu- 
ral tablet with his arms and a Latin inscrip- 
tion (Le Neve, Monumsnta Anglicana, ii. 
12 ; Blomefield, Collectanea Cantabrigiensia, 
p. 97). He gave the house in which he lived 
in Great St. Mary's parish, after the death of 
his widow, to the regius professor of physic 
for the time being. He also gave 100/. to the 
university, * to be lent gratis to an honest 
man, the better to enable him to buy good 
fish and fowl for the university, having ob- 
served much sickness occasioned by unwhole- 
some food in that kind ' (Fuller, Worthies, 
ed. Nichols, i. 166). Altogether he bequeathed 
3,000/. for charitable purposes, and he left le- 
gacies of 200/. to Dr. Wren, bishop of Ely, 
and Dr. Brownrigg, bishop of Exeter (Cooper, 
Annals of Cambridge, iii. 450 ; Charity Re~ 
•ports, xxxi. 16, 379). 

[Authorities cited above.] T. C. 

CRANE, LUCY (1842-1882), art critic, 
born on 22 Sept. 1842 in Liverpool, was the 
daughter of Thomas Crane [q. v.], portrait 
and miniature painter. From Liverpool the 
family removed to Torquay in 1845. Lucy 
Crane afterwards went to school in London, 
and in 1859 the family left Torquay for Lon- 
don. From an early age Lucy Crane showed 
considerable taste and skill in drawing and 
colouring. Circumstances, however, turned 
her attention to general educational work. 
She became an accomplished musician, and 
was not only distinguished for her delicacy of 
touch as an executant, but also for the clas- 
sical refinement of her taste and her know- 
ledge of the earlier Italian and English. She 
devoted her leisure to literature, writing in 
both verse and prose. She contributed to the 
' Argosy,' and wrote the original verses ('How 
Jessie was Lost,' ' The Adventures of Puffy,' 
* Annie and Jack in London,' and others) and 
rhymed versions of well-known nursery le- 
gends for her brother Walter's coloured toy- 
books. The selection and arrangement of the 
accompaniments to the nursery songs in the 
' Baby 8 Opera' and * Baby's Bouquet' are also 
due to her ; and a new translation by her of 
the ' Hausmjirchen ' of the Brothers Grimm 
was illustrated by her brother. Walter Crane. 




In the last few years of her life Lucy Crane 
delivered lectures in London and the north 
on ' Art and the Formation of Taste,' which 
after her death were illustrated and pub- 
lished by Thomas and Walter Crane (1882), 
together with a short and appreciative notice 
of the authoress. She died on 31 March 
1882, at the house of a friend at Bolton-le- 

[Notice as above ; information furnished by 
her brother, Mr. "Walter Crane.] A. N. 

CRANE, NICHOLAS (1522 ?-1588 ?), 
presbyterian, of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
was imprisoned in 1568 for performing service 
in the diocese of London out of the Geneva 
prayer-book, which he called ' the most sin- 
cere order,' and for railing against the usages 
of the chiirch. After a year's imprisonment 
he was released by the interposition of Bishop 
Grindal on making a promise to behave diffe- 
rently. As he did not keep this promise the 
bishop inhibited him. The Londoners of his 
party complained of this prohibition to the 
council, alleging that the bishop's conduct 
drove them * to worship in their houses.' 
Grindal wrote to the council, pointing out 
that his action in the matter had been mis- 
represented. Crane's failure to keep his pro- 
mise is said to have been the reason why 
Sandys, on succeeding Grindal in the see of 
London in 1570, called in all 'the clerks' 
tolerations.' He now appears to have taken 
up his residence at Roehampton, Surrey, and 
in 1572 joined in setting up a presbytery, 
' the first-born of all the presbyteries in Eng- 
land ' (FuLLEK, iv. 384), at the neighbouring 
village of Wandsworth. His nonconformity 
was grounded rather on disapproval of the 
vestments and usages prescribed by the church 
than on dissent from her doctrines. In 1577 
he signed a letter from nine ministers to 
Cartwright, who was then abroad, declaring 
that the writers continued steadfast in their 
opposition to ceremonies, and in 1583 he 
subscribed the Latin epistle exhorting Cart- 
wright to publish his confutation of the 
Rhemish translation of the New Testament 
in spite of the prohibition of the archbishop. 
His name is also attached to the petition sent 
by the imprisoned nonconformists to the lord 
treasurer. By June 1588 he had died in 
Newgate * of the infection of the prison ' at 
the age of 66. He married Elizabeth Carle- 
ton, and left children by her. His reasons 
for nonconformity are contained in ' Parte of 
a Register,' pp. 119-24 (Beook). In the 
summer and autumn of 1588 Udall, Penry, 
and the printer Waldegrave were at Mrs. 
Crane's house at East Molesey, Surrey, a 
case of type was brought thither from her 

house in London, and the ' Demonstration of 
Discipline,' and the first of the Martin Mar- 
prelate books, 'The Epistle,' were printed 

[Strype's Grindal, pp. 226-31, Whitgift, p. 
482, Annals, ii. i. 40, iv. 130 (8vo edit.) ; Brook's 
Puritans, i. 362, ii. 246 ; Memoir of Cartwright, 
p. 220; Fuller's Church History, iv. 384 (ed. 
1845) ; Arber's Introductory Sketch to the Mar- 
tin Marprelate Controversy, passim ; Wadding- 
ton's John Penry, pp. 24, 178, 226; Cooper's 
Athense Cantab, ii. 39.] W. H. 

CRANE, RALPH (/. 1625), poet, was 
the author of a little volume of verse, now 
very rare, which was first published in 1621 
imder the title of ' The Workes of Mercy, 
both Corporeall and Spirituall,' with a dedi- 
cation to John Egerton, earl of Bridgwater. 
The book was republished about 1625 — no 
date is given on the title-page — with the new 
title, * The Pilgrimes New Yeares Gift, or 
Fourteene Steps to the Throne of Glory, by 
the 7 Corporeall and 7 Spirituall Acts of 
Charitie and those made Parallels,' London 
(printed by M. F.) The author's ' Induction' 
in verse opens the book, and we learn there 
that Crane was born in London, the son of a 
well-to-do member of the Merchant Taylors' 
Company, He was brought up to the law ; 
served Sir Anthony Ashley [q.v.] seven years 
as clerk ; afterwards wrote for the lawyers ; 
witnessed unhurt the ravages of the plagues 
in the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
and began writing poetry late in life when 
he was suffering much from poverty and 
sickness. Crane's verse is of a very pedes- 
trian order, and his pious reflections are less 
readable than his autobiographic induction. 
A copy of the first edition is in the Bodleian 
and one of the second edition is in the British 
Museum. An extract is printed in Farr's 
' Select Poetry, temp. James I ' (Parker Soc), 
322-3. In 1589 Thomas Lodge dedicated 
* Scillaes Metamorphosis 'to one Ralph Crane, 
who is probably identical with the poet. 
Crane employed himself in his later years in 
copying out popular works and dedicating his 
transcripts to well-known persons in the hope 
of receiving pecuniary reco i npense. On 27Nov. 
1625 he sent to Sir Kenelm Digby, with a 
letter signed by himself, a transcript of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's 'Humorous Lieutenant,' 
which he entitled * Demetrius and Enanthe, 
by John Fletcher.' The manuscript now be- 
longs to W. W. E. Wynne, esq., of Peniarth, 
Merionethshire, and has been printed by the 
Rev. Alexander Dyce (1830). In MS. Harl. 
3357 is another of Crane's transcripts, entitled 
' A Handfull of Celestiall Flowers.' It is a 
collection of sacred poems by W. Davison, 
Thomas Randolph, and others, dedicated by 




Crane to Sir Francis Ashley, the brother of 
his late patron, Sir Anthony. A similar 
manuscript volume (MS. Harl. 6930) is also 
in all probability Crane's handiwork. In 
Heber's library was a fourth transcript by 
Crane, entitled ' Poems by W. A[ustin ?].' 

[Corser's Collectanea, iv. 502-5 ; MS. Addit. 
24488, fF. 159-61 ; Hunter's Chorus Vatum ; 
Dyee's reprint of Crane's transcript of Demetrius 
and Enanthe, 1830 ; Cat. of Bodleian and Brit. 
Mus.] S. L. 

CRANE, THOMAS (1631-1714), puritan 
divine, was born in March 1631, at Ply- 
mouth, where his father was a merchant. 
He was educated at Oxford, probably in 
Exeter College, and proceeded to the degree 
of M.A. Oliver Cromwell gave h im the 
living of Rampisham, Dorsetshire, from which 
he was ejected at the Restoration. He then 
settled at Beaminster, where he died in 1714. 

He published * Isagoge ad Dei providen- 
tiam: or a Prospect of Divine Providence,' 
1672, 8vo. 

[Calamy's Abridgment of Baxter, p. 268, 
Contin. p. 421 ; Wilson's Dissenting Churches, 
iv. 393 ; Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial 
(1802), ii. 148.] T. C. 

CRANE, THOMAS (1808-1859), artist, 
was born in 1808 in Chester, where the family 
had been long resident. His great-grand- 
father was appointed house-surgeon to the 
Chester Infirmary when that institution was 
built about the middle of the last century, 
and his grandfather, who was a lieutenant in 
the royal navy, was a native of that city. 
The father of Crane was a bookseller in 
Chester. He was a man of considerable at- 
tainment. Young Crane early evinced a great 
predilection for the study of art, and fortu- 
nately, through the liberality of Edward 
Taylor of Manchester, in 1824 was enabled to 
go up to London and enter the schools of the 
Royal Academy, gaining in the following 
year the gold medal for his drawing from the 
antique. He seems, however, in 1825 to have 
returned to Chester and started on his pro- 
fessional career, for we find from his memo- 
randum-book that he was hard at work there 
painting small miniatures of Sir Thomas 
Stanley, Lady Stanley, Mrs. Marsland, and 
many others. Henceforward he was busUy 
engaged, taking portraits both in oil and 
water-colour, and, in conjunction with his 
brothers John and William, more especially 
the latter, in producing views in lithograph 
of the scenery of North Wales, and also 
likenesses in the same style of celebrated 
residents in that district, such as Sir Watkin 
W. Wynn and the eccentric ' Ladies of Llan- 
gollen ' [see Butler, Eleanor, Lady]. In 

1829 they designed tickets for the musical 
festival at Chester, and a portrait of Paganini 
was lithographed by William Crane. Thomas 
and WiDiam Crane in 1834 illustrated the 
first edition of Mr. R. E. Egerton Warburton's 
hunting songs. These lithographs consist of 
a portrait of Joe Maiden, twelve full-page 
scenes, and many vignettes. They also pro- 
duced in 1836, for the Tarvin Bazaar, a 
set of designs to illustrate some verses by 
Lady Delamere. Crane first contributed to 
the exhibition of the Liverpool Academy in 
1832. In 1835 he was elected an associate, 
and in 1838 a full member of that academy. 
He married in the following year and went 
to reside in London, but finding his health 
suffering, after trying Leamington and other 
places, he returned to Liverpool in 1841, and 
in the same year was elected treasurer of 
the academy of that town. 

His health again giving way he removed in 
1844 to Torquay, where he resided for twelve 
years, occasionally visitingManchester,Liver- 
pool, and Cheshire. Apparently re-established 
in health, he settled at Shepherd's Bush in 
1857. But after two years of gradually fail- 
ing strength he died at his house in the 
neighbourhood of Westboume Park in July 
1859. Crane's principal works were portraits 
in oil, water-colour, and crayon, but he also, 
when time permitted, produced subject pic- 
tures, most of which were hung at the Royal 
Academy. He appeared there nine times, 
first in 1842, exhibiting ' The Cobbler ' and 
'Portrait of a Lady.' He also was repre- 
sented three times each in the Suifolk Street 
Gallery and the Institute. The following 
are among the most important of his works : 
' The Deserted Village,^' The Old Romance,' 
* The Bay Window,' ' Masquerading,' ' Scene 
from the Vicar of Wakefield,' and ' The Le- 
gend of Beth-Gelert.' Perhaps one of the 
best-known portraits by him is that of Mr. 
Egerton Smith, editor of the ' Liverpool 
Mercury,' which was lithographed. Among 
others he had commissions from Lord Stan- 
ley of Alderley, the late Earl of Stamford 
and Warrino'ton, the Wilbrahams, the late 
Marquis of Westminster (the present duke 
is one in a group of five children), and 
others in the districts already indicated. 
Many of his portraits are full-length but of 
small size, and their chief characteristic is 
the graceful ease of the grouping and the 
harmony of the landscape or other accessory 
introduced. Both these and his figure pic- 
tures show much elegance of treatment, 
fancy, and knowledge of composition. 

His brother William died in 1843. His 
daughter Lucy is separately noticed. His 
son Walter is the well-known artist. 




[Bryan's Diet, of Painters (Graves) ; informa- 
tion furnished by the family and other private 
Bources.] A. N, 

CRANE, WILLIAM (Jl. 1530), master 
of the children of the Chapel Royal, is one of 
the most curious figxires in the Idstory of 
early English music. Of his birth and pa- 
rentage nothing is knovirn, but he was a gen- 
tleman of the Chapel Royal so early as 4 June 
1509, and must already have been in some 
favour, for on that date he was appointed 
water-bail iff of the town and harbour of Dart- 
mouth. He did not hold this office long, for 
on 23 Nov. of the following year it was 
granted to the mayor and corporation of the 
town in consideration of an annual rent of 
twenty-two marks, payable to the receiver- 
general of the duchy of Cornwall, and of six- 
teen marks payable during pleasure to Crane 
on surrender of his patent of 4 Jiine 1509. 
On 3 Feb. 1511 he took a prominent part in 
the pageant of * The GoUdyn Arber in the 
Arche Yerd of Plesyer ' at Westminster [see 
CoKNTSSHE, William], on which occasion the 
mob was so unruly that many of the dresses, 
among which was Crane's, were torn to pieces. 
On 18 Aug. of the same year a tenement in 
Marte Lane, All Saints Stayning, was granted 
to Crane and one Thomas Cremour, a draper. 
He seems already to have combined a mer- 
chant's business with his professional occu- 
pations, for in March and October 1512 his 
name occurs in connection with loans of large 
sums of money, and on the 6th of the latter 
month a license was granted to him and Hugh 
Clopton to export six hundred sacks of wool. 
In February 1513 he received through the 
Earl of Wiltshire a loan of 1,000/. from the 
king, and in July of the same year a glimpse 
of another branch of his business is obtained 
by the entry of a payment to him of 94/. 7s. \d. 
for cables. On 21 Feb. 1514 Crane was ap- 
pointed to the important post of controller 
of the tonnage and poundage of the small 
customs in the port of London, it being ex- 
pressly mentioned that he was to perform 
the duties of the office in person. On 8 Aug. 
following he was licensed to export wools, 
hides, and other merchandise not belonging 
to the staple of Calais. On 27 Sept. 1515 he 
received a similar license to export broad 
cloths and kerseys. For the next few years 
nothing is heard of him, but his name occurs 
in a list of the Chapel Royal of 1520, and in 
January 1523 we obtain a very curious in- 
sight into his many occupations in a license 
to him to go abroad in the retinue of Lord 
Berners, deputy of Calais, in which docu- 
ment he is described as ' gentleman of the 
household, alias of the parish of St. Dunstan's- 
in-the-East, London, alias comptroller of the 

petty customs in the port of London, alias 
of London, draper, alias of Havering-at- 
Bowre.' About this time he seems to have 
been a wine merchant as well as a draper, 
for the accounts of the king's household re- 
cord the receipt of 205. for a hogshead of 
Gascon wine sold to him. In a list of estreats 
of a subsidy leviable upon the king's house- 
hold in February 1524, Crane is rated at 
06/. 13s. 4(/. In May 1526 he was appointed 
master of the children of the Chapel Royal, in 
which office he received 40/. per annum for 
the 'instruction, vestures, and beds' of twelve 
boys. For their board he seems to have been 
paid 26/. 13s. ^d. yearly, but whether this 
sum was for board alone is rather doubtful, 
as there are other quarterly entries, varying 
from 425. 6c/. to 48s. 9>d. for the wages and 
board wages of one Robert Pery, who may 
have been one of the choristers. In spite of 
the duties of his new office Crane continued 
to thrive in his former business. On 28 Jan. 
1527 he obtained a license to import five 
hundred tons of Toulouse wood and Gascon 
wine, and on 2 Feb. following a similar license 
was granted him, the amount not being speci- 
fied. On 6 May 1528 we learn that he had 
been lately appointed to furnish the king's 
ships called Le Caryke, alias Le Kateryn 
Forteleza and Le Nicholas Rede, and also 
three galleys called Le Rose, Le Henry, and 
Le Kateryn. For these he received 800/., to 
be spent on furnishing the ships and in wages 
for the workmen. Two years later the ap- 
pointment (8 May) of Richard Brame as 
comptroller of the tonnage and poundage in 
the place of Crane shows that he had either 
resigned or been deprived of this post, but 
the wine business seems to have gone on pro- 
sperously, for in December of the same year 
there are records of wine for the king being 
cellared at Crane's house. In spite of his 
numerous occupations Crane did not neglect 
his duties as master of the children ; in 1528 
he received the usual sum of 6/. 13s. ^d. for 
playing before the king, and on 15 June 1531 
he was paid 3/. 6s. 8</. for costs of a journey 
to provide children for the Chapel Royal, it 
being then the custom to press boys with good 
voices into the service of the choir. He must 
have been in. high favour with Henry VIII, 
for in June 1532 he was paid nineteen angels, 
'in money current 11. 2s. 6^.,' which he won 
of the king at archery. On 19 Nov. 1531 he 
obtained a grant in fee of Beamonde's Inn 
and two other messuages adjoining in the 
parish of St. Michael, Cripplegate, which had 
come to the crown by the attainder of Francis, 
lord Lovell. We learn from a casual men- 
tion that in 1534 he was keeper of Havering 
Park, Essex, but it is probable that he held 




this post so long ago as 1523. On 24 June 
1535 he was appointed water-bailiff of the 
port of Lynn, Norfolk, and on 1 March 1542 
received a patent to export for his advantage 
four hundred tuns of double beer. He was 
shortly before this still master of the chil- 
dren, and played before the king in January 
1540. The date of his death is at present 
unknown, but it was probably before 1560; 
his successor as master of the children at the 
Chapel Royal was Richard Bower, who died 
in 1663. Crane was a married man, and had 
at least one daughter, who in January 1535 
was betrothed to one Christopher Draper, who 
was in holy orders. On the engagement 
coming to the ears of the Archbishop of York 
it drew forth from him a severe reprimand. 
In June of the same year 'a maid called 
Crane's daughter ' was abducted by a priest 
of St. Albans named Thomas Kyng, but there 
is nothing to show whether these were the 
same persons. It is not known whether Crane 
wrote any music ; his name is not found in 
any contemporary collection, and it is hardly 
probable that he would have time to devote 
himself to composition in the midst of the 
incongruous occupations of merchant, court 
musician, and custom-house officer. 

[The details of Crane's biography are almost 
entirely derived from the Calendars of State 
Papers (Dom. Ser.) of Henry VIII ; a little ad- 
ditional information is supplied by Collier's His- 
tory of Dramatic Poetry, ed. 1879, i. 73, 95, 116, 
and the Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII, 
ed. Nicolas, pp. 33, 62, 76, 83, 99, 100, 140, 227, 
287, and 291.] W. B. S. 

Middlesex (1575-1645), was baptised on 
13 March 1576 (Doyle), and when a boy 
was apprenticed by his father to Mr. Richard 
Shephard, a merchant adventurer ' dwelling 
in St. Bartholomew's Lane, near the Ex- 
change ' (Goodman, i. 299). ' Mr. Cranfield 
. . . being a very handsome young man, well 
spoken, and of a ready wit. Miss Shephard, 
his master's daughter, fell in love with him, 
and so there was a match between them. His 
master gave him 800Z. portion and forgave 
him two years of his apprenticeship' (ib.) 
After his marriage with Elizabeth Shephard, 
Cranfield traded with great success as a mer- 
chant adventurer and member of the com- 
pany of mercers. He attracted the king's 
notice by his ability when representing his 
company before the privy council, and suc- 
ceeded in securing the favour of the Earl of 
Northampton, who became his patron (ib. i. 
804). * The first acquaintance I had with 
him,' said James to the parliament of 1624, 
' was by the lord of Northampton, who often 
brought him unto me a private man before 

he was so much as my servant. He then 
made so many projects for my profit that 
Buckingham fell in liking with him after the 
Earl of Northampton's death, and brought 
him into my service. . . . He found him so 
studious for my profits that he backed bim 
both against great personages and mean, with- 
out sparing any man. Buckingham laid the 
ground and bare the envy ; he took the labori- 
ous and ministerial part upon him, and thus he 
came up to his preferment ' (Parliamentary 
History, vi. 193). On 1 AprU 1605 Cranfield 
was appointed receiver of customs for the 
counties of Dorset and Somerset, in July 1613 
he became lieutenant of Dover Castle, was 
knighted July 4, and made surveyor-general 
of the customs July 26. He was elected M.P. 
for Hythe in 1614 and for Arundel in 1620, 
becoming on 20 Nov. 1616 master of requests. 
Buckingham's growing power quickened the 
pace of Cranfield's rise. He was appointed 
successively master of the great wardrobe 
Q4 Sept. 1618), master of the court of wards 
(15 Jan. 1619), and chief commissioner of the 
navy (12 Feb. 1619). In all these depart- 
ments his industry and business experience 
enabled him to effect great reforms. In the 
household alone he effected an annual saving 
of 23,000/. (Gakdinee, Hist, of England, iii. 
200). In the wardrobe he saved the king at 
least 14,000/. a year, * The king,' he used to 
say, ' shall pay no more than other men do, 
and he shaU pay ready money ; and if we 
cannot have it in one place we will have it in 
another' (Goodman, i. 311). In spite of these 
services Cranfield, who had now become a 
widower, found in 1619 that any further 
advancement must be purchased by marry- 
ing one of Buckingham's needy relatives, and 
giving up accordingly the hope of wedding 
the widowed Lady Howard of Effingham, he 
married in 1621 Anne Bret, cousin of Lady 
Buckingham (Gaediiter, Hist, of England, 
iii. 213). Before this date, however, he had 
obtained a seat in the privy council (5 Jan. 
1620). In the parliament of 1621 Cranfield 
took a prominent part in the attack on Bacon. 
His opposition, no doubt sensibly embittered 
by a dispute which had arisen between the 
court of wards and court of chancery, was 
based on his objections to Bacon's policy with 
respect to the question of patents and mono- 
polies, which Cranfield considered harmful to 
trade. After Bacon's fall there were expecta- 
tions that Cranfield would succeed him as 
chancellor. * He was the likeliest to get up, 
and I may say had his foot in the stirrup ' 
(Hacket, Life of Williams, i. 51). But James 
appointed Williams, and consoled the disap- 
pointed candidate with the tit! e of Baron Cran- 
field of Cranfield (9 July 1622). This, says Mr. 




Gardiner, is the first instance of the rise of a 
man of humble origin to the peerage 'whose 
elevation can in any way be connected with 
success in obtaining the confidence of the 
House of Commons.' On 30 Sept. follow- 
ing Cranfield succeeded Lord Mandeville as 
treasurer, the latter being removed on ac- 
count of his opposition to the Spanish alliance. 
Crantield's own views on foreign policy were 
dictated rather by the needs of the treasury 
than by any sympathy with foreign pro- 
testants. His new task was one full of diffi- 
culty. A fortnight after his appointment he 
wrote to Buckingham : ' The more I look into 
the king's estate the greater cause I have to 
be troubled, considering the work I have to 
do, which is not to reform in one particular, 
as in the household, navy, wardrobe, &c. ; but 
every particular, as well of his majesty's re- 
ceipts as payments, hath been carried with 
so much disadvantage to the king as until 
your lordship see it you would not believe 
any men should be so careless and unfaithful' 
(Goodman, ii. 207). This state of things he 
set himself to reform with marked success 
(ib. i. 322, ii. 211), and the king's gratitude 
was shown by his promotion to the title of 
Earl of Middlesex (17 Sept. 1622). His de- 
votion to the interests of his master's trea- 
oMTy was one of the causes of his fall. When, 
on 13 Jan. 1624, James consulted the com- 
mittee for Spanish aflFairs on the question of 
the king of Spain's sincerity in the negotia- 
tions, Middlesex voted for delay, and took 
the lead in opposition to war (Gaedikek, 
History of England, v. 178). He also 
gave special ofience to Prince Charles by 
arguing that, even if the prince had taken 
a disliie to the infanta, 'he supposed the 
prince ought to submit his private distaste 
therein to the general good and honour of the 
kingdom,' and carry out the marriage con- 
tract * for reason of state and the good that 
would thence redound to all Christendom' 
{ib. V. 229). 

Contemporary gossip added other causes, 
as that ' the treasurer would have brought a 
darling Mr. Arthur Bret, his countess's bro- 
ther, into the king's favour in the great lord's 
absence, or grudged that the treasury was ex- 
hausted in vast sums by the late journey into 
Spain and denied some supplies' (Hacket, 
189). Early in April charges against Middle- 
sex arose in a committee of the commons 
which was investigating the condition of the 
stores and ordnance, and on 5 April the earl 
stood up in his place in the lords and informed 
them that a conspiracy was going on against 
him ; if it was suffered no man would be in 
safety in his place. On 16 April, at a confe- 
rence between the two houses, Coke, seconded 

by Sandys, charged Middlesex with receiving 
bribes and altering the procedure of the court 
of wards for his private benefit. One accusa- 
tion was that he had had a stamp made for 
signing the orders of the coxirt of wards. The 
lords refused Middlesex the aid of counsel, 
and woidd not allow him copies of the deposi- 
tions against him till after his answer to the 
charges. Only by the personal intervention 
of James could he obtain a few days' delay 
for the preparation of his reply. The king had 
already warned Buckingham against sanc- 
tioning the dangerous precedent of an im- 
peachment, and told him that he was making 
a rod for his own back (Clarendon, i. 44). 
He now, on 5 May, made a long speech to 
the lords, in which he left Middlesex to their 
jud^ent, while plainly hinting his own be- 
lief in the treasurer's innocence {Parliamen- 
tary History, vi. 193). Once he sent for the 
lord-keeper and told him that he would not 
make his treasurer a public sacrifice; but 
Williams persuaded him that necessity im- 
peratively obliged him to yield to the wishes 
of the commons (Hackbt, i. 190). On 1 May 
Middlesex made his first answer to the charges 
brought against him, and on 7 May the im- 
peachment began and was heard continu- 
ously. Middlesex complained ' that for a man 
to be thus followed, morning and afternoon, 
standing eight hours at the bar, till some of 
the lords might see hina ready to fall down, 
two lawyers against him and no man of his 
part, was unheard of, unchristian like, and 
without example,' but he could not obtain a 
day's respite {Parliamentary History, vi. 279). 
On 12 May he delivered his final defence, 
pleading among other things that though he 
had been a judge eight years not a single 
charge for corruption in the exercise of his 
judicial office had been brought against him, 
and urging also that his service had been in 
reformations of the household, of the navy, 
of the wardrobe, of the kingdom of Ireland, 
in all of which he had procured himself 
enemies while serving his master. The lords 
on the same day acquitted him of two minor 
charges, but voted him deserving of censure 
on four articles : mismanagement in the ad- 
ministration of the wardrobe, receiving bribes 
of the farmers of the customs, and misconduct 
in the management of the ordnance and the 
court of wards. Accordingly on 13 May 1624 
he was sentenced to lose all his offices, to be 
incapable of employment for the future, to be 
imprisoned in the Tower during the king's 
pleasure, to pay a fine of 50,000/., and never 
to come within the verge of the court {ib. 
vi. 297-309). According to Heylyn * it was 
moved also to degrade him from all titles of 
honour, but in that the bishops stood his 




friends and clasht the motion ' {Life of Laud, 
123). Middlesex was released from the Tower 
on 28 May 1624, but was not pardoned until 
8 April 1625 {Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 
288). In order to obtain his pardon Middle- 
sex was obliged to write a letter of abject peni- 
tence and submission to Buckingham (5 Sept. 
1624, State Papers, Dom.), and he complained 
in his letters that Chelsea House was forced 
from him like Naboth's vineyard, and 5,000^. 
in addition demanded ( Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th 
Eep. 289). A year or two later, however, he 
had the satisfaction of seeing his great ad- 
versary attacked by parliament and his own 
merits acknowledged. In 1626, during the 
debates on Buckingham's impeachment, a 
member compared the sums received by the 
duke from the king with those reputed to 
have been received by Middlesex. Eliot re- 
plied that it might be true that Middlesex 
had received a large sum from the king, 'but 
that it was true that Middlesex had merited 
well of the king and done him that service 
that few had ever done, but they could find 
no such matter in the duke' {ib.) The belief 
that he had been hardly treated was very 
general. *I spake with few when it was 
recent that were contented with it, except 
the members of the house,' writes Hacket 
{Life of Williams, 190). During the re- 
mainder of his life Middlesex lived in retire- 
ment. He was restored to his seat in the 
House of Lords 4 May 1640 (Dotle). King 
Charles, according to Goodman, had a great 
opinion of the wisdom of the Earl of Middle- 
sex, and during the coitrse of the Long parlia- 
ment ' did advise with him in some things ' 
(i. 327). On the outbreak of the war the earl, 
who was now nearly seventy, endeavoured to 
remain neutral. In his letters he complains of 
heavy and unjust taxation from the parlia- 
ment. Copt Hall was searched for arms ; 
another of his houses, Millcote, was burnt to 
the ground, and his countess was at one time 
imprisoned (correspondence in Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep.) Cranfield died on 6 Aug. 
1645. His widow survived him till 1670. 
He was succeeded by his son James {d. 1651), 
who took the side of the parliament, was im- 
prisoned for acting against the army in 1647, 
and was one of the negotiators of the treaty 
of Newport in 1648. With the death of his 
second son, Lionel, third earl, in 1674, the 
title of Middlesex in the family of Cranfield 
became extinct. 

[The Pari, or Const. Hist. 24 vols. 8vo, 1761- 
1762; Goodman's Court of James I ; Clarendon's 
Hist, of Rebellion ; Hacket's Life of Williams ; Cal. 
State Papers Dom. ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep., 
Papers of Earl de la Warr ; Doyle's Official 
Baronage; Gardiner's Hist, of Eng.] C. H. F. 

CRANFORD, JAMES (1592 P-1657), 
presbyterian divine, son of James Cranford, 
master of the free school of Coventry and Dug- 
dale's first instructor, was born at Coventry 
about 1592. He entered Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, in 1617, and proceeded B.A. 17 Oct. 
1621, and M.A. 20 June 1624. He took holy 
orders; became rector of Brookhall or Brock- 
rector of St. Christopher, London. ' He was 
a painful preacher,' writes Wood, 'of thedoc- 
trine he professed (being a zealous presby- 
terian), an exact linguist, well acquainted 
with the fathers, not unknown to the school- 
men, and familiar with the modern divines.' 
From 20 June 1643 to 16 March 1649 he was 
a licenser for the press, and prefixed many 
epistles to the books which he allowed to goto 
the press. Early in 1652 he held two dispu- 
tations at the house of Mr. William Webb in 
Bartholomew Lane, with Dr. Peter Chamber- 
len, on the questions : * 1. Whether or no a pri- 
vate person may preach without ordination? 
2. Whether or no the presbyterian ministers 
be not the true ministers of the gospel?' 
Cranford argued in the negative on the first 
question, and in the affirmative on the second. 
A full and interesting report of the debate was 
published 8 June 1652. He died 27 April 
1657, and was buried in the church of St. 
Christopher. A son, James Cranford, was 
also in holy orders and succeeded his father 
in the living of St. Christopher, but died in 
August 1660. Three other sons, Joseph, 
Samuel, and Nathanael, entered Merchant 
Taylors' School in June 1644 (Robinsoit, 
Register, i. 161). The elder Cranford wrote: 
1. ' Confutation of the Anabaptists,' London, 
n. d. 2. ' Expositions on the Prophecies of 
Daniel,' London, 1644. 3. * Haereseomachia, 
or the Mischief which Heresies do,' London, 
1646, a sermon preached before the lord mayor 
1 Feb. 1645-6, to which a fierce reply was 
issued in broadsheet form, under the title of 
'The Clearing of Master Cranford's Text' 
(8 May 1646). Cranford also contributed a 
preface to the ' Tears of Ireland,' 1642, the 
whole of which is usually attributed to him. 
It is an appalling, although clearly exag- 
gerated, account of the cruelties inflicted on 
the protestants in Ireland in the rebellion 
of 1641, and is illustrated with terribly vivid 
engravings. Prefatory epistles by Cranford 
appear in Richard Stock's ' Stock of Divine 
Knowledge ' (addressed to Lady Anne Yel- 
verton), London, 1641 ; in Edwards's ' Gan- 
graena,' pt. i. andpt. ii. London, 1646; Chris- 
topher Lover's ' The Soul's CordiaU,' 1652 ; 
and in B. Woodbridge's ' Sermons on Justi- 
fication,' 1652. In 1653 the last contribution 
was severely criticised by W. Eyre in his 




' Vindicise Justificationis Qratuitse,' in which 
Cranford's doctrine of ' conditional ' justifi- 
cation by faith is condemned. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 430-1 ; 
Wood's Fasti (Bliss), i. 397, 415, ii. 13; Hus- 
band's Ords. 1646, p. 215; Merc. Pol. 27 June 
1650; Newcourt's Diocese of London, 1. 324; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] S. L. 

CRANKE, JAMES (1746 P-1826), artist, 
was born at Urswick-in-Furness about 1746. 
It is supposed that he studied in London, 
in the studio of his uncle, James Cranke 
(1717-1780), and afterwards settled at War- 
rington as a portrait-painter. There are few 
collections of portraits of this period in 
the houses of the gentry of Lancashire and 
Cheshire that do not contain specimens of 
his work, often attributed to Gainsborough, 
Romney, or Sir Joshua Reynolds. One of 
the best-known portraits by Cranke is that 
of Thomas Peter Legh of Lyme, colonel of 
the 3rd Lancashire light dragoons, a regi- 
ment Mr. Legh raised in 1797. This was 
engraved by Hardy. In 1779 the Tarporley 
Hunt Club commissioned Cranke to paint a 
portrait of their president, Mr. Barry, for 
211. This picture has generally been attri- 
buted to Gainsborough, but Mr. Egerton 
Warburton in gathering some notes for his 
history of the club found the record of the 
payment to Cranke. Lord Winmarleigh has 
in his possession a fine group of three family 
portraits in the same picture, being the like- 
nesses of Miss Frances Patten, Mrs. Prideau 
Brune, and Peter Patten (afterwards Peter 
Patten Bold). He has also a portrait of his 
great-aunt by Cranke, which was sold at the 
Bold Hall sale, and fell into the hands of a 
London dealer. By him it was christened 
'Fidelity,' a long-lost work by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, and is said to have changed hands 
for 1,200/. Fortunately it was repurchased 
by Lord Winmarleigh for a very moderate 
sum. Cranke had considerable success as 
a copyist. One of his works, ' The Holy 
Family,' after Andrea del Sarto, hangs above 
the communion-table of Trinity Church, 
Warrington, with an inscription behind it 
stating that Cranke was the painter in 1776. 
Cranke's style was that of the school of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds and Gainsborough. Though 
inferior to these masters in the art, his work 
had great merit, as he had a thorough know- 
ledge of drawing, colour, and composition. 
Cranke exhibited twelve pictures at the Royal 
Academy between 1775 and 1820. After 
spending many years in the full practice of 
his profession at Warrington, he left that 
town about 1820, and returned to his native 
place, Urswick. The parish register contains 

this record : ' James Cranke, of Hawkfield, 
passed away, 1826, aged 80 years.' 

[Memoir by W. Beamont.] A. N. 

CRANLEY, THOMAS (1337 P-1417), 
archbishop of Dublin, was born about 1337, 
and became a student at Oxford, where in due 
course he proceeded to the degree of doctor 
in divinity. His name first appears in 1366, 
when he was a feUow of Merton College 
(G. C. Bkodeick, Memorials of Mertoji Col- 
lege, p. 204, Oxford Historical Society, 1885). 
Sixteen years later, by the foimdation charter 
of St. Mary College of Winchester, 20 Oct. 
1382, he was nominated the first warden of 
the college (T. F. Kirbt, Extended Tran- 
script of the Charter of Foundation, &c., pri- 
vately printed, 1882) ; but since only the 
initial steps were as yet taken for carrying 
the foundation into elFect, it does not appear 
that Cranley was obliged to leave Oxford. 
At least in 1384 he is mentioned as holding 
the office of principal of Hart Hall (Anthony 
A Wood, History and Antiquities of Oxford, 
Colleges and Halls, p. 644, ed. Gutch) ; and 
in 1389, not 1393 (as Wood gives the date. I.e., 
p. 187), Bishop Wykeham transferred him 
to the wardenship of New College, Ox- 
ford, which had been founded by him some 
years previously (Lowth, Life of William 
of Wykeham, -p. 175; 3rd ed. Oxford, 1777). 
It was through the same connection that 
Cranley received in 1390 or 1391 the valu- 
able benefice of Havant in the diocese of 
Winchester (Tanner, Bibl. Brit. p. 206). 
In 1390 he was also chancellor of his uni- 
versity (Wood, Fasti Oxon. p. 33). On 
3 July 1395 he was collated to the pre- 
bend of Knaresborough in the cathedral 
church of York (Tanner, I.e.) ; and shortly 
afterwards, 15 Feb. 1395-6, he resigned the 
wardenship of New College (Lowth, appen- 
dix xi. pp. XV, xvi). Then, on 10 Sept. 1396, 
he was presented to the church of Bishops- 
bourne, near Canterbury, and in the follow- 
ing year he was elevated to the archbishop- 
ric of Dublin. He reached his see on 7 Oct. 
1398. Besides being archbishop, Cranley was 
chancellor of Ireland under Henry IV, and 
lord justice under Henry V (Ware, De Pra- 
SM/ji2^5J3i'6erwi«,pp. 114 etseq. Dublin, 1665). 
According to Leland (^Comment, de Script. 
Brit, cclxxix., p. 296), he experienced con- 
siderable difficulties in performing his duties 
in consequence oftheoppositionofthe natives. 
He expressed his complaints to the king in 
a poetical epistle consisting of 106 verses, 
which Leland saw. At length, on 30 April 
1417, being now eighty years of age, the 
archbishop returned to England (Henry op 
MARLB0K0irGH,.4«na&s Hibemiee, ad annum, 




in Camden's Britannia, p. 835, ed. 1607), and 
died at Faringdon in Berkshire on the 25th 
of the following month (Waee, I.e.) He was 
buried, not at Dublin, as Bale (Scriptt. Brit. 
Cat. xiii. 96, pt. ii. 158) and Pits (De Anfflics 
Scriptoribus, § 767, p. 597) say, but before 
the altar of New College chapel in Oxford, 
with a memorial brass, the inscription on 
which is given by "Wood ( Colleges and Halls, 
p. 201), and which fixes the date of the arch- 
bishop's death. The brass is now in the 

Cranley is described by Henry of Marlbo- 
rough (ubi supra) as a man of commanding 
character and great learning, bountiful with 
his goods (he is known to have given books 
to New College in 1393— Wood, p. 197), a 
distinguished preacher, and suorum locorum 
cedificator. This last trait, it is not hard to pre- 
sume, commended him to "William of "Wyke- 
ham, but we are not informed as to whether 
he took any part in his patron's works at 
"Winchester or Oxford. Cranley's name is 
often mis-written Crawley (in Cotton), or 
Crawleigh (in Wood) ; but contemporary 
documents offer only the alternatives of Cran- 
ley, Cranle, Cranele, and Cranlegh. 

[Cotton's Fasti Ecclesise Hlberuicse, ii. 16.] 

E. L. P. 

CRANLEY, THOMAS (^. 1635), poet, 
was the author of ' Amanda, or the Reformed 
Whore, and other Poems, composed and made 
by Thomas Cranley, gent., now a prisoner 
in the King's Bench,' 1635, 4to, dedicated 
' To the worshipfull his worthy friend and 
brother-in-law, Thomas Gilbourne, Esquire.' 
In 1639 the work was reissued under the 
title of ' The Converted Courtezan, or the 
Reformed "Wliore.' It is valuable for the 
vivid description that it gives of the town- 
life of the time ; nor is the verse ill-written. 
* "Venus and Adonis ' is mentioned as one of 
Amanda's books in her unregenerate days. 
Cranley was a friend of George Wither, who 
in ' Abuses Stript and Whipt ' addressed a 
copy of verses ' To his deare friend Thomas 
Cranley.' The complimentary verses prefixed 
to Wither's satire, subscribed 'Thy deare 
Friend Th. C.,' were probably written by 
Cranley. A reprint of ' Amanda ' was issued 
(for private circulation) by Frederic Ouvry, 
in 1869. 

[Corser's Collectanea Anglo-Poetica ; Collier's 
Bibl. Cat.] A. H. B. 

CRANMER, GEORGE (1563-1600), 
secretary to Davison and friend of Hooker, 
born in Kent in 1563, was the eldest son of 
Thomas Cranmer by his wife Anne Carpenter. 
His father who was registrar of the arch- 

deaconry of Canterbury, was nephew to the 
archbishop, and son of Edmund Cranmer, 
archdeacon of Canterbury. One of Edmund 
Cranmer's daughters married Jervis Walton, 
and became the mother of Isaac Walton, 
who was thus first cousin to George Cranmer. 
At the age of eight he was sent to Merchant 
Taylors' School, and thence in January 1577 
(or, according to other accounts, in December 
1579) to Corpus Christi CoUege, Oxford,where 
he entered simultaneously with Sir Edwyn 
Sandys, and with him was placed under the 
tuition of Richard Hooker, the divine. Be- 
tween the tutor and his two pupils there 
grew up a firm friendship, which continued 
lon^ after they had separated on leaving Ox- 
ford. Hooker found Cranmer very useful 
in compiling the ' Ecclesiastical Polity ; ' 
and Walton, in his ' Life of Hooker,' relates 
how Sandys and Cranmer went to see their 
former tutor while he was rector of Dray- 
ton Beauchamp, and how, in spite of their 
mutual pleasure at the reunion, the visitors 
had to leave after a stay of one night, 
disgusted with the shrewishness of Mrs. 
Hooker. At Oxford Cranmer did well, 
gaining a Merchant Taylors' scholarship in 
1581, and being elected a fellow of his col- 
lege in 1583. It was his father's wish that 
he should enter the ministry ; but Cranmer 
himself had no inclination in that direc- 
tion, and was of opinion, as he wrote to his 
maternal uncle, John Carpenter, that ' so 
great a calling ought in no case to be un- 
dertaken with a forced minde.' These words 
occur in a letter {fial. State Papers, Dom. 
Ser. 1581-90, p. 361) dated 9 Oct. 1586, 
which Cranmer wrote to his uncle thank- 
ing him for having obtained him an ap- 
pointment in the service of William Davison, 
the secretary of state. There was already 
a connection between the two families, 
Carpenter having married Anne Davison, 
the statesman's sister. Cranmer remained 
in this position till his patron fell, when 
he became secretary to Sir Henry Killi- 
grew, and accompanied him on his embassy 
to France. Subsequently, Cranmer started 
on a continental tour with his old college 
friend Sandys, and remained abroad three 
years, visiting France, Germany, and Italy. 
Shortly after his return to England he was 
chosen by Charles Blount, lord Mountjoy, to 
accompany him in the capacity of secretary 
to Ireland, whither he was going to replace 
Essex. The appointment held the promise 
of better things, but Cranmer did not live to 
enjoy its fruits, for in the following year 
(16 July 1600) he was killed in a skirmish 
with the Irish rebels at Carlingford. 

Contemporary writers all agree in declar 




ing Cranmer to have been a man of great 
learning and singular promise. According 
to Tanner and Wood (who cites information 
given him by Walton as his authority), he 
wrote to a considerable extent, but with the 
exception of two or three private letters, 
nothing of his composition remains but his 
celebrated letter to Hooker * Concerning the 
new Church Discipline.' This letter, which 
was written in February 1598, was first pub- 
lished in 1642, and in 1670 was inserted in the 
folio edition of Hooker's works. It is quite 
impossible that Cranmer could have been, as 
stated by Wood and Strype {Life of Parker, 
i. 529, ed. 1821), the author of a letter to the 
bishop of Winchester requesting him to purge 
New College and Winchester School of pa- 
pists. Cranmer, at the time that this letter 
was written, was not more than five years of 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), i. 700 ; Eobin- 
Bon's Register of Merchant Taylors' School,!. 17; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Walton's Life of Hooker 
(ed.Bohn), 1884, pp. 180, 187; Gent. Mag. No- 
vember 1792.] A. V. 

CRANMER, THOMAS (1489-1656), 
archbishop of Canterbury, was born at As- 
lacton in Nottinghamshire 2 July 1489. He 
came of an old family, originally of Lincoln- 
shire, but for some generations settled in the 
county of his birth. His father, who bore 
the same christian name as himself, put him 
to school ' with a marvellous severe and cruel 
schoolmaster,' who is also described as * a rude 
parish clerk.' His father really desired to give 
him some knowledge of letters, but was no less 
anxious that he should be skilled in such 
gentlemanlike exercises as shooting, hunting, 
and hawking. Owing to his physical train- 
ing he was able when archbishop to ride the 
roughest horse as well as any of his house- 
hold. But the care of his later education 
fell upon his mother, Agnes, daughter of 
Laurence Hatfield of Willoughby, who being 
left a widow sent him to Cambridge when he 
was fourteen. There he remained eight years 
studying philosophy and logic, but afterwards 
gave himself to the reading of Erasmus and 
the classics. He took the degree of B.A. in 
1511-12, and that of M.A. in 1515. He be- 
came fellow of Jesus, but soon lost his fel- 
lowship by marriage, notwithstanding that, 
to prevent interruption of his university ca- 
reer, he had placed his wife at the Dolphin 
Inn at Cambridge, she being related to the 
good wife there. His visits to the inn were 
observed, and in after years, when he was 
archbishop, it was said that he had been an 
ostler or innkeeper (FoxE, viii. 4, 5 ; Ni- 
chols, Narratives of the Reformation, p. 269 ; 

Calendar, Henry VIII, vol. vii. No. 559). 
He was, however, appointed common reader 
at Buckingham (now Magdalene) College, and 
when a year after his marriage his wife died 
in childbirth, the master and feUows of Jesua 
re-elected him to a fellowship. He proceeded 
D.D. at Cambridge, and although solicited to 
become one of the foundation fellows of Wol- 
sey's new coUege at Oxford he declined to 
j leave the society which had shown him so 
great favour. He was admitted reader of a 
newly founded divinity lecture in Jesus Col- 
lege, and was chosen by the university one 
of the public examiners in theology. 

In the summer of 1529 Cambridge was 
visited by a pestilence, and Cranmer removed 
with two scholars, the sons of a Mr. Cressy 
of Waltham Abbey, to the house of their 
father, whose wife was a relation of his own. 
At this time Henry VIII's suit for a divorce 
had begun before Cardinals Wolsey and Cam- 
peggio in England, but the court had been 
prorogued, and every one knew that the cause 
would be removed to Rome in consequence 
of the queen's appeal. In great perplexity 
the king removed from Greenwich to Walt- 
ham with the two cardinals in his company. 
The two chief agents in the divorce, his secre- 
tary, Gardiner, and his almoner. Dr. Fox, 
went to Waltham and were lodged by the 
harbingers in Cressy's house while Cranmer 
was there. The three being old college friends 
naturally got into conversation on the chief 
topic of the day ; and Cranmer gave an opinion 
as to the best mode of satisfying the king 
without the long delay that would be required 
to pursue the cause through all its stages at 
Rome. The king only wanted sufficient as- 
surance of the invalidity of his first marriage, 
notwithstanding the dispensation, and he 
might then take the responsibility of marrying 
again at once. He ought therefore to take 
the opinions of divines at the universities, 
and act accordingly. This advice was reported 
by Foxe to the king two days after, and Cran- 
mer was summoned to the royal presence 
at Greenwich. The king, who was greatly 
pleased, desired him to write his own mind 
on the subject, and recommended him to the 
Earl of Wiltshire, Anne Boleyn's father, into 
whose household at Durham Place he was 
accordingly received. In obedience to the 
king's command he wrote a treatise, with 
which, being commissioned as it is said to go 
dov^n and dispute the matter at Cambridge, 
he in one day persuaded six or seven learned 
men there to take the king's part. It can 
hardly be, as Morice relates, that he had a 
joint commission with Gardiner and Foxe for 
this purpose; for it appears that Gardiner 
only went to Cambridge about it in February 




1530, after Cranmer had gone abroad. But 
Gardiner's letter of that date shows that se- 
veral of the graduates in theology had before 
then expressed their concurrence with the 
argument in Cranmer's book ; and an attempt 
was made to exclude them from voting on the 
subject as men who had committed themselves 
to one view of it already. 

In January 1530 the Earl of Wiltshire was 
sent ambassador with Dr. Stokesley and others 
to the emperor, Charles V, and Cranmer ac- 
companied him to the meeting of the pope 
and emperor at Bologna. About this time 
he seems to have been promoted to the arch- 
deaconry of Taunton (Le Neve says in 1525, 
but it appears Gardiner held it in 1529 ; see 
Calendar, Henry VIII, iv. 2698). While 
abroad on this mission he had an allowance 
of 6s. 9>d. a day from the king, and he re- 
mained with his patron in Italy till Septem- 
ber, when the embassy returned to England. 
In the interval he had gone to Home, where 
he offered to dispute in the king's favour, 
and where the pope made him penitentiary 
for England. He remained at home, evi- 
dently stiU. a member of the Earl of Wilt- 
shire's household, during 1531, and we have 
a letter of his to the earl, dated from Hamp- 
ton Court on 13 June of that year, giving 
his opinion of a book which had just been 
written by Reginald (afterwards cardinal) 
Pole, * much contrary to the king's purpose ' 
in the matter of the divorce. On 24 Jan. 
1532 he was sent to the emperor in Germany 
to relieve Sir Thomas Eliot, who was allowed 
to return home. He joined the imperial 
court at Ratisbon, where, among other things, 
he had certain remonstrances to make about 
English commerce with the Low Countries. 
In July he stole away from Ratisbon on a 
secret mission to John Frederic, duke of 
Saxony, with whom he also left letters from 
the king for the Dukes of Luneburg and An- 
halt, and whom he assured of the support 
both of England and France in the opposition 
of the German princes to the emperor. The 
intrigue was a total failure ; for the pacifica- 
tion of Nuremberg was already being nego- 
tiated, and was published a few days after, 
Cranmer, however, remained in favour with 
Charles V, whom he accompanied to Vienna 
and afterwards to Mantua, where he received 
his recall, the king having determined to pro- 
mote him to the archbishopric of Canterbury, 
which had just become vacant by the death 
of Warham. The promotion was altogether 
unexpected by himself, and he had made very 
bad preparation for it by marrying in Ger- 
many a niece of Osiander ; nor is there any 
reason to doubt his own protest before the 
commissioners who tried him at Oxford in 

Queen Mary's days, that he accepted it with 
reluctance and delayed his coming home (as 
he said, *by seven weeks at the least') in the 
hope that the king might change his purpose. 

He sent his wife secretly to England in 
advance of him, and seems to have arrived 
there himself early in January 1533. Within 
a week of his arrival it was made known 
that he was to be the new archbishop. The 
king was in the habit of allowing rich bishop- 
rics to remain vacant about a year, but on 
this occasion he had filled up the vacancy in 
four months and even advanced money to the 
archbishop designate to enable him to procure 
his bulls without delay. It was at once sus- 
pected that the king's object was to obtain 
from the new metropolitan, as 'legatus natus ' 
in England, authority to proceed to a new 
marriage, treating his union with Catherine 
of Arragon as invalid. And though this was 
known at Rome it was found impossible to 
resist the king's request that the bulls of the 
new archbishop might be sped at once and 
even without the customary payment of first- 
fruits. The bull was passed on 22 Feb., and 
on 30 March following Cranmer was conse- 
crated at Westminster by the Bishops of 
Lincoln, Exeter, and St. Asaph. Just before 
the ceremony he made a protest before wit- 
nesses that the oath he was about to take of 
obedience to the pope he meant to take merely 
as a matter of form, and that it should not bind 
him to anything against the king, or prevent 
him from reforming anything that he found 
amiss in the church of England. He further, 
before obtaining possession of his temporali- 
ties, which were restored on 19 April, took 
an oath to the king renouncing all grants 
from the pope that might be prejudicial to 
his highness. 

Even before his temporalities were restored 
he had taken the first step towards the grati- 
fication of Henry's wishes in the matter of 
the divorce. On 11 April he wrote to the 
king asking permission, by virtue of the high 
office conferred upon him by the king himself, 
to take cognisance of his grace's * great cause 
of matrimony.' Of course it was readily 
conceded, and Catherine was cited to appear 
before the archbishop at Dunstable. Here 
Cranmer opened his court on 10 May, when 
he pronounced Catherine contumacious for 
non-appearance ; and after three further sit- 
tings (during which period he expressed to 
Cromwell his great anxiety that the matter 
should be kept secret, lest she should be in- 
duced to recognise his jurisdiction) he gave 
formal sentence on the 23rd as to the inva- 
lidity of the marriage. Five days later at 
Lambeth he held a secret investigation, as 
the result of which he pronounced judicially 




that the king was lawfully married to Anne 

On 10 Sept. in the same year he stood god- 
father to the Princess Elizabeth at her bap- 
tism. A month before he had examined the 
fanatical ' Nun of Kent,' Elizabeth Barton 

[q. v.], on the subject of her pretended reve- 
ations. Her prophecies had failed to deter 
the king from marrying Anne Boleyn ; but 
what was to become of the couple had been 
partly revealed to her in a trance, and she 
expected to be answered fully in another on 
the archbishop allowing her to go down into 
Kent for the purpose. Cranmer gave her 
leave to do so in order that she might com- 
mit herself more fully, and then handed her 
over to Cromwell to be examined further 
touching her adherents. He also examined 
some of the monks of Christ Church as to 
their complicity in her revelations. 

Favoured by the king, who continued to 
lend money to him (^Calendar, Henry VIII, 
vol. vi. No. 1474), he could not but be the 
subservient instrument of Henry's policy. 
In Easter week of the following year he 
issued an inhibition to the clergy forbidding 
any of them to preach without taking out 
new licenses. This was apparently the re- 
sult of an express admonition from the king, 
and designed to prevent the marriage with 
Anne Boleyn being denounced from the pul- 
pit. Soon after an order was taken ' for 
preaching and bidding of beads,' by which 
the licensed pulpit orators were directed to 
inveigh against the authority of the pope, 
but not to preach either for or against purga- 
tory, worship of saints, marriage of priests, 
and some other subjects for the space of a 
year (ib. vol. vii. Nos. 463, 464, 750-1, 871). 
A considerable change of doctrine was thus 
abeady contemplated, but was referred to a 
future decision of the archbishop, who, being 
now the highest ecclesiastical authority re- 
cognised in the land, was invested with some 
of the functions hitherto exercised by the 
pope. He granted bulls and dispensations, 
consecrated bishops by his own act, and, 
greatly to the annoyance of his suffragans, 
two or three of whom in vain protested, held 
a general visitation of his province in 1534. 
*0f all sorts of men,' he himself writes at 
this time to the lord chancellor, ' I am daily 
informed that priests report the worst of me ' 
(Jb. No. 702 ; Works, ii. 291). He was en- 
throned at Canterbury 3 Dec. 1534 (Chroni- 
cle of St. Augustine's, in ' Narratives of the 
Reformation,' p. 280, says 1533, but it was 
certainly next year ; see Calendar, vol. vii. 
No. 1520). On 10 Feb. in the following year 
he took the lead in the formal abjuration made 
by each of the bishops singly of allegiance to 

the see of Rome. But though he so readily 
lent himself to the establishment of the royal 
supremacy, he certainly did his best to pre- 
vent the martyrdom of those who could not 
conscientiously accept it. When More and 
Fisher, after their examination at Lambeth, 
expressed their willingness to swear to the 
new act of succession, but not to the preamble, 
he urged strongly that it would be politic to 
accept their obedience to this extent without 
pressing them further ; and in April 1535, 
after the Charter House monks were con- 
demned, he suggested to Cromwell that efforts 
should be made to procure recantations, at 
least from "Webster, prior of Axholme, and 
Reynold of Sion, rather than that they should 
be made to suffer the extreme penalty of the 
law. But in neither application was he suc- 
cessful, and on 3 June 1535 he was one of 
the lords who went to the Tower to examine 
Sir Thomas More, though the chief examiner 
seems to have been Lord-chancellor Audeley. 
Next day he received royal letters, which 
were sent to the other bishops also, and fol- 
lowed up by a royal proclamation on the 9th, 
directing them on every Sunday and high 
feast throughout the year to preach that the 
king was supreme head of the church of Eng- 
land. Another duty enjoined upon them was 
to have the pope's name erased from every 
service book. How Cranmer fulfilled these 
injunctions his own letters testify on more 
than one occasion ; and in A.ugust following 
he refers to Dr. Layton, the king's visitor, 
who heard him preach in his own cathedral, 
as a witness of his obedience. 

Next year, on 2 May, Anne Boleyn was 
suddenly sent to the Tower, her trial and 
execution following within less than three 
weeks. Her old chaplain, the archbishop, 
received orders on the day of her arrest to 
come up from the country to Lambeth, where 
he was to remain till further intimation was 
made of the king's pleasure. He wrote Henry 
a letter expressive of some perplexity, but 
after concluding it he was sent for to the 
Star-chamber, where the case against Anne 
was officially declared to him, and he added 
in a postscript : ' I am exceedingly sorry that 
such faults can be proved by [i.e. against] the 
queen.' After her condemnation he visited 
her in the Tower. The king was determined 
not only to put Anne to death, but to prove 
that he had never been married to her. 
Cranmer procured from her in conversation 
an avowal of certain circumstances which, 
though never openly stated in justification of 
the king's conduct, were considered to affect 
the validity of her marriage ; and just as in 
1533 he had pronounced that marriage valid 
he now on 17 May 1536 pronounced it to 




have been null and void from the first ; the 
grounds on which either decision was pro- 
noiinced being equally withheld from the 

In the convocation which met in June and 
July following the sentence against Anne 
was confirmed, and a body of ten articles 
touching doctrines and ceremonies — the first 
formula of faith put forth by the church of 
England — was agreed to. These articles seem 
to have been drafted by the king himself and 
revised by Cranmer. Next year he in like 
manner revised the corrections which the 
king proposed to make in the so-called 
* Bishops' Book/ properly entitled ' The In- 
stitution of a Christian Man.' A little 
before this, in pursuance of a resolution of 
convocation in 1534, he had taken steps as 
metropolitan towards the production of an 
authorised English bible, with the concur- 
rence of his sufiragans, all of whom lent 
their aid in the project except Stokesley, 
bishop of London. The work, however, was 
forestalled by the first edition of Coverdale's 
translation, already printed abroad in 1535, 
and dedicated to the king ; and ultimately it 
was superseded in favour of Matthew's bible, 
a patchwork of Tyndale's and Coverdale's 
versions published in the summer of 1537, 
and dedicated, like that of Coverdale, to 
Henry VIII. On 4 Aug. Cranmer sent a 
copy of this version to Cromwell to be exhi- 
bited to the king, requesting that the sale 
might be authorised until the bishops could 
produce a better version, which he thought 
would not be till a day after doomsday. The 
work was accordingly licensed, and the arch- 
bishop informed Cromwell that he could not 
have pleased him more by a gift of a thou- 
sand pounds. 

About this time, pursuant to an act passed 
in 1534, a number of suffragan bishops were 
constituted in different parts of England, of 
whom three were consecrated by the arch- 
bishop himself at Lambeth, and three others 
by his commission. The need for these may 
have been increased to some extent by the 
suppression of the smaller monasteries in 
1536, as before that time the prior of Dover 
seems to have acted as a suffragan of Canter- 
bury. But of all the great movements af- 
fecting the church Cranmer had least to do 
with the suppression of the monasteries. In 
October 1537 Cranmer stood godfather to the 
infant prince Edward, afterwards Edward VI. 
In the beginning of May 1538 he examined 
at Lambeth Friar Forest, who was shortly 
after burned in Smithfield for heresy and for 
denying the king's supremacy. In the sum- 
mer he commissioned Dr. Curwen to visit the 
diocese of Hereford, the see being then vacant 

by the death of Dr. Foxe. At this time he 
had disputes with his own cathedral convent 
of Christ Church, and a troublesome corre- 
spondence with a Kentish justice as to the 
interpretation of the king's injimctions. He 
suggested to Cromwell that the monastic 
visitors should examine the relics of St. Tho- 
mas of Canterbury, and particularly the 
liquid exhibited as the blood of the martyr, 
which he suspected to be * made of some red 
ochre or such like matter.' The great feast 
of St. Thomas had already been abolished 
two years before with other superfluous holi- 
days by royal proclamation, and the arch- 
bishop had given great offence by eating flesh 
in his own parlour on St. Thomas's eve in 
defiance of ancient usage. Commissioners 
were sent down to Canterbury to destroy the 
shrine and bear away its costly treasures of 
gold and jewels. 

In August of the same year the archbishop 
was much interested in a mission of German 
divines who came to England to negotiate 
terms of union between the German protes- 
tants and the church of England. He was 
named on the king's side, and doubtless pre- 
sided at their conferences with the English 
bishops, whom he accused in a letter to 
Cromwell of purposely seeking to make their 
embassy fruitless. In October a commission 
was issued to him and some other divines to 
proceed against Anabaptists, some of whom 
were presently brought to Smithfield and 
burnt. In November John Lambert, other- 
wise called Nicholson, was brought before 
him for heresy touching the sacrament, but 
made his appeal to the king, who hearing the 
case in person caused Cranmer to reply to 
the arguments of the accused. The arch- 
bishop did so, but not apparently to the satis- 
faction of Bishop Gardiner, who was also 
present, and who with some other bishops 
joined in the disputation. Ultimately, the 
xmhappy man was condemned to the flames. 

In 1539 was passed by parliament ' An 
Act for Abolishing Diversity of Opinions,' as 
it was strangely entitled, more commonly 
known as the Act of the Six Articles. A 
strong reaction was setting in against inno- 
vation in doctrine ; and six weighty points of 
theology were referred by the House of Lords 
to a committee of bishops presided over by 
Cromwell as the king's vicegerent. Cranmer 
used every effort on the side of freedom, 
partly, no doubt, from interested motives, 
as one of the articles touched the marriage 
of the clergy. But his efforts were fruitless. 
The king himself entered the house, and his 
influence immediately silenced the advocates 
of the new learning. The doctrine of the 
church was then defined, and penalties of 




extraordinary severity were enacted to en- 
force it. A cruel persecution was threat- 
ened ; Latimer and Shaxton resigned their 
bishoprics, and not only lay heretics but the 
married clergy stood in awe of the new law. 
Cranmer himself was obliged to dismiss the 
wife whom since his promotion he had been 
obliged to keep in seclusion. It was said by 
contemporaries that he carried her about in 
a chest perforated with air-holes to let her 
breathe ; and that on one occasion, she and the 
chest being removed by an unconscious porter, 
and deposited wrong side up, she was com- 
pelled to disclose her situation by a scream. 

In December 1539 the archbishop met 
Anne of Cleves on her progress from the sea- 
coast and conducted her into Canterbury. 
On 6 Jan. 1540 he married her to the king, 
and six months later he became, by virtue of 
his position, the chief instrument of her di- 
vorce, which was accomplished by a sentence 
of convocation. About the same time he 
interceded as far as he could to save Crom- 
well from the block, or rather he wrote 
apologetically, as in the case of Anne Bo- 
leyn. The note of subservience was never 
absent from anything Cranmer ventured to 
write, though he doubtless heartily desired 
to mitigate the king's cruelty. To the bill 
of attainder against Cromwell he offered no 
opposition. Next year he was selected by the 
council as the fittest to convey to the king 
the information of the infidelity of his fifth 
wife, Catherine Howard [q. v.] Afterwards 
by the king's command he visited her in the 
Tower, and when he found her overwhelmed 
with grief and terror gave her a delusive 
hope of mercy, which he had been instructed 
to hold out to her. 

In March 1541 his cathedral of Canterbury 
underwent a great change, the old monastic 
foiindation being replaced by a dean and 
chapter. It was then proposed by some of 
the commissioners to change the grammar 
school and restrict its privileges to the sons 
of gentlemen, a scheme which Cranmer op- 
posed with a vigour and eloquence altogether 
admirable. Before this, in 1540, ' the Great 
Bible' was ordered to be set up in parish 
churches, all imauthorised translations hav- 
ing been already forbidden by a proclamation 
issued in the preceding November. This 
edition came to be called by Cranmer's name, 
partly from the avowed favour with which 
he regarded it, and partly from a preface 
which he supplied to it ; but in 1542 it was 
greatly objected to in convocation, especially 
by Bishop Gardiner, who produced a long 
list of venerable words used in the Vulgate, 
for which he thought the English substitutes 
inadequate and commonplace. Cranmer on 

this proposed to refer the revision of the 
translation to the universities, in which he 
was sure of the king's support ; and there- 
upon all further opposition was withdrawn. 
The archbishop also presided over the com- 
mission of 1540 on the doctrines and cere- 
monies of the church, one fruit of whose 
labours appeared three years later in a book 
published by authority entitled ' The Neces- 
sary Doctrine and Erudition of a Christian 

His theology at this time, though not so 
decidedly protestant as it afterwards became, 
was more latitudinarian than that of others. 
He had for some years a commissary in 
Calais who, though indeed he was obliged to 
dismiss him on that account, certainly re- 
presented his own views in favouring the 
party opposed to transubstantiation. He was 
a willing enough agent in carrying out the 
king's injunctions for the removal of shrines 
and relics ; and he himself was held largely 
responsible for the abrogation of cherished 
customs. Three different complaints or con- 
spiracies against him are recorded, in which 
it was hoped by the opposite party to pro- 
cure his downfall ; but the king was so weU 
aware of his value that they completely 
failed. * Ha, my chaplain,* said Henry on 
one of these occasions, receiving the arch- 
bishop into his barge, * I have news for you. 
I know now who is the greatest heretic in 
Kent.' And he pulled out of his sleeve a 
paper containing a set of articles against the 
archbishop, signed by a number of his o-wn 
clergy and prebendaries of his cathedral, and 
by several justices of the shire. Cranmer 
desired that the charges might be investi- 
gated, and the king said he would have them 
inquired into by the archbishop himself and 
such other commissioners as he would name, 
which was done accordingly, much to the 
confusion of those who had drawn up the 

In a second case a courtier named Gost- 
wick is said to have been set on by uthers. 
but the king on hearing of it ordered the 
' varlet,' as he called him, to beg the arch- 
bishop's pardon. A third instance is familiar 
in some of its details to every reader of Shake- 
speare. The council had obtained leave of 
the king to examine Cranmer and commit 
him to the Tower, urging that so long as he 
was at liberty witnesses would fear to speak 
the truth. The king unwUlingly complied 
with their request, so far as words went, but 
to defeat their purpose sent for the arch- 
bishop late at night and gave him a ring 
which, if they insisted on his committal next 
day, he might show the council in token that 
the king would have the matter heard before 




himself. Next morning he was summoned 
before the council, but was kept waiting 
some time outside the council-chamber door. 
His secretary Morice called Dr. Butts to wit- 
ness the fact, and Butts informed the king. 
' What ! ' exclaimed Henry, ' standeth he 
without the council-chamber door ? It is 
well. I shall talk with them by-and-by.' 
When Cranmer exhibited the ring, and said 
he appealed to the king, the lords, * as the 
manner was, went all unto the king's person 
both with his token and the cause,' and re- 
ceived a severe rebuke for their treatment of 
him. ' I would you should well understand,' 
Henry added, ' that I account my lord of 
Canterbury as faithful a man towards me as 
ever was prelate in this realm, and one to 
whom I am many ways beholden.' After that 
day no man durst say a word against him so 
long as Henry lived. 

These incidents we know from the relation 
of Cranmer's own secretary and apologist, 
Ralph Morice. It was Henry's policy always 
to pay ostensibly the highest deference to the 
church while compelling the church to yield 
to his own inclinations. And when Morice 
goes on to vindicate his master from a cen- 
sure afterwards passed upon him that he had 
given away so many farms and offices during 
his tenure of the archbishopric that there was 
little left for his successors, he does so by 
showing that if Cranmer had not been very 
conciliatory to his prince the see would have 
been stripped absolutely bare. Cranmer only 
yielded to the pressure put upon him by the 
king and his grasping courtiers ; yet he re- 
fused long leases, and limited them to twenty- 
one years, until he found that this only ex- 
posed him to still more pressure for reversions, 
which were shamelessly sold again soon after 
they were obtained. Cranmer also made 
some exchanges of land with the crown to 
the detriment of his see, in palliation of 
which his secretary truly says : ' Men ought 
to consider with whom he had to do, specially 
with such a prince as would not be bridled, 
nor be againstsaid in any of his requests.' 

Henry showed his regard for Cranmer by 
making him alter his ancestral arms, substi- 
tuting for three cranes three pelicans, to 
indicate ' that he ought to be ready to shed 
his blood for his young ones brought up in 
the faith of Christ.' But there was no great 
likelihood of his dying a martyr so long as 
such a patron lived. Even on high questions 
of theology he once wrote his opinion with 
the following note attached : * This is mine 
opinion and sentence at this present, which, 
nevertheless, I do not temerariously define, 
but refer the j udgment thereof wholly unto 
your majesty ' (Jenktns, ii. 103). In 1542, 

when the Scotch prisoners taken at the Sol- 
way Moss were sent to London, the Earl of 
Cassillis was committed to the care of the 
archbishop, and it has been thought that his 
conversations with Cranmer were not without 
fruit in the subsequent history of the Scottish 
Reformation. In September 1543 the arch- 
bishop held a visitation of his diocese in which 
many of the presentments show clearly the 
little progress that had yet been made in the 
war against superstitions. On 18 Dec. fol- 
lowing his palace at Canterbury was acciden- 
tally burnt, and his brother-in-law and some 
other persons perished in the flames. In June 
1544 a royal mandate was issued for the 
general use of prayers in English, and an 
English litany was published by authority 
immediately before the king's expedition to 
Boulogne. A little later in the year Cranmer, 
by the king's command, translated from the 
Latin * certain processions to be used on fes- 
tival days,' to be set to music (making, how- 
ever, pretty considerable alterations on the 
originals), which he submitted to the king's 
correction. Before the end of the year he also 
urged upon the king the long-felt necessity 
for a revision of the ecclesiastical laws in ac- 
cordance with previous legislation ; and next 
year he was commissioned to take steps to 
that effect. 

Henry VIII died on 28 Jan. 1547. He 
was attended by Cranmer in his last moments, 
and the archbishop was named in his will 
as one of the council to govern during the 
minority of Edward VI. He was, of course, 
the first in precedence, but it is not easy to 
see that in affairs of state he possessed more 
influence than he had done during Henry's 
life ; and even in matters ecclesiastical he 
appears still, to a large extent, to have acted 
under pressure from others. He crowned 
the young boy king on 20 Feb., but even 
before that date he took out a new commis- 
sion to discharge his archiepiscopal functions, 
acknowledging that all jurisdiction, eccle- 
siastical and secular, alike emanated from 
the sovereign. At the coronation he de- 
livered an address to the new king on the 
nature of his coronation oath, carefully ex- 
plaining that it was not to be taken in the 
sense the pope had attached to it, which 
made the see of Rome the arbiter of his right 
to rule. But instead of carrying the Refor- 
mation further he seems to have aimed at a 
more conservative policy than during the 
preceding reign. For he not only suspended, 
at the death of Henry VIII, a scheme of 
ritualistic changes which he and others had 
been preparing for the king's approval, but 
when urged to new measures of reform he 
would reply that it was better to undertake 




such measures in Henry's days than now, 
when the king was in his nonage. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that he cele- 
brated mass for the repose of Henry's soul 
according to his will, or even that he did the 
same office not long afterwards for that of 
Francis I of France. He also strongly op- 
posed in parliament the act for the suppres- 
sion of colleges and chantries. But changes 
soon began to be introduced with his appro- 
bation, and, partly at least, at his suggestion, 
which produced a very considerable revolu- 
tion. A general visitation of the kingdom 
was set on foot, in which the visitors were 
instructed to sell everywhere for use in the 
churches a new book of homilies and a trans- 
lation of Erasmus's ' Paraphrase of the New 
Testament.' Both these books were strongly 
denounced by the opposite party, especially 
by Gardiner. In the convocation of 1547 
the archbishop obtained a vote in favour of 
the marriage of the clergy, and though a 
measure to legalise it was deferred for a time, 
it was successfully carried through parlia- 
ment next year ; after which his wife returned 
to him from Germany. Parliament also gave 
effect to a unanimous decision of convocation 
in favour of communion in both kinds, a 
change which necessitated the issue of a 
royal commission in January 1548 to revise 
the offices of the church. This commission 
consisted of six bishops and six other divines, 
presided over by Cranmer ; it held its sittings 
in Windsor Castle, and produced a new com- 
munion book early in March, and ultimately, 
in November following, the first English 

Early in 1548 an order in council abolished 
the carrying of candles on Candlemas day, 
ashes on Ash Wednesday, palms on Palm 
Sunday, and various other ceremonies. In the 
course of the same year Cranmer held a visi- 
tation of his diocese, inquiring particularly 
whether the destruction of images and other 
relics of superstition had been fully carried 
out. Yet it was in this year he published 
his so-called catechism, entitled 'A Short 
Instruction into Christian Religion,' which 
was a translation from the German of a Lu- 
theran treatise too high in some of its doctrines 
to satisfy ardent reformers. In 1549 various 
heretics of extremely opposite views were 
convented before him at Lambeth, some for 
denying the Trinity, others for denying the 
himian nature of Christ. Most of them re- 
canted and did penance ; but a woman named 
Joan Bocher [q. v.], or Joan of Kent, who 
belonged to the second category, stood to her 
opinion and was burned, though in the inter- 
val after her condemnation both Cranmer and 
his former chaplain. Bishop Ridley, reasoned 

with her, making earnest efforts to convert 
her. Another martyr, a Dutch Arian, was 
brought before him two years later, and in 
like manner delivered to the flames. 

His activity against heretics in 1549 was 
occasioned by the issue of a new commission, 
of which he was the head. The first Act of 
Uniformity was passed in the beginning of 
the same year, and the new English prayer- 
book came into use on Whitsunday. But 
the change, unpopular in most places, pro- 
duced a serious insurrection in Devonshire 
and Cornwall. The rebels declared the causes 
of their rising in a set of fifteen articles, 
demanding the restoration of images, of the 
mass in Latin, and, generally speaking, of 
the old order in the church. To these articles 
Cranmer drew up an elaborate answer, re- 
proaching the remonstrants for the insolence 
of their tone, and convicting them by his 
superior learning of specious inconsistencies. 
He also preached twice at St. Paul's on the 
sinfulness of the insurrection. After a time 
it was suppressed. Meanwhile the protector, 
Somerset, was tottering to his fall, and it is 
melancholy to relate that he was betrayed 
at the last by Cranmer, who had also been 
instrumental in his brother's (Lord Seymour) 
execution in the earlier part of the year ; for 
though an ecclesiastic he had signed the death- 
warrant of that unhappy nobleman, a gross 
violation of the canon law, of which the best 
that can be said is that it was doubtless due, 
not to political hatred, but to simple weak- 
ness. Somerset, however, was for the present 
only removed from the protectorate and re- 
stored to liberty. The same timidity of Cran- 
mer's which made him too readily become 
an instrument of tyranny gave rise to the 
popular saying, preserved in Shakespeare : — 
' Do my lord of Canterbury a shrewd turn, 
and he is your friend for ever.' He was 
always anxious to conciliate those who liked 
him least. Even in the exercise of his au- 
thority as archbishop his lenity towards op- 
ponents was such as sometimes to provoke 
contempt. A quondam abbot of Tower HUl, 
who had become vicar of Stepney, being a 
strong opponent of the Reformation, was 
brought before him charged with causing the 
bells to be rung and choristers to sing in the 
choir, while licensed preachers whom he did 
not favour were addressing the people in his 
church. Cranmer contented himself with 
administering a rebuke, telling the disap- 
pointed prosecutor that there was no law to 
punish him by. 

In truth the Reformation was developing 
itself in a way that must have filled him 
with anxiety. The reforming and the con- 
servative or romanising party had not been 




over-tolerant of each other in the reign of 
Henry VIII ; but now they could hardly be 
kept within one fold. The latter, indeed, no 
less than the former, had abjured the pope's 
jurisdiction and admitted the royal supre- 
macy ; but they were slow to recognise acts 
done by a faction during the king's minority 
as constitutional either in church or state. 
Their scruples were, however, overborne, 
and Cranmer's authority was used to silence 
their protests. He was head of the commis- 
sion which examined and deprived Bishop 
Bonner in 1549, and of that which did the 
like to Bishop Gardiner in 1550-1 ; but 
Bishops Heath and Day were deprived in 
1551 without his intervention, and Bishop 
Tunstall in 1552, by a commission consisting 
purely of laymen, after Cranmer had vigor- 
ously opposed a bill for his deprivation in 

Cranmer, however, invited a number of 
illustrious foreign protestants to settle in 
England and give their advice to the king's 
council, among whom were Peter Martyr, 
Ochino, Bucer, Alasco the Pole, and a number 
of others. He sought also to promote a union 
of reformed churches with a common stan- 
dard of doctrine, and made overtures parti- 
cularly to the divines of Zurich and to Me- 
lanchthon in Germany. His efforts in this 
were fruitless. He was led, however, to write 
a book upon the sacrament, distinctly repu- 
diating the doctrines of transubstantiation 
and the real presence, to which Gardiner, 
though imprisoned in the Tower, found means 
to write an answer and get it published in 
France, and Cranmer was driven to defend 
himself by a more elaborate treatise, in reply 
alike to Gardiner and to Dr. Richard Smith, 
who had been imprisoned after a scholastic 
disputation at Oxford with Peter Martyr on 
the same subject, and had afterwards es- 
caped abroad. Further, owing to the criti- 
cisms of foreign protestants, both in England 
and elsewhere, on the new prayer-book, Cran- 
mer set about revising it along with Good- 
rich, bishop of Ely, and some others ; and, 
having been appointed the head of a parlia- 
mentary commission for the revision of the 
canon law, he drew up an elaborate scheme 
for that purpose, in which aU the old ma- 
chinery of the ecclesiastical courts was to be 
placed at the command of reformers in point 
of doctrine. 

This scheme, however, was never autho- 
rised. The council of Edward were bent on 
carrying out the reformation in their own 
way by acts of parliament, and they had met 
with one serious difficulty already. The Prin- 
cess Mary had persistently refused to adopt 
the new liturgy, and her brother desired the 

advice of Cranmer and Bishops Ridley and 
Ponet whether he ought to tolerate her dis- 
obedience. Their answer was that ' to give 
license to sin was sin, but to suffer and wink 
at it for a time might be borne.' Yet the 
emperor's ambassador was urgent that she 
should have a license by letters patent to 
have mass in her own chapel, and when it 
was refused the council found it necessary to 
redouble their precautions against a scheme 
which was certainly entertained for carrying 
her abroad. Elsewhere, however, no resis- 
tance was to be expected. In 1552 the re- 
vised prayer-book was authorised by a new 
Act of Uniformity, and to be present at any 
other service was visited with six months' 
imprisonment, even for the first offence. An 
interval of more than six months, however, 
was allowed before it came into operation, 
during which period such strong objections 
were raised by extreme protestants to the 
practice of kneeling at commimion that the 
printing of the work, though already autho- 
rised by parliament, was suspended until the 
question was referred to Cranmer, and at 
length the celebrated ' black rubric ' was in- 
serted by authority of the council. 

The execution of the Duke of Somerset in 
January 1552 is believed to have affected 
Cranmer deeply. He could not but feel that 
his rival Northumberland was a far more 
dangerous man. A commission was issued 
in April to seize to the king's use through- 
out the kingdom all such remaining church 
plate as the new ritual had made superfluous, 
and to inquire how far it had been embezzled. 
Cranmer was one of the commissioners in 
Kent, but he was slow to act on his commis- 
sion, and even seems to have made some kind 
of protest against it, which was probably the 
reason why, as Cecil at this time informed 
him, he and his order were accused of being 
both covetous and inhospitable. It was a 
charge that had been insinuated against him- 
self by Sir Thomas Seymour in the days of 
Henry VIII, and retracted by the accuser 
himself on the plainest evidence ; and Cran- 
mer had no difficulty in answering it now. 
Another commission came to him about the 
same time to inquire as to a new sect that 
had sprung up in his diocese named the 
Davidians, or Family of Love. This inquiry 
he seems to have conducted with character- 
istic moderation. His health at this time 
was less robust than usual, for he had two 
illnesses in the summer of 1552. 

Towards the close of the year the forty- 
two articles of religion (afterwards reduced 
to the well-known thirty-nine), a compen- 
dium which he had prepared and submitted 
to the council, received some final corrections 




from his pen, and he requested that the bishops 
might be empowered to cause the clergy 
generally to subscribe them. It appears, how- 
ever, that he had already framed these articles 
some years before, and had required by his 
own authority as archbishop the subscrip- 
tions of all the preachers whom he licensed. 
Is or did they ever, as Cranmer himself con- 
fessed, receive the sanction of convocation, 
though published in 1553 by the king's com- 
mand, with a statement to that effect on the 
very title-page to which the archbishop ob- 
iected as untrue. The falsehood, it seems, 
was justified by the council because the book 
* was set forth in the time of the convocation,' 
a pretext which, lame as it was, was as little 
true as the statement it was advanced to 

"When Edward was dying in 1553 Cran- 
mer was, much against his will, dragged into 
Northumberland's audacious plot touching 
the succession. The signature of every one 
of the council was required to the king's will, 
and Cranmer at length reluctantly added his 
— the last in time although it stood first in 
place. There can be no doubt as to the truth 
of his statement afterwards made to Queen 
Mary in extenuation of what he had done. 
He had desired to have spoken with the king 
alone to have made him alter his purpose, 
but he was not permitted. Then the king 
himself asked him to set his hand to the will, 
saying he hoped he would not be more re- 
fractory than the rest of the council. The 
judges, he was told, had advised the king 
that he had power to will away the crown, 
and indeed only one of them had refused to 
sign the document. So Cranmer too com- 
plied, and as he informed Queen Mary, having 
been thus induced to sign, he did it ' un- 
feignedly and without dissimulation.' 

He was thus committed to the cause of 
Lady Jane Grey, which he no doubt upheld 
'without dissimulation' as long as it was 
tenable. But on 19 July her nine days' reign 
was over, and on the 20th Cranmer signed 
along with the rest of the council the order 
to Northumberland to disband his forces. On 
7 Aug. he ofiiciated at a communion service 
instead of a mass at the interment of Ed- 
ward VI at "Westminster. But the autho- 
rity of the new prayer-book and of much else 
that had been done in the preceding reign 
was now called in question. A commission 
was issued to inquire into the validity of 
Cranmer's own acts in depriving certain 
bishops and causing others to be appointed 
in their places, and he was ordered to appear 
in consistory at St. Paul's and bring with 
him an inventory of his goods. This he ac- 
cordingly did on 27 Aug, About the same 

timeDr.Thornden,sufiragan bishop of Dover, 
ventured without his leave as archbishop to 
restore the mass in Canterbury Cathedral, 
and he straightway drew up a declaration 
that it was not done by his authority. In 
this manifesto he also contradicted a rumour 
that he was wilhng to say mass before the 
queen, and declared his readiness not only to 
defend the communion book of Edward VI 
as agreeable to Christ's institution, but to 
show that the mass contained ' many horrible 
blasphemies.' It was a strongly worded docu- 
ment, which he might probably have toned 
down, for he himself said that he would have 
enlarged it and got it set on church doors 
with his archiepiscopal seal attached; but 
having allowed his friend Bishop Scory to 
take a copy, the latter read it pubhcly in 
Cheapside on 5 Sept. The consequence was 
that he was called before the council on the 
8th for disseminating seditious bills, and was 
thereupon committed to the Tower. 

On 13 Nov. he was taken to the Guildhall 
and put on his trial for treason, along with 
Lord Guildford Dudley. He was charged 
with having caused Lady Jane Grey to be 
proclaimed on 10 July and with having armed 
about twenty of his dependents in her cause, 
whom he sent to Cambridge in aid of North- 
umberland on the 16th and 17th. He pleaded 
not guilty, but afterwards withdrew the plea 
and confessed the indictment. The usual 
sentence for treason was pronounced upon 
him, and execution was ordered to be at Ty- 
burn. His life was, however, spared by the 
clemency of the queen ; but he was included 
in the act of attainder passed in parliament 
against the Earl of Northumberland (Statute 
1 Mary, c. 19), and, his dignity being for- 
feited, he was afterwards spoken of as ' the 
late Archbishop of Canterbury.' 

He remained in the Tower till 8 March 
following (1654), when the lieutenant re- 
ceived a warrant ' to deliver to Sir John 
"Williams the bodies of the late Archbishop 
of Canterbury, Dr. Ridley, and Mr. Latimer, 
to be by him conveyed to Oxford.' There 
they were to be called upon to justify their 
heresies, if they could, in a theological dis- 
putation. The convocation which had met 
at St. Paul's, under Bishop Bonner's presi- 
dency, had been discussing the subject of the 
English prayer-book and the articles, both of 
which they declared to be heretical. _ The 
root of the evil was found in wrong opinions 
as to the mass, and the true doctrine of the 
Romanists was set forth in three articles 
affirmed by a large majority in the lower 
house with only five or six dissentients. But 
one of these, Philpot, archdeacon of Worces- 
ter, demanded a scholastic disputation upon 




the subject, in which Cranmer and others 
should be allowed to take part. This could 
not be reasonably refused ; and Cranmer, 
Ridley, and Latimer were taken from their 
prison in the Tower and lodged in Bocardo, 
the common gaol at Oxford, till the disputa- 
tion commenced. On 14 April they were 
called before a great assembly of divines, 
from Cambridge as well as from Oxford, 
which met in St. Mary's Church, presided 
over by Dr. Weston, prolocutor of the con- 
vocation. The three articles agreed on in 
convocation were proposed to them, and they 
refused to subscribe. Monday following, the 
16th, was appointed to Cranmer to declare 
his reasons, Tuesday the 17th to Ridley, and 
Wednesday the 18th to Latimer. Of course 
there could be little doubt of the result. Dr. 
Chedsey was Cranmer's chief opponent, and 
after the discussion had lasted from eight in 
the morning till nearly two in the afternoon 
there was a cry of ' Vicit Veritas ! ' The ar- 
guments were then handed in to the regis- 
trar, the doctors went to dinner, and Cran- 
mer was conveyed back by the mayor to 
Bocardo. After his two fellow-prisoners had 
been heard and answered in the same style, 
and a formal condemnation of aU three had 
been pronounced on the Friday, he wrote on 
the 23rd a brief accoimt of the discussion to 
the council, complaining of the unfairness 
with which it had been conducted, and re- 
questing them to obtain for him the queen's 

It is clear that he had fought his argu- 
mentative battle with great calmness, mode- 
ration, and ability. Nor were his opponents, 
perhaps, altogether satisfied with the result ; 
for though they had declared him vanquished 
upon the Monday, they allowed him to dis- 
cuss the same question again on the Thurs- 
day following with John Harpsfield, who was 
to dispute for his degree of D.D. ; and at the 
close of that day's controversy not only did 
Dr. Weston commend his gentleness and 
modesty in argument, but all the doctors pre- 
sent took oif their caps in compliment to him. 
He and his two fellow-captives were, how- 
ever, kept in prison for nearly a year and a 
half longer, during which time Mary mar- 
ried Philip of Spain, Pole arrived as legate 
from Rome, and a beginning was already 
made of those cruel martyrdoms which have 
cast so deep a stain on Mary's government. 
The council seem to have been unable for a 
long time to determine on further proceed- 
ings against Cranmer and his two friends, 
till at length it was determined to give them 
a formal trial for heresy. As yet they had 
only been condemned in a scholastic dispu- 
tation, but now Pole as legate issued a com- 

mission to examine and absolve, or degrade 
and deliver to the secular arm, the two pri- 
soners, Ridley and Latimer. As to Cranmer, 
who had filled the office of primate, a dif- 
ferent course was adopted. He first received 
on 7 Sept. 1555 a citation to appear at Rome 
within eighty days in answer to such mat- 
ters as should be objected to him by the king 
and queen. This, however, was mere matter 
of form, and it was notified to him that, at 
the king and queen's request, the pope had 
issued a commission for his trial to Cardinal 
Dupuy (or de Puteo), who had delegated his 
functions to Brookes, bishop of Gloucester. 

Bishop Brookes accordingly opened his 
commission in St. Mary's Church on 12 Sept. 
Cranmer refused to recognise his authority, 
saying he had once sworn never again to 
consent to papal jurisdiction; and he made a 
rather lame answer when reminded that he 
had also sworn obedience to the church of 
Rome, taking refuge in the protest that he 
made before doing so, and the advice of 
learned men whom he had consulted. Six- 
teen articles touching his past career were 
then objected to him, most of which he ad- 
mitted to be true in fact, though he took ex- 
ception to the colouring. Eight witnesses 
who had in past times favoured the Refor- 
mation were brought in to confirm the 
charges, and when asked what he had to 
say to their testimony, he said he objected 
to every one of them as perjured, inasmuch 
as they had, like himself, abjured the pope 
whom they now defended. No judgment 
was delivered, but a report of the proceed- 
ings was forwarded to Rome, while Cran- 
mer, besides making some complaints to the 
queen's proctor, wrote to the queen herself, 
expressing his regret that his own natural 
sovereigns had cited him before a foreign 
tribunal. He had been sworn, he said, in 
Henry VIII's days, never to admit the pope's 
jurisdiction in England, and he could not 
without perjury have acknowledged the bi- 
shop of Gloucester as his judge. He urged 
the queen to consider that papal laws were in- 
compatible with the laws of the realm, and 
adduced arguments against the doctrine and 
practice of the church of Rome on the sub- 
lect of the eucharist. An answer to this 
letter was written by Cardinal Pole by the 
queen's command. 

Cranmer remained in prison while his 
friends, Ridley and Latimer, were conveyed 
outside to their place of martyrdom on 16 Oct. 
He witnessed their execution from a tower 
on the top of his prison, and complained 
after to his gaoler of the cruelty of Ridley's 
treatment, whose sufierings were protracted 
by a piece of mismanagement. He was al- 




lowed to survive them by five months, dur- 
ing which time earnest efforts were made by 
the Spanish friar Soto, and others, for his 
conversion. Meanwhile, the eighty days al- 
lowed for his appearance at Rome having 
expired, the case was heard in consistory, 
where the report of the proceedings in Eng- 
land was examined, and counsel on both 
sides were heard, though the accused had in- 
structed no one to defend him. Judgment 
was pronounced against him, and on 11 Dec. 
the pope appointed, or, as it is called, ' pro- 
vided,' Cardinal Pole to the archbishopric of 
Canterbury. On the 14th he addressed a 
brief executorial to the king and queen, noti- 
fying that he had condemned Cranmer for 
heresy, and deprived him of his archbishop- 
ric. Much has been said of an apparent in- 
justice in the process, because this brief in 
the preamble declares the late archbishop 
contumacious for non-appearance at Rome 
when he was a prisoner at Oxford ; and to 
heighten the impression, Foxe tells us that 
he expressed his willingness to go and de- 
fend himself at Rome if the queen would let 
him. But the statement is scarcely consis- 
tent with the position he had already taken 
up in declining papal jurisdiction altogether. 
In fact, the preamble of the brief accuses 
him of contumacy first towards the papal 
sub-delegate. Bishop Brookes, secondly to- 
wards the delegate, Cardinal Dupuy, and 
lastly towards the pope himself, for not ap- 
pearing in consistory before the final deci- 
sion. Cranmer had taken up his position 
advisedly not to recognise papal authority at 
all, and if he had since relented he might 
yet have found means to engage a proctor at 
Rome, even if the queen did not think fit to 
let him go thither in person, as she probably 
would have done if he had expressed any 
willingness to submit to the Roman pontiff. 
A papal commission next came to Bonner, 
bishop of London, and Thirlby, bishop of Ely, 
for his degradation. It was a painful duty to 
the latter, to whom Cranmer had been an 
early friend and patron. The two, however, 
sat together for the purpose in Christ Church 
on 14 Feb. 1556, when Cranmer was brought 
before them. At the recitation of their com- 
mission, in which it was declared that he 
had had an impartial trial at Rome, he ex- 
claimed with rather unbecoming vehemence, 
if Foxe has reported him truly, ' Lord, 
what lies be these, that I, being continually 
in prison, and never could be suffered to have 
counsel or advocate at home, should produce 
witness and appoint my counsel at Rome ! 
God must needs punish this open and shame- 
less lying.' After the commission was read 
he was taken outside the church, where the 

process of his degradation was to be per- 
formed. But first he was carefully clothed 
in the special vestments of a sub-deacon, a 
deacon, a priest, a bishop, and an archbishop, 
one on the top of the other, but all of canvas, 
with a mitre and paU of the same material, 
and a crosier was put in his hand. Bonner 
then declared the causes of his degradation, 
the condemned man sometimes interrupting 
him with vain retorts and explanations. The 
crosier was then taken out of his hands by 
force, for he refused to relinquish it, and he 
drew from his sleeve a lengthy document 
and called on the bystanders to witness that 
he appealed from the pope to the next gene- 
ral council. * My lord,' said Thirlby, ' our 
commission is to proceed against you, omni 
appellatione remo^a, and therefore we cannot 
admit it.' Cranmer replied that this was un- 
just, as the cause was really between him 
and the pope ; and Thirll)y received it with 
the remark, ' Well, if it may be admitted it 

Thirlby was moved to tears, and, address- 
ing Cranmer, offered to be a suitor for his 
pardon. Cranmer desired him to be of good 
cheer, and the work proceeded. The late arch- 
bishop was stripped successively of the vest- 
ments of an archbishop, bishop, priest, deacon, 
and sub-deacon, with appropriate ceremonies 
and words, after which he was further de- 
graded from the minor orders of acolyte, 
exorcist, reader, and doorkeeper. Lastly a 
barber cut his hair close about his head, and 
Bishop Bonner scraped the tips of his fingers 
where he had been anointed. His gown was 
then taken off, and that of a poor yeoman 
bedel was put upon him in its place, with a 
townsman's cap on his head, in which guise 
he was delivered over to the secular power, 
and conveyed again to prison. 

As a last protest against these proceed- 
ings, while they were divesting him of his 
pall, he had said to the officiating bishops, 
* Which of you hath a pall to take away my 
pall ? ' The answer, however, was plain that, 
although as bishops they were his inferiors, 
they were acting by the pope's authority ; 
and Cranmer seems to have made no further 
opposition. He now resigned himself to his 
altered position. He had been for some time 
strongly urged to recant by divines who con- 
versed with him in prison, especially by the 
Spanish friar, John de Villa Garcia, with 
whom he had held long arguments on the 
primacy of St. Peter, the authority of general 
councils, and so forth ; and apparently even 
before his degradation he had made two sub- 
missions. First he had signed a declaration 
that, as the king and queen had admitted the 
pope's authority within the realm, he was 




content to submit to their laws. This, how- 
ever, not being considered satisfactory, he, a 
few days later, made a second submission, in 
which he put the church and the pope be- 
fore the king and queen. After his degra- 
dation he signed a third document, promis- 
ing entire obedience to the king's and queen's 
laws, both as to the pope's supremacy and 
other matters, and referring the book which 
he had written on the sacrament to the judg- 
ment of the next general council. But this 
being objected to, he signed yet another pro- 
fession distinctly dated 16 Feb., declaring un- 
reservedly his belief in the teaching of the 
catholic church on the sacraments as in other 
things. There seems to be no foundation for 
the statement that he was lured to any of 
these submissions by a promise of pardon. 
Shortly after the fourth was made a writ was 
issued for his execution on 24 Feb., and it 
was announced to him that he should die 
upon 7 March. He was only urged for the 
sake of his soul to make as ample a profes- 
sion as possible, and after consulting his spi- 
ritual advisers he signed a fifth document, 
which was attested by their signatures as 
well as his own, repudiating the doctrines of 
Luther and Zuinglius, acknowledging purga- 
tory, and urging all heretics to return to the 
unity of the church. He at the same time 
wrote to Cardinal Pole begging him to pro- 
cure for him a few days' respite from execu- 
tion that he might give the world a yet more 
convincing proof of his repentance. This re- 
spite seems to have been allowed, and on 
18 March he made a sixth and final submis- 
sion, full of self-reproach for his past career, 
in which he compared himself to the peni- 
tent thief crucified along with our Lord. 

Protestants and Roman catholics alike 
have censured these successive recantations 
as acts of insincerity prompted by the hope 
that they would buy his pardon. They may, 
however, have proceeded from real perplexity 
of mind. Royal supremacy over the church 
had been the fundamental doctrine with 
Cranmer hitherto, but if royalty chose again 
to acknowledge the pope's authority, what 
became of the very basis of the Reformation ? 
Ci-anmer possibly might have reconciled him- 
self to the new state of things as easily as 
Thirlby had he not written against transub- 
stantiation, a doctrine which he clearly dis- 
believed even in the days of Henry VIII, 
when it was still reputed orthodox. It was 
on this subject that he was most persistently 
pressed to recant, and it was on this subject 
that, while submitting to the pope in other 
things, he would fain have appealed to a 

feneral council. The appeal, however, was 
opeless, considering that the matter had 

been already settled at Trent five years be- 
fore, and it was clear that with papal au- 
thority he must admit papal doctrine. He 
aff'ected to be convinced by arguments that 
he could not very well answer (it is not easy 
to answer arguments in prison, with fire and 
faggots in the background), and he seemed a 
hopeful penitent. Nor would it have been 
impossible, perhaps, to extend to such a peni- 
tent the royal pardon, but that the flagrant 
character of his offences seemed to the coun- 
cil a reason for proceeding to the utmost 
extremity. For it was certainly owing to 
the abuse of his archiepiscopal functions that 
the queen had been actually declared a bas- 
tard, and all but cut off from the succession. 
On 20 March, two days after his last sub- 
mission, he was visited in prison by Dr. Cole, 
the provost of Eton, who was anxious to 
know if he still remained firm in the faith 
he had so lately professed. Next day he was 
to die. In the morning Friar John de Villa 
Garcia called upon him in prison, and Cran- 
mer, at his request, copied and signed yet a 
seventh form of recantation, of which he was 
to take one copy with him and read it at the 
stake. It was intended that, just before his 
execution, Dr. Cole should have preached 
at the stake, but as the morning was wet, 
the prisoner was conducted into St. Mary's 
Church, and the sermon delivered there. He 
was placed on a platform opposite the pulpit, 
where every one could see him. There he 
knelt and prayed fervently, before and after 
the sermon ; he was seen to weep, and moved 
his audience to tears. He was then asked 
to address the people, according to the gene- 
ral usage, and it was expected that he would 
read his final recantation. In this he was 
to declare his belief in every article of the 
catholic faith, and afterwards to confess that 
what most troubled his conscience was the 
publication of books and writings against the 
truth of God's word, and these he was to 
specify as the books he had written against 
the sacrament of the altar since the death 
of Henry VIII, He turned to the people, 
and besought first that they would pray for 
him ; then poured out a fervid prayer him- 
self, confessing himself * a wretched caitiff 
and miserable sinner ; ' then repeated the 
Lord's Prayer and declared that he believed 
every article of the catholic faith, just as it 
was expected he would say. But at this 
point the discourse began to vary from the 
programme. * And now I come,' he said, ' to 
the great thing which so much troubleth my 
conscience, more than anything that ever 
I did or said in my whole life, and that is 
the setting abroad of writings contrary to 
the truth, which now here I renounce and 




refuse, as things written with my hand con- 
trary to the truth which I thought in my 
heart, and written for fear of death, and to 
save my life, if it might be ; and that is, all 
such bills and papers which I have written 
or signed with my hand since my degrada- 
tion, wherein I have written many things 
untrue. And forasmuch as my hand offended, 
writing contrary to my heart, my hand shall 
first be punished therefor ; for, may I come 
to the fire, it shall be first burned.' 

The bystanders were astonished. Some in 
vain appealed to him to remember his recan- 
tation, and after answering their remon- 
strances he himself ran to the place of exe- 
cution, so fast that few could keep up with 
him. The Spanish friars still plied him with 
exhortations, but to no purpose. He was 
chained to the stake, the wood was kindled, 
and when the tire began to burn near him, 
he put his right hand into the flame, crying 
out : * This hand hath ofi'ended.' Very soon 
afterwards he was dead. His courage and 
patience in the torment filled with admira- 
tion the witnesses of his sufferings — even 
those who considered that he had died for a 
bad cause, of whom one, only known to us 
as ' J. A.,' has left an account of the scene 
in a letter to a friend. 

Of Cranmer's personal appearance Foxe 
writes that he was ' of stature mean, of com- 
plexion pure and somewhat sanguine, hav- 
ing no hair upon his head at the time of his 
death' (was not this owing to the barber 
cutting it ofi"?), ' but a long beard, white 
and thick. He was of the age of sixty-five ' 
(Foxe should have said sixty-seven) ' when 
he was burnt ; and yet, being a man sore 
broken in studies, all his time never used 
any spectacles.' Portraits of him exist at 
Cambridge and at Lambeth. It is curious 
that in his last hours we hear little of his 
wife or family. He left, we know, a son 
Thomas, and a daughter Margaret, who were 
restored in blood by act of parliament in 
1563. He had an elder brother John, who 
inherited his father's estates, and a younger, 
Edmund, whom he had made archdeacon of 
Canterbury soon after his appointment as 
primate, but who had been deprived by Mary 
as a married clergyman. 

His principal writings are : 1. A book on 
Henry VIII's divorce, against marriage with 
a brother's widow. 2. Preface to the Bible, 

1540. 3. ' A Short Instruction into Christian 
Religion,' commonly called his ' Catechism,' 
translated from the Latin of Justus Jonas, 

1541. 4, Preface to the Book of Common 
Prayer, 1549. 5. ' Answer to the DeA'onshire 
Rebels,' and a sermon on Rebellion. 6. ' Re- 
formatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum' (compiled 

about 1550, first edited 1571). 7. ' A De- 
fence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of 
the Sacrament,' 1550. 8. 'An Answer . . . unto 
a crafty and sophistical cavillation devised 
by Stephen Gardiner,' i.e. to Gardiner's re- 
ply to the preceding treatise. 9. ' A Confu- 
tation of Unwritten Verities,' in answer to 
a treatise of Dr. Richard Smith maintaining 
that there were truths necessary to be be- 
lieved which were not expressed in scripture. 
He is credited also by Burnet with a speech 
supposed to have been delivered in the House 
of Lords about 1534 ; but an examination 
of the original manuscript shows that it is 
not a speech, but a treatise addressed to 
some single lord, and even the authorship 
might perhaps be questioned (see Calendar, 
Henry VIII, vol. vii. No. 691). 

[Nichols's Narratives of the Reformation 
(Camden See.) ; Foxe's Acts and Monuments ; 
Burnet's Hist, of the Reformation ; Strype's Me- 
morials of Archbp. Cranmer (with appendix of 
documents); Strype's Eccl. Mem. iii. 392-400; 
Wilkins's Concilia, iii. 826-8, 857-8, 862, 868 ; 
Calendar, Henry VIII, iv., sq. ; Tytler's EdwardVI 
and Mary; works edited by Cox, Granger and 
Jenkyns ; GreyFriars' Chronicle ; Machyn's Diary ; 
Wriothesley's Chronicle ; Chronicle of Queen 
Jane ; Archseologia, xviii. 175-7 ; Cranmer's Re- 
cantacyons, privately printed by Lord Houghton ; 
Baga de Secretis in Dep. -Keeper of Public Re- 
cords, IV. ii. 237-8 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantab, 
i. 145, 547; lives by Sargant, Le Bas, Todd, 
and Dean Hook (in Lives of the Archbishops) ; 
Cranmer and the English Reformation, by A. F. 
Pollard, 1904.] J. G. 

CRANSTOUN, DAVID {Jl. 1509-1526), 
Scotch professor in Paris, was educated at 
the college of Montacute, Paris, among the 
poor scholars under John Major. He subse- 
quently became regent and professor of belles- 
lettres in the college, and by his will, made 
in 1512, left to it the whole of his property, 
which amounted to 450 livres. He became 
bachelor of theology in 1519, and afterwards 
doctor. Along with Gavin Douglas he made 
the 'Tabula 'for John Major's ' Commentariue 
in quartum Sententiarum,' which was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1509 and again in 1516. He 
is said to have written ' Orationes,' ' Votum 
ad D. Kentigemum,' and ' Epistolse.' He also 
edited Martin's * Questiones Morales,' Paris, 
1510, another ed. 1511, and wrote additions 
to the ' Moralia ' of Almain, Paris, 1526, 
and to the ' Parva Logicalia ' of Ramirez da 
ViUascusa, Paris, 1520. Of these three works 
there are copies in the library of the British 
Museum, but the last is imperfect. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Mac- 
kenzie's Scottish Writers ; Dempster's Hist. Ec- 
cles. Gent. Scot. ; Jacques du Bruel's Th^&tre des 




Antiquit^s de Paris, 1612, ii. 679 ; Francisque 
Michel's Les Ecossais en France, i. 324-5.] 

T. F. H. 

H0TJ8E(d. 1850), Scottish judge, was the se- 
cond son of the Hon. George Cranstoun of 
Longwarton, seventh son of the fifth Lord 
Cranstoun, and Maria, daughter of Thomas 
Brisbane of Brisbane, Ayrshire. He was origi- 
nally intended for the military profession, but, 
preferring that of law, passed advocate at the 
Scottish bar 2 Feb. 1793, was appointed a de- 
pute-advocate in 1805, and sheriff-depute of 
the county of Sutherland 1806. He was chosen 
dean ofthe Faculty of Advocates 15Nov.l823, 
and was raised to the bench on the death of 
Lord Hermand in 1826, under the title of Lord 
Corehouse, from his beautiful residence near 
the fall of Corra Linn on the Clyde. In Jan- 
uary 1839, while apparently in perfect health, 
he was suddenly struck with paralysis, which 
compelled him to retire for the remainder of 
his life from his official duties. Lord Cock- 
bum, while taking exception to the narrow 
and old-fashioned legal prejudices of Core- 
house and his somewhat pompous method of 
legal exposition, characterises him as ' more 
of a legal oracle ' than any man of his time. 
' His abstinence,' he states, ' from all vulgar 
contention, all political discussion, and all 

fiublic turmoils, in the midst of which he sat 
ike a pale image, silent and still, trembling 
in ambitious fastidiousness, kept up the popu- 
lar delusion of his mysteriousness and ab- 
straction to the very last ' ( Memorials, i. 221), 
He possessed strong literary tastes, the gra- 
tification of which was the chief enjoyment 
of his leisure, both during the period of his 
engrossment with legal duties, and after his 
enforced retirement from the bench. His 
accomplishments as a Greek scholar secured 
him the warm friendship of Lord Monboddo, 
who used to declare that he was the * only 
scholar in all Scotland.' While attending 
the civil law class in 1788 Cranstoun made 
the acquaintance of Sir Walter Scott, and 
the intimacy continued through life (LoCE- 
HAKT, Life of Scott, ed. 1842, p. 40). Scott 
read the opening stanzas of the ' Lay of the 
Last Minstrel ' to Erskine and Cranstoun, 
whose apparently cold reception of it greatly 
discouraged him, until, finding a few days 
afterwards that some of the stanzas had 
* haunted their memory, he was encouraged 
to resume the undertaking ' (ib. 100). While 
practising at the bar Cranstoun wrote a clever 
jeu d'esprit, entitled ' The Diamond Beetle 
Case,' in which he caricatured the manner and 
style of several ofthe judges in delivering their 
opinions. He died 26 .Tune 1850. His second 
Bister, Jane Anne, afterwards Countess of 

Purgstall, was a correspondent of Sir Walter 
Scott, and his youngest, Helen D'Arcy, au- 
thoress of ' The Tears I shed must ever fall,' 
and wife of Professor Dugald Stewart. 

[Kay's Original Portraits, ii. 438 ; Geut. Mag. 
new ser. xxxiv. 328 ; Cockburn's Life of Lord 
Jeffrey ; ib. Memorials.] T. F. H. 


(1765-1838), song writer. [See under 
Stewart, Dugald.] 

CRANSTOUN, JAMES, eighth Lord 
Cranstoun (1755-1796), naval officer, bap- 
tised at Crailing, Roxburghshire, 26 June 
1755, entered the royal navy. He received 
a lieutenant's commission on 19 Oct. 1776. 
In command of the Belliqueux frigate of 64 
guns he took part in the action fought by Sir 
Samuel Hood with the Comte de Grasse in 
Basseterre road oS" St. Christopher's on 25 and 
26 Jan. 1782, and was promoted to a captaincy 
on the 31st. He commanded Rodney's flag- 
ship, the Formidable, in the celebrated action 
of 12 April 1782, which resulted in the total 
destruction of the French West India squa- 
dron. He was mentioned by Rodney in the 
despatches and honoured with the carriage of 
them to England. He commanded the Bel- 
lerophon, one of Vice-admiral Cornwallis's 
squadron of five ships of the line, which on 
17 June 1795,03" Point Penm arch on the west 
coast of Brittany, repulsed an attack by a 
French squadron consisting of thirteen ships 
of the line, fourteen frigates, two brigs, and a 
cutter, for which on 10 Nov. the vice-admiral 
and his subordinates received the thanks of 
parliament. Cranstoun's * activity and zeal ' 
were commended by the vice-admiral in his 
despatch. In 1796 he was appointed governor 
of Grenada and vice-admiral of the island, but 
died before entering upon his new duties on 
22 Sept. at Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire, in 
the forty-second year of his age. His death 
was caused by drinking cider which had been 
kept in a vessel lined with lead. He was 
buried in the garrison church at Portsmouth. 
Cranstoun married, on 19 Aug. 1792, Eliza- 
beth, youngest daughter of Lieutenant-colonel 
Lewis Charles Montolieu ; she died at Bath 
on 27 Aug. 1797, aged 26, of a decline occa- 
sioned by her bereavement. 

[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, i. 369 ; Gent, 
Mag. 1782 p. 254, 1792 p. 960, 1796 pp. 798, 
877, 1797 p. 803; Ann. Reg. 1796, pp. 80-1; 
Commons' Journals, 11. 50.] J. M. R. 


(1714-1752), fifth son of William, fifth lord 
Cranstoun, and his wife, Lady Jane Ker, 
eldest daughter of William, second marquis 
of Lothian, was born in 1714. While a cap- 




tain in the army he married privately at 
Edinburgh, on 22 May 1745, Anne, daughter 
of David Murray of Leith. In 1746 he dis- 
owned the marriage, but the lady insisted 
on its lawfulness, and the commissaries, 
on 1 March 1748, granted a decree in her 
favour, with an annuity of 40/. sterling for 
herself and 10/. for her daughter so long as 
she should be alimented by her mother. The 
cause of Cranstoun's conduct was that he had 
fallen in love with Miss Mary Blandy [q.v.], 
the daughter of an attorney of Henley-on- 
Thames. Mr. Blandy objected to Cranstoun 
paying his addresses to her on the ground 
that he was already married, and resenting his 
interference Miss Blandy poisoned her father 
on 14 Aug. 1751. She afterwards alleged that 
the powder she administered had been sent 
to her by Cranstoun from Scotland as a love- 
potion ; but apart from her statement there 
was nothing to connect him with the murder. 
He died on 9 Dec. 1752. 

