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.DIES,- 

THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE 

FOR THE 

Modern Working of Sheet Metals. 

A. TREATISE 

ON THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF DIES, PUNCHES, 

TOOLS, FIXTURES AND DEVICES, TOGETHER WITH THE 

MANNER IN WHICH THEY SHOULD BE USED IN 

THE POWER PRESS, FOR THE CHEAP 

AND RAPID PRODUCTION OF SHEET 

METAL PARTS AND ARTICLES. 



FUNDAMENTAL DESIGNS AND PRACTICAL POINTS BY WHICH 
SHEET METAL PARTS MAY BE PRODUCED AT THE 
MINIMUM OF COST TO THE MAXIMUM OF OUT- 
PUT: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 
HARDENING AND TEMPERING OF PRESS 
TOOLS, THE USE OF FILES, AND TO 
THE CLASSES OF WORK WHICH 
MAY BE PRODUCED TO THE 
BEST ADVANTAGE BY THE 
USE OF DIES IN THE 

POWER PRESS. f UNIVERSITY } 

OF 
BY 

JOSEPH V. WOODWORTH. 

Illustrated by .'0.7 Engravings. 



YORK: 
BTN-ILtEY & CO. 

132 NASSAU STREET 
1903. 



HALLIDIE 



COPYRIGHTED 1902 

BY 
NORMAN W. HENLEY & Co. 



TO 
FREDERICK J. BRYOJST, 

THE AUTHOR'S FRIEND AND ASSOCIATE, 

WHOSE KINDLY INTEREST AND ENCOURAGEMENT WILL EVER BE REMEMBERED, 
THIS HOOK IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED. 



PREFACE. 



The use of the power press for the cheap production of sheet 
metal parts (both large and small) has progressed in a truly won- 
derful manner during the last few years, and, by the adoption and 
use of suitable dies and fixtures, this modern machine tool has 
demonstrated its efficiency for turning out work formerly (and 
even now in a large number of shops) produced by the milling- 
machine, the shaper, the drill press and the forge. Especially is 
this so where the parts required are of flat soft steel or iron ; and 
in not only one line of machine manufacturing has the power 
press been used in this manner, but in every line. 

The management of the manufacturing establishments in which 
the power press has been adopted for the production of parts as 
referred to above, understand and appreciate the full value of dies ; 
and in such shops they and the machines in which they are used 
have become as great factors in production as any of the other 
tools in general use. 

The rapidity with which the use and adaptation of dies and 
press fixtures are becoming understood, the endless variety of 
articles which they turn. out, and the great numbers of mechanics 
who are in various ways engaged in devising and constructing 
such tools, have suggested to the author that a practical, compre- 
hensive treatise on this subject would be of value and interest to all 
persons who might be in any way interested in modern sheet- 
metal working. 

In writing this book the author has done so with the purpose 
of giving to practical men a book which would treat these pre- 
eminent factors in modern manufacturing Dies as they should 
be treated ; and that is, from the viewpoint of a practical man. In 
the pages following are shown engravings of dies, press fixtures 
and sheet-metal working devices, from the simplest to the most 
intricate in modern use, and the author has endeavored to describe 
their construction and use in a clear, practical manner, so that all 
grades of metal-working mechanics will be able to understand 
thoroughly how to design, construct and use them, for the pro- 



8 PREFACE. 

duction of the marvelous variety of sheet-metal articles and parts 
which are now in general use, and form an integral part of our 
twentieth century civilization. Many of the dies and press fixtures 
shown and described herein were constructed by the author, others 
under his supervision ; while others were constructed by some of 
our most skillful mechanics and used in some of the largest sheet- 
metal goods establishments and machine shops in the United 
States. A number of the tools shown have been selected from 
over 150 published articles which have been written for the 
columns of "The American Machinist," "Machinery" and "The 
Age of Steel," under the author's own name and various pen 
names. For a number of practical "points" and "kinks" which 
have been written into the text of the volume the author acknow- 
ledges his indebtedness, with thanks, to the following individuals 
and establishments : Mr. J. E. Fillman, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Mr. 
W. B. Bailey, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Mr. Robert Leith, Hoosick Falls, 
N. Y. ; Mr. Walter J." Woodworth, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Mr. Charles 
Colligan, Hartford, Conn. ; E. W. Bliss Company, Brooklyn, 
X. Y. ; The Cleveland Punch and Shear Company, Cleveland, 
O. ; Perkins Machine Company, Boston, Mass. ; Nicholson File 
Company, Providence, R. I. 

We have endeavored to keep all obsolete matter out of this 
volume, and to make every die and device and press shown repre- 
sent the highest that has been attained in the development of each 
type described. The description of -the construction and appli- 
cation of the tools, it is to be hoped, will enable the practical man 
to adopt them for the production of sheet-metal parts and articles 
to the maximum of output at the minimum of cost and labor. 
It is the earnest wish of the author that a perusal of the contents 
of this volume will enable all who may be in any way interested 
in sheet-metal working to contribute to the manufacture of 
sheet-metal parts in a manner which is up-to-date, both as to 
efficiency and working qualities of the output and to cheapness in 
production. 

Of the origin or antiquity of the art of sheet-metal working 
the author knows very little ; and although he realizes that the 
marvelous numbers of ingenious tools and devices which are used 
to-day to produce articles ranging from the modest trouser button 
to the massive boiler head are but the results of a long course of 
evolution, he is convinced that a treatise describing the tools and 
devices of the present day is what the practical man wants. 



PREFACE. 9 

Although the origin and history of obsolete methods and tools 
may be of interest to the antiquary, the present-day machinist 
prefers to spend his hours of leisure in acquainting himself with 
the design, construction and use of tools with which he may in- 
crease the output and lower the cost of production, and thereby 
increase his earning capacity. With this object in view, and 
trusting that all metal-working mechanics may be helped by it, 
this book is modestly submitted to the public. 

JOSEPH V. WOODWORTH. 
Brooklyn, N. Y., November, 1902. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF "SINGLE" OR BLANKING DIES, AND "DOUBLE" 
OR PIERCING AND BLANKING DIES. 

Introductory Steel The Construction of a Simple Punch and Die 
The Bolster The Die Blank The Templets Working the 
Templet through the Die Giving Clearance to the Die Locat- 
ing the Piercing Dies Hardening a Blanking and Piercing 
Die Making the Blanking Punch Locating the Blanking 
Punch in the Punch Plate Locating the Piercing Punches in 
the Punch Plate Finishing the Die Fundamental Points to be 
remembered Setting the Die and using it A Plain Blanking 
Die Dies for Large Blanks The Use of the Power Press 
Open-back Presses Lining up and Leveling a Power Press 
Using the Proper Tools A Press for Small and Medium- 
Sized Parts 17 to 37 

CHAPTER II. 

SIMPLE DIES FOR USE IN THE MACHINE SHOP. 

An Emergency Die A Shearing Die for finishing Heavy Blanks 
Burnishing Dies Dies for finishing Holes in Heavy Stock A 
Curling Die for a Hinge Die for Curling Metal Tubes A 
Washer Die A Burnishing Die for finishing Heavy Blanks 
A Bending Die for Right-Angle Bends Planing the Angle 
on Die Blanks Blanking and Bending in One Operation 
Punching Heavy Stock A Set of Dies showing how Sheet 
Metal may be drawn and formed into Various Shapes Form- 
ing Dies for Square-grooved Tubes 38 to 60 

CHAPTER III. 
"GANG" AND "FOLLOW" DIES HOW TO ADAPT AND USE THEM. 

The use of "Gang" and "Follow" Dies A Simple Gang Die and 
its Work A Gang Die for a Sheet-metal Bracket A Gang 
Die for Metal Tags A Gang Die and Two Forming Dies for 
Umbrella-rib Tips A Gang Die for an Odd-Shaped Piece A 
Gang Die for producing the Blank cf a Compass Sliding 
Bracket A "Follow" Die which draws, pierces, end-finishes, 
outs off and bends in One Operation A Complete Set of Dies 



12 CONTENTS. 

for the Manufacture of Sheet-Metal Hinges An Automatic 
Combination, Piercing, Bending and Twisting Die for Box- 
corner Fasteners 61 to 92 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE ADAPTATION AND USE OF SIMPLE DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR THE 
ECONOMIC PRODUCTION OF SHEET-METAL PARTS. 

The Power Press in Agricultural Machine Work Punching a 
Mild-steel Strap Seeing Power Presses at Work Piercing, 
forming and punching Heavy Blanks in One Operation Mak- 
ing Pinions and Racks by Punching A Set of Dies for a Fun- 
nel-ended Tube A Set of Dies for a Sheet-metal Bracket A 
Double-blanking Die, a Piercing, Cutting-off and Forming Die, 
and a Large Double-Blanking Die Punches and Dies for pro- 
ducing Parts of an Electric Cloth-cutting Machine An Arma- 
ture Disk-notching Die with a Dial Feed Dies for Switchboard 
Clips A Cutting-off and End-finishing Die, and an Accurate 
Sectional Die with a Chute Feed and Finger Stripper 93 to 128 

CHAPTER V. 

BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 

Bending Dies, Simple vs. Intricate Dies for making a Large 
"Safety" Pin Forming a Funnel-ended Tube Bending Dies 
for Wire Lock Clasps A Bending Die for Wire Staples An 
Automatic Wire-bending Die Cutting, perforating and shap- 
ing in One Operation Blanking and Stamping in a Press with 
Automatic Slide Feed and Ejector Two Bending Dies for Flat 
Stock An Automatic-slide Forming Die for a Sheet-metal 
Ferrule A Press with an Automatic Device for Tube Form- 
ing Bending and Forming Dies for Round Work Bending and 
Closing-in Dies for Round Work Foot Presses and Outfit of 
Dies for producing Five-gallon Petroleum Cans A Double- 
Crank Press and Outfit of Bending Dies A Pickeye Forming 
Press with Dies in Position Four "Follow" Dies for Bending 
and Forming A Special Forming Die Two Can-body Bend- 
ing and Forming Machines An Inclined Press with Dies for 
Stamping and Bending Body Blanks for Petroleum Cans A 
Novel Bending and. Forming Die 12910176 

CHAPTER VI. 

PERFORATING DIES AND PROCESSES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 

The Use of Perforating Dies The Construction of a Simple Pierc- 
ing Punch and Die Piercing Two Holes in Opposite Sides of 
a Drawn Shell Fixtures for Perforating Burner and Other 



CONTENTS. 13 

Shells Press with Cam-actuated Stripper for Perforated Metal 
Piercing and Blanking Armature Disks in One Operation 
A Quadruplicate Automatic Slide Die for Piercing Conical 
Shells Regular and Staggered Perforations Perforating 
Press with Automatic Spacing Table Double Roll-feed Per- 
forating Press having Lateral Feed for Staggered Patterns in 
Perforated Metal Perforating Single Rows of Holes The 
Construction of a Special Punch Press for Perforating Tin 
Ferrules 177 to 202 

CHAPTER VII. 

CfRLING, WIRING AND SEAMING PROCESSES. 

The Terms Denned Use of the Tools Curling Dies Funda- 
mental Principles Action of the Metal Wiring Dies for 
Shell Work A Curling Punch and Die for Milk Pans A Curl- 
ing Punch and Die for Deep Shells Wiring Large Shells 
Horizontal Dial Press With Pick-off Attachment Horning, 
or Seaming, Tools and Presses Duplex Folding and Seaming 
for Locked Seams Double Seaming of Flat, Round Deep Bot- 
toms A Double Seaming Machine with Blank Centering De- 
vice and Collapsible Chuck Double-seaming Oval, Oblong, 
Square Shapes, etc. Rolling Seams on Square Cans 203 to 225 

CHAPTER VIII. 

DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 

Scarcity of Mechanics Who Understand Drawing Processes Un- 
certainty as to the Best Means to Adopt Types of Dies in 
General Use for Producing Drawn Shells Combination Dies 
Their Use Spring Pressure Attachment for Combination 
Dies Double-acting Cutting and Drawing Dies Their Use 
Plain Drawing Dies and Redrawing Dies Drawing Dies 
With Inside Blank-holders Triple-action Drawing Dies The 
Making of a Combination Die, for Blanking and Drawing a 
Shell in a Single-action Press Simple, or "Push-through," 
Drawing Dies Drawing Small Shells from Heavy Stock 
Making an Accurate Combination Blanking and Drawing Die 
Making the Drawing Punch The Drawing Die The Die 
Bolster Finding the Blank Machining the Cutting Die Fin- 
ishing the Punch Using the Die Constructing a Solid-back 
Combination Die for Shallow Rectangular Shells Making the 
Templets and the Drawing Punch Machining the Drawing- 
Portion of the Punch Proper One Way of Finding the Blank 
for a Rectangular Shell Finishing the Blanking Portion of 
the Drawing Die Locating the Drawing Punch Within the 
Die Hardening the Cutting Die Finishing a Square Blank- 
ing Punch Use and Action of the Die A Set of Dies for Rec- 



14 CONTENTS. 

tangular Decorated Tin Boxes First Operation for Rec- 
tangular Shells Fundamental Practical Points for Making Ir- 
regular-shaped Drawing Dies Trimming and Re-drawing Die 
for Second Operation The Use of Trimming Dies for Drawn 
Work The Beading of the Shell Rules for Figuring the Ap- 
proximate Size of Blanks for Drawn Shells The Drawing 
and Forming of Aluminum 226 to 268 

CHAPTER IX. 

COINING PROCESSES PUNCHES AND PRESSES FOR OPERATIONS ON HEAVY 

STOCK. 

The Philadelphia Mint Coining Processes An Embossing Press 
for Work Requiring Heavy Pressure Punching Tools for 
Heavy Work Double-crank Presses for Operating Large Cut- 
ting Dies Heavy Notching Press with Punch and Die in Po- 
sition Heavy Disc Punching Steam-driven Multiple Punches 
Multiple Punch with Hand-feed Spacing Table Heavy Beam 
Punching A Beam-coping Machine with Coping Dies in Posi- 
tion 269 to 285 

CHAPTER X. 

THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES LUBRICATION OF PRESS WORK. 

Feeding of Stock a Factor in Production Hand Feeding Single- 
roll Feed Double Roll Feed Feeding Partly-finished Parts and 
Articles to Dies The Feeding of Parts which have been pre- 
viously punched Double-roll Feeding for Producing Small 
Pierced Blanks from the Strip Double-roll and Lateral Feeds 
Double-roll Feed with Automatic Release Dial Feeds The 
Friction Dial Feed The Ratchet Dial Feed A Press with 
Adjustable Punch Carriers and an Automatic Friction Dial- 
feed A Double-action Gang Press with Special Automatic 
Feed Lubricants to Use in the Working of Sheet Metal. .286 to 303 

CHAPTER XI. 

ANNEALING TOOL STEEL, AND HARDENING AND TEMPERING PROCESSES FOR 

PRESS TOOLS INCLUDING HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS ON THE PROPER 

USE OF FILES. 

Annealing Defined Hardening Defined Tempering Defined Heat- 
ing Defined Hardening and Tempering Small Tools Hard- 
ness and Toughness in Steel Special Methods of Hardening 
Steel Hardening Compounds Tempering in the Sand Bath 
Hardening the Walls of a Hole Reannealing After Roughing 
Water Annealing Warping of Tools in Hardening The 
Location of the Hardening Furnace Hardening Very Small 



CONTENTS. 1 5 

Parts Tempering in Oil Straightening Hardened Pieces 
Which Have Warped The Use of Fire Clay in Hardening 
Hardening Dies Hardening Fluids for Dies Steel for 
Punches Soft vs. Hard Punches and Dies Judgment and 
Carefulness in Hardening The Use of Machine Steel for 
Press Tools and the Hardening of it Hardening Large Steel 
Ring Dies so as to Prevent Cracking and Excessive Warping. 
The Effects of Previous Annealing in Hardening Harden- 
ing Thin Disks A Welding Kink Hardening Thick Round 
Dies Hardening Springs A Substitute for Borax in Weld- 
ingHardening Poor Steel To Anneal Doubtful Steel An- 
nealing in Bean Water Bluing Bright Steel Sheet-metal Blanks 
Machining Mild-steel Forgings Laying Out Dies Cutting 
Aluminum Softening Chilled Cast-iron Dies for Drilling 
Hints and Suggestions as to the Proper Method of Using Files 
Convexity in Files Files Properly Handled Devices for 
Holding Files Bent Rifflers An Improved Surface File Holder 
Height of Work Grasping the File Carrying the File First 
Use of a File Draw-filing Preparing Work Pickling the 
Work When Oil Should not be Used When Oil May be Used 
Cleaning the File Care in Putting Away Files 304 to 329 

CHAPTER XII. 

MISCELLANEOUS DIES,, PRESSES, FIXTURES, DEVICES AND SPECIAL ARRANGE- 
MENTS FOR SHEET METAL WORKING. 

Artistic Die-making Dies for Punching Leather Shoe Tips A 
Cheap Grinder for Round Dies A Compressed-air Drop Ham- 
mer for Making Sheet-metal Caskets A Special Blanking and 
Piercing Die The Cutting of Armature Disks The Cut- 
ting of Armature Segments A Multiple Piercing and 
Projecting Punch and Die Drawing and Punching Con- 
tinuous Strips of Hemispheres Watch and Clock Makers' 
Power Press for Sub-press Work An Automatic Trim- 
ming Machine A Beading Machine A Double-head Crimp- 
ing Machine Hand Bending Fixtures A Combination Blank- 
ing Die for Heavy Stock Tool Holder and Tools Self- 
Hardening Steel Rules for Calculating the Speed of Power 
Presses , 330 to 372 



. 




CHAPTER I. 

THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF "SINGLE" OR BLANKING DIES, AND 
"DOUBLE" OR PIERCING AND BLANKING DIES. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



In this, the opening chapter, we will illustrate and describe 
dies which, if adopted, will supersede processes for the produc- 
tion of metal parts which are now obsolete in a large number 
of machine manufacturing establishments. The only reason for 
their non-adoption in other establishments is that their applica- 
tion and use are not understood. In such shops, where these 
strictly up-to-date methods are not being used, special tools and 
fixtures are being constantly designed and constructed for the 
machining and finishing of metal parts by milling, drilling or 
other means, which could be accomplished in half the time by 
means of dies of simple and most inexpensive construction, in 
the power press. Aside from the reduced cost of production, 
the lightness, interchangeability, and fine finished appearance 
of sheet-metal blanks add greatly to the appearance of the 
machines to which they are attached, and in many cases improve 
the working qualities as well. 

Let any manager of an establishment which does not number 
a power press or two among its machine tools stroll through his 
shop with a power press catalogue in his hand and he will not 
go far before realizing that he is paying for a lot of unnecessary 
work. After finishing his inspection he will lose no time in 
placing an order for a power press, and his toolmakers will be 
kept busy for some time constructing sets of blanking, piercing, 
bending, shearing and finishing dies to take the place of expen- 
sive milling, drilling and polishing fixtures. 

Steel. 

In no branch of the machinist's art should more attention be 
given to the importance of the proper selection of steel than in 
die making, as the working qualities of the tools when finished 



l8 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

and their efficiency depend upon this more than anything else. 

When ordering steel which is to be used for dies be sure to 
specify that annealed steel is wanted, as the saving of time and 
labor in the working of it and the results in the hardening and 
tempering of the finished tools will be a source of gratification 
to the die-maker. When these results are considered the slight 
extra cost of annealed steel is insignificant. 

As to the grade of steel to use ; be sure to get a good grade, 
and as there are several brands of steel on the market which are 
used principally for dies and punches no difficulty should be 
experienced in procuring a grade or brand which will prove 
suitable for any special class of work. 

When steel forgings are required the job should be given to 
a smith who understands this branch of his art, as in order for 
the forgings to machine well and allow of being hardened and 
tempered as desired, so that the finished tools will accomplish 
the required results, the smith must understand such work. 

The Construction of a Simple Punch and Die. 

During a long experience in the making of dies the author 
has come to know of a number of different methods for con- 
structing single blanking dies, and double or piercing and blank- 
ing dies. Every one of these methods has possessed some little 
kink or way by which the desired results might be accomplished 
in a manner superior to other methods. So after getting together 
the best and most practical kinks and ways of all methods, the 
method of construction here described and illustrated has been 
evolved. 

The Bolster. 

Before taking up the description of the die, we will devote 
a short space to the die-block or bolster. Although these bolsters 
are made in a variety of shapes and sizes, the one shown in Fig. 
I is of a type most generally used for fastening and locating the 
kind of die indicated. A number of different styles of bolsters 
for blanking and piercing dies are shown in Figs. 2 to 5. A 
large number of shops, which make dies for their own use, make 
a bolster with each die, so as to leave the die permanently within 
it. But for economy, where dies of an average shape and size 
are used, two or three are all that are required. When a num- 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 19 

ber of dies are kept in action all the time, or at the same time, 
then, of course, each die must have a separate bolster. 




FIG. I. THE BOLSTER. 



In the preparation and machining of the bolster, first a cut 
should be taken off the top and bottom, and then a finishing cut 




FIGS. 2 TO 5. TYPES OF BOLSTERS. 



20 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



off the bottom, after which the face or die seat may be planed 
to an angle of 10 degrees, as shown, this being a standard taper 
for die blanks among die-makers. The slots C C are cast in the 
position shown, in width sufficient to allow of clearance sideways 
for the fastening bolts with which it is afterward secured to the 
press. The hole D, in the center of the bolster, should be large 
enough for the largest blank, from the set of dies which are to 
be used in the bolster, to drop through after being punched. 

The Die Blank. 

In Figs. 6, 7 and 8 are shown a double punch and die used 

for the production of blanks like 
Fig. 9; this die is of a type in 
general use. The punch and die 
consist of the following parts : 
The punch holder or stem A, of 
cast iron, the punch plate or pad 
B, of mild steel, the blanking 












o o 

o 



Plan 
View of 

Die 



FIG. 6. 



FIG. 7. 



punch C, of tool steel, the piercing punches D, of the same, the 
stripper and gage plates E, the die F, of tool steel, and the pilot 
pin G. The shape of the piece to be produced in a die of this type 
may be any circular or irregular shape desired, as the method of 
construction here shown is applicable to all, excepting when the 
blank to be produced is of a very large size or when the metal to 
be punched is very thick. 

As most presses in which punches and dies of this type are 
used require a punch holder with a round stem, we show one 
of this sort. When machining the holder great care must be 
taken to get the working surfaces square with the stem ; the 
faces of the punch plate and stripper plate must be perfectly 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 



21 



parallel. When planing the die no great care is required, as it 
has to be ground after hardening. It should be finished with 
leveled sides, to fit the bolster, with the edges of the face smooth 
so as to have a square edge from which to lay out the die. 

We will now lay the punch plate, punch holder and stripper 
plate aside, as they will not be touched until the die proper has 
been finished. 

The Templets. 

Now in order to lay out the die a templet or master blank is 
required ; this should be made from sheet steel about 3-32 inch 
thick, and should be filed and finished all over to the exact shape 



End View 





FIG. 9. MALE TEMPLET 




FIG. 8. 



FIG. 10. 



and size required. The two holes should then be laid out in the 
exact location desired and drilled and reamed to size. Care and 
accuracy in the preparation of the templet are necessary, as the 
quality of the work to be produced depends on it. Now take a 
piece of, say, ^-inch brass rod about 2^ inches long, and solder 
one end of it to the back of the templet as shown in Fig. 9. The 
templet is now complete and there is no possibility of getting the 
wrong side up. 

We now take a piece of soft sheet brass, of the same thick- 
ness as the templet, and bend it to the shape shown in Fig. 10, 
that is to fit across and over the face of the die with the bent 
ends projecting down the inclined sides of the die about 5-16 inch. 



22 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

This is the female templet, and it should be long enough to allow 
of its being worked out in the center to fit the male templet, Fig. 
9. After having done this the face of the die (which should be 
polished with a rough piece of emery cloth) should be "blue- 
stoned" and the female templet placed upon it in the proper 
position, and an outline of the blank marked through it on the 
face of the die with a sharp scriber. We now remove the templet 
and proceed to finish the blanking die, which must be accom- 
plished by working the blank through it. 

Working the Templet Through the Die. 

To work a templet through a die proceed as follows: After 
the surplus stock has been removed by drilling holes about 1-64 
inch apart around the inside of the outline and drifting it out, file 
through from the back to within a shade of the line. Now take 
the male templet and, holding it by the end of the brass rod, 
enter it into the die from the back, holding it as parallel as pos- 
sible with the face of the die. By holding a piece of white paper 
in front of the die it will be noticed that the die touches the 
templet at only a few narrow spots ; take a lead pencil and mark 
these spots, making a line at each spot as long as the surface 
touched. Now remove the templet and file where the marks 
appear. Keep inserting the templet, marking the spots and filing 
them away, and in a surprisingly short time the templet will be 
even with the face of the die, which will be the exact shape and 
size desired, fitting the templet perfectly. 

There are a great many dies of this type in use (which are 
used for cutting out blanks which are not required to have 
smooth sides) that it is not necessary to finish the insides 
smoothly. But there are a greater number in which the finish of 
the blanks with smooth sides is one of the objects sought. In 
dies for producing smooth and well-finished blanks the insides 
should be finished highly, either with a dead smooth file or a 
scraper. 

Giving Clearance to the Die. 

In giving clearance to a die a few things must be considered 
in order to decide upon the proper amount to give. For a die 
which will only be used to produce a few thousand blanks 
excessive clearance should be given, say, five degrees, as this 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 23 

will allow of the die being finished quickly. In dies which are 
to produce large quantities of blanks, and in which the blanks 
produced are required to be of approximately the same size, one 
degree is plenty. In giving this one degree of clearance to the 
die so that it will have one degree of clearance all the way 
through, the holes that are drilled to allow of removing the 
surplus stock should be reamed from the back with a reamer 
of about the taper of 1-32 inch to I inch of length. The reaming 
of the holes when constructing a blanking die will save a vast 
amount of filing and the giving of the one degree of clearance 
will not be difficult. 

Locating the Piercing Dies. 

The next step in the construction of the die is the locating 
of the two piercing dies. To accomplish this, place the master 
blank within the female templet and clamp it to the face of the 
die in the correct position, allowing for a thickness of metal 
between blanks. We now take a center drill, which fits the holes 
in the master blank, and transfer the two holes through it to 
the face of the die ; we drill these holes and then ream them 
from the back with a reamer of the same taper as the one used 
for the blanking die. After the holes for the dowel pins and 
screws by which the stripper and gage plates are to be fastened 
to the die have been drilled and tapped, and the hole for the 
stop pin located and drilled, we are ready to harden and temper 
the die. 

Hardening a Blanking Die. 

In order to harden a die properly great care should be taken ; 
first in the heating of the steel, and second in the quenching. 
In all shops where dies, or other tools which require hardening, 
are constructed, a gas furnace or "muffler" should be used for 
heating them. But when a "muffler" is not handy charcoal 
should be used. After a good clean fire has been built, all screw 
and dowel holes in the die should be plugged with fire clay or 
asbestos. By taking these precautions the tendency of the steel 
to crack around the holes is, as far as possible, eliminated. We 
now heat the die to an even cherry red, so that the entire plate 
will be the same temperature; then remove it from the fire and 
dip it endwise into the water (which should be warmed slightly 



24 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

to take the chill out), being careful to dip down straight, and 
not to move it or shake it around, as that would increase the 
possibility of the die warping or shrinking excessively. After 
removing the die from the water it should be immediately 
warmed. Now grind the face of the die; heat a thick piece of 
cast iron red hot, and place the die upon it; it can then be 
drawn evenly to any temper desired. By taking a piece of oily 
waste and wiping the face of the die as it is heating the different 
colors will show up clear. When the color denoting the temper 
required appears remove the die and allow it to cool off slowly. 

Making the Blanking Punch. 

Now for the blanking punch : Take the master blank or male 
templet ; remove the wire rod and mark the spot where it was 
attached, so as to know the back from the front of the blank. 
Then solder the blank, front up, to one end of the piece of tool 
steel which is to be used for the blanking punch. The punch 
can now be machined, either in the shaper or the milling machine, 
so that its entire length will be the shape of the blank, finishing 
it as close to the edge of the blank as possible. Now heat the 
sleel slightly and the blank will drop off. Clean the blank, lay 
it aside and proceed to fit the punch. If it is to punch very 
thin stock make it a tight fit within the die; if for heavy stock, 
a trifle loose. In order to make a punch a perfect fit for thin 
stock the edges of the cutting face should be beveled with a 
file. The punch should then be sheared through the die in the 
press in much the same manner as a broach is used, being careful 
to have it in perfect alignment with the die. 

Before hardening the punch it is necessary to locate the holes 
for the pilot pins G. These pins are necessary in order to pro- 
duce pierced blanks that will be interchangeable. Take the 
master blank, enter it into the die from the back with the front 
up. It will fit the die tightly because of the shrinkage in harden- 
ing. Now enter the blanking punch from the top and locate the 
holes for the pilot pins through the holes in the blank with a 
centering drill. Drill the holes to size and harden and draw 
the punch to the temper desired, which should be in most cases 
a dark blue. In tempering the punch draw it from the back, 
allowing the temper to run out to the front; thus the back will 
be almost soft while the remainder will be as hard as required. 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 25 

The drawing of the punch so that the back will be soft is done 
to strengthen it and also to allow of upsetting it when locating 
it within the punch plate. 



Locating the Blanking Punch in the Punch Plate. 

To locate the punch in the punch plate, take the plate and 
clamp it true on the face of the die and transfer the outline of 
the blanking die to the face of the plate. Then work a hole of 
the shape of this outline through the plate, so that the punch can 
be entered face first through from the back. Then place both 
punch and plate under the ram of the press and set the punch 
dead square with the face of the pad and proceed to force it 
through, using the punch as a broach. It will be necessary 
to repeat this operation several times in order to get the punch 
through the plate, as the surplus stock curled up by the punch 
has to be removed. After having forced the punch into the 
pad until the face is through, force it back and out again. Now 
chamfer the edges of the hole at the back of the pad and force 
the punch in again, until the back is a shade above the plate, and 
upset or rivet as shown and finish it flat with the plate ; when 
this is done there will be no danger of the punch pulling out 
when in use. 

Locating the Piercing Punches in the Punch Plate. 

To locate the holes for the piercing punches, enter the blank- 
ing punch into the die until the faces of the punch plate and 
the die are within 3-16 inch of each other, with a pair of parallels 
between them. Then use the die as a jig and locate the holes 
for the piercing punches ; spot them deeply. With a. drill about 
two sizes smaller than the piercing dies drill entirely through 
the punch plate and then ream the holes to size. Use the die 
as a jig for all three operations. 

For 'the two piercing punches use drill rod and upset the 
heads before hardening, as all small punches should be hardened 
for their entire length, as otherwise they would bend or break. 
If after hardening the punches are found to have sprung they 
must be carefully straightened before forcing them into the 
punch plate. Fasten the punch plate to the cast iron holder A, 
Avith four flat-head screws as shown. 



26 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE.. 



Finishing the Die. 



All holes for screws and dowels in the stripper and gage 
plate should be transferred through the die. The holes for the 
two piercing punches in the stripper should be the same size 
as the dies, as by fitting tightly the punches are strengthened 
and supported while piercing the metal. 

After the gage plates and stripper have been located and 
fastened upon the die as shown, with the stop pin located so 
that its locating face is the same distance from the edge of the 
blanking die as the width of surplus stock allowed between the 
blanks, the die is complete. 

If the method of construction described and illustrated in 
the foregoing is properly carried out there will never be any 
possibility of failure in the accomplishment of the desired results. 

Fundamental Points to be Remembered. 

The practical points to be remembered when constructing a 
die of this type are as follows : Be sure to make an accurate 
pair of templets. Machine the punch holder and stripper plate 
accurately. Work the blank through the die, and use it for 
locating all the holes for the pilot pins and piercing punches. 
Finish the die before starting on any of the other parts. Trans- 
fer all holes in the punch plate through the die ; and, lastly, be 
sure to have the front of the master blank up during all opera- 
tions in which it is used. By keeping in mind these practical 
points a punch and die of this type can be constructed in which 
the alignment between all parts will be perfect. 

Setting the Die and Using It. 

To operate the die, drive the die proper into the die block 
or bolster, Fig. I, and then set it up in the press. The proper 
way to set a die of this kind is to first place the punch within 
the ram of the press and fasten it there. The punch should then 
be brought down until the faces are within ^ inch of the die 
face. Then, using the left hand through the press bolster, the 
die should be raised up until all punches have entered it. The 
punch should then be brought down about 5-16 inch and the die 
will rest squarely on the press bolster in perfect alignment with 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 




Fig. 1 Dish Pan 




Fig. 8-Lard Pail 





Figs. 5 and 6 Fig. 7 Coffee Boiler 

Dipper Handles 




Fig. ft Dipper 
Bowl 





Fig. 16 Scoop 



Figs. 14 and 15 Tea and 

Coffee Pot Spouts Fig 18 _ Dis h p an 

Handle 



o 





Fig. 10 Scoop Body 



Fig ' 



Fig. 17 Scoop Band 



Fig. 1& Cup Handle 



Fig, 20 Cup Handle 



Figs. 21 and 22 Coffee Fig. 23 Saucepan 

Boiler Lips Handle Fig. 24 Coffee Pot Handle 

FIG. II. DIAGRAMS OF BLANKS FROM CUTTING DIES. 



28 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

the punch. Now fasten the die to the press bolster and give it 
a rap with a hammer at either end to set it; then go ahead. 

The stock to be punched should be entered beneath the 
stripper and pushed up against the stop pin. At the first stroke 
of the press the two holes are pierced and a scrap blank punched 
out. Now feed the stock forward until the back edge of the 
blanked hole rests against the stop pin, and at the next stroke 
as the punch descends the pilot pins in the blanking punch will 
enter the holes pierced at the first stroke and a blank will be 
produced which will be an exact duplicate of the master blank. 
The stock may then be fed along until the entire strip has been 
worked up. 

A Plain Blanking Die. 

When a plain blanking die is desired, to produce blanks of 
any circular or irregular shape such as the smaller ones shown 
in Fig. n, the description given herein for the construction of 



PLAN OF PUNCH 



PLAIN BLANKING 
PUNCH AND DIE 



SECTION OF STOCK 

SHOWING 
HOW TO SAVE METAL 




FIG. 12. 



FIG. 14. 



the blanking die and punch portions of Figs. 6 to 8 should b( 
followed, and instead of making two templets make only one 
the male. 

As shown, plain blanking dies of the class shown in Figs 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 



12 and 15 are very 
produce blanks of 
shape from tin, iron, steel, 
aluminum, brass, copper, 
zinc, silver, paper, leather, 
cloth, etc. In Figs. 12 and 
15, K is the punch holder or 
stem, I the punch plate, H the 
punch which is let into the 
punch plate and upset at the 
back, as shown. The punch 
plate is fastened to the holder 
face by four flat-head screws 
J J J J. The die A is worked 
out at B and finished to temp- 
let, C is the stop pin, F F the 
two gage plates, and G the 
stripper plate fastened and lo- 
cated by the four screws D 
and the two dowels E E. All 
plain blanking dies for punch- 
ing stock up to 3-16 inch thick 
should be constructed like 
this one. 



simple in construction, 
any flat 



They are used to 



PLAN OF PUNCH 




m ^_^_m 




FRONT VIEW OF PUNCH, AND VERTICAL 
CROSS-SECTION OF DIE 



FIG. 15. 



Dies for Large Blanks. 

Blanking or cutting dies for punching out large blanks from 
comparatively thin stock are made in almost every shape and 
size for cutting all kinds of metal. A number of different shapes 
and sizes are shown in Figs. 16 and 17, and a set of blanks 
produced in dies of this construction are shown in Fig. 18. This 
class of dies consists of an upper or "male" die, commonly called 
the punch, and a lower or "female" die, rightly called the die. 
As a rule the female die is hardened and tempered to the degree 
best suited for the stock to be punched, while the male die, or 
punch, is left soft, so that it can be upset at the cutting edges 
when worn, so that blanks may be produced which will be free 
from burrs and fins. The cutting edges of dies of this class 
are always sheared, the size of the blank and circumstances 
determining the amount of shear to be given. For punching- 



3 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



blanks from thin stock such as tin, brass, iron, etc., a moderate 
amount of shear will give the best results, while for heavy stock 
a greater amount must be given. These dies are usually made 




o 



PLAN OF DIE, 

SHOWING BEVELED EDGES WITH A 

HARROW MARGIN AROUND THE 

CUTTING EDGE TO 
FACILITATE GRINDING 




FIG. 1 6. BLANKING DIE CONSTRUCTED FROM FORCINGS - 

from forgings and the finest work in this line that we know of 
is done in the shops of E. W. Bliss Co., Brooklyn, N. Y., where 
probably more dies are constructed than in any other shop in the 




FIG. 17. "BLANKING" OR "CUTTING" DIES. 



world. They make their large cutting dies by first welding steel 
cutting rings, which have been first forged to somewhere near the 
desired shape, to wrought-iron bases or plates. These bases are 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 3! 




Figs. 25, 26 and 27 
Stove Pipe Elbow 



Fig. 38 Dripping Pan 



Fig. 34 Notch for 
Dripping Pan 




Fig. 39 Table Spoon 
Fig. 40 Tea Spoon 



Fig. 47 
Writing Machine Lever 




; Coal Hod Blanks 




Fig. 29 Body (One Piece) 




Fig. 32 
Back Handle 



Fig. 35 
Rim (Two Pieces) 




Fig. 37 
Dust Pan Handle 




Fig. 41 End Piece 
Deep Bread Pan 




Fig. 43 
Funnel Body 




Fig. 31 Front 




Fig. 38 Dust Pan 





Fig. 42 Side Piece 
Deep Bread Pan 




Fig. 44 Measure Body 



Fig. 45 
Fig. 48 Cash Register Lever Measure Handle Fig. 46 Measure Lip 



FIG. l8. DIAGRAMS OF BLANKS FROM CUTTING DIES. 



32 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

then planed and the die machined to almost the finish size 
and the cutting edges beveled, as shown, on upright milling 
machines. The templets are then fitted to the dies by filing, 
after which the faces are sheared and the dies hardened. The 
cutting faces are then ground on special machinery and a number 
of bent pins located around the die to act as strippers when the 
die is in use. For punching heavy or thick sheet iron, steel, brass 
and other heavy stock they harden both male and female dies, 
drawing the male somewhat lower than the female, and provide 
them with stripping plates and construct the dies somewhat dif- 




SPECIAL BLANK 



FIG. 19. BLANKS FROM PIERCING AND BLANKING DIES. 



ferently from those used for thin stock. A set of these dies are 
shown in Figs. 20 to 22. 

The Use of a Power Press. 

In shops in which a power press has not as yet found a place, 
and where it is thought that one or a few could be used to ad- 
vantage, the management should write press manufacturers fully, 
describing the work to be done. If a new article is to be manu- 
factured, which can be produced to the best advantage by means 
of suitable dies in the power press, a sample of the work or an 
exact drawing of the same should be submitted to the manu- 
facturers of such tools. As very often the shape, size or general 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 33 

construction of such parts are modified, before the articles are 
manufactured in large quantities, it is absolutely necessary that 
such points should be settled before placing an order for a set 
of tools for their production, as otherwise, if a slight alteration 
is made in the parts afterward, it will involve considerable al- 
teration in the tools. 

In sheet-metal goods establishments the chief desire is the 
increasing of the daily production of the presses and tools, and 
this object can only be attained by keeping the presses con- 
stantly producing parts of the same shape and size and using the 
presses which are best adapted to the work. In small establish- 




FIG. 20. PUNCH AND DIE WITH STRIPPER. 



ments, or in machine shops where only a given number of parts 
of sheet-metal of the same shape and size are required at inter- 
vals, a press should be used which will take in a wide range of 
work of widely varying dimensions, thus allowing the production 
of a large variety of sheet-metal articles and parts with one 
press and different sets of tools, which in the larger establish- 
ments require a number of presses of different sizes. 

When a press is to be used exclusively for punching, before 
ordering particular attention should be given to the thickness of 
the material to be punched, the size and number of holes and 
their relative position to each other. If parts are to be produced 
in which more than one hole is to be pierced, their position in 
the sheet must be determined. By giving the maximum dimen- 



34 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



sions of the above a press of the reauired strength and depth of 
throat will be obtained. 

Open Back Presses. 

The best style of press to use for general work, wherever pos- 
sible, is the "open back" style, as the advantages of a press of 
such construction over those with a solid back are numerous. 
First, instead of having the crank on one end of the shaft, it is 



PLAN OF PUNCH 




WROUGHT IRON AND TOOL STEEL FORGING 





VERTICAL SECTION OF DIE WITH STRIPPER 

FIG. 21. PUNCH AND DIE FOR. CUTTING HEAVY STOCK. 



supported by journals on each side which prevents the shaft 
from springing and wearing unevenly ; second, the opening at the 
back, admitting plenty of light, makes an accurate adjustment of 
the dies possible without trouble on the part of the operator when 
setting them; lastly, where, in a "solid back" press the balance 
wheel is at the back, and thereby out of reach of the operator 
when setting the dies, in the "open back" press it is on the right 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 



35 



side and within easy reach, thus enabling the operator to revolve 
it with his right hand while he is setting the tools with his left. 

Lining Up and Leveling a Power Press. 

Line up and level a power press as you would any other ma- 
chine tool from which satisfactory results are desired, and fasten 
it securely to the floor. The position of the press in relation to 



PLAN OF PUNCH 

BLANKING PUNCH 





PIERCING PUNCH 
HOLDER, A WROUGHT IRON FORGING 




FIG. 22. PUNCH AND DIB FOR PIERCING AND CUTTING 
HEAVY STOCK. 



the driving shaft should be such as to allow of using a straight 
belt and having the balance wheel run toward the operator, and 
thus the belt can be thrown off and slipped on again without 
trouble. The gib screws for adjusting the fit of the ram should 
not be very tight, for if they are there will be undue friction on 
the strap a clicking sound of the clutch will warn the operator 
of this. 



36 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

The diameter of the pulley on the driving shaft should be 
large enough to allow the press to be speeded according to the 
directions given by the manufacturer. When setting the dies 
throw the belt off the driving pulley and set the die according to 
the directions given herein under "Setting and Using the Die." 




FIG. 23. A POWER PRESS FOR PRODUCING SMALL OR MEDIUM 
SIZED BLANKS, EQUIPPED WITH AN AUTOMATIC ADJUSTABLE 
STOP OR FINGER GAGE. 



Allow the punch to enter the die just far enough to do the work 
required and no further. Have the operator locate all oil holes 
and see that he oils all parts regularly. Lastly do not allow 
everybody to take a turn at running the press ; have a man or a 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BLANKING DIES. 37 

bright boy to run it and keep him at it, and there will then be 
very little probability of finger clipping. 

Using the Proper Tools. 

When in doubt as to the best press or classes of tools to use 
for a special job, write to manufacturers or experts who make a 
specialty of such tools. It is often possible to have dies made in 
their establishments at a lower cost to the buyer than if they were 
constructed in his own tool room; because, where the foreman 
or toolmakers might understand the construction of one type of 
dies which would do the work required, the specialist will under- 
stand a number of different types, and he will choose the one 
which will be at once the cheapest and the best. What is more, 
there will be no guess work about it. 

For the production of small and medium sized parts, a press 
of the design and construction shown in Fig. 23 will be found to 
meet all requirements. In connection with a press of this type a 
"finger gage attachment" or automatic stop-pin may be used 
wherever the nature of the work will allow it. As shown in the 
engraving, the attachment consists of an adjustable stop, resting 
with its pointed end on the face of the die, from which it is auto- 
matically raised after each stroke, allowing the metal to be fed 
forward for the next stroke. By dropping back at the proper 
time into the hole last punched, it acts as an accurate gage with- 
out impeding the progress of the stock. 

Dies of the types shown and described in this chapter should 
prove adaptable for the rapid and cheap production of a large 
variety of sheet metal parts. The methods of construction given 
cover all plain or single blanking dies, and double or piercing 
and blanking dies used in the general run of sheet-metal work. 



CHAPTER II. 

SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 

In this chapter are shown a number of dies that are invaluable 
for use in the average machine shop especially in the jobbing 
shop. The dies shown are the most simple and inexpensive of 
their class for producing work of the kind indicated. 

An Emergency Die. 

The first die, shown in Fig. 24, is known among die-makers 
as an ''Emergency Die," that is a punch and die for producing 




B B 

FIG. 24. EMERGENCY DIE AND BLANK. 

a small number of blanks of a given shape and size, of which the 
blank shown in Fig. 25 is a type. The die A is made from a 
piece of 5-16 inch flat tool steel, planed and fitted to bolster, with 
the shape of the blank worked out at B B. In dies of this type, 
when only a small number of blanks are to be punched, the clear- 



SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 



39 



ance or taper of the die, from the cutting edge, should be con- 
siderable, as the more clearance given, the less labor and skill 
required to finish. Allow the master blank to just fit the die at 
the cutting edge, and then draw and harden the die. 

The punch consists of the cast iron holder C, and the punch 
D; a piece of %-inch flat tool steel, which is worked out to 
shape and sheared through the die and left soft. It is then hard 
soldered to the face of the holder C as shown, and the punch and 
die are complete. 

For punching blanks from thin stock to the number of 100 to 
2,000, a die of this type will prove all right, and although some 
may say "a botch job," the results will be found to be all that 
can be desired. This style of die is used universally in almost all 
of the fancy sheet metal goods houses, as the number of differ- 




FIG. 25. PLAN OF EMERGENCY DIE. 

ent shapes and the small quantities required necessitate the elim- 
ination of all unnecessary expense in the production of the same. 

A Shearing Die for Finishing Heavy Blanks. 

The punch and die shown in Fig. 26 is known as a shearing 
or finishing die for heavy blanks, and it may be used for finishing- 
work that is often finished in the milling machine, or by grinding. 
The blank finished in this die is shown in Fig. 27. It is a small 
wrench punched from 7-32-inch mild steel. In the punching of 
heavy stock the punch is always fitted very loosely to the die, 
with the result that the blanks produced are generally concave at 
the edges, and have a ragged appearance where they have cut 
away from the rest of the stock. To remove these defects and 
marks, the blanks should be sheared through a finishing die like 



4 o 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



the one shown in Fig. n, when by trimming or cutting off a shav- 
ing of stock all around the blanks, they are left smooth and have 
the appearance of having been milled. 