[Life of W. H. Cranstoun, 1753 ; Douglas's 
Scotch Peerage (Wood), i. 368 ; Anderson's Scot- 
tish Nation ; the authorities referred to in the 
notice of Mary Blandy, v. 202.] T. F. H. 

CRANWELL, JOHN (d. 1793), poet, 
graduated B.A. at Sidney College, Cambridge, 
in 1747, and M.A. in 1751. Having taken 
orders he was elected to a fellowship by his 
college, and received the living of Abbott's 
Ripton, Huntingdonshire, which he held for 
twenty-six years. He died on 17 April 1793. 
Cranwell translated two Latin poems in the 
heroic couplet, viz. (1) Isaac Hawkins 
Browne's 'Immortality of the Soul,' 1765, 
8vo; (2) Vida's ' Christiad,' 1768, 8vo. 

[Europ. Mag. (1793), p. 399; Brit.Mus. Cat.] 

J. M. E. 

CRANWORTH, Baron. [See Rolfe, 
Robert Monset, 1790-1868.] 

CRASHAW, RICHARD (1613 .?-1649), 
poet, only child of William Crashaw, B.D. 
[q. v.], by his first wife, was bom in London 
about 1613, and was baptised by James 
Ussher, afterwards primate of Ireland. His 
mother, whose name is not known, died in 
the poet's infancy, but his father's second 
wife, who died in 1620, when Richard was 
only seven years old, received the praise of 
Ussher, who preached her funeral sermon, 
for ' her singular motherly affection to the 
child of her predecessor.' Crashaw was edu- 
cated at the Charterhouse, on the nomination 
of Sir Henry Yelverton and Sir Randolf 
Crewe, and inscribed two early Latin poems to 
Robert Brooke, a master there, to whom he 
acknowledged all manner of obligations. He 
lost his father, a sturdy puritan, in 1626. 

VOL. T. 

On 6 July 1631 he was admitted to Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge, although he did not 
matriculate (as a pensioner) till 26 March of 
the following year. He cultivated at the 
university a special aptitude for languages, 
and became proficient in five * besides his 
mother-tongue, viz. Hebrew, Greek, Latin, 
Italian, and Spanish.' He was fond of music 
and drawing, and his religious fervour was 
always marked. In St. Mary's Church he 
spent many hours daily, composing his reli- 
gious poems, and there, ' like a primitive saint, 
offered more prayers in the night than others 
usually offer in the day.' The death of a 
young friend, William Herries or Harris, of 
Pembroke Hall, in 1631 deeply affected Cra- 
shaw, who wrote many poems to his memory. 
Another friend, James Stanninow, fellow of 
Queens' College, who died early in 1635, is 
also commemorated in his verse. His tu- 
tors at Pembroke proved congenial to him. 
John Tournay,one of the feUows, he describes 
in a Latin poem as an ideal guardian, and the 
master of the college, Benjamin Laney, also 
received from him the highest praises. In 
1634 Crashaw proceeded B.A., and in the 
same year published anonymously at the 
university press his first volume (wholly in 
Latin), entitled ' Epigrammatum Sacrorum 
Liber,' and dedicated it to Laney. Earlier 
Latin elegiacs of comparatively small interest 
had been contributed to the university col- 
lections on the king's recovery from small- 
pox in 1632 ; on the king's return from Scot- 
land and on the birth of James, duke of York, 
both in 1633. But the epigrams (185 in all), 
published when the author was barely twenty- 
one, denote marvellous capacity. They in- 
clude the famous verses (No. xcvi.) on the 
miraculous conversion of the water into wine 
at Cana (John ii. 1-11), whose concluding 
line (' Lympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit ') 
is perhaps better known in Aaron Hill's trans- 
lation than in the original. The conceits are 
often very whimsical, but there are many 
signs of fine classical taste, and very few of 
immaturity. In 1636 Crashaw migrated to 
Peterhouse. He was elected a fellow there in 
1637, and proceeded M.A. in 1638. Joseph 
Beaumont the poet [q. v.] was his contem- 
porary at Peterhouse, and they discussed 
together their poetical projects. Crashaw's 
piety increased, and he contemplated taking 
Anglican orders, but the growth of puri- 
tanism, which revolted him, and his intimacy 
with friends who inclined to Roman Catho- 
licism, led to the abandonment of the design. 
Robert Shelford, also of Peterhouse, a bene- 
ficed clergyman of Kingsfield in Suffblk, who 
protested against the identification of the pope 
with antichrist, had great influence with him, 





and in a poem prefixed to Shelford's ' Five 
Pious and Learned Discourses ' (1635) Cra- 
shaw denounces those who dissociate art from 
religious worship, or attack the papacy as ' a 
point of faith.' The career of the Spanish saint 
Teresa, 'foundresse of the reformation of the 
discalced Carmelites, both men and women,' 
who died 14 Oct. 1582 and was canonised 
12 March 1622, attracted him and confirmed 
in him Roman catholic tendencies. But pro- 
bably more responsible for the development of 
his religious temper was his intimacy with Ni- 
cholas Ferrar, whose community at Little 
Gidding, called 'the Protestant Nunnery,' 
Crashaw often visited before Ferrar's death 
in 1637. In 1641 Wood states that Crashaw 
was incorporated at Oxford, but in what de- 
gree he does not state. Wood's authority is 
not the university register, but ' the private 
observations of a certain master of arts that 
was this year living in the university.' While 
his religious convictions were still unsettled, 
the civil war broke out ; the chapel at Peter- 
house, whose beauty inspired many poems, 
was sacked 21 Dec. 1643, and the parliamen- 
tary commissioners insisted on all the fellows 
taking the solemn league and covenant. Cra- 
shaw, with five other friends at Peterhouse, 
declined the oath and was expelled. One 
of them was Beaumont, who retired to Had- 
leigh to write his poem ' Psyche,' and re- 
gretted that Crashaw was not with him to 
revise it. Crashaw meanwhile spent a short 
time in Oxford and London, and then made 
his way to Paris. Abraham Cowley, who 
was in Paris at the time as secretary to 
Lord Jermyn, had made Crashaw's acquaint- 
ance some ten years before, and he discovered 
Crashaw in Paris in 1646 in great distress. 
There can be no doubt that the poet had 
then formally entered the Roman catholic 
church. He had just addressed letters in 
verse to his patroness, Susan Feilding, coun- 
tess of Denbigh, sister of the great Duke of 
Buckingham, urging her to take a like step. 
Cowley introduced Crashaw to Queen Hen- 
rietta Maria, then in Paris, whom Crashaw had 
already addressed in complimentary poems 
published in imiversity collections. She 
readily gave him introductions to Cardinal 
Palotta and other persons of influence at 
Rome, and according to Prynne a purse was 
made up for him by her and other ladies. To 
Italy Crashaw went in 1648 or 1649. The 
cardinal received him kindly, but gave him 
no higher office than that of attendant. John 
Bargrave [q. v.], writing some years later, 
says that about 1649, when he first went 
to Rome, 'there were there four revolters 
to the Roman church that had been fellows 
of Peterhouse with myself. The name of 

one of them was Mr. R. Crashaw, who was 
one of the seguita (as the term is) : that is, 
an attendant or [one] of the followers of the 
cardinal, for which he had a salary of crowns 
by the month (as the custom is), but no 
diet. Mr. Crashaw infinitely commended his 
cardinal, but complained extremely of the 
wickedness of those of his retinue, of which 
he, having the cardinal's ear, complained to 
him. Upon which the Italians fell so far out 
with him that the cardinal, to secure his life, 
was fain to put him from his service, and 
procuring him some small employ at the 
Lady's of Loretto, whither he went on pil- 
grimage in summer time, and overheating 
himself, died in four weeks after he came 
thither, and it was doubtful whether he was 
not poisoned' (Baegeave, Alexander VII, 
Camden Soc.) On 24 April 1649 Crashaw, by 
the influence of Cardinal Palotta, was ad- 
mitted as beneficiary or sub-canon of the 
Basilica-church of Our Lady of Loreto,but he 
died before 25 Aug. following, when another 
person was appointed in his place. He was 
buried at Loreto. There is nothing to confirm 
Bargrave's hint of poison. News of his death 
was slow in reaching England. Prynne, in his 
' Lignea Legenda,' 1653, who wrote with bitter 
contempt of Crashaw's ' sinful and notorious 
apostacy and revolt,' speaks of him as still 
living when his book was published, and 
states, with little knowledge, that ' he is only 
laughed at, or at most but pitied, by his few 
patrons [in Italy], who, conceiving him un- 
worthy of any preferment in their church, 
have given him leave to live (like a lean 
swine almost ready to starve) in a poor men- 
dicant quality.' In Dr. Benjamin Carier's 
' Missive to King James,' reissued by N. 
Strange in 1649, a list of the names of recent 
English converts to Catholicism appears, and 
among other entries is the following : ' Mr. 
Rich. Crashaw, master of arts, of Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, now secretary to a cardinal in 
Rome, well knowne in England for his excel- 
lent and ingenious poems ' (p. 29). Cowley 
wrote a fine elegy to his friend's memory. 

In 1646, just before Crashaw left England, 
a volume of his verse was published in Lon- 
don. It was in two parts, consisting respec- 
tively of sacred and secular poems, each with 
a separate title-page. The first title ran, 
' Steps to the Temple. Sacred Poems. With 
other Delights of the Muses,' London (printed 
for T. W. by Humphrey Moseley), 1646. 
The second title was, ' The Delights of the 
Muses and other Poems, written on severall 
occasions,' with the same imprint. ' The 
Preface to the Reader,' which opens the 
volume, is by an anonymous friend of Cra- 
shaw, and supplies some biographical de- 




tails ' impartially writ of this learned young 
Gent (now dead to us).' The editor gave 
the book its title. ' Reader, we stile his 
sacred Poems stepes to the Temple, and 
aptly, for in the Temple of God under His 
Wing he led his life in St. Marie's church, 
neere St. Peter's Colledge.' The first poem 
is * Saint Mary Magdalene, or the Weeper,' 
and the sacred section includes the trans- 
lation of Marino's ' Sospetto d'Herode ' and 
the hymn to St. Teresa. In the secular sec- 
tion appear the elegies on William Herries, 
a simple epitaph on himself, translations 
from Latin, Greek, and Italian, and 'Musick's 
Duell,' adapted, like Ford's ' Lover's Melan- 
choly,' from a Latin fable, composed to 
illustrate the style of Claudian, by Strada, 
a Jesuit schoolmaster. A few Latin poems 
are also printed in both sections. In 1648 
the collection was reissued by Moseley,with 
large additions, as ' the second edition wherein 
are added divers pieces not before extant.' 
A few of the ' humane ' poems which had been 
printed in error with the sacred section were 
here put in their proper place, but no poem of 
any length was added. In 1652 there appeared 
in Paris a third edition, which excels the 
first two in bibliographical interest. Twelve 
vignette engravings, all treating of sacred 
subjects, after Crashaw's own designs, appear 
in this volume, and in Douce's copy at the 
Bodleian there is another design substituted 
for the ordinary one attached to the poem I 
' Gloriosa Domina,' which is met with in 
no other known copy. Thus thirteen draw- 
ings by Crashaw are known in all, and show 
him a capable draughtsman. The title of this 
volume ran : * Carmen Deo Nostro Te Decet 
Hymnus. Sacred Poems. Collected, Cor- 
rected, Avgmented, Most humbly presented 
to my Lady, The Covntesse of Denbigh, 
By her most deuoted seruant, R. C. In 
hea[r]ty acknowledgement of his immortall 
obligation to her Goodness & Charity. At 
Paris, By Peter Targa, Printer to the Arch- 
bishope ef [of] Paris in S. Victors Streete 
at the Golden sunne, mdclii.' It seems pro- 
bable that Crashaw prepared this edition 
for the press while in Paris. The poet's 
friend Thomas Carre [q.v,] contributes pre- 
fatory verses in which he claims the honour 
of having published all Crashaw's verses.. 
This edition excludes the translation of Ma- 
rino and 'Musick's Duell.' Two poems ad- 
dressed to the Countess of Denbigh appear 
here for the first time. The first of them, 
'A Letter from Mr. Crashaw to the Countess 
of Denbigh. Against Irresolution and Delay 
in matters of Religion,' was reprinted sepa- 
rately in London in 1653. In 1670 a very 
carelessly edited collection of the poems was- 

issued in London as * the second edition.' It 
has no critical value, and this was reprinted 
later on as ' the third edition,' without date, 
by the booksellers Bently, Tonson, Saunders, 
and Bennet. A second edition of Crashaw's 
* Latin Epigrams,' under the title of ' Richardi 
Crashawi Poemata et Epigrammata,' appeared 
■R'ith many additions in 1670. A selection of 
Crashaw's printed poems, edited by Peregrine 
Phillipps, was published in 1775, and in 1858 
]VIr. W. B. TurnbuU prepared a new edition of 
the whole. In 1872 the fullest edition, with 
translations of the Latin poems, was issued 
privately by Dr. A. B. Grosart. In the 1641 
edition of Bishop Andrewes's sermons lines 
upon the bishop's picture by Crashaw are pre- 
fixed, of which a Latin rendering appears in 
the collected edition of Crashaw's poems, 
and another piece of commendatory verse 
was contributed to Isaakson's ' Chronologie.' 
Crashaw also contributed to the Cambridge 
University collections, not only of 1632 and 
1633, but of 1635 (on the birth of Princess 
Elizabeth), of 1637 (on the birth of Princess 
Anne), and of 1640 (on the birth of Prince 

Besides these printed poems, Crashaw left a 
mass of verse in manuscript, only a part of 
which has been preserved. A volume in the 
Tanner MSS. at the Bodleian, in the hand- 
writing of Archbishop Sancroft, includes, 
among many poems by other hands, ' Mr. Cra- 
shaw's poems transcrib'd from his own copie 
before they were printed : amongst w'='' are 
some not printed.' There are here some 
twenty pieces both in Latin and English by 
Crashaw, which were first printed in Dr. Gro- 
sart's edition in 1872. None add much to the 
poet's reputation, and most of the English 
poems appear to be early work. An appre- 
ciative Engl ish epigram on two of Ford's plays, 
'Lover's Melancholy 'and the 'Broken Heart,' 
has most literary interest. Early copies of a 
few of Crashaw's poems also appear in MSS. 
Harl. 6917-18. 

Crashaw's sacred poems breathe a pas- 
sionate fervour of devotion, which finds its 
outlet in imagery of a richness seldom sur- 
passed in our language. Coleridge says that 
' Crashaw seems in his poems to have given 
the first ebullience of his imagination, un- 
shapen into form,or much of what we now term 
sweetness.' This is in great part true, but in 
such secular poems as ' Mustek's Duell ' and 
' Wishes to his supposed mistress,' of which 
the latter is printed in an abbreviated form 
in Mr. F. T. Palgrave's ' Golden Treasury ' 
there is an undoubted sweetness and artistry 
which Coleridge seems to overlook. Mr. 
Swinburne refers to ' the dazzling intricacy 
and affluence in refinements, the supple and 




cunning implication, the clioiceness and sub- 
tlety of Crashaw,' and these phrases ade- 
quately describe his poetic temper. Dif- 
fuseness and intricate conceit, which at times 
become grotesque, are the defects of Crashaw's 
poetry. His metrical effects, often magnifi- 
cent, are very unequal. He has little of 
the simple tenderness of Herbert, whom he 
admired, and to whom he acknowledged his 
indebtedness. Marino, the Italian poet, en- 
couraged his love of quaint conceit, although 
the gorgeous language of Crashaw in his ren- 
dering of Marino's ' Sospetto d'Herode ' leaves 
his original far behind. Selden's remarks in 
his ' Table Talk ' that he converted ' Mr. 
Crashaw ' from writing against plays seems 
barely applicable to the poet who admired 
Ford's tragedies and was free from all puri- 
tanic traits. The remark probably refers to 
the poet's father (cf. Cole, Athenee Cantab.) 

The fertility of Crashaw's imagination has 
made him popular with succeeding poets. 
Milton's indebtedness to Crashaw's rendering 
of Marino in the * Hymn to the Nativity ' 
and many passages of ' Paradise Lost ' is well 
known. Pope, who worked up many lines in 
the ' Epistle of Eloisa to Abelard ' and else- 
where from expressions suggested by his pre- 
decessor, read Crashaw carefully, and showed 
some insight into criticism when he insisted 
on his inequalities In a letter to H. Crom- 
well (17 Dec. 1710), although little can be 
said for his comment : * I take this poet to 
have writ like a gentleman, that is, at leisure 
hours, and more to keep out of idleness than 
to establish a reputation, so that nothing 
regular or just can be expected from him' 
(Pope, Works, ed. Courthope and Elwin, vi. 
109, 116-18). Coleridge says that the poem 
on St. Teresa inspired the second part of 
' Christabel.' Some interesting coincidences 
between Crashaw and Shelley are pointed 
out by Mr. D. F. M'Carthy in 'Notes and 
Queries,' 2nd ser. v. 449, 516, vi. 94. 

[Cole's Athenae Cantab, f. 18; Crashaw's poems, 
collected by Dr. A. B. Grosart, 1872, and the other 
editions mentioned above ; art. by William Hayley 
in Biog. Brit. (Kippis) ; Corser's Collectanea 
Anglo-Poetica; Winstanley'sPoets, 1687 ; Wood's 
Fasti Oxon. ii. 4; Dodd's Church History; Cole- 
ridge's Literary Recollections (1836); Lloyd's 
Memoirs; Todd's Milton; Retrospective Review, 
i. 225 ; Willmott's Lives of the English Sacred 
Poets ; Gosse's Seventeenth - Century Studies, 
where Crashaw is compared with a German con- 
temporary, Spe.] S. L. 

CRASHAW, WILLIAM (1572-1626), 
puritan divine and poet, son of Richard Cra- 
shaw of Handsworth, near Sheffield, York- 
shire, by his wife, Helen, daughter of John 
Routh of Waleswood, was born at Hands- 

worth, and baptised there on 26 Oct. 1572 
( Works of Richard Crashaw, ed. Grosart, ii. 
p. xxii). He was educated at Cambridge, in 
St. John's College, which he called his ' deere 
nurse and spirituall mother,' and admitted a 
sizar of the college on 1 May 1591. Two 
years afterwards the bishop of Ely's fellow- 
ship at St. John's became vacant by the 
death of Humphrey Hammond ; and as the 
see was then unoccupied, the right of nomi- 
nation became vested in the queen, who in 
a letter to the fellows, dated from Windsor 
on 15 Jan. 1593-4, states that she had been 
* crediblie informed of the povertie and yet 
otherwise good qualities and sufficiencie ' of 
William Crashaw, B.A., and requires them 
to admit him, * vnless you shall knowe some 
notable and sufficient cause to the contrarie.' 
He was accordingly admitted on the 19th of 
that month (Baker, Hist, of St. John's, ed. 
Mayor, i. 187, 291, 438). The date of his 
B. A. degree is not recorded ; but he doubtless 
took it in 1591-2. After being ordained he 
became 'preacher of God's Word,' first at 
Bridlington and then at Beverley in York- 
shire. He commenced M.A. in 1595, and 
proceeded to the degree of B.D. in 1603. In 
1604 he was collated to the second prebend 
in the church of Ripon, and he held it till 
his death (Hist, of Ripon, ed. 1806, p. 103). 
He was appointed preacher at the Inner 
Temple, London, and next was presented by 
Archbishop Grindal to the rectory of Burton 
Agnes, in the diocese of York, on the death 
of Robert Paly {Addit. MS. 24487, f. 35). 
Adrian Stokes, however, denied the title of 
the archbishop to the advowson, and pre- 
sented William Grene, clerk, who was ad- 
mitted and instituted to the rectory. Sir 
Edward Coke, the attorney-general, inter- 
vened in the dispute on behalf of the queen, 
the result being that Crashaw was removed 
from the living in Trinity term, 43 Eliz. 
(Coke, Booke of Entries, pp. 494-6). 

On 4 July 1 609 he was ' convented ' before 
the convocation of the province of Canter- 
bury for publishing an erroneous book, which 
appears to have been his translation of the 
I ' Life of the Marchese Caraccioli.' He con- 
fessed, and was ready to retract. The arch- 
] bishop accepted his submission, ordered him 
to retract, and dismissed him (Cakdwell, 
! Synodalia, ii. 591 n, 592). Writing to 
Sir Robert Cotton from the Temple, on the 
19th of the same month, he says : ' The grief 
and anger that I should be so malitiously 
traduced by my lords the byshops (whom I 
honour) hath made me farr out of temper, 
and put me into an ague, which in these cani- 
cular dayes is dangerouse' (Co<f on MS. Julius 
C. iii. 126). Among the ' State Papers ' for 




1609 is a statement by him containing what 
he knew about ' the discovery of that damn- 
able libell, the Puritanus' {Calendar of State 
Papers, Dom. 1603-10, p. 536). In 1610 he 
addressed to Sir Julius Cpesar, chancellor of 
the exchequer, a letter testify ing to Sir Thomas 
Caesar's godly disposition on the morning of 
his death {Addit. MS. 12497, f. 467). 

He became prebend of Osbaldwick in the 
church of York on 2 April 1617 (Le Neve, 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 208), and on 13 Nov. 
1618 was admitted to the church of St. Mary 
Matfellon, or Whitechapel, London, on the 
presentation of Sir John North and William 
Baker (Wood, Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 
468 ?i.) He died in 1626, and his will was 
proved on 16 Oct. in that year. 

He was twice married. His first wife was 
the mother of the poet, Richard Crashaw 
[q. v.] He married secondly, at All Hal- 
lows Barking, on 11 May 1619, Elizabeth 
Skinner, daughter of Anthony Skinner of 
that parish, gentleman (Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. ii. 424, 425). This second wife is 
commemorated in a privately printed tractate 
entitled ' The Honovr of Vertve, or the Mo- 
nument erected by the sorowfull Husband, 
and the Epitaphes annexed by learned and 
worthy men, to the immortall memory of 
that worthy gentlewoman, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Crashawe, who died in child-birth, and was 
buried in Whit-Chappell, October 8, 1620. 
In the 24 yeare of her age.' Archbishop 
Ussher preached her funeral sermon, ' at which 
sermon and funerall was present one of the 
greatest assemblies that ever was seene in 
man's memorie at the buriall of any priuate 
person.' Crashaw placed a monument to her 
memory in the chancel of Whitechapel Church 
(Stow, Survey, ed. Strype, ii. 45). 

Crashaw was a good scholar, an eloquent 
preacher, and a strong protest ant. His prin- 
cipal works are : 1. ' Romish Forgeries and 
Falsifications, together with Catholike Re- 
stitutions,' London, 1606, 4to. 2. * Newes 
from Italy, of a second Moses, or the life of 
Galeacius Caracciolus, the noble Marquesse 
of Vico,' translated, London, 1608, 4to. Other 
editions appeared, some of which are entitled 
* The Italian Convert ' (Bkydges, Censura 
Literaria, ed. 1809, x. 105). 3. 'The Ser- 
mon preached at the Crosse, Feb. xiiij. 1607. 
lustified by the Authour, both against Papist 
and Brownist, to be the truth : Wherein this 
point is principally followed; namely, that 
the religion of Rome, as now it stands esta- 
blished, is worse than ever it was,' London, 
1608, 4to. 4. * A Sermon preached before 
the right honorable the Lord Lawarre, Lord 
Governour and Captaine Generall of Vir- 
ginea, and others of his Maiesties Counsell 

for that Kingdome, and the rest of the Ad- 
venturers in that Plantation, Feb. 21, 1609,' 
London, 1610, 4to (Andersox, Hist, of the 
Church of England in the Colonies, i. 282-93). 
Mr. Grosart says * there is no nobler sermon 
than this of the period.' 5. 'The Jesuites 
Gospel, written by themselves, discovered 
and published,' London, 1610, 1621, 4to ; re- 
printed in 1641 under the title of ' The Be- 
spotted Jesuite, whose Gospell is full of 
Blasphemy against the Blood of Christ,' 
London, 1641, 4to ; and again in 1643, under 
the title of ' Loyola's Disloyalty, or the 
Jesuites in Open Rebellion against God and 
His Church,' London, 1643, 4to. 6. 'Manuale 
Catholicorum : a Manuall for true Catho- 
lickes (Enchiridion piarum Precum et Medi- 
tationum. A Handful, or rather a HeartfuU 
of Holy Meditations and Prayers),' Latin 
and English, London, 1611, 12mo. A poetical 
work, in two divisions. Other editions ap- 
peared in 1616 and 1622. 7. ' Consilium 
quorundam Episcoporum Bononise congre- 
gatorum quod de ratione stabiliendee Ro- 
manse Ecclesiae Julio III Pont. Max. datum 
est. Quo artes et astutise Romanensium et 
arcana Imperii Papalis non pauca propalan- 
tur,' London, 1613, 4to. Dedicated to Henry, 
earl of Southampton. 8. ' The Complaint, 
or Dialogue betwixt the Soule and the Bodie 
of a damned man. Supposed to be written 
by S. Bernard, from a nightly vision of his ; 
and now published out of an ancient manu- 
script copie,' London, 1616, 16mo. Tliis is 
the most remarkable of Crashaw's writings 
in verse. The poem, the original and trans- 
lation of which occupy alternate pages, is 
divided into eighty-five verses, as a dialogue 
between the author, a soul departed, a dead 
carcase, and the devils. The volume, con- 
sisting of thirty-four leaves, is dedicated to 
some of the translator's friends, benchers of 
the Inner Temple (Lowndes, Bibl. Man. ed. 
Bohn, p. 550). 9. ' Fiscus Papalis, sive Cata- 
logus Indulgentiarum et reliquiarum septem 
principalium Ecclesiarum Urbis Romse, ex 
vet. MS. descriptus,' London, 1617, 1621, 
4to. 10. ' Milke for Babes, or a North 
Countrie Catechisme, made plaine and easy 
to the capacitie of the countrie people,' second 
impression, London, 1618, 16mo. 11. ' The 
Parable of Poyson. In five sermons of spiri- 
tual poyson,' London, 1618, 8vo. 12. ' The 
New Man ; or a Supplication from an un- 
knowne person, a Roman Catholike, unto 
James, the Monarch of Great Brittaine, 
touching a necessity of a Generall Councell 
to be forthwith assembled against him that 
now usurps the Papall Chaire under the name 
of Paul the Fifth,' London, 1622, 4to. 13. 'The 
Fatall Vesper, or a trve and pvnctvall rela- 




tion of that lamentable and fearfull accident, 
hapning on the 26 of October last by the fall 
of a roome in the Black-Friers, in which were 
assembled many people at a Sermon which 
was to be preached by Father Drvrie, a lesvite,' 
London, 1623, 4to. Generally attributed to 
Crashaw {Cat. of the Huth Librai-y, i. 365). 
14. 'Ad Severinum Binnium Lovaniensem 
Theologum Epistola Commonitoria super 
Conciliorum Generalium editione ab ipso 
nuper adornata,' London, 1 624, 4to. 16. 'Mit- 
timus to the Jubilee at Rome, or the Rates 
of the Pope's Custom-House, sent to the 
Pope as a New Year's Gift from England,' 
London, 1625, 4to. 16. 'A Discoverye of 
Popishe Corruption, requiringe a kingley re- 
formation/ Royal MS. 17 B. viii. 

[Authorities cited above; also Addit, MS. 
5865 f. 28, 12497 f. 467, 17083 f. 145 b; Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. vii. Ill, 4th ser. iii. 219, 
314, 370, 440, 51 1, 5th ser. iv. 289, 377 ; Cowie's 
Cat. of MSS. and Scarce Books at St. John's Col- 
lege, Camb. pp. vi, 16, 24, 39, 43, 47, 113 ; Black's 
Cat. of Ashmolean MSS. p. 310; Parr's Life of 
Archbishop Ussher, 12-15, 55; Selden's Table 
Talk, 3rd edit. p. 87 ; Gent. Mag. February 1837, 
p. 151.] T. C. 

Benedictine, was camerarius and then abbot 
of Bury St. Edmunds. This latter appoint- 
ment received the royal assent on 1 Feb. 
1389-90 ; it was confirmed by the pope, and 
the temporalities of the abbacy were restored 
on 8 Oct. 1390. Cratfield is known solely as 
the compiler of a ' Registrum ' of his house, 
which is preserved in the British Museum 
{Cod. Cotton. Tiberius B. ix. 2). From indi- 
cations given by it we gather that Cratfield 
was a provident administrator. Thus it had 
previously been the custom for the abbot to 
pay three thousand florins to the papal ciiria 
for the confirmation of his appointment ; from 
this obligation Cratfield obtained exemption 
on payment of a fixed sum of twenty marks a 
year, but it cost him nearly 800Z. to secure 
the privilege. A similar liability to the crown 
was in like manner exchanged for a yearly tax 
under Cratfi eld's administration. It seems, 
however, from some remarks in Walsingham 
{Hist. Angl. ii. 180, ed. Riley), who calls the 
abbot Stratfield, that his financial arrange- 
ments were at the time considered to be dis- 
advantageous to the monastery. During the 
latter part of his life Cratfield suffered from 
infirm health, and in 1414 had to transact the 
business of the abbey by a deputy. In the 
same year he resigned his office, and died on 
18 June 1415. Dugdale, however, dates his 
death in 1418. 

[Dugdiile's Monasticou, iii. 112, 156, ed. 1821.] 

li. L. P. 

1740), catholic divine, born in October 1670, 
was descended from the ancient family of 
Crathorne of Crathorne in Yorkshire. He was 
educated in the English college at Douay, 
where he was a professor for several years. 
On being ordained priest he assumed the 
name of Yaxley, and after he returned to 
this country on the mission he appears to 
have used the alias of Augustin Shepherd. 
The scene of his missionary labours was Ham- 
mersmith, where he died on 11 March 1739- 

He published: 1. ' A Catholick's Resolu- 
tion, shewing his reasons for not being a Pro- 
testant,' 1718 ? 2. The ' Spiritual Works ' of 
John Goter or Gother, 16 vols. Lond. 1718, 
12mo. Bishop Giffard, with whom Crathorne 
resided, commissioned him to prepare this 
edition. 3. ' Roman Missal for the use of the 
Laity,' from the manuscript of Goter, 2 vols. 
Lond. n.d. 12mo. 4. 'Historical Catechism,' 
translated from the French of Fleury, 2 vols. 
Lond. 1726, 12mo. 5. ' Life of St. Francis of 
Sales,' from the French of Marsollier, Lond. 
1737, 8vo. 6. ' Life of our Lord Jesus Christ,' 
from the French, Lond. 1739. 7. Several 
devotional works, including ' The Daily Com- 
panion, or a Little Pocket Manual,' 3rd ed. 
Lond. 1743, a prayer-book which has gone 
through innumerable editions. 

[Gillow's Bibl. Diet. i. 687, quoting Kirk's 
manuscript Biographical Collections in the pos- 
session of Cardinal Manning.] T. C. 

CRAUFURD. [See also Ceawfoed and 

GAN- (1761-1821), lieutenant-general, was 
the second son of Sir Alexander Craufurd, 
who was created a baronet in 1781, and brother 
of Sir James Craufurd, bart., who was British 
resident at Hamburg from 1798 to 1803, and 
afterwards minister plenipotentiary at Copen- 
hagen, and of Robert Craufurd [q.v.] the fa- 
mous commander of the light division in the 
Peninsula. He was born on 12Feb. 1761, and 
entered the army as a cornet in the 1st dra- 
goon guards on 15 Dec. 1778. He was pro- 
moted lieutenant in 1781, and captain into the 
2nd dragoon guards, or queen's bays, in 1785. 
In that year he was appointed an equerry to 
the Duke of York, whose intimate friend he 
became. He studied his profession in Ger- 
many, obtained a perfect command of that 
language, and made his reputation by a trans- 
lation in four large volumes, illustrated by 
numerous plates, of Tiellie's great work on 
the art of war and ' the remarkable events 
of the war between the Prussians, Austrians, 




and Ptussians, from 1766 to 17C3,' which he 
completed with the assistance of his brother 
Robert, and published in 1787. He accom- 
panied the Duke of York to the Netherlands 
as aide-de-camp, and was at once attached to 
the Austrian headquarters as representative 
of the English commander-in-chief. With 
the Austrian staff he was present at all the 
earlier battles of the war, including Neer- 
winden, Raismes, Famars, Csesar's Camp, 
Landrecies, Roubaix, and Lannoy, was pro- 
moted for his services to the rank of major 
in May 1793, and lieutenant-colonel in Fe- 
bruary 1794. In the middle of 1794 he 
left the Austrian headquarters and was ap- 
pointed deputy adjutant-general to the Eng- 
lish army. In this capacity he equally dis- 
tinguished himself, especially by one daring 
charge, when with but two squadrons of dra- 
goons he took three guns and one thousand 
prisoners. He had been so useful at the 
Austrian headquarters during the campaign 
that in 1795, when the English army eva- 
cuated the continent, he was sent on a special 
mission to the headquarters of the Austrians. 
He was an acute observer, and his reports 
are most valuable historical documents. They 
are preserved in the Record Otlice, and Mr. 
C. A. FyfFe has made copious use of them in 
his ' History of Modern Europe.' Craufurd 
took his part in the battles of "Wetzlar, 
Altenkirchen, Nordlingen, Neumarkt, and 
finally of Amberg, where he was so severely 
wounded in August 1796 that he was in- 
valided home. His wound prevented him 
from ever going on active service again, but 
he was promoted colonel on 26 Jan. 1797, 
and major-general on 25 Sept. 1803. He was 
lieutenant-governor of Tynemouth and Cliff 
Fort from 1796 till death, and deputy quarter- 
master-general at the Horse Guards (1795- 
1799). He was elected to the House of Com- 
mons as M.P. for East Retford in October 
1806. This election was due to his marriage, 
on 7 Feb. 1800, to Lady Anna Maria, daughter 
of the second earl of Harrington, and widow 
of Thomas, third duke of Newcastle, which 
secured for him the great Newcastle influence. 
He resigned his seat in 1812, after the fourth 
duke had come of age, and retired from public 
life. He was made colonel of the 2nd dragoon 
guards in 1807, and promoted lieutenant-gene- 
ral on 25 July 1810, and was made a G.C.B. 
27 May 1820, on the occasion of the corona- 
tion of George IV. He died on 26 March 1821, 
and left no children. His wife, the Dowager 
Duchess of Newcastle, survived him thirteen 
years. He published nothing except the 
above-mentioned translation. 

[Royal Military Calendar, and Craufurd's des- 
patches in the Eecord Office.] H. M. S. 

CRAUFURD, JAMES, Loed Aedmil- 
LAN (1805-1876), Scottish judge, eldest son of 
Major Archibald Clifford Blackwell Craufurd 
of Ardmillan, Ayrshire, by Jane, daughter of 
John Leslie, was born at Havant in Hampshire 
in 1805, and educated at the academy at Ayr, 
at the burgh school, Edinburgh, and at the 
universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. In 
1829 he passed his examination in Roman 
and Scotch law, and became an advocate 
His progress at the bar was not at all rapid, 
but he nevertheless acquired a considerable 
criminal business both in the court of justi- 
ciary and in the church courts. He never 
had much civil business, although he could 
address j iiries very effectively. On 14 March 
1849 he became sheriff of Perthshire, and four 
years later, 16 Nov. 1853, was appointed so- 
licitor-general for Scotland under the adminis- 
tration of Lord Aberdeen. He was nominated 
to the post of a lord of the court of session 
10 Jan. 1855, when he took the courtesy title 
of Lord Ardmillan, after the name of his 
paternal estate. On 16 June in the same 
year he was also appointed a lord of justiciary, 
and held these two places until his death. His 
speeches and other literary utterances are not 
great performances, and his lectures to young 
men on ecclesiastical dogmas are open to 
hostile criticism, but they bear the cardinal 
merit of sincerity and are not without lite- 
rary polish. In the court of justiciary his 
speeches were effective and eloquent of expres- 
sion, which he had cultivated by a rather dis- 
cursive study of English and Scotch poetical 
literature. The best remembered of his judg- 
ments is that which he delivered in connec- 
tion with the well-known Yelverton case, 
when, on 3 July 1862, acting as lord ordinary 
of the outer house of session, he pronounced 
against the legality of the supposed marriage 
between Maria Theresa Longworth and Major 
William Charles Yelverton {Cases in Court 
of Session, Longworth v. Yelverton, 1863, pp. 
93-116; Shaw, Digest, p. 97, &c.) He died 
of cancer of the stomach at his residence, 
18 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, on 7 Sept. 
1876. He married in 1834Theodosia, daugh- 
ter of James Balfour. This lady, who before 
her marriage was known as Beauty Balfour, 
died on 29 Dec. 1883, aged 70. 

[Journal of Jurisprudence, xx. 538-9 (1876) ; 
Scotsman, 8 Sept. 1 876, p. 6 ; Law Times, 1 6 Sept. 
1876, p. 344; Times, 9 Sept. 1876, p. 8; Graphic, 
23 Sept. 1876, p. 308, portrait ; Illustrated Lon- 
don News, 23 Sept. 1876, p. 284, portrait.] 

O. C. B. 


(1721-1793), twenty-first laird of Craufurd- 
land, Ayrshire, son of John Craufurd of 




Craufurdland, by his wife Robina, heiress 
of John Walkinshaw of Walkinshaw, was 
born in 1721. He entered the army in 
1741 as comet in the North British dragoons, 
and distinguished himself at Dettingen in 
1743, and Fontenoy in 1745. Having returned 
to England in the summer of the latter year 
on sickleave, he in August 1746 accompanied 
his friend, the Earl of Kilmarnock, to the 
scaffold on Tower Hill, for which act of 
friendship his name, it was said, was placed 
at the bottom of the army list. He, however, 
subsequently served in America with the rank 
of captain, and was present at the capture of 
Quebec in 1759. Returning to England the 
following year he obtained the command of 
the 115th foot in 1761, and was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel in 1772. In 1761 he was 
appointed his majesty's falconer for Scotland, 
and in 1762 he received the freedom of the 
city of Perth. He died unmarried in Febru- 
ary 1793. The estates to which he succeeded 
on the death of his father in 1763 he settled 
on Thomas Coutts, the London banker [q. v.], 
but the deed was disputed by his aunt, Eliza- 
beth Craufurd, the next heir, and after a long 
litigation the case was finally decided in 1806 
in favour of the natural heir. A correspon- 
dence between the sixteenth earl of Suther- 
land and Craufurd has been printed in the 
'Ayr and Wigton Archaeological Collections,' 
ii. 156-84. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry ; Ayr and "Wigton 
Archaeological Collections as above.] T. F. H. 

CRAUFURD, QUINTIN (1743-1819), 
author and essayist, a younger son of Quintin 
Craufurd of Kilbirnie, and younger brother 
of Sir Alexander Craufurd, first baronet, was 
born at Kilwinnock on 22 Sept. 1743. He 
entered the East India Company's service at 
an early age, and, after making a large for- 
tune, returned to Europe in 1780 and settled 
down at Paris. Here he passed a few years 
of perfect happiness, forming a fine collection 
of books and pictures and being admitted into 
the closest intimacy with the court, and espe- 
cially with Marie Antoinette, to whom he 
was presented by his friend. Lord Strathavon, 
afterwards Marquis of Huntly. During this 
period of leisure he composed his first book, 
' Sketches relating chiefly to the History, Reli- 
gion, Learning, and Manners of the Hindoos,' 
which was published in London in 1790, and 
translated into French by the Marquis de 
Montesquion in 1791. After the revolution 
broke out in 1789 Craufurd was impelled by 
his friendship with the royal family to assist 
them in their schemes of escape from Paris. 
His name is mentioned in the memoirs of the 
time as being deeply concerned in all the 

plans of the royal family, and he was one of 
the chief assistants in the famous flight from 
Paris, which was cut short at Varennes. In 
this scheme he was more nearly concerned 
than any one in Paris but Count Fersen, for 
he it was who was entrusted with the money 
which the king was to have at his disposal 
when he was safe across the French frontier. 
He got safely to Brussels, and when he found 
that the scheme had failed he proceeded to 
London, where he drew up a paper under the 
title of the ' Secret History of the King of 
France, and his Escape from Paris in June 
1791,' which was published for the first time 
in the ' Bland-Burges Papers ' (pp. 364-73) in 
1885. In spite of his complicity in this affair 
he returned to Paris, and in 1792 was one of 
the most active and able agents of the party 
who were trying to secure the escape of the 
family. How greatly he was trusted appears 
in all the secret memoirs of the time, and 
especially in those of Bertrand de MoUeville. 
After the catastrophe of 10 Aug. he left 
France, and lived with the French emigres at 
Brussels, Frankfort, and Vienna, freely assist- 
ing his old acquaintances from his liberal 
purse. During this period he published in 
1798 a history of the Bastille, with an ap- 
pendix containing his conjectures as to the 
personality of the Man with the Iron Mask. 
In 1802, after the signing of the peace of 
Amiens, he returned to Paris, where he de- 
voted himself to forming fresh collections of 
pictures, prints, and manuscripts, to replace 
those which he had left in France, and which 
had been sold as the property of an emigr§. 
Thanks to Talleyrand, whom he had known 
before the revolution, he was enabled to re- 
main in Paris after war had broken out aeain 
with England, and he devoted himself to 
literature. In 1803 he published his ' Essais 
sur la litterature fran^aise Merits pour I'usage 
d'une dame 6trangere, compatriote de I'au- 
teur,' which went through several editions ; 
in 1808 he published his ' Essai historique 
sur le docteur Swift,' and his edition of the 

* M6moires ' of Madame du Hausset, the femme 
de chambre of Madame de Pompadour, which 
throw much curious light on the inner life 
of the court of Louis XV ; and in 1809 he 
published his ' Notice sur Marie Antoinette.' 
The end of the long war enabled him once 
more to visit England, and during the latter 
years of his life he published two books in 
English and two in French, namely, ' On 
Pericles and the Arts in Greece previous to 
and during the time he flourished,' in 1815; 

* Researches concerning the Laws, Theology, 
Learning, and Commerce of Ancient and 
Modern India,' in 1817 ; * Notices sur Mes- 
dames de la Valliere, de Montespan, de Fon- 




tanges et de Maintenon/ in 1818 ; and ' No- 
tices sur Marie Stuart, reine d'Ecosse, et 
Marie-Antoinette, reine de France,' in 1819. 
He was always received with marked favour 
at tlie court of the Bourbons after the Re- 
storation, on account of his behaviour during 
the trying years 1789 to 1792, until his death 
at Paris on 23 Nov. 1819. 

[Notice by Frangois Barri^re on Quintin Crau- 
furd, prefixed to his edition of the M^moires of 
Madame du Hausset in 1828 ; Bland-Burges 
Papers; Memoires of Bertrand de MoUeville ; 
and other memoirs of old courtiers of that period.] 

H. M. S. 

CRAUFURD, ROBERT (1764-1812), 
general, third son of Sir Alexander Craufurd, 
first baronet, of Newark, Ayrshire, and bro- 
ther of General Sir Charles Gregan-Craufurd, 
G.C.B. [q. v.], was born on 5 May 1764. He 
entered the army as an ensign in the 25th 
regiment in 1779, was promoted lieutenant 
in 1781, and captain into the 75th regiment 
in 1783. With this regiment he first saw 
service, and served through the war waged 
by Lord Cornwallis against Tippoo Sultan in 
1790, 1791, and 1792, and thoroughly esta- 
blished his reputation as a good regimental j 
officer. After his return to Europe, he was ; 
attached to his brother Charles when Eng- 
lish representative at the Austrian head- 
quarters. He remained with the Austrians 
after his brother's severe wound, and on 
his return to England in December 1797 
he was promoted lieutenant-colonel. In 
the following year he was appointed de- 
puty quartermaster-general in Ireland, and 
his services during the suppression of the 
Irish insurrection of 1798 were warmly re- 
cognised by General Lake, and especially 
those rendered in the operations against 
General Humbert and the French corps (see 
Cornwallis Correspondence, ii. 402). In l799 
he acted as English military commissioner 
with Suwarrow's headquarters during his 
famous campaign in Switzerland, and after 
serving on the staiF in the expedition to the 
Helder, he was elected M.P. for East Retford, 
through the influence of his brother Charles, 
who had married the Dowager Duchess of 
Newcastle, to whose family the borough be- 
longed. He was promoted colonel on 30 Oct. 
1805, and gave up his seat in 1806 in the 
hope of going on active service. In 1807 he 
was sent to South America on the staff of 
General Whitelocke, and took command of a 
light brigade, consisting of a battalion of the 
96th regiment, the Rifle Brigade, and the 
light companies of all the other regiments. 
"With tins brigade he led the advance upon 
Buenos Ayres, and in the attack upon that 

city he successfully accomplished the task 
before him, when he was suddenly checked 
by the orders of Whitelocke and ordered to 
surrender with the rest of the army. His 
conduct in this expedition had established 
his reputation as a leader of light troops, and 
in October 1807 he sailed with Sir David 
Baird for the Peninsula, in command of the 
light brigade of the corps which that gene- 
ral was ordered to take to the assistance 
of Sir John Moore. This corps joined Sir 
John Moore's army at Mayorga on 20 Dec, 
and Craufurd's brigade was perpetually en- 
gaged, especially at Castro Gonzalo on 
28 Dec, until 31 Dec, when the light division 
was ordered to leave the main army and 
march to Vigo, where it embarked for Eng- 
land. In 1809 he was again ordered to the 
Peninsula, with the rank of brigadier-gene- 
ral, to take command of the light brigade, 
consisting of the 43rd, 52nd, and one batta- 
lion of the 95th regiment ; and when on his 
way to join Sir Arthur Wellesley he met 
with stragglers declaring that a great battle 
had been fought, and that the general had 
been killed. He at once determined to make 
a forced march to the front, and reached the 
army on the day after the battle of Talavera, 
after marching sixty-two miles in twenty-six 
hours in heavy fighting order, a feat unpa- 
ralleled in modern warfare. From this time 
the career of the light brigade and its leader 
was one of exceptional brilliancy ; Craufurd 
was an unequalledcommander of light troops, 
his ofiicers and men believed in him and 
trusted him implicitly, and he remained con- 
tinually in advance of the allied army in the 
very face of the overpowering numbers of 
the French. His operations on the Coa in 
July 1810, to which Napier devotes a most 
interesting chapter (^Peninsular War, bk. xi. 
ch. iv.), have been severely criticised, and 
there can be no doubt that his headstrong 
rashness placed him in a situation of extreme 
danger, from which he only extricated himself 
by the extraordinary discipline of his soldiers. 
Wellington was very much vexed at Crau- 
furd's behaviour on this occasion, but Crau- 
furd cared little for Wellington's censure, 
and Wellington knew too well how little he 
could spare his brilliant subordinate to do 
more than censure him, and even increased 
his command to a division, consisting of two 
brigades instead of a single brigade, by giving 
him two regiments of Portuguese ca^adores, 
or light infantry. During the retreat upon 
Torres Vedras the light division covered the 
retreating army, a task of much difficulty, 
and at Busaco it drove back and charged 
down the corps of Ney, which had formed a 
lodgment upon the English line of heights. 




When the army went into winter quarters 
in the lines of Torres Vedras, Craufurd went 
home to England on leave, and during his 
residence there he published in the * Times ' 
a defence of his operations of the Coa, which 
Massena had interpreted into a victory for 
himself. During his absence the light divi- 
sion had been commanded by Sir William 
Erskine with decided incapacity, and his 
return to the army on the very morning of 
the battle of Fuentes de Onoro on 5 May 
1811 was greeted with ringing cheers by his 
soldiers. In that battle the light division 
played a distinguished part, and covered the 
extraordinary change of position which Lord 
Wellington found it necessary to make in the 
very face of the enemy, and it remained under 
the command of Craufurd, who was promo- 
ted major-general on 4 June 1811, until the 
siege of Ciudad Rodrigo was formed in Janu- 
ary 1812. When the breaches were de- 
clared open, the light division was directed 
on 19 Jan. to attack the smaller breach ; 
Craufurd led on the stormers, and at the very 
beginning of the assault he was shot through 
the body. He lingered in great agony until 
24 Jan., when he died, and was buried in the 
breach itself. His glorious death was recog- 
nised by votes of both houses of parliament. 
A monument was erected to him and Gene- 
ral Mackinnon, who was killed in the same 
siege, in St. Paul's Cathedral, at the pub- 
lic expense. Craufurd was unquestionably 
the finest commander of light troops who 
served in the Peninsula. Napier speaks of 
his * short, thick figure, dark flashing eyes, 
quick movements, and fiery temper.' 

[Biography in J. W. Cole's Lives of Peninsu- 
lar Generals, vol. i. ; see also Napier's Peninsular 
War, and ■woiks bearing on the history of the 
Light Division, such as Cope's History of the 
Rifle Brigade, Quartermaster Surtees's Reminis- 
cences, and Col. Edward Costello's Adventures 
of a Rifleman.] H. M. S. 

CRAVEN, ELIZABETH, Countess op. 
[See Anspach, Elizabeth, Maegkavine 


CRAVEN, JOHN, Baeon Ceaven of 
Rtton {d. 1649). [See under Ceaven, Sie 
William, 1548 P-1G18.] 

1861), traveller, third and youngest son of 
William Craven, sixth baron Craven, by Eli- 
zabeth Berkeley, younger daughter of Au- 
gustus Berkeley, fourth earl of Berkeley, was 
born on 1 June 1779. When he was about 
three years old, his father permanently sepa- 
rated from hia wife, and Lady Craven shortly 
afterwards going to France was allowed to 

take Keppel with her, but it was under 8 
promise to return him to his father when he 
was eight years of age. This condition was 
not fulfilled, but his mother placed him at 
Harrow School under a feigned name, where, 
however, he was soon recognised by his like- 
ness to her, and henceforth was caUed by his 
family name. His father dying 27 Sept. 1791, 
his mother in the following month married 
Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, mar- 
grave of Brandenburg, Anspach, and Baireuth 
[see Anspach, Elizabeth]. Craven was 
not by these events permanently estranged 
from his mother ; on the contrary, after the 
margrave's decease in 1805 he went to reside 
with her at Naples. In 1814 he accepted 
the post of one of the chamberlains to the 
Princess of Wales, without receiving any 
emolument ; but this occupation lasted for a 
short time only, until the princess departed 
for Geneva. Six years afterwards he was 
called on to give evidence at the trial of the 
unfortvmate princess, when he stated that he 
was in her service for six months, during 
which time he never saw any impropriety in 
her conduct either at Milan or Naples, or im- 
proper familiarity on the part of Bergamo 
(Dolby, Parliamentary Hegister, 1820, pp. 

He published in 1821 * A Tour through 
the Southern Provinces of the Kingdom of 
Naples,' and in 1838 'Excursions in the 
Abruzzi and Northern Provinces of Naples,' 
in 2 vols. The former of these two works is 
embellished with views from his own sketches, 
and the latter with a smaller number from 
drawings by W. Westall, A.R.A. Having 
received a considerable addition to his for- 
tune, he in 1834 purchased a large convent 
in the mountains near Salerno, which he fitted 
up as a residence, and there received his visi- 
tors with much hospitality. He was for many 
years the intimate friend and inseparable 
companion of Sir William Gell ; he shared his 
own prosperity with his less fortunate com- 
rade, cheered him when in sickness, and at- 
tended him with unwearying kindness, until 
Cell's death in 1836. Another of his highly 
esteemed acquaintances was Lady Blessing- 
ton, who arrived in Naples in July 1823; with 
her he afterwards kept up a correspondence, 
and some of the letters which he addressed to 
that lady are given in her 'Life ' by Madden. 
He died at Naples 24 June 1851, aged 72, 
being the last of a triumvirate of luiglish 
literati, scholars, and gentlemen who resided 
there for many years in the closest bonds of 
friendship, namely. Sir William Drummoiid, 
Sir William Gell, and the Hon. K. R. Craven. 
Besides the two works already mentioned, 
there was published in London in 1825 a book 




entitled ' Italian Scenes : a Series of interest- 
ing Delineations of Remarkable Views and 
of Celebrated Remains of Antiquity. Chiefly 
sketched by the Hon. K. Craven.' 

[Gent. Mag, October 1851, pp. 428-9; Mad- 
den's Life of Countess of Blessington (1855), i. 
113, ii. 124-39; Memoirs of the Margravine of 
Anspach (1826), i. 72, 85, 364, ii. 74, 84, 95, 173, 
■with portrait as a boy.] G. C. B. 

CRAVEN, LOUISA, Cottntess op 
(1785 P-1860), actress, came of a theatrical 
famUy. Her father, John Brunton, son of 
a soap dealer in Norwich, was at one time 
a grocer in Drury Lane. He appeared at 
Covent Garden, 11 April 1774, as Cyrus, and, 
3 May 1774, as Hamlet. He then played at 
Norwich and at Bath, becoming ultimately 
manager of the Norwich theatre. Louisa, 
the youngest of six sisters, one of whom, 
Elizabeth (Mrs. Merry), eclipsed her in repu- 
tation, was born, according to the statement 
of various biographers, in February 1785. Her 
birth may probably be put back two or three 
years. She displayed at an early age capacity 
for the stage, and on 5 Oct. 1803 made at 
Covent Garden her first appearance, playing 
Lady Townley in the ' Provoked Husband ' 
to the Lord Townley of Kemble. On 2 Nov. 
she played Beatrice in ' Much Ado about 
Nothing.' These debuts are favourably noticed 
in the ' Theatrical Inquisitor ' for November 
1803, where she is described as ' extremely 
handsome and striking,' and her features are 
said to be * expressive of archness, vivacity,' 
&c. Her name also appears in this season to 
Marcella in the ' Pannel,' a farce founded by 
John PhUip Kemble on Bickerstaff"'3 "Tis 
well it's no worse,' 21 Dec. 1803. Between 
this date and December 1807 she played Julia 
in the * School of Reform,' Miss Mortimer in 
the ' Chapter of Accidents,' Celia in 'As you 
like it,' Rosara in ' She would and she would 
not,' Alithea in the ' Country Girl,' Lady 
Anne in ' Richard III,' Irene in ' Barbarossa ' 
to the Achmet of Master Betty, Dorinda in 
the * Beatix' Stratagem,' Marianne in the 

* Mysterious Husband,' Hero in * Much Ado 
about Nothing,' Angelina in ' Love makes a 
Man,' Ismene in ' Merope,' Anne Bullen in 

* Henry VIII,' Volante in the * Honeymoon,' 
Donna Olivia in * A bold Stroke for a Hus- 
band,' Miranda in the ' Tempest,' Leonora | 
in the * Revenge,' Harriet in the * Jealous 
Wife,' Marian in the ' School for Prejudice,' 
&c. She was also the original of various 
characters in forgotten pieces of Manners, 
Morton, and Dimond. On 21 Oct. 1807 she 
played Clara Sedley in Reynolds's comedy 

' The Rage.' This is the last appearance re- 
corded in Genest. She left the stage in 
December 1807, and married, 30 Dec. 1807, 

William, seventh baron and first earl of 
Craven of the second creation. After the 
death of her husband, 30 July 1825, she lived 
in privacy, and died, almost forgotten, 27 Aug. 
1860. Her beauty, of which she had a remark- 
able share, was no small part of her stage 
property. She was, however, sprightly and 
natural. Her brother, who appeared at Covent 
Garden 22 Sept. 1800 as Brunton the younger, 
was with her during her entire stay at the 
theatre. She was aunt to Miss Brunton, 
afterwards Mrs. Yates. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Gil- 
liland's Dramatic Mirror, 1808; Thespian Diet. 
1805; Mrs. Mathews's Tea Table Talk, 1857; 
Our Actresses, by Mrs. C. Baron Wilson, 1844; 
Burke's Peerage, 1887; Gent. Mag. September 
I860.] J. K. 

CRAVEN, SiE WILLIAM (1548.?-1618), 
lord mayor of London, second son of William 
Craven and Beatrix, daughter of John Hunter, 
andgrandson of John Craven, was bornat Ap- 
pletreewick, a village in the parish of Burnsall, 
near Skipton in the West Riding of York- 
shire, about 1548. The date is made pro- 
bable by the fact that he took up his freedom 
in 1569. At the age of thirteen or fourteen 
he was sent up to London by the common 
carrier (Whitakeb, History of Craven, edit. 
1812, p. 437) and bound apprentice to Robert 
Hulson, citizen and merchant taylor, who, 
as we gather from Craven's will, lived in the 
parish of St. John the Evangelist in Watling 
Street. Having been admitted to the free- 
dom of the Merchant Taylors' Company on 
4 Nov. 1569, Craven appears to have entered 
into business with Hulson, and subsequently 
to have quarrelled with him. On 9 Nov. 
1583 they submitted their differences ' from 
the beginning of the world to this day ' to 
the arbitration of the master and wardens of 
the company. The quarrel turned upon a* shop 
late in the occupation of William Craven.' 
The judgment of the master and wardens, 
given on 26 Nov. 1582, was that he should 
pay 10/. to Craven and ' have unto himself 
the said shoppe to use at his pleasure ' {MS. 
Records of Merchant Taylors^ Company). In 
1588 Craven took a lease from the Mercers' 
Company of a ' great mansion house ' in 
Watling Street in the parish of St. Antholin, 
where he carried on business with Robert and 
John Parker until his death. He was elected 
warden of his company on 4 July 1593, the 
year that the plague was ' hot in the city ' 
(Stow, Annals), and on 19 July 1594, having 
* borne and behaved himself commendably in 
the said place,' he was made one of the court 
of assistants. The minute books of the com- 
pany show of what his commendable bearing 




consisted ; thus on 15 May 1593 he gave 20/. 
* to the relief of the widows of the almsmen 
of the company,' and on 16 May 1594 the 
master reported that ' Mr. Craven, instead of 
only giving 20/., would take upon himself the 
support of one woman at 16^. a week.' Two 
years later he made a donation of 50/. to- 
wards the building of the library of St. John's 
College, Oxford, with which college the com- 
pany was, by its school, closely connected ; 
this donation is recorded on one of the win- 
dows of the library. On 2 April 1600 he 
was elected alderman for Bishopsgate ward, 
in which capacity he took part in the govern- 
ment of the city (^Calendar of State Papers, 
xcviii. 469-70), and on 14 Feb. 1601 he was 
chosen sheriff of London. Towards the ex- 
penses of the shrievalty the Merchant Tay- 
lors' Company, as appears from its records, 
on 12 March 1600 voted him the sum of 30/. 
out of the ' common box,' and ordered its plate 
to be lent to ' him during his year of oifice.' 

In 1602 he founded the grammar school 
in his native parish of Burnsall, Yorkshire 
(Hakkee, Hamblesin Upper Wharf edale), and 
on 16 May of the same year became alderman 
of Cordwainer {vice Bishopsgate) ward. He 
was knighted at Whitehall by James I on 
26 July 1603 (Nichols, P/'oyresses of James I, 
i. 234). In 1G04 he was one of the patrons 
of * the scheme of a new college after the 
manner of a university designed at Ripon, 
Yorkshire ' (Peck, Desiderata, vii. 290). It 
was probably about 1605 he married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of William Whitmore, alder- 
man of London. In 1607, the Merchant 
Taylors' Company being minded to entertain 
James I and Prince Henry, Craven was de- 
puted with others to carry the invitation to 
Norwich {MS. Records of Merchant Taylors^ 

In the autumn of 1610 the court of the 
Merchant Taylors' Company made prepara- 
tions for Craven's approaching mayoralty, 
and on 6 Oct. unanimously voted a hundred 
marks ' towards the trimming of his Pships 
house' (i6.) Craven was lord mayor of London 
for 1610-11, and the show, which had been 
suspended for some years, was revived with 
splendour. Christian, prince of Anhalt, was 
entertained with all his ' Germayne trayne ' at 
thefeast at theGuildh all afterwards (Nichols, 
Frogr. of James I,\\.^1Q). On 14 Jan. 1611-12 
Craven became alderman of Lime Street (^vice 
Cordwainer) ward, in consequence perhaps of 
his having moved his residence from St. An- 
tholin's to *a fair house builded by Stephen 
Kirton ' (see Stow's Survey of London, 1618) 
in the parish of St. Andrew Undershaft, Corn- 
hill. This house, of which there is a print 
in the British Museum (reproduced London 

Journal, 26 Sept. 1857), was on the south 
side of Leadenhall Street ; it was leased to 
the East India Company in 1620 and pulled 
down, and the East India House erected in 
1726 (Maitland, History of London, p. 1003), 
which in 1862 was superseded by the present 
buildings. During Craven's mayoralty his 
name appears in connection with certain loans 
to the king (Devon, Issues of the Exchequer 
during the Reign of James I, p. 133). On 
9 Jan. 1611 he was elected president of 
Christ's Hospital, which post he occupied up 
to his death. His donations to the hospital 
were lands to the value of 1,000/. at Ugley 
in Essex, and certain other legacies (Court 
Minutes of Christ's Hospital, March 1613- 
1614). On 2 July 1613 he conveyed to St. 
John's College, Oxford, the advowson of 
Creeke in Northamptonshire ' upon trust that 
one of the ten senior fellows elected from 
(Merchant Taylors') School should be pre- 
sented thereto ' {MS. Records of Merchant 
Taylors' Company). In 1616 Lady Elizabeth 
Coke, wife of Sir Edward Coke [q.v.], on 
occasion of the famous quarrel with her hus- 
band, was at his request handed over to the 
hospitality of Craven, who must have enter- 
tained her at his house in Leadenhall Street 
(AiKiN, Court and Times of James I, Let- 
ters of Chamberlain and Carleton, 11 Oct. 
and 8 Nov. 1617). The king wrote him a let- 
ter of thanks, preserved at the Record Office 
{Calendar of State Papers, vol. xciv. 4 Nov. 
1617, the king to Sir William Craven). 
It was in this year also that he joined with 
others in subscribing 1,000/. towards the re- 
pair and decoration of St. Antholin's Church 
(Setmouk, London, bk. iii. p. 514). The last 
public act recorded of Craven is the laying 
of the foundation-stone of the new Aldgate 
on 26 May 1618 {ib. i. 18-19). On 1 July 
of the same year he attended the court of 
the Merchant Taylors' Company for the last 
time, his will being ' openly read in court ' 
on the 29th {MS. Records of the Merchayit 
Taylors' Company), and he was buried at St. 
Andrew Undershaft on 11 Aug., ' where,' as 
Chamberlain writes to Sir Dudley Carleton, 
* there were above five hundred mourners.' 
Craven had issue three sons and two daugh- 
ters : William [q.v.], John(seebelow),Thomas, 
Elizabeth, and Mary. His arms were : or, 
five fleurs-de-lis in cross sable: achief wav^e 
azure ; crest, a crane or lieron rising proper. 
The second son, John Craven, founder of 
the Craven scholarships at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, was commoner of Trinity College, 
Oxford, 1626-8. He was held in high esteem 
by Charles I, who created him Baron Craven 
of Ryton, Shropshire, 21 March 1642-3. He 
died in 1649, and left no issue by his wife. 




Elizabeth, daughter of William, lord Spencer. 
By his will, dated 18 May 1647, he left large 
charitable bequests to Burnsall, Skipton, 
Eipon, Ripley, Knaresborough, and Borough- 
bridge, and money for redeeming captives in 
Algiers. His most important legacy was that 
of the manor of Cancerne, near Chichester, 
Sussex, to provide 100/. for four poor scholars, 
two at Cambridge and two at Oxford, with 
preference to his own poor kinsmen. The 
first award under the bequest was made at 
Cambridge 16 May 1649. The fund was im- 
mediately afterwards sequestrated by parlia- 
ment, and on 7 May 1651 a petition was pre- 
sented for the payment of the scholarships. 
In 1664 the sequestration was discharged. 
The value of the bequest has since consider- 
ably increased, and changes have been made 
in the methods of the award, but they are still 
maintained at both universities (Cooper, An- 
nals of Cambridge, iii. 428 ; Collins, Peei'- 
affe,ed. Brydges, v. 447 ; Whitakee, Craven, 
ed. Morant, p. 510; Sussex Archceologieal 
Collections, xix. 110). 

[MS. Eecords of Merchant Taylors' Company 
and other authorities cited above.] W. C-e. 

CRAVEN, WILLIAM, Eael op Cra- 
ven (1606-1697), born in 1606, was the 
eldest son of Sir William Craven fq. v.], and 
of his wife Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Whitmore, alderman of London. William 
Craven the younger was entered as com- 
moner of Trinity College, Oxford, in 1623, 
and gave 100/. to the college library in 1636. 
But, before he was twenty, he entered the 
service of the Prince of Orange (Maurice). 
Thus it is not difficult to account for the 
slenderness of his latinity, which in his ma- 
turer days amused the Princess Sophia (^Me- 
moir en, p. 43). Under Maurice of Orange 
and his successor, Frederick Henry, he gained 
some military distinction, and on returning to 
England was knighted by Charles 1, 4 March 
1627 . Eight days later he was created Baron 
Craven of Hampsted Marshall, Berkshire, and 
not long afterwards was named a member of 
the permanent council of war. 

In 1631, a year in which the foreign policy 
of Charles I was particularly complicated and 
insecure (see Gardiner, History of England, 
vol. vii. ch. Ixx.), the Marquis of Hamilton 
was permitted to levy troops in England for 
Gustavus Adolphus. They were primarily 
intended to make the emperor, Ferdinand II, 
relinquish his hold of the Palatinate, which 
might thus still be recovered for the deprived 
elector and electress, the ex-king and queen 
of Bohemia, now refugees at the Hague. 
Craven was named one of the commanders of 
the English forces in Germany, and early in 
1632 he accompanied Frederick when the 

latter set forth from the Hague to strike a 
blow, if permitted to do so, in his own cause 
(Mrs. Green, i. 495). This is the first occa- 
sion on which Craven is found in personal 
relations with the heroic Elizabeth, to whose 
service he was soon wholly to devote himself. 
Frederick and Craven reached Frankfort-on- 
the-Main 10 Feb., and on the next morning 
had an interview at Hochst with the Swedish 
conqueror, who was already master of the 
whole of the Palatinate with the exception 
of three fortified towns. He allowed them 
to take part in the siege of Creuznach, which 
he was resolved to secure before it could be 
relieved by the Spaniards, then in force on 
the Moselle. The place was taken 22 Feb. 
(Drotsen, Gustav Adolf 1876, ii. 526), Cra- 
ven, though wounded, beingthe first to mount 
the breach. Gustavus Adolphus is said to 
have told him with soldierly humour that he 
had ' adventured so desperately, he bid his 
younger brother fair play for his estate,' and 
he had the honour of being one of the signa- 
tories of the capitulation (Collins ; cf. Mrs. 
Green, i. 497). But to the intense disap- 
pointment of the elector the Swedish king, 
in whose hands his destiny and that of the 
Palatinate now seemed to lie, refused his re- 
quest that he might levy an independent force 
(Mrs. Green, i. 499, from a letter by Craven 
in ' Holland Correspondence '). 

Craven appears to have returned to England 
about this time or shortly afterwards, for on 
12 May 1633 the compliment was paid him 
of placing him on the council of Wales, 
and on 31 Aug. his university created him 
M. A. (Doxle). Of his doings in these years 
no further traces seem to exist ; but in 1637 
* the beat of my Lord Craven's drums ' was 
once more heard, and he again engaged in the 
service of a cause to which, during the next 
quarter of a century, he continuously devoted 

Early in 1637, though the situation in Ger- 
many had not really become more hopeful, 
there was in England ' a great preparation in 
embrio' (Verneg Papers, Tp. 188). It had been 
decided that some of the king's ships should 
be lent to the young Charles Lewis, the eldest 
son of the queen of Bohemia, and should put 
to sea under the flag of the palatine house. 
Several noblemen proffered voluntary contri- 
butions towards this enterprise, and foremost 
among them was Craven, who declared his 
readiness to contribute as much as 30,000/. 
(Gardiner, History of England, viii. 204). 
' In this action,' writes Nathaniel Hobart to 
Ralph Verney ( Verney Papers, p. 189), ' the 
Hollanders and Lord Craven join;' and in 
his answer to this letter, which contains some 
ungenerous comments on the wealthy noble- 




man's generosity, Ralph Verney observes : 
' Wee heare much of a great navie, but more 
of my little Lord Craven, whose bounty makes 
him the subject of every man's discource. By 
many he is condemned of prodigality, but by 
most of folly.' As Mr. Gardiner suggests, 
' it is not likely that those who freely opened 
their purses expected very happy results from 
such an enterprise ; ' but they ' believed that 
the conflict once begun would not be limited 
to the sea.' In June the fleet commanded by 
Northumberland conveyed Charles Lewis and 
his brother Rupert to Holland (Gakdinek, 
viii. 219), and Craven was in their company. 
With some troops coll ected here they marched 
up the Lower Rhine and joined the army 
waiting for them at Wesel. The force, which 
now numbered four thousand men, laid siege 
to a place called Limgea by Whitelocke (Me- 
morials, i. 74; Miss Bengbe, ii. 337, says 
Lippe ; query Lemgo ?) ; but, encountering 
the imperialist general Hatzfeld, suffered a 
complete defeat. Prince Rupert fought with 
obstinate valour in this his first action, and 
it is said that but for the interposition of 
Craven he would have sacrificed his life rather 
than surrender his sword. Both of them were 
taken prisoners (Miss Bengee, ii. 338 ; cf. 
Mks. Gkebn, i. 559-60). A letter written 
about this time by Charles Lewis (though 
dated 1677 (!) in Bromley, ' Royal Letters,' 
p. 312 ; see Miss Bengek, ii, 338 n.) con- 
tains a pointed expression of gratitude on the 
writer's part towards Craven. Miss Benger, 
who seems to have inspected the papers left 
behind her by Elizabeth, states (ii. 337) that 
from the commencement of this expedition 
Craven transmitted to her regular details of 
the military operations, and that in these des- 
patches originated their confidential corre- 
spondence, which was never afterwards sus- 

Craven, who had been wounded in the 
battle, remained for some time in captivity. 
In a letter written by Elizabeth to Roe, I Nov. 
1638 (cited from ' Holland Correspondence ' 
by Mrs. Green, i. 560), she expresses her re- 
gret for his imprisonment and that of a com- 
panion, and her fear that they will not so 
soon be released ; ' but,' she adds in a quite 
different tone of solicitude, proving the rela- 
tions between her and Craven as yet at least 
to have advanced to no great degree of inti- 
macy, ' if Rupert were anywhere but there I 
should have my mind at rest.' Rupert was 
not released till 1641 ; Craven, however, who 
had at first, in order to remain near the prince, 
refused to ransom himself, on being persis- 
tently refused access to him purchased his 
own liberty in the autumn of 1639, and after 
even then delaying for some time in Germany 

while still lame from his wound paid a visit 
to the queen at the Hague on his way home to 
England ('Holland Correspondence,' 31 Aug. 
1639, cited by Mrs. Green, i. 570). According 
to a passage in Wotton's * Letters ' (cited by 
Miss Benger, ii. 338) the sum paid by Craven 
for his ransom amounted to 20,000Z. Yet 
when a few years afterwards, during the 
struggle between Charles I and his parlia- 
ment, Elizabeth's English pension of 10,000/. 
a year remained unpaid. Craven's munifi- 
cence seems again to have compensated her 
for the loss (Miss Benger, ii. 369-70, citing 
'in a volume of tracts the article Perkins'). 
When after the execution of Charles I parlia- 
ment had formally annulled her pension, and 
the queen prepared a protest comprising a re- 
capitulation of her claims, it was Craven who 
drafted the document, and who endeavoured 
to induce the States-General to include the 
satisfaction of her demands in the treaty which 
they were then negotiating with the parlia- 
ment (Mrs. Green, ii. 25, and n., where she 
describes the rough draft, with additions sug- 
gested on the margin in Craven's handwritip2> 
seen by her among his papers). 

By this time Craven had become a perma- 
nent member of the exiled queen of Bohemia's 
court at the Hague and at Rhenen, near Arn- 
heim, of which so graphic a description has 
been left by heryoungestdaughter (AfewoiVera 
der Herzogin Sophie, pp. 36-44). She speaks of 
him as having before the execution of Charles I 
been one of those who favoured the scheme 
of a marriage between herself and the Prince 
of Wales. When about 1650 Charles II was 
himself a visitor at the Hague, he addressed 
to the Princess Sophia some very significant 
compliments on her good looks; but she soon 
found out that the secret motive of these flat- 
teries was the wish of Charles and his boon 
companion. Lord Gerard, to obtain through 
her intervention some of Craven's money. In 
small things as in great the ' vieux milord ' 
(actually about forty-four years of age) was 
allowed to act as paymaster, providing the 
young princesses with jewellery and sweet- 
meats, and with cash for making presents to 
others. But the graceless Sophia speaks of 
him as without esteem either for his wit or for 
his breeding, and unscrupulously makes fun 
of the family benefactor. When in 1650 the 
young princess travelled from Holland to 
Heidelberg, he superintended the arrange- 
ments for her journey, ' et avoit soin de tout.' 

During the civil war Craven had repeatedly 
aided Charles I with money, and it is calcu- 
lated that before his restoration Charles II 
received from the same loyal subject at the 
least 50,000/. (Bruce's note to Verney Papers, 
p. 189; cf. Collins, iv, 186). From 1651 Cra- 




ven was himself for a series of years deprived 
of the main part of his resources. The support 
given by him to the royal cause was not of a 
nature to remain hidden, and was particularly 
offensive to the adherents of the parliament, 
as being furnished by the son of a citizen of 
London, himself, in Nathaniel Hobart's su- 
percilious phrase, a filius populi. Charges 
brought against him were therefore sure to 
find willing listeners. The first information 
against him was supplied in 1650 by Major 
Richard Falconer, one of the secret agens pro- 
vocateurs whom the Commonwealth govern- 
ment kept near the person of the exiled 
'Charles Stuart.' He had been at Breda 
during the visit there paid by the queen of 
Bohemia and her daughters, accompanied by 
Craven, to Charles II, shortly before he set 
out on his Scottish expedition. Falconer now 
swore that on this occasion he had induced a 
number of officers to unite in a petition pray- 
ing the king to accept their services against 
the parliament of England ' by the name 
of barbarous and inhuman rebels,' and that 
this petition had been promoted by Craven. 
Shortly afterwards, in February and March 
1661, two other witnesses deposed to Cra- 
ven's intimacy with the king at Breda, and 
it was added that he had made some short 
journeys in the king's service, and had taken 
care of an illegitimate child left behind him 
by Charles in the Low Countries, till forced 
to deliver up the same to its mother, 'one 
Mrs. Barlow.' The result was that, 16 March 
1651 , the parliament resolved that Craven was 
an offender against the Commonwealth of 
England within the terms of the declaration 
of 24 Aug. 1649, that his estates should be con- 
fiscated accordingly, and the commissioners 
for compounding should be empowered to seize 
and sequester all his property, both real and 
personal. An act for the sale of his estates 
was passed 3 Aug. 1652, by a vote of twenty- 
three to twenty ; and it is stated that several 
members ofthe majority afterwards purchased 
parts of the property. In vain had Craven 
in 1651 appealed from abroad against the sen- 
tence, declaring Falconer guilty of perjury, 
inasmuch as the petition in question had been 
merely one for pecuniary aid, and had not in- 
cluded the vituperative e7:pressions concern- 
ing the parliament which the spy had himself 
proposed. Equally in vain had the Palatine 
family exerted themselves on behalf of their 
benefactor, both the queen and her son, the 
Elector Charles Lewis, who prevailed upon 
the States-General to address to the council 
in London an urgent representation through 
their resident there, De Groot. (It is printed 
at length by Collins, in his short account 
of these transactions, of which a complete 

narrative, entitled ' Proceedings of Parlia- 
ment against Lord Craven,' was published at 
London in 1653: cf. also MES.GEEEN,ii. 34-5, 
and Miss Bengee, ii, 409 seqq.) Happily, 
the beautiful seat of Combe Abbey, near 
Coventry, which Craven's father had origi- 
nally purchased of Lucy, countess of Bedford, 
and where the queen of Bohemia had spent 
her girlhood, was exempted from the con- 
fiscation, because of the heir presumptive's 
interest in it. 

The endeavours made by Craven in 1653, 
possibly with the aid of what he had saved 
out of the wreck, to obtain a reversal of the 
parliament's decision remained fruitless (see 
the intercepted letters addressed to him by 
Colonel Doleman, a creature of the Protector, 
and by William Cromwell, Thiteloe, State 
Papers, i. 513). Equally unsuccessful were 
the attempts made in the same year by the 
queen of Bohemia, who enclosed an urgent 
appeal in Craven's letter to President Law- 
rence {ib. ii. 139), and by the States-General 
{ib. ii. 449). Craven adhered to Elizabeth's 
fortunes, which had seemed likely to trench 
in some measure on the partial recovery of 
the Palatinate by her eldest son in the peace 
of Westphalia. But she was unable to quit 
the Hague, being deeply involved in debt 
there, while her son had no money to give 
her, and cherished no wish for her speedy 
return to the Palatinate, where she desired 
to recover her dower residence at Frank- 
enthal. In 1653 Craven seems to have made 
more than one journey to Heidelberg on 
her behalf (see her letters to him printed 
by Mes. Geeen, ii. 38-40; and cf. a few data 
as to his movements in Thueloe, State 
Papers, i. 237, 467, 704). In the latter part 
of 1654 he renewed his efforts to obtain a 
reversal of judgment, and much ineffectual 
discussion took place on his case (see the 
notices in Whitelocke, Memorials, iv. 156, 
157, 159, 162). Nor was it until the eve of 
the Restoration that the first sign shows itself 
of a change of policy in the matter. White- 
locke,who notes (iv. 357) that a petition from 
Craven was read 11 Aug. 1659, records {ib. 
404) that 16 March 1660 an order was issued 
'to stay felling woods in the Lord St. John's 
and Lord Craven's estates.' 

Craven followed Charles II to England at 
the Restoration. He recovered his estates, 
though whether completely is not stated by 
his biographers, and he was loaded with hon- 
ours and offices. He was lord-lieutenant of 
Middlesex and Southwark (1670-89), colonel 
of many regiments, including the Coldstream 
guards (1670-89), and lieut.-general (from 
1667); he was named master ofthe Trinity 
House (1670), and high steward of the uni- 




versity of Cambridge (1667) ; was one of the 
commissioners for Tangier, and of the lords 
proprietors of Carolina ; was sworn of the 
privy council (1666 and 1681); and in the 
peerage he was in March 1664 raised to the 
degrees of Viscount Craven of Uffington 
and Earl of Craven (for a full enumeration, 
see DoTLE ; cf. Collins). But in prosperity 
as in adversity he remained faithful to the 
service of the queen of Bohemia, whose own 
return to England was delayed for several 
months by her pecuniary embarrassments. 
He corresponded with her, supplying her 
with the news of the court (Mus. Green, 
ii. 88) ; and when Charles II with undeniable 
indifference continued to leave her without 
the offer of any residence in England, Craven 
placed his own London mansion,Drury House, 
at her disposal, and thus enabled her at last 
to come back to her native land (26 May 
1661). During nearly all the remainder of 
Elizabeth's life she was his guest, and he 
generally attended her when she appeared in 
public (Pepxs, 17 Aug. 1661). As to the pre- 
cise nature of their private relations even in 
this period, we are, naturally enough, with- 
out evidence. The office of master of the 
horse, which he had nominally held at her 
husband Frederick's court, he seems to have 
continued to fill at hers in his own house. 
In an account of a visit to the queen at Drury 
House by the Genoese Marquis Durazzo (ex- 
tracted by Mrs. Green, ii. 81, from his MS. 
Relation of his Embassy), he states that on 
entering he was met at the head of the stairs 
by Craven, ' proprietor of the house where 
the queen lives, and principal director of her 
court.' Not till 8 Feb. 1662 did she remove 
from Drury House to Leicester House, hired 
as a residence for herself; and here a fort- 
night afterwards (23 Feb.) she died. At her 
funeral the heralds who bore her royal crown 
were supported by Craven and his relative, 
Sir Robert Craven. To the former she had 
bequeathed her papers, together with her 
unique collection of Stuart and palatine 
family portraits. These Craven placed at 
Combe Abbey, where they are still preserved. 
It has been asserted that at the time of her 
death Sir Balthasar Gerbier was building for 
him at Hampsted Marshall in Berkshire ' a 
miniature Heidelberg' which was to be 'con- 
secrated to Elizabeth ' (Miss Benger, ii. 
432-3). But this is erroneous, or at least in- 
accurate, since Lysons (i. 286), quoting the 
epitaph on the architect's tomb, states the 
mansion not to have been begun till the year 
in which she died (Mrs. Green, ii. 75 n.) 
Drury House, where she had enjoyed his 
princely hospitality, was afterwards rebuilt 
by him, and renamed Craven House. 

On the question of the well-known popu- 
lar belief, according to which Craven was 
privately married to the queen of Bohemia, 
there is in truth extremely little to say. The 
' Craven MSS.' might be supposed to furnish 
some clue ; but Mrs. Green (ii. 66) states the 
late Earl of Craven to have been 'of opinion 
that no such marriage took place, since neither 
family documents nor traditions support the 
notion.' (It is curious that the margravine 
of Anspach, in her ' Memoirs,' ii. 93, should 
refer to the report without scepticism.) Mrs. 
Green further points out that the supposed 
marriage cannot even be shown to have been 
a contemporary rumour ; for the report is not 
once alluded to in the extant correspondence 
of the day, and is, so far as is known, entirely 
of later date. Moreover, Mrs. Green notices, 
it is certain that a different rumour was ac- 
tually current at the English court, viz. that 
Craven wished to marry the queen's eldest 
daughter Elizabeth, who was only seven years 
his junior. A marriage with this learned 
and pious woman, who had little of the 
light-heartedness in the midst of grief which 
characterised her mother and two at least of 
her sisters, could hardly have proved con- 
genial to the gallant soldier. In favour of 
the supposed marriage between Craven and 
the queen there is nothing to urge except the 
analogies, such as they are, of the mesal- 
liances of the age, among which that of Hen- 
rietta Maria to Lord Jermyn is perhaps the 
most striking. InElizabeth'spublishedletters 
there is not a word addressed to Craven, or 
concerning him, which assigns more than 
friendliness, or the most unembarrassed gaiety 
(see, e.g. , her pleasant letter to Prince Rupert, 
in Bromley's Eoyal Letters, p. 286). Her 
bequest of papers and pictures to him proves 
nothing, nor on the other hand can any con- 
clusion be drawn from his extraordinary 
munificence to her ; more especially as, though 
of this evidence enough remains (the Mar- 
gravine OF Anspach testifies, Memoirs, ii. 
93, to having seen a bond for 40,000/., which 
he had lent the queen), it is equally certain 
that he gave large sums to Charles II, and 
that his hand and heart were alike open, even 
to those who had no special claims upon him. 
In the days of the plague and of the fire of 
London he actively exerted himself. In- 
deed, it is a well-known anecdote that his 
horse knew the smell of a fire at a great dis- 
tance, and was in the habit of immediately 
galloping ofi" with him to the spot ; and a 
Latin elegy on his death expressly draws a 
parallel between the assistance which he gave 
to the queen and that which he gave to the 
I unfortunate in general (Mrs. Green, ii. 66 m.) 
I It is diflicult to prove a negative ; and a 




balancing of mere probabilities seems in the 
present instance uncalled for. 

After the queen's death Craven, as has 
been seen, continued to occupy a distinguished 
place among those who enjoyed the goodwill 
of her royal nephews. In March 1668 Pepys 
describes him as ' riding up and down to give 
orders like a madman ' to the troops assembled 
in Lincoln's Inn Fields on the occasion of a 
city tumult. To Elizabeth's son Prince Rupert 
their old comradeship in war and tribulation 
must have specially endeared him ; and on 
Rupert's death, in 1682, he became the guar- 
dian of the prince's illegitimate daughter, Ru- 
perta (see Rupert's will in Bromley's Royal 
Letters, Introd. p. xxvii). At the accession of 
James II information is said to have reached 
Craven that his resignation of his regiment 
would be acceptable in high quarters ; but on 
his warmly deprecating the sacrifice of what he 
prized so much it was left to him (Collins). 
He was a member of the new sovereign's 
privy council, and was in June 1 685 appointed 
lieutenant-general of the forces. Strangely 
enough, it had nearly fallen to the lot of 
himself and his beloved regiment to play a 
prominent part in the catastrophe of the 
Stuart throne. On the evening of 27 Dec. 
1688, when the Dutch guards entered St. 
James's Park, the Coldstreams had the guard 
at Whitehall, and Craven was himself in 
command. Count Solms, the commander of 
the Dutch troops, called upon him to order 
his men away ; but Craven refused to do so 
without express orders from the king himself. 
After an interview with Craven, and another 
with Count Solms, James ordered Craven to 
call off the Coldstreams ; and when the king 
retired to rest, his palace was guarded by the 
troops of the Prince of Orange (O. Klopp, 
Der Fall des Hauses Stuart, 1876, iv. 289-90 ; 
cf. Clarke, Life of James II, 1816, ii. 264-5. 
There was a dispute as to whether James 
had agreed that the posts at Whitehall, as 
well as those at St. James's Palace, should 
be relieved by the Dutch guards). 

Under the new regime the Coldstream re- 
giment was bestowed on General Talmash, 
and the lord-lieutenancy of Middlesex upon 
the Earl of Clare. Craven's public life was 
now at an end ; but he is said still to have 
shown much private activity, and to have 
continued his practice of aiding in the ex- 
tinction of fires. He must also have found 
continued opportunities for gratifying his 
taste for building and gardens at his various 
seats — Hampsted Marshall, Benham (pur- 
chased by him from Sir Francis Castillon ; 
see Memoirs of the Margravine of Anspach, 
ii. 90-1, with a reference to Ltsons's Berk- 
shire, U.S.), and Combe Abbey, andat his Lon- 

don house aforesaid. He is also held to have 
been a patron of letters, on the not very con- 
clusive evidence of the dedication to him of 
numerous works. He belonged to the Royal 
Society, and is stated to have been intimate 
with Evelyn, Ray, and other students of 
the natural sciences {Biogr. Notes, ap. Miss 
Benger, ii. 456 sqq.) Yet a doubt must be 
hinted whether he was actually what is called 
a ' man of parts.' The personal sketches of 
him in the ' Memoirs of the Duchess Sophia ' 
and in the ' Verney Papers ' are not respectful 
in tone ; but his personal valour is as indis- 
putable as his self-sacrificing magnanimity. 
He died unmarried on 9 April 1697, and 
was buried at Pinley, near Coventry, with 
his descendants, in the vault of the church. 
His earldom became extinct : his barony and 
estates descended to a collateral line. There 
are numerous portraits of him in the splendid 
collection at Combe Abbey, among them one 
by Honthorst, another by H. Stone, and a 
third by Princess Louisa, one of the queen of 
Bohemia's daughters. In most of these the 
' little Lord Craven,' at whom the courtiers 
aflected to laugh, appears in armour, and well 
becomes his martial accoutrements. 

[CoUins's Peerage of England, 2nd edit. 1741, 
iv. 185-91 ; Doyle's Official Baronnge of Eng- 
land, i. 484-5 ; Miss Banger's Memoirs of Eliza- 
beth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, 2 vols. London, 
1825; Mrs. Everett Green's Lives of the Prin- 
cesses of England, 2 vols. London, 1854; Me- 
moiren der Herzogin Sophie nachmals Kurfiir- 
stin von Hannover, ed. A. Kocher, Leipzig, 
1879 ; Whitelocke's Memorials, ed. 1853, vol. iv.; 
Verney Papers, ed. J. Bruce for the Camden So- 
ciety, 1853 ; Thurloe's State Papers, ed. Thomas 
Birch, 184 2, vols. i. and ii. The Craven MSS. 
remain unpublished as a whole, and do notappear 
as yet to have been inspected by the Historical 
MSS. Commission.] A. W. W. 

CRAWFORD. [See also Craitfukd 
and Crawfurd.] 

CRAWFORD, Earls of. [See Lind- 
say, Sir David, first Earl, 1365 .P-1407 ; 
Lindsay, Alexander, fourth Earl, d. 1454; 
Lindsay, David, fifth Earl, 1440P-1495; 
Lindsay, David, eleventh Earl, 1547.^- 
1607 ; Lindsay, Ludovic, sixteenth Earl, 
1600-1652 ? ; Lindsay, John, seventeenth 
Earl, 1596-1678; Lindsay, William, 
eighteenth Earl, d. 1698 ; Lindsay, John, 
twentieth Earl, 1702-1749; Lindsay, 
Alexander William, twenty-fifth Earl, 

CRAWFORD, ADAIR (1748-1795), 
physician and chemist, born in 1748, was a 
pupil at St. George's Hospital. After he had 




obtained his M.D. degree he is said to have 
practised with great success in London, and 
for so young a man was surrounded by a large 
circle of attached friends. Through their in- 
fluence he was eventually appointed one of 
the physicians to St. Thomas's Hospital, and 
elected as professor of chemistry to the Mili- 
tary Academy at Woolwich. 

At the age of twenty-eight Crawford visited 
Scotland. The experiments which he made 
on heat imply that he was for some time in 
Glasgow and in Edinburgh. Crawford in- 
forms us that he began his experiments in 
Glasgow on animal heat and combustion in 
the summer of 1777. They were communi- 
cated in the autumn of that year to Drs. 
Irvine and Reid and to Mr. Wilson. In the 
beginning of the ensuing session they were 
made known to the professors and students 
of the university of Edinburgh, and in the 
course of the winter they were explained by 
the author, to the Royal Medical Society of 
that city. In 1779 the first edition of Craw- 
ford's work was published in London by 
Murray. The full title of his book was ' Ex- 
periments and Observations on Animal Heat, 
and the Inflammation of Combustible Bodies ; 
being an attempt to resolve these phenomena 
into a general law of nature.' In this work 
he examined all the opinions of Huxham, 
Haller, Heberden, Fordyce, and others. He 
submitted to Priestley, who was an espe- 
cial friend, his experimental examinations of 
blood in fever. Priestley considered them 
to be very complete, and Crawford's deduc- 
tions satisfactory. Crawford's book, ' Experi- 
ments,' attracted considerable attention, and 
William Hey, F.R.S., surgeon to the General 
Infirmary of Leeds, published in 1779 'Ob- 
servations on the Blood,' in which he ex- 
pressed his approval of Crawford's views. In 
1781 William Morgan published 'An Ex- 
amination of Dr. Crawford's Theory of Heat 
and Combustion,' in which he urged sundry 
objections to his conclusions ; as did also 
Magellan in his * Essai sur la nouvelle th6orie 
du feu dlementaire,' &c. In 1788 Crawford 
published a second edition of this work, in 
which he candidly informs us that a very 
careful repetition of his experiments had re- 
vealed many mistakes respecting the quan- 
tities of heat contained in the permanently 
elastic fluids. * In an attempt,' he says, * to 
determine the relations which take place be- 
tween such subtle principles as air and fire 
we can only hope for an approximation to the 
truth.' In 1781 the severe criticism of his 
theories led Crawford to discontinue his phy- 
sical inquiries and devote his attention more 
directly to strictly professional matters. 
He was distinguished by his desire to be 

accurate in all his investigations. All his 
pieces of apparatus w^ere graduated with a 
delicate minuteness which has never been 
surpassed. His experiments were invariably 
well devised and carried out with the most 
rigid care, the accuracy of his apparatus being 
constantly tested by all the methods at the 
disposal of the chemists of his day. Among 
his especial friends and counsellors were Black 
and Irvine, and of these he writes : ' I have 
endeavoured to mark, with as much fidelity 
and accuracy as possible, the improvements 
which were made by Dr. Black and Dr. Ir- 
vine in the doctrine of heat before I began 
to pay attention to this subject.' He admits 
to the full his indebtedness to these chemists. 
So closely did he follow in the path indicated 
by Black and Irvine that he tells us ' it has 
been insinuated that I published in a former 
edition of this work a part of the discoveries 
made without acknowledging the author. 
This charge was completely answered by a 
letter written from Glasgow College 27 Jan. 
1780 by Dr. Irvine, in which he says : ' I like- 
wise lay no claim to the general fact concern- 
ing the increase or diminution of the absolute 
heat of bodies in consequence of the separa- 
tion or addition of phlogiston which is con- 
tained in your book.' 

The investigations prosecuted by the phi- 
losophers of this period were vitiated by their 
acceptance of the ' Phlogistic Theory ' of 
Stahl and Beech er, which involved the inquiry 
into the phenomena of heat in a mist of hy- 
pothetical causes. Crawford's ' Experiments 
and Observations ' clearly exhibit his sense of 
the difficulties surrounding the doctrine of 
phlogiston, which he admits ' has been called 
in question.' Kirwan, to whom Crawford 
dedicated his book, was the first to suggest 
that phlogiston was no other substance than 
hydrogen gas ; but it was reserved for Lavoi- 
sier, in 1786, to extinguish the Stahlian error. 
Crawford failed to realise the truth which was 
so near him. He determined, however, the 
specific heats of many substances, both solid 
and liquid, and his investigations upon animal 
heat led Priestley to his admirable investiga- 

In 1790 Crawford published a treatise 'On 
the matter of Cancer and on the Aerial Fluids,' 
and a considerable time after his death, i.e. 
in 1817, Alexander Crawford edited a notice- 
able book, by his relative, bearing the title of 
' An Experimental Inquiiy into the Efiects 
of Tonics and other Medicinal Substances on 
the Cohesion of Animal Fibre.' Dr. Adair 
Crawford attracted the attention of his me- 
dical brethren by being the first to recom- 
mend the muriate of baryta (barii chloridum) 
for the cure of scrofula. This salt is said to 




have been given in some cases with success, 
but prolonged experience has proved that the 
use of it is apt to occasion sickness and loss 
of power. Crawford, when only forty-six 
years of age, retired on account of delicate 
health to a seat belonging to the Marquis of 
Lansdowne at Lymington, Hampshire, and 
there he died in July 1795. A friend who 
knew him well wrote of him as ' a man who 
possessed a heart replete with goodness and 
benevolence and a mind ardent in the pursuit 
of science. All who knew him must lament 
that aught should perturb his philosophical 
placidity and shorten a life devoted to use- 
fulness and discovery.' 

[Kirwan's Defence of the Doctrine of Phlogis- 
ton ; Scheele's Experiments on Air and Fire ; De 
Luc's Treatise on Meteorology ; Dionysius Lard- 
ner's Treatise on Heat ; Sir John Herschel's Na- 
tural Philosophy ; The Georgian Era, iii. 494 ; 
Gent. Mag. vol. btv. ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

E. H-T. 

CRAWFORD, ANN (1734-1801), 
actress. [See Barry, Ann Spkanger.] 

CRAWFORD, DAVID (1665-1726), of 
Driunsoy, historiographer for Scotland, born 
in 1665, was the son of David Crawford of 
Drumsoy, and a daughter of James Craw- 
ford of Baidland, afterwards Ardmillan, a 
prominent supporter of the anti-covenanting 
persecution in Scotland. He was educated 
at the university of Glasgow and called to 
the bar, but having devoted himself to the 
study of history and antiquities was ap- 
pointed historiogi-apher for Scotland by Queen 
Anne. In 1706 he published * Memoirs of 
the Affairs of Scotland, containing a full and 
impartial account of the Revolution in that 
Kingdom begun inl667. Faithfully published 
from an authentic manuscript.' The manu- 
script was, he said, presented him by Sir 
James Baird of Saughton Hall, who pur- 
chased it from the widow of an episcopal 
clergyman. The ' Memoirs ' were dedicated 
to the Earl of Glasgow, and the editor stated 
that his aim in publishing them was to fur- 
nish an antidote to what he regarded as the 
pernicious tendency of Buchanan's * History.' 
For more than a century the work was, on 
the testimony of Crawford, received as the 
genuine composition of a contemporaneous 
writer, and implicitly relied upon by Hume, 
Robertson, and other historians, until Mal- 
colm Laing in 1804 published ' The Historie 
and Life of King James the Sext ' as con- 
tained in the Belhaven MS., the avowed pro- 
totype of Crawford's ' Memoirs.' Laing as- 
serted the ' Memoirs ' of Crawford to be an 
impudent forgery, and showed that the nar- 
rative had been garbled throughout, by the 

omission of every passage unfavourable to 
Mary, and the insertion of statements from 
Camden, Spottiswood, Melville, and others, 
these writers being at the same time quoted 
in the margin as collateral authorities. The 
Newbattle MS. of the same * Historie,' in the 
possession of the Marquis of Lothian, was 
published by the Bannatyne Club in 1825. 
Crawford was the author of: 1. * Courtship- 
a-la-mode, a comedy,' 1700. 2. ' Ovidius 
Britannicus, or Love Epistles in imitation of 
Ovid,' 1703. 3. ' Love at First Sight, a co- 
medy,' 1704. He died in 1726, leaving an 
only daughter and heiress, Emilia, who died 
unmarried in 1731. 

[Chalmers's Biog. Diet. x. 489-90 ; Chambers's 
Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen (Thomson), i. 395- 
396 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, ii. 385 ; Baker's 
Biog. Dram. (ed. 1812), i. 155; Laing's Preface 
to Historie of James Sext; Catalogue of Advo- 
cates' Library, Edinburgh.] T. P. H. 

TON (1806-1885), landscape and marine 
painter, was bom at Cowden, near Dalkeith, 
in 1806. He was the son of a land surveyor, 
and when a boy was apprenticed to a house- 
painter in Edinburgh, but having evinced a 
decided taste and ability for art, his engage- 
ment was cancelled, and he entered the 
Trustees' Academy under Andrew Wilson, 
where he had for fellow-students David 
Octavius Hill, Robert Scott Lauder, and 
others. William Simson, who was one of 
the older students, became his most intimate 
friend and acknowledged master, and from 
their frequent sketching expeditions together 
Crawford imbibed many of the best qualities 
of that able artist. His early efforts in art 
were exhibited in the Royal Institution, and 
his first contributions to the annual exhi- 
bition of the Royal Scottish Academy ap- 
peared in 1831, two of these being taken 
from lowland scenery in Scotland, and the 
third being the portrait of a lady. Although 
not one of the founders of the Academy, 
Crawford was one of its earliest elected mem- 
bers. His name appears in the original list 
of associates, but having withdrawn from 
the body before its first exhibition, it was 
not until 1839 that he became an associate. 
Meanwhile he visited Holland, whither he 
went several times afterwards, and studied 
very closely the Dutch masters, whose in- 
fluence in forming his picturesque style was 
seen in nearly all that .he painted. The 
ample materials which he gathered in that 
country and in his native land afforded sub- 
jects for a long series of landscapes and coast 
scenes, chiefly, however, Scottish; but it was 
not till 1848, in which year he was elected 




an academician, that he produced his first 
great picture, ' Eyemouth Harbour,' and this 
he rapidly followed up with other works of 
high quality which established his reputa- 
tion as one of the greatest masters of land- 
scape-painting in Scotland. Among these 
were a * View on the Meuse,' ' A Fresh Breeze,' 
'River Scene and Shipping, Holland," Dutch 
Market Boats,' * French Fishing Luggers,' 
* Whitby, Yorkshire,' and ' Hartlepool Har- 
bour. He also painted in water-colours, usu- 
ally working on light brown crayon paper, 
and using body-colour freely. He practised 
also at one time very successfully as a teacher 
of art. The only picture which he contri- 
buted to a London exhibition was a ' View 
of the Port and Fortifications of Callao, and 
Capture of the Spanish frigate Esmeralda,' 
at the Royal Academy in 1836. The charac- 
teristics of his art are those of what may be 
termed the old school of Scottish landscape- 
painting. This was not so realistic in detail 
as the modern school, but was perhaps wider 
in its grasp, and strove to give impressions 
of nature rather than the literal truth. In 
1858 Crawford left Edinburgh and settled 
at Lasswade, but he continued to contribute 
regularly to the annual exhibitions of the 
Academy till 1877, maintaining to the last 
the high position he had gained early in life. 
He was at one time a keen sportsman with 
both rod and gun. He died at Lasswade 
27 Sept. 1885, after having for many years 
suffered much and lived in the closest retire- 
ment. He was buried in the new cemetery 
at Dalkeith. A * Coast Scene, North Berwick,' 
and * Close Hauled ; crossing the Bar,' by him, 
are in the National Gallery of Scotland. 

[Annual Report of the Council of the Royal 
Scottish Academy, 1885 ; Catalogues of the 
Exhibition of the Royal Institution for the En- 
couragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland ; Cata- 
logues of the Exhibition of the Royal Scottish 
Academy, 1831-77; Scotsman,3 0ct. 1885; Edin- 
burgh Courant, 28 Sept. 1885.] R. E. G. 

CRAWFORD, JOHN (1816-1873), Scot- 
tish poet, was born at Greenock in 1816 in 
the same apartment in which his cousin, 
Mary Campbell, the ' Highland Mary ' of 
Burns'ssong, had died thirty years previously. 
He learned the trade of a house-painter, and 
in his eighteenth year removed to Alloa, 
where he died 13 Dec. 1873. In 1850 he 
published * Doric Lays, being Snatches of 
Song and Ballad^which met with high enco- 
miums from Lord Jeffrey, In 1860 a second 
volume of ' Doric Lays ' appeared. At the 
time of his death he was engaged on a his- 
tory of the town of Alloa, and this, edited 
by Dr. Charles Rogers, was published pos- 

thumously under the title ' Memorials of Al- 
loa, an historical and descriptive account of 
the Town.' 

[Charles Rogers's Modern Scottish Minstrel, 
VI. 98-100; J. Grant-Wilson's Poets and Poetry 
of Scotland, ii. 396-7.] T. F. H. 

1645), soldier, sixth son of Hugh Crawford 
of Jordanhill, near Glasgow, born in No- 
vember 1611, early entered foreign service, 
passed eleven years in the armies of Christian 
of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus, and 
was for three years lieutenant-colonel in the 
service of Charles Lewis, elector palatine 
(Wood). In 1641 he was employed by the par- 
liament in Ireland, and appears in December 
1641 as commanding a regiment of a thou- 
sand foot (BELLiNGS,/mA Catholic Confedera- 
tion,i.'22>Qi). In this war he distinguished him- 
self as an active officer, but the cessation of 
1643 brought Crawford into opposition with 
Ormonde. He objected to the cessation itself, 
and refused to take the oath for the king 
which Ormonde imposed on the Irish army, 
and above all, though willing to continue his 
service in Ireland, would not turn his arms 
against the parliament. For this he was 
threatened with imprisonment, and lost all 
his goods, but contrived himself to escape 
to Scotland. The committee of the English 
parliament at Edinburgh recommended Craw- 
ford to the speaker, and on 3 Feb. 1644 he 
made a relation of his sufferings to the House 
of Commons, and was thanked by them for 
his good service (Sanfoed, 582). His narra- 
tive was published under the title of ' Ire- 
land's Ingratitude to the Parliament of Eng- 
land, or the Remonstrance of Colonel Craw- 
ford, shewing the Jesuitical! Plots against 
the Parliament, which was the only cause 
why he left his employment.' A few days 
later Crawford was appointed second in com- 
mand to the Earl of Manchester, with the 
rank of sergeant-major-general. * Proving 
very stout and successful,' says Baillie, ' he 
got a great head with Manchester, and with 
all the army that were not for sects ' (Baillie, 
ii. 229). Crawford's rigid presbyterianism 
speedily brought him into conflict with the 
independents in that army, and Cromwell 
wrote him an indignant letter of remonstrance 
on the dismissal of an anabaptist lieutenant- 
colonel (10 March 1644). At the siege of 
York Crawford signalised himself by assault- 
ing without orders (16 June 1644). ' The 
foolish rashness of Crawford, and his great 
vanity to assault alone the breach made by his 
mine without acquainting Leslie or Fairfax,' 
led to a severe repulse (26. ii. 195). A fortnight 
later, at the battle of Marston Moor, Craw- 




ford commanded Manchester's foot. His kins- 
man, Lieutenant-colonel Skeldon Crawford, 
who commanded a regiment of dragoons on 
the left wing, brought a charge of cowardice 
against Cromwell (ib. ii. 218). Later Law- 
rence Crawford also, in conversation with 
Holies, told a story of the same kind (Holles, 
Memoirs, p. 16). After the capture of York, 
Manchester sent Crawford to take the small 
royalist garrisons to the south of it, and he 
took in succession Sheffield, Staveley, Bol- 
sover, and Welbeck (Rushwokth, v. 642-5). 
In September the quarrel with Cromwell 
broke out with renewed virulence. Crom- 
well demanded that Crawford should be 
cashiered, and threatened that in the event 
of a refusal his colonels would lay down 
theircommissions(BAiLLiE,ii. 230). Though 
Cromwell was obliged to abandon this de- 
mand (Gl^viiistsb., History of the Great Civil 
War, i. 479, 481), the second battle of 
Newbury gave occasion to a third quarrel. 
Cromwell accused Manchester of misconduct. 
Crawford wrote for Manchester a long narra- 
tive detailing aU the incidents of the year's 
campaign, which could be used as counter- 
charges against Cromwell (^Manchester's 
Quarrel luith Cromwell, 58-70, Camden So- 
ciety). The passing of the self-denying ordi- 
nance put an end to the separate command 
of the Earl of Manchester, and Crawford 
next appears as governor of Aylesbury. In 
the winter of 1645 he twice defeated Colonel 
Blague, the royalist governor of Wallingford 
(ViCAES, Burning Bush, 98, 116 ; Wood, Life, 
20). In the same year, on 17 Aug., while 
taking part in the siege of Hereford, he was 
killed by a chance bullet, and was buried in 
Gloucester Cathedral (Wood, Life, 23). His 
monument was removed at the Restoration, 
but his epitaph is preserved by Le Neve 
(JMonumenta Anglieana, i. 220). 

[Wood's Life ; Baillie's Letters, ed. Laing ; 
Rushworth's Historical Collections ; Sanford's 
Studies and Illustrations of the Great Rebellion ; 
Carlyle's Cromwell ; Manchester's Quarrel with 
Cromwell (Camden Soc), 1875 ; Ireland's Ingra- 
titude to the Parliament of England, &c. 1644 ; 
A True Relation of several Overthrows given to 
the Rebels by Colonel Crayford, Colonel Gib- 
son, and Captain Greams, 1642; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 8th Rep. pt. ii.] C. H. F. 

CRAWFORD, ROBERT {d. 1733), au- 
thor of ' Tweedside,' ' The Bush aboon Tra- 
quair,' and several other well-known Scotch 
songs, originally contributed to Ramsay's 
' Tea-table Miscellany,' under the signatiu*e 
' 0.,' was the second son of Patrick Crawford, 
merchant in Edinburgh (third son of David 
Crawford, sixth laird of Drumsoy), by his 
first wife, a daughter of Gordon of Turnberry. 

Patrick Crawford purchased the estate of 
Auchinames in 1715, as well as that of Drum- 
soy about 1731, which explains the state- 
ment of Burns that the son Robert was of 
the house of Auchinames, generally regarded 
as entirely erroneous. Stenhouse and others, 
from misreading a reference to a William 
Crawford in a letter from Hamilton of Ban- 
gor to Lord Kames {Lifeof Lord Kamesj'i. 97), 
have erroneously given William as the name 
of the author of the songs. That Robert 
Crawford above mentioned was the author is 
supported by two explicit testimonies both 
communicated to Robert Burns : that of 
Tytler of Woodhouslee, who, as Burns states, 
was ' most intimately acquainted with Allan 
Ramsay,' and that of Ramsay of Ochtertyre, 
who in a letter to Dr. Blacklock, 27 Oct. 
1787, asks him to inform Burns that Colonel 
Edmestone told him that the author was not, 
as had been rimioured, his cousin Colonel 
George Crawford, who was ' no poet though 
a great singer of songs,' but the ' elder bro- 
ther, Robert, by a former marriage.' Ramsay 
adds that Crawford was ' a pretty yoimg man 
and lived in France,' and Bums states, on 
the authority of Tytler, that he was * unfci- 
tunately drowned coming from France.' Ac- 
cording to an obituary manuscript which was 
in the possession of Charles Mackay, professor 
of civil history in the university of Edinburgh, 
this took place in May 1733. Burns, with his 
usual generous appreciation, remarks that ' the 
beautiful song of " Tweedside " does great 
honour to his poetical talents.' Most of Craw- 
ford's songs were also published with music 
in the 'Orpheus Caledonius' and in Johnson's 
' Musical Museum.* 

[Laing's Edition of Stenhouse's Notes to John- 
son's Musical Museum ; Works of Robert Burns.] 

T. F. H. 

MAS (1530?-1603),of Jordanhill, captor of 
the castle of Dumbarton, was the sixth son 
of Lawrence Crawford of Kilbirnie, ancestor 
of the Viscounts Garnock, and his wife Helen, 
daughter of Sir Hugh Campbell, ancestor of 
the Earls of Loudoun. He was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, but some time 
afterwards obtained his liberty by paj^ing a 
ransom. In 1 550 he went to France, where he 
entered the service of Henry II, under the 
command of James, second earl of Arran. 
Returning to Scotland with Queen Mary in 
1561, he afterwards became one of the gentle- 
men of Darnley, the queen's husband, and 
seems to have shared his special confidence. 
When the queen set out in January 1566-7 
to visit Darnley during his illness at Glas- 
gow, Cra^-ford was sent by Darnley to make 




his excuses for his inability to wait on her 
in person. The particulars of the succeeding 
interview forced upon Darnley by the ap- 
pearance of the queen in his bedchamber 
were immediately afterwards communicated 
to Crawford by Darnley, who asked his ad- 
vice regarding her proposal to take him to 
Craigmillar. Crawford (according to a de- 
position made by him before the commis- 
sioners at York (State Papers, For. Ser. 
1566-8, p. 177) on 9 Dec. 1568, which is the 
sole authority regarding the particulars of 
the interview) gave it as his opinion that 
she treated him too like a prisoner, in which 
Darnley concurred, although expressing his 
resolve to place his life in her hands, and to 
go with her though ' she should murder him.' 
After the murder Crawford joined the asso- 
ciation for the defence of the young king's 
person and the bringing of the murderers to 
trial. Inspired doubtless by devotion to his 
dead master, he showed himself one of the 
most formidable enemies of his murderers, 
and although playing necessarily a subordi- 
nate part, perhaps no other person was so 
directly instrumental in finally overthrowing 
the power of the queen's party. 

Acting in concert with the regent, Moray, 
Crawford suddenly presented himself at a 
meeting of the coiincil which was being held 
at Stirling, 3 Sept. 1569, and, requesting 
audience on a matter of urgent moment, fell 
down on his knees and demanded justice on 
Maitland of Lethington and Sir James Bal- 
four as murderers of the king (Diurnal of 
Occur rents,-^. 147). Asserting that the crime 
with which he charged them was high trea- 
son, he protested that Lethington, who was 
present, should not be admitted to bail, and 
after a violent debate the council agreed to 
commit him, Balfour being subsequently ap- 
prehended at his residence at Monimail. The 
stratagem carried out so boldly by Crawford 
proved, however, abortive, for Lethington 
was shortly afterwards rescued by Kirkaldy 
of Grange, and Balfour obtained his release 
by bribing Wood, the regent's secretary. 

After the election of the Earl of Lennox, 
father of Darnley, as regent, 13 July 1570, 
Crawford became an officer of his guard. At 
the request of the regent he undertook to 
make an attempt to surprise and capture the 
castle of Dumbarton, held by the followers 
of the queen, and commanding a free access 
to France. Situated on a precipitous rock 
rising from the Firth of Clyde to a height of 
200 feet, with a spring of water on its sum- 
mit, and united to the mainland merely by 
a narrow marsh, it was only by famine or by 
surprise that it could be captured, and both 
methods seemed equally vain. The feat of 

Crawford, while thus displaying almost un- 
paralleled daring, was, however, crowned with 
success, not simply by a happy accident, but 
chiefly because he thoroughly gauged its diffi- 
culties and omitted no precautions. Having 
secured the assistance of a yeoman of his own 
who had formerly been a watchman of the 
castle, and was acquainted both with the 
nature of the cliffs and the disposition of the 
guards, he, an hour before svmset on 31 March 
1571, set out from Glasgow with a hundred 
and fifty men, provided with ladders and cords 
and 'crawes of iron.' At Dumbuck, with- 
in a mile of the castle, where they were 
joined by Cunningham of Drumwhassel and 
Captain Hume with a hundred men, he ex- 
plained to his followers the nature of the 
enterprise. With their hackbuts on their 
backs and their ladders slxmg between them 
they then marched forward in single file. It 
was resolved to climb to the highest point of 
the castle, from which, on account of its 
fancied security, the nearest watch was about 
120 feet distant. Dawn had begun while 
they began to climb, but the fogs from the 
marshes wrapped them round and concealed 
them as securely as darkness. Crawford, 
accompanied by his guide, led the way, and 
after he had overcome the difficulties of the as- 
cent with never-failing ingenuity, they gained 
the summit just as the sentinel gave the alarm. 
Rushing in with the cry ' A Darnley ! A Dam- 
ley ! ' they struck down the few half-naked 
soldiers whom the alarm had brought out of 
their barracks, and, seizing the cannon, turned 
them on the garrison, who offered no further 
resistance. A considerable number, including 
Lord Fleming, favoured by the fog made 
their way out and escaped, but Archbishop 
Hamilton and De Virac, the French ambas- 
sador, were both taken prisoners. Hamilton, 
five days after his capture, was executed at 
Stirling, but no one else suffered even im- 
prisonment. To the queen's party the loss 
of the castle was an irreparable blow, no less 
than an astounding surprise. The feat, ex- 
traordinary even if it had been assisted by 
treachery, was generally regarded as impos- 
sible without it, but in a plain and unaffected 
account of the afiair in a letter to Knox 
(printed in RiCHARDBANNATTNE'siliemona/s, 
pp. lOG-7) Crawford says : ' As I live, we 
haue no maner of intelligence within the hous 
nor without the hous, nor I haue spoken of 

During the remainder of the civil war 
Crawford continued to distinguish himself 
in all the principal enterprises. He held 
command of one of the companies of 'waged 
soukliers ' (Caldekwood, History, iii. 100), 
which, under Morton, concentrated in May 




at Dalkeith and afterwards encamped at 
Leith, where, when they had united their 
forces with those of Lennox, a parliament 
was held at which sentence of forfeiture was 
passed against Lethington and others. In 
September following, when the parliament 
at Stirling was surprised by a party of horse- 
men sent by Kirkaldy of Grange, and the 
regent and others taken prisoners, Crawford, 
after the Earl of Mar had opened fire on 
those of the enemy who had gone to spoil 
the houses and booths, with the assistance of 
some gentlemen in the castle and a number 
of the townsfolk, sallied out against the 
intruders and drove them from the town 
(Bannatxne, Memorials, p. 184). Most of 
the captives were at once abandoned, and, 
although Lennox was assassinated in the 
struggle, the main purpose of Elrkaldy was 
thus practically defeated. In July 1572 
Crawford had a turn of ill-fortune, being 
defeated and nearly captured in the woods 
of Hamilton by some persons in the pay of 
the Hamiltons, but this, it is said, was owing 
to the fact that his assailants had been for- 
merly in the service of the regent and were 
permitted to approach him as friends {ib. 
p. 237). At the siege of the castle of Edin- 
burgh in 1573 Crawford was appointed with 
Captain Hume to keep the trenches (Cal- 
DERWOOD, History, iii. 281). On 28 May he 
led the division of the Scots which, with a 
division of the English, stormed the spur 
after a desperate conflict of three hours. By 
its capture Kirkaldy was compelled to come 
to terms, and it was to Hume and Crawford 
that he secretly surrendered the castle on 
the following day (Sir James Melville, 
Memoir?, p. 255). The fall of the castle ex- 
tinguished the resistance of the queen's party 
and ended the civil war. 

Crawford in his later years resided at 
Kersland in the parish of Dairy, of which his 
second wife, Janet Ker, was the heiress. He 
granted an annual rent to the university of 
Glasgow in July 1576, and in 1577 he was 
elected lord provost of the city. Crawford 
received the lands of Jordanhill, which his 
father had bestowed on the chaplainry of 
Drumry, the grant being confirmed by a 
charter granted under the great seal, 8 March 
1565-6. His important services to James VI 
were recognised by liberal grants of land at 
various periods. In September 1575 James VI 
sent him a letter of thanks for his good ser- 
vice done to him from the beginning of the 
wars, promising some day to remember the 
same to his ' great contentment.' This he 
did not fail to do as soon as he assumed the 
government, for on 28 March 1578 Crawford 
received a charter under the great seal for 

various lands in Dairy, On 24 Oct. 1581 he 
received the lands of Blackstone, Barns, and 
others in the neighbourhood of Glasgow, as 
well as an annuity of 200/. Scots, payable 
out of the religious benefices. Crawford was 
in command of a portion of the forces with 
which the Duke of Lennox proposed in 
August 1582 to seize the protestant lords, a 
design frustrated by intelligence sent from 
Bowes, the English ambassador. Crawford 
died on 3 Jan. 1603, and was buried in the 
old churchyard, KilbLrnie, where in 1594 he 
had erected a curious monument to him- 
self and his lady, with the motto ' God 
schaw the right,' which had been granted 
him by the Earl of Morton for his valour in 
the sMrmish between Leith and Edinburgh 
(see engraving in Archceological and Histori- 
cal Collections relating to Ayr and Wigton, 
ii. 128). 

[Crawfurd's Renfrewshire ; Burke's Baronet- 
age ; Richard Bannatyne's Memorials (Bannatyne 
Club) ; Diurnal of Occurrents (Bannatyne Club) ; 
Sir James Melville's Memoirs ; Calderwood's His- 
tory of the Church of Scotland, vol. iii.; the 
Histories of Tytler, Hill Burton, and Froude.] 

T. F. H. 

D.D. (1812-1875), Scottish divine, was a na- 
tive of St. Andrews. His father, William 
Cravrford, was professor of moral philosophy 
in the United College in that city. He received 
his education in the university of St. An- 
drews, took his degree in 1831, and, being 
licensed as a preacher by the presbytery of 
St. Andrews in April 1834, was presented 
by the principal and masters of the United 
College to the parish of Cults. In 1838 he 
was translated to Glamis, to which parish 
he had been presented by the trustees of Lord 
Strathmore ; and six years later, having re- 
ceived from the university of St. Andrews 
the degree of D.D., he was transferred to 
the charge of St. Andrew's parish in Edin- 
burgh. In 1859 he was appointed professor 
of divinity ; in 1861 he was made a chaplain- 
in-ordinary to the queen ; subsequently he 
became a dean of the chapel royal ; and in 
1867 his eminence as a theologian was re- 
cognised by his election to the oflice of mo- 
derator of the general assembly. He died 
at Genoa on 11 Oct. 1875. 

His works are: 1. 'Reasons of Adherence 
to the Church of Scotland,' Cupar, 1843. 
2. * An Argument for Jewish Missionaries,' 
Edinburgh, 1847. 3. ' Presbyterianism de- 
fended against the exclusive claims of Pre- 
lacy, as urged by Romanists and Tractarians,' 
Edinburgh, 1853, 8vo. 4. ' Presbytery or 
Prelacy ; which is the more conformable to 




the pattern of the Apostolic Churches ? ' 2nd 
sdit. Lond. [1867], 16mo. The subject dealt 
with in this and the preceding work led to a 
protracted controversy with Bishop Words- 
worth, which was carried on in the columns 
of the ' Scotsman.' 5. ' The Fatherhood of 
God, considered in its general and special 
aspects, and particularly in relation to the 
Atonement. With a review of recent specu- 
lations on the subject ' [by Professor R. S. 
Candlish and others], Edinburgh, 1866, 1867, 
1870, 8vo. 6. ' The Doctrine of Holy Scrip- 
ture respecting the Atonement,' Lond. 1871, 
1874, 8vo. 7. 'The Mysteries of Christianity; 
being the Baird lecture for 1874,' London, 
1874, 8vo. 

[Scotsman, 13 Oct. 1875, p. 4; living's Emi- 
nent Scotsmen, p. 83 ; Cat. of Printed Books in 
Brit. Mus.] T. C. 

1800), Irish presbyterian minister and his- 
torian, was born at Crumlin, co. Antrim, pro- 
bably in 1739. He was the foui-th in a direct 
line of presbyterian ministers of repute. Tho- 
mas Crawford, his father (d. 1782, aged 86), 
was minister at Crumlin for fifty-eight years. 
Andrew Crawford, his grandfather (d. 1726), 
was minister at Carnmoney for over thirty 
years. Thomas Crawford {d. 1670, aged 46), 
father of Andrew, was the ejected minister 
of Donegore ; he married a sister of Andrew 
Stewart, author of a presbyterian ' History 
of the Church of Ireland.' WiUiam Craw- 
ford's mother was Anne Mackay, aunt of 
Elizabeth Hamilton [q. v.] He had three 
younger brothers, all distinguished in the 
medical profession : John, a surgeon in the 
East India Company's service, afterwards 
physician at Demerara, author of several medi- 
cal works, died at Baltimore in 1813 ; Adair 
[q. v.] ; Alexander, physician at Lisburn, died 
29 Aug. 1823, aged 68. WiUiam, the eldest 
son, studied for the ministry at Glasgow, 
where he graduated M.A., and received the 
degree of D.D. in 1785. On 6 Feb. 1766 he 
was ordained minister of Strabane, co. Tyrone, 
a charge which had been vacant since the 
death of Victor Ferguson in 1763. Craw- 
ford, like his father, was a latitudinarian in 
theology, but he took no part whatever in 
ecclesiastical polemics ; his tastes were lite- 
rary, and in his active engagements he showed 
himself animated by no small amount of pub- 
lic spirit. He first came forward as an author 
in a critique of Chesterfield's ' Letters to his 
Son ; ' his plea, in the form of dialogues, for 
a more robust morality attracted notice at 
Oxford. Crawford next employed himself in 
translating a forgotten treatise on natural 
theology. The rise of the volunteer move- 

ment in 1778 was welcomed by him as the 
dawn of national independence. He zealously 
promoted the movement, was chaplain to the 
first Tyrone regiment, and published two 
stirring sermons to volunteers, which were 
among the earliest productions of the press 
at Strabane. A more important contribution 
to patriotic literature was his * History of 
Ireland,' published in the first year of Grat- 
tan's parliament. Thrown into the form of 
letters, it is an exceedingly well written and 
even eloquent work, valuable for its contempo- 
rary notices of the * Whiteboys,' ' Oak Boys,' 
' Steel Boys,' and volunteers, and for the in- 
sight it gives into the aims of the older school 
of advocates of national independence. Coin- 
cident with the plea for a free parliament, on 
the part of the liberal presbyterians of Ulster, 
was the aspiration for an Irish university in 
the north, dissociated from all sectarian tram- 
mels. While William Campbell, D.D. [q. v.], 
was negotiating for public support to his plan, 
two very vigorous efibrts were made to start 
the project on a basis of private enterprise 
by James Crombie [q. v.] at BeKast, and by 
Crawford at Strabane. Crawford's academy, 
though short-lived, fulfilled the common aim 
more perfectly than Crombie's. The Strabane 
Academy was opened in 1785 with three 
professors. The curriculum was enlarged as 
the plan progressed, the synod continuing for 
a time to place the institution on the foot- 
ing of a university, and appointing periodic 
examinations. Several presbyterian ministers 
received their whole literary and theological 
training at Strabane. The new turn given 
to the volunteer movement by the rise of the 
clubs of ' United Irishmen ' (1791) was no 
doubt one of the causes which contributed to 
the ruin of the Strabane Academy. Men of 
liberal thought among the presbyterians were 
divided into hostile sections. Crawford fol- 
lowed Robert Black [q^. v.] in his retreat from 
the seditious tendencies which were begin- 
ning to develope themselves. In 1795, during 
the brief administration of Earl FitzwiUiam, 
Crawford was advised that there was a pro- 
pect of a parliamentary grant ' to establish 
a university for the education of protestant 
dissenters.' Under the direction of a com- 
mittee of synod, Crawford and two others 
went up to Dublin to press the matter, but 
with the recall of FitzwiUiam the opportu- 
nity passed away. In the earlier half of 1797 
Arthur McMechan, or Macmahon, minister 
of the nonsubscribing congregation at Holy- 
wood, near Belfast, fled the country for poli- 
tical reasons, and is said to have entered the 
military service of France. A stupid but 
popular Ulster fable makes him the progeni- 
tor of the late Marshal Macmahon. On 




9 May 1798 the Antrim presbytery declared 
the congregation vacant. Crawford received 
a call to Holywood in September, resigned 
the charge of Strabane and his connection 
vs'ith the general synod in October, and on 
21 Nov. was admitted into the Antrim pres- 
bytery. He died on 4 Jan. 1800, aged 60, 
leaving behind him the reputation of great 
attainment and a blameless character. Wil- 
liam Bryson [q. v.], who had preached his 
father's funeral sermon, performed the same 
office for him. His widow survived till 
20 Feb. 1806. 

He published : 1. ' Remarks on the late 
Earl of Chesterfield's Letters to his Son,' 1776, 
12mo ; another edition, Dublin, 1776, 12mo. 
2. 'Dissertations on Natural Theology and 
Revealed Religion, by John Alphonso Turre- 
tine,' Belf., vol. i. 1777, 8vo, vol. ii. 1778, 
8vo. 3. ' A History of Ireland from the 
earliest period to the present time,' &c., Stra- 
bane, 2 vols. 1783, 8vo (dedication to Lord 
Charlemont ; consists of letters to William 
Hamilton ; has twenty pages of subscribers' 
names). Also ' Volunteer Sermons,' Strabane, 
1779 and 1780. 

[Belfast News-Letter, 10 Jan. 1800; Mason's 
Statistical Account of Ireland (1816), ii. 270 ; 
Keid's Hist. Presb. Ch. in Ireland (Killen), 1867, 
i. 184, iii. 371, 381 ; Witherow's Hist, and Lit. 
Mem. of Presb. in Ireland, 2nd ser. 1880, p. 
203 sq. ; Killen's Hist. Cong. Presb. Ch. in Ire- 
land, 1886, pp. 29, 232; Campbell's Manuscript 
Sketches of the History of Presbjterianism in 
Ireland, 1803, pt. ii. p. 70 ; Extracts from Manu- 
script Minutes of General Synod and Antrim 
Presbytery.] A. G. 

CRAWFORD, WILLIAM (1788-1847), 
philanthropist, was the son of Robert Craw- 
ford, one of the old race of Crawfords in Fife- 
shire, a captain in the army, who late in life 
settled in London as a wine-merchant, and 
who had groimds for claiming to be the heir 
of the earldom of Ralcarres, although he did 
not take any legal steps for the recognition 
of his rights. The father married Mary Haw 
of Yarmouth in Norfolk, and of that mar- 
riage the youngest son, William Crawford, 
was born in London on 30 May 1788, and re- 
ceived in his early years a mercantile educa- 

In 1804 Crawford obtained an appointment 
in the Naval Transport Office, London, and 
remained in it tiU 1815, when the office was 
broken up at the peace. In 1810 he had be- 
come an active member of the committee of 
the British and Foreign School Society, and 
had already begun to interest himself in such 
questions as the abolition of the slave trade 
and the reform of the penal laws. He soon 
became secretary to the London Prison Dis- 

cipline Society, of which Samuel Hoare was 
chairman, and Thomas Buxton and Samuel 
Gurney were zealous members. He edited 
the annual ' reports' of that society, which 
grew into large volumes. 

In 1833 Crawford was sent as commissioner 
to the United States, in order to examine the 
working of the American prison and peniten- 
tiary system. On his return he made a most 
valuable report on the subject to his official 
chief, which was printed by order of the House 
of Commons on 11 Aug. 1834. This report 
demonstrated the advantages of the Pennsyl- 
vanian system of separate cells, which had 
been in force at the great prison of Philadel- 
phia for about five years, and had previously 
been in use in the prisons of some other 
American states. It was soon afterwards in- 
troduced into the United Kingdom, and found 
its way into other European countries. The 
first result of Crawford's inquiries was that 
in 1835 the act 5 & 6 WiU. IV, cap. 38, waa 
passed, authorising the appointment of in- 
spectors of prisons in England and Scotland. 
Ireland had already had such inspectors since 
1810. Great Britain was now divided into 
four districts. Crawford and Whitworth 
Russell (formerly chaplain at Millbank peni- 
tentiary) were appointed inspectors of the 
most important, that for the home and mid- 
land counties, including London. The ele- 
ven volumes of * Prison Reports' from 1836 
to 1847 show a part of the activity of these 
two inspectors, who were, in fact, the framers 
of the laws (2 & 3 Vict. cap. 42, 46, and 
3 & 4 Vict. cap. 44) which legally esta- 
blished the separate cell system in the three 
kingdoms, and also of the regulations for the 
management of the new Parkhurst Refor- 
matory, of which Crawford was really the 
originator. From 1841 Crawford was made 
solely responsible for the reports of the im- 
portant prison of Pentonville, and he also 
had a large share in the reforms which our 
government was at that period beginning to 
apply to the prison systems of the British 

The heavy official work with which Craw- 
ford was burdened told upon his health. He 
had suffered as a youth from an afi'ection of 
the heart, and in 1841 he had a serious at- 
tack of illness, from which he never entirely 
recovered, although he continued to perform 
his official duties as usual until 22 April 
1847, when he died suddenly in Pentonville 
prison, while attending a meeting of the 
managing committee of that institution. 
Crawford's private character was one of re- 
markable gentleness and amiability. He was 

[Personal knowledge.] J. W. 




CRAWFORD, WILLIAM (1825-1869), [ 
painter, the second son of Archibald Craw- , 
ford, the author of ' Bonnie Mary Hay,' and j 
other popular lyrics, was bom at Ayr in 1825. j 
Evincing in boyhood a taste for artistic pur- 
suits, he was at an early age sent to Edin- 
burgh to study under Sir William Allan at 
the Trustees' Academy, where his success 
in copying one of Etty's great pictures se- 
cured for him a travelling bursary, by means 
of which he was enabled to visit Rome and 
study there for two or three years. While 
in Rome he contributed occasional papers 
and criticisms to some Edinburgh newspapers. 
On his return he settled down to the prac- 
tice of his profession in Edinburgh, where he 
found an influential patron in Lord Meadow- 
bank, and for several years he was engaged 
as a teacher of drawing at the Royal Institu- 
tion until the School of Design became as- 
sociated with the Science and Art Depart- ■ 
ment. He was an indefatigable worker, and 1 
was almost invariably represented in the 
annual exhibitions of the Royal Scottish 
Academy by the largest number of works 
that any single artist was allowed to send, j 
Among his contributions were various sacred 
subjects, and a considerable number of genre 
pictures, which were most successful when 
dealing with female characters. Many of 1 
them were bought by the Royal Association 
for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scot- 
land. But Crawford achieved his greatest 
success with his portraits in crayons, espe- 
cially those of children and young ladies, 
which were executed with a grace and felicity 
of style that rendered them perfect in their 
way, and caused them to be much sought 
after. He exhibited portraits at the Royal 
Academy in London also between 1852 and 
1868. He was elected an associate of the 
Royal Scottish Academy in 1860, and died 
suddenly in Edinburgh 1 Aug. 1 869. His wife 
also has been a contributor to the exhibitions 
of the Royal Scottish Academy. 

Among Crawford's best works are his * May 
Queen ' and ' May Morning,' * The Return 
from Maying,' 1861, 'Waiting at the Ferry,' 
1865, * A Highland Keeper's Daughter' and 
•More Free than Welcome,' 1867, 'The Wish- 
ing Pool,' and ' Too Late ' — a beautiful young 
girl arriving at a garden gate ' too late ' to pre- 
vent a duel between two rival lovers, one of 
whom lies dead near the gateway — exhibited 
at the Royal Scottish Academy in 1869. 

[Scotsman, 3 Aug. 1869, reprinted in the Re- 
gister and Magazine of Biography, 1869, ii. 146; 
Art Journal, 1869, p. 272; Catalogues of the 
Exhibition of the Royal Scottish Academy ; Cata- 
logues of the Exhibition of the Royal Academy 
of Arts, London, 1852-68.] li. E. G. 


(1781-1861), politician, was eldest son of 
WiUiam Sharman of Moira Castle, co. Down, 
a protestant landed proprietor who was for 
many years M.P. for Lisbum in the Irish 
parliament, was colonel of a union regiment 
of volunteers, and died in 1803. William, 
born 3 Sept. 1781, married, 6 Dec. 1805, 
Mabel Fridiswid, daughter and heiress of 
John Crawford of Crawfordsburn, and Rade- 
mon, CO. Down, and assumed by royal license 
the additional surname of Crawford. In 1811 
he served as sheriff of Down, and in the fol- 
lowing years persistently advocated Roman 
catholic emancipation. Crawford was mean- 
while seeking to improve the condition of 
his tenants on his large Ulster estates, and he 
gave the fullest possible recognition to the 
Ulster tenant-right custom. His tenants 
often sold their tenant-right for sums equal- 
ling the value of the fee-simple. About 1830 
Crawford resolved to agitate for the conver- 
sion of the Ulster custom into a legal enact- 
ment, and for its extension to the whole of 
Ireland. Tenant farmers in the north of Ire- 
land eagerly accepted his leadership, and in 
1835 he was returned to parliament as mem- 
ber for Dundalk. On 2 July 1835 he opened 
his campaign in the House of Commons by 
bringing forward a bill to compensate evicted 
tenants for improvements. Owing to the late- 
ness of the session, the bill was dropped and 
reintroduced next session (10 March 1836), 
but it never reached a second reading. 

Crawford rapidly declared himself an ad- 
vanced radical on all political questions. On 
31 May 1837 he attended a chartist meeting 
in London, and not only accepted all the 
principles of the chartist petition, but de- 
clared that there was no impracticability 
about any of them. He was one of the com- 
mittee appointed to draft the bills embody- 
ing the chartist demands (Lovett, Autobio- 
graphy, p. 114). With O'Connell Crawford 
was never on good terms. Their tempera- 
ments were antipathetic. Crawford declined 
to support O'Connell's agitation for the repeal 
of the union, and he was consequently re- 
jected by O'ConneU's influence at Dundalk 
after the dissolution of 1837. In the first 
session of the new parliament (1838) Lord 
Melbourne's government passed, with O'Con- 
nell's assistance, the Irish Tithe Bill, which 
commuted tithe into a rent-charge, at the 
same time as it reduced tithe by twenty-five 
per cent. Crawford at once denounced the 
measure as a sacrifice of the tenants' interests. 
Soon after it had passed he met O'Connell 
at a public meeting at Dublin, and charged 
him with sacrificing Ireland to an alliance 
between himself and the whigs. O'Connell 




replied witli very gross personal abuse, which j 
made future common action impossible. The ' 
tenant-right agitation was still gathering ] 
force in Ireland, and Crawford was agitating 
in England for the chartists. In 1841 Roch- 
dale offered Crawford a seat in parliament. 
The constituency paid the election expenses, ! 
and he continued to represent Rochdale till 
the dissolution in July 1852. On 21 April 
184:2 he moved for a committee of the whole 
house to discuss the reform of the representa- 
tion, and was left in a minority of 92. In 
1843 he moved the rejection of the Arms Act, 
and supported Smith O'Brien's motion for the 
redress of Irish grievances. After the Devon 
commission presented its report (1844), he 
moved for leave to bring in a tenant-right 
bill, legalising the Ulster custom, and ex- 
tending its operation to the whole of Ireland. 
Delays arose ; the government declined to 
assist Crawford ; and the bill was temporarily 
abandoned. On 29 Feb. 1844 Crawford at- 
tacked the government for the proclamation of 
the Clontarf meeting. On 1 March following 
he moved that consideration of the estimates 
should be suspended until the reform of the 
representation had been considered by the 
house. Fourteen members voted with him 
in the division. In succeeding sessions Craw- 
ford was the active spokesman of the radicals, 
and he never neglected an opportunity of 
bringing the Irish land question before the 
house. In 1846 the Tenant-right Association 
was formed under his auspices in Ulster, 
and this society developed into the Tenant 
League of Ireland in 1850. In 1847 Craw- 
ford's bin reached for a first time a second 
reading (16 June), and was rejected by 
112 to 25. In the second session of the 
next parliament Crawford's bill was rejected 
(5 April 1848) by the narrow majority of 
twenty-three (ayes 122, noes 145). On 22 July 
1848 Crawford moved an amendment to the 
Coercion Bill proposed by Lord John Rus- 
sell, when only seven members supported 
him in the division. After taking every op- 
portunity of pressing his tenant-right bill on 
the attention of parliament, he moved its 
second reading for the last time 10 Feb. 1852, 
when 57 voted for it and 167 against it, 
Crawford was defeated when candidate for 
Down Co. at the general election of 1852. He 
did not re-enter parliament, and his place as 
head of the tenant-right movement was taken 
by Serjeant William Shee [q. v.], who rein- 
troduced the Tenant-right Bill. A select 
committee of the House of Commons, which 
included Lord Palmerston, examined it to- 
gether with a proposed scheme of land reform 
brought forward bythe Irish attorney-general, 
Sir Joseph Napier,and known as Napier's code. 

Crawford's bill was condemned by the com- 
mittee ; it was brought in again, however, 
in 1856 and immediately dropped. The Irish 
land legislation of 1870 and 1881 embodied 
most of Crawford's principles. 

Many years before retiring from parlia- 
ment Crawford formulated, in opposition to 
O'ConneU, a scheme for an Irish parliament, 
known as the federal scheme. He first pro- 
mulgated it in a number of letters published 
in 1843, and urged the appointment of ' a 
local body for the purpose of local legislation 
combined with an imperial legislation for im- 
perial purposes.' ' No act of the imperial par- 
liament,' he wrote, * having a separate action 
as regards Ireland, should be a law in Ire- 
land unless passed and confirmed by her own 
legislative body.' The federalists soon be- 
came a numerous party, and in 1844 O'Con- 
neU invited Crawford to come to some compro- 
mise with the Repeal Association, but Craw- 
ford declined ; and in 1846,when the federalists 
again came to the front, O'Connell ridiculed 
the whole plan. In 1850 Crawford supported 
the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, and excited the 
wrath of Dr. Molesworth, vicar of Rochdale. 
An acrimonious correspondence followed, 
which was published in 1851. In spite of 
strong protestant feeling, Crawford was al- 
ways popular with Roman catholics, whose 
political rights he championed consistently. 
After 1852 Crawford lived at Crawfordsburn, 
and devoted himself to local and private busi- 
ness. He died 18 Oct. 1861, and was buried 
three days later at Kilmore. Crawford had ten 
children, and his eldest son, John, succeeded 
to the property. 

[Times, 19 and 24 Oct. 1861 ; Shee's Papers 
on the Irish Land Question, 1863 ; E. Barry 
O'Brien's Parliamentary Hist, of the Irish Land 
Question, 1880 ; A. M. Sullivan's New Ireland, 
1877; SirC. G. Duffy's Young Ireland (1860), 
i. 10, 25, 266, 339 ; T. P. O'Connor's Hist, of 
the Parnell Movement, 1886 ; Hansard's Pari. 
Debates, 1835-7, 1841-52; Lovett's Autobio- 
graphy, 1876 ; Lists of Members of Parliament, 
ii. ; Burke's Landed Gentry, s.v. 'Sharman;' 
Webb's Irish Biography, s.v. ' Sharman.'] 

S. L. 

CRAWFURD. [See also Crauftjrd 
and Ceawfoed.] 

1843), Scottish poet, was born of humble 
parents in Ayr in 1785. In his ninth year he 
was left an orphan, and after receiving a very 
limited school education in Ayr went, in his 
thirteenth year, to London to learn the trade 
of a baker with his sister's husband. After 
eight years' absence he returned to Ayr, where 
at the age of twenty-two he attended the 




writing classes in Ayr academy for a quarter 
of a year. Proceeding then to Edinburgh, he 
was for some time employed in the house of 
Charles Hay, after which he obtained an en- 
gagement in the family of General Hay of 
Rannes, in honour of whose daughter, who 
had nursed him while suffering from typhus 
fever, he composed the well-known song, 
'Bonnie Mary Hay,' which originally ap- 
peared in the 'Ayr and Wigtownshire Courier.' 
Returning to Ayr with his earnings in 1811, 
he entered into business as a grocer, but this 
not proving successful he became an auc- 
tioneer, and also took a small shop for the 
sale of furniture. Having been indulged by 
his employers with the use of their libraries, 
Crawford had found the means of cultivating 
his literary tastes, and in 1819 ventured on 
authorship, by publishing anonymously * St. 
James's in an Uproar,' of which three thou- 
sand copies were sold in Ayr alone, and for 
which the printer was apprehended and com- 
pelled to give bail for his appearance. In the 
same year Crawford began to contribute to the 
' Ayr and Wigtownshire Courier ' a number 
of pieces in prose and verse. They included a 
series of sketches founded on traditions in the 
west of Scotland, which in 1824 were pub- 
lished by subscription in a volume under the 
title ' Tales of a Grandfather,' new and en- 
larged edition in two volumes, by Archibald 
Constable & Co. in 1825. Shortly afterwards, 
in conjunction with one or two friends, he 
commenced a weekly serial in Ayr entitled 
* The Correspondent,' which, however, on ac- 
count of a disagreement between the origi- 
nators, was only continued for a short time. 
Subsequently he brought out, on his own 
accoimt, ' The Gaberlunzie,' which extended 
to sixteen numbers. To the publication he 
contributed a nimiber of tales and poems, 
among the latter of which ' Scotland, I have 
no home but thee,' was set to music and soon 
became popular. In his later years he con- 
tributed articles in prose and verse to the 
'Ayr Advertiser.' He died at Ayr 6 Jan. 

[Charles Eogers's Modern Scottish Minstrel, 
vi. 31-3 ; Anderson's Scottish Nation.] 

T. F. H. 

CRAWFURD, GEORGE {d. 1748), ge- 
nealogist and historian, was the third son of 
Thomas Crawfurd of Cartsburn. He was the 
author of a ' Genealogical History of the 
Royal and Illustrious Family of the Stewarts 
from the year 1034 to the year 1710 ; to which 
are added the Acts of Sederunt and Articles 
of Regulation relating to them ; to which is 
prefixed a General Description of the Shire 
of Renfrew,' Edinburgh, 1710 ; ' The Peerage 

of Scotland, containing an Historical and 
Genealogical Account of the Nobility of that 
Kingdom,' Edinburgh, 1716 ; and ' Lives and 
Characters of the Crown Officers of Scotland, 
from the Reign of King David I to the Union 
of the two Kingdoms, with an Appendix of 
Original Pagers,' vol. i. 1726. The ' Descrip- 
tion of the Shire of Renfrew ' was published 
separately, with a continuation by Semple, at 
Paisley in 1788, and a second edition, with 
a continution by Robertson, also at Paisley, 
1818. The works, though now practically 
superseded, display considerable learning and 
industry. When Simon Fraser resolved to 
lay claim to the barony of Lovat, he em- 
ployed Crawfurd to investigate the case, and 
to supply materials to support his pretensions. 
It is said to have been chiefly due to the re- 
searches of Crawfurd that Fraser obtained 
a favourable decision, but he nevertheless 
declined to pay Crawfurd anything for his 
trouble. Justly indignant at his meanness, 
Crawfurd used to call him one of the greatest 
scoundrels in the world, and threaten if he 
met him to break every bone in his body. The 
' Letters of Simon, Lord Fraser, to George 
Crawfurd, 1728-30,' while the case was in 
progress, are published in the ' Spottiswoode 
Miscellany,' 400-9. He died at Glasgow, 
24 Dec. 1748. By his wife, Mary, daughter 
of James Anderson, author of ' Diplomata 
Scotiee,' he had four daughters. 

[Scots Mag. X. 614; Spottiswoode Miscellany 
as above ; Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Cat. of the 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.] T. F. H. 

CRAWFURD, JOHN (1783-1868), ori- 
entalist, was born on 13 Aug. 1783, in the 
island of Islay, where his father had settled 
as a medical practitioner. He received his 
early education in the village school of Bow- 
more, and in 1799, at the age of sixteen, he 
entered on a course of medical studies at 
Edinburgh. Here he remained until 1803, 
when he received a medical appointment in 
India, and served for five years with the army 
in the North-west Provinces. At the end 
of that time he was, most fortunately in the 
interests of science, transferred to Penang, 
where he acquired so extensive a knowledge 
of the language and the people that Lord 
Minto was glad to avail himself of his ser- 
A'ices when, in 1811, he undertook the expe- 
dition which ended in the conquest of Java. 
During the occupation of Java, i.e. from 1811 
to 1817, Crawfurd filled some of the principal 
civil and political posts on the island ; and 
it was only on the restoration of the territory 
to the Dutch that he resigned office and re- 
turned to England. In the interval thus 
afibrded him from his official duties he wrote 




a ' History of the Indian Archipelago/ a 
work of sterling value and great interest, in 
3 vols. 1820. Having completed this work 
he returned to India, only, however, to leave 
it again immediately for the courts of Siam 
and Cochin China, to which he was accredited 
as envoy by the Marquis of Hastings. This 
delicate mission he carried through with 
complete success, and on the retirement of 
Sir Stamford Raffles from the government of 
Singapore in 1823, he was appointed to ad- 
minister that settlement. In this post he re- 
mained for three years, at the end of which 
time he was transferred as commissioner to 
Pegu, whence, on the conclusion of peace with 
Burma, he was despatched by Lord Amherst 
on a mission to the court of Ava. To say 
that any envoy could be completely success- 
ful in his dealings with so weak and treache- 
rous a monarch as King Hpagyidoa would 
be to assert an impossibility ; but it is certain 
that Crawfurd, by his exercise of diplomatic 
skill, accomplished all that was possible under 
the conditions. In the course of the follow- 
ing year Crawfurd finally returned to Eng- 
land, and devoted the remainder of his long 
life to the promotion of studies connected 
with Indo-China. With characteristic energy 
he brought out an account of his embassy to 
the courts of Siam and Cochin-China in 1828, 
and in the following year a ' Journal ' of his 
embassy to the court of Ava (1 vol. 4to), 
which reached a second edition in 183-4 (2 vols. 
8vo). Among his other principal works were 
* A Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay 
Language,' in 2 vols., 1852, and ' A Descrip- 
tive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and 
Adjacent Countries,' 1856 ; in addition to 
which he published many valuable papers on 
ethnological or kindred subjects in various 
journals. Endowed by nature with a stead- 
fast and affectionate disposition, Crawfurd 
was surrounded by many friends, who found 
in him a staunch ally or a courteous though 
uncompromising opponent in all matters, 
whether private or public, in which he was 
in harmony or in disagreement with them. 
For many years Crawfurd was a constant 
attendant at the meetings of the Geogra- 
phical and Ethnological Societies, discussing 
authoritatively all matters connected with 
Indo-China. He unsuccessfully contested, 
as an advanced radical, Glasgow in 1832, 
Paisley in 1834, Stirling in 1835, and Preston 
in 1837. Crawfurd died at South Kensing- 
ton on 11 May 1868, aged 85. 

[Gent. Mag. 1868; Proceedings of the Royal 
Geographical Society, 1868; Times, 13 May 
1868 ; and the works above cited.] R. K. D. 

MAS (d. 1662), author of a ' History of the 

University of Edinburgh,' was educated at 
St. Leonards College in the university of 
St. Andrews, where he matriculated in 1618 
and graduated M.A. in 1621 (St. Andrews 
University Rolls). He was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the professorship of philosophy 
in the university of Edinburgh in 1625, but 
on 29 March of the following year he was 
inducted professor of humanity in the same 
university. On 26 Feb. 1630 he was ap- 
pointed by the town council of Edinburgh 
to the rectorship of the high school. On the 
occasion of the visit of Charles I to Scotland 
in 1633 Crawfurd was appointed to assist 
John Adamson [q. v.], principal of the uni- 
versity, and William Drummond [q. v.] of 
Hawthornden in devising the pageants and 
composing the speeches and verses. These 
were published under the title ' EtVo'Sta Mu- 
sarum Edinensium in Caroli Regis ingressu 
in Scotiam,' 1633. On 31 Dec. 1640 he re- 
turned to the university as public professor 
of mathematics, and on 3 Jan. following he 
was in addition made one of the regents ot 
philosophy, the total annual salary granted 
him for discharging the duties of both chairs 
being six hundred merks (33/. 6.?. Sd.) At 
the M.A. graduation ceremony Crawfurd in- 
troduced the custom of publishing ' Theses 
Mathematicae.' In a document in the uni- 
versity library he is styled 'a grammarian 
and philosopher, likewise profoundly skilled 
in theology, and a man of the greatest piety 
and integrity.' He died 30 March 1662. 
Crawfurd's * History of the University of 
Edinburgh from 1580 to 1646 ' was published 
in 1808, from the transcript in the university 
library made by Matthew Crawford from the 
original, which he states to be then in the 
possession of Professor Laurence Dundas of 
the university. He was also the author of 
' Locorum Nominum propriorum Gentilitium 
vocumque difficiliorum, quae in Latinis Sco- 
torum Historiis occurrunt, explicatio verna- 
cula,' which, edited with additions and emen- 
dations by C. Irvine, was published in 1665 ; 
and ' Notes and Observations on Mr. George 
Buchanan's History of Scotland, wherein the 
difficult passages of it are explained, the chro- 
nology in many places rectified,and an account 
is given of the genealogies of the most con- 
siderable families of Scotland,' 1708, printed 
from a manuscript in the Advocates' Library. 
All these works are in the library of the 
British Museum. In the Advocates' Library 
there are some manuscript notes of Craw- 
furd's on * Virgil.' 

[Histories of the University of Edinburgh by 
Crawfurd, Dalzell, and Grant ; Stevens's History 
of the High School of Edinburgh ; British Mu- 
seum Catalogue.] T. F. H. 




CRAWLEY,SiR FRANCIS (1584-1649), 
judge, was born, according to Lloyd {Memoirs, 
p. 290), at Luton, Beds., 6 April 1584. Lloyd 
adds that * his dexterity in logic at the uni- 
versity promised him an able pleader at the 
Inns of Court.' According to the register of 
Caius College, Cambridge, he was a native of 
Norton, Leicestershire, and became a scholar 
of the college 2 May 1592. He studied law 
first at Staple Inn and then at Gray's Inn, to 
which he was admitted 26 May 1598. He 
was called to the degree of serjeant-at-law on 
26 June 1623, and elected reader at Gray's 
Inn in the following autumn. In 1626 he 
was among the counsel whom the Earl of 
Bristol petitioned to have assigned him on his 
impeachment. He was appointed to a puisne 
judgeship in the common pleas on 11 Oct. 
1632, and knighted. In November 1635 he 
advised the king that corn fell within the 
purview of the statute 25 Hen. VIII, c. 2, 
which regulated the price of * victuals,' and 
that a maximum price might be fixed for it 
under that statute, the king's object being to 
fix such a maximum and then raise money by 
selling licenses to charge a higher price. He 
subscribed the resolution in favour of the le- 
gality of ship-money drawn up in answer to 
the case laid before the judges by the king in 
February 1636. He subsequently gave judg- 
ment in the king's favour in the exchequer 
chamber in Hampden's case (27 Jan. 1637-8), 
and publicly asserted the incompetence of 
parliament to limit the royal prerogative in 
that matter. He was impeached for these 
actions in July 1641, the proceedings being 
opened by Waller, who compared his ' pro- 
gress through the law ' to * that of a diligent 
spy through a country into which he meant 
to conduct an enemy.' He was restrained 
from going circuit (5 Aug.) Probably he 

1'oined the king on or before the outbreak of 
lostilities, for in 1643 he was at Oxford, 
where he received the degree of D.C.L. on 
21 Jan. He died on 13 Feb. 1649, and was 
buried at Luton. By his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Rotherham, knight, of 
Luton, he had two sons, who survived him, 
of whom the elder, John, died without issue, 
and the younger, Francis, who appears as the 
holder of an estate at Luton in 1660, entered 
Gray's Inn on 7 Aug. 1623, was called to the 
bar in February 1638, appointed cursitor baron 
of the exchequer in 1679, and died in 1682-3. 

[Philips's Grandeur of the La^y (1685), p. 212 ; 
• Dugdale's Orig. 296 ; Chron. Ser. 107, 108 ; Cob- 
bett's State Trials, ii. 1300, iii. 843, 1078-87, 
1305 ; Cal. State Papers (Dora. 1637-8), p. 540 ; 
Pari. Hist. 847 ; Whitelocke's Mem. 47 ; Wood's 
Fasti (Bliss), ii. 44 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges ; 
Rushworth, pt. ii:. vol. i. p. 329.] J. M. K. 


(1817-1879), ironmaster, youngest son of 
William Crawshay [q. v.] by his second wife, 
Elizabeth Thompson, was born at Cyfarthfa 
Ironworks 8 March 1817. He was educated 
at Dr. Prichard's school at Llandaff", and from 
a very early age manifested a great interest 
in his father's ironworks, and spent much of 
his time among them. As years increased 
he determined to learn practically the busi- 
ness of an ironworker, and in turn assisted 
in the puddling, the battery, and the rolling 
mills ; he carried this so far that he even ex- 
changed his own diet for that of the work- 
men. On the death of his brother William 
by drowning at the old passage of the Severn 
he became acting manager of the ironworks, 
and at a later period when his brother Plenry 
removed to Newnham he came into the work- 
ing control of the entire establishment. In 
1864 the original lease of Cyfarthfa lapsed, 
and was renewed at Crawshay's earnest en- 
treaties. On the death of his father, the active 
head of the business, in 1867 he became the sole 
manager, and not only considerably improved 
the works, but opened out the coal mines to 
a greater and more profitable issue. At this 
time there were upwards of five thousand 
men, women, and children employed at Cy- 
farthfa, all receiving good wages, and well 
looked after by their master. Crawshay was 
often spoken of as the ' iron king of Wales.' 
His name came prominently before the public 
in connection with the great strikes of 1 873-5. 
He was averse to unions among masters or 
men, but assented, as a necessary sequence of 
the action of the men, to a combination among 
the masters. Unionism became active at Cy- 
farthfa at a time of falling prices ; Crawshay 
called his men together and warned them of 
the consequences of persisting in their un- 
reasonable demands ; but as they would not 
yield the furnaces were one by one put out. 
Soon after came the revolution in the iron 
trade, the discarding of iron for steel through 
the invention of the Bessemer and Siemens 
processes, and the thorough extinction of the 
old-fashioned trade of the Crawshays and the 
Guests. Crawshay would have reopened his 
works for the benefit of his people had it not 
been very apparent that under no circum- 
stances could Cyfarthfa again have become a 
paying concern. The collieries were, how- 
ever, still kept active, employing about a 
thousand men, and several hundreds of the 
old workmen laboured on the estates. For 
the last two years of his life he took little in- 
terest in business ; he had become completely 
deaf and broken down by other physical in- 
firmities. While on a visit to Cheltenham 
for the benefit of his health he died rather 

Craws hay 



suddenly at the Queen's Hotel 10 May 1879, 
and on 21 June following his personalty was 
sworn under 1,200,000/. His son, WiUiam 
Crawshay, succeeded to the management of 
the extensive coalfields, and inherited his 
father's estate at Caversham in Berkshire. 

[Engineer, 16 May 1879, p. 359; Journal of 
Iron and Steellnstit. 1879, pp. 328-30 ; Practical 
Mag. 1873, pp. 81-4 (with portrait).] 

G. C. B. 

CRAWSHAY, WILLIAM (1788-1867), 
ironmaster, the eldest son of William Craw- 
shay of Stoke Newington, Middlesex, was 
born in 1788, and on the death of his grand- 
father, Richard Crawshay, became sole pro- 
prietor of the Cyfarthfa Ironworks, near Mer- 
thyr Tydvil, South Wales. He was of all 
the Crawshays the finest type of the iron 
king. His will was law : in his home and 
business he tolerated no opposition. With his 
workmen he was strictly just. His quickness 
of perception and unhesitating readiness of de- 
cision and action made his success as an iron- 
master when railways were first introduced. 
States wanted railways ; he found the means, 
repaid himself in shares, and large profits soon 
fell into his hands. Before 1850 there were 
six furnaces at Cyfarthfa, giving an average 
yield per furnace of sixty-five tons ; but 
under his management there were soon eleven 
furnaces, and the average yield was 120 tons, 
and the engine power was worked up to a 
point representing five thousand horse. He 
had ten mines in active work turning out 
iron ore, eight to ten shafts and collieries, a 
domain with a railway six miles in length, 
and large estates in Berkshire, Gloucester- 
shire, and in other districts. Crawshay was 
in the habit of stacking bar iron during bad 
times ; at one period during a slackness of 
trade Crawshay stacked forty thousand tons 
of puddled bars ; prices went up, and in ad- 
dition to his regular profit he cleared twenty 
shillings per ton extra upon his stock, real- 
ising by his speculative tact 40,000/. in this 
venture. In 1822 he served as sheriff of Gla- 
morganshire. When Austria and Russia 
menaced the asylum of the Hungarians in 
Turkey in 1849, he subscribed 500l. in their 
behalf. He died at his seat, Caversham Park, 
Reading, 4 Aug. 1867, aged 79, leaving direc- 
tions that he was to be buried within four clear 
days, and in a common earth grave. His per- 
sonalty was sworn on 7 Sept. under two mil- 
lions. The whole of his property in Wales 
was left to his son, Robert Thompson Craw- 
shay [q. v.], his holdings in the Forest of Dean 
to his son, Henry Crawshay, and his estates 
at Treforest to Francis Crawshay. He was 
three times married. 

[Gent. Mag. September 1867, pp. 933-5; 
Mining Journal, 10 Aug. 1867, p. 532 ; Engineer 

16 May 1879, p. 359.] G. C. B. 

CREAGH, PETER {d. 1707), catholic 
prelate, was probably a relative of Sir M ichael 
Creagh, who was lord mayor of Dublin in 
1688. On 4 May 1676 he was nominated 
by the propaganda to the united bishoprics 
of Cork and Cloyne, and on 9 March 1692- 
1693 he was, on the recommendation of 
James II, translated to the archbishopric of 
Dublin. He encountered great difficulties 
and troubles, was obliged to fly to France, 
and died at Strasburg in 1707. 

[Brady's Episcopal Succession, i. 338, ii. 91 ; 
D'Alton's Archbishops of Dublin, p. 457 ] 

T. C. 

CREAGH, RICHARD (1525 .P-1585), 
catholic archbishop of Armagh, called also 
Crevagh, Crewe, and in Irish O'Mulchreibe, 
was born about 1525, being the son of Nicholas 
Creagh, a merchant of the city of Limerick, 
and Johanna [White], his wife. Having ob- 
tained a free bourse from the almoner of 
Charles V, he went to the university of Lou- 
vain, where he studied arts as a convictor ' in 
domo Standonica,' and afterwards theology 
in the Pontifical College. He proceeded B.D. 
in 1555. 

In or about 1557 he returned to Limerick, 
and in August 1562 he left that city for 
Rome by direction of the nuncio, David 
Wolfe. At this period he had a strong de- 
sire to enter the order of Theatines, but the 
pope dissuaded him from carrying out his in- 
tention. On 23 March 1563-4 he was ap- 
pointed archbishop of Armagh. In October 
1564 he reached London. Towards the close 
of that year he landed in Ireland, probably 
at Drogheda, and almost immediately after- 
wards he was arrested while celebrating mass 
in a monastery. He was sent in chains to 
London and committed to the Tower on 
18 Jan. 1564-5. On 22 Feb. he was inter- 
rogated at great length by Sir William Cecil 
in Westminster Hall ; and he was again 
examined before the recorder of London on 

17 March, and a third time on 23 March. 
On the octave of Easter he escaped from the 
Tower and proceeded to Louvain, where he 
was received with great kindness by Michael 
Banis, president of the Pontifical College. 
After a short stay there he went to Spain, 
and about the beginning of 1566 he returned 
to Ireland. In August that year he had an 
interview with Shan O'Neil at Irish Darell, 
near Clondarell, in the county of Armagh. 

On 8 May 1567 he was arrested in Con- 
naught, and in August was tried for high 
treason in Dublin. Though acquitted, he 




was detained in prison, but he escaped soon 
afterwards. Before the end of the year he 
was recaptured, sent to London, and lodged 
in the Tower, where, after enduring severe 
privations, he died on 14 Oct. 1585, not 
without suspicion of poison. 

He wrote: 1. ' De Lingua Hibemica.' 
Some collections from this work are among the 
manuscripts in the library of Trinity College, 
Dublin. 2. An Ecclesiastical Hastory. A 
portion of this work was, in Sir James Ware's 
time, in the possession of Thomas Arthur, 
M.D. 3. A Catechism in Irish, 1560. 4. Ac- 
count, in Latin, of his escape from the Tower 
of London, 1565. In Cardinal Moran's ' Spi- 
cilegium Ossoriense,' i. 40. 5. ' De Contro- 
versiis Fidei.' 6. ' Topographia Hiberniee.' 
7. ' Vitse Sanctorum Hibernise.' 

[Brady's Episcopal Succession, i. 220, ii. 336 ; 
Brenan's Ecel. Hist, of Ireland, p. 416; Leni- 
han's Limerick, p. 117; Moran's Spicilegium 
Ossoriense, i. 38-58 ; O'Keilly's Memorials of 
those who suifered for the Catholic Faith in 
Ireland, pp. 88-1 16 ; Kambler, May 1853, p. 366 ; 
Eenehan's Collections on Irish Church Hist. i. 9 ; 
Eothe's Analecta, pp. 1-48 ; Shirley's Original 
Letters ; Stanyhurst's De Rebus in Hibernia 
gestis ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 208 ; Ware's 
Writers of Ireland (Harris), p. 97.] T. C. 


(1812-1878), historian, was born in 1812 at 
Bexley in Kent, where his father was a land 
agent. In the boy's early youth the father 
removed to Brighton, where he set up in 
business as an auctioneer and started the 
' Brighton Gazette,' chiefly with a view of 
publishing his own advertisements. Young 
Creasy having displayed intellectual leanings 
was placed on the Eton foundation, and ob- 
tained the Newcastle scholarship in 1831. 
He became fellow of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1834, and was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn in 1837. For several years he 
went on the home circuit, and he was for 
some time assistant-judge at the Westminster 
sessions court. In 1840 he was appointed 
professor of modern and ancient history in 
London University. In 1860 he was ap- 
pointed chief justice of Ceylon, and received 
the honour of knighthood. Ten years after- 
wards he returned home on account of indis- 
position, and although able again to resume 
his duties, his health was permanently bro- 
ken, and he finally retired in about two years. 
He died 27 Jan. 1878. The work by which 
Creasy is best known is his ' Fifteen Decisive 
Battles of the World,' 1852, which, in some 
degree on account of its striking title, imme- 
diately became popular, and, while it has 
secured the favour of the general reader, has 
met with the approval of those learned in 

military matters. The * Historical and Cri- 
tical Account of the several Invasions of 
England,' published in the same year (1852), 
though not so well known, possesses similar 
merit. His 'Biographies of Eminent Eto- 
nians,' which first appeared in 1850, has 
passed through several editions, but does not 
possess much intrinsic value. ' The History 
of the Ottoman Turks ' has also obtained a 
wide circulation, the latest edition being that 
of 1878. Among his other works are: 1. 'His- 
tory of England,' 1869-70, in 2 vols. 2. ' Old 
Love and the New,' a novel, 1870. 8. ' Im- 
perial and Colonial Institutions of the British 
Empire, including Indian Institutions,' 1872. 
Along with Mr. Sheehan and Dr. Gordon 
Latham he took part in contributing to ' Bent- 
ley's Miscellany ' the political squibs in verse 
known as the ' Tipperary Papers.' 

[Men of the Time, 9th edit. ; Annnal Register, 
cxx. 130 ; Athenseum for February 1878.] 

T. F. H. 

CREECH, THOMAS (1659-1700), trans- 
lator, was born in 1 659 at Blandford in Dorset. 
His father, also called Thomas Creech, died in 
1720, and his mother, Jane Creech, died in 
1693, both being buried in the old chm-ch in 
that town. They had two children, Thomas 
the translator and one daughter Bridget, who 
married Thomas Bastard, an architect of 
Blandford, and had issue six sons and four 
daughters. Creech's parents were not rich. 
His classical training was due to Thomas 
Curgenven, rector of Folke in Dorset, but 
best known as master of Sherborne school, 
to whom Creech afterwards dedicated his 
translation of the seventh idyllium of Theo- 
critus, and to whom he acknowledged his in- 
debtedness for his instruction in the preface to 
his translation of Horace. For his education 
material assistance was received from Colonel 
Strangways, a member of a weU-known 
Dorsetshire family. In Lent term 1675 he 
was admitted as a commoner at Wadham 
College, Oxford, and placed under the tuition 
of Robert Pitt, the choice of the college being 
no doubt due to the fact that Pitt, as con- 
nected with his native county of Dorset, would 
aid in the lad's advancement. Creech's trans- 
lation of one of the idyls of Theocritus is 
inscribed to his 'chum Mr. Hody of Wad- 
ham College,' and another is dedicated to Mr. 
Robert Balch, who at a later date was his 
' friend and tutor.' If an expression of his 
own can be trusted, his attainments at this 
period of his life were below the level of his 
contemporaries. Two of his letters to Evelyn 
are printed in tlie latter's diary (1850 ed. iii. 
2G7, 272), and from the first, written in 1682, 
it appears ' tliat he was a boy scarce able to 




reckon twenty and just crept into a bachelor's 
degree ; ' but the second part of this sentence 
is probably an exaggeration. He was elected 
a scholar of his college 28 Sept. 1676, and took 
the following degrees: B.A. 27 Oct. 1680, 
M.A. 13 June 1683, and B.D. 18 March 1696. 
Hearne has put on record the statement that 
when Creech ' was of Wadham, being cham- 
ber-fellow of Hump. Hody, he was an extreme 
hard student,' and there remains considerable 
evidence in support of this statement. From 
the same authority we find that ' when Bach, 
of Arts he was Collector and making a speech 
as is usual for y" Collectors to do he came off 
with great applause, w''' gained him great 
Reputation, w'='' was shortly after [1682] 
highly rais'd by his incomparable translation 
into English verse of Lucretius.' He was one 
of the first scholars to benefit by Bancroft's 
reforms in the elections for fellowships at All 
Souls' College. When he put himself forward 
in the competition, there was nothing to re- 
commend him but his talents ; but according 
to Anthony k Wood he * gave singular proof of 
his classical learning and philosophy before 
his examiners,' and was elected a fellow about 
All Saints day 1683. That Creech was ' an 
excell' scholar in all parts of learning, especi- 
ally in divinity, and was for his merits made 
fellow of All Souls,' is the corroborative 
testimony of Hearne. His industry in study 
continued for some time after his election to 
this preferment, but he grew lazy at last, and 
the faults of his character became more and 
more marked. For two years (1694—6) he 
was the head-master of Sherborne School, 
but he then returned to Oxford, where his 
strangeness of manner was noticed by a 
shrewd don in 1698, and for six months 
before his death he had studied the easiest 
mode of self-destruction. It was probably 
with the object of shaking off this growing 
melancholia that he accepted the college liv- 
ing of Welwyn, to which he was instituted 
25 April 1699, but the disease had by this 
time taken too strong a hold upon his mind, 
and he never entered into residence. After 
he had been missing for five days he was 
discovered (in June 1700) in a garret in the 
house of Mr. Ives, an apothecary, with whom 
he lodged. A circumstantial account of his 
suicide is given in the journal of Mr. John 
Hobson ( Yorkshire Diaries, Surtees Society, 
1877, p. 272). ' He had prepared a razor and 
a rope, with the razor he had nick't his throat 
a little, which hurt him so much that he de- 
sisted ; then he tooke the corde and tied him- 
self up 80 low that he kneeled on his knees 
while he was dead.' At the coroner's inquest 
Creech was found non compos mentis, but the 
precise reasons which had brought about this 

VOL. V. 

mental aberration were much debated at the 
time. One rumour current in his day was 
that he had committed suicide through sym- 
pathy with the principles of Lucretius, but 
this may be dismissed at once. The actual 
reasons were less fanciful. He wished to 
marry Miss Philadelphia Playdell of St. Giles, 
Oxford, but her friends would not consent to 
the marriage. Creech's constancy to this lady 
is shown in his wiU. It was dated 18 Jan. 
1699, and proved 28 June 1700, and by it he 
divided his means, such as they were, into 
two parts, one of which he left to his sister 
Bridget Bastard for the use of his father 
during his lifetime and afterwards for her- 
self, while he left the other moiety to Miss 
Playdell and appointed her sole executrix. 
She afterwards married Ralph Hobson, but- 
ler of Christ Church, and died in 1706, aged 
34. Another and hardly less powerful 
motive was his want of money. Colonel 
Christopher Codrington, his brother-fellow 
at All Souls, had often proved his bene- 
factor in money matters, and it is clear from 
Codrington's interesting letter to Dr. Charlett, 
which is printed in 'Letters from the Bodleian,' 
that with a little patience on Creech's part he 
would have again received from his friend the 
assistance which was expected. These two 
calamities, a disappointment in love and the 
pressure of pecuniary difficulties, were the 
strongest factors in unhinging the mind, 
naturally gloomy and despondent, of a man 
contemptuous of the abilities of others and 
fretting at his want of preferment. There 
were printed after his death two tracts: 
1. * A Step to Oxford, or a Mad Essay on the 
Reverend Mr. Tho. Creech's hanging himself 
(as 'tis said) for love. With the Character of 
his Mistress,' 1700. 2. 'Daphnis, or a Pas- 
toral Elegy upon the unfortunate and much- 
lamented death of Mr. Thomas Creech,' 1700; 
second edition (corrected) 1701, and it is also 
found in 'A Collection of the best English 
Poetry,' vol. i. 1717. The first of these tracts 
is a catchpenny production ; the second has 
higher merits. His portrait, three-quarters 
oval in a clerical habit, was given by Hum- 
phrey Bartholomew to the picture gallery 
at Oxford. It was engraved by R. White and 
also by Van der Gucht. The sale catalogue 
of his library, which was sold at Oxfoi'd on 
9 Nov. 1700, is preserved in the Bodleian 
Library ; but it contained no rarities, and the 
books fetched small prices. 

Creech's translation of Lucretius vied in 
popularity with Dryden's Virgil and Pope's 
Homer. The son of one of his friends is re- 
ported to have said that the translation was 
made in Creech's daily walk round the parks 
in Oxford in sets of fifty lines, which ho 




would afterwards write down in his chamber 
and correct at leisure. The title-page of the 
first edition runs 'T. Lucretius Carus, the 
Epicurean Philosopher, his six books de 
Natura rerum, done into English verse, with 
notes, Oxford . . . 1682,' and Creech's name 
is appended to the dedication to * George Pit, 
Jun. of Stratfield-Sea.' A second edition ap- 
peared in the following year with an aug- 
mented number of commendatory verses in 
Latin and English, some of which bore the 
names of Tate, Otway, Aphra Behn, Duke, 
and Waller ; and when Dryden published his 
translations from Theocritus, Lucretius, and 
Horace, he disclaimed in the preface any in- 
tention of robbing Creech 'of any part of that 
commendation which he has so justly ac- 
tjuired,' and referred to his predecessor's ' ex- 
cellent annotations, which I have often read 
and always with some new pleasure.' Creech's 
translation of Lucretius was often reprinted 
in the last century, and was included in the 
edition of the British poets which was issued 
by Anderson. The best edition appeared in 
1714, and contained translations of many 
verses previously omitted and numerous notes 
from another hand designed to set forth a 
complete system of Epicurean philosophy. 
The fame of this translation of Lucretius in- 
duced Creech to imdertake an edition of the 
original work. It appeared in 1695 with the 
title 'Titi Lucretii Cari de rerum natura 
libri sex, quibus interpretationem et notas 
addidit Thomas Creech,' and was dedicated 
to his friend Codrington. Numerous reprints 
of this edition have been published, the 
highest praise being accorded to that printed 
at Glasgow in 1753, which has been styled 
beautiful in typography and correct in text. 
Creech's agreement with Abel Swalle for 
the preparation of this volume is among the 
Ballard MSS. at the Bodleian Library. The 
several books were to be sent on the first of 
each month from August 1692 to January 
1693, and the pay was to be ' fibur-and-twenty 
guinnea pieces of gold.' Mr, H. A. J. Munro 
in his edition of Lucretius (vol. i. 1886 ed. 
p. 17 of introduction) speaks of his predecessor 
as ' a man of sound sense and good taste, but 
to judge from his book of somewhat arrogant 
and supercilious temper,' and describes his 
text, notes, and illustrations as borrowed 
mainly from Lambinus, attributing the popu- 
larity of Creech's work ' to the clearness and 
brevity of the notes.' By his success in Lu- 
cretius Creech was tempted to undertake the 
translation of other classical writers, both 
Greek and Latin. There accordingly appeared 
in 1684 'The Odes, Satyrs, and Epistles of 
Horace. Done into English,' and dedi- 
cated by him to Dryden, who was popularly 

but unjustly accused of having lured poor 
Creech into attempting a translation which 
he shrewdly suspected would turn out a 
failure. Although it was reprinted in the 
same year, and again in 1688, 1715, 1720, 
and 1737, this version could not permanently 
hold its ground, and the reason for this want 
of lasting success maybe found in the transla- 
tor's confession in his preface that his soul did 
not possess ' musick enough to understand one 
note.' His name is now chiefly remembered 
from the circumstance that Pope prefaced his 
imitation of Horace, book i. epistle vi. with 
two lines, professedly an exact reproduction 
of Creech's rendering of the opening words 
of that epistle, though in reality they were 
reduced from three lines in his translation, 
and added thereto the couplet : 

Plain truth, dear Murray, needs no flowers 

of speech, 
So take it in the very ■words of Creech. 

The other translations by Creech consisted 
of: 1. Several elegies from Ovid with the 
second and third eclogues of Virgil in a 
collection of * Miscellany Poems,' 1684. 

2. Laconick Apothegms, or remarkable say- 
ings of the Spartans in ' Plutarch's Morals,' 
1684, vol. i. pt. iii. 135-204; a Discourse con- 
cerning Socrates his Demon, ib. ii. pt. vi. 1- 
59 ; the first two books of the Symposiacks, 
ib. ii. pt. vi. 61-144, iii. pt. viii. 139-418. 

3. Lives of Solon, Pelopidas, and Cleomenes 
in 'Plutarch's Lives,' 1683-6, 5 vols., an edi- 
tion often reprinted in the first half of the 
eighteenth century. 4. Idylliums of Theo- 
critus, with Rapin's discourse of Pastorals, 
done into English, 1684, and reprinted in 
1721, which was dedicated to Arthur Char- 
lett. 5. The thirteenth Satire of Juvenal, 
with notes, in the translation 'by Mr. Dryden 
and other eminent hands,' 1693. 6. Verses of 
Santolius Victorinus, prefixed to ' The com- 
pleat Gard'ner of de la Quintinye, made Eng- 
lish by John Evelyn,' 1693. 7. The five books 
of M. Manilius containing a system of the an- 
cient astronomy and astrology, done into 
English verse, with notes, 1097. 8. Life of 
Pelopidas in the ' Lives of Illustrious Men ' 
by Com. Nepos, translated by the Hon. Mr. 
Finch, Mr. Creech, and others, 1713. Creech 
was engaged to the public at the time of his 
death for an edition of Justin Martyr, who 
' was his hero,' and more than fifty sheets of 
notes which were found among his papers 
were lent to Dr. Grabe. These were pro- 
nounced ' very well done, only that there 
were some things in them very singular and 
would be accounted amongst men of skill 
heterodox.'' Pope attributed the defects of 
Creech's translation of Lucretius to his imi- 




tatingthe style of Cowley, but acknowledged 
that he had done more justice to Manilius. 
Joseph Warton, with more warmth of charac- 
ter, praised the Lucretius as well as many 
parts of the Theocritus and Horace. Creech s 
translation of Juvenal's thirteenth satire 
was deemed by the same critic equal to any 
of Dryden's. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 739-40 ; 
Spence's Anecdotes, 130-1, 251-2 ; Jacob's 
Poets, i. 38-9 ; Burrows's All Souls, 318-19 ; Eel. 
Hearnianae (1857), ii. 583, 608; Hearne's Ke- 
marks (Doble's ed.), i. 73, 305, 358, 391, ii. 466 ; 
Letters from Bodleian, i. 45, 62, 64, 128-33; 
Wood's Antiquities of Oxford (Gutch), ii. 967 ; 
Biog. Brit. (Kippis); Hutchins's Dorset (1796), 
i. 135, 139 (1864 &c. ed.), iv. 290 ; Ballard 
MSS. vol. XX.; Gibber's Poets, iii. 186-192.] 

W. P. C. 

CREECH, WILLIAM (1745-1815), Edin- 
burgh publisher and lord provost of Edin- 
burgh, son of Rev. William Creech, minister 
of Newbattle, Midlothian, and Mary Buley, 
an English lady, related to the family of 
Quarme, Devonshire, was bom 21 April 1745. 
After the death of his father his mother re- 
moved to Dalkeith, where the boy received an 
education qualifying him to enter the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. There he manifested 
good abilities and is said to have become an 
elegant and accomplished scholar. With the 
view of entering the medical profession he at- 
tended a course of medical lectures, but having 
made the acquaintance of Kincaid, her ma- 
jesty's printer for Scotland, who had succeeded 
to the publishing business of Allan Ramsay, he 
became apprentice to Kincaid & Bell, with 
whom he remained till 1766, when he went 
to London for improvement in his business. 
He returned to Edinburgh in 1768, and in 

1770 accompanied Lord Kilmaurs, afterwards 
fourteenth earl of Glencairn, on a tour through 
Holland, France, Switzerland, and various 
parts of Germany. On the dissolution of 
the partnership of Kincaid & Bell in May 

1771 he became partner with Kincaid, under 
the firm of Kincaid & Creech, until Kincaid 
withdrew in 1773, leaving Creech sole part- 
ner, under whom the business, as regards 
publishing, became the most important in 
Scotland. According to Lord Cockburn, 
Creech owed a good deal to the position of 
his shop, which * formed the eastmost point 
of a long thin range of buildings that stood 
to the north of St. Giles's Cathedral.' Situated 
' in the very tideway of our business,' says 
Cockburn, it became * the natural resort of 
lawyers, authors, and all sorts of literary 
allies who were always buzzing about the 
convenient hive ' {Memorials, p. 169). Cock- 
burn, however, does not do justice to the 

attractive influence of Creech himself, who, 
in addition to intellectual accomplishments, 
possessed remarkable social gifts, and was an 
inimitable story-teller. His breakfast-room 
was frequented by the most eminent mem- 
bers of the literary society of Edinburgh, the 
gatherings being known as * Creech's levees.' 
Archibald Constable characteristically re- 
marks that Creech * availed himself of few 
of the advantages which his education and 
position afforded him in his relations with 
the literary men of Scotland ' {Archibald Con- 
stable and his Correspondents, i. 535). This 
is an undoubted exaggeration, for he was the 
original publisher of the works, among others, 
of Dr. Blair, Dr. Beattie, Dr. George Camp- 
bell, Dr. Cullen, Dr. Gregory, Henry Mac- 
kenzie, and Robert Burns. At the same 
time his business was conducted on the old 
narrow-minded system, and on account of 
his social habits it did not receive a sufficient 
share of his attention, a fact which in great 
part explains the unpleasant result of his 
business relations with Robert Burns. He 
was introduced to Bums through the Earl 
of Glencairn, who recommended to him the 
publication of the second edition of Biu-ns's 
'Poems.' His delay in settling accounts 
caused Bums much worry and anxiety, and 
although after the final settlement Burns 
admitted that at last he ' had been amicable 
and fair," his opinion of Creech was perma- 
nently changed for the worse. While he 
knew him only as the delightful social com- 
panion, Bums addressed him in a humorous 
eulogistic poem entitled * Willie's Awa ! ' writ- 
ten during Creech's absence in London in 
1787, expressing in one of the stanzas the 
wish that he may be 

streekit out to bleach 
In Tirinter snaw, 
When I forget thee, Willie Creech, 
Though far awa ! 

In a * Sketch ' of Creech written two years 
afterwards, while the dispute about accounts 
was in progress, Creech is bitterly described 

A little, upright, pert, tart tripping wight. 
And still his precious self his dear delight. 

The lines were written when Burns was 
keenly exasperated, but although ultimately 
on an outwardly friendly footing with Creech, 
Burns never again addressed mm on the old 
familiar terms, and even in a letter enclosing 
him some jocular verses and begging the 
favour in exchange of a few copies of his 
' Poems ' for presentation, addresses him 
merely as ' sir.' 

Creech was the publisher of the * Mirror ' 
and ' Lounger.' He was also one of the foun- 




ders of the Speculative Society. Besides 
excelling as a conversationalist he carried on 
an extensive correspondence with literary 
men both in England and Scotland. Several 
of his letters to Lord Karnes are published in 
Lord Karnes's 'Life' (2nd edit. lii. 317-35). 
Under the signature of ' Theophrastus' he con- 
tributed to the newspapers, especially the 
* Edinburgh Courant,' a number of essays and 
sketches of character, the more interesting of 
these being ' An Account of the Manners and 
Customs in Scotland between 1763 and 1783/ 
which was ultimately brought down to 1793, 
and published in the * Statistical Account of 
Scotland.' The greater portion of the ' Es- 
says ' were collected and published in 1791 
under the title ' Fugitive Pieces,' and an edi- 
tion with some additions and an account of 
his life appeared posthumously in 1815. He 
was also the author of * An Account of the 
Trial of Wm. Brodie and George Smith, by 
William Creech, one of the Jury.' In poh- 
tics Creech was a supporter of Mr. Pitt and 
Lord Melville, with the latter of whom he 
was on terms of special intimacy. Creech 
was addicted to theological discussion, held 
strongly Calvinistic views, and was a member 
of the high church session. He was the 
founder and principal promoter of the Society 
of Booksellers of Edinburgh and Leith, took 
an active part in the formation of the cham- 
ber of commerce (instituted 1786), and was 
the chairman of several public bodies, as well 
as fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian So- 
cieties. At different periods of his life he was 
a member of the town council, and he held 
the office of lord provost from 1811 to 1813. 
He was never married, and died 14 June 
1815. His stock was purchased by Constable. 
[Memoir prefixed to Fugitive Pieces ; Scots 
Magazine, Ixxvii. (1815), 15-16 ; Chambers's 
Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen (Thomson), i. 
398 ; Wilson's Memorials of Edinburgh, pp. 198, 
200, 235 ; Works of Robert Bums ; Lord Cock- 
burn's Memorials.] T. F. H. 

CREED, CARY (1708-1775), etcher, was 
the son of Cary Creed and Elizabeth his wife, 
and grandson of the Rev. John Creed, vicar of 
Castle Cary, Somersetshire. He etched and 
published a number of plates from the marbles 
in the collection of the Earl of Pembroke at 
Wilton House. These are slightly but cle- 
verly executed. Four editions of the work 
are known : with sixteen etchings, with forty 
etchings (1730),with seventy etchings (1731), 
and with seventy-four etchings (1731). Creed 
died 16 Jan. 1775, aged 67, and was buried at 
Castle Gary. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Gent. Mag. (1775) 
xiv. 46 ; CoUinson's History of Somerset, ii. 67 ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man.] L. C. 

CREED, ELIZABETH (1644 P-1728), 
philanthropist, born in or about 1644, was the 
only daughter of Sir Gilbert Pickering, hart., 
of Tichmarsh, Northamptonshire, by Eliza- 
beth, only daughter of Sir Sidney Montagu, 
and sister of Edward Montagu, first earl of 
Sandwich (Collins, Peerage, ed. Brydges, iii. 
449). On her father's side she was a cousin 
of Dryden, on her mother's a cousin of Pepys. 
In October 1668 she became the wife of John 
Creed [see below] of Oundle, Northampton- 
i shire, who appears to have been at one time a 
i retainer in the service of Lord Sandwich, and, 
1 to judge from Pepys's slighting allusions, of 
j humble origin. Of this marriage eleven chil- 
I dren were born. On herhusband's death in 1701 
I Mrs. Creed retired to her property at Barnwell 
I All Saints, near Oundle, where she devoted 
j the remainder of her life to works of benefi- 
j cence. Herself an artist of considerable skill, 
I she gave free instruction to girls in dravsdng, 
I fine needlework, and similar accomplishments. 
I Several of the churches in the neighbourhood 
j of Oundle were embellished with altar-pieces, 
I paintings, and other works by her hands. In 
! 1722 she erected a monument to Dryden and 
his parents in the church of Tichmarsh. A 
I portrait by her of the first Earl of Sandwich 
hangs at Drayton, and many other portraits 
and a few pictures painted by her are still 
j preserved among her descendants. Mrs. Creed 
j died in May 1728. A daughter, Elizabeth, 
j who married a Mr. Stuart, inherited her 
I mother's tastes, and ornamented the hall of 
1 an old Tudor mansion near Oundle ; but all 
I traces of her work have long disappeared 
(Redgeave, Diet, of Artists, 1878, p. 105). 

John Ceeed was a man of some importance 
in his day. Of his history previously to the 
Restoration little is known, but in March 
1660 he was nominated deputy-treasurer of 
the fleet by Lord Sandwich, and two years 
later was made secretary to the commissioners 
for Tangier. On 16 Dec. 1663 he became a 
fellow of the Royal Society. His official du- 
ties brought him into frequent contact with 
Pepys, by whom he was both feared and dis- 
liked. In his ' Diary ' Pepys speaks of Creed 
as one who had been a puritan and adverse 
to the king's coming in. But he adapted his 
policy to the times and grew rich. On his mo- 
nument at Tichmarsh, where he had an estate, 
Creed is described as having served ' his ma- 
jesty King Charles y* II in divers Hon**'* Im- 
ployments at home and abroad ' (Bridges, 
Northamptonshire, ii. 386) ; but whether this 
refers merely to his services in the admiralty 
or to others of greater importance cannot now 
be ascertained. His eldest son, Major Richard 
Creed, who was killed at Blenheim, also lies 
buried in Tichmarsh church, where there still 




exists a cenotaph to his memory, similar in 
design to the one erected in the south aisle 
of Westminster Abbey. 

[Pepys's Diary (Bright), i. 70, 499, ii. 93, iii. 
106, 148, V. 375, and passim; Bridges's North- 
amptonshire, ii. passim ; Wilford's Memorials, 
pp. 762-4 ; Will of J. Creed reg. in P. C. C. 44, 
Dyer; Will of E. Creed reg. in P. C. C. 176, 
Brook.] G. G. 


1616 P), stationer, was made free of the Sta- 
tioners' Company 7 Oct. 1578 by Thomas East. 
He dwelt at the sign of the Catharine Wheel, 
near the Old Swan, in Thames Street. A long 
list of books printed by Creed is given in Her- 
bert's ' Ames ' (ii. 1279-84). Among these 
are the 1599 quarto of 'Romeo and Juliet,' 
printed for Cuthbert Burby ; the 1598 quarto 
of ' Richard III,' printed for Andrew Wise ; 
and the 1600 quarto of ' Henry V,' printed for 
T. Millington and J. Busby. Creed's career 
as a printer extends from 1582 to 1616. He 
frequently used for his device an emblem of 
Truth, crowned and flying naked, scourged on 
the back with a rod by a hand issuing from 
a cloud. Encircling the device is the motto, 
* Veritas virescit vulnere.' 

[Herbert's Ames, ii. 1279-84; Arber's Tran- 
script of Stat. Eeg. ii. 679, 823 ; Bigmore and 
Wyman's Bibliography of Printing, i. 148-9 ; In- 
dex of Printers, &c., appended to Brit, Mus. Cat. 
of Early English Books to 1640.] A. H. B. 

CREED, WILLIAM (1614 P-1663), di- 
vine, the sou of John Creed, was a native of 
Reading, Berkshire. He was elected a scholar 
of St. John's College, Oxford, in 1631, pro- 
ceeded B.A., became fellow, commenced M. A. 
in 1639, was proctor in 1644, and graduated 
B.D. in 1646. During the civil war he ad- 
hered to the royalist cause, and preached 
several sermons before the king and parlia- 
ment at Oxford. He was expelled from his 
fellowship and from the university in 1648, 
but in the time of the usurpation he held 
the rectory of Codford St. Mary, Wiltshire. 
At the Restoration he was created D.D., and 
appointed in July 1661 to the regius profes- 
sorship of divinity at Oxford, to which ofBce 
a canonry of Christ Church is annexed. In 
July 1 660 he became archdeacon of Wiltshire, 
and on 13 Sept. in the same year prebendary 
of Lyme and Halstock in the church of 
Salisbury. He was also rector of Stockton, 
Wiltshire. William Derham, in his manu- 
script * Catalogue of the Fellows of St. John's 
College,' says 'he was in the worst of times 
a staunch defender of the church of England, 
an acute divine,especially skilled in scholastic 
theology, and a subtle disputant.' Creed died 
at Oxford on 19 July 1663. 

Besides several sermons, he published: 
'The Refuter refuted; or D' Hen. Ham- 
mond's 'EKTevearepov defended against the 
impertinent cavils of M' Hen. Jeanes,' Lon- 
don, 1660, 4to. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 638 ; Wood's 
Annals (Gutch), ii. 508, 588, 846 ; Wood's Col- 
leges and Halls (Gutch), p. 491 ; Cat. of Printed 
Books in Brit. Mas. ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), 
ii. 625, 631, 657, iii. 493, 610.] T. C. 

CREIGHTON. [See also Crichton.] 

(1593-1672), bishop of Bath and WeUs, son 
of Thomas Creighton and Margaret Stuart, 
who claimed kinship with the earls of Athole, 
and therefore with the royal house, was bom 
at Dunkeld, Perthshire, in 1593, and was 
educated at Westminster, whence in 1613 he 
was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He proceeded M.A. in 1621, and on 27 Feb. 
1622 was one of the opponents in a philoso- 
phical disputation held before the Spanish 
ambassador, Don Carlos Coloma, and other 
noble visitors, ' which he very learnedly 
handled ' (Cole, ^^Aew« Cantab.) In 1626 
he was made professor of Greek, and on 27 Feb. 
1627 succeeded his friend, George Herbert, as 
public orator of the university, holding both 
these offices until his resignation of them in 
1639. In 1628 he was incorporated M.A. at 
Oxford. On 18 March 1631-2 he was installed 
prebendary in the cathedral of Lincoln, and 
on 17 Dec. of the following year he was made 
canon residentiary of Wells, holding also a 
living in Somersetshire, and the treasurership 
of the cathedral, to which he was appointed 
by Archbishop Abbot during the vacancy of 
the see. In 1637 he held the deanery of St. 
Burians in Cornwall, and in 1642 was vicar of 
Greenwich. At the outbreak of the civil war 
he retired to Oxford, where he was made D.D. 
and acted as the king's chaplain, holding the 
same office under Charles II. C)n the fall of 
Oxford he escaped into Cornwall in the dis- 
guise of a labourer and embarked for the con- 
tinent. He was a member of the court of 
Charles II in his exile, and Evelyn heard 
him preach at St. Germain on 12 Aug. 1649 
(EvELTK, Diary, i. 253). In 1653 he wrote 
from Utrecht to thank Margaret, marchioness 
(afterwards duchess) of Newcastle, for her 
book which she had sent him. During his 
exile the king appointed him dean of WeUs. 
On entering on this office at the Restoration 
he found the deanery in the hands of Corne- 
lius Burges [a. v.], who refused to surrender 
it, and forced him to bring an action of eject- 
ment against him, and proceed to trial in order 
to obtain possession of it. He took an ac- 
tive part in restoring the cathedral from the 




dilapidated state into which it had fallen, 
partly by the mischief done in 1642 and 
partly by neglect, presenting the church 
with a brass lectern and bible and putting up 
a painted window at the west end, for which 
he paid 140/. (Cole), the whole cost of his 
gifts amounting to 300/. (Reynolds, Wells 
Cathedral). He preached often before the 
king and before the House of Commons, and 
Evelyn, who gives several notices of his ser- 
mons, says he was * most eloquent ' (^Diary, 
i. 358). Pepys, who also admired his preach- 
ing, nevertheless calls him ' the most comical 
man that ever I heard in my life ; just such 
a man as Hugh Peters,' and gives a descrip- 
tion of a very plain-spoken sermon he heard 
from ' the great Scotchman' on 7 March 1662 
on the subject of the neglect of * the poor 
cavalier' (Pepys, Diary, i. 332). While 
Creighton's preaching was learned it was 
evidently full of freshness and energy. He 
was a fearless man, and in July 1667 preached 
' a strange bold sermon ' before the king 
' against the sins of the court, and particu- 
larly against adultery, . . . and of our negli- 
gence in having our castles without ammu- 
nition and powder when the Dutch came 
upon us ; and how we had no courage now- 
adays, but let our ships be taken out of our 
harbour ' (ib. iv. 140). The king liked him 
the better for this boldness. On 22 June 
1663 Creighton took the oaths for his natu- 
ralisation. On 26 May 1670 he was elected 
bishop of Bath and Wells and consecrated 
19 June following. He died on 21 Nov. 
1672, and was buried in St. John's Chapel in 
his cathedral. His marble tomb and effigy 
had been prepared by himself at great ex- 
pense (Cole). Some time after 1639, when 
he was still fellow of Trinity, he married 
Frances, daughter of William Walrond, who 
survived until 30 Oct. 1683. By her he had 
Robert Creighton [q. v.] Besides contribu- 
ting to the Cambridge collection of verses on 
the death of James I, Creighton published 
' Vera Historia Unionis inter Graecos et La- 
tinos sive Concilii Florentini exactissima 
narratio,' a translation into Latin from the 
Greek of Sguropulus, the Hague, 1660, with 
a long preface; this was answered by the 
Jesuit Leo Allatius * In R. Creygtoni appara- 
tumversionem et notas,' Rome, 1674 (earlier 
editions of both these works must have ap- 
peared, comp. Evelyn's * Diary,' i. 263), and 
to this Creighton made a reply. Wood also 
speaks of some published sermons. A por- 
trait of Creighton is in the palace at Wells. 
The bishop's name is sometimes spelt Creeton 
and in various other ways. 

[Cole's AthPTiae Cantab.; Addit. MS. 6866, 
p. 3 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. i. 444 ; Willis's Ca- 

thedrals, ii. 164 ; Walker's Suiferings of the 
Clergy, ii. 72 ; Pepys's Diary, i. 332, ii. 133, iv. 
140 ; Evelyn's Diary and Correspondence, i. 253, 
358, ii. 88, 231 ; Salmon's Lives, p. 160 ; Welch's 
Alumni Westmon. p. 82 ; Eeynolds's Wells Ca- 
thedral, pref. cliv ; Somerset Archseol. Soc.'s 
Proc. XII. ii. 40; Cassan's Bishops of Bath and 
Wells, ii. 70-3.] W. H. 

BERT (1639 F-1734), precentor of Wells, 
was the son of Robert Creighton, bishop of 
Bath and WeUs [q. v.] He was born about 
1639, and probably went into exile with his 
father. In 1662 he took the degree of M.A. 
at Cambridge, where he was elected fellow of 
Trinity College and professor of Greek. The 
latter post he seems to have held for only one 
year, as in 1663 Le Neve {Fasti, ed. Hardy, 
vol. iii.) gives the name of James Valentine 
as professor, though according to Chamber- 
layne {Present State of England) he was pro- 
fessor until 1674. From 1662 to 1667 he was 
prebendary of Timberscomb, Wells, and on 
3 April 1667 he was appointed to the pre- 
bendal stall of Yatton in the same cathedral. 
On 2 Jan. 1667-8 Creighton was recommended 
by royal letters of Charles II for a canonry 
in the cathedral on a vacancy occurring, 
and on 2 May 1674 he was made canon, and 
on the same day installed as precentor. In 
1678 he received the degree of D.D. at Cam- 
bridge, and in 1682 published a sermon on 
the * Vanity of the Dissenters' Plea for their 
Separation from the Church of England,' 
which he had preached before the king at 
Windsor. The * Examen Poeticum Duplex ' 
of 1698 also contains three Latin poems from 
his pen. In 1719 he gave an organ to the 
parish of Southover, Wells, and on two oc- 
casions gave sums to the almshouses in the 
same parish. He died at Wells 17 Feb. 1733-4, 
and was buried there on the 22nd follow- 
ing. Creighton is now solely remembered 
as a musician. He was taught music at an 
early age, and was passionately devoted to 
its pursuit. Burney's statement (iii. 599) that 
he was once a gentleman in the chapel of 
Charles II must be a mistake, unless it refers 
to the time when he was in exile. He wrote 
a few services and anthems, which, though 
not very powerful nor original, are exceed- 
ingly good music, and are still frequently 
performed. Creighton was a married man, 
and had a family, several members of which 
were connected with Wells during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. 

[Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 181, &c., iii. 614, 
660 (the statement at p. 660 of the last volume, 
that the Robert Creighton -who was Greek pro- 
fessor at Cambridge in 1662 afterwards became 
bishop of Bath and Wells, is an error. The bishop 




was Greek professor in 1625) ; Grad. Cantab. ; 
Coilinson's Hist, of Somerset, iii. 410 ; Harl. MS. 
7339; Dickson's Cat. of Music in Ely Cathe- 
dral; Hawkins's Hist, of Music, v. 100; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. of Printed Books ; Act Books of the 
Dean and Chapter of Wells Cathedral, com- 
municated by Mr. W. Fielder.] W. B. S. 

CRESSENER, DRUE, D.D. (1638?- 
1718), protestant writer, was a native of 
Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk. He was edu- 
cated at Clirist's College and Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge, being elected a fellow of the lat- 
ter society on 29 Aug. 1662 (B.A. 1661, 
M.A. 1685, B.D. 1703, D.D. 1708). He 
became treasurer of Framlingham, Suffolk, 
and vicar of Wearisly in 1677, and junior 
proctor of the university of Cambridge in 
1678. On 14 Jan. in the latter year he was 
presented to the vicarage of Soham, Cam- 
bridgeshire, and on 12 Dec. 1700 he was col- 
lated to a prebend in the cathedral church of 
Ely. He died at Soham on 20 Feb. 1717-18. 

His works are: 1. 'The Judgements of 
God upon the Roman Catholick Church ; in 
a prospect of several approaching revolu- 
tions, in explication of the Trumpets and 
Vials in the Apocalypse, upon principles 
generally acknowledged by Protestant inter- 
preters,' London, 1689, 4to. 2. 'A Demon- 
stration of the first Principles of Protestant 
applications of the Apocalypse. Together 
with the consent of the Ancients concerning 
the fourth beast of the 7th of Daniel, and the 
beast in the Revelations,' London, 1690, 4to. 

[Davy's Athense Suffolcienses, ii. 38 ; Bent- 
ham's Ely, p. 249; Cole's MSS. ix. 91, 1. 220 ; 
Cole's Athense Cantab. C. i. 36 ; Miller's Descrip- 
tion of Ely Cathedral, p. 168; Hawes and Loder's 
Framlingham, p. 273 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, ii. 330 ; Cantabrigienses Graduati (1787), 
p. 102 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), i. 357, iii. 625.] 


treasurer of Scotland, a clerk and one of the 
officers of the exchequer, was employed in a 
matter arising from some wrongs done to the 
abbot of Ramsey in 1282 ; he was attached 
to the household of Eleanor, queen of Ed- 
ward I, was her steward, and one of her bailiffs 
for the barony of Haverford. In 1292 the 
king employed him to audit the debts due to 
his late father, Henry IH, and in that and 
during the next three years he was the head 
of the justices itinerant for the northern 
counties. He was presented to the parsonage 
of Chalk, Kent, by the prior and convent of 
Norwich, and held the rectory of Doddington 
in the same county (Hasted) ; he was also 
rector of ' Ruddeby ' (Rudby in Cleveland), 
and held prebends in several churches (Hem- 

ingbxthgh). OnJohnBaliol's surrender of the 
crown of Scotland in 1296 Edward appointed 
Cressingham treasurer of the kingdom, charg- 
ing him to spare no expense necessary for the 
complete reduction of the country {Hotuh 
Scoti(S, i. 42). He is imiformly described as 
a pompous man, uplifted by his advancement, 
harsh, overbearing, and covetous. Contrary 
to the king's express command he neglected 
to buUd a wall of stone upon the earthwork 
lately thrown up at Berwick, a folly which 
brought trouble later on. The absence of 
the Earl of Surrey, the guardian of Scot- 
land, threw more power into the hands ol 
the treasurer, who used it so as to incur the 
hatred of the people. Meanwhile Wallace 
succeeded in driving the English out of nearly 
all the castles north of the Forth. Surrey 
was at last roused, and marched with a large 
force to Stirling. Cressingham, who it is said 
never put on chasuble or spiritual armour, 
now put on helmet and breastplate and joined 
the army. Wallace left the siege of the 
castle of Dundee and succeeded in occupying 
the high ground above Cambuskenneth before 
the English could cross the river. A reinforce- 
ment of eight thousand foot and three hundred 
horse was brought by Lord Henry Percy from 
Carlisle. Fearful of the inroad this additional 
force would make upon the treasury, Cressing- 
ham ordered him to dismiss his soldiers, who 
were so indignant at this treatment that they 
were ready to stone the treasurer. The position 
held by the Scots commanded the bridge of 
Stirling, and it was evident that if the Eng- 
lish crossed it they would probably be cut to 
pieces before they were able to form. Some 
vain attempts were made to treat. The earl 
was unwilling to expose his army to such a 
desperate risk, but Cressingham urged him 
to give the order to advance. * It is no use, 
sir earl,' he said, * to delay further and waste 
the king's money ; let us cross the bridge and 
do our devoir as we are bound.' The earl 
yielded, and the English were defeated with 
great slaughter. Cressingham was among 
those who fell in this battle of Cambusken- 
neth on 10 Sept. 1297, and the Scots gratified 
their hatred of him by cutting up his skin — 
his body, we are told, was fat and his skin 
fair — into small pieces, Wallace, according 
to one account, ordering that a piece should 
be taken from the body large enough to make 
him a sword-belt. 

[Foss's Judges, iii. 82 ; Rot. Pari. i. 30, 33 
Hasted's Kent, i. 620 (fol. ed.) ; Rot. Scoriae, i. 
42; Hemingburgh, ii. 127, 137, 139; Chron 
Lanercost, p. 190; Fordun's Scotichronicon, pp 
979, 980 (Hearne) ; Nic. Trivet, pp. 351, 367 ; 
Ty tier's Hist, of Scotland, i. 94-100 (4to ed.)] 
^ W.H. 




CRESSWELL, Madam (Ji. 1670-1684), 
was a notorious courtesan and procuress (born 
about 1625), whose connection with many of 
the civic celebrities and leading politicians of 
her day, between Restoration and Revolution, 
enabled her to secure indemnity from punish- 
ment and gather a large fortune. The ballad 
literature of the streets, manuscript lampoons, 
and party pamphlets are full of allusions to 
her. Her portrait was engraved by P. Tem- 
pest, after a design by Lauron, and published 
in the ' Cries of London,' 1711. She had been 
early distinguished by personal attractions, 
and when her own beauty decayed she used 
her fascination to corrupt the innocence of 
others so successfully that she was considered 
to be without a rival in her wickedness. She 
was very outspoken in her political opinions 
as a whig, a zealous ally of Titus Gates, Robert 
Ferguson the plotter. Sir Robert Clayton's 
wife, and Sir Thomas Player (who was nick- 
named * Sir Thomas Cresswell,' from his in- 
timacy with her). She made noisy proclama- 
tions of being devout, as a counterbalance of 
her known immorality. She lived at Clerken- 
well during the winter months, but sometimes 
at Camberwell keeping a boarding-house, and 
in summer retreated to a handsome country 
residence, largely frequented by her civic 
patrons. She decoyed many village girls into 
London, in hope of obtaining good service and 
preferment. Although styled * Madam Cress- 
well,' she was never married. She is men- 
tioned frequently in Nathanael Thompson's 
'Collection of 180 Loyal Songs,' 1685 and 
1694 (e. g. pp. 80, 328, 344), as 'Old Mother 
Cresswell of our trade,' and ' Poor Cresswell, 
she can take his word no more ' (i. e. Sir 
Thomas Player's) ; in many manuscript lam- 
poons or satires by Rochester and others ; 
and also in the ' Poems on State Affairs,' 
1697-1707. When her past dissipations and 
age had brought infirmities, she made in- 
creased pretence to be considered a pious 
matron, attending prayer-meetings and dress- 
ing soberly, but got into trouble occasionally, 
as in 1684, with a bond for 300/., 'which not 
being paid the worn-out Cresswell's broke.' 
At her death, near the close of the century, 
she bequeathed 10/. to fee a church of Eng- 
land clergyman to preach her funeral sermon, 
stipulating that he was to mention her name 
and ' to speak nothing but weU of her.' A short 
discourse on the solemnity of death ended 
with due mention of her name and last re- 
quest, without any praise except this : ' She 
was born well, she lived well, and she died 
well ; for she was born with the name of 
Cresswell, she lived in Clerkenwell and Cam- 
berwell, and she died in Bridewell.' There 
are other versions, of doubtful authority, one 

attributing the sarcasm to the Duke of Buck- 

[Various fugitive satires, manuscript and 
printed in the Trowbesh Collection; Loyal Songs 
and Poema on Affairs of State ; Bagford Ballads, 
1878, pp. 880, 881, 927 ; Koxburghe Ballads, 
1885, V. 282, 338; Granger's Biog. ffist. Eng. iv. 
218, 219 ; Tempest's Cries of London.] 

J. W. E. 

1863), Judge, belonged to the family of Cress- 
well of CressweU, near Morpeth, Northum- 
berland, which claimed great antiquity, de- 
scending in direct line from the time of 
Richard I. John CressweU dying in 1781 
left two daughters coheiresses, of whom the 
elder, Frances Dorothea, married Francis 
Easterby of Blackheath, who thereupon piir- 
chased his sister-in-law's moiety of the estates 
and assumed the name of Cresswell of Cress- 
well of Long Framlington. The fourth of the 
five sons of this marriage, Cresswell, was born 
in 1794 at a house in Biggmarket, Newcastle, 
and was educated from 1806 to 1810 under 
the Rev. Dr. Russell at the Charterhouse, 
where among his schoolfellows were Thirl- 
wall, Grote, and Havelock. He afterwards 
proceeded to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
where he achieved no other distinction than 
that of being ' wooden spoon,' although his 
tutor was the future Mr. Justice Maule. He 
took his B.A. degree in 1814, and his M.A. 
in 1818. He joined the Inner Temple and 
was called to tlie bar in 1819, and became a 
member of the northern circuit, of which 
Brougham and Scarlett were the leaders. He 
soon attained a considerable practice both on 
circuit and in town, and combined with it 
the labour of issuing with Richard Vaughan 
Bamewall [q. v.] the valuable series of ' King's 
Bench Law Reports 'from 1822 to 1830, which 
bears their name. After Brougham and Scar- 
lett had left the northern circuit Cresswell 
and Alexander became the leaders. In 1830 
Cresswell was appointed recorder of Hull, in 
1834 was made a king's counsel, and from 1834 
to 1842 was also solicitor-general for the 
county palatine of Durham. At the general 
election of 1837 he was returned in the con- 
servative interest for Liverpool, and again 
in July 1841 defeated the whig member, Mr. 
William Ewart, and Lord Palmerston, who 
was at the bottom of the poll. He was always 
a strong tory. He spoke little, but always 
supported Sir Robert Peel. His chief speech 
was on the Danish claims. At the first va- 
cancy in January 1842, Sir Robert Peel made 
him a puisne judge of the court of common 
pleas, in place of Mr. Justice Bosanquet, and 
here for sixteen years he sat and proved him- 




self a strong and learned judge. In January 
1858, when the probate and divorce court 
was created, Sir Cresswell Cresswell was 
appointed the first judge in ordinary, and 
received but declined the offer of a peerage. 
He was, however, sworn of the privy council. 
It was by his exertions that the experiment 
of the divorce court was successful. He re- 
formed the old ecclesiastical rules of evidence 
in matrimonial causes, and did for this branch 
of law what Mansfield did for mercantile 
law. A less self-reliant man would have 
shrunk from the task. The work proved in 
the first year fifteen times as great as had 
been anticipated, and was always heavy. 
He disposed of causes very rapidly and sat 
daily from November to August ; in all he 
adjudicated upon a thousand cases, and his 
judgment was but once reversed. On 11 July 
1863 he was riding down Constitution Hill 
when he was knocked down by Lord Ave- 
land's horses, which were frightened by the 
breakdown of the carriage they were draw- 
ing. His kneecap was broken, and he was re- 
moved to St. George's Hospital, and thence to 
his house in Prince's Gate. Although he was 
recovering from the fracture, the shock proved 
too strong for his constitution, and he died 
of heart disease on the evening of 29 July. 
He was unmarried and left a large fortune. 
He had a keen and tenacious memory and a 
quick and logical understanding. His indus- 
try was great and his knowledge of common 
law profound. He was an excellent advocate 
in mercantile and navigation cases, and was 
also employed in great will cases, for example 
Hopwood V. Sefton at Liverpool, and Bather 
V. Braine at Shrewsbury. His speaking was, 
however, inanimate. As a j udge he was some- 
what overbearing, but his summing-up was 
always wonderfully clear. In person he was 
tall, slim, and pale. He was very charitable. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Law Times, 
22 Aug. 1863; Ann. Eeg. 11 July 1863.] 

J. A. H. 

1844), divine and mathematician, was son of 
Daniel Cresswell, a native of Crowden-le- 
Booth, in Edale, Derbyshire, who resided for 
many years at Newton, near Wakefield, York- 
shire. He was born at Wakefield in 1776 
and educated in the grammar school there 
and at Hull. He proceeded to Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow 
(B.A. 1797, M.A. 1800, D.D. per literas re- 
gias, 1823). At the university, where he re- 
sided many years, he took private pupils. 
In December 1822 he was presented to the 
vicarage of Enfield, one of thb most valuable 
livings in the gift of his college, and in the 

following year he was appointed a justice of 
the peace for Middlesex and elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society. He died at Enfield on 
21 March 1844. 

He published * The Elements of Linear 
Perspective,' Cambridge, 1811, 8vo ; a trans- 
lation of Giuseppe Venturoli's * Elements of 
Mechanics,' Cambridge, 1822; 2nd edit., 1823, 
8vo ; several mathematical works, chiefly 
geometrical ; ' Sermons on Domestic Duties,' 
Lond. 1829, Svo ; and some occasional dis- 

[Lupton's Wakefield Worthies, p. 215; Gent. 
Mag. new ser. xxi. 655 ; Cat. of Printed Books 
in Brit. Mus. ; Graduati Cantab. (1856), p. 95 ; 
Biog. Diet, of Living Authors (1816), p. 80.] 

T. C. 

CRESSWELL, JOSEPH (1557-1623 ?), 
Jesuit, was born in London in 1567, and en- 
tered the Society of Jesus in Rome on 11 Oct. 
1583. It has been stated that on joining the 
order he took the name of Arthur instead of 
Joseph, and Lord Coke says this is the only 
instance of a man changing his christian name 
(Wood, Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 147 n.) 
The statement is unfounded, and perhaps 
originated in the circumstance that there was 
an Arthur Cresswell, probably Joseph's elder 
brother, who was also admitted into the So- 
ciety of Jesus in 1583. Joseph was professed 
of the four vows in 1599. His mother be- 
coming a widow married William Lacey,esq., 
who after her death was ordained priest, and 
was executed at York in 1582. 

He was rector of the English college at 
Rome, in succession to Father Parsons, from 
1589 to 1592, and subsequently spent most 
of his life in Spain (FoLEX, Records, vi. 124). 
When Parsons quitted that country he left 
Cresswell at Madrid to manage the concerns 
of the English Jesuits. Sir Charles Com- 
wallis, the resident minister of James I in 
the Spanish capital, describes him, in a letter 
written to the Earl of Salisbury in 1606, as 
being desirous to conciliate those whom the 
turbulence of Parsons had alienated, and as 
wishing to * take hold of the advantage of the 
tyme, and build the foundation of his great- 
ness in preaching and perswading of obedi- 
ence and temperance, and becomeing a meanes 
to combyne the two great monarchs of Great 
Britaine and Spaine ' (Winwood, Memorials, 
ii. 226). Cresswell, however, was viewed by 
James and his ministers with so evil an eye 
that they directed the ambassador to hold no 
correspondence with hun. For some time 
CornwaUis disregarded this injunction, but 
eventually he came to an open rupture with 
the Jesuit, whom he describes as a vain-glo- 
rious man, observing that 'he played on 




Cresswell's vain-glory to discover his secrets ' 
( WiHTVooD, vols. ii. and iii. passim ; Butler, 
Hist. Memorials of the Eiiglish Catholics, 3rd 
edit. ii. 224-6). Cresswell's name frequently 
occurs in the State Papers and in the ' ad- 
vertiflements ' of the government spies (Fo- 
ley, vi. p. xix, n.) In 1620 he was prefect 
of the mission at St. Omer, and in 1621 rector 
of the college at Ghent. He died in the latter 
city on 19 Feb. 1622-3, according to the Necro- 
logy of the society {Stonyhurst MSS.), but a 
status of the college of St. Omer mentions his 
death on 20 March 1621-2 (Folet, vi. 182). 

Oliver says : ' That he was a man of great 
abilities and distingiiished piety is undeniable, 
but his admirers had occasionally to regret 
peevishness of temper and tenacity of opinion' 
{Jesuit Collections, p. 78) ; and Dodd remarks 
that * by corresponding with statesmen and 
princes he gave a handle to his enemies to 
misrepresent his labours upon several occa- 
sions ' (^Church Hist. ii. 419). 

His works are : 1. A Latin treatise, ' De 
vita beata.' 2. A work in English, under 
the name of John Perne, against Queen Eli- 
zabeth's proclamation of 29 Nov. 1591. It 
appeared in Latin under the title of * Ex- 
emplar Litterarum missarum e Germania ad 
D. GuUielmum Cecilium Consiliarium Re- 
gium,' 1592, 8vo (Southwell, Bibl. Scrip- 
torum Soc. Jesu, p. 521). 3. * Responsio ad 
edictum Elizabethse reginse Angliae contra 
Catholicos Romse, per Aloysium Zanettum,' 
1595, 4to. A translation of Father Parsons's 
work under the name of ' Andreas Philopa- 
ter' (GiLLOw, Bibl. Diet. i. 591). 4. 'His- 
toria de la Vida y Martyrio que padecid en 
Inglaterra, este ano de 1595, el P. Henrique 
Valpolo, Sacerdote de la Compania de Jesus, 
que fu6 embiado del Colegio de los Ingleses 
de Valladolid, y ha sido el primer martyr de 
los Seminarios de Spana. Con el martyrio 
de otros quatro Sacerdotes, los dos de la 
misma Compania, y los otros dos de los Se- 
minarios,' Madrid, 1596, 8vo. A French 
translation of the life of Father Walpole ap- 
peared at Arras, 1597, 8vo (Backee, Bibl. 
des Ecrivains de la Coinpagnie de Jesus, ed. 
1869, i. 1464 ; Jessopp, One Generation of a 
Norfolk House, 2nd edit. pp. xvi, 105, 168- 
170). 6. Treatise against James I's procla- 
mation issued against the catholics in 1610, 
St. Omer, 1611, 4to. 6. A translation into 
Spanish, under the name of Peter Manrique, 
of FatherWilliam Bathe's ' Preparation for ad- 
ministering the Sacrament of Penance,' Milan, 
1614, 4to (Southwell, p. 313; Backer, 
p. 1464). 7. A translation into English and 
Spanish, under the initials N. T., ofSalvian's 
book * Quis dives salvus ? ' St. Omer, 1618. 
8. * Meditations upon the Rosary,' St. Omer, 

1620, 8vo. 9. * Relacion del Estado de Ingla- 
terra en el gobierno de la Reina Isabella,' 
manuscript in the National Library at Madrid, 
X. 14. 

[Authorities cited above.] T. C. 

SERENUS, D.D. (1605-1674), Benedictine 
monk, was bom in 1605 at Thorp Salvin 
in Yorkshire, according to some authorities 
(Snow, Necrology, p. 66 ; Weldon, Chrono- 
logical Notes, p. 209, Append, p. 10), though 
others state that he was a native of Wake- 
field (Wood, Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1011 ; 
LuPTON, Wakefield Worthies, p. 70). His 
father, Hugh Cressy, a barrister of Lincoln's 
Inn, was descended from an ' ancient and 
genteel ' family settled at Holme, near Hod- 
sack, Nottinghamshire ; and his mother was 
a daughter of Thomas D'Oylie, M.D., an emi- 
nent London physician (Wood, i. 327). Hav- 
ing been educated in grammar learning in his 
native county, he was sent in Lent term 
1619 to Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 
1623. Two years later he was elected a pro- 
bationer of Merton College, and in 1626 he 
was made a true and perpetual fellow of that 
society. After having commenced M.A. 
10 July 1629, and taken holy orders, he offi- 
ciated as chaplain to Thomas Lord Went- 
worth while that nobleman was president of 
the council of York, and afterwards when he 
was lord deputy of Ireland and Earl of Straf- 
ford (KJNOWLES, Strafford Papers, i. 272, 300). 
On 26 Jan. 1635-6 he was installed in the 
prebend of St. John's in the cathedral of the 
Holy Trinity, commonly called Christ Church, 
Dublin ; in the following month he was made 
a prebendary of St. Patrick's, Dublin ; and 
on 11 Aug. 1637 he was installed dean of 
Leighlin (Cotton, Fasti Eccl. Hibern. ii. 77, 
78, 174, 390). Having returned to England, 
he obtained in 1642, through the interest of 
Lucius Cary, second viscount Falkland [q.v.], 
a canonry of Windsor, but he was never in- 
stalled in that dignity. After the death of 
his patron Falkland he travelled (1644), in 
the capacity of tutor, with Charles Berkeley, 
afterwards earl of Falmouth, and, says Wood, 
'upon a foresight that the church of England 
would terminate through the endeavours of 
the peevish and restless presbyterians, he be- 
gan to think of settling himself in the church 
of Rome.' After mature consideration and 
many conferences with Father Cuthbert, alias 
John Fursdon, who had been instrumental in 
the conversion of some members of the Cary 
family, he was reconciled to the Roman 
church, and he made a public recantation of 
protestantism at Rome before the inquisition 
in 1646. 




Proceeding to Paris he studied theology there 
under Henry Holden, doctor of the Sorbonne, 
and composed the ' Exomologesis ' to explain 
the motives which had induced him to change 
his religion. His conversion did not estrange 
his protestantfriends. The learned Dr. Henry 
Hammond, having received from him a copy 
of the ' Exomologesis ' declined in the lan- 
guage of friendship to become his antagonist, 
* that he might give no disturbance to a per- 
son for whom he had so great a value, and 
who could have no humane consideration in 
the change he had made ' (Butler, Histori- 
cal Memoirs, ed. 1822, iv. 423, 424). Sir 
Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Claren- 
don, wrote from Jersey to Dr. John Earles 
(1 Jan. 1646-7), with reference to Cressy's con- 
version : ' It is a great loss to the church, but 
a greater to his friends, dead and alive; for the 
dead suffer when their memory and reputa- 
tion is objected toquestionandreproach. ... If 
we cannot keep him a minister of our church, 
I wish he would continue a layman in theirs, 
which would somewhat lessen the defection 
and, it may be, preserve a greater proportion 
of his innocence ' {State Papers, 1773, ii. 322). 
"While at Paris Cressy was befriended by 
Henrietta Maria, queen of England, who as- 
signed him a hundred crowns to defray the cost 
of a journey to a monastery. At first he 
desired to join the English Carthusians at 
Nieuwport in Flanders, but was dissuaded 
from doing so because the strict discipline 
of the order would not leave him leisure to 
vindicate by his writings the doctrines of 
his adopted faith. Eventually he assumed 
the habit of the Benedictines and was pro- 
fessed at St. Gregory's monastery, Douay, on 
22 Aug. 1649, when he took the christian 
name of Serenus (Baker, Saneta Sophia, ed. 
Sweeney, pref. p. xv). After being ordained 
priest he was sent to officiate as confessor to 
the English nuns at Paris in 1651. He re- 
turned to Douay in 1653 and remained there 
till 1660, devoting his leisure to the composi- 
tion of various ascetical, controversial, and 
historical works. Then he was sent on the 
mission in the southern province of England. 
On the marriage of Charles II with Catherine 
of Braganza he became one of her majesty's 
servants, and thenceforward resided chiefly at 
Somerset House in the Strand. He was ap- 
pointed definitor of the southern province in 
1666 and cathedral prior of Rochester in 1669. 
In August of the last named year Anthony h, 
Wood visited him at Somerset House to dis- 
course with him of various matters relating 
to antiquities, 'but found not his expectation 
satisfied ' (Wood, Autobiog. ed. Bliss, p. xlv). 
Cressy died at East Grinstead, Sussex, in the 
house of Richard Caryll, a gentleman of an 

ancient catholic fiimily, on 10 Aug. 1674, and 
was buried in the parish church (Smith, 
Obituary, p. 103), 

Wood says that while at Oxford Cressy 
was ' accounted a quick and accurate dispu- 
tant, a man of good nature, manners, and 
natural parts, and when in orders, no incon- 
siderable preacher. But after he had spent 
divers years in a religious order, and was re- 
turned into England, his former acquaintance 
found great alterations in him as to parts and 
vivacity, and he seemed to some to be possest 
with strange notions, and to others a reserved 
person, and little better than a melancholic. 
Which mutation arose, not perhaps known 
to him, upon his suddenly giving himself up 
to religion, the refinedness of his soul and the 
avoiding of all matters relating to human 
and prophane learning as vanities.' 

His works are: 1. 'Exomologesis; or a 
faithful narrative of the occasion and motives 
of the Conversion unto Catholique Unity of 
Hugh Paulin de Cressy,' Paris, 1647, 1653, 
12mo. 2. ' Appendix to the Exomologesis : 
being an Answer to J. P.'s Preface to Lord 
Falkland's Discourse of Infallibility,' Paris, 
1647, 8vo, also printed in the 2nd edit, of the 
' Exomologesis.' Wood says : * This Exomo- 
logesis was the golden calf which the Eng- 
lish papists fell down and worshipped. They 
bragd that book to be unanswerable, and to 
have given a total overthrow to the Chilling- 
worthians, and book and tenets of Lucius 
lord Falkland.' In 1662 Cressy had a con- 
troversy with Morley, bishop of Winchester, 
relative to a passage in the ' Exomologesis.' 
Copies of his letter and the bishop's reply are 
preserved in Addit. MS. 21630. 3. ' Arbor 
Virtutum, or an exact Model in the which 
are represented all manner of Virtues,' 1649, 
manuscript preserved at Ugbrooke, Devon- 
shire (Gillow, Bibl, Diet, of the English 
Catholics, i. 594 ; Oliver, Catholic Reli- 
gion in Cornwall, b\Qi). 4. * Certain Patterns 
of Devout Exercises of immediate Acts and 
Affections of the Will,' Douay, 1657, 8vo. 
5. ' A Non est inventus, return'd to Mr. Ed- 
ward BagshaVs Enquiry, and vainly boasted 
Discovery of the Weakness in the Grounds of 
the Church's Infallibility. By a Catholick 
Gentleman,' 1662, 12mo. 6. ' A Letter writ- 
ten to an English gentleman, July 16th, 1662, 
concerning Bishop Morley ' [Lond.], 1662, re- 
printed with some of Bishop Morley's ' Trea- 
tises,' 1683. This elicited from Dr. Morley 
' An Answer to Fr. Cressy's Letter,' Lond. 
1662. 7. ' Roman Catholick Doctrines no 
Novelties : or, an Answer to Dr. Pierce's 
Court-Sermon, miscall'd the Primitive Rule 
of Reformation. By S. C.,' 1663, 8vo. An- 
swers to this treatise were published by Dr. 