In making a die of the finishing type, one of the blanks that 




FIGS. 26 AND 27. BLANK, AND SHEARING PUNCH AND DIE. 

has been punched is taken and filed and finished all around the 
edges, removing about .003 of stock all around. The blank is 
then used as a templet in finishing the die F, letting it through 
from the back and filing the die straight, giving it just the least 



SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 4! 

clearance possible and having the templet a tight fit at the cutting 
edge. The inside of the die is then polished as smooth as possible 
at G, and then filed taper, downward from H. As shown, I is 
the gage plate which is worked out to allow of the rough blank 
fitting nicely within it. This plate is fastened and located upon 
the face of the die accurately, by the screws J J, and the dowels 
K K, so that the blank will rest on the face of the die I, with an 
equal margin for trimming all around. Great care should be 
taken to locate this gage plate in its proper position, as the 
small amount of stock to be trimmed from the blanks will not 
allow of much leeway. The die should be carefully hardened and 
drawn to a very light straw temper, and the face ground and 
oilstoned, so that the cutting edge will be as sharp as possible. 

The punch is constructed in the same manner as the blanking 
punch shown in Chapter I, L being the holder, M the pad and 
N the punch. The punch N is sheared through the die to a snug 
fit within it, after which it is highly polished and left soft. When 
using the die, the blank Fig. 27 is placed within the gage plate L ; 
the punch descends and it is sheared into the die F at G, trim- 
ming and finishing it all around. If the die has been highly pol- 
ished the results produced will be as good as if the blanks were 
finished in a milling machine or by more expensive means. 

Burnishing Dies. 

There is a large number of different small pieces which are 
in great demand in the average machine shop, which, when the 
quantity permits, could be finished at a greatly reduced cost by a 
die of this type. When a high finish or polish is desired, the 
blanks should be forced through another die, in construction the 
same 'as the first, except that it should taper slightly from the 
cutting edge, and be about .002 smaller at the back than at the 
cutting edge. This die should also be highly polished and left 
very hard. In forcing the blank through this die the metal 
around the edge is compressed and then polished by the friction 
as the smaller part is passed through. Blanks treated in this 
manner have the appearance of having been polished or buffed. 
A die of this type is called a burnishing die, and it is a "hummer" 
for rapid and cheap production. 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



Die for Finishing Holes in Heavy Stock. 

The punch and die shown in Fig. 29, although of the simplest 
construction, is a great tool for accomplishing by inexpensive 
means results that usually require considerable time and cost to 
produce. It is used for finishing square holes that have been 
punched in the strip of flat 5-i6-inch machine steel shown in 
Fig. 30. The upper view shows the holes after the first opera- 
tion, and the lower view, th appearance after being finished. 
Of course they could be finished by broaching, but the means 
shown here are best by a long shot. After the holes have been 

i^r 7m 



Punch 



Stripper 




FIG. 29. FINISHING AND SIZING HOLES IN HEAVY STOCK. 

punched, their edges are uneven and ragged and, as they are 
left about .003 smaller than the required size, this punch and die 
are used to square, polish and size them. 

The punch S is machined in the miller to a perfect square of 
the size to which the holes are to be finished, that is .003 larger 
than the punched holes. After being polished, the face is finished 
dead square and the edges left sharp ; it .is then hardened and 
drawn slightly and the face oilstoned. The die P is then made 
and worked out until the face of the punch can be entered. It 



SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 



43- 



is then used as a broach and forced into and through the die r 
finishing it to an exact duplicate of its shape. The die is then 
filed taper from the back, and left straight for about 5-16 inch 
from the cutting edge. The edges of the punch are then rounded 
so that it will enter the holes easily. The stripper Q is of j- 
inch flat machine steel, with a channel milled down through the 
center, in depth and width sufficient to allow of the strip of stock 
in which the holes are punched to pass through it freely without 
side play. A small pin projecting above the die P, at the left 
acts as a .gage for locating the stock in position. 

When in use the strip of stock is entered beneath the stripper 
with the first hole under the punch. The punch descends and 
enters the hole, gradually compresses the sides and finishes it,. 





Before 




After 



FIG. 30. THE WORK. 



leaving a dead square hole with a smooth finish on all sides. 
The punch shown should enter the work for a full inch of its 
length. This type of die can be used for finishing a large variety 
of different shaped holes in heavy iron or mild steel, where they 
are all required to be the same shape and size. By using the 
means shown, the holes have a finish that it would be impractical 
to accomplish by other means. 

A Curling Die for a Hinge. 

In Figs. 31 and 33, respectively, are shown two dies called 
curling dies, accomplishing, as they do, the curling of sheet 
metal. The one shown in Fig. 31 is for curling the hinge, Fig. 
32, while the one in Fig. 33 is for curling a flat piece of metal into 



44 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



the form of a tube as shown in Fig. 34, in which is shown the 
metal before and after curling. 

These dies, although simple in design and construction, are 
required to be accurately made in order to work well ; there are 
several points in each where close work is necessary for rapid 
and first-class production. In the hinge die, Fig. 31, the punch 
holder V, is turned and faced and a dovetailed channel let into 




FIG. 31. A HINGE-CURLING PUNCH AND DIE. 

the face to admit the tool steel punch U, which is worked out 
and fitted to the holder, as shown, and a slot milled down the 
face to an angle of 45 degrees. It is hardened and drawn to a 
light temper and driven into the holder V. The die consists 
of the bolster W, and the die X, which is located as shown. 
After the radius to which the hinge is to be curled has been 
found, the piece of steel which is to be the die, is centered at 



SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 45 

each end for the hole Y. A drill 1-32 inch under size is then 
used, drilling from each end, in the lathe, keeping one end of the 
die on the tail center, and then reversing it, until the hole is com- 
pletely through the die. A "gun" reamer is then used to ream and 
finish the hole to the exact size required. The hole should then 
be lapped to a smooth finish. A mandrel is now forced into the 
hole Y, the die is set on the centers of the miller, and a cut is 
taken off the bottom, thereby squaring it with the hole Y. The 
two sides and top are then finished as shown, after which a 
cutter or metal saw (in width equal to the thickness of the stock 
to be curled) is used to cut the slot Z, being careful to get the 
outer edge of it in line with the side of the hole Y. After remov- 
ing all burrs and polishing the edges, the die should be hardened, 
and drawn just a little, leaving it as hard as possible without 




FIG. 32. THE WORK. 

danger of cracking. In order to harden a die of this type prop- 
erly, and eliminate as far as possible all chances of its warping, 
it should be heated slowly and evenly, and quenched down 
straight into a tub of water with about two inches of oil on the 
top. Passing through the oil toughens and prepares the steel, 
so to speak, for the sudden clr' 1 ! of the water. The manner in 
which this die is used can be understood from Fig. 31. One of 
the blanks shown in Fig. 32, is entered into the slot Z, in the 
die, and the punch is set in line with it as shown by the dotted 
line. The punch descends and forces the metal into the die Y, 
and it takes and follows the radius all around ; the punch de- 
scending far enough to curl and finish the blank to the shape of 
the finished piece shown in Fig. 32. Care must be taken to have 
all working parts of this die smooth and well polished, as the 
finish of the work depends on it. Also, in the adjustment of the 



46 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

stroke of the punch, allow it to descend just far enough to ac- 
complish the curl as if it descends too far, the work will be 
jammed into the die, from which it will be very difficult to re- 
move without marking the die itself. When set properly, the 



Tube Curling 
Di; 




FIG. 33. TUBE CURLING DIE WITH BLANK IN POSITION. 

finished work, after the punch ascends, can be easily removed 
from the die by hand. 

Die for Making Metal Tubes. 

The die shown in Fig. 33, for curling a tube, although an old 
principle and well known in die shops, is a stranger in a large 
number of others where it could be used to advantage. The de- 
sign and construction of both punch and die is clearly shown in 



SIMPLE DIES. FOR SHOP USE. 47 

the engravings, as is also the method of operation, and it re- 
quires very little description to be understood. 

In the die, B is the bolster with a slot let in to admit the die 
A. A hole C, in diameter the same as the outer size of the fin- 
ished tube, is let through and reamed to size, and then polished 
and finished in the same manner as Y, Fig. 31. A slot S, exactly 
the same width as the hole C, is milled down through the face 
as shown, being sure to get both sides in line with the sides of 
the hole. The die is then carefully hardened in the same manner 
as that described for the other. 

The punch is made from a mild steel forging with a tool steel 
face for the punch F. After being turned to size and machined 
as shown, it is chucked in the miller and a half round groove is let 
into the face, using a concave cutter of the same radius as the die 
C. The sides of the punch are then milled to just fit the slot D, 




FIG. 34. THE WORK. 

in the die, running out at each side to a feather edge. The face 
of the punch is then polished, after which it is hardened and 
drawn from the back, leaving the face very hard. 

The mandrel G, of tool steel is now made to the proper 
diameter, which should be two thicknesses of metal smaller than 
the die, and then polished lengthwise with emery cloth so as to 
allow of the easy removal of the tubes. A stud, not shown, is 
then let through one end to act as a handle. This mandrel is left 
soft, except for very accurate work, when all working parts 
of the die should be hardened and ground to size. 

To operate, the punch and die are set up in the press as 
shown, and the horn or mandrel G, inserted in the die C. The 
blank Fig. 34, is then slipped into the die as shown at H, and 
the punch F, descending, forces the metal around and between 
the horn G, and the die C, until, at the bottom of the stroke, the 



4 8 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



punch at F, strikes the metal, forms and finishes it around the 
horn G, to the shape shown in Fig. 34, leaving a tube sufficiently 
perfect for all ordinary purposes with a close joint where the 
two edges of the metal meet. The horn is then pulled from the 
die and the tube, relaxing a bit through the spring in the metal, 
is stripped of the horn by hand. 

The two curling dies shown here are the simplest and best to 
use for the class of work shown, and with proper care, will 
last a long while. The few points necessary to successfully 
construct them, are: Close work, a smooth finish on all working 
parts, care in hardening, and to have them as hard as possible as 
there is considerable wear on the parts from the friction of curl- 
ing the blanks. 

A Washer Die. 

The die shown in Fig. 35 is a washer die, and its type may 





A Washer Die 
FIG. 35- 



SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 



49 




Washer 



be used for the production of washers of any description. Its 
construction is that of the piercing and blanking type described 
and shown in Chapter I. A is the die, F 
the gage plate, and G the stripper, located 
and fastened to the die by the two cap 
screws H H. In the punch E is the pad, Q 
the holder, D the piercing punch for pierc- 
FIG< 3 6. ing the hole in the washer, and B the blank- 

ing punch, while C C is the pilot pin which 

enters the hole pierced by punch D, and trues the stock on the 
blanking die. 

In operating this die, the stock is fed in and held against the 
gage plate and the stop-pin. At the first stroke the hole is 
pierced and a waste washer punched out, and at the next stroke 
a finished washer is produced and the hole pierced in the one fol- 
lowing. For punching thin stock, fit the punches tight ; for 
heavy stock, loose. 

A Burnishing Die for Finishing Heavy Blanks. 

Fig. 37 shows a burnishing die for finishing heavy blanks. 
As shown, I is the die finished at J and tapering inward a trifle 





FIG. 37. A BURNISHING DIE. 

from the face. K is the gage plate for locating the work, and 
M the pad into which the punch is located. All working parts 



50 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

of this punch and die are finished very smooth and when the 
blank shown on the die is forced through J, a nice smooth finish 
on all sides results. This die is substantially the same as the one 
shown in Fig. 29, for finishing square holes, except that it is for 
external use instead of internal. For both uses the principle of 
construction shown will produce equally good results. The de- 
gree of finish on the product depends entirely on the smoothness 
of the working parts. 

A Bending Die for Right Angle Bends. 

The die shown in Fig. 38, is used for bending sheet metal 
blanks at right angles. N is the die, finished to admit the pad O, 




FIG. 38. A RIGHT-ANGLE BENDING DIE. 

and the spring Q. The pad is first let into the die tightly and 
then a 45 degree angle is milled as shown, finishing die and pad 



SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 51 

at the same time, thereby insuring an even surface when the pad 
bottoms at the end of the stroke. R R are the two gage plates 
for locating the work T, and S the punch. The spring Q is lo- 
cated in the bolster, after the die N has been fastened within it, 
by means of an adjustable screw in the bottom. The pin P pre- 
vents the pad from rising beyond the proper height, as shown. 
In angular bending where exact duplicates in size and shape are 
required, a pad as shown should be used, while for ordinary pur- 
poses a plain die without a pad will be sufficient. 

Planing the Angle on Die Blanks. 

The illustrations in Figs. 39 and 40 are self-explanatory, they 
show the wrong and the right way respectively of holding steel 
die blanks in the vise for planing or milling the angles. In Fig. 





FIG. 39. THE WRONG WAY. 



FIG. 40. THE RIGHT WAY. 



39 A is the blank and C C two pieces of drill rod for throwing 
the blank off to the angle required. As will be seen, this way is 
very unreliable, and not consistent with good work. The method 
shown in Fig. 40 is the proper way ; that is by using two angular 
parallels D D, which are simple to construct and cheap. A pair 
of such parallels should find a place in all shops where dies are 
made or used. 

Blanking and Bending in One Operation. 

The punch and die shown in Fig. 41 will serve to illustrate 
how a number of different bends can be accomplished in one 
operation in a plain blanking die, by shearing or cutting away 
the face of the punch to the shape desired in the blank. The 
pieces of work shown in Fig. 42 will convey an idea of the 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



variety of bends which it is possible to accomplish by doing* this ; 
the top one is the product of the die shown. As will be seen, the 
face of the die is left perfectly flat, while the punch is finished to 
the shape desired in the piece. 

When in use, the metal is placed on the face of the die and as 



Sheared, Punch for Punching 
and Bending 





FIG. 41. 



FIG. 42. SAMPLES OF WORK. 



the punch descends, the two ends commence to cut first, and enter 
the die before the center begins to cut ; thus, the stock clings and 
forms itself to the shape of the face of the punch, while the part 
still attached to the stock is held by the die, so that when at length 
the blank is punched out completely it has assumed the shape of 
the face of the punch. A large number of different bends can 
be produced in this manner, which otherwise would require a 
second operation to accomplish. 

Punching Heavy Stock. 

In Fig. 43 are shown the same principles transferred to the 
die, in order to punch heavy stock in a press that is not strong 
enough to stand a straight cut, and when the blanks are re- 
quired to be flat. The shearing of 
the die, as shown, is the remedy, 
the punch entering and cutting at 
FIG. 43. both ends first and cutting the cen- 

ter last, the blank resulting clings 
to the face of the punch and comes out flat. 

In shearing either a punch or die as described here, it is al- 
ways advisable to do it so that both ends of the punch will enter 
the die first and at the same time, as by doing this the die will be 
steadied and sustained while the blank is being punched. This 
also adds to the rigidity ; as otherwise, where only one end of the 
punch, or the center, enters first, the tendency is to draw away 
and shear or mark the cutting edges of the die. 



SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 53 

A Set of Dies Showing How Sheet Metal May Be Drawn and 
Formed Into Various Shapes. 

In order to illustrate how sheet metal parts may be drawn 
and formed into various shapes, we show here a complete set of 
dies, which will be the means of suggesting to the reader how 
desired results may be accomplished with very simple and inex- 
pensive tools. We will describe the dies as adopted and con- 
structed for the production of a special article and leave it to 
the reader to decide upon the best manner of adapting them for 
special purposes. 

The piece or article to be made was a shoe clasp., or hook, for 
laced shoes, with a ball 17-64 inch in diameter at one end and a 
cup shaped eyelet at the other, 17-32 inch deep by .185 in dia- 
meter of the small'part and 19-64 inch diameter of the large part. 
A ^g -inch hole was to be pierced in the bottom and the article 
was to be made from soft sheet brass .022 thick, finished and 
formed as shown, slightly exaggerated, to bring out its points 
better, up at the right of Fig. 49. The object of the ball instead 
of the flat, projecting hook now in use, was to prevent the lace 
from catching or tearing. 

After much discussion we concluded that the quickest way 
to get out a few sample lots for trial was by the following set of 
dies, which we have endeavored to show as clearly as possible in 
the drawings, showing the work in two views after each succes- 
sive operation. Fig. 44 being the first, forming so on to Fig. 50, 
which shows the last. 

It required eight operations to produce the result shown in 
Fig. 49, all of which were done in the foot press, with the excep- 
tion of the first which was done in the power press by blanking 
two at a time, as shown in Fig. 51. Of course the blanking die 
was made last, as it took some time, work and patience to find the 
exact shape and size of the blank, for this reason the drawing and 
forming dies were made first. 

The first punch and die is shown in Fig. 44, the blank being 
shown up at the left. B is the die of round tool steel, i l /% inch 
in diameter, turned and finished as shown. We then finished out 
a die block so that all the dies for the various operations, except 
the first, would fit within it, thereby saving a separate die block 
for each operation. The drawing shows a gage plate C fastened 
with two screws, shown, and two dowel pins not shown ; also the 



54 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 





SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 



55 



pushout spring- and headless screw D for adjusting at the bottom. 
The die was finished with a butt mill to templet. A was the 
punch worked down and finished with a hand tool to templet ; that 
is two thicknesses of metal less in diameter than the die. The 
rubber spring and blank-holder are shown on the punch and 

require no description. Both 
punch and die were hardened. 
The result of this operation ap- 
pears up in between Figs. 44 and 

45- 

Fig. 45 shows the tools for 
the second operation. They are 
on the same plan as Fig. 44 ex- 
cept that the eyelet is drawn to 
the finish size. E is the punch, 
G the gage plate, F the die and 
H the adjusting screw. The re- 
sult of the operation is shown 
between Figs. 45 and 46. 

Operation No. 3 is for pierc- 
ing the hole in the eyelet. N is 
the die, O the gage plate, I the 
punch holder, J the punch of 
Stubs wire, K a piece of y 2 - 
inch round spring rubber, and 
M two pins for holding the strip- 
per plate L, the plate moving up 
and down freely when the rub- 
ber was compressed. The rub- 
ber acted as a stripper to strip 
the finished work from the 
punch. 

Fig. 47 shows the fourth 
operation of drawing -the other 
ends, that is, half forming the 

ball. P is the punch holder, Q the punch held by screw, as 
shown, S the gage plate, R the die and T the adjusting screw 
for the push out. The finishing of the ball is shown in Fig. 
48; the punch and die are respectively finished out to one-half 
of a sphere 17-64 inch in diameter, U the punch, V the die and 
W the work in position, the punch descending, causing the four 





FIG. 50. LAST BENDING 
OPERATION. 



50 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

wings to curl and close in, thereby filling out and forming the 
ball round enough to satisfy the eye, if not quite perfect. 

The drawing of the work being finished, the next operation 
was to bend and form it to the shape shown up at the right of 
Fig. 49, which was done in the following manner. Fig. 49 shows 
the first bending with the work in position. X is the punch, Y the 
die, I the gage plate and Z the work. The result of this operation 
is shown in Fig. 50 in position for the next and last operation, 



H 



i 



- 



Punch 



E- 




C-C 





FIG. 51. PUNCH AND DIE FOR THE BLANKS. 

which was accomplished in the way there shown. B is the holder, 
G the horn to hold the work, E the bending rig, which was of tool 
steel swinging on arm F and held by shoulder screw C, H being 
a flat spring to bring it back to place. It was worked out in the 
way shown, and this completed the job. 

The blanking punch and die was made as shown in Fig. 51 
and requires no description to be understood. By blanking two 
at a time the work was produced quicker and with less waste than 
otherwise. The die was carefully hardened so as to retain its 



SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 



57 



shape as far as possible, as much variation would have caused a 
"heap" of trouble. 

Forming Dies for Square Grooved Tubes. 

The following description, with illustrations, of a method of 
forming sheet metal should prove suggestive for a variety of 
work. The job was the forming of a tube to be made of sheet 
iron .012 inch thick to the shape shown in Fig. 54. The finished 
tube was % inch in diameter outside, and 8 inches long, with a 
groove 3-32 inch deep and 5-32 wide, running the entire length. 
It was required to be within .001 inch of all these dimensions. 

We figured to do the job in two operations. In the first place, 



FIG. 52. BLANK. 



FIG. 53. BLANK 
AS FORMED. 



J 



FIG. 54. BLANK AS 
CURLED AND LOCKED. 



strips of sheet iron of the right thickness were cut to the proper 
width and length as shown in Fig. 52 ; they were then ready for 
the first operation. The tools for this consisted of a punch and 
die, shown in Fig. 55. A being the punch-holder or stem, of cast 
iron, and B the punch, which was of tool steel and was worked 
down and finished very smooth, 5-32 inch in width plus one thick- 
ness of metal, which left room in the die for the opposite side 
to be forced in, and 3-32 inch from the face to shoulder plus one 
thickness of metal. C was the die of tool steel, a little over 8 
inches long by 2 inches wide, dovetailed and driven into the die- 
block E. D was the gage plate. The die C was planned and 
finished so that when there was a thickness of metal in it, the 
punch would come down and produce a piece like Fig. 53, with 
two sharp corners, as shown. 

For the second operation the punch, die, and mandrel, as 



5o DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

shown in Figs. 56 and 57, were used. The die of tool steel was 
8 inches long by two inches wide, dovetailed and fitted to the 
bolster J, with a % inch reamed hole through its entire length. 
This hole was lapped and polished very smooth. A slot was 
milled down its length, running into the hole, as shown in Fig. 
56. It was then hardened. The mandrel was a piece of Stubs 
steel, round, .350 inch in diameter, with a groove milled down its 
entire length, 3-32 inch deep, by 5-32 inch plus two thicknesses 
of metal wide. This was drawfiled very smooth, and hardened, 





FIG. 55. DIE FOR BENDING. 



FIG. 56. DIE FOR CURLING 
AND LOCKING. 



leaving the edges of the groove sharp. I was the stripper, y% inch 
thick. When in use the stripper I was thrown over on pin O, 
and the thumb-screw P tightened, thus holding it in place. The 
hole in the stripper was a nice fit on the mandrel, which was 
necessary, as otherwise the metal would curl up or bruise at 
the ends. It was of tool steel, and was hardened so as to wear 
well. 

When the die was in use the mandrel, Fig. 57, was inserted 
within the die through the stripper, and the handle L turned until 
a mark placed on the handle corresponded with one on the die, 
thus showing that the groove in the mandrel was in line with the 
punch G. The strip of metal, Fig. 53, is then inserted into the die 




SIMPLE DIES FOR SHOP USE. 59 

from the side, and with the side which has been formed resting 
in the groove in the mandrel. The handle L is turned one com- 
plete turn, which curls the metal and brings the groove 
again in line with the punch, which now descends and 
enters the groove in the mandrel, and bends and forces 
the other edge of the metal into the groove, thereby 
completing a tight and perfect grooved tube with sharp 
edges and corners. The mandrel is then pulled out, 
by hand, through the stripper, leaving the tube in the 
die, from which it is easily removed by throwing back 
the stripper and pushing it out. Some may think this 
slow work, but, as they say, results tell. There was 
not the slightest variation in size over the entire length 
of the tube, each and every one being the same with 
a good tight joint. Also, as the metal was drawn 
around the mandrel, it came out smooth and clean. To 
attain these results a good finish on all working parts, 
sharp edges on the punch dies and mandrel were 
necessary, as well as hardening and drawing them carefully. 

Adoption of Simple Dies in the Machine Shop. 

In stating at the beginning of this chapter that the tools shown 
in it were applicable and can be used to advantage in the machine 
shop, the inference to be taken is this : There are throughout 
the country a number of small shops where duplicate small parts 
of standard shape and size are being constantly made for various 
special machines and attachments, and what is important about 
them, "they are being produced by the same old means in the 
same old way. The adaptation of tools and devices of the kind 
shown in this chapter for producing or finishing this class of 
work whenever possible, that is, using sheet metal blanks in- 
stead of castings where practical would cause some of the people 
that run such shops to open their eyes and double their produc- 
tion. It is a common sight when strolling through a small ma- 
chine shop in any of the up-to-date localities to see a couple of 
power presses punching away and producing work that a few 
years ago was produced by drilling or cut out with a chisel, or 
filed or milled down to size. Another thing, in this age of close 
competition, in order to keep up with the "band" it is absolutely 
necessary to adopt any labor-saving tool or device that will be 
the means of increasing the output and the income. 



6o 



DIES/ THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



An Inclinable Press. 

For general press work in a machine shop an inclinable power 
press should be used. It should be of sufficient strength to cover 
a wide range of work. An inclinable power press can be used 
for a large variety of work for which presses that are not in- 
clinable cannot, as it is possible to adjust them from an upright 
to an incline position by a few turns of the wrench, thus facilitat- 
ing the discharge of work from dies in which the finished work is 
delivered at the top, when the work will slide off by gravity. 




FIG. 58. INCLINABLE POWER PRESS FOR GENERAL WORK. 



CHAPTER III. 
"GANG''' AND "FOLLOW" DIES, HOW TO ADAPT AND USE THEM. 

The Use of ''Gang" and "Follow" Dies. 

For the production of small sheet metal articles which are 
required to be pierced, bent, formed or stamped at one or more 
points, the dies used should be, whenever possible, of the "gang" 
or "follow'' type, i. e., dies in which gangs of punches and dies 
are assembled and located so that the results desired in the 
finished blanks will be accomplished in one operation progres- 
sively. It is only by the use of such dies that small sheet metal 
articles can be produced in large quantities at a profit. All too 
frequently dies of the plain or single type are used, and three or 
more sets of dies are required where the same results could be ac- 
complished in one operation. Where sheet metal articles or parts 
are required in large quantities an operation saved means a great 
deal, and if two operations can be saved, even at the outlay 
of considerable money and time, the results attained will more 
than pay for all. 

A Simple Gang Die and Its Work. 

The piece, Fig. 59, is made of 1-16 inch hard sheet brass, and 
is used, after being formed and bent to the shape shown in Fig. 
60, as a buckle clasp for leather belts. The blank has two holes 



f 


__ 


o" 






C 






The 




B 


Wank 






C 







O^ 



FIG. 59. BLANK AS CUT. 




FIG. 60. BLANK AS FORMED. 



C C and a long square-ended slot at B. The two holes C C were 
required to be of different sizes in different lots of blanks, and 
for this reason the gang die for producing them was made so 



62 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



as to allow of this. The punch and die are shown in Fig. 6i 
The die Q is laid out in the regular way from templet, and the 
blanking die is worked out at R to lines and so that the templet 
will fit at the top, giving it only slight clearance so as to 
allow of frequent grinding without changing the size and 




FIG. 6l. SIMPLE GANG DIE. 

shape of the blanks to any extent. The oblong piercing die S 
is finished as shown. The round piercing dies were not made 
in the usual way. They were two hardened and ground and 
lapped bushings TT forced into counterbored holes in the die 
plate. After drilling and tapping the holes for the stripper 
plate screws L L, and letting in those for the two gage plate 



"GANG" AND "FOLLOW" DIES. 63 

dowels M M and the stop pin O, the die was hardened and 
tempered in the usual way, drawing it to a light straw. 

The construction of the punch is slightly different from the 
general practice. The holder E is of cast iron with the stem 
to fit the press plunger and the face finished square and true 
with it, for the machine steel pad F, within which the oblong 
piercing punch H and the blanking punch G are located. These 
punches were roughed out in the shaper and then sheared 
through the dies and finished with the file. They were both 
hardened and drawn to a dark-blue temper and then let into 
the pad and upset at the back, as shown. The construction of 
the small piercing dies and punches as shown allows a change, 
to pierce holes of different sizes, with very little trouble. The 
use of hardened and tempered Stubs wire lengths for the 
piercing punches was satisfactory and economical, as when one 
broke another could be substituted for the old one in short order. 
The same thing can be said of the use of hardened, lapped 
and ground bushings for the piercing dies, as when one becomes 
chipped or sheared another can be located with very little trouble. 

A Gang Die for a Sheet Metal Bracket. 
The piece shown in Fig. 62, to be made in this die, was of 




x B B 



FIG. 62. BLANK. 




CD 



FIG. 63. PLAN OF PUNCH. 



i-i6-inch sheet brass, and was pierced, the wings B B thrown 
up, and the piece blanked in one operation. There were to be 
four small holes in the piece, one at each end and one in the 
end of each wing. 

At first a templet of sheet steel was made to the exact 
shape of the outside of Fig. 62, and the four holes drilled. The 
inside of the templet (except for the holes) was left intact. 
The die A was then bluestoned on the face and three outlines 



6 4 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



of the templet transferred to it with a sharp scriber, getting 
them all in line with 1-16 inch space between them. The small 
holes were also marked off in each outline made. These holes 
were then drilled and those on the right-hand end were enlarged 








' o 


nO if X 7 ! 
Face of Die ^ w \^X 


F S~~ 


"""N p B H 


c-i( 


) C c |.| c ) o o o O B 


V 


i 






' G OQ 


i(T) 



FIG. 64. VERTICAL SECTION OP PUNCH AND DIE AND PLAN OF DIE. 

and reamed to 3-32 inch, and tapered as shown. In the center 
outline the inner holes were enlarged and reamed to l / inch, 
thus forming the ends of the dies for blanking and throwing 
up the wings. These wing shapes were then worked out as 



AND "FOLLOW" DIES. 65 

shown at C C, with a rib between them at E. Using the center 
of the two inner holes in the last outline and enlarging them 
to the width of the templet, the stock between them was 
machined away, tapering about one degree, until the templet 
was let through from the back. The edges of the rib E were 
slightly rounded to allow the metal to bend over easily. The 
hole for the stop pin F, and those for the screws I, were drilled 
and tapped, after which the die was hardened and drawn to a 
light straw temper and the face ground. 

The construction of the punch is plainly shown, and no 
description is necessary, except a few words relative to the 
punch M M for blanking and bending the two wings B B. This 
punch was made in one piece, as shown, with the slot N in 
the center enlarged, so as to leave space for a thickness of 
metal to lie in freely between it and the rib of the die. The 
face was sheared inwardly from each end ; this was done so as 
to cut and start to bend at the same time. The punch was 
hardened and drawn to a light straw at the cutting face and 
a blue above it. The locating of the punches in the pad was 
accomplished in the manner described in Chapter I. 

When in use, this punch and die were set up in the press, 
and the strip of metal to be worked was inserted in the chan- 
nel between the gage plates G G and against the stop pin. The 
first two blanks were waste. The holes being pierced, the strip 
was moved along one space, and the wings M M cut and bent 
into the die C C, the space in the slot N allowing them to lie 
within it. The strip was then moved another space and the 
punch O blanked out the finished piece, as shown at X and Y. 

Dies of this construction are used quite extensively where 
several operations are necessary to produce the finished piece. 
The manner shown of holding and riveting the punches within 
the pad is more reliable and conducive of good results than 
another way of fastening by set screws, though taking more 
time and skill in locating. 

A Gang Die for Metal Tags. 

Figs. 65 and 66 show another of the type of die shown in 
Fig. 64. It is used to produce the pronged metal tag shown 
in Fig. 67. As shown in the blank, the operations consist of, 
first, piercing the three holes T T T, then cutting and bending 1 



66 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



the three prongs V V V, and, lastly, punching out the finished 
blank to the shape and size shown. The cast iron holder and 




FIG. 65. CROSS-SECTION AND PLAN VIEWS OF PUNCH. 

method of fastening the punches are the same as described 
in the other, and the method of construction carried out in both 







F 




w 



o 



O 

Y 



V 
O 



FIG. 66. PLAN OF PUNCH. 



YO 




FIG. 67. METAL TAG. 



punch and die is clearly shown in the engravings and can be 
intelligently understood without a detailed description. 

As will be seen this kind of a die will commend itself and 



GANG AND FOLLOW DIES. 67 

prove adaptable for the production of a large variety of different 
shapes of blanks, which are required to be pierced and bent at 
certain points, or wherever it may be necessary to throw tip or 
bend one or more portions of the blanks. These two types of 
dies cover a wide range of dies used in the general run of small 
sheet metal working, the design and principle of construction 
being pretty much the same in all of them. In the die shown 
in Figs. 65 and 66 it will be seen that the punches C C C are 
left taper at the cutting face so as to cut and commence to bend 
at the same time. The reason for leaving the smaller or more 
delicate punches shorter than the blanking punch is to allow 
of the blanking punch having entered the die before the others 
commence to cut. This steadies and strengthens them and 
eliminates, as far as possible, the tendency to break or snap off, 
which is a frequent occurrence when all are left the same length. 
All small punches should be tight fits in the stripper for the same 
reason. 




First Operation 



LJ 

Second Operation 



A Gang Die and Two Forming Dies for Umbrella Rib Tips. 

The dies herein described and illustrated were used for 
producing umbrella rib tips of black tin .010 inch thick, and 
they illustrate in their design and construction many practical 
points which can be adopted to ad- 
vantage in the rapid production of 
various small sheet metal parts. 
The three operations necessary to 
produce the rib tip are shown in 
Fig. 68. The first operation com- 
prises piercing the two holes a a, 
forming the two sides b b and 
punching out the blank to the shape 
shown. The punch and die for the 
first operation are shown in Fig. 69, 
which gives a vertical longitu- 
dinal section of both, and in Fig. 

70, which shows a plan of the punch. The punch and die are 
of the gang type and are constructed to produce two finished 
blanks with each stroke of the press, and as the stock to be 
punched is very thin, it was far cheaper and more expedient to 
produce the blanks this way than by two separate dies. 



Third Operation 



FIG. 68. UMBRELLA 
RIB TIP. 



68 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



The die was made first, and, after being planed and fitted 
to the bolster, the face was ground and polished and six out- 
lines of the templet transferred to it, getting them in the rela- 
tive position and all exactly the same distance apart, as shown 
in Fig. 69. The two blanking dies M M were then worked out 
by letting the templet through them, and the four piercing dies 
O, Fig. 69, were finished. The two forming dies N N were 
then finished to the shape of the face of the blank, Fig. 68, by 
first using a round face end mill to rough out and then a graver ; 
they were then lapped and polished on the drill press. After 




FIG. 69. CROSS SECTIONS OF PUNCH AND DIE FOR BLANKS. 

the hole for the stop pin L and those for the stripper screws 
and gage plate, dowels were let in and tapped as required, 
the die was hardened and drawn slightly, leaving it as hard as 
possible without danger of cracking or chipping. The piercing 
dies were then lapped to size, and the face of the die ground 
and oilstoned. 

The punch consists of the cast iron holder H, and the pad 
D, of machine steel, in which the punches are located. The two 
blanking punches were made first and finished to size by shear- 
ing them through the dies M M, leaving them a tight fit, as 
the metal to be punched necessitated. Both punches were left 



"GANG" AND "FOLLOW" DIES. 69 

soft and let into the pad D, as shown. The four piercing punches 
were got out and located within the pad, as shown, transferring 
the holes for them through the dies O, and then enlarging them 
to the size required. The two forming punches F F were of 
pieces of square tool steel, first let into the pad and the face of 
each then worked away to fit within the dies N N. These two 
punches were the only ones hardened, as, by leaving the blank- 
ing and piercing punches soft, and having the die as hard 
as possible, it could be worked steadily for a long time with- 
out being ground. After the stripper plate I and the two 
gage plates J J were located and fastened on the face of the 
die and the gage pin L let in, the punch and die were set up 
in the press. 

The metal to be punched came in rolls of the proper width, 

Plan of Punch 




FIG. 70. SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF PIERCING, FORMING 
AND BLANKING PUNCHES. 



and was set on a reel at the side of the press. The end was 
fed against the stop pin L. For the first two strokes the four 
blanks produced were waste, but after that two complete blanks 
were produced at each stroke. As will be seen, the two blank- 
ing punches E E and the four piercing punches G are left longer 
than the two forming punches ; this is so that the metal will be 
held securely while the forming punches are drawing it, thereby 
allowing the metal to be drawn sideways without disturbing the 
relation of the operations to any extent and also allowing of 
upsetting the piercing and blanking punches when they become 
dull. 

For the second operation, that of bending and forming the 
blank to the shape shown in the center drawing of Fig. 68, the 
punch and die shown in Fig. 71 were used. It is what might 
be called a common push-through die, and is about the simplest 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



and cheapest that could be adopted. The punch holder P is of 
cast iron and is fitted to the ram of the foot press. The face 
is dovetailed to admit the punch Q. The face R" of the punch 
is rounded to the proper radius to which the tips are to be finished 
that is, one-half of a circle as shown. The die T is fitted to 
the bolster X and is worked out at U in width two thicknesses 
of metal wider than the punch. The gage plate S is fastened 
to the face of the die and worked out at V to allow the blanks 
to fit nicely. ' The edges of the die are slightly rounded and 
the inside polished smooth. Both punch and die are hardened 
and drawn slightly. 

For the last operation the punch and die shown in Fig. 72 





FIG. 71. SECOND OPERATION 
DIE. 



FIG. 72. TOOLS FOR THIRD 
OPERATION. 



are used. This operation consists of finishing the tip and closing 
it around the rib c, Fig. 68, so that the two eyelets a a of the 
blank will match. The punch Y and the die, after being finished 
all over and fitted to holder and bolster, have the faces ground, 
and are then clamped together, and a hole drilled and reamed 
through them, so that a perfect half-circle will remain in each 
face. A half-round groove is then let into the center of the 
punch face and the edges are rounded; this acts as an inlet and 
sizer for the eyelets. Both punch and die are hardened. To set 
this punch and die in line with each other the gage shown at 




"GANG . AND FOLLOW DIES. /I 

the right of Fig. 72 is used, the portion E E fitting the half-circle 
of each and the tit D D fitting within the groove in the punch. 
One of the second operation pieces is placed on the die, resting 
within the portion B B and against a stop at the back. The rod 
on which it is to be fastened is then laid within it, thereby serving 
as a horn. The punch descending forms the tip to a perfect 
circle, rivets it on the rod, or rib, and sizes the eyelets a a. 

A Gang Die for an Odd-shaped Piece. 

As an illustration of what can be accomplished by the use 
of a gang die of comparatively simple design and inexpensive 
construction we show here a punch and die adaptable for the 
production of a large variety of pierced and 
formed articles. The product of this die is 
shown in two views in Fig. 73. It is 
punched from hard sheet brass with a cen- 
tral hole pierced at a, four pear-shaped holes 
b, and the ends c split and bent downward 

as shown. Three operations are required, J^G. 73. THE 

but as they are all combined in the one die BLANK. 

there is practically only one operation., pro- 
ducing one complete piece at each stroke of the press. 

The two lower illustrations in Fig. 74 are a plan and vertical 
section of the die, and the upper two the same of the punch. 
The stock used for the die was of the composite iron and steel 
kind, which has been found to give the best results, especially 
in dies where two or more portions are worked out, and which 
are irregular in shape, as when hardening the tendency to shrink 
or warp excessively is eliminated. EEEE are the four pear- 
shaped dies, F F the splitting and bending dies, and G the round 
piercing die, while H is the blanking die. All of the dies are 
worked out straight for about 5-16 inch in depth and then 
tapered away for clearance. 

\Yhile explaining the construction of the die, a few remarks 
as to the best method of laying out a die of this type so as to 
insure accurate location may not be amiss. In the first place., 
finish the templet, Fig. 75, to the exact size and shape required, 
with all pierced holes to size and shape and in the exact posi- 
tion, only leaving two points on the outer edges of the blank 
unfinished. These points are for locating the outlines of the 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




r ^s^pj 




N 



M 






_ 





G E E 



I ' i I 



11 F 



CO ( H 




FIG. 74. GANG DIE FOR AN ODD-SHAPED PIECE. 



GANG AND FOLLOW DIES. 



73 



different operations square with the side of the die and in line 
with each other, and also to get the same amount of space 
between the different operations or the same amount of scrap 
between the blanks, as if this is not done accurately the locating 
of the stop pin is impossible. The unfinished points on the tem- 
plet are at A and B respectively, the part A being bent and 
finished to allow of resting it against the inclined side of the 
die, and the edge of B finished to project from the side of the 
templet the same distance as the amount of metal to be left 
between the blanks. 

We grind the face of the die, bluestone it and locate the 
templet on it for the first outline H, which is the blanking die, 
holding the part A against the side of the die and clamping 
the templet to the face with a die-maker's clamp and then with 





FIG. 75. THE TEMPLET. 



FIG. 76. SECTION OF STOCK. 



a sharp scriber transferring the outline to the face of the die. 
This done we move the templet along until the edge of B is 
in line with outline of the opposite side, clamp it in position 
and with a sharp center drill, which should fit nicely in the hole 
a, drill the center for the piercing die G and transfer the out- 
line of the blank as before. We move the templet once more, 
relocate the edge B and scribe the outlines of the four pear- 
shaped dies E E E E. The templet is now removed. Now 
drill and ream the hole for the piercing die G, lay out the two 
splitting and bending dies F F from the center of G and from 
the sides of the blank outline. We then remove the projecting 
parts A and B, so as to have the templet perfect. The die can 
now be finished in the usual manner, first the blanking die, 
working to lines, and letting the templet through it, then the 
splitting dies F F and lastly the pear-shaped dies E. After dril!- 



74 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



ing the holes for the screws N N and the gage and stripper 
plate dowels M M and also that for the stop pin I, the die should 
be hardened. 

The upper two views of Fig. 74 show a plan and section of 
the punch, with all punches let into a machine steel pad and 
upset or riveted on the back, as shown. O is the stem or punch 
holder, P the punch pad which is fastened to the holder face 
by the four screws W and located by the dowel pins X. U is 
the blanking punch with the pilot pin in the center at V, S S the 
splitting and bending punches, T the round piercing punch, and 
Q Q O Q the four pear-shaped piercing punches. The only 
punches hardened were the two S S, and they were drawn to 
a dark blue. 

In Fig. 76 is shown a section of the stock used. The stock 
is fed in so as to project slightly over the edge of the blanking 




FIG. 77- HOW THE) BEJND- 
ING IS DONE. 



FIG. 78. BLANK AS 
PRODUCED. 



die H, and as the punch descends the end is trimmed and the 
other holes are pierced. At the next stroke the blank produced 
is useless, as it is incomplete, but after that a perfect blank of 
the shape shown in Fig. 73, and with the ends c c split and bent 
to the angle shown, is produced at each stroke. The manner 
of splitting and bending the ends is shown in Fig. 77. As shown 
in the sectional view of the punch, Fig. 74, the blanking punch is 
considerably longer than the others. This is done so that the 
blank will have been located and punched out before the other 
punches start to cut, thus insuring the accurate locating of the 
stock. This leaving the blanking punch longer than the others, 
has been found practical for all dies of this class, as it makes 
the punching of the stock progressive, and also holds and locates 
it positively. When the piercing and blanking punches require 
grinding, which shortens them, to accommodate the two split- 



GANG AND FOLLOW DIES. 



75 



ting- and bending punches S S to them, the pad P is removed, 
the punches S S are driven partly out and filed off at the back 
the required amount, then driven back and re-riveted as before, 
this being possible as the backs are soft. 

A Gang Die for Producing the Blank of a Compass Sliding 

Bracket. 

The punch and die for producing the blank shown in Fig. 
78 are shown in Figs. 79 and 80, Fig. 79 showing a longitudinal 
cross-section of both, and Fig. 80 a plan . view of the die, in 




1 



1 

m 



;M 




IP 



FIG. 79. CROSS-SECTION OF GANG DIE). 

which can be clearly seen the tension buttons P P which are used 
to keep the stock firmly against the back gage plate as it is 
fed along. 

As the stock to be punched was quite thin, and had to be 
produced with nice clean edges at all points, perfectly free from 
burrs and fins, the punch and die had to be constructed accu- 
rately ; and as the article was to be produced in large numbers, 
it was necessary to finish both in a manner favorable to their 
longevity. The method of construction followed out in the die 



7 6 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



can be clearly understood from the cross-section view Fig. 79 
and the plan view Fig. 80. O O are the piercing dies, N N the 
cutting and bending dies for the wings, and M the blanking 
die. When laying out, spacing and finishing these, great care 
was taken to space them correctly and finish each in the proper 
relation to the others. Very little clearance was given, finishing 
them almost straight. As the two wings a a of the blank, Fig. 
78, are cut and bent 'into the dies N N, the gage plates 1 1 of 
the die are required to be of unusual height to allow of the 
stock being fed along with ease. The holes in the stripper 
plate for the two piercing punches are finished dead in line 
with the die O O, so as to be a tight fit for the punches, which, 



K 



M 



-/p 

Jfi 



FIG. 80. PLAN OF DIE. 

being rather frail, would not stand up well if they were not 
strengthened in this manner. The insides of the die were all 
finished as smoothly as possible and polished before and after 
hardening. After hardening the face of the die was ground, 
after which it was drawn and then oilstoned to a keen edge at 
all cutting points. 

The construction of the punch is clearly shown in the cross- 
section, Fig. 79, and requires no description to be understood. 
The dotted lines within the dies N N show clearly the manner 
in which the wings a a of the blank are cut and bent. At a a the 
punches have commenced to cut and bend the wings ; c c show 
the faces of the punch when they have entered the dies the 
full depth, and d d the wings as bent and finished. All of the 
punches were hardened. The blanking punch D and the two 
piercing punches F F were drawn to a dark blue temper. The 



GANG AND FOLLOW DIES. 



77 



cutting and bending punch G G was tempered differently. It 
was first heated, and hardened in clear oil, dipping it from the 
back, and thus preventing as far as possible the two legs GG 
from crawling in toward each other because of the channel 
between them. By dipping from the back this was overcome, 
as by the time the cutting face was immersed the back was 
hard and set. It was then polished and tempered by drawing 
from the back to a dark blue to within y\ inch of the cutting 
faces and quenched when these portions were a dark straw. 

Dies of the design and construction described in this chapter 
should always be used when the articles required are desired in 
large quantities, as their use will allow of the attainment of 
results in one operation which would otherwise require more 
to produce. For the production of sheet metal novelties in large 





I Piece Produced in one 

1 Operation at the Rate 

of 100 a Minute 



FIG. Si. SECTION OF STOCK. 



quantities it is possible to design a die that will accomplish in 
one operation that which usually requires two or three, and as 
the saving of even one operation in the production of sheet metal 
parts, which are often turned out to the million mark, adds con- 
siderable to the margin of profit, the dies which will produce 
them in the shortest time are the ones to use. 

A "Follow Die" Which Draws, Pierces, End-Finishes, Cuts Off 
and Bends in One Operation. 

The "follow die" here shown was used for producing parts 
of sheet tin of the shape shown in the three views of Fig. 82. 
These pieces were required in large quantities, and were used 
for fastening the corners of thin wooden boxes, such as grape 
crates, baskets, small packing boxes, and so on. As the 
number of these tin fasteners required every season exceeds 
twenty millions, the necessity for producing them as rapidly 
and as cheaply as possible is at once obvious. We may say before 



7o DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

describing the die that the shop in which it was made and used 
makes a specialty of sheet metal articles for which the demand 
is enormous, and that their chief concern is to produce these 
articles as cheaply as possible. Expense in the constructing 
of a die means very little to them if it will reduce the number 
of operations in the production of the part required. In this 
establishment dies of every type imaginable have been improved 
in every manner possible, so that sheet metal articles, which in 
numbers of other shops would require two or more operations 
to produce, are here produced in a single operation. The types 
of dies which have improved the most, and from which the best 
results have been secured, are of the "gang" and "follow" types, 




FIG. 83. "FOLLOW DIE " COMPLETE. 

numbers of which work upon a strip of stock from five to eight 
times before the finished piece drops off the die. 

To produce the fasteners as shown it is necessary to draw 
two rings at A A, pierce the central hole B, finish the ends C C 
to angles of 45 degrees, cut off 4he blank and then bend it to 
the shape shown. In Fig. 83 the manner in which these separate 
workings of the metal follow each other can be clearly seen. 
The punch, or male die, consists of the usual cast iron holder, 
and the machine steel pad in which the punches are located and 
secured. The first punch is that which draws the two rings 



GANG AND FOLLOW DIES. 



79 



A A and at the same time flattens the stock ; the second is the 
piercing punch which pierces 'the hole B; the third punch is 
the end-finishing and cutting-off punch, while the last acts in 
the double capacity of spring pad and bending punch. The 
construction and relative position of the punches require no 
description. 

The die is in one piece, made in the usual manner, except 



tripper 



Die Block 
















1 


@) O Dowei Pin O \ 

^22 W Dowel Piu \ 
Gauge Plate <~ t jl \ 


U.earancf 
Way for 
Finished 
Pieces 


. 


1' Drawing -~ .-^ \i/"* 
AsQ Piercl ^(0) JL 
, - 7^-s ' Die ,~\ ( Punch ^ 


^-V\ 


stop!'^! 


/-_^.\ A-.-^-X 
r^^'"[f If"' Tensio:l Button'" 2? fT^Tensiou Button 




1> 








V* ~ 







c 



FIG. 84. PLAN OF DIE. 

for the bending die, which consists of a square milled channel 
across the face to the depth shown, and which is equipped with 
a spring pad for holding the metal while it is being cut off by 
the end-finishing punch, and for stripping the finished work 
from the die as the punch rises. As shown in the plan of the 
die, Fig. 84, the gage plate is located by two dowel pins, and 




FIG. 85. PLAN OF PUNCH. 

has a clearance channel let through it in line with the bending 
die as an exit for the finished work, which, as the press is in- 
clined, drops out at the back as soon as it is stripped from the 
die. As shown, the die is equipped with two tension bottoms 
which keep the strip of stock against the gage plate and in 
line with different dies. When in use the punch and die are in 
the relative positions shown in Fig. 83. The drawing and flat- 



8o 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



tening punch is the shortest, this being necessary to allow the 
other punches to do their work. 

The metal is fed by an automatic roll feed. At the first 
stroke of the press the two rings A A are drawn and the stock 
is flattened; at the next hole B is pierced and one of the ends C 
trimmed ; at the third stroke the bending punch, acting as a 
spring pad, holds the metal while the other end is being finished 
and the piece cut off,, the punch continuing to descend until the 
bending* punch strikes the face of the holder, when the metal is 
bent into the bending die. As the punch rises the bending punch 
is forced outward by the spring at the back and the finished 
work is stripped from the die by the spring pad. This die pro- 
duced 75,000 of the pieces shown in a working day of ten hours. 

A Complete Set of Dies for the Manufacture of Sheet Metal 

Hinges. 

The set of dies here described was made in one of the largest 
sheet metal goods establishments in New York. The dies were 




FIG. 86. LATCH PORTION. 




I BF ] 
FIG. 87. ATTACHABLE PORTION. 




FIG. 88. HINGE COMPLETE. 



used for manufacturing sheet metal hinges and latches for grape 
crates, and they represent the highest attainment in the adapta- 
tion of different types of dies for the production of sheet metal 
parts at a minimum cost. There is a demand for over 8,000,000 
of these hinges and latches annually. 

Six dies are required to produce the hinges, and, as the illus- 
trations have been made as clear as possible, their design,, con- 



GANG AND FOLLOW DIES. 



8l 



struction and operation will be clearly understood with a very 
slight description. 

There are three different parts to be made the latch portion, 
Fig. 86; the attachable portion, Fig. 87, and the hinge proper, 
I, in Fig. 88. Fig. 86 is of cold rolled stock, about 1-32 inch 
thick. As this stock comes in rolls of the required width, it 
is not necessary to do any blanking. The operations to produce 
this part are the piercing of the small hole A and the long one 
G, drawing, and forming the margin around it at B B, rounding 
one end and notching the other at E, cutting off the piece, and, 
lastly, bending the notched end to a right angle, as shown at 
D. All this is accomplished by a gang of punches and dies of 




FIG. 89. "FOLLOW DIE " COMPLETE FOR PRODUCING 
THE LATCH, FIG. 86. 

the "follow" type. The metal is fed through the die auto- 
matically, and as the press is inclined the finished work drops 
off into a receptacle at the back. 

The die is shown complete in Fig. 89, while Fig. 90 shows a 
plan of the punch and die. The die plate in which are contained 
the entire gang of dies (the drawing die being separated and 
inserted to allow of grinding) is hardened and drawn very little, 
while all the punches, except the drawing and bending punches, 
are left soft. When the face of the die plate is ground the draw- 
ing die also is removed and ground on the bottom. 

The manner in which the stock is fed through this die, and 
the various operations performed until the^ finished piece drops 
off at the back, can be understood from Fig. 89, in which is 
shown a strip of stock lying along the die plate. First, the 



82 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



small hole A and the long one C are pierced. At the next 
.stroke the margin B B is drawn and formed, and end D is 
notched at E by the cutting-off and end-finishing punch. At the 
next stroke the punch descends and the spring pad holds the 
metal securely while the notched end is being bent by the bending 
punch and the finished piece cut off. 

For producing the part shown in Fig. 87 a die of the same 
type and design as the one shown in Fig. 89 is used, the only 
difference being in the construction and arrangement of the 



Piercing Punches 



Plan of Punc 




(j] 



Gauge Plate 



('Piercinj Dieu^ 
(s)C J 



*==*= 

ening' /. 



,f^\ Drawing and Flattening' 

(Cv) Plan of Die Die (( 

^/ Gauge Plate N 




PIG. 90. SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF PUNCHES AND DIBS FOR THE 
DIFFERENT OPERATIONS. 

punches and dies for piercing the three holes G G G, drawing the 
rib F F and bending the end H. 

As shown in the finished hinge, Fig. 88, the two ends of the 
wire are formed so that they will project about y% inch beyond 
the side. This is done so that when the end D of the part shown 
in Fig. 86 is curled over the wire, the projecting ends of the 
wire will locate within the notch E, Fig. 86. The piece will 
thus be fastened permanently to one portion, and the other will 
turn on the wire. 

The result of the first operation in the production of this 
wire, here called the hinge, is shown at the right of the top view 
in Fig. 91. 

In this figure are also shown two views of the punch and 



GANG AND FOLLOW DIES. 83 

<lie used to produce this result. In this die the wire is fed auto- 
matically from a reel, and a piece is cut off and bent to the 
shape shown at the right, at each stroke of the press. In the 
die, L is the bolster, G the bending die, I the cutting die, and 
K the stripper, while H is the plate beneath which the wire 
is fed. In the punch, A is the holder, B the bending punch, E 
the spring pad which holds the wire tightly upon the die while 
it is being cut and bent, and C the spring. The lower figure, 




FIG. 91. PUNCH AND DIE FOR FIRST OPERATION ON WIRE HINGE. 



an end cross-section of the punch and die, shows the stripping 
arrangement. As the punch descends the stripper or knock-out 
R is drawn backward by the inclined figure N engaging the pin 
M. As the punch ascends the knock-out pin R plunges out- 
ward, and, as the press is inclined, the work is thrown off the 
punch and falls down the inclined way into a box. The rapidity 
with which a punch and die of this type can be worked, when 



8 4 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



equipped with an automatic stripper or knock-out of this con- 
struction and an automatic feed, is astonishing. 

The second operation on the hinge is by the punch and die, 





FIG. 92. PUNCH AND DIE FOR SECOND BEND, SHOWING 
AUTOMATIC STRIPPER. 



Fig. 92. A stripper of the same construction as in Fig. 91 is used, 
but, as will be seen, conditions are reversed, and instead of the 
stripper being fastened and located upon the die it is upon the 
punch, while the inclined finger by which it is worked is located 



GANG AND 



DIES. 



upon the back of the die bolster. The punch consists of the 
holder S, the bending punch T and the stripper X. In the die, 
Z is the bolster, W the bending die, VV the two adjustable 
gage plates, between which the work U is located, and Y Y the 
inclined fingers which work the stripper. 

When in use the wire as bent in the first operation is placed 





FIG. 93. LAST BENDING OPERATION. 



between the gage plates V V. The punch descending strikes 
the wire and bends it into the die, while the ends spring upward 
and hug the punch, thus producing the shape shown at the left. 
As the punch ascends the knock-out pin X hits the work and 
it is thrown off the punch. 

The means used for the third operation on the wire hinge 
are shown in Figs. 93 and 94. In Fig. 93 the work is in position 

x 

ERSiTY I 



86 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



as it appears before the punch descends. In this figure are also 
shown plans of the punch and die. Fig. 94 is a cross-section of 
the working parts of the punch and die as they appear when 
the punch has descended and the work is finished. 

The punch consists of a machine-steel holder J, the face of 
which is dovetailed at K K to admit the two tool-steel forming 
slides M M, which have a stiff spring between them at N. L L 
are the stop screws for the slides, which are forced against 
them by the spring at N. The slides are hardened and tempered. 

In the die Q is the bolster in which the tool-steel locator O 
is fastened, and the adjustable roller brackets S S are located. 
The rollers R R are of tool steel, hardened and ground. The 
work is fed to the die and removed when finished by a fork in 
the hands of the operator. 

For the last operation in the production of these articles, 







FIG. 94. SHOWING COMPLETION OF THE BEND. 

that of "wiring" the bent ends of the sheet metal portions around 
the wire hinge, a punch and die of a decidedly novel design are 
used, shown in Fig. 95. This is a heavy bolster with a standard 
at each end as bearings for the shaft of an octagon die, which 
is made with eight locating surfaces for the work to allow the 
press being run continually and the work being located upon 
the surfaces by the operator without the danger of clipping his 
fingers. The die is rotated automatically by a combination of 
an index wheel, a pawl and connecting rod, one end of the rod 
being attached to an adjustable stud in the T-slot in the press 
shaft, and the other as shown. The manner in which the work 
is located and finished can be seen in the front view, in which 
are shown three hinges in position, the lower one being the 
one last located by the operator and the top one as being "wired" 
and finished by the punch. As the octagon die is rotated the 
finished work is carried away from the die and drops off at 



7 

the back, while the next one is then ready and fed to position 
directly beneath the punch. 

By the use of this set of dies hinges of the type shown are 




produced to sell for one cent apiece. Twelve sets, each set con- 
sisting of a hinge, latch and hasp, are sold for thirty cents. 



05 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

An Automatic Combination Piercing, Bending and Tztisting Die 
for Box Corner Fasteners. 

The pieces shown in half-tone, Fig. 96, are sheet metal box 
corner fasteners. They are produced at a cost so small that 
they are used instead of nails or screws. The manner in 





FIG. 96. BOX FASTENERS. 

which they are used is shown in Fig. 97. The fastener is 
held against one side of the box by hand and points are driven 




F IG . 97. HOW THE BOX FASTENERS ARE APPLIED. 

into the wood. The fastener is then bent at right angles and 
the points in the other end are driven into the other side of the 
box 1 . 



"GANG" AND "FOLLOW" DIES. 



89 



The half-tones show fasteners of two different types. The 
longer one has three prongs projecting straight at each end, 
while the short one has four prongs at each end, and where in 
the longer one the prongs are straight, in the other they are 
twisted to an angle of 45 degrees. Fasteners of this last type 
are used for heavier boxes than the others, the greater number 
of prongs and the twist in them making it a much stronger 
fastener. 

The die here shown is used for making the short fasteners 




i T ' r r f 




H i 

.,_,,,...... .,-. :....J 










1 N 


LTjTjL 


M MLM. 




FIG. 98. COMBINATION PIERCING, BENDING AND TWISTING PUNCH AND DIE. 

direct and complete from a roll of metal. The various opera- 
tions are accomplished in the "follow" order. That is, first the 
holes are pierced and the prongs are bent up, then the prongs 
are twisted to the .angle required, and, lastly, the ends are 
rounded and a finished fastener is cut off. The manner in which 
these different operations are accomplished and the relative loca- 
tion of the means used for each can be seen in the sectional 
view, Fig. 98. In this die the usual conditions are reversed, and 
the "punch" as usually applied is the "die" and the die the 



9O DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

punch; so instead of calling them by their usual names we will 
refer to them as the upper and lower sections respectively, the 
section in the press bolster the lower section. 

In the upper section A is the holder, of machine steel. A 
forging E is the holder and carrier for the piercing and bending 
die plate I, in which are located the eight piercing and bending 
dies J and K. The construction of this portion of the upper 
section is such as to allow the die to descend and strike the 
metal and then remain stationary while the holes are being 
pierced and the prongs bent up into the dies by the gage of 




PIG. 99. END VIEW SHOWING SUB-PUKCH MOVEMENT. 

punches in the lower section, at the same time the rest of the up- 
per section continues to descend and perform the other two opera- 
tions on the advanced sections of the stock. The portion H, in 
the upper section, is the holder proper for the die plate B B, in 
which the eight twisting dies L and M are located and the end 
finishing and cutting-off punch N. The holder H is held in a 
dovetailed channel and permanently located in alignment with 
the lower section by a large taper pin D. 

In the lower section O acts as the die plate for the cutting 
die A A, and also as the stripping plate for the eight piercing 



GANG AND FOLLOW DIES. QF 

and bending punches Q and R. These eight punches are located 
in what might be called a sub-punch holder located under O in 
a large hole in the bolster and worked up and down automatically 
on two hardened and ground steel studs T T at a set of connect- 
ing levers, as shown in the end views, Fig. 99. All the parts 
used in this arrangement are of steel, the holder U and the three 
levers and bracket (which is fastened to the back of the ram) 
being forgings. The punch plate or pad S is fastened upon the 
sub-holder U by two dowels and four flat-head screws, as shown 






FIG. 100. PLAN OF UPPER AND LOWER SECTIONS OF FIG. 98. 

in the plate Fig. 100. The die plates I and B B also are fastened, 
upon their respective holders in the same manner. The eight 
piercing and bending dies are finished with about .003 inch clear- 
ance, and the die plate is hardened and drawn to a light straw 
temper. The eight twisting dies are simply eight narrow slits 
which are let through the die plate B B at an angle of 45 degrees 
with the front of the plate. The edges of these dies are 
slightly rounded so that the points of the prongs will enter them 
with ease. The die plate B B is hardened and drawn slightly, so- 
as to leave it as hard as possible. The end-finishing and cutting- 



92 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

off punch N is let into the holder H and upset and riveted at 
the back. The eight piercing and bending punches Q and R 
are inclined slightly on the cutting face and the back ends are 
rounded so that they will bend the prongs up into the dies ; the 
faces of the punches are one thickness of metal shorter than 
the dies, so as to allow for bending. 

The manner in which this die is used for the production of 
the fasteners with the twisted prongs is as follows : The strip of 
metal is shown at X, Fig. 98. At the first stroke of the press 
the eight prongs are pierced and bent upward by the sub-punches 
Q and R. The strip of metal is then fed along until the eight 
prongs are in the positions shown at Y, and at the next stroke 
they are twisted, and the first end of the fastener is rounded 
and trimmed by the punch N. At the next stroke the finished 
part is cut off and at each succeeding stroke a complete fastener 
is produced. , A die of the same design as this is used to produce 
the long fastener. It differs from it only in that there is no 
twisting operation provided for. The end view, Fig. 99, shows 
the automatic arrangement by which the sub-punches are worked. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE ADAPTATION AND USE OF SIMPLE DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES 
FOR THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTION OF SHEET METAL PARTS. 

The Power Press in Agricultural Machine Work. 

To anyone who has had the privilege of going through one 
of the various shops devoted to the manufacture of agricultural 
machinery, or of working in one for any length of time, the fact 
is evident that in them machine manufacturing has reached a 




FIG. 101. PRESS FOR PUNCHING 68 HOLES. 

point far ahead of the general run of machine practice. In. 
mowing and reaping machines a majority of the parts are of 
flat or round stock, fastened and assembled by riveting, as in 
the case of the wheels for such machines, the only cast part of 
which is the hub. 

During the summer of 1901 the author had the good fortune 
to spend some time in the shops of one of the largest agri- 
cultural manufacturing establishments in the United States, 
and while there he was struck by the methods of manu- 
facture ; so much so that he made note of a number of 



94 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

things which were interesting. The thing which impressed 
him the most was the rapidity with which the work was handled, 
sent through the different operations and assembled. Strange 
as it may seem the quickest and most satisfactory results and 
the most ingenious attachments and fixtures for the production 
-of the parts were accomplished by and used in the power press. 
Take, for instance, the wheels for the mowing and reaping 
machines. The tires for these wheels are of ribbed soft iron. 
They are first cut off to the required length, and then have 
the holes for the spokes, straps and fastening rivets punched in 
them. This in itself is an interesting operation and goes to 







FIG. 102. PRESS FOR PERFORATING HARVESTER TIRES, PUNCHING 
OVER TOO HOLES. 

show the large scale on which press work and punching is carried 
on in these shops. The tires before being rolled are almost 
10 feet long by 7 inches wide and % inch thick, and the num- 
ber of holes runs from eighty-one to ninety-three, all punched 
at one stroke of the press. The design and construction of the 
punches and dies for these tires entail a lot of accurate work, 
the punches being so placed and finished as to make the punching 
of the holes successive. The diameter of the holes is usually 
y% inch, and when it is considered that ninety-three of them 
are punched through %-inch stock at one stroke of the press 
the size and construction of the press can be imagined (see Fig. 
102). In this operation on the tires there was one little kink 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 



95 



which was particularly novel and labor-saving. The holes in 
the tires, into which the spokes are to be entered and riveted, 
are so punched as to be larger on one side than on the other; 
so that when the spokes are upset and riveted, the larger portion 
of the hole will be on the outside of the tire, and when the spoke 
is upset it fills in the hole and is finished flush with the tire, 
thereby fastening it permanently without the possibility of pull- 
ing out, and doing away with the necessity of countersinking, 
which would require another operation. This peculiarity of the 







FIG. 103. RIVETING CLEATS ON HARVESTER WHEEL TIRES. 



lioles is accomplished by making the dies somewhat larger than 
the punches. 

After the holes have been punched in the tire it is rolled 
to the required radius and the ends are brought together and 
fastened by riveting a wide strap en the inside. The spokes 
are then entered into the holes,, the two sections of the malleable 
iron hub are trued and fastened to them, and the ends of the 
spokes riveted within the tire (-see Fig. 103). The cross straps 
are then fastened to the outside of the tire, the hub is set and 
riveted and the wheel is complete. The different operations on 
the parts (except the hub) and the assembling and fastening 



96 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

of them together are all done in the power press, no screws being- 
used, all parts being riveted throughout. The foreman of the 
department in which the wheels were constructed told the author 
that the capacity of the department was 200 wheels for a day 
of ten hours, making the time for the complete finishing of 
each wheel three minutes, which is, to say the least, rapid pro- 
duction indeed, and to those who have never seen it done well- 
nigh impossible, while to those standing by and watching them 
being manufactured it is wonderful. 

Punching a Mild Steel Strap. 

As a simple instance of the use to which the power press 
is put in these shops we show in Fig. 104 two views of a mild 
steel strap finished complete to the shape shown, i. e., piercing 

the hole A at either end, cutting 



nesting Strap as Finished .la. the Power PglK Q ff J-Q ^g re q U i re d length 

iid steel H'thick IH" ^de &j' \o*sj finishing the ends to the radius 

shown in one operation. These 



FIG. 104. straps are used, when finished, 

on the wheel tires, there being 

sixteen to each tire ; the straps after being punched being formed 
in a separate operation to conform to the curve of the outside 
of the tire in such a manner as to allow of their being fastened 
at an angle of 45 degrees with the sides of them. The straps 
for the tire are finished to 6^4 inches long, but as a number of 
different lengths of straps, with holes in the same position and 
of the same size, are required for other parts of the machine, 
the one punch and die is constructed to allow it to be used for 
all of them. The design and construction of this punch and 
die are clearly shown in the vertical cross-section and in the 
plan of the die, Fig. 105. The steel used for the die T is of the 
half-iron and half-steel brand, and, as shown, is quite heavy. 
The use of this composite steel and iron for dies for punching 
heavy stock tends to the longevity of the die, and also gives 
better results when hardening, reducing the shrinkage to the 
minimum, and overcoming as far as possible the tendency to 
warp or crack. The stripping plate S is of heavy mild steel 
and is fastened (together with the gage plate O) to the die 
by means of two cap screws M M, and located by the two dowels 
N N. The holes in the stripper for the two piercing punches 
are countersunk, as shown, to allow the piercing punches to be 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 



97 



as short as possible. The gage plate is of 7-16 stock, planed on 
all sides and long enough to extend out from the left end of 
the die 13 inches. It has a slot cut down through the center 
at P, to admit the sliding stop R, which is fastened by the cap 
screw Q, thus allowing of adjusting the stop for different lengths 
of straps. 




Section of Punch and Uie 



Adjustable Stop- 
Adjustment,' 




FIG. 105. DIE FOR PIERCING AND CUTTING OFF HEAVY STOCK. 

The punch shown in Fig. 105 is made as rigid as possible, 
the cutting-off and finishing punch C, and the holder B, 
being a forging, the punch proper of tool steel and the holder 
of mild steel. The two piercing punches G and F respectively 
are of ^g-inch round annealed tool steel, let into the holder as 
shown and fastened by the set screws E E and the little inclined 



98 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

faced plugs which bear against the angular notch in the side of 
the punch. All punches for heavy stock, of the construction 
shown, should be fastened in this manner, as it is impossible for 
them to pull out. The small holes D D, in the back of the 
holder, are let in to allow of removing the piercing punches with 
ease. The two piercing punches are made one thickness of 
metal longer than the cutting-off and finishing punch C, so that 
the holes in the work will have been pierced, and the punches 
entered the dies, before the cutting-off punch performs its opera- 
tion. This insures the rigid holding of the metal and the accu- 
rate sizing of the straps, and, also, as it makes the punching 
of the work successive, the strain on the press and the tools is 
reduced. The punches are made so that the cutting-off punch 
is a trifle loose in its die and the two piercing punches very 
much so. This leaves the two holes in the strap considerably 
larger on one side than on the other, this being necessary in 
order to allow of the rivets filling out and finishing flush with 
the strap when they are fastened to the tires. 

When the die is in use the adjustable stop R is set to take in 
the length required, and the metal to be punched (which comes 
in 20 foot lengths) is fed along a guide-way, under the stripping 
plate S, and held snugly against the gage plate O, allowing the 
end to project half way over the finishing and cutting-off die. 
At the first stroke of the press, the end of the stock is pierced 
and then trimmed and finished. It is then fed along and against 
the stop R, and at each succeeding stroke a complete strap is 
produced. Before punching, both sides of the stock are 
"slushed," which makes the cutting clean and leaves the ends of 
the straps without burrs. 

Seeing Power Presses at Work. 

To the practical man, the sight of parts (of which the above 
is a sample) being produced by punching, starts him wondering 
why this machine tool, the power press, has not been adopted 
more extensively, not only in the manufacturing shops but in the 
jobbing shops. When it is considered that tools and fixtures are 
being constantly designed and constructed for the finishing of 
parts by milling and drilling, which could be accomplished in the 
power press in half the time by dies of the simplest and most in- 
expensive construction, the failure to do so is astonishing. In 
fact there are any number of parts for various machines and at- 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 99 







I. Regular Punching Attachment. 2. Punching Attachment for Punching Beams, 
Channels, etc. 3. Stake Punching Attachment for Punching Flanged Heads. 4. Stake 
Punching Attachment for Punching Angles. 5. Flue and Hand-hole Punching Attach- 
ment. 6. Man-hole Punching Attachment. 7. Plate Shearing Attachment. 8. Bar 
Shearing Attachment. 9. Angle Shearing Attachment. 10. Bending and Straighten- 
ing Attachment, n. Coping Attachment. 12. Slotting Attachment. 

Attachments for Cleveland Punch and Shear Works Co. Presses. 
FIG. 106. ATTACHMENTS FOR HEAVY PRESS WORK. 



100 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



tachments which are used in large quantities being manufactured 
by other means, which could be produced at half the cost, and to 
a finer degree of interchangeability, by means of simple dies and 
fixtures in the power press. The lightness and fine finished ap- 
pearance of sheet-metal blanks, and the strength and stiffness of 
formed-drawn or bent blanks add greatly to the beauty of the 
machines or appliances to which they are affixed, and in many 
cases improve the working qualities as well. ^ 

It is really too bad that business reasons and certain secrets 
of manufacture make it almost impossible for a stranger to get 
the privilege of going through establishments devoted to the 
manufacture of agricultural machinery, and that they are so con- 
servative about admitting anyone to their plants, as, were it 
otherwise, it would pay anyone who is interested in the manu- 
facturing of machinery to pay them a visit ; for in them modern 
manufacturing is carried on in a manner which is far ahead of 
other lines, both as to cheapness in production and as to the effi- 
ciency and working qualities of the output. 

Piercing, Forming and Punching Heazy Blanks in One 

Operation. 
The punch and die shown in Figs. 107. 108 and 109 are used 




FIG. lOJ. PUNCH AND DIE FOR HEAVY STOCK. 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. IOI 

for producing pierced blanks from heavy sheet metal, piercing, 
forming and blanking them to the shape shown in Fig. no, in 
one operation. The principle is the same as shown in Fig. 26, 
except that it is adapted for the working of heavy stock. 

The blank, as shown in Fig. no, is of ^4 -inch cold-rolled 





FIG. I08. PLAN OP PUNCH. 

stock with holes pierced at C C. The construction of the punch 
and die is shown clearly in the engravings and very little de- 
scription is necessary. As shown, the die is of the usual con- 
struction except for the two piercing dies G G, which are hard- 




o" 



K / 



M. 



o 



FIG. 109. PLAN OF DIE. 

ened and ground steel bushings forced into counter-bored holes 
in the die plate O, as shown. 

When punching heavy stock it is necessary to have all 
punches secured in the holder as rigidly as possible. The best 
way is to have the stem or holder and the blanking punch in one ; 
that is, a forging of mild steel with the portion for the punch of 



IO2 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



tool steel, as shown at U and P, Fig. 107, and the piercing; 
punches let into holes and fastened with set screws as shown at 
R R. By allowing the piercing punches Q Q to fit tightly within 
the stripper they are strengthened and held rigidly while piercing 
the metal. 

This principle of bending blanks by beveling the face of the 
punch to the shape desired, is practical for producing blanks 

which are to be bent and formed to 
simple shapes, and eliminates the ne- 
cessity of a second operation. The 
shearing of the punch also helps the 
die as it reduces cutting surface and 
strengthens it. When heavy stock is to 
be punched and the blanks are desired 
to come out flat, it is necessary to 
reverse matters and shear the die, as 
the blank will always follow the face 
of the punch. When shearing either 

pun'ch cr die, it should always be done so as to allow the extreme 
ends of the punch to enter the die first. In shapes where this is 
not possible, allow the center to enter first. 

Making Pinions and Racks by Punching. 

The pieces shown in Figs, in and 112 are a small brass gear 
and a rack respectively. The gear was made from sheet brass 




FIG. no. 




FIG. III. RACK. 



FIG. 112. PINION. 



5-64 inch thick and was to be drawn to the shape shown, cupped 
J/s inch deep, with a l /$ hole punched in the center for the shaft. 
The rack was also of sheet brass of the same thickness 3-16 inch 
wide by i^ inches long. The pitch of the rack was to be the 
same as that of the gear, and they were to be used on a small au- 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTI0N. IO3 





A 




p=3 

ES3 

> -^ 








r-. 


G 


I B 


1 -r 

i 1 


1 

J--J 




i r 




n \ 


i 


! 








ID! 








1 U 


c 




L_ 


J 


1 1 





Punch 




tomatic music box. They were both made and finished in the 
power press. 

As shown in Fig. 113 the punch and die for the pinion are of 
"gang" type. In the die N is the cupping die, M the piercing die 
and J the blanking die. In the punch, A is the holder, B the 
punch plate, C the cupping punch, D the piercing punch and E 
the blanking punch. The con- 
struction is plain and requires no 
description. 

Fig. 114 shows the punch and 
die for the rack. In the punch, 
P is the holder, Q the punch 
plate and R the punch, with the 
face sheared as shown at S. The 
punch was hardened and drawn 
high. The die is shown in two 
views below the punch. It con- 
sists of the die proper T, which, 
after being roughed out, was 
broached and finished by the 
punch. It was also hardened and 
tempered. U is the gage plate, 
which was worked out so as to 
just accommodate the blank, as 
shown, leaving it projecting 
about .002 above the gage plate. 
V is the lock or binding strap, 
which swings on the shoulder 
screw W. When in use, the 
blank is placed in the gage plate 
U, the binding strap V is swung 
and hooked on the screw X, 
causing the blank to be held flat 
and firm while the punch de- 
scends, shearing and cutting, gradually, thereby producing a rack 
with clean teeth of the proper shape, and leaving no burrs. 

This is a very rapid way of doing such work, and the tools 
are easy to set up and easy to operate. Making the rack punch 
shearing, causes it to cut gradually ; in fact, if the punch had 
been left straight, the result would have been different. Instead 
of the teeth of the rack being flat and nearly square at the edge, 





FIG. 113. PINION DIE. 



IO4 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



they would have come out half-round and ragged. This type of 
die has been found to give very good results in a large variety of 
work where the edges were desired to be anywhere near square, 
and where the stock punched was over 1-16 inch thick. There is 






FIG. 114. PUNCH AND DIE) FOR RACK. 

a lot of small work of this kind being done in the milling ma- 
chine, which could be done better in the press with better results 
and at one-fifth the cost. 

A Set of Dies for a Funnel Ended Tube. 
The finished product of this set of dies is shown in Fig. 115. 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 10$ 

It is of a rather intricate and novel shape, necessitating care and 
skill in the rinding and finishing of a perfect templet or master 
blank, and in the construction of the piercing and blanking die. 




D; D 



FIG. 115. LAST OPERATION. FIG. Il6. SECOND OPERATION. 

Here is a tube with two funnel shaped ends which swell out at 
one side at E E. It is in the perfect closing in and forming of 
these funnel ends that the real work in the finding of the blank 
comes in, as there should be a perfect joint along the entire 




FIG. 117. DIE FOR FIRST BEND. 

length of the tube. When finished there were required to be 
three holes F F F in the body of the tube, each a perfect circle 
.and all of the same diameter. To attain these results the piercing 



io6 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



and blanking die must of course be perfect, and the blanks pro- 
duced in it interchangeable. It is in the construction of this die 
that particular attention is called to the various practical points 
which are necessary for its successful working. 

In sheet-metal work of this type, the first things to be settled 
are the thickness of metal to be used and the shape and size to 
which it is to be formed. We are then ready to go ahead with 
the forming dies, leaving the piercing and blanking die until 
these have been finished. The forming of the blank is accom- 
plished in two operations, both of which are simple. The first 
consists of forming the blank to the shape shown in Fig. 116, 
throwing up the sides D D and forming the bottom of the entire 
length to a perfect half-circle of 3-16 inch radius. The punch 





FIG. Il8. DIE FOR LAST BEND. 



FIG. 



and die for this operation are shown in Fig. 117, and those used 
for the finishing operation in Figs. 118 and 119. As they are 
of the simplest design and construction, very little description is 
required. 

In the punch for the first forming operation, X is the holder 
and Y the punch. This punch is of tool steel, with the face fin- 
ished to a half-circle of 3-16 radius. It is hardened and drawn 
from the back, leaving the face very hard ^ inch from the 
edge, the remaining portion a dark blue. It is driven tightly 
within the holder, which tapers about one degree, thereby holding 
the punch tightly without set-screws. 

The die is a forging, the base of mild steel and the face C C 
of tool steel, the forming portion of the die proper being finished 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. IOJ 

as shown at D D in width and diameter two thicknesses of 
metal larger than the punch. The working portions of both 
punch and die were lapped smooth and highly polished after 
hardening to avoid marking the work. A A is the gage plate 
for locating the blank. As this punch and die can be finished 
without trial formings and with the certainty that they will per- 
form the operation required, they can be laid aside until the punch 
and die for the last operation has been finished. 

The stripping arrangement for this punch and die (not 
shown in the engravings) consists of the usual spring shoulder 
pins, there being three in the die and two in the punch, all being 
let in from the back and the faces finished to coincide with the 
circular portions of the punch and die respectively, and hardened. 
By finishing the sides of the die D D 
slightly taper, so as to be larger at the 
top, thereby causing the sides of the 
blank to hug the punch, the work when 
formed rises with the punch, and as it 
gets above the stripper pins of the die it 
is stripped from the punch by the two 
stripper pins in the face. 

The punch and die for a finishing 
operation on a piece of this kind is 
shown in Figs. 118 and 119, and for it 
the author is indebted to an article by 

Mr. B. ]. Dougherty, of Brooklyn, FIG. 120. THE 

N . Y., in the American Machinist. BLANK. 

As the engravings explain themselves, 

a bare description of the principal parts will suffice. As shown, 
the tools are made on practically the same lines as those 
for the first operation and, except for the horn, consist of but 
two parts, the die and the punch. This die requires no gage 
plate as the shape of the article to be formed, because the flat 
spots on the sides of the funnel-shaped ends give excellent op- 
portunity to gage and support the metal while being formed in 
the die itself, and also prevent the work from turning or shift- 
ing in the die while the finishing is being accomplished. The 
perspective drawing of the tools shows the construction of the 
punch and die, while the section at the upper right hand corner 
shows the work located and the punch descending. The other 
drawing shows a detail of the parts. A is the front gage to 



io8 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



support the loose part of the horn, and B is the short part of the 
horn secured to the back of the die. With one end of the horn 
fastened to the die, as shown, and the other held all the time 
in the right hand, the left hand is free to pull the finished tube 
off, and put another blank in the die. 

The finding of the correct blank for the piercing and blank- 
ing die, was successfully accomplished by making a number of 
templets and forming and finishing them in the two dies, and 




FIG. 121. DIE FOR THE BLANK. 

noting where there was excess metal or not enough. When find- 
ing the blank the locating of the circular portions at B B B was 
not bothered with, finishing the blank or master templet perfectly 
straight at these points and leaving the locating until the blank- 
ing die was finished. 

Usually when a blank of the type shown is required that is, 
-one in which the surface of the blank is left intact and without 
holes a plain blanking die is used, but in this case, as the six 
half-circular portions B had to be all of the same radius, the 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 109 

most expedient and accurate method was by a punch and die of 
the construction shown in cross-section in Fig. 121, which is 
of the combination piercing and blanking type. By noting the 
design and construction of this die, its superior working qual- 
ities over the plain die, in regard to the interchangeability of the 
work produced, will at once become apparent. The blanking die 
portion S and the six piercing dies T are all finished straight, 
thus allowing the die face to be ground without changing the 
shape of the blanks produced. The six piercing dies T are 
counterbored at the back to half of the thickness of the die. 
Great care was exercised in the laying out of the blanking die 
portion, and in the locating of the piercing dies and gage 
plates. The construction of the punch requires no description, 
except that the blanking punch instead of being let into and riv- 
eted in the punch plate, is located by two dowels K and fastened 
by two flat head screws from the back as shown. 

As in order to produce blanks which are required to be per- 



w w 






0\ 


f~-~* 

^7 


Tension Button 
Gana-e FUte 
for SLi'ihi "< Die 


^'-o'-' 


y 



FIG. 122. 



feet in every way, especially when the blank is produced in two 
operations, one operation following the other in the same die by 
the combination method, it is absolutely necessary that the stock 
to be punched shall be kept against the back gage plate all the 
time, and as it is not practical to feed it through a tight channel, 
other means are required, one of the best and most practical of 
which is shown at Fig. 122, and is known as a tension button 
gage plate. The spring buttons W W keep the stock as it is fed 
along snugly against the back gage plate, which is of the regular 
type, keeping it there with an equal tension at all times, and 
eliminating the necessity of the press hand forcing and holding 
the stock against the back gage plate. By the use of a gage 
plate of this type for accurate blanking dies, the best results 
will be obtained and the production brought up to the maximum.. 



no 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



A Set of Dies for a Sheet Metal Bracket. 

The four dies shown here were used to produce the sheet- 
metal bracket shown in Figs. 123 to 125. The die and punch 
used for the first operation are shown in Fig. 126 and are of the 
"gang" type. The" stock used for the brackets was cold-rolled 
sheet steel 3-32 inch thick and y$ inch wide, coming in strips 
of the width required. The work accomplished in this first die 
was the piercing of the center hole J and the two holes I I at the 
ends, trimming and cutting the ends H H to the shape shown 
and cutting off the piece as shown in Fig. 123. The construc- 



)l First Operation 



o) 



FIG. 123. 



Last Operation 



n 


Second and Third 
K Operations K 






H 


1 : 


K K 






FIG. 124. 



FIG. 125. 



tion of the punch and die for this operation can be understood 
from the engravings and no description is necessary. 

When in use, a strip of metal was entered beneath the strip- 
per and pushed in against the stop-pin S. The punch descend- 
ing, the three piercing punches O O O pierced the strip and en- 
tered the die first and before the trimming punch R began to 
cut, thus preventing the stock from shifting. After the end of 
the stock was trimmed, it was moved along until the hole pierced 
at the right hand end was in line with the pin S, over which it 
was slipped, thereby locating and centering it correctly for the 
finishing of the other end and cutting off the piece. At the 
next stroke of the punch the finished piece was cut off and the 
front end and the holes pierced in the second piece. The finished 
pieces were removed from the pin S with the left hand while the 
metal was fed with the right. As shown, the die is equipped with 
a tension button gage plate to insure the alignment of the stock 
with the dies. 

The punch and die for the first bend, Fig. 124, are shown in 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. Ill 

Fig. 127. They bend the work at K K. This same die is used for 
the second bending operation. One punch holder also sufficed 
for the three bending operations, as did one bolster or die block 




Plan of Punch, for 
First Operation 



Punches and 
Punch Holders 




FIG. 126. 




FIG. 127. FIRST BEND. 




Punch for Third Operation using 

FIG. 128. SECOND BEND. 



for the two bending dies. The construction of this punch and 
die requires no description. 

For the second operation, that of bending the ends of the 
work as shown in Fig. 124 at I I, the same die as used for the 



112 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 129. THIRD BEND. 



first bend and the punch shown in Fig. 128 were used, the opera- 
tion being accomplished in the manner shown. 

For bending at L L and causing the work to assume the final 
shape shown in Fig. 125, the punch and die, Fig. 129, were used. 

The design and method of construct- 
ing this punch and die can be under- 
stood from the engravings and a very 
slight description will suffice. The 
work J was located on, and within, the 
die at points I I. The die was hard- 
ened and drawn slightly, leaving it 
very hard at the working points. The 
width of the punch at F F is two thick- 
nesses of metal less than the die at 
H H. The punch was hardened and 
drawn, leaving the points F F very 
hard and the rest a dark blue. 

When in use the punch and die were 
set up in the press and the work, Fig. 
124, was placed in position on the die 
as shown at J. The punch descending strikes the work in the 
center and causes the two ends to spring upward and inward, hug- 
ging the punch, which, continuing downward, forces it into the die 
at H H, strikes the bottom with a good hard blow, and completes 
and finishes the work to the shape shown in Fig. 125. The fin- 
ished work is slid off the punch by hand. 

A Double Blanking Die. A Piercing, Cutting-Off and Forming 
Die, and a Large Double Blanking Die. 

The punch and die shown in Fig. 130 was used to produce 
two blanks at each stroke of the press, the blanks being used 
when drawn and finished as the shield portion of a large "safety"' 
pin. With this punch and die an automatic feed was used. In 
the die, E E are the blanking dies, C the gage plate, G the 
stripper, while I I are the cap screws and H H the dowels re- 
spectively for locating and fastening the stripper and gage 
plates to the die. In the punch, C is the holder, D the punch 
plate and A A the two punches. The punch plate is fastened to 
the holder by four flat-head screws, as shown. The construction 
of this die requires no description. Its type should be adopted 
whenever possible as the product is doubled. 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 113 

The article shown in the top left hand corner of Fig. 131 is 
of flat cold-rolled stock 3-16 inch thick, and is finished to the 
shape shown in one operation, by means of the combination die 
shown in Fig". 131. As shown, it was necessary to pierce the 
four holes, cut off the blank, and bend it to the required shape. 
As the stock to be worked was quite heavy, it was required that 
all parts of the punch and die should be as rigid and strong as 
possible. The construction of the tool is shown plainly and 





FIG. 130. A SMALL DOUBLE BLANKING DIE. 



only a description of its operation and use is necessary. The 
stock to be worked was cut into strips in the shear to the proper 
width. A strip of metal was fed in beneath the stripper V, far 
enough to allow the end to project slightly over the cutting edge 
of the die B. The punch descending, the end was trimmed first, 
and then the four holes pierced. At the next stroke the stock 
was fed up against the stop G and the blank cut off to the proper 
length and bent over and formed by the pads R and F, and the 



114 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

four holes pierced in the next piece. As the punch rises, the 
spring L causes the stripping pads J J to strip the finished work 
from the die F and lifts it to the surface, from which it drops off 
at the back if the press is inclined. 

This principle of construction can also be used to advantage 
for cutting off and forming sheet-metal blanks in which it is not 
necessary to pierce holes, as it is far preferable to the means 







FIG. 131. A PIERCING, CUTTING-OFF, AND FORMING DIE. 

usually employed, of first cutting off the blanks in one operation 
and then forming them in another. This method is both cheaper 
and more conducive to the production of parts of a uniform size 
and quality. Some die-makers use a separate pad for fastening 
the punches to the holder, but this will not answer for heavy 
stock, as the punches are not so rigid. In fact, the fewer parts 
used in the construction of punches and dies of this class, the bet- 
ter the results and the longer the life of the tools. 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 11$ 

The punch and die shown in Fig. 132 are of a different type 
from the one shown in Fig. 130. It is a double blanking die, 
but instead of producing two blanks of the same size, it produces 
one blank which is punched on the outside and inside both, as 
shown at the left of Fig. 132. Its construction can be understood 
from the engraving. When it is in use, the strip of metal is fed 




FIG. 132. A LARGE DOUBLE BLANKING DIE. 

in under the stripping pins G, and the punch L blanks the outside 
of the work into the die A, while the internal punch B punches 
the inside up into the internal die L. As the punch rises, the 
spring pad O within the punch L, by the action of the two 
springs N N expels the waste, while the pad E E within the die 
A, in conjunction with the pins F, the pad Q and the spring I, 
strips the finished blank from the die A, thereby producing a 
blank of the shape shown in Fig. 132. In this die the principles 



n6 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. ' 



and method of construction are adaptable for the production of 
a large variety of parts of which large quantities are required, 
as the cost of the tools will be quickly made up in the time and 
operations saved in the production of the parts. For small quan- 
tities of blanks, dies of a simpler and less intricate as well as 
cheaper type are preferable, producing at a greater cost work of 
just as good a quality. 

Punches and Dies for Producing Parts of an Electric Cloth- 
cutting Machine. 

The punches and dies shown in Figs. 135 to 140 were de- 
signed for and put into successful operation in the manufacture 
of an electric cloth-cutting machine, the general features of which 




Top 



FIG. 133. ELECTRIC CLOTH -CUTTING MACHINE. 

are shown in Fig. 133. It will not be attempted here to de- 
scribe the machine. In Fig. 134 are shown engravings of the 
roller plate and parts for the base of the machine. A is the roller 
plate, i l /4 inches in diameter of 3-32 inch cold-rolled stock, with 
four holes pierced in the positions shown. E is the roller 
bracket of the same stock as the plate, pierced, blanked and 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 1 



formed to the shape shown, F being the result of the first opera- 
tion. B is the small stud for fastening it to the plate and C is the 





FIG. 134. PARTS OF ROLLER BRACKET. FIG. 135. BLANKING DIE. 

washer. All the parts are assembled when finished as shown in 
the bottom view of the machine in Fig. 133. 

The punch and die shown in Fig. 135 is for producing the 





0QJ. jo 



G 



FIG. 136. BLANKING DIE. 



FIG. 137. BENDING DIE. 



roller plate A. P is the die plate, O the piercing dies and N the 
blanking die. The other parts are clearly shown and require no 
description. 



II! 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



Fig. 136 shows the punch and die, plan and side views respec- 
tively for producing the blank F for the roller bracket E. The 
manner in which the piercing and blanking punches and dies are 
laid out and finished and the blank produced can be intelligently 
understood from the engravings. The tools used for the bend- 
ing operation are shown in Fig. 137, and are sufficiently clear to 
make a description superfluous. 

The punch and die shown in Figs. 139 and 140 respectively, 
Avere used to produce the piece shown in Fig. 138, which was 
used as a shoe for the base of the 
cloth-cutter. The blanking, both 
inside and outside, was all done 
in the one die; the piercing of 
the holes was another operation. 
The die consists of the outside 
die A, the internal punch B, the 
spring pad or stripper C and the 





FIG. 138. SHOE. 



FIG. 139. PUNCH. 



bed plate. The punch and holder are all in one; and are con- 
structed as shown with a spring pad to strip the scrap from 
the internal die. The operation and use of this die requires no 
description. 

The die for piercing the eleven holes shown in the blank, Fig. 
138, was made in the following manner: A bolster of cast iron 
was got out, and one of the blanks drilled, the holes being trans- 
ferred from the jig used to drill the base plate. A gage plate 
of Y% inch flat stock was made so that the blank would just fit it. 
It was then fastened to the face of the bolster with screws and 
dowels, the blank laid within it and the holes transferred through 
it to the face of the bolster. These holes were then enlarged for 
bushings of tool steel, % inch diameter, which were turned, 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. IK) 

drilled and reamed to the size of a clearance drill for a 6-32 
screw, hardened and drawn, the face and outside ground and 
then driven into the holes. The die was constructed in this man- 
ner to facilitate grinding, and, in case of chipping or shearing, to 
enable replacing with others. The holes for the punches were 
then transferred through these bushings to the face of a cast 





FIG. 140. DIE;. 

iron holder; the punches were made and hardened and fastened 
within the holder with set screws ; then a spring pad was fitted 
over them, and working up and down on two studs, equipped 
with strong springs, which acted to strip the blank from the 
punches after the holes were pierced. 