Thomas Pierce and Daniel Whitby. 8, * The 
Church History of Brittany, or England, from 
the beginning of Christianity to the Norman 
Conquest ' [Rouen], 1668, fol. This volume 
only brought the history down to about 1350. 
It was taken mostly from the ' Annales Eccle- 
sise Britannicse ' of the Jesuit Michael Alford 
[q. v.], the first two vols, of Dugdale's ' Mon- 
asticon,' the ' Decern Scriptores Hist. Angli- 
canse,' and Father Augustine Baker's manu- 
script collections. Cressy has been severely 
censured, particularly by Lord Clarendon, for 
relating many miracles and monkish legends 
in this work, but Wood defends him on the 
ground that he quotes his authorities and 
leaves the statements to the judgment of his 
readers, while he is ' to be commended for his 
grave and good stile, proper for an ecclesiastical 
historian.' 9. 'Second Part of the Church His- 
tory of Brittany, from the Conquest down- 
wards,' manuscript formerly in theBenedictine 
monastery at Douay. For many years it was 
lost, but it was discovered at Douay in 1856 
(GiLLOW, i. 596 ; Catholic Magazine and Re- 
view, ii. 123). It was never published, on 
account of some nice controversies between 
the see of Rome and some of our English 
kings, which, it was thought, might give of- 
fence (DoDD, Church Hist. iii. 308)._ 10. 'First 
Question : Why are you a Catholick p The 
Answer follows. Second Question : But why 
are you a Protestant? An Answer attempted in 
vain. By S.C.,' Loud. 1672, 1686, 4to. ll.'Fa- 
naticism fanatically imputed to the Catholick 
Church by Dr. StiHingfleet, and the Imputa- 
tion refuted and retorted,' 1672, 8vo; also 
printed in * A Collection of several Treatises 
in answer to Dr. StiUingfleet/ 1672, 8vo. 
12. ' An Answer to part of Dr. Stillingfleet's 
book, intitul'd. Idolatry practis'd in the 
Church of Rome,' 1674, 8vo. 13. ' An Epistle 
Apologetical of S. C. to a Person of Honour, 
touching his Vindication of Dr. Stillingfleet,' 
1674, 8vo. The ' person of honour ' was the 
Earl of Clarendon, who had been an intimate 
friend of Cressy at Oxford. 14. ' Reflexions 
on the Oath of Allegiance.' 15. An oration 
in praise of Henry Briggs, who published 
* Arithmetica Logarithmica,' Lond. 1624, fol. 
He also edited Father Augustine Baker's 
' Sancta Sophia,' 2 vols. Douay 1657 ; Walter 
Hilton's * Scale of Perfection,' Lond. 1659 ; 
Mother Juliana's * Sixteen Revelations of 
Divine Love,' 1670 ; and left in manuscript 
an abridgment of Maurice Chauncey's * Cloud 
of Unknowing.' 

[Authorities cited above ; also Biog. Brit. 
(Kippis) ; Catholic Mag. and Review (Birming- 
ham, 1832), ii. 121 ; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 307; 
Jones's Popery Tracts, 132, 167, 222, 223, 224, 
242, 462 ; Ware's Writers of Ireland ^Harris), 

366; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 1011, 
Fasti, i. 277, 411, 419, 461, ii. 236 ; Wood's Life 
(Bliss), pp. Ixv, btix, Ixx, Ixxv.] T. C. 

CRESSY, ROBERT {Jl. 1450 P), Carme- 
lite, was a student at Oxford, where he dis- 
tinguished himself as a theologian. He wrote 
a book of ' Homilise.' These are the only 
facts about him given by Leland in his * Com- 
mentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis,' the 
manuscript of which, however, speaks also 
of a work written by Cressy treating of the 
assumption of the Blessed Virgin ; but this 
statement is deleted. Bishop Bale, who re- . 
fers to Leland as his only authority, adds a 
variety of particulars. He asserts that Cressy, 
whose christian name he gives as ' John,' be- 
longed to the Carmelite house at Boston in 
Lincolnshire, that he returned thither after 
he had completed his studies at Oxford, be- 
came head of his monastery, was buried at 
Boston, and that he flourished about 1450. 
Bale has been followed by Pits and Tanner, 
but neither indicates any other source than 
Leland. The preceding notice in Leland's 
manuscript relates to a Carmelite of Boston, 
named William Surfluctus (or Surflete), who 
flourished about 1466. It is worth noting that 
the home of the Lincolnshire family of Cressy 
— Cressy Manor — is in the parish of Surfleet, 
and some members of the family of Cressy 
may have been known by the surname of Sur- 
fleet. (Cf. John Raine's Parish of Blyth, 
1860.) ' William ' Surfluctus and ' John ' or 
' Robert ' Cressy may have been near kins- 
men or, if we assume an error in the christian 
name, identical. 

[Leland's Collectanea, iv. 348 (MS., Bodleian 
Libr.),printed as Comm. de Seriptt. Brit, dlxxxix. 
p. 482 ; Bale's Seriptt. Brit. Cat. xii . 8 1 ,pt. ii. p. 9 7; 
Pits, De Anglise Scriptoribus, § 837, pp. 642 et 
seq. ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 288.] R. L. P. 

CRESTADORO, ANDREA (1808-1879), 
bibliographer, was born in 1808 at Genoa and 
educated at the public school of that place. 
An industrious student as a boy, he proceeded 
to the university of Turin, where he graduated 
Ph.D., and soon after was appointed professor 
of natural philosophy. Here he published a 
* Saggio d' instituzioni sulla facolt^ della pa- 
rola ' and a small treatise on savings banks in 
advocacy of their extension to Italy. He also 
translated a portion of Bancroft's * History of 
America.' Thi-oughout his life he was fond 
of mechanical experiments, and in 1849 he 
came to England in order to push his inven- 
tions. In 1852, when resident in Salford, he 
patented * certain improvements in impul- 
soria.' He took out other patents in 1852, 
1862, 1868, and 1873. None of these came into 
practical use. Oue of them relates to aerial 




locomotion, and a model of his metallic 
balloon was shown at the Crystal Palace in 
June 1868, and a description of it was printed. 
The failure of his early patents led him to 
undertake bibliographical work, and he was 
engaged by Messrs. Sampson Low & Co. on 
the compilation of the ' British Catalogue ' 
and the ' Index to Current Literature' (1859- 
1861). This led him often to the British 
Museum, and he undertook the solution of a 
difficult problem, ' The Art of making Cata- 
logues,' an ingenious treatise in which in 
effect, though perhaps unconsciously, the me- 
thods 80 long applied to the calendaring of 
manuscripts are suggested for application to 
collections of printed books. During a resi- 
dence at Pans he published in 1861, * Du 
Pouvoir temporel et de la Souverainet6 pouti- 
ficale,' which, under a title suggested by the 
affairs of Italy, is a treatise on the methods 
of government, and is said to have suggested 
to Cavour and Menabrea the possibility of a 
modus Vivendi between the Quirinal and the 

Crestadoro was engaged by the corporation 
of Manchester to compile a catalogue of the 
Reference Library, and in 1864 he was ap- 
pointed chief librarian of the Manchester Free 
Libraries. The ' Index-Catalogues ' which he 
originated have been generally adopted as 
models by the municipal libraries of the king- 
dom. He was present at the International 
Congress of Librarians in 1877, and joined 
in their discussions, and at the Social Science 
Congress in 1878, when he read a paper ' On 
the best and fairest mode of Raising the Public 
Revenue,' of which editions appeared in Eng- 
lish and French. The king of Italy in 1878 
sent him the order of the Corona d' Italia. He 
died at Manchester 7 April 1879, after a brief 
illness, and was buried at Ardwick cemetery. 
He left a widow, but no children. A work 
on the management of joint-stock companies 
was left in manuscript, and has never been 
published. Crestadoro exerted a marked and 
beneficial influence upon the progress of the 
free library movement, and his claims to dis- 
tinction as a bibliogi-apher are due not so 
much to his knowledge of books as to his 
faculty of organisation. In private life he 
was a pleasant and genial companion. A por- 
trait of him appeared in * Momus,' 20 March 

[Private information ; Manchester Guardian, 
8 April 1879.] W. E. A. A. 

CRESWICK, THOINIAS (1811-1869), 
landscape-painter, born at Sheffield, York- 
shire, on 5 Feb. 1811, was educated at 
Hazelwood, near Birmingham, and rapidly j 
developed great talents for drawing. He| 

studied for some time under John Vincent 
Barber [see Bakbek, Joseph], and in 1828 
removed to London, settling in Edmund 
Street, St. Pancras, with a view to pursuing 
his studies further. In that year, though but 
seventeen years of age, he was successful in 
gaining admittance for two pictures in the 
exhibition of the Royal Academy, and for 
thirty years or so remained a constant and 
welcome exhibitor, contributing also to the 
Suffolk Street Gallery and the British Insti- 
tution. Creswick soon became known as a 
zealous and careful student of nature. Paint- 
ing usually in the open air from the objects 
before him, he continually gained in facility 
of execution and power of expression, and 
will always remain a faithful translator of 
the countless and varied charms of English 
landscape scenery. In 1836 he removed to 
Bayswater, and continued to reside in that 
neighbourhood, in 1837 paying a visit to Ire- 
land, to which are due a series of charming 
vignette illustrations. In 1842 he exhibited 
' The Course of Greta through Brignal Woods,' 
and was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy, in the same year gaining a premium 
at the British Institution. From this time 
his art continued to increase in power and 
vigour until 1847, when he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy two works, ' England ' and 
' The London Road a Hundred Years Ago,' 
which may be said to mark the crowning 
point of his career. As his powers were 
limited in their scope, he frequently varied 
his pictures by introducing figures and cattle, 
painted by his friends and brother-artists, 
Ansdell, Bottomley, Cooper, Elmore, Frith, 
Goodall, and others. He was elected an aca- 
demician of the Royal Academy in 1851. He 
was largely employed and eminently success- 
ful as a designer of book illustrations, and 
was a charming if not very powerful etcher, 
being one of the first members of the Etching 
Club. As a student of nature, and especially 
as a painter and delineator of foliage, Creswick 
is favourably criticised by Ruskin in the chap- 
ter ' On the Truth of Vegetation ' in ' Modern 
Painters.' His life was peaceful and un- 
eventful ; but his health rapidly declined, his 
later pictures showing many signs of failing 
powers. He died at his residence in Linden 
Grove, Bayswater, on 28 Dec. 1869, and was 
buried at Kensal Green cemetery. He mar- 
ried Miss Silvester, but left no children. 
Creswick had but a moderate estimate of his 
own powers as a painter, and consequently 
his works always found purchasers, and are 
treasured among many private collections in 
England. At the London International Ex- 
hibition of 1873, 109 of his paintings were 
collected together, and a catalogue was com- 




piled and publislied by T. 0. Barlow, R.A. 
His works also were a conspicuous ornament 
of the Manchester Exhibition in 1887. There 
is a landscape by him in the National Gallery, 
formerly in the Vernon Gallery, and two 
other landscapes are in the Sheepshanks Col- 
lection at the South Kensington Museum. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists ; Ottley's 
Diet, of Reeent and Living Painters ; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880 ; Sandby's Hist, of 
the Royal Aeademy ; Chatto and Jackson's 
Treatise on "Wood-engraving; Barlow's Catalogue 
of the Works of Thomas Creswick, R.A. exhi- 
bited at the London International Exhibition, 
1873; Clement and Hutton's Artists of the 
Nineteenth Century ; Ruskin's Modern Painters, 
loe. eit. ; Hamerton's Etching and Etchers ; 
Art Journal, 1856, p. 141, 1870, p. 63; informa- 
tion from T. 0. Barlow, R.A.] L. C, 

CRESY, EDWARD (1792-1858), archi- 
tect and civil engineer, was born at Dartford, 
Kent, on 7 May 1792, and was educated at 
Rawes's academy at Bromley in the same 
county. He became a pupil of Mr. James T. 
Parkinson, architect, of Ely Place, who, in 
addition to a moderate private practice, was 
entrusted at that time with the laying out 
of the Portman estate. After the termina- 
tion of his articles, with the object of per- 
fecting himself in the financial branches of 
his profession, he served two years with Mr. 
George Smith of Mercers' Hall, and in 1816, 
accompanied by his friend and colleague 
George Ledwell Taylor, he undertook a walk- 
ing tour through England for the purpose of 
studying, measuring, and drawing the cathe- 
drals and most interesting buildings. The 
next three years found Cresy and his friend 
engaged in similar pursuits on the conti- 
nent; chiefly on foot, they journeyed through 
France, Switzerland, Italy, and Greece, to 
Malta and Sicily, and back again by Italy 
and France home. The chief aim of their 
studies was to present the dimensions of each 
building in English measurements, and the 
foliage and ornaments one quarter of the 
real size. Arrived again in England the two 
friends issued as some result of their labours, 
' The Architectural Antiquities of Rome, 
measured and delineated by G. L. Taylor 
and E. Cresy,' 2 vols, fol., London, 1821-2 
(new edition, including the more recent dis- 
coveries [edited by A. Taylor], fol., London, 
1874) ; and a few years afterwards ' Archi- 
tecture of the Middle Ages in Italy illus- 
trated by views ... of the Cathedral, &c. 
of Pisa,' fol., London, 1829. A third work 
on the architecture of the Renaissance was 
to have followed, but after the publication 
of two parts, was abandoned from want of 

Cresy hastily accepted an engagement in 
Paris, which although successful interfered 
with his professional prospects at home. His 
practice was almost exclusively private, as 
he considered the system of open competition 
to be injurious to art. In his capacity of a 
superintending inspector under the general 
board of health Cresy did good work in a 
branch of engineering then all but unknown. 
He gave evidence before the Health of Towns 
and Metropolitan Sanitary Commission, fur- 
nished materials for the ' Appendix to Re- 
port on Drainage of Potteries,' 1849, &c., and 
wrote the ' Report as to the Fall of the Ex- 
tension of the Main Sewer from the Ravens- 
bourne to the Outlet,' 1855, both of which 
were embodied in the reports of the Metro- 
politan Commission of Sewers. Among his 
other works are : 1. ' A Practical Treatise on 
Bridge Building,' fol., London, 1839. 2. 'H- 
lustrations of Stone Church, Kent, with an 
historical account,' fol., published for the 
London Topographical Society, London, 1840. 
3. * An Encyclopaedia of Civil Engineering,' 
8vo, London, 1847 (2nd ed. 8vo, London, 
1856). 4. [With C. W. Johnson] ' On the 
Cottages of Agricultural Labourers,' 12mo, 
London [1847]. 

Cresy became a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries in 1820, and was also a 
member of the British Archasological Asso- 
ciation. He died at South Darenth, Kent, 
on 12 Nov. 1858 (^Gmt. Mag. 1858, v. 654). 
By his marriage, on 17 March 1824, to Eliza, 
daughter of W. Taylor of Ludgate Street 
(ib. xciv. pt. i. p. 367), he left issue two sons 
and two daughters. His eldest son, Edward, 
followed his father's profession, and became 
principal assistant clerk at the Metropolitan 
Board of Works, and architect to the fire 
brigade. He died at Alleyn Road, Dulwich, 
on 13 Oct. 1870, in his forty-seventh year 
( Times, 14 Oct. 1870 ; obituary). Mrs. Cresy 
is known by her translation, ' with Notes and 
Additional Lives,' of Milizia's ' Memorie degli 
Architetti antichi e moderni,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1826. 

[Taylor's Autobiography of an Octogenarian 
Architect; Builder, xvi. 793, xvii. 166, xxviii. 
854 ; Will reg. in the Principal Registry, 746, 
1858.] G, G. 

CREW, JOHN, first Baron Ckew of 
Stene (1598-1679), eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Crew[q. v.], serjeant-at-law, by Temperance, 
daughter of Reginald Bray of Stene, North- 
amptonshire, was M.P. for Amersham, Buck- 
inghamshire, in 1624 and 1625, for Brackley, 
Northamptonshire, in 1626, for Banbury in 
1628, and for Northamptonshire in the first 
parliament of 1640. In the Long parliament 




he sat for Brackley. In May 1640 he was 
committed to the Tower for refusing to sur- 
render papers in his possession as chairman 
of the committee on religion, but, making 
submission in the following month, was re- 
leased. He voted against the attainder of 
Strafford in 1641, and spoke against the mo- 
tion to commit Palmer for protesting against 
the publication of the Grand Remonstrance. 
On the outbreak of the civil war he sub- 
scribed 200/. in plate and engaged to main- 
tain four horses for the parliament. He was 
one of the commissioners appointed by par- 
liament for the treaty of Uxbridge in 1644-5. 
He subsequently supported the ' self-denying 
ordinance ' by which it was proposed to dis- 
able members of parliament from holding 
places under government. He was one of 
the commissioners who conducted the nego- 
tiations with the king at Newcastle-on-Tyne 
and Holdenby in 1646, and in the Isle of 
Wight in 1648. As he disapproved of bring- 
ingCharles to justice,he was arrested among 
' the secluded members ' on 6 Dec. 1648. He 
was, however, released on the 29th. He was 
returned to parliament for Northamptonshire 
in 1654, and was a member of the committee 
for raising funds in aid of the Piedmontese 
protestants, and helped to draw up the new 
statutes for Durham College in 1656. In 
1657 he received a peer's writ of summons 
to parliament, but does not appear to have 
taken his seat. On the secluded members 
usurping power he was nominated one of the 
council of state (23 Feb. 1659-60), and sub- 
sequently moved a resolution condemnatory 
of the execution of the king. At the general 
election which followed he was again returned 
for Northamptonshire. He was one of the de- 
putation that met Charles II at the Hague. 
On 20 April 1661 he was created Baron 
Crew of Stene at Whitehall (Pepts). He is 
frequently referred to by Pepys, who seems 
to have entertained a very high respect for 
him. Clarendon describes him as a man of 
the 'greatest moderation.' He died on 12 Dec. 
1679. By his wife Jemimah, daughter of 
Edward Waldegrave of Lawford, Essex, he 
had issue six sons and two daughters. He 
was succeeded in his title and estates by his 
eldest son, Thomas. His eldest daughter, 
Jemimah, married Sir Edward Montague, 
afterwards Lord Sandwich and lord high ad- 
miral. His fifth son was Nathaniel [q. v.] 

[Official Return of Lists of Members of Parlia- 
ment; Willis's Not. Pari. iii. 264; Rushworth's 
Hist. Coll, iii. 1167, vii. 1355, 1369 ; Cal. State 
Papers (Dom. 1649), pp. 142, 145, 308 ; Ver- 
ney's Notes of Long Pari. (Camd. Soc.), pp. 24, 
78, 127; Whitelocke's Mem. 124-5,233,238,334, 
665; Clarendon's Bebellion, V. 76,90; Wood's 

Fasti Oxen. ii. 138 ; Commons' Joum. vii 849 
Ludlow's Mem. 359, 364 ; Pepys's Diary (Bray- 
brooke), 26 April 1660, 2 Dee. 1667, 1 Jan. 1668 • 
Hinchliffis's Barthomley.] j. jj;, jj^ ' 

CREW, NATHANIEL, third Baron 
Ckew of Stene (1633-172U, bishop of Dur- 
ham, was the fifth son of John Crew of Stene 
[q. v.], Northamptonshire, by Jemima, daugh- 
ter of Edward Walgrave of Lawford, Essex. 
His father was a gentleman of considerablefor- 
tune, who adopted a moderate line of action 
on the parliamentary side during the great re- 
bellion. Nathaniel entered Lincoln College, 
Oxford, in 1652; he took the degree of B.A. 
in 1656, and soon after was elected feUow of 
his college. His father's local influence was 
useful in promoting the Restoration, and his 
services were recognised by his elevation to 
the peerage in 1661, under the title of Baron 
Crew of Stene. This dignity conferred upon 
his father seems to have imbued Nathaniel's 
mind with a desire for the sweets of royal 
patronage. His own capacity for business was 
considerable, as in 1663 he was proctor of the 
university, and in 1668 was elected rector of 
Lincoln College. He had taken holy orders 
in 1664, and contrived to win the favour of 
the Duke of York, by whose influence he was 
made dean and precentor of Chichester in 
1669, and clerk of the closet to Charles II. 
In 1671 he was further appointed bishop of 
Oxford, and resigned the rectorship of Lin- 
coln in the following year. 

Crew now began a discreditable career as 
the favourite ecclesiastic of the Duke of York, 
who needed a pliant adherent in the church 
to connive at his Romish practices. In 1673 
Crew solemnised the marriage of the Duke of 
York with Maria d'Este, and in 1674 was 
further rewarded by being translated to the 
wealthy see of Durham. Next year he again 
acted as domestic chaplain to the Duke of 
York, by baptising his daughter, Catharine 
Laura. In 1676 he stepped into politics, and 
was sworn of the privy council to Charles H. 

When James II ascended the throne he 
was not disappointed in his hope that Crew 
would prove subservient. The upright Bishop 
of London, Compton, was disgraced and de- 
prived of the office of dean of the Chapel 
Royal, which Crew readily accepted. The 
king revived the ecclesiastical commission in 
the beginning of 1686, and Crew's vanity was 
delighted by being made a member of a body 
on which Archbishop Sancroft refused to 
serve. He said that now his name would 
be recorded in history, and when his friends 
warned him of the danger he was running, 
he answered that he ' could not live if he 
should lose the king's gracious smiles ' (Bub- 




NET, Ovm Time, 431, ed. 1850). Tte first 
business of the commission was to suspend 
Compton from his spiritual functions; and 
Crew was appointed to administer the dio- 
cese of London together with Sprat, bishop 
of Rochester, a still more infamous creature 
of James II, When Samuel Johnson, the 
protestant theologian, was condemned to be 
flogged for writing against the king, Crew and 
Sprat degraded him from the priesthood as a 
preliminary to his punishment. Similarly 
in 1687 Crew was one of the ecclesiastical 
commissioners who suspended Pechell, the 
vice-chancellor of the university of Cambridge, 
because he refused to obey a royal command 
to admit to the degree of M. A. a Benedictine 
monk who declined to take the oath required 
by the statutes of the university. As Crew 
had been intimately connected with univer- 
sity business, this shows that his sycophancy 
was boundless, and we are not surprised at a 
story that he was prepared to go out and wel- 
come the papal nuncio, but was prevented by 
his coachman's refusal to drive him for such a 
purpose (Ksira^ET, Hist, of England, iii. 449). 
He further consented to act with the bishops 
of Rochester and Peterborough to draw up 
a form of thanksgiving when the queen was 
with child, though this was the office of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Crew's devotion to James II went no fur- 
ther than his own interests. When in 1688 
the king's prospects grew dark, Crew absented 
himself from the council chamber, and even 
told Bancroft ' that he was sorry for having 
so long concurred with the court, and desired 
now to be reconciled with his grace and the 
other bishops' {ib. iii. 527). On the flight 
of James II Crew went into hiding, and 
prepared to cross the seas, but was prevented 
by the entreaties of one of his servants. He 
was so mean-spirited as to try and curry 
favour with the new government by attend- 
ing the last meeting of the convention, and 
giving his vote in the House of Lords in 
favour of the motion that the throne was 
vacant owing to James II's abdication. At 
the same time he strove to buy ofi" the ani- 
mosity of those whom he had injured, such 
as Johnson, by large gifts of money. It was 
clear that a man of such a time-serving spirit 
was in no way formidable, but Crew's offence 
had been so patent that he was excepted by 
name from the general pardon issued in May 
1690. No steps, however, were taken against 
him, and on Tillotson's intercession he was for- 
given, and was left in peaceful possession of 
his bishopric of Durham, though he was com- 
pelled to resign the right of appointing the 
prebendaries of his cathedral church. 

Crew's public life had been sufficiently ig- 

nommious. He retired to his bishopric and 
tried to make some amends for the past. He 
was a capable administrator of the tempora- 
lities of his see, and made himself popular in 
his diocese by acts of generosity. In 1697 
he became Baron Crew by the death of his 
brother without issue. He married in 1691 
Penelope, daughter of Sir Philip Frowde of 
Kent, and after her death in 1699 he married 
a second time in 1700 Dorothy, daughter of 
Sir WUliam Forster of Bamburgh in North- 
umberland. By this marriage, which took 
place when he was sixty-seven and his wife 
twenty-four years old, Crew became con- 
nected with one of the chief families in his 
bishopric. By the death of her brothers Lady 
Crew was coheir with her nephew Thomas 
to the manors of Bamburgh and Blanchland ; 
but as the estate was encumbered, and Thomas 
Forster was not of a frugal disposition, the 
estate was sold by order of the court of 
chancery in 1704, and was bought by Lord 
Crew for 20,679Z. (DiCKSoif, Proceedings of 
the Berwickshire Club, vi. 333). This is worth 
noticing, as Thomas Forster was one of the 
leaders of the Jacobite rising in 1715, and it is 
generally said that Crew purchased his estates 
after his forfeiture, which is not the case. 

Crew was happy in his married life, not 
withstanding the disparity of age between 
his wife and himself. She died in 1715, and 
was buried at Stene, where the old man fre- 
quently visited her tomb. He died 18 Sept. 
1721 at the age of eighty-eight. As he had 
no children, the barony of Crew became ex- 
tinct on his death. 

Crew is a remarkable instance of a man 
whose posthumous munificence has done much 
to outweigh a discreditable career. By his 
will he left the estates which he had pur- 
chased in Northumberland to trustees for 
charitable purposes, in which he left them a 
large discretion. Some of the proceeds were 
to be applied to the augmentation of small 
benefices in the diocese of Durham, some to 
the endowment of Lincoln College, Oxford, 
and some to the foundation of charities in 
the locality where the estates lay. Lincoln 
College devoted part of Crew's benefaction 
to university purposes, and the Crewian ora- 
tion, delivered by the public orator at the 
commemoration of the benefactors of the xini- 
versity, still perpetuates Crew's name. The 
castle of Bamburgh, which is intimately con- 
nected with the early history of England, 
has been restored and repaired by Crew's 
trustees, and contains within its walls a 
school for the orphan daughters of fishermen. 
The maintenance of so famous a monument 
of England's past, and its dedication to such 
a purpose, is singularly impressive to the ima- 




gination, and Crew enjoys a reputation as a 
far-seeing philanthropist, wliich is morejustly 
due to the wisdom of his trustees. Crew's 
portrait was painted by Kneller, and was en- 
graved by IjOggan ; a copy of Loggan's print 
is in Hutchinson's ' Hist, of Durham,' i. 555. 
[Hutchinson's Hist, of Durham, i. 555, &c. ; 
Baker's Hist, of Northampton, i. 684, &c. ; Wood's 
Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 885 ; Kippis's Biog. 
Brit. iv. 437, &c. ; Hist, of King James's Eccle- 
siastical Commission ; Birch's Life of Tillotson, 
p. 148, &c. ; Macaulay's Hist, of England, chaps, 
viii. and ix.] M. C. 

or RANDOLPH (1558-1646), judge, second 
son of John Crew of Nantwich, who is said 
to have been a tanner, by Alice, daughter of 
Humphrey Mainwaring, was admitted a mem- 
ber of Lincoln's Inn on 13 Nov. 1577, called to 
the bar on 8 Nov. 1584,returned to parliament 
as junior member for Brackley, Northamp- 
tonshire, in 1597, elected a bencher of Lin- 
coln's Inn in 1600, and autumn reader there 
in 1602. The earliest reported case in which 
he was engaged was tried in the queen's bench 
in Hilary term 1597-8, when he acted as junior 
to the attorney-general, Coke. In 1604 he 
was selected by the House of Commons to 
state objections to the adoption of the new 
style of king of Great Britain in the con- 
ference with the lords. His name does not 
appear in the official list of returns to parlia- 
ment after 1 597. He was certainly, however, 
a member in 1614, as he was then elected 
speaker (7 April). He was knighted in June, 
and took the degree of serjeant-at-law in July 
of the following year. In the address with 
which, according to custom, he opened the 
session in 1614, he enlarged upon the length 
of the royal pedigree, to which he gave a fa- 
bulous extension. In January 1614—15 Crewe 
was appointed one of the commissioners for 
the examination, under torture, of Edmond 
Peacham [q. v.] Peacham was sent down to 
Somersetshire to stand his trial at the assizes. 
Crew prosecuted, and Peacham was con- 
victed. Crew was a member of the commis- 
sion which tried Weston for the murder of Sir 
Thomas Overbury in 1615, and was concerned 
with Bacon and Montague in the prosecution 
of the Earl and Countess of Somerset as ac- 
cessories before the fact in the following year. 
In 1621 he conducted the prosecution of Yel- 
verton [q. v.], the attorney-general, for cer- 
tain alleged misdemeanors in connection with 
patents. The same year Crew prosecuted Sir 
Francis Mitchell for alleged corrupt practices 
in executmg* the commission concerning gold 
and silver thread,' conducted the impeach- 
ment of Sir John Bennet [q. v.], judge of the 
prerogative court, for corruption in his office, 

and ruateriaUy contributed to the settlement 
of an important point in the law of impeach- 
ment. Edward Floyde, having published a 
libel on the princess palatine, was impeached 
by the commons, and sentenced to the pillory. 
The lords disputed the right of the commons 
to pass sentence upon the offender on two 
grounds : (1) that he was not a member of 
their house ; (2) that the offence did not touch 
their privileges. At the conference which 
followed Crew adduced a precedent from the 
reign of Henry IV in support of the conten- 
tion of the lords, and the commons being able 
to produce no counter-precedent the question 
was quietly settled by the commons entering 
in the journal a minute to the effect that the 
proceedings against Floyde should not be- 
come a precedent. In 1624 Crew presented 
part of the case against Lionel Cranfield, earl 
of Middlesex [q. v.], on his impeachment. 
The same year he was appointed king's Ser- 
jeant. The following year (26 Jan. 1624-5) 
he was created lord chief justice of the king's 
bench. On 9 Nov. 1626 he was removed for 
having refused to subscribe a document af- 
firming the legality of forced loans. All his 
colleagues seem to have concurred with him, 
but he alone was punished. From a letter 
written by him to the Duke of Buckingham 
(28 June 1628) it seems that he hoped to re- 
ceive some compensation through Bucking- 
ham's support. On the assassination of Buck- 
ingham (24 Aug. 1628) Crew urged his suit 
upon the king himself, but without success. 
AAer the impeachment in 1641 of the judges 
who had affirmed the legality of ship-money, 
Denzil Holies moved the House of Commons 
to petition the king to compensate Crew, who 
seems to have passed the rest of his days in 
retirement, partly in London, and partly at 
his seat, Crewe Hall, Barthomley, Cheshire, 
built by him upon an estate said to have be- 
longed to his ancestors, which he purchased 
from Coke in 1608. Crewe Hall was garri- 
soned for the parliament, taken by Byron in 
December 1643, and retaken in the following 
February. A letter from Crew to Sir Richard 
Browne at Paris, under date 10 April 1644, 
describing the growing exasperation of * this 
plus quam civile bellum,' as he called it, and 
the devastation of the country, is preserved 
in the British Museum (Add. MS. 15857, f. 
193), and is printed in the ' Fairfax Corre- 
spondence. Memorials,' i. 98. Crew died at 
Westminster on 3 Jan. 1645-6, and was buried 
on 5 June in a cliapel built by himself at Bar- 
thomley. He married twice : first, on 20 July 
1598, Julian, daughter and coheiress of John 
Clipsby or Clippesby of Clippesby, Norfolk, 
who died on 29 July 1603 ; second, on 12 April 
1607, Julian, daughter of Edward Fasey oi 




London, relict of Sir Thomas Hesketh, knight, 
who died on 10 Aug. 1629. By his first 
wife he had one son, who survived him, viz. 
Clipsby Crew, whose granddaughter eventu- 
ally succeeded to the inheritance, one of whose 
descendants, the grandfather of the present 
Lord Crewe, was raised to the peerage as 
Baron Crewe of Crewe in 1806. The Crewe 
family is said to be among the most ancient 
in the kingdom, a fact the importance of 
which is not likely to have been underrated 
by Sir Ranulphe, if we may judge by his elo- 
quent prologue to the Oxford peerage case, 
decided 1625, which is one of the few passages 
of reaUy fine prose to be found in the * Law 
Reports.' ' Where,' he asks, 'is Bohun,where's 
Mowbray, where's Mortimer .P &c. Nay, which 
is more and most of all, where is Plantagenet ? 
They are entombed in the urns and sepulchres 
of mortality. And yet let the name and dig- 
nity of De Vere stand so long as it pleaseth 

[Ormerod's Cheshire, ed. Helsby, iii. 310, 314, 
420 «.; Croke's Keports (Eliz.), 641; Lists of 
Members of Parliament (official return of), i. 
434 ; Willis's Not. Pari. iii. 141, 171 ; Dugdale's 
Orig. 254, 262 ; Chron. Ser. 105, 106 ; Cobbett's 
State Trials, ii. 911, 952, 989, 994, 1131, 1135- 
1146; Spedding's Letters and Life of Bacon, iii. 
199-200, V. 90-4, 125, 127, 128, 325-6, 386- 
394; Pari. Hist. i. 1106, 1256,1447-50, 1467-9, 
1477; Cal. State Papers (Dom., 1611-18), pp. 
227, 230, 239, 397, (1623-6) pp. 119, 412, 472, 
(1625-6) pp. 163, 335 ; Yonge's Diary (Camden 
Soc), pp. 28, 98 ; Eymer's Foedera (Sanderson), 
xviii. 791 ; Erdeswick's Survey of Staffordshire, 
ed. Horwin, 77-86 ; Rushworth, pt. iii. vol. i. pp. 
346-6; Fairfax Correspondence, i. 71, Hinch- 
liffe's Barthomley, pp. 238, 324-5 ; Foss's Lives 
of the Judges ; Campbell's Lives of the Chief 
Justices.] J. M. R. 


1667), amateur artist, second son of Sir Clipsby 
Crew, by Jane, daughter of Sir John Poult- 
ney, and grandson of Sir Ranulphe or Ran- 
dolph Crew [q.v.],was bom at Westminster 
6 April 1631. Fuller, who styles him 'a hope- 
full gentleman,' states that ' he drew a map of 
Cheshire so exactly with his pen that a judi- 
cious eye would mistake it for printing, and 
the graver's skill and industry could little im- 
prove it. This map I have seen ; and, reader, 
when my eye directs my hand, I may write 
with confidence.' The map in question was 
published in Daniel Bang's ' The Vale Royall 
of England, or the County Palatine of Chester 
Illustrated' (folio, London, 1656), a work in 
which Crew seems to have taken a personal 
share. On an inscription thereon he states 
that he drew the map with his own pen, and 
after it was drawn engraved it at his own ex- 

pense. This seems to be at variance with 
Fuller's statement quoted above, unless Ful- 
ler is alluding to the original drawing only. 
Wishing to perfect his education, Crew tra- 
velled abroad, but on 19 Sept. 1657, while 
walking in the streets of Paris, he was set 
upon by footpads, and received wounds of 
which he died two days afterwards, at the 
early age of twenty-six. He was buried in 
the Huguenots' burying-place in the Faubourg 
St. Germain at Paris, and a monument was 
erected to his memory. 

[Fuller's Worthies of England, i. 193 ; Orme- 
rod's Hist, of Cheshire ; Nichols's Topographer 
and Genealogist, iii. 299.] L. C. 

CREW, THOMAS {J,. 1580), philo- 
sopher, was the author of a small treatise 
entitled 'A Nosegay of Moral Philosophy, 
lately dispersed amongst many Italian Au- 
thors, and now newly and succinctly drawn 
together into Questions and Answers and 
translated into English,' London, 1580, 12mo. 
He has been confounded with his namesake, 
Sir Thomas Crew, the speaker [q. v.] 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib.] J. M, R. 

(1565-1634), speaker of the House of Com- 
mons, third son of John Crew of Nantwich, 
brother of Sir Ranulphe Crew [q.v.], by Alice, 
daughter of Humphrey Mainwaring, was a 
member of Gray's Inn, where he was elected 
Lent reader in 1612. lie was returned to par- 
liament for Lichfield in 1603. In 1613 he was 
one of the counsel for the Bishop of London, 
the plaintiff", in a suit against the dean and 
chapter of Westminster, his brother Ranulphe 
being for the defendants. He was elected 
member of parliament for Beeralston, Devon, 
in 1614, and we learn from Whitelocke (ij6er 
Famelicusy Camden Soc, p. 42) that he was 
one of a deputation to the lords on the 
question of impositions. 

Crew's politics are clearly indicated by 
the fact, also mentioned by Whitelocke {ib. 
p. 67), that in 1618, the king being asked ' if 
there were any he would bar from the place ' 
of recorder of London, then vacant, ' he con- 
fessed but one, and that was Mr. Thos. Crewe.' 
In the parliament of 1020-1 he represented 
the borough of Northampton. He took part 
in the discussion on the scarcity of money 
(26 Feb. 1620-1). On 8 March he and Sir 
Heneage Finch were deputed to demand an 
inquiry into the conduct of the referees in the 
matter of monopolies, and were compelled re- 
luctantly to begin proceedings against Lord- 
chancellor Bacon, one of these referees. Crew 
expressed his antipathy to the Spanish match 
(26 Nov. 1621), saying : ' It is a wonder to see 




the spiritual madness of such as shall fall in 
lovewith the Romish harlot nowshe is grown 
so old a hag.' It was on his motion that 
(15 Dec. 1621) the privilege question was 
refeiTed to a committee of the whole house, 
and he declared that the liberties of parlia- 
ment were ' matters of inheritance, not of 
grace.' The king signified his displeasure 
with Crew's conduct by placing him on a 
commission to * inquire into the state, eccle- 
siastical and temporal, of Ireland' (20 March 
1621-2), which involved his visiting that 
country. The commissioners appear to have 
left England in March and returned in De- 
cember. One of Chamberlain's letters (21 Dec. 
1622) says that on the return voyage they 
' were cast away on the Isle of Man ' and 
reported lost. Their mandate was very ex- 
tensive, and they seem to have endeavoured 
to execute it with a real desire to improve 
the condition of Ireland. They advised cer- ; 
tain reforms in the administration of justice, j 
one of which, the abolition of the power \ 
usurped by the council of administering' oaths 
in ordinary cases, was carried into effect by 
proclamation on 7 Nov. 1625. They also re- I 
commended the reduction of * doubtful rents' 
on estates held by the crown by two-thirds, 
and certain modes of lightening the burden 
of taxation. In February 1623 Crew, who 
now sat for Aylesbury, was chosen speaker of 
the House of Commons. In his address to 
the throne he urged the passing of the ' good 
bills against monopolies, informers, and con- 
cealers,' the execution of the laws against 
seminary priests, and the recovery of the 
palatinate and various reforms. In Septem- 
ber of the same year he took the degree of 
seijeant-at-law, and in the following February 
was advanced to the rank of king's Serjeant 
and knighted. In his speech on the proroga- 
tion (24 May 1624) he again insisted strongly 
upon the importance of recovering the pala- 
tinate, and received the king's thanks, ' being 
the ablest speaker known for years' {Col. 
State Papers, Dom. 1623-5, p. 261). On the 
meeting of the first parliament of Charles I, 
where Crew sat as M.P. for Gatton, he was 
again chosen speaker (June 1626). He was 
not a member of the parliament of 1626, nor it 
would seem of any subsequent parliament. In 
1631 he was one of the counsel for the prose- 
cution of Lord Audeley. He was a member of 
the ecclesiastical commission in 1633, and died 
on 1 Feb. 1633-4. He was buried in a cha- 
pel built by himself at Stene in Northamp- 
tonshire in 1620, which is described as of 
mixed Perpendicular and Ionic style. Here 
a monument was raised in black, white, and 
grey marble, representing him in a recumbent 
posture in his Serjeant's robes, with his wife, 

Temperance, daughter of Reginald Bray of 
Stene, who had died in 1619, by his side. 
His marriage took place in 1596 (Letter to 
Anthony Bacon, Birch MS. 4120, fol. 117). 
His wife becoming coheiress of the manors 
of Stene and Hinton in Northamptonshire by 
the death of her father in 1583, Crew pur- 
chased the remaining shares ; the estates de- 
volved upon his son John [q. v.], who sat for 
Brackley in two parliaments and was raised 
to the peerage by Charles II in 1661 as Baron 
Crewe of Stene. 

[Dugdale's Orig. 196 ; Lists of Members of 
Parliament (official return of), i. 445, 452, 456, 
466; Pari. Hist. i. 1195, 1278,1307, 1321, 1331, 
1347, 1349-50, 1359, 1374, ii. 3 ; Commons De- 
bates, 1625 (Camd. Soc), p. 3 ; Eushworth, i. 54 ; 
Cox's Hist, of Ireland, ii. 37 ; Rymer's Fcedera 
(Sanderson), xvii. 358 ; Walter Yonge's Diary 
(Camd. Soc), p. 51 ; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 107 ; 
Croke's Rep. (Jac), p. 671 ; Gardiner's Hist, of 
England ; Forster's Life of Sir John Eliot ; Cob- 
bett's State Trials, iii. 408 ; Cal. State Papers 
(Dom. 1619-23), pp. 295, 469 ; Cal. State Papers 
(Ireland,1615-25), p.346 ; Cal. State Papers (Dom. 
1625-6), p. 268, (1633-4) p. 327 ; Autobiography 
of Sir John Bramston (Camd. Soc), p. 49 ; Man- 
ning's Lives of the Speakers; Baker's North- 
amptonshire, i. 584, 684, 687; CoUins's Peerage 
(Brydges), vii. 328.] J. M. R. 

CREWDSON, ISAAC (1780-1844), au- 
thor of ' A Beacon to the Society of Friends,' 
was a native of Kendal, Westmoreland, 
where he was bom on 6 June 1780, but from 
his fifteenth year he resided at Manchester, 
and engaged in the cotton trade. He was 
a minister of the Society of Friends from 
1816 until about 1836. In his 'Beacon 
to the Society of Friends ' (1835) he gave 
utterance to a conviction that the quaker 
doctrines were in some particulars contrary 
to Scripture. The book caused an active con- 
troversy, which resulted in his secession, along 
with that of many others, from the society 
in 1836. He published several other works, 
including : 1. ' Hints on a Musical Festival 
at Manchester,' 1827. 2. ' Trade to the East 
Indies ' (referring to West Indian slavery), 
about 1827. 3. ' The Doctrine of the New 
Testament on Prayer,' 1831. 4. ' A Defence 
of the Beacon,' 1836. 5. ' Water Baptism 
an Ordinance of Christ,' 1837. 6. 'The 
Trumpet Blown, or an Appeal to the Society 
of Friends,' 1838. 7. ' Observations on the 
New Birth,' 1844. He also published in 
1829 abridgments of Baxter's ' Saint's Rest,' 
and Andrew Fuller on * Religious Declen- 
sion.' Crewdson in his twenty-fourth year 
married Elizabeth Jowitt of Leeds. He died 
at Bowness on 8 May 1844, and was buried 
at Rusholme Road cemetery, Manchester. 



[Jos. Smith's Catalogue of Friends' Books, i. 
462 ; The Crisis of the Quaker Contest in Man- 
chester, 1837 ; Braith-waite's Memoirs of J. J. 
Gurney, ii. 13 seq. ; Memoir prefixed to a tract by 
I. Crewdson, entitled Glad Tidings for Sinners, 
privately printed, 1845.] C. W. S. 

CREWDSON, JANE (1808-1863), 
poetess, was born at Pen-an-arworthal, Corn- 
wall, on 22 Oct. 1808, being the second 
daughter of George Fox of that place, and 
was married at Exeter, in October 1836, to 
Thomas Dillworth Crewdson, a Manchester 
manufacturer. She contributed several hymns 
to Squire Lovell's ' Selection of Scriptural 
Poetry,' 1848 ; and in 1851 published a small 
volume of gracefully written poems, entitled 
' Aunt Jane's Verses for Children,' which was 
reprinted in 1855 and 1871. In 1860 she 
issued a second work, ' Lays of the Reforma- 
tion, and other Lyrics, Scriptural and Mis- 
cellaneous.' After her death, on 14 Sept, 1863, 
at her residence, Summerlands, Whalley 
Range, Manchester, a further selection of her 
poetical pieces, betraying, like all her writ- 
ings, a refined and deeply religious spirit, 
was published under the title of ' A Little 
While, and other Poems ' (Manchester, 1864, 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornubien- 
sis, i. 91, iii. 1141.] C. W. S. 

Crewe (d. 1818), daughter of Fulke Gre- 
ville, envoy extraordinary to the elector of 
Bavaria, one of the most beautiful women 
of her time, married, on 4 May 1766, John 
(afterwards first Baron) Crewe [q. v.] She 
was accustomed to entertain, at Crewe Hall, 
her husband's seat in Cheshire, and at her 
villa at Hampstead, some of the most dis- 
tinguished of her contemporaries. Fox, 
who much admired her, Burke, Sheridan, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Canning were 
frequent visitors. She was also on friendly 
terms with Dr. and Miss Burney and Mrs. 
Thrale. Sheridan dedicated the ' School for 
Scandal ' to her, and some lines addressed 
to her by Fox were printed at the Straw- 
berry Hill Press in 1776. She died on 
23 Dec. 1818. Three portraits by Reynolds 
have been engraved, in one of which she 
appears with her brother as Hebe and 

[Hinchliffo's Barthomley, pp. 306-10; D'Ar- 
blay's Memoirs ; Piozzi's Autobiography, 2iid 
ed. ; Warburton's Memoirs of Horace Walpole, 
iL 223.] J. M. E. 

CREWE, JOHN, first Baeon Ckewe of 
Crewe (1742-1829), eldest son of John Crewe, 
M.P. for Cheshire 1734-52 (grandson of John 

Offley, who assumed the name of Crewe on 
marrying into the family), by Anne, daugh- 
ter of Richard Shuttleworth of Gospworth, 
Lancashire, was bom in 1742 and educated 
under Dr. Hinchlilfe (afterwards bishop oi 
Peterborough) and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. He left the university without gra- 
duating, and after making the grand tour 
returned to England to reside on his estates. 
He was sheriff of Cheshire in 1764, was re- 
turned to parliament for Stafford in 1765, 
and for Cheshire in 1768, which he con- 
tinued to represent till the year 1802. 

Crewe seldom spoke in the house, but 
gave a steady support to the whig party, 
and in 1782 carried a bill for disfranchising 
officers of the excise and customs. He was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Crewe of Crewe 
in 1806. He was an enlightened agriculturist 
and a good landlord. He died on 28 April 
1829. Crewe married in 1766 Frances Anne 
[q. v.], only daughter of Fulke GreviUe. 

[Hinchliffe's Barthomley, pp. 306-10 ; Orme- 
rod's Cheshire, ed. Helsby, iii. 314 ; Pari. Hist, 
xxi. 403, xxii. 1335-9 ; Wraxall's Hist. Mem. 
iii. 47.] J. M. E. 

CREYGHTON. [See Ceeighton.] 

CRIBB, TOM (1781-1848), champion pu- 
gilist, was born at Hanham in the parish of 
Bitton, Gloucestershire, on 8 July 1781, and 
coming to London at the age of thirteen fol- 
lowed the trade of a bellhanger, then became 
a porter at the public wharves, and was 
afterwards a sailor. From the fact of his 
having worked as a coal porter he became 
known as the ' Black Diamond,' and under 
this appellation he fought his first public battle 
against George Maddox at Wood Green on 
7 Jan. 1805, when after seventy-six rounds 
he was proclaimed the victor, and received 
much praise for his coolness and temper under 
very unfair treatment. On 20 July he was 
matched with George Nicholls, when he ex- 
perienced his first and last defeat. The sys- 
tem of milling on the retreat which Cribb had 
hitherto practised with so much success in 
this instance failed, and at the conclusion of 
the fifty-second round he was so much ex- 
hausted that he was unable to fight any 
longer. In 1807 he was introduced to Cap- 
tain Robert Barclay Allardice [q. v.], better 
known as Captain Barclay, who, quickly 
perceiving his natural good qualities, took 
him in hand, trained him under his own eye, 
and backed him for two hundred guineas 
against the famous Jem Belcher. In the con- 
test on 8 April the fighting was so severe that 
both men were completely exhausted ; but in 
the forty-first round Cribb was proclaimed the 
victor. His next engagement was with Hor- 




ton on 10 Maj 1808, when he easily disposed 
of his adversary. The Marquis of Tweeddale 
now backed Bob Gregson to fight Cribb, who 
was backed by Mr. Paul Methuen ; this battle 
came off on 25 Oct., but in the twenty-third 
round Gregson, being severely hurt, was un- 
able to come up to time, and his opponent 
became the champion. Jem Belcher, still 
smarting under his defeat, next challenged 
Cribb for another trial, the stakes being a belt 
and two hundred guineas. The contest took 
place at Epsom 1 Feb. 1809, when, much to 
the astonishment of his friends, the ex-cham- 
pion was beaten, and had to resign the belt 
to his adversary. Cribb now seemed to have 
reached the highest pinnacle of fame as a pu- 
gilist, when a rival arose from an unexpected 
quarter. Tom Molineaux, an athletic Ame- 
rican black, challenged the champion, and as 
the honour of England was supposed to be 
at stake a most lively interest was taken in 
the matter ; however, on 18 Dec. 1810 Cribb 
in thirty-three rounds demolished the Ame- 
rican, but Molineaux, not at all satisfied, sent 
another challenge, and a second meeting was 
arranged for 28 Sept. 1811 at Thistleton Gap, 
Leicestershire. This match was witnessed 
by upwards of twenty thousand persons, one- 
fourth of whom belonged to the upper classes. 
The fight much disappointed the spectators, 
as in the ninth round Molineaux's jaw was 
fractured, and in the eleventh he was unable 
to stand, and the contest lasted only twenty 
minutes. On the champion's arrival in Lon- 
don on 30 Sept. he was received with a public 
ovation, and Holbom was rendered almost 
impassable by the assembled crowds. He 
gained 400/. by this fight, and his patron. 
Captain Barclay, took up 10,000/. At a dinner 
on 2 Dec. 1811 Cribb was the recipient of a 
silver cup of eighty guineas value, subscribed 
for by his friends. After an unsuccessful ven- 
ture as a coal merchant at Hungerford "Wharf, 
London, he imderwent the usual metamor- 
phosis from a pugilist to a publican, and took 
the Golden Lion in South wark ; but finding 
this position too far eastward for his aristo- 
cratic patrons he removed to the King's 
Arms at the corner of Duke Street and King 
Street, St. James's, and subsequently, in 
1828, to the Union Arms, 26 Panton Street, 
Haymarket. Henceforth his life was of a 
peaceful character, except that 15 June 1814 
he sparred at Lord Lowther's house in Pall 
Mall before the emperor of Russia, and again 
two days afterwards before the king of Prussia. 
On 24 Jan. 1821 it was decided that Cribb, 
having held the championship for nearly ten 
years without receiving a challenge, ought 
not to be expected to fight any more, and was 
to be permitted to hold the title of champion 

for the remainder of his life. On the day of 
the coronation of George IV Cribb, dressed 
as a page, was among the prize-fighters en- 
gaged to guard the entrance to Westminster 
Hall. His declining years were disturbed 
by domestic troubles and severe pecuniary 
losses, and in 1839 he was obliged to give 
up the Union Arms to his creditors. He 
died in the house of his son, a baker in the 
High Street, Woolwich, on 11 May 1848, 
aged 67, and was buried in Woolwich church- 
jrard, where, in 1851, a monument represent- 
mg a lion grieving over the ashes of a hero 
was erected to his memory. As a professor 
of his art he was matchless, and in his ob- 
servance of fail" play he was never excelled ; he 
bore a character of unimpeachable integrity 
and unquestionable humanity. 

[Miles's Pugilistica, i. 242-77 (with portrait) ; 
Egan's Boxiana, i. 386-423 (with two portraits) ; 
Thorn's Pedestrianism, 1813, pp. 244-8; Tom 
Cribb's Memorial to Congress, by One of the 
Fancy (1819), three editions, a work written by 
Thomas Moore, the poet.] G. C. B. 

CRICHTON. [See also Ckeighton.] 

1856), physician, second son of Alexander 
Crichton of Woodhouselee and Newington in 
Midlothian, was born in Edinburgh 2 Dec. 
1763. He was educated in his native city, and 
at an early age apprenticed to Alexander 
Wood, surgeon, Edinburgh. In 1784 he came 
to London, and in the summer of the follow- 
ing year, passing over to Leyden, proceeded 
doctor of medicine there 29 July 1785. After 
studying at Paris, Stuttgard, Vienna, and 
Halle, he retui'ned to England, and in May 
1789, after becoming a member of the Corpo- 
ration of Surgeons, he commenced business as 
a surgeon in London ; but, disliking the opera- 
tive part of his profession, he got himself dis- 
franchised 1 May 1791, and was admitted a 
licentiate of the College of Physicians on 
26 June. He was elected physician to the 
Westminster Hospital in 1794, and during his 
connection with that institution lectured on 
chemistry, materia medica, and the practice of 
physic. In 1793 he was chosen F.L.S., on 
8 May 1800 F.R.S., and in 1819 F.G.S. His 
work on ' Mental Derangement ' appeared in 
1798, and gained him reputation in England 
and abroad. Soon after he became physician 
to the Duke of Cambridge, and in 1804 was 
offered the appointment of physician in ordi- 
nary to Alexander I of Russia. Crichton was 
well received in St. Petersburg, and soon 
gained the full confidence and esteem of the 
emperor. Within a few years he was appointed 
to the head of the whole civil medical depart- 
ment, and in this capacity was much consulted 




by the dowager empress in the construction 
and regulation of many charitable institutions. 
His exertions to mitigate the horrors of an 
epidemic which was devastating the south- 
eastern provinces of Russia in 1809 were fully 
acknowledged by the emperor, who conferred 
on him the knight grand cross of the order 
of St. Anne and St. Vladimir, third class, 
and in 1814 that of the second class. Having 
obtained leave of absence on account of his 
health, he returned to England in 1819, but 
in the following year was recalled to Russia 
to take charge of the Grand Duchess Alex- 
andra, whom he accompanied on her conva- 
lescence to Berlin, where he stayed for a short 
time, and then returned to his family. On 
27 Dec. 1820 Frederick William III of Prus- 
sia created him a knight grand cross of the 
Red Eagle, second class, and on 1 March 
1821 he was knighted by George IV at the 
Pavilion, Brighton, and obtained the royal 
permission to wear his foreign orders. He 
received the order of the grand cross of St. 
Anne from the Emperor Nicholas in August 
1830, and died at The Grove, near Seven- 
oaks, Kent, 4 June 1856, and was buried in 
Norwood cemetery. He married, 27 Sept. 
1800, Frances, only daughter of Edward 
Dodwell of West Moulsey, Surrey ; she died 
20 Jan. 1857, aged 85. Crichton was the au- 
thor of: 1. • An Essay on Generation,' by J. F. 
Blumenbach, translated from the German, 
1792. 2. ' An Inquiry into the Nature and 
Origin of Mental Derangement,' 1798. 3. ' A 
Synoptical Table of Diseases designed for the 
use of Students,' 1805. 4. ' An Account of 
some Experiments with Vapour of Tar in 
the Cure of Pulmonary Consumption,' 1817. 
5. ' On the Treatment and Cure of Pulmonary 
Consumption,' 1823. 6. ' Commentaries on 
some Doctrines of a Dangerous Tendency in 
Medicine and on the General Principles of 
Safe Practice.' He also published an essay 
in the ' Annals of Philosophy,' ix. 97 (1825^, 
' On the Climate of the Antediluvian World,' 
and in the 'Geological Transactions' three 
papers, * On the Taunus and other Mountains 
of Nassau,' ' On the Geological Structure of 
the Crimea,' and ' An Account of Fossil Ve- 
getables found in Sandstone.' 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878 ed.),ii. 416-18 ; 
Proc. of E. See. of Lond. Hi. 269-72 (1856); 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soe. xiii. pp. Ixiv-lxvi 
(1857).] G. C. B. 

1855), biographer and historian, youngest son 
of a small landed proprietor, was born in the 
parish of Kirkmahoe, Dumfriesshire, Decem- 
ber 1790, and educated at Dumfries academy 
and at the university of Edinburgh. After 

becoming a licensed preacher he was for some 
time engaged in teaching in Edinburgh and 
North Berwick. In 1823 he published his first 
work, the 'Life of the Rev. JohnBlackadder,' 
which was followed by the ' Life of Colonel 
J. Blackadder,' 1824, and ' Memoirs of the 
Rev. Thomas Scott,' 1825. To ' Constable's 
Miscellany ' he contributed five volumes, viz. 
' Converts from Infidelity,' 2 vols. 1827, and 
a translation of Koch's ' Revolutions in 
Europe,' 3 vols. 1828. In the ' Edinburgh 
Cabinet Library ' he wrote the ' History of 
Arabia,' 2 vols. 1833, and ' Scandinavia, 
Ancient and Modern,' 2 vols. 1838. He 
commenced his connection with the news- 
paper press in 1828 by editing (at first in 
conjunction with De Quincey) the ' Edin- 
burgh Evening Post.' In 1830 he conducted 
the ' North Briton,' and in 1832 he undertook 
the editorship of the 'Edinburgh Advertiser,' 
in which employment he continued till June 
1851. He contributed extensively to perio- 
dicals, among others to the ' Westminster 
Review,' ' Tait's Edinburgh Magazine,' the 
' Dublin University,' ' Eraser's Magazine,' the 
' Church Review,' and the ' Church of Scot- 
land Magazine and Review.' In 1837 the 
university of St. Andrews conferred on him 
the degree of doctor of laws. He was a 
member of the presbytery of Edinburgh, 
bein^ ruling elder of the congregation of 
Trinity College Church, and sat in the gene- 
ral assembly of the church of Scotland as 
elder for the burgh of Cullen for three years 
previous to his decease. He died at 33 St. 
Bernard's Crescent, Edinburgh, 9 Jan. 1856. 
He married first, in July 1835, Isabella Cal- 
vert, daughter of James Calvert, LL.D. of 
Montrose, she died in November 1837 ; and 
secondly, December 1844, Jane, daughter of 
the Rev. John Duguid, minister of Erie and 

[Gent. Mag. June 1855, p. 654; Hardwicke's 
Annual Biog. for 1866, p. 198.] G. C. B. 

CRICHTON, GEORGE (1555 P-1611), 
jurist and classical scholar, was bom in Scot- 
land about 1555. He quitted his country at 
an early age in order to pursue his classical 
studies at Paris. He studied jurisprudence 
at Toulouse for several years, and returned 
to Paris in 1582. For a short time he prac- 
tised at the bar, and then accepted the post 
of regent in the College Harcourt (November 
1583). He also resided for a time in the 
College de Boncourt. He succeeded Daniel 
d'Ange as professor of Greek in the College 
Royal, and was created doctor of canon law 
by the university of Paris in 1609. He died 
on 8 April 1611, and was buried in the church 
of the Jacobins in the Rue Saint-Jacques. 




Niceron enumerates no fewer than twenty- 
nine works by him. Among them are : 
1. ' In felicem Ser. Poloniae Regis inaugura- 
tionem Congratulatio/ Paris, 1573, 4to. This 
is a poem on the election of Henri de Valois, 
due d'Anjou. 2. * Selectiores notsB in Epi- 
grammata e libro prime Graecse Anthologiae 
decerpta, et Latino carmine reddita,' Paris, 
1584, 4to. 3. * Laudatio funebris habita in 
exequiis Petri Ronsardi,' Paris, 1586, 4to. 
4. * Oratio de Apollinis Oraculis et de sacro 
Principis oraculo,' Paris, 1596, 8vo. 5. ' De 
Sortibus Homericis Oratio,' Paris, 1597, 8vo. 
6. ' In Oppianum de Venatione prefatio,' 
Paris, 1598, Svo. 7. * Orationes duse habitae 
in auditorio regio, anno 1608,' Paris, 1609, 
Svo. One of these is on the laws of Draco 
and Solon, and the other on the title ' De 
Judiciis ' in Harmenopulus. 

[Niceron's Memoires, xxxvii. 346-57 ; Moreri's 
Diet. Historique ; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. 
Mus.] T. 0. 

CRICHTON, JAMES, surnamed The 
Admikable (1560-1585 ?), bom, probably at 
Eliock, on 19 Aug. 1560, was elder son of 
Robert Crichton of Eliock, Dumfriesshire, by 
his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James 
Stewart of Death, and Margaret, daughter of 
John, lord Lindsay, of the Byres. His mother 
traced her descent to the royal line of Scotland, 
and was related to many of the chief Scottish 
families, Robert Crichton, the father, de- 
scended from the Crichtons of Sanquhar, 
acted as lord advocateof Scotland jointly with 
John Spens from 1562 to 1 673, and with David 
Borthwick from 1573 to 1581. On 1 Feb. 1581 
he became sole advocate and senator of the 
College of Justice. He was at one time sus- 
pected of favouring the cause of Queen Mary; 
hence his slow promotion. He inherited the 
estate of Eliock, Dumfriesshire, and in 1562 
was presented by a kinsman, Robert Crich- 
ton (of the Crichtons of Nauchton, Fifeshire), 
bishop of Dunkeld, with the estate of Cluny, 
Perthshire. Climy was the property of the 
see of Dunkeld ; but the chapter, anticipating 
a forfeiture by the crown, consented to the 
alienation. On 11 May 1566 the bishop granted 
a charter in which James (the Admirable) 
Crichton was designated the heir to the pro- 
perty, and this arrangement was confirmed by 
the next bishop on 22 March 1576. The father 
fell ill in June 1582, and made his will 18 June. 
Nine days later David M'GUl was appointed 
to succeed him as a lord advocate and senator. 
But from the fact that confirmation of his 
testament was not granted tiU 1586, it may 
be doubted whether he died, as the ordinary 
authorities state, in 1582. He married thrice. 
His first wife, the mother of the famous James 

and of a younger son, Robert, died before 
1572 ; his second wife was Agnes, daughter 
of John Mowbray of Bambougall ; his third 
wife, IsobeU Borthwick, survived him (see 
Beunton and Haig, College of Senators, 
p. 176; Omoitd, Lord Advocates of Scotland, 
1. 27-37 ; Proceedings of Soc. of Antiquaries 
of Scotland (1855), ii. 103-18). 

Young Crichton was first educated either 
at Perth or Edinburgh, and in 1570, at the 
age of ten, entered St. Salvator's College, St. 
Andrews, where he proceeded A.B. 20 March 
1573-4, and A.M. in 1575. Hepburn, Robert- 
son, Rutherford, and George Buchanan were 
his chief tutors, and his studies covered the 
widest possible range. Sir Alexander Ers- 
kine, James Vl's governor, married a relative 
of Crichton, and invited him about 1576 to 
become a feUow-pupil with the young king 
under George Buchanan. On 20 June 1575 
Crichton signed a deed granting certain rights 
in the property of Cluny which was entailed 
upon him to his kinsman the Bishop of 
Dunkeld. The document is extant among 
the Cluny archives, now the property of the 
Earl of Airlie, and contains Crichton'e only 
known signature. He subscribes himself 
' Mr. James Creichtone.' In 1577 Crichton 
resolved to travel abroad. Although only 
seventeen his intellect seemed fully developed. 
He was reputed by foreign admirers to be 
master of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldaic, 
Italian, Spanish, French, Flemish, German, 
Scottish, and English. His memory was such 
that anything that he once heard or read he 
could repeat without an error. Nor were his 
accomplishments as a fencer and as a horse- 
man stated to be less remarkable. It is very 
probable that he arrived at Paris at the 
end of 1577. That he visited France is un- 
doubted, but the details are not very well 
ascertained. According to Sir Thomas Ur- 
quhart, a fanciful seventeenth-century writer, 
whose facts are to be treated with caution, 
Crichton gave proof of his precocity at Paris 
by issuing placards announcing that in six 
weeks he should present himself at the Col- 
lege of Navarre to answer orally in any one 
of twelve languages whatever question might 
be proposed to him ' in any science, liberal art, 
discipline, or faculty, whether practical or 
theoretic' The appointed day arrived, and 
the youth acquitted himself admirably, to the 
astonishment of a crowded audience of stu- 
dents and professors. The next day he was vic- 
torious in a tUting match at the Louvre. Con- 
temporary authorities are silent as to all this, 
but state that he enlisted in the French army. 
After less than two years' service he retired 
in 1579 and went to Genoa, where he arrived 
in a destitute condition in July. This is the 




earliest fact in Crictton's Italian tour attested 
by contemporary evidence. He addressed the 
senate of Genoa in a Latin speech, which was 
published with a dedication to the doge Jo- 
hannes Baptista Gentilis. Crichton was well 
received, but early in the following year left 
for Venice. At Venice he introduced himself 
to the scholar and printer, Aldus Manutius 
(grandson of the founder of the Aldine press), 
and presented him with a poem in Latin hexa- 
meters (* In Appulsu ad Vrbem Venetam '), 
which was printed in a thin quarto at the 
press of the brothers Guerra of Venice in 1580. 
Aldus was impressed by Crichton's many ac- 
complishments, praised him extravagantly, 
and gave him the opportunity of pronouncing 
an oration before the doge and senate. Public 
and private debates with professors in theo- 
logy, philosophy, and mathematics were ar- 
ranged for the young Scotsman, who was only 
worsted by the scholar Mazzoni, whom he met 
at a private dinner given him by some Venetian 
noblemen. Latin odes and verses came freely 
from his pen, and a handbill was issued in 

1580 by the brothers Guerra describing his 
handsome appearance, his skill as a swords- 
man, and his marvellous intellectual attain- 
ments. An identical account of Crichton's ex- 
ploits was avowedly written and published by 
Aldus in the form of a tract in 1581, and again 
in 1582. Hence the handbill, which is an au- 
thority of the first importance in Crichton's 
career, doubtless came from the same pen . In 
the earlier edition the tract was entitled ' Re- 
latione della Qvalita Di Jacomo di Crettone 
Fatta da Aldo Manvtio. AH' Illustrissimo & 
eccellentissimo S. Jacomo Boncompagno Duca 
di Sora & Gouer. Gen. di S. Ct. In Vinegia 
MDLXXxr Appresso Aldo.' The second edition 
is entitled ' Relatione Fatta da Aldo Manucci 
Al Duca di Sora Adi x Ottobre 1581 Sopra 
leammirabili qvalita del Nobilissimo Giouane 
Scozzese lacomo Di Crettone ... In Ve- 
netia mdxxcii Presso Aldo.' According to 
the statement printed there, Crichton readily 
disputed the doctrines of the Thomists and 
Scotists with Padre Fiamma * e con molti altri 
valorosi prelati ' in the presence of Cardinal 
Ludovico d'Este, discussed the procession of 
the Holy Ghost in the house of the Patriarch 
of Aquileia, and retired to a villa on the 
Brenta to prepare himself for a three days' 
public debate in the Chiesa San Giovanni e 
Paolo at Pentecost, 1581. In the course of 

1581 Crichton, whose health was failing, 
left Venice for Padua with an introduction to 
Cornelius Aloisi, an eminent patron of letters. 
Cornelius received Cricht on handsomely. The 
youth eulogised the city in public orations, 
and disputed with the university professors on 
their interpretation of A ristotle and in mathe- 

matics. Conferences took place almost daily, 
but the arrangements for a public disputa- 
tion at the palace of the bishop of Padua fell 
through, and the misadventure led to the pub- 
lication of a pasquinade, in which Crichton was 
denounced as a charlatan. To this Crichton 
replied with an elaborate challenge to the 
university, offering to confute the academic 
interpretation of Aristotle, to expose the 
professors' errors in mathematics, and to dis- 
cuss any subject proposed to him. He would 
employ, he announced, ordinary logical rules, 
or mathematical demonstration, or extem- 
poraneous Latin verse, according to the nature 
of the question under discussion. The chal- 
lenge was accepted, the disputation lasted four 
days, and Crichton achieved complete success. 
The incident is fully described by Aldus Ma- 
nutius in his dedication to Crichton of his 
edition of Cicero's ' Paradoxa ' dated June 

According to Urquhart's story, accepted 
by Ty tier, Crichton's latest biographer, Crich- 
ton removed to Mantua (1582), and won his 
first laurels there by killing in a duel a far- 
famed swordsman. The Duke of Mantua 
thereupon employed him as tutor and com- 
panion to his son, Vincenzo di Gonzaga, a 
youth of ungovernable temper. At the Man- 
tuan court Crichton is said by Urquhart to 
have composed a satiric comedy in which he 
acted the chief parts. Shortly afterwards, 
while paying a visit to a mistress, he was at- 
tacked by a band of midnight brawlers. Ho 
drew his sword upon their leader, and at once 
recognised in him his pupil Vincenzo. Kneel- 
ing down, Crichton presented the handle of 
his sword to the prince, who snatched it from 
him and plunged the point into his heart. 
Aldus Manutius dedicated ' memoriae lacobi 
Critonii ' his edition of Cicero's * De Univer- 
sitate ' (1583). He here lamented Crichton's 
sudden death, which took place, according to 
his account, on 3 July 1583, when the young 
man was barely two-and-twenty. He en- 
larges on his grief in a dedication of Cicero's 
Aratus addressed in November 1583 to a 
common friend, Stanislaus Niegossewsld, a 
Pole. But Aldus gives no details of the oc- 
currence in either passage, and makes no 
mention of Crichton s visit to Mantua, nor of 
his connection with the ducal family of Gon- 

That Crichton met with a tragic end at 
Mantua was generally accepted by the earliest 
writers about him. In 1601 Thomas Wrighte 
(Passions of the Minde) tells what seems 
to be the same story as Urquhart's without 
giving names. As early as 1603 John John- 
ston wrote of Crichton in his ' Heroes Scoti,' 
p. 41, that ' Mantuse a Duels Mantuani filio ex 




nocturnisinsidiis occisus est, A° Christi 1581 ' 
(this date is evidently a misprint). In Aber- 
nethy's 'Musa Campestris' (1609), p. 52, in 
David Buchanan's account of Crichton (1625), 
and in Dempster's account the same story 
is repeated with unimportant additions. Sir 
Thomas Urquhart, to whom Crichton owes no 
little of his posthumous fame, worked up the 
tradition thus constructed into a very exciting 
story in his ' Discovery of a most exquisite 
Jewel ' (1652). No reference has been found 
to Crichton's death in histories of Mantua, 
or of the ducal family of Gon^aga (Black, 
Tasso, ii. 448). But the general agreement 
among early Scottish writers points to the 
authenticity of the outlines of the tale. The 
date (3 July 1583) assigned by Aldus, how- 
ever, is quite impossible, and Aldus must have 
written his elegy on hearing some rumours of 
Crichton's death, which proved false. 

It is more than probable that in 1584 Crich- 
ton was repeating at Milan the performances 
which had secured him his fame elsewhere. 
Immediately after the death, on 3 Nov. 1584, 
of Cardinal Borromeo, archbishop of Milan, 
there was published in the city an elegy 
written by Crichton, of which the authenti- 
city cannot be disputed. Its title runs : ' Epi- 
cedium illustrissimi et reverendissimi Cardi- 
nalis Caroli Boromaei Ab Jacobo Critonio 
Scoto rogatu clarissimi summaque in opti- 
mum Pastorem suum pietate viri loannis 
Antonij Magij Mediolanen. Proximo post obi- 
tum die exaratum de consensu Superiorum 
. . . Mediolani E Typographia Michaelis Tini 
M.D.LXXXiui.' Nor is this the only proof of 
Crichton's survival. In December 1584 he 
issued a Latin poem congratulating Gaspar 
Visconti, the new archbishop of Milan, on 
his appointment. This little pamphlet is en- 
titled ' lacobi Critonii Scoti ad amplissimum 
ac reverendissimiun virum Gasparem Vice- 
comitem summa omnium ordinum voluntate 
ad prseclaram Archiepiscopatus Mediolanen. 
administrationem delectum Gratulatio. Su- 
periorum consensu. Mediolani — Ex Typogra- 
phia Pacifici Pontij mdlxxxiiu.' Within the 
book appears the date ' cioioxxciv. v Id. Dec' 
Verses to celebrate the marriage of Charles 
Emanuel, duke of Savoy, to whom Aldus 
had dedicated the first volume of his * Cicero ' 
in 1583, also came from Crichton's pen in 
1584, and were printed at the press of Paci- 
ficus Pontius, under the title of ' lacobi Cri- 
tonii Scoti Ad Summum Potentissimumque 
Principem, Carolum Emanuelem, Sabaudise 
Ducem, &c., sublimi admodum prsestantissi- 
morum regum genere procreatum & non modo 
SBtate paribus ingenii felicitate praetendentem 
Bed incredibili etiam virtutis ardore cum 
maioribus contendentem — evyeyea-repov, Car- 

men Nuptiales. Moderatorum permissu. Me- 
diolani. Ex Typographia Pacifici Pontii 
MDLXXXIIU.' Crichton published at the same 
press in 1585 a collection of Latin poems in- 
cluding a defence of poetry, with a dedication 
to Sforza Brivius, chief magistrate of Milan, 
dated 1 March 1685. Some verses in the 
volume, separately dedicated to Sforza's son 
and brother, prove Crichton to have been 
high in the favour of the family. After 1585 
Crichton disappears. We know that before 
1591 his younger brother Robert had become 
proprietor of Cluny, to which James was 
heir. Hence he must have died before that 
date and after 1585. There is nothing to 
date Crichton's visit to Mantua, where it 
seems probable that he met his death, but 
in all likelihood it followed his labours at 
Milan. Whether he met Aldus again and 
convicted him of assigning a wrong date to 
his death is not known. 

The Admirable Crichton's extant works 
are excessively rare. Copies of all are in the 
Grenville Library at the British Museum. 
They are : 1. ' Oratio lacobi Critonii Scoti 
pro moderatorum Genuensis Reipubl. elec- 
tione coram Senatu habita Calen. lulij. . . . 
Genvse mdlxxviiii.' 2. * In Appulsu Ad cele- 
berrimam urbem Venetam De Proprio Statu 
Jacobi Critonii Scoti Carmen Ad Aldum 
Manuccium . . . Venetiis Ex Typographia 
Guerrsea cioioxxc,' reprinted with an ode 
to Aldus Manutius, in Aldus's edition of 
' Cicero ' (1683), and in the ' Delicise Poet- 
arum Scotorum,' Amsterdam, 1637. S.'Epi- 
cedium . . . CardinalisBoromseij'MUan, 1584 
(described above). 4. ' Ad . . . Gasparem 
Vicecomitem . . . gratulatio,' Milan, 1684 (de- 
scribed above). 5. * Ad Carolum Emanue- 
lem Sabaudiee Ducem . . .Carmen Nuptiales,' 
Milan, 1584 (described above). 6. 'lacobi 
Critonii Scoti Ad Nobilissimum Virum Pru- 
dentissimumque summae questurse regise Me- 
diolanen. Administratorem, Sfortiam Bri- 
vium De Musarum ac Poetarum imprimis 
illustrium authoritate atque praestantia, so- 
luta et numeris Poeticis vincta oratione ab 
eodem defensa, Indicium . . . Mediolani Ex 
typographia Pacifici Pontij,' mdlxxxv. This 
contains a number of Latin poems in praise 
of poetry and rhetoric, besides epigrams ad- 
dressed to various persons of influence at 
MUan. The second edition of Aldus's ' Re- 
latione' (1582) contains an interchange of 
verses between Crichton and Ludovicus Ma- 
gius of Milan. An ode by Crichton to 
Joannes Donatus appears in Aldus's edition 
of Cicero's ' Cato Major ' (1581), and is dated 
1 Jime 1581. An ode, dated 1581, to Lorenzo 
Massa, secretary to the Venetian republic, 
by Crichton, is appended by Aldus to his 




dedication to Massa of his edition of Cicero's 
' Laelius ' (1581). Crichton's challenge to the 
learned men of Padua is printed by Aldus in 
his dedication to Crichton of Cicero's ' Para- 
doxa,' and is dated June 1581. Four hexa- 
meters by Crichton are prefixed to * I Quattro 
primi Canti del Lancellotto del Sig. Erasmo 
di Valvasone,' Venice, 1580 ; they follow the 
preface of the editor, Cesare Pavesio (Notes 
and Queries, 5th ser. vii. 106). Dempster 
mentions the following additional works, but 
there is no proof that they were ever extant, 
and their titles are obviously constructed from 
the accounts given by Crichton's early biogra- 
phers of his oratorical achievements. They are: 
' Laudes Patavinae ; ' ' Ignorantiae laudatio,' 
an extemporaneous speech ; * Epistolae ad 
diversos ; ' * Praefationes solemnes in omnes 
scientias, sacras et profanas ; ' * Judicium de 
Philosophis ; * * Errores Aristotelis ; ' ' Refu- 
tatio Mathematicorum ; ' ' Arma an literae 
praestent Controversia oratoria.' Tanner 
repeats this list. Crichton's Latin verses 
are not very pointed or elegant. Sir Thomas 
Urquhart's fantastic account of Crichton 
(1652) gave him his popularity and conferred 
on him his title of Admirable. 

The best authenticated portrait of Crichton 
belongs to Alexander Morison of Bognie, 
BaniFshire. It is the work of an Italian, 
and is said to have been sent from Italy by 
Crichton himself to Sir James Crichton of 
Frendaught, whom he regarded as the head 
of the Crichton family. An engraving ap- 
pears in the 'Proceedings of the Scottish 
Antiquaries,' vol. ii., and in the second edi- 
tion of Tytler's 'Life.' Another portrait 
belongs to William Graham of Airth House, 
Stirlingshire, and this seems to be the ori- 
ginal of which copies belong to the Marquis 
of Bute at Dumfries House, J. A. Mackay, 
esq., of Edinburgh, Sir A. W. Crichton of St. 
Petersburg, James Veitch of Eliock, and Lord 
Blantyre of Lennoxlove. IVIr. Veitch's paint- 
ing was engraved in Pennant's ' Tour in Scot- 
land,' and the one belonging to Sir A. W. 
Crichton in the first edition of Tytler's ' Life.' 
The original of the engraving in Imperialis's 
'Museum Histoncum (1640) is not known. 
The portraits belonging to the Duke of Bed- 
ford at Woburn, and to Mr. George Dundas 
of Edinburgh, are of less than doubtful au- 
thenticity. All the portraits show Crichton 
as a handsome youth, but a red mark dis- 
figured his right cheek. 

The estates of Eliock and Cluny, which 
Crichton, had he lived, would have inherited 
from his father, passed to his younger brother 
Robert, usually called Sir Robert Crichton. 
But these lands he resigned to the crown 
in 1591. Robert's first notable exploit was 

to attack, about 1591, with a band of ma- 
rauders, the castle of Ardoch, where his half- 
sister Marion, the daughter of his father by 
his third wife, was living vmder the guardian- 
ship of Henry Stirling. Crichton carried off 
the girl, who was not heard of again, and 
cruelly assaulted and robbed her protectors. 
The privy council in 1593 denounced him as 
a traitor for this action, but he was not cap- 
tured. He next took up the cause of his 
mother's kinsman, the Earl of Moray, who 
was murdered in 1595, and killed in the 
chapel of Egismalay the laird of Moncofi'er, 
who was reputed to sympathise with the earl's 
murderer. He was ordered to stand his trial 
for the crime, but the matter was hushed up, 
and in 1602 he appeared at James's court at 
St. Andrews. There he murderously assaulted 
a courtier named Chalmers in the royal pre- 
sence. He was summoned to Falkland to 
answer this offence, and on his declining 
to appear his property was forfeited to the 
crown. He disappears after 1604. He mar- 
ried twice : first, Susanna Grierson ; secondly, 
on 12 Jan. 1595, Margaret, daughter of John 
Stewart, sixth lord Invermeath. He had 
sons whose names are not known. His half- 
sister Margaret, daughter of his father's second 
wife, married Sir Robert Dalzell, first earl of 
Camwath, to whom Robert sold the estate of 
Eliock in 1596. 

[Much fable has doubtless been intermingled 
with many accounts of Crichton's remarkable 
career, though some part of the facts appears to 
be well authenticated. Two copies of the gazette 
or handbill, printed at Venice in 1580 at the press 
of the brothers Dom eni co and Gio Battista Guerra, 
describing Crichton's marvellous knowledge, are 
in the British Museum and one is in a show- 
case. The bill, first discovered by Mr. Hibbert in 
1818 pasted inside the cover of a copy of Casti- 
glione's 'Cortegiano' (ed. 1545), which had be- 
longed to the Ilev. S. W. Singer (see Edinburgh 
Mag. July 1818), Aldus Manutius's two tracts 
referred to above, with his description of Crich- 
ton's achievements when dedicating his Cicero's 
Paradoxa to him in 1581, and his eulogy upon 
him when dedicating Cicero's Lselius to Massa 
in 1581, are the earliest notices extant. The 
authenticity of Aldus's testimony has been ques- 
tioned by I)r. Black in his Life of Tasso, and by 
Dr. Kippis in the Biographia Britannica on the 
ground that Aldus was addicted to exaggerated 
eulogy of his friends, most of whom he represents 
to be marvellous geniuses. Aldus's account of 
Niegossewski, a young Pole, coincides so suspi- 
ciously with his account of Crichton that his testi- 
mony requires to be corroborated by independent 
evidence. In the Epitaphiorum Dialogi Septem 
Auctore BartholomaeoBurchelato, TarvisinoPhy- 
sico, Venice, 1683, an extraordinary account is 
given (p. 62) of Crichton's mnemonic power (see 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. viii. 85-6). Felix 




Astolphi, in his contemporary Ofl&cina Historica, 
J. J. Scaliger in his Sealigerana, and Imperialis 
in his Museum Historicum ( 1 640), follow Aldus ; 
but Trajan Boccalini in Eagguagli di Parnasso, 
Venice, 1612 (English translation 1656) ridicules 
some of Crichton's attainments. Dempster is 
meagre, and he complains that Crichton was too 
arrogant in claiming descent from the Scot- 
tish kings. In John Johnston's Heroes Scoti, 
1603, Crichton is described for the first time in 
verses to his memory as ' admirable ' (' omnibus 
in studiis admirabilis '). Other early accounts by 
his own countrymen are met with in Adam Aber- 
nethy's Musa Campestris, 1603 ; in David Bucha^ 
nan's De Scriptoribus Scotis, 1625, first printed 
by theBannatyneClubin 1837; in David Leitch's 
Philosophia illacrymans, 1637, where the epithet 
Admirabilis is again employed; in Sir Thomas 
Urquhart's Jewel, 1652 (a very lively story, add- 
ing many unauthentic details). A general refe- 
rence to his early death also appears in Thomas 
Wright's Passions of the Minde (1601 and after- 
wards). Dr. Mackenzie wrote a life of Crichton in 
his Lives of Eminent Writers of the Scottish Na- 
tion, 1722, which is quite untrustworthy; Dr. 
Kippis, in the Biographia Britanniea, is diffuse 
but generally sensible. A chapbook attributed to 
Francis Douglas and based on Mackenzie appeared 
at Aberdeen about 1768, and is reproduced by 
Pennant in his Tour in Scotland, and by Dr. John- 
eon in his popular account of Crichton in the Ad- 
venturer, No. 81 ; Rev. John Black, in his Life of 
Tasso, 1810, is useful, but more sceptical than ne- 
cessary ; but David Irving, in his appendix to his 
Life of George Buchanan, is brief and thorough. 
The completest account of Crichton is given in 
P. F.Tytler's biography, 1st edit. 1819, and 2nd 
and revised edit. 1823; but it depends too much 
upon Urquhart and omits all mention of Crich- 
ton's chief works, as well as of Aldus's ' Relatione.' 
A valuable paper by John Stuart appears in the 
Proceedings of the Society of Scottish Anti- 
quaries for 1855, ii. 103-18. Harrison Ains- 
worth published his romance of Crichton in 
1837, and in his very interesting introductory 
essay and appendices reprints with translations 
in verse the elegy on Borromeo and the eulogy 
on Visconti. A poor play entitled Crichton, a 
Tragedy, by George Galloway, was printed at 
Edinburgh in 1802. Some amusing references 
to Crichton appear in Father Prout's Reliques. 
See also J. H. Burton's The Scot Abroad, pp. 
255-8.] S. L. 

CRICHTON, JAMES, Viscoxtnt Feen- 
DRAXJGHT {d. 1650), was eldest son of James 
Crichton of Frendraught,by Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of John Gordon, twelfth earl of 
Sutherland. He was descended from William 
Crichton, Lord Crichton [q. v.] His father 
was of very turbulent disposition, and in Oc- 
tober 1630 several friends whom he had urged 
to stay in his house to protect him from the 
threatened assault of his enemies were burnt 
to death thereunder circumstances that threw 

suspicion on himself. His chief enemies were 
the Gordons of Rothemay, who repeatedly 
plimdered Frendraught. The son was created 
baron of Frendraught in 1641 and Viscount 
Frendraught in 1642. He took part in Mont- 
rose's last expedition, and was present at the 
battle of Invercharran (1650). In the rout 
Montrose's horse was disabled, and Fren- 
draught gave him his own, which enabled him 
to make good his escape for a time. Fren- 
draught died by his own hand on the field of 

[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, i. 611.] 

J. M. R, 

CRICHTON, ROBERT {d. 1586 P), of 
Eliock, lord advocate of Scotland. [See 
under Crichton, James, 1560-1585 ?] 

CRICHTON, ROBERT, sixth Lord San- 
aiTHAR (d. 1612), was the son of Edward, 
fifth lord. In 1605, while on a visit to Lord 
Norreys in Oxfordshire, he engaged in a fen- 
cing match with a fencing-master called 
Turner, when he accidentally lost one of his 
eyes, and for some time was in danger of his 
life. Seven years afterwards he hired two 
men to assassinate Turner, one of whom, 
Robert Carlyle, shot him with a pistol 11 May 
1612, for which he and his accomplice were 
executed. Lord Sanquhar absconded, and a 
reward of 1,000^. having been offered for his 
apprehension, he was taken and brought to 
trial in the king's bench, Westminster Hall, 
27 June of the same year, when, not being a 
peerof England, he was tried under the name 
of Robert Crichton, although a baron of three 
hundred years' standing. In an eloquent 
speech he confessed his crime, and being con- 
victed on his own confession was hanged on 
a gibbet with a silken halter in Great Palace 
Yard, before the gate of Westminster Hall, 
on 29 June. Great interest was made to save 
his life, but James was inexorable, because it 
is said Crichton had on one occasion failed to 
resent an insult offered to his majesty in Paris 
(^Letters and State Papers during the reign 
of King James Sext, Abbotsford Club, 1828, 
p. 36). Crichton died penitent professing the 
catholic religion. By his marriage at St. 
Anne's, Blackfriars, 10 April 1608, to Anne, 
daughter of Sir George Fermor of Easton, he 
had no issue. All his property was left to 
his natural son, Robert Crichton, but the heir 
male, WiUiam, seventh lord Sanquhar, dis- 
puted the succession, and on the matter being 
referred to James VI Robert Crichton was 
served heir of entail to him in the estate of 
Sanquhar 15 July 1619 (Hailes, Memorials 
of James VI, p. 51). 

[Melrose Papers (Abbotsford Club), pp. 127, 
132, 133, 264, 265 ; Letters and State Papers 




during reign of James Sext (Abbotsford Club, 
1828), pp. 356; Douglas's Scotch Peerage 
(Wood).] T. F. H. 


Crichton (d. 1454), chancellor of Scotland, 
descended from a very old family in the 
county of Edinburgh, one of whom is men- 
tioned as early as the reign of Malcolm I, 
•was the son of Sir James Crichton of the 
barony of Crichton. He is first mentioned in 
Rymer {Fcedera, x. 309) among the nobility 
who met James I at Durham on his return 
from his long detention in England. At the 
coronation of James I in 1424 he was knighted 
and appointed one of the gentlemen of the 
bedchamber. Along with other two ambas- 
sadors he was sent in May 1426 to treat with 
Eric, king of Norway, and soon after his re- 
turn he was constituted one of the king's 
privy council and master of the household. 
At the time of the assassination of James I 
in 1437 he was in command of Edinburgh 
Castle, a position which this event rendered 
of much greater importance, inasmuch as it 
afforded an asylum for the queen and the in- 
fant prince. The queen soon discovered that 
the charge of the yoimg prince had been taken 
from her by Crichton into his own hands. 
On pretence of superintending the expenses 
of the household he seized on the royal reve- 
nues, and surrounding himself by his own 
creatures ousted every one else from a share 
in the government. In these circumstances 
the queen had recourse to a clever stratagem. 
At the conclusion of a visit of some days 
which she had been permitted to pay her son 
she concealed him in a wardrobe chest and 
conveyed him, along with some other luggage, 
to Leith, and thence by water to her jointure- 
house at Stirling, at that time in the com- 
mand of Livingston of Callendar. Appa- 
rently in reference to Crichton an act was 
passed at the ensuing parliament, by which 
it was ordained that where any rebels had 
taken refuge within their castles or fortalices, 
and held the same against lawful authority, 
&c., it became the duty of the lieutenant 
to raise the lieges, to besiege such places, and 
arrest the offenders, of whatever rank they 
might be (Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, 
ii. 32). Livingston, having raised his vas- 
sals, laid siege to the castle of Edinburgh in 
person, whereupon Crichton secretly proposed 
a coalition with the Earl of Douglas. As the 
earl not only declined the proposal, but added 
that it would give him great satisfaction if two 
such unprincipled disturbers of the public 
peace should destroy each other, they resolved 
to make truce with each other and combine 
against the Earl of Douglas. The castle of 
Edinburgh was delivered into the hands of 

Livingston, who presented the young king 
with the keys of the fortress. On the morrow 
Livingston and Crichton shared the power 
between them. The office of chancellor was 
taken from Cameron, bishop of Glasgow, a 
partisan of the house of Douglas, and bestowed 
upon Crichton between 3 May and 10 June 
1439 ; while the chief management in the 
government and the guardianship of the king's 
person was committedto Livingston (Register 
of the Great Seal, 1424-1513, p. 49). As the 
Earl of Douglas died on 26 June following, no 
opposition was made to this powerful coalition, 
which for a while had virtually absolute con- 
trol of the affairs of the kingdom. To protect 
herself the queen married Sir James Stewart, 
the black knight of Lome, but he was im- 
mured by Livingston in the dungeon of Stir- 
ling Castle, upon which the queen consented 
to resign the government of the castle into the 
hands of Livingston as the residence of the 
young king. Crichton, now becoming jealous 
of the authority wielded by Livingston, rode 
to Stirling during the latter's absence at Perth, 
and under cover of the night concealed a large 
number of his vassals in the wood near the 
royal park of Stirling. When the yoimg king 
rode out early in the morning for his usual 
pastime of the chase, he was suddenly sur- 
rounded and conveyed to Linlithgow, and 
thence to the castle of Edinburgh. Through 
the mediation of Leighton, bishop of Aber- 
deen, and Winchester, bishop of Moray, a re- 
conciliation took place between Livingston 
and Crichton, the former being again entrusted 
with the care of the young king, while greater 
share than formerly was given to Crichton in 
the management of the state. In order to 
make themselves secure of their authority they 
now determined to compass the death of the 
young Earl of Douglas, and, having obtained 
evidence against him for high treason, en- 
ticed him to the castle of Edinburgh, and after 
a hurried form of trial caused him to be be- 
headed in the back court of the castle. The 
succeeding Earl of Douglas having entered 
into a coalition with Livingston, Crichton 
fled to the castle of Edinburgh, wliich he be- 
gan to fortify and store with provisions against 
a siege. Summoned by Douglas to attend the 
parliament at Stirling to answer to the charge 
of high treason, he responded by a raid on the 
earl's lands (Auckinleck Chronicle, p. 36). 
Meantime his estates were confiscated to the 
parliament, but after the castle of Edinburgh 
had been invested for nine weeks he surren- 
dered it to the king on condition of not only 
being insured against indemnity, but of re- 
taining the greater part of his former power 
and influence. From this time Crichton, who 
had entered into a coalition with Bishop Ken- 




nedy, his successor as chancellor, remained 
faithful to the king in his struggle against the 
amhitious projects of the Earl of Douglas, as- 
sisted by Livingston. In 1445 he was created 
a baron by the title Lord Crichton, and along 
with Kennedy was the chief adviser of the 
youthful monarch. In 1448 he was sent with 
two others to France to obtain a renewal of 
the league with that country, and to arrange 
a marriage between James and one of the 
daughters of the French king. After ar- 
ranging a friendly treaty they, by advice of 
the French king, who had no daughter of a 
suitable age, proceeded to the court of Arnold, 
duke of Gueldres, where they were successful 
in arranging a marriage with Mary, his only 
daughter and heiress. Crichton was present 
in the supper chamber at Stirling in 1452 
when James stabbed Douglas to death with 
a dagger. Crichton died in 1454. So much 
had the king been dependent on his advice 
that the courtiers dreaded to announce to him 
his great loss. He founded the collegiate 
church of Crichton 26 Dec. 1449. By his wife 
Agnes he had a son James, second lord Crich- 
ton (1430-1469), who, under the designation 
of Sir James Crichton of Frendraught, was 
appointed great chamberlain of Scotland in 
1440, and held that office till 1453 ; and two 
daughters, Mary, married to Alexander, first 
earl of Huntly, and Agnes, married first to 
Alexander, fourth lord Glaumis, and secondly 
to Ker of Cessford. 

[Crawford's Officers of State, 31 ; Douglas's 
Scotch Peerage (Wood), i. 609 ; Register of the 
Great Seal of Scotland, vol. i. ; Acts of the Par- 
liament of Scotland ; Auchinleck Chronicle ; Ma- 
jor, De Historia Gentis Scotorum ; the Histories 
of Tytler and Hill Burton.] T. F. H. 

TON, WILLIAM {ji. 1615), Jesuit, was a 
native of Scotland. When Nicholas de Gouda, 
the pope's legate, was engaged in a secret 
embassy to that country in 1561-2, all the 
ports were watched and guarded, and it was 
only by the extraordinary courage and in- 
genuity of John Hay and Crichton that de 
Gouda escaped unharmed. Crichton accom- 
panied him to Antwerp and became a mem- 
ber of the Society of Jesus. He returned 
to Scotland in the beginning of Lent 1582, 
and was received into the house of Lord 
Seton, the only member of the royal council 
who remained constant to his religion. He 
also entered into correspondence with the 
Duke of Lennox, cousin and guardian of 
James VI, who was still a minor. It was 
not without great difficulty that he obtained 
an interview with Lennox, for he had to be 
introduced into the king's palace at night, 

and hidden during three days in a secret 
chamber. The duke promised that he would 
have the young king instructed in the catho- 
lic religion or else conveyed abroad in order 
to be able to embrace it with more freedom. 
To secure this object Crichton made some 
concessions on his side, chiefly of a pecuniary 
nature. The articles of this agreement were 
drawn up by Crichton and signed by the 
duke. Armed with this document Crichton 
proceeded to Paris, where the Duke of Guise 
— the king's relative — the archbishop of Glas- 
gow, Father Tyrie, and other Scotchmen, all 
considered the catholic cause as good as 
gained. They therefore despatched Crichton 
to Rome and Parsons into Spain. The object 
of their mission was that they might secure 
the safety of the young king and of the Duke 
d'Aubigny, by assembling a strong military 
force to guard them, and that they might at 
the same time provide a catholic bride for 
the king. The pope subscribed four thousand 
gold crowns, the king of Spain twelve thou- 
sand. ' But,' says Crichton, ' the plan, which 
might have been easily carried out in two 
months, was spread over two years, and so 
came to the knowledge of the English court.' 
Elizabeth took alarm, and soon afterwards 
William Ruthven, first earl of Gowrie (1541 .P- 
1584) [q.v.], and the confederate lords seized 
the person of the young king. 

In compliance with the pope's desire, and 
at the earnest request of the catholic nobility, 
Crichton was sent to Scotland again in 1584, 
and with him Father James Gordon ; but 
their vessel was seized on the high seas by 
the admiral of Zeeland, acting for the protes- 
tants of Holland, who were in rebellion 
against their own sovereign (Thomas, Hist. 
Notes, pp. 409, 1084). Gordon was set at 
liberty, but Crichton and Ady, a secular 
j)riest, were condemned to die for the murder 
of the Prince of Orange, whose assassination 
was believed to have been the work of Jesuits. 
A gallows was erected for the execution of 
Crichton, but at this juncture a treaty was 
concluded between the Dutch and the queen 
of England. Elizabeth on learning that 
Crichton was a prisoner at Ostend requested 
the negotiators of the treaty to have him 
given up to her, and sent a ship across to Os- 
tend for the special purpose of conveying him 
to England. Some papers which he tore in 
pieces were blown on board again, pieced 
together by Sir William Waad [q. v.]_, and 
found to contain a proposal for the inva- 
sion of England by Spain and the Duke of 
Guise (T. G. Law in Engl. Hist. Rev. viii. 698). 

He was committed to theTower on 16 Sept. 
158 1, and appears to have remained there till 
1586. His liberation is attributed to a confes- 




eion made by William Parry ,wlio was executed 
for treason in 1584, and who said that when 
he consulted Crichton as to whether it was 
lawful to kill the queen he received an answer 
distinctly and strongly in the negative. After 
an examination on the subject Crichton wrote 
a letter to Secretary Walsingham, which was 
published by the queen's order. On being 
released he engaged in a conspiracy of catho- 
lics to raise a rebellion in England (1586). 
Hia 'Reasons to show the easiness of the 
enterprise' are printed by Strype {Annals, 
iii. 414, from Cotton. MS. Julius F. vi. 53 ; 
cf. Cotton MS. Galba 0. x. f. 339 b). He ar- 
rived in Paris from London in May 1587. 

With the advice of his councillors of state 
James sent Father Gordon and Crichton se- 
cretly to Rome in 1592 for the purpose of 
arranging with the pope the means of restor- 
ing the catholic religion in Scotland. Wri- 
ting to Father Thomas Owens long after- 
wards, he says : — ' Our Kyng had so great 
feare of y* nombre of Catholiks, and y* puis- 
sance of Pope and Spaine, y' he offered liber- 
tie of Conscience, and sent me to Rome to deal 
for y* Popes favor and making of a Scottish 
Cardinal ; as I did shaw y* Kyngs letters to 
F. Parsons' (Gordon, Catholic Churchin Scot- 
land, p. 538). He also went to Spain, where 
he saw the king in the Escorial. Gordon 
accomplished the mission according to his 
instructions, and returned to Scotland with 
Crichton and the pope's legate, George Sam- 
piretti. James afterwards changed his mind 
and resolved that the laws against catholics 
should be enforced (Acts of Parliament of 
Scotland, iv. 57, 59, 126-8). Eventually 
Crichton was compelled to leave Scotland 
(1595) ; he passed across to Flanders, and 
devoted all his energy to the foundation of 
the Scottish seminary at Douay (FoRBES- 
Leith, Narratives of Scottish Catholics, pp. 
222-6). He was living at Paris in 1615, and in 
a letter dated 14 July in that year he says : 
' Verum est setatem me non gravare multum, 
quamvis anni abundant ' (Oliver, Jesuit Col- 
lections, p. 18). The date of his death has not 
been ascertained. 

He is the author of: 1. A letter to Sir 
Francis Walsingham concerning Parry's ap- 
plication to him, with this case of conscience, 
' Whether it were lawful to kill the queen,' 
dated 20 Feb. 1584-5. Reprinted in Holins- 
hed's ' Chronicle,' and in Morris's * Troubles 
of our Catholic Forefathers,' series ii. 81, and 
translated into Italian in Bartoli, * Dell' isto- 
ria della compagnia di Giesu : I'Inghilterra,' 
lib. iv. cap. x. p. 291. 2. ' De Missione Sco- 
tica puncta quaedam notanda historise socie- 
tatis servientia,' manuscript in the archives 
of the Society of Jesus. 3. ' An Apology.' 

This work, which was published in Flanders, 
is referred to in ' A Discoverye of the Errors 
committed and Inivryes done to his Ma : off 
Scotlande and Nobilitye off the same realme, 
and lohn Cecyll Pryest and D. off diuinitye, 
by a malitious Mythologie titled an Apologie, 
and compiled by William Criton Pryest and 
professed lesuite, whose habits and behaui- 
oure, whose cote and conditions are as sutable, 
as Esav his handes, and lacob his voice' 

[Authorities quoted above ; also Forbes- 
Leith's Narratives of Scottish Catholics, pp. 78, 
79, 181-3,197, 198; Tanner's Societas Jesu Apo- 
stolorum Imitatrix, p. 105 ; Morris's Troubles of 
our Catholic Forefathers, ser. ii. 17, 18, 71-82; 
Strype's Annals, iii. 250, 452, iv. 104 ; Egerton 
MS. 2598, f. 199 ; Foley's Records, vii. 181 ; Ry- 
mer's Foedera, ed. 1716, xvi. 190, 197, 226, 238, 
239 ; Birch's Elizabeth, i. 109, 216.] T. C. 


838), is the name given by Bale to St. Fre- 
derick, bishop of Utrecht, who is said by 
William of Malmesbury to have been the 
nephew and the disciple of St. Boniface. As 
Boniface was believed to have been born at 
Crediton, Bale assumed that this would be 
the birthplace also of his nephew Frederick, 
and therefore bestowed on the latter the sur- 
name Cridiodunus (from Cridiandiin or Cri- 
dian-tiin, the older spelling of Crediton). The 
statement that Frederick was related to Boni- 
face rests solely on the authority of Malmes- 
bury. According to the early continental 
hagiologists he was born at Sexberum in 
Friesland, and was of a noble Frisian family. 
The compilers of the * Acta Sanctorum ' 
point out that Frederick cannot have been 
Boniface's disciple, in the literal sense of 
having received his personal instructions, be- 
cause the former died in 838, thus surviving 
his alleged teacher by eighty-three years. But 
they find it difficult to set aside the positive 
assertion of an honest and careful writer like 
Malmesbury, and in order to reconcile the 
authorities they have recourse to the conjec- 
ture that Frederick was really the nephew 
of Boniface, and was born of English parents 
in Friesland. There can, however, be little 
doubt that Malmesbury was mistaken. He 
confesses that he derived the story of Frede- 
rick, not from a written source, but from 
oral communication. Now, in the ' Life of St. 
Frederick ' by Oetbert (written in the tenth 
century) it is stated that when a boy he was 
committed by his mother to the care of Ric- 
frid, bishop of Utrecht. It seems almost 
certain that Malmesbury mistook this name 
for Winfrid, the original name of Boniface, 
and therefore identified Frederick's teacher 
with his own distinguished countryman. ( Ap- 




parently some of the manuscripts of Malmes- 
bury actually read Wicfridus instead of Win- 
fridus in this passage, for the former reading 
appears in the extract given in the ' Monu- 
menta Germanise,' x. 454 ; the English edi- 
tions, however, have Winfridus, and do not 
mention any variation.) In any case the 
authority of an English -writer of the twelfth 
century is, on such a question, of no weight 
when opposed to the unanimous testimony 
of continental writers of earlier date. There 
is, consequently, no reason for supposing that 
Frederick was either of English birth or de- 
scent, and his biography is outside the scope 
of this work ; but it has seemed expedient 
briefly to indicate the real state of the case 
in order to prevent future inquirers from 
being misled. Bale's account of ' Cridiodu- 
nus ' has been followed by Pits, by Dempster 
(who, after his manner, makes St. Frederick 
a Scotchman, and adds some imaginary de- 
tails), and by Bishop Tanner. 

[William of Malmesbury's De Gest. Pont. ed. 
Hamilton (Eolls Ser.), p. 1 1 ; Savile's Scriptores, 
p. 197; Pertz's Monura. Germ. x. 454; Bale's 
Scriptt. Brit. Cat. ed. Basle, ii. 145 ; Pits, De 
Angliae Scriptt. appendix art. 78 ; Dempster's 
Hist. Eccl. Scot. art. 616 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit, 
p. 209; Acta Sanctorum, July 18.] H, B. 

traveller and antiquary, son of John Cripps, 
was entered as a fellow- commoner at Jesus 
College, Cambridge, on 27 April 1798, and 
came under the care of Edward Daniel Clarke. 
After some stay at Cambridge, he set out on 
a tour with his tutor, which, though origi- 
nally intended for only a few months, was 
continued for three years and a half. In the 
first part of their journey to Norway and 
Sweden, they were accompanied by the Rev. 
William Otter (afterwards bishop of Chi- 
chester) and Malthus, the well-known poli- 
tical economist, both members of Jesus. The 
result of these wanderings was embodied by 
Clarke in six quarto volumes — his famous 

* Travels ' — in which the services of his pupil, 

* the cause and companion of my travels,' are 
adequately acknowledged. Cripps brought 
back large collections of statues, antiques, 
and oriental flora, some valuable portions of 
which he presented from time to time to the 
university of Cambridge and to other public 
institutions. In 1803 he was created M.A. 
per literas regias, and subsequently became 
a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, his 
name appearing for the first time on the list 
for 1805. By will dated 1 Oct. 1797 he in- 
herited the property of his maternal uncle, 
John Marten, which included possessions in 
the parish of Chiltington, with the manor 

of Stantons, Sussex. Having built Novington 
Lodge on the Stantons estate, Cripps fixed 
his residence there, and devoted much of his 
time to practical horticulture. His investi- 
gations were the means of bringing into notice 
several varieties of apples and other fruits. 
From Russia he introduced the kohl-rabi, a 
useful dairy vegetable. He died at Noving- 
ton on 3 Jan. 1853, in his seventy-third year. 
By his marriage on 1 Jan, 1806, to Charlotte, 
third daughter of Sir William Beaumaris 
Rush of Wimbledon, he left issue. 

[Jesus College Admission Book ; Gent. Mag. 
Ixxvi. i. 87, new ser. xxxix. 202-3 ; Lower's 
Worthies of Sussex, pp. 271-3; Athenaeum, 
15 Jan. 1853, p. 82; Horsfield's Sussex, i. 236; 
Horsfield's Lewes, ii. 246-7; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 6th edit. 1882, i. 391 ; Otter's Life and 
Remains of E. D. Clarke.] G. G. 

CRISP, SiK NICHOLAS (1599 P-1666), 
royalist, born about 1599, descended from a 
family possessing estates in Gloucestershire 
and engaged in trade in London. His father, 
Ellis Crisp, was sherifi" of London in 1625, 
during which year he died. His mother, 
Hester, sister of John Ireland, first master of 
the Salters' Company, afterwards married Sir 
Walter Pye (1571-1635), a barrister of the 
Middle Temple, and from 1621 attorney- 
general of the court of wards [see under Pye, 
SiE Robert, d. 1701]. She was his second wife. 
Nicholas was actively engaged in the African 
trade from 1625. In 1629 he and his partners 
petitioned for letters of reprisal against the 
French, stating that they had lost 20,000/. 
by the capture of one of their ships. On 
22 Nov. 1632 Charles I issued a proclama- 
tion granting to Crisp and five others the ex- 
clusive right of trading to Guinea, which 
was secured them by patent for thirty-one 
years. Nevertheless in 1637 Crisp's company 
complained that interlopers were infringing 
their monopoly of transporting 'nigers' from 
Guinea to the West Indies {Cal. of State 
Papers, Col., 1574-1660, pp. 75, 114). The 
wealth thus acquired enabled Crisp to be- 
come one of the body of customers who 
contracted with the king in 1640 for the 
two farms of the customs called the great 
and petty farm. The petition of the surviving 
contractors presented to Charles II in 1661 
states that they advanced to the king on this 
security 253,000/. for the payment of the 
navy and other public uses {Soiners Tracts, 
vii. 512). Crisp was knighted on 1 Jan. 
1639-40. He was elected to both the Short 
and Long parliaments for Winchelsea, but 
was attacked as a monopolist directly the 
latter parliament opened. On 21 Nov. 1640 
he was ordered to attend the committee 




of grievances and to submit at once to the 
House of Commons the patents for the sole 
trade to Guinea and the sole importation 
of red-wood, also that concerning copperas 
stones and that for the monopoly of making 
and vending beads (Rushworth, iv. 53). 
For his share in these he vyas expelled from 
the house on 2 Feb. 1641, At the same time 
he and the other customers were called to 
account for having collected the duties on 
merchandise without a parliamentary grant, 
and only obtained an act of indemnity on 
payment of a fine of 150,000/. (Gardiner, 
History of England, ix. 379 ; Commons^ 
Journals, May 25-6, 1641). In the civil war 
Crisp not unnaturally took the side of the 
king, but remained at first in London and 
secretly sent money to Charles. His con- 
duct was discovered by an intercepted let- 
ter of Sir Robert Pye's, and his arrest was 
ordered (Sanford, Studies of the Great Re- 
bellion, p. 547). But he succeeded in es- 
caping to Oxford in disguise, and was wel- 
comed by the king with the title of his 
* little, old, faithful farmer ' (^Special Passages, 
14-21 Feb. 1643). From Oxford Crisp con- 
tinued to maintain his correspondence with 
the king's partisans in the city, and his name 
was placed at the head of the commission 
of array which was issued by the king on 
16 March 1643, and afterwards conveyed to 
London by Lady Aubigny (Husband, Ordi- 
nances of Parliament, fol. p. 201 ; Claren- 
don, Rebellion, vii. 59, 61). He was also 
implicated in Ogle's plot in the winter of 
1643, and the estate of his brother, Samuel 
Crisp, was sequestrated by the parliament 
for the same business ( Camden Miscellany, 
vol. viii. ; A Secret Negotiation with Charles I, 
pp. 2, 18). On 3 July 1643 Crisp obtained 
a commission from the king to raise a regi- 
ment of five hundred horse, but before it was 
complete it was siu*prised at Cirencester by 
Essex, on his march back from Gloucester, 
and captured to a man (15 Sept. 1643, Biblio- 
theea Gloucestrensis, pp. Ixxiv, clxxiv). Crisp 
himself was not present with his regiment 
at this disaster. A few days earlier he had 
been involved in a quarrel with Sir James 
Enyon of Northamptonshire, which led to 
a duel in which the latter was mortally 
wounded. Crisp was brought to a court-mar- 
tial for this affair, but honourably acquitted 
on the ground of the provocation and injury 
he had received from his antagonist (2 Oct. 
1643, Sanderson, Charles I, p. 666). In the 
following November Crisp received a com- 
mission to raise a regiment of fifteen hundred 
foot (17 Nov., Black, Oxford Docquets), 
but it does not appear that he carried out 
this design. For the rest of the war his ser- 

vices were chiefly performed at sea. On 
6 May 1644 he received a commission to 
equip at his own and his partner's charge not 
less than fifteen ships of war, with power to 
make prizes (ib.) He was granted a tenth 
of the prizes taken by his ships, and also ap- 
pointed receiver and auditor of the estates of 
delinquents in Cornwall ( Cal. Clarendon State 
Papers, i. 264, 294). As the royal fleet was 
entirely in the hands of the parliament, the 
services of Crisp's squadron in maintaining 
the king's communications with the conti- 
nent and procuring supplies of arms and am- 
munition were of special value. He also 
acted as the king's factor on a large scale, 
selling tin and wool in France, and buying 
powder with the proceeds (Husband, Col- 
lection of Orders, fol. pp. 842, 846). These 
services naturally procured him a correspond- 
ing degree of hostility from the parliament. 
He was one of the persons excluded from in- 
demnity in the terms proposed to the king at 
[Jxbridge. His pecuniary losses had also 
been very great. When Crisp fled from 
London the parliament confiscated 5,000/. 
worth of bullion which he had deposited in 
the Tower. They also sequestered his stock 
in the Guinea Company for the payment of 
a debt of 16,000/. which he was asserted to 
owe the state {Camden Miscellany, vol. viii.; 
A Secret Negotiation with Charles I, pp. 2, 
18). His house in Bread Street was sold to 
pay off" the oSicers thrown out of employ- 
ment on the constitution of the New Model 
{Perf. Diurnal, 16 April 1645). He is said 
also to have lost 20,000/. by the capture of 
two ships from Guinea, the one by a parlia- 
mentary ship, the other by a pirate (Cer- 
tain Informations, 30 Oct.-6 Nov. 1643). 
Nevertheless hia remaining estates must have 
been considerable, for on 6 May 1645 the 
House of Commons ordered that 6,000/. a 
year should be paid to the elector palatine 
out of the properties of Crisp and Lord Cot- 
tington {Journals of the House of Commons'), 
On the final triumph of the parliamentary 
cause Crisp fled to France (Whitelocke, 
Memorials, f. 200), but he does not seem to 
have remained long in exile. He was al- 
lowed to return, probably owing to the in- 
fluence of his many puritan relatives in Lon- 
don, and appears in the list of compounders 
as paying a composition of 346/. (Dring, 
Catalogue, ed. 1733, p. 25). In the act passed 
by parliament in November 1653 for the sale 
of the crown forests the debt due to Crisp and 
his associates in the farm of the customs was 
allowed as a public faith debt of 276,146/., but 
solely on the condition that they advanced a 
like sum for the public service within a limited 
period. The additional sum advanced was 




then to be accepted as ' monies doubled upon 
the act,' and the total debt computed at 
552,000/, to be secured on the crown lands. 
But though Crisp and his partners were 
willing to take up this speculation, they could 
not get together more than 30,000/., and 
their petitions for more time were refused 
{Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 165a-4, pp. 265, 
353, 357). Other speculations were equally- 
unfortunate. Crisp had advanced 1,500/. 
for the reconquest of Ireland, but when the 
lands came to be divided among the adven- 
turers the fraud of the surveyors awarded 
him his share in bog and coarse land (Peti- 
tion in Peendergast, Cimnwellian Settle- 
ment,'p.24:l). The prospect of the Restoration 
^ave him hopes of redress, and he forwarded 
it by all means in his power. He signed the 
declaration of the London royalists in sup- 
port of Monck (24 April 1660), and was one 
of the committee sent by the city to Charles II 
at Breda (3 May 1660, Kennet, Register , 
pp. 121, 133). In the following July Crisp 
petitioned from a prison for the payment of 
some part of the debt due to him for his ad- 
vances to the state ; his own share of the 
great sum owing amounted to 30,000/. (C«/. 
State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 122), In the 
next three years he succeeded in obtaining 
the partial reimbursement of these debts, and 
the grant of several lucrative employments 
as compensation for the rest. In May 1661 
he obtained for his son the office of collector 
of customs in the port of London, and in 
June he became himself farmer of the duty 
on the export of sea coal. He obtained 10,000/. 
for his services in compounding the king's 
debt to the East India Company, and two- 
thirds of the customs on spices were assigned 
to him until the remaining 20,000/. of his 
own debt was repaid (ib. 1661-2, pp. 14, 25, 
331, 608). Once more in partnership with 
the survivors of the old customers he be- 
came a contractor for the farm of the cus- 
toms, and Charles allowed them a large abate- 
ment in consideration of the old debt {ib. 
1663-4, pp. 123, 676). On 16 April 1665 
Crisp received a baronetcy, which lapsed on 
the death of his great-grandson. Sir Charles 
Crisp, in 1740. Crisp died 26 Feb. 1665-6. 
His body was buried in the church of St. 
Mildred, Bread Street, but his heart was 
placed in a monument to the memory of 
Charles I, which he erected in the chapel at 
Hammersmith. Onl8 Junel898hisbody was 
re-interred in the churchyard of St. Paul's, 
Hammersmith. His widow, Anne, daughter 
and heiress of Edward Prescott, salter (and 
apparently goldsmith), of London, signed 
31 May 1669 her will, which was not proved 
till 6 Oct. 1699. The magniiicent house built 
VOL. v. 

by Crisp at Hammersmith was bought in 1683 
by Prince Rupert for his mistress, Margaret 
Hughes, and became in the present century 
the residence of Queen Caroline (Lysons, En- 
virons of London, Middlesex, 402-9). Besides 
his eminent services in the promotion of the 
African trade Crisp is credited with the in- 
troduction of many domestic arts and manu- 
factures. * The art of brickmaking as since 
practised was his own, conducted with in- 
credible patience through innumerable trials 
and perfected at a very large expense. . . . By 
his communication new inventions, as water- 
iniUs, paper-mills, and powder-mills, came 
into use' ('Lives of Eminent Citizens,' quoted 
in Biographia Britannica). 