An Armature Disk Notching Die With a Dial Feed. 

The die and attachments shown in Figs. 141 and 142 were 
used for notching armature disks. It requires very little at- 
tendance while in operation and can be used for punching a 
number of different sizes of disks. It can be used in any single- 
acting power press to which a connecting rod for operating the 
feed can be attached. The sheet-iron blanks used for the disks 



120 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



were irregular in shape, and it was necessary to finish them to 
the correct radius while punching the slots. The die D was made 
first. The best way to finish the templet was to solder it to the 
face-plate of the lathe, when it was turned to the exact radius re- 
quired, both inside and outside. The die was then worked out 
and finished to it at M and Z, taking care to get it central in the 
die. The bolster A is of the regular type, only heavier. It was 
dovetailed crosswise for the die and left large enough for the key 
X also. It was then dovetailed on the front for the cast iron ex- 




FIG. 141. ARMATURE DISK NOTCHING DIE. 

tension plate B. This was strong and heavy and perfectly rigid. 
It drove tightly into B, and a set screw was let into each side 
afterward to permanently locate it. We were then ready to lay 
out the slot C and the holes H, by first striking a line from the 
center of the die M down the entire length of the plate. The 
distances between the holes H were one-half of the differences in 
the diameters of the disks to be punched. 

The bushing E and the stud F are both of tool steel, the bush- 
ing being fitted to the slot C with a wide shoulder at E, the top 
coming a trifle below the face of plate B. A reamed hole 
through the center admits the stud F, with the nut I on one end 
and the other fitting the hole in the index plate J. Drilling the 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 121 



holes in the bushing for the dowel-pins G G required accuidte 
work, as the finished radius of the disks depended on their loca- 
tion. The method used for gaging it correctly is of interest. A 
piece of cast iron about I inch wide and in length about 4 inch 
longer than half the diameter of the smallest armature blank, 
with a lug at one end projecting from the face, was strapped on 
the face-plate of the lathe with one end central. A hole was let 
into this end and reamed to the size of the stud F. The inside of 
the lug at the other end was then turned to exactly the same 
radius as the die D at Z, which was 
that of the next to the smallest disk. 
The outside of the lug was turned to 
a radius sufficiently small to allow of 
its entering the die freely. This gage 
or templet was set with the end with 
the hole over the stud F. The mit I 
was loosened, and the stud and bush- 
ing moved forward until the locating 
end of the gage entered the die Z, 
with the turned face of the lug rest- 
ing snugly against the inner side. The 
nut T was then tightened and the holes 
for the dowels G G were transferred 
through the plate B to the bushing E. 
The dowels were then made and 
driven in. This method of locating 
holes is somewhat similar to the "but- 
ton" method used in drill jigs, and is 
just as reliable and accurate. 

The index plate J was of cast 
iron, with a hub on one side the 

same diameter as the hole in the armature disk blank. A key- 
way in the hub allows of the small key punched in the disk to 
enter and locate. As most disks have from three to five holes 
punched in them to lighten them, one is utilized to secure the 
blank and carry it with the index plate, the dowel K fitting the 
hole snugly. The index plate rests on the collar of the stud 
F. The two pins Y Y are positive stops for the die D. The rat- 
chet lever R fits the collar of the stud F and rests between the 
face of the extension plate B and the index plate J, with the 
ratchet pawl T and a flat spring to keep it against the index 




FIG. 142. THE PUNCH. 



122 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



plate. The screw W is for fastening the link by which it is 
connected to the adjustable feed rod at the side of the press. 

The positive stop for the index plate is located at the end of 
the extension plate. A projecting pin fits the holes I in the exten- 
sion, and a dowel S entering the holes 2 locates it permanently. 
The punch is shown in two views in Fig. 142, and requires no de- 
scription to be understood. 

When in use, a blank Q, ready to be notched, is placed on 
the index plate J, the pin K entering one of the holes. The feed 
is then adjusted and the press is kept running continually until 
the entire disk is notched. When the punch descends the blank 
is held securely between the pad E and the die. The notch is 
then punched and the edge of the blank trimmed to the proper 
radius. As the punch rises, the metal is stripped and the index 
plate revolved one space, leaving the blank in position for the 
punching of the next notch. 

To change the die for punching another size, the bushing E 
is moved forward or backward and the dowels G G entered into 
another pair of holes. Another die finished to the proper radius 
replaces the one shown and another punch is also used. If 
necessary a different index plate is substituted. 

Dies for Switchboard Clips. 

The set of dies shown in Figs. 143 to 145 were used for pro- 
ducing clips of sheet copper, which were 
used in large numbers for electrical 
switchboards. Fig. 148 shows the fin- 
ished clip, with a 7-32 inch hole in the 
bottom to admit a screw for fastening it 
to the board. The ends of the clip were 
rounded to a 9-32 radius. The metal 
used was sheet copper 1-16 inch thick, in 
strips 7-16 inch wide. 

The first operation, that of piercing 
the hole, rounding the ends and cutting 
off the piece, was accomplished with the 
punch and die shown in Fig. 143, while 

the second operation, that of bending the blanks to the shape 

shown in Fig. 147, was done with the punch and die shown in Fig. 

144. Neither of these operations requires a description, as the 

engravings show clearly all that is necessary. 




FIG. 143. FIRST DIE. 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 123 




FIG. 144. SECOND DIE. 





FIG. 145. THE BENDING OPERATION, 



FIG. 146. FIRST 
OPERATION. 



FIG. 147. SECOND FIG. 148. THIRD 
OPERATION. OPERATION. 



I2 4 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



The arrangement for the third and last operation, as shown 
in Fig. 145, consists of the die O, the gage plates P P to locate 
the second operation on the die, and the die block N. The 
punch consists of the holder S and the punch R, the construction 
of which is shown clearly. When in use the work, Fig. 147, was 
placed in position on the die and the punch descending causes 
the two sides to spring up and hug the punch which continues 
downward until it strikes the bottom, drawing the corners square 
and producing the shape shown in Fig. 148. The work is re- 




BUnkfagPunet 
nd-Die 



FIG. 149. 



FIG. 150. 



moved from the punch by hand, coming off easily, the punch 
itself being finished as smoothly as possible. 

A Cutting Off and End Finishing Die, and an Accurate Sec- 
tional Die With a Chute Feed, and Finger Stripper. 

The punches and dies shown in Figs. 150 to 157 produce the 
blank Fig. 149, from a strip of sheet tin 1-32 inch thick. The 
blanks are assembled as in the lower view, Fig. 149, so that they 
will be at right angles, to serve as a compartment skeleton for a 
tin chemical box. 

The metal for the blanks came in long strips of the required 
width, so it was only necessary to finish the ends and cut them 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. 125 

off. The die for this is shown in Figs. 150 and 151. O is the 
bolster and P the die, worked out at Q to the required shape. 
U is the adjustable stop bracket, fastened to the end of the die 
and R the gage plate located as shown in Fig. 151. 

The punch is of the usual type, except that the stripper is 
located upon it instead of on the die. The holder has a dove- 
tailed channel for the punch J. This punch, after being fitted to 
the die, is hardened and drawn to a dark blue. The stripper N is 
located by means of the two studs L L, which screw into and 
shoulder against the face. The studs L L and the stripper move 
up and down, the two springs M being strong enough to strip 




FIG. 151. VERTICAL, SECTION AND PLAN OF DIE. 

the metal from the punch instantly. The stripper is worked 
out to fit nicely around the punch so as to prevent the edges of 
the stock, after being cut off and finished, from bending or burr- 
ing inward. The press in which the punch and die are used is 
tilted backward to an angle sufficient to allow the blanks to 
drop off through gravity into a receptacle at the back. The 
metal punched is first held against the gage plate R and the end 
allowed to project a slight distance over the die. This end is 
then trimmed by the punch, after which, the stop-screw W is ad- 
justed to get the blank to the required length. The stock is then 
fed against it, and, as the punch descends, the first blank is cut 
off and the front end of the next one trimmed. The rapidity with 
which the blanks can be produced by this die should commend 



126 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



the principle for the production of parts of the type shown in 
Fig. 149. The application of the stripper to the punch, and 
the use of an inclinable press wherever possible, will increase the 
output two-fold without effecting the duplication of the parts. 

For the second operation, that of piercing the long narrow 
slot B C, the punch and die are shown in Figs. 152 to 157. The 




FIG. 152. VERTICAL SECTION OF PUNCH AND DIE. 

piercing of a slot 1-32 inch wide to the length shown requires a 
die of sectional construction, as it would not only be imprac- 
ticable to make a solid die, but it would be impossible to accom- 
plish accurate results with it. As by the use of this die the 
blanks are automatically fed to the face of the die with great ra- 




PUn of Die Complet 

FIG. 153. PLAN OF SLOTTING DIE. 

pidity, and after being pierced are successively picked up to make 
room for the next, a description of its construction is presented. 
The die was made first of a single piece, two holes were 
drilled as shown for the dowel pins J J, and the bevel shown 
planed on the sides, allowing one side to taper lengthwise one de- 
gree. The end at K K was milled down 3-16 inch from the face 
as a locating face for the feed chute R. The holes P P and Q Q 



DIES AND PRESS FIXTURES FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION. I2/ 

were drilled straight through, as were the two L L for the stop- 
plate. A narrow cutter was then used to cut the die in two, and 
the inner edges were finished. These sections I I were clamped 




FIG. 154. 




together face to face with all sides coinciding, and a sharp 
square edge milling cutter was used to mill a flat square ended 
channel .0163 in depth through both of them at N N, about l /& 
inch longer than necessary. The depth of the channels, .0163, 



Q p 


K 



JUJ- 



i I w 

jt 




Showing Construcuoa of Ote 

FIG. 156. 

exceeded that required by .0065, which was to allow of grinding- 
after hardening. After the notches M M had been milled in, as 
clearance for the stripper fingers, the two sections were hard- 
ened and drawn to a light straw. The face of each was 
then ground until the channel N of the die portion was 1-64 inch 
deep. The two dowels were then entered as shown at J J. The 
bolster O was now machined, with a dovetailed channel finished 
so that the die would drive in. The die was entered, the face 
ground and oil-stoned and the stop fastened by the screws L L. 
The feed chute was made of *4-inch flat brass, with a channel 
S slightly wider than the blanks to be pierced, the portion on 
which the blanks were to slide level with the die face. T T, the 
two gage plates for locating the blanks, are fastened to the 
bolster instead of the die. 

The punch consists of the following parts: The holder U> 



128 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

the punch pad V, the punch X, located by the taper pins Y Y ; 
the stripper plate D D, to the face of which are fastened the 
flat spring fingers C C, C C, and the stripper studs and springs 
F F, F F. The necessary points in construction may be seen 
and understood from the different views of the punch in Figs, 
oo, oo and oo. The small spring fingers for picking up the 
blank after piercing are made from light flat spring steel and 
are bent to the shape shown and located on the stripper plate. 
The ends of these fingers project beyond the face of the stripper 
far enough to allow of them, when the punch descends, to be 
forced upward, encountering the blank and then slipping under 
it, and as the punch rises they carry the blank with them, and 
as the press is inclined it falls off at the back. 

When in use the punch and die are set up in the press as 
follows : The press is tilted backward and the die bolster O 
fastened to it by bolts through the ends, so that the mouth of 
the feed chute R will be directly in front of the operator, and 
slanting downward toward the back of the press. The punch is 
then set and the chute filled with blanks, the first one resting on 
the die between the gage plate T T and against the stop-plate 
L, the next against the end o.f the first and so on up the chute. 
As the punch descends the stripper holds the blank tightly to the 
die face and the two spring fingers C C, C C, slip under it. 
As the punch begins to rise the blank is stripped from it by 
the stripper plate D D, and it is raised from the face of the die 
by the fingers C C, C C, and as the punch reaches its highest 
point the blank slides off at the back. 

Using this die the press was run at a high speed, and the 
blanks were pierced as rapidly as the operator could feed them 
into the chute. There is a large variety of second operation 
work which can be produced rapidly, accurately and at a min- 
imum of cost by dies of this design, with punch, stripper and 
spring fingers for removing the blank. The face of the piercing 
punch Z is sheared so as to relieve the strain on it as much as 
possible. 

The twenty-four dies shown and described in this chapter 
should suggest to the practical man a large variety of work for 
the production of which they can be adapted, and we will 
now turn our attention to the class of sheet-metal tools which 
are next in order of prominence and which come under the 
head of "Bending and Forming Dies." 



CHAPTER V. 

BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 

Bending Dies Simple and Intricate. 

In tools for the ordinary bending of sheet metal parts it is 
necessary to combine simplicity in design with durability and 
cheapness ; and one of the things that makes a die-maker valu- 
able is his ability to devise simple and effective means for 
producing in the fewest number of operations the article re- 
quired, and constructing the tools so as to allow of their being 
set up and operated by unskilled help. Very often it is possible 
to design a die that will accomplish in one operation that which 
usually requires two or three to produce, being, of course, of 
a more complicated and accurate construction and requiring 
more skill and intelligence to operate. On the contrary, it is 
often preferable to increase the number of operations (by adopt- 
ing simple methods) in dies that will stand rough usage. The 
bending and forming dies illustrated and described in this 
chapter are of both classes. 

Dies for Making Large Safety Pins. 

In Figs. 159 to 162 are shown a set of dies and fixtures 
used in the manufacture of the universally known "safety" 




FIG. 158. LARGE "SAFETY" PIN. 



130 



DIES. THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



are seven 



pins, and the ones produced by the particular set of tools here 
shown are of the largest size made, as shown in tig. 158. The 
pin consists of two parts the head, or shield, which is blanked 
and drawn from sheet brass, and the pin proper of brass wire. 
The number of operations required to produce pins of this 
size which, by the way, are used principally for horse blankets 
The blanking of the piece for the head, the draw- 
ing and forming of it, the cutting 
and pointing of the wire, the bend- 
ing of the end which is fastened in 
the head, the forming of the spring 
portion, the wiring and fastening of 
the pin within the head, and, last, 
the closing down of the head so as 
to make the pin "safety." The 
means used and the manner in 
which all this is accomplished can 
be clearly understood from the cuts, 
and very little description is neces- 
sary, except as to the methods of 
constructing some of the tools. 

For the first operation that of 
punching out the blank for the 
head the punch and die shown in 
Fig. 130, Chapter IV., are used. 
The second operation, that of draw- 
ing and forming the blank as shown 
in Fig. 158, is accomplished by the 
drawing die, Fig. 159, the construc- 
tion and action of which will be un- 
derstood from the description given 
of "Drawing Dies" in a chapter 
further on in the book. 

The operations on the pin , portion are three. The wire is 
straight and 10 inches long, and is required to be pointed at one 
end and bent to conform to the radius of the inside of the 
head at the other. The first operation, that of pointing and 
cutting off, is accomplished in the screw machine, the pointing 
being done with a special box-tool. The second operation, of 
bending the end to the shape shown at the end, is done by means 
of a simple punch in the foot press. The last operation on the 




FIG. 159. DRAWING DIE. 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



131 



wire is to bend and form the spring portion as shown at K. 
This is accomplished by the fixture shown in the two views, 
Fig 1 . 1 60. The bent end G of the wire is entered and located 




FIG. 1 60. BENDING AND FORMING SPRING PORTION. 



to gage within the plate I, with the length of wire lying be- 
tween the pins J J and against the forming horn K. The wire 
is formed around the horn as shown in the two views. The 
inclined surface of the body H is 
necessary, so as to have both ends 
of the wire in line with each other 
when fastened within the head. 
This fixture is used in the vise, 
gripping it at O as shown in the 
end view. 

The next operation is that of in- 
closing the end G of the pin within 
the head. This is done in the foot 
press by means of the tools shown 
in Fig. 161, and as the sketches 
show clearly the manner in which 
it is accomplished very little de- 
scription is necessary. V is the 
die, of tool steel ; W the locating or 
gage plate for the work, and X the bolster or die block. The 
punch consists of two parts the holder P, of cast iron, and the 
punch Q, of tool steel. 

The last operation is the closing in of the head of the pin 
so that the points S will act as a guide for opening the pin. 




FIG. l6l. ASSEMBLING 
OPERATION. 



I 3 2 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 162. LAST OPERATION. 

This operation and the simple tools used are shown in Fig. 162, 
and require no description to be understood. 

Forming a Funnel Ended Tube. 

The dies shown in Fig. 167 and one of the construction shown 
in Figs. 118 and 119, Chapter IV., were used to form a blank 
of cold-rolled sheet steel .048 inch thick to the shape shown in 
the two views, Figs. 164 and 165. The finished piece was used 




A 





\ 




> 
3 


| 

N M- 




u 

/ 


D 
/ 

5 


D- 





- 




D 


--- 




<\ 


I 


c 

1C 


LL 

r . 


t 

t6 


;. F 


c 

IG 


i 

. i 


U 

r 31 

56. 



FIG. 163. FIG. 164. 

SUCCESSIVE OPERATIONS IN TUBE MAKING. 

as a funnel on a box-nailing machine, the nails entering at 
the opening at the top and dropping into a tube at the bottom. 
The piece was to finish to 4^3 inches long, in the shape of a tube 
13-32 inch in diameter starting from the bottom. There was 
also a flat surface at the back at D i inch long and 13-32 wide, 
to keep the funnel from shifting when in place on the machine. 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



133 



There were two lugs at A to act as a gage in setting it to 
the proper height. The upper part was formed in the manner 
shown, with an open space in front and two wings extending 
out. 

The construction and use of the dies used to accomplish the 
desired results can be understood from the engravings of the 




FIG. 167, FIRST FORMING OPERATION. 

forming dies and the diagrams of the blank and its forming 
shown in Figs. 163 to 166. Fig. 163 shows the blank as punched 
in a plain blanking die, Fig. 166 the result of the first forming 
operation, and Figs. 164 and 165 the result of the last operation. 
The manner in which the bending and forming of this 
funnel is accomplished and the tools used, should suggest simple 
means for the forming of a variety of work. 

Bending Dies for Wire Lock Clasps. 
One of the uses to which forming and bending dies are 



134 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



often put is the production of bent and formed wire parts from 
either slender or heavy stock. As an instance of what can be 
accomplished in the bending and forming of comparatively heavy 



The Wire to be Bent 

FIG. i 68. 



UJ [^- X^ pirst Operation ^~^^ JJU 




PIG. 169. 



FIG. 170. 



stock in two operations by the use of simple dies, we show in 
Fig. 1 68 a length of wire and the result of two operations on 
it in Figs. 169 and 170. The stock used was 5-16 thick Bessemer 
rod, and the parts as finished were used as clasps on patented 
locks. 




FIG. 171. FIRST BEND. 

Before starting on the dies it was necessary to determine 
the exact length of wire required. As shown, the die for the 
first operation is made so that the bending of the work will be 
progressive. The bolster J was first planed and two square- 
bottomed channels let in crosswise for the pieces P P. These 
pieces were of tool steel and were worked out and finished to 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 135 

the shape shown that is, to a snug fit within the channels in 
the bolster and with about .007 inch surplus stock on the inside 
face of each. The tops of these pieces had a half-round groove 
let in at S to act as locating points for the work. Holes were 
let into the back for fastening screws Q Q, two to each. After 
these holeb were tapped and a hole let into one piece for the 
stop-piece screw R, the pieces were hardened and tempered, 
leaving the portions which were to do the bending very hard 
and the rest a blue. The pieces were then fastened in, and the 
inside face of each ground until the distance between them was 
exactly as required that is, the same as between the points U U, 
Fig. 169, after the first operation. 

For the part O, which is the bending die proper, a piece 
of well-annealed tool steel % inch wide was planed and squared 
and the ends finished so that it would fit nicely between P P, 
as shown. This part O was then clamped to the face of the 
bolster resting between the pieces 
P P and the two holes for the 
stripper screws L L were let in. 
The piece O was then removed 
from the bolster and the forming 
and bending face finished to 
templet, first in the shaper and 
then with a file, all points as 
smooth as possible. The two FIG j~ 2 . 

holes M M were tapped, and 

the die was hardened and only slightly drawn. The stripper 
screw holes in the bolster were then counterbored to admit the 
stripper springs N N. The springs had to be very stiff, to 
allow of the progressive bending and forming of the work. After 
polishing all working parts and surfaces and fastening on the 
stop-plate R, all parts were assembled and were ready for the 
punch. 

The holder A is of cast iron. After turning the stem to 
fit the hole in the press ram, a hole B is bored completely 
through it, tapping it at the upper end for the stripper spring 
adjusting screw I. The punch D, of tool steel, is first planed, 
fitted to the holder A, driving tightly into the dovetailed channel 
in the face, and left long enough for fitting it into the die. The 
punch is driven into the holder and the holes are drilled and 
reamed for the two taper locating pins XXX. The center for 



4: 1-4 



Elan of Punch 



136 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



the hole for the stripper screw E is then located through the 
hole B in the stem of the holder, drilled and reamed. The lo- 
cating pins are then removed, the punch driven out and the 
square channel for the stripper G milled in across the face. The 
face of the punch is then finished to fit the die and polished. 
It is then set up in the milling machine, and, by using a butt 
mill, the cutting edges of which are of the same radius as that 
of the stock to be bent, a groove H H milled into the face 
and the ends in depth the same as the diameter of the stock to 
be bent. This channel is then finished smooth and symmetrical 




FIG. 173. FINISHING OPERATION. 

at all the corners and angles with a riffler and polished with 
oil and emery to as good a finish as possible. The punch is 
hardened at the bending face and the ends, and tempered to a 
very light straw. 

The stripper G, of tool steel, is made and fitted to the slot 
in the punch face and finished with a groove in the center to 
coincide perfectly with the one in the punch face when resting 
in the bottom of the slot. A hole in the center is tapped for 
the stripper screw E, the spring F is made and also the adjust- 
ing screw I and all parts are assembled. 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 137 

The length of wire to be bent is rested in the locating grooves 
S S and endways against the stop plate R. The punch is set 
to just bottom in the die. As it descends the tension of the 
springs N N is sufficient to allow of the angular bending being 
accomplished without the die descending. As the face of the 
punch strikes the die O the ends of the wire are bent up into 
the grooves H H in the ends of the punch, which continues to 
descend until the die strikes the face of the bolster. As the 
punch rises the die rises with it, and the work clings to the 
punch until it has risen above the die face, when it is stripped 
by the stripper G, and, as the press is tilted, it drops off the 
die into a receptacle at the back of the press. 

For the finishing operation the punch and die shown in Fig. 
173 are used. The die is finished from a good-sized solid block 
of tool steel to the shape shown that is, to dovetail into the 
bolster at E E and the part C C finished to templet, rounding 
off the corners, as shown, with a groove along the top faces at 
F F as locating and centering points for the work. A stop-plate 
fastened at one end of the bolster acts as an endwise locator. 
The die is hardened and drawn, driven into the bolster and 
located by the set screw H. The construction of the punch 
requires no description. The punch and die are set up in the 
relative positions shown, the work is located within the groove 
F F and against the stop-plate D. The punch strikes the work 
in the middle and bends it into the die, which causes the ends 
to spring up and form around the punch, the ends coming 
together tightly at T, Fig. 170. As the punch rises and the 
work with it, it is stripped off by hand. 

These two dies were designed for the production of parts 
which were required in large quantities, and we believe they are 
both in design and construction about as substantial and simple 
as could be devised, as the work is produced in exact duplication 
and free from marks or bruises, and results are attained in two 
operations which, as a rule, require three to produce. 

A Bending Die for Wire Staples. 

In Figs. 174 to 176 are shown different views of a punch 
and die for bending staples of Stubs wire, so that they can be 
entered into reamed and accurately spaced holes in a separate 
piece. As the holes into which the ends of the staples were to 
be entered were reamed to the exact diameter of the wire, it was 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



necessary to employ accurate and reliable means for the bending. 
The punch and die shown was constructed to accomplish this 
result, and the results attained were in every way satisfactory. 
The staple as finished and bent from the straight wire is shown 
in Fig. 177. The first part made was the die N, which was of 
tool steel finished to the length and height shown, and in width 
to exactly the same as the distance between 
the inside edges of the holes into which the 
staples were required to fit. To get this exact 
distance, the following method was adopted : 
A piece of Stubs wire of the same diameter as 
the holes was forced into each and allowed to 
project out about T 4 inch. The distance be- 
tween them was then secured by means of a 
Brown-Sharpe "Vernier" caliper, getting the 
exact distance. The holes for the dowel pins, 
and screws for fastening the gage plates 
O O to the face of the die, were then let in, and also the holes 
for the screws P. The die was then hardened and slightly drawn, 
after which it was located and fastened within the bolster, as 
shown, by the screws P. 

The punch proper, as shown in the cross-section view, was 




FIG. 174. THE 
PUNCH. 




FIG. 175. THE DIE. 



FIG. 176. PLAN 
OF PUNCH. 




FIG. 177. STAPLE. 



made in three parts, of which those at the sides G G are the 
"benders" and A the "sizer." The part A was finished at B to 
fit the ram of the press, while the "sizer" portion was finished 
in width to the exact width of the die. A hole was bored 
straight through the punch for the stripper E and spring C, and 



liKXDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 139 

tapped at the upper end for the spring adjusting screw D. A 
slot was let into the side of the stripper to admit the point of 
a small set screw, as shown. This was to prevent the stripper 
from turning while the punch was in action. A groove was 
let into the face of the stripper stud and also into the "sizer" 
at E E, in depth the same as the diameter of the wire to be bent 
with the bottoms rounded to the same radius. The two side 
pieces, or "benders," were then made of tool steel and finished 
square and smooth on all sides. Holes were drilled through 
them and the "sizer" A, to admit the bolts I I and the dowel 
pins K and L. Grooves were then let into the inside faces of 
the "benders" at H, in depth so that the wire when bent would 
fit snugly within and between them and the sides of the die N. 
These grooves were lapped smooth and rounded at the face of 
the ''benders" so as to not scratch the wire while bending it. 
The "benders" were then hardened and drawn to a light straw 
temper and the parts assembled as shown. 

To operate the die, the bolster is fastened to the press and 
the punch lined up with it by setting it on the die with the 
"benders" over the sides and then fastening it. The stroke 
of the press was then set so that the "sizer" would just touch the 
face of the die when the ram had reached the full length of its 
stroke. The wire was then located on the die face, as shown 
in the sectional view and bent and finished to the shape shown 
in Fig. 177. As the punch rose the stripper E forced the finished 
work from the punch. 

By the use of a punch and die of the construction shown 
and described herein, wire can be bent to exact dimensions, and 
each piece produced will be an exact duplicate of the one pre- 
ceding it. The grooves in the benders should be finished very 
smooth, as it is necessary to do this in order that the wire 
when bent shall present a smooth and shining appearance. When 
this is done, no difficulty will be encountered in entering the 
projecting ends of the staples within their respective holes. 
The "benders" should be left as hard as possible at all wearing- 
points, as the bending of the wire is apt to wear them consid- 
erably when they are drawn to a temper above a light straw. 
When the projecting ends of the staples are required to be of 
a length exceeding one inch, all parts of the punch and die 
should be left with excess stock at all points which are required 
to be finished. They should then be hardened, after which they 



140 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



can be lapped and ground to the exact size required. By con- 
structing them in this manner all possibility of error in size 
will have been overcome and the work produced will be perfectly 
interchangeable. 

An Automatic Wire-Bending Die. 

In Figs. 181 to 183 are shown views of a wire-bending and 
forming die which., although of a rather intricate design and 
expensive construction, produces results in one operation which 
would by simpler means necessitate two or more to accomplish. 
This die is used to bend and form the wire handle A of the 
metal bottle stopper shown in Figs. 178 to 180. The handle 
was made of round brass rod, ^ inch thick, cut into 3^8 -inch 
lengths and the ends turned down in the monitor, leaving square 
shoulders as shown. 

In the punch, A was the holder, a machine steel forging 
turned and finished with a hole straight through the shank to 





FIG. 178. 



FIG. 179. 




admit the stem C of the forming punch. It was also counter- 
bored, as shown, for the spring D and then milled across at E. 
The forming punch B was of tool steel, first turned so that the 
stem C would fit the hole in the holder, and threaded for the 
two adjusting nuts shown at the top. It was then chucked in 
the miller and the forming bending face milled and finished to 
templet, and the upper portion milled flat on the sides to fit the 
channel in the face of the holder at E. The inclined faced studs 
F F were then got out and finished, as shown, and let into the 
holder in the relative position shown. The forming and bend- 
ing punch was polished and hardened and drawn to a blue at 
the back. The spring D was then made from heavy steel wire ; 
the parts assembled, and the punch was complete. 

The die consists of the bolster G of cast iron, planed and 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



141 



milled to the shape shown and dovetailed to admit the two 
forming slides H H and the gibs K K. It was also milled 
straight across to admit the die J, which was of tool steel, 
worked out, finished and hardened, inserted and held in posi- 
tion by the flat-head screws N N. The slides H were of tool 




FIGS. l8l TO 183. AUTOMATIC WIRE BENDING DIE COMPLETE. 

steel, worked out to the proper shape and fitted to an easy sliding 
fit within the bolster. They were inserted and set in the proper 
position and the holes laid out for the inclined faced pieces I I. 
The holes were drilled and the slide hardened at the forming 
faces. The pieces 1 1 were of tool steel and finished, as shown, 
with a hole drilled through each for the adjusting screws M M; 



142 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

they were forced into the holes in the slides. After the slides 
were put in position and the gibs K adjusted by the screws L L, 
the stop-pins 3 3 were made and riven into the bolster and 
filed back until the slides would come back just the distance 
required when drawn by the springs shown on each. 

We neglected to state that a half-round groove was let into 
the top of each slide, as a form or seat for the work to locate 
in. After all parts were assembled, as shown, the punch and 
die were set up in the press and the work 2 placed in position 
as shown, the screws adjusted correctly, and the press stepped. 
The punch descends, striking the work in the center, and causes 
it to spring up and hug the sides of the punch, which, continu- 
ing down further until within y% inch of the bottom, when the 
inclined faced punch studs and the die studs come in contact, 
causing the forming slides to move inward, the punch continu- 
ing down until the work is entirely formed and finished. As the 
punch ascends the springs carry the slides back to the stop-pins 
3 3, and the work is removed from the punch by hand. The 
spiral spring D in the punch is to allow the forming punch to 
remain stationary while the work is being formed at the sides 
by the slides. 

Cutting, Perforating and Shaping at One Operation. 

Fig. 184 shows an open back press equipped with dies for 
cutting, perforating and shaping at one and the same handling 
the lock-cases used on satchel frames. It will be understood 
from the engraving that the operator pushes the metal strip 
into the die against an automatic finger gage, which permits 
of running the press continuously. After the piercing and punch- 
ing, which are done in a double die, the blank is automatically 
moved sideways into the forming die, which finishes it and drops 
it out of the press at the rate of about 60 to 80 a minute. Presses 
of this type equipped with the "punch feed" and "finger-gage" 
are used extensively in the manufacture of belt hooks, tobacco 
tags, staples, etc. Sometimes a roll feed is used in addition 
for feeding in the stock. 

Blanking and Stamping in a Press with Automatic Slide Feed 

and Ejector. 

The engraving, Fig. 185, illustrates an inclined press fitted 
with a blanking die set in front of a stamping die for making 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 143. 




FIG. 184. PRESS EQUIPPED WITH PUSH FEED, FINGER GAGE AND 
DIES FOR CUTTING, PERFORATING AND FORMING AT ONE AND- 
THE SAME HANDLING LOCK CASES FOR SATCHEL FRAMES. 



UNIVERSITY 



144 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 185. INCLINED PRESS WITH SLIDE FEED AND EJECTOR, 

EQUIPPED WITH A BLANKING DIE AND A STAMPING DIE. 



J5KXDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 145 

covers for key-opening sardine boxes. The press is set on 
inclined legs and the blank naturally drops back to the stamp- 
ing die through gravity, but a cam-actuated slide feed is pro- 
vided to insure its proper locating on the stamping die, from 
which, after being stamped, it is automatically ejected by a 
device not shown. Articles of this general character may be 
cut from the strip and stamped at the rate of about 50 to 60 
pieces a minute. 

Two Bending Dies for Flat Stock. 

In Figs. 1 86 and 187 are shown two bending dies for bend- 
ing and forming the sheet steel pierced blank shown in Fig. 
1 88 to the shape shown in Fig. 190. As the engravings show 




FIG. 1 86. BENDING DIE FOR OPERATION, FIG. 189. 

clearly the design and construction of both dies no detailed 
description is necessary. The first operation is the bending of 
the blank to the shape shown in Fig. 189, with the four wings 
B B B B bent to an angle of 45 degrees with the sides E E and 
the top A A. The punch and die used are shown in Fig. 186. 
The blank is placed on stripping plate S, and located by the 
two gage pins T T entering into two of the pierced holes D 



146 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



in the blank. Springs within the bolster keep the stripper S 
at the face of the die, and strip the work when bent. The punch 




FIG. 187. BENDING DIE FOR OPERATION, FIG. 190. 

L for the bend at E is also equipped with springs which are 
strong enough to allow of the punch bending the blank at this 



o 



o 



o 



FIG. 1 88. BLANK. 



A 

B(oi 



OD 



FIG. 189. FIRST BEND. 



point before it bottoms at K. M M M M are the punch portions 
for bending the wings, and QQQQ the die portions for the 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



o 



same. The appearance of the work after passing through this 
die is shown in Fig. 189. 

For the finishing operation the die, Fig. 187, is used, the 
work being located at W W and as the punch 
descends it is formed into the die at V V, which 
causes the ends of the work to spring up and 
hug the punch at X and Z, the result being the 
shape shown in Fig. 190. All wearing surfaces 
of both punch and die used for the two opera- 
tions are draw-filed and polished smooth, after 
which they are hardened and drawn slightly, 
leaving them as hard as possible without danger 
of cracking. The manner of fastening the 
punches within the holders by dovetailing them 
is far preferable and more reliable than by the 
use of screws. 



O 



FIG. 190. 
SECOND BEND. 



An Automatic Slide Forming Die for a Sheet Metal Ferrule. 

The punch and die shown in Figs. 192 to 195 are used to fcrm 
the sheet steel blank produced in the die shown in Figs. 79 
and 80 Chapter III., to the shape shown in Fig. 191. As this 
punch and die is of a rather intricate and elaborate type, and 
as there are a number of practical points in its construction 
which are essential to the successful production 
of the work, it is of sufficient interest to warrant 
a detailed description of its principal working 
parts. 

The punch and die as used when in operation 
are shown in Fig. 192, which shows a longitudi- 
nal cross-section of each, with the blank in posi- 
tion for forming. The die consists of a heavy 
cast iron bolster R, which is finished with a 
dovetailed channel running down its entire 
length, and with a central channel at right angles to 
the first to admit the forming die N. This die is of 
tool steel and is shown in a plan view as are all the other 
working parts of the die in Fig. 193. It is finished on the 
face in a half-circle of the radius to which the blank is to be 
formed, and has two narrow slots sunk in it to accommodate 
the wings of the blank, as shown at N. It is hardened and 
drawn and ground to a nice fit in the channel. Before hardening 




Second Operation 
FIG. il. 



148 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



a hole is let into the center of the bottom to accommodate the 
adjusting stud V, Fig. 192. A hole is drilled straight through 
the bolster at this point and enlarged and tapped at the back 
to admit the spring case screw T and the spring S. By using 
these parts as shown the tension of the spring can be regulated, 
as can the height of the punch N also. 

The two forming slides K K are of flat tool steel of the thick- 
ness shown and are finished in the following manner : .A piece 




FIG. 192. DIE FOR FORMING A SHEET METAL FERRULE. 

of steel, long enough to form both slides, is first planed all over 
and fitted to the dovetailed channel in the face of the bolster, 
fitting it tightly. It is then strapped to the table of the milling 
machine, with the sides at dead right angles with the cutter, 
and a half-round groove of exactly the same radius as that in 
the face of the die N let in, using the graduated dial on the 
table feed screw to get the correct depth, and feeding very 
slowly with a good flow of oil on the cutter, to get as smooth a 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



149 



finish as possible. This done, the forming cutter is removed 
and a sharp saw 3-32 inch thick substituted in its stead, setting 
it in the dead center of the half-round groove in the work and 
feeding it through to within a shade of the table of the miller. 
The work was then removed and the two sections separated. 
The faces of each were then finished and polished. This method 
of finishing the forming faces of the slides insured their align- 
ment with the forming portions of the die, a.nd_\vith each other. 
The angular inclined cam portion in each end was finished as 
shown at I I, to templet, finishing the faces to an angle of 25 
degrees with the slide face and polishing them as smooth as 
possible. The slides were hardened at the working surfaces 
and drawn to a light straw, leaving the remaining portions soft. 
The construction of the remaining portions of the die requires no 




FIG. 193. PLAN OF DIE. 

description as they are simple and are shown clearly in the 
engravings. 

The punch, as shown in Fig. 192, consists of seven parts 
the holder, or body H, forged from mild steel, the two slide cams 
J J of tool steel, the forming punch K of the same material, 
the punch stud F, the adjusting nuts E, and the spiral spring 
G. The holder H after being chucked and faced, and the hole 
for the spring G and stud F let in, was strapped to the lathe 
face-plate and the stem trued with the hole, then turned, as 
shown, and the back faced. It was then set up in the miller 
and the sides and ends milled, and a channel let into the face to 
admit the forming punch K. The finishing of this punch was 
a nice milling job, as it serves when finished as the punch for 
forming tile bottom of the blank and also as the horn for the 
sides. The method of finishing was as follows : A piece of 



150 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




Center 



FIG. 194. THE FORMING 
PUNCH. 



annealed tool steel, large enough all over to allow of finishing- 
it to the shape shown in Fig. 194, was first centered and placed 
on the lathe centers and a narrow shoulder turned at each end 
in diameter exactly one thickness of metal less than that of the 
die. We now had two reliable points to work from. The punch 
was then set up on the miller centers, jacked up from the bottom, 
and the portion D finished with a narrow mill to the same 

radius as the ends before mentioned, 
finishing the punch in a perfect radius 
to within 3-64 inch of each side of the 
center, and ending in a stout wall ?,t 
the back C, running out and ending 
in a fillet as shown. It was necessary 
Icenter to have this wall at the back, because 
of the frailness of the central wall B. 
By moving the punch around on the 
miller centers and locating and fasten- 
ing as required, the back of the punch was milled true with the 
circular face. The punch was then held in the miller vise and 
the sides milled to fit the channel in the holder, finishing both 
sides equidistant from the center of the punch face. As will be 
seen, this was about as accurate and expeditious a method of 
finishing of the punch as could be adopted. The circular portion 
of the punch was then draw-filed, taking off all high spots, and 
giving the surface a perfectly symmetrical appearance. The two 
ends were then milled down and squared with the back and sides, 
the hole for the punch stud F let into the center of the back 
and tapped, and the punch hardened, polished and drawn to a 
dark blue and laid aside until the other portions 
were finished. The construction of the other parts 
of the punch and die can be clearly understood 
from the engraving without a description. 

The action of this punch and die may be under- 
stood from Fig. 192. The blank is placed on 
the die as shown at M, and the punch set. 
As it descends the blank is formed into the die N, the 
spring S being strong enough to allow of this being done 
without moving the die. As the punch forms the blank, the 
die descends until it bottoms. The forming punch now remains 
stationary, and as the holder continues to descend the slides 
commence to move in, by means of J J, until the sides of the 




FIG. 195. 

GAGES. 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 15! 

blank have been formed around the punch, and the face of each 
slide presses tightly against the wall B. As the punch rises 
all parts return to their respective positions, and the finished 
work is slid off the punch by hand. 

When dies for producing work of this type are designed 
and constructed in this manner, the results will be all that can 
be desired. They will work well' and rapidly and, what is 
more, turn out the maximum amount of work before requiring 
repairs. 

A Press with Automatic Device for Tube Forming. 

Fig. 196 shows a press equipped with lateral slides and mov- 
able mandrel for forming sheet-metal tubes in one operation, 
forming a tube 8 inches long, either straight, taper, round, oval 
or square, at one blow. The toggle slides, which operate from 
right to left, are cam-actuated and easily adjusted for different 
shapes. The mandrel, over which the tubes are formed, first 
descends upon the blank, bending it into a U shape and carrying 
it against the lower die, whereupon the forming tools attached 
to the lateral slides complete the operation. Presses equipped 
in this manner are used extensively in the manufacture of bicycle 
parts, such as hubs, pedal centers, etc., also spouts, penholders, 
small can bodies, either round or square. 

Bending and Forming Dies for Round Work. 

The dies here shown and described are known as circular 
bending and forming dies, and are very suggestive of ways and 
means for upsetting and forming the edges of circular-drawn 
shells into a variety of difficult shapes. The piece of work shown 
here in the different operations, running from Fig. 197 to 203, 
was used as a part of a patent fruit- jar cover. The first opera- 
tion, Fig. 197, was to blank and draw a shell of the size and 
shape required. After this it was necessary to upset, bend 
and form the upper edge to the shape shown in Fig. 200, for 
which three operations were necessary. 

The first, Fig. 198, was to upset or start the upper bend. 
The punch and die are shown in Fig. 204. A, the bolster, is 
of cast iron and B the die, for holding the shell, of tool steel. 
The construction of the parts of both punch and die can be 
clearly understood from the engravings. The metal used for 
the shells was sheet tin .01 inch thick. The shell C being placed 



152 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG 196. A PRESS EQUIPPED WITH LATERAL SLIDES AND MOVA- 
BLE MANDREL FOR FORMING SHEET METAL TUBES IN ONE 
OPERATION, FORMING A TUBE 8 INCHES LONG, EITHER STRAIGHT, 
TAPER, ROUND, OVAL OR SQUARE, AT ONE BLOW. 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 153 

in the die B, the punch descending causes the edge to collapse 
to the shape shown in Fig. 198. 

For the next operation a bolster H, which would answer 
for all the bending operations, was made as shown in the cross- 
section in Fig. 205, with a plan of it in Fig. 210. It was first 
bored % inch deep to just fit the outside of the shell at J J for 
a gage point in setting the punches, and then planed on the 
top and the two gibs LL finished and each fastened by three 
screws, as shown. A slide M of flat cold-rolled stock was then 
fitted to slide freely within L L and to locate itself against the 
stop K. It was bored out to just strip the work from the 




J 



FIG. 198. FIG. 201. 



r 



FIG. 199. FIG. 202. 



L 11 



FIG. 197. THE SHELL. FIG. 2OO. FIG. 203. 

BENDING ROUND WORK. 

punch, the round-head thumb-screw being used as a handle to 
slide it back when locating the work. The action of the punch 
and die for this operation is plain, as shown in Fig. 205. The 
punch G is worked out and finished to templet to the shape 
shown at K, and hardened and polished. In descending the 
central portion projects further, and enters the shell I before the 
forming commences, thereby holding the outer edge while it is 
formed and bent to the shape shown in Fig. 199. The operation 
of finishing the upper bend was done by the punch N, Fig. 206, 
tapering slightly, as shown, entering the work and gradually 
forcing it inward and finishing the bend as shown in Fig. 200. 
The upper bend finished, we were ready for the lower, which 
.required three operations to complete it. 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 204. FIRST OPERATION. 

The first was to blank the hole in the bottom, as shown in 
lug". 201, which was done by the punch and die shown in Fig. 
207. T is the bolster, U the die, inserted at T and held down 




FIG. 205. SECOND OPERATION. 

by the gage plate V, which is located on the face of the bolster 
in a recess sunk true with the die. The work W is shown just 
fitting within Y. The punch X is the ordinary blanking punch , 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 155 

equipped with the spring rubber Z, a stripping plate Y, and O O 
the two screws or studs for the plate to move on. The blanking 
punch descends and punches the hole, and as it rises the plate Y 
strips the work from the punch. 




FIG. 206. THIRD OPERATION. 

The first bend is shown in Fig. 208, the punch tapering 
sufficiently to allow it to enter the hole in the work Q while 
the taper part forms it to the shape shown in Fig. 202. The 
next and last operation is shown in Fig. 208, the punch, taper- 




FIG. 207. CUTTING THE HOLE. 

ing slightly and then left straight, descending and finishing the 
bending and leaving the work as shown in Fig. 203. 

It was necessary to have some means for setting the punches 
central with the work, and to do this the piece, Fig. 211, was 



156 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



made, the upper part fitting around the punch and the lower 
part in the recess J J in the bolster. This proved an easy and 
reliable means of locating them. In making the punches, tem- 
plates were necessary in order to get them the proper shape 




FIG. 208. FIFTH OPERATION. 

and size, as in work of this kind it is very easy to start a 
wrinkle, which increases with each operation and spoils the 
work. All the working parts must be well finished and polished 




FIG. 209. SIXTH OPERATION. 

and left very hard, as the bending of sheet metal in this manner 
wears the punch rapidly. 

Although the work looks simple enough, considerable skill 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 157 

is required with the hand tool to get the proper shapes and sizes,, 
first working down, and then trying and easing the tight spots, 
until the exact shape required is produced. 

Of two styles of bending round work the one here described, 
that of decreasing from a larger diameter to a smaller, is easier 
than the other. This form of bending is used quite extensively 
in the manufacture of tinware and metal lamps, and it is sur- 




M 









FIG. 210. 



FIG. 211. 



prising the variety of work and the symmetry of form that is 
attained when the simplicity and cheapness of the tools used 
are considered. The extensive use and improvement of such 
tools has been the chief factor in the unusual cheapness of sheet- 
metal ware, as formerly all this was done by spinning. The 
adoption and use of such tools has also increased the usefulness 
of the die and toolmaker. And so it is in all lines of sheet- 
metal work, the power press being used to-day to accomplish 
results that were not thought possible' a few years ago. 

Bending and Closing-in Dies for Round Work. 

The punches and die shown in Figs. 216 and 217 are of a 
type in general use for bending and closing-in the rim of a 
drawn shell. It is of a type which is adaptable (with slight 







FIG. 212. 



FIG. 213. 



FIG. 214. 



FIG. 215. 



158 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



changes which readily become apparent) for a considerable num- 
ber of different shapes in bending and forming round work. 

As can be seen from the engraving, this particular punch 
and die are used for joining the two drawn pieces, Figs. 212 and 
213; that is, enclosing the drawn shell, Fig. 213, at B B within 




j 




FIG. 2l6. FIRST BEND. 



Q Q 

Punch for Finishing 



FIG. 217. 



Fig. 212 at A A, first starting or upsetting the edge A A as 
shown at C C, Fig. 214, and then finishing it as shown at D D, 
Fig. 215. Although these tools are of a very simple design, it 
is necessary to exercise care in the finishing and sizing of the 
parts, as, wherever a good job in the product is desired, close 
and good work is necessary in the tools. 



Foot Presses and Outfit of Dies for Producing Five-Gallon 
Petroleum Cans. 

In Figs. 218 to 223 are shown a number of foot power presses 
as equipped with punches and dies for the different operations 
necessary in the production of five-gallon petroleum cans. As 
the half-tones show clearly the construction of the dies and the 
manner in which they are located, fastened and used, no descrip- 
tion will be attempted. 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



159 







i6o 



DIES, THEIR roXSTKUCTION AND USE. 




BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. l6l 

A Double Crank Press and Outfit of Bending Dies. 

The press shown in Fig. 224 is a double crank press and 
the "horns" and "forces" with which it is equipped are used 
for setting down the inside corner seams of even bodies. Presses 
of this type and fixtures of the class shown are used to the 
best advantage for operations in the manufacture of heavy 
pieced iron ware, such as setting down lock seams on very 
heavy stock. 

A Pick-Eye Forming Press with Dies in Position. 

The press shown in Fig. 225 with a set of dies in position is 
used for the manufacture of such articles as hammers, axes, 
pick-axes, adzes, mattocks, hoes, etc. A series of dies of the 
type shown is set side by side, and the article is forged in 
one or several heats by passing it through from one die to 
another. The slide or ram of the press can be quickly and 
accurately raised and lowered by means of an adjustment which 
is arranged to operate both crank connections simultaneously. 

Four "Follow" Bending and Forming Dies. 

The dies shown in engravings herein, while not exactly 
"bending" dies in the proper sense of the term, may be shown 
and described in this chapter because of the fact that the 
work principally accomplished by their use is bending. The 
construction of dies of this class is similar to that followed out 
in "gang" dies, and as the operations on the work as it passes 
through them are progressive they are known as "follow" dies. 
The dies shown here show four adaptations of the "follow" prin- 
ciple for articles or parts of sheet metal to be pierced, bent, 
formed or drawn and finished complete in one operation or 
handling. 

The punch and die shown in Figs. 227 and 228 produce the 
formed and pierced blank shown in two. views in Fig. 226. This 
blank has two holes B B, the ends are trimmed and the center 
is bent and formed to the shape shown at A. The metal used 
came in strips or rolls of the required width. As first inserted 
within the die it fitted between the ^age plates and against 
the stop-pin T. At the first down stroke of the ram the forming 
punch M encounters the metal and bends and forms it into the 
die R, and, bottoming there, remains stationary while the two 



162 



DIES,, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 224. DOUBLE CRANK PRESS AND OUTFIT OF DIES FOR BENDING 
DOWN CORNER SEAMS OF SQUARE BOX WORK. 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 163 




FIG. 225. PICK-EVE FORMING PRESS WITH DIES IN POSITION. 



164 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



o 

B 



FIG. 226. 





M 



Plan of Punch 




M 




FIG. 227. 




FIG. 228. ' FOI^OW " DIB FOR FIG. 226. 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 165 

holes B B are pierced by the punches K K and the end of the 
stock is trimmed by the punch L. At the next stroke the 
metal is held against the stop-pin and the formed and finished 
blank is punched out. The position of the stop-pin T must 
be accurately located, as the metal is first forced against it by 



1 




cO 




D 








cO 




FIG. 229. 

hand and then drawn away some distance by the action of the 
forming punch X. 

The punch and die, Figs. 230 to 232, for producing the bent 
flat spring shown in Fig. 229, are more simple than the first. 
They pierce the holes C C, make the bend at D, cut off the 
piece and trim the corners. G G are the piercing dies, H the 
forming or bending die, and X and I the trimming and cutting- 
off dies. For the forming die H the shape required is milled 
across the face of the die. The trimming die I is also made 
wider than necessary, as shown, and is made to allow the back 
end of the work to be cornered and the front end to be cut 
off square. The stop K, of flat cold-rolled stock fastened to 






Plan of Punch 



FIG. 230. 

the end of the die, is made adjustable to allow of using the one 
die for producing springs of different lengths. The punch is 
simple, consisting of the two piercing punches Y Y, the bending 
punch Z and the trimming punch E, all fastened in the pad X. 
The bending punch Z is shorter than the piercing punches and 



166 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 231. FOLLOW " DIF, FOR FIG. 229. 

cut-off punch. This is done so that the two holes will have 
been pierced and the finished piece cut off before the next one 
is bent. When the die is in use the strip of metal, which is the 




FIG. 232. 

exact width required, is inserted beneath the stripper and against 
the stop K. As the punch descends the two holes are pierced 
first and the end of the strip is trimmed, and the work bent. At 
the next stroke the finished piece is cut off. 






BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



i6 7 



The only bad feature in a die of this construction is that it 
does not easily allow of frequent grinding. To compensate for 
this defect it is best to leave the die as hard as possible and to 




FIG. 233. 




FIG. 234. 




FIG. 235. "FOU,OW" DIE FOR FIG. 233. 



exercise care when setting it up in the press. We have seen 
dies of this type which have produced from seventy to eighty 
thousand blanks without requiring grinding. 



1 68 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



The punch and die, Figs 234 to 237, produce the piece shown 
in Fig. 233. This die instead of bending the work draws and 
forms to the shape of a shallow shell, pierces the hole in the 
center E and punches out the finished piece. The die comprises 
the drawing die U, the piercing die J and the blanking die W. 
When laying out the centers for the three dies the distances 
between them had to be determined according to the amount of 





H 



G 


H 





FIG. 236. 

metal required to form the shell portion of the work. The 
length of the drawing punch P is just sufficient to draw the 
shell and flatten the rim on the face of the die. The pilot pin 
S in the punch R is to locate the work central within the blank- 
ing die after the hole has been pierced. The blanking punch is 
left the longest for reasons which will be understood from the 
description of the operation of the die. 

After the punch and die are set up the strip of metal to 






Plan of Punch 



FIG. 237. 

be worked is first entered beneath the stripper, far enough to 
allow the first shell to be drawn at the first stroke. The metal 
is then moved along and the shell drawn at the first stroke is 
centered and located within the locating portion of the piercing 
die. At the next stroke the hole is pierced and a second shell 
drawn. The stock is then fed forward another space, and, the 
punch descending, the blanking punch R enters the die first, 
thereby allowing most of the stock for the shell to be drawn from 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



1 6q 




FIG. 238. "FOLLOW" DIE FOR FIG. 236. 

the sides. Punch P and punch O are in separate pieces to facil- 
itate grinding, so that when the piercing and blanking punches 
are ground the face of O may also be ground so as to keep it 
the proper length in relation to the other two. 



Plan of Die 



r 




- 












^ 






1 
IDG 




LJ 






E 


(5) 


E 






ii 

3 3 














F 








H/tt 

/"fS 






FIG. 239. 

The die, Figs. 237 to 239, differs from the other three, as 
it has to bend and form at two points H H, pierce a hole in the 
center at F and cut off the finished piece, thus necessitating 
drawing the metal for the bends from both ends. D is the die 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



proper, E E the bending dies, F the piercing die and G the cut- 
ting-off die. K is the adjustable stop, I I the two gage plates, 
and H the stripper plate. The punch consists of the stem or 
holder Y, the pad Z, the bending and forming punches A A and 
the cutting-off punch C. The bending punches have the piercing 
punch let into the center between them. The cutting punch C 
and the piercing punch B are left Y% inch longer than the others, 
so that the forming punches A A will accomplish their work 
after the others have entered the die. 

The stock to be worked is inserted far enough for the end 
to project slightly beyond the edge of the cutting die G. As 
the punch descends the piercing punch pierces the hole and the 
cutting-off punch trims the end of the stock. The punch con- 
tinuing downward, the forming punches A A form the work 
into the dies E E, while the piercing punch having passed 
through the stock and into the die, holds the metal true and 
central while the bends are being accomplished. At the next 
stroke the stock is pushed against the stop K and a finished 
piece is cut out and dropped. . 

A Special Forming Die. 

In Figs. 240 and 241 is shown a special forming die for form- 
ing the piece shown "before" and "after" in Figs. 242 and 243. 




FIG. 240. PLAN OF SPECIAL FORMING DIE. 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



171 



The piece X was made in the screw machine from round brass 
rod, with a neck turned smaller than the body, and, as it was im- 
possible to form the head in a solid die, the laterally opening 
and closing die here shown was made. 




FIG. 241. 

The base of the bolster A was y 2 inch thick, and the central 
portion a, I inch thicker, this portion being planed dovetailing 
for the die to slide in. The casting has openings provided at 
H H for the tool clearance when planing the die channel. The 
two halves of the die are machined together in a single piece, and 





FIG. 242. 



FIG. 243. 




after fitting into the bolster, are cut apart with a narrow milling 
saw. One half of the die is fastened securely to the back of the 
channel in the bolster by the flat-head screws C C. The other 
half of the die is to slide in and out, being forcibly closed by 





Face of Die 



FIG. 245. 



Vertical Section of Die 



FIG. 246. 



the handled eccentric D, and pulled open by the springs on each 
side. When the dies were properly fitted and closed tightly, the 
bolster was strapped on the face-plate of the lathe, the hole for 
the neck of the piece drilled, and the shape for the under side 



172 DIES. THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

of the head worked out on the face of the die with hand tools, 
after which it was lapped smooth. The larger portion of the 
hole is counterbored from the under side. The depth of the 
smaller hole in the dies, which clamps the neck of the piece to be 
headed, is shorter than the length of the neck, so that the piece 
to be formed will rise slightly above the face of the dies before 
the lateral movement of the half die in opening occurs. A hole 
is drilled in the bottom of the bolster concentric with the finished 
hole in the die, and a pin is driven in with a loosely fitting spring 
around it to serve as a knockout for the finished work. A sec- 
tion of the end of the punch is shown, the finishing of which was 
a job of simple lathe work, requiring no special mention. 

Tu'o Can-Body Bending and Forming Machines. 
The machine shown in Fig. 247 is used for forming the 




FIG. 247. CAN-BODY FORMING MACHINE, FOR BENDING AND FORMING 
THE BODIES OF SQUARE, OBLONG, CONICAL AND PYRAMIDAL CANS, 
ALLOWING SIDE SEAM TO BE SOLDERED WHILE BODY IS CLAMPED 
IN FORMING PARTS. 



I'.KNDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



1/3 



bodies of square, conical and pyramidal cans and to allow of 
soldering the side seam while the body is securely clamped in 
the forming- fixtures. When the hand levers of the outside form- 
ing parts are thrown back the horn or inside former contracts, 
thus permitting the easy removal of the finished body. The con- 




FIG. 248. CAN-BODY FORMING MACHINE FOR CANS WITH 
LAPPED OR LOCKED SIDE SEAMS. 

struction and arrangement of the working parts are such as to 
insure uniformity of size and rapidity of production. 

The machine shown in Fig. 248 is very extensively used when 
equipped with fixtures of the type shown, for forming the bodies 
of square, oblong, conical and pyramidal cans, which are to be 
finished with either lapped or locked side seams. The manner 
in which the work is accomplished in these machines can be in- 
telligently understood from the illustrations. 



1/4 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



An Inclined Press Equipped for Stamping and Bending Body 
Blanks for Petroleum Cans. 

In Fig. 249 is shown an inclined press equipped with a set of 
dies for the production of petroleum can-body blanks. The 
blanks as produced are shown on the floor at the back of the 




FIG. 249. INCLINED PRESS WITH PANEL-PRESSING DIE, HOOK-FORM- 
ING ATTACHMENT, AUTOMATIC TRIP-GAGE AND BENDING DEVICE. 

press. With a press of this type equipped as shown, an expe- 
rienced operator can feed the blanks, stamp the panels, prepare 
the hooks and bend 1,400 body blanks per day. 

A Novel Bending and Forming Die. 
The punch and die shown in Figs. 250 to 253 was used to 



BENDING AND FORMING DIES AND FIXTURES. 



175 



"bend and form the two extensions A A of the blank shown in Fig. 
59, chapter III., to the circular shape shown in Fig. 60 of the 
same chapter, and also to bend the end C C at right angles with 
the body in one operation, and as it shows a novel and rapid 
method for accomplishing the results desired it is worthy of 
attention. It is no simple job to bend and form a blank to the 
shape shown in one operation, but by means of the die shown it 
was accomplished with ease. The principle of constructing the 




FIG. 250. VERTICAL, CROSS-SECTION OK BENDING AND FORMING DIE. 

parts for forming the circular parts is somewhat similar to that 
of another die shown in this chapter, but the application of it is 
entirely different. As the engravings show all that is neces- 
sary in order to clearly understand the construction of the parts, 
we will confine ourselves to the description of its operation and 
use. 

The manner in which the forming and bending of the blank 
is accomplished can be understood from the sectional view of 
the punch and die in Fig. 250, which shows the blank in position 
at M on the die P, it being located by the locator K. The in- 



176 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



clined stud is within the slide and as the punch descends, the 
portion J bends the two ends A A of the blank into the die P, 
which causes them to spring clear of the forming slides X and 







Plan of Die with 
Work in Position 



FIG. 252. THE PUNCH. 



FIG. 251. 

O, at the same time the portion L of the punch bends the op- 
posite end of the blank down over the edge of the die at O. As 
the punch I bottoms on the die, it remains stationary while the 
holder continues to descend, and with it the inclined stud, which 

causes the forming slide to 
move inward and form the 
ends A A over the punch 
at J, thereby finishing the 
ends to the shape required. 
As the punch rises, the ten- 
sion of the spring in the 
holder is. sufficient to keep 

the punch I stationary until the forming side has been 
moved back out of its way by the inclined stud H. 
The punch then rises and the finished work rises with 
it and is slid off by hand. 

This punch and die can be operated very rapidly, 
and when once it has been set correctly, it is impossible 
to produce anything but good work in exact duplication. We 
do not think that the results accomplished by this die in one 
operation could be attained by any other means in as simple, prac- 
tical and inexpensive, as well as rapid manner, and as such we 
think the design and method of construction could be adopted 
to advantage for the rapid production of a large variety of bent 
and formed blanks of the type shown, which it is impossible to 
produce in one operation by dies of simpler construction. 




FIG. 253. 



CHAPTER VI. 

PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 

The Use of Perforating Dies. 

The construction of punches and dies for piercing or per- 
forating sheet metal is comparatively simple and, as no intricate 
methods are involved, we will confine ourselves to describing a 
few sets of dies and to the setting forth of the most approved 
means for the accomplishment of the desired results, from the 
punching of a single hole to the multiple punching of any number 
of holes. The construction of the dies is usually similar to that of 
the "gang" type, and they are used for operations on work rang- 
ing from ornamental thin sheet metal articles to the punching ot 
holes in steel beams and boiler-plates. The holes pierced may be 
of any shape and spaced as desired. Often a number of sma.1! 
blanks are produced at each stroke of the press by dies of this 
class, a sheet of metal of the required width being fed to the dies 
automatically. Perforated sheets of different metals are now 
in great demand and are used for a variety of purposes too nu- 
merous to mention. 

The Construction of a Simple Piercing Punch and Die. 

In Figs. 254 and 255 respectively we show a sectional view of 
a piercing punch and die and a plan view of the punch. This 
die was used for piercing the six holes R and the large one in the 
center of the drawn shell shown in Figs. 256, 257. The die B 
made of tool steel with a hole bored through the center was set 
upon the dividing head of the miller and the six holes were in- 
dexed, centered and drilled. The die was then hardened and 
drawn and the holes ground and lapped to size grinding the 
large one and lapping the six small ones. The bolster A was bored 
to admit the die B with a clearance hole in the base, two holes 
E E being drilled in the ends and one bored at the top to admit 
the gage plate C. This was fastened to the die B and within 
A by six round head screws D D, the face of B was ground, the 
various parts assembled and the die was complete. 

The punch consists of a- cast iron holder F, turned and fin- 



J78 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



ished, and of the hardened and ground central punch G, which 
was let into a hole in the center shouldering against the face of 
the holder, as shown, and fastened by a large set-screw, not 




M 



jj I J 

\\\\v 





PIG. 254. SIMPLE PIERCING DIE. 

shown. The holes for the six small punches H were transferred 
through the die B to the face of the holder F and drilled and 




M 




FIG. 255. PLAN OP PUNCH. FIGS. 256 AND 257. THE WORK. 

reamed to size, after which the hardened and ground punches 
were let in and fastened by the set-screws M. 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 



179 



Now came the stripper plate L, for stripping the work from 
the punches, which fitted over them freely. See Figs. 254 and 
255. The studs III with heads 3-16 inch larger in diameter 
than the bodies were screwed into the plate L ; three holes J J J 
were drilled in F to allow them to move up and down freely, and 




Fig. 4 Flat Skimmer 




Fig. 5 Pepper Top Fig. 6 Colander 



Fig. 8 
Burner 
Gallery 




Fig. 10 
Fig. 9 Can Top Can Top 



Fig. 7 
Gasolene Burner Shell 




Fig. 11 Steamer Bottom 





Fig. 12 Grater 



Fig. 13 Strainer 





I 



Fig. 11 
Perforated Strip 




Fig 15 
Perforated Sheet 





g, 




^ u 


)_ 


. g V 


II 


|J 

(J}~ 




o "- 1 


11- 

o.S 


Id 

& "rt* 


O. o u 


s 


P 


ex 


K 


<> 


">" 5 ' 


.024 


72 


20 


800 






031 


67 


18 


720 






037 


69 


15 


600 






.052 


53 


12 


4SO 






.070 


50 


9 


360 






070 


50 


*? 


2SO 






1015 


3S 


* 


2SO 



















Standard Perforations for Tin Plate 



FIG. 258. SAMPLES OF PERFORATING DIE WORE. 



l8o DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

were counterbored half-way down to allow the heads I I T to 
shoulder and to keep the plate L even with the face of the punches. 
The three spiral springs K K K were slipped over the studs I and 
the tools set up in the press. The work was now placed within 
the gage plate C, the punch descending, the large punch G 
blanking the center hole and entering the die first, and continu- 
ing down until the small punches had pierced the work. On the 
up stroke the work was stripped from the punches by the stripper 
plate L actuated by the springs K K K. 

Piercing Tivo Holes on Opposite Sides of Drawn Shells. 

In Fig. 259 is shown a horizontal two-slide foot press equipped 
with die and punches for punching simultaneously two holes or 




FIG. 259. HORIZONTAL TWO-SLIDE FOOT PRESS. 

slots on opposite sides of drawn shells. As the half-tone shows 
everything plainly, very little description is necessary. The die 
is located in the center and is made with cutting edges on op- 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. l8l 

posite sides and a clearance hole through the bottom as an escape 
for the scrap or punchings. The punches are of steel rod and are 
located and fastened in punch holders or chucks which are ad- 
justable and mounted on slides which are provided with adjust- 
able gibs. Each slide, as shown, is equipped with an adjustable 
stop to allow of piercing shells of different diameters. Dies of 
this type when used in a machine of the class shown are very 
convenient for rapidly and accurately piercing shells for lamp- 
burners, satchel locks, and a variety of other shells requiring 
holes punched on opposite sides. 

Fixtures for Perforating Burners and Other Shells. 

Figs. 260 to 264 show five different sets of perforating fixtures 
in position on presses for perforating burner shells, etc. Fix- 
tures of this type are used very extensively for work which it is 
desired to perforate all around. The construction of the punches, 
dies and fixtures used requires little description as the half-tones 
show nearly all that is necessary for an intelligent understanding 
of their adaptation and use. 

These attachments shown here represent only a few of many 
perforating devices which are used for sheet metal shells of 
various shapes. The attachments shown in Figs. 260 and 261 are 
made for taper and crowning shells, which necessitates the setting 
of die holder and rotating device at an angle to the lower face of 
the slide. The other attachments are for perforating cylindrical 
work. For perforating special shapes of shells special attach- 
ments have to be devised. The number of holes perforated at 
each stroke depends upon the shape of the shell operated upon. 

In attachments of the type shown the perforating die, with a 
chuck of suitable shape, is mounted on a die-holder, and a rat- 
chet having teeth spaced to suit the spacing of the holes de- 
sired in the shells, is mounted and arranged to rotate the shell at 
each stroke of the slide. By the use of such attachments per- 
forating may be done at the rate of 150 to 200 strokes a minute, 
according to the size of the shell and its shape. 

The adjustments of the parts of these perforating -attachments 
are easily and quickly made, so that but a short time is required to 
change the attachments from one style of shell to another. Presses 
in which such attachments are used are often furnished with a 
latch lock for the clutch connection, which is automatically re- 
leased after each complete revolution of the article on the per- 



1 82 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 






L 



FIG. 260. 



FIG. 262 




IG. 263. SHELLS. FIG. 264. 

FIXTURES FOR PERFORATING BURNERS AND OTHER SHELLS. 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 183 

forating chuck, thus stopping the press automatically after the 
requisite results and number of strokes have been made. 

Press With Cam-Actuated Stripper for Perforating Sheet Metal. 

For perforating articles of considerable size or flat plates 
which are to be afterward drawn and formed to shape, or left flat 
as the case may be, dies of the usual construction will not do, as 
on such dies stationary strippers are used and they are liable to 
distort the metal punched by them, often to such an extent as to 
require subsequent straightening. 

To overcome this defect, a press with a cam-actuated stripper 
should be used, especially on accurate work such as parts of 
clocks, electric instruments, etc! A press equipped in this man- 
ner is shown in Fig. 265. As shown, the stripping device is such 
as to leave a clear space between the punch and die, thus allow- 
ing of the operator manipulating and observing the work quickly 
and accurately. The action of the stripper when the press is 
being operated is as follows : The stripper plate strikes the 
blank first, or article as the case may be, straightening and 
clamping it before the punches enter, and holding it under pres- 
sure while the punching and stripping are being accomplished. 
In this manner the blank or formed piece comes out perfectly 
straight or true. The punches used in a press of this type may 
be made considerably shorter than where a die with a stationary 
stripper is used, thus making them considerably more resistant 
and durable. Also, in this manner, a smaller hole in propor- 
tion to the thickness of stock may be pierced, because of the close 
support which is" given to the punches by the movable stripper up 
to the point where they enter the stock. 

Piercing and Blanking Armature Disks in One Operation. 

In Fig. 266 we show a set of dies as located in an inclinable 
press for accurately piercing and blanking armature disks for 
small generators and motors. The press is equipped with an auto- 
matic knock-out and its inclined position allows of the blank after 
being punched and pierced being lifted out of the die and sliding 
off at the back by gravity. The pierced blanks are usually pro- 
duced by dies of this type from strips sheared to the necessary 
width. As shown, the construction of the dies is such as to al- 
low of the outside and the inside of the disk being punched sim- 
ultaneously, after which it is held between the face of the blanking 



1 84 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



punch and the face of the pad and descends far enough to allow of 
the piercing punches, which are located around the die, piercing 
the holes. The finished disks as produced by dies of this con- 
struction are shown on the floor beside the press. 




FIG. 265. PRESS WITH CAM-ACTUATED STRIPPER FOR 
PERFORATING SHEET METAL. 

A Quadruplicate Automatic Slide Die for Piercing Conical 

Shells. 

The die shown in Figs. 267 to 271 was used for the economic 
production of a pierced brass shell which was being manu- 
factured in large lots and which formed the draft regulator of a 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. I5 

new burner of the "Bunsen" type. As the chief feature sought in 
this line of manufacture is the reduction of cost and the elimina- 
tion of as many operations as possible, a die which allows the 




TIG. 266. INCLINABLE ARMATURE DISK-CUTTING PRESS, WITH 
POSITIVE KNOCK-OUT DEVICES FOR PUNCH AND DIE. 

accomplishment in one that which usually requires three or more 
operations cannot fail to interest. 

The shell to be pierced was of conical shape, as shown in the 
section P P, Fig. 267, and was blanked and drawn and a hole 
pierced in the bottom at O in a previous operation. To finish the 



1 86 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



shell it was necessary to pierce it at four points equidistant 
around the conical portion with an oblong slot I and two circular 
holes J J on each of the four sides. To accomplish this in one 
operation the die, Fig. 267, was constructed. A plan of the die 
is shown in Fig. 268, and of the inclined studs and holder in 
Fig. 269. The die is of the automatic slide type, quadruplicate in 
action, punching from four sides at the same time by means of 
four slides, in each of which is located a set of punches, which 




FIG. 267. VERTICAL SECTION OP DIE. 

are worked back and forth by means of inclined studs which are 
located and fastened within a holder, which is in turn located and 
fastened within the press ram. 

All the parts of the die proper are contained within a holder 
or base A A. This base resembles the usual die bolster, but in- 
stead of being cast iron was a forging of wrought iron, for rea- 
sons which are at once obvious. This forging was finished with a 
circular raised portion and with an extension to the base at each 
end for fastening it to the press bolster. Before starting to ma- 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 



i8 7 



chine the holder further the piercing die H H was got out. A 
piece of round annealed steel about 2 inches long and the same in 
diameter was first bored to the shape and size shown, terminating 
in a shoulder at L L, and then finished with a hole of smaller 
diameter straight through for the clamping sleeve. The die was 
then turned outside and the ends were finished to the shape shown 





FIG. 263. PLAN OF LOWER 
SECTION. 



FIG. 269. PLAN OF UPPER 
SECTION. 



in the detail drawing, Fig. 271 that is, to fit tightly the inside of 
the shell to be pierced and then reduced for the remainder of 
its length to the diameter shown. The outside was then nicely 
polished and we were ready to locate and finish the four sets of 
piercing dies. 

The positions in which these dies are located and the man- 
ner in which they were worked out can be understood from Fig. 





O 



FIG. 270. PUNCH SLIDE. FIG. 27 1. DIE PROPER. 

267. A mild steel stud was turned with a taper stem to fit the 
dividing head of the universal milling machine and the other end 
to a driving fit within the smallest end of the die blank. The ar- 
bor or stud was then driven into the die blank and the taper end 
located within the head of the milling machine, which was then 
set vertical. The holes for the round piercing dies J were then 
located and spotted and drilled by manipulating the feed screws 



1 88 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

and getting the distances, which had been previously deter nined, 
finishing the holes within a reaming size of the diameter re- 
quired. The locating of the oblong piercing dies was accom- 
plished in the same manner, they being located directly in the 
center of the blank in each position. The accomplishment of 
these separate results, of course, entailed considerable tirre, pa- 
tience, skill and a thorough knowledge of the use of the universal 
miller. 

After all the foregoing had been accomplished and the holes 
being drilled at what were to be the extreme ends of the oblong 
piercing slot K, the die was removed from the arbor and the round 
piercing dies were reamed to size, reaming each two holes which 
were in line with each other at the same time. A slight clearance 
was then given these dies by inserting a small taper reamer 
through the holes from the inside and holding the projecting end 
in the drill chuck while reaming the holes. The oblong dies 
were then worked out in the usual manner, first by hand, with 
a file, and then finished in line with their opposites and to dupli- 
cate size by forcing a broach through them. The die was then 
hardened in oil, and drawn to a medium straw temper and the 
outside ground, which gave all the dies a sharp cutting edge and 
allowed the shells to fit nicely over it. 

The forging A A for the die holder was now machined. It 
was first strapped to the lathe face-plate with the bottom up and 
finished at B B as a locating surface, at C C for the stripper pin 
adjusting screws and at D D for the clamping nuts M. A hole 
was bored straight through for the clamping sleeve K and reamed 
to size. The forging was then reversed on the face-plate, a cut 
was taken off the top, and a seat was bored to locate the die in, 
as shown at G G, the outside of the round top was turned and 
the ends A A were faced, this being possible at the one setting as 
the work was located and fastened to the face-plate by means of 
screws let in from the back. 

We were now ready to mill the four slide-ways for the four 
punch slides. This was done by strapping the forging on paral- 
lels to the table of the universal miller ; milling the slide-ways by 
means of an angular cutter and the vertical attachment, first locat- 
ing the work so that the slide- ways would come as central as 
possible with the die seat at G G, then milling straight across, and 
finishing the two opposite slide-ways as shown ; finishing so as to 
allow of a gib for each slide. The two remaining channels were 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 189 

milled by feeding the work against the cutter at right angles to 
the first two. Care was taken to have the cutter sharp, and a 
good flow of oil running on it while cutting, so as to get as 
smooth a finish as possible. 

The hollow clamping sleeve K for locating and clamping the 
die was of tool steel and was first bored and reamed to the dia- 
meter shown,, as an outlet for the punchings. It was then 
turned on the outside to fit snugly the center hole in the holder at 
F F, with a head at L L to clamp the die down, and threaded at 
the other end for the nuts. Holes were drilled around the inside 
of the holder on a radius shown in the plan view, Fig. 268, for 
the four stripper pins M, drilling all holes entirely through, and 
enlarging and tapping them at the back for the spring adjusting 
screws. 

The four punch slides or rams I, 2, 3 and 4 were of tool steel, 
milled all over and fitted to the channels in the holder. The 
inclined holes in each slide were then worked out, finishing each 
to the same angle with the slide face and polishing the. wearing 
surfaces as smooth as possible. The locating of the punches 
within the pads T and the locating in turn of the pads on the 
slide faces were accomplished as follows : Four pieces of mild 
steel were planed up and milled to the angular shape of the slide 
face, only smaller all around, as shown at T in the detail, Fig. 
270. The four oblong piercing punches U were finished to fit 
the die, hardened and drawn to a dark blue temper, and one let 
into and located in the center of each of the pads, getting them 
in the approximately correct position ; they were then upset or 
riveted at the back to prevent pulling out when in action. Next 
the piercing die H H was located and fastened within the holder 
and adjusted until the pads would rest squarely against the faces 
of the punch slides, and the punches enter the dies nicely. Each 
of the pads was then securely clamped to its slide face, the slides 
were removed from the holder and the holes drilled 'for the two 
dowels I I in each and into the slide. These holes were then 
reamed and the pins driven into the pad, fitting snugly into the 
holes in the slides. We now had a perfect alignment of the 
oblong piercing punches with their dies. The two flat-head 
screws were then let into each pad and slide, and the pads were 
relocated to their respective slides. 

The holes for the two piercing punches in each pad at V V 
were located by entering a slide into its channel and moving it 



I9O DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

up until the oblong piercing punch had entered the die; then, by 
using an extra long drill of Stubs wire, the holes were located 
and spotted in perfect alignment, drilling through the dies and 
allowing the center drill to enter the hole opposite the proper 
piercing die and project through the piercing die and spot the 
pad. This operation was repeated until the holes for all the 
punches had been located. The holes were then drilled and 
reamed to the required size, slightly countersunk at the back, and 
the punches of Stubs wire let in and upset, leaving them some- 
what longer than the oblong piercing punches. The stripping 
pins were then got out, as were also the springs and adjusting 
screws, and all parts were assembled within the holder A A. 

There now remained to finish the four inclined studs i, 2, 3 
and 4, the holder for them and the spring pad Z for holding and 
locating the work on the die while being pierced. The inclined 
studs were of tool steel, and a brief description will suffice. The 
portions f f are straight, so as to move down a certain distance 
while the work is being secured on the die by the spring pad 
Z, and are then finished at e e to the .same incline as the holes S 
in the slides. They are finished with a stiff wire shoulder at 
d d., to locate against the face of the holder, and tiie end c c is 
turned to fit tightly. The locating, spacing and finishing of these 
four stud holes in the holder was accomplished to the desired 
degree of accuracy, by chucking the holder by the stem in the 
dividing head of the universal milling machine, indexing for four 
and spotting the holes and afterward drilling and reaming them 
to the size required on the drill press. 

The drawn shell is slipped over the die by the hand of the 
press operator and rests on the tops of the four stripping jJ.ns 
M, two of which can be seen. As the operator places his foot 
on the treadle, the holder, in which are located the inclined studs, 
commences to descend, all parts of the die remaining stationary 
until the spring pad a a strikes the work and commences to force 
it down on the die, when the inclined portions of the slide studs 
strike the faces of the inclined holes in the slides and commence 
to move them inward. The spring pad a a having meanwhile 
forced the shell down on the die remains stationary, while the 
holder in which it is located continues to descend and the inclined 
studs move the slides toward the die, all the punches pierce the 
work and enter the die. The inclined stud holder then ascends 
and the slides move backward, and, as the piercing punches clear 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. IQI 

the work, the spring pad a a rises from the shell, which is in 
turn stripped from the die by the springs under the four stripper 
pins M, and the spring left in the metal by the piercing is suf- 
ficient to cause the shell to spring clear of the die as soon as 
the stripper pins loosen it, and, as the press is tilted or inclined, 
the pierced shell drops off at the back and another can be instantly 
located. 

Regular and Staggered Perforating. 

In Figs. 272 to 287 are shown a number of samples of per- 
forated metal. As shown, some of the patterns are staggered and 
others are regular; to produce them a single gang or row of 
punches or a double row are used. When a double gang of 
punches and dies are used the metal is usually fed automatically 
by means of a roller feed to a press of the type shown in Fig. 
288. The construction of .the punches and dies used in a press 
of this kind is such as to allow of removing any one of a num- 
ber of punches or dies without disturbing the others. The 
punches are usually located in a cast iron holder which is fitted 
to a dovetailed channel in the face of the press ram. The punches 
are short and stocky and are fastened by set screws. The dies 
are tool steel bushings hardened and ground and let into holes 
drilled and reamed in a bolster of similar construction to that 
used for the punches. The bushings are also fastened by set 
screws. The press shown in Fig. 288 will punch one hundred 
and fifty-four holes in % -inch plate at each stroke of the ram. It 
is provided with a roller attachment consisting of four adjust- 
able rolls, 6 inches in diameter and 54 inches long, which feeds 
the stock automatically in multiples of sixteenths of an inch up to 
4 inches. For heavy work the back gears are used, while for 
lighter work they are thrown out so as to give a higher speed. 
The slide adjustment is such as to allow of raising or lowering 
it to overcome the shortening of the punches through wear. 

Perforating Press with Automatic Spacing Table. 

Fig. 289 shows another type of press used for perforating 
flat sheets of metal. A sample of the work accomplished in this 
press is shown in the same figure. The punches and dies used 
on this job are shown located and fastened within the press and 
their construction is plainly shown. The press as equipped 
punches a row of forty-three ^-inch square holes, 3-i6-inch 



192 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 





y///////// 






FIGS. 272 TO 277. NEEDLE SLOT SCREENS SAMPLES OF 
PERFORATED METAL. 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 193 






FIGS. 278 TO 281. SAMPLES OF PERFORATED METAL. 



194 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 









FIGS. 282 TO 287. SAMPLES OF STAGGERED PERFORATIONS 
IN SHEET METAL. 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 



195 



spaces, in *4-inch plate and feeds the plate forward for the 
next row. When square or irregular shaped holes are to be 
punched, as shown here, the dies are usually worked out in one 
long piece of tool steel or a number of segments are used, as it 
would be impossible to secure a perfect alignment between all 




FIG. 288. PRESS MILL ROLLER FEED FOR PERFORATING. 

punches and dies where bushings were used, because of the irregu- 
lar shape of the dies. 

Double Roll Feed Perforating Press Having Lateral Feed for 
Staggered Patterns in Perforated Metal. 

When irregular or staggered patterns are to be produced in 
perforated metal by means of a single row or gang of punches 
and dies, a press with a roll feed having a lateral motion must 
be used. We show a press of this type in Fig. 292. This press 
equipped with suitable tools will punch 240 >^-inch holes in 
i-i6-inch plate, staggering the pattern as the metal is fed. It is 
equipped with a cam-actuated stripper and the feed rolls are 
provided with a side motion which automatically shifts the 
metal sideways at each stroke, thus allowing of perforating a 
staggered pattern, Fig. 290, by means of a single row or gang 
of dies. This reciprocating motion which shifts the feed rolls 



196 



DIES. THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



can be easily adjusted for different patterns, and should amount 
in each case to one-half the distance between the centers of the 
holes in the dies. The expense of constructing dies for use in ;i 
press of this type, embodying, as it dees, one-half of the holes 
and punches that would otherwise be required, is about one-half 
the usual cost. By omitting the intermediate holes in the dies 
the remaining ones are far enough apart to allow of using steel 




FIG. 289. PERFORATING PRESS WITH AUTOMATIC SPACING TABLE. 

bushings in a machine steel or cast iron holder, as shown in Fig, 
291, thereby obviating the difficulties of hardening dies made 
in one piece or segments, and permitting the quick repairing of 
any damage done to any of the holes by inserting a new bush- 
ing, which will amount to no more, in the way of time and 
expense, than putting in a new punch. 

In a press of this kind the feed-roll brackets are so hinged" 
on the frames that they can be easily swung back for the pur- 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 



197 



pose of changing- or adjusting any of the tools. The support 
of the stripper is made in sections, each of which can be swung 



' O. O O 

O -a '0 : O 



t), 



wwwww 

ill Iff I, 



PIG. 290. STAGGERED PATTERN. FIG. 291. DIE CONSTRUCTION. 

forward for removing or replacing any of the punches. The 
punches are backed against a steel bar which is also made in 
sections, so that there is no need of disturbing more than a 




292. LARGE PERFORATING PRESS WITH DOUBLE ROLL FEED, HAVING 
'LATERAL MOTION FOR STAGGERED PATTERNS; ALSO EQUIPPED WITH CAM- 
ACTUATED STRIPPER. 



198 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



section of it for the sake of replacing a broken or sheared punch. 
A press of this type when properly equipped with tools will 
punch in ten hours forty sheets 50 x 96 inches of No. 16 iron 
with */6 -inch round perforations of any ordinary pattern. 

For perforating very heavy sheets, or where but a small 
quantity of the same pattern or design of perforating is wanted, 
it does not generally pay to make dies for the entire width of 
the sheet, such as are used in the press shown in Fig. 292. which 
finishes the whole sheet in one passing through. Instead a press 
with an accurate sliding table should be used and the dies 
made to perforate a row of holes in one-half of the width of the 
sheet, thus necessitating the passing of the metal twice beneath 
the punches. 

The Constructing of a Special Punch Press for Perforating Tin 

Ferrules. 

The press was for punching tw.o rows of holes in tin ferrules 




FIG. 293. PLAN OP LOWER SECTION. 

of the shape shown at E, Fig. 295. These ferrules were used 
as frames and stiffeners for bicycle handle tips, and after being 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 



199 



punched were set into a mould and a composition resembling 
rubber run around them arid into the holes. There were to be 
two rows of holes, fifteen in number, spaced equally around the 
outside, five in the top row and ten in the bottom. As will be 
seen, it was impossible to devise a practical means for punching 
them in one operation in the ordinary power press, so the special 
punch press shown here was designed and made. 

At first a circular casting A, Figs. -294 and 295, with a 





FIG. 294. LOWER SECTION. 



FIG. 295. STRIPPING ARRANGEMENT. 



hub on the back .or under side was faced and bored. A recess 
was also counterbored for locating centrally the die E. The 
casting A was turned and finished oh the outside and was then 
reversed and a hole bored and threaded for the central stud D. 
After the hub was faced it was ready for the miller. As shown 
in Fig. 293 there are five rams, or slides, equally spaced and 
radial, and equipped with three punches each. In milling the 
channels for these slides a threaded arbor, fitting the hub of 
the casting with a wide shoulder for the hub to rest against, was 



2OO DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

made and finished with a taper shank fitting the dividing head of 
the universal miller. It was then set up on the table facing the 
spindle by using the extension plate. The table was raised and 
moved until the work A was perfectly true and central with the 
spindle. This was done by using a bent scriber in the chuck and 
truing the center hole in the work by it. An end mill of the 
size required was used to mill the channels, indexing for five, 
starting from the center and running straight through to the 
depth shown in Fig. 294. 

The five slides B, of machine steel, were then made to fit 
the channels in A snugly, leaving a margin on each side even 
with the top of A, and 9-32 inch wide for the gibs. These 
gibs, or plates, were of 3-1 6-inch thick cold-rolled stock and 
were fastened with six screws each, as shown. The next thing 
was to drill the holes in the slides B for the punches. This was 
a rather delicate job. The slides were first finished to exactly 
the same length as the channels and then located in the channels 
in A with their ends even with the outside of A. The plates or 
gibs were then tightened, holding the slides fast. The casting 
A was now replaced on the dividing head with the work upward, 
and the table was raised until the work was high enough for 
the top row of holes. A small center drill was then held in the 
chuck and the head revolved until the exact center of one of the 
slides coincided with the point of the drill. The center was 
then carefully spotted and the head moved one-fifth of a turn 
to the center of the next slide. This center was drilled, and 
the rest likewise. A drill the diameter of the punch was used 
and each hole drilled to the desired depth. The table was then 
raised for the next line of holes, shown in Fig. 296. As there 
shown, there are two holes in each slide 5-16 inch apart, each one 
an equal distance from the center of the upper one. The table 
was moved along exactly 5-32 inch and the hole centered; then 
indexed for five,, the holes drilled in the other four slides, and 
the starting point was again arrived at. The table was now 
moved in the opposite direction 5-16 inch, and the other holes 
centered and drilled. We were now sure that the holes were 
accurately spaced and correct, and the exact distance between the 
two lower holes and the distance between the centers of the upper 
and lower lines were noted. The slides B were then scraped 
and eased to a sliding fit. They were then removed and a slot, 
y% inch wide and 13-16 inch long, milled through from the top, 



PERFORATING DIES FOR THIN AND HEAVY STOCK. 



201 



as shown at F, Fig. 296, being sure to get them all the same 
distance from the faces. A 9-32-inch hole was let through from 
the side at G and the slides were finished. 

The central stud D, the construction of which is shown 
deafly in Fig. 295, was made it requires no description. Six 
holes were drilled through the hub A, equal distances apart, with 
a 3-32-inch drill, all on a 1 3-32-inch radius, for the pins of the 
stripping attachment, which was made as shown in Fig. 295. 
It consisted, first, of a cast iron collar W, 7-16 inch thick, bored 
and reamed to fit the stud D nicely. Six equally spaced holes 
were drilled with a radius sufficient to clear the largest part of 
the stud, and deep enough to allow six steel pins X, 3-16 inch 




FIG. 296. PUNCH 

SLIDE. 



FIG. 297. LOWER LEVER YOKE. 



in diameter and i^g inches long, to be dfiven into a shoulder. 
Six pins' V, 3-32 inch in diameter and 15-16 inch long, were 
cut off and inserted in the holes drilled in A. The collar W, 
with the pins X, was then slipped onto the stud D, resting on the 
shoulder as shown. The stud was then screwed tightly into A, 
the pins V resting on the upper side of W. 

The lower lever yoke is shown in Fig. 297, from which its 
construction can be understood. The slide levers are shown in 
Fig. 298 and require no description. The other parts of the 
press require little explanation ; a casting with a bearing at each 
end, being finished and bored to admit a driving shaft, which 
turned with an eccentric in the center, giving the yoke X a 
movement of 13-32 inch. 



2O2 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



The press complete, the next thing to tackle was the die, 
which was an accurate piece of work indeed. The manner in 
which it was made can be seen from the engravings and under- 
stood from the description of the die shown in Fig. 267 of the 
quadruplicate piercing die. 

By reverting to Fig. 294, it will be seen that the upper 
works are fastened to a cast iron frame, which in turn was 
fastened to the top of the bench in such a way as to be within 
easy reach of the operator. The lower part was fastened to a 




PIG. 298. SLIDE LEVER. 

skid and the skid fastened to the floor. When operating the 
work a ferrule was placed over the die by hand, as shown in 
Fig. 294, the yoke Y moving downward causing the levers H 
to move the slides B inward, thereby punching all the holes 
at once. On the return stroke, the yoke Y moving upward, until 
the slides had traveled back half-way, coming in contact with 
the lower stripper pins X, caused the stripper to move upward 
and the pins V to strip the work T from the die. The action 
of the press was very fast, and the spring left in the work by 
the punching was enough to cause it, when the pins V struck it, 
to spring clear of the die, 



CHAPTER VII. 

CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 

Defining of the Terms Use of the Tools. 

We will now take up a class of press tools and fixtures which 
have been adapted to accomplish results in the working of sheet 
metal parts and articles, which a few years back were attained 
only by spinning. This class of tools have now been improved to 
such an extent that they have completely superseded the old 
methods. The operations in which these tools are used are known 
as curling, wiring, and seaming operations, respectively. Curl- 
ing consists of producing a curled edge around the top of any 
formed or drawn article or part of sheet metal. Wiring is the 
curling of the top of such articles around a wire hoop, when the 
vessel or shell requires stiffening. The tools used for both curl- 
ing and wiring are almost of the same construction. Seaming is 
the upsetting and joining of two or more parts of an article to- 
gether, or joining the two edges of a shell, which has been rolled 
or formed from a strip, together in such a manner as to fasten 
them permanently. 

The use of dies for the operations mentioned above will give 
satisfactory results in all cases, and the results accomplished by 
them are not to be compared with those attained by the old 
methods, as their work is more uniform and the saving of time 
and labor great. In straight-sided work, and work but slightly 
flared, the metal will be turned, when wiring, around the wire 
and under it quite perfectly at one stroke of the press. From 
2.000 to 8,000 pieces can be wired per day of 10 hours, according 
to the size of the work and the skill of the operator. In the fol- 
lowing pages are shown various types of curling, wiring and 
seaming dies and fixtures together with the presses in which they 
are used, and as the illustrations are very clear only a slight de- 
scription of the various types of dies and fixtures, the action of 
the presses and the manner in which the work is produced, will 
be necessary. 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

Curling Dies Fundamental Principles Action of the Metal. 

Figs. 299, 304 and 308 show cross-sectional views of dies 
which may be used for curling the edges of circular-drawn shells, 
and as the engravings are very clear, we will dispense with a de- 
scription of their construction and confine ourselves to the prin- 




FIG. 299. CURLING TOOLS. 

ciples involved ; the action of the metal during the process ; and 
the manner in which work of this kind is produced. 

In work of this kind it is not possible to see the action of the 
metal while the die is working, but by setting the die in the press, 
locating a shell, and coming down with the ram by hand until 
the upper die begins to form the metal and then backing the 
press, taking out the shell and seeing how the curl has com- 



CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 



205 



menced, and repeat two or three times until the ram has reached 
the full length of its stroke, one will be able to see the exact action 
of the dies and the metal. The groove in the upper die (or lower 
die as the case may require) must be finished to a perfect half- 
circle of the radius required, and must be highly polished and 
free from cuts or scratches. Figs. 300 to 303 show how the 
upper die forms the edge of a half-round drawn shell, showing 



A V 





FIG. 300. CURL STARTED. 