[Crisp's Collections relating to the Family of 
Crispe ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. ; Clarendon's 
Hist, of the Eebellion ; Burke's Extinct Baronet- 
age ; Lloyd's Memoirs of Excellent Personages ; 
Biog. Brit. ed. Kippis, vol. iv.] C. H. F. 

CRISP, SAMUEL {d. 1783), dramatist, 
was only son of Samuel Crisp, by Florence, 
daughter of Charles Williams. At the solici- 
tation of Lady Coventry he wrote a tragedy 
on the death of Virginia. The play was 
reluctantly accepted by Garrick, who contri- 
buted prologue and epilogue, and on 25 Feb. 
1754 it was produced at I3rury Lane, where 
the acting and the exertions of friends kept 
it running ten nights. But though there 
was little open censure, it was felt that an 
experiment had been made on the patience 
of the public which would not bear repetition. 
When a few weeks later ' Virginia ' appeared 
in print, the critics — the Monthly Reviewers 
in particular — condemned plot, characters, 
and diction, with severity and, it must be 
admitted, with j ustice. Crisp, however, being 
under the delusion that he was a great drama- 
tist, devoted himself with ardour to the task 
of revision, in the hopes of being completely 
successful in the following year ; but Garrick 
showed little disposition to bring the amended 
tragedy on the stage, and at length was obliged 
to return a deci ded refusal. Crisp in bitter dis- 
appointment withdrew to the continent. ' He 
became,' in the words of Macaulay, ' a cynic 
and a hater of mankind.' On his return to 
England he sought retirement from 1764 
with his friend Christopher Hamilton at the 
latter's country-house, Chessington Hall, not 
far from Kingston in Surrey, situate on a 
wide and nearly desolate common and en- 
circled by ploughed fields. Here he was fre- 
quently visited by his sister, Mrs. Sophia Gast 
of Burford, Oxfordshire, by his old friend 
and protege Dr. Burney, and by Burney's fa- 
mily. * Frances Burney he regarded as his 
daughter. He called her his Fannikin ; and 





she in return called him her dear Daddy. In 
truth, he seems to have done much more than 
her real parents for the development of her 
intellect ; for though he was a bad poet, he 
•was a scholar, a thinker, and an excellent 
counsellor.' When Miss Burney sent him 
the manuscript of her comedy, * The Wit- 
lings,' Crisp, a better friend to her than he 
had been to himself, unhesitatingly told her 
that she had failed in what she playfully 
called ' a hissing, groaning, catcalling epistle.' 
Some of her charming letters to Crisp have 
been published in her ' Diary and Letters.' 
So completely had Crisp hidden himself from 
the world that in the edition of Baker's * Bio- 
graphia Dramatica,' published in 1782, the 
year before his death, we find him described 
as ' Mr. Henry Crisp, of the custom house,' 
errors repeated in the edition of 1812, and in 
the index to Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes.' 
He died at Chessington on 24 April 1783, 
aged 76, and lies buried in the parish church, 
where a marble tablet erected to his memory 
bears pompous lines by Dr. Burney. His 
library was sold the following year. His 
letters to Mrs. Gast were edited by the Rev. 
W. H. Hutton in ' Burford Papers ' (1905). 

[Diary of Madame d'Arblay, and Macaulay's 
Review ; Brayley's Hist, of Surrey, iv. 404 ; Ge- 
nest'sHist.of the Stage, iv. 386-7 ; Baker's Biog. 
Dramat.ed. 1812, i. 155, iii. 383; Gent. Mag. 
xxiv. 128-9; Monthly Review, x. 225-31; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 346, iii. 666 ; Crisp's 
Family of Crispe.] G. G. 

CRISP, STEPHEN (1628-1692), quaker, 
was born and educated at Colchester. From 
his earliest years he was religiously inclined, 
and when only ten or twelve, he says in his 
' Short History ' that he went with ' as much 
diligence to the reading and hearing of ser- 
mons as other children went to their play and 
sportings.' When seventeen he 'found out 
. . . the meetings of the separatists,' to which 
he belonged until about 1648, when he joined 
the baptists and became a * teacher of a sepa- 
rate congregation ' (see Records of Colchester 
Monthly Meeting). Crisp probably made the 
acquaintance of James Parnel during the im- 
prisonment of the latter in Colchester in 1655, 
and the intimacy ended in his becoming a 
quaker. From this time he took an active 
part in the affairs of the Society of Friends 
in Essex, althougli there is no reason to be- 
lieve that he was a recognised minister till 
1659. In 1656 he was imprisoned in Col- 
chester as ' a disturber of the publick peace,' 
and two years later (Tuke says in 1660) was 
arrested at a meeting at Norton in Durham, 
and at the ensuing sessions sent to prison for 
refusing to take an oath. Immediately after 

his recognition as a minister he visited Scot- 
land, and during his journey he was severely 
injured by the people of York. In the same 
year his name appears among the Friends 
who petitioned the parliament to allow them 
to take the place of their fellow-sectaries 
who had been long in prison. Shortly after 
the Restoration he was one of the quakers 
who wrote to the king to complain of the 
treatment they had received from the scholars 
and townsfolk of Cambridge, with the result 
that the council directed the Friends' meeting- 
house to be pulled down. In 1661 he was 
apprehended at a meeting at Harwich, and 
Besse complains that the justice took the 
unusual step of making out the commitment 
before he examined his captive. In 1663 he 
visited Holland, but as he then could not 
speak Dutch and so had to employ an inter- 
preter, his visit was a failure. As soon as 
he returned to England he was arrested at 
Colchester and sent to prison for holding an 
illegal meeting, where he lay for nearly a 
year. Crisp now learnt Dutch and German, 
and in 1667 revisited Holland, whence he 
went into Germany. He seems to have acted 
as a kind of missionary bishop in these coun- 
tries, and to have been highly respected 
by the authorities, as there is proof that in 
deference to his request the palsgrave took 
off the tax of four rix-dollars per family he 
had imposed on the Friends. This tax, which 
the quakers had refused to pay as an impost 
on conscience, had been the cause of much 
suffering, owing to the merciless way in which 
goods to many times its amount were seized 
by the collectors. From time to time Crisp 
visited England, and early in 1670 he was 
fined 5Z. for infringing the Conventicle Act, 
and ordered to be imprisoned until it was 
paid ; he was, however, released in three 
months without payment. He at once went 
to Denmark, but speedily returning to Eng- 
land made a prolonged preaching excursion 
in the north, after which he revisited his 
home at Colchester, ' much,' he records, * to 
the joy of my poor wife.' Besse says that 
during this year he was apprehended at a 
meeting at Horselydown and fined 201. ; he 
was probably the preacher, as this was the 
sum the minister had been fined the week 
before, while the congregation had been let 
off with a fine of 55. each. From this time 
till shortly before the death of his first wife 
in 1683 he spent most of his time in Holland 
and Germany, his principal employment 
being the establishment and supervision of 
meetings for discipline. He married again, 
in 1685, losing his second wife in 1087. In 
1688, when James II was anxious to con- 
ciliate the dissenters, Crisp was by royal 




command offered the commission of the peace, 
which he declined. In 1688 and the fol- 
lowing year, though suffering from a painful 
disease, he was actively employed in efforts 
to get the penal laws suspended, and from 
this time tiU his death in 1692 he resided in 
London. He was buried in the quaker biirial- 
gToimd at Bun hill Fields. 

It is evident from his writings that Crisp 
was a man of considerable culture and wide 
views, and the * testimony of the Colchester 
Friends ' asserts that he was charitable and 
'very serviceable to many widows and father- 
less.' During the later years of his life his 
sermons were taken down in shorthand. His 
style was easy, and he had a dislike both to 
religious polemics and speculative theology. 
He wrote very little, and only two or three 
of his works are more than tracts ; that their 
popularity was very great is shown by the 
number of times they have been reprinted. 
The chief are : 1. * An Epistle to Friends con- 
cerning the Present and Succeeding Times,' 
&c., 1666. 2. 'A Plain Path-way opened 
to the Simple-hearted,' &c., 1668. 3. 'A 
Back-slider Reproved and His FoUy made 
Manifest,' &c., 1669 (against Robert Cobbet). 
4. ' A Short History of a Long Travel from 
Babylon to Bethel,' 1711 (autobiographi- 
cal), republished nineteen times. He also 
wrote a number of tracts in Dutch. His 
sermons were published in three volumes in 
1693-4, and republished under the title of 
* Scripture Truths Demonstrated,' in one 
volume in 1707, and his works were col- 
lected and published by John Field in 1694 
under the title of ' A Memorable Account 
. . . of . . . Stephen Crisp, in his Books and 
Writings herein collected.' He was no rela- 
tion of the Thomas Crisp, a quaker apostate, 
against whom about 1681 he wrote a tract 
called * A Babylonish Opposer of Truth,' in 
reply to the other's ' Babel's Builders Un- 

[A Short History of a Long Travel, &c., 1711 ; 
Sewel's History of the Eise, Increase, &c. ... of 
the Quakers; Gough's History of the People 
called Quakers, 1789-90; George Fox's Auto- 
biography ; Crisp's Works ; Tuke's Life of Crisp, 
York, 1824 ; Besse's Sufferings of the Quakers ; 
Swarthemore MSS.] A. C. B. 

CRISP, TOBIAS, D.D. (1600-1643), an- 
tinomian, third son of Ellis Crisp, once sheriff 
of London, who died in 1626, was born in 
1600 in Bread Street, London, His elder 
brother was Sir Nicholas Crisp [q. v.] After 
leaving Eton he matriculated at Cambridge, 
where he remained until he had taken his 
B.A., when he removed to Balliol College, 
Oxford, graduating M.A. in 1626. About 
this time he married Mary, daughter of Row- 

land Wilson, a London merchant, an M.P. 
and member of the council of state in 1648-9, 
by whom he had thirteen children. In 1627 
he was presented to the rectory of Newing- 
ton Butts, from which he was removed a few 
months later on account of having been a 
party to a simoniacal contract (see Boque, 
Hist, of the Dissenters), Later in the same 
year he was presented to the rectory of Brink- 
worth in Wiltshire, where he became very 
popular, both on account of his preaching 
and the lavish hospitality which his ample 
fortune permitted him to exercise. It is said 
that ' an hundred persons, yea, and many 
more have been received and entertained at 
his house at one and the same time, and 
ample provision made for man and horse' 
(see R. Lancaster's preface to the 1643 edi- 
tion of Crisp's Works'). The same authority 
states that Crisp refused 'preferment or ad- 
vancement.' When he obtained the degree 
of D.D. is not known, but certainly prior to 
1642, in which year he was compelled to 
leave his rectory in consequence of the petty 
persecution he met with from the royalist 
soldiers on account of his inclination to pu- 
ritanism, and retired to London in August 
1642. While at Brinkworth he had been 
suspected of antinomianism, and as soon as 
his opinions became known from his preach- 
ing in London, his theories on the doctrine 
of free grace were bitterly attacked. Towards 
the close of this year he held a controversy 
on this subject with fifty-two opponents, a 
full account of which is given m Nelson's 
' Life of Bishop BuU ' (pp. 260, 270). He 
died of small-pox on 27 Feb. 1642-3, and 
was buried in St. Mildred's Church, Bread 
Street. Several authorities state that he 
contracted the disease from the eagerness 
with which he conducted his part in the de- 
bate. Although Crisp is regarded as one of 
the champions of antinomianism, he was 
during the earlier part of his ministry a rigid 
Arminian. He was extremely unguarded in 
his expressions, and his writings certainly do 
not show that he had any intention of de- 
fending licentiousness. After his death his 
discourses were published by R. Lancaster 
as : 1. * Christ alone Exalted,' in fourteen 
sermons, 1643. 2. * Christ alone Exalted,' 
in seventeen sermons on Phil. iii. 8, 9, 1644. 
3. * Christ alone Exalted in the Perfection 
and Encouragement of his Saints, notwith- 
standing Sins and Tryals,' in eleven sermons, 
1646. 4. 'Christ alone Exalted,' in two 
sermons, 1683. When the first of these 
volumes appeared the Westminster Assembly 
proposed to have it burnt as heretical, which, 
however, does not appear to have been done. 
In 1690 his ' Works,' prefaced by a portrait. 

Crispin ic 

were republished with additions by one of 
his sons. This excited a new controversy, 
chiefly among dissenters, which was carried 
on with much asperity for seven years (see 
JiOQV-E, Hist. Dissenters, \. 399). His' Works' 
were also republished by Dr. John Gill, mi- 
nister of Carter Lane Baptist Chapel, near 
Tooley Street, in 1791, with notes and a 
brief prefatory memoir. Lancaster says that 
Crisp's 'life was innocent and harmless of 
all evil . . . zealous and fervent of all good.' 
[Granger, iv. 1 79 ; Lysons's Environs of Lon- 
don, vol. i. ; Biog. Brit. art. ' Toland,' note B ; 
Crisp's Works (Lancaster's edition), 1 643 ; Wood's 
Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 50 ; Bogue's Hist. Dis- 
senters, i. 399 ; Wilson's Hist, of Dissenting 
Churches, ii. 201, iii. 443 ; Memoir in Gill's edi- 
tion of Crisp's Works, 1791 ; Neal's Hist. Puri- 
tans, iii. 18, ed. 1736. A curious account of 
Crisp's death is given in Last Moments and Tri- 
umphant Deaths, &c., 1857.] A. C. B. 

CRISPIN, GLLBERT {d. 1117 P), abbot 
of Westminster, was the grandson of Gilbert 
Crispin, from whom the Crispin family de- 
rived its surname {Miracula in App. ad Lanf. 
0pp.) The last-named Gilbert Crispin is in 
the ' Histoire Litt6raire ' (x. 192) identified 
with Gilbert., count of Brionne, the guardian 
of William I's childhood, and grandson of 
Duke Richard I of Normandy (cf. Will, of 
JUMIKGES, viii. c. 37, iv. c. 18). There do 
not seem, however, to be sufficient grounds 
for this identification, though the close con- 
nection of both families with the newly 
founded abbey of Bee, of which the Count 
of Brionne was the first patron, gives it some 

More certain is the identification of the 
abbot of Westminster's grandfether with the 
Gilbert Crispin to whom Dime Robert of 
Normandy (d. 1035) had given the frontier 
fortress of Tellieres to guard against the 
French (Will, oi" Jitmieges, vii. c. 5). But it 
is possible that this Gilbert Crispin is rather 
the uncle than the grandfather of the abbot. 
From the treatise alluded to above we learn 
that Gilbert Crispin (so called from his short 
curly hair, a characteristic which was handed 
on to his descendants) married Gonnor, the 
sister ' senioris Fulconis de Alnov.' Of this 
Gilbert's three sons, Gilbert, William, and 
Robert, the first was made governor of Tel- 
lieres ; the third became a man of note at 
Constantinople, where he perished by Greek 
poison ; while the second brother, the father 
of our Gilbert, was appointed viscount of the 
Vexin by Duke William. William Crispin 
held the castle of Melfia (Neaufle) of the 
duke, and was also the possessor oi estates 
in the neighbourhood of Lisieux, a district 
which he never visited without calling upon 


Abbot Herluin of Bee. A delivery from a 
French ambush, which he ascribed to the 
efficacy of Herluin's prayers, made him a 
still more devoted patron of this monastery 
(Z>e nobili Crlspinorum genere, ap. MiGNE, 
vol. clviii.) He married Eva, a noble French 
lady {d. about 1089), and by her was the 
father of Gilbert Crispin, whom, while yet ' in 
a tender age, he handed over to be educated 
by Herluin at Bee. He afterwards withdrew 
from the world and was made a monk by 
Herluin about 1077, an event which he sur- 
vived only a few days (ib. ; Chron. Bee, ap. 
MiGNE, p. C46). 

Crispin is said to have become a perfect 
scholar in all the liberal arts while at Bee, 
whence he was called by Lanfranc to the 
abbey of Westminster, over which church 
he ruled for thirty-two years (Z)e nob. Crisp, 
gen. p. 738). If we may accept the evidence 
of Florence of Worcester (ii. 70), he died in 
1117, and according to his epitaph (quo- 
ted in Dttgdalb) on 6 Dec. This would 
serve to fix his appointment to the office in 
1085 A.D., a date which agrees sufficiently 
well with the year of his predecessor's death, 
1082, as given in the 'Monasticon' from 
Sporley (ed. 1817). On the other hand it is 
hard to reconcile this date with the second 
dedication of his ' Disputatio ' to Alexander, 
bishop of Lincoln, who did not succeed to 
this office before 1123 A.D., unless we allow 
Alexander's title to be an addition of the 

Crispin is said, without authority, to have 
' visited the universities of France and Italy, 
to have been at Rome, and to have returned 
by way of Germany ' (Stevens, quoted in 
Ditgdalb). It is more certain that in 1102 
he caused the body of Edward the Confessor 
to be taken up from its tomb, and found it 
to be still undecayed (Aileed op Rievaux 
ap.TwYSDEN, p.408). At the beginning of Lent 
1108 he was sent by Henry I to negotiate 
with Anselm about the consecration of Hugh 
to the abbey of St. Augustine's, Canterbury 
(Eadmek, p. 189). According to Peter of 
Blois he was one of Henry's ambassadors to 
Theobald of Blois in 1118 {Hist. Litt. de 
France'). Among Anselm's letters there is 
preserved one of congratulation to Crispin on 
his appointment to Westminster (L. ii. Ep. 
16, ap. MiGNE, clviii. 11G5 ; cf. Ep. 36, also to 
an Abbot Gilbert). The ' Histoire Litt6raire ' 
declares that Crispin was once at Mentz; 
but this statement seems due to a misinter- 
pretation of the commencement of the ' Dis- 
putatio Judsei,' which says that the Jew in 
question had been brought up at ISIayence, 
and not that the discussion took place in that 
town. Indeed, it is evident from the allusion 




to the converted London Jew (col. 1106) 
that the whole incident refers to London or 

Crispin is the author of two works still 
preserved. His ' Vita Herluini ' is our princi- 
pal authority for the early days of Bee. His 
account of Herluin's death is so minute that 
there can be little doubt he was in the mo- 
nastery when it occurred. It is referred to 
as the standard authority on this subject by 
William of Jumieges (vii. c. 22), and Milo 
Crispin in the preface to his ' Vita Lanfranci ' 
(ap. MiGNE, clix. col. 30). Crispin's second 
great work is entitled * Disputatio Judtei 
cum Christiano/ and is an account of a dia- 
logue on the christian faith held between the 
Mayence Jew mentioned above and the au- 
thor. This Jew, who was well versed both 
in ' his own law and in our letters,' used to 
visit the abbot on business. The conversa- 
tion would frequently turn to more serious 
matters, and at last it was agreed that the two 
disputants should hold a sort of dialectical 
tournament, each appearing as the champion 
of his own faith. It was at the request of 
bis audience that Crispin reduced his argu- 
ment to writing. He dedicated it, at all 
events primarily, to Anselm, whom he begged 
to criticise it fearlessly. A second dedication 
at the very end of the treatise is addressed, 
as has been before noticed, to Alexander, 
bishop of Lincoln. It is to these two para- 
graphs that we owe our knowledge of the 
circumstances under which the work was 

Other works have been assigned to this 
author by Pits and others : Homilies on the 
Canticles ; treatises on Isaiah (dedicated to 
Anselm) and Jeremiah; on the fall of the 
devil, on the soul, and on the state of the 
church ; a work against sins of thought, 
word, and act ; a commentary on Lamenta- 
tions (preserved in manuscript in the monas- 
tery of St. Aubin at Angers) ; and another 
on the Epistles of St. Paul (preserved in the 
abbey of St. Remi at Rheims) {Hist. Litt. x. 
196-7). According to the writer of Crispin's 
life in the work last quoted, the Abbot of 
Westminster is not the author of the ' Alter- 
catio Synagogas et Ecclesise,' published under 
his name by Moetjens (Cologne, 1537), nor 
of the similar work published by Martene 
and Durand (in their Anecdota, v. 1497, &c.) 
The same writer adds to Crispin's genuine 
treatises a Cotton MS. on the procession of 
the Holy Spirit. 

According to William of Jumieges, Crispin 
was as distinguished in secular and divine 
knowledge as he was by nobility of birth (vii. 
22). The treatise * De nobili Crispinorum 
genere ' praises his attainments in philosophy, 

divinity, and the liberal arts in which he was 
a perfect adept : ' sic in (eis) profecit . . . ut 
omnes artes quas liberales vocantur ad unguem 

[William of Jumieges ; Chronicon BecceBse, 
Vita Herluini and Miracula vel Appendix dd 
nobili Crispinorum genere ; Epistolfe Anselmi 
and Disputatio Judaei cum Christiano, in Migne's 
Cursus Patrologiae, vols, cxlix. el. clviii. clix. ; 
Histoire Litteraire de France (Benedictins of St. 
Maur), X. ; Mabillon's Annales Benedictini, iv. 
565-6; Dugdale's Monasticon (ed. 1817), i- ; 
Florence of Worcester, ed. Hog for Engl. Hist. 
Soc. ; Eadmer, ed. Martin Rule (Rolls Series) ; 
Crispin's Vita Herluini is published in Migne 
(Lanfranc volume), cl. ; the Disputatio Judaei 
in vol. clix. ; Gallia Christiana.] T. A. A. 

CRISTALL, JOSHUA (1767-1847), 
painter, both in oil and water colours, was 
bom at Camborne, Cornwall, in 1767. His 
father, Joseph Alexander Cristall, an Ar- 
broath man, is believed to have been the cap- 
tain and owner of a trading vessel, and also 
a ship-bTeaker, having yards at Rotherhithe, 
Penzance, and Fowey. His mother, Ann 
Batten, born in 1745, was daughter of a Mr. 
John Batten of Penzance, and a woman of 
talent and education. His eldest sister, Ann 
Batten Cristall, was the authoress of a vo- 
lume of ' Poetical Sketches,' published in 
1795. Elizabeth, a younger sister, engraved ; 
and both sisters were most of their lives en- 
gaged in tuition. Dr. Monro was one of his 
early friends. He was always very fond of 
art and of classical music. He began life with 
a china dealer at Rotherhithe, and then be- 
came a china-painter in the potteries district 
under Turner of Burslem, living in great 
hardship. He became a student at the Royal 
Academy, and was in 1805 a foundation mem- 
ber of the Water-colour Society, of which 
body, on its reconstitution in 1821, he was 
also the first president ; an office which he 
continued to hold until 1832, when Copley 
Fielding became his successor. His portrait 
in oils, a vigorous sketch painted by himself, 
adorns the staircase of the society's gallery. 
CristaU. was associated in his art career with 
Gilpin Hills, Pyne, Nattes, Nicholson, Po- 
cock. Wells, Shelley, Barrett, Hojvell, Has- 
sell, the Varleys, David Cox, Finch, and 
others, in starting the water-colour exhibi- 
tion at Tresham's rooms, Lower Brook Street, 
in the spring of 1805. The exhibition was 
in 1813 transferred to the great room in 
Spring Gardens, and afterwards to the Egyp- 
tian Hall in Piccadilly. Turner, William 
Hunt, and Dewint, among others, about this 
time became members of the society. Some 
of Cristall's favourite sketching-grounds were 
in North Wales and in Cumberland. Many 



of his drawings in tlie former district are 
dated 1803, 1820, and 1831, and he was at 
work in Cumberland in 1805 ; and Sir John 
St. Aubyn, M.P., has some interesting ex- 
amples of Cristall's drawings of Cornish cliiF- 
scenery. Queen Victoria occasionally named 
the subject to be delineated by the Sketching 
Society, of which Cristall was also a founder 
and a prominent member ; and she selected 
his ' Daughters of Mineus ' as a specimen of 
the artist's powers. Writing to Joseph Severn 
in 1829, T. Uwins, R. A. {Memoirs of Thomas 
Uwins, 1858), observes : * Our old friend 
Cristall used to say, "the art was not so 
difEcult as it was difficult to get at the art ! 
the thousand annoyances and embarrassments 
that surrounded him perpetually, and kept 
him from sitting down fairly to his easel, 
sometimes overwhelmed him quite.'" He 
was nevertheless an indefatigable worker, and 
was especially laborious in his delineations 
of nature with the black-lead pencil. He 
also painted some of the figures for Barrett 
and Robson in their landscapes. 

In 1812 he married an accomplished French 
widow (a Mrs. Cousins), a lady of some for- 
tune. He continued to devote most of his 
time to painting, and latterly, after 1821, was 
almost always sketching out of doors in his 
old districts as well as in the beautiful scenery 
of the Wye. He lived while in London in 
Kentish Town, Thavies Inn, Chelsea, Lam- 
beth, Paddington, and Hampstead Road, and 
for seventeen years at Grantham Court, Good- 
rich, Herefordshire, returning to London after 
his wife's death. He died without issue at 
Douro Cottages, near Circus Road, St. John's 
Wood, London, on 18 Oct. 1847, and was 
buried by the side of his wife at Goodrich, 
where there is a monument to his memory. 
The whole of his works remaining unsold at 
his death were dispersed at a three days' sale at 
Christie & Hanson's, commencing on 11 April 
1848. Specimens of his art may be seen at the 
South Kensington Museum ; but perhaps his 
finest work was the wreck scene, exhibited 
at the Exhibition of Old Masters in Bur- 
lington House a few years ago. They fuUy 
establish Cristall's claim to be regarded as 
one of the/ounders of the English school ot 
water colours. Many of his pictures have 
been engraved, including a few of his clas- 
sical compositions for the use of his pupils. 
Some of the latter he published at 2 Lis- 
son Street, New (now Marylebone) Road, in 

[Recollections of F. O. Finch ; Literary Jour- 
nal, 1818; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. 
i. 97, sup. 1142 ; Memoirs of Thos. Uwins, R.A.; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the English School ; 
Letters from the President and Secretary of the 

Royal Water-colour Society; family correspon- 
dence and papers.] W. H. T. 

CRITCHETT, GEORGE (1817-1882), 
ophthalmic surgeon, was born at Highgate in 
1817, studied at the London Hospital, and 
became M.R.C.S. in 1839 and F.R.C.S. (by 
examination) in 1844. He was successively 
demonstrator of anatomy, assistant-surgeon 
(1846), and surgeon (1861 to 1863) to the 
London Hospital. He was a skilful surgeon 
and operator, introducing some valuable modes 
of treatment of ulcers, and showing boldness 
and capacity in large operations. From 1846 
he was attached to the Royal London Oph- 
thalmic Hospital, Moorfields, and became one 
of the best operators on the eye. Numerous 
important operations were much improved by 
him. He was elected a member of the coun- 
cil of the College of Surgeons in 1870, was 
president of the Hunterian Society for two 
years, and of the International Congress of 
Ophthalmology held in London in 1872. la 
1876 he was appointed ophthalmic surgeon 
and lecturer at the Middlesex Hospital. He 
died on 1 Nov. 1882. 

Critchett published a valuable course of 
lectures on 'Diseases of the Eye ' in the ' Lan- 
cet ' in 1854. He was extremely kind, cour- 
teous, and generous, had a refined artistic 
taste, and great love for athletic sports. 

[Lancet, British Medical Journal, Medical 
Times, 11 Nov. 1882.] G. T. B. 

CROCKER, CHARLES (1797-1861), 
poet, was born at Chichester of poor parents 
22 June 1797. In his twelfth year he was 
apprenticed to a shoemaker, and he worked 
at this trade for twenty years, meantime com- 
posing verses which he wrote down at inter- 
vals of leisure. Some lines which he sent 
to the * Brighton Herald ' having attracted 
considerable attention, a list of subscribers 
was obtained for the publication of a volume 
of his poems, from which a large profit wa8 
obtained. Among his warmest friends was 
Robert Southey, who asserted that the son- 
net * To the British Oak ' was one of the 
finest, if not the finest, in the English lan- 
guage. In 1839 he obtained employment 
from Mr. Hay ley Mason, the publisher of his 
works, in the bookselling department of the 
business, but in 1845 he resigned this situa- 
tion for that of sexton in Chichester Cathe- 
dral, to which was soon afterwards added 
that of bishop's verger. He thoroughly mas- 
tered all the architectural details of the 
building, and his descriptive account of it to 
visitors was generally followed with more 
than usual interest. He also published a 
small handbook on the building entitled ' A 




Visit to Chichester Cathedral.' A complete 
edition of his * Poetical Works ' appeared in 
1860. He died 6 Oct. 1861. 

[Gent. Mag. June 1862, new ser. xlii. 782-3.] 

T. F. H. 

CROCKER, JOHANN (1670-1741), en- 
graver of coins. [See Cbokbe, John.] 

CROCKFORD, WILLIAM (1775-1844), 
proprietor of Crockford's Club, son of a small 
fish monger in the neighbourhood of the Strand, 
started in life also as a fishmonger at the old 
bulk-shop adjoining Temple Bar, which was 
taken down in 1846. Various accounts are 
given of his rise to fortune and notoriety. Ac- 
cording to Gronow, he with his partner Qye 
managed to win, after a sitting of twenty-four 
hours, the enormous sum of 100,000^. from 
Lords Thanet and Granville, Mr. Ball Hughes, 
and two wealthy witlings whose names are not 
recorded. On the other hand, a writer in the 
* Edinburgh Review ' asserts that Crockford 
began by taking Watier's old clubhouse, in 
partnership with a man named Taylor. They 
set up a hazard-bank and won a great deal 
of money, but quarrelled and separated at 
the end of the first year. Crockford removed 
to St. James's Street, had a good year, and, 
his rival having in the meantime failed, im- 
mediately set about building at No. 50 on 
the west side of the street, over against 
White's, the magnificent clubhouse which 
bore his name and which was destined to 
become so terribly famous (1827). ' It rose 
like a creation of Aladdin's lamp, and the 
genii themselves could hardly have surpassed 
the beauty of the internal decorations or 
furnished a more accomplished maitre d'hotel 
than Ude. To make the company as select 
as possible, the establishment was regularly 
organised as a club, and the election of mem- 
bers vested in a committee.' * Crockford's ' 
forthwith became the rage. All the celebrities 
in England, from the Duke of Wellington 
to the youngest ensign of the guards, hastened 
to enrol themselves as members, whether they 
cared for play or not. Many great foreign 
diplomatists, and ambassadors, in fact all 
persons of distinguished birth or position 
who arrived in England, belonged to Crock- 
ford's as a matter of course. The tone of the 
club was excellent. Card-tables were regu- 
larly placed, and whist was played occasion- 
ally, but the grand attraction was the hazard- 
bank, at which the proprietor took his nightly 
stand prepared for all comers. * The old 
fishmonger, seated snug and sly at his desk 
in the comer of the room, watchful as the 
dragon that guarded the golden apples of 
the Hesperides, would only give credit to 
sure and approved signatures. The notorious 

gambling nobleman, known as " Le Welling- 
ton des Joueurs," lost in this way 2.3,000Z. at 
a sitting, beginning at twelve at night and 
ending at seven the following evening. He 
and three other noblemen, it has been com- 
puted, ' could not have lost less, sooner or 
later, than 100,000/. apiece.' Others lost in 
proportion (or out of proportion) to their 
means ; indeed, it would be a difficult task 
to say how many ruined families went to 
make Crockford a millionnaire. At length 
the ex-fishmonger retired in 1840, ' much as 
an Indian chief retires from a hunting coun- 
try where there is not game enough left for 
his tribe.' He died on 24 May 1844 in Carl- 
ton House Terrace, aged 69, having in a 
few years amassed something like 1,200,000/. 

* He did not,' says Gronow, * leave more than 
a sixth part of this vast sum, the difference 
being swallowed up in various unlucky specu- 
lations.' However, his personal property alone 
was sworn under 200,000/., his real estate 
amounting to about 150,000/. more. After his 
death the clubhouse was sold by his widow 
for 2,900/., held on lease, of which thirty- 
two years were unexpired, subject to a yearly 
rent of 1,400/. The decorations alone cost 
94,000/. The interior was redecorated in 
1849, and opened for the Military, Naval, 
and County Service, but was closed again in 
1851. It then degenerated into a cheap dining- 
house, the Wellington, and is now the De- 
vonshire Club. A minute account of Crock- 
ford's career and of his success in escaping the 
treadmill will be found in * Bentley's Miscel- 
lany,' xvii. 142-55, 251-64. 

Of Crockford literature we may mention : 
' Crockford House ; a rhapsody in two Cantos ' 
[By Henry Luttrell], 12mo, London, 1827; 

* St. James's ; a satirical poem, in six epistles 
to Mr. Crockford,' 8vo, London, 1827 ; and 
a silly novel, entitled, * Crockford's ; or Life 
in the West,' 2nd edition, 2 vols. 12mo, 
London, 1828. 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. xxii. 103-4 ; GronoVs 
Celebrities of London and Paris (3rd series of 
Reminiscences), pp. 102-8 ; Edinburgh Eeview, 
Ixxx. 36-7; Timbs's Clubs and Club Life in 
London, ed. 1872, pp. 240-4; Fraaer's Mag. xvii. 
538-46.] G. G. 

CROFT, GEORGE (1747-1809), divine, 
second son of Samuel Croft, was bom at 
Beamsley, a hamlet in the chapelry of Bolton 
Abbey, in the parish of Skipton, in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, and baptised on 27 March 
1747. Although his father was in very 
humble circumstances, Croft received an ex- 
cellent education at the grammar school of 
Bolton Abbey, under the Rev. Thomas Carr, 
who not only taught his clever pupil without 




fee, but solicited subscriptions from ■well-to- 
do friends and neighbours in order to send 
him to the university. Admitted a servitor 
of University College, Oxford, on 23 Oct. 
1762, he was chosen bible clerk on the fol- 
lowing 6 Dec, and in 1768, the first year of 
its institution, he gained the chancellor's 
prize for an English essay upon the subject 
of * Artes prosunt reipublicse.' He graduated 
B.A. on 16 Feb. 1768, proceeding M.A. on 
2 June 1769. Meanwhile he had been ap- 
pointed master of Beverley grammar school 
on 6 Dec. 1768 ; and, having been ordained, 
was elected fellow of University on 16 July 
1779. On 11 Dec. in the latter year he was 
instituted by his college to the vicarage of 
Arncliffe in the West Riding, and on 19 and 
21 Jan. 1780 took the two degrees in divinity. 
About this time he became chaplain to the 
Earl of Elgin, He left Beverley at Michael- 
mas 1780, on being named head-master of 
Brewood school, Staffordshire, a post he re- 
signed in 1791 to accept the lectureship of 
St. Martin's, Birmingham, to which was 
afterwards added the chaplaincy of St. Bar- 
tholomew in the same parish. In 1786 Croft 
was in sufficient repute as a divine to be 
entrusted with the delivery of the Bampton 
lectures. From his old college friend. Lord 
Eldon, he received in 1802 the rectory of 
Thwing in the East Riding, which he was 
allowed to hold, by a dispensation, with the 
vicarage of Arncliffe. He died at Birmingham 
on 11 May 1809, aged 62, and was bm-ied in 
the north aisle of St. Martin's Church, where 
there is a monument to his memory. On 
12 Oct. 1780 he had married Ann, daughter 
of William Grimston of Ripon, by whom he 
left a son and six daughters. He published : 
1. * A Sermon [on Prov. xxiv. 21] preached 
before the University of Oxford, 25 Oct. 
1783,' 4to, Stafford, 1784. 2. 'A Plan of 
Education, delineated and vindicated. To 
which are added a Letter to a Young Gentle- 
man designed for the University and for 
Holy Orders ; and a short Dissertation upon 
the stated provision and reasonable expecta- 
tions of Public Teachers,' 8vo, Wolverhamp- 
ton, 1784. 3. ' Eight Sermons preached before 
the University of Oxford,' being the Bampton 
Lectures, 8vo, Oxford, 1786. 4. 'The Test 
Laws defended. A Sermon [on 2 Tim. ii. 21] 
. . . With a preface containing remarks on 
Dr. Price's Revolution Sermon and other pub- 
lications,' 8vo, Birmingham, 1790. 5. 'Plans 
of Parliamentary Reform, proved to be vision- 
ary, in a letter to the Reverend C. Wy- 
viil,' 8vo, Birmingham, 1793. 6. ' Thoughts 
concerning the Methodists and Established 
Clergy, &c.,' 8vo, London, 1795. 7. 'A 
Short Commentary, with strictures, on cer- 

tain parts of the moral writings of Dr. Paley 
and Mr. Gisborne. To which are added . . , 
Observations on the duties of Trustees and 
Conductors of Grammar Schools, and two 
Sermons, on Purity of Principle, and the 
Penal Laws,' 8vo, Birmingham, 1797. 8. 'An 
Address to the Proprietors of the Birmingham 
Library, &c.,'8vo, Birmingham [1803]. After 
his death appeared 'Sermons, including a 
series of Discourses on the Minor Prophets, 
preached before the University of Oxford,' 
2 vols. 8vo, Birmingham, 1811, to which is 
prefixed a brief sketch of the author's life 
by the Rev. Rann Kennedy of Birmingham 
grammar school. 

[Gent. Mag. 1. 494, Ixxix. (i.) 485 ; Oxford 
Ten Year Book.] G. G. 

CROFT, Sir HERBERT (rf. 1622), catho- 
lic writer, was son of Edward Croft, esq. [see 
under Croft, Sir James], of Croft Castle, 
Herefordshire, by his wife Ann, daughter 
of Thomas Browne of HiUborough, Norfolk, 
He was thus grandson of Sir James Croft 
[q. v.] He was educated in academicals at 
Christ Church, Oxford, ' as his son Col. Sir 
William Croft used to say, tho' his name 
occurs not in the Matricula, which makes 
me think that his stay was short there.' He 
sat for Carmarthenshire in the parliament 
which assembled on 4 Feb. 1588-9 ; for Here- 
fordshire in that of 19 Nov. 1592 ; for Laun- 
ceston in that of 24 Oct. 1597 ; and again for 
Herefordshire in that of 7 Oct. 1601. When 
James I came to the throne Croft waited 
upon his majesty at Theobald's, and received 
the honour of knighthood, 7 May 1603. He 
was again returned as one of the members 
for Herefordshire to the parliaments which 
respectively assembled on 19 March 1603-4 
and 5 April 1614. After he had lived fifty- 
two years in the profession of the protestant 
religion he became a member of the Roman 
catholic church. Thereupon he retired to 
St. Gregory's monastery at Douay, and by 
letters of confraternity (February 1617) he 
was received among the English Benedictines, 
' who appointing him a little cell within the 
ambits of their house, he spent the remainder 
of his days therein in strict devotion and re- 
ligious exercise.' He died on 10 April (N.S.) 
1622, and was buried in the church belong- 
ing to the monastery, where a monument 
was erected to his memory, with a Latin in- 
scription which is printed in Wood's ' Hist, et 
Antiq. Univ. Oxon.' (1674), ii. 269. Lord 
Herbert of Cherbury was friendly with Sir 
Herbert, and refers to him several times in 
his autobiography. 

He married Mary, daughter and heiress of 
Anthony Bourne of Holt Castle, Worcester- 




shire, and had issue four sons and five daugh- 
ters. His third son, Herbert Croft [q. v.], 
became bishop of Hereford. 

He wrote : 1. * Letters persuasive to his 
Wife and Children in England to take upon 
them the Catholic Religion.' 2. ' Arguments 
to shew that the Rom. Church is the true 
Church,' written against R. Field's ' Four 
Books of the Church.' 3. * Reply to the 
Answer of his Daughter M. C. (Mary Croft), 
which she made to a Paper of his sent to her 
concerning the Rom. Church.' At the end 
of it is a small piece entitled * The four Mi- 
nisters of Charinton gagg'd by four Proposi- 
tions made to the Lord Baron of Espicelliere 
of the Religion pretended ; and presented on 
S. Martin's Day to Du Moulin in his House, 
& since to Durand and Mestrezat.' All these 
were printed at Douay about 1619 in a 12mo 
volume of 255 pages. Wood, who had seen 
the work, states that only eight copies were 
printed, one for the author himself, another 
for his wife, and the rest for his children ; 
but all without a title. 

[Eobinson's Mansions of Herefordshire, p. 82 ; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 317; Willis's 
Notitia Parliamentaria, vol. iii. pt. ii. pp. 126, 
130, 137, 149, 160, 170 ; Nichols's Progresses of 
James I, i. Ill; Addit. MS. 32102, f. 145 6; 
Dodd's Church Hist, ii, 365 ; Weldon's Chrono- 
logical Notes, p. 164 ; Foley's Records, vi. 312; 
LordHerbert of Cherbury's Autobiography, 1886 ; 
Gent. Mag. new. ser. xxvii. 486-8.] T. C. 

CROFT, HERBERT, D.D. (1603-1691), 
bishop of Hereford, third son of Sir Herbert 
Croft {d. 1622) [q. v.], by Mary, daughter and 
coheiress of Anthony Bourne of Holt Castle, 
Worcestershire, was born on 18 Oct. 1603 at 
Great Thame, Oxfordshire, in the house of Sir 
William Green, his mother being then on a 
journey to London. After a preliminary edu- 
cation in Herefordshire, he is said, on doubt- 
ful authority, to have been sent to the univer- 
sity of Oxford about 1616, and to have been 
summoned thence to Flanders by his father, 
who had joined the Roman catholic church. 
Wood asserts that he was placed in the Eng- 
lish college at St. Omer, ' where, by the au- 
thority of his father, and especially by the 
persuasions of John Floyd, a Jesuit, he was 
brought to the Roman obedience, and made 
a perfect catholic' He certainly pursued 
his humanity studies as far as poetry at St. 
Omer's College, and also studied a little rhe- 
toric at Paris ; but on 4 Nov. 1626, when he 
was admitted as a convictor into the English 
college at Rome, under the assumed name of 
James Harley, he attributed his conversion 
to meetings with a nobleman who was incar- 
cerated in a London prison for the catholic 

faith. He applied to Father Ralph Chetwin, 
a Jesuit, who reconciled him to the Roman 
church in 1626 (Foley, Records, iv. 468). 
He left Rome for Belgium on 8 Sept. 1628, 
having behaved himself well during his resi- 
dence in the English college {ib. vi. 312). 
On the occasion of a visit to England, to 
transact some business relating to the family 
estates, he was induced by Morton, bishop 
of Durham, to conform to the established 
church. Soon afterwards, by desire of Dr. 
Laud, he went to Oxford, and was matricu- 
lated in the university as a member of Christ 
Church. In 1 636 he proceeded B.D., by virtue 
of a dispensation granted in consideration of 
his having devoted ten years to the study of 
divinity abroad. About the same time he 
became minister of a church in Gloucester- 
shire, and rector of Harding, Oxfordshire. 

In the beginning of 1639 he was appointed 
chaplain to the Earl of Northumberland in 
the Scotch expedition, and on 1 Aug. in that 
year he was collated to the prebend of Major 
Pars Altaris in the church of Salisbury. In 

1640 he was created D.D. at Oxford. About 
this period he became chaplain to Charles I, 
who employed him in conveying his secret 
commands to several of the great officers of 
the royal army. These commissions Croft 
faithfully executed, sometimes at the hazard 
of his life. On 17 July 1640 he was nomi- 
nated a prebendary of Worcester, on 1 July 

1641 installed canon of Windsor, and towards 
the end of 1644 installed dean of Hereford. 

In the time of the rebellion he was deprived 
of all his preferments. Walker relates that soon 
after the taking of Hereford the dean inveighed 
boldly against sacrilege from the pulpit of 
the cathedral. Some of the officers present 
began to murmur, and a guard of musketeers 
prepared their pieces and asked whether they 
should fire at him, but Colonel Birch, the 
governor, prevented them from doing so 
{^Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 34). He received 
scarcely anything from his deanery between 
the time of his nomination and the dissolu- 
tion of the cathedrals, and afterwards he 
would have been compelled to live upon 
charity had not the family estate devolved 
upon him by the death of his brother, Sir 
William Croft. During great part of the 
usurpation he resided with Sir Rowland 
Berkeley at Cotheridge, Worcestershire. 

At the Restoration he was reinstated in 
his deanery and other ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments. On 27 Dec. 1661 he was nommated 
by Charles II to the bishopric of Hereford, 
vacant by the death of Dr. Nicholas Monke. 
He was elected on 21 Jan. 1661-2, confirmed 
on 6 Feb., and consecrated at Lambeth on 
the 9th of the same month. ' He became 


1 06 


afterwards much venerated by the gentry and 
commonalty of that diocese for his learning, 
doctrine, conversation, and good hospitality ; 
which rendered him a person in their esteem 
fitted and set apart bjr God for his honour- 
able and sacred function' (Wood, Athence 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 311). Although the in- 
come of the see was scarcely 800^. a year, he 
was so well satisfied with it that he refused 
the offer of greater preferment. He was dean 
of the Chapel Royal from 8 Feb. 1667-8 till 
March 1669-70, when, ' finding but little good 
of his pious endeavours ' at court, he retired 
to his episcopal see. Burnet says : * Crofts was 
a warm devout man, but of no discretion in 
his conduct : so he lost ground quickly. He 
used much freedom with the king: but it 
was in the wrong place, not in private, but 
in the pulpit ' {Ovm Time, ed. 1724, i. 258). 

In his diocese he was energetic in his efforts 
to prevent the growth of 'popery,' and in 
1679 he seized and plundered the residence 
or college of his old masters the Jesuit fathers 
at Combe, near Monmouth (Foley, Records, 
iv. 463 seq.) He laid down strict rules for 
admission to holy orders, and dissatisfied 
some of the clergy by invariably refusing to 
admit any to be prebendaries of his church 
except those who resided in the diocese. In 
the exercise of his charity he augmented 
various small livings, and relieved many dis- 
tressed persons. He caused a weekly dole 
to be distributed among sixty poor people at 
his palace gate in Hereford, whether he was 
resident there or not, for he spent much of 
his time in his country house, which was 
situated in the centre of his diocese. He died 
in his palace at Hereford on 18 May 1691, 
and was buried in the cathedral, where a 
gravestone, formerly placed within the com- 
munion rails, bears this somewhat enigmati- 
cal inscription : * Depositum Herberti Croft 
de Ci'oft, episcopi Herefordensis, qui obiit 18 
die Mail, a.d. 1691, setatis suae 88; in vita 

Ihe last words, 'in life united,' allude to 
his lying next Dean Benson, at the bottom of 
whose gravestone are these words, ' In morte 
non divisi ; ' the two tombstones having hands 
engraved on them, reaching from one to the 
other, to signify the lasting friendship which 
existed between these two divines. The stone 
placed to the bishop's memory has since been 
removed to the east transept (Havergal, 
Fasti Herefordenses, pp. 32, 40). 

By his wiU he settled 1,200/. for several 
charitable uses. He married Anne, daughter 
of Dr. Jonathan Browne, dean of Hereford, 
and left one son, Herbert, who was created 
a baronet in 1671, and who, on his death in 
1720, was succeeded by his son Archer, and 

he by his son and namesake in 1761 , who dying 
in 1797 without male issue, the title descended 
to the Rev. Sir Herbert Croft (1751-1816) 
[q. v.], the author of ' Love and Madness.' 

His works are : 1. * Sermon preached before 
the Lords assembled in Parliament upon the 
Fast Day appointed 4 Feb. 1673,' London, 
1674, 4to. 2. 'The Naked Truth, or the 
True State of the Primitive Church, by an 
Humble Moderator,' London, 1675, 4to, 1680 
fol. ; reprinted in the ' Somers Tracts.' Wood 
says, ' the appearance of this book at such a 
time [1675] was like a comet.' It was printed 
at a private press, and addressed to the lords 
and commons assembled in parliament. The 
author endeavours to show that protestants 
differ about nothing essential to religion, and 
that, for the sake of union, compliances would 
be more becoming, as well as more effectual, 
than enforcing uniformity by penalties and 
persecution. The book was attacked with 
great zeal by some of the clergy, particularly 
by Dr. Francis Turner, master of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, in ' Animadversions on 
a pamphlet entitled "The Naked Truth,'" 
printed twice in 1676. This was answered 
by Andrew Marvell, in a piece entitled ' Mr. 
Smirke, or the Divine in Mode.' Another 
reply to Croft's pamphlet was ' Lex Talionis, 
or the Author of " The Naked Truth " stript 
Naked,' 1676, supposed then to have been 
written by Dr. Peter Gunning, bishop ot 
Chichester, though likewise attributed at the 
time to Philip Fell, fellow of Eton College, 
and to Dr. William Lloyd, dean of Bangor. 
Dr. Gilbert Burnet also answered Croft in 
' A Modest Survey of the most considerable 
Things in a Discourse lately published, en- 
titled " The Naked Truth," ' London, 1676, 4to 
(anon.) Other parts were afterwards issued 
with the same title, but not by the same au- 
thor. A second part of * The Naked Truth * 
(1681) was written by Edmund Hickering- 
hill ; and the authorship of a third part (also 
1681) is ascribed by Richard Baxter to Dr. 
Benjamin Worsley. A fourth part of ' Naked 
Truth ' was published in 1682, in which year 
there also appeared ' The Black Nonconform- 
ist discovered in more Naked Truth.' This 
last is by Hickeringhill. To these may be 
added 'The Catholic Naked Truth, or the 
Puritan's Convert to Apostolical Christi- 
anity,' 1676, 4to, by W. H[ubert], commonly 
called Berry. 3. ' Sermon preached before 
the King at Whitehall, 12 April 1674, on 
Phil. i. 21,' London, 1675, 4to. 4. ' A second 
Call to a farther Humiliation ; being a Ser- 
mon preached in the Cathedral Church of 
Hereford, 24 Nov. 1678, on 1 Peter v. ver. 6,' 
London, 1678, 4to. 5. ' A short Narrative 
of the Discovery of a College of Jesuits, at a 




place called tlie Come, in the county of Here- 
ford,' London, 1679, 4to ; reprinted in Foley's 
' Records,' iv. 463. 6. ' A Letter written to 
a Friend concerning Popish Idolatrie ' (anon.), 
London, 1674, 4to ; reprinted 1679. 7. ' The 
Legacy of Herbert, Lord Bishop of Hereford, 
to his Diocess, or a short Determination of 
all Controversies we have with the Papists, 
by God's Holy Word,' London, 1679, 4to, 
contained in three sermons, to which is added 
* A Supplement to the preceding Sermons ; 
together with a Tract concerning the Holy 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper.' 8. * Some 
Animadversions on a Book [by Dr. Thomas 
Burnet] intituled " The Theory of the Earth," ' 
London, 1685, 8vo. 9. * A short Discourse 
concerning the reading of his Majesties late 
Declaration in the Churches,' London, 1688, 
4to ; reprinted in the * Somers Tracts.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 309, 880, 
Fasti, ii. 52, 237, 397 ; Biog. Brit. (Kippis) ; Le 
Neve's Fasti (Hardy), i. 472, 478, 611, iii. 86, 
402 ; Wotfon's Baronetage (1771), ii. 360 ; God- 
■win, De Praesulibus (Richardson), p. 497 ; Sal- 
mon's Lives of the English Bishops, p. 275; 
Jones's Popery Tracts, pp. 97, 321, 432 ; Willis's 
Survey of Cathedrals, ii. 529 ; Luttrell's His- 
torical Relation of State Affairs, ii. 235 ; Bed- 
fords Blazon of Episcopacy, p. 55 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 556; Addit. MS. 11049, 
ff. 12, 14 ; Wads worth's English Spanish Pil- 
grime, p. 21.] T. C. 

CROFT, SiE HERBERT, bart. (1751- 
1816), author, was bom at Dunster Park, Berk- 
shire, on 1 Nov. 1761, being the eldest son of 
Herbert Croft of Stiff ord in Essex, the receiver 
to the Charterhouse, who died at Tutbury, 
Staffordshire, 7 July 1785, aged 67, by his first 
wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Young 
of Midhiirst, Sussex, and the grandson of 
Francis Croft, second son of the first baronet. 
On the death, without legitimate issue, in 
1797, of Sir John Croft, the fourth baronet, 
he succeeded to that honour, but, unfortu- 
nately for his success in life, the third baronet 
had cut off the entail, the family estates 
had passed into other hands, and Croft Castle 
itself had been sold to the father of Thomas 
Johnes, the translator of Froissart. Pecu- 
niary pressure hampered him from the com- 
mencement of his life, but his difficulties 
were increased by his volatile character, 
which prevented him from adhering to any 
definite course of action. In March 1771 he 
matriculated at University College, Oxford, 
when Scott, afterwards Lord Stowell, was 
his college tutor ; and as his intention was 
to have adopted the law as his profession, he 
accordingly entered himself at Lincoln's Inn, 
where he became the constant companion, in 
pleasure if not in work, of Thomas Maurice, 

the historian of Hindostan, and Frederick 
Young, the son of the author of the * Night 
Thoughts.' Want of means did not aUow 
him to continue in the profession of the law, 
though he was called to the bar, and is said 
to have practised in Westminster Hall with 
some success, and about 1782 he returned to 
University College, Oxford, and under the 
advice of Lowth, the bishop of London, de- 
termined upon taking orders in the English 
church. In April 1785 he took the degree 
of B.C.L., and in 1786 his episcopal patron 
conferred on him the vicarage of Prittlewell, 
in Essex, a living which he retained until 
his death in 1816 ; but for some years after 
his appointment he lived at Oxford, busying 
himself in the collection of the materials for 
his proposed English dictionary. The under- 
taking which Croft prosecuted, as must be 
readily acknowledged, with great energy, in- 
volved him for many years in labours en- 
tirely unremunerative. As he was natu- 
rally lavish in money matters, and his whole 
income consisted of his small vicarage in 
Essex, producing about 1001. a year, and the 
balance of the salary assigned to his position 
of chaplain to the garrison of Quebec, where his 
personal attendance was not enforced, his ex- 
penditure exceeded his means. His first wife, 
Sophia, daughter and coheiress of Richard 
Cleave, who borp him thi-ee daughters, died 
8 Feb. 1792, and on 25 Sept. 1795 he was 
married by special license by Thomas Percy, 
bishop of Dromore, at Ham House, Peters- 
ham, to Elizabeth, daughter of David Lewis 
of Malvern Hall in Warwickshire, who died 
at Lord Dysart's house in Piccadilly, 22 Aug. 
1815, without issue. The marriage was cele- 
brated at this famous mansion through the 
circumstance that one of the bride's sisters 
was married to Lionel, then the fourth earl 
of Dysart, its owner, and that another sister 
was married to Wilbraham Tollemache, after- 
wards the fifth earl of Dysart. In the ' Euro- 
pean Magazine,' August 1797, pp. 115-16, is 
a set of curious verses by Croft, extolling the 
bride and lauding these alliances, which is en- 
titled ' On returning the key of the gardens at 
Ham House to the Earl of Dysart.' Several 
of his letters are in the Egerton MSS. 2185-6 
at the British Museum, and from one of them 
(2186, ff. 97-8) it appears that on the day 
after his second marriage he was arrested 
for debt and thrust into the common gaol at 
Exeter. The climax was now reached. He 
was obliged to withdraw to Hamburg, and 
his library was sold at King's in King Street, 
Covent Garden, in August 1797. During his 
residence abroad he was presented by the 
king of Sweden with a handsome gold medal, 
an engraving of which by Basire was pub- 


1 08 


lislied in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1801, 
pt. i. p. 497. At the close of 1800 he seems to 
have returned to his own country, and during 
the next year he resided at the Royal Terrace, 
Southend, discharging in person the duties 
attached to his living and superintending the 
passing through the press of two sermons 
which he preached at Prittlewell. A few 
years previously he had announced to his 
friends that the lord chancellor had pro- 
mised to present him to another benefice of 
the value of 150/. per annum, but the hoped- 
for preferment was never conferred upon him. 
AVhen promotion came neither from lay nor 
clerical hands, Croft again withdrew to the 
continent in 1802, and there he spent the 
remainder of his days. He was engaged at 
this date on an edition of ' Telemaque,' to be 
printed in a new system of punctuation, but 
this remains among his many unfinished ven- 
tures. His first settlement on his second 
trip abroad was at Lille, and on the renewal 
of the war between England and France he 
was one of those detained by Bonaparte, and 
would probably have been ordered to dwell 
at Verdun with his companions in restraint, 
but, to the credit of Napoleon's government, 
it should be stated that when it was notified 
that Croft was a literary man, he was allowed 
to live where he pleased. According to an 
elaborate article by P. L. Jacob, bibliophile, 
the pseudonym of Paul Lacroix, in the ' Bi- 
bliophile Fran9ais' for 1869, he lived for some 
years in a pleasant country retreat near the 
chateau in the vicinity of Amiens which be- 
longed to a Lad}^ Mary Hamilton, who is 
said to have been a daughter of the Earl of 
Leven and Melville and the wife of a Mr. 
Hamilton. At a later period he removed to 
Paris, where he haunted libraries and sought 
the society of book-lovers, and at Paris he 
died on 26 April 1816. A white marble 
monument to his memory was placed on the 
north wall of Prittlewell church. His prin- 
cipal support during this period was, accord- 
ing to Charles Nodier, the assistant of Croft 
and Lady Mary HamQton in their literary 
undertakings, the annual salary of five thou- 
sand francs which he received from an Eng- 
lish paper as its correspondent in France. 
It is, however, asserted in another memoir 
of him that for a very considerable period he 
enjoyed a pension of 200/. per annum from the 
English government ; and, if this assertion be 
correct, the pension was no doubt his reward 
for having answered, as he himself confessed 
in 1794, two of Burke's publications during the 
American war {Egerton MS. 2186, IF. 88-9). 
A print of him (' Drummond pinx* Farn 
sculp' ') is prefixed to page 251 of tlie ' Euro- 
pean Magazine ' for 1794. A second engrav- 

ing of him (Abbot, painter ; Skelton, engraver) 
was published by John B. Nichols & Son in 
1828. Busts of his two most illustrious 
friends, Johnson and Lowth, are represented 
in the background. Croft's acknowledged 
works are very numerous, but his name is 
solely remembered now from the life of Young 
which he contributed to Johnson's ' Lives of 
the Poets.' His writings were : 1 . ' A Brother's 
Advice to his Sisters' [signed ' H.'], 1775, 
2nd edition 1776, when it was dedicated to 
the Duchess of Queensberry, who patronised 
Gay. To the advice which he gave little 
exception can be taken, but it was written 
in a stilted style. 2. A paper called by the 
whimsical name of ' The Literary Fly.' The 
first number, ten thousand copies of which 
were distributed gratuitously, was issued on 
18 Jan. 1779, but it soon died of inanition. 
Some information about it is printed in Cyrus 
Bedding's ' Yesterday and To-day,' iii. 274-80. 
3. ' A Memoir of Dr. Young, the Poet,' which 
he was requested to wrrite on account of his 
intimacy with the poet's son, and for which 
he took considerable pains in collecting in- 
formation. It was written while Croft was 
in London preparing for the law, and was in- 
cluded with Dr. Johnson's ' Lives of the Poets,' 
being published by him without any altera- 
tion save the omission of a single passage, 
for which see the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 
li. p. 318. Burke said of this production : 
* It is not a good imitation of Johnson ; it 
has all his pomp without his force ; it has all 
the nodosities of the oak without its strength,' 
and, after a pause, * It has all the contortions 
of the Sibyl without the inspiration.' The 
author was gratified at the distinction by 
Avhich alone his name is now kept alive, but 
Peter Cunningham, in his edition of the ' Lives 
of the Poets ' (vol. i. pp. xx-xxi), says that he 
had seen Croft's copy of the lives bound with 
the lettering of * Johnson's Beauties and De- 
formities.' 4. 'Love and Madness, a Story 
too true, in a series of Letters between Parties 
whose names could perhaps be mentioned were 
they less known or less lamented' [anon.1, 
1780. Of this volume, which went through 
seven editions, with many variations in the 
text, and of the tragedy on which it was 
based, Carlyle in his ' Reminiscences,' p. 224, 
says : ' The story is musty rather, and there is 
a loose, foolish old book upon it called " Love 
and Madness " which is not worth reading.' 
The letters are supposed to have been written 
by Miss Martha Ray, the mistress of Lord 
Sandwich, and James Hackman, at one time 
in the army, but afterwards a clergyman with 
a living in Norfolk, who was madly in love 
with her (a love which is sometimes said to 
have been returned), and by whom she was 




shot as she was leaving Covent Garden 
Theatre, 7 April 1779. Into Croft's strange 
compound of passion and pedantry on this 
miserable pair there was inserted a huge in- 
terpolation on Chatterton, and the fifth edi- 
tion contained a postscript on Chatterton. 
Many years later this circumstance inflicted 
an indelible stain on Croft's reputation. In 
a letter inserted in the ' Monthly Magazine ' 
for November 1799 he was accused bySouthey 
ofhaving obtained in 1778 Chatterton's letters 
from the boy's mother and sister under false 
pretences, of having published the letters 
without consent, and without awarding to 
the owners an adequate remuneration from 
the large profits he had himself made by their 
publication, and of having detained the origi- 
nals for twenty-one years. To these charges 
Croft made a very unsatisfactory answer in 
the pages of the * Gentleman's Magazine ' 
(1800, pt. i. 99-104, 222-6, 322-5), which 
was subsequently published separately as 
' Chatterton and Love and Madness. A letter 
ftom Denmark to Mr. Nichols, editor of the 
" Gentleman's Magazine," 1800.' The manner 
in which Croft had obtained his information 
was justly censurable, but the matter which 
he printed on Chatterton has been said to 
have afforded * more graphic glimpses of the 
boy than all subsequent writers have sup- 
plied.' He had undertaken to contribute a 
life of Chatterton to the ' Biographia Britan- 
nica' (Kippis's ed.), but was prevented by 
his other labours. The memoir was, how- 
ever, based on his materials, and a long letter 
from him at Lincoln's Inn (5 Feb. 1782) to 
George Steevens on the subject is printed in 
a footnote, iv. 606-8. Further details con- 
cerning Southey's charges are in Cottle's ' Re- 
miniscences,' i. 253-71 ; ' Southey's Life and 
Correspondence,' ii. 186. 5. * Fanaticism and 
Treason, or a Dispassionate History of the 
Rebellious Insurrection in June 1780,' 1780, 
8vo. 6. ' The Abbey of Kilkhampton, or 
Monumental Records for the year 1780' 
(anon.), 1780. The popularity of this satirical 
collection of epitaphs on a number of persons 
famous or notorious in that age is shown by 
the fact that eight editions of the first part 
and three of the second part were published 
in 1780. At least fourteen editions appeared, 
and in 1822 there was issued a volume called 
' The Abbey of Kilkhampton Revived.' Kilk- 
hampton is a fine parish church on the north 
coast of Cornwall, and the name was no doubt 
selected by Croft owing to the circumstance 
that James Hervey's * Meditations among the 
Tombs,' a very popular volume of that period, 
was suggested by his visit to that church. A 
line in the 'Pursuits of Literature ' condemns 
those who pen ' inscriptive nonsense in a fan- 

cied abbey,' and a note ties the condemnation 
to * a vile pamphlet called " Kilkhampton 
Abbey." ' 7. * Some Account of an intended 
Publication of the Statutes on a Plan entirelv 
new. By Herbert Croft, barrister-at-law*' 
1782, republished 1784. The gist of the pro- 
position was that the statutes should be codi- 
fied chronologically. 8. ' Sunday Evenings,' 
1784, 8vo ; fifty copies were printed for the 
private perusal of his friends. It was of this 
composition that Johnson expressed himself 
as not highly pleased, as the discourses were 
couched in too familiar a style. 9. * A Prize 
in the Lottery for Servants, Apprentices, &c.,' 
circa 1786, 2cZ. each. 10. ' The Will of King 
Alfred,' Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1788. 
This was passed through the press under 
Croft's superintendence. 11. An unfinished 
* Letter to the Right Hon. William Pitt con- 
cerning the New Dictionary of the English. 
By the Rev. Herbert Croft.' This letter, 
which pointed out the defects of Johnson's 
' Dictionary,' was printed in March 1788, but 
neither finished nor published. It stopped 
abruptly with forty-four pages of text and 
seven pages of postscript, but with a reference 
to further information on the subject in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' for August 1787 and 
February 1788, in which periodical numerous 
letters on the progress of the work appeared 
in volumes Ivii-lxiii. In 1787 his manu- 
scripts on this dictionary amounted to two 
hundred quarto volumes, and in 1790 he 
claimed to have amassed eleven thousand 
words used by the highest authorities, but 
not in Johnson, a number which three years 
later had more than doubled. Proposals for 
a new edition of Johnson's ' Dictionary ' were 
issued by Croft in 1792, and the work was to 
have been published in four large volumes, 
priced at twelve guineas, but the subscribers' 
names were so few that in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' for 1793, p. 491, he annoimced his 
intention of not printing until further pecu- 
niary assistance had been received. This re- 
sult is much to be regretted, more especially 
as Priestley, who had meditated * a large 
treatise on the structure and present state ' 
of our language, had dropped the scheme and 
given the unused materials to Croft. 12. At 
the close of 1789 Croft communicated to his 
friend Priestley the speedy appearance of ' a 
book against the Socinians of the last age,' 
with a letter to him. When it appeared, 
Priestley, who had previously suspected Croft 
of longing for preferment, and had ' always 
considered him as a mere belles-lettres man,' 
was surprised to find the letter ' not contro- 
versial but complimentary, and on that ac- 
count not politic' The anti-Socinian treatise 
was ' An Account of Reason and Faith bv 




John Norris of Bemerton, 14tli ed., corrected 
by Herbert Croft,' 1790. It was dedicated 
to Lord Thurlow, and the letter to Priestley- 
related to the proposed dictionary. 13. * A 
Letter from Germany to the Princess Royal 
of England on the Enpflish and German Lan- 
guages,' Hamburg, 1797. A gossiping, ram- 
bling production of ninety-six pages on John- 
son's ' Dictionary,' translating from German, 
the connection of the two languages and the 
charmsof the town of Hamburg. 14. 'Hints 
for History respecting the Attempt on the 
King's Life, 15 May 1800,' 1800 ; detailing 
the events and lauding the king's resolution. 
15. ' Sermon for the Abundant Harvest, 
preached at Prittlewell,' 1801. 16. 'Sermon 
preached at Prittlewell on the Peace,' 1801. 
This was dedicated to his old schoolfellow 
Addington. 17. * Horace 6clairci par la Ponc- 
tuation. Par le Chevalier Croft,' Paris, 1810. 
This whimsical production, which consisted 
of a few of the odes of Horace printed on a 
new system of punctuation as a specimen of 
a work which he had long meditated on the 
subject, was dedicated to Lord Moira, with 
whom he had been a student of University 
College, Oxford. 18. Croft was then dwelling 
near Amiens, and much of his time was spent 
in the society of the lady whose work, * La 
famille du due de Popoli, ou Memoires de M. 
Cantelmo, son frere, publics par Lady Mary 
Hamilton,' appeared in 1810 with a dedica- 
tion to Croft, dated 4 June 1810. He ac- 
knowledged the compliment by some verses, 
dated at Amiens 20 Feb. 1811, ' on the death 
of Musico, a piping bullfinch belonging to the 
Right Hon. Lady Mary Hamilton,' which 
were added to a second edition of ' Popoli ' 
issued in that year. 19. ' Consolatory Verses 
addressed to the Duchess of Angouleme,' 
Paris, 1814, on the first return of the royal 
family to France. 20. ' Reflexions soumises 
h la sagesse des Membres du Congres de 
Vienne,^ 1814. 21. ' Critical Dictionary of 
the Difficulties of the French Language.' 
22. ' Commentaires sur les meilleurs ouvrages 
de la Langue Frangaise,' vol. i., Paris, 1815. 
The whole of this volume was a commen- 
tary on the ' Petit-Careme ' of Massillon and 
the two sermons printed with it, which was 
written with great critical acumen and deep 
knowledge, much of which was probably due 
to Nodier. Croft had collected a mass of 
notes on the grammar and the moral teach- 
ings of Fontaine's fables, which was to have 
formed the second volume in the series of 
commentaries ; but his collections never saw 
the light, meeting a like fate with his obser- 
vations on ' T6l§maque,' which he had brooded 
over for at least ten years. To Croft was due 
the discovery of the * Parrain Magnifique ' of 

Gresset, which was believed to have been 
lost, and was published for the first time in 
Renouard's complete works of that writer. 

These are the separate works of Croft, but 
many fugitive pieces from his pen appeared 
in the periodical publications of the da^. 
Several sets of his verses in English and Latin 
appeared in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' and 
a paper on chess, communicated by him to 
HoraceTwiss, and published in Twiss's ' Book 
on Chess,' was reprmted in that journal, Ivii. 
pt. ii. 590-1. His epitaph on Bishop Ilurd 
is printed in Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes,' 
vi. 508, and a printed letter from him to a 
pupil is criticised in Boswell's ' Johnson,' 
June 1784. The faults of Croft's character 
are perceptible at a glance, but his linguistic 
attainments — he knew Latin, Greek, Hebrew, 
and Anglo-Saxon, and spoke French, Italian, 
and German — exceeded the power of most of 
his contemporaries, A warm tribute to his 
charitable disposition was paid by the author 
of a ' Poetical Description of Southend,' who 
had been his curate for some years. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 204, vi. 508, viii. 
498 ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. v. 202-18, vii. 46, 
viii. 632-3 ; European Mag. 1794, p. 251 ; Gent 
Mag. 1785, p. 573, 1807, p. 981, 1815, p. 281, 
1816, pt. i. 470-2, pt. ii. 487; Annual Biog. ii. 
1-15 (1818) ; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. i. 353, 
467 (1868), viii. 319-20 (1871), xii. 133, 237 
(1873); Biog. Univ. Supplement; Boswell's 
Johnson, 1781-4 (Napier's ed.), iv. 21, 128, 220, 
226 ; Benton's Rochford, 593-5 ; Robinson's 
Mansions of Herefordshire, p. 82 ; Johnson's 
Poets (Cunningham's ed.), i. pp. xx-xxi, iii. 307, 
346 ; T. Maurice's Memoirs, pt. ii. 156 ; Rutt's 
Life of Priestley, i. 46, ii. 42, 49 ; Barker's Par- 
riana, i. 408, ii. 41-2.] W. P. C. 

CROFT, SiE JAMES (d. 1590), lord 
deputy of Ireland and controller of Queen 
Elizabeth's household, descended from an old 
Herefordshire family, was son of Sir Edward 
Croft, by his second wife Catherine, daughter 
of Sir Richard Herbert of Montgomery. 
His father was sheriff of Herefordshire in 
1505, was knighted about 1514, became one 
of Princess Mary's learned counsel in July 
1525, and died early in 1547. James was 
knight of the shire for the county of Here- 
ford in 1541 ; served at the siege of Boulogne 
in 1644 where two of his brothers were killed ; 
was knighted 24 Nov. 1647 ; became governor 
of Haddington in 1 549, where he gained a high 
reputation (Holinshed, Chron. s. a. 1549) ; 
served in the Calais marches in 1550, and in 
March 1550-1 went to Ireland to superin- 
tend the fortification of the Munster coast. 
On 23 May 1551 Croft was appointed lord 
deputy of Ireland in succession to Sir An- 
thony St. Leger ; took vigorous measures to 




pacify Cork ; recommended the * plantation ' 
of the turbulent parts of Munster ; attacked 
without much success the Scottish invaders 
of Ulster; raised the value of the debased 
currency ; and sought to introduce the pro- 
testant liturgy by persuasion rather than by 
force. But Ulster and Connaught were not 
to be conciliated, and in December 1552 Croft 
retired from Ireland with the reputation of 
having tried in vain 'honourable dealing 
towards the Irish' (Campion", Historie of 
Ireland, 1633, p. 124), Early in 1553 he be- 
came deputy-constable of the Tower of Lon- 
don, but on Mary's accession implicated him- 
self in Wyatt's rebellion. He was removed 
from the Tower (7 July 1553), and subse- 
quently went to raise rebel forces in Wales 
(January 1553-4). On being captured there 
he was sent to the Tower (21 Feb.) ; was tried 
and convicted at the Guildhall (29 April). 
He was, however, remanded to the Tower 
till 18 Jan. 1554-5, when he was fined 500/., 
' bound over to a good bearing,' and released. 
While in prison Croft saw his fellow-prisoner 
Princess Elizabeth, and was suspected of trea- 
sonable designs in her favour. In 1557 Mary 
appears to have become reconciled to Croft, 
and sent him to serve on the council of the 
north under the Earl of Shrewsbury. 

Croft was restored in blood on Elizabeth's 
accession (3 March 1558-9) ; was granted 
much land in Herefordshire and Kent ; be- 
came seneschal of Hereford and governor of 
Berwick. At Berwick Croft became intimate 
with Sir Ralph Sadler, the English ambas- 
sador to Scotland, who recommended him to 
Cecil for the higher post of the wardenship 
of the marches (September 1569). During 
the year Croft was in repeated communica- 
tion with the Scotch protestants, who prayed 
him to induce Elizabeth to champion their 
cause against the catholic regent, Mary of 
Guise. He wrote repeatedly on Scottish 
afiairs to Cecil and the council. Knox visited 
him at Berwick in August, and corresponded 
with him subsequently. Croft temporarily 
countenanced the proposal to marry Elizabeth 
to the Earl of Arran, the leader of the Scotch 
protestants. On 28 Feb. 1559-60 Croft was 
ordered to accompany Lord Grey's expedition 
on behalf of the Scotch protestants. In the 
attack on Leith in the following year, a 
stronghold of the regent's supporters. Croft 
was ordered to take a prominent part, but 
his unwillingness to proceed to active hos- 
tilities and the absence of himself and his 
division of the army at a critical moment 
raised the suspicions of the home govern- 
ment. The Duke of Norfolk, appointed to 
investigate the matter, reported very un- 
favourably (2 June). Croft was called before 

the coimcil of Winchester and dismissed from 
the governorship of Berwick. There can be 
little doubt that he had entered into treason- 
able correspondence with the Scottish regent. 
For the next ten years Croft was out of office, 
but he represented Herefordshire in the par- 
liaments of 1564, 1570, 1585, 1586, and 1587. 
In January 1569-70 he had regained Eliza- 
beth's favour, and become controller of her 
household and a privy councillor. In July 
1583 he petitioned, in consideration of his 
poverty, for a grant of such ' concealed land ' 
as he might discover within ten years, and 
in September 1586 he was granted lands to 
the value of 100/., with the reversion to a 
leasehold worth 60/. a year. In December 
1586 he proposed a reform of the royal 

Croft always succeeded in maintaining 
friendly intercourse with the queen. At one 
time he encouraged her intimacy with Lei- 
cester, and would doubtless have profited 
had the earl married Elizabeth. But he was 
always playing a double game ; private ends 
guided his political conduct. Before 1581 
he became a pensioner of Spain and tried to 
poison the queen's mind against Drake. In 
October 1586 he was one of the commis- 
sioners for the trial of Mary Stuart, and ou 
28 March 1586-7 he alone of these commis- 
sioners sat in the Star-chamber at the trial 
of Davison, the queen's secretary (Nicolas, 
Life of Hatton, p. 462). In January 1587-8 
Croft was sent, with the Earl of Derby, Lord 
Cobham, and Dr. Dale, to treat for peace with 
the Duke of Parma in the aft'airs of the 
Netherlands. He held himself aloof from 
his feUow-commissioners and paid alone a 
mysterious and doubtless a treacherous visit 
to Parma at Bruges (27 April), on learning of 
which the queen sent him a sharp reprimand. 
The other commissioners were ordered to dis- 
avow Croft's actions, but Elizabeth could not 
be induced to accept the proofs of Croft's 
double dealing, and in answer to his en- 
treaties pardoned what she judged to be his 
misdirected zeal (15 June). In August, how- 
ever, Croft returned home, and Burghley sent 
Croft to the Tower on hearing the reports of 
the Earl of Derby and his colleagues. Croft 
and Croft's son Edward insisted that these 
proceedings were instigated by Leicester, 
with whom he had fallen out of favour. To 
avenge his father's wrongs Edward Croft is 
said to have applied to a London conjuror, 
John Smith, to work by magic Leicester's 
death. Leicester died on 4 Sept. 1588, and 
the younger Croft was charged with con- 
triving his death before the council. (The 
examination of Croft and John Smith, the 
conjuror, are given in Steype's Annals, iii. 




594 et seq.) The trial apparently proved 
abortive, and the elder Croft was not involved 
in the charges. On 18 Dec. 1589 Sir James 
was at liberty again, and died 4 Sept. 1590, 
being buried in the chapel of St. John the 
Evangelist in Westminster Abbey. Cam- 
den's too favourable verdict on his career 
runs : ' He got above the envy of the court, 
which, however, had wellnigh crushed him, 
and died in a good age, his prince's favourite 
and in fair esteem with all that knew him.' 
Thomas Churchyard [q. v.] wrote a sympa- 
thetic epitaph in his ' Feast full of sad cheere,' 
1592. De Larrey in his ' Histoire d'Angle- 
terre ' (ii. 1361) and Lloyd in his * Worthies ' 
(i. 455) give flattering accounts of him. 
Augustine Vincent, the herald, wrote against 
his name in a family pedigree in the Bodleian 
(MS. Ashmol.) ' obiit pauperrimus miles.' 

Croft's first wife was Alice, daughter and 
coheiress of Richard Warnecombe of Iving- 
ton, Herefordshire, widow of William Wig- 
more of Shobdon (buried at Croft 4 Aug. 
1573), by whom he had three sons, Edward, 
John, and James, and three daughters, Elea- 
nor, Margaret, and Jane. Croft's second 
wife was Katherine, daughter of Edward 
Blount, by whom he apparently had no issue. 

The eldest son, Edward, to whose curious 
trial reference is made above, represented 
Leominster in parliament in 1571, 1584, and 
1586,dyingon 29 July 1601. By his wife Ann, 
daughter of Thomas Browne of Hillborough, 
Norfolk, he was the father of Sir Herbert 
Croft [q. v.], of two other sons, Richard and 
William, and of five daughters. James 
Croft, the elder Sir James Croft's third son, 
was knighted 23 July 1603, was gentleman- 
pensioner to Elizabeth, and was alive in 

[A long account of Croft's life appears in the 
Retrospective Review, 2nd ser. i. 469 et seq. by 
Sir N. H. Nicolas. Many letters written by him 
in 1569 and 1660 are calendared in Thorpe's 
Scottish State Papers, vol. i., and a few of the 
same date are printed at length in the Appendix 
to Keith's History of the Church of Scotland 
(1734). See also Machyn's Diary (Camd. Soc), 
pp. 35, 56, 60, 61, 80 ; R. Bagwells Ireland under 
the Tudors, i. 351-91 ; Froude's Hist, of Eng- 
land, V. X. xii. ; Burghley Papers ; Camden's 
Annals ; Cal. of Hatfield MSS. pt. i. ; Sadler's 
State Papers ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-90 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Irish, 1560-1 ; Lord Herbert 
of Cherbury's Autobiog. (1886), p. 82 n.} 

S. L. 

CROFT, JOHN (1732-1820), antiquary, 
was the fifth son of Stephen Croft of Stil- 
lington in Yorkshire, who died in 1733, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edmund Ander- 
son, hart. He was born on 28 or 29 Feb. 

1732, and, like many other younger sons of 
old county families, was given the chance of 
making his fortune in business. Several mem- 
bers of his family before him had been in the 
wine trade, and Croft was sent when young 
to Oporto to follow in their steps. He be- 
came a member of the factory in that town, 
and after remaining there for many years re- 
turned to England and joined an old-esta- 
blished firm of wine merchants at York, which 
dealt especially in the wines of Portugal. He 
was admitted to the freedom of that city in 
1770, and acted in 1773 as one of its sheriffs. 
For the greater part of his life Croft took 
much interest in antiquarian researches, and 
was a familiar figure in all the book or cu- 
riosity sales of York, with the result that he 
left behind him at his death an important 
collection of curiosities acquired, as he was 
a keen purchaser, at an inconsiderable cost. 
His eccentricities of manner and dress did 
not prevent his being generally popular in 
the city society. It is told of him that he 
read aloud to his wife the whole of ' Don 
Quixote ' in the original Spanish, of which 
she did not understand a syllable, but she 
said that she liked to hear it, the language 
was so sonorous. His memory and mental 
powers remained unimpaired until the day of 
his death, which happened suddenly at his 
house in Aldwark, York, on 18 Nov. 1820, 
and he was buried in the minster on 24 Nov. 
The patient woman whom he married was 
Judith, daughter of Francis Bacon, alderman 
of York, lord mayor in 1764 and 1777, by his 
second wife, Catherine Hildrop. She was 
born at Selby on 26 Dec. 1746, was married 
16 June 1774, died 17 June 1824, and was 
buried near her husband. They had issue 
two sons, who died before their father. The 
name of Croft is still identified with the 
wines of Portugal. 

Croft's earliest work might be considered 
a trade advertisement of his business. It 
was ' A Treatise on the Wines of Portugal ; 
also a Dissertation on the Nature and Use of 
Wines in general imported into Great Britain,' 
and its author was described as ' John Croft, 
S.A.S., member of the factory at Oporto and 
wine merchant, York.' Tlie first edition was 
printed in that city in 1787, and dedicated to 
William Constable of Burton Constable; a 
second edition, corrected and enlarged, was 
issued in the next year. In 1792 he printed 
at York, probably for private circulation, * A 
Small Collection of the Beauties of Shak- 
speare,' a work of less value than the unpre- 
tending, but not useless, * Annotations on 
Plays of Shakespear (Johnson and Steevens's 
edition), York, 1810,' which he dedicated to 
the Society of Antiquaries. Croft was a col- 




lector, if not an utterer, of witticisms and re- 
partees, and his note-books of anecdotes and 
jests were printed anonymously and appa- 
rently for circulation among his friends as 
* Scrapeana, Fugitive IMiscellany, Sans Souci, 
1792. The results of some of his researches 
among the ancient foundations at York were 
revealed in a small volume of ' Excerpta 
Antiqua ; or a Collection of Original Manu- 
scripts, 1797,' which he also dedicated to the 
Society of Antiquaries, and its pages are 
worthy of examination even now. In 1808 
he caused to be printed, without his name, a 
thin tract of twelve pages entitled ' Rules at 
the Game of Chess,' to which he prefixed an 
engraving of ' one of Charlemagne's pawns 
of ivory about four inches high, kept in the 
royal treasury of St. Denis, near Paris.' 
Croft's last publication was ' Memoirs of Harry 
Rowe, constructed from materials found in 
an old box after his decease. By Mr. John 
Croft, wine merchant. Together with the 
Sham Doctor, a musical farce, by Harry Rowe, 
with notes by John Croft.' Rowe was trum- 
pet-major to the high sherifis of Yorkshire 
and master of a puppet-show. 

[Croft pedigree in Foster's Yorkshire Pedi- 
grees; Davies's York Press, pp. 307-10 ; York- 
shire Gazette, 25 Nov. 1820.] W. P. C. 

CROFT, Sib RICHARD, bart. (1762- 
1818), accoucheur, was born on 9 Jan. 1762, 
being a son of Herbert Croft, a chancery 
clerk, and receiver of the Charterhouse. After 
a medical pupilage with ]Mr. Chawner, bro- 
ther of his stepmother. Croft studied at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, and afterwards be- 
came partner with Chawner at Tutbury in 
Staffordshire. He next practised at Oxford 
for some years, and finally removed to Lon- 
don, where he married the elder twin daugh- 
ter of Dr. Denman, the leading accoucheur. 
Having attended the Duchess of Devonshire 
and other ladies of rank, Croft succeeded to 
Denman's practice on his retirement. In 
1816, on the death of his elder brother. Sir 
Herbert Croft (1751-1816) [q. v.], the family 
baronetcy devolved upon him. In 1817 he 
was selected to attend the Princess Char- 
lotte in her confinement. The fatal result 
(5-6 Nov. 1817) led to an angry outburst of 
public feeling against Croft, who appears to 
have had the entire actual conduct of the 
labour, although Dr. Baillie as physician, and 
Dr. Sims as consulting accoucheur, were at 
hand. The princess, it seems, was bled fre- 
quently during her pregnancy, no lady or 
nurse about her had been a mother, she was 
aDowed to become exhausted without being 
duly aided, and all the physicians had retired 
t-o rest very soon after the birth was complete. 

That Croft was not too skilful and rather self- 
confident appears evident. Overcome with 
depression and despair at the blame cast upon 
him, although the royal family were most 
considerate and sympathetic towards him 
he shot himself on 13 Feb. 1818. ' 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxxvii. (1817), pt. ii. 449, 
Ixxxviii. (1818), pt. i. 188, 277; Cooke's Ad- 
dress to British Females . . . with a Vindication 
of... Sir E. Croft, &c., 1817; Eees Price's 
Critical Inquiry into the Nature and Treatment 
of the Case of the Princess Charlotte, &c., 1817 ; 
Huish's Memoirs of the Princess Charlotte, 1818; 
London Medical Kepository, 1 Dec. 1817; the 
same account, altered, was separately published 
as ' Authentic Medical Statement,' &c., with ad- 
ditional observations by A. T. Thomson ; Foot's 
Letter on the necessity of a public inquiry into 
the cause of the death of the Princess Charlotte 
&c., 1817.] G. T. B. ' 

_ CROFT, WILLIAM (1677 P-1727), musi- 
cian, the son of William Croft, was born at 
Nether Eatington or Ettington, Warwick- 
shire, where he was baptised on 30 Dec. 1678, 
though his birth is always stated to have 
taken place in 1677. He studied music in 
the Chapel Royal as a chorister under Dr. 
Blow. In 1700 William IH presented an 
organ to St. Anne's, Westminster, and Croft 
(or, as his name was frequently spelt. Crofts) 
became the first organist, a post he held until 
1711, when he resigned it to John Isham. 
Previous to this appointment, but in the 
same year, he joined Blow, Piggot, Jeremiah 
Clarke, and John Barrett in publishing a 
' Choice Collection of Ayres for the Harpsi- 
chord or Spinett.' On 7 July 1700 Croft and 
Clarke were sworn gentlemen extraordinary 
of the Chapel Royal, * and to succeed as or- 
ganists according to merit, when any such 
place shall fall voyd.' Accordingly, on 25 May 
1704 the two composers were sworn * joyntly 
into an organist's place, vacant by the death 
of Mr. Francis Piggott.' Previous to this 
Croft had been connected with Drury Lane 
Theatre, for which he wrote music for ' Court- 
ship a la Mode ' (9 July 1700), the ' Funeral ' 
(1702), the ' Twin Rivals ' (14 Dec. 1702), 
and the « Lying Lover ' (2 Dec. 1703). 

On the death of Clarke in 1707 Croft suc- 
ceeded to the whole organist's place at the 
Chapel Royal. The entry in the ' Cheque- 
Book' recording his swearing-in is dated 
5 Nov., but as it has been recently proved 
{Athenceum, No. 3101) that Clarke shot him- 
self on 3 Dec, this date is evidently a mis- 
take. In October of the following year Croft 
succeeded Blow as organist at Westminster 
Abbey and master of the children and com- 
poser at the Chapel Royal. In the latter 
capacity it was part of his duty to compose 




anthems for the various state ceremonies 
and solemn thanksgiving services during the 
reigns of Anne and George I. In 1704 he 
had already written the anthem, ' I will give 
thanks,' for the thanksgiving for Blenheim. 
In Decemher 1705 he wrote * Blessed be the 
Lord,' for the public thanksgiving at St. 
Paul's ; In 1708, * Sing unto the Lord,' on a 
similar occasion ; in 1714, ' The souls of the 
righteous,' for Queen Anne's funeral, and 
* The Lord is a sun and shield,' for the coro- 
nation of George I ; in 1715, ' give thanks,' 
for the suppression of the rebellion ; and in 
1718, * We will rejoice,' for a public thanks- 
giving on 29 May. Other similar works are : 
' Praise God in His sanctuary,' written for the 
inauguration of the organ at Finedon, North- 
amptonshire; 'I will always give thanks,' 
written for one of Anne's thanksgiving ser- 
vices, the words of which were selected by 
the queen herself; and 'Give the king thy 
judgments,' composed on 13 July 1727. In 

1712 Croft edited a collection of words of 
anthems, which was published anonymously 
under the title of 'Divine Harmony.' On 
9 July of the following year he took the de- 
gree of Mus. Doc. at Oxford, where he en- 
tered at Christ Church ; his exercise on this 
occasion consisted of two odes on the peace 
of Utrecht, written by Joseph Trapp, and 
performed on 13 July. These odes were 
subsequently published in score under the 
title of * Musicus Apparatus Academicus.' 
In 1715 he received an increase of 801. per 
annum to his salary at the Chapel Royal, and 
in the following year was appointed to the 
sinecure office of tuner of the regals. In 
1724 Croft published two folio volumes of 
his sacred music in score ; this work contains 
thirty anthems and a burial service (part of 
which is by Purcell), with a portrait of Croft 
and a preface in which it is stated that the 
volumes are the first engraved in full score 
on plates. On the formation of the Academy 
of Vocal Musick in 1725 Croft was one of 
the original members. He died at Bath on 
14 Aug. 1727, aged 50, and was buried in 
the north aisle of Westminster Abbey on 
the 23rd. He married, on 7 Feb. 1704-5, 
Mary, daughter of Robert Georges of Ken- 
sington, but seems to have had no children. 
His wife survived him, and after her death 
administration of the estates of both was 
granted to her father on 28 July 1733. In 

1713 Croft was living at Charles Street, 
WfcBtminster, but in the grant of adminis- 
tration he is described as late of St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, and Kensington. Be- 
sides his church music Croft publislied, chiefly 
in his younger days, a few single-sheet songs, 
six sonatas for two flutes, and (according to 

Hawkins) six sets of theatre airs ; but it is 
by his anthems that he is now chiefly re- 
membered. In these he shows himself a 
worthy successor of Purcell and Blow not 
indeed so great a genius as the former, nor 
so full of individuality as the latter, but still 
combining many of the merits of both, and 
carrying on the good traditions of a school 
of which he was almost the last representa- 
tive. His portrait was painted byT. Murray, 
and is now in the Music School collection, 
Oxford. This picture was engraved by Vertue 
as the frontispiece to Croft's ' Musica Sacra,' 
and (the head only) by J. Caldwell for Haw- 
kins's ' History of Music' There is also a 
mezzotint of him by T. Hodgetts, after J. J. 
Halls, and a small vignette (with Arne, Pur- 
cell, Blow, and Boyce), drawn by R. Smirke 
and published in 1801. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 419; Hawkins's 
Hist, of Music, v. 94, &c. ; Appendix to Bem- 
rose's Choir Chant Book ; Chester's Westminster 
Registers ; Genest's Hist, of the Stage ; Hayes's 
Eemarks upon Avison's Essay, p. 107 ; Harmo- 
nicon for 1828 ; Burney's Hist, of Music, iv. 603 ; 
Cheque-Book of the Chapel Royal (Camden Soc. ) ; 
Noble's Cont. of Granger; Stow's Survey of West- 
minster, ed. 1720, p. 85; Brit. Mus. Catalogues 
of Printed and MS. Music; Registers of Eatington, 
communicated by the Rev. G. H. Biggs ; Vestry 
Books of St. Aune's, communicated by the Rev. 
E. W. Christie.] W. B. S. 

CROFTON, ZACHARY (d. 1672), non- 
conformist divine, was born in Ireland and 
principally educated at Dublin. The un- 
settled state of Ireland caused him to come 
to England about 1644, where he arrived 
with only a groat in his pocket. He was 
preaching in Cheshire in 1645, and was 
pastor for some time at Newcastle-under- 
Lyme previous to obtaining the living of 
Wrenbury in Cheshire, from which he was 
expelled in 1651 for refusing to take the 
engagement. He then came to London, 
and was for some time minister of St. 
James's, Garlick Hythe, and then obtained 
the vicarage of St. Botolph, Aldgate, which 
he held until the Restoration, when he was 
ejected for maintaining that the Solemn 
League and Covenant was still binding upon 
the English nation. Shortly after his eject- 
ment he began a controversy with Bishop 
Gauden respecting the Solemn League and 
Covenant, for the defence of which he was 
committed to the Tower. Neal (Hist, of 
the Puritaiis, iv. 302, ed. 1738) states that 
this controversy took place before Crofton's 
ejectment, and that, after lying in prison 
for a considerable time ' at great expense,' 
and being forced to petition for his liberty, 
he was turned out of his parish without any 




consideration, although he had been 'very- 
zealous for the king's restoration.' Crofton, 
with his wife and seven children, returned 
to Cheshire, where, after suffering another 
short imprisonment, the cause of which is 
unknown, he supported himself by farming, 
or, according to Calamy, by keeping a grocer's 
shop. He probably returned to London 
before the great plague of 1665, at which 
date he published a book entitled ' Defence 
against the Dread of Death.' In 1667 he 
opened a school near Aldgate. He died in 
1672. He published many controversial 
tracts, and a few sermons. He was a man 
of hasty temper and prejudiced views, yet 
of considerable acuteness, scholarship and 
ability. His chief works are : 1. * Cate- 
chising God's Ordinance, in sundry Ser- 
mons,' 1656. 2. 'The People's need of a 
Living Pastor asserted and explained,' 1657. 

3. ' Sermons of Psalms xxxiv. 14,' 1660. 

4. * ANAAHM2 ANEAH-teH, The Fastning 
of St. Peter's Fetters, by seven links or pro- 
positions,' 1660. 5. 'Altar-Worship, or Bow- 
ing to the Communion Table considered, as 
to the novelty, vanity, iniquity, and malignity 
charged to it,' 1661. 6. ' Berith-anti-Baal ; 
on Zach. Crofton's Appearance before the 
Prelate Justice of the Peace, by way of re- 
joinder to Dr. John Gauden,' 1661. 7. ' The 
Hard Way to Heaven explained and applied,' 
1662. 8. ' ANAAH^IS, or St. Peter's Bonds 
abide, for Rhetoric worketh no Release.' 
' The Presbyterian Lash, or Noctrof's Maid 
Whipt. A Tragi-Comedy,' 1661, is a lam- 
poon on Crofton. 

[Calamy's Nonconformist's Memorial ; Neal's 
History of the Puritans, iv. 302, ed. 1738; 
Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.] A. C. B. 

1554), impostor, early in 1554, when only 
about eighteen years old, was employed by 
protestant zealots to conceal herself within 
a wide crevice in the thick wall of a house 
in Aldersgate Street. The wall faced the 
street, and by means of a whistle or trumpet 
her voice assumed so strange a sound as to 
collect crowds of passers-by. Confederates 
scattered among the people interpreted her 
words as divinely inspired denunciations of 
King Philip, Queen Mary, and the Roman 
catholic religion. The device deceived the 
Londoners for many months, and the mys- 
terious voice was variously named ' the white 
bird,' ' the byrde that spoke in the wall,' and 
' the spirit in the wall.' Before July 1654 
the imposture was discovered ; Elizabeth was 
sent to Newgate and afterwards to a prison 
in Bread Street, and there confessed the 

truth. She said that one Drake, Sir Anthony 
Knyvett's servant, had given her the whistle, 
and that her confederates included a player, 
a weaver of Redcross Street, and a clergy- 
man, attached either to St. Botolph's Church 
in Aldersgate Street or (according to another 
account) to St. Leonard's Church in Foster 
Lane. On Sunday 16 July she was set upon 
a scaffold by St. Paul's Cross while John 
Wymunsly, archdeacon of Middlesex, read 
her confession. ' After her confession read 
she kneeled downe and asked God forgivenes 
and the Queen's Maiestie, desyringe the 
people to praye for her and to beware of 
heresies. The sermon done she went to 
prison agayne in Bred Street. . . . And after 
Dr. Scorye resorted to her divers tymes to 
examin her ; and after this she was released ' 
(WRiOTHi}SLEY,CAromc/e,ii. 118). Onl8 July 
one of her accomplices stood in the pillory 
' with a paper and a scripter on his hed.' No 
other proceedings appear to have been taken, 
although seven persons were said to have 
taken part in the foolish business. The im- 
posture resembles that contrived with more 
effect twenty-two years earlier by Elizabeth 
Barton [q. v.], the maid of Kent. 

[Stowe's Annals, s.a. 1564 ; Chronicle of the 
Grey Friars (Carad. Soc), p. 90 ; Wriofchesley's 
Chronicle (Camd. Soc), ii. 117-18; Machyn's 
Diary (Camd. Soc), p. 66 ; Burnet's Reforma- 
tion, ed. Pocock, ii. 439, v. 611 ; Strype's Me- 
morials, in. i. 214; Chronicle of Lady Jane and 
Queen Mary (Camd. Soc)] S. L. 

1539), divine, may probably be identified 
with the George Croft of Oriel College, Ox- 
ford, who was elected fellow from Hereford- 
shire 10 Oct. 1513, proceeded B.A. 13 Dec. 
following, and resigned 4 Feb. 1519 {Regis- 
trum Univ. Oxon. i. 82), and with George 
Croftys of the same college, southern proctor 
in April 1520 {Fasti Oxon. i. 51). He was 
instituted to the rectory of Shepton Mallet, 
Somerset, in 1524, and probably about the 
same time to the rectory of Winford in the 
same county, paying a pension of 8/. to his 
predecessor, who had resigned the living. 
On 21 Feb. 1630-1 he was collated to the 
chancellorship of Chichester Cathedral. On 
4 Dec. 1538 he was indicted for saying ' that 
the king was not, but the pope was, supreme 
head of the church.' He pleaded guilty, was 
condemned, and executed early in the fol- 
lowing year. Archbishop Cranmer, writing 
to Cromwell on 13 Nov. 1538, says that 
' one Crofts, now in the Tower and like to 
be attainted of treason, hath a benefice . . . 
named Shipton Mallet,' and _ begs it of the 
lord privy seal for his chaplain Champion, a 




native of the place, * in case it fall void at 
this time' {Letters, p. 247). 

[Kegistrum Universitatis Oxen., ed. Boase 
(Oxford Hist. Soc), i. 82 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. 
(Bliss), i. 51 ; Button's Kegisters of Dio. of Bath 
and Wells, Harl. MSS. 6966-7; Le Neve's Fasti 
(Hardy), i. 271 ; Valor Ecelesiasticus, i. 151, 
185 ; Burnet's Hist, of Reformation (Pocock), i. 
563 ; Cranmer's MiscelL Writings (Parker Soc), 
I 385.] W. H. 

CROFTS, JAMES, Duke of Monmouth 
(1649-1685). [See Scott.] 

CROGHAN, GEORGE {d. 1782), captain 
or colonel, of Passayunk, Pennsylvania, Bri- 
tish crown agent with the Indians, was born 
in Ireland, educated in Dublin, emigrated to 
America, and settled in Pennsylvania, where 
he was engaged as a trader among the Indians 
as far back as 1746. At this period about 
three hundred traders, mostly from Pennsyl- 
vania, a large proportion of them Irish, used to 
cross the Alleghanies every year, and descend- 
ing the Ohio valley with pack-horses or in 
canoes, traded from one Indian village to 
another. Some of them roused the j ealousy of 
the French by having, as was alleged, crossed 
the Mississippi and traded with the remoter 
tribes. Governor Dinwiddle of Virginia 
described them generally as ' abandoned 
wretches,' but there were a few men of better 
stamp among them, and Croghan, who had 
great influence over his own countrymen, 
appears to have been one (Pakkman). The 
confidence reposed in him by the Indians, 
vfhich was largely due to his figurative elo- 
quence in the Indian tongue, led to his em- 
ployment as government agent. He served 
in that capacity, with the rank of a captain 
of provincials, in Braddock's expedition, and 
in the defence of the north-west frontier in 
1756. In November of the latter year he 
was made deputy-agent with the Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio Indians by Sir William John- 
son, who in 1763 sent him to England to 
communicate with the government respect- 
ing an Indian boundary line. During the 
voyage he was shipwrecked on the coast of 
France. In 1765, when on his way to pacify 
the Illinois Indians,he was attacked.wounded, 
and carried to Vincennes, an old French post 
on the Wabash, in Indiana, but was speedily 
released and accomplished his mission. In 
May 1766 he formed a settlement about four 
miles from Fort Pitt. He continued to render 
valuable service in pacifying the Indians and 
conciliating them to British interests up to 
the outbreak of the war of independence. 
Although suspected by the revolutionary au- 
thorities, he remained unmolested on his 

Pennsylvanian farm, and there died in August 

[Most of the above details are given in Drake's 
Amer. Biog., on the authority of O'Callaghan. 
Notices of Croghan will be found in Parkman's 
Conspiracy of Pontiac, 2 vols. (Boston, U.S. 1870), 
and the same writer's Wolfe and Montcalm (Lon- 
don, 1884), i. 42-203, the footnotes to which in- 
dicate further sources of information in England 
and America. A fragmentary journal of Croghan's 
was published in Olden Time (Philadelphia), vol. 
i. ; and numerous letters, all relating to Indian 
affairs, and very illiterate productions, are pre- 
served in the British Museum ; those addressed to 
Colonel Bouguet, 1758-65, in Add. MSS. 21648, 
21649,21651, 21655; to Capt. Gates and Gen. 
Stjinwix, 1759, Add. MS. 216U; and to Gen. 
Haldimand, 1773, in Add. MS. 21730.] 

H. M. 0. 

1842), lawyer and author, born 22 July 1758 
at Aylesbury, was son of Alexander Croke, 
esq., of Studley Priory, a direct descendant 
of John Croke [q. v.], by Anne, daughter of 
Robert Armistead, rector of EUesborough, 
Buckinghamshire. After spending some years 
at a private school at Burton, Buckingham- 
shire, he matriculated as a gentleman-com- 
moner of Oriel College, Oxford, 11 Oct. 1775, 
and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple 
in 1786. He removed his name from the 
books of the college soon afterwards without 
proceeding to a degree, but on resolving to 
practise at the bar he returned to Oxford about 
1794, and proceeded B.C.L. 4 April 1797, and 
D.C.L. three days later. He was admitted a 
member of the College of Advocates 3 Nov. 
1797 (CooTE, Civilians, p. 138). Sir William 
Scott, afterwards Lord Stowell, whose ac- 
quaintance Croke had made at Oxford, em- 
ployed him in 1800 to report one of his judg- 
ments. The case (Ilorner v. Liddiard) related 
to the marriage of illegitimate minors, and 
Croke published his report with an essay on 
the laws affecting illegitimacy. The publica- 
tion brought Croke into notice, and he was 
employed in 1801 by the government to reply 
to a book by a Danish la^vyer named Schlegel 
attacking the action of the English admiralty 
court in its relations with neutral nations. 
This service was rewarded with a judgeship 
in the vice-admiralty coui't of Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, which Croke held from 1801 to 1815. 
On his return to England in 1816 he was 
knighted. For the rest of his life he lived 
at Studley, entertained his Oxford friends, 
amused himself with drawing and painting, 
and wrote a number of books. He was a 
strong tory in politics and religion. He died 
at Studley 27 Dec. 1842 in his eiglity-tifth 
year. Croke married in 1796 Alice Blake of 




Bractley, Northamptonshire, by whom he had 
five sons and three daughters. His eldest son, 
Alexander, died in 1818, aged 20. His father 
wrote a pathetic account of his life and death 
{The Croke Family, i. 730-51). Two sons, 
George (1802-1860) and John, survived him, 
and the latter succeeded to the property on 
the former's death. The second daughter, 
Jane, married Sir Charles WethereU 28 Dec. 
1826, and died 21 April 1831. 

Croke's chief works were : 1. * The Genea- 
logical History of the Croke Family,' 2 vols. 
Oxford, 1823, a work of very gi-eat research. 
2. * An Essay on the Origin, Progress, and 
Decline of Rhyming Latin verses,' with speci- 
mens, Oxfoi'd, 1828. 3. ' Regimen Sanitatis 
Salernitatum,' with introduction and notes, 
Oxford, 1830. 4. The Patriot Queen,' London, 
1838. 5. ' The Progress of Idolatry, a poem 
with other poems,' Oxford, 1841. Croke's de- 
cisions in the court at Halifax were published 
from his notes by James Stewart in 1814, to- 
gether with an answer to Baron de Rehau- 
sen's ' Swedish Memorials,' addressed to Lord 
Castlereagh. Croke prepared for the press, 
but did not publish, * An Essay on the Con- 
solato di Mare,' an ancient code of maritime 
law, and the translation of the Psalms by 
his ancestor John Croke. Croke also wrote 
pamphlets on draining and enclosing Otmoor, 
1787, and ' The Case of Otmoor with the 
Moor Orders,' Oxford, 1831; 'Statutes of 
the University of King's College, Windsor, 
Nova Scotia,' Halifax, 1802; 'An Exami- 
nation of the Rev. Mr. Burke's Letter of In- 
struction to the Catholic Missionaries of Nova 
Scotia,' under the pseudonym of Robert 
Stanser, Halifax, 1804 ; and ' The Catechism 
of the Church of England,' Halifax, 1813. 

[Gent. Mag. 1843, pt. i. 316-17 ; Croke's Hist. 
of Croke Family, i. 706-30 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

S. L. 

CROKE, Sir GEORGE (1560-1642), 
judge and law reporter, younger son of Sir 
John Croke, by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Unton, and brother of Sir John 
Croke (1553-1620) [q.v.], was educated at the 
parish school of Thame and at Christ Church, 
Oxford. He became a student of the Inner 
Temple in November 1575, was called to the 
bar in 1584, was autumn reader in 1599 and 
1608, and was treasurer of his inn in 1609. 
In 1597 he was returned to parliament as 
member for Beeralston, Devonshire. Before 
1615 he purchased the estate of Waterstock, 
Oxfordshire, and in 1621 he bought Studley 
of his nephew. 

As early as 1581 he began reporting law 
cases, but does not seem to have acquired 
any practice before 1588. In 1623 he was 

made serjeant-at-law and king's Serjeant. 
The dignity had been refused before, because 
Croke declined to purchase it on the usual 
terms (Whitelocke), He was knighted 
29 June 1623. On 11 Feb. 1624-6 he be- 
came justice of the common pleas, and on 
9 Oct. 1628 was removed to the king's bench 
to take the place of Sir John Doddridge [q.v.] 
In the great constitutional cases which came 
before him in the following years Croke re- 
sisted royal interference with judicial pro- 
cedure. He, with Hutton, did not sign the 
collective judgment of his companions on 
the bench justifying the extension of the 
ship-money edict to inland towns, but gave a 
guarded opinion, that ' when the whole king- 
dom was in danger the defence thereof ought 
to be borne by all ' (1635). On 7 Feb. 1636-7, 
when the same question was again formally 
presented to the judges, Croke and Hutton 
signed the judgment in favour of the crown 
on the express understanding that the verdict 
of the majority necessarily bound aU. When 
Hampden was tried for resisting the ship- 
money tax in 1638, Croke spoke out boldly, 
and declared that it Avas utterly contrary to 
law for any power except parliament to set 
any charge upon a subject, and that there 
was no precedent for the prosecution. His 
judgment, with his autograph notes, has been 
edited by Mr. S. R. Gardiner in the Camden 
Society's seventh * MisceUany ' (1876), from a 
manuscript belonging to the Earl of Verulam. 
It was first printed, together with Hutton's 
argument, in 1641. In 1641 Croke's age and 
declining health compelled him to apply for 
permission to retire from active service on 
the bench. The request was granted, and 
his title and salary were continued to him. 
He withdrew to his estate at Waterstock, 
Oxfordshire, where he died 16 Feb. 1641-2. 
An elaborate monument was erected above 
his g^ave in Waterstock Church. Croke's 
reports, extending over sixty years (1580- 
1640), were written in Norman-French, and 
were translated into English for publication 
by Sir Harbottle Grimston, his son-in-law. 
A selection of cases heard while Croke him- 
self was judge was published in 1657. The 
earlier reports appeared in two volumes, pub- 
lished respectively in 1659 and 1661. Col- 
lected editions were issued in 1683 and 1790-2 
(3 vols.) An abridgment appeared in 1658 
and 1665. Grimston's prefaces give Croke a 
high character. 