FIG. 301. HALF CURLED. 



the results accomplished at various stages of the descent of the 
die. As shown in the first stage A, the metal has commenced to- 
curl ; at the next stage B, the metal has curled to a half -circle of 
the width of the curling groove in the upper die. At C the third 
stage is shown, the punch continuing to descend, and as the pres- 
sure is now on top of the half-circular curled edge it causes the 
metal to curl further around until the circle is complete, as shown 





FIG. 302. THREE-QUARTER 
CURLED. 



FIG. 303. FULLY CURLKD. 



at D. As will be understood, only one operation is necessary to 
curl the edge of a shell of the type shown, as the metal once 
started around the curling groove of the upper die follows or 
continues on the same radius as long as the pressure continues ; 
thus a shell may be quarter-curled, half-curled or completely 
curled by the same die, according to the length of stroke to which 
the die is set. 



2O6 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 304. CURLING TOOLS. 



When it is desired to curl the. edges of a shell of the shape 
shown in Fig. 305 to the shape shown in Fig. 307 two dies are 







Fiist Operation 
FIG. 305. 

necessary. The first die is a bending die and is used to bend or 
form the edges to a vertical position as shown. The second die 





Cecond Operation 
FIG. 306. 



Curling Operation 
FIG. 307. 



used is shown in Fig. 304 and the manner in which the edge is 
curled will be understood from the engravings. As shown, the 



CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 



207 




FIG. 308. CURBING TOOLS. 

construction of the upper die is such as to insure the edge of the 
shell entering the curling groove, and the parallel part will en- 




FIG. 309. SHELL AS DRAWN. 

close the wall of the shell while the 'edge is curling, so that it 
is impossible for it to bulge out, which would be the case were 





TIG. 310. SHELL AS BENT. FIG. 311. SHELL AS CURLED. 



2O8 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

this portion of the tool finished otherwise: thus, the metal being- 
held securely, and having no place else to go, must follow the 
shape of the curling curve. 

The curling of the edges of drawn shells by means of dies of 
the above type is done in endless variety, the articles worked 
upon ranging from shoe eyelets to bath tubs of both round and 
irregular shapes. The construction of the tools depends upon 
the shape of the shell, the thickness of metal and the diameter 
of curl required, but the principles involved are the same in all 
of them. 

The tools in Fig. 308 show how a shell of different shape 
may be curled. The shell as shown in Fig. 309 is produced in 
a combination die while the bending as shown in Fig. 310 is ac- 
complished by a bending die. The curling as shown in Fig. 311 
is done in the die shown in Fig. 308. This shell differs from. 
- .the other only in that it has a flange or flat part between the curled 
portion and the body of the shell. In the upper die a pad is lo- 
cated so as to hold the flange of the shell tightly while the curling 
is being done, the pressure being exerted by strong springs at 
the back of the pad. Were no pad used in this manner, the metal, 
when the pressure is exerted on the edge of the shell, would 
creep back and buckle. 

Wiring Dies for Shell Work. 

The manner in which wiring dies are made and used on both 
large and small work will be understood from Figs. 312 and 313. 
Dies of this type may be used for real wiring or false wiring on 
round or oval shells or cylinders. The bottoms of the shells may 
be any shape as long as they are properly supported during 
the operation. Fig. 312 shows a tool steel ring at A attached to 
the punch holder. The inner diameter of this ring must fit ac- 
curately the inner diameter of the shell to be wired, so as to pre- 
vent buckling of the walls. When a wire hoop is to be inclosed 
by the rim of the shell the ring B must be used in the die, and 
should be arranged in such a manner as to return to its proper 
position after the up stroke, as shown plainly in the engravings. 
When in use, a wire hoop, which has been rolled or formed 
to fit the outer diameter of the shell, is placed in position on the 
ring B. as shown, the shell being: located within the die. The 
press is then stepped and the result of the stroke is shown in 



CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 



209 




FIG. 312. WIRING TOOLS, SHOWING SHELL BEFORE) WIRING. 

Fig- 313, which shows the wire C inclosed within the curled edge 
of the shell. 




The Shell as Wired 
FIG. 313. 

A Curling Punch and Die For Milk Pans. 

In Fig. 314 are shown a curling punch and die and the article 
'for which it is used. The illustrations show the construction of 
both punch and die plainly. As shown, the portion of the punch 
which does the curling is composed of eight segments, so that 



OF 
UNIVERSITY 



210 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



it shall have a contracting action, which is necessary because of 
the flared shape of the article to be curled. The action is as fol- 
lows : The article to be curled is located within the locating 
seat of the die and the punch descends until the edge of the ar- 
ticle strikes the half curve in the curling segments. The punch 
continues to descend and the metal follows around the curling, 
curves, and, of course, as the diameter of the portion of the 
metal touched by the punch decreases, the segments contract, 
the punch descending until the edge of the metal has curled to 
within a shade of the body of the article. As the punch rises, 
the article remains in the die and the segments of the punch ex- 
pand so as to be ready for the next piece. 

A Curling Punch end Die for Deep Shells. 

A curling punch and die for curling deep shells or articles of 
thin sheet metal, and the press in which it was used, is shown in 




FIG. 314. MILK PAN AND CURLING TOOLS FOR SAME. 




FIG . 31 5. ARRANGEMENT FOR CURLING THE EDGES OF DEEP SHELLS. 



CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 211 

Fig. 315. The punch is located and fastened within the ram 
while the die is located on a sliding table which may be pulled 
back and forth by the operator. The horn or die for locating 
the work is of a slight taper and consequently a solid one piece 
curling punch can be used, as the decrease in diameter when 
curling is so slight that contraction is unnecessary. When in 
use, the table on which the horn or die is located is pulled out so 
as to allow of the article to be curled being slipped over it. This 
is clone, and the table shoved back to place against a stop. The 
punch then descends and the edge of the article is curled. The 
punch ascends, the table is pulled out, the work removed, another 
located and the operation repeated. When a press of the type 
shown in Fig. 316 with an automatically actuated die slide is used, 
the articles can be wired or curled much faster. 

Wiring Large Work. 

In Fig. 318 are shown a set of dies for wiring large work. 
As shown, the dies are located within a press which has an extra 
long stroke, thus doing away with the sliding table and allowing 
of removing and locating the articles wired without trouble. As 
will be seen, the wiring punch is in segements so as to contract 
when wiring the edge of the work. The die is equipped with a 
floating ring supported by a number of springs. This floating 
ring is where the wire hoop is placed before the work is located, 
and it supports the wire while the punch descends and curls the 
metal around and under it, the stiffness of the metal being suffi- 
cient to overcome the tension of the springs and force the float- 
ing ring downward while the metal creeps under the wire, thus 
enclosing it within the curl. 

The dies, press and fixtures shown in Fig. 319 illustrate how 
large pans of tin are wired. This press is built specially for 
wiring, by means of dies of the construction shown, the top 
edges of foot tubs, heavy pails and other large sheet-metal ar- 
ticles. The roller slide shown in connection with this press per- 
mits of removing the heaviest wiring dies with speed and ease, 
while the locking device, also illustrated, makes it impossible to 
trip the clutch while the die is being returned to its correct po- 
sition, thus obviating the possibility of costly accidents. 

Fig. 320 shows another set of wiring dies as set up in the 
press for wiring large work. The construction of the dies is 
on the same principle as those described and shown in Fig. 319, 



212 DI S, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 316. WIRING PRESS WITH AUTOMATICALLY 
ACTUATED DIE SLIDE. 



CURLING, WIRING AXD SHAMING. 



213 




FIG. 317. WIRING PREvSS WITH ROLLER BEARINGS FOR 
SLIDE, AND LOCKING DEVICE. 



214 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 







FIG. 318. WIRING PRESS WITH EXTRA LONG STROKE 
FOR WIRING LARGE DEEP WORK. 



NG WIRING AND SEAMING. 



215 




FIG. 319. GEARED DOUBLE CRANK PRESS WITH ROLLER TABLE AND 
DIES IN POSITION FOR WIRING LARGE SHEET-METAL GOODS. 



2l6 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 32O, DOUBLE CRAXK PRESS FOR WIRING LARGE 
SHEET-METAL GOODS. 



CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 



217 



the punch contracting as the wiring is accomplished. In the 
press shown the same attachments as described in the one shown 
in Fig. 319 are used. 

Horizontal Dial Press With Pick-off Attachment. 

In Fig. 321 is shown a press which is something of a curiosity. 
It is used, when equipped with dies of the required construction, 




FIG. 321. HORIZONTAL DIAL PRESS WITH PICK-OFF 
ATTACHMENT. 

Used for necking-in, curling, rounding, or swaging the top edges of cans or other sheet- 
metal shells. The operator puts the articles on as the dial revolves. After the punch 
has performed its work the pieces are automatically picked off by a Gripping Finger 
Device. From 40 to 60 pieces may be done per minute, according to shape and style 
of work. 



for curling, necking-in, rounding or swaging the top edges of 
shells or cans. The horns on the dial are made to fit the shell 
which is to be worked upon, the operator putting the articles on 
as the dial revolves. After the punch has performed its work, 
the pieces are automatically picked off by a pair of gripping 



2l8 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

fingers as shown in the illustration. With a press of this type 
properly equipped with dies, from 40 to 60 pieces may be finished 
per minute, according to shape and size of the work. 

Horning or Seaming Dies, Tools and Presses. 

A press specially equipped with an automatic fixture for 
double horning or seaming is shown in Fig. 326. By means of 
this machine equipped as shown, the two corner seams on large 
square cans having round corners with seam in the center may be 
closed at one blow. Tins with sharp square corners require a 
coaxing operation on single horn to start the seam over be- 
fore setting down on double horn press. The "horn" which' is 
movable in ways, has two working surfaces ; the upper one is 
acted on by the "force" bolted to the press slide, while the lower 
one in descending with the slide acts against a stationary "force" 
fastened to the bed. It will be understood that the two body- 
halves loosely hooked together are pushed over the sliding horn, 
which, by means of the adjustable slide gages shown, secures ac- 
curate size and position. By the use of this machine the capacity 
of the operator is nearly doubled, as compared with what can be 
done on an ordinary horn press. The press as shown in the 
illustration, is arranged for seaming five-gallon petroleum cans. 

Duplex Folding and Seaming for Locked Scams. 

In Fig. 327 are shown the successive stages of a lock seam, 
and a press equipped with the tools for accomplishing the results 
shown. In this cut the manner in which both an inside seam and 
an outside seam are finished is shown, two blows being neces- 
sary for each. The first operation is the forming of the hooks, 
and the second the smashing down and locking together. There 
is a large variety of work which requires finishing with locked 
seams of this kind. 

Double Seaming of Flat, Round, Deep Bottoms. 

For double seaming of bottoms, tops, and parts of round 
bodies together, the work is accomplished by special machinery 
and dies are dispensed with. A machine for this work is shown 
in Fig. 322 and diagrams of the work done on it in Figs. 323 to 
375. These machines are used extensively for double seaming 



CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 



219 



"flat bottoms" onto tea kettles, coffee pots, pails and similar 
goods in the tin and enameled ironware lines. 

The lower spindle, carrying the "inside chuck or roller," is 
mounted on a sliding plate, which is drawn forward for putting 




FIG. 325. DIAGRAMS OF 
SEAMED PARTS. 



FIG. 322. DOUBLE SEAMING 
MACHINE. 



on and taking off the articles. In the case of flaring pails, dish 
pans, and other articles which are smaller at the bottom than at 
the top, the -double-seaming is done against a solid plate of the 
size of the bottom mounted on the sliding spindle. For buckets, 
cups, and other straight sided articles, collapsible chucks are 
used. These chucks are so made that they spread so as to fill 



;22O 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




326. DOUBLE HORN PRESS FOR CLOSING THE TWO CORNER 
SEAMS ON LARGE SQUARE CANS AT A SINGLE BLOW. 






CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 



22 L 




- 



FIG. 327. DUPLEX FOLDING AND SEAMING PRESS, FOR FORMING^ 
AND CLOSJNG LOCKEB SIDE SEAMS. 






222 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

along the edge of the bottom, when the article is carried up 
against the upper chuck, and fold together after the work is 
done, so as to permit the rapid and easy removal of the seame-l 
article. 

A Double Seaming Machine With Blank Centering Device and 
Collapsible Chuck. 

In Fig. 328 is shown a double seaming machine which is 
equipped with a blank centering device and a collapsible chuck. 
The chuck is shown in Fig. 330, a diagram of the operation ac- 
complished in Fig. 329, and the work before and after finishing 
at the lower right. 

In this machine the treadle is made with a toggle joint to take 
the thrust while seaming. The separate view of the chuck shows 
same drawn forward and in its extended position. In order to 
collapse it for the purpose of putting on the kettle body to be 
seamed, it is only necessary to disengage the hinge hook shown at 
the bottom of spindle bearing, whereupon the chuck draws itself 
together automatically. It is expanded to fill against the bottom 
edge of the kettle by raising the spindle until the hook snaps in, 
after which the flat bottom is laid on and the slide pushed back 
into working position. 

Double Seaming Oval, Oblong, Square Shapes, Etc. 

Double seaming machines for seaming articles of irregular- 
shapes differ from 'others shown herein, in that they are constructed 
so as to allow the seaming rolls to automatically follow the shape 
of the can. As they do the seaming at the top of the can, they 
are preferable for filled cans. In action, the pressure on the foot 
treadle, which raises the pressure plate so as to clamp the can and 
the lid against the chuck, also throws in a friction clutch which 
starts the work. The double-seaming rolls, controlled by a cam 
made in a piece with the chuck and finished to the shape of the 
can, follow the shape of the can automatically, while the neces- 
sary pressure to form and finish the seam is imparted by the 
handles. These pressure handles are so arranged as to relieve 
the hand of the operator from all vibrations due to the irregular 
shape of the cans. This machine can be readily adjusted for 
different heights of work by means of a hand-wheel, and for 
different shapes by exchanging the cam chuck, which can be clone 
in a few minutes. 



CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 



223 



FIG. 329. DIAGRAM OF 
OPERATION. 




FIG. 328. DOUBLE SEAMING MACHINE EQUIPPED WITH BLANK 
CENTERING DEVICE AND COLLAPSIBLE CHUCK. 



224 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

Rolling Scams on Square Cans. 

The rolling of seams on square cans is accomplished in the 
following manner : The can is firmly held between two disks 
made exactly to fit the heads of the can, the upper disk being 
mounted on a vertical shaft fastened rigidly to the upper part of 
the main frame and the lower disk to a shaft passing through the 
lower part of the frame, and prevented from turning by an 
arm running in guides, but capable of vertical motion imparted 
to it by a cam on the treadle shaft. 

The steel rolls which operate on the seams at the top and 
bottom are carried by a frame which rotates upon the upper and 
lower stationary shafts and around the can. These rolls are 
mounted on levers pivoted in the rotating frame, the opposite ends 
of the levers being furnished with rolls bearing against star- 




FIG. 331. HORN FRAME WITH SUNKEN BOLSTER AND SLIDE 
FRAME COMBINED. 

shaped stationary cams on the two vertical shafts, which give the 
in and out motion required in passing around the corners of the 
cams. The rotating frame carries two sets of these rollers, which 
press on opposite sides of the cam at both the top and bottom, 
thus equalizing the side pressure and rolling the seams more 
perfectly than would be possible by the use of a single set of rolls, 
each seam being rolled twice in each revolution. 

There are additional cams provided, which, as the machine 
comes to a rest, move the roll outward from the surface of the 
cam, so the latter may be removed from the machine. Attached 
to the bottom of the rotating frame is a bevel gear meshing with 



CURLING, WIRING AND SEAMING. 



225 



a pinion on the pulley shaft. The pulley is provided with a 
friction clutch controlled by the treadle. 

A can being placed upon the lower disk and the foot pressed 
upon the treadle, the can is raised and clamped firmly between the 
upper and lower disks. The clutch is now thrown in, and the 
roller frame makes one revolution around the can, the latter re- 
maining stationary. After completing one revolution the clutch 
is automatically released, the rolls are thrown outward, and the 




FIG. 332. SUNKEN BOLSTER WITH SLLTE PLATE FOR 
WIRING DIES. 

lower disk drops, leaving the can free to be removed. The 
capacity of these machines is from 9,000 to 12,000 cans in 10 
hours, and the saving of solder by the use of each machine 
amounts to from $15 to $18 per day. 

Fig. 331 shows a horn frame with sunken bolster and slide 
frame combined for horning and wiring, while Fig. 332 shows a 
sunken bolster with slide frame for wiring and curling dies ex- 
clusively. 



\ 



CHAPTER VIII. 

DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 

Scarcity of Mechanics Who Understand Draining Processes. 

It is safe to make the assertion that in no line of sheet metal 
work have dies and press fixtures been adopted more extensively 
for the production of articles for universal use than in the produc- 
tion of drawn and formed shells, and notwithstanding the univer- 
sal use to which such articles have been put, the means, methods 
and processes for their production are not understood as they 
should be. Although there are any number of establishments 
which make a specialty of drawn sheet metal work, there is al- 
ways great difficulty experienced in getting mechanics who un- 
derstand thoroughly how to design and construct the tools which 
will produce such parts in the most approved manner. Now 
while there is no difficulty in finding men who can construct dies 
for almost any other line of sheet metal work, it is unusual to find 
an all-around toolmaker who understands the construction of 
drawing dies. In fact we may say that we have worked with 
some of the best toolmakers in the country who were capable of 
making a tool for almost every known purpose, but when they 
were given a sample of drawn work for which to make a set of 
dies, they would flounder about and show by their actions that 
they had not the slightest conception of the principles and rules by 
which they might construct the proper tools successfully. 

Uncertainty as to the Best Means to Adopt. 

In view of the uncertainty among mechanics as to the best and 
most approved means to adopt for the production of drawn sheet 
metal work, we will describe and illustrate in this chapter the dif- 
ferent processes for the production of such articles, including 
in the descriptions all the kinks, fundamental principles, etc., 
which we have found to be the best for each type indicated. In 
arranging this chapter in this manner, i. e., from the view point 
of a practical man, we are convinced that it will be found the best, 
for this reason. Now while the student and mechanical expert 
may desire to know and understand principles of sheet metal 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 22/ 

drawing processes from a technical point of view and may charge 
the author with having ignored principles and theories, which, 
by such men, are considered absolutely necessary to an intelligent 
understanding of the subject; the author, as a practical man, is 
inclined to think otherwise, and for that reason we give in the 
following pages a complete description of how to construct draw- 
ing dies for all the different varieties of drawn, formed and em- 
bossed sheet metal parts. For some classes of work two or 
three different types of dies are shown and described, for the 
reason that conditions, tool equipment and other circumstances 
often prevent the adoption of tools of one construction, but make 
that of another available. What we recommend is this : When 
the toolmaker has a set of drawing tools to construct let him 
adopt the dies described here for the production of a* part which 
is similar to that which he is to produce. Follow the description 
of the tools carefully, memorize the little kinks and ways of ac- 
complishing the results, and lastly let him convince himself that 
perfect and accurate work on all parts is necessary. When the 
mechanic has done this, and has acquainted himself with the 
fundamental principles, which are given here in a simple and 
concise manner, he will experience no difficulty in attaining the 
desired results. 

Types of Dies in General Use for Producing Drawn Shells. 

For the production of drawn and formed shells from sheet 
metal, the dies in general use consist of four distinct types. The 
first is the most primitive and consists of punching out the blank 
to the desired shape and size in a plain blanking die, and then 
pushing it through a drawing die or dies, according to the de- 
sired length of the shell. This manner of producing the shells 
is the cheapest where only a small quantity is required. The 
second method is by the use of compound dies and a double act- 
ing press, in which the blanking punch descends and punches out 
the blank and then remains stationary while the shell is being 
drawn and formed by the internal drawing punch. The third 
method is by means of a punch and die of the combination type, 
in which the punching and drawing dies are combined and are 
used in a single-acting press. This method is the most popular 
and generally used one, as well as the most practical for the pro- 
duction of plain or fancy formed and drawn shells which are not 
required to exceed one inch in height. The design and method 



228 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



of ^constructing dies of the combination type differ according to 
conditions, but the fundamental principles involved are substan- 
tially the same in all of them and may be adopted for the produc- 
tion of round shells of any shape which it is possible to produce 
in one operation in a single acting press. The fourth and last type 
of dies used for shell work are known as "triple-acting drawing 
dies/' and are used to produce shells which are required to be 
blanked, drawn and embossed, lettered or paneled in one opera- 
tion. They are used in triple acting presses. 

Combination Dies Their Use. 

Combination dies are used in single-acting foot or power 
presses. They cut a blank, and at the same time turn down the 



Knock-Out 




FIG. 333. A COMBINATION DIE. 



edge and form the article into shape. In most cases the articles 
thus produced are of shallow shapes, their edges frequently not 
over 3-16 inch deep, as, for instance, can tops and bottoms, pail, 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 229 

bucket and cup bottoms, etc. On the other hand, however, dies 
of this class are used for making deeper articles, such as boxes 
and covers for blacking, lard, salve and other goods up to y 
inch deep, or for cutting and drawing burner and gas fixture 
parts, toys, etc., up to I inch in depth. Suggestions concerning a 
large variety of shapes and styles of work such as can be done in 
combination dies will be found on the following pages. Most 
combination .dies are so arranged that the finished article is auto- 
matically pushed out of the dies by the action of springs. With. 
the press set on an incline, the finished work will therefore slide 
back by gravity, effecting a considerable saving in labor and 
greatly increasing the speed of production. An expert operator, 
with a medium size combination die in a power press, will pro- 
duce from 15,000 to 17,000 pieces per day of 10 hours. 

Spring Pressure Attachment for Combination Dies. 

Combination dies are now mostly used in connection with a 
spring pressure attachment, which is fastened to the bolster 
plate, projecting downward through the bed of the press. The 
rubber spring carries a plate which, through pins in the die, holds 
up the pressure or blank holder ring and keeps the metal from 
wrinkling or crimping during the drawing operation and also 
acts as a "knock-out" for the finished work. 

Double-Acting Cutting and Drawing Dies Their Use. 

These dies are used in double-action presses. They cut a 
blank and at the same stroke of the press draw it into shape. 
The kind and thickness of the metal used determine whether one 
or several operations are required to obtain the desired depth 
and shape. The nature of the shaping process which is known as 
"drawing" will be understood from the annexed sectional views 
of .cutting and drawing dies. These illustrations show two es- 
sentially different kinds of drawing dies, viz., Fig. 334, a "push 
through die," and Fig. 335, a "solid bottom die." 

The lower die A is fastened to the bed of the press, while the 
combined cutting punch and blank-holder B is worked by the 
outer slide, and moves slightly in advance of the drawing punch 
C, which is actuated by the inner slide. The outer slide in 
double-acting presses is so arranged that, after making its stroke, 
it stops during about one-quarter of the revolution of the crank 
shaft. The blank having been cut out from the sheet by the 



230 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



cutting edges of A and B, drops into the lower die, and is there 
held between the annular pressure surfaces O and P during the 
down "dwell" of the outer slide. While the blank is thus held 
under pressure, which can be regulated to suit the special re- 
quirements of each case, the drawing punch C continues its 




FIG. 334. DIE FOR DOUBLE-ACTION PRESS. 

downward movement, thus drawing the metal from between the 
pressure surfaces into the shape required. In this manner the 
metal is prevented from wrinkling. 

For straight-sided, cylindrical, prismatic articles which con- 
form to the shape of the punch without requiring a counterpart 




A "Solid Bottom' 
Cutting and 
Drawing Die 



. 335. DIE FOR DOUBLE -ACTION PRESS. 



in the bottom of the power die, tools similar to those shown in 
Fig. 334 are used. They admit of pushing the finished article 
right through the die, it being "stripped" from the punch at the 
commencement of its up stroke by the action of the "stripping 
edge" M. Where a counter pressure in the lower die is required, 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



231 



dies of the kind shown in Fig". 335 are used. These have in addi- 
tion to the lower die, blank holder and drawing punch, what is 
known as a "push-out plate'' D. This plate rises at the same 
time as the blank-holder B, thus lifting the finished article from 
out of the lower die. 

Plain Drawing Dies, and Redrawing Dies. 

Drawing dies of the type shown in Fig. 336 differ from the 
tools shown in Fig. 335 in this, that they draw the article to be 
produced in them from blanks previously cut, instead of being 
provided with cutting edges, which punch the blank at the same 
stroke. They may be made of any style and size, and draw the 



Drawing Punch 





A Wash-Basin Drawing Die 
FIG. 336. 



Re-Drawing Die with Inside Blank Holder 
FIG. 337. 



article at one or more operations, according to the shape and 
depth to be obtained. In work of considerable taper, such as milk 
pans for instance, two or more blanks are usually drawn at the 
same stroke of the press. 

Drawing Dies With Inside Blank-Holders. 

Drawing dies with inside blank-holders, as shown in Fig. 337, 
are used for redrawing shells that have been first drawn in dies 
having outside blank-holders, similar to that shown in Fig. 



232 



DIES. THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



334. The inside blank-holders hold the partly finished article 
at its lower beveled edge O, while the punch draws it into a 
deeper shape of less diameter. These drawing and redrawing 
dies are mostly made of a special grade of cast iron treated in 
such a manner as to give a very dense and uniform texture to 
the metal at the working surfaces. Sometimes, however, steel 
rings are set into the dies, and the blank-holders made of steel 
casting, which adds considerably to the durability of the tools. 
For articles which have to be very accurate in diameter a hard 
steel "sizing" punch and die are sometimes used after the last 
redrawing operation. 

Triple-Action Drawing Dies. 

Triple-action drawing dies are used in triple-action presses. 
They are frequently used instead of the solid bottom double-action 
dies shown in Fig. 335. Like these, they cut, draw and stamp 
at one operation, but they deliver the finished article below the 
dies, instead of pushing it up, enabling the operator to feed con- 




A Triple-Acting Drawing Die 

FIG. 338. DIE FOR TRIPLE-ACTION PRESS. 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



233 



tinuously, instead of waiting for each piece to come up before 
the next one can be cut. Their construction will be understood 
from the sectional view in Fig. 338, in which A, set on raised 
bolster E, represents the cutting and drawing die, B the cutting 
punch and blank-holder, C the drawing and embossing punch, and 
D the embossing die, which corresponds in its action to the solid 
bottom in double-action dies. After the article is cut and drawn 



Double and Single Acting Die 
Operations in Drawing Tubes 

FIG. 339. 



Operations in the Production 

of a Deep Shell, in Dies with 

inside Blank and Holders 

FIG. 340. 



by the action of A, B, and C, as explained before, the punch C 
continues to descend and carries the drawn article down until its 
lower surface meets the embossing die D mounted on plunger F, 
working in sleeve G, on its up stroke, where it receives the re- 
quired impression of beads, fancy designs, or lettering, etc. On 
the up stroke of the punch the finished article is stripped from 



234 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



it at the edge M, and the press being set on ,?.n incline, the work 
slides back by gravity beneath the raised bolster E, into a box 
placed behind the press. In this manner, embossed drawn articles 
can be produced as rapidly as ordinary plain covers in push 
through dies. 

The Making of a Combination Die, for Blanking and Drawing a 
Shell in a Single-Action Press. 

In the following we show and describe one type of combina- 




Cross Sectional 
Views of Puuch and 

Die for Blanking 
Drawing and Forming 

the Shell,Fig.341. 



FIG. 343. COMBINATION DIE. 

tion die, and the way to construct it, and further on in the chap- 
ter other types and methods. 

In Fig. 343 is shown a cross-sectional view of a combination 
punch and die, while the shell produced in it is shown in Figs. 341 
and 342 respectively. When constructing dies of this class the 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 235 

first requisite is to decide upon the shape and size to which the 
shell is required to be finished and the thickness and texture of 
the metal to be used. This being settled the next thing is a 
pair of templets, and in the working out and finishing of these 
templets to the desired degree of accuracy, depends the quality of 
the work produced when the punch and die are finished and 
operated. These templets, from which this particular punch and 
die were constructed, are shown in Fig. 344, one for the drawing* 
die and the other for the drawing punch, the difference between 
the two being exactly one thickness of metal at all points. With 
the templets finished we are now ready for work. 

A piece of tool steel, annealed, and long enough to get both 
the drawing punch and die out of it, is chucked and the outside 
of the projecting portion turned to the size of the largest diameter 
of the templet I shown in Fig. 344, and the end finished or faced. 
This end is then worked down to the exact shape of the templet, 
first, by using the compound rest, and then finished with hand 
tools, getting all curves symmetrical, and the surfaces as smooth 
as possible, by lapping with a stick, oil and emery. The die is 
then cut off, leaving it the height shown. The punch E is then 
worked out and finished to the shape and size of the other templet, 
in the same manner as the die, and cut off with a stiff parting 
tool. The tapped holes in both die and punch are then let in, as 
shown, for the knockout stud, and the spring barrel stud H, re- 
spectively. 

The bolster is the next thing to finish. This, for a die of this 
construction, should be of cast iron, cast good and solid. After 
a cut has been taken of the top and back to take out strain, a 
finishing cut should be taken off the bottom and also off both ends, 
as shown in Fig. 343. It should be then strapped on the face- 
plate of the lathe and the inside bored out as shown, leaving 
three shoulders or seats. That is, at B B for the. blanking die 
(which is not worked out and finished until the correct size and 
shape of blank is found) at C C for the blank-holder ring O, and 
the last or bottom one for the locating central of the drawing- 
punch E, as shown. The bolster is then removed from the 
lathe and six equally-spaced holes are drilled around the inside 
for the tension or blank-holder pins Q, as shown in the sectional 
view. The drawing punch E is then located and fastened within 
the bolster in the position shown, by means of the spring barrel 
stud G, which shoulders against the bottom of the bolster. The 



236 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

spring barrel is of hard spring rubber about six inches long and 
3*/2 inches thick, with a clearance hole through the center to allow 
of slipping through the stud H, as shown. Two cast iron washers 
and two jam nuts complete the arrangement, the washer R being 
faced on the side which supports the blank holder ring pins Q, 
and both sides of the jam nuts T chamfered. 

The blank holder ring O is then machined as follows: A 




Plan Views of Punch 
and Die Respectively 




FIG. 344. 

piece of tool steel about ^ inch thick, large enough to leave 
considerable surplus stock around the outside after finishing the 
inside, is first chucked and one side faced, and a hole bored 
through the center at P, so as to fit nicely around the forming 
punch. It is then placed on a mandrel and both sides faced, 
leaving it the thickness shown ; the outside diameter is left un- 
finished until the blanking die has been hardened and ground. 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



A piece of round annealed tool steel, in size sufficient to form 
the blanking punch, is then chucked and a hole bored completely 
through it for the knockout stud M, as shown. It is then worked 
out to admit the drawing die I, as shown, finishing the inside as 
smooth as possible. The punch is then driven onto a man- 




FIG. 345. SAMPLES OF COMBINATION DIB WORK. 



238 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

drel and the stem turned and both ends of the punch faced. 
A slot is then milled into the stem to accommodate the pin N of 
the knockout stud. Now, to find the blank, the punch and die, 
which are complete except for the blanking or cutting portions, 
are set up in the press and a number of trial draws made from 
templets until the exact size and shape required to form the shell 
as desired is found. The various parts are now removed, and 
the blanking die X got out. For this a steel forging is generally 
used., and it is first chucked and the back faced and the outside 
turned to within 3-64 of the finish diameter, or the seat for it in 
the bolster. It is then reversed on the chuck and the face fin- 
ished to the shape shown, tapering it away so as to leave about 
5-32 inch of surface at the cutting edge. The inside is then 
bored out to within 3-64 of the size of the templet, and the face 
polished with a stick, oil and emery. The blanking die is now 
hardened and slightly warmed, and then set up in the grinder and 
ground on the outside to fit snugly within the bolster and on the 
inside to the exact Size of the templet, giving it about one de- 
gree of clearance. The die is then drawn on a hot plate to the 
temper desired, which in this case as the stock was a soft 
brass was a dark straw. Four setscrews U are then let in around 
the outside diameter of the bolster spacing them equally and 
notches ground in the die to correspond with them, and the die 
fastened and located within the bolster as shown. 

The blank-holder ring is now finished on the outside to fit 
within the die, hardened, drawn to a light straw temper, ground 
on both sides, and located within the die on the six tension pins 
Q. These pins should be of stiff drill rod and finished so that all 
of them will be exactly the same height. 

The outside of the punch is now turned to within 1-32 inch 
of the finish size, hardened, and drawn so that the blanking por- 
tion W will be a dark blue and the inside or drawing -por- 
tion a light straw. The punch is then ground to fit the die, by 
driving it on a mandrel, finishing it so as to fit within the die 
without play. The stop-pin Y and the four stripper pins Z are 
then let in at the positions shown, in the plan view of the die, 
Fig. 344, the stop-pin being so placed as to leave a trifle over a 
thickness of metal between the punchings, and the four stripper 
pins so as to project to the edge of the cutting die, and in height 
sufficient to allow of the stock passing freely beneath them. The 
punch and die are now complete and ready for work. 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



239 



The tools are set up in the press in the relative positions 
shown in the sectional view, Fig. 343, adjusting the stroke of the 
press so that when the punch has descended to its limit of stroke, 
the drawing die will bottom within the blanking punch. The jam 
nuts of the barrel stud are adjusted so that the blank when 
punched, will be held with sufficient tension between the faces of 
the blank-holder ring O and the punch to prevent the stock from 
crimping or wrinkling as it is being drawn and formed. The ac- 
tion of this punch and die when in operation can be understood 
from the sectional views. The result is shown in Figs. 341 and 
342 respectively. 

Simple or Push Through Drawing Dies. 
As mentioned in the foregoing when describing the combina- 
tion blanking and drawing die, it is possible to produce plain 
drawn shells not exceeding one inch in height in two operations 
by the use of simple dies. This is always preferable when only a 
small quantity is required. The punch and die shown in Fig. 
346 is of this class, and was used for drawing the shell shown in 
Fig. 347. To operate this punch and die it is necessary to have a 





FIG. 347. THE 
FIRST DRAM'. 




FIG. 348. 
LAST REDRA 



A A 

FIG. 346. PUvSH THROUGH 
DRAWIXG DIE. 



240 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

press with at least an inch and a half of stroke, and one that will 
take in at least seven inches between bolster and ram. As the 
majority of power presses of any strength and size will take 
this, the punch and die shown is the best for the work men- 
tioned, the cutting out of the blank, of course, being done in a 
separate operation by means of a plain blanking die. In the die 
shown in Fig. 346 the principle of holding the blank described for 
the other while it is being drawn is reversed. It will be remem- 
bered that the rubber spring barrel was fastened to the bottom of 
the die, while in this case it is on the punch. The making of a 
die of this kind is simple indeed, it being a piece of round tool 
steel turned and faced at X X, in diameter sufficient to allow of 
the blank to be drawn to rest true within it. A hole is let 
through the center at Z for the drawing portion, in diameter the 
exact size of the outside of the shell, Fig. 347. The upper edge 
of the die is slightly rounded, after which it is highly polished 
(or when a grinder is handy, it is left .010 small and ground to 
size after hardening). The die Y is then reversed and an oval 
groove about 1-16 deep is turned into the back at A A, running 
out to a dead sharp edge at the die Z. Push-through dies of this 
class should always be left as hard as possible as they wear fast. 

A simple cast iron bolster, with a recess to accommodate the 
die, is all that is required for the die. For the punch R, a piece 
of tool steel about seven inches long is first centered and turned 
to the size shown, to the length of the shank R, to within y% of 
an inch greater than the depth of the shell to be drawn, Fig. 346, 
ending in a square shoulder as shown. The end W to form the 
punch portions is then turned to within .010 of the finish size, 
that is, exactly two thicknesses of metal less than the diameter 
of the die. For the blank holder, a piece of cast iron of suffi- 
cient size is first chucked and bored out to fit the punch, fitting at 
R, resting on the shoulder of the punch and fitting the punch 
proper at W, loosely, as shown. It is also reduced at V V to just 
fit the die at X X. A cast iron washer faced on both sides and 
bored to fit the stem R serves as the back plate U for the rubber 
buffer T, which has a hole through the center, as shown, large 
enough to leave about 1-16 inch of space all around the stem R of 
the punch. This is so that when the rubber is compressed it will 
not choke up around the punch. 

In setting up a punch and die of this kind the following way 
is the best. The stem of the punch is first shoved up info the 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



241 



ram of the press, which is then brought down until the face of 
the blank holder rests on the face of the die and the rubber is 
compressed sufficient to allow of there being enough tension on 
the blank as soon as the punch starts to draw the metal. The 
punch is then fastened within the ram with the washer U resting; 
tightly against the face of the same. The punch is then brought 
down far enough to allow of the points V V of the blank holder 







FIG. 349. DRAWING DIE FOR 
HEMISPHERICAL CUPS. 



'F F 

FIG. 350. REDRAWING 

DIE. 



locating true within the die at X X, and the bolster is securely 
fastened to the press bolster. 

In operating a die of this kind a blank is laid within X X of 
the die, and the punch descending, it is held tightly between the 
faces of the blank holder (by means of the spring barrel T com- 
pressing) and drawn through the die Z, the punch descending 
far enough to draw the shell completely through the die. As 
the punch ascends, the shell is stripped from it by means of the 



242 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

sharp stripping edge at A A at the back of the die. One thing- 
ill setting dies of this kind is to be sure to have sufficient tension 
on the blank when the punch starts to draw it, as otherwise the 
blank will start to crimp or wrinkle, thereby spoiling it. The 
shell shown in Fig. 347 is the first drawing operation of four 
necessary to produce the shell shown in Fig. 348. The means 
used for reducing the diameter and increasing the height was 
by reducing dies of the type shown in Fig. 350. The two first 
reducing operations reducing the shell y% inch in diameter re- 
spectively, and the last or finishing die 1-16 inch. These dies 
are known as redrawing, reducing or push through dies, and 
their design is almost the same as the die shown in Fig. 346. D 
is the die, F F the stripping edge, and E the gage used. To set 
the shell to be reduced, it is located within the gage portion of 
the die at E, the punch descending pushes it through the die;D 
and strips it at the edge F F. This is a type of die most fre- 
quently used for producing shells of unusual height. The greater 
the height desired the greater the number of operations required 
to attain the result. The finishing die should be hardened and 
ground and lapped as smooth as possible, and the punch ground 
to exactly two thicknesses of metal less in diameter in order that 
a smooth well-finished shell shall be produced. 

Drawing a Small Shell from Heavy Stock. 

In the production of the shell shown in Fig. 352 a very simple 
and inexpensive die was used, this being possible as the blank was 
of comparatively heavy stock. The die, Fig. 351, is a simple 
drawing die. C is the bolster, of cast iron, bored to admit the 
drawing die A, and the knockout pad D, the die A resting squarely 
within it at B and the knockout pad at E. A clearance hole runs 
down through the bolster for the shank of the knockout. The 
two setscrews F F were let into the side of the bolster, at an 
angle as shown, to keep the die A securely in position. The die 
is finished to the exact size and at the top to the shape of the 
shell A, with a depression let into the face for the flat blank G, 
thus serving as a gage. This die was well polished and tapered 
inward toward the bottom nearly one degree. It was left very 
hard. In the punch I is the -holder and H the punch, the latter 
being in diameter two thicknesses of metal less than the die. 
The set-screw J holds it. In operating, the blanks are lubricated 
by pouring heavy hot grease over them. One is placed in the re- 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



243 



cess on the die, and as the punch descends it is drawn and 
formed to the shape shown at A. As the punch ascends, the 
press knockout device strikes the knockout stud or pad D and 







FIG. 351. DRAWING DIE FOR HEAVY STOCK. 

raises it sufficiently to strip the shell from the die. When metal 
as thick as here shown is to be drawn, neither blank-holder, pad 
or spring-barrel rubber is required, as the thickness of the blank 



J 



FIG. 352. SHELL DRAWN FROM HEAVY STOCK. 

in proportion to the diameter of the shell to be drawn prevents 
Avrinkling or crimping. 

For the hole in the bottom of the shell the punch and die, 



244 



DIES,, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



Fig. 353, were used. K is the bolster, M the die and X the gage 
plate. P is the stripper bent to the shape shown and fastened to 
the back of the bolster. R is the punch and H the holder. The 
shell A is placed in the gage portion N, and the punch descending 
blanks the hole; and as it ascends, the shell is stripped from the 
punch by the stripper P. In drawing the shell and blanking the 



FIG. 354. SHELL 
AS DRAWN. 



FIG. 355. SHEIJ 
AS CURLED. 




FIG. 353. PIERCING DIE. 

hole, stock was left to allow of finishing the shells in the screw 
machine as they were to form part of tire valves for automobiles. 

Making an Accurate Combination Blanking and Drawing Die. 
In the following we will describe a practical method, sume- 
what different from the first, of constructing an accurate com- 
bination blanking and drawing die for the production in a single 
acting press of a symmetrically formed and nicely finished 
shell of sheet brass, which was to be afterward polished and 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 245 

plated and used as the cover on a piece of table ware. This shell 
is shown as first drawn in Fig. 354 and the punch and die for 
producing it in Fig. 356. As these shells were required in large 
quantities and were required to be duplicates and free from 
scratches and marks, it was necessary to construct all parts of 
the die as accurately and durable as possible, and with each 
working part separate to allow of substituting when any one of 
them became worn or were broken. 

Making the Drawing Punch. 

After making a pair of templets of sheet-steel, one the size 
and shape of the outside of the shell, and the other its exact du- 
plicate, only one thickness of metal smaller at all points, we were 
ready to start. The drawing punch J was made first. A piece of 
cold-rolled stock was then threaded to fit the hole in J, which was 
screwed on to it and the outside turned to within 1-64 inch of the 
finish size. The curved face of J was then finished to templet to 
the radius shown, the shape of the inside turned in, leaving 
enough stock to allow of grinding to a finish after hardening. 
The punch was then hardened, slightly drawn, and then placed 
on the threaded arbor and ground to the exact size and shape in 
the lathe by means of a tool-post grinder. The points requiring 
the most accurate finishing are at X X, as the shell at this point 
\vas required to fit tightly the piece on which it was used. 

The Drazving Die. 

We now tackle the female die and blanking punch combined, 
G, which is in fact a compound of a blanking punch and a drawing 
die. A forging of tool steel is chucked and a hole bored and 
reamed through it lengthwise for the plunger and knockout F. 
While still in the chuck, the inside is roughed out and bored 
as shown, using the compound rest to get the desired angle at 
I I, and hand-tooling the rounder corners. The straight portion 
Avas bored back the distance shown, -ending in a square shoulder 
at the back. The inside was then lapped and polished. The 
forging was then removed from the chuck and forced onto an 
arbor, the stem E turned to fit the ram of the press, and the back 
faced, but the outside of the punch proper was not touched until 
after the blank was found. The plunger or knockout H was 
then finished, the face to the radius of the templet. This face 
acted as the face of the drawing die. An air hole was let 



246 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



through from the back and one let through the blanking punch 
also. The end of the stem F was threaded for the adjusting nuts 
and the face H hardened and drawn to a light straw color. The 
drawing punch and die were now complete and we were reacly 




FIG. 356. COMBINATION BLANKING AND DRAWING DIE. 

to finish the other parts, and make the trial draws to find the 
blank. 

The Die Bolster. 

The cast iron body of the die, after being planed, was fas- 
tened to the faceplate of the lathe by entering screws into four 
tapped holes in the back. A cut was taken off the face and the 
inside bored at R R, which had to be somewhat larger than the 
blank would be. This can be usually determined within l /s of an 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



247 



inch at least. A recess was then let into the bottom of the inside 
as a locating seat for the drawing punch ^, and a hole bored and 
reamed through the center for the spring barrel stud V. The 
ends of the bolster at S S were faced and eight 5-16 inch holes 
let through around the inside, for the eight blank holder tension 
pins U. The blank holder ring ,Q Q was then got out, and then 
the eight tension pins, of 5-16 inch drill rod. All the finished 




FIG. 357- DIE AND HOLDER FOR HALF CURL. 



parts of the die were then assembled within the bolster as shown, 
fastening the drawing punch J down in its seat by screwing the 
spring barrel stud V up into it, allowing it to shoulder against the 
back of the bolster. The tension pins U were let down into the 
bolster and rested on the cast iron washer Y of the spring bar- 
rel, while the blank holder ring was placed on top of them. The 
edge of the hole in the blank holder was rounded so as to come 
down over the drawing easily. 

Finding the Blank. . 

The bolster, with the parts mentioned, was now fastened on 
the press, and the punch G, with the plunger H in it, set in line 
with it. The nuts Z Z were tightened until the buffer had been 
compressed sufficiently to hold the blank tightly between the 
blank holder ring Q and the face of the punch G, as soon as the 
blank commenced to draw. Now, to find the blank cut out two 
or three different sizes of templets and scratch outlines of them 
on a sheet of metal, draw up the templets and work from the 
outline which proves the nearest to the desired size and shape. 
Thus the correct blank will be found in a short time. 



248 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



Machining the Cutting Die. 

As we now have the correct diameter of the blank, we could 
g-o ahead and finish the die. The blanking die L L, chucked by 
the hole, is faced on the back and the outside turned to an angle 
of ten degrees and then laid aside, and the fastening nut N N is 
finished. 

The bolster is now reset on the faceplate, the blanking die 



4 f 



ig.7 



Fig. 



Fig. 9 



Fig. 10 



Fig. 11 



13 



If 

14,15 



L 



Figs. 16, 17, 18, 19,^0, 21 




24 



3 

j 




Fig. 28 Fig. 45 

FIG. 358. SAMPLES OF COMBINATION DIE WORK. 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 249 

L L is secured by the fastening nut X, after which the outside of 
this nut is finished and the blanking die bored to within 1-64 inch 
of the size of the blank templet, and a cut taken off the face. The 
blanking die is then removed from the bolster, after which it is 
hardened and drawn to a light straw temper. It is again fas- 
tened on the bolster and the inside ground to the size of the temp- 
let and the cutting face ground also with a tool-post grinder. 
The hole for the stop-pin M, as will be understood, is let in before 
the die is hardened. 

Finishing the Punch. 

The blanking punch is now roughed down on the outside, 
hardened and ground to fit the blanking die, the face is ground 
and the inside polished by lapping with flour emery. The blank- 
ing punch temper is drawn from the back, manipulating it so as to 
get the cutting edge a very dark brown and the drawing portion 
a light straw temper. All the various parts of both punch and die 
are now assembled, as shown in Fig. 356, and the stop-pin M let in 
and also the four stripping pins. These pins are of 5-16 inch 
Stubs wire, and are bent to project over the face of the die to 
within a fraction of the cutting edge, thus allowing of the strips 
of stock being fed beneath them. 

Using the Die. 