Croke was a wealthy man, and made good 
use of his wealth. He gave 100/. to Sion 
College in 1629, and erected and endowed 
almshouses at Studley (1639). By his will, 
dated 20 Nov. 1640 and proved 3 May 1642, 
he left many charitable legacies. Sir Har- 




bottle Grlmston inherited the law library. 
Croke's portrait by Hollar is extant, and 
another by R. Vaughan precedes the third 
volume of the * Reports ' (1661). A paint- 
ing is described by Sir Alexander Croke [q. v.] 
as in his possession in 1823, and Granger 
mentions two other engraved portraits by 
Gaywood and R. White respectively. 

' Mr. George Croke's wife was Mary Ben- 
net, one of the daughters of Sir Thomas 
Bennet, late mayor of London. She was 
married [about 1610] to Mr. George Croke, 
being an ancient bachelor within a year or 
thereabouts of 50, and she being 20 years of 
age. This fell out unexpected to his friends, 
that had conceived a purpose in him never to 
have married' (SiK James Whitblocke's 
Liber Famelicus, 21). To Lady Croke's influ- 
ence was ascribed her husband's firm stand in 
the ship-money case. She died 1 Dec. 1657. 
By her Croke had a son, Thomas, who studied 
law at the Inner Temple 1619, and inherited 
Studley under his father's wiU ; but he seems 
to have died soon after his father. Wood 
calls him * a sot or a fool or both.' Croke's 
eldest daughter, Mary, married Sir Harbottle 
Grimston; the second daughter, Elizabeth, 
married first Thomas Lee of Hartwell, Buck- 
inghamshire, and second, Sir Richard In- 
goldsby; and Frances, the third daughter, 
was wife of Richard Jervois, esq. 

[Croke's Hist, of Croke Family, i. 662-605 ; 
Wood's Athense, iii. 269; Foss's Judges; Gar- 
diner's Hist, of England, viii. ; Whiteloeke's Liber 
Famelicus (Camd. See.) ; Cal. State Papers, 
1625-41 ; State Trials.] S. L. 

CROKE, JOHN (d. 1554), lawyer and 
author, was the son of Richard Croke of 
Easington, Buckinghamshire, descended from 
the family of Blount or Le Blount [see 
Blount, Sir Thomas, adfin.'] His mother 
was named Alicia. He was educated at Eton, 
whence he proceeded to Cambridge in 1507 
as scholar of King's College. He left the 
university without taking a degree to study 
law at the Inner Temple, He became one 
of the six clerks in chancery in 1522, comp- 
troller and supervisor of the hanaper 19 Sept. 
1529, and clerk of the enrolments in chancery 
11 Jan. 1634-5. Croke became a seineant-at- 
law in 1546 ; was elected M.P. for Chippen- 
ham in 1547, and was master in chancery 
in 1549. He purchased an estate at Chilton 
in Buckinghamshire, where he built a large 
mansion, and was granted many monastery 
lands, including Studley Pi-iory. He died 
2 Sept. 1554, and was buried in Chilton 
church. Croke's wife,Prudentia, third daugh- 
ter of Richard Cave and sister of Sir Ambrose 
Cave [q. v.], died before him. By her he had 

a son, Sir John Croke, the father of Sir John 
and Sir George Croke, two judges, both of 
whom are separately noticed. Croke wrote : 
1. * Ordinances upon the Estate of the Chan- 
cery Court, 1554,' printed in Sir Alexander 
Croke's * Hist, of Croke Family,' from Brit. 
Mus. MS. Lansd. 163. 2. ' Thirteen Psalms 
and the first chapter of Ecclesiastes trans- 
lated into English verse,' printed by the Percy 
Society in 1844. 

[Harwood's Alumni Eton., p. 132; Cooper's 
Athense Cantab., i. 118; Sir A. Croke's Geneal. 
Hist, of Croke Family, i. 393, ii. 819, 821. 908.] 

S. L. 

CROKE, Sir JOHN (1553-1620), judge 
and recorder of London, eldest son of Sir John 
Croke (1530-1608), by Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Alexander Unton of Chequers, Bucking- 
hamshire, and grandson of John Croke [q. v.], 
was bom in 1553, and entered the Inner 
Temple 13 April 1570. After being called 
to the bar, he became bencher of his inn in 
1591, Lent reader in 1596, and treasurer in 
1597. Sir Christopher Hatton employed him 
in legal business, and in 1585 Croke was 
elected M.P. for Windsor. On 11 Nov. 1595 
he was appointed recorder of London, and 
in 1597 and again in 1601 he was elected 
M.P. for London. In the latter parliament, 
which met in October 1601, Croke was chosen 
speaker. When presented to the queen, he 
spoke of the peace of the kingdom having 
been defended by ' the might of our dread and 
sacred queen,' and was interrupted by Eliza- 
beth with the remark, ' No, by the mighty 
hand of God, Mr. Speaker.' In the course of 
the monopoly debates, Croke was directed to 
announce the queen's voluntary renuncia- 
tion of monopoly patents, and her intention 
to confer no more of them. In the division 
on the bill for the enforcement of attend- 
ance at church, the * ayes ' numbered 105 
and the * noes ' 106, and the former, expect- 
ing that Croke would side with them, claimed 
that he should record his vote, but he asserted 
that ' he was foreclosed of his voice by taking 
that place which it had pleased them to 
impose upon him, and that he was indiflerent 
to both parties.' At the close of the session, 
19 Dec, the lord keeper conveyed to Croke 
the queen's compliments on his wisdom and 

After some delay caused by the death on 
24 March 1G03 of the queen, who had nomi- 
nated him for the oliice, Croke became Ser- 
jeant in Easter term 1603, and was knighted. 
He soon afterwards resigned the recordership 
of London, on becoming a Welsh judge, and 
acted as deputy for the chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, Sir George Hume, in 1604. On 25 




June 1607 he became j udge of the king's bench, 
in succession to Sir John Popham, and dying, 
after thirteen years of judicial service, at his 
house inHolborn, 23 Jan. 1619-20, was buried 
at Ohilton. Manningham, referring to his per- 
sonal appearance, describes him as ' a verry 
blacke man' {Diary, Oamd. Soc. 74). In 1601 
he gave tvrenty-seven books to Sir Thomas 
Bodley's library at Oxford, and Bodley con- 
sulted him on the endowment of the library 
in 1609. He published in 1602 a volume of 
select cases, collected by Eobert Keilway, 
which was reprinted in 1633 and 1685. 

Croke married Catherine, daughter of Sir 
Michael Blount of Mapledurham,Oxfordshire, 
lieutenant of the Tower, by whom he had five 
sons. Sir John, the heir, knighted 9 July 1603, 
was M.P, for Oxfordshire 1614, and Shaftes- 
bury 1628, and died 10 April 1640 at Chilton. 
His disreputable heir, also Sir John, in 1667 
conspired to charge Robert Hawkins, incum- 
bent of Chilton, with robbery. Hawkins had 
made himself obnoxious by pressing for pay- 
ment of his salary. Having failed to bribe 
Lord-chief-justice Hale, who tried the case 
(9 March 1668-9), and soon saw through the 
conspiracy, Croke was ruined, sold the 
Chilton estates, and died in great poverty. 
An account of Hawkins's trial was pub- 
lished in 1685, and is reprinted in the ' State 

The judge's third son, ChaklesCeoe;e,D.D. 
{d. 1657), was admitted student of Christ 
Church, Oxford, 5 Jan. 1603-4; proceeded 
B.A. (1608), M.A. (1611), B.D. and D.D. 
(1625) ; was tutor of his college ; held the 

Erofessorship of rhetoric at Gresham College, 
iondon,£rom 1613 to 1619; was junior proctor 
(1613), and feUow of Eton CoUege (1617- 
1621) ; became rector of Waterstock, Oxford- 
shire, on the presentation of his uncle. Sir 
George Croke [q. v.], on 24 June 1616, and 
rector of Agmondisham, Buckinghamshire, in 
1621 ; fled to Ireland during the civU war, 
and died at Carlow 10 April 1657. He took 
private pupils at Agmondisham, and among 
them were Sir William Drake, Sir Robert 
Croke, John Gregory, and Henry Curwen. 
Curwen died while in Croke's charge, and 
Croke published a memorial sermon (Waed, 
Gresham Professors ; Ceoke, Hist, of Croke 
Family, i. 506-10). 

Unton Ceokb (1594 P-1671), the judge's 
fourth son, was called to the bar at the 
Inner Temple in 1616; became a bencher 
14 June 1635 ; was M.P. for Wallingford in 
1626, and again in the Short parliament of 
1640 ; went with Whitelocke to Sweden in 
1664 ; was promoted sergeant by Cromwell 
21 Dec. 1654 ; made commissioner for trials 
of persons charged with treason in 1656, and 

justice of the peace for Marston, Oxfordshire, 
where he lived in a house inherited by his 
wife Anne, daughter of Richard Hore. After 
the Restoration he retired from public life. 
The ' Thurloe Papers ' (iii.) contain much of 
his correspondence with Cromwell respect- 
ing the suppression of the cavalier plot of 
1655. His son, also Union Ceoke {fl. 
1658), was a major in the parliamentary 
army and afterwards a colonel of horse. He 
was created B.C.L. at Oxford in 1649, became 
a barrister of the Inner Temple in 1653, and 
filled the office of high sheriff of Oxfordshire 
in 1658. 

[Foss's Judges ; Manning's Lives of the 
Speakers, 273-8 ; Croke's Hist, of Croke Family, 
i. 469 et seq. ; Cal. State Papers, 1690-1620; 
Sir James Whitelocke's Liber Famelicus (Camd. 
Soc), i. ; D'Ewes's Parliaments of Elizabeth ; 
Townshend's Keports of Parliament.] S. L. 


(1489P-1558), Greek scholar and diploma- 
tist, is claimed by Sir Alexander Croke to 
have been a member of the Oxfordshire family 
of Blount, alias Croke, the son of Richard 
Blount, alias Croke, of Easington, Bucking- 
hamshire, by his wife Alice, and thus brother 
of John Croke {d. 1554) [q. v.] But this 
identification is rendered very doubtful by 
the facts that Croke is invariably described 
in the matriculation registers of the univer- 
sities at which he studied as * Londinensis,' 
and that the only relative mentioned by him 
in his will or elsewhere is a brother, Robert 
Croke of Water Orton, Warwickshire, who is 
not known in the genealogy of the Oxford- 
shire family. There can be no doubt that 
he was a native of London, and his parent- 
age must be left uncertain. In 1555 he de- 
scribed himself as sixty-six years old ; hence 
he was born in 1489. He was educated at 
Eton, and was admitted a scholar of King's 
College, Cambridge, 4 April 1506. After 
proceeding B.A. in 1509-10 he went to Ox- 
ford, to study Greek imder Grocyn, and 
thence to Paris, about 1513, to attend the 
lectures of Hieronymus Aleander. Guliel- 
mus Budseus made Croke's acquaintance at 
Paris, and addressed to him a letter in Greek 
(Bttd^i Hpistolce, Basil, 1521, p. 168). Croke 
suffered much from poverty, and Erasmus, 
who was impressed by Croke's scholarship, 
asked Colet to aid him from any fund at 
his disposal for the support of poor scho- 
lars, Colet declined assistance, and repu- 
diated the suggestion that he had command 
of such a fund with needless warmth. Croke 
declared that his relatives had deprived him 
of his patrimony, and Archbishop Warham 
was understood to contribute towards the 


1 20 


expenses of his education. On leaving Paris, 
about 1514, Croke visited many other uni- 
versities. His great knowledge of Greek 
made him welcome to learned men, and he 
claimed to be the first to lecture publicly 
on the language at Louvain, Cologne, and 
Leipzig. At Louvain he did not remain 
long enough to make a reputation. At Co- 
logne he distinguished himself as a successful 
teacher of Greek, and just before leaving 
the town (20 March 1515) matriculated at 
the university. In the register he is de- 
scribed as * Magister Richardus Croce ange- 
licus, dioc. lundenen. professor literarum 
grecarum.' In the summer semester fol- 
lowing Croke was established as Greek lec- 
turer at Leipzig. He matriculated at the 
university in the course of the term, and is 
described in the register as ' Magister Ri- 
chardus Crocus Britannus Londoniensis, 
equestris ordinis, qui Grsecas professus fuit 
literas.' Although not the first, as he himself 
asserted, to teach Greek at Leipzig, he was 
the first to lecture on it with conspicuous 
success. He devoted most of his energies to 
instruction in grammar ; but he also lectured 
on Plutarch, and his works prove a wide ac- 
quaintance with Greek literature. His pupils, 
among whom was Camerarius, wrote with en- 
thusiasm of his crowded classes. However 
inconvenient the hour or place, his lecture- 
room was fiUed to overflowing. ' Croke is the 
E-eat man at Leipzig,' wrote Erasmus to 
inacre in June 1516. Almost all the Ger- 
man scholars of the day corresponded with 
him, and among his acquaintances were 
Reuchlin and Hutten. Mutianus described 
to Reuchlin a visit paid him by Croke, and 
added that he was more Greek than Eng- 
lish, and read Theocritus charmingly, but 
knew no Hebrew. The Leipzig faculty of 
arts, at the desire of George, duke of Saxony, 
one of Croke's patrons, made him a present 
of ten guilders, and when the duke visited 
Leipzig the faculty petitioned him to confer 
a stipend of a hundred guilders on Croke. 
No immediate reply was made, and the uni- 
versity of Prague invited him to fill their 
Greek chair at the same salary. But the 
Leipzig aulhorities entreated him to stay, 
and on 12 March fifteen masters of arts of 
Leipzig repeated their request to the duke 
for adequate emolument (printed in Codex 
Dipl. Saxon. Reg. pt. ii. xi. 406). Croke 
wrote with satisfaction of the generosity 
with which the university authorities and 
the duke treated him, but it is not known 
whether any fixed stipend was granted him. 
While in Leipzig Croke published two im- 
portant philological works. The first was 
an edition of Ausonius (1515), with an 

* Achademie Lipsensis Encomium Congratu- 
latorium ' prefixed ; the second was ' Tabulae 
Grsecas literas compendio discere cupienti- 
bus sane quam necessarise ' (1516), dedicated 
to the university, together with two Latin 
poems addressed to Mutianus. In 1516 
Croke also issued a translation of the fourth 
book of Theodore Gaza's * Greek Grammar,' 
with a dedication to the Archbishop of Mag- 
deburg and Mainz, where he promises, at the 
request of Thomas More, to translate the 
three preceding books. The Leipzig autho- 
rities granted Croke copyright in these pub- 
lications for five years. He returned to Eng- 
land in 1517, wher he proceeded M.A. at 
Cambridge, and his pupil, P. MoseUanus, 
whom Croke in vain invited to settle in 
England, took his place at Leipzig as teacher 
of Greek. The statement that Croke also 
taught at Dresden rests on a misconception. 
Croke's reputation as a scholar was of ser- 
vice to him in England. He was employed 
to teach the king Greek, and in 1518 began 
reading public Greek lectures at Cambridge — 
an appointment on which Erasmus wrote to 
congratulate him. On 23 April 1519 he was 
ordained priest, and in two orations delivered 
before the university about the same time 
exhorted his hearers to devote all their ener- 
gies to confirming their knowledge of Greek. 
A translation of the greater part of the first 
speech appears in Mr. J. Bass MuUinger's ' His- 
tory of Cambridge University,' i. 529 et seq . In 
1522 Croke was elected the first public orator 
at Cambridge, and held the oflice till 1528. 
He was fellow of St. John's College in 1523, 
and received a salary from Bishop Fisher for 
reading a Greek lecture there. He proceeded 
D.D. in 1524, and became tutor to the king's 
natural son, the Duke of Richmond, who 
lived with him at King's College. Arch- 
bishop Warham, More, Grocyn, and Linacre 
offered him a higher salary to induce him to 
settle at Oxford ; but Fisher persuaded him 
to remain at Cambridge. Early in 1529, 
when the senate decreed an annual service 
to commemorate Fisher's benefactions to the 
university and to St. John's College, Croke 
protested that it was imprudent to honour 
Fisher as the founder of St. John's, a title 
which belonged only to Lady Margaret [see 
Beaufort, Makgaret]. Fisher wrote to 
Croke denying that he had set up any such 
claim (Htmeks, Documents, 210-16), and 
Baker, the Cambridge antiquary, who is fol- 
lowed by Cole, denounces Croke for his atti- 
tude in this business, as ' an ambitious, en- 
vious, and discontented vn-etch' (Baker, 
St. John^s College, i. 97). But Croke's repu- 
tation was not injured at the time. In No- 
vember 1529 he was sent, at the suggestion 




of Cranmer, to Italy to collect the opinion of 
Italian canonists respecting the king's di- 
vorce. He visited Venice, Padua, Vicenza, 
Bologna, Milan, Naples, Ferrara, and Rome ; 
at times assumed the name of Johannes Flan- 
drensis ; conferred with Jewish rabbis as well 
as with catholic divines ; made copious tran- 
scripts from manuscript copies of the fathers 
in the library of St. Mark at Venice, and 
sought to become a penitentiary priest at 
Rome, in order to consult documents the 
more readily. He corresponded with Cran- 
mer ; repeatedly complained of the delay in 
Bending remittances, and wrote to Henry VIII 
from Venice, 22 June 1530, that he feared 
assassination. Croke reported that out of 
Rome Italian opinion on the canonical ques- 
tion favoured the divorce, but that there was 
little inclination to discredit the pope's au- 
thority. He solemnly asserted that he never 
bought opinion, but admitted that he was as 
liberal as his means allowed in rewarding 
those who expressed themselves as he de- 
sired. His extant accounts show him to 
have paid sums to all manner of persona. 
In 1531 he was deputy vice-chancellor of 
Cambridge University; on 12 Jan. 1530-1 
was presented by the crown to the rectory 
of Long Buckby, Northamptonshire; was 
incorporated D.D. at Oxford (1532) ; and 
became canon (18 July 1532) and sub-dean 
of Cardinal's or King's CoUege, afterwards 
Christ Church. On the death of John Hig- 
den, dean of the college, in 1533, the canons 
petitioned Thomas Cromwell to appoint Croke 
to the vacant office ; but the request was 
not complied with, although Croke assured 
the minister that he had preached sixty ser- 
mons in thirty-seven different places in favour 
of the king's supremacy. In 1545, when the 
King's College was transformed into the ca- 
thedral of Oxford diocese, Croke was not read- 
mitted canon of the new foundation, but re- 
ceived a pension of 261. 13s. Ad. He retired 
to Exeter College, and lived there in 1545. 
He was present at the public disputation on 
the sacrament, in which Cranmer, Ridley, 
and Latimer were forced to take part, in April 
1554, and was the first witness examined at 
Cranmer's trial at Oxford (September 1555), 
when he testified to the archbishop's heresy. 
His evidence in Latin is printed in Strype's 
' Cranmer ' (1854), iii. 548 et seq. He died 
in London in August 1558. A nuncupative 
will, dated 22 Aug. 1558, was proved a week 
later by his brother, Robert Croke of Water 
Orton, Warwickshire, an executor. He is 
described in the will as 'parson of Long 

The three works published by Croke at 
Leipzig — the edition of * Ausonius ' (1515), 

the 'Tabulae' (1516), and the translation 
from Theodore Gaza — were printed by Va- 
lentin Schuman. In the ' Ausonius ' the 
Greek characters appear without accents, 
breathings, or iota subscript. In the two 
later books accents and breathings are in- 
serted. A second edition of the 'TabuL-e,' 
edited by Croke's pupil, Philip Neumann 
(Philippus Nouenianus), appeared in 1521, 
The ' Encomium ' on Leipzig University pre- 
fixed to the ' Ausonius ' has been reprinted 
in J. G. Boehme's ' Opuscula Acad. Lips.' 
Croke also published in a single volume 
(Paris, by Simon Colinseus, 1520) ' Oratio 
de Grtecarum disciplinarum laudibus ' and 
' Oratio qua Cantabrigienses est hortatas ne 
Grsecarum literarum desertores essent.' A 
Latin translation of Chrysostom's Greek 
Commentary is also ascribed to him. A 
volume entitled ' Richardi Croci Britannici 
introductiones in rudimenta Graeca ' appeared 
at Cologne in 1520, dedicated to Archbishop 
Warham. A copy of this book, no copy of 
which is in the British Museum, was re- 
cently discovered in Lincoln Cathedral Li- 
brary. Croke contributed a Latin poem to 
Hierony mus de Ochsenf urt's ' Reprobatio Ora- 
tionis excusatorise picardorum.' Leland de- 
nounces Croke as a slanderer (^Collectanea, 
V. 161). In the Cottonian Library is Croke's 
'Letter Book' while in Italy (Cotton MS. 
Vitell. B. 13), and many of his letters re- 
lating to his mission respecting the divorce 
are calendared in the ' Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIH.' 

[An admirable notice of Croke's career in Ger- 
many was contributed by Mr. Hermann Hager 
to the Transactions of the Cambridge Philo- 
logical Society (1883), ii. 83-94. See also art. 
by Professor Horawitz in Deutsche Allgemeine 
Biographie; Cooper's Athense Cantab, i. 177-9; 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury's Hist, of Henry VIII ; 
Burnet's Hist, of Eeformation, ed. Pocock; 
Strype's Cranmer ; J. Bass Mullinger's Hist, of 
Camb. Univ. i. 527-39, 615; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. (Bliss), i. 259-60 ; Henry VIII's Letters 
and Papers, ed. Brewer and Gairdner ; Har- 
wood's Alumni Etonenses.] S. L. 

CROKER, JOHN, or (un-Anglicised) 
CROCKER, JOHANN (1670-1741), a well- 
known engraver of English coins and medals, 
of German origin, was born at Dresden 
21 Oct. 1670. His father, who was wood- 
carver and cabinet-maker to the electoral 
court of Saxony, died when Croker was very 
young, leaving him and several younger 
children to the care of their mother (Rosina 
Frauenlaub), who was careful about their edu- 
cation. John Croker's godfather, a near re- 
lation, took him as an apprentice to his busi- 
ness of goldsmith and jeweller at Dresden. 




During his leisure hours Croker worked at 
medal-engraving and tried to improve his 
knowledge of drawing and modelling. On 
the expiration of his apprenticeship he visited 
most of the large towns of Germany in the 
practice of his profession as jeweller. He 
afterwards went to Holland, whence he came 
to England towards the end of 1691. In 
England he engaged himself to a jeweller, 
but at last began to work exclusively as a 
medallist. In 1697 he was appointed an 
assistant to Captain Harris, the chief en- 
graver of the mint, who practically handed 
over the execution of his work to Croker. 
In this year Croker produced his first known 
English medal, relating to the peace of Rys- 
wick. On the death of the chief engraver, 
which took place before 12 Oct. 1704, there 
were five candidates for the vacant post. The 
officers of the mint reported to the lord high 
treasurer that of these candidates * Mr. Rose 
. . . seemed qualified;' that * Colonel Parsons 
and Mr. Fowler did not themselves grave, 
and therefore were not fit for the service of 
the mint,' and that Croker was ' a very able 
artist.' The appointment was given to Croker 
on 7 April 1705. He engraved all the dies for 
the gold and silver coins current during the 
reigns of Anne and George I [the pattern (P) 
for the guinea of 1727 (George I) was perhaps 
by a pupil of Croker's (Kenton, Gold Coins 
of England, p. 189)], as well as the dies for 
the gold coins of George II till the middle 
of 1739, and for the silver coins with * the 
young head,' fifom 1727 to 1741 inclusive. 
In copper he made the halfpennies and 
farthings of George I, and those of the first 
coinage of George II (i.e. before 1740). 
Croker also made several of the pattern half- 
pennies of Queen Anne as well as the well- 
known pattern farthings of her reign, includ- 
ing the specimen of 1714 with * Britannia ' 
reverse, probably current (W. Wkoth, in 
the Academy, 28 March 1885, p. 229). Three 
of the reverse types of the pattern farthings 
(Montagu, Copper Coins, p. 50, Nos. 12, 13, 
16) seem to be distinctly historical — refer- 
ring to the peace of Utrecht (1713) ; and it 
would appear that Croker was thus attempt- 
ing to carry out the novel recommendation 
of Dean Swift, that the English farthings 
(and half-pence) ' should bear devices and 
inscriptions alluding to the most remarkable 
parts of her ipajesty's reign ' — a suggestion 
which (Swift says) the lord treasurer had at 
last fallen in with (Swift, Letter to Mrs. 
Dinghy, 4 Jan. 1712-13 ; Guardian, No. 96 ; 
cf. RtrriNG, Annals of the Coinage, ii. 64-5). 
Croker had a fine eyesight and was generally 
in excellent health ; during the last two years 
of his life he became infirm, but he atiU oc- 

casionally occupied himself with his work at 
the mint, employing the remainder of hia 
time (it is said) ' in reading instructive and 
devotional books.' He died 21 March 1741, 
aged 71. He married in 1705 an English- 
woman named Franklin {d. 1735), by whom 
he had one child, a daughter, who died 

From 1702 till 1732 Croker was constantly 
engaged in medal engraving. His medals, 
which are nearly all commemorative of events 
and not of persons, are always struck, not 
cast, and are, like his coins, very neatly turned 
out. The work of his reverses recalls that 
of his predecessors, the Roettiers, but is in 
lower relief; his designs are very pictorial 
and full of minute detail. A manuscript 
volimie purchased by the British Museum at 
the sale of the library of Mr. Stanesby Al- 
chome, once an officer of the mint, contains 
many of Croker's original designs for medals 
as weU as autographs of Sir Isaac Newton 
as master of the mint. Croker's earliest medals 
are — like aU his coins and patterns for coins 
— unsigned. His ' Queen Anne's Bounty ' 
medal of 1704 is signed I. C, and from that 
date this is his almost invariable signature. 
A few specimens (of 1704 and 1706) are 
signed Ceoker. In official documents he is 
called both * Croker ' and ' Crocker.' Croker 
was the public medallist of his time ; but he 
had a private pecuniary interest in the sale 
of his works, as appears from a report of the 
officers of the mint to the lord high treasurer, 
stating that the officers were of ' opinion that 
good graving was the best security of the 
coin, and was best acquired by graving 
medals ; ' the gravers of the mint should there- 
fore ' have leave to make and sell such 
medals of fine gold and sUver as did not 
relate to state afiairs, and such medals as 
were made to reward persons by her majesty 
for good services, also such as had historical 
designs and inscriptions for great actions ' 
( Cal. Treasw'y Papers, report ' dated 20 June 
1706. Readl8Aug.l706. Agreed'). Croker's 
principal medals are as follows : the obverse 
type almost invariably consists of the head 
of the reigning sovereign : Reign op Wil- 
liam HI — 1. * State of Britain after Peace 
ofRyswick,'1697. Reign of Anne — 2. 'Ac- 
cession,' 1702. 3. * Coronation '(official medal), 
1702. 4. ' Anne and Prince George of Den- 
mark,' 1702 ; bust of Prince George. 5. ' Ex- 
pedition to Vigo Bay,' 1702 ; view of Vigo 
harbour (three pairs of dies). 6. ' Capitula- 
tion of Towns on the Meuse,' 1702 ; Liege 
bombarded. 7. * Cities captured by ]\Iarl- 
borough,' 1703. 8. 'Queen Anne's Bounty,' 
1704. 9. 'Battle of Blenheim,' 1704. 10. 'Cap- 
ture of Gibraltar,' 1704. 11. ' Barcelona re* 




lieved,' 1706. 12. 'Battle of Ramillies,' 

1706. 13. ' Union of England and Scotland,' 

1707. 14. 'Battle of Oudenarde,' 1708. 

15. ' Capture of Sardinia and Minorca,' 1708. 

16. ' Citadel of LiUe taken,' 1708. 17. ' City 
of Toumay taken,' 1709. 18. ' Battle of Mal- 
plaquet,' 1709. 19. 'Douay taken,' 1710. 
20. 'Battle of Almenara,' 1710. 21. 'The 
French lines passed, and Bouchain taken,' 
1711. 22. ' Peace of Utrecht,' 1713 (Med. III. 
ii. 399-401). 23. Medallic portrait of Queen 
Anne, drc. a.d. 1704, no reverse (Med. III. ii. 
417, No. 291). ReignofGeoegbI— 24. 'Ar- 
rival in England,' 1714. 25, 'Entry into 
London,' 17 14. 26. ' Coronation,' 1714 (offi- 
cial medal : several pairs of dies used). 
27. ' Battle of Sheriffmuir,' 1715. 28.' Preston 
taken,' 1715. 29. 'Act of Grace,' 1717. 
30. * Treaty of Passarowitz,' 1718. 31. 'Naval 
Action off Cape Passaro,' 1718. 32. ' Caroline, 
Princess of Wales,' 1718. 38. ' Order of the 
Bath revived,' 1725. 34. ' Sir Isaac Newton,' 

1726. Heign of Geoege II — 35. 'Coro- 
nation of George II,' 1727 (official medal). 
36. * Queen Caroline, Coronation ' (official), 

1727. 37. ' Second Treaty of Vienna,' 1731. 
38. ' Medal of the Royal Family,' 1732, ob- 
verse ; (rev. by J. S. Tanner). 

A iew of the reverses attached to Croker's 
obverses were made by Samuel Bull, one of 
the engravers at the English mint during the 
reigns of Anne and George I (see Med. Illust. 
ii. 296, 297, 317, 363, 374, 722). His con- 
stant signature is S. B. 

[Memoir of Johann Crocker, by J. G. Pfister, 
in Numismatic Chronicle (old ser.), xv. (1853) 
67-73 (cf. Proceedings of the Numismatic 
Society in same vol. p. 17), "where there is an 
accoimt of the Designs of John Croker (Brit. 
Mu8, Addit. MS. 18757, f. 4) referred to in our 
text ; Hawkins's Medallic Illustrations of Brit, 
Hist., ed. Franksand Grueber, i. xx-xxi ; ii. 723, 
&c. ; Bolzenthal's Skizzen zur Kunst-gesch. der 
mod. Medaillen-Arbeit, p. 264 ; Walpole's Anec- 
dotes of Painting, ed. Wornum, ii. 642 ; notices 
(not important) in dictionaries of Nagler and 
Eedgrave; Cal. Treasury Papers, '1702-1707,' 
p. 297, and ib. '20 June, 1706;' Hawkins's 
Silver Coins of England ; Kenyon's Gold Coins ; 
Montagu's Copper Coins ; Henfrey's Guide to 
English Coins, ed. Keary, pp. 98, 257 ; Euding's 
Annals of the Coinage, ii. 64, 65 ; Croker's 
Coins and Medals in the Medal Room, British 
Museum, and the Select Specimens exhibited in 
the Public Galleries, for which see Grueber's 
Guide to the English Medals exhibited, Index 
of Artists, s.v. ' Crocker.'] W. W. 

1867), politician and essayist, vrasborn in Gal- 
way, 20 Dec. 1780. He was the son of John 
Croker, a man of an old Devonshire stock, who 
was for many years surveyor-general of cus- 

toms and excise in Ireland, and is spoken of 
by Burke as ' a man of great abilities and most 
amiable manner, an able and upright public 
steward, and universally beloved and re- 
spected in private life.' His mother was the 
daughter of the Rev. R. Rathbone of Gal way. 
Such being his parentage, Croker, with the 
usual acciiracy of rancorous journalists, was 
in after years denounced as a man of ' low 
birth, the son of a country gauger.' He was 
obviously a bright, clever boy, and amiable 
also, if we may credit Sheridan Knowles, to 
whose father's school in Cork Croker was sent 
when very young to have a stutter corrected, 
which he never entirely conquered. When 
only nine years old he made his first essay in 
authorship in an election squib during a Cork 
election. He afterwards spent some time at 
a school there founded by French refugees, 
where he attained a facility in reading, writ- 
ing, and speaking their language. At a Mr. 
Willis's school in Portarlington he was at 
twelve years old 'head of the school, facile 
princeps in every branch,' and the pride of 
the masters. By this time he was able to 
translate the first Eclogue and the first book 
of the ^neid of Virgil into verse founded on 
the model of Pope's Homer, which he had 
learned by heart. A year or two at another 
and more classical school, also at Portarling- 
ton, kept by the Rev. Richmond Hood, who in 
later years became the second Sir Robert Peel's 
classical tutor, prepared him for Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, where he was entered in No- 
vember 1796. Tom Moore was there, a year or 
two his senior, and he met of his own class 
Strangford, Leslie Foster, Gervais, Fitz- 
gibbon, Coote, and others who rose after- 
wards to social and professional distinction. 
During his four years at Trinity College, 
where he took a B.A. degree, Croker won a 
distinguished place among his contemporaries, 
and was conspicuous as a speaker in the de- 
bates of the Historical Society, besides gain- 
ing several medals for essays marked by ex- 
tensive information as well as literary power. 
In 1800 he entered himself as a student at 
Lincoln's Inn, and during the two following 
years devoted himself to legal study there. 
But the bent of his mind was essentially 
literary. The incidents of the French re- 
volution had taken a strong hold upon his 
mind, and he had already made progress in 
that minute study of the revolutionary epoch 
which ultimately led to his forming a remark- 
able collection of French contemporary pam- 
phlets, now in the British Museum, and made 
him probably the best informed man in Eng- 
land about all details of this period of French 
history. A series of letters addressed to 
Tallien which he wrote introduced him to a 




connection with the 'Times,' and laid the 
foundation of a lasting and confidential inti- 
macy with its leading proprietor. During this 
period he was associated with Horace and 
James Smith, Mr. Hemes, Colonel Greville, 
Prince Hoare, and Mr. Richard Cumberland 
in writing both prose and verse for two short- 
lived publications called ' The Cabinet ' and 
' The Picnic' He returned to Dublin in 1802, 
and in 1804 created great local commotion 
there by a little volume in octosyllabic verse 
of ' Familiar Epistles ' to Mr. Jones, the man- 
ager of the Crow Street Theatre, ' on the Pre- 
sent State of the Irish Stage.' The theatre 
was then the delight of the best people in 
Dublin, and yielded, as Croker mentions, the 
large income for those days of 5,000^. a year 
to the manager — a sum, as he says, ' greater 
than the salary of two of the judges of that 
land.' Between 6,000^. and 7,000/.was in fact 
the true amount. But, to judge by Croker's 
book, the liberality of the manager in provid- 
ing a company of good actors did not keep 
pace with the liberality of the public. In a kind 
of 'Eosciad,' a very pale reflex of Churchill's 
masterpiece, the actors and their manager are 
passed in review. The writing is not without 
point and sparkle. Five editions of the book 
were sold within the year. Parties in society 
and in the press raved about the book. The 
author, said the * Freeman's Journal,' is ' an 
infamous scribbler.' ' He is a well-educated 
gentleman,' rejoined another organ. Croker, 
with characteristic coolness, published in his 
successive editions an abstract of the conflict- 
ing praise and abuse. The book has now no 
interest except for dabblers in histrionic story. 
The preface and notes are overloaded with 
quotationsfrom Greek, Latin, Spanishjitalian, 
and French — a vice, partly of vanity, partly 
of pedantry, from which Croker's style never 
thoroughly cleared itself. His next literary 
venture was in prose, and met with even 
greater success. It was called ' An Inter- 
rupted Letter from J — T — , Esq., written 
at Canton to his friend in Dublin,' and under 
the disguise of Chinese names gave a piquant 
sketch of the Irish capital and its notabilities. 
It reached a seventh edition within a year, and 
then was forgotten. Meanwhile Croker was 
making his way at the Irish bar. He attached 
himself to the Alunster circuit, where he first 
encountered Mr.DanielO'Connell.Hisfather's 
influence got him briefs in many revenuecases; 
beseemed in the wayof risingintoalargeprac- 
tice, and in 1806 he married IMiss RosamoTid 
PenneU, daughter of Mr. William Pennell, 
afterwards British consul in South America. 
She proved to be a thoroughly congenial com- 
panion, and he always regarded his union with 
her as the chief blessing of his life. In the same 

year, the candidate for Downpatrick, whom he 
had gone down to support, having withdrawn, 
Croker succeeded in obtaining the seat on a 
petition. He was re-elected when a dissolu- 
tion took place the following year on the 
collapse of the 'All Talents' ministry, and 
retained the seat till 1812, when he was re- 
jected at the general election. He was there- 
upon returned for Athlone, which he repre- 
sented till 1818. He unsuccessfully contes- 
ted Dublin University that year, and in 1819 
was returned for Yarmouth (I. W.) His sub- 
sequent constituencies wereBodmin(1820-6), 
Aldeburgh (1826-7), Dublin University 
(1827-30), and Aldeburgh again (1830-2). 

During the parliament of 1807-12 Croker 
declared his general adherence to the admi- 
nistration of the Duke of Portland, reserving 
to himselffreedom on the question as to the re- 
moval of catholic disabilities, to which he was 
favourable. On the night he took his seat in 
theHouse of Commons he spoke on the state of 
Ireland,stimulated by Grattan's observations, 
which he thought injurious and unfounded. 
This bold venture proved entirely successful. 
'Though obviously unpremeditated,' he wrote 
long afterwards, ' I was not altogether flat- 
tered at hearing that my first speech was the 
best. I suspect it was so. Canning, whom I 
had never seen before, asked Mr. Foster to in- 
troduce me to him after the division, was very 
kind and walked home with me to my lodg- 
ings.' The acquaintance thus begun, cemen- 
ted as it was by community of opinion on the 
catholic question, ripened into a friendship 
which only terminated with Canning's death. 
The impression made by Croker in the liouse 
was greatly strengthened by the ability with 
which his views on that burning question 
were stated in a pamphlet called ' A Sketch of 
Ireland Past and Present.' It ran rapidly 
through twenty editions,and its sound and far- 
seeing views have been found of such perman- 
ent value that it was reprinted in 1884. It 
fixed upon its author the attention of all the 
leadingpoliticians of the day, Perceval among 
them,who,though of opposite opinions, formed 
so high an opinion of the writer's powers that 
he recommended Sir Arthur Wellesley, on his 
appointment in June 1808 to the command 
in the Peninsula, to entrust to the young 
Irish member during his absence the busi- 
ness of his office of chief secretary for Ireland. 
Sir Arthur acted upon his advice, and a re- 
lation between himself and Croker was thus 
established, which grew into intimacy and 
lasted through life. Croker's duties gave 
him a position which commanded a hearing 
for him in the House of Commons. The dis- 
cussions there in 1809 on Colonel Wardle's 
charge against the Duke of York of conniving 




at the sale of military appointments by his mis- 
tress, Mrs. Clarke [see Clakke, Mary Aitne], 
brought Croker to the front. Speaking in 
answer to Sir Francis Burdett (14 March) he 
dissected the evidence adduced against the 
duke with a dexterity which showed how 
much he had profited by his legal experience. 
The speech was a brilliant success, and as- 
sisted so materially in the vindication of the 
duke, that it drew down upon Croker much 
obloquy and scurrilous abuse. Meanwhile 
Croker had no income but what he derived 
from his profession and from literary work; 
but Perceval told him that the government 
would gladly recognise his services by any 
suitable appointment. He had shared the 
counsels of Canning and George Ellis in ar- 
ranging for the establishment of the * Quar- 
terly Review' in February 1809, and was 
enlisted among its contributors. His first ar- 
ticle was a review of Miss Edgeworth's ' Tales 
of Fashionable Life.' He did not contribute 
again till the tenth number in 1811, but 
from that time to 1845, excepting for an 
interval between 1826 and 1831, scarcely a 
number appeared without one or more papers 
by him. In all he wrote about two hundred 
and sixty articles upon the most varied topics, 
legal, ecclesiastical, historical (especially con- 
nected with the French revolution), Ireland, 
contemporary history, reviews of novels, tra- 
vels, and poetry, the then new school of which, 
as represented by Leigh Hunt, Shelley, and 
Keats, was especially uncongenial to his taste, 
trained as it had been upon the measured 
precision of Pope. For the appreciation of 
such writers he was especially unfitted, not 
only by want of sympathy but by incapacity 
to appreciate their struggle to bring feeling 
and language into closer harmony by forms 
of expression more simple and unconventional 
than those of the preceding century. His well- 
known review of Keats's * Endymion ' ( Quar- 
terly Review, No. 32, September 1818) is an in- 
structive specimen of that worst style of so- 
called criticism which starts with the assump- 
tion that, because the writer does not like the 
work, it is therefore bad, and proceeds to 
condemn whatever does not fall in with 
the critic's individual ideas. The poem was 
brought out under the patronage of Leigh 
Hunt, a circumstance sufBcient in those days 
to seal its condemnation in the eyes of a tory 
journalist. No list of Croker's reviews has 
ever been made public, and the secret of the 
authorship of papers in the * Quarterly ' as 
they appeared was as a rule so well kept, that 
conjecture on the subject supplied the place 
of knowledge, and, as commonly happens, con- 
jecture was generally wrong. Croker being 
from his political position obnoxious to the 

whig press, they credited all the political 
articles in the ' Quarterly Review ' to his ac- 
count, while the truth was that, as he wrote 
to Mr.Lockhart in 1834, 'for the twenty years 
that I wrote in it, from 1809 to 1829, 1 never 
gave, I believe, one purely political article — 
not one, certainly, in which politics predomi- 
nated.' The battle of Talavera (28 July 
1809^ stirred the poetic vein of the young 
politician. The poem bearing the name of the 
battle appeared in the autumn of 1809. More 
for the enthusiasm which reader shared with 
writer than for any superlative merit in the 
poetry, as poetry is now understood, the book 
had a signal success, greater, according to the 
publisher, Mr. Murray, ' than any short poem 
he knew, exceeding Mr. Heber's " Palestine " 
or " Europe," and even Mr. Canning's "Ulm" 
and " Trafalgar." ' Sir Walter Scott, in the 
measures of whose ' Marmion ' it was written, 
praised it both by letter and in the 'Quar- 
terly ; ' and in a letter to Croker from Badajoz 
(15 Nov. 1809) Wellington wrote that he had 
read the poem with great pleasure, adding, 
characteristically, ' I did not think a battle 
could be turned to anything so entertain- 
ing.' Perceval, who had by this time become 
premier, proved his sense of the value of 
Croker's services to his party by appointing 
him secretary of the admiralty. It was a 
higher office than Croker aspired to ; but, the 
duration of the Perceval administration being 
most precarious, Croker at first hesitated in 
abandoning for it his professional career, of 
which he was fond and which was now yield- 
ing him a fair income. But on learning that 
Perceval in his unsuccessful negotiations with 
Lords Grenville and Grey to take office with 
him, while offering to take the seals of the 
home office himself, had made no other stipu- 
lation than that Croker should be his under- 
secretary, he felt he could do no otherwise 
than yield to the wish of so generous a friend, 
'In that situation,' wrote Wellington, ' I have 
no doubt you will do yourself credit, and more 
than justify me in any little exertion I may 
have made for you while I was in office.' The 
anticipation was amply fulfilled. The appoint- 
ment of a young and untried man to so im- 
portant an office was of course violently at- 
tacked. But in less than a month Perceval's 
estimate of the fitness of his young friend for 
the duties of his responsible office was fully 
j ustified. Croker had, with his wonted acumen, 
at once set to work to master all the details 
of his department as the first step to sound 
administration, and in doing so he found 
reason to suspect a serious defalcation in the 
accounts of an official of high rank and re- 
putation which had escaped the notice of his 
predecessors. He therefore refused to sign a 




warrant for a further issue of money until the 
last issues were accounted for. The defaulter, 
who had great influence with George III, 
used it to persuade the king that everything 
was right, and that the new secretary did not 
understand his business. Meanwhile Croker 
pursued his investigations, and satisfied him- 
self that ' it was a case of ruin and disgrace to 
the individual and a loss of at least 200,000/. 
to the public' He laid the facts before the 
head of the department, Lord Mulgrave, and, 
finding his lordship did not take the same 
view of the case, tendered his resignation. 
Upon this Perceval took the matter up, satis- 
tied himself that Croker was right, and in- 
sisted that no compromise should be made. 
He explained the facts to the king, who there- 
upon sent the young official a warm assurance 
of satisfaction at his zeal in doing his duty, 
and ' his firmness in resisting his (the king's) 
own first suggestions under a misunderstand- 
ing of the case.' Nothing could more conclu- 
sively prove the soundness of Croker's ap- 
pointment than his conduct in this affair. It 
showed his determination that it should be 
no fault of his if the public service were not 
discharged honestly and efficiently, for rather 
than connive at misappropriation of the funds 
allotted to his department he was ready to 
sacrifice a fine appointment and an income of 
3,500/. a year. In the face of this and other 
proofs of ability and zeal the attacks of those 
who had assailed his appointment died down, 
and he devoted himself to the work of his 
office with an energy and sagacity, which the 
critical position of the country and the im- 
portance of maintaining its naval forces in 
high efficiency made especially valuable. The 
extent of work in which he was at once in- 
volved was, to use his own words, * quite 
terrific' He was at his office by nine, and 
worked there till four or five. But his heart 
was in his work, and he was always to be found 
at his desk. * For two-and-twenty years,' he 
wrote to Mr. Murray, the publisher, in 1838, 
' I never quitted that room without a kind of 
imeasiness like a truant boy.' Such devotion, 
combined with strong practical sagacity and 
the determination to master every detail and 
to see that full value should be obtained for 
money spent, soon made him the presiding 
spirit of the department. The rules which 
he laid down and the organisation which he 
established are, we are told by his biographer, 
Mr. Jennings, acknowledged to this day as 
the foundation of ' all that is best and most 
businesslike in the department.' He was not 
of a temper to lose any of the authority which 
his superior knowledge gave him, and his 
ascendency over his official superiors became 
ultimately so well recognised, that on one 

occasion, when he stated in the House of 
Commons that he was only ' the servant of 
the board,' Sir Joseph Yorke, a former lord 
of the admiralty, remarked that when he 
was at the board ' it was precisely the other 
way.' In any case the work of the board was 
admitted to be thoroughly well done, and 
there is no record during his long term of 
office imder successive administrations of 
any complaints of his official conduct. The 
three first lords under whom he served — 
the Earl of Mulgrave, the Right Hon. Charles 
Yorke, and Viscount Melville — all respected 
and got on well with him, and he had the 
courage to maintain his ground against the 
whims and vagaries of the Duke of Clarence, 
when lord high admiral, with a spirit for 
which in after years William IV bore him 
no ill-will. The duke once said to him, 
in 1815, that when he became king Croker 
should not be secretary of the admiralty. 
' I told him,' says Croker, ' " a bird in the hand 
is worth two in the bush." He had just be- 
fore told me he would in that event declare 
himself lord high admiral, and asked me what 
objection I could start to that. I replied, 
with a low bow, " None ; that there was a 
case in point ; James II had done the same." ' 
Very early after his appointment at the ad- 
miralty Croker became numbered among the 
friends of the Prince of Wales, with whom 
he was always a favourite, probably because 
he had little of the courtier in him, and could 
be relied on for sincerity in giving his opinion. 
He was always a welcome visitor at Carlton 
House and Windsor, and later at the Pa- 
vilion in Brighton. A sister of Croker's wife, 
whom Croker had adopted from childhood 
as his daughter, was a great favourite with 
George IV, who was fond of children. She 
was never forgotten at the children's balls 
which were often given at the palace, and 
the king always called her by her pet name, 
' Nony.' Miss Croker, as she was called, after- 
wards Lady Barrow, wife of Sir George Bar- 
row, grew up a beautiful woman, and inspired 
one of Sir Thomas Lawrence's finest por- 
traits, best known in a masterly mezzotint 
by Samuel Cousins. While establishing a 
great reputation as a public official, Croker 
steadily made his way in parliament as & 
debater of the first rank. His great command 
of facts and accuracy of statement made him 
a formidable adversary even to the leaders 
of the opposition. He was terse and inci- 
sive in style, and showed a sharp and ready 
vein of sarcasm, which occasionally rose into 
a strain of eloquent invective. In committee 
of supply his services to the ministry were in- 
valuable. ' At a distance of forty years,' the 
late Lord Hatherton, writing in 1857, speaks 




of a continuous encounter there between 
Tierney and Croker as <the most brilliant 
scene in the House of Commons during the 
twenty-three years he was member of it. On 
the catholic question he maintained through- 
out the principles advocated in his pamphlet 
of 1807, and was admitted by those who had 
no reason to love him to speak upon it with 
frankness, warmth, and sincerity, while dif- 
fering from the views of his party. Thus in 
1819 Lord Monteagle, then Mr. Spring Rice, 
writes of a speech Croker had recently made 
on this question, that 'it showed him to be an 
honest Irishman no less than an able states- 
man . . . ready to quit the road of fortune 
under the auspices of his personal friend Peel, 
if the latter was only to be conciliated by what 
Oxonians term orthodoxy and the Cantabs 
consider as intolerance.' To have abandoned 
the lead of Peel would have indeed been a 
severe trial, for Croker had at this time been 
attached to him for many years by the ties 
of affectionate friendship as weU as of politi- 
cal sympathy. From 1812, when Peel was 
secretary of state for Ireland, down to Peel's 
com law measure in 1845, they were in con- 
stant and most confidential communication. 
Peel was godfather of Croker's only child, a 
son born in January 1817, and named Spencer 
after his father's first patron, Mr. Perceval. 
This child was the light of his parents" eyes, 
but was cut off by a sharp illness on 20 May 
1820. The ambition to advance himself in 
public life seems to have died when he lost 
his boy. The grief for this loss, which over- 
shadowed the rest of his life, completely un- 
nerved him. The fear of mischief to health of 
mind and body, which might ensue on retiring 
from office, alone kept him from resigning his 
post at the admiralty. He even went the length 
of intimating to Lord Liverpool his readiness 
to place it &t his lordship's disposal, if this 
would facilitate his arrangements in forming 
his ministry. But Croker's services were far 
too important to be dispensed with ; and it was 
well for his own ultimate happiness that his 
mind was kept at work at his ' old green desk,' 
and not allowed to dwell upon a sorrow which 
never ceased to weigh heavily upon him. To 
Peel Croker had for years looked forward as 
the man best fitted to become the leader of 
his party. Peel hung back even from office ; 
but Croker now became more urgent than 
ever in soliciting him to join their ranks and 
to aspire to a commanding position. Thus 
he writes (14 Sept. 1821): 'For my own 
part m the whole round of the political com- 
pass there is no point to which I look with 
any interest but yourself. ... I should like 
to see you in high and effective office for a 
hundred reasons which I have before told 

you, and for some which I have not told and 
need not tell you; but if I looked only to 
your own comfort and happiness, I should 
never wish to see you within the waUs of 
Pandemonium.' Croker's wish was grati- 
fied m 1822, when, after the accession of 
George IV, Peel took office as home secre- 
tary under Lord Liverpool ; and the two 
friends fought the battle of their party side 
by side down to 1827, when the break-down 
ol Lord Liverpool's health raised the ques- 
tion of a successor. The choice lay between 
Canning and Peel; but, much as Croker 
would have wished to see Peel take the place 
he had long desired for him, he saw that this 
could not be m the existing state of parties 
My regard and gratitude to the Duke of 
Wellington, who first brought me forward 
m public life,' he writes to Canning (27 April 
1827), ' my private love for Peel, and my re- 
spect and admiration for you, made and make 
me most anxious that you should all hold 
together.' But finding this could not be ar- 
ranged, Croker stood by Cannmg, and played 
so important a part in his counsels while 
forming his cabinet that a cloud of jealousy 
towards his old friend was raised for a time 
m Peel's mind. This, however, was soon 
dissipated before the unmistakable proofs of 
devoted loyalty and unselfishness on Croker's 
part. He refused higher office for himself 
under Canning, and on Canning's death a 
few months afterwards, Croker urged upon 
his successor. Lord Goderich, the importance 
of introducing Peel and the Duke of Welling- 
ton into the new cabinet, and a coalition of 
the tories with the moderate whigs. To 
clear the way for this he even offered to re- 
sign his own appointment, ' worth 3,200/. a 
year and one of the best houses in London.' 
Peel had too mean an opinion of Goderich's 
capacity to accept him for a leader, and pre- 
ferred to stand aloof. He had soon the satis- 
faction of coming into office under a leader 
in the Duke of Wellington of a very different 
stamp, resuming his old position at the home 
office. Again Croker refused to take higher 
office. But his services had been so valu- 
able to his leaders, that they insisted on his 
allowing himself, as a slight recognition of 
them, to be sworn of the privy council, an 
honour which he had refused to accept from 
two previous administrations. In the stormy 
conflicts that prevailed during the Welling- 
ton administration (1829-80), Croker fought 
the battle of his party in parliament with 
vigour and success. On the question of the 
catholic claims his opinions from the day he 
entered parliament in 1807 had been in ad- 
vance of theirs ; aud when they were driven 
by stress of circumstances in 1829 to adopt 




them, his frequently expressed conviction 
that their conversion would come too late was 
verified. He had also for many years advocated 
a measure of parliamentary reform, which 
would have transferred to the great centres 
of commerce and industry the seats of decayed 
and corrupt boroughs. In 1822 he had urged 
in a letter to Peel the necessity of dealing 
frankly with this question, and depriving the 
radicals of complaint against abuses in the 
parliamentary system which it was impos- 
sible to justify, and the outcry against which 
might force on measures that would prove in 
the end dangerous to the constitution. The 
advice was not taken ; the democratic spirit 
which Croker dreaded spread far and fast, 
and he viewed with dismay the momentum 
which it received from the French revolution 
in 1830. When the Wellington ministry re- 
tired in November of that year, Croker at once 
resigned his office at the admiralty, which 
he had held for twenty-two years, his retire- 
ment di-awing from Sir James Graham, the 
new first lord of the admiralty, an expression 
of regret ' that the admiralty would no longer 
have the benefit of his brilliant talents and 
his faithful services.' Although released 
from official life, Croker regarded the issues 
involved in the Reform Bill as so momentous 
that he felt bound actively to support the 
views of his party. Accordingly he threw him- 
self with energy into the debates, and showed 
a fertility of resource, a copious mastery of 
facts, and a vigour of statement, which com- 
manded, with one conspicuous exception, the 
admiration even of his opponents. That excep- 
tion was Macaulay, who in himself illustrated 
the truth of his own remark, ' How extrava- 
gantly unjust party spirit makes men ! ' He 
came down to the House of Commons (22 Sept. 
1831) with one of his elaborately prepared 
orations, in which he attacked the House of 
Lords, pointing to the downfall of the French 
nobility as a warning of what might result 
from a ' want of sympathy with the people.' 
Croker at once rose to reply, and argued 
upon the spur of the moment from the facts 
of the French revolutionary history that the 
analogy was baseless, and that it was weak 
concession and not resistance to popular 
clamour which had accelerated the downfall 
of the French noblesse. He carried the house 
with him. Macaulay's rhetoric was eclipsed, 
and a man of his egotistical temperament was 
not likely to forgive the defeat, or the con- 
temptuous reference in Croker's speech to 
* vague generalities handled with that brilliant 
imagination which tickles the ear and amuses 
the fancy without satisfying the reason.' This 
was not the first discomfiture in the House 
of Commons which Macaulay had sustained 

at Croker's hands. In several previous en- 
counters he had come badly off". These de- 
feats rankled, and it is now very obvious from 
Macaulay's pubUshed correspondence that 
something more than his professed reverence 
for his author had prompted him to attack 
Croker's elaborate edition of Boswell's * Life 
of Johnson ' in a recent number of the ' Edin- 
burgh ' with an asperity of which there are 
happily few examples in recent literary his- 
tory. The book was in truth a monument 
of editorial industry and editorial skill, and 
enriched by a large amount of curious in- 
formation, of which subsequent editors have 
not failed to avail themselves. Macaulay 
thought that he had, to use his own phrase, 
* smashed the book,' and destroyed Croker's 
reputation as a literary man. Croker knew 
too well that his work would outlive any 
slashing article, even from Macaulay's hand, 
to give himself even the trouble of refuting 
the charges of inaccuracy. But this was 
done for him very efiectively by his friend 
J. G. Lockhart, in one of the ' Blackwood ' 
' Noctes Ambrosianpe,' and the detailed an- 
swers to Macaulay's charges were so con- 
clusive that they were subsequently reprinted 
along with these charges in the single volume 
popular edition of the book. The success of 
this refutation did not tend to make Mac- 
aulay think better of Croker, and he lost no 
opportunity of denouncing his literary in- 
capacity. * He was,' he says, ' the most in- 
accurate writer that ever lived,' ' he was a 
man of very slender facidties,' ' he had no- 
thing but italics and capitals as substitutes 
for eloquence and reason,' ' his morals, too, 
were as bad as his style,' * he is a bad, a very 
bad man ; a scandal to literature and to 
politics.' Such phrases in the mouth of a 
man so eminent as Macaulay have naturally 
created prejudice against Croker in the minds 
of those who have neither cared nor been 
able to test their accuracy. But in truth 
they were little more than the ebullitions of 
a man who, by his own confession, was given 
to ' saying a thousand wild and inaccurate 
things, and employing exaggerated expres- 
sions about persons and events,' and who, 
moreover, according to his sister Margaret, 
' was very sensitive, and remembered long 
as well as felt deeply anything in the form 
of slight.' Croker had during this session 
shown himself to be of so much importance 
to his party in parliament, that during the 
unsuccessful attempt to form a tory ministry 
in May 1832 Lord Lyndhurst represented 
to the Duke of Wellington, that it was abso- 
lutely necessary he should come into the 
cabinet. But Croker valued his own cha- 
racter for consistency too highly to enter 6 




government which could not have existed 
for a week, except upon a promise of such a 
measure of reform as he could not in his con- 
science approve. Before this Croker had 
determined to retire altogether from public 
life, as, ' besides all other reasons, he felt his 
health could not stand the worry of business.' 
This resolution he carried out upon the pass- 
ing of the Reform Bill. Several seats were 
placed at his disposal, and the Duke of Wel- 
lington importuned him to re-enter parlia- 
ment, but without success. ' All my politi- 
cal friends,' he writes (28 Aug. 1832) to Lord 
Fitzgerald, ' are very angry with me, the 
duke seriously so.' The reason he gave might 
well account for their anger. It was that 
he could not ' spontaneously take an active 
share in a system which must in my judg- 
ment subvert the church, the peerage, and 
the throne — in one word, the constitution of 
England.' This was nothing less than to 
run away from the colours. But probably 
his real reason, though he did not like to 
make it public, was a consciousness of that 
growing weakness of the heart under which 
he ultimately succumbed, and which would 
have been fatal under the fatigue and excite- 
ment of parliamentary warfare. It was at 
the same time not so serious as to prevent 
his prosecuting his literary labours, and in- 
deed from this time forward it was from his 
library that he fought the battle of his party. 
He continued to maintain the most intimate 
relations with the Duke of Wellington and 
Sir R. Peel, doing his best to keep up the 
spirits of his party, but at the same time 
oppressed with the gloomiest anticipations. 
The Grey administration soon began to totter, 
and indeed was kept on its legs mainly by 
the assistance of the tory opposition. Strongly 
urged by Croker, Peel had made up his mind, 
if the occasion arose, to take office and try 
to rally into something of its old compactness 
the scattered forces of what Croker was the 
first to call ' the conservatives.' (Croker seems 
to have first employed the appellation in an 
article in the ' Quarterly ' for January 1830, 
p. 276. In July 1832 Macaulay, in his ar- 
ticle onMirabeaufor the 'Edinburgh Review,' 
p. 557, refers to the term * conservative ' as 
' the new cant word.') When Lord Mel- 
bourne had toresign (July 1834), Peel hurried 
back from Italy to take the reins of govern- 
ment. His first letter on reaching England 
was to Croker asking him to call, and saying : 
' It will be a relief to me from the harassing 
cares that await me.' Croker was ill, but he 
wrote at once in reply. He was not by any 
means sanguine that Peel could succeed in 
forming a ministry that would stand. His 
advice was: ' Get, if you can, new men, young 

VOL. V. 

blood — the ablest, the fittest — and throw 
aside boldly the claims of all the " mediocri- 
ties " with which we were overladen in the 
last race. I don't promise that even that will 
insure success ; but it is your best chance.' 
Would Croker himself take office ? was Peel's 
first question when they met. Nothing, was 
his answer, would induce him again to enter 
the House of Commons. But he did what 
he could for his friend by a strong article in 
the ' Quarterly Review,' in which he de- 
fended the policy set forth by Peel in what 
is known as the ' Tamworth Manifesto.' He 
stood by Peel throughout the gallant struggle 
maintained by him during his short-lived ad- 
ministration, constant communication upon 
political affairs being maintained between 
them of a most confidential kind. During this 
period Croker availed himself of this intimacy 
to urge the claims of literature and science 
upon the prime minister's consideration. 
Through his intervention a grant of 200/. a 
year was made to Mrs. Somerville, he pro- 
cured help for Dr. Maginn, ' though I believe,' 
as he wrote to Peel, ' he has libelled you and 
1 me,' and he also pressed for some relief to 
j Moore, who was then in great financial 
j straits. To Lord Lyndhurst, then chancellor 
I for the second time, he appealed to give a 
j living to another struggling literary man, the 
Rev. George Croly [q. v.] In the incidents 
of the administration it is clear from Croker's 
published correspondence that nothing gave 
greater pleasure to Peel to write and Croker 
to learn than that the chancellor had given a 
living to Crabbe, one of Croker's faA'ourite 
poets, and that liberal pensions had been 
awarded to Professor Airy, Sharon Turner, 
Southey, and James Montgomery. When the 
Peel administration came to an end in 1835, 
this caused no cessation in the intimate 
friendly correspondence on all topics, literary 
and artistic, as well as political, between 
himseK and Croker. When he resumed the 
reins of office in the autumn of 1841, Croker 
supported his friend's measures in the ' Quar- 
terly Review ' with the same confidence that 
he had all along shown in Peel's powers as 
the only man who could be relied on to 
maintain sound constitutional principles. By 
this time the faith of not a few of Peel's 
followers had begun to be shaken ; and it is 
apparent from his published correspondence 
with Croker, that so great a change had begun 
to take place, that it is surprising Croker 
himself had not caught the alarm. The 
attacks of Disraeli and his friends on the 
Peel policy found no sympathy from Croker, 
who in one of his political articles spoke of 
the ' extreme inconsistency and impolicy of 
endeavouring to create distrust of the only 





Btatesman in whom the great conservative 
body has any confidence, and can have any 
hope.' It was therefore a terrible shock to 
Croker's lifelong belief in Peel when he an- 
nounced his adherence to the policy of Cob- 
den on resuming office in 1845, after Lord 
John Russell's failure to form a government. 
Croker felt this the more bitterly that he had 
been used by Peel and Sir James Graham to 
express views antagonistic to the abolition 
of the corn laws in an article in the ' Quar- 
terly Review ' in December 1842, which Peel 
in returning the proofs had pronounced to be 
excellent. In a correspondence which passed 
between Croker and the Duke of Wellington 
at the time Croker tells the duke that his 
articles ' on the corn laws and on the league 
were written under Peel's eye,' and under the 
direct inspiration of Peel and Graham. When 
the duke urged that a refusal by Peel to 
abolish the corn laws would have placed the 
government ' in the hands of the league and 
the radicals,' Croker replied that this was 
just what Peel's action would do. But what 
he chiefly regretted was that Peel, by desert- 
ing the specific principle upon which he was 
brought into office, had ' ruined the character 
of public men, and dissolved by dividing the 
great landed interest ' (Letter to Sir H. 
Hardinge, 24 April 1846). His letters show 
what pain it cost him to separate from the 
friend of a lifetime. He would fain have 
abstained from giving public expression to 
his opinions. But when appealed to by the 
proprietor and editor of the ' Quarterly Re- 
view ' * as a man of honour to maintain the 
principle to which he had, in December 1842, 
pledged ' that journal, he felt he could not 
refuse. In the articles which he then wrote 
there is nothing, according to Mr. Jennings, 
the editor of the * Croker Papers,' ' which was 
aimed at the man as distinguished from the 
statesman.' They were not so regarded by 
Peel. In the letters which passed between 
them Croker writes with manly pathos. He 
subscribed his last letter to Peel * very sin- 
cerely and affectionately yours. Up to the 
Altar.' Peel opens his reply with a cold ' Sir,' 
and ends ' I have the honour to be. Sir, your 
obedient servant.' They never met again. 
"Very different was the case with the Duke of 
Wellington. No cloud passed over his friend- 
ship towards Croker, which remained un- 
broken to the last. In 1847 Lord George 
Bentinck appears among Croker's correspond- 
ents, and in March 1848 Croker asks him as 
to Disraeli's manner of speaking and effec- 
tiveness in debate. Four years previously 
Disraeli was supposed to have drawn the 
character of Rigby, in the novel of 'Con- 
ingsby,' after Croker. The character is one 

of the most hateful and contemptible in 
modern fiction ; and knowing the relation in 
which Croker stood to the Marquis of Hert- 
ford as the commissioner and manager of his 
estates and intimate personal friend, Disraeli 
abused the license of the novelist in drawing 
his Rigby in a way that could scarcely fail to 
raise the surmise, that in the agent and pan- 
derer to the vices of Lord Monmouth he had 
Croker in view. Of Croker personally he 
knew almost nothing, having met him only 
thrice. The correspondence between Croker 
and the Marquis of Hertford published by 
Mr. Jennings shows the grievous injustice 
done by Disraeli if he had Croker in view. 
In that correspondence no trace of that con- 
temptible personage is to be found. Lord 
Hertford found in Croker not only a lively 
correspondent, but an invaluable guide in the 
management of his vast property, which 
seems to have been wholly under Croker's 
direction. For this service he refused to be 
paid ; and so well understood was his posi- 
tion that, when Lord Hertford died, Peel, who 
as well as the Duke of Wellington had been 
one of his lordship's intimate friends, wrote 
to Croker (3 March 1842) : ' My chief interest 
in respect to Lord Hertford's will was the 
hope that out of his enormous wealth he 
would mark his sense of your unvarying 
and real friendship for him.' Lord Hertford 
had always said that he would leave Croker 
80,000Z. The sum he actually received was 
20,000/., an informality in a codicil having 
deprived him of a much larger sum. It now 
appears that Croker never had the curiosity 
even to look into ' Coningsby,' and that it 
was only after he had published a ' Review of 
Mr. Disraeli's Budget Speech of 1853 ' that 
his attention was called to the book by hear- 
ing that the review was regarded as retalia- 
tion for what Disraeli had said of him in his 
' Vivian Grey ' and * Coningsby.' It was 
Croker's rule through life to take no notice 
of libellous attacks ; and to take public no- 
tice of any of the characters in ' Coningsby ' 
would have shown an utter want of tact. 
But he would have been more than human 
if, when the two first volumes of Macaulay's 
' History ' appeared, he had refrained from 
showing that the man who had assailed him 
for 'gross and scandalous inaccuracy' was not 
himself free from reproach. This he did in 
an elaborate article in the ' Quarterly Re- 
view' (March 1849). It is written with 
admirable temper, and, while giving to the 
work full credit for the brilliant and fasci- 
nating qualities, it points out upon incontro- 
vertible evidence its grave faults of inaccu- 
rate and overcharged statement. Not till 
this has been done does it conclude with the 




opinion, in which Croker was not singular 
even then, that, however charming as an his- 
torical romance, Macaulay's work ' will never 
be quoted as authority on any question or 
point in the history of England.' It is a 
striking corroboration of this view that Sir 
James Stephen, after undertaking to review 
the book in the * Edinburgh Review,' aban- 
doned his intention, ' because it was, in truth, 
not what it professed to be — a hi story — but an 
historical novel.' Macaulay himself said of 
Croker's article that it was ' written with so 
much rancour as to make everybody sick.' It 
is impossible, in justice to Croker, not to ad- 
vert to the attacks upon him, not only by 
Macaulay, but also by his biographer, and to 
indicate that there is another side to the 
question than that which they have been at 
great pains to present. Croker continued to 
enjoy the friendship and the confidence of 
many of the best and ablest men of his time. 
The infirmities of age, and a feeling that ' he 
was out of date, at least out of season,' made 
him withdraw in 1854 from his active con- 
nection with the ' Quarterly Review.' Lite- 
rature, however, continued to be to the last 
his chief occupation and enjoyment. He had 
long meditated an edition of Pope, and his 
later years were spent in accumulating ma- 
terials for this, which he was himself unable 
to use, but which have been turned to ac- 
count by Mr. Whitwell Elwin and Mr. 
Courthope. These years were full of sufler- 
ing, but Croker found solace in the work, 
which had become a necessity of his life. 
'Though death,' says his biographer, Mr. 
Jennings, 'was constantly within sight, he 
did not fear it, or allow it in any way to in- 
terfere with the performance of the daily 
duties which he prescribed for himself.' The 
first serious symptoms of his malady — disease 
of the heart — appeared in 1850, and he was 
liable to fainting fits, sometimes as many as 
twelve or fourteen in a day. His pulse was 
seldom above thirty, and often fell to twenty- 
three, and acute neuralgia frequently aggra- 
vated his sufferings. ' His patience,' says 
Lady Barrow, the amanuensis of his later 
years, who was with him to his death, * never 
failed.' His love for his family and his friends 
was something wonderful. His general health 
was good, and his brain as active and acute 
as ever. Thus, till the last day of his life 
(10 Aug. 1857), he kept up his wide corre- 
spondence, and he even worked all that day 
at his notes on Pope. As he was being put 
into bed by his servant he fell back dead, ex- 
claiming ' Wade ! ' passing away, says his 
biographer, ' in the manner which he had 
always desired — surrounded by those whom 
he loved the best, and yet spared the pain of 

protracted parting and farewells. In this 
hope he died as he had lived.' Ample mate- 
rials for forming an estimate of Croker are to 
be found in the three volumes of his ' Me- 
moirs, Diaries, and Correspondence,' edited by 
Louis J. Jennings, published in 1884. He 
was manifestly a man of strict honour, of 
high principle, of upright life, of great cour- 
age, of untiring industry, devoted with single- 
ness of heart to the interests of his country, 
a loyal friend, and in his domestic relations 
unexceptionable. Living in the days when 
party rancour raged, prominent as a speaker 
in parliament, and wielding a trenchant and 
too often personally aggi'essive pen in the 
leading organ of the tory party, he came in 
for a very large share of the misrepresenta- 
tion which always pursues political partisans. 
His literary tastes were far from catholic in 
their range, and he made himself obnoxious 
to the newer school by the dogmatic and nar- 
row spirit and the sarcastic bitterness which 
are apt to be the sins that more easily beset 
the self-constituted and anonymous critics of 
a leading review. Thus to political adver- 
saries he added many an enemy in the field 
of literature. As he never replied to any 
attack, however libellous, it became the 
practice among a certain class of writers to 
accuse him of heartlessness and malignity. 
Only once did he reply to such accusations, 
and then he showed how much his enemies 
probably owed to his forbearance. His assail- 
ant in this case was Lord John Russell, who, 
stung by a severe censure, in a review by 
Croker of Lord John's edition of Moore's 
' Diaries,' of the disregard of private feeling 
and good taste shown in the editing of the 
book, attacked Croker in a note to one of 
the volumes, impugning his moral charac- 
ter and personal honour, and charging him 
with using the fact that Moore had been 
a former friend and was now dead, ' to 
give additional zest to the pleasure of a 
safe malignity.' A correspondence in the 
* Times ' ensued, in which Croker completely 
turned the tables upon his assailant. That 
Croker had serious faults of temper and 
manner cannot, however, be denied. * To 
strangers, or towards persons whom he dis- 
liked, says Mr. Jennings, 'his manner was 
often overbearing and harsh.' He was, espe- 
cially in his latter days, impatient of contra- 
diction, and somewhat given to self-assertion. 
But no man was more thoroughly trusted by 
his friends or loved them more truly. Those 
who knew him best 'never wavered in their at- 
tachment to him,' says Mr. Jennings. ' Every 
one who had more than a superficial acquaint- 
ance with him was well aware that he had 
done a thousand kindly acts, some of them 




to persons who little deserved them at his 
hands, and that, as was said of Dr. Johnson, 
there was nothing of the bear about him but 
the skin.' In person Croker was rather under 
the middle size, slender, and well knit. His 
head, of the same type as that of Canning 
and Sir Thomas Lawrence, was handsome, 
and spoke of a quick, acute, and active intel- 
lect. There is a fine portrait of him by his 
friend Sir Thomas Lawrence, which has been 
reproduced in an admirable mezzotint by 
Cousins. The following are the principal 
published works of Croker, exclusive of his 
articles in the * Quarterly Review : ' 1. * Fa- 
miliar Epistles to Frederick Jones, Esq., on 
the State of the Irish Stage,' 1804. 2. 'An 
Intercepted Letter from Canton ' (a satire 
on the state of society in Dublin), 1804. 
3. 'Songs of Trafalgar,' 1804. 4. 'A Sketch 
of the State of Ireland, Past and Present,' 

1808. 5. ' The Battles of Talavera,' a poem, 

1809. 6. 'Key to the Orders in Council,' 
1812. 7. ' Stories for Children from the His- 
tory of England,' 1817. 8. ' Memoirs of the 
Embassy of the Marshal de Bassompierre to 
the Court of England in 1626 ' (edited), 1819. 
9. * Letters of Mary Lepel, Lady Hervey ' 
(edited), 1821-2._ 10. ' The Suffolk Papers,' 
from the collection of the Marchioness of 
Londonderry (edited), 1823. 11, ' Horace 
Walpole's Letters to Lord Hertford,' 1824. 
12. 'Reply to Sir Walter Scott's "Letters 
of Malagrowther'" (in the 'Courier' news- 
paper), 1826. 18. ' Progressive Geography 
for Children,' 1828. 14. ' Boswell's Life 
of Johnson,' 1831. 15. ' Military Events 
of the French Revolution of 1830,' 1831. 
16. 'John, Lord Hervey's Memoirs of the 
Court of George II,' 1848. 17. ' Essays on 
the Early Period of the French Revolution,' 
reprinted from the ' Quarterly Review,' 1857. 

[Croker'sWorks cited above ; Memoirs, Diaries, 
and Correspondence of the Right Hon. John 
Wilson Croker, edited by Louis J. Jennings, 
3 vols. 1884 ; Quarterly Review, October 1884 ; 
Macaulay's Essays and Life and Letters, by Sir 
G. Trevelyan ; information from Mr. John 
Murray and other personal friends.] T. M. 

1790 ?), miscellaneous writer, was a native 
of Cork. He was admitted a foundation 
scholar of Westminster School in 1743, at 
the age of thirteen, and in 1740 was elected 
to a scholarship at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; but he removed to Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he graduated (B.A. 1750, 
M.A. 1760). He was appointed chaplain to 
the Earl of Hillsborough, and in August 
1769 he obtained the rectory of Igtham, 
Kent, which he vacated in 1773, probably 

from pecuniary embarrassments, forhengures 
among the bankrupts of that year. After- 
wards he became rector of St. John's, Capis- 
terre, St. Christopher's, in the West Indies, 
where he published, under the title, ' Where 
am I ? How came I here ? What are my 
wants ? What are my duties ? ' four sermons, 
Basseterre [1790], 4to. 

Croker seems to have helped William 
Huggins [q. v.] in a translation of Ariosto's 
' Orlando Furioso,' which was first published 
(anonymously) in 1755, with a dedication to 
George HI signed by Croker. An edition of 
1757 claimed the work for Huggins. A 
translation of Zappa's Italian sonnets, 1755, 
also attributed to Huggins, has in the copy in 
the Dyce library a MS. dedication by Croker. 
Croker also published : 1. ' Bower detected as 
an Historian, or his omissions and perversions 
of facts in favour of Popery demonstrated by 
comparing the three volumes of his History 
with the first volume of the French History 
of the Popes [by F. Brays] now translating,' 
London, 1758, 8vo. 2. ' The Satires of Lodo- 
vico Ariosto,' translated into English verse 
by the Rev. Mr. H-rt-n and T. H. Croker, 
London, 1759, 8vo; Croker translated only 
two of the seven poems (ii. and vii.) 3. 
' Experimental Magnetism ; or the truth of 
Mr. Masson's discoveries in that branch of 
natural philosophy approved and ascertained,' 
London, 1761, 8vo. 4. ' The complete Dic- 
tionary of Arts and Sciences,' 3 vols. London, 
1764-6, fol., which he edited. 

[Welch's Alumni Westmon. ed. Phillimore, 
pp. 327, 337, 339 ; Cat. of Printed Books in 
Brit. Mus.; Oxford Graduates (1851), p. 162; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn) ; 
Hasted's Kent (1782), ii. 249 ; Gent. Mag. 
xxxix. 415, xliii. 416.] T. C. 

1854), Irish antiquary, was born at Cork 
15 Jan. 1798. His father, Thomas Croker, 
was a major in the army ; his mother was 
widow of a Mr. Fitton and daughter of 
Croker Dillon of Baltidaniel, co. Cork. At 
sixteen Croker, who had little school educa- 
tion, was apprenticed to Lecky & Marchant, 
a Cork firm of quaker merchants. He early 
developed a taste for literature and antiqui- 
ties, and between 1812 and 1815 rambled 
about the south of Ireland, collecting the 
songs and legends of the peasantry. A prose 
translation by him of an Irish ' coronach,' 
which he heard at Qouganebarra in 1813, 
appeared in the ' Morning Post ' during 1815. 
A friend in Cork (Richard Sainthill) called 
Crabbe's attention to it two years later. 
About 1818 Croker forwarded to Moore, then 
engaged on his Irish melodies, ' nearly forty 




ancient airs,' * many curious fragments of 
ancient poetry, and some ancient traditions 
current' in Cork. Moore soon afterwards 
invited Croker to pay a first visit to England. 
Croker showed capacity as an artist ; sent 
Moore sketches of Cork scenery ; exhibited 
pen-and-ink drawings at a Cork exhibition in 
1817, and etched several plates in 1820. 
After his father's death (22 March 1818) 
Croker obtained a clerkship at the admiralty 
in London, through the influence of John 
Wilson Croker [q. v.], who took an interest 
in his family, although he was no relation. 
Croker remained at the admiralty till Fe- 
bruary 1850. He introduced lithography into 
the office. 

Croker rapidly made his way as an author. 
He helped Sidney Taylor to edit a short- 
lived weekly paper, ' The Talisman, or Lite- 
rary Observer ' (June to December 1820) : in 
1824 he issued his * Researches in the South 
of Ireland,' a sumptuous quarto, describing 
an Irish tour of 1821, and partly illustrated 
by Miss Marianne Nicholson, whom Croker 
married in 1830. In 1825 appeared Croker's 
best-known book, ' The Fairy Legends and 
Traditions of the South of Ireland,' illus- 
trated by W. H. Brooke. No author's name 
was on the title-page ; for Croker, who was 
responsible for the bulk of it, had lost his 
original manuscript, and Dr. Maginn and 
other friends, to whom the legends were 
already familiar, helped to rewrite it. Sir 
Walter Scott was delighted with it, and 
praised it highly in a letter to the author, 
and in the notes to the 1830 edition of the 
Waverley novels, as well as in his ' De- 
monology and Witchcraft.' Both Scott and 
Croker have described a breakfast party at 
J. G. Lockhart's at which they were present 
(20 Oct. 1826). Maclise, Croker's fellow- 
townsman, illustrated the second edition of 
the * Legends ' in 1826. A second series, 
under Croker's name, appeared in 1827, and 
a third edition of the whole, from which 
Croker excluded all his friends' work, was 
issued in 1834 ; reprints are dated 1859, 
1862, and 1882. The original edition was 
translated into German by the brothers 
Grimm (1826), and into French by P. A. 
Dufour (1828). Croker constructed a pan- 
tomime for Terry at the Adelphi out of his 
story of Daniel O'Rourke, which was per- 
formed at Christmas 1826 and twice printed 
(1826 and 1828). In 1822 R. Adolphus 
Lynch, an old schoolfellow, sold him some 
additional legends, which Croker published, 
with additions of his own, as 'Legends of 
the Lakes,' 1829. Maclise illustrated the 
book, an abbreviated version of which was 
issued as ' A Guide to the Lakes ' in 1831, 

and as * Killarney Legends ' in 1876. In 
1852 Croker wrote two stories, ' The Adven- 
tures of Barney Mahoney,' a humorous 
book, which soon became popular, and ' My 
Village versus Our Village.' His edition of 
the ' Popular Songs of Ireland ' appeared in 
1839, and was re-edited by Professor Henry 
Morley in 1885. 

Croker was an active member of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries from 1827, and helped 
to found the Camden Society (1839), the 
Percy Society (1840), and the British Archaeo- 
logical Association (1843). He also esta- 
blished a convivial club, the Noviomagians, 
still in existence, out of members of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries, and was its permanent 
president. He was fellow of the Royal An- 
tiquarian Society of Copenhagen (1833), and 
of the Swedish Archreological Society (1845). 
From 1837 to 1854 he was a registrar of the 
Royal Literary Fund, besides being member 
of many other of the learned societies of 
Great Britain. He was a collector of anti- 
quities, especially of those concerning Ire- 
land ; and while living at Rosamond's Bower, 
Fulham, entertained most of the literary cele- 
brities. Among his most intimate friends 
were Maclise, whom lie helped to bring into 
notice. Dr. Maginn, ' Father Prout,' Thomas 
Wright, and Albert Denison, first Lord 
Londesborough. Croker died at Old Bromp- 
ton 8 Aug. 1854. Lord Londesborough placed 
a memorial tablet in Grimston Church, West 
Riding of Yorkshire. 

Croker's wife, Marianne, daughter of 
Francis Nicholson, a painter, was herself an 
artist of some note, and largely helped her 
husband in his literary work. She died 
6 Oct. 1854, leaving an only son, T. F. Dillon 

According to Scott, Croker was 'little as a 
dwarf, keen-eyed as a hawk, and of easy, pre- 
possessing manners.' Maclise introduced him 
into his picture of * Hallow Eve,' and into 
his * Group of F.S. As.' A separate portrait 
by Maclise of Croker in early life belonged 
to Richard Sainthill of Cork, and another 
was engraved in ' Eraser's Magazine ' for 
] 833, and in the * Dublin University Maga- 
zine ' for 1849. W. Wyon, R.A., executed a 
profile in wax. 

Croker contributed to the magazines, and 
edited for Harrison Ainsworth a miscellany 
entitled 'The Christmas Box' in 1827, to 
which Scott, Lamb, Hook, and Maria 
Edgeworth contributed. Besides the works 
already enumerated, Croker wrote 'The 
Queen's Question Queried,' 1820 ; ' Historical 
Illustrations of Kilmallock,' 1840 ; a descrip- 
tion of his residence, 1842, privately printed ; 
catalogue of Lady Londesborough's collec- 




tion of mediaeval rings and ornaments, 1853; 
'A Walk from London to Fulham,' 1860, 
originally contributed to ' Fraser's Magazine ' 
in 1845. Croker edited * Journal of a Tour 
through Ireland in 1644/ from the French of 
De la Boulaye de Gouz (1837) ; ' A Memoir 
of Joseph Holt ' (1837) ; ' Narratives of the 
Irish Rebellions of 1641 and 1690 ' for the 
Camden Society ; and for the Percy Society 
' Historical Songs of Ireland temp. 1688/ 
' A Kerry Pastoral,' ' The Keen of the South 
of Ireland ' (containing the coronach origi- 
nally contributed to the ' Morning Post '), 
' Popular Songs illustrating the French In- 
vasions of Ireland,' ' Autobiography of Mary, 
Countess of Warwick,' * Believe as you List,' 
a tragedy by Massinger, and a third book of 
' Britannia's Pastorals.' John Payne Collier 
commented severely on Croker's edition of 
Massinger's play in the ' Shakespeare Society 
Papers,' iv. Croker announced the publica- 
tion of several other historical works, which 
never appeared. 

[Dublin University Mag., Au;?ust 1849, xxxiv. 
203-16 (a long article, for which material was 
supplied by Croker himself) ; Memoir by his son, 
T. F. Dillon Croker, in Fairy Legends (1859), 
and with letters from literary friends in the 
1862 edition of the same book; Gent. Mag. 
1854, ii. 397, 452, 625; a few unimportant 
notices appear in Moore's Diaries and in Father 
Prout's Eeliques.] S. L. 

CROKESLEY, RICHARD de {d. 1258), 
ecclesiastic and judge, was probably a native 
of Suffolk, whose name indicates his birth- 
place. He succeeded Richard de Berking as 
abbot of the monastery of St. Peter, West- 
minster, in 1246-7, and was the first arch- 
deacon mentioned at Westminster. He was 
a favourite of the king, who was at that time 
laying out yearly considerable sums upon the 
abbey buildings. In 1247 he was sent with 
John Mansel on an embassy to Brabant to 
arrange a marriage between Prince Edward 
and the daughter of the duke. Matthew 
Paris *;ells us that he was proficient both in 
the canon and in the civil law, and his name 
appears at the head of Madox's ' List of Ba- 
rons of the Exchequer' in 1250 and 1257, 
though without the title of treasurer. In 
1250 he urged the king to abridge the privi- 
leges granted by charters of his predecessors 
to the city of London in the interest of the 
monastery of St. Peter; but the resistance 
opposed by the townspeople was so energetic 
that the king abandoned the attempt. Crokes- 
ley succeeded, however, in obtaining a trans- 
fer of some of the rights previously exer- 
cised by the monastery of St. Alban in respect 
of the town of Aldenham in Hertfordshire. 
In March 1251 he was sent to Lyons, where 

the pope then held his court, to arrange a 
meeting between the king and the pope at 
Pontigny in Champagne. Though the pope 
refused to meet the king, Crokesley lingered 
some time at the papal court, living splen- 
didly and, according to Matthew Paris, con- 
tracting immense debts. Before he returned 
he had obtained from the pope permission to 
style himself his chaplain, and authority to 
annul an ordinance of one of his predeces- 
sors, whereby the monks of St. Peter's had 
acquired the right to hold separate property. 
The monks appealed to the king, who, offended 
by the assumption of the style of pope's chap- 
lain by Crokesley, took their part. It was 
agreed to refer the dispute to the arbitration 
of Richard, earl of Cornwall, and John Man- 
sel, provost of Beverley, and an arrangement 
was arrived at (May 1252),with which Crokes- 
ley was 80 little satisfied that he thought 
of appealing to the pope to set it aside. It 
was probably to prevent Crokesley's leaving 
the kingdom on this errand that the king 
issued a curious proclamation prohibiting the 
lending of money to him. The king having 
bound himself to despatch a force to Italy by 
Michaelmas 1256, and to grant the pope a 
subsidy for war expenses in consideration of 
being relieved from his obligation to take 
the cross, Crokesley was sent to Italy in the 
summer of 1256 with the papal legate, Rus- 
tand, to obtain a renewal of the bill. Before 
starting he took an oath before the king at 
Gloucester that he would not use his influence 
with the pope to the prejudice of his monas- 
tery, or seek to obtain an annulment of the 
previous compromise. His mission was suc- 
cessful. He was again in France in 1257 
negotiating unsuccessfully for the restoration 
of the king's French provinces. In 1258 
Henry, being in pecuniary difficulties, induced 
Crokesley to pledge his own credit and that 
of his monastery in his favour to the extent 
of 2,050 marks. The same year Crokesley 
acted as one of the arbitrators on the part of 
the king at the conference at Oxford. His 
death, which happened suddenly at Winches- 
ter in July of this year, is attributed by the 
chroniclers of Dunstable and Burton to poison 
taken while at dinner. He was buried at 
Westminster with great state in a small chapel 
near the north porch, built by himself and 
dedicated to St. Edmund. His body was 
subsequently removed to the chapel of St. 
Nicholas, and thence, in the reign of Henry VI, 
to some other part of the abbey, probably to 
the space underneath the high altar, where, 
on 12 July 1866, a skeleton, accompanied by 
the remains of a crozier, leaden paten, and 
chalice, was discovered in a Purbeck marble 
coffin bearing traces of previous removal. If 




this was Crokesley's skeleton, he must have 
been a tall man, slightly lame with one leg, 
and subject to rheumatism. Matthew Paris 
describes him as ' elegans ' and ' facundus,' 
and gives him credit for having ably adminis- 
tered his abbey, 

[Matt. Paris's Cbron. Maj. (Eolls Series), iv. 
689, V. 128, 228, 231, 239, 304, 305, 620, 660, 
682, 700; Madox's Exch. ii. 318-19; Eymer's 
Foedera, ed. Clarke, i. 344, 350, 351, 355 ; An- 
Dales Monast. (Rolls Series), i. 447, 460, iii. 
211; Widmore's Westminster, p. 63; Foss's 
Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

CROLL, FRANCIS (1826 P-1854), line 
engraver, was bom at Musselburgh about 
1826. At a very early age his talent for draw- 
ing attracted the notice of the Scottish sculp- 
tors, Alexander and John Ritchie, who urged 
his friends to cultivate it. He was accord- 
ingly articled to Thomas Dobbie of Edin- 
burgh, an excellent draughtsman and natu- 
ralist, but less known as an engraver, under 
whose tuition Croll made good progress in 
drawing, but not so much in engraving. The 
death of his master, however, before the com- 
pletion of his apprenticeship led to his being 
placed for two years to study line engraving 
imder Robert Charles Bell [q. v.], and during 
the same time he attended the schools of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, then under the di- 
rection of Sir William Allan [q. v.], from 
whose instruction and advice he derived much 
benefit. His earlier works were some plates 
of animals for Stephens's * Book of the Farm,' 
some portraits for ' Hogg's Weekly Instruc- 
tor,' and a small plate from James Drummond's 
picture of * The Escape of Hamilton of Both- 
wellhaugh.' In 1852 he executed for the ' Art 
Journal' an engraving of * The Tired Soldier,' 
after the picture by Frederick Goodall in the 
Vernon Gallery. He also engraved for the 
Royal Association for the Promotion of the 
Fine Arts in Scotland one of a series of de- 
signs by John Faed to illustrate 'The Cottar's 
Saturday Night' of Robert Burns. During 
the progress of this plate he was attacked by 
heart disease, and soon after its completion 
a career of much promise was closed by his 
death in Edinburgh, 12 Feb. 1854, at the 
early age of twenty-seven. 

[Scotsman, 18 Feb. 1854; Art Journal, 1854, 
p. 119.] R. E. G. 

1849), catholic archbishop of Armagh, was 
born at Ballykilbeg, co. Down, on 8 June 
1780, and received his education at a gram- 
mar school kept by Dr. Nelson, a unitarian, 
and Mr. Doran, a catholic. In 1801 he en- 
tered Maynooth ; he was ordained priest in 
1806, and for six years he was a professor in 

the college. In 1812 he was appointed parish 
priest of Belfast, a position rendered delicate 
by the local prejudices against Catholicism. 
It is stated that during the first seven years 
of his ministry he received one thousand 
converts into the Roman church. On 1 May 
1825 he was consecrated bishop of Down and 
Connor. He was translated to the archi- 
episcopal see of Armagh and the primacy of 
Ireland by propaganda on 7 April 1835. He 
was one of the commissioners of charitable 
bequests, and in accepting that office, in con- 
junction with Dr. Murray and Dr. Denvir, he 
incurred a large share of odium, from which, 
however, he never shrank, notwithstanding 
that the opposition against him was led by 
O'Connell in person. He died at Drogheda 
on 6 April 1849, and was buried in the catho- 
lic cathedral of Armagh. 

His biography, by the Rev. George Crolly 
(Dublin, 1852, 8vo), contains numerous anec- 
dotes illustrative of the times in which he 

[Shirley's Cat. of the Library at Lough Fea, 
p. 81 ; Brady's Episcopal Succession, i. 232, 274 ; 
Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography, p. 1 05 ; 
Gent. Mag. new ser. xxxi. 539.] T. C. 

CROLY, GEORGE (1780-1860), author 
and divine, born at Dublin 17 Aug. 1780, re- 
ceived the greater part of his education at 
Trinity College, which he entered at the age 
of fifteen. He distinguished himself as a clas- 
sical scholar and an extempore speaker, and 
after taking the usual degrees was ordained 
in 1804, and licensed to a curacy in the north 
of Ireland. The obscurity of his situation 
was distasteful to him, and about 1810, ac- 
companied by his widowed mother and his 
sisters, he settled in London, and devoted 
himself chiefly to literary pursuits. He be- 
came dramatic critic to the 'New Times,' 
and was a leading contributor to the ' Literary 
Gazette' and 'Blackwood's Magazine' from 
their commencement. Among his numerous 
contributions to the latter periodical was 
' The Traditions of the Rabbins,' a portion of 
which has been erroneously attributed to De 
Quincey, and still appears among his col- 
lected works. Croly's connection with the 
'Literary Gazette' brought about his mar- 
riage in 1819 to Margaret Helen Begbie, with 
whom he had become acquainted as a fellow- 
contributor to the journal. Jerdan, the editor 
of the 'Gazette,' endeavoured to procure Croly 
church preferment, but his efibrts failed, ac- 
cording to the * Gentleman's Magazine,' from 
Croly being confounded with a converted 
Roman catholic priest of nearly the same 
name. Croly accordingly continued to devote 
himself vigorously to literature, producing 




his principal poem, 'Paris in 1815/ in 1817; 
' The Angel of the World' and ' May Fair' 
in 1820; his tragedy 'Catiline 'in 1822; 'Tales 
of the Saint Bernard/ and his chief romance, 
' Salathiel,' in 1 829. His poetical works were 
collected in 1830. Nor did he neglect pro- 
fessional pursuits, publishing a commentary 
on the Apocalypse in 1827, and ' Divine Pro- 
vidence, or the Three Cycles of Revelation/ 
in 1834. His ' Life and Times of George the 
Fourth ' (1 830) is a work of no historical value, 
but creditable to his independence of spirit. 
In 1834 he at length received an offer of pre- 
ferment from Lord Brougham, a distant con- 
nection of his wife's ; but the living proposed 
for his acceptance, Bondleigh, on the borders 
of Dartmoor, was so wild and solitary that 
he declined it. Brougham recommended him 
to his successor, Lyndhurst, who in 1835 gave 
him the rectory of St. Stephen's, Walbrook. 
He soon acquired a reputation for eloquence, 
and attracted an intellectual congregation to 
the church he had found * a stately solitude/ 
In 1843 and for several years following his 
incumbency was disturbed byparochialsquab- 
bles with the churchwarden. Alderman Mi- 
chael Gibbs, who caused the accounts of 
nineteen years and a half to be passed at a 
meeting of the select vestry, from which the 
general body of parishioners was excluded. 
A tedious litigation ensued, which resulted 
in the substitution of an open vestry for the 
select, and the placing of the parish funds in 
the hands of trustees, as desired by Croly. 
His income had suffered considerably, and in 
1847 he accepted the appointment of after- 
noon lecturer at the Foundling; but his ornate 
style of preaching proved unsuitable to a con- 
gregation chiefly consisting of children and 
servants, and he speedily withdrew, publish- 
ing the sermons he had delivered with an 
angry and contemptuous preface. His novel, 
' Marston/ had been published in 1846, and 
his poem, ' The Modern Orlando,' in the same 
year. He also performed much work for the 
booksellers, and contributed largely to peri- 
odical literature, being principal leader writer 
to the ' Britannia' newspaper for seven years. 
In 1851 he lost his wife, to whom he was 
greatly attached. In 1857 his parishioners pre- 
sented him with his bust, which was placed 
in the church after his decease. He died 
very suddenly on 24 Nov. 1860. 

Croly is a characteristic example of the 
dominant literary school of his youth, that 
of Byron and Moore. The defects of this 
school are unreality and meretriciousness ; 
its redeeming qualities are a certain warmth 
of colouring and largeness of handling, both 
of which Croly possessed in ample measure. 
Ilifl chief work, ' Salathiel/ is boldly con- 

ceived, and may still be read with pleasure 
for the power of the situations and the vigour 
of the language, although some passages are 
palpable imitations of De Quincey. He was 
less at home in modern life, yet ' Marston ' is 
interesting as a romance, and remarkable for 
its sketches of public men. In all his works, 
whether in prose or verse, Croly displays a 
lively and gorgeous fancy, with a total de- 
ficiency of creative imagination, humour, and 
pathos. His principal poem, ' Paris in 1815/ 
IS a successful imitation of ' Childe Harold ; ' 
'The Modern Orlando' is a very inferior 'Don 
Juan ; ' ' Catiline ' is poetical, but undramatic. 
Some of his minor poems, especially ' Sebas- 
tian,' ai-e penned with an energy which almost 
conceals the essential commonplace of the 
thought. As a preacher he was rather im- 
pressive than persuasive. ' He had,' says 
S. C. Hall, ' a sort of rude and indeed angry 
eloquence that would have stood him in better 
stead at the bar than in the pulpit.' James 
Grant says that his appearance in the pulpit 
was commanding, his delivery earnest and 
animated, his voice stentorian, yet not un- 
pleasant. He usually preached extempore. 
His contributions to biblical literature were 
unimportant. He possessed considerable 
learning, but so little of the critical faculty 
that he identified Prometheus with Cain. As 
a man he seems to have been contentious and 
supercilious, yet not devoid of geniality. 

[Memoirby Frederick Croly, prefixed toCroly's 
Book of Job, 1863; Richard Herring's Personal 
Recollections of George Croly, 1861 ; Gent. Mag. 
3rd ser. x. 104-7; S. C, Hall's Book of Me- 
mories, pp. 232, 233 ; James Grant's Metropo- 
litan Pulpit, i. 239- 06.] R. G. 

CROMARTY, Eakls of. [See Mac- 
kenzie, George, first Eakl, 1630-1714; 
Mackenzie, George, third Earl, d. 1766.] 

CROMARTY, Count in the Swedish 
peerage (1727-1789). [See Mackenzie.] 


(1762-1840), philologist and schoolmaster, 
was born in 1762 at Aberdeen, and educated 
at Marischal College,where he took the degree 
of M.A. in or about 1777, and received that of 
LL.D. about 1798. He became a licentiate 
of the chiirch of Scotland, but adopted the 
profession of teaching. After conducting an 
academy for a short time in conjunction 
with a Mr. Hogg, he removed to London, 
where he kept a private school at Highg^te, 
and occasionally officiated in the meeting- 
house in Southwood Lane. Removing after- 
Avards to Greenwich, he became a highly 
successful teacher, and purchased a fine man- 
sion formerly tenanted by Sir Walter James, 




which, with its grounds, became a very valu- 
able property. On the death of his cousin, 
Mr. Alexander Crombie, advocate in Aber- 
deen, he succeeded by his bequest to the 
estate of Phesdo, in the parish of Fordoun, 
Eancardineshire, where he spent the last few 
years of his life. He died in 1840. The 
family is now represented by his grandson, 
Mr. Alexander Crombie, Thornton Castle, 
near Laurencekirk. 

In the ' Times ' of 16 June 1840 there ap- 
peared an anonymous account of Crombie, 
written by an old friend, John Grant, M.A., 
Crouch End. The writer speaks in the 
strongest terms of his inflexible integrity and 
intellectual acuteness. He says that Crombie 
was well known as a scholar and critic ; that 
he had been an early friend of Priestley, 
Price, and Geddes ; and that, while sympa- 
thising with their liberalism, he was a 'sound 
christian divine and a hearty despiser of the 
cant of spurious liberalism.' "When noticing 
Crombie's death in the annual address to 
the Royal Society of Literature, Lord Ripon 
dwelt upon his excellence as a teacher, and 
as a composer of educational works, especi- 
ally the ' Gymnasium.' 

His works are : 1. ' A Defence of Philo- 
sophic Necessity,' 1793. 2. ' The Etymology 
and Syntax of the English Language Ex- 
plained,' 1802 (other editions 1809, 1829, 
1836). 3. ' Gymnasium sive Symbola Cri- 
tica,' intended to assist the classical student in 
his endeavours to attain a correct Latin prose 
style, 2 vols. 1812 ; 5th edition 1834, abridged 
1836. 4. ' Letters on the present state of the 
Agricultural Interest,' 1816. 5, A Letter to 
D. Ricardo, esq., containing an analysis of 
his pamphlet on the depreciation of bank 
notes, 1817. 6. Cursory observations in re- 
ply to the ' Strictures ' of Rev. Mr. Gilchrist 
(on book No. 2), 1817. 7. ' Letters from Dr. 
James Gregory of Edinburgh in defence of 
his Essay on the difference of the relation 
between motion and action and that of cause 
and effect in physic, with replies by Rev. A. 
Crombie, LL.D.,' 1819. 8. ' Clavis Gymnasii, 
sive Exercitationes in Symbolam Criticam,' 
1828. 9. ' Natural Theology, or Essays on 
the Existence of Deity and Providence, on 
the Immortality of the Soul, and a Future 
State,' 1829, 2 vols. 10. ' Letter to Lieut.- 
col. Torrens, M.P., in answer to his address 
to the farmers of the United Kingdom,' 1832. 

11. ' The Strike, or a Dialogue between John 
Treadle and Andrew Ploughman,' 1834. 

12. Pamphlet on the Ballot ; also several 
other pamphlets published anonymously ; ar- 
ticles in the * Analytical Review ; ' and one 
article, or more, in the ' Edinburgh Review.' 
Crombie had three sons ; the oldest of these. 

whose name was also Alexander, succeeded 
him as proprietor of the estate of Phesdo, 
and was in turn in 1877 succeeded by his 
son, the present proprietor. 

[Times, 16 June 1840 ; copy of the notice in 
Gent. Mag. for 1842, corrected by Crombie's son, 
affixed to a copy of the Gymnasium in the pos- 
session of Mr. Alexander Crombie of Thornton 
Castle ; The Statistical Account of Scotland — 
parish of Fordoun ; personal information.] 

W. G. B. 

CROMBIE, JAMES, D.D. (1730-1790), 
presbyterian minister, eldest son of James 
Crambie {sic) by his wife May (Johnstoun), 
was bom at Perth on 6 Dec. 1730. His father 
was a mason. In 1748 Crombie matriculated 
at St. Andrews, graduating A.M. in 1752. He 
studied for a short time at Edinburgh on 
leaving St. Andrews. He was licensed by 
Strathbogie presbytery on 8 June 1757 at 
Rothiemay. Here he acted as parish school- 
master for some time. On 1 July 1760 he 
was presented to Lhanbryd, near Elgin, by 
the Earl of Moray, in whose family he had 
acted as tutor, and having been duly called 
was ordained at Lhanbryd on 11 Sept. by El- 
gin presbytery. He immediately applied to 
the Strathbogie presbytery to give ordination 
without charge to James Thompson, a licen- 
tiate, in order that Thompson might supply 
his place at Lhanbryd, and release Crombie for 
winter studies at Glasgow. The Strathbogie 
presbytery agreed, and Crombie spent the next 
four sessions at Glasgow, attending classes 
himself, and superintending the studies of his 
noble pupil. The minutes of the Elgin pres- 
bytery record a series of attempts to bring 
Crombie back to his duties at Lhanbryd, cul- 
minating in a formal censure on 1 March 
1763. After this he seems to have remained 
quietly for some years in his country parish. 
In February 1768 a colleagueship in the first 
non-subscribing presbyterian congregation of 
Belfast became vacant. Doubtless on the 
recommendation of Principal Leechman of 
Glasgow, Crombie was put forward for the 
post. He received a call in December 1769 
with a promised stipend of 80/., and 10/. for 
a house. He did not, however, desert his 
charge at Lhanbryd until 22 Oct. 1770, when 
he was already settled in Belfast as col- 
league to James Mackay, On Mackay's death 
(22 Jan. 1781) he became sole pastor. The 
congregation, which worshipped in a dilapi- 
dated meeting-house, was declining; Crombie 
met a suggestion for amalgamation with a 
neighbouring congregation by proposing the 
erection of a new meeting-house. This was 
carried into effect in 1783; Wesley, who 
preached in the new building in 1789, de- 




scribes it as * the completest place of worship 
I have ever seen.' Crombie did not inter- 
meddle in theological disputes, but he ably 
defended his coreligionists from a charge of 
Bchism, and exhibited his divergence from the 
puritan standpoint by advocating Sunday 
drill for volunteers in time of public danger. 
In September 1783 he was made D.D. of St. 
Andrews. Crombie deserves great credit for 
ids attempt to establish in Belfast an unsec- 
tarian college, which would meet the higher 
educational wants of Ulster. The idea was 
not a new one [see Campbell, William, 
D.D.], nor was Crombie the first to endeavour 
to carry it out [see Ceawpord, William, 
D.D.] His plan differed from Crawford's by 
making no provision for instruction in theo- 
logy, thus anticipating the modern scheme 
of the Queen's Colleges. The prospectus of 
the Belfast Academy, issued on 9 Sept. 1785, 
at once secured the warm support of leading 
men in Belfast, of all denominations. Funds 
were subscribed, the Killeleagh presbytery 
(then the most latitudinarian of those under 
the general synod) sending a donation of a 
hundred guineas. The prospectus contem- 
plated academic courses extending over three 
sessions. The scheme was ambitious, and 
included a provision of preparatory schools. 
The academy was opened in February 1786 ; 
Crombie, as principal, undertaking classics, 
philosophy, and history. The same political 
complications which led to the collapse of 
the Strabane Academy frustrated Crombie's 
original design. The Belfast Academy soon 
lost its collegiate classes ; but as a high school 
it maintained itself, acquired great vogue 
under Crombie's successor, William Bruce 
(1757-1841) [q. v.], and still flourishes. 
Crombie's labours broke his strength, and his 
health declined; yet he continued to dis- 
charge all his engagements with unflagging 
spirit. On 10 Feb. 1790 he attended a meet- 
ing of the Antrim presbytery, at which two 
congregations were added to its roU, and he 
was appointed to preside at an ordination on 
4 March. On 1 March he died. He was mar- 
ried on 23 July 1774 to Elizabeth Simson {d. 
1824), and left four sons and one daughter. 
His portrait is in the possession of a descen- 
dant in America; a small copy is in the vestry 
of his meeting-house, representing a face of 
much firmness and sweetness of expression. 

He published: 1. <An Essay on Church 
Consecration,' &c., Dublin, 1777, 12mo (pub- 
lished anonymously in February) ; 3rd edit. 
Newry, 1816, 12mo (a defence of the presby- 
terians, who had lent their meeting-house to 
the episcopalians during the rebuilding of the 
church, agamst a charge of schism). 2. ' The 
Propriety of Setting apart a Portion of the 

Sabbath for the purpose of acquiring the 
Knowledge and use of Arms,' &c., Belf. 1781, 
8vo. (answered by Sinclare Kelburn, in 
'The Morality of the Sabbath Defended,' 
1781 ; neither publication is mentioned in 
Cox's ' Literature of the Sabbath Question,' 
1865). 3. 'Belfast Academy,' Belf. 1786, 
8vo (an enlarged issue in January of the 
newspaper prospectus). Also two ' Volun- 
teer Sermons,' Belfast, 1778 and 1779, 8vo. 

[Wesley's Journal (8 June 1789); Belfast 
News-Letter, 6 March 1790 ; Memoir of Crombie 
in Disciple (Belfast), April 1883, p. 93 sq. ; ex- 
tracts (furnished for that memoir) from Perth 
BaptismfJ Register (in General Register House, 
Edinburgh), Glasgow Matriculation Book, records 
of St. Andrews University, minutes of Strathbogie, 
Elgin, and Antrim presbyteries ; also additional 
information from Funeral Sermon (manuscript) 
by James Bryson, 14 March 1790, in Antrim 
Presbytery Library, at Queen's College, Belfast, 
and from records of P'irst Presbyterian Church, 
Belfast. Witherow's History and Literary Me- 
morials of Presbyterianism in Ireland, 2nd ser. 
1880, p. 212, gives a brief notice of Crombie.] 

A. G. 

CROME, EDWARD {d. 1562), protes- 
tant divine, was educated at Cambridge, 
taking the degrees of B.A. in 1503, M.A. in 
1507, and D.D. in 1526. He was a fellow of 
Gonville Hall, and was president of Physick 
Hostel, a dependency of Caius College, Cam- 
bridge, from 1509 to 1611. It may be that 
he acted as deputy to Dr. Bokenham, master 
of Gonville Hall, who was seventy-seven 
years of age when he resigned in 1536, In 
1516 Crome was university preacher. 

C rome resided without interrupt ion at Cam- 
bridge until he attracted the king's notice 
by his approval of Cranmer's book demon- 
strating the nullity of his marriage with 
Catherine of Arragon, and by his action as 
one of the delegates appointed by the uni- 
versity, 4 Feb. 1630, to discuss and decide the 
question of the same purport proposed by the 
king. During the following Lent he was three 
times commanded to preach before the king, 
and shortly after (24 May) was one of the re- 
presentatives of his university who, together 
with a like number from Oxford, assisted the 
Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of Dur- 
ham in drawing up a condemnation of the 
opinions expressed in certain English religi- 
ous books, such as 'The Wicked Mammon' 
and ' The Obedience of a Christian Man,'which 
assailed the doctrines of purgatory, the merit 
derived from good works, invocation of saints, 
confession, and many other Roman catholic 

It was probably about this time that he 
became parson of St. Antholin's Church in 




the city of London, a rectory in the gift of 
the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, but owing 
to the destruction of the registers in the fire 
of 1666 it is impossible to fix the date. 

While at Cambridge Crome had gained 
some insight into the ideas of religious re- 
formers by attending the meetings of * gos- 
pellers ' at the White Horse in St. Benet's, 
and in spite of his acquiescence in the prohi- 
bition of their books, his preaching was so 
coloured with their views that he was con- 
vented before the Bishop of London and ex- 
amined, the king himself being present. The 
answers he gave were in accordance with the 
popular articles of belief, even in such mat- 
ters as purgatory and the efficacy of fasting. 
There is extant a copy of them with remarks 
apparently added by him when reading them 
in his church, in which he endeavoured with 
some success to explain away the discrepancy 
between the articles he was reading and his 
previous opinions. His confession was im- 
mediately printed by the bishops, but his old 
friends thought it ' a very foolish thing,' and 
openly said that he was lying and speaking 
against his conscience in preaching purgatory. 

Articles were formally produced against 
him, Latimer, and Bilney in the convocation 
of March 1531, but in consequence of his 
previous recantation no further steps were 
taken against Crome. In 1534 he removed 
to the church of St. Mary Aldermary, which 
Queen Anne Boleyn procured for him by her 
influence with Archbishop Cranmer, the pa- 
tron. He was unwilling to make the change, 
and did not accept it until the queen wrote 
an urgent letter to him on the subject. A 
few years later (1539) Archbishop Cranmer 
tried to obtain for him the deanery of Can- 
terbury, but was not successful. 

About this period Crome is frequently 
mentioned in connection with Latimer, Bil- 
ney, and Barnes, and he was one of the 
preachers appointed by Humfrey Monmouth, 
a leading London citizen and great favourer 
of the gospel, to preach his memorial ser- 
mons in the church of All Hallows Barking. 