All parts being finished, the die is ready for work. It is set 
tip in the press and the rubber spring barrel is adjusted by tight- 
ening the nuts, so that the blank holder ring Q Q will be held 
level with the face of the cutting die. The manner in which the 
punch descends and punches out and draws the blank to a fin- 
ished shell is shown in Fig. 356, the shell being shown by a dark 
section between the drawing punch and the die. The blanking 
punch descends until the blank has been drawn from beneath its 
face and that of the blank holder .ring Q Q, the tension for hold- 
ing the blank being communicated to the blank holder by the 
compression of the rubber spring barrel. The blanking punch is 
made longer than necessary, to allow of grinding the face. The 
cutting portion of the blanking die is finished straight for its 
entire depth and it also can be ground. 

When stock over 1-16 inch thick is to be punched, the die 
should be ground shearing. Fig. 356 represents the die as it 
appears when the blanking punch has reached the bottom of its 



25O DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

stroke, and shows how the tension pins are forced down by the 
pressure on the blank holder, and how they compress in turn 
the rubber spring barrel by means of the washer Y. The locat- 
ing and fastening of the blanking die upon the bolster by the 
fastening nut N N is the best of several methods, as it allows of 
removing and grinding the blanking die and then relocating it in 
the shortest possible time. 

The shell as finished in the second operation is shown in Fig. 
355. This operation consists of rolling inward and half-curling 
the edge. The means used to accomplish this are shown clearly 
in Fig. 357, and can be intelligently understood with the help of a 
very slight description. The shell before wiring is placed in the 
cast iron holder M, the edge of which is rounded to facilitate 
rapid locating. The curling die F is of tool steel and fits into a 
depression in the holder E. The face of F is turned as shown 
and a V-shaped groove with a half-round bottom of the re- 
quired radius turned into the face, to match the templet. This 
groove is lapped to a high finish. When half curling a shell, the 
curling die is set to just descend far enough to curl the edge 
half way. When a full curl, until the edge meets the side of the 
shell. 

Constructing a Solid-Back Combination Die for Shallow Rec- 
tangular Shells. 

In the following we will endeavor to show the most prac- 
tical and expedient method for the construction of a combination 
die of a generally used type for blanking" 
and drawing shallow rectangular shells, of 
plain metal of the shape shown in the two 
views of Fig. 359 and also explain a few 
kinks which are new and of interest. 

The first things to be considered are the 
same as those laid down for constructing 
round combination dies, i. e., the thickness 
of stock to be used, the shape and size of 
the shell, and the making of the templet. 

As for finding the blank, although some die makers become 
so skillful through constant practice that they can find simple 
blanks without trial draws, there is no reliable formula which will 
prove correct for any two different shapes or thicknesses of metal, 
as the conditions under which the metal is drawn and formed, 



Shell to be Made 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



251 



whether in round or rectangular shapes or otherwise, are dis- 
tinctly different in each case. 

Making the Templets and the Drawing Punch. 
After the forging for both punch and die (which should be 
of wrought iron body and tool-steel faced) have been secured, 
the templets for the drawing portions of both punch and die 
should be made. These templets should be of stiff sheet metal, 
and finished all over to the exact shape and size to which the 




PIG. 360. DIE FOR RECTANGULAR SHELLS. 

shell is to be drawn, the difference between them being exactly 
one thickness of metal at all points. Then by using the smaller 
templet the drawing punch K, Fig. 360, should be finished to it. 
To finish the four corners of the punch another templet, Fig. 
362, is required. Take a piece of stiff sheet brass and drill and 
ream a hole at D to the exact radius to which the inside corners 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



of the shell are required to be, then cut away the stock as shown 
and finish the two sides C and B to leave a perfect quarter of a 
circle. We fit all four corners of the drawing punch to it, fin- 
ishing them smooth and free from lumps. Great care should be 
taken to get all four corners alike. 

Machining the Drazrirg Portion of the Punch Proper. 

Having finished all the working parts of the drawing punch 
K, we turn our attention to the blanking punch, shown in Fig. 
361, the inside of which is to be finished to act as the drawing 
die. This forging is first chucked and a hole is bored and 
reamed through its entire length to admit the pad stud F. An 
arbor is then forced into this hole and run on the lathe centers, 
and the stem or shank E is finished to fit the ram of the press. 
Both ends of the forging are then faced, and after the lines have 
been struck for the drawing die portion the arbor is removed 





J 






V- . 


E 


J 




H 


' 


rv 

,';' 


^^i 


' 




\ 




^ 




:> // j 


'i 


""* /^ 




"" 


\ 


x ^ 


-- -- ' 


/ 


" 




1 






"^ s'' 







FIG. 361. PLAN OP 
PUNCH. 



Templet 



FIG. 362. TEMPLET 
FOR CORNERS. 



and the work set face up in the chuck of the universal milling 
machine, where, by the use of the vertical attachment, the die 
portion is finished to the lines and templet. First a roughing 
cutter is used and the inside at G G is roughed out. Then by 
using a sharp end butt mill, the radius of which is one thickness 
of metal and .003 of clearance greater than that of the corners of 
the drawing punch K, and starting from one corner, so as to get 
a perfect quarter of a circle, the work is fed along one way until 
the distance from the start of the cut to the finish is exactly two 
thicknesses of metal longer, plus .003 inch clearance, than the 
length of the punch K. The cut is then started again at right 
angles to the first, and the width finished in the same manner, fin- 
ishing it two thicknesses of metal and clearance wider than the 
punch. All four sides are finished in this manner, and the inside or 
bottom is finished flat and square with the sides. When the finish- 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



253 



ing of the die has been done properly, extra care being taken at the 
corners, the inside of the die will present a smooth appearance,, 
and very little polishing will be required. The two holes H H 
for the pad springs J J are then let in by drilling, and the pad I is 
got out. This pad is of mild steel, about 5-16 inch thick, and is 
finished to fit easily within the die. A hole is drilled and tapped 
in the center and the pad stud F is screwed tightly into it. This 
pad stud is also threaded at the other end for the adjusting nuts 
L. The parts of the die are then assembled within the punch, and 
we are then ready to make the trial draws, and find the blank, 
as the exact size and shape of it have to be found before either 
punch or die can be finished. 

One Way of Finding the Blank for a Rectangular Shell. 

To make these trial draws, when constructing dies of the 
type shown here, two things are necessary first, a blank holder 
ring, which afterward forms a permanent part of the die, and r 
second, a trial spring barrel and plate. The blank holder is usu- 
ally a forging of tool steel, and it is shown at N N in both the 
plan and the cross-sectional view of the die in Fig. 363. This 



o 




> , -xWtl 

^^^^ o 



O 



FIG. 363. PLAN OP DIE. 

blank holder should be about $& inch thick, and, after being 
planed on both sides, it should be worked out on the inside to 
templet, to fit nicely at all points around the drawing punch K. 
The outer edges of the blank holder are left rough until the blank- 
ing die has been finished. 

We now work out several different sizes of templets, in size 
and shape somewhere near what we think will be required to 



254 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



form the shell, transferring an outline of each size, and marking 
the duplicates, upon a flat sheet of stock. The templets are to 
draw up and the outlines for reference afterward. These templets 
should be got out of the same stock that is to be used for the 
shells. The manner of making the trial draws is shown in Fig. 



Blank Holder 
D 

Blauk Holder Pad 




FIG. 364. ARRANGEMENT FOR FINDING SIZE AND 
SHAPE OF BLANKS. 

364. The spring barrel is of rubber, 4 inches in diameter and 6 
inches long, with a clearance hole straight through it to admit 
the barrel stud, which is screwed tightly into the bottom of the 
barrel plate. The tension pins for supporting the blank holder 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 255 

pad are six in number, and they are made extra strong so as to 
alfow of using the spring barrel for trial draws of a number of 
different sized shells. These pins have to be finished all to ex- 
actly the same length, so as to allow of the blank, which is to be 
drawn up, being held with an equal tension at all points. The 
parts of this trial spring barrel are assembled as shown with the 
plate resting on the press bolster, and the barrel projecting down 
through the hole. The drawing punch is located on the plate, 
and the blank holder pad and blank holder are placed around it, 
as shown. The tension adjusting nuts on the end of the barrel 
stud are then adjusted so that there will be sufficient tension be- 
tween the blank holder and the face of the punch, so that when 
the punch descends and the blank is drawn up into it, the metal 
will not crimp or wrinkle. 

One of the templets or blanks which we have got out, is 
now placed on the blank holder, getting it approximately central 
with the drawing punch. The punch proper, in which is embodied 
the drawing die, is fastened within the ram of the press, and the 
"barrel plate shifted and set so that the die is central with it. 
The punch is then brought down, by revolving the press flywheel 
by hand, until the templet or blank has been drawn up into it. 
The punch is then raised and the drawn shell is expelled by the 
spring pad I. We are now able to determine where we have any 
excess of metal and where we have a deficiency of it in the blank. 
We now take another blank and increase or decrease the size at 
any point that the shape of the drawn shell may require. We 
then transfer an outline of this templet to a sheet, after which 
we draw it up. By repeating this operation a few times we are 
at last able to determine the exact size and shape of the blank. 
Sometimes the blank may be found in two trials, and often, when 
the shape is odd or intricate, it is necessary to make quite a num- 
ber of templets and trial draws before the exact size and shape 
of the blank can be determined. 

Finishing the Blanking Portion of the Die. 

Having found the correct blank for the shell, and having 
made a perfect templet, we can go ahead and finish the die. By 
reverting to Fig. 360, the method of construction will be clearly 
understood. The forging for the blanking die is first machined 
on the bottom and the ends at P P and O. A hole is then 
drilled at each end, as shown, and the forging is bolted tightly 



256 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

on the table of the milling machine. Then by using the vertical 
attachment the die is finished to templet, finishing it straight for 
about y% inch of its depth and then undercutting as shown at 
Q Q. The outside of the die is then sheared away, leaving about 
3-16 margin all around the cutting edge, as shown in the plan of 
the die. The blank holder ring N is then finished to fit nicely 
within the die, finishing the outside so that the opening for the 
drawing punch will be exactly in the center of it this calls for 
very accurate work. The blank holder is then hardened, drawn, 
and ground true and flat on both sides. 

Locating the Drawing Punch Within the Die. 

To locate the drawing punch K central within the blanking 
die, the blank holder N is entered within the blanking die and the 
drawing punch K is located within the blank holder. Four holes 
are then drilled through the back of the blanking die and trans- 
ferred into the drawing punch, two holes for the flat-head screws 
S S and two for the dowels T T. The punch and blank holder 
are then removed and the holes for the six blank-holder tension 
pins V drilled through, distributing them evenly or equally 
around the inside of the die. After the holes for the four strip- 
ping pins Bi and the stop-pin Ai are drilled and the hole for 
the spring barrel stud U let in and tapped, we are ready to 
harden and temper the die. 

Hardening the Cutting Die. 

To do this right the die should be carefully heated in either a 
gas muffle or a charcoal furnace to an even cherry red and then 
quenched in a tub of water, which should not be too cold. After 
hardening, the die should be placed on the fire and slightly 
warmed. The face should then be ground and the outside mar- 
gin and the inside polished. To temper the die, heat a flat block 
of cast iron (large enough to hold the heat for some time) and 
when it is red hot place the die face up on it, wipe and polish 
top with an oily piece of waste and the various stages of temper 
can be noted, and when a light straw appears remove the die 
and allow it to cool off slowly. 

Finishing a Square Blanking Punch. 

The finishing of the blanking punch is a very simple matter, 
all that is necessary to attain good results being a little care and 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 257 

the application of a few methods of construction which have 
become standard. The punch is placed on an arbor and located 
on the miller centers and the four sides are milled down to al- 
most the finish size. The edges of the punch are then slightly 
beveled, and it is placed under the press with the drawing punch 
raised so as to locate itself in the punch by straddling it with two 
pieces of stock, and the punch sheared a little ways into the 
blanking die. It is then removed and the surplus stock is worked 
away and then filed until it is a snug fit within the die. After 
the face of the punch has been slightly sheared, and the edges of 
the drawing die slightly rounded and highly polished, the punch 
may be hardened and then tempered by laying it alternately on 
each of its four sides on a hot plate, tempering the cutting edges 
to a dark blue and leaving the inside or drawing portion as hard 
as possible. When finishing the blanking portion of the punch, 
care has to be taken to do it so that the drawing portion will be 
perfectly central. 

The drawing punch K is hardened and drawn slightly. It is 
then fastened and located within the blanking die by means of 
two flathead screws S S and the two dowels T T. This punch 
should be highly polished for the inside of the shell to present a 
smooth appearance. The four stripper pins should be of stiff 
drill rod and bent and driven into the base of the blanking die in 
the position shown, projecting out over the blanking die so that 
the blanking punch will just clear them. The stop-pin Ai is also, 
of drill rod. The two spring barrel washers W and Y are of cast 
iron, and are faced on both sides, as are also the adjustable nuts Z. 

Use and Action of the Die. 

When in operation, the punch and die are set up in the press 
in the relative positions shown in Fig. 360, and the stroke is set 
so that the pad will bottom. The strip of metal to be punched is 
then fed under the stripper pins and against the stop-pin Ai. 
The punch descending, the metal is punched and the blank is held 
between the faces of punch and blank holder, the tension on it in- 
creasing as the punch descends and the rubber spring barrel com- 
presses, and the -shell is drawn. As the punch reaches the end of 
its stroke, the drawing punch K forces the shell solidly against 
the pad I, flattening the bottom and squaring the edges. As the 
punch rises the drawn and finished shell is expelled from the 
punch by the spring pad I, and as the press is inclined, it drops 



258 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

off at the back through gravity, while the scrap is stripped from 
the punch by the four stripping pins. 

Combination dies of the design and construction here shown 
can be used to the best advantage for the blanking and drawing 
of shells which are not required to exceed y% inch in height, as, in 
order to draw that amount, the rubber spring barrel is com- 
pressed to the maximum, and to compress it more would cause 
the metal to either stretch excessively or to split. So when it is 
desired to draw shells over J-6 inch in height, more than one die 
is required. 
\ '- 
A Set of Dies for Decorated Tin Boxes of Rectangular Shape. 

In no branch of modern sheet-metal manufacturing, have 
dies and press fixtures been adopted and developed with better 
results, than in the manufacture of decorated tin boxes of rec- 
tangular or irregular shapes. As these boxes have almost com- 
pletely superseded the old pasteboard and small wooden kinds, the 
number of skilled and well paid mechanics constantly engaged 
in making improved tools for their cheap and rapid production is 
enormous. It may not be irrelevant to say that in the manufac- 
ture of such articles, results are attained, both as to cheapness 
and rapidity of production, which are not equaled in any other 
branch of sheet-metal working. 

The following description and accompanying illustrations are 
of a set of dies for the production of vaseline boxes and covers, 
the dimensions of which were required to be : 3% inches long 
by I 13-16 inches wide by ^4 inch deep. The operations required 
to finish the box and cover are shown by the half-tones, Figs. 
365 to 368. Fig. 365 is the result of the first operation ; that of 
punching out the blank and drawing it as shown. Fig. 366 is the 
appearance of Fig. 365 after the second operation, which con- 
sists of trimming the edges of the blank and drawing it to the 
height shown. The third operation consists of forming the nar- 
row bead in the four sides of the box, as shown in Fig. 367. Fig. 
368 shows the cover of the box, which is blanked and drawn and 
paneled in one operation. 

First Operation for Rectangular Shells. 

The first operation, Fig. 365, is accomplished with the punch 
and die shown in vertical cross section in Figs. 369 and 370 and 
showing plans of the punch and die respectively. This punch and 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



259 



die is of the single-acting, combination blanking and drawng 
type, and is of a construction which will allow of the best results 
being attained at the minimum of cost and labor. It also pos- 
sesses a number of new and improved features which facilitate 
production. 

As shown in Fig. 369, the cutting or blanking die is finished 
from a forging of mild steel with a tool steel ring welded on for 
the die proper. Beneath the blanking die is the punch plate, on 




FIG. 365. FIRST OPERATION. 



PIG. 366. SECOND OPERATION. 




FIG. 367. THIRD OPERATION. 



FIG. 368. THE COVER. 



which are located the spring barrel stud, the drawing punch and 
the blanking die ; the latter located by a dowel at each end. The 
drawing punch is located and fastened on the punch plate by 
two dowels and two screws, as seen in the plan view, Fig. 370. 
The blanking die is finished with three degrees of clearance and 
the blank holder ring is machined to fit it. The cutting die is 
hardened and drawn to a light straw and the face is sheared so as 
to have four or five high spots equidistant around the cutting 
edge. The stripper on the die consists of a piece of sheet stock 
worked out to a clearance size for the punch, and located at the 
t>ack of the die on two pieces of tubing B B by two cap screws 



260 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



A A. This kind of stripper works better than the usual bent 
pins, and should be used wherever possible. The stop consists 
of a stud driven into the die base and an adjustable squared piece 
of stock let into an inclined hole and located by a setscrew. The 
six tension pins, the buffer or spring barrel and washers, as well 
as the shape of the blanking die are shown in Figs. 369 and 370. 
The punch consists of two parts, the blanking punch, the in- 
side of which acts as the drawing die, and the pad, which also 
acts as the knockout. The shape of the cutting edge of the 



s^frl 




FIG. 369. CUTTING AND DRAWING DIE FOR FIRST OPERATION. 



punch is the exact shape of the blank required to form Fig. 365. 
The manner In which the blanking and drawing of Fig. 365 is ac- 
complished can be understood from Fig. 369, as can also all other 
points of construction. 

Fundamental Practical Points for Making Irregular Shaped 

Drawing Dies, 

The fundamental practical points to be kept in mind when 
constructing a die of this kind for working decorated stock are 
as follows : Make three templets ; one for the drawing die, an- 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



26l 



other for the drawing punch and a third for the corners so as 
to get the proper radius. Finish the drawing die, the punch 
plate, the two sides of the blank holder ring and the inside, and 
the drawing die, before starting on the cutting die or punch. 
Then make your trial draws until the proper blank is found. 
When you have an exact blank, finish the cutting die and the 
outside of the blank holder ring, and fit the blanking punch. 
Take a cut off the die base after the die has been hardened. For 
decorated metal allow .006 inch clearance in the drawing die; 
that is, finish the drawing die .006 inch and two thicknesses of 
metal larger than the drawing punch, while for plain tin allow 
about .0035 inch. By doing this there will be no necessity for 
easing up with files or grinding, and the designs on the metal will 
not be marred or scratched. Round the edges of the drawing die 
smoothly; if the draw is very short, 1-32 inch will be enough, 




FIG. 370. PLAN OF COMBINATION DIE. 



and if long increase it accordingly. Be careful to get all the 
corners of the drawing punch the same radius and those in the 
die also (plus two thicknesses of . metal and clearance) and lap 
very smooth. By keeping the above points in mind no trouble 
will be encountered when constructing a die of this type. 

Trimming and Draining Die for Second Operation. 

For the second operation, that of trimming the edge of the 
portion of the blank which is still flat and finishing the draw, 
the double-acting punch and die, Fig. 371, are used. This die 
is used in a double-acting press. The plunger or punch con- 
sists of the holder, a mild steel forging, the trimming punch and 
the drawing punch. The holder is located on the face of the 



262 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



press ram and fastened by two cap screws through G G. The 
cutting punch is located in a machined seat sunk into the face 
of the holder and is fastened by four flat head screws. The 
plunger proper or drawing punch, fits the inside of the trim- 
ming die and is finished with a taper stem for locating and fasten- 
ing it in the press ; the drawing punch portion is finished verv 
smooth and is hardened. 

The die consists of the cast iron bolster, the trimming die 




FIG. 371. DOUBLE-ACTION TRIMMING AND RE-DRAWING DIE 
FOR SECOND OPERATION. 

and the drawing die. The trimming die is located within a ma- 
chined seat in the top of the bolster and is fastened by four head- 
less screws J. The drawing die is located within a machined seat 
in the bottom of the trimming die and is fastened to the bolster 
by four flat head screws from the bottom. The drawing die is 
left very hard and is lapped to a dead finish and the upper edge* 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



rounded, while the lower edges are left sharp and act as a strip- 
per for the work. 

The action of this die when in operation can be understood 
from Fig. 371, in which is shown the work after the cutting punch 
has descended and trimmed the edges and has stopped (holding 
the flat portion tightly on the face of the drawing die, by the 
action of the press) while the plunger or drawing punch con- 
tinues to descend and draws the metal into and through the draw- 
ing die, producing the shell shown in Fig. 365. 

The Use of Trimming Dies for Drawn Work. 

The reasons why a second drawing die of this type is neces- 
sary in order to produce shells of the height shown are : In the 
first place, it is almost impossible to produce shells of any, except 




FIG. 372. AUTOMATIC BEADING DIE AND PLUNGER. 

very shallow, depths with true edges without a trimming opera- 
tion, because the flow of the metal while it is being drawn is 
such that the slightest defect in the blank will show up in a 
jagged edge in the drawn shell, and the deeper the draw the 
greater the effect in the walls of the shells. Secondly, any de- 
fect in the construction of the press or in the alignment of the 
ram with the bolster, or any inaccuracy of parallelism in the parts 



264 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



of the punch and die, will contribute to raggedness in the walls 
of all drawn work of rectangular or irregular shape. The only 
way to overcome this is to trim the edges in a second operation 
in a cutting die of the type shown or with rotary shearing cut- 
ters* 

The Beading of the Shell 

Fig. 372 shows the die and plunger used to form the bead in 
the four walls of the shell of box shown in Fig. 367. The bead 
does not extend entirely around the shell, but, instead, runs to 
within about % inch of each corner. Fig. 373 shows a plan of 
the plunger and Fig. 374 a plan of the die. From the three 
illustrations the construction and operation of the tools can be 




FIG. 373. PLAN OF PLUNGER OF AUTOMATIC BEADING DIE. 

understood. The die and plunger are automatic and are con- 
structed, the one to expand and the other to contract, by the ac- 
tion of the down and up strokes of the press ram. 

The die consists of, first the bed plate, Fig. 372, which is a 
mild steel forging with a raised surface X in the center in 
which the four sections N of the beading die proper are located 
to move in and out in dovetailed channels. These four sections 
are of tool steel and have a bead milled out on their faces, as 
shown by the dotted lines in profile at O in Fig. 372. They are 
beveled at Z for the faces of the plunger studs F, and are forced 
outwardly together by the springs Y. The pins P prevent them 
from expanding too far. The shell is located on the spring pad 
L,.Fig. 372. This spring pad is worked by the four tension pins 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 



M, the lower ends of which rest on the large washer T, which is 
located on the spring stud S. The spring U, the washer V and 
the two nuts are the other parts. 

The plunger is shown in section in Fig. 372, and in plan 
in Fig. 373. The stem (not shown) of the body plate A is fitted 
to the ram of the press. The four inclined faced studs F are for 
contracting the die sections N. The expander B is located and 
fastened in the stem of the body plate by means of a strong 
taper pin (not shown) . The holder is then milled dovetailed to ad- 
mit the four expanding sections J. Small pieces H are dovetailed 
into the sides of the holder as backs for the springs. The bead 
on the sections is shown at K. The sections J are hardened 
and drawn to a light straw, as are also the sections N in the die. 

The manner in which the die is operated can be understood 




FIG. 374. PLAN OP AUTOMATIC BEADING DIE. 

from Fig. 372. The shell is placed upon the spring pad L and 
located by the raised ribs at the side and back. As the plunger 
descends, the four sections enter the shell until they strike the 
bottom, when the spring pad is forced downward. When the 
spring pad is halfway down the inclined faces of the studs F en- 
counter the portions Z of the sections N in the die, and com- 
mence to contract them. As the spring pad bottoms on the bol- 
ster, the sections N touch the walls of the shell and remain sta- 
tionary, while the inclined faced studs and plunger continue pro- 
gressing downward and the four sections are expanded by the 
plunger at C, the sides or sections expanding until the beads 
are produced in the walls of the shell. As the plunger rises, the 
four punch sections contract by the action of the springs I, and 
are withdrawn from the shell, while the die sections expand by 



266 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE.. 

the action of the springs Y, and the spring pad L raises the 
beaded shell to the top of the die, to be thrown off by the oper- 
ator. The shell as beaded in this die is shown in Fig. 367. 

The cover, Fig. 368, is produced in one operation in a die of 
the same construction as the one shown in Fig. 369. As the draw 
is rather shallow no trimming die is necessary. Instead, in order 
to produce the edge shown, the blank must be exact in shape and 
size at all points. 

Rules for Figuring the Approximate Size of Blanks for Drazvn 

Shells. 

All die makers that have had much experience in making 
drawing dies, know that there is no way of figuring out the exact 
size of a blank for a shell of a given depth and diameter. In 
fact, the only way to secure a perfect blank is by the "cut and 
try" method described in another part of this chapter. How- 
ever, although a perfect blank cannot be found by figuring, a 
blank of approximately the correct size can be found by so doing. 
As it is always well to know how to do this in order that the cor- 
rect blank shall be found in as few trial draws as possible, we 
give here a method which has worked well in practice. 

The way to figure out the approximate size of a blank for 
plain cylindrical shells is as follows. Take the outside diameter 
of the shell to be drawn and add it to the length or depth of same. 
Then add to this 1-32 inch for every 3-16 inch of depth, and 
the resulting total will be very near the exact size of the re- 
quired blank. For deep shells this rule will allow of finding r\ 
blank which, when the shell is drawn, will leave enough for 
trimming, while for shallow shells, which will draw perfectly 
square across the top, a slight reduction in size will be necessary. 
The amount to deduct will become apparent after the first trial 
draw. 

As a simple example of how to find the blank, say the height 
of the shell is to be 2.625, and its diameter (outside) 2.225. Al- 
lowing 1-32 inch to every 3-16 inch of height, as 2.625 equals 42- 
16, we get 14-32 or .4373 to add to the added total of height and 
depth. Thus we have the following : 

Height of shell to be = 2.625 in. 
Depth of shell to be = 2.225 m - 
Allowance to add on = .4373 in. 



DRAWING PROCESSES FOR SHEET METAL SHELLS. 26/ 

As the total of this, 2.625+2.225+4373', equals 5.2873, the dia- 
meter of the blank should be a little over 5 and 9-32 inches. 

There are any number of rules for figuring the size of blanks, 
in which the principle upon which the finding of the diameter is 
based, is that the area of a drawn shell equals the area of the 
blank from which it is drawn. But as it never does, because of 
the fact that all sheet metals stretch and run unequally under 
drawing pressure, the rules work well only on paper. The way to 
construct a drawing die in the shortest possible time is to figure out 
the approximate size of the blank in the manner described above, 
cut out and file up a templet according to the result, make the 
drawing portions of the die, make the trial draws, discover 
where there is an excess or a deficiency of metal, make a new 
templet, which should be almost perfect, draw it up and, if found 
correct, finish the cutting portions of the die. 

In one large shop in Brooklyn, N. Y., where over 100 die 
makers are employed, they have a man who does nothing but 
figure out the approximate blanks for the drawing dies and 
make templets. He makes the templets according to his findings, 
and they are given to the die-makers^ who proceed to make the 
dies in the manner described above, finding the exact blank as they 
go along. 

The Drawing and Forming of Aluminum. 

For the drawing of aluminum shells, tools of the same con- 
struction as those used for the production of shells from sheet 
brass or other sheet metals should be used. The precaution 
necessary to insure satisfactory results being the use of a proper 
lubricant, which usually should be a cheap grade of vaseline, not 
infrequently, however, for deep draws, lard oil will contribute to 
the attainment of good results. In the majority of cases better 
results will be derived from the use of vaseline. Never attempt 
to work aluminum without the use of a lubricant, either in drill- 
ing, turning, or press working. For the first two operations use 
kerosene. Aluminum is properly susceptible to deeper drawing 
with less occasion to anneal than any of the other commercial 
metals. When, for instance, an article which is now manufac- 
tured in brass, requiring say three or four operations to complete, 
would usually. have to be annealed after each operation, condi- 
tions, such as the thickness of metal, depth of draw, etc., deter- 
mining this ; with aluminum, however, if the proper grade 



268 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

is used, it is generally possible to perform these three operations 
without annealing the metal at all, and at the same time to pro- 
duce a finished shell which to all intents and purposes is as stiff 
as an article made from sheet brass. 

In order to work aluminum successfully by the use of dies 
in the power press, particular attention must be paid to the fact 
that a proper grade of metal is necessary, for either through 
ignorance or to not observing this fundamental point is the 
foundation for the majority of complaints that aluminum has 
been worked and proved a failure. If it should be found neces- 
sary to anneal aluminum, it can be readily accomplished by heat- 
ing it in an ordinary muffle, being careful that the temperature 
shall not be too high about 650 or 700 deg. F. The best test 
as to when the metal has reached the proper temperature, is to 
take a soft stick and draw it across the metal. If the stick chars 
and leaves a black mark on the metal, it is sufficiently annealed 
and is in a proper condition to proceed with further operations. 



CHAPTER IX. 

COINING PROCESSES PUNCHES, DIES, AND PRESSES FOR OPERATIONS 

ON HEAVY STOCK. 

The Philadelphia Mint. 

Some of the finest and most powerful presses built to-day are 
used for coining, and nowhere in the world is there a finer lot of 
such machines than in the new United States mint in Philadelphia.. 
This new mint is the best-equipped and most artistically-modeled 
coining establishment in the world, and as it now stands has cost 
over $2,400,000. As a description of this great factory will con- 
vey to the reader an understanding of the various processes re- 
quired in the coining of metal, we will begin with the melting" 
room and proceed onward until we reach the department where 
the finished coins are turned out. 

The bullion used for coin is first received in the deposit room, 
and from there goes to the melting room. In this room are six- 
teen melting furnaces. Crude petroleum is used exclusively for 
heating the furnaces, the temperature of which can be raised to< 
1,000 degrees. 

The "keg-shaped crucibles are made of plumbago and are kept 
piled about the furnaces. These, as needed, are placed in the fur- 
naces and in them are placed the gold and silver bricks, which 
are brought from all parts of the world and vary greatly in size 
and shape. Before being turned into coin they must be alloyed 
with copper until 900 per cent. fine. 

The men who do the melting stand before the furnaces wear- 
ing huge mittens made of heavy buckskin or crash, padded with 
pieces of Brussels carpet. When the metal reaches a certain color r 
which they can detect only after long experience, it is ready to be 
moulded into ingots. But before this is done a few drops of the 
molten metal are removed for the assayer. 

In moulding, a man whose gloved hands grasp a pair of tongs 
holding a three-spouted gray bowl in their jaws, dips from each 
crucible the glowing metal and pours it into a series of clamp- 
moulds. Each set of moulds are then taken by a second man and 
plunged into cold water. The hardened ingots are next dipped 



2/O DIES. THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

into muriatic acid, which eats away all particles of foreign matter, 
after which they are placed in a second water bath. 

All ingots, whether gold or silver, are moulded to measure a 
foot in length, but vary up to one and one-half inches in width 
and thickness, according to the size of the coin to be struck from 
them. 

Each finished ingot comes from the mould with a blunt end, 
this resulting from the end of the mould where the metal was 
poured in. A row of machines shear the irregular ends off, 
after which the bars are passed to bench hands who file off the 
rough edges. 

The filings are caught in oilcloth-lined boxes and carefully 
saved. Next the ingots are sent to a long table, where they are 
placed side by side in a row, and a man stamps upon each a num- 
ber, designating its melt. 

The bars now pass to the assayer, who compares the few drops 
of metal taken from the furnace with the correspondingly num- 
bered lot of the finished bars. If the latter falls below 900 per 
cent, fine, it must be remelted. 

The ingots which have passed the assayer next pass into the 
rolling department where they are passed between massive rollers 
fifteen times, reducing them until they are twice the required 
thickness. Before reducing them further they must be annealed. 
For this purpose a large annealing and tempering furnace is pro- 
vided in which the metal bars are heated to a cherry red and 
quenched in water. They are then put through another series of 
rolls fifteen times before being reduced to the proper thickness, 
which, of course, depends upon the denomination of the coin to be 
made from them. The metal comes from this last rolling opera- 
tion in strips varying in dimensions up to six feet in length, four 
inches wide and about one-sixteenth thick. 

The flat strips of gold and silver are now fed to presses 
which are equipped with blanking dies. The strips are fed auto- 
matically and the finished blanks drop out at the bottom into a 
tray. These are the blanks upon which the final designs are to 
be embossed. The blanks as large as a quarter are cut in a single 
row from the strip, while the smaller ones are cut in combinations 
of two and three by gang dies. The scrap strips are returned to 
the melters. 

The blanks are next sent to the cleaning department, after 
which they are sent to the automatic weighing machines. On 



COINING PROCESSES. 2/1 

each of these machines are ten upright brass tubes into which the 
blanks are fed. Beneath the tubes is a long sliding bar with a 
reciprocating motion, each move of which pushes off ten blanks 
into a small basket on one end of the scale beam. The blanks are 
weighed instantly and are passed through a series of troughs lead- 
ing to three boxes. The light blanks fall into the first box, the 
standard ones into the second, and the heavy ones into the last 
box. The light blanks are condemned and melted over, while 
those which are over weight are taken to the adjusting room. 
Here over 100 women, each with a set of scales and files before 
her, are employed in filing the edges of the heavy blanks until all 
are down to the standard, size and weight. 

The next operation through which the blanks are passed is that 
of milling. The milling machines put on the flat rim or raised 
edge which protects the face of the coin from abrasion. The 
milled blanks are now reheated to a cherry red in an automatic 
annealing furnace, through which they are fed and at last droj> 
into a copper collender, then lifted by a crane into a bath of 
muriatic acid, are revolved in this bath and finally dropped into 
a revolving screen filled with sawdust, which cleans and dr.ies 
them thoroughly and makes them ready for coining. 

Against the wall of the coining room there are twenty-four 
powerful presses, each with a vertical face of polished steel 
forged or cast in the shape of a giant letter O. At the front is 
a box filled with shining blanks which are fed to the machines 
by women. The blanks are fed beneath the punch through a 
tube, a pair of automatic fingers taking the lower blank and plac- 
ing it on the die. The bottom and top of the blank are embossed 
at the one stroke, and at the same time through the force of expan- 
sion, the disk of metal tightens within the fluted collar in the die, 
thus finishing the coin with the fluted edges. Silver dollars and 
gold coin are stamped at the rate of 85 per minute, quarters and 
half-dollars, 90 per minute, nickels, no per minute and cents 120 
per minute. 

From the coining room the finished money goes to the proving 
department, where its accuracy is again tested. It is then ready 
for the counting room. 

In this department gold coins, silver dollars and half dollars 
are all counted by weight. They are stacked up inside steel 
frames and swept off into the pan of a huge pair of scales. The 
quarters, dimes, nickels and cents are shuffled over large flat boards 



272 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



with parallel strips of brass between which the coins fit loosely. 
When the boards are filled with money, they are tilted until the 
coins flowing over them fill all the spaces between the strips. In 
this way $1,000 in dimes are counted on a single board every 
eighteen seconds, and thrown into an opening at the front of the 
counters' table. Leaving the counters, the new money is placed in 
steel strong boxes to await shipment. 

An Embossing Press for Work Requiring Heavy Pressure. 
In Fig. 375 is shown the type of press used for embossing sil- 







FIG. 375. AN EMBOSSING PRESS FOR COINING, 



COINING PROCESSES. 2/3 

ver, britannia, brass, copper, etc., in the manufacture of medals, 
coin, regalia, jewelry, watches, silverware, etc. 

The die is fastened to a slide which is actuated from below by 
means of powerful toggles. These toggles are made of steel 
castings, having hardened steel pieces set in at the seats and joints. 
Adjustment of pressure and die space is effected by means of 
steel wedges between the punch holder and frame. 

This machine embodies several novel features. In order to 
withstand the tensile strain of 350 tons, which it is designed to 
exert on the work, the body is made of a solid wrought-iron forg- 
ing, the center of which is slotted to admit the working parts. 
The mandrel on which the lower dial rests is made of steel and 
is operated by toggle joints or links made of tool steel hardened 
and ground. 

In order to obtain the necessary adjustment of the dies to regu- 
late the pressure, a steel shoe is provided above the mandrel, to 
which the upper die is attached. This shoe is held up in place 
by four rods passing, up to a yoke at the top, and the weight is 
supported by four large compression springs. The upper side of 
the shoe is made slightly inclined, and a steel wedge inserted be- 
tween it and the bearing in the frame. The position of the wedge 
is adjusted by means of a screw which passes through the side 
of the housing, and which is operated by the hand wheel shown. 

Punching Tools for Heavy Work: 

Fig. 376 shows a set of punching tools for punching holes in 
heavy stock, and Fig. 377 the manner in which they are located 
and used in a large punch press. The set of tools consist of die 
block, die holder, die, edge gage, pull off or stripper, punch and 
punch holder. The die block bolts on the lower jaw to receive the 
die holder and die, and the die holder is made to fit the die block 
and bored to fit the various sizes of small dies. When the die is 
small it is made circular in form to fit the die holder, but if it 
is large, it should be made to the shape of the die holder to fit 
directly into the block. The punch holder has a square shank and 
fits into the ram of the press and is bored to fit the shanks of the 
small punches. When the punches are large they should be made 
with the shank to fit directly into the ram of the press. The 
edge gage bolts to the frame of the press and its edge serves as a 
gage for the edge of the piece to be punched. The stripper or pull 
off is a pivoted lever whose forward end straddles the punch and 



2/4 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



strips the sheet as the punch rises ; it is adjustable up and down by 
means of a pin at the rear end of the lever, so as to accommo- 
date different thicknesses of metal. The Kennedy and Richards 
patent punches are often used in place of ordinary tools described 





FIG. 376. SET OP PUNCHING TOOLS. FIG. 377. TOOLS IN PRESS. 




FIG. 378. PUNCHED, DIES, ETC., FOR HEAVY STOCK. 



C'( ) I M XG PROCESSES. 



275 




2/6 DIES,, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

above. Fig. 378 shows a collection of punches and dies used for 
piercing heavy stock. As shown the punches have pointed centers 
to locate the stock properly by the center punch marks which have 
been previously laid out on the sheet to be punched. The holders 
for the punches require no description as the illustrations show all 
clearly. 

Double Crank Presses for Operating Large Cutting and Forming 

Dies. 

For operating large cutting and forming dies, or gangs of 
punches and dies extending over a large area, double crank 
presses are decidedly preferable to the ordinary ''single crank"' 
type. The two pitmans are so connected that they are always 
adjusted simultaneously, thus enabling the operator to quickly 
raise and lower the slide to suit the thickness of dies without 
any danger of getting the guides out of alignment. 

For heavy cutting and forming it is best to use these presses 
with back gearing, as shown in Fig. 379. In connection with 
such large presses an automatic friction clutch will be found to 
give the best results, as it obviates the difficulties experienced with 
other types of clutches in presses of this class when used for cer- 
tain kinds of work. The action of such a clutch is practically in- 
stantaneous, and it avoids entirely the severe shock which tends to 
destroy the clutch parts and sometimes causes expensive delays 
and repairs. In the press shown in Fig. 379 the larger gear wh _>el 
instead of revolving continually, is 1 at a standstill until the clutch 
is brought into action. This constitutes an additional advantage 
in the saving of considerable wear, and avoids the necessity of a 
brake on the crank shaft. The clutch is also operated by means 
of a hand-lever in such a way that the operator can stop and start 
the slide instantaneously at any point. This facilitates to a very 
large extent the setting of the dies. 

These double crank presses are used extensively in the manu- 
facture of sheet-iron and steel goods, such as vapor stoves, wrought 
iron ranges, shingles, paneled ceiling and siding for buildings, cor- 
nice work, stove boards, drip pans, armature discs and seg- 
ments, etc., and for operating gangs of punches for rivet holes in 
tanks, water pipes, gasometers, kitchen boilers, etc. They are also 
often arranged and used for forging purposes in the manufacture 
of hammers and similar articles requiring a series of dies set 
side by side. When intended for punching holes in long strips of 



COINING PROCESSES. 



277 



metal, openings are cored in the uprights. The crosshcad is 
guided in long, adjustable bearings, so that cutting and perforating 
dies, as well as others requiring great accuracy in movement, iray 
be operated. 

Heavy Notching Press With Punch and Die in Position. 
The press shown in Fig. 380 with punch and die in position is 




FIG. 380. HEAVY NOTCHING PRESS AND DIES. 



used for heavy bridge and structural iron work. The press is 
motor driven and is a very powerful machine. The die is made 
in sections and the parts are located and fastened within a die 
block as shown. The punch face is sheared so as to begin to cut 



2 7 8 



fixES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 381. HEAVY DISC PUNCHING PRESS AND DIES. 




FIG. 382. STEAM DRIVEN MULTIPLE PUNCH AND DIES. 



COINING PROCESSES. 279 

at the edge of the sheet or beam and progressively punch out the 
section. 

Hcaiy Disc Punching. 

In Fig. 381 are shown a press and set of dies for punching 
discs 26 inches in diameter from 3-16 high carbon steel. As 
shown, the die is made in segments, each section having a curved 
shearing edge so as to make the punching out of the discs pro- 
gressive and thereby reducing the strain on the press. The sec- 
tions of the die are located and fastened within a holder. The 
punch and die holders used in a press of this type should be made 
so as to receive tools for discs of smaller diameters also. There u 
an automatic stop on this machine that arrests the slide at any 
point of the stroke. 

S team-Driven Multiple Punches. 

The illustration, Fig. 382, is of a double-geared, steam-driven 
punch press measuring 10 feet between housings, with throat 6 
inches deep. It has a side stand with outboard bearings for cam 
and countershafts, and is equipped with dies for punching one 
hundred and twenty ^8 inch holes, one inch between centers, in a 
54 inch plate. There is a pressure plate over the punches, made 
in removable sections so that a single punch can be taken out for 
repair, etc., without disturbing any of the others. This machine 
has also a slide adjustment which is furnished to overcome the 
shortening of the punch caused by wear, and an automatic stop 
which causes the slide to stop at the completion of each stroke. 
The hold-down is automatic and, after stripping, rises to give 
plenty of room for the insertion of the plate. 

Fig"- 383 illustrates another double-geared multiple punch, 

(104 inches between housings, equipped with dies to punch all of 
the 64 holes in the tire of a steel harvester wheel 9 feet 6 inches 
long at a single stroke of the press. This machine has a center 
bearing for the cam shaft, and side clamping device for centering- 
the strip by hand before punching them. It has slide adjustment 
which raises and lowers the slide to make up for the wearing- 
down of the punches, and an automatic stop which arrests the 
slide at the top of the stroke with the punches and dies open to re- 
ceive the work for the next operation. Machines of this type are 
made heavier and lighter, belt, steam and electrically driven, and 
any width between housings with a throat depth to suit require- 
ments. 



280 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 383. MULTIPLE PUNCH PRESS EQUIPPED FOR 
PUNCHING 64 HOLES. 




FIG. 384. MULTIPLE PUNCH WITH SPACING TABLE AND DIES. 






COINING PROCESSES. 



28l 



Multiple Punch With Hand-Feed Spacing Table. 

The illustration, Fig. 384, represents a powerful machine ca- 
pable of punching twenty-six l /2 inch holes through l /^ inch plate 
at each stroke of the slide. Owing to length of the feed required, 
the table is moved by hand, the distance between centers of end 
holes being 70 inches. As shown the punches and dies are fitted 
to holders which allow of their being quickly changed or removed. 

Heavy Beam Punching. 
In Fig. 385 is shown a heavy steam-driven machine fitted with 




FIG. 385. HEAVY BEAM PUNCHING PRESS, TWO I I-l6 HOI.ES. 

tools to punch two I 1-16 inch holes in the flanges of a 15 inch I 
"beam or do any lighter work. The punches and dies are adjust- 
able so that holes may be punched opposite each other, or stag- 
gered, one in each flange or both in line in trie same flange. The 
machine is under perfect control of the treadle, has adjustable 
rollers to support the beams, and is provided with automatic stop 
.so that the operator can arrest the slide at any point in the stroke. 
The machine shown in Fig. 386 is of the same type as the other 
except it is for heavier work. It is equipped to punch two !]/> 
inch holes in the flanges of a 30 inch bulb-beam at one stroke, or 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 386. BEAM PUNCHING PRESS EQUIPPED WITH TOOLS FOR 
PUNCHING TWO I^-INCH HOLES IN THE FLANGES OF A 3O-INCH 
BULB-BEAM AT ONE STROKE. 



COINING PROCESSES. 

do any lighter work. The adjustable roller frames that support 
the work swing aside and leave the opening in the lower jaw en- 
tirely clear. The punches and dies are adjustable in two direc- 
tions. 

Fig. 387 shows another heavy machine equipped with punches 
and dies for punching two holes in flanges or six holes in the web 
of a 24 inch I beam. The punch holders and die holders are ad- 
justable., the minimum distance between centers of the outside 
holes being 2^/2 inches and the maximum distance being 38 inches. 
Each punch is provided with a gag so that it can be made inop- 




FIG. 387. BEAM PUNCHING PRESS, DIES FOR SIX HOLES. 

erative, if desired, and does not have to be withdrawn in changing* 
from flange punching to web punching. 

The machine shown in Fig. 388 is equipped to punch one or 
more holes in the flanges and the web Of I beams, channels, angles, 
Z-bars or plates, with 15 inch throat. The punches are provided 
with gags or receding sockets so that they can be made inoper- 
ative if desired. The spacing is perfectly controlled by levers and 
can be instantly changed from zero to full throw by simply moving 
a lever. One lever adjusts the spacing in multiples of sixteenths 
and the other in multiples of ^ inch, up to 8 inches, providing 
for any scheme of spacing or any variation in spacing on the same 



284 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 




FIG. 388. HEAVY BEAM PRESS WITH AUTOMATIC SPACING TABLE 
FOR PUNCHING ONE OR MORE HOLES IN WEB OR I-BEAMS, CHAN- 
NELS, ANGLES, Z-BARS, OR PLATES. 



COINING PROCESSES. 



work. The levers lock in large notches and do not require delicate 
setting 1 . The table is provided with quick return power movement, 
independent of the feed, for shifting it back and forth. An auto- 
matic hold-down and slide guide, press the work against the 
gage. 

A Beam-Coping Machine Equipped With Coping Dies. 
The machine illustrated in Fig. 389 is equipped with double 
coping dies so that beams can be fed from either side and have 
both ends coped without turning them around. Punching tools 




FIG. 389. BEAM COPING PRESS EQUIPPED WITH COPING DIES. 

to punch the flanges and web of the beams can be substituted for 
the coping tools, the dies being high and narrow to make room for 
the lower flange of the beam and get close into the corners. This 
machine is used to cope the ends of 24 inch beams or punch six 
y holes in the web or two I inch holes in the flanges, as its 
heaviest work. As shown, the machine is motor-driven. 