After the passing of the Act of Six Articles 
in 1539, in consequence of which Latimer 
and Shaxton, bishop of Salisbury, resigned 
their bishoprics and were imprisoned, Crome 
preached two sermons which his enemies 
hoped would give them a handle ; but hear- 
ing of his danger he immediately went to the 
king and prayed him to cease his severities. 
No proceedings were at that time taken 
against him, and not long after (July 1540) 
a universal pardon was granted. Crome did 
not, however, alter his opinions and preach- 
ing, and a controversy between him and Dr. 
Wilson having caused some stir in the city, 

they were both forbidden to preach again 
until they had been examined by the king 
and council. This was done on Christmas 
day 1540. The articles alleged against Crome 
were denial of justification by works, the 
efficacy of masses for the dead and prayers 
to saints, and the non-necessity of truths not 
deduced from holy scripture. His answer 
was an argument that these articles were 
true and orthodox ; but the king, averse to 
severity in his case, only ordered him to preach 
at St. Paul's Cross and read a recantation with 
a statement that he would be punished if 
hereafter convicted of a similar offence. This 
he did, but as his sermon contained but little 
reference to the formal recantation which he 
read, his license to preach was taken away. 
This prohibition did not endui'e many years, 
for in Lent 1546 he again got into trouble for 
a sermon preached at St. Thomas Acres, or 
Mercers' Chapel, directed against the sacrifice 
of the mass. Being brought before Bishop 
Gardiner and others of the council he was 
ordered as before to preach in contradiction 
of what he had said at St. Paul's Cross, but 
his sermon rather hinted that the king's re- 
cent abolition of chantries showed that he 
held the same opinion. This was not con- 
sidered satisfactory, and he had to perform a 
more perfect recantation on Trinity Sunday. 

During the reign of Edward VI he appears 
to have lived quietly, for the only notices of 
him are a casual mention by Hooper a short 
time before he was made bishop of Gloucester, 
that Crome was preaching against him, and a 
letter, referred to by Strype, from a poor 
scholar asking for help. After Queen Mary's 
accession he was again arrested for preaching 
without license and committed to the Fleet 
(13 Jan. 1554), but a year elapsed before he was 
brought up for trial. In January 1555 many 
of his friends were examined and condemned. 
Hooper, Rogers, Bishop Ferrars of St. David's, 
and others were burnt. Crome was given 
time to answer, and having had some practice 
in the art of recantation made sufficient com- 
pliance to save himself from the stake. It 
was proposed that he, Rogers, and Bradford 
should be sent to Cambridge to discuss with 
orthodox scholars, as Cranmer, Ridley, and 
Latimer had done at Oxford, but they re- 
fused, not expecting fair play. Their reasons 
were published in a paper which is printed 
by Foxe. How long he was kept in prison 
is doubtful. He died between 20 and 26 June 
1562, and was buried in his own church, St. 
Mary Aldermary, on the 29th. 

[Cal. of State Papers of Henry VIII, vols. iv. 
V. vii. viii. ; Strype's Memorials, i. i. 492, ii. 
369, in. i. 92, 157, 221, 330, ii. 192; Annals, 
1. i, 545 ; Strype's Cranmer, 487, 495, 666, Par- 




ker Soc. 3 Zur. 208, &c. (see Gough's Index) ; 
Foxe's Acts, v. 337, 331, 835, vi. 413, 333, 536, 
588, vii. 43, 499 ; Burnet's Hist. Ref. i. 150, 
271, iii. 264,264,346; Wilkins's Concilia, iii. 
725, 737 ; Machyn's Diary, 51, 80, 81, 286 ; New- 
court's Repertorium, i. 436 ; Cooper's Ath. Cant. 
i. 216.] C. T. M. 

CROME, JOHN (1768-1821), landscape- 
painter, called ' Old Crome ' to distinguish 
him from his son, John Berney (or more pro- 
perly Barney) Crome [q. v.], son of a poor 
journeyman weaver, was born at Norwich 
22 Dec. 1768, in a low public-house in the 
parish of St. George's, Tombland. He could 
hardly be said to have enjoyed the common 
instruction of the most ordinary schools. At 
the age of twelve he began Life as errand-boy 
to Dr. Rigby, a physician in Norwich, the 
father of the present Lady Eastlake. The 
pranks he played and the punishment he re- 
ceived for them while with the good-natured 
doctor were often laughingly recounted by 
him in after hfe; but the employment was 
uncongenial, and in 1783 he apprenticed him- 
self for seven years to Francis Whisler, a 
house, coach, and sign painter, and after 
his term was up worked as jom-neyman for 
Whisler, and is said to have been the first 
to introduce into Norwich the art of ' grain- 
ing ' or painting surfaces in imitation of po- 
lished wood. Among the signs he is known 
to have painted were 'The Two Brewers,' 
' The Guardian Angel,' and ' The Sawyers.' 
The first and last of these (if not all three) are 
stUl in existence. His taste for landscape 
art showed itself during this period, and he 
formed an intimate friendship with another 
lad of similar tastes. This was Robert Lad- 
brooke, who also afterwards became cele- 
brated as a landscape-painter, but who at this 
time was apprenticed to a printer. Crome 
and Ladbrooke took a garret together, em- 
ployed their leisure in sketching in the fields 
and lanes about Norwich, and occasionally 
bought a print for the purpose of copying it. 
Their first art patrons were Smith & Jaggers, 
printsellers, of Norwich. Ladbrooke painted 
portraits at five shillings a head, and Crome 
painted landscapes for which he sometimes 
got as much as thirty shillings. This partner- 
ship lasted about two years, and then and 
after Crome is said to have had a very hard 
struggle, and to have been put to strange shifts 
to gain a livehhood. His efforts, however, 
attracted the attention of Mr. Thomas Har- 
vey of Catton, Norfolk, who introduced him 
to good society as a teacher of drawing. Mr. 
Harvey, besides being something of an artist 
himself, possessed a small collection of Fle- 
mish and Dutch pictures, to which he allowed 
Crome access, thus, aa has been well said, 

* afibrding him an opportunity of studying the 
works of a group of masters who had arrived 
at the highest excellence under almost exactly 
the same conditions of climate and scenery as 
those in which he himself was placed.' Mr. 
Harvey had also some Gainsboroughs, includ- 
ing the famous ' Cottage Door,' which Crome 
copied. He found other friends in Mr. John 
Gurney of Earlham, Mr. Dawson Turner 
[q. v.], and Sir William Beechey, R.A. [q. v.] 
The last named, who had himself begun life 
as a house-painter in Norwich, gave him in- 
struction in painting, and wrote : ' Crome, 
when I knew him, must have been about 
twenty years old, and was a very awkward, 
uninformed country lad, but extremely shrewd 
in all his remarks upon art, though he wanted 
words and terms to express his meaning.' 
According to Mrs. Opie, her husband the 
artist also assisted Crome in his painting, 
but not before 1798. 

Crome and Ladbrooke married sisters of 
the name of Barney, and though the exact 
date of Crome's marriage is not known, it is 
certain that it was an early one, and that 
he supported his increasing family mainly by 
giving lessons in drawing. This famUy con- 
sisted of at least two daughters and six sons, 
the eldest of whom, baptised John Barney, 
after his father and mother, was born in 1794. 
One of these children died in infancy, more 
than one of his sons besides John followed 
the protession of an artist, as did his daughter 
EmUy, but none of them attained much re- 
putation except John. His drawing lessons 
brought him foralong period better remunera- 
tion than landscape-painting, and were useful 
in introducing him to good families in the 
neighbourhood. * As a teacher,' says Dawson 
Turner in the memoir prefixed to the edition 
of Crome's etchings in 1838, ' he was eminently 
successful. He seldom failed to inspire into 
his pupils a portion of his own enthusiasm.' 
He used to teach in the open air, although he 
generally painted his pictures in his studio. 
Once a brother-painter met him out in the 
fields surrounded by a numberof youngpeople, 
and remai-ked, * Why, I thought I had left 
you in the city engaged in your school.' ' I 
am in my school,' replied Crome, ' and teach- 
ing my scholars from the only true examples. 
Do you think,' pointing to a lovely distant 
view, * that either you and I can do better 
than that ? ' 

Thus he lived firom year to year, teaching, 
painting, and studying always, content in 
the main with his local scenery and his local 
reputation, which increased year by year till 
his death. He paid an occasional visit to 
London, where he was always welcome in 
the studio and at the dinner-table of Sir 




William Beecliey ; assisted by his friends the 
Gurneys and others, he made excursions in 
the lake counties and Wales and to the south 
coast, and in 1814 paid a visit to Paris vid 
Belgium ; but, as a rule, Norwich and its 
neighbourhood were sufficient for his art 
and himself. He soon gathered around him 
a knot of artists, amateurs, and pupils, and 
helped to lay the foundation of what is 
known as the Norwich school, a small pleiad 
of artists of whom the greatest were ' Old ' 
Crome and John Sell Cotman [q. v.], but it 
included other admirable painters, like Vin- 
cent and Stark, Crome's pupils, Stannard, 
Thirtle, and the Ladbrookes. The rise and 
fall of this school forms a unique, brilliant, 
but short-lived phenomenon in the history 
of English art. It was unique because pro- 
vincial, and its nearest parallel was, perhaps, 
the gTcater school of water-colour landscape 
which had its beginnings much about the 
same time in that band of earnest students. 
Turner, Girtin, Hunt, Edridge, Prout, Var- 
ley, and others, who met together under the 
roof of Dr. Monro, in the Adelphi, London, 
or at Bushey. It was in February 1803 
that the first meeting of the Norwich Society 
took place, in a dingy building in a dingy 
locality called the Hole in the Wall in St. 
Andrew's, Norwich. Its full title was ' The 
Norwich Society for the purpose of an en- 
quiry into the rise, progress, and present 
state of Painting, Ai'chitecture, and Sculp- 
ture, with a view to point out the best 
methods of study, and to attain to greater 
perfection in these arts.' It has been called 
'a small joint-stock association, both of ac- 
complishments and worldly goods.' Each 
member had to afford proofs of eligibility, 
was elected by ballot, and had to subscribe 
his proportion of the value of the general 
stock, his right in which was forfeited by 
disregard of the laws and regulations. The 
society met once a fortnight at 7 p.m., and 
studied books on art, drawings, engravings, 
&c. for an hour and a half, after which there 
was a discussion on a previously arranged 
subject. Each member in rotation provided 
bread and cheese for supper and read a paper 
on art. The first president of the society 
was W. C. Leeds, and their first exhibi- 
tion was held in 1805 at the large room in 
Sir Benjamin Wrench's court. This court, 
which was on the site of the present Corn 
Hall, occupied a quadrangle in the parish of 
St. Andrew, which was wholly demolished 
about 1828. The exhibition comprised 223 
works in oil and water colour, sculpture 
and engraving, over twenty of which were 
by Crome. The exhibitions were annual 
till Crome's death in 1821, and continued 

with some interruption till 1833. In 1816 
a secession, headed by Crome's old friend 
Ladbrooke, took place, and a rival exhibition 
was held for three years (1816-18) at Theatre 
(or Assembly Rooms) Plain. The old society 
seems to have been in full vigour in 1829, 
when they had rooms in New Exchange 
Street. They held a dinner that year, in 
imitation of the Royal Academy ; made 
grave speeches in which reference was made 
to the assistance to the funds given by the 
corporation of Norwich. From the account 
of the proceedings it would appear that they 
looked forward to the establishment of a 
regular academy at Norwich, and had no 
thought of that extinction so soon to follow. 
In 1806 Crome first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, and he continued to send 
pictures there occasionally till 1818. Thir- 
teen works at the Royal Academy, all of 
which were landscapes with one exception, 
* A Blacksmith's Shop,' and five at the British 
Institution constituted his entire contribu- 
tion to the picture exhibitions in London, 
but his ' Poringland ' was exhibited at the 
British Institution in 1824, three years after 
his death. To the Norwich exhibitions he con- 
tributed annually from 1805 to 1820, sending 
never less than ten and once as many as 
thirty-one pictures, and exhibiting 288 in all. 
Four of his pictures were included in the ex- 
hibition of 1821, which opened after his death. 
In 1808 he became president of the Norwich 
Society, R. Ladbrooke being then vice-presi- 
dent, but after this, except the secession of 
Ladbrooke and others from the society in 
1816, there is no other important event to 
chronicle in his life, which appears to have 
been attended by a gradual increase of pro- 
sperity, though his income is not supposed to 
have risen at any time beyond about 800Z. a 
year. Although his reputation was so high 
in his locality, it did not extend far, and 
though he painted and sold a great number 
of pictures, he seldom or never obtained more 
than 50/. even for a highly finished work. 
His income, however, sufficed to bring up 
his family in a comfortable if not luxurious 
fashion. From 1801 to his death he lived 
in a good-sized house in Gildengate Street, 
St. George's, Colegate. He kept two horses, 
which were indeed necessary for his journeys 
to his pupils, some of whom lived far from 
Norwich. He would drive from Norwich to 
Yarmouth in one day. He collected a large 
number of pictures and a valuable library of 
books. He was a favourite of all, and wel- 
come not only in small, but great houses ; his 
manners were winning, his conversation in- 
teresting and lively with jest and reminis- 
cence. Good-tempered and jovial, he loved 




his joTie and his glass, and of an evening 
would frequent the parlour of a favourite inn 
in the Market Place, where he was something 
of an oracle, and it is said that, especially at 
the last, he was sometimes more convivial 
than was prudent. 

He was in his fifty-third year and in the 
fulness of his power as an artist when he 
was seized with an attack of inflammation, 
which carried him off after an illness of 
seven days. On the morning of the day he 
was taken ill he stretched a canvas six feet 
long for what he intended to be his master- 
piece, a picture of a water frolic on AVrox- 
ham Broad, for which he had already made 
the sketch. His last recorded speeches were 
worthy of himself and his art. On the day 
of his death he charged his eldest son, who 
was sitting by his bed, never to forget the 
dignity of art. 'John, my boy,' said he, 
' paint, but paint for fame ; and if your sub- 
ject is only a pigsty, dignify it ! and his 
last words were, ' Hobbema, my dear Hob- 
bema, how I have loved you ! ' He died at his 
house in Gildengate Street, Norwich, 22 April 
1821, and was buried in St. George's Church. 
In the report of his funeral in the * Norwich 
Mercury' it is recorded that ' the last respect 
was paid to his memory by a numerous atten- 
dance of artists and other gentlemen. Mr. 
Sharp and Mr. Vincent came from town on 
purpose, and Mr. Stark was also present. 
An immense concourse of people bore grate- 
ful testimony to the estimation in which his 
character was generally held.' 

An exhibition of his paintings was held in 
Norwich in the autumnal session of 1821, 
when 111 of his works were gathered toge- 
ther, including those remaining unsold in his 

The art of Old Crome, though based in 
method upon that of the Dutch masters, and 
approaching in feeling sometimes to them and 
sometimes to Wilson, was inspired mainly by 
Nature and affection for the locality in which 
he passed his days. It was thus purely per- 
sonal and national, like that of Gainsborough 
and that of Constable, not daring to express 
highlypoetical emotion or to produce splendid 
visions of ideal beauty, like that of Turner, 
but thoroughly manly and unaffected, and 
penetrated with feeling for the beauty of what 
maybe called the landscape of daily life. This 
he felt deeply and expressed with unusual 
success. The singleness of his aim and his 
constant study of nature gave freshness and 
vitality to all he did, and prevented ordinary 
and often-repeated subjects from becoming 
commonplace or monotonous. The life of 
the painter passed into his works. The low 
banks of the Wensum and the Yare, with their 

ricketty boat-houses, the leafy lanes about 
Norwich, the familiar Mousehold Heath, the 
tan-sailed barges sailing through the flats, 
the jetty and shore at Yarmouth sparkling 
in the sun, were painted by him as all men 
saw them, but as no one but himself could 
paint them. He found rather than com- 
posed his pictures, but the artistic instinct 
was so strong within him that his selection 
of subjects was always happy, and, even when 
most simple, attended by a success which no 
effort of creative imagination could excel. An 
instance of such fortunate finding, accom- 
panied by wonderful sympathy of treatment, 
is the ' Mousehold Heath ' in the National 
Gallery (Trafalgar Square), where a simple 
slope rising bare against a sky warm with 
illuminated clouds suffices, with a few weeds 
for foreground, to make a noble and poetical 
picture, full of the solemnity of solitude and 
the calm of the dying day. He painted it, 
he said, for ' air and space.' As a specimen 
of his sometimes rich and gem-like colouring 
the * View of Chapel Fields, Norwich,' with its 
avenue of trees shot through with the slanting 
rays of the sun, could scarcely be surpassed. 
Always original, because always painting 
what he saw as he saw it, he was yet, perhaps, 
most so in his trees, which he studied with a 
particularity exceeding that of any artist be- 
fore him, giving to each kind not only its gene- 
ral form and air, but its bark, its leafage, and 
its habit of growth. His oaks are especially 
fine, drawn with a comprehensive knowledge 
of their structure, and as if with an intimate 
acquaintance with every branch. It has been 
said that ' an oak as represented by Crome is 
a poem vibrating with life,' and that ' Mr. 
Steward's " Oak at Poringland " and Mr. 
Holmes's " Willow " are two among the no- 
blest pictures of trees that the world possesses, 
for, with all the knowledge and all the defini- 
tion, there is no precedence given to detail 
over large pictorial effect.' Another picture 
by Crome, although an early one, deserves 
notice from its size and beauty. This is the 
' Carrow Abbey,' exhibited in 1805, and now 
in the possession of Mr. J. J. Colman, M.P. 
An exhaustive examination of Crome's art 
is impossible here. Enough has been said to 
show that he was one of the most genuine 
and original, as he was undoubtedly one of 
the most enthusiastic of English artists, and 
that his name deserves to be remembered 
with those of Gainsborough and Constable as 
one of the men of genius who founded the 
English school of landscape. It was not till 
1878 that the London public had an oppor- 
tunity of doing justice to the merit of Crome 
and the rest of the Norwich school. Of fifty- 
six examples of the school shown that year, 




twenty-seven were by * Old Crome,' and among 
them were two fine pictures from sketches 
taken during his one visit to the continient. 
The 'Fishmarket on the Beach, Boulogne, 
1814' (painted 1820), and 'Boulevard des 
Italiens, Paris, 1814 ' (both now in the posses- 
sion of the trustees of the late Hudson Gur- 
ney), showed that, English as Crome was to 
the core, his palette took a livelier tone, in 
sympathy with the climate and character of 
the French. Both these pictures were etched 
with great skill and feeling by the late Edwin 
Edwards. Fine examples of ' Old Crome ' 
now fetch large prices. A ' View of Cromer ' 
was sold at Christie's in 1867 for 1 ,020 guineas, 
and in 1875, at the sale of Mr. Mendel's pic- 
tures, an upright landscape, a road scene, 
brought nearly 1,600/. 

Although all Crome's artistic triumphs are 
in oil colours, he drew skilfully but rarely in 
water colour. There are three or four poor 
examples of his water colours in the South 
Kensington Museum, and one or two sketches 
in monochrome. Of his oil paintings the 
National Gallery and the South Kensington 
Museum contain several good specimens be- 
sides those already mentioned, and the Fitz- 
william Museum at Cambridge contains a 
fine ' Clump of Trees, Hautbois Common.' 
Many of his finest pictures are still owned by 
families in Norwich and its neighbourhood. 

Crome must be regarded as one of the 
earliest painter-etchers of the English school. 
The art had, indeed, been practised for topo- 
graphical views and as an adjunct to engrav- 
ing and aquatint, but very few if any English 
artists before Crome used the needle for their 
own pleasure and to make studies from nature 
of a purely picturesque kind. His hard- 
ground etchings are large in arrangement of 
masses of light, and very minute in execu- 
tion. No etcher has so faithfully recorded 
the detail of branch and leaf, but in doing 
this he sacrificed gradation of tone and with 
it atmospheric efi"ect. His soft-ground etch- 
ings are slighter but more effective. They 
were essentially'private plates these of Crome, 
and though he issued a prospectus in 1812 for 
their publication and got a respectable body 
of subscribers, he could not be persuaded to 
publish them. It was not till 1834, or thir- 
teen years after his death, that thirty-one of 
them were published at Norwich in a volume 
called ' Norfolk Picturesque Scenery,' by his 
widow, his son J. B. Crome, Mr. B. Steel, and 
Mr. Freeman. A few copies, now very rare, 
were worked off on large folio before letters. 
Four years later (1838) there was a new 
issue of seventeen of these plates, called 
' Etchings in Norfolk,' with a memoir of the 
artist by Dawson Turner, and a portrait en- 

graved by Sevier after a picture by D. B. 
Murphy, which, with another by W. Sharpe, 
and a bust by F. Mazzotti, were exhibited at 
the Norwich Society in 1821. About 1850 
the thirty-one plates were again published, 
by Mr. Charles Musket, and about twenty 
years afterwards another issue appeared with 
an additional soft-ground plate which had 
not been published before. This was called 
' Thirty-two original Etchings, Views of Nor- 
folk, by Old Crome, with portrait.' Some of 
the plates for the later issues were rebitten by 
Ninham, and others touched with the graver 
by "W. C. Edwards. The later states of the 
plates are of little artistic value. There is 
a fine collection of Crome's etchings in the 
British Museum. 

[Norfolk Picturesque Scenery, 1834 ; ibid. 
1838, with Memoir by Dawson Turner; Wodder- 
spoon's John Crome and his Works ; 2nd ed. 
printed for private circulation by E. N. Bacon, 
at the Norwich Mercury Office, 1876 ; Life by 
Mrs. Charles Heaton, added to Cunningham's 
Lives of British Painters, 1880; Cunningham's 
Cabinet Library of Pictures ; Chesneau's La 
Peinture Anglaise ; Eedgraves' Century of 
Painters; Wedmore's Studies in English Art; 
English Illustrated Magazine, December 1883 ; 
Magazine of Art, April 1882 ; Graphic, 13 Aug. 
1881 ; Seguier's Diet, of the Works of Painters ; 
Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists (1878) ; Bryan's Diet, 
of Painters (Graves) ; Graves's Diet, of Artists ; 
manuscript notes by the late Mr. Edwin Ed- 
wards, and information supplied by Mr. J. Eeeve 
of Norwich.] C. M. 

CROME, JOHN BERN AY (1794-1842). 
landscape-painter, the eldest son of John 
(Old) Crome [q. v.], was born at Norwich 
14 Dec. 1794. He was christened John Bar- 
ney, after his father's christian and mother's 
m aiden name, but in the record of the baptisms 
of other members of his family the mother's 
name is sometimes spelt Berney and Bernay. 
He was educated at the grammar school at 
Norwich under Dr. Samuel Forster and the 
Rev. Edward Valpy. He was brought up 
as an artist, assisted his father in teaching, and 
succeeded him in his practice. He painted 
coast and country scenes, and attained con- 
siderable local reputation as a painter and 
a teacher. He was a member of the Nor- 
wich Society of Artists, and between 1806 
and 1830 sent 277 of his works to their ex- 
hibitions. Between 1811 and 1843 he exhi- 
bited seven works at the Royal Academy, 
thirty-five at the British Institution, and 
fifty-five at the Society of British Artists. 
He made frequent visits to the continent, 
and the subjects of some of his pictures were 
taken from places in France, Holland, Bel- 
gium, and Italy. Towards the close of his 




life he became celebrated for his moonlight 
pictures. In 1835 he left Norwich for Great 
Yarmouth, where he died, after much suffer- 
ing, from an incurable disease, 15 Sept. 1842, 
aged 48. He was twice married, and left a 
widow but no children. His pictures are un- 
equal in merit, but his best are so like those 
of his father that some of them have been 
exhibited and sold as such. 

[Wodderspoon's .John Crome and his Works, 
2nd edit.; Norfolk Chronicle, 17 Sept. 1842; 
Norwich Mercury, same date ; Redgrave's Diet.; 
information communicated by Mr. James Reeve 
of Norwich.] C. M. 

1812), engraver, was born at Hull in 1770. 
He abandoned law for literary and artistic 
pursuits. He lived for a time at Manchester 
and collected books. He afterwards went to 
London and studied engraving under Barto- 
lozzi. He engraved some of Stothard's pic- 
tures, and made acquaintance with William 
Blake. He bought Blake's drawings in illus- 
tration of Blair's ' Grave ' for twenty guineas 
(about the usual price according to Cunning- 
ham), and in 1808 published an edition of the 
poem with etchings after Blake by Schiavo- 
netti. Blake expected to be employed upon 
the engraving himself, and was aggrieved by 
the transference of the work to Schiavonetti. 
Cromek obtained a large number of subscri- 
bers without any benefit to Blake. In 1808 
Cromek visited Scotland to collect informa- 
tion about Burns. The result was his ' Re- 
liques of Burns, consisting chiefly of Original 
Letters, Poems, and Critical Observations on 
Scottish Songs,' 1808. This was followed by 
* Select Scottish Songs, Ancient and Modern, 
with Critical Observations and Biographical 
Notices by Robert Burns, edited by R. H. 
Cromek,' 1810. Cromek had made a second 
collecting tour in 1809, and then met Allan 
Cunningham [q. v.], who provided him with 
' old songs ' of his own manufacture. Cromek 
turned Cunningham's services to account, with 
very slight acknowledgment of their true na- 
ture, in ' Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway 
Song, with Historical and Traditional Notices 
relative to the Manners and Customs of the 
Peasantry,' 1810. During one of these tours 
Cromek, according to his biographer, picked 
up a volume of Chaucer, and thereupon sug- 
gested to Stothard his famous picture of the 
' Canterbury Pilgrims.' This statement was 
intended as an answer to the far more pro- 
bable story that Cromek really took the hint 
from a sight of Blake's design for the same 
subject. Blake asserted that Cromek gave 
him a commission for the picture. Cromek 
replied that BloJte must have received the 

commission ' in a vision.' It seems that on 
failing to get the design on the same terms 
as the designs for the ' Grave ' he offered 
Stothard 601. (afterwards raised to 100/.) to 
paint the picture without explaining the pre-' 
vious transaction with Blake. Cromek ex- 
hibited Stothard's picture in several towns, 
and sold it for 300/. He excused himself 
from paying Stothard in full on the ground 
of money difficulties. Schiavonetti's death 
(7 June 1810) delayed the engraving, and 
Cromek was much affected by the disappoint- 
ment. He showed symptoms of consumption 
in the winter of 1810, and died of the disease 
14 March 1812, leaving a widow and two 
children. The * Grave ' was reissued in 1813, 
with lives of Cromek and Schiavonetti. Cro- 
mek's widow finally made a large sum by pub- 
lishing the print after Stothard, which was 
completed by other engravers. Cunningham 
tells a story of Cromek's appropriation of an 
autograph letter of Ben Jonson belonging to 
Scott. Cromek was a shifty speculator, who 
incurred the odium attaching to men of busi- 
ness who try to make money by the help of 
men of genius. The fact that he ruined him- 
self in the attempt has not procured him 
pardon. Yet he seems to have been a man 
of some taste and kindly feeling, who might 
have behaved more liberally if he could have 
afforded to keep a conscience. Cunningham, 
whom he introduced to Chantrey, says : ' I 
always think of him, if not with gratitude, 
with affection and esteem,' 

[Life in Blair's Grave, 1813 ; Nichols's Illus- 
trations, vii. 213, 215; Gilchrist's Blake (2nd 
ed.), i. 246, 290 ; Bray's Life of Stothard (1851), 
130-40; Gent. Mag. February 1852 (where a 
letter to Blake was first printed) ; Hogg's Life 
of Allan Cunningham, 49-74, 79, 80; Cunning- 
ham's Lives of the Painters, ii. 161-3; Smith's 
Nollekens, ii. 474-5 ; Preface by Peter Cunning- 
ham to A. Cunningham's Songs, 1847.] L. S. 

CROMER, GEORGE {d. 1543), arch- 
bishop of Armagh, was an Englishman by 
birth. He succeeded Kite at Armagh in 1522. 
(The writ to restore the temporalities was of 
June 1522, and was retrospective to the time 
of Kite's resignation ; Ware, Work^ on Ire- 
land, Harris's transl.) He was attached to 
the faction of Gerald, earl of Kildare, through 
whom he was made lord chancellor of Ireland 
in 1532, after the removal of Kildare's enemy, 
Archbishop Allen of Dublin. He exercised this 
high office for two years, down to the rising 
of Kildare and the murder of Allen. Cromer 
is best known for the opposition that he 
attempted to the introduction of tlie English 
reformation into Ireland, into which course 
he was led partly by his friendship with the 
Geraldines, and his resentment at the soveri- 




ties used towards them at the end of their 
revolt. In 1536 Henry VIII imposed all the 
reformatory measures, that had been passed 
at Westminster, upon the parliament of 
Dublin : such as the act of supreme head, 
the act for first-fruits to go to the crown, 
the act for suppressing certain monasteries, 
and others {Irish State Papers, p. 526 ; Cox, 
Hibern. Anglieana, p. 248 ; DixoN, Ch. of 
Engl. ii. 181). At the same time a number 
of commissioners appeared, and the English 
reformation was actively enforced, especially 
by Browne, the new archbishop of Dublin. 
Cromer, as primate of Ireland, did what he 
could to oppose these proceedings. Summon- 
ing a meeting of some of his suffragans and 
clergy, he represented the impiety of acknow- 
ledging the king as supreme head of the 
church ; exhorted them to adhere to the 
apostolic chair; and convinced them that 
Ireland was the peculiar property of the holy 
see, from which alone the English kings held 
their dominion or lordship over it, by the 
argument that it was anciently called the 
Holy Island (Leland, ii. 161). Soon after- 
wards Archbishop Browne informed the 
powerful minister Cromwell that Cromer was 
intriguing with the Duke of Norfolk, one of 
the heads of the old learning in England, to 
prevent the reformation in Ireland. ' George, 
my brother of Armagh, doth underhand oc- 
casion quarrels, and is not active to execute 
his highness's orders in his diocese. The 
Duke of Norfolk is by Armagh, and the 
clergy desired to assist them, nor to suffer 
his highness to alter church rules here in 
Ireland' (Cox, p. 257). He also warned him 
that Cromer had entered into communication 
with Rome. The latter had indeed despatched 
emissaries thither, to advertise the pope of 
the king's recent proceedings ; and had re- 
ceived from the holy father a private com- 
mission, prohibiting the people from owning 
the king for supreme head, and pronouncing 
a curse on those who should not confess to 
their confessors within forty days that they 
had done amiss in so doing (Cox, ib., Browne 
to Crumwel, May 1538). Little came of this, 
and Cromer seems to have ceased to atti'act 
attention. He died in March 1542-3. 
[Authorities cited, ad loc] R. W. D. 

1672), head-master of St. Paul's School, born 
in 1618 in Wiltshire, was the son of the Rev. 
Richard Cromleholme, who was rector of 
Quedgeley, Gloucestershire, from July 1624. 
He was admitted to Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, 13 Nov. 1635, at the age of seventeen, 
and took the degrees of B. A. and M. A. in due 
course. He became master of the Mercers' 

Chapel school, London, and in 1647 was 
appointed sur-master of St. Paul's School, 
where he found a friend in the Rev. John 
Langley, the head-master, through whose re- 
commendation he got the mastership of the 
Dorchester grammar school on 10 Oct. 1651. 
On 14 Sept. 1657 he succeeded Langley, who 
on his deathbed had recommended him as 
head-master of St. Paul's School. Pepys was 
intimate with him, and held him in honour 
for his learning, but in one place calls him a 
* conceited pedagogue' for being 'so dogmati- 
cal in all he does and says.' He was a good 
linguist, and hence earned the name of no\v- 
yXwrrof. At the burning of the school in the 
great fire of 1666 he lost a valuable library, 
the best private collection in London it was 
reputed, and its loss was thought to have 
hastened his death, which took place on 
21 July 1672. His remains were buried in 
the Guildhall chapel, and his funeral sermon 
was preached by Dr. John Wells of St. Bo- 
tolph's, Aldersgate. His wife, Mary Cromle- 
holme, survived him, but he left no children. 

[Gardiner's Admission Registers of St. Paul's 
School, 1884, p. 49; Knight's Life of Colet, 1823 
p. 325; Hutchins's Dorset, 1863, ii. 368; Obituary 
of Richard Smyth (Camd. Soc), p. 96; Pepys's 
Diary, ed. Myiiors Bright, 1875, i. 24, 38, 391, 
ii. 10, 46, 139, 205, iii. 125, iv. 94; Bagford's 
account of London Libraries in W. .1. Thoms's 
Mem. of W. Oldys, 1862, p. 74 ; and in Notes 
and Queries, 1861, 2nd ser. xi. 403 ; information 
from Mr. J. W. Bone and others.] C. W. S, 

(1652-1727), director of Irish linen enter- 
prise, was born in May 1652 at Armandcourt, 
near St. Quentin, Picardy, where his ancestry 
had long been landowners and flax-growers. 
His father, Louis Crommelin (married in 
1648 to Marie Mettayer), was sufficiently 
wealthy to leave 10,000/. to each of his four 
sons, Samuel-Louis, Samuel, William, and 
Alexander. Louis Crommelin, who, on his 
father's death, appears to have dropped the 
prefix Samuel, gave employment to many 
hands in flax-spinning and linen-weaving. 
The family was protestant, and the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Nantes in 1685 proved the 
ruin of their business. Crommelin for some 
years endeavoured to hold his ground ; he had 
reconciled himself to the Roman catholic 
church in 1683, but becoming again a pro- 
testant, his estates were forfeited to the crown 
and his buildings wrecked. With his son and 
two daughters (his wife Anne was dead) he 
made his way to Amsterdam. Here he be- 
came partner in a banking firm, and was joined 
by his brothers Samuel and William. 

Many exiled Huguenot linen-workers had 




been encouraged to settle at Lisburn (for- 
merly Lisnagai-vey), a cathedral town on the 
confines of counties Antrim and I>own, where 
already there was some manufacture of linen. 
In 1696 the English parliament passed an 
act (7 and 8 Will. Ill, cap. 39) for inviting 
foreign protest ants to settle in Ireland, and 
admitting all products of hemp and flax duty 
free from Ireland to England. The Irish 
parliament in November 1697 passed an act 
for fostering the linen manufacture. Wil- 
liam III, in reply to an address from the 
English commons on 9 June 1698, expressed 
his determination, while discouraging the 
Irish woollen trade, to do all in his power to 
encourage the linen manufactures of Ireland. 
With this view the king made a communica- 
tion to Crommelin, desiring him to institute 
an inquiry into the condition of the French 
colony at Lisburn, and to report upon the 
terms on which he would agree to act as di- 
rector of the linen manufacture. Crommelin 
arrived at Lisburn in the autumn of 1698. 
He embodied his ideas respecting the best 
mode of improving the linen industry in a 
memorial dated 16 April 1699, and addressed 
to the commissioners of the treasury. The 
treasury, in concert with the commissioners 
of trade and plantations, recommended the 
adoption of Crommelin's proposals, and effect 
was at once given to them by a royal patent. 
Crommelin, who was made ' overseer of the 
royal linen manufacture of Ireland,' advanced 
10,000/. to carry out the necessary works, 
the treasury paying him eight per cent, on this 
sum for ten years. He was to have 200/. a 
year as director, and 120/. a year for each 
of three assistants. A grant of 60/. was 
added towards the stipend of a French mi- 
nister, and early in 1701 Charles Lavalade 
(whose sister had married Alexander Crom- 
melin) became the pastor of the colony. The 
death of William III in 1702 imperilled the 
rising enterprise, but the royal patent and 
grants were renewed under Anne. 

Crommelin began by ordering three hundred 
looms (afterwards increased to a thousand) 
from Flanders and Holland. Till his death 
a premium of 5/. was granted for every loom 
kept going. The old Irish spinning-wheel he 
considered superior to any in use abroad ; but 
he employed skilled workmen to still further 
improve it. His reed maker was Henry 
Mark du Pr6 (d. 1750), one of the best makers 
of Cambray. Baron Conway gave a site for 
weaving workshops, and in addition to the 
Huguenot weavers Irish apprentices were 
taken. Dutchmen were engaged to teach 
flax-growing to farmers, and to superintend 
bleaching operations. It is not without some 
reason that Crommelin has been credited 

with originating, as regards Ulster, a system 
of technical education for the textile art. 
The effect was to supply the markets of 
Dublin and London with linens and cambrics 
of a quality previously procurable only by 
importation from abroad. Crommelin was 
effectively assisted by his three brothers. 
In 1705 a factory was opened at Kilkenny, 
under the management of William Crom- 
melin. In 1707 the thanks of the Irish par- 
liament were voted to Crommelin. The 
minutes of the linen board, a body of 
trustees appointed (13 Oct. 1711) by the Irish 
government for the extension of the linen 
manufacture, bear frequent testimony to the 
* invaluable service ' of Crommelin. He pur- 
sued his work bravely, though a heavy pri- 
vate sorrow fell upon him in the death of his 
only son, Louis, born at St. Quentin, who 
died at Lisburn on 1 July 1711, aged 28. 
By the death of this son a pension of 200/. 
a year was lost. It had been offered to Crom- 
melin, but at his desire was given to his son. 
On 24 Feb. 1716 the linen board recom- 
mended that a pension of 400/. be granted 
him by the government. In December 1717 
Crommelin extended his operations by pro- 
moting settlements for the manufacture of 
hempen sailcloth at Rathkeale, Cork, Water- 
ford, and later at Rathbride (1725). His 
energy ceased only with his life ; he died at 
Lisburn on 14 July 1727, aged 75, and is 
buried, with other Huguenots, in the eastern 
corner of the graveyard of the cathedral 
church. He left a daughter, married to Cap- 
tain de Berniere. The Crommelin family is 
extinct in the main line, but the name sur- 
vives, having been adopted by a branch of 
the family of de la Cherois, closely connected 
by marriage with the Crommelins. 

Crommelin published an * Essay towards 
the Improving of the Hempen and Flaxen 
Manufactories in the Kingdom of Ireland,' 
Dublin, 1705, 4to, containing many particu- 
lars of historical as well as scientific interest. 

[Ulster Journal of Arehseology, 1853, pp. 
209 sq., 286 sq. (article on the ' Huguenot Colony 
at Lisburn,' by Dr. Pardon), 1856, p. 206 sq. 
(article ' The Settlement inWaterford,' by Rev. T. 
Gimlette) ; La France Protestante, 2ud edit, by 
Bordier, 1884 (article 'Crommelin'); Northern 
Whig, 12 July 1885 (article on 'Louis Crommelin' 
[by Hugh M'Call, Lisburn], requiring some cor- 
rection); English Commons' Journals, xii.338sq.; 
Eeport from the Select Committee on the Linen 
Trade in Ireland, 6 June 1825; communication 
from Mr. M'Call.] A. &. 


(1797-1865), justice of the queen's bench, 
born at Derby on 12 June 1797, was the third 
son of Dr, Peter Crompton, whose father w;ia 




a banker there. The Cromptons came of a 
Yorkshire puritan stock, connected with the 
Cheshire family of the regicide Bradshaw. 
Dr. Peter Crompton succeeded to an elder 
brother's inheritance, and at an early age 
married his second cousin Mary, daughter of 
John Crompton of Chorley Hall, Lancashire, 
a lady much admired by the poet Coleridge 
and often mentioned in his correspondence. 
Shortly after his third son's birth. Dr. Cromp- 
ton removed from Derby to Eton House, 
near Liverpool, and there passed the rest of his 
days as a country gentleman, physicking the 
poor gratis and being noted for advanced libe- 
ral opinions at a time when it was not very safe 
to hold them. His son Charles (who never used 
his second name, John), having graduated 
with distinction at Trinity College, Dublin, 
was entered at the Inner Temple in 1817, after 
a short time spent in a Liverpool solicitor's 
office. He learned the art of special pleading 
(in which he became later a great adept) from 
Littledale and Patteson, and, being called to 
the bar in 1821, went the northern circuit. 
Practice came to him, if not very quickly, on 
the whole steadily, and he acquired in time 
the reputation of a learned and thoroughly 
sound lawyer, becoming an authority espe- 
cially in mercantile cases and in questions 
arising out of the Municipal Corporation Re- 
form Act. He became tubman and then 
postman in the exchequer, counsel for the 
board of stamps and taxes, reporter of ex- 
chequer decisions from 1830 to 1836 (first 
with Jervis, afterwards with Meeson and 
Roscoe), assessor of the court of passage in 
Liverpool from 1836, a member of the com- 
mission of inquiry into the court of chancery 
in 1851, and then, without having taken silk, 
was raised to the bench in February 1852 by 
Lord Truro, and knighted. A strong libe- 
ral in politics, like his father, he stood for 
parliament at Preston in 1832, and Newport 
(Isle of Wight) in 1847, but in both cases un- 
successfully. He proved an excellent judge, 
especially in banco, and was the author of 
many decisions still quoted. When he died, 
on 30 Oct. 1865, he was followed to his rest- 
ing-place in Willesden churchyard with un- 
usual marks of respect and affection from his 
professional brethren. He had a character 
as open and winning as it was upright and 
high-principled, with a lively humour that in 
youth was apt to brim over and later was 
sometimes rather caustic but which grew 
mellow with age. Through life he was an 
omnivorous reader, and amid the greatest 
press of work he always found time for the 
pursuits and interests of a highly cultivated 
mind. He married Caroline, fourth daughter 
of Thomas Fletcher, a lAverpool merchant, 

in 1832, and left four sons and three daugh- 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Law Magazine, 
vol. xxiii. No. 4.5, art. 1, by Sir L. Peel ; in- 
formation from the family.] Q. C. R. 

CROMPTON, HUGH (J. 1657), poet, 
was, according to his friend AVinstanley, 
* born a Gentleman and bred up a Scholar.' 
He probably belonged to the Lancashire fa- 
mily of Crompton. But his father's means 
failed, and he had to earn his own livelihood, 
' which his learning had made him capable 
to do.' Misfortune still dogged him, and he 
employed his enforced leisure in writing 
poetry. Before 1687 he emigrated to Ireland. 
The date of his death is uncertain. His pub- 
lished works, which are very rarely met with, 
are: 1. 'Poems by Hugh Crompton, the Son 
of Bacchus and Godson of Apollo. Being a 
fardle of Fancies or a medley of Musick, stood 
in four ounces of the Oyl of Epigrams,' Lon- 
don, 1657, dedicated to the author's ' Friend 
and Kinsman Colonell Tho. Compton.' 2. ' Pie- 
rides, or the Muses Mount,' London, 1658 ?, 
dedicated to Mary, duchess of Richmond and 
Lennox. Many of Crompton's poems are 
fluently and briskly written ; a few are ob- 
vious imitations of Waller, and others are 
unpleasantly coarse. Granger mentions a 
portrait of Crompton at the age of eighteen 
which was engraved by A. Hertocks. A 
second engraved portrait is prefixed to the 
' Pierides.' 

[Winstanley's Lives of the English Poets, 191; 
Granger's Biog. Hist. iii. 100; Corser's Collec- 
tanea, iv. 521-6 ; Park's Restituta, i. 272, iii. 
167.] S. L. 

CROMPTON, JOHN (1611-1669), non- 
conformist divine, younger son of Abraham 
Crompton of Brightmet, a hamlet in the 
parish of Bolton, Lancashire, was born in 1 61 1 . 
He received his academical education at Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, where he pro- 
ceeded M.A. After leaving the university 
he became lecturer at All Saints, Derby. In 
1637, when a pestilence visited the town, 
and every one fled that could, Crompton re- 
mained at his post, and did what he could to 
allay the terror and confusion. From Derby 
he removed to Brailsford, a rectory seven 
miles distant, where he paid the fifth of the 
whole profits. He also gave the profits of 
Osmaston chapelry, which belonged to the 
rectory, reckoned at 40/. a year, to a clergy- 
man of his own choosing, that he might 
attend wholly to his parishioners at Brails- 
ford. When Booth rose in Lancashire, and 
White at Nottingham, for the king, Crompton 
went with his neighbours, with such arms 

Crompton i. 

as they could get, to assist at Derby. The 
attempt failing, he and some of his friends 
were placed for a while under strict surveil- 
lance by the parliament. At the Restoration 
Crompton was forced to give up his rectory, 
though a certificate testifying his worth and 
loyalty was signed by many influential inlia- 
bitants of Derby and adjacent places. He 
then retired to Arnold, a small vicarage near 
Nottingham, from which he was soon ejected 
by the Act of 1.1 niformity. He continued, 
however, to rent the vicarage house at Arnold 
till the Five Mile Act removed him to Map- 
perley in Derbyshire, where he preached as 
he had opportunity. He died on 9 Jan. 1669, 
and was buried at West Hallam. His funeral 
sermon was preached by Robert Horn, the 
rector, who, dying himself some six weeks 
later, desired to be laid in the same grave. 
Crompton had, with other issue, two sons, 
Abraham, of Derby, who died in 1734, and 
Samuel, pastor of a dissenting congregation 
at Doncaster. 

[Calamy's Nonconf. Memorial (Palmer), iii. 
86-8; Burke's Landed Gentry, 6th ed., 1882, i. 
395 ; Glover's Derbyshire, pt. i. vol. ii. p. 495.] 


1599), lawyer, was of a family settled at 
Bedford Grange in the parish of Leigh, Lan- 
cashire, and was educated at Brasenose Col- 
lege, Oxford, but did not proceed to a degree. 
He became a member and bencher of the 
Middle Temple, ' a barrister and councillor 
of note,' as stated by Wood ; was summer 
reader in 1573 and Lent reader in 1578 ; and 
* might have been called to the coif, had he 
not preferred his private studies and repose 
before public employment and riches.' In 
1583 he edited and enlarged Sir A. Fitz- 
herbert's ' Office et Aucthoritie de Justices 
de Peace ' (R. Tottill, 8vo). This was re- 
printed in 1584 and 1593 by the same printer, 
in 1594 by C. Yetsweirt, and in 1606 and 
1617 by the Stationers' Company. In 1587 
he published *A Short Declaration of the 
Ende of Traytors and False Conspirators 
against the State, and the Duetie of Subjects 
to their Souereigne Governour' (J. Charle- 
wood, 4to) , dedicated to Archbishop Whitgift. 
In 1594 appeared his chief work, ' L'Autho- 
ritie et Jurisdiction des Courts de la Maiestie 
de la Roygne' (C. Yetsweirt, 4to). In his 
dedication to Sir John Puckering the author 
states that this treatise was written after his 
retirement into the country and as a solace 
for the leisure hours of his old age. It was 
reprinted by J. More in 1637, and is com- 
mended in North's ' Discourse on the Study 
of the Law.' A selection of ' Star-chamber 


Cases ' was made from this work and pub- 
lished in 1630 and 1641. His last work was 
issued in 1599, entitled 'The Mansion of 
Magnanimitie : wherein is shewed the most 
high and honourable Acts of Sundrie English 
Kings, Princes, Dukes . . . performed in de- 
fence of their Princes and Countrie' (W. 
Ponsonby, 4to). Another edition was printed 
by M. Lownes in 1608. William Crompton 
(1599P-1642) [q.v.], the puritan minister of 
Barnstaple, was his younger son. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon., ed. Bliss, i. 634; 
Ormerod's Parentalia, Additions, 1856, p. 4; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. of Early English Books, i. 427, 
ii. 630; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), 1785, 
ii. 824, 1099, 1131, 1276; W. C. Hazlitt's Hand- 
book, 1867, p. 130; Hazlitt's Collections and 
Notes, 1876, p. 109.] C. W. S. 

CROMPTON, SAMUEL (1753-1827), 
inventor of the spinning mule, was bom at 
Firwood, near Bolton, on 3 Dec. 1753. His 
father occupied a small farm, to the cultiva- 
tion of which he added domestic yarn-spin- 
ning and handloom-weaving for the Bolton 
market. Crompton's father died when he was 
a boy of five, and when the family were domi- 
ciled in some rooms of an ancient mansion 
near Firwood (Hall-in-the-Wood), of which 
his parents seem to have been appointed care- 
takers. His mother was a superior woman, 
but of a stern disposition. She sent him to 
a good day-school in the neighbourhood, 
where he made fair progress in arithmetic, 
algebra, and geometry. From an early age he 
spun yam, which he wove into quilting, his 
mother insisting on a daily task being done. 
Her harshness was aggravated by the im- 
perfections of the spinning-jenny [see Har- 
GKEAVES, James] with which he produced his 
yarn, and much of his time was spent in 
mending its ever-breaking ends. He grew 
up unsocial and irritable ; his only solace 
was playing on a fiddle constructed by him- 
self. The annoyance caused him by the im- 
perfections of his spinning-jenny led him to 
attempt the construction of a new spinning 
machine for his own use. From his twenty- 
second tohis twenty-seventh year he was occu- 
pied with this project, adding to his scanty 
stock of tools from his earnings as a fiddler 
at the Bolton theatre. To secure secrecy 
and spare time, he worked at the new machine 
during the night. The consequent sounds 
and lights made the neighbours believe the 
place was haunted. In 1779 his machine was 
completed, at the cost of years of labour and 
of eveiy shilling he had in the world. Rude 
as it was, it solved Crompton's problem. It 
produced yarn equable and slight enough to 
be used for the manufacture of delicate mus- 




lins, then chiefly imported from India at a 
great cost. The new machine was called at 
first, from his birthplace, the Hall-in-the- 
Wood wheel, or sometimes the muslin-wheel, 
but afterwards by the name under which it 
is still known, the mule, from its combination 
of the principle of Arkwright's rollers with 
that of Hargreaves's spinning-jenny. Cromp- 
ton made a valuable addition, which was en- 
tirely his own invention. This was his 
spindle-carriage, through the action of which 
there was no strain on the thread before it 
was completed. The carriage with the spindles 
could, by the movement of the hand and 
knee, recede just as the rollers delivered out 
the elongated thread in a soft state, so that 
it would allow of a considerable stretch be- 
fore the thread had to encounter the stress of 
winding on the spindle (Kennbdt, p. 327). 
By this gradual extension of the roving it was 
drawn out much finer than by the water- 
frame or the jenny, the twist and weft spun 
on which were used chiefly for strong goods 
(Guest, p. 32 ; see also his drawing of the 
mule, plate 12 of appendix). The mule was 
the first machine to reproduce the action ot 
the left arm and finger and thumb of the 
spinner on the ordinary spinning-wheel, which 
consisted in holding and elongating the sliver 
as the spindle twisted it into yam (WooD- 
CKOFT, p. 13). 

Confident in his machine, Crompton mar- 
ried, in February 1780, the daughter of a 
decayed West India merchant, who had first 
attracted his attention by her skill in hand- 
spinning, and who after marriage assisted 
him in spinning with the mule, to which he 
exclusively devoted himself. A demand arose 
for as much of his yam as he could supply, 
and at his own price. Curiosity sent num- 
bers of people to the Hall to endeavour to 
discover his secret, and there is a tradition 
that Arkwright himself came over from 
Cromford, and during Crompton's temporary 
absence contrived to find his way into the 
Hall-in-the-Wood, Crompton seems to have 
been rendered half-distracted by the prying 
to which he was subjected. * A few months,' 
he says, ' reduced me to the cruel necessity, 
either of destroying my machine altogether, 
or giving it up to the public. To destroy it 
I could not think of, to give up that for which 
I had laboured so long was cruel. I had no 
patent, nor the means of purchasing one. 
In preference to destroying it I gave it to the 
public' Crompton might have at least at- 
tempted to procure, like Arkwright, the aid 
of capitalists. But fortified in his resolution 
by the advice of a Bolton manufacturer, he 
made over his invention to the public, in re- 
turn for a document possessing no legal va- 

lidity, in which eighty firms and individual 
manufacturers agreed to pay him sums sub- 
scribed by them, amounting in all to 67/. 6s. 6c?. 
With his siirrender of the mule the subscrip- 
tion ceased, and Crompton was soured and 
made almost misanthropic for life. Con- 
structing a new machine with the proceeds 
of the subscription, and removing to a small 
farm at Oldhams, near Bolton, he refused a 
most promising offer from Mr., afterwards 
the first Sir Robert Peel, to enter his esta- 
blishment. At Oldhams he went on with his 
mule-spinning, and became an employer of 
labour. He afterwards reverted to his 
own and that of his family, being tired of 
'teaching green hands,* who were eagerly 
sought for by others, because taught by him. 
In one of his moods of exasperation at this 
time he destroyed his spinning-machines and 
a carding-machine of his own invention, say- 
ing, ' They shall not have this too.' Subse- 
quently he resumed both spinning and weav- 
ing, with a family growing up about him, 
and in 1791 he removed to Bolton, where 
his sensitive pride still stood in the way of 
success. At last, in 1800, when the mule 
had largely displaced Hargreaves's spinning- 
jenny, superseded Arkwright's water-frame, 
and created a prosperous manufacture of 
British muslin, a subscription was raised for 
Crompton by some Manchester sympathisers, 
foremost among them Mr. John Kennedy 
[q. v.], his earliest biographer, and one of the 
historians of the cotton manufacture. Owing 
to the unfavourable circumstances of the 
time, only a sum between 400/. and 500/. 
was raised, and with this Crompton increased 
slightly his small manufacturing plant. Upon 
a parliamentary grant of 10,000/. being made 
to Cartwright in 1809 as a reward for his 
invention of the power-loom [see Cart- 
wright, Edmttnd], Crompton in 1811 visited 
the manufacturing districts, to ascertain the 
use made of the mule, as a preliminary to 
claiming a national reward. At Glasgow, 
where the Scotch muslin trade had been 
created by the mule, he was invited to a 
public dinner ; ' but rather than face up,' he 
says, ' I first hid myself, and then fairly 
bolted from the city.' He found that at that 
time the number of spindles used on Har- 
greaves's spinning-jenny was 155,880, upon 
Arkwright's water-frame 310,616, and upon 
the mule 4,600,000. After his return home 
Crompton proceeded to London, with influ- 
ential support from Manchester, to urge his 
claim. A select committee of the House of 
Commons reported in his favour, and in 1812 
he received a grant of 5,000/., from which had 
to be deducted the cost of his tour and of his 
sojourn in London. With what remained of 




the grant Crompton started in the bleaching 
trade at Over Darwen, and afterwards be- 
came a partner in a firm of cotton merchants 
and spinners, succeeding in neither enter- 
prise. In 1824 some Bolton friends raised, 
without his knowledge, a subscription, with 
which an annuity of 63/. was purchased for 
him. During the closing years of his life, 
with increasing cares and sorrows, he became, 
it is hinted, less abstemious than previously. 
He died at Bolton on 26 June 1827. Through 
the exertions of his latest and best biographer, 
Mr. French, 200/. was raised, with which 
a monument was erected over his grave in 
the parish churchyard of Bolton, a town the 
industry of which has been largely developed 
by his mule, especially in its modern self- 
acting form. Another subscription of 2,000/. 
was raised for the execution of a copper- 
bronze statue of Crompton by Calder Mar- 
shall, with bas-reliefs of Hall-in-the-Wood, 
and of the inventor working at his machine, 
which was formally presented to the Bolton 
town council on 24 Sept. 1862. Beside the 
statue sat John Crompton, aged 72, the in- 
ventor's only surviving son, to whom a few 
weeks afterwards Lord Palmerston, then 
prime minister, sent a gratuity of 50/. 

[French's Life and Times of Crompton, 2nd 
edit. 1860; Kennedy's Memoir of Crompton, with 
a Description of his Machine called the Mule, 
and of the subsequent improvement of the ma- 
chine by others, in Memoirs of the Lit. and Phil. 
Soc. of Manchester, 2nd ser., vol. v. (1831) ; 
Guest's History of the Cotton Manufacture, 
1823 ; Woodcroft's Inventors of Machines for 
the Manufacture of Textile Fabrics, 1863; 
Quarterly Ileview, January 1860, art. 'Cotton- 
spinning Machines ; ' Espinasse's Lancashire 
Worthies, 2nd ser. 1877.] F. E. 

CROMPTON, WILLIAM (1699P-1642), 
puritan divine, a younger son of Richard 
Crompton, counsellor-at-law [q. v.], was born 
about 1599 in the parish 01 Leigh, Lanca- 
shire, and educated at the Leigh grammar 
School and at Brasenose College, Oxford, 
where he entered as commoner on 10 April 
1617, aged eighteen years. He took his B. A. 
degree on 20 Nov. 1620, and M.A. on 10 July 
1623, and in the following year was * preacher 
of God's word ' at Little Kimble, Buckingham- 
shire, when he wrote his first work, ' Saint 
Austins Religion : wherein is manifestly 
proued out of the Workes of that Learned 
Father . . . that he dissented from Poperie 
and agreed with the Religion of the Protes- 
tants, London, 4to. This was reissued in 
1625 with an additional treatise (entered at 
Stationers' Hall 3 Aug. 1624) entitled ' Saint 
Austins Summes : or the Summe of Saint 
Austins Religion . . . wherein the Reader 

may plainly and evidently see this conclusion 
proved that S. Austin . . . agreed with the 
Church of England in all the maine Poynts 
of Faith and Doctrine. In Answer to Mr. 
John Breereley, Priest' [i.e. James Anderton, 
q. v.] The latter work, after being 'purged 
of its errors ' by Dr. Daniel Featley [q. v.], 
was licensed by him, but the king (James I) 
found fault with certain passages, and both 
author and licenser were called before liis 
majesty. The interview, which ended in the 
king being satisfied with the orthodoxy of the 
treatise and in his rewarding the author with 
' forty pieces of gold,' is narrated by Featley 
in his ' Cygnea Cantio : or Learned Decisions, 
and most prudent and pious directions for 
Students in Divinitie ; delivered by our late 
Soveraigne of Happie Memorie, King James, 
at Whitehall a few weekes before his Death,' 
London, 1629, 4to. A different account of 
the matter is given in Archbishop Laud's 
' Diary ' (edited by Wharton, 1695, p. 14), 
from which it would appear that the arch- 
bishop himself revised Crompton's papers and, 
by the king's command, * corrected them as 
they might pass in the doctrine of the Church 
of England.' 

Crompton's tutor in his theological studies 
and instructor in his anti-papal views was 
Dr. Richard Pilkington, rector of Hambleden 
and of Little Kimble, Buckinghamshire,whose 
daughter he married. He became acquainted 
with Dr. George Hakewill, rector of Heanton 
Punchardon, Devonshire, by whom he was in- 
duced to remove to Barnstaple. He was lec- 
turer there under Martin Blake, the vicar, from 
1628 to 1640, and was held in great esteem by 
the * puritanical ' people of that place, although 
his teaching was obnoxious to the ' orthodox.' 
At length, through jealousy of the vicar or 
other cause, he was obliged to leave Barn- 
staple, and, according to Calamy, it was ob- 
served that that town afterwards ' dwindled 
both in riches and piety.' While residing at 
Barnstaple he published : 1, * A Lasting 
Jewell for Religious Women ... a sermon 
... at the Funeral of Mistress Mary Crosse,' 
London, 1630, 4to. 2. 'A Wedding-ring, 
fitted to the finger of every paire that have 
or shall meete in the fear of God,' London, 
1632, 4to. This sermon, which is dedicated 
to William Hakewill, the lawyer, was re- 
printed in ' Conjugal Duty, set forth in a col- 
lection of ingenious and Delightful Wedding 
Sermons,' 1732. 3. ' An Explication of those 
Principles of Christian Religion exprest or 
implyed in the Catechism of our Church of 
England . . .,' London, 1633, 12mo. 

He waa afterwards pastor of the church of 
St. Mary Magdalene, Launceston. Anthony 
k Wood states that he * continued there about 




four years,' but this seems too long a period, 
as in the Barnstaple municipal accounts there 
is an entry so late as 1640 of the payment of 
a gratuity of 8/. towards his house rent. He 
died at Launceston in January 1641-2, and 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Mary 
Magdalene on the 5th of that month. His fune- 
ral sermon was preached by George Hughes, 
B.D., of Tavistock, and published, with addi- 
tions, under the title of ' The Art of Em- 
balming Dead Saints,' &c. Lond. 1642, 4to. 

He was father of William Crompton, non- 
conformist minister and author [q, v.], born 
at Little Kimble 13 Aug, 1633. 

fWood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), lii. 23 ; Fasti 
Oxon, i. 392, 411 ; Calamy's Account, 1713, ii. 
247 ; Chanter's Memorials of Ch. of St. Peter, 
Barnstaple, 1882, p. 103; Brit. Mus. Cat. of 
Early English Books, i. 65, 428 ; Arber's Tran- 
script of Stationers' Register, iv. 121, 225, 268, 
298 ; Boase and Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornub. 
i. 99, iii. 1142 ; information kindly communicated 
by Rev. J. Ingle Dredge of Buekland Brewer, 
Devonshire.] C. W. S. 

CROMPTON, WILLIAM (1633-1696), 
nonconformist divine, eldest son of William 
Crompton, incumbent of St. Mary Magda- 
lene, Launceston, Cornwall, was born at Lit- 
tle Kimble, Buckinghamshire, on 13 Aug. 
1633; was admitted into Merchant Taylors* 
School in 1647; and became a student of 
Christ Church, Oxford, by the authority of 
the parliament visitors, in 1648. He took 
his degrees in arts and was presented to the 
living of Collumpton, Devonshire, from which 
at the Restoration he was ejected for noncon- 
formity. Afterwards ' he lived there, and 
sometimes at Exeter, carrying on in those 
places and elsewhere a constant course of 
preaching in conventicles.' He died in 1696. 

Among his works are : 1. * An useful Trac- 
tate to further Christians of these Danger- 
ous and Backsliding Times in the practice 
of the most needful Duty of Prayer,' London, 
1659, 8vo. 2. ' A Remedy against Idolatry : 
or, a Pastor's Farewell to a beloved Flock, 
in some Preservatives against Creature-wor- 
ship,' London, 1667, Bvo. 3. * Brief Survey 
of the Old Religion,' London, 1672, 8vo. 
4. ' The Foundation of God, and the immu- 
tability thereof, laid for the salvation of his 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 626 ; Ro- 
binson's Register of Merchant Taylors' School, 
i. 180; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus.; 
Calamy's Abridgment of Baxter (1713), ii. 247 ; 
Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial (1802), ii. 
13.] T. C. 

CROMWELL, EDWARD, third Baeon 
Ckomwbll (1559 P-1607), politician, born 

about 1559, was the son of Henry, second 
lord Cromwell, by his wife Mary, daughter 
of John Paulet, second marquis of Winchester, 
His grandfather, Gregory, son of the famous 
Thomas Cromwell, Henry VIII's minister 
[q. v.], was created Baron Cromwell on 
18 Dec. 1540. Cromwell spent some time at 
Jesus College, Cambridge, as the pupil of 
Richard Bancroft [q, v,], afterwards arch- 
bishop, but did not matriculate. He was 
created M.A. in 1593, In 1591 he acted as 
colonel in the English army under Essex, 
sent to aid Henri IV in Normandy (CawcZen 
Miscellany, i, * Siege of Rouen,' p. 10), and 
on his father's death in 1592 succeeded to his 
peerage, Cromwell served as a volunteer in 
the naval expedition against Spain of 1597, 
' sued hard . . , for the government of the 
Brill ' in 1598, and accompanied Essex to 
Ireland in 1599 in the vain hope of becoming 
marshal of the army there. In August 1599 
it was reported that he had defeated a rebel 
force of six thousand men, but at the end of 
the month he was in London again. After 
the futile attempt of Essex in January 1600- 
1601 to raise an insurrection in London, 
Cromwell was arrested and sent to the Tower. 
He and Lord Sandys were brought for trial 
to Westminster Hall on 5 March. Cromwell 
confessed his guilt, was ordered to pay a fine 
of 6,000/., and was released and pardoned on 
9 July 1601. On James I's accession he was 
sworn of the privy council, but soon after- 
wards disposed of his English property to 
Charles Blount, lord Mount] oy, and settled in 
Ireland. On 13 Sept. 1605 Cromwell made 
an agreement with an Irish chief, Phelim 
McCartan, to receive a large part of the 
McCartan's territory in county Down on con- 
dition of educating and providing for the 
chief's son. On 4 Oct. following McCartan and 
Cromwell by arrangement resigned their es- 
tates to the king, who formally regranted 
them to the owners, and Cromwell was at the 
same time made governor of Lecale. He died 
in September 1607, and was buried in Down 
Cathedral. Sir Arthur Chichester, when 
writing of his death to the council, 29 Sept. 
1607, states he regrets his loss, both for his 
majesty's service and for the poor estate 
wherein he left his wife and children.' Crom- 
well married twice. By his fii'st wife, who was 
named Umpton, he had a daughter, Elizabeth ; 
and by his second wife, Frances, daughter of 
William Rugge of Felmingham, Norfolk, a 
son, Thomas, and two daughters, Frances and 

Thomas, fourth Baeon" Ceomwell, whom 
Chichester describes in youth as 'very to- 
wardly and of good hope,' was created Vis- 
count Lecale (22 Nov. 1624) and Earl of 




Ardglass (1645) in the Irisli peerage. He 
was a staunch royalist, and died in 1653. 

Edward Cromwell's mother married, after 
her first husband's death, Richard Wingfield, 
marshal of Ireland, first viscount Powers- 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantab, ii. 473 ; Burke's 
Extinct Peerage; Chamberlain's Letters, temp. 
Eliz. (Camd. Soc.) ; Sir Eobert Cecil's Letters 
(Camd. Soc.) ; Devereux's Lives of the Earls of 
Essex, vol. ii. ; Cal. State Papers (Domestic and 
Irish, 1603-8).] S. L. 

CROMWELL, HENRY (1628-1674), 
fourth son of Oliver Cromwell, was born at 
Huntingdon on 20 Jan. 1628 (Noble, i. 197). 
Henry Cromwell entered the parliamentary 
army towards the close of the first civil war, 
and was in 1647 either a captain in Harrison's 
regiment or the commander of Fairfax's life- 
guard (Cromwelliana, p. 36). Heath and 
Wood identify him with the commandant of 
the life-guard (^Flagellum, p. 57 ; Wood, Fasti, 
1649). In the summer of 1648 Henry Crom- 
well appears to have been serving under his 
father in the north of England (Me7noirs of 
Captain Hodgson, p. 31, ed. Turner). In 
February 1650 he had attained the rank of 
colonel, and followed his father to Ireland 
with reinforcements. He and Lord Broghill 
defeated Lord Inchiquin near Limerick in 
April 1650 (Whitelocke, Memorials, f. 432 ; 
Cromwelliana, p. 75). On 22 Feb. 1654 Henry 
Cromwell entered at Gray's Inn. In 1653 
Cromwell was nominated one of the repre- 
sentatives of Ireland in the Barebones par- 
liament (^Parliamentary History, xx. 179). 
After the dissolution of that parliament and 
the establishment of the protectorate, his 
father despatched him to Ireland on a mis- 
sion of inquiry to discover the feelings of the 
Irish officers towards the new government, 
and to counteract the influence of the ana- 
baptists (March 1654, Thueloe, ii. 162). 
He reported that the army in general, with 
the exception of the anabaptists, were well 
satisfied with the recent change, and recom- 
mended that Ludlow, of whose venomous 
discontent and reproachful utterances he com- 
plains, should be replaced as lieutenant-gene- 
ral by Desborough. Fleetwood, though a 
staunch supporter of the protectorate, he re- 
garded as too deeply involved with the ana- 
baptist party to be safely continued in Ire- 
land, and advised his recall to England after 
a time, and the appointment of Desborough to 
act as his deputy {ib. ii. 149). Before leaving 
Ireland he held a discussion with Ludlow ou 
the lawfulness of the protectorate, which the 
latter has recorded at length in his ' Memoirs ' 
(p. 187, ed. 1751). In August 1654 a new 

Irish council was commissioned, and the coun- 
cil of state voted that Cromwell should be ap- 
pointed commander of the Irish army and a 
member of the new council (21-2 Aug. 1654, 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. pp. 321-8). This 
appointment seems to have been made at 
the request of Lord Broghill and other Irish 
gentlemen {ib. 382 ; Thtjeloe, iii. 29). In 
spite of this pressure it was not till 25 Dec. 
1654 that Cromwell became a member of the 
Irish council, though the date of his commis- 
sion as major-general of the forces in Ireland 
was 24 Aug. 1654 (O. Cromwell, Life of O. 
Cromwell, p. 693 ; I'ith Rep. of the Deputy- 
Keeper of Irish Records, p. 28). The cause 
of this delay was probably Cromwell's reluc- 
tance to advance his sons (see Caeltle, 
Cromwell, Letter cxcix.) Whatever the Pro- 
tector's intentions may have been, and there 
are several references in the letters of Thur- 
loe and Henry Cromwell which prove that 
this reluctance was real, Fleetwood was re- 
called to England very soon after the coming 
of Henry Cromwell to Ireland. He landed 
in Ireland in July 1655, and Fleetwood left 
in September {Mercurius Politicus, 5494, 
5620). The latter still retained his title of 
lord-deputy, so that Cromwell was merely 
commander-in-chief of the army and mem- 
ber of the council. The object of the change 
in the government of Ireland was to substi- 
tute a settled civil government for the rule 
of a clique of officers, and to put an end to 
the influence of the anabaptists, who had 
hitherto monopolised the direction of the go- 
vernment. The policy of Cromwell towards 
the native Irish was very little milder than 
that of his predecessor. His earliest letters 
show him zealously engaged in shipping young 
women and boys to populate Jamaica. He 
suggested to Thurloe the exportation of fif- 
teen hundred or two thousand young boys of 
twelve or fourteen years of age (Thxjeloe, 
iv. 23, 40). He does not seem to have sought 
to mitigate the rigour of the transplanta- 
tion, or to have considered it either unjust or 
impolitic. On the other hand his religious 
views were more liberal, and he remonstrated 
against the oath of abjuration imposed on the 
Irish catholics in 1657 {ib. vi. 527). _ What 
distinguished Cromwell's administration from 
that of Fleetwood was the different policy 
adopted by him towards the English colony 
in Ireland. Instead of conducting the go- 
vernment in the interests of the soldiery, and 
in accordance with their views, he consulted 
the interests of the old settlers, * the ancient 
protestant inhabitants of Ireland,' and was 
repaid by their confidence and admiration. 
A letter addressed to the Protector by Vin- 
cent Gookin, at a time when there was some 




danger of Cromwell's resignation or removal, 
shows the feelings with which this party re- 
garded his rule {ib. v. 646). The presbyterians 
and the more moderate sects of independ- 
ents, hitherto oppressed by the predominance 
enjoyed by the anabaptists, expressed a like 
satisfaction with his government (NiCKOLLS, 
Letters to O. Cromwell, 137 ; Thuklob, iv. 
286). With the anabaptist leaders Cromwell 
had, in January 1656, an interview, in which 
he very plainly stated his intentions towards 
them. ' I told them plainly that they might 
expect equal liberty in their spiritual and civil 
concernments with any others ; and . . , that 
I held myself obliged in duty to protect them 
from being imposed upon by any ; as also to 
keep them from doing the like to others. 
Liberty and countenance they might expect 
from me, but to rule me, or to rule with me, 
I should not approve of ' (Thuklob, iv. 433). 
This line of conduct he faithfully followed in 
spite of many provocations. His adversaries 
were powerful in England, and continually 
at the ear of the Protector ; but Oliver, though 
chary of praise, and not giving his son all 
the public support he expected, approved of 
his conduct in this matter. At the same 
time he warned him against being * over 

i'ealous,' and 'making it a business to be too 
lard ' for those who contested with him (Car- 
LTLE, Cromwell, Letters cvii. cviii.) In 
truth Henry's great weakness lay in the 
fact that he was too sensitive and irritable. 
His letters are a long series of complaints, and 
he continually talks of resigning his office. 
One of the first of his troubles was the mu- 
tinous condition of Ludlow's regiment, which 
he took the precaution of disbanding as soon 
as possible (Thuklob, iii. 715, iv. 74). Then, 
without Cromwell's knowledge, petitions 
were got up by his partisans for his appoint- 
ment toFleetwood's po3t,which afforded Hew- 
son and other anabaptists the opportunity of 
public protests on behalf of their old comman- 
der, in which they identified the supporters 
of the petition with the enemies of the godly 
interest {ib. iv. 276, 348). la November 1656 
two generals and a couple of colonels simul- 
taneously threw up their commissions on 
account of their dissatisfaction with Henry's 
policy {ib. v. 670). Just as he was congratu- 
lating himself that the opposition of the ana- 
baptists was finally crushed, he was involved 
in fresh perplexities by the intrigues and resig- 
nation of Steele, the Irish chancellor {ib. vii. 
199). After the second foundation of the pro- 
tectorate by the ' Petition and Advice,' Crom- 
well was at length appointed lord-deputy by 
commission dated 16 Nov. 1657 (14^A Rep. 
of Deputy-Keeper of Irish Records, p. 29 ; 
THURL0ir,>vi. 446, 632). His new rank gave 

him more dignity and more responsibility, but 
did not increase his power or put an end to his 
difficulties. His promotion was accompanied 
by the appointment of a new Irish councU, 
' the major part of whom,' wrote Henry to his 
brother Richard, 'were men of a professed spirit 
of contradiction to whatsoever I would have, 
and took counsel together how to lay wait 
forme without a cause ' (Thuklob, vii. 400). 
His popularity was shown by a vote of parlia- 
ment on 8 June 1657, settling upon him lands 
to the value of 1,500/. a year, which he refused 
on the ground of the poverty of Ireland and 
theindebtednessof England (Burton, Z)iar?/, 
ii. 197-224). At the time of his appointment 
the pay of the Irish army was eight months in 
arrear, and 180,000/., owing from the English 
exchequer, was necessary to clear the engage- 
ments of the Irish government {ib. vi. 649, 
657). The difficulty of obtaining this money, 
as also the appointment of the hostile coun- 
cillors, he attributed to his adversaries in the 
Protector's council. ' Those who were against 
my coming to this employment, by keeping 
back our monies have an after game to play, 
for it is impossible for me to continue in this 
place upon so huge disadvantages ' {ib. vi. 
651, 665). He was also charged to disband 
a large part of the Irish army, but not allowed 
to have a voice in the management of dis- 
banding. He endeavoured to devise means 
of raising the money to pay them in Ireland, 
but found the country was too poor, and the 
taxes far heavier than in England {ib. vi. 684, 
vii. 72). By using the utmost economy he 
wrote that 196,000/. might suffice for the pre- 
sent, but all he seems to have obtained was 
the promise of 30,000/. {ib. vi. 683, vii. 100). 
To have succeeded under such unfavourable 
circumstances in maintaining tranquillity and 
apparent contentment is no small proof of 
Cromwell's ability as a ruler. * The hypocrisy 
of men may be deep,' he wrote in April 1658, 
' but really any indifferent speetator would 
gather, from the seeming unanimity and affec- 
tion of the people of Ireland, that his high- 
ness's interest is irresistible here' {ib. vii. 
101). The adversaries who rendered the task 
of governing Ireland so burdensome appear to 
have been the leaders of the military party 
who surrounded the Protector. Henry Crom- 
well frequently refers to them in terms of dis- 
like and distrust, especially in his letters to 
Thurloe during 1657 and 1658. He considered 
them as opposed to any legal settlement and 
desirous to perpetuate their own arbitrary 
power {ib. vi. 93). On the question of the ac- 
ceptance of the crown offered to his father in 
1657 his own views were almost exactly the 
same as those of the Protector himself. From 
the first Henry held the constitution sketched 




in the articles of the ' Petition and Advice ' 
to be 'a most excellent structure,' and was 
taken by the prospect of obtaining a parlia- 
mentary basis for the protectorate. But the 
title of king, ' a gaudy feather in the hat 
of authority,' he held a thing of too slight 
importance to be the subject of earnest con- 
tention. Both directly and through Thurloe 
he urged his father to refuse the title, but to 
endeavour to obtain the new constitutional 
settlement offered him by parliament with 
it (Burton, vi. 93, 182, 222). The sudden 
dissolution of parliament in February 1658 
was a great blow to his hopes of settlement, 
and he expressed his fears lest the Protector 
should be induced again to resort to non-legal 
or extra-legal ways of raising money. Now 
Lambert was removed, the odium of such 
things would fall nearer his highness. Errors 
in raising money were the most compendious 
ways to cause a general discontent (ib. vi. 
820). He advised the calling of a new parlia- 
ment as soon as possible, but it should be 
preceded by the remodelling of the army and 
the cashiering of turbulent officers {ib. vi. 820, 
857). He opposed the proposal to tax the 
cavalier party promiscuously, but approved 
the imposition of a test on all members of 
the approaching parliament (ib. vii. 218). His 
great aim was to found the protectorate on 
as broad a basis as possible, to free it from the 
control of the military leaders, and to rally to 
its support as many of the royalists and old 
parliamentarians as possible. He knew that 
the maintenance of the existing state of 
affairs depended solely on the life of the Pro- 
tector. The news of his father's illness and 
the uncertainty as to his successor redoubled 
Cromwell's fears. The announcement that the 
Protector had before dying nominated Richard 
Cromwell was very welcome to Henry. * I 
was relieved by it,' he wrote to Richard, ' not 
only upon the public consideration, but even 
upon the account of the goodness of God to 
our poor family, who hath preserved us from 
the contempt of the enemy' {ib. vii. 400). 
There is no sign that Henry ever sought or 
desired the succession himself. As the Pro- 
tector's death had determined his existing 
commission as lord deputy, he now received a 
new one, but with the higher title of lieu- 
tenant and governor-general (6 Nov. 1658, 
14^A Rep. of Deputy-Keeper of Irish Records, 
p. 28). It was with great reluctance that Crom- 
well was persuaded to accept the renewal of 
his commission. He was anxious to come over 
to England, not only for the benefit of hisown 
health, but (after he had agreed to continue in 
the government of Ireland) in order to confer 
with Richard and his friends in England on 
the principles of Irish policy, and on the 

prospects and plans of the new government 
in England (THTJRL0E,vii. 400, 423, 453). But 
bothThurloe and Lord Broghill strongly urged 
him not to come. The former wrote that his 
continuance in Ireland, and at the head of so 
good an army, was one of the greatest safe- 
guards of his brother's rule in England, and 
Broghill added, ' Neither Ireland nor Harry 
Cromwell are safe if separated' {ib. vii. 510, 
528). At Dublin, therefore, he remained 
watching with anxiety the gathering of the 
storm in England, and hoping that parlia- 
ment would bring some remedy to the dis- 
tempers of the army (ib. vii. 453). The meet- 
ings of the officers and the manifesto published 
by them roused him to vehement expostulation 
on 20 Oct. 1658 with Fleetwood, whom they 
had petitioned the Protector to appoint com- 
mander-in-chief. He was wroth at the slight 
to his brother, but still more at the aspersions 
cast on his father's memory, and, above all 
things, distressed by the prospect of renewed 
civil war {ib. vii. 455). For the next few 
months Cromwell's letters are unusually few 
and short, caused in part by his attacks of 
illness, in part by the fact that he knew his 
letters were not secure {ib. vii. 665). His 
numerous correspondents in England kept 
him well informed of the progress of events 
there, but he bitterly complains that for 
some time before the dissolution of the par- 
liament he had received no letters from the 
Protector. In answer to the letter of the 
English army leaders which announced the 
fall of his brother's government, he sent an 
ambiguous reply assuring them of the peace- 
able disposition of the Irish army, and com- 
missioning three officers to represent their 
views in England {ib. vii. 674,23 May 1659). 
It is plain that he regarded his brother still 
as the legitimate governor, and was prepared 
to act for his restoration if so commanded. 
During this period of suspense the hopes of 
the royalists rose high, and more than one 
overture was made to Henry on behalf of 
Charles II. Lord Falconbridge and possibly 
Lord Broghill seem to have been the agents 
employed in this negotiation {Clarendon 
State Papers, iii. 500, 589 ; Thukloe, vii. 
686). But nothing was more opposed to the 
views of Henry than to promote the re- 
storation of the Stuarts. * My opinion,' he 
wrote on 21 March 1659,' is that any extreme 
is more tolerable than returning to Charles 
St uart. Other disasters are temporary and may 
be mended ; those not' (Tuurloe, vii. 635). 
The principles he had expressed in his reproof 
to Fleetwood forbade him to use his army for 
personal ends, or seek to impose its will on the 
nation. Accordingly, after vainly awaiting 
the expected instructions from Richard, and 




receiving from others credible notice of his 
brother's acquiescence in the late revolution, 
Henry on 16 June forwarded his own submis- 
sion to the new government (ib. vii. 684). 
Before receiving this letter parliament on 
7 June had ordered him to deliver up the 
government of Ireland and return to England, 
Obeying their orders he reached England 
about the end of June, gave an account of 
his conduct there to the council of state on 
6 July, and then retired to Cambridgeshire 
(MercuriusPoliticus, 1659, pp. 560, 576,583). 
For the remainder of his life Cromwell lived 
in obscurity. He lost, in consequence of the 
Restoration, lands in England to the value of 
2,000/. a year, probably his share of the for- 
feited estates which had been conferred on his 
f either (Calendar of State Papers, Dom. 1660, 
p. 519). With the pay he had received during 
his service in Ireland he had purchased an 
estate worth between six and seven hundred 
a year (Thuklob, vi. 773, vii. 15), which he 
succeeded in retaining. In his petition to 
Charles II for that object, Cromwell urged 
that his actions had been dictated by natural 
duty to his father, not by any malice against 
the king. He pleaded the merits of his govern- 
ment of Ireland, and the favour he had shown 
the royalists during the time of his power 
( Calendar of State Papers, Dom. 1660, p. 519). 
Clarendon,Ormonde, and many other royalists 
exerted their influence in his favour (0. Ckom- 
WELL, Memoirs of O. Cromwell, p. 718 ; Thue- 
L0E,i.763; Peendeegast, Cromwellian Settle- 
ment of Ireland,-p. 137, 2nd ed.) Accordingly 
the lands of Cromwell in Meath and Con- 
naught were confirmed to his trustees by a 
special proviso of the Act of Settlement {Col- 
lection of all the Statutes now in itse in the 
Kingdom of Ireland, 1678, p. 588) ; but his 
family seems to have lost them in the next 
generation. They are said to have been ille- 
gally dispossessed by some of the Clanrickarde 
family, the ancient owners of the land bought 
by Henry Cromwell's arrears (0. Ckomwell, 
Memoirs of O. Cromwell, p. 725). During 
the latter years of his life Cromwell resided 
at Spinney Abbey in Cambridgeshire, which 
he purchased in 1661 (ib. p. 725). The king 
seems to have been satisfied of his peaceable- 
ness, for though more than once denounced 
by informers, he was never disquieted on that 
account. Noble collects several anecdotes of 
doubtful authority concerning the relations 
of Charles II and Cromwell. He died on 
23 March 1673-4 in the forty-seventh year 
of his age, and was buried at Wicken Church 
in Cambridgeshire. His wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Francis Russell of Chippen- 
ham, whom he had married on 10 May 1653 
(Fadlkenee, History of Kensington, p. 360), 

died on 7 April 1687. By her he left five sons 
and two daughters, the history of whose de- 
scendants is elaborately traced by Noble and 
Waylen (Noble, i. 218, ii. 403). His second 
son, Henry Cromwell, married Hannah Hew- 
ling, sister of the two Hewlings executed in 
1686 for their share in Monmouth's rebellion, 
and died in 1711, a major in Fielding's regi- 
ment (Waylen, p. 33). 

[Noble's Memoirs of the Protectoral House of 
Cromwell, 1787 ; Waylen's House of Cromwell 
and Story of Dunkirk; Thurloe State Papers (to 
this collection William Cromwell, the grandson 
of Henry Cromwell, contributed a great number 
of his grandfather's letters) ; 0. Cromwell's Me- 
moirs of the Protector, 0. Cromwell, and his sons 
Richard and Henry, 1820 ; Cal. State Papers 
Dom. ; Cromwelliana ; Ludlow's Memoirs, ed. 
1751 ; Parliamentary, or Constitutional History 
of England, 1751-62 ;Nickolls'8 Original Letters 
addressed to 0. Cromwell, 1741 ; Carlyle's Life 
of Cromwell.] C. H. F. 

CROMWELL, OLIVER (1599-1658), 
the Protector, second son of Robert Cromwell 
and Elizabeth Steward, was born at Hunting- 
don on 25 April 1599, baptised on the 29th of 
the same month, and named Oliver after his 
uncle, Sir Oliver Cromwell of Hinchinbrook. 
His father was the second son of Sir Henry 
Cromwell of Hinchinbrook, and grandson of 
a certain Richard Williams, who rose to for- 
tune by the protection of Thomas Cromwell, 
earl of Essex, and adopted the name of his 
patron. Morgan Williams, the father of Ri- 
chard Williams, was a Welshman from Gla- 
morganshire, who married Katherine, the 
elder sister of Thomas Cromwell, and appears 
in the records of the manor of Wimbledon 
as an ale-brewer and innkeeper residing at 
Putney (Phillips, The Cromwells of Putney ; 
The Antiquary, ii. 164; Noble, House of 
Cromwell, i. 1, 82). In his letters Richard 
styles himself the ' most bounden nephew ' 
of Thomas Cromwell. In the will of the 
latter he is styled * nephew ' (which may 
perhaps be taken to define the exact degree 
of relationship) and ' cousin,' which was pro- 
bably used to express kinship by blood in 
general. Elizabeth Steward, the mother of 
Oliver, was the daughter of William Steward, 
whose family had for several generations 
farmed the tithes of the abbey of Ely. It 
has been asserted that these Stewards were 
a branch of the royal house of Scotland, but 
they can be traced no further than a family 
named Sty ward, and settled in Norfolk (Rye, 
The Steward Genealogy and CromwelVs Royal 
Descent; The Genealogist, 1885, p. 34). The 
early life of Oliver Cromwell has been the 
subject of many fables, which have been 
carefully collected and sifted by Mr. Sanford 




{Studies and Illustrations of the Great Re- 
bellion, pp. 174-268). 

Cromwell received his education at the free 
school attached to the hospital of St. John, 
Huntingdon, during the mastership of Dr. 
Thomas Beard. At the age of seventeen, on 
23 April 1616, he matriculated at Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge, one of the col- 
leges complained of by Laud in 1628 as a 
nursery of puritanism. Royalist writers as- 
sert that both at school and the university 
he ' made no proficiency in any kind of learn- 
ing ' (Dugdale). But Edmund Waller tes- 
tifies that he was ' weU read in Greek and 
Roman story,' and when protector he fre- 
quently talked with foreign ambassadors in 
Latin. The statement of Bates is doubtless 
true that ' he was quickly satiated with study, 
taking more delight in horse and fi eld exercise,' 
or, as Heath expresses it, ' was more famous for 
his exercises in the fields than in the schools, 
being one of the chief matchmakers and players 
at football, cudgels, or any other boisterous 
sport or game' {Flagellum, p. 8). The graver 
charges of early debauchery which they bring 
against him may safely be dismissed. On 
the death of his father in June 1617, Crom- 
well seems to have left the university and 
betaken himself to London to obtain the gene- 
ral knowledge of law which every country 
gentleman required. According to Heath he 
became a member of Lincoln's Inn, but his 
name does not appear in the books of any of 
the Inns of Court. In London, at St. Giles's 
Church, Cripplegate, he married, on 22 Aug. 
1620, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Bour- 
chier. Sir James is described as ' of Tower 
Hill, London,' was one of a family of city 
merchants, and possessed property near Fel- 
stead in Essex. It is noticeable that in a 
settlement drawn up immediately after the 
marriage, the bridegroom is described as 
' Oliver Cromwell, alias Williams ' (Noble, 
i. 123-4). After his marriage Cromwell took 
up his residence at Huntingdon, and occu- 
pied himself with the management of his 
paternal estate. Robert Cromwell, by his 
will, had left two-thirds of his property to 
his widow for twenty-one years for the bene- 
fit of his daughters, so that the actual income 
of his eldest son cannot have been large. The 
fortunes of the Cromwell family were now 
declining, for Sir Oliver Cromwell, burdened 
with debts, was forced in 1627 to sell Hinchin- 
brook to Sir Sydney Montague, and the Mont- 
agues succeeded to the local influence once 
enjoyed by the Cromwells {ih. i. 43). It is 
therefore probable that the election of the 
younger Oliver as member for Huntingdon in 
1628 was due as much to personal qualities 
as to any family interest. 

In parliament Cromwell's ■^nlj' reported 
speech was delivered on behalf of the free 
preaching of puritan doctrine, and against 
the silence which the king sought to impose 
on religious controversy (11 Feb. 1629). The 
Bishop of Winchester, he complained, had 
sent for Dr. Beard, prohibited him from con- 
troverting the popish tenets preached by Dr. 
Alabaster at Paxil's Cross, and reprehended 
him for disobeying the prohibition (Gardi- 
ner, History of England, vii. 65). Of Crom- 
well's action in public matters during the 
eleven years' intermission of parliaments there 
is only one authentic fact recorded. In 1630 
the borough of Huntingdon obtained a new 
charter, which vested the government of 
the town and the management of the town 
property in the hands of the mayor and 
twelve aldermen. Cromwell was named one 
of the three justices of the peace for the 
borough, and gave his consent to the proposed 
change (Duke of Manchester, Court and 
Society from Elizabeth toAnne,i. 338). After- 
wards, however, he raised the objection that 
the new charter enabled the aldermen to deal 
with the common property as they pleased, to 
the detriment of the poorer members of the 
community, and used strong language on the 
subject to Robert Barnard, mayor of the town 
and chief instigator of the change. On the 
complaint of the latter, his adversary was 
summoned to appear before the council, and 
I the dispute was there referred to the arbi- 
! tration of the Earl of IManchester. Crom- 
j well owned that he had spoken in ' heat and 
, passion,' and apologised to Barnard, but Man- 
1 Chester sustained Cromwell's objections and 
ordered that the charter should be altered in 
three particulars to meet the risk which he 
j had pointed out (preface to Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1629-31, p. viii). A later legend, based 
chiefly on a passage in the memoir of Sir 
Philip Warwick (p. 250), represents Cromwell 
as successfully opposing the king on the ques- 
tion of the drainage of the fens, but it is not 
supported by any contemporary evidence. If 
Cromwell took any part in the dispute be- 
tween the king and the undertakers, which 
occurred in 1636, he probably, as at Hun- 
tingdon, defended the rights of the poor com- 
moners, and therefore sided for the moment 
with the king and against the undertakers 
(Gardiner, History of England, viii. 297). 
The nickname of ' Lord of the Fens,' which 
has been supposed to refer to this incident, is 
first given to Cromwell by a royalist news- 
paper (3Iercurius Aulicu^, 6 Nov. 1643), in 
a series of comments on the names of the 
persons composing the council for the go- 
vernment of the foreign plantations of Eng- 
land appointed by parliament on 2 Nov. 1643. 




In the same way the legend which repre- 
sents Cromwell as attempting to emigrate to 
America and stopped by an order in council 
cannot be true as it is usually related, though 
it is by no means improbable that Cromwell 
may have thought of emigrating. According 
to Clarendon, he told him in 1641 that if the 
Kemonstrance had not passed ' he would have 
sold all he had the next morning, and never 
have seen England more' (^Rebellion, iv. 52). 
In May 1631 Cromwell disposed of the greater 
part of his property at Huntingdon, and with 
the sum of 1,800^. which he thus realised 
rented some grazing lands at St. Ives. In 
1636, on the death of his uncle. Sir Thomas 
Steward, who made him his heir, he removed 
to Ely, and succeeded his uncle as farmer of 
the cathedral tithes. 

During this period an important change 
seems to have taken place in Cromwell's cha- 
racter. His first letter, like his first speech, 
shows him solicitous for the teaching of puri- 
tan theology, and watching with anxiety the 
development of Laud's ecclesiastical policy. 
From the first he seems to have been a puri- 
tan in doctrine and profession, but by 1638 
he had become something more. After a long 
period of religious depression, which caused 
one physician to describe him as ' valde me- 
lancholicus,' and another as ' splenetic and 
full of fancies,' he had, as he expressed it, 
been ' given to see light.' Looking back on 
his past life, he accused himself of having 
'lived in and loved darkness,' of having been 
' the chief of sinners.' Some biographers have 
supposed these words to refer to early excesses. 
They describe rather the mental struggles by 
which a formal Calvinist became a perfect 
enthusiast. They should be compared with 
the similar utterances of Bunyan or ' the ex- 
ceeding self-debasing words, annihilating and 
judging himself,' which Cromwell spoke dur- 
ing his last illness. In the letter to Mrs. St. 
John in which Cromwell thus revealed him- 
self he expressed the desire to show by his 
acts his thankfulness for this spiritual change. 
'If here I may honour my God either by 
doing or suffering, I shall be most glad. 
Truly no poor creature hath more cause to 
put himself forth in the cause of God than 
I. I have had plentiful wages beforehand ' 
(Carltle, Letter ii.) In the two parlia- 
ments called in 1640 Cromwell was one of 
the members for the town of Cambridge 
(0. Cromwell, Life of O. Cromwell,-^. 263). 
His connection with Hampden and St. John 
secured him a certain intimacy with the 
leaders of the advanced party in the Long 
parliament, and both in the House of Com- 
mons itself and in the committees he was 
very active. During the first session Crom- 

well was ' specially appointed to eighteen 
committees, exclusive of various appoint- 
ments amongst the knights and burgesses 
generally of the eastern counties ' (San- 
ford, 306). On 9 Nov., three days after 
business began, he presented the petition of 
John Lilbum, who had been imprisoned for 
selling Prynne's pamphlets. It was on this 
occasion that Sir Philip AVarwick first saw 
Cromwell, and noted that in spite of his 
being ' very ordinarily apparelled ' he was 
' very much hearkened unto.' ' His stature,' 
says Warwick, ' was of good size, his coun- 
tenance swollen and reddish, his voice sharp 
and untuneable, and his eloquence full of 
fervour ' {Memoirs, 247). On another com- 
mittee, appointed to consider the grants made 
from the queen's jointure, the question of 
the enclosure of the soke of Somersham in 
Huntingdonshire arose, and Cromwell zeal- 
ously defended the rights of the commoners 
against the encloser, the Earl of Manchester, 
and against the House of Lords, who supported 
his action (Sanfokd, 370). Cromwell's name 
is also associated with two important public 
bills. On 30 Dec. 1640 he moved the second 
reading of Strode's bill for reviving the old 
law of Edward III for annual parliaments. 
He spoke earnestly for the reception of the 
London petition against episcopacy, and was 
one of the originators of the ' Root and 
Branch' Bill introduced by Deringon 21 May 
1641 (Dering, Speeches, p. 62). In the 
second session Cromwell brought forward 
motions to prevent the bishops from voting 
on the question of their own exclusion from 
the House of Lords, and for the removal of 
the Earl of Bristol from the king's councils. 
Still more prominent was he when the par- 
liament began to lay hands on the executive 
power. On 6 Nov. 1641 he moved to entrust 
Essex with the command of the trainbands 
south of Trent until parliament should take 
further order. On 14 Jan. 1642 he proposed 
the appointment of a committee to put the 
kingdom in a posture of defence (Gardiner, 
History of England, x. 41, .59, 119; Sanford, 
474). The journals of the House of Commons 
during the early summer of 1642 are full of 
notices attesting the activity of Cromwell in 
taking practical measures for the defence of 
England and Ireland. Though he was not 
rich, he subscribed 600^. for the recovery of 
Ireland, and 500/. for the defence of the parlia- 
ment (RusHWORTH, iv. 564). On 15 July 
the commons ordered that he should be repaid 
1001. which he had expended in arming the 
county of Cambridge, and on the 15th of 
the following month Sir Philip Stapleton 
reported to them that Cromwell had seized 
the magazine in the castle at Cambridge, and 




hindered the carrying of the university plate 
to the king. Ably seconded by Valentine 
Walton, husband of his sister Margaret,^ and 
John Desborough, who had married his sister 
Jane, Cromwell effectually secured Cam- 
bridgeshire for the parliament. 

As soon as Essex's army took the field, 
Cromwell joined it as captain of a troop of 
horse, and his eldest surviving son, Oliver, 
served in it also as cornet in the troop of 
Lord St. John. At the battle of Edgehill 
Cromwell's troop formed part of Essex's own 
regiment and, under the command of Sir 
Philip Stapleton, helped to turn the fortune 
of the day. Fiennes in his account mentions 
Captain Cromwell in the list of officers who 
' never stirred from their troops, but they 
and their troops fought to the last minute ' 
(FiESTNES, True and Exact Relation, &c., 
1642). In December the formation of the 
eastern association and the similar associa- 
tion of the midland counties recalled Crom- 
well from the army of Essex to his own 
country. In the first of these associations 
he was a member of the committee for Cam- 
bridge, in the latter one of the committee 
for Huntingdon. Seizing the royalist sheriff 
of Hertfordshire and disarming the royalists 
of Huntingdonshire on his way, he esta- 
blished himself at Cambridge at the end of 
January 1643, and made that place his head- 
quarters for the rest of the spring. We hear 
of him busily engaged in fortifying Cam- 
bridge and collecting men to resist a threat- 
ened inroad by Lord Capel. But his most 
important business was the conversion of his 
own troop of horse into a regiment. A letter 
written in January 1643 seems to show that 
he was still only a captain at that date 
(CA.ELTLE, Letter iv.), and he is first styled 
'colonel' in a newspaper of 2 INIarch 1643 
(Cromwelliana, 2). By September 1643 his 
single troop of sixty men had increased to ten 
troops, and it rose to fourteen double troops 
before the formation of the ' New Model ' 
(Husband, Ordinances, f. 1646, p. 331; Reli- 
quice Baxteriance, 98) . His soldiers were men 
of the same spirit as himself. From the very 
beginning of the war Cromwell had noted 
the inferiority of the parliamentary cavalry, 
and in a memorable conversation set forth to 
Hampden the necessity of raising men of 
religion to oppose men of honour. ' You 
must get men of a spirit that is likely to go 
on as far as gentlemen will go, or you will 
be beaten still ' (Speech xi.) Other com- 
manders besides Cromwell attempted to fill 
their regiments with pious men, but he alone 
succeeded (Gardinek, History of the Great 
Civil War, i. 180). In September he was 
able to write to St. John and describe his 

regiment as * a lovely company,' ' no anabap- 
tists, but honest, sober christians.' The 
officers were selected with the same care as 
the men. ' If you choose godly, honest men 
to be captains of horse, honest men will fol- 
low them,' wrote Cromwell to the committee 
of Suffolk. * I had rather have a plain rus- 
set-coated captain that knows what he fights 
for and loves what he knows, than what you 
call a gentleman and nothing else. ... It 
had been well that men of honour and birth 
had entered into these employments, but 
seeing it was necessary the work should 
go on, better plain men than none' (Caeltle, 
Letters xvi. xviii.) 

So far as it lay in Cromwell's own power 
the work did go on, in spite of every diffi- 
culty. On 14 March he suppressed a rising 
at Lowestoft, at the beginning of April dis- 
armed the Huntingdonshire royalists, and on 
the 28th of the same month retook Crow- 
land. At Grantham on 13 May he defeated 
with twelve troops double that number of 
royalists (Letter x.), and before the end of 
May was at Nottingham engaged on ' the 
great design' of marching into Yorkshire to 
join the Fairfaxes. The plan failed through 
the disagreements of the local commanders 
and the treachery of Captain John Hotham, 
whose intrigues Cromwell detected and whose 
arrest he helped to secure (Gaedinee, His- 
tory of the Great Civil War, i. 187 ; Life of 
Colonel Hutchinson, ed. 1885, i. 220, 363). The 
repeated failure of the local authorities to 
provide for the payment of his forces added to 
Cromwell's difficvilties. * Lay not too much,' 
he wrote to one of the defaulters, * on the 
back of a poor gentleman who desires, with- 
out much noise, to lay down his life and 
bleed the last drop to serve the cause and 
you ' (Caeltle, Letter xi.) Obliged to re- 
turn to the defence of the associated counties 
themselves, Cromwell recaptured Stamford, 
stormed Burleigh House (24 July), and took 
a leading part in the victory of Gainsborough 
(28 July). He it was who, with his disci- 
plined troopers, routed Charles Cavendish and 
his reserve when they seemed about to turn 
the fortune of the fight, and covered the re- 
treat of the parliamentarians when the main 
body of Newcastle's army came up (ib. Letter 
xii. app. 5). On the same day that Crom- 
well thus distinguished himself he was ap- 
pointed by the House of Commons governor 
of the Isle of Ely, and a fortnight later be- 
came one of the four colonels of horse in the 
new army to be raised by the Earl of Man- 
chester (Husband, Ordinances, 10 Aug. 
1643). Though not yet bearing the title of 
lieutenant-general, he was practically Man- 
chester's second in command; and while 




the earl himself besieged Lynn with the foot, 
Cromwell and the cavalry were despatched 
into Lincolnshire to assist Lord Willoughby 
in the defence of the small portion of that 
county still under the rule of the parliament. 
The victory of Winceby on 11 Oct. 1643, 
gained by the combined forces of Lord Wil- 
loughby, Sir Thomas Fairfax, and the Earl 
of Manchester, was followed by the recon- 
quest of the entire county. In the battle 
Cromwell led the van in person, and nar- 
rowly escaped with his life. * Colonel Crom- 
well,' says a contemporary narrative, 'charged 
at some distance before his regiment, when 
his horse was killed under him. He reco- 
vered himself, however, from under his horse, 
but afterwards was again knocked down, yet 
by God's good providence he got up again' 
{Fairfax Correspondence, iii. 64). Lincoln- 
shire was won, but Cromwell saw clearly 
that it could not be held unless a change took 
place in the conduct of the local forces and 
the character of the local commander. From 
his fellow-officers as from his subordinates he 
exacted efficiency and devotion to the cause. 
He had not hesitated to accuse Hotham of 
treachery, and he did not shrink now from 
charging Lord Willoughby with misconduct, 
and brought forward in parliament a series of 
complaints against him which led to his re- 
signation of his post (22 Jan. 1644 ; Sanpoed, 
580). About the same time, though the 
exact date is not known, Cromwell received 
his formal commission as lieutenant-general 
in the Earl of Manchester's army, and he was 
also appointed one of the committee of both 
kingdoms (9 Feb. 1644). The former ap- 
pointment obliged him to register his accept- 
ance of the ' solemn league and covenant ' 
(5 Feb.), which he appears to have delayed 
as long as possible (Gardinee, History of 
the Great Civil War, i. 365). The spring of 
1644 was as full of action as that of 1643. 
On 4 March Cromwell captured Hilsden 
House inBuckinghamshire(SANTOED, app.B). 
At the beginning of May he took part in the 
siege of Lincoln, and while Manchester's foot 
stormed the walls of the city Cromwell and 
the horse repulsed Goring's attempt to come 
to itsrelief (6May 1644 ; Rushwoeth,v. 621). 
The army of the eastern association then pro- 
ceeded to join the two armies under Fair- 
fax and Leven, which were besieging York. 
Cromwell's only account of Marston Moor is 
contained in a letter which he wrote to Va- 
lentine Walton to condole with him on the 
death of young Walton in that battle (Cae- 
LYLE, Letter xxi.) Cromwell was in command 
of the left wing of the parliamentary army, 
consisting of his own troopers from the eastern 
association and three regiments of Scotch horse 

under David Leslie, who numbered twenty- 
two out of the seventy troops of which his force 
consisted. These he mentions somewhat con- 
temptuously as ' a few Scots in our rear,' and 
makes no mention of their share in securing 
the victory ; but it should be remembered that 
he expressly says he does not undertake to 
relate the particulars of the battle, and sums 
up the whole in four sentences. Scout-master 
Watson, who terms Cromwell 'the chief agent 
in the victory,' thus describes the beginning of 
the fight : ' Lieutenant-general Cromwell's 
division of three hundred horse, in which 
himself was in person, charged the front di- 
vision of Prince Rupert's, in which himself 
was in person. Cromwell's own division had 
a hard pull of it ; for they were charged by 
Rupert's bravest men both in front and flank. 
They stood at the sword's point a pretty 
while, hacking one another, but at last he 
brake through them, scattering them like a 
little dust' {A more exact Relation of the late 
Battle near York, 1644). In this struggle 
Cromwell received a slight wound in the neck, 
and his onset was for a moment checked ; but 
the charge was admirably supported by David 
Leslie, and Rupert's men made no second 
stand. Leaving Leslie to attack the infantry 
of the royalist centre, Cromwell pressed be- 
hind them, and, pushing to the extreme east 
of the royalist position, occupied the ground 
originally held by Goring. As Goring's ca- 
valry returned from the pursuit of Sir Thomas 
Fairfax's division, they were charged and 
routed by Cromwell, and the victory was 
completed by the destruction of the royalist 
foot. How much of the merit of the suc- 
cess was due to Cromwell was a question that 
was violently disputed. 'The independents,' 
complained Baillie, ' sent up Major Harrison 
to trumpet over all the city their own praises, 
making believe that Cromwell alone, with 
his unspeakably valorous regiments, had 
done all that service.' He asserted that, on 
the contrary, David Leslie was throughout 
the real leader, and even repeated a story 
that Cromwell was not so much as present 
at the decisive charge (^Letters, ii. 203, 209, 
218). Denzil Holies, writing in 1648, went 
still further, and, on the authority only of 
Major-general Crawford, charged Cromwell 
with personal cowardice during the battle 
{Memoirs, 15). Soldiers like David Leslie 
and Rupert, however, recognised him as the 
best leader of cavalry in the parliamentary 
army. When Leslie and Cromwell's forces 
joined at the end of May 1644, Leslie waived 
in his favour the command to which he 
was entitled, and ' would have Lieutenant- 
general CromweU chief {Parliament Scout, 
30 May-6 June). 'Is Cromwell there P' 




asked Rupert eagerly of a prisoner whom 
chance threw into his hands an hour or two 
before Marston Moor, and a couple of months 
after the battle a parliamentary newspaper 
mentions Cromwell by the nickname of 
' Ironside ; for that title was given him by 
Prince Rupert after his defeat near York ' 
(Mercurius Ciricus, 16-26 Sept, 1644 ; Gae- 
DINEK, Great Civil War, i. 449). The name 
Ironside or Ironsides speedily became popular 
with the army, and was in later times ex- 
tended from the commander to his troopers. 

But Cromwell was now something more 
than a mere military leader. The last few 
months had made him the head of a political 
party also. As early as April 1644 Baillie 
distinguishes him by the title of ' the great 
independent ' (Baillie, Letters, ii. 153). In 
his government of the Isle of Ely Cromwell, 
while he suppressed the choral service of the 
cathedral as ' unedifying and offensive ' (Cae- 
LTLB, Letter xix.), had allowed his soldiers 
and their ministers the largest license of 
preaching and worship. 'It is become a 
mere Amsterdam,' complained an incensed 
presbyterian (^Manchester s Quarrel with 
Cromwell, 73). 

In Manchester's councils also Cromwell 
had used the great influence his position gave 
him on behalf of the independents. * Man- 
chester himself,' writes Baillie, 'a sweet, meek 
man, permitted his lieutenant-general Crom- 
well to guide all the army at his pleasure; the 
man is a very wise and active head, univer- 
sally well beloved, as religious and stout; 
being a known independent, the most of the 
soldiers who loved new ways put themselves 
under his command' {Letters, ii. 229). Even 
Cromwell's influence Avas hardly sufficient to 
protect them. In December 1643 a presby- 
terian colonel at Lincoln imprisoned a num- 
ber of Cromwell's troopers for attending a con- 
venticle. In March 1644 Major-general Craw- 
ford cashiered a lieutenant-colonel on the 
ground that he was an anabaptist. ' Admit 
he be,' wrote Cromwell, ' shall that render 
him incapable to serve the public ? Sir, the 
state in choosing men to serve it takes no 
notice of their opinions ; if they be willing 
faithfully to serve it, that satisfies '(Cakltle, 
Letter xx.) Manchester's army was split 
into two factions — the presbyterians headed 
.by Crawford, the independents headed by 
Cfromwell, struggling with each other for the 
guidance of their commander, A political dif- 
ference between Cromwell and Manchester 
seems to have decided the contest in favour 
of Crawford, In June, while the combined 
armies were besieging York, Vane appeared 
in the camp on a secret mission from the 
committee of both kingdoms to gain the con- 

sent of the generals to a plan for the actual 
or virtual deposition of Charles as the neces- 
sary preliminary of a satisfactory settlement, 
AU three refused, but Leven and the Scots 
are mentioned as specially hostile to the pro- 
posal. * Though no actual evidence exists on 
the subject, it is in the highest degree pro- 
bable that Cromwell was won over to Vane's 
side, and that his quarrel with the Scots and 
with Manchester as the supporter of the Scots 
dates from these discussions outside the walls 
of York' (Gardinek, History of the Great 
Civil War, i, 432), Manchester's inactivity 
during the two months which followed the 
capture of York still further alienated Crom- 
well from him. Believing that if Crawford's 
evil influence were removed Manchester's 
inactivity and the dissensions of the army 
would be ended, he demanded Crawford's 
removal, IManchester and his two subordi- 
nates came to London in September 1644 to 
lay the case before the committee of both 
kingdoms. At first Cromwell peremptorily 
demanded Crawford's dismissal, and threa- 
tened that his colonels would lay down their 
arms if this were refused; but he speedily 
recognised that he had gone too far, and 
changed his tactics. Abandoning the per- 
sonal attack on Crawford, he devoted himself 
to the attainment of the aims which had 
caused the quarrel. From Manchester he ob- 
tained a declaration of his resolution to push 
on with all speed against the common enemy. 
From the House of Commons he secured the 
appointment of a committee ' to consider the 
means of uniting presbyterians and indepen- 
dents, and, in case that cannot be done, to 
endeavour the finding out some way how far 
tender consciences, who cannot in all things 
submit to the common rule which shall be 
established, may be borne with according to 
the word and as may stand with the public 
peace' (13 Sept. 1644; Gaedinek, Llistory 
of the Great Civil War, i. 482). This, though 
hardly, as Baillie terms it, * really an act of 
parliament for the toleration of the sec- 
taries,' was the most important step towards 
toleration taken since the war began. 

At the second battle of Newbury in the 
following month Cromwell was one of the 
commanders of the division which was sent 
to storm Prince Maurice's entrenchments at 
Speen, on the west of the king's position, 
while Manchester was to attack it on its 
northern face at Shaw House. But Man- 
chester delayed his attack till an hour and a 
half after the other force was engaged, wasted 
the results of their successes, and effected 
nothing himself. The same slowness or in- 
capacity marked his movements before and 
after the battle, and Cromwell, putting to- 




gether his actions and his sayings, came to 
believe that * these miscarriages were caused 
not by accident or carelessness only, but 
through backwardness to all action, and that 
backwardness grounded ... on some prin- 
ciple of unwillingness to have the war prose- 
cuted to a full victory.' On 25 Nov. he laid be- 
fore the House of Commons a charge to that 
effect, supporting it by an account of Man- 
chester's operations from the battle of Mars- 
ton Moor to the relief of Donnington Castle 
(EusHWORTH, V. 732 ; Manchester's Quarrel 
with Cromwell, 78). Manchester replied by 
anarrative vindicating hisgeneralship (Rush- 
worth, V. 733-6), and by bringing before the 
lords a countercharge against Cromwell for 
oftensive and incendiary language on various 
occasions. His expressions were sometimes 
against the nobility ; he said that he hoped 
to live to see never a nobleman in England. 
He had expressed himself with contempt of 
the assembly of divines, and said that they 
persecuted honester men than themselves. 
His animosity against the Scots was such 
that he told Manchester that 'in the way 
they now carried themselves pressing for their 
discipline, he could as soon draw his sword 
against them as against any in the king's 
army.' Finally he had avowed that he desired 
to have none but independents in the army 
of the eastern association, ' that in case there 
should be propositions for peace, or any con- 
clusion of a peace such as might not stand 
with those ends that honest men should aim 
at, this army might prevent such a mischief ' 
{Camden Miscellany, viii.) These sayings 
should not be considered as the malignant ex- 
aggerations of an enemy ; there can be little 
doubt that they represent genuine specimens 
of the plain speaking in which Cromwell was 
wont to indulge. 

The publication of Cromwell's sayings was 
at the moment an effective answer to his nar- 
rative of Manchester's conduct. It enlisted 
on his side the Scots, the presbyterians, and the 
House of Lords. The Scots and the English 
presbyterians immediately took counsel to- 
gether on the possibility of indicting Crom- 
well as an 'incendiary' who strove to break 
the union of the two nations (Whitelocke, 
Memorials, f. 116). ' We must crave reason 
of that darling of the sectaries and obtain 
his removal from the army,' wrote Baillie 
to Scotland {Letters, ii. 245). Just as the 
commons had appointed a committee to in- 
quire into Manchester's conduct, so the lords 
appointed one to inquire into that of Crom- 
well, and a quarrel between the two houses 
on the question of privilege was on the point 
of breaking out. Once more Cromwell drew 
back, for to press his accusation was to risk 

TOL. V. 

not only himself but also his cause. As in 
the case of Crawford, he abandoned his attack 
on the individual to concentrate his efforts 
on the attainment of the principle. The idea 
of the necessity of a professional army under 
a professional general had already occurred 
to others. The first suggestion of the New 
Model is to be traced in a letter of Sir Wil- 
liam Waller to Essex (Gardiner, History 
of the Great Civil War, i. 454). Only a few 
days earlier the House of Commons had re- 
ferred to the committee of both kingdoms 
' upon the consideration of the state and con- 
dition of the armies, as now disposed and 
commanded, to consider of a frame or model 
of the whole militia and present it to the 
house, as may put the forces into such pos- 
ture as may be most advantageous for the 
service of the public' {Commons^ Journals, 
23 Nov. 1644). 

Seizingthe opportunity thus afforded,Crom- 
well on 9 Dec. urged the House of Commons 
to considerrather the remedies than the causes 
of recent miscarriages. He reduced the charge 
against Manchester from intentional bacli- 
wardness to accidental oversights,which could 
rarely be avoided in military affairs, on which 
he begged the house not to insist. The one 
thing needful was to save a bleeding, almost 
dying, kingdom by a more speedy, vigorous, 
and effectual prosecution of the war, which 
was to be obtained by removing members of 
both houses from command, and by putting 
the army ' into another method.' ' I hope,' 
he concluded, ' that no members of either 
house will scruple to deny themselves and 
their own private interests for the public 
good' (RusHWORTH, vi, 6). These words 
struck the keynote of the debate which closed 
with the vote that no member of either house 
should hold military command during the 
rest of the war. 

Before the Self-denying Ordinance had 
struggled through the upper house, but after 
the lords had accepted the bill for new mo- 
delling the army, Cromwell was again in the 
field. Under Waller's command he was or- 
dered into the west (27 Feb. 1645) to relieve 
Taunton, succeeded in temporarily effecting 
that object, and captured a regiment of the 
king's horse in Wiltshire ( Commons' Journals ; 
Vicars, Burning Bush, 123). Waller has 
left an interesting account of Cromwell's be- 
haviour as a subordinate. ' At this time he 
had never shown extraordinary parts, nor do 
I think he did himself believe that he had 
them ; for although he was blunt he did not 
bear himself with pride or disdain. As an 
officer he was obedient, and did never dis- 
pute my orders or argue upon them ' {liecoU 




Immediately on Cromwell's return to the 
headquarters of the army at Windsor 
(22 April), Fairfax, at the order of the com- 
mittee of both kingdoms, despatched him 
into Oxfordshire to interrupt the king's pre- 
parations for taking the field (Speigge, An- 
glia Bediviva, p. 11, ed. 1854). His success 
was rapid and complete. On 24 April he 
defeated a brigade of horse at Islip and took 
two hundred prisoners, captured Bletching- 
don House the same night, gained another 
victory at Bampton in the Bush on the 26th, 
and failed only before the walls of Farringdon 
(30 April). The king was obliged to sum- 
mon Goring's cavalry from the west to cover 
his removal from Oxford. CromweU and 
Richard Brown were ordered to follow the 
king's motions, but recalled in a few days 
to take part in the siege of Oxford. _ Free 
from their pursuit, the king stormed Leicester 
and threatened to break into the eastern as- 
sociation. At once Cromwell, with but 
three troops of horse, was sent to the point 
of danger, with instructions to secure Ely 
and raise the local levies (Rushworth, vi. 

According to the Self-denying Ordinance 
Cromwell's employment in the army should 
ere this have ended, for the date fixed for the 
expiration of commissions held by members 
of parliament was 13 May. But when the 
time came Cromwell was in pursuit of the 
king, and on 10 May his commission was ex- 
tended for forty days longer. On 5 June a 
petition from the city of London to the lords 
demanded that Cromwell should be sent to 
command the associated counties, and on 
8 June Fairfax and his officers sent a letter 
to the commons asking that Cromwell might 
be continued in command of the horse, * being 
as great a body as ever the parliament had 
together in one army, and yet having no ge- 
neral officer to command them.' It can hardly 
have been by accident that those who nomi- 
nated the officers of the New Model had left 
vacant that post of lieutenant-general which 
the council of war thus proposed to fill. The 
House of Commons took the hint, and or- 
dered that Cromwell should command the 
horse during such a time as the house should 
dispense with his attendance (10 June), and 
the lords were obliged reluctantly to concur, 
though they took care to limit the period of 
his employment to three months. It was 
afterwards again prolonged for terms of four 
and six months successively {Journals of the 
House of Commons, 18 June, 8 Aug., 17 Oct. 
1645, 26 Jan. 1646). 

In obedience to the summons of Fairfax 
Cromwell returned from the eastern counties, 
and rejoined the army the day before the 

battle of Naseby (Rtjshwokth, vi. 21). In 
that battle Cromwell commanded in person 
the right wing, and Fairfax entrusted to his 
charge the ordering of the cavalry throughout 
the whole army. Before his task was com- 
pleted the royalists advanced to the attack. 
In a letter written about a month later, Crom- 
well says : ' When I saw the enemy draw up 
and march in gallant order towards us, and 
we a company of poor ignorant men to seek 
how to order our battle, the general having 
commissioned me to order all the horse, 1 
could not, riding alone about my business, 
but smile out to God, in praises, in assurance 
of victory, because God would by things 
that are not bring to nought things that are ' 
(Caeltle, app. 9). The parliamentary right 
routed the division opposed to it, and Crom- 
well, leaving a detachment to prevent the 
broken troops from rallying, fell on the king's 
foot in the centre and completed their defeat. 
He followed the chase of the flying cavaliers 
as far as the suburbs of Leicester. At the 
victory of Langport also, on 10 July 1645, 
Cromwell was conspicuous both in the battle 
and the pursuit, and he took part in the sieges 
of Bridgewater, Sherborne, and Bristol. After 
the surrender of the last place, he was de- 
tached by Fairfax in order to secure the com- 
munications between London and the west, 
and captured in succession Devizes (23 Sept.), 
Winchester (5 Oct.), Basing (14 Oct.), and 
Langford House (17 Oct. 1645), At the end 
of October he rejoined Fairfax at Crediton, 
and remained with the army during the whole 
of the winter. 

On 9 Jan. he opened the campaign of 1646 
by the surprise of Lord Wentworth at Bovey 
Tracy, and shared in the battle of Torrington 
(16 Feb.) and the siege of Exeter. Then, 
at Fairfax's request, Cromwell undertook to 
go to London, in order to give the parliament 
an account of the state of the west of Eng- 
land. On 23 April he received the thanks 
of the House of Commons for his services ; 
rewards of another nature they had already 
conferred upon him. On 1 Dec. 1645, the 
commons, in drawing up the peace proposi- 
tions to be offered to the king, had resolved 
that an estate of 2,500Z. a year should be 
conferred on Cromwell, and that the king 
should be requested to make him a baron. 
After the failure of the negotiations, an or- 
dinance of parliament had settled upon him 
lands to the value named, taken chiefly from 
the property of the Marquis of Worcester 
{Parliainentary History, xiv. 139, 252 ; Thtir- 
loe Papers, 1. 75). 

Cromwell returned to the army in time 
to assist in the negotiations for the surrender 
of Oxford. The leniency of the terms granted 




to the royalists both here and at Exeter, 
' base, scurvy propositions ' as Baillie de- 
scribes them, is attributed by him to the 
influence of Cromwell, and to a design to 
set the army free to oppose the Scots if 
it should be necessary (Baillie, ii. 376). 
It is certain that Cromwell's influence was 
constantly used to procure the fair and 
moderate treatment of the conquered party, 
and he more than once urged on the par- 
liament the necessity of punctually carry- 
ing out the Oxford articles and preserving 
' the faith of the army,' With the fall of 
Oxford the war was practically over, and 
Cromwell returned to his parliamentary 
duties. His family removed from Ely and 
followed him to London, with the excep- 
tion of his eldest daughter Bridget, who 
had married Ireton a few days before the 
surrender of Oxford (15 June 1646). During 
the last eighteen months parliament had 
voted all the essentials for a presbyterian 
church, and the question of the amount oi 
toleration to be legally granted to dissen- 
tients was more urgent than ever. Cromwell 
had not ceased to remind parliament of the 
necessity of establishing the toleration pro- 
mised in the vote of September 1 644. ' Honest 
men served you faithfully in this action,' he 
wrote after Naseby ; * I beseech you not to 
discourage them. He that ventures his life 
for the liberty of his country, I wish he 
trust God for the liberty of his conscience 
and you for the liberty he fights for ' (Letter 
xxix.) Again, after the capture of Bristol, 
writing by the special commission of Fairfax 
and the council of war, he warned the house : 
' For being united in forms commonly called 
uniformity, every christian will for peace 
sake study and do as far as conscience will 
permit. . . In things of the mind we look for 
no compulsion but that of light and reason.' 
The pres by terian party in the commons turned 
a deaf ear to these reminders, and suppressed 
these passages in the letters published by its 
order. When Cromwell returned to his seat 
in the House of Commons, the question of 
toleration was still undecided ; the recruiting 
of the parliament by fresh elections inclined 
the balance against the presbyterians, but 
the flight of the king to the Scots gave them 
again the ascendency. Of Cromwell's views 
and actions during the latter half of 1646 
and the spring of 1647 we have extremely 
little information. 

Two letters to Fairfax show the anxiety 
with which he regarded the king's negotia- 
tions with the Scots and the satisfaction 
with which he hailed the conclusion of the 
arrangement by which he was handed over 
to the commissioners of parliament. With 

even greater anxiety he watched the increas- 
ing dissensions within the parliament, and 
the growing hostility of the city to the army. 
* We are full of faction and worse,' he writes 
in August 1646 ; and in March 1647, ' There 
want not in all places those who have so 
much malice against the army as besots them. 
Never were the spirits of men more em- 
bittered than now (Letters xxxviii. xliii.) 
Cromwell's attitude at the commencement 
of the quarrel between the army and the 
parliament has been distorted by fable and 
misrepresentation. Thoroughly convinced of 
the justice of the army's claims, he restrained 
the soldiers as long as possible, because he 
saw more clearly than they did the danger 
of a breach with the only constitutional 
authority the war had left standing. He 
risked his influence with them by his per- 
severance in this course of action. ' I have 
looked upon you,' wrote Lilburn to Crom- 
well on 25 March 1647, * as the most abso- 
lute singlehearted great man in England, 
untainted and unbiassed with ends of your 
own. . , . Your actions and carriages for 
many months together have struck me into an 
amaze. I am informed this day by an officer, 
and was informed by another knowing man 
yesterday, that you will not suffer the army 
to petition till they have laid down their 
arms, because you have engaged to the house 
that they shall lay them down whenever the 
house shall command.' This conduct Lil- 
burn proceeds to attribute to the influence 
of Cromwell's parliamentary associates, 'the 
politic men,' ' the sons of Machiavel,' ' ^^ane 
and St. John ' (Lilburn, Jonah's Cry, p. 3 ; 
a similar account of Cromwell's behaviour 
at this juncture is given by John Wildman 
in a tract called Putney Projects published 
in November 1647). Angered by the re- 
serve of their superiors, the agitators of eight 
regiments addressed a letter to Fairfax, Crom- 
well, and Skippon, adjuring them in the 
strongest language to plead the cause of the 
soldiers in parliament (Declarations, Sfc. of 
the Army, 4to, 1647, p. 5). Skippon laid 
his copy of the letter before the House of 
Commons, and the house, now thoroughly 
alarmed, sent down Cromwell, Skippon, and 
other officers to examine into the gTievances 
of the army (Rushworth, vi. 474). But 
the concessions which parliament offered were 
too small and too late, and the failure of 
Cromwell's mission gave colour to the theory 
of his double dealing, which his opponents 
were only too ready to accept. There seems 
to be no reason to doubt the truth of the 
common story that they were on the point 
of arresting him, when he suddenly left 
London and joined the army (3 June 1647). 




Whether before leaving Cromwell planned 
the seizure of the king by Joyce is a more 
doubtful question. Hollis definitely asserts 
that Joyce received his orders to secure the 
king's person at a meeting at Cromwell's 
houseonSOMay (HoLLis; SIasekes, Tracts, 
i. 246). Major Huntingdon makes a similar 
statement, with the addition that Joyce's 
orders were only to secure the king at 
Holmby, not to take him thence, and that 
Cromwell said that if this had not been done 
the king would have been fetched away by 
order of parliament, or carried to London by 
his presbyterian keepers (Maseres, Tracts, i. 
399). Although the evidence of Hunting- 
don is not free from suspicion, this statement 
is to some extent supported by independent 
contemporary evidence, and is in harmony 
with the circumstances of the case and the 
character of Cromwell. So long as it was 
possible he had striven to restrain the army 
and to mediate between it and the parlia- 
ment ; when that was no longer possible he 
took its part with vigour and decision. The 
effect of Cromwell's presence at the army 
was immediately perceptible. Discipline and 
subordination were restored, and the autho- 
rity of the officers superseded that of the 
agitators. As early as 1 J uly Lilburn wrote 
to Cromwell complaining : ' You have robbed 
by your unjust subtlety and shifting tricks 
the honest and gallant agitators of all their 
power and authority, and solely placed it in a 
thing called a council of war ' {JonaKs Cry, 
p. 9). In the council itself Fairfax was a 
cipher, as he himself admits, and the in- 
fluence of Cromwell predominant ; his ad- 
versaries spoke of him as 'the principal wheel,' 
the 'primum mobile' which moved the whole 
machine (-4 Copy of a Letter to be sent to 
Lieutenant-general Cromivell from the well 
affected Party in the City, 1647). Hitherto 
the manifestos of the army had set forth 
simply their grievance as soldiers ; now they 
began to insist on their claim as citizens to 
demand a settlement of the peace of the 
kingdom and the liberties of the subject. 
In the letter to the city of 10 June, which 
Carlyle judges by the evidence of its style 
to be of Cromwell's own wi'iting, the willing- 
ness of the army to subordinate the question 
of their pay to the question of the settlement 
of the kingdom is very plainly stated, and 
special stress is also laid on the demand for 
toleration (RusiiwoRTH, vi. 554). Cromwell 
shared the general opinion of the army that 
a settlement could best be obtained by nego- 
tiation with the king. Whatever the world 
might judge of tliem, he said to Berkeley, 
they would be found no seekers of thera- 
Belves, further than to have leave to live as 

subjects ought to do, and to preserve their 
consciences, and they thought that no men 
could enjoy their lives and estates quietly 
without the king had his rights (Maberes, 
Tracts, i. 360). Accordingly he exerted all 
his influence to render the propositions of 
the army acceptable to the king ; and, when 
Charles made objections to the first draft of 
those proposals, introduced important altera- 
tions m the scheme for the settlement of 
the kingdom, which was finally made pub- 
lic on 1 Aug. In this Cromwell acted with 
the assent of the council of war ; but the 
extreme party in the army held him specially 
responsible for this policy, and accused him 
of ' prostituting the liberties and persons of 
all the people at the foot of the king's inte- 
rest ' (WiLDMAN, Putney Projects'). The same 
willingness to accept a compromise showed 
itself in the line of conduct adopted towards 
the parliament after the entry of the army 
into London. Cromwell and the council of 
war were satisfied with the retirement of the 
eleven accused members, and did not insist 
on their prosecution or on the complete 
* purging' of the House of Commons, as many 
of their followers in the army desired (t6.) 
The king did not accept the proposals of the 
army, and definitely refused those ofiered him 
by the parliament (9 Sept. 1647). A con- 
siderable party opposed the making of any 
further application to the king, but after 
three days' discussion (21-3 Sept.) Cromwell 
and Ireton succeeded in carrying a vote that 
fresh terms should be offered to him (Masson, 
Life of Milton, iii. 565 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th 
Rep. 179). Cromwell's most important inter- 
vention in the debates on the new propositions 
took place on the question of the duration of 
the presbyterian church settlement. The army 
leaders had expressed, in their declaration to 
the city, their willingness to accept the esta- 
blishment of presbyterianism, and, in their 
proposals to the king, to submit to the re- 
tention of episcopacy ; in each case they had 
required legal security for the toleration of 
dissent. What Cromwell sought now was 
to limit the duration of the presbyterian 
settlement, and, failing to fix the term at 
three or seven years, he succeeded in fixing 
as its limit the end of the parliament next 
after that then sitting (13 Oct., Commoiis' 
Journals). Before the new proposals could 
be presented to the king, the flight of the 
latter to the Isle of Wight took place (11 Nov.) 
The charge that the king's flight was con- 
trived by Cromwell in order to forward his 
own ambitious designs is frequently made 
by contemporaries. It is expressed in the 
well-known lines of MarveU, which describe 
how — 




Twining subtle fears with hope, 

He wove a net of such a scope 
That Charles himself might chase 
To Carisbrook's narrow case, 

That thence the royal actor borne 

The tragic scaifold might adorn. 

(Marvell, Works, ed. Grosart, i. 163.) 

But the testimony of Sir John Berkeley 
shows clearly that the persons who worked 
on the king's fears were the Scotch envoys ; 
they instigated the flight, and reaped the fruit 
of it in the agreement they concluded with 
the king on 26 Dec. 1647. Moreover, so long 
as the king remained at Hampton Court he 
was in the charge of Colonel Whalley, Crom- 
well's cousin, and throughout one of his most 
trusted adherents. At Carisbrook, on the 
other hand, the king was in the charge of 
Robert Hammond, a connection of Crom- 
well by his marriage with a daughter of John 
Hampden, but a man as to whose action 
under the great temptation of the king's ap- 
peal to him Cromwell was painfuUy uncer- 
tain (Cakltle, Letter lii.) At the time the 
king's flight greatly increased the difficulties 
of Cromwell's position. His policy for the 
last few months had been based on the as- 
sumption that it was possible to arrive at a 
permanent settlement by treaty with the king. 
To secure that end he had made concessions 
and compromises which had created a wide- 
spread feeling of dissatisfaction and distrust 
in the ranks of the army. Rumours had been 
persistently circulated by royalist intriguers 
that Cromwell was to be made Earl of Es- 
sex, and to receive the order of the Garter, 
as the price of the king's restoration, and 
among the levellers these slanders had been 
generally believed. In consequence, his in- 
fluence in the army had greatly decreased, 
and even his life was threatened (Bekicelet, 
Memoirs ; Maseees, Tracts, i. 371). 

The change in Cromwell's policy which 
now took place has been explained by the 
theory that he was afraid of assassination, 
and by the story of an intercepted letter 
from the king to the queen (Carte, Ormonde, 
bk. v. § 18). It was due rather to the fact 
that the king's flight, and the revelations of 
his intrigues with the Scots which followed, 
showed Cromwell on what a rotten founda- 
tion he had based his policy. 

For the moment the most pressing business 
was the restoration of discipline in the army. 
In three great reviews Fairfax and Cromwell 
reduced the waverers to obedience (15-18 Nov. 
1647), and the general entered into a solemn 
engagement with the soldiers for the redress 
of their military grievances and the reform 
of parliament, while the soldiers engaged to 
obey the orders of the general and the coun- 

cil of war (^Old Parliamentary History, xvi. 
340). Cromwell especially distinguished 
himself by quelling the mutiny of Colonel 
Lilburn's regiment in the rendezvous at 
Ware ; one of the mutineers was tried on 
the field and shot, and others arrested and 
reserved for future punishment (15 Nov. ; 
Ludlow, Memoirs, ed. 1751, p. 86). On 
the 19th Cromwell was able to report to the 
commons that the army was in a very good 
condition, and received the thanks of the 
house for his services (Ritshwokth, vii. 880). 

During December a series of meetings of 
the council of the army took place at Wind- 
sor, in which dissensions were composed, re- 
conciliations effected, and the re-establish- 
ment of union sealed by a great fast day, 
when Cromwell and Ireton ' prayed very 
fervently and very pathetically ' (23 Dec. 
1647 ; Cromwelliana, p. 37). As the autho- 
rised spokesman of the army, Cromwell took 
a leading part in the debate on the king's re- 
jection of the four bills which the parliament 
had presented to him as their ultimatum 
(3 Jan. 1648). 'The army now expected,' 
he said, ' that parliament should govern and 
defend the kingdom by their own power 
and resolution, and not teach the people any 
longer to expect safety and government from 
an obstinate man whose heart God had har- 
dened ' (Walker, History of Independency, 
ed. 1661, pt. i. p. 71). He added that in such a 
policy the army would stand by the parliament 
against all opposition, but if the parliament 
neglected to provide for their own safety and 
that of the kingdom the army would be forced 
to seek its own preservation by other means. 
Under the influence of this speech, and a 
similar one from Ireton, parliament voted 
that no further addresses should be made to 
the king, and excluded the representatives of 
Scotland from the committee of both king- 
doms. The conviction that this course alone 
afforded security to the cause for which he 
had fought was the motive which led Crom- 
well thus to advocate a final rupture with 
the king. Had he been already aiming at 
supreme power, he would hardly have chosen 
the very moment when events had opened 
the widest field to ambition to begin neo-o- 
tiationsfor the marriage of his eldest son with 
the daughter of a private gentleman (Car- 
ltle. Letters liii. Iv.) The contribution of 
a thousand a year for the recovery of Ireland 
from the lands which parliament had just 
settled on him, and the renunciation of the 
arrears due to him by the state, are smaller 
proofs of his disinterestedness (21 March 
1648 ; Common^ Journals, v. 513). 

Cromwell's chief occupation during the 
months of March and April 1648 was to 


1 66 


prepare for the impending war by uniting all 
sections of the popular party. For that pur- 
pose he moved and spoke in the House of 
Commons, and endeavoured to arrange an 
agreement with the city (Walker, p. 83). 
With the same object he procured confer- 
ences between the leaders of the independent 
and presbyterian parties, and between the 
' grandees ' and the * commonwealthsmen ' 
(Ltjdlow, Memoirs, p. 92). The common- 
wealthsmen declared openly for a republic, 
but Cromwell declined to pledge himself; not, 
as he explained to Ludlow, because he did 
not think it desirable, but because he did not 
think it feasible. What troubled him still 
more than the failure of these conferences 
was the distrust with which so many of his 
old friends had come to regard him. On 
19 Jan. 1648 ,Tohn Lilburn, at the bar of the 
House of Commons, had accused him of apo- 
stasy, and denounced his underhand dealings 
with the king (RusHWOETH, vii. 969 ; Lil- 
BTTBif, An Impeachment of High Treason 
against Oliver Cromwell). These charges bore 
fruit in the jealousy and suspicion of which he 
so bitterly complained to Ludlow, and must 
have confirmed him in the resolve to make 
no terms with the king (Ludlow, Metnoirs, 
p. 95). The outbreak of a second civil war 
in consequence of the king's alliance with 
the presbyterians converted this resolve into 
a determination to punish the king for his 
faithlessness. In the three days' prayer- 
meeting which took place at Windsor in 
April 1648 Cromwell took a leading part. 
The army leaders reviewed their past politi- 
cal action and decided that ' those cursed 
carnal conferences with the king ' were the 
cause of their present perplexities. They 
resolved ' that it was their duty, if ever the 
Lord brought them back in peace, to call 
Charles Stuart, that man of blood, to account 
for all the blood he had shed and the mis- 
chief he had done ' (Allen, Faithful Memo- 
rial, &c. ; Somers Tracts, vi. 501). A few 
days later (1 May 1648) Cromwell was des- 
patched by Fairfax to subdue the insurrec- 
tion in Wales ; on 11 May he captured the 
town of Chepstow, and, leaving a regiment 
to besiege the castle, established himself be- 
fore Pembroke on 21 May. For six weeks 
Pembroke held out, and it was not till the 
beginning of August that he was able to 
join the little corps with which Lambert dis- 
puted the advance of the great Scotch army 
under Hamilton. Marching across the York- 
shire hills, and down the valley of the Ribble, 
Cromwell fell on the flank of the Scots as 
they marched carelessly through Lancashire, 
and in a three days' battle routed them, 
"with the loss of more than half their num- 

ber (17-19 Aug.) Then he turned north to 
recover the border fortresses, expel Hamil- 
ton's rearguard from English soil, and take 
measures for the prevention of future inva- 
sions. In this task he was much aided by an 
internal revolution in Scotland which placed 
the Argyll party in power. To assist them 
Cromwell marched into Scotland, and ob- 
tained without difficulty the restoration of 
Carlisle and Berwick, and the exclusion from 
power of those who had taken part in the late 
invasion (October 1648). Then he returned 
to Yorkshire to besiege Pontefract. Like the 
army which he commanded, Cromwell came 
back highly exasperated against all who had 
taken part in this second war. * This,' he 
said, * is a more prodigious treason than any 
that had been perfected before ; because the 
former quarrel was that Englishmen might 
rule over one another ; this to vassalise us 
to a foreign nation. And their fault that 
appeared in this summer's business is cer- 
tainly double to theirs who were in the first, 
because it is the repetition of the same oflence 
against all the witnesses that God has borne' 
(Carltle, Letter Ixxxii.) ' Take courage,' 
he wrote to the parliament after Preston, ' to 
do the work of the Lord in fulfilling the end 
of your magistracy, in seeking the peace and 
welfare of the land — that all that will live 
peaceably may have countenance from you, 
and that they that are incapable and will 
not leave troubling the land may speedUy be 
destroyed out of the land ' (ib. Ixiv.) But 
several weeks before this letter was written 
parliament had reopened negotiations with 
the king, and when Cromwell re-entered Eng- 
land the treaty of Newport was in progress. 
Moreover, the House of Lords had favourably 
received, and recorded for future use, a series 
of charges against Cromwell, which a late 
subordinate of his had laid before them 
(Lords' Jownals, 2 Aug. 1648; Major Hunt- 
ingdon's Reasons for laying dovm his Commis- 
sion). His recent victories had now removed 
the personal danger, but there still remained 
the danger of seeing those victories made use- 
less by the surrender of all he had fought 
for. In his letter to Hammond, Cromwell de- 
scribes the Newport treaty as * this ruining 
hypocritical agreement,' and asks if ' the 
whole fruit of the war is not like to be frus- 
trated, and all most like to turn to what 
it was, and worse' (Carltle, Letter Ixxxv.) 
He refers to it again in a later speech as 
'the treaty that was endeavoured with the 
king whereby they would have piit into his 
hands all that we had engaged for, and all 
our security should have been a little bit of 
paper' (ib. Speech i.) Accordingly, Cromwell 
expressed his entire concurrence with the 




petitions of the northern army against the 
treaty, which he forwarded to Fairfax, and 
approved the stronger measures adopted by 
the southern army (RtrsHWORTH, vii. 1399). 
' We have read your declaration here,' he 
wrote to Fairfax, ' and see in it nothing but 
what is honest and becoming honest men to 
say and ofler' {Engl. Historical Heview, ii. 
149). To Hammond he wrote that the north- 
ern army could have wished that the southern 
army would have delayed their remonstrance 
till after the treaty had been completed, but 
seein g that it had been presented they thought 
it right to support it (Carltle, Letter Ixxxv. ) 

The arguments by which Cromwell justi- 
fied the action of the army in putting force 
upon the parliament are fully stated in the 
long letter in which he attempted to convince 
the wavering Hammond. ' Fleshly reason- 
ings ' convinced him that if resistance was 
lawful at all, it was as lawful to oppose the 
parliament as the king, ' one name of autho- 
rity as well as another,' since it was the cause 
alone which made the quarrel just. But he 
laid more stress on higher considerations, on 
those ' outward dispensations ' of which he 
elsewhere owns he was inclined to make too 
much (ib. Letter Ixvii.) Every battle was, 
in his eyes, an ' appeal to God ' — indeed he 
many times uses that phrase as a synonym 
for fighting — and each victory was a judg- 
ment of God in his favour. * Providences so 
constant, clear, and unclouded ' as his suc- 
cesses could not have been designed to end 
in the sacrifice of God's people and God's 
cause. In the army's determination to in- 
tervene to prevent this he imagined that he 
saw ' God disposing their hearts,' as in the 
war He had ' framed their actions,' ' I verily 
think, and am persuaded, they are things 
which God puts into our hearts,' and he was 
convinced not merely of the lawfulness but 
of the duty of obeying this belief (Letters 

The southern army took the lead in its 
acts as it had done in its petitions, nor did 
Cromwell arrive in London until Pride had 
already begun the work of purging the House 
of Commons (6 Dec.) He showed his ap- 
proval of that act by taking his seat in the 
house the next day, and was then thanked 
by it for his ' very great and eminently faith- 
ful services ' ( Commons' Journals, 7 Dec. 1648). 
What share he took in the proceedings of the 
next few days is uncertain, but he seems to 
have been more active outside parliament 
than within it. With Whitelocke and other 
lawyers he discussed in several conferences 
the future settlement of the kingdom, and 
with the council of war revised the constitu- 
tional proposals known as the Agreement of 

the People (Whitelocke, ft". 362-4 ; Lilbuen, 
Legal and Fundamental Liberties, p. 38). 
Walker represents Cromwell as saying, when 
the trial of the king was first moved in the 
commons, that if any man had designed this 
he should think him the greatest traitor in 
the world, but since Providence and neces- 
sity had cast them upon it he should pray 
God to bless their counsel (Walker, His- 
tory of Independency, ii. 54). 

When the trial was once commenced, no 
one was more active in its prosecution. The 
stories told at the trial of the regicides are 
hardly trustworthy, but Algernon Sidney 
states in one of his letters that, having him- 
self urged that neither the high court of jus- 
tice nor any other court would try the king, 
he was answered by Cromwell, ' I tell you 
we will cut off" his head with the crown upon 
it ' (Blencowe, Sidney Papers, p. 237). Biu-- 
net describes Cromwell as arguing with the 
Scotch commissioners on the justice of the 
king's trial, showing from Mariana and Bu- 
chanan that kings ought to be punished for 
breach of their trusts, proving that it was in 
accordance with the spirit of the covenant, 
and getting the better of them with their 
own weapons and upon their own principles 
(Burnet, Own Time, i. 72, ed. 1823). On one 
occasion only does Cromwell himself after- 
wards refer to the king's execution, and he then 
speaks of it in a strain of stern satisfaction. 
' The civil authority, or that part of it which 
remained faithful to their trust and true to the 
ends of the covenant, did, in answer to their 
consciences, turn out a tyrant, in a way which 
the christians in aftertimes will mention 
with honour, and all tyrants in the world 
look at with fear ' (Carlyle, Letter cxlviii.) 
Yet, though untroubled by scruples himself, 
Cromwell was willing to make allowances 
for those of others, and anxious to rally the 
doubters to the support of the new govern- 
ment. As temporary president of the coun- 
cil of state he appears to have originated the 
modification of the * engagement ' by which 
those who refused to approve of the king's 
sentence were enabled to sit side by side with 
those who had taken part in it (Parliamen- 
tary History, xix. 38). It was more difficult 
to secure the support of the extreme section 
of his own followers. For Lilburn and a 
great party in the army the scheme of con- 
stitutional reform set forth in the agreement 
of the people was not sufficiently democratic, 
nor were they content to await its gradual 
realisation. They published a programme of 
their own under the same name, demanded 
the immediate execution of its provisions, 
and prepared to impose it by arms. They 
printed a series of virulent attacks on Crom- 




well and the council of state, in which the 
council was described as the mere creature 
of Cromwell, his viceroy until he chose to 
assume his kingship, and Cromwell himself 
as a tyrant, an apostate, and a hypocrite. 
* You shall scarce speak to Cromwell about 
anything but he will lay his hand on his 
breast, elevate his eyes, and call God to re- 
cord. He will weep, howl, and repent even 
while he doth smite you under the fifth rib ' 
(* The Hunting of the Foxes by Five Small 
Beagles,' Somers Tracts, vi. 49). Though he 
might despise insults, Cromwell could not 
despise the dangers with which this agitation 
threatened the Commonwealth. ' You have 
no other way to treat these people,' said he 
to the council, ' but to break them in pieces; 
if you do not break them, they will break 
you ' (LiLBTJEN, The Picture of the Council 
of State, p. 15). His advice was followed, 
the leaders of the levellers were arrested, 
and the mutiny in the army swiftly and 
vigorously suppressed by himself and Fairfax 
(May 1649). Apart from the paramount 
necessity of preventing a new war, Cromwell 
had no sympathy with either the social or 
political aims of the levellers. He was te- 
naciously attached to the existing social order. 
' For the orders of men, and ranks of men, 
did not that levelling principle tend to the 
reducing of all to an equality ? What was 
the purport of it but to make the tenant as 
liberal a fortune as the landlord, which I 
think, if obtained, would not have lasted 
long ? ' (Carltle, Speech ii.) Not less did he 
differ from them on the constitutional ques- 
tion. They sought to limit the powers of 
the government and demanded the largest 
liberty for the individual. He sought to 
change the aims of the government, but to 
retain all its authority. So in the very first 
days of the Commonwealth those profound 
differences of opinion appeared which sepa- 
rated Cromwell from many of his former ad- 
herents in the army and caused him so many 
difficulties during the protectorate. Nearly 
two months before the outbreak of the le- 
veUerstook place Cromwell had been selected 
by the council of state to command in Ire- 
land (15 March 1649). He was entrusted 
for three years with the combined powers of 
lord-lieutenant and commander-in-chief, and 
granted a salaiy of 8,000Z. a year in the latter 
capacity in addition to his salary as lord- 
lieutenant, making in all about 13,000Z. (pre- 
face to Cal. State Paj^ers, Dom. 1649-60, 
p. xlv). 

His army was to consist of twelve thousand 
men, and their equipment and support was 
provided for on the same liberal scale. Crom- 
well landed at Dublin on 15 Aug. 1649, and 

signalised his arrival by a searching purga- 
tion of the Irish army and by the publication 
of two proclamations which marked the be- 
ginning of a new era in the Irish wars. One 
of them was levelled against profane swear- 
ing (23 Aug.), the other prohibited plunder 
and promised the people protection and a 
free market in his camp (24 Aug.) From 
Dublin he marched to Drogheda, which was 
stormed on 10 Sept., and the garrison of two 
thousand five hundred put to the sword. The 
few score who received quarter were shipped 
to Barbadoes to labour in the sugar planta- 
tions. In the same way the storming of Wex- 
ford on 11 Oct. was marked by the slaughter 
of two thousand of its defenders. Warned 
by their fate, Ross surrendered after two days' 
attack (19 Oct.), but the approach of winter 
and the increase of sickness in his army 
obliged Cromwell to raise the siege of Water- 
ford (2 Dec. 1649). During this period his 
lieutenants had been equally successful. One, 
Colonel Venables, relieved Londonderry and 
regained the court towns of Ulster (Septem- 
ber 1649). Another, Lord Broghil, received 
the submission of Cork and other Munster 
ports, whose protestant garrisons his intrigues 
had induced to revolt (November 1649). 
Nevertheless the greater part of Ireland was 
still imconquered. ' Though God hath blessed 
you,' wrote Cromwell to the speaker, ' with 
a great longitude of land along the shore, 
yet hath it but little depth into the country ' 
(Gilbert, Contemporary History of Affairs 
in Ireland, ii. 468). 

The second campaign, which began at the 
end of January 16.50, was devoted to the 
reduction of the inland fortresses. Cashel, 
Cahir, and several smaller places fell in Fe- 
bruary, Kilkenny capitulated on 27 March, 
and Clonmel surrendered on 18 May after a 
stubborn and bloody resistance. The rapidity 
of Cromwell's conquests was due in part to 
the dissensions of the Irish leaders and the 
growing breach between Ormonde's protestant 
and catholic adherents. It was due still more 
to the excellence of his army, his own skill 
as a leader, and the firm and consistent policy 
which he adopted. What that policy was 
Cromwell's letters, and above all his answer 
to the Clonmacnoise declaration of the Irish 
clergy, very clearly show. He came to Ire- 
land not only to reconquer it, but also ' to 
ask an account of the innocent blood that 
had been shed,' and to punish ' the most bar- 
barous massacre that ever the sun beheld.' 
These reasons justified in his eyes the severity 
exercised at Drogheda and Wexford. Of the 
slaughter at Drogheda he wrote : * I am per- 
suaded that this is a righteous judgment of 
God upon these barbarous wretches who have 




imbrued their hands in so much innocent 
blood, and that it will tend to prevent the 
effusion of blood for the future, which are the 
satisfactory grounds of such actions, which 
otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret ' 
(Cabltlb, Letter cv.) At Wexford the mas- 
sacre which took place was accidental and un- 
intentional, for Cromwell wished to preserve 
the town ; but he was far from regretting the 
accident. ' God, by an unexpected providence, 
in his righteous justice brought a just judg- 
ment upon them, causing them to become a 
prey to the soldiers who in their piracies had 
made preys of so many families, and with 
their bloods to answer the cruelties which 
they had exercised upon the lives of divers 
poor protestants ' (Letter cvii.) Relentless 
though Cromwell was, he abhorred the indis- 
criminating barbarities practised by so many 
English commanders in Ireland. For soldiers 
who had put him to a storm, renegades who 
had once served the parliament, or priests 
taken in the captured towns, he had no mercy. 
But no other general was so careful to pro- 
tect peaceable peasants or noncombatants 
from plunder or violence. ' Give us an in- 
stance,' he challenged the catholic clergy, ' of 
one man, since my coming into Ireland, not 
in arms, massacred, destroyed, or banished, 
concerning the massacre or the destruction 
of whom justice has not been done or en- 
deavoured to be done,' In the manifesto 
which called forth the answer, the Irish 
prelates had admitted 'the more moderate 
usage ' of ' the common people ' by Cromwell, 
but lu-ged them not to be deceived by this 
show of clemency. What terms those Irish 
who submitted were to expect the same de- 
claration plainly stated. Cromwell thoroughly 
approved the parliament's policy of land for- 
feiture. Those who had been or were now 
in arms were to suffer for it in their estates, 
as parliament should determine, according 
to their actions. The leaders and chief con- 
trivers of the rebellion were to be reserved 
for exemplaryjustice. Those who had taken 
no part in the rebellion were promised equal 
justice with the English, equal taxation, and 
equal protection from the law. On the ques- 
tion of religion the declaration was equally 
explicit. Cromwell held that the catholic 
doctrine was poisonous and antichristian ; 
that the catholic clergy were the chief pro- 
moters of the rebellion ; and that the catholic 
religion had no legal right to exist in Ireland. 
In conformity with these principles, the exer- 
cise of the catholic worship was not to be 
suffered, and the laws against it strictly en- 
forced against all offenders. Liberty of con- 
science in the narrowest sense of the term 
was left to the people. ' I meddle not with 

any man's conscience. ... As for the 
people, what thoughts they have in matters 
of religion in their own breasts I cannot 
reach, but shall think it my duty, if they 
walk honestly and peaceably, not to cause 
them in the least to suffer for the same.' 
Cromwell trusted that these measures would 
be followed in time by the conversion of the 
Irish. * We find the people,' he wrote to 
John Sadler, ' very greedy after the word, 
and flocking to christian meetings, much of 
that prejudice which lies upon people in Eng- 
land being a stranger to their minds. I mind 
you the rather of this because it is a sweet 
symptom, if not an earnest of the good we 
expect' (Oaeltle, app. 17). 

His second remedy for the condition of 
Ireland was the establishment of a free and 
impartial administration of justice. * We 
have a great opportunity to set up a way 
of doing justice amongst these poor people, 
which, for the uprightness and cheapness of 
it, may exceedingly gain upon them . . . who 
have been accustomed to as much injustice, 
tyranny, and oppression from their landlords, 
the great men, and those that should have 
done them right as any people in that which 
we call Christendom. If justice were freely 
and impartially administered here, the fore- 
going darkness and corruption would make 
it look so much the more glorious and beauti- 
ful, and draw more hearts after it' (ib.) 

From the colonisation of Ireland with fresh 
settlers from England Cromwell also hoped 
much. In announcing the reduction of Wex- 
ford he pointed out to the parliament the 
advantages it offered for the establishment 
of a new colony (ib. Letter cvii.) He also 
wrote to New England to invite ' godly people 
and ministers' to transplant themselves to 
Ireland, and found many who were willing 
to accept his proposal (Nickolls, Letters ad- 
dressed to Cromwell, p. 44). But there is 
no suggestion in his letters of the wholesale 
transplantation of the Irish to Counaught 
which afterwards took place, for it had not 
yet been decided on by parliament. In other 
respects the policy announced by Cromwell 
was in all essentials the policy ultimately 
adopted by parliament. 

Immediately after the capture of Clonmel 
Cromwell returned to England, having been 
recalled by parliament on 8 Jan. 1650, to take 
part in the impending war with Scotland. Par- 
liament wished to utilise the services both of 
Cromwell and Fairfax, and voted on 12 June 
that the latter should command, with Crom- 
well as his lieutenant-general. But Fairfax 
retracted his consent and laid down his com- 
mission, and on 26 June Cromwell was ap- 
pointed captain-general and comma nder-in- 




cliief of all tte forces of the Commonwealtli. 
Fairfax's resignation was caused by unwil- 
lingness to attack the Scots unless they 
actually invaded England. Cromwell, on the 
other hand, held that it was just and neces- 
sary to forestall their invasion. The energy 
with which he endeavoured to convert Fair- 
fax to these views is the best refutation of 
the theory that Cromwell intrigued to obtaiu 
his post. Whitelocke and Ludlow, who re- 
cord his arguments, were both at the time 
convinced of his sincerity. It was not till 
long afterwards that they came to doubt it 
{LxTDLOVf, 3Ie7}ioirs, 122; Whitelocke, Me- 
morials, f. 4G0). * I have not sought these 
things ; truly I have been called unto them 
by the Lord,' was Cromwell's own account of 
his promotion (Letter cxxxiv.) Less than a 
month after his appointment Cromwell en- 
tered Scotland with sixteen thousand men 
(22 July 1650). He found David Leslie en- 
trenched in a strong position near Edinbm-gh, 
and spent a month in fruitless attempts to 
draw him from it. On 30 Aug. the council 
of war decided to retreat to Dunbar and 
fortify that place, to await there the arrival 
of provisions and reinforcements. Leslie pur- 
sued, and succeeded in seizing the passes 
beyond Dunbar and the hills behind it. The 
Scots boasted that they had Cromwell in a 
worse pound than the king had Essex in 
Cornwall. Cromwell himself, in a letter 
written the day before the battle, admitted 
the greatness of the danger. • We are upon 
an engagement very difficult. The enemy 
hath blocked up our way at the pass at Cop- 
perspath, through which we cannot get with- 
out almost a miracle. He lieth so upon the 
hills that we know not how to come that 
way without great difficulty ; and our lying 
here daily consumeth our men, who fall sick 
beyond imagination ' (Letter cxxxix.) On 
the evening of the day on which these words 
were written the Scots began to move down 
from the hill to the narrow space at its foot 
with the intention of attacking. Cromwell 
saw the opportunity their movement gave 
him, and the advantage of seizing the oflensive 
himself. Early on the morning of 3 Sept. 
he fell on their exposed right wing with an 
overwhelming force, and after a sharp struggle 
threw their whole army into confusion. * The 
sun rising upon the sea,' says one of Crom- 
well's captains, ' I heard Noll say, " Now let 
God arise, and let his enemies be scattered ;" 
and he following us as we slowly marched, 
I heard him say, " I profess they run," and 
then was the Scots army all in disorder, and 
running both right wing and left and main 
battle. They routed one another after we 
had done their work on their right wing' 

{Memoirs of Captain Hodgson, p. 148). Three 
thousand men fell in the battle, and ten 
thousand were taken prisoners. Edinburgh, 
Leith, and the eastern portion of the Scottish 
lowlands passed into Cromwell's hands. But 
he made no attempt to press his victory to 
the utmost, and seemed more solicitous to 
improve it by argument than by arms. From 
the moment the Scotch war began Cromwell's 
strongest wish had been to come to some 
agreement with the Scots. * Since we came 
to Scotland,' wrote Cromwell in his Dunbar 
despatch, ' it hath been our desire and longing 
to have avoided blood in this business, by 
reason that God hath a people here fearing 
his name, though deceived.' 

With this object he had begun the campaign 
by a series of declarations and letters pro- 
testing his affection to the Scots, and endea- 
vouring to convince them of their error in 
adopting the Stuart cause. In spite of the 
ill success of his overtures, he was urged to 
persist in them by many leading independents. 
Ireton wrote from Ireland expressing to Crom- 
well the fear that he had not been sufficiently 
forbearing and longsulfering with the Scots. 
St. John reminded him that while the Irish 
were a people of atheists and papists, to be 
ruled with a rod of iron, the Scots were 
many of them truly children of God. ' We 
must still endeavour to heap coals of fire on 
their heads, and carry it with as much mercy 
and moderation towards them as may consist 
with safety' (Nickolls, Letters addressed to 
Cromwell, pp. 25-73). In accordance with 
these views, which were also his own, Crom- 
well now began a new series of expostulations, 
directed particularly against the Scotch clergy 
and their claims to guide public policy. He 
charged them with pretending a reformation 
and laying the foundation of it in getting to 
themselves worldly power ; with perverting 
the covenant, which in the main intention 
was spiritual, to serve politics and carnal 
ends ; with claiming to be the infallible ex- 
positors of the covenant and the scriptures. 
His own theory of the position of the clergy 
he summed up in half a dozen words : ' AVe 
look at ministers as helpers of, not lords 
over, God's people.' 

In equally vigorous language he refuted 
their claim to suppress dissent in order to 
suppress error. * Your pretended fear lest 
error should step in is like the man who 
would keep all wine out of the country lest 
men should be drunk. It will be found an 
unjust and unwise jealousy to deprive a man 
of his natural liberty upon a supposition he 
may abuse it. When he doth abuse it, judge ' 
(Letter cxlviii.) 

Once more he stated the conditions on 




which peace might be obtained. * Give the 
Btate of England,' he wrote to the committee 
of estates, ' that satisfaction and seciirity for 
their peaceable and quiet Living beside you 
which may in justice be demanded from a na- 
tion who have, as you, taken their enemy into 
their bosom whilst he was in hostility against 
them' (Letter cl.) Nor did these declara- 
tions entirely fail of their effect. A serious 
division began among the Scots, and the 
rigid covenanters of the west separated them- 
selves from the mixed army under Leslie's 
command. For the moment they repelled 
Cromwell's advances and attempted to carry 
on the war independently. But their army 
was routed by Lambert on 1 Dec. 1650, and 
as Edinburgh Castle surrendered a few days 
later (19 Dec), all the south of Scotland 
was subdued by the close of 1650. Dur- 
ing the spring of 1651 operations were de- 
layed by the dangerous illness of Cromwell. 
An intermittent fever brought on by exposure 
attacked him in February ; more than once 
his life was in danger ; three successive re- 
lapses took place, and parliament urged him 
to remove to England until he recovered 
strength. In June Cromwell was again well 
enough to take the field, and found Leslie 
strongly entrenched near Stirling. Unable 
to attack successfully in front, Cromwell 
threw Lambert's division across the Firth of 
Forth into Fifeshire, and followed himself 
with the bulk of the army a week later. 
Perth was captured on 2 Aug., Leslie's sup- 
plies were cut olf, and his defences were 
taken in the rear. The road to England was 
thus left open to Charles, and Cromwell was 
well aware that he woidd be blamed for not 
having prevented the invasion which took 
place. But he explained that his movement 
was decided rather by necessity than choice. 
Another winter's war would have ruined the 
English army and emptied the treasiiry of the 
republic. The plan he had adopted was the 
only way to dislodge the enemy from their 
position and prevent the prolongation of the 
war. Except with a commanding army on 
both sides of the Forth, it would have been 
impossible at once to invade Fife and bar the 
road to England (Letter clxxx.) Sending his 
cavalry before to impede the king's march, 
Cromwell hurried after him with the foot 
through central England, summoning all the 
militia of the southern and midland counties 
to meet him. With their aid he was able to 
surround Worcester with an army of thirty 
thousand men and attack the royalists with 
an overpowering force on both sides of the 
Severn. As usual Cromwell freely exposed 
himself in the battle. He was the first man 
to cross the Teme and bring support to Fleet- 

wood's hard-pressed troops. When victory 
was assured he rode in person to ofter quarter to 
the enemy's foot in the Fort Royal, and was re- 
ceived by a volley which he luclaly escaped. 
In his letter before the battle he had en- 
couraged the parliament to hope for a victory 
like that of Preston, but none so complete as 
this had marked the course of the civU wars. 
* The dimensions of this mercy,' wrote Crom- 
well to the speaker, ' are above my thought ; 
it is, for aught I know, a crowning mercy ' 
(Letter clxxxiii.) Parliament recognised the 
completeness 01 the victory by voting the 
general lands to the value of 4,000/. a year, 
and by granting him Hampton Court as a 
country residence (6, 11 Sept. 1651). Hostile 
observers have professed to trace henceforth 
in Cromwell's conduct the signs of his ap- 
proaching usurpation. Ludlow sees a sinister 
meaning in the words of his letter to Lenthal. 
Whitelocke,who notes the ' seeming ' humility 
of Cromwell's bearing afterWorcester, records 
expressions which appeared to reveal his secret 
ambition. In the conferences on the settle- 
ment of the kingdom in December 1651 he 
let fall the opinion that a settlement with 
somewhat of monarchical power in it would 
be best. ' What if a man should take upon 
him to be king ? ' was his significant question 
in the following November (Whitelockb, 
Memoriah, pp. 517, 549). But these recollec- 
tions were not written till long after the 
events to which they refer, and Cromwell's 
immediate actions showed no trace of per- 
sonal motives. There is no reason for doubt- 
ing his statement that he begged in vain to 
be relieved from his command and allowed 
to retire into private life (Speech iii.) But 
the parliament could not afford to dispense 
with his services, and outside the parliament 
all looked to him and his influence for the 
accomplishment of the promised reforms. 

'Great things God has done by you in 
war, and good things men expect from you 
in peace,' wi'ote Erbery to Cromwell, ' to 
break in pieces the oppressor, to ease the 
oppressed of their burdens, to release the 
prisoners out of bonds, and to relieve poor 
families with bread ' (Nickolls, Letters ad- 
dressed to Cromwell, p. 88). 

All these things and more Cromwell had 
urged on the parliament in his despatches 
from Scotland (Caeltlk, Letters cxl. cLxxv.), 
and his return to his place in the house was 
followed by a marked increase in its legisla- 
tive activity. Parliament took up once more 
the question of putting a limit to its own 
sittings, but could not be persuaded to fix 
the date of dissolution earlier than November 
1654. His influence was more successfully 
exerted in the Act of Pardon and Oblivion 




passed in February 1652 with the hope of 
reconciling the conquered royalists to the 
new government (Ludlow, Memoirs, p. 171). 
He was appointed a member of the committee 
to select commissioners for the reform of the 
law, and of that charged to consider the laws 
touching the relief of the poor. In the still 
more important committee for the propaga- 
tion of the gospel Cromwell headed the sec- 
tion which advocated complete toleration. 
' I had rather,' he said in one of its debates, 
' that Mahometanism were permitted amongst 
us than that one of God's children should be 
persecuted.' It was as a member of that 
committee that Milton appealed to Cromwell 
against the new foes who threatened to bind 
the soul in secular chains, and called upon 
him to save free conscience from hirelings 
(Masson, Life of Milton, iv. 394, 440). 

In a few months, however, the impetus 
thus given to reform was spent. The Dutch 
war led parliament to raise money from the 
royalists in the old fashion, and confiscation 
began again. The work of law reform stood 
stock still, and neither the propagation of 
the gospel nor liberty of conscience was pro- 
vided for (Cakltle, Speech i.) To Cromwell 
and his officers it seemed that the duty of 
setting these things right rested on them- 
selves. In 1652, as in 1647, they held that 
their successes had called them to govern 
and take care of the commonwealth and 
made them the guardians of the land {Heli- 
quice Baxteriance, p. 99). 

Now they had also the additional respon- 
sibility of the promises made in the army 
manifestos of 1647-9. ' So,' says Cromwell, 
' finding the people dissatisfied in every cor- 
ner of the nation, and laying at our doors 
the non-performance of those things which 
had been promised and were of duty to be 
performed, we did think ourselves concerned 
if we would keep up the reputation of honest 
men in the world ' (Speech i.) One sign ot 
this rising feeling was the army petition of 
12 Aug. 1652. Another was the series of 
conferences between the officers of the army 
and the members of the parliament which 
began in October 1652. But these confe- 
rences produced no result save that the bill 
for a new representative was pressed forward 
with renewed zeal. It was not simply the 
faults and shortcomings of the Long parlia- 
ment, but a fundamental difference between 
soldiers and parliamentarians concerning the 
future constitution of the state, which led to 
the final breach. The original plan of the 
parliamentary leaders had been to pei-petuate 
the existence of the present parliament by 
following the precedent of 1646 and electing 
new members in the place of those dead or 

excluded. The resistance of Cromwell forced 
them to abandon this plan, and they then 
adopted a scheme which provided for a con- 
tinuous succession of parliaments, each last- 
ing two years, and one immediately succeed- 
ing another. From the army point of view 
there was little to choose between a perpetual 
parliament and perpetual parliaments. Each 
alike meant a legislative power always sitting 
and arbitrarily usurping the functions of the 
judicial and executive powers (Speeches iii. 
xiii.) Four years ago, in the ' agreement of 
the people,' the army had demanded consti- 
tutional securities against the arbitrary power 
of parliament, and they were not willing now 
to accept a settlement which prolonged that 
power and embodied none of those guarantees. 
A minor objection was that, by the provision 
in the bill relating to the qualifications of 
electors, neutrals and deserters of the cause 
would have been enabled to vote (Speech i.) 
In a final conference the officers urged these 
objections, and proposed that parliament 
should select a small body of men of ap- 
proved fidelity and commit to them the trust 
of settling the nation. According to the 
statement of the officers they obtaiiied a pro- 
mise from the representative of the parlia- 
ment that the progress of the bill should be 
stopped till this expedient had been con- 
sidered. But the next morning news was 
brought to Cromwell that the third reading 
of the bill was being hurried through the 
house. Ere this the officers had reluctantly 
come to the conclusion that it was their duty 
to resort to force rather than submit to the 
passing of this measure (z'6.) Now this breach 
of faith seemed to render any compromise im- 
possible. Cromwell hastened toWestminster, 
and after listening for a few minutes to the de- 
bates rose and addressed them. ' At the first 
and for a good while he spake in commendation 
of the parliament for their pains and care of 
the public good ; afterwards he changed his 
style, told them of their injustice, delays ot 
justice, self-interest, and other faults.' From 
the faults of the parliament as a body he pro- 
ceeded to the faults of the individuals, giving 
them sharp language but not mentioning their 
names. Finally he called in five or six files 
of musketeers, pointed to the speaker and 
bade them fetch him down, pointed to the 
mace and bade them take away these baubles. 
As the members were going out he called to 
Vane by name, telling him that he might 
have prevented this extraordinary course, but 
he was a juggler and had not so much as 
common honesty (^Sidney Papers, ed. Blen- 
cowe, p. 140 ; other accounts are ; Ltjdlow, 
Memoirs, p. 174; Whitelocke, Memoiials, 
p. 554; Letter from Bordeaux to Servien, 




Gfizot, i, 492 ; Bernliardi's Despatch to the 
Genoese Government, Prayer, p. 85). 

At the moment Cromwell's conduct in 
putting an end to the sitting of the Long 
parliament met with general approval. Some 
of the royalists cherished the belief that 
Cromwell would recall Charles II and con- 
tent himself with a dukedom and the vice- 
royalty of Ireland (^Clarendon State Papers, 
ii. 208). Others expected him immediately 
to assume the crown himself, and an enthu- 
siastic partisan set up in the Exchange the 
picture of Cromwell crowned, with the lines 
underneath : — 

Ascend three thrones, great Captain and divine, 
r th' will of God, old Lion, they are thine, &c, 
(Tanner MSS. lii. 9.) 

Cromwell's own view was that he, as gene- 
ral of the forces of the three kingdoms duly 
appointed by act of parliament, was the only 
constituted authority remaining. His au- 
thority he regarded as boundless, but purely 
provisional. It was necessary for the at my 
leaders to show that they had not turned out 
the Long parliament for their own ends, ' not 
to grasp at the power ourselves, or to keep 
it in military hands, no, not for a day.' The 
cause of the convocation of the Little par- 
liament was ' the integrity of concluding to 
divest the sword of all power in the civil 
administration' (Cakltlb, Speech i.) The 
writ by which the members of that assembly 
were summoned clearly defined the nature of 
their qualifications and the source of their 
authority. They were summoned in the 
name of * Oliver Cromwell, captain-general 
and commander-in-cliief,' ' nominated by my- 
self and my council of officers,' as ' persons 
fearing God and of approved fidelity and 
honesty.' In the speech with which Crom- 
well made over the supreme authority to this 
assembly, he expressed the exaggerated hopes 
with which he regarded it. The great issue 
of the war had been the calling of God's 
people to the government. Godly men had 
fought the people out of their bondage under 
the regal power, godly men were now called 
to rule them (Speech i.) Looking back on 
this constitutional experiment four years 
later, Cromwell confessed that the issue was 
not answerable to the simplicity and honesty 
of the design, and termed it a story of his 
weakness and folly (Speech xiii.) The re- 
forming zeal of the Little parliament seemed 
likely to end in ' the confusion of all things.' 
The policy adopted by it on the ecclesiastical 
question was fundamentally opposed to the 
opinions of Cromwell on that point. Crom- 
well was anxious for the maintenance of a 
national church, and held the propagation of 

religion the most important duty of the state ; 
a settled ministry and a settled support for 
them were therefore essential parts of his 

But the votes of the Little parliament, 
their abolition of the rights of patrons, and 
their rejection of the scheme laid before them 
for the appointment and maintenance of the 
clergy threatened the very existence of a 
national church. The conservative section 
of the republican party and the conservative 
portion of the assembly itself turned their 
eyes to Cromwell to deliver them from revo- 
lution. On the motion of a staunch Crom- 
wellian, the conservative minority in the Little 
parliament resolved to render up their powers 
again to the general from whom they had 
received them ; a certain number of waverers 
followed their example, and the sittings of 
the remainder were put an end to by a file 
of musketeers. ' I did not know one tittle 
of that resignation,' Cromwell told the par- 
liament of 1654, * until they all came and 
brovight it, and delivered it into my hands ' 
(Speech iii.) Cromwell was thus replaced in 
the position which he had occupied before 
the meeting of the Little parliament. ' My 
power was again by this resignation as bound- 
less and unlimited as before ; all things being 
subjected to arbitrariness, and myself a per- 
son having power over the three nations with- 
out bound or limit set ' (ib.) In this emer- 
gency the council of officers drew up the 
constitution known as the ' instrument of go- 
vernment,' and urged Cromwell to undertake 
the government under its provisions. The 
title of king seems from subsequent refer- 
ences to have been offered him (Milton, De- 
fensio Secunda, Prose Works, i. 288, ed. 
1853 ; Bttrton, Diary, i. 382), but he refused 
it, and was installed as protector 16 Dec. 

The peculiarity of the new constitution lay 
in the attempted separation of the executive 
and legislative powers. The executive power 
was placed in the hands of the protector, 
assisted and controlled by a council of state. 
The power of legislation and taxation was 
placed in the hands of a parliament whose 
acts became law without the assent of the 
Protector, provided they were not contrary 
to the provisions of the constitution. In 
the mutual independence of parliament and 
protector, and the arrangement which made 
the Protector in some sense the guardian of 
the constitution against the parliament, lay 
the seeds of future difficulties. During the 
abeyance of parliament the Protector and 
council were empowered to make ordinances 
which had the force of law until parliament 
otherwise ordered, and Cromwell made a 




liberal use of this power. This was the crea- 
tive period of his government. All the lead- 
ing principles of the Protector's domestic 
policy are to be found in the collection of or- 
dinances issued by him between December 
1653 and September 1654, and all the more 
important of the eighty-two ordinances pub- 
lished in it were ratified by parliament in 
1656. The union of the three kingdoms 
which Cromwell's arms had begun his laws 
now completed. One series of ordinances re- 
organised the administration of justice in 
Scotland, abolished feudal courts and feudal 
servitudes, and settled the details of that in- 
corporation of Scotland with England which 
had been planned by the Long parliament. 
Scotland, impoverished by long wars, began 
now to revive under the influence of free 
trade and good government, and Cromwell 
dwelt with pride on the ' thriving condition ' 
of the meaner sort and ' the middle sort of 
people' in that country under his rule (Speech 
xiii.) Other ordinances regulated the inte- 
rests of the adventurers for Irish lands, ex- 
tended the privileges of the new colonists, 
and determined the representation of Ireland 
in the British parliament. In England itself 
Cromwell's chief care was the reorganisation 
of the church. The efficiency of the clergy 
was secured by the establishment of com- 
mittees to eject the unfit from their livings, 
and the institution of a central board of triers 
to examine into the fitness of all new candi- 
dates for benefices. Other ordinances pro- 
vided for the visitation of the universities, 
the better support of ministei's, and the pro- 
pagation of the gospel in Wales. Of the 
triers Cromwell boldly asserted ' there hath 
not been such service to England since the 
christian religion was perfect in England.' 
He was proud also of the comprehensiveness 
of his church : * Of the three sorts of godly 
men, presbyterians, baptists, and indepen- 
dents, though a man be of any of these three 
judgments, if he have the root of the matter 
in him he may be admitted ' (i5.) Another 
great object of Cromwell's legislation, and an 
object in which he was thoroughly at one 
with the whole of the puritan party, was the 
reformation of manners. ' Make it a shame 
to see men bold in sin and profaneness,' he 
said to his second parliament. * These things 
do respect the souls of men, and the spirits 
which are the men. The mind is the man; if 
that be kept pure, a man signifies somewhat; 
if not, I would very fain see what difference 
there is betwixt him and a beast. He hath 
only some activity to do more mischief 
(Speech v.) Ordinances against duelling, 
cock-fighting, horse-racing, and swearing 
Bhowed Cromwell's zeal for social reform. 

At the same time Cromwell attempted the 
reform of the law. The court of chancery 
was reorganised and its fees much reduced ; 
a scheme was devised for the relief of poor 
debtors, and a committee appointed to con- 
sider ' how the laws might be made plain, 
and short, and less chargeable to the people.^ 
The administration of justice was improved 
by the appointment of new judges ' of known 
integrity and ability,' one of whom was 
Matthew Hale. The revision of the severe 
criminal code, ' wicked and abominable laws ' 
as Cromwell termed them, he did not at pre- 
sent undertake, but recommended it urgently 
to parliament in 1657. Another reform, how- 
ever, which is frequently attributed to Crom- 
well — the reform of the system of parliamen- 
tary representation — was not his work at all. 
It was embodied in the * instrument of govern- 
ment,' and the credit of it is due to the council 
of officers who drew up that document. It had 
been demanded in all the great manifestos of 
the army since 1647, had been worked out by 
Ireton in the * agi'eement of the people,' and 
further elaborated by the Long parliament 
during its last sittings. 

During the same few months a complete 
change took place in the position of England 
in Europe. Even before the expulsion of 
the Long parliament Cromwell had been an 
important factor in European politics. His 
return from Ireland was regarded as the pre- 
lude to some great enterprise in Europe, and 
that not only in Marvell's verses, but in the 
secret reports of INIazarin's agents (GuizOT, 
Cromwell, i. 237; Marvell, Poems, ed. Gro- 
sart, p. 161). 

His victories in Scotland secured the re- 
cognition of the republic by foreign states. 
* 'The wise and faithful conduct of affairs 
where you are,' wrote Bradshaw to Crom- 
well, ' gives life and repute to all other ac- 
tions and attempts on the Commonwealth's 
behalf (^\C'S.oi.i,^, Letters addresfiedto Crom- 
well, p. 39). According to De Retz, Crom- 
well entered into communication with him 
through Vane directly after the battle of 
AVorcester {Memoirs, pt. ii. cap. xxi.) In the 
spring of 1652 Cromwell was engaged in some 
mysterious negotiations for the acquisition 
of Dunkirk (Cheefbl, Histoire de France 
sous le Ministhre de Mazarin, i. 57 ; Revue 
historique, iv. 314). The agents of Cond6 and 
thefrondeurs of Bordeaux made special appli- 
cation to Cromwell, as well as to the council 
of state, and the envoys of Mazarin were per- 
sonally accredited to Cromwell as well as 
to council and parliament (1662; GinzoT, 
Cromivell, i. 264-6). The state in which 
Cromwell found the foreign relations of 
England in 1653 is described by him in his 




second speech. There were wars with Por- 
tugal and Holland, and open hostility with 
France and Denmark. The nation was fast 
sinking beneath the burden of taxation and 
the cessation of trade. In spite of the pres- 
sure of those who urged that perseverance 
in the war would bring Holland to com- 
plete submission, Cromwell signed on 5 April 
1654 a peace with the States-General which 
provided security for English commerce and 
satisfaction for the losses of English mer- 
chants in the east. The Dutch conceded 
the supremacy of the English flag, and sub- 
mitted to the Navigation Act. By a private 
engagement with the province of Holland, 
the permanent exclusion of the princes of 
the house of Orange from authority was 
secured, and the English republic was thus 
freed from the danger of royalist attacks 
from that quarter. A few days later a com- 
mercial treaty with Sweden was concluded, 
which included also a prohibition of protec- 
tion and favour to the enemies of either that 
might be developed into a political alliance. 
By the ambassador Cromwell sent to Chris- 
tina a portrait of himself with dedicatory 
verses by Marvell, and Whitelocke found the 
queen full of admiration for the Protector, 
rating him greater than Cond6, and compar- 
ing him to her own ancestor, Gustavus Vasa 
(Whitelocke, Embassy to Sweden, i. 247, 
286 ; Marvell, Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 416). 
A treaty with Denmark, opening the Sound 
to the English on the same terms as the 
Dutch, and indemnifying their merchants 
for their losses during the late war, was the 
natural corollary of the treaty with the United 
Provinces (14 Sept. 1654). 

Lastly, the long disputes with Portugal 
were closed by a treaty which not only ex- 
tended the large trading privileges enjoyed 
by the English in Portugal, but secured 
special advantages to English shipping, and 
the free exercise of their religion to English 
merchants (10 March 1663 ; Schafek, Ge- 
schichte von Portugal, iv. 571). All four of 
these treaties were distinguished by the care 
exhibited in them for the interests of English 
commerce. But Cromwell valued the three 
with the protestant states still more, as step- 
ping-stones to the great league of all protestant 
states which he hoped to see formed. In his 
negotiations with the Dutch envoys he had 
brought the scheme prominently forward. At 
the meeting of his first parliament he had 
dwelt on the security these treaties afforded 
to the protestant interest in Europe. 'I 
wish,' he added, * that it may be written on 
our hearts to be zealous for that interest ' 
(Geddes, John de Witt, pp. 338, 362 ; Car- 
ITLE, Speech ii.) 

The fulfilment of these hopes, the success 
of Cromwell's foreign policy, and the per- 
manence of his domestic reforms, all alike 
depended on the acceptance of his govern- 
ment by the nation. It was necessary that 
a parliament should confirm the authority 
which the army had conferred upon Crom- 
well, and it was doubtful whether any par- 
liament would accept the limitations of its 
sovereignty which the council of officers had 
devised. The first parliament elected accord- 
ing to the ' instrument of government' met in 
September 1 654. From the beginning of its 
debates that assembly, inspired by the old 
leaders of the Long parliament, refused to 
admit the validity of a constitutional settle- 
ment imposed by the army. It was willing 
to accept the government of a single person, 
but insisted on the subordination of that 
person to parliament. * The government,' 
ran the formula of the opposition, ' shall be 
in the parliament of the people of England, 
and a single person qualified with such in- 
structions as the parliament shall think fit ' 
(BuRTOlf, Diary, i. xxv). The co-ordinate 
and independent power attributed to the 
protector by the ' instrument of government ' 
was thus denied, and Cromwell thought ne- 
cessary to intervene to protect his own au- 
thority and the authority of the constitution 
itself. He granted their claim to revise 
the constitution, but only with respect to 
non-essentials. * Circumstantials ' they might 
alter, ' fundamentals ' they must accept. 
Those fundamentals he summed up in four 
points : government by a single person and 
parliament, the division of the power of the 
sword between a single person and parlia- 
ment, the limitation of the duration of par- 
liaments, and liberty of conscience. Finally, 
he announced his resolution to maintain the 
existing settlement against all opposition. 
' The wilful throwing away of this govern- 
ment, so owned by God, so approved by men 
... I can sooner be willing to be rolled 
into my grave and buried with infamy than 
I can give my consent unto ' (Caeltle, 
Speech iii., 12 Sept. 1654). Ninety mem- 
bers were excluded from the house for refus- 
ing to sign an engagement to be faithful to 
the Commonwealth and the Lord Protector, 
and not to alter the government as settled 
in a single person and a parliament. But 
those who remained did not consider that 
their acceptance of this principle bound them 
i to accept the rest of the constitution. They 
I proceeded to revise one after another all the 
I articles of the ' instrument of government,' 
1 and trenched on more than one of the pro- 
visions wliicli Cromwell had defined as fun- 
I damentals. They restricted the Protector's 




authority over the army and his veto over 
legislation, they minimised the amount of 
religious toleration guaranteed by the con- 
stitution, and delayed, in order to prolong 
their own existence, the vote of supplies for 
the army and navy. 'It seemed,' complained 
OromvT-ell, ' as if they had rather designed 
to lay grounds for a quarrel than to give the 
people settlement.' All the opponents of the 
government were encouraged by these trans- 
actions to believe that there would be no 
settlement, and cavaliers and levellers were 
plotting to put the nation again in blood and 
confusion. Cromwell seized the first oppor- 
tunity the constitution gave him to put an 
end to their sittings (22 Jan. 1655 ; ib. iv.) 

The plots of which the Protector had spoken 
were real and dangerous, but the vigilance of 
his police nipped them in the bud. The 
leaders of the military malcontents were ar- 
rested, and all danger of a rising of levellers 
and Fifth-monarchy men came to an end. 
Deterred by the discovery of their designs, 
the chiefs of the royalists refused to head the 
general movement which was to have taken 
place in February 1655, and the isolated 
rising which actually took place in March 
was easily suppressed. A few of the leaders 
were executed, and some scores of their fol- 
lowers were sent to the West Indies to work 
in the sugar plantations. So easy was the 
government's triumph that it has been seri- 
ously argued that the rising was concerted 
by Cromwell himself in order to justify the 
ai'bitrary measures which he had before de- 
cided to adopt ( Quarterly Review, April 1886). 
This is merely an ingenious paradox, but the 
fact remains that the measures of repression 
seem to have been stronger than the actual 
danger of the situation required. The country 
was parcelled out into twelve divisions, each 
under the government of a major-general (Oc- 
tober 1655). The major-general had under 
his command the local militia, and additional 
troops maintained by a tax of ten per cent, on 
the incomes of the royalists. His instructions 
charged him with the care of public security, 
with the maintenance of an elaborate poli- 
tical police, and with the enforcement of all 
the laws relating to public morals (^Parlia- 
mentary History, xx. 461). The suggestion 
of this scheme appears to have come from the 
military party in Cromwell's council, but he 
adopted it as his own, and proceeded to carry 
it out with his usual energy. 

His first object was to provide for the peace 
of the nation by strengthening the army and 
police. * If there were need of greater forces 
to carry on this work, it was a most righteous 
thing to put the charge upon that party which 
was the cause of it' (Speech v.) 

He sought both to deter the royalists from 
future appeals to arms and to punish them 
for continuing to plot against the government 
after the passing of an amnesty {^Declaration 
of his Highness . . . shewing the reasons of his 
late Proceedings for securing the Peace of the 
Commonwealth, 1655; Parliamentary His- 
tory, XX. 434). He hoped by the agency of 
the major-generals to carry out the social 
reformation which the ordinary local autho- 
rities could not be trusted to effect. In his 
defence of the major-generals to his second 
parliament Cromwell declared that the in- 
stitution had been more effectual to the dis- 
countenancing of vice and the settling of 
religion than anything done for the last fifty 
years (Speech v.) 

Another reason helped to cause the further 
development of military government . A legal 
resistance more dangerous than royalist plots 
threatened to sap the foundations of the pro- 
tectorate. The validity of the ordinances of 
the Protector and his council was called in 
question. Whitelocke and Widdrington re- 
signed the great seal from scruples about exe- 
cuting the ordinance regulating the court of 
chancery (Whitelocke, Memorials, ff. 621- 
627). Judges Newdigate and Thorpe refused 
to act on the commission established, accord- 
ing to the ordinance on treasons, for the trial 
of the Yorkshire insurrectionists. A merchant 
named Cony refused to pay duties not im- 
posed by parliament, and Chief-justice Rolle 
resigned from unwillingness or incapacity to 
maintain the legality of the customs ordi- 

Cromwell sent Cony's lawyers to the Tower, 
replaced the doubting judges by men of fewer 
scruples, and enforced the payment of taxes 
by the agency of the major-generals. Neces- 
sity justified this in his own eyes, and he be- 
lieved that it would justify him in the eyes 
of the nation. * The people,' he had said, when 
he dissolved his last parliament, ' will prefer 
their safety to their passions, and their real 
security to forms, when necessity calls for 
supplies' (Cakltle, Speech iv.) If this ar- 
gument did not convince, he relied on force. 
* 'Tis against the voice of the nation, there 
! will be nine in ten against you,' Calamy is 
I represented as once saying to Cromwell. 
' Very well,' said Cromwell, ' but what if I 
should disarm the nine, and put a sword in 
the tenth man's hand ; would not that do the 
business ? ' (Banks, Critical Hevieio of the 
Life of Oliver Cromivell, 1747, p. 149). 

Apologists for Cromwell's rule boasted 
the freedom of conscience enjoyed under it 
(MooRE, Protection Proclaimed, 1656). In 
that respect also political necessities led him 
to diminish the amount of liberty which had 




existed under liia earlier government. On 
24 Nov. 1655 a proclamation was issued pro- 
hibiting the use of the prayer-book, and im- 
posing numerous disabilities on the ejected 
Anglican clergy. Several anabaptist preachers 
were thrown into prison for attacking the 
government in their sermons. 'Our prac- 
tice,' said Cromwell in his defence, * hath 
been to let all this nation see that whatever 
pretensions to religion would continue quiet 
and peaceable, they should enjoy conscience 
and liberty to themselves, but not to make 
religion a pretence for blood and arms' (Cab- 
LTLE, Speech V.) The sincerity of Crom- 
well's desire to respect freedom of conscience 
showed itself in the protection he extended 
to many persons outside the pale of legal 
toleration. Biddle the Socinian was indeed 
imprisoned, but saved from the severer penal- 
ties to which parliament had doomed him. 
Fox and other quakers were rescued by the 
Protector more than once from the severity 
of subordinate officials. The Jews, whose 
readmission to England Cromwell, after long 
discussion, felt unable to propose, were per- 
mitted privately to settle in London and to 
establish a synagogue there {Harleian Mis- 
cellany, vii. 617 ; Ellis, Original Letters, 
2nd ser. iv. 3). In answer to an appeal 
from IMazarin, he avowed his inability to 
make any puljlic provision for the catho- 
lics, but expressed his belief that under his 
rule they had less reason to complain as 
to rigour on men's consciences than under 
the parliament. * I have plucked many,' he 
continued, ' out of the raging fire of perse- 
cution which did tyrannise over their con- 
sciences, and encroached by an arbitrariness 
of power upon their estates ' (Caeltle, Letter 
ccxvi.) With all its defects and restrictions 
the amount of religious liberty maintained 
by the Protectorwasfar in advance of average 
public opinion even among his own party. 
The misfortune was that it depended, like the 
rest of his government, solely on the will of 
the strong man armed. 

During this period of arbitrary rule the 
development of Cromwell's foreign policy 
Avas marked by his championship of the Vau- 
dois and his rupture with Spain. In the 
closing months of 1654, while it was yet 
doubtful whether the Protector would ally 
himself with France or Spain, he had des- 
patched two great fleets, one commanded 
by Blake, the other by Penn. Blake's fleet 
made English trade secure and the English 
flag respected throughout the Mediterranean. 
In April 1655 he bombarded Tunis and forced 
the dey to release all his English prisoners. 
The massacre of the Vaudois in the same 
April roused the sympathy and indignation 

of Cromwell. He declared that the misfor- 
tunes of the poor people of the Piedmontese 
valleys lay as near to his heart as if it had 
concerned the dearest relations he had in the 
world. He headed with a contribution of 
2,000/. the national subscription raised for 
the sufferers. By the pen of Milton he called 
for the interference of all the protestant 
powers of Europe. He sent a special ambassa- 
dor to bespeak the intervention of Louis XIV, 
and another to remonstrate with the Duke 
of Savoy. He urged the protestant cantons 
of Switzerland to attack Savoy, and even 
meditated using Blake's fleet to capture Nice 
or Villafranca. But the protestant cantons 
were too cautious to accept his overtures for 
combined action. Mazarin, anxious to pre- 
vent a European war, and eager to secure 
the friendship of England, obliged the Duke 
of Savoy to patch up an accommodation with 
his protestant subjects (18 Aug. 1655). The 
treaty of Pignerol frustrated Cromwell's wide- 
reaching plans for a league of all protestant 
states to defend their oppressed co-religion- 
ists, and also forwarded the treaty with 
France which Cromwell's breach with Spain 
had made a necessity (Mokland, Churches 
of Piemont ; GuizoT, Cromwell, ii. 223, 233 ; 
Stekn, Cromwell und die Evangelische Kan- 
tone der Schweiz). The causes of the war were 
the exclusiveness of Spanish colonial policy 
and the uncompromising character of Spanish 
Catholicism. English traders in the Ameri- 
can seas and English colonists in the West 
Indies were continually victims of Spain's 
treacherous hostility. English merchants in 
Spanish ports were continually maltreated by 
the inquisition on account of their religion. 
For these injuries redress had been persist- 
ently denied, and Cromwell's demand for 
freedom of trade and freedom of religion for 
English merchants was indignantly refused. 
Another series of considerations combined 
with these to turn Cromwell against Spain. 
From the time of Queen Elizabeth Spain had 
been the traditional enemy of England and 
the traditional ally of English malcontents. 
Now, as then, Spain was the head of the 
catholic party in Europe. No honest or 
honourable peace was attainable with Spain, 
and even if a treaty were made it would be sub- 
ject to the pope's veto, and valid only so long 
as the pope said amen to it (Carltle, Speech 
V. 17 Sept. 1656, Declaration of the Lord 
Protector shoroing the reasonableness of the 
cause of this Republic against the Spaniards). 
The same mixture of religious and political 
motives appears in Cromwell's letters to the 
English commanders in the West Indies. In 
one letter he bids the admiral in command 
at Jamaica remember ' that the Lord Himself 




hath a controversy with your enemies, even 
with that Roman Babylon of which the 
Spaniard is the great underpropper. In that 
respect we fight the Lord's battles '(Letter 
cciv.) In another he urges the seizure of 
Providence or any other island off the Spanish 
main, ' for it is much designed among us to 
strive with the Spaniard for the mastery of 
all those seas ' (Letter ccvi.) 

At the time when Penn's expedition was 
despatched, Cromwell hoped to confine hos- 
tilities to the new world, in the Elizabethan 
fashion, and believed that he would be able 
to maintain an independent position in the 
European struggle between France and Spain. 
But the disgraceful failure at San Domingo 
and the retaliatory measures of Spain led to 
the extension of the war to Europe and obliged 
Cromwell to accept the offered alliance of 
France. The first step to the closer alliance 
which finally took place was the treaty of 
24 Oct. 1655. It was a commercial treaty, 
which also bound each party not to assist 
the enemies of the other, and contained a 
secret article promising the expulsion from 
French territory of Charles II and nineteen 
other persons (Cheeuel, Histoire de France 
sous le Ministh-e de Mazarin, ii. 392 ; Claren- 
don State Papers, iii. 287). This was followed 
in June 1656 by a commercial treaty with 
Sweden, the most important clause of which 
was one binding Sweden not to supply Spain 
with naval stores during the present war, 
Cromwell was anxious to develope this into 
a general league of all protestant powers, and 
earnestly endeavoured to reconcile Sweden 
and the States-General for that purpose 
(INIasson, Life of Milton, v. 270-2 ; Caklson, 
Geschichte Schivedens, iv. 77, 82). 

In order to raise money to carry on the 
war with Spain, Cromwell reluctantly assem- 
bled a second parliament (September 1656). 
But even a parliament from which all open 
opponents were excluded was far from being 
in complete agreement with the Protector's 
policy. The votes against James Naylor 
showed how little most puritans shared his 
hostility to persecution. The refusal to legal- 
ise the position of the major-generals proved 
how repugnant even to his supporters was 
the military side of his rule. At the same 
time acts annulling the claims of the Stuarts, 
making plots against the Protector high 
treason, and appointing special tribunals for 
their punishment, proved their attachment to 
Cromwell's person (Scocell, Acts, ii. 371-5). 
Foreign successes and domestic conspiracy 
combined to suggest the idea of making Crom- 
well king. Waller proposed it in his verses 
on the capture of the Spanish treasure ships 
in September 1656 {Poems, ed. 1730, p. 124). 

Let the rich ore be forthwith melted dowu 
And the state fixed by making him a crown ; 
With ermine clad and purple, let him hold 
A royal sceptre, made of Spanish gold. 

In the discussion of Sindercombe's con- 
spiracy in parliament one member declared 
that it would tend very much to the preserva- 
tion of himself and us that his highness would 
be pleased to take upon him the government 
according to the ancient constitution (19 Jan. 
1657 ; Btjeton, i. 363). 

In February 1657 a proposal for the re- 
vision of the constitution and the restoration 
of monarchy was introduced into parliament. 
According to Ludlow, this scheme was pre- 
pared by Cromwell's creatures and at his in- 
stigation ; but this is hardly consistent with 
his hesitation to accept the crown, and his 
dissatisfaction with some of the provisions of 
the constitution. On 25 March it was de- 
cided by 123 to 62 votes that the Protector 
should be asked to take the kingship upon 
him, and on 31 March the * petition and ad- 
vice' was presented to him for acceptance. 
Cromwell replied by expressing his general 
approval of the provisions of the scheme and 
his sense of the honour offered him, but say- 
ing that he had not been able to find that 
either his duty to God or his duty to the par- 
liament required him to undertake that charge 
under that title (Caeltle, Speech viii. 3 April 
1657). A series of conferences now took 
place, in which parliament endeavoured to 
remove Cromwell's scruples as to the title, 
and agreed to consider his objections to some 
of the details of the new constitution. On 
8 May he gave his final answer : ' Though I 
think the act of government doth consist of 
very excellent parts, in all but that one thing 
of the title as to me ... I cannot undertake 
this government with the title of king' (Speech 
xiv.) All the efforts of the constitutional 
lawyers had failed to convince Cromwell of 
the necessity of the restoration of the kingly 

* I do j udge for myself that there is no 
necessity of this name of king ; for the other 
names may do as well' (Speech xi.) He was 
half inclined to believe that God had blasted 
the title as well as the family which had 
borne it {ib.) He contemptuously described 
the title as * a feather in the hat,' and the 
crown as ' a shining bauble for crowds to gaze 
at or kneel to' (Caeltle, Letter cc.) But 
if it signified nothing to him, it signified 
much to others. To the army it meant the 
restoration of aU they had fought to over- 
throw, and from the first moment they had 
been loud in their opposition. On 27 Feb. 
1657 Lambert and a hundred officers ad- 
dressed the Protector to refuse the crown, 




and on 8 May a petition from many officers 
against the restoration of monarchy was pre- 
sented to parliament (Bitrton, Diary, i. 382, 
ii. 116). This last petition was, according- to 
Ludlow, the sole cause of Cromwell's final re- 
fusal (Ludlow, Memoirs, 224). From many 
a staunch Cromwellian outside the army 
letters and pamphlets against kingship 
reached the Protector (Nickolls, Letters ad- 
dressed to Cromwell, pp. 139-43 ; Chidley, 
Reasons against choosing the Protector to be 
King). It became clear that to accept the 
crown would alienate the greater part of the 
army. Such a schism the Protector was ex- 
tremely anxious to avoid. In his speech on 
13 April he told the parliament that good 
men generally did not swallow the title, and 
urged them to comply with the weaknesses 
of men who had been faithful and bled for 
the cause. ' I would not,' he said, * that you 
should lose any servant or friend that might 
help in this work, that any should be offended 
by a thing that signifies no more to me than 
I have told you this does' (Speech xi.) 

Thus at the very beginning of the confer- 
ences Cromwell plainly stated the reason 
which led to his final refusal of the title, but 
he had good reason for delaying the refusal 
itself. After so many experiments and failures, 
the petition and advice held forth a prospect 
of the long-desired settlement. ' I am hugely 
taken with the word settlement, with the 
thing, and with the notion of it,' he told par- 
liament. In the scheme in question the reli- 
gious and civil liberties of the nation seemed 
to him to be fully secured. There was that 
monarchical element which he had pro- 
nounced desirable in 1651. There were the 
checks on the arbitrary power of the House 
of Commons which he had considered indis- 
pensable in 1653. Above all, ' that great na- 
tural and civil liberty, liberty of conscience,' 
which had led to the breach with his first 
parliament, was fully secured in it. 'The 
things provided in the petition,' said Crom- 
well, ' do secure the liberties of the people of 
God so as they never before had them (Speech 

Had he definitely refused the crown when 
it was first oftered him, parliament might 
have thrown up the whole scheme in disgust. 
Even if they had persisted in enacting the 
rest of the petition and advice, they would 
hardly have adopted the Protector's sug- 
gestions for its amendment, for those sug- 
gestions were adopted in the hope of obtaining 
his acceptance of the crown. After the re- 
fusal of the crown they simply substituted 
the title of lord protector for that of king, and 
altered the first clause accordingly. Crom- 
well accepted the petition thus altered on 

25 May, and was a second time installed Pro- 
tector on 26 June 1657. But his powers 
under the new constitution were far more 
extensive than they had been under the ' in- 
strument of government.' He acquired the 
right to appoint his own successor. With the 
approval of parliament he was empowered to 
nominate the members of the newly erected 
second chamber. The grant of a fixed sum 
for the maintenance of the army and navy 
made him to a great extent independent of 
parliamentary subsidies. The increase of his 
authority was marked by a corresponding 
increase in his outward state. At his first 
inauguration Cromwell had been clad in 
plain black velvet, and invested with the 
civil sword as the symbol of his autho- 
rity. At his second he was robed in purple 
and ermine, and presented with a golden 
sceptre. His elder children had married into 
the families of private gentlemen. Now he 
matched his third daughter, Mary, with Lord 
Falconbridge (11 Nov. 1657), and his young- 
est, Frances, with the heir of the Earl of 
Warwick (19 Nov. 1657). 

As 1657 was the culminating point of 
Cromwell's greatness at home, so it marked 
the fullest development of his foreign policy. 
On 23 March 1657 he concluded an oftensive 
and defensive alliance with France, by which 
six thousand English foot were to take part 
in the war in Flanders, and Dunkirk and 
Mardyke to be England's share of the joint 
conquests (GuizoT, ii. 562; Chektjel, His- 
toire de France sous le Ministhre de Mazarin, 
iii. 62). On 20 April Blake destroyed the 
Spanish fleet at Santa Cruz, and in Septem- 
ber Mardyke passed into Cromwell's hands. 
Cromwell sought to complete the league with 
France against the Spanish branch of the 
Hapsburgs by a league with Sweden against 
the Austrian branch. It was necessary to 
support Sweden in order to maintain the free- 
dom of the Baltic and protect English trade 
thither. It was necessary also to stand up 
for the protestant cause against the league of 
the pope, Spain, and Austria to tread it under 
foot. He spoke of Charles Gustavus as a poor 
prince who had ventured his all for the pro- 
testant cause (Caeltle, Speech xvii.) All 
depended, however, on the question whether 
parliament would co-operate with the Pro- 
tector to maintain the recent settlement. 
When parliament met in January 1658, Crom- 
well's party in the House of Commons was 
weakened by the promotion of many of his 
supporters to the upper house and the re- 
admission of the members excluded during 
the first session. The Protector's opening 
speech was full of confidence that the desired 
settlement was at last secure. He hailed the 


1 80 


assembled members as the repairers of breaches 
and the restorers of paths to dwell in, the 
highest work which mortals could attain to in 
the world (Speech xvi. 20 Jan. 1G58). But 
the republican leaders refused to recognise 
the new House of Lords or to transact busi- 
ness with it. They remained deaf to Crom- 
well's appeals to consider the danger of the 
protest ant interest abroad, and the risk of a 
new and a bloodier civil war (Speech xvii. 
25 Jan. 1658). While they disputed,Charle8 II 
had collected in Flanders the Irish regiments 
in Spanish service, hired Dutch ships for their 
transport, and was preparing to effect a land- 
ing in England ; the plan of the opposition 
was to incite the malcontents in the army 
and city to present petitions against the late 
settlement, and to vote, in reply, an address 
demanding the limitation of the Protector's 
control over the army and the recognition of 
the House of Commons as the supreme au- 
thority of the nation. Cromwell forestalled 
the completion of their plot, and, charging 
them with playing the game of the King of 
Scots, and seeking to throw everything into 
a confusion in order to devise a common- 
wealth again, suddenly dissolved parliament 
(Speech xviii. 4 Feb. 1658 ; Tanner MSS. lii. 
225, 229). 

Over the threatened insurrection and in- 
vasion Cromwell triumphed without dif- 
ficulty. City and army again declared their 
resolution to stand by him. The plots of the 
anabaptists and the royalists were paralysed 
by the arrest of their leaders, and the strength 
of the English navy prevented any landing 
from Flanders. Abroad his policy seemed 
still more successful. In February 1658 an 
English agent mediated the peace of Ros- 
child between Denmark and Sweden. On 
28 March the league with France was renewed 
for another year (CHERUBL,iii. 133). In April 
came news of the defeat of a Spanish attempt 
to reconquer Jamaica. On 4 June the united 
forces of France and England defeated the 
Spaniards before Dunkirk, and on the 15th that 
place was handed over toLockhart [see Lock- 
hart, SiK William]. Once more Cromwell 
intervened on behalf of the Vaudois, and by 
his in fluence with Mazarin secured some ameli- 
oration of their condition. But this success 
was more apparent than real. In spite of 
all opposition another Austrian prince had 
been elected emperor, and Mazarin was al- 
ready preparing to make peace with Spain. 
The war between Sweden and Denmark broke 
out again in August, and the ambition of 
Charles Gustavus brought Brandenburg and 
Holland to the aid of the Danes. A pro- 
testant league was impossible, because the 
protestant powers preferred to pursue their 

separate national interests. The great aim of 
the Protector's foreign policy was unsuited 
to the actual conditions of Europe. The 
era of religious wars was over, and material 
rather than religious considerations shaped 
the mutual relations of European powers. 
Nevertheless the energy of the Protector's 
government had given himself and England 
a great position in Europe. His greatness at 
home, wrote Clarendon, was a mere shadow 
to his greatness abroad; and Burnet recalls 
Cromwell's traditional boast that he would 
make the name of Englishmen as great as 
ever that of Roman had been (Clarendon, 
Rebellion, xv. 152; Bfrnet, Own Time, i. 
138, ed. 1823). Poets were still more em- 
phatic. ' He once more joined us to the con- 
tinent,' sang Marvell, while Sprat depicted 
Cromwell as rousing the British lion from his 
slumbers, and Dryden as teaching him to roar 
{Three Poems upon the Death of Oliver, late 
Lord Protector, 1659). Still more glorious 
appeared his policy when contrasted with that 
of Charles II. ' It is strange,' notes Pepys, 
'how everybody do nowadays reflect upon 
Oliver and commend him, what brave things 
he did, and made all the neighbour princes 
fear him ' {Diary, 12 July 1667). Of those 
who inquired into the aims of Cromwell's 
foreign policy, many, like Morland, praised 
him for identifying the interests of England 
with the interest of European protestantism 
(Morland, History o/theChurchesofPiemont, 
p. 2), In the parliament of 1659, however, 
there were loud complaints that the Protector 
had sacrificed the interests of trade. In the 
eyes of the merchants and of many of the re- 
publicans Holland rather than Spain was the 
natural enemy of England (Burton, Diary, 
iii. 394 ; CoKE, Detection, ii. 38). Still more 
was he censured by one class of politicians, 
as the rivalry of France and England grew 
more bitter, for destroying the balance of 
power in Europe by his alliance with France 
against Spain (Bethel, The World's Mistake 
in Oliver Cromwell; Bolingbroke, Letters on 
the Study o/Histoiy, vii. ; Hume, History of 

While abroad Cromwell's policy was only 
partially successful, he was beginning him- 
self to perceive his failure in England. * I 
would have been glad,' he said, ' to have 
lived under my woodside, to have kept a 
flock of sheep, rather than undertake such a 
government as this ' (Carltle, Speech xviii.) 
The Protector frequently compared himself 
to a constable set to keep the peace of the 
parish, and the comparison was not inapt. 
He could keep order amid contending fac- 
tions, but he could do no more. He could 
maintain his government against all oppo- 




sition, but he could not found it on the ac- 
ceptance of the nation, 

Maidstone does not hesitate to say that it 
was the burden of being compelled to wrestle 
with the difficulties of his place without the 
assistance of parliament which brought Crom- 
well to his grave (Thuklob, i. 766). Yet 
he had hardly dissolved his last parliament 
when the need of money obliged him to de- 
termine to summon another, and he was con- 
sidering the question of the securities to be 
exacted from its members during the summer 
of 1658. In the last months of his life, Crom- 
well, according to Heath and other royalist 
writers, was in constant dread of assassination 
{Flagellum, 204). His murder had formed 
part of the plots of Gerard (1654) and Sin- 
dercombe (1657), and incitements to it both 
from royalist and republican quarters were 
not wanting. A proclamation was secretly 
circulated in 1654, promising in the name of 
Charles II knighthood and 500^. a year to 
the slayer of ' a certain base mechanic fellow 
called Oliver Cromwell,' who had tyrannously 
usurped the supreme power (Thtjeloe, ii. 
248). Sexby published ' Killing no Murder ' 
during the debates on the kingship, in 1657. 
In 1656 Cromwell had thought it necessary to 
double his guards, but there is no evidence 
of extraordinary precautions being taken in 

Cromwell's health had long been impaired 
by the fatigues of war and government. In 
the spring of 1648, and again in the spring 
of 1651, he had been dungerously ill, and 
mentions of his ill-health frequently occur 
during the protectorate {Cal. of State Papers, 
Dom. p. xvii, 1657-8; Guizot, ii. 230). 
The summer of 1658 was exceedingly un- 
healthy, and a malignant fever raged so 
generally in England that a day of pubhc 
humiliation on account of it was ordered. 
The death of his favourite daughter, Eliza- 
beth Claypoole (6 Aug. 1658), and attendance 
on her during her illness seriously affected 
Cromwell's own health. Even before his 
daughter's death he had begun to sicken, and 
his illness finally developed into what was 
defined as ' a bastard tertian ague.' Early in 
August he was confined to his bed, but on 
the 20th George Fox met him riding at the 
head of his guards in Hampton Court park, 
and thought he looked like a dead man al- 
ready (Fox, Journals, p. 195). The fever 
returned and grew worse, and, by the advice 
of his physicians, Cromwell removed from 
Hampton Court to Whitehall for change of 
air. At Whitehall he died, at three o'clock 
on the afternoon of 3 Sept., on the day 
after the great storm, and the anniversary of 
Dunbar and Worcester. (Accounts of Crom- 

well's illness and death are to be found in 
the following places: Thurloe, vii. 294-375 ; 
A Collection of several Passages concernhig his 
late Highness Oliver Cromwell in the Time of 
his Sickness, written by one that was then 
Groom of his Bedchamber, 1659, probably by 
Charles Harvey; Bate, one of Cromwell's 
physicians, gives some additional information 
in his JElenchus Motuum Nuperorum,, pt. ii. 
p. 234, ed. 1685; and something may be 
gathered from Ltjdlow, Memoirs, p. 232, 
and Mercurius Politicus, 2-9 Sept. 1658.) 

Cromwell's body afterbeing embalmed was 
removed to Somerset House (20 Sept.), where 
his effigy dressed in robes of state was for 
many days exhibited The funeral was origi- 
nally fixed for 9 Nov., but, owing to the mag- 
nitude of the necessary preparations, did not 
take place till 23 Nov. {Mercuritis Politicus). 
He was buried in Westminster Abbey, in 
Henry VII's chapel at the east end of the 
middle aisle, ' amongst kings and with a more 
than regal solemnity,' writes Cowley. (Ac- 
counts of the funeral are given in Mercuriics 
Politicus for 1658 ; Noble, i. 275; Cromwel- 
liana; Bukton, Diary, ii. 516; Evelyn, 
Diary, 23 Nov. 1658.) The expense of the 
funeral was enormous : 60,000^. was allotted 
for it, and in August 1659, 19,000Z. was re- 
ported to be still owing (Heath, Chronicle, 
739 ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 1668-9, xi.) 
In the second session of the Convention par- 
liament a bill for the attainder of Cromwell 
and other dead regicides was introduced into 
the House of Commons by Heneage Finch 
(7 Nov. 1660). On 4 Dec, when the bill 
was returned from the lords with their 
amendments. Captain Titus moved that the 
bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw 
should be exhumed and hung on the gallows. 
This was unanimously agreed to ; though 
many must have secretly agreed with Pepys, 
whom it troubled, * that a man of so great 
courage as he was should have that dis- 
honour done him, though otherwise he might 
deserve it well enough' {Diary, 4 Dec. 1660). 
Cromwell's body was accordingly disinterred 
on 26 Jan. 1661, and hung on the gallows at 
Tyburn on 30 Jan. 1661, the twelfth anni- 
versary of the king's execution. The head 
was then set up on a pole on the top of West- 
minster Hall, and the trunk buried under the 
gallows {Mercurius Publicum, 24 Jan., 7 Feb. 
1661 ; Kennet, Register, 367 ; Parliamentary 
History, xxiii. 6, 38 ; Diaries of Pepys and 
Evelyn, 30 Jan. 1661). Before long a rumour 
was spread that the body thus treated was not 
Cromwell's. When Sorbiere was travelling 
in England in 1663, he heard that Cromwell 
had caused the royal tombs in Westminster 
Abbey to be opened, and the bodies to be 


1 8a 


transposed, tliat so his own burial-place might 
be unknown (Soebiekb, Voyage to England, 
p. 68, ed. 1709). 

Pepys mentioned Sorbiere's story to Jere- 
miah White, late chaplain to the Protector, 
who told him that he believed Cromwell 
* never had so poor a low thought in him to 
trouble himself about it ' (13 Oct, 1664). 
Another report was that by Cromwell's last 
orders his body had been secretly conveyed 
away and buried at the dead of night on the 
field of Naseby, ' where he had obtained the 
greatest victory and glory ' {Ilarleian Mis- 
cellany, ii. 286). A number of references to 
different stories of this nature are collected 
by Waylen {House of Cromwell, 340, 344). A 
tablet was erected in Westminster Abbey by 
Dean Stanley to the memory of Cromwell and 
other persons whose remains were ejected at 
the Restoration. 

Elizabeth Cromwell, the widow of the 
Protector, survived her husband seven years, 
dying on 19 Nov. 1665 (Noble, i. 123). Of 
her life and character little is really known. 
One of her letters to her husband is printed 
by Nickolls {Letters addressed to Cromwell, 
p. 40). Ludlow mentions her unwilhngness 
to take up her residence at Whitehall, and 
the gossip of the royalists about her home- 
liness and parsimony is collected in a pam- 
phlet entitled ' The Court and Kitchen of 
Elizabeth, commonly called Joan Cromwell.' 
On her husband's death she was voted the 
sum of 20,000/., an annuity of 20,000/., and 
St. James's Palace for residence {Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. p. 11, 1658-9). But this does 
not seem to have been paid, for one of the 
requirements of the army petition (12 May 
1659) was that an annuity of 8,000/. should 
be settled on the Protector's widow {Parlia- 
mentary History, xxi. 405). After the Re- 
storation she found a refuge with her son-in- 
law, John Claypoole, at Norborough in North- 
amptonshire (Noble, i. 123-9). 

The following is a list of the children of 
Oliver and Elizabeth Cromwell : Robert, bap- 
tised 13 Oct, 1621, died May 1639, described 
in the register of Felstead Church as ' Eximie 
pius juvenis Deum timens supra multos ' 
(Noble, i. 132 ; Foestek, Edinburgh Review, 
January 1856); Oliver, baptised 6 Feb. 1622- 
1623, cornet in Lord St. John's troop in the 
army of the Earl of Essex, died of small-pox 
in March 1644 (Noble, i. 132 ; Gardiner, 
History of the Great Civil War, i. 369) ; 
Richard, afterwards lord protector, bom 4 Oct. 
1626 [see Cromwell, Richard]; Henry, 
afterwards lord-lieutenant of Ireland, born 
20 Jan. 1627-8 [see Cromwell, Henry]; 
Bridget, baptised 4 Aug. 1624, married Henry 
Ireton 15 Jime 1646, and after his death 

Charles Fleetwood [see Ireton, Henry; 
Fleetwood, Charles] ; Elizabeth, baptised 
2 July 1629, married John Claypoole [see 
Claypoole, Elizabeth ; Claypoole, John] ; 
Mary, baptised 9 Feb. 1636-7, married Lord 
Fauconberg 19 Nov, 1657 [see Belasyse, 
Thomas], died 14 March 1712 (Noble, i. 143 ; 
Waylen, p. 96) ; Frances, baptised 6 Dec. 
1638, married Robert Rich 11 Nov. 1657, 
and after his death Sir John Russell, bart., 
of Chippenham, died 27 Jan. 1720-1 (Noble, 
i. 148 ; Waylen, p. 102). Lists of the en- 
graved portraits of Cromwell are given by 
Granger and Noble (Granger, Biographical 
History ; Noble, i. 300), and the catalogue 
of the prints inserted in the Sutherland copy 
of Clarendon in the Bodleian may also be 
consulted with advantage. Some additional 
information on this subject is to be found 
in Walpole's * Anecdotes of Painting ' (ed. 
Dallaway and Wornum, pp. 432, 529). Wal- 
pole is the authority for the story of Crom- 
well and Lely. Captain Winde told Sheffield, 
duke of Buckingham, that Oliver certainly 
sat to Lely, and while sitting said to him : 
' Mr. Lely, I desire you would use all your 
skill to paint my picture truly like me, 
and not flatter me at all; but remark all 
these roughnesses, pimples, warts, and every- 
thing, otherwise I never will pay a farthing 
for it ' {ib. 444). Of his portraits the most 
characteristic is that by Cooper at Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge. Of caricatures 
and satirical prints a list is given in the ' Ca- 
talogue of Prints and Drawings in the British 
Museum, Division I., Satires,' vol. i. 1870. 
An account of all medals, coins, and seals 
representing Cromwell is given by Mr. Hen- 
frey in his elaborate * Numismata Crom- 
welliana,' 1877. Of Cromwell's person the 
best description is that given by Maidstone, 
the steward of his household. * His body 
was well compact and strong, his stature 
under six feet, I believe about two inches, 
his head so shaped as you might see it a 
storehouse and shop both of a vast treasury 
of natural parts.' ' His temper was exceeding 
fiery, as I have known ; but the flame, if it 
kept down for the most part, was soon al- 
layed with those moral endowments he bad. 
He was naturally compassionate towards ob- 
jects in distress, even to an effeminate measure. 
... A larger soul, I think, hath seldom dwelt 
in a house of clay than his was ' (Thurloe, 
i. 766). Warwick, a less favourable ob- 
server, speaks of Cromwell's * great and ma- 
jestic deportment and comely presence ' when 
protector, and Clarendon remarks that ' as 
he grew into place and authority his parts 
seems to be renewed, and when he was to 
act the part of a great man he did it without 




any indecency through the want of custom ' 
(Warwick, Memoirs, p. 247 ; Clarendon, 
Rebellion, xv. 148). 

Few rulers were more accessible to peti- 
tioners, and accounts of interviews with the 
Protector are veiy numerous. With old 
friends he would occasionally lay aside his 
greatness and be extremely familiar, and in 
their company, in the intervals of the discus- 
sion of state affairs, he would amuse himself 
by making verses and occasionally taking 
tobacco (Whitelocke, Memorials, f. 656). 
Throughout his life Cromwell retained a 
strong taste for field sports. Aubrey notices 
his love for hawking, and the favour Sir 
James Long thereby found with him {^Letters 
from the Bodleian, ii. 433). English agents 
in the Levant were commissioned to procure 
arabs and barbs for the Protector, and horses 
were the frequent present of foreign princes 
to him. His accident when driving the six 
horses sent him by the Duke of Oldenburg 
was celebrated by Wither and Denham (Den- 
ham, TAe/o/i; Wither, Vaticinium Casuale). 
Equally strongly marked was Cromwell's love 
for music {Perfect Politician, p. 217). ' He 
loved a good voice and instrumental music 
well,' says Wood, and tells the story of a 
senior student of Christ Church, expelled by 
the visitors, whom Cromwell restored to his 
studentship in return for the pleasure which 
his singing had given him ( Wood, Life, p. 
102). Nor was he without feeling for other 
arts. Cromwell's care kept Raphael's car- 
toons in England, his rooms at Hampton 
Court and Whitehall were hung with finely 
worked tapestries, and many good puritans 
were scandalised by the statues which he 
allowed to remain standing in Hampton Court 
gardens (Cal. State Papers, Dom. ; Nickolls, 
Letters addressed to Cromwell, p. 115). Crom- 
well protected and encouraged learning and 
literature. With his relative. Waller, he was 
on terms of considerable intimacy ; he allowed 
Hobbes and Cowley to return from exile, and 
he released Cleveland when he was arrested 
by one of the major-generals. Milton and 
Marvell were in his service as Latin secre- 
taries, and he also employed Marvell as tutor 
to one of his wards. He personally inter- 
vened with the Irish government to save the 
estate of Spenser's grandson, but rather on 
account of his grandfather's writings on Ire- 
land than his poetry (Prendergast, CroTn- 
wellian Settlement of Ireland, p. 1 17). Ussher, 
Dr. Brownrigg, and other learned royalists 
were favoured by the Protector, and Walton 
was assisted in the printing of his polyglot 

Cromwell protected the universities from 
the attacks 01 the anabaptists, and even Cla- 

rendon admits that they flourished under his 
government. He was chancellor of Oxford 
from 1651 to 1657, presented a number of 
Greek manuscripts to the Bodleian, and 
founded a new readership in divinity (Wood, 
Annals, ii. 667). In 1656 he granted a charter 
to the proposed university at Durham (Bite- 
ton, Diary, ii. 531). 

Of Cromwell's character contemporaries 
took widely difi'erent views. To royalists 
like Clarendon he was simply ' a brave, bad 
man ; ' and it was much if they admitted, as 
he did, that the usurper had some of the 
virtues which have caused the memory of 
men in all ages to be celebrated {Rebellion, 
XV. 147-56). To staunch republicans like 
Ludlow, Cromwell was an apostate, who 
had throughout aimed at sovereignty and 
sought it from the most selfish personal mo- 
tives. Ludlow's charges were well replied 
to by an anonymous writer immediately on 
the publication of his * Memoirs ' {Somers 
IVacts, ed. Scott, vi. 416), Baxter expresses 
a very popular view in his sketch of Crom- 
well's career {Reliquice Baxteriance, p. 99). 
' Cromwell,' says Baxter, ' meant honestly in 
the main, and was pious and conscionable in 
the main course of his life tiU prosperity and 
success corrupted him. Then his general re- 
ligious zeal gave way to ambition, which in- 
creased as successes increased. When his 
successes had broken down all considerable 
opposition, then was he in face of his strongest 
temptations, which conquered him when he 
had conquered others.' A study of Crom- 
well's letters and speeches leads irresistibly 
to the conclusion that he was honest and 
conscientious throughout. His ' general re- 
ligious zeal ' and his ' ambition ' were one. 
Before the war began he expressed his desire 
' to put himself forth for the cause of God, 
and in his last prayer gave thanks that he 
had been ' a mean instrument to do God's 
people some good and God service.' He took 
up arms for both civil and religious liberty, 
but the latter grew increasingly important 
to him, and as a ruler he avowedly subordi- 
nated * the civil liberty and interest of the 
nation ' ' to the more peculiar interest of God ' 
(Caklyle, Speech viii.) Save as a means 
to that end, he cared little for constitutional 
forms. ' I am not a man scrupulous about 
words, or names, or such things,' he told 
parliament, and he spoke with scorn of * men 
under the bondage of scruples' who could 
not ' rise to the spiritual heat ' the cause de- 
manded (Speeches viii. xi.) In that cause 
he spared neither himself nor others. ' Let 
us all be not careful,' he wrote in 1648, ' what 
men will make of these actings. They, will 
they, nill they, shall fulfil the good pleasure 




of God, and we shall serve our generations. 
Our rest we expect elsewhere : that will be 
durable' (Caelylb, Letter Ixvii.) 

[I. The earliest lives of Cromwell were either 
brief chronicles of the chief events of his life or 
mere panegyrics. Of these the following may 
be mentioned : ' A more exact Character and per- 
fect Narrative of the late right noble and mag- 
nificent Lord 0. Cromwell, written by T. I'W. 
(Thomas le Wright) of the Middle Temple, Lon- 
don, for the present perusal of all honest patriots,' 
1658, 4to ; ' The Portraiture of His Koyal High- 
ness Oliver, late Lord Protector, in his Life and 
Death,' 1658, 12mo; 'The Idea of His High- 
ness Oliver, Lord Protector, with certain brief 
Reflections on his Life ' (by Richard Flecknoe), 
1669, 12mo; ' History and Policy reviewed in 
the heroic Actions of His Most Serene Highness 
Oliver, Lord Protector, from his Cradle to his 
Grave, as they are drawn in lively parallels to 
the Ascents of the great Patriarch Moses in 
Thirty Degrees to the Height of Honour, by 
H. D.' (Henry Dawbeney), 1659; 'History of 
the Life and Death of Oliver, Lord Protector,' by 
S. Carrington, 1659. But the only early life of 
any value is ' The Perfect Politician, or a full 
View of the Life and Actions, Military and Civil, 
of 0. Cromwell,' 8vo, 1660 (by Henry Fletcher). 
The edition of 1680 is that quoted in this article. 
The Restoration was followed by a series of lives 
written in a royalist spirit, of which the chief 
is James Heath's ' Flagellum, or the Life and 
Death, Birth and Burial of Oliver Cromwell, 
by S. T., Gent.,' 8vo, 1663; an abridgment of 
this is reprinted in the ' Harleian Miscellany,' 
i, 279, ed. Park. Cowley's ' Vision concerning 
His late Pretended Highness, Cromwell the 
Wicked,' was published in 1661, and Perrin- 
chief s ' Agathocles, or the Sicilian Tyrant,' in 
the same year. Fairer, though by no means 
favourable, was the popular ' Life of Cromwell,' 
of which several editions were published by