Heavy punching tools and machines, such as are shown and de- 
scribed in this chapter, and many other types too numerous to- 
mention, are used principally by boiler makers, bridge builders, 
ship builders, and structural iron work concerns. 



CHAPTER X. 

TEE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES LUBRICATION OF PRESS 

WORK. 

Feeding of Stock a Factor in Production. 

In the production of parts and articles irom sheet metal by 
the use of dies, the proper feeding of the stock is one of the chief 
things to be considered, as the efficiency of the finished product 
and the cost of its production depends greatly upon the methods 
employed for this part of the work. 

Although the fact is well known that sheet metal goods manu- 
facturers strive to keep the cost of their tool equipment down to 
the lowest figure, and do not hasten to avail themselves of the many 
practical devices which are being constantly designed to assist in 
the cheap and rapid production of sheet metal parts, they would 
find that by installing a thoroughly practical system of feeding 
in their establishments, the safety of their operators would be 
insured and their profits increased. The improvements which 
have been made during the last few years in devices for press 
feeding are indeed wonderful, and we feel safe in stating that 
there is not a sheet metal part or article in general use to-day for 
which some one of the large establishments devoted to the manu- 
facture of sheet-metal working machinery cannot provide an 
automatic feeding device to assist in its rapid and cheap produc- 
tion. 

Hand-Feeding. 

The most common and by far the oldest method of feeding 
sheet metal to dies is by hand, and in a number of cases it is the 
best. When the metal to be punched comes in short sheets or 
strips, or where scrap stock is used, it should be fed by hand, 
feeding between a pair of gage plates, or a single one, on the die, 
against a stop-pin, as shown and described in the opening chap- 
ters of this book. But wherever the nature of the work will al- 
low an automatic feeding device actuated by the stroke of the 
press should be used. In the following pages are illustrated and 
described a number of the manv different kinds of automatic 



THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES. 



2 8 7 






feeds which are now in general use in all shops where the maxi- 
mum production from the minimum of labor is desired. 

Single Roll Feeding. 

When large quantities of pierced blanks, plain blanks, shallow 
drawn or formed articles which can be produced in one operation, 
or other work of a like character are required, and the stock from 




FIG. 390. PUNCH PRESS WITH SINGLE ROLL FEED AT SIDE, FOR 
SMALL BLANKING, PIERCING OR BENDING OPERATIONS. 

which they are to be punched can be had in long strips or rolls, a 
press fitted with a single roll feed as shown in Fig. 390 should be 
used. The feeds and presses are to be had in a number of differ- 
ent sizes to suit the size and shape of the work, and the feeds 



288 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AM) USE. 



and machines are made in different styles, so as to feed from 
front to back, left to right, or the reverse. The feeds are made 
with various size rolls with automatic release action for the upper 
roll, and with hand wheels as desired. The distance which the 







FIG. 391. PERFORATING PRESS WITH AUTOMATIC 
DOUBLE ROLL Ft ED. 

stock can be fed at each stroke of the press is governed by the 
size of the rolls and the adjustment of the feed lever. 

Fig. 392 shows a different style of single roll feed and its 
adaptation and location on a larger press than that shown in Fig. 
390. The slide of this press is provided with a wedge adjust- 
ment actuated by means of the hand wheel in front. The upper 



THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES. 



289 



feed roll may be quickly raised by means of an eccentric handle 
permitting- the strip of metal to be accurately placed, released, and 
readjusted at any time. The pawl operates on the edge of a tooth- 




FIG. 392. POWER PRESS WITH SINGLE ROLL FEED AT BACK. 



less disk, taking its "bite" by means of a wedging action, which 
permits of easy adjustment and fine spacing. A machine equipped 
with a feed of this type is very useful for bicycle chain work, 



29O DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

clock and watch parts, Yale key blanks, and many other articles of 
a like nature. 

A Double Roll Feed for Perforated Metal Sheets. 

The double roll feed shown in position on the press in Fig. 391 
is of the type most generally used for feeding sheets of metal 
which are to be perforated in regular patterns by means of a single 
row of dies, or in staggered patterns by means of a double row of 
<lies. As shown, the press is built specially for this feeding de- 
vice, and as equipped has been adopted extensively on account of 
its speed of production, the accuracy of its work, and the ease 
with which the dies and punches may be removed or adjusted. It 
may be run at from 70 to 100 strokes a minute, according to the 
class of work done, and feeding the metal through the rolls will 
punch a double row of holes at each stroke across a 14 inch sheet. 

The roll housings are hinged, and each set of rolls has a hand- 
wheel for quickly adjusting the sheet at the start, or removing at 
the end. The rolls are actuated by a lever connected at the side 
of the press, one end to one of the lower feed roll ends, and the 
other to an adjustable stud in a T slot in the end of the press 
crank shaft. 

Feeding Partly Finished Small Parts and Articles. . 

Fig. 393 illustrates a method of feeding parts and articles of 
small size beneath punches. It is used when adapted to a press 
as shown for letter stamping or reshaping blanks and shells in 
the manufacture of tin bottle-capsules, burner parts, tin box cov- 
ers, and many other articles. In this device the die is fastened to 
a sliding piece, which receives its motion through a cam on the 
shaft in such a manner as to stand still while the punch is doing 
its work, after which the slide travels forward toward the oper- 
ator, who removes the finished piece and locates a new one with- 
out endangering his hands by getting them between the punch 
and die. With a device of this type adapted to the press as shown, 
a good operator will do from 50 to 100 pieces of work per minute 
according to the style of the work. 

Tube Feeding of Parts Which Have Been Previously Punched. 

The stamping, lettering or other die work on small blanks 
which have been previously punched, such as bicycle chain links, 
buttons, clock and lock parts, metal novelties, etc., can be best ac- 



THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES. 



291 



complishecl by means of a tube feed of the type shown on the 
press in Fig. 394. These devices are built to feed front to back, 
or left to right, or the other way, as desired. The blanks are put 
into a tubular holder from which an automatically actuated slide 
takes them one by one, conveying them into the die at the rate of 




PIG. 393. PRESS WITH CAM-ACTUATED 
DIE SLIDE. 



FIG. 394. PRESS WITH TUBE 
FEED. 






100 to 150 per minute. In some cases it becomes necessary to 
add a cam-actuated stop-gage to insure feeding the blank to the 
accurate position. This stop-gage is constructed similar to the 
finger-gage shown in Chapter I. The tube feed may be easily re- 
moved and a single or double roll feed such as are shown in Figs. 
390 and 391 substituted. 



292 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



Double Roll Feeding for Producing Small Pierced Blanks from 

Strip. 

The double roll feed shown on the press, Fig. 395, is specially 
adapted for such work as piercing bicycle chain links, washers, 
watch, clock and lock parts, and man}- other pieces used in the 




FIG. 395. PUNCH PRESS WITH STAY RODS, DOUBLE ROLL FEED 
AND DIES FOR PRODUCING SMALL PIERCED BLANKS FROM 
THE STRIP. 

manufacture of hardware, lamps, electric apparatus, etc. The die 
first pierces the holes and then cuts the blanks, producing from 
100 to 150 pieces per minute. On each stroke of the press, at 
the moment when the pilot pins located in the blanking punch are 



THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES. 



293 



about to enter the pierced holes, the upper rolls are automatically 
raised so as to release the strip and permit the pilot pins to shift 
it into the correct position, correcting any "slip" which may have 
occurred in feeding, and thereby overcoming the multiplication of 
error. By means of the hand wheels shown, the strip may be 




FIG. 396. PRESS EQUIPPED WITH DOUBLE ROLL AND LATERAL 
FEEDS, AND DIES FOR EMBOSSING, BLANKING AND FORMING 
TIN STAPLES OR TAGS FROM STRIPS OF TIN. 

quickly fed to the starting position and the last end quickly re- 
moved. 

Double Roll and Lateral Feeds. 

The half-tone Fig. 396 represents a press as equipped with a 
double roll feed and lateral feed, with dies for embossing, blank- 
ing and forming tin staples or tags from strips of thin metal. 



294 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



It illustrates a method of combining feeds for automatically 
perforating, embossing or lettering, blanking and forming mis- 
cellaneous small tin and brass goods ; it requires no description 
as its action is similar to the one shown in Fig. 395. 

Double Roll Feed innth Automatic Release. 
A method of double roll feeding adapted for double-acting 




FIG. 397. DOUBLE ACTION PRESS WITH DOUBLE ROLL FEED 
AND AUTOMATIC ROLL RELEASE. 

presses for the rapid production of shells which are cut and 
drawn from the strip in "push-through" dies is shown in Fig. 
397. From 60 to 150 shells per minute may be produced by 



THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES. 



295 







O O 



7 2 



E 1 

W 
A 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

this method, according to the size and shape of shell. The roll 
feed is easily adjusted to different sizes of blanks. Both of the 
upper feeding rolls are provided with automatic cam-lifting de- 
vices, with hand levers, permitting of opening the rolls at any 
time or readjusting the strip. For metal shells (burners, fer- 
rules, umbrella trimmings, thimbles, tin goods, etc.) it can be 
adapted to the best advantage. 

Dial Feeds. 

Dial feeds are used for a variety of work, the smaller sizes, 
such as are shown in Figs. 398 to 400 adapted to small bench 
presses, being used extensively in the manufacture of buttons, 
small burner parts, umbrella trimmings, and other light staple 
articles. In many cases two or three punches and dies can be 
made to act simultaneously, performing one after another the 
necessary operations, either in the finishing of one part or article, 
or in the assembling of two or more parts of an article, thus 
doubling or trebling the efficiency of the machine. Dial feeds 
of this kind are also used for holding large blanks such as arma- 
tr.re disks, rotating the blank successively at each stroke of the 
press. The same style of feed fitted with locating sockets to 
hold and carry the work is shown adapted to a larger press in 
Fig. 401. As shown, the press is fitted with tools for performing 
the two burner operations shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The shell 
as fed and located to the sockets in the dial plate is shown in Fig. 
i, it being fed around until it has been worked upon by the 
punches. 

Dial feeds of various kinds may be applied to nearly all 
power presses, as they can be used for automatically carrying 
blanks, shells, cups, etc., between punch and die to receive a 
second operation. They are largely used in the manufacture of 
brass goods, trimmings, buttons, cartridge and primer shells, 
tubes for pen holders and pencil cases, and many other special- 
ties. Two essentially different styles of dial feeds are in general 
use the "friction dial feed" and the "ratchet dial feed." 

The Friction Dial Feed. 

The friction dial feed consists of a smooth circular disk, 
which revolves continuously, in combination with stationary 
gages above it, so that the pieces placed on the disk are led 
accurately under the punch. In order to insure reliable action 



THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES. 



397 



In most cases a finger or gripping movement is attached to the 
feed, which places and holds the piece in the exact position when 
ready for the descending punch. The friction dial feed is best 
for redrawing short shells or pieces which are not liable to topple 

over. 

The Ratchet Dial Feed. 

The ratchet dial feed consists of a circular plate which con- 
nects with the main shaft through the medium of cams or pawls, 
so as to receive an intermittent rotary motion. This disk is pro- 




FIG. 401. PRESS WITH AUTOMATIC DIAL FEED, FITTED WITH DIES 
FOR OPERATIONS 2 AND 3 ON BURNER SHELL, FIG. I. 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

vided with a number of holes to receive either the work or the 
dies. By the use of a ratchet dial feed it is often possible, in 
many cases, to submit the pieces to two or three consecutive 
operations without rehandling. The feeds shown in Figs. 398- 
to 401 are ratchet dial feeds. 




FIG. 402. GEARED PUNCH PRESS EQUIPPED WITH FIVE SEPARATELY 
, ADJUSTABLE PUNCH CARRIERS AND AUTOMATIC FEEDING 
DEVICE. 




Burner shell finished on four-punch machine. First operation, Fig. 1, made in 
combination die. 






THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES. 299 



A Press with Adjustable Punch Carriers and an Automatic 
Friction Dial Feeding Device. 

The press illustrated in Fig. 402 is equipped to produce with 
great speed and economy such articles as lamp burners, stove 
trimmings, harness oil can tops, small coffee and teapot covers, 
lantern parts and other similar articles made in large quantities, 
which require a series of operations after the first cup or shell 
has been produced in a combination or drawing die. 

The first operation shells are placed on the friction dial, 
whence they are carried automatically by the reciprocating mo- 
tion or feed from one to another of the several dies, then auto- 
matically discharged. 

In a press arranged as this one is all dies operate simultan- 
eously, and as the press. may be run at a speed of 40 to 60 strokes 
per minute (according to the size and shape of the shells) its 
output of 200 to 300 operations per minute is equivalent to the 
work of 10 to 20 single slide presses fed by hand. As the press 
may be fed by an inexpensive operator and there is no inter- 
mediate handling, the amount of labor and shop room saved, as 
well as the entire absence of danger to the hands of the operator, 
are items of very great importance to manufacturers. 

Presses of this type are regularly built with four or five punch 
carriers, but where an additional number of operations are re- 
quired they are built wider and additional punch carriers pro- 
vided. Such dies as are used for cutting, forming, perforating, 
lettering and flanging may be operated in these presses. The 
number of operations that may be performed is limited to the 
number that can be done without annealing the shells or parts. 
Shells requiring a less number of operations than there are punch 
carriers in the press may be handled just as readily as though 
the full number of dies permissible were being operated. 

The press shown in Fig. 403 is equipped with a different 
style of dial feed, and is used extensively for redrawing tinfoil 
bottle caps, caster parts, burner shells and other articles which 
have been cut and drawn. As equipped it will redraw from 50 to 
70 shells per minute, according to the skill and diligence of the 
operator. The blank-holder slide is actuated on the down stroke by 
the two cams shown, and is raised by a powerful spring with lever 
attached to the back of the slide and not shown in the illustration. 



300 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



The dial feed and bottom knock-out attachment are operated 
from cams on the outer end of the shaft. 

A dial feed as used for work requiring heavy pressure, such 
as embossed buttons, stem-winder knobs, clock-axle bearings or 
bushings, etc., and adapted to a press with a cam-actuated knock- 




T1G. 403. DOUBLE ACTING REDUCING PRESS, WITH DIAL FEED AXD 
KNOCK-OUT ATTACHMENT FOR DRAWN WORK. 

out for punch and die, and a safety stop attachment, is shown in 
Fig. 404. 

A Double-Action Gang Press with Special Automatic Feed. 
The machine shown in Fig. 405 is designed for cutting, draw- 



THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES. 



3or 



ing and stamping a considerable number of small shells at each 
stroke. It works with great speed, and effects a considerable 
saving of stock, as will be seen from the scrap sheet shown on 




FIG. 404. PRESS WITH AUTOMATIC DIAL FEED, CAM-ACTUATED- 
KNOCKOUT FOR PUNCH AND DIE, AND SAFETY STOP ATTACH- 
MENT. 

the floor at the left of the press. It is arranged with a special 
automatic feeding device, as shown, and carries 14 sets of double- 
action dies, and will produce nearly 1,000 shells per minute. It 



302 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



may also be arranged for more or fewer dies according to what 
width of sheet, the size of the article, or other special conditions 
mav call for. 




FIG. 405. "BLISS" PATENT TOGGLE-DRAWING PRESS EQUIPPED WITH 
A GANG OF DOUBLE-ACTING DIES, PRODUCING 14 SHALLOW SHELLS 
AT EACH STROKE AT THE RATE OF 70 STROKES A MINUTE. 



A number of other methods of feeding sheet metal to dies 
are shown in connection with the dies and presses for various 
kinds of work in other parts of this book. 



THE FEEDING OF SHEET METAL TO DIES. 303 

Lubricants to Use in the Working of Sheet Metal. 

All dies will be found to work better, last longer and produce 
"better results if a proper lubricant is used, and in the following 
we give a list of the kinds which have proved the best for the 
work mentioned. When punching iron, steel, copper or German 
silver, a thin coating of lard oil or sperm oil should be spread 
over the strips or sheets before punching. A good way to do 
this evenly is to coat one sheet thickly and feed it through a pair 
of rolls, thus the oil will spread over the sheet and coat the rolls 
and a number of other sheets may be run through the rolls and 
coated evenly. For drawn work this matter of coating the sheets 
(before blanking and drawing the shells) will be found the best, 
as the coating of oil on the sheets or strips of metal will be very 
thin and it will not be found necessary to clean the shells after- 
ward, as the oil will have disappeared during the process of 
drawing. When the oil is applied with a brush or pad the coat- 
ing will be so thick that it will be necessary to clean the articles 
produced. In the drawing of steel shells a thin mixture of 
grease and white lead will give the best results. For working 
sheet brass or other soft metals (except in drawing operations) 
soap water should be used, allowing the strip or sheet to run 
through a tank filled with the solution as it is fed to the dies. 
For zinc, soap suds heated to a boiling point and applied as the 
metal is fed to the dies will allow of the best results being at- 
tained. For cutting aluminum use kerosene oil as a lubricant, 
for drawing it use vaseline. 

Although very often dies are used to punch sheet metal with- 
cut applying a lubricant to the stock, and good results are 
attained, it will be found that where a lubricant is always used 
on all classes of sheet metal work the tools will last longer, the 
results will be better and there will be very little breakage. 



CHAPTER XI. 

ANNEALING TOOL STEEL AND HARDENING AND TEMPERING PRO- 
CESSES EOR PRESS TOOLS, INCLUDING HINTS AND SUG- 
GESTIONS ON THE USE OF FILES. 

Annealing Defined. 

Metals are annealed by being slowly cooled from a high tem- 
perature. Annealing generally increases the flexibility, softness 
and ductility of bodies. When metals have become brittle through 
excess of strain in rolling, drawing, twisting, hammering, or 
other mechanical means, their properties may be restored by 
annealing. 

Hardening Defined. 

> 

Steel and a number of other metals, if cooled suddenly after 
having been strongly heated, become harder, more brittle and 
more elastic than before. If tool steel is heated to a white heat 
and then plunged into a bath of cold water or mercury, it will 
become almost as hard as a diamond, very elastic ; and so brittle 
that it can be used only for drilling tempered steel or chilled 
iron, for coining and engraving dies, and for .the hardest kind of 
files. 

Tempering Defined. 

Steel may be worked to any shape required in the arts when 
it is in its softened condition. It is then strongly heated and 
suddenly cooled, and as this hardening process renders it too 
brittle for ordinary purposes, something of its elasticity is sacri- 
ficed, and a portion of its hardness removed by reheating tho 
steel to a lower temperature and cooling it gradually. This, 
process of annealing is called "drawing" or "tempering." The 
temper to which the steel is drawn depends on the use to which 
it is to be put, and is regulated by varying the temperature of 
the second heating, the higher the degree of heat the softer the 
steel. 

When a steel article has been hardened, then polished or 
ground and reheated, the film of oxide on its surface becomes, at 
a temperature of 428 deg. F., of a light straw color, then through 



ANNEALING TOOL STEEL. 305 

intermediate hues to a violet yellow (509 deg. F.), blue (560 
deg. F.) ; at 977 deg. F. the steel passes to a red heat. These 
colors guide the workman in his efforts to temper the tool as 
required. Light yellow is the temper required for articles or 
tools requiring a keen cutting edge. A deeper yellow for fine 
cutlery. Violet is the temper required for table knives, requir- 
ing flexibility more than a hard brittle edge, and blue for all tools 
or articles which are required to be very flexible. 

Heating Steel. 

Never heat a piece of steel, which it is desired to harden^ 
above the lowest heat at which it will harden, and the larger the 
piece of steel the more time required to heat it properly, as it 
will have to be higher than a smaller piece of the same steel, be- 
cause of the fact that a large piece of steel takes longer to 
cool than a smaller piece, as when a large piece of steel is plunged 
into the bath a great volume of steam arises and blows the water 
away from it, thus necessitating more time in the cooling. Thus- 
when the tool or die is very large a tank should be used to harden 
it in, into which a stream of cold water should be kept constantly^ 
running, as otherwise the red-hot tool would heat the water to- 
such a degree that the steel would remain soft. 

Hardening and Tempering Small Tools. 

Very small tools such as small piercing punches, etc., should 
be hardened in an oil bath or in lukewarm water, as if cold water 
is used they will cool too quickly and come out of the bath cracked 
or so brittle as to be useless. Never heat a piece of steel for 
hardening hot enough as to raise scale on it ; even when it is a, 
very large piece this can be prevented by heating very slowly in 
a packing box. When steel has been heated too hot and then 
quenched the grain is rendered coarse and brittle, and although 
it may be drawn to the desired temper it will break quicker than 
a piece which has been hardened at a very low heat and not temp- 
ered at all, although the piece which was heated too hot and 
hardened and drawn will be softer than the other piece. 

When hardening long, flat or round objects they should be 
dipped endwise, holding them perpendicular with the surface of 
the bath. When this is done the articles will come out perfectly- 
straight, or at least very little sprung. When dipped otherwise 
such tools will warp. When dipping a half-round tool dip it 



306 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



the half-round side at an angle of twenty degrees with the 
surface of the water and it will come out either almost straight 
or straight. 

To draw the temper on small tools use a Bunsen burner, 
holding the thickest part of the tool which does not require tem- 
pering in the blue flame, and as the steel heats wipe it often with 
a piece of oily waste. By doing this the temper will come up 
even and will not draw more in one place than in another. Tem- 
per slowly so as to avoid having the temper start to run before 
you are aware of it. 

Hardness and Toughness in Steel 

Although few mechanics seem to be aware of it, there is con- 
siderable difference between steel which is hard and steel which 
is both hard and tough, i. e., when a tool has been hardened and 
tempered to the degree thought best for the work which it is to 
perform and the edge does not stand up, but instead crumbles 
away, the steel is hard but is not tough and was heated wrongly 
in hardening or not quenched right. On the contrary, when a 
tool has been heated properly and hardened and tempered as it 
should be, it can be very hard and the edge will hold, because 
for a given degree of hardness the same degree of toughness has 
been imparted during the heating and hardening process. 

Special Methods of Plardening Tool Steel. 

Often when tool steel is bought special instructions will be 
given as to the method of hardening it. Sometimes those in- 
structions are followed out and often they are not. Now in all 
cases where such instructions are given don't forget to go by 
them, otherwise do not buy that brand of steel, but, instead, get 
a brand which you can harden in the good old-fashioned way. 
There are now various brands of steel on the market which are 
used for special purposes and which possess qualities which other 
brands do not (in regard to cutting at high speeds, removing 
large amounts of stock, etc.), which require hardening at different 
temperatures and tempering at special colors. If you need this 
sort of steel for any purpose, don't try to find out why the special 
instructions are given, but do as directed, and if the results are 
what the makers claim for it, it doesn't make any difference if 
you have to harden it in a cake of soap the result is the thing. 



ANNEALING TOOL STEEL. 3O/ 

Hardening Compounds. 

In order to harden steel tools or pieces so that uniform hard- 
ness and temper will be attained, and so that the steel will come 
out of the process white and clean, as is often required, the fol- 
lowing process may be adopted : First, in the heating of the 
steel a solution which will protect it from the fire and another 
to chill it quickly are necessary. This last solution will also give 
the desired clean white appearance to the steel. The receipt 
for the first solution is : equal quantities of sal soda and borax 
in water containing one ounce of cyanide of potassium to the gal- 
lon. For the second solution, a strong brine made of salt and 
water, and about the same amount of cyanide as salt, will do. 
Have the water hot and add about two ounces of sulphuric acid 
to each gallon of water used ; when mixed put away in a cool 
place and keep well covered. 

To use the solutions proceed as follows : Fill all holes near 
the edge of the steel with fire clay, then dip into the first solu- 
tion and place the steeel immediately on the fire while wet. Heat 
slowly and carefully and be sure not to heat any one portion of 
the work faster than another, as the slower the heat the more 
uniform its distribution in the piece. When the proper tempera- 
ture has been reached, which should be a clear bright red, dip the 
work straight down into the hardening solution ; when it has 
cooled remove from the bath and work of silvery whiteness and 
uniform hardness will be the result. When hardening long, 
slender pieces in this solution, dip them endwise, and do not shake 
about, but instead revolve, if possible, rapidly. 

Tempering in the Sand Bath. 

When a number of pieces of the same size or slightly different 
sizes have been hardened and it is desired to draw them all to 
the same temper, the sand bath will be found to give the most 
uniform results. This consists of an iron box filled with sand 
and heated over a fire to the temperature required. When the 
sand has been heated to the required degree the tools to be tem- 
pered are laid on top and removed when the color denoting the 
temper required appears. Always remember that the slower the 
temper is drawn the tougher the steel will be. When steel is 
heated slowly in tempering and the heat is distributed equally 
over the entire piece the molecules assume the most stable posi- 
tion with regard to each other, and, when the tool is in use, all 



308 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

are alike affected by any shock sustained. The effects of heat 
on copper and bronze are precisely the reverse of those mani- 
fested by steel, as when such metals are cooled slowly they be- 
come brittle and hard, but when cooled rapidly, soft and malleable. 

Hardening the Walls of a Hole. 

Often, in die work, it is desired that the walls of a drawing- 
die or some other part, such as the inside of a hollow punch, 
should be hard and the remaining portions of the piece soft. This 
may be accomplished by proceeding as follows : Clamp the die 
or punch, as the case may be, between flanges on the ends of 
tubes, being sure to have the steel at the proper heat. Then 
allow a stream of cold water or brine to circulate through the 
tubes and the walls will harden in depth as far as the inside edges 
of the flanges, while the remaining portion will remain soft. 

Reannealing. 

Sometimes a piece of steel, which is to be used for a punch or 
die blank, upon starting to machine it, proves hard, although it 
has been annealed. When this is the case, never try to finish it 
before reannealing it ; instead, rough it down, clean out the 
centers and anneal it over again. The time required to reanneal 
the piece of steel will be more than made up in the machining 
of it. 

Water Annealing. 

Frequently a piece of steel is required for a repair job or 
some other job in a hurry, and there is no time to anneal it in the 
regular way. At other times a piece which has been hardened 
requires to be remachined. When confronted with the above con- 
ditions the tool-maker can fall back on the ''water anneal," and 
after he has tried it a few times he will be delighted with the 
results. There are several methods of doing this, and we give 
here the best of them all. The mechanic may adopt any of them, 
according to the results secured from each. The first method is 
to heat the steel slowly to a dull cherry red, then remove it from 
the fire and with a piece of soft wood try the heat, as it decreases, 
by touching the steel with the end of the stick. When the piece 
has cooled so that the wood ceases to char plunge the steel quickly 
into an oil bath. On machining the steel it will be found to be 
very soft. 

The second method for water annealing, is to heat the steel 



HARDENING AND TEMPERING PRESS TOOLS. 309 

slowly to a red heat, then allow it to lie in the ashes a few 
minutes until almost black, then drop it into soap-suds and allow 
it to cool. Very often the piece of steel annealed in this manner 
will turn out much softer than if annealed in the regular manner 
by packing in powdered charcoal and allowed to cool over night. 
A good way to make sure as to the time to drop the steel into the 
bath is to allow it to cool until almost black, then touch it with a 
file; if the steel does not brighten for an instant and then turn 
blue, wait a few seconds and repeat the experiment. If upon the 
second trial the blue appears and then a spark right afterward, 
drop the steel instantly into the bath, and when cool it will be 
found to be as "soft as butter." 

Warping of Tools in Hardening. 

Often after carefully hardening a long tool it will be found to 
have warped during the process, often to such a degree as lo 
make it useless. There is a way to avoid this altogether, or ar 
least, the warp will be so slight as not to affect the efficiency of 
the tool. To insure against warping, lower the steel, when at 
the proper heat, squarely into the bath, lowering it as far as 
possible into the center of the liquid. When this is done the heat 
will be absorbed equally from all sides and the tendency to warp 
excessively will have been eliminated. 

The Location of the Hardening Furnace. 
Although in a great many shops very little importance is at- 
tached to the proper placing and locating of the forge or furnace 
which is to be used during the hardening processes, it will be 
found that if the location chosen is in a darkened corner where 
the sun's rays will not come near it, the best results will be at- 
tained. No matter what kind of hardening is to be done, the 
heating arrangements should riever be located where there is too 
strong a light, or where the sun shines in at any time of the day. 
If the light is uniform it will not be difficult to attain uniform 
results, while, on the contrary, if the light it too bright, there is 
a chance of heating the steel too hot, and, when it becomes 
darker, not hot enough. When a uniform light is maintained 
during the day the men become accustomed to it and no trouble 
is experienced in getting the best results. 

Hardening Very Small Parts. 
When a large number of very small parts are to be hardened 



310 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

they should be packed in closed iron boxes, and the box heated. 
When all the parts have reached the proper heat, they should be 
dumped into the quenching bath, of either oil or water, as the, 
nature of the work may require. Another way by which small 
parts may be heated uniform, is by means of a lead bath. Keep 
the lead at the proper heat and cover the top with powdered char- 
coal and coke. 

Tempering in Oil. 

Almost all large shops in which any amount of hardening and 
tempering are done, have discarded the method of tempering 
by colors, and have adopted the more reliable method of doing 
it in oil, gaging the heat by a thermometer. A kettle containing 
the oil is placed on the fire and heated to the right temperature, 
the hardened parts are thrown in and left in the liquid until 
drawn. By this method there is no possibility of over-drawing, 
as it is impossible for the parts to become hotter than the oil. 
When tempering in this manner it is not necessary to brighten 
the work before the operation, and where a lot of such work is 
done, it will be accomplished much cheaper than if the old methods 
were used, besides, the most satisfactory results will be attained. 

Straightening Hardened Pieces Which Hare Warped. 
When a piece has been carefully heated and just as carefully 
quenched, there is little chance of its warping, but when a piece 
does warp, before it can be used for the purpose required it must 
be straightened ; to do this proceed as follows : Take two V 
blocks and place them on the bed of an arbor press or a straight- 
ening press either one will do and place the piece or tool on 
the V blocks with the concave side down. Then take a Bunsen 
burner with a hose attached to it for the gas supply, and heat 
the concave side ; do this slowly and do not heat enough to draw 
the temper. While the steel is hot apply sufficient pressure to 
spring the punch or tool back in shape. A large number of hard- 
ened pieces, which would otherwise be useless, may be saved by 
straightening them in this manner. 

The Use of Clay in Hardening. 

Very often in die and tool work it is desired that a piece with 
a hole in the center should be hard around the outside and soft 
around the hole, or a punch is required to be hard at both ends 
and soft in the center. To accomplish these results with ease 



HARDENING AND TEMPERING PRESS TOOLS. 

iise clay in the following manner : When the stock around a 
hole is to be left soft and the outer edges of the piece hardened, 
fill the hole with clay and pad it at both sides, then heat the piece 
and plunge it into the water. When cool remove the clay and 
the stock around the hole will be found to be soft while the outer 
edges will be as hard as required. To harden both ends of a 
punch and leave the center soft put a bandage of clay around the 
center, or desired soft portion., about ^4 inch thick, and bind it 
with a piece of sheet metal. Heat, and quench, and the desired 
results will be accomplished. 

When hardening dies cr other press tools in which there are 
any holes near the edges of the piece, fill the holes with clay be- 
fore heating and the tendency to crack will be overcome. When 
the holes are not filled with clay when the steel is quenched - 
steam generates in the holes and cracks start, or excessive warp- 
ing occurs, due to the fact that the steam does not escape fast 
enough and the contraction of the metal is unequal. 

Hardening Dies. 

Of the hardening and tempering of dies and press tools too 
much cannot be written, as upon the results of this part of their 
construction depends the efficiency of the tools. For heating dies 
a gas furnace is preferable, but when this is not at hand a good 
clean charcoal fire will do. 

For hardening large dies it is indispensable to have a large 
tank, which should be arranged in such a manner as to insure the 
rapid cooling of the steel. A tank of this kind can be arranged 
by fixing two or three rods across the inside about 12 inches below 
the surface of the water, and a pipe let into the tank in such a 
manner as to insure the circulation of a stream of water from the 
bottom upward. When the die is to be quenched the water 
should be turned on and kept running until the steel has cooled. 
When a good circulation of water is kept up in a tank of this, 
kind there will not be any soft spots in the die. 

Hardening Fluids for Dies. 

We have heard a good deal about hardening fluids in which it 
is claimed dies can be hardened better than in water or brine. 
Such fluids are composed chiefly of acids and we should advise 
keeping away from them, as where it is not possible to harden 
die steel in clear water or brine, the steel is useless and should 



3 12 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

be dispensed with. When quenching the heated steel, dip down 
straight and don't shake it about, but, after keeping it stationary 
for a few seconds, move it around slowly, keeping it square all 
the time. When the die or punch is of an intricate shape, about 
three inches of oil on the top of the water will toughen it and 
contribute to helping the steel retain its shape while hardening, 
and - prevent it from warping or cracking during the process. 
Lastly, immediately after hardening and before grinding, the steel 
should be^ placed on the fire^ and slightly warmed, to take the chill 
out, and not laid aside for a while, as we have seen dies that were 
laid aside after hardening (that were intact) after a few hours 
show cracks. 

Steel for Punches. 

When small punches are required to punch heavy work or to 
run at high speeds never use drill rod or Stubs' steel, as such 
stock is really the poorest stock that could be used for such work, 
for the simple reason that fine, high carbon steel of this kind, or 
any other for that matter, crystallizes rapidly under concussion. 
In place of such stock use the lowest grade of steel which will 
harden only at a white heat, and the punches will last many times 
a long as any that could be made from the better grades of 
stock. 

For small punches which are to pierce thin soft stock, or to 
run at a slow speed, get the best grade of steel on the market, as 
for such work the finer the grade the better results will be ob- 
tained. 

Soft or Hard Punches and Dies. 

It is often very hard to determine as to whether a punch and 
die should be hardened or whether one of them should be left 
soft, and if so, which one. The stock to be worked and the 
nature of the work have to be considered when deciding this mat- 
ter. Some classes of work will be accomplished in the best 
manner by using a soft punch and a hard die ; others, when a 
hard punch and a soft die are used ; while in a majority of cases 
the best results will be obtained by using a punch and die which 
are both hard. For punching or shearing heavy metals both 
punch and die should be hard, while for all metals which are soft, 
and not over 1-16 inch thick, a soft punch and a hard die will be 
found to work well. By leaving one of the dies soft it will be 
easy to produce clean blanks, as when the punch and die becomes 



HARDENING AND TEMPERING PRESS TOOLS. 313 

dull it is only necessary to grind the hard one, upset the soft one 
and shear it into the die. 

Judgment and Carefulness in Hardening. 

A great deal depends on the judgment and carefulness of the 
man who does the hardening in a shop, and in large manufactur- 
ing establishments one man should be given the job of doing all 
the hardening. x On this man's efficiency and judgment will de- 
pend the increasing or reducing of the cost account, as one piece 
of steel which has been hardened properly will accomplish many 
times as much as a piece which has been hardened carelessly. 
The manner in which the hardener puts the steel into the quench- 
ing liquid will be responsible, more than anything else, for having 
the pieces come out hard and free from cracks. Work with deep 
recesses will often have to go into the water with the recessed 
parts first or vice versa, according to the shape and location 
of the recesses. When hardening large pieces which are worked 
out in the center, a stream of water striking against them is often 
absolutely necessary. There are some grades of steel which will 
give the best results if they are removed from the water as soon 
as the vibration has ceased, and laid aside until cool, while there 
are a greater number of other brands which will have to be left in 
the bath until perfectly cool. Experience and good sound judg- 
ment are necessary to do good hardening. 

The Use of Machine Steel for Press Tools and the Hardening 

of it. 

For a large number of purposes in the line of sheet-metal 
'working, machine steel tools, if properly hardened, will answer as 
well and sometimes better than tool steel ones, and if the follow- 
ing process is used to harden such tools they will be found to 
give the best of results and may be used for cutting purposes. 
In order that the parts or tools may do their work and last long, 
they must be hardened very deep and come out with a fine com- 
pact grain. For dies which are to be used for punching regular 
shaped blanks from light soft stock machine steel case-hardened 
tools will give excellent satisfaction, as they are far cheaper to 
make and will last as long as though made of tool steel. 

.To do this work properly the following outfit is necessary: 
A good hardening oven* a number of hardening boxes, a good 
supply of raw bone, granulated, the same amount of granulated 



3H DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

charcoal, some hydro-carbonated bone and the same amount of 
charred leather. A tank large enough to hold a good supply of 
water, a small tank so arranged as to allow of heating to any 'de- 
sired temperature, and a bath of raw linseed oil, and the outfit 
will be complete. 

Pack and heat the work as you would for regular case-hard- 
ening, and leave in the oven to cool. When perfectly cool heat 
the pieces in hot lead and quench the same as tool steel. If the 
pieces are small they should be repacked in the hardening box 
with granulated charcoal and heated. When packing in charcoal 
do not mix with any kind of bone or any other carbonizing matter ; 
such substances open the grain, and the object of the second heat 
is to close the grain. The hardening heat should be as low as 
possible, and the hardened piece will come out close in grain, with 
a hard, tough surface all over, while the center remains soft and 
the piece will be stronger than if made of tool steel. 

When machine steel tools are to be used for cutting they should 
be packed for the first heat in a mixture composed of equal parts 
of charcoal and charred leather, finely granulated. The use of 
charred leather gives a much tougher effect to the steel than bone, 
as the leather is almost free from phosphorus, while bone is not, 
and as phosphorus makes steel brittle the substance which con- 
tains the least amount of it should be used. Tools which are to 
be used for bending and forming may be packed in bone, which 
will carbonize them as required. When using either bone or 
leather an equal amount of granulated charcoal mixed with it will 
prevent the kernels of bone and leather from adhering and form- 
ing a solid mass when hot, and as charcoal is an excellent heat 
conductor the pieces packed within the hardening box will be 
heated quicker than if no charcoal were used. 

Never use Bessemer steel for such tools as it will not respond- 
to the process ; open-hearth steel should always be used to get 
uniform results. 

Hardening Large Steel Ring Dies, so as to Prevent Cracking and 

Excessive Warping. 

To harden large ring dies, which are to be ground after hard- 
ening, and which are required to be very hard around the center 
or hole and the walls, they should be heated in large iron boxes 
as follows : Put a layer of fine powdered charcoal about 2 
inches deep in the bottom of the box and place the die on top of it. 



HARDENING AND TEMPERING PRESS TOOLS. 315 

Fill the die and cover it to a depth of about 3/J inch with a mix- 
ture of 4 parts powdered charcoal to i part of charred leather, 
then put a loose cover on the box and place in the furnace. After 
heating about 3 hours or more, according to the size of the die, 
the die will be at a red heat. It should then be allowed to remain 
at a low heat for about an hour, which will insure its heating 
uniformly throughout. The heat should then be increased until 
the die comes to a full red heat ; it is then ready to be quenched. 

Remove the box from the furnace, and with two pairs of tongs, 
and a man at opposite sides if the die is too large for one man 
to handle, draw the die from the box, clean, and quench squarely 
into the water, working up and down until the red has entirely 
disappeared, then let it lie still until cool. When cool remove the 
die from the water and heat, to remove the strain and chill of 
hardening, until drops of water sprinkled on it w r ill steam. Then 
lay it aside in an even temperature where it can cool off slowly. 

When large round ring dies are hardened in the manner de- 
scribed above there need be no fear that they will warp, crack or 
shrink excessively or unevenly. 

The Effects of Annealing in Hardening. 

Although it is not generally known, the successful hardening* 
of a piece of steel depends on the annealing of it previous to 
machining it, and in order to harden properly it is necessary that 
the correct processes of annealing should be understood. Al- 
ways anneal any odd-shaped piece, or one with an irregular hole 
in it after having roughed it down. The best way to anneal such 
pieces is to pack them in granulated charcoal in an iron box, being 
sure to have as much charcoal at the sides of the box as at the 
bottom in order that the heat shall not penetrate too quickly. 
The box should be kept at a red heat for about an hour. The 
proper heat for such pieces in annealing should always be higher 
than the heat required to harden the same piece, in fact we have 
found that a heat almost as high as a forging heat will be the 
means of overcoming any tension or strain which may manifest 
itself when the piece is hardened. 

Hardening Thin Disks. 

The best way to harden thin disks of large diameter is to do 
it between iron plates with well-oiled surfaces. In heating the 
disks, it should be done in such a manner as to keep the fire from 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

coming in contact with them. The best way to do this is to place 
a flat cast iron plate on the fire and heat it until it is a black 
heat, then place the disk upon it and heat the plate until the 
disk has reached the proper hardening heat. When the proper 
heat is reached remove the disk and place it upon the lower oiled 
plate and instantly place the top plate upon it and bear down hard 
on it until the disk has cooled. 

A Welding Kink. 

It is often necessary to construct dies from forgings of 
wrought iron and tool steel, and as the dies when finished are re- 
quired to be hardened it is necessary that there should be a good 
weld between the two parts. To accomplish these results when 
welding mix mild steel chips from which all of the oil has been 
removed --with borax, and there will be no difficulty in producing 
a clean weld and one which will not buckle or separate in hard- 
ening. 

Hardening Thick Round Dies. 

Often round dies, which are thick in proportion to their 
diameter, will contract excessively in the center during the hard- 
ening process ; often to such a degree as to make them unfit for 
use. To overcome this, have an arrangement by which a stream 
of water may be forced through the hole without wetting the out- 
side ; allowing the water to only come in contact with the inside 
of the die. By doing this the walls of the hole will be hard, 
while the outside will remain soft, and when the temper is drawn 
the hole will remain straight and true. In shops where grinding 
facilities are not at hand, this method will work excellently. If 
possible use strong brine for the hardening fluid. 

Hardening Springs. 

As very often springs form part of the construction of various 
kinds of dies, it is well to understand how to harden and temper 
them successfully. For small and medium-sized springs, use a 
solution composed of l / 2 sperm oil, ]/2 neat's foot oil with an 
ounce of resin, and the springs will come out of the bath tem- 
pered *as desired. For heavy springs, which have to exert a 
great deal of pressure, use hot water. Have the water boiling 
and plunge the springs, when at the proper heat, into it. By 
adopting this method no burning off will be necessary, as the 



HARDENING AND TEMPERING PRESS TOOLS. 

springs will be the proper temper. What is more, they will not. 
break or "crawl up" when in use. 

A Substitute /"or Borax in Welding. 

As high carbon steel is frequently used for forgings for dies,, 
and as in order to secure the best results it should be welded 
at the lowest possible heat, we give here a receipt of a welding 
compound to use as a substitute for borax. 

Pulverize and mix with about 3 pounds of good welding sand, 
2 ounces of prussiate of potash, 6 ounces of common salt, 2 
ounces of copperas, I ounce of black oxide of manganese and I 
ounce of saltpetre. 

Hardening Poor Steel 

Very often in making dies we run across a piece of steel which 
after working up will not respond satisfactorily to the usual 
hardening processes. When this is the case prepare a solution 
composed of two handfuls of common salt, one ounce of corrosive 
sublimate to about six quarts of water, and when the steel has 
reached a good red heat plunge it into the bath. The corrosive 
sublimate gives toughness to the steel and the salt hardness. This 
solution is deadly poison ; exercise care when using it. 

To Anneal Doubtful Steel. 

There are some kinds of steel which will not anneal, satis- 
factorily even when packed in an air-tight box in powdered char- 
coal. To anneal steel of this kind cover it with fire clay, ancL 
heat to a red heat and allow to cool over night in the furnace. 

Annealing in Bean Water. 

Down in New England where beans are appreciated they an- 
neal steel very satisfactorily by heating it to a cherry red and. 
when cooled to a black plunging it into a bath of water in which 
beans have been boiled. 

Bluing Bright Sheet Metal Blanks. 

To blue bright sheet metal blanks, or other small parts, heat 
a ladle full of core sand, put the blanks in and shake the ladle 
over the fire until the required color appears. Another way to 
blue such parts is to heat a mixture composed of 10 pounds 
of saltpetre, i pound of black oxide of manganese. Put the 
work in a wire basket and sink the basket into the center of 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

the mixture. Keep the basket revolving and remove when the 
proper color appears on the parts. 

Machining Mild Steel Forgings. 

When machining mild steel forgings, or any other material 
for which water can be used as a cutting lubricant, use instead 
of soap water strong sal soda water. It will work better than 
the other on either lathe or planer. 

Laying Out Dies. 

When laying out dies, first have a bright smooth surface and 
use blue vitriol and water for coloring. By using this solution 
the surface will be coppered nicely, and all .templet lines will show 
up fine. If the surface of the steel is oily add a little oil of vitriol 
to the mixture and the oil will be eaten away and a nicely cop- 
pered surface will result. 

Cutting Aluminum. 

For cutting, turning, drilling, blanking or drawing aluminum 
coat the sheets or parts with kerosene oil or coal oil. 

Softening Chilled Cast Iron Dies for Drilling. 

As drawing and forming dies are very often made of chilled 
cast iron, and as sometimes holes are required to be drilled in 
them, it is well to know how to soften it to allow of drilling the 
holes. To do this heat the die to a. cherry red and let it lie on 
the coals. Then place a piece of brimstone, circular in shape and 
a little less in diameter than the hole to be drilled, on the spot 
where the hole is to be. Let the die lie in the fire until it has 
died out and the metal has cooled, and the brimstone will have 
softened the iron entirely through within the radius of its diam- 
eter when solid. 

Hints and Suggestions as to the Proper Method of Using Files. 

As nothing contributes more to success in die-making than a 
well-defined understanding of the proper use of files we have 
embodied in the following a number of hints and suggestions 
which will be found valuable and prove practical guides in the 
art of filing. We are indebted for the data, etc., to the Nicholson 
File Co., of Providence, R. I., and herein acknowledge our thanks 
for the same. 



THE USE OF FILES. 



319 



Very few mechanical operations are more difficult than that 
of filing well. Unlike the tool fixed in the iron planer, whose 
movement is guided by unyielding ways, the file must be guided 
"by the hand, and the accuracy with which this is done, will de- 
pend largely upon the patience and perseverance given in prac- 








12-in. Rasp Coarse. 



12-in. Double Cut Coarse. 



12-in. Single Cut Coarse. 






12-in. Rasp Bastard. 



12-in. Double Cut Bastard. 12-in. Single Cut Bastard. 



ii 





. Rasp 2d'Cut. 



12-in. Double Cut 2d Cut. 12-in. Single Cut 2d Cut. 







12-iu. Rasp Smooth. 





12-in. Double Cut Smooth. 
FIG. 406. 



12-in. Single Cut Smooth. 



tice ; the "guiding principle," involved in many other tools and 
operations, being wanting in most applications of the file. While 
a perfect file is necessary to secure the best results in filing, knowU 
edge as to the selection of the proper file for the work in hand, 
and skillfulness and practice in handling it, are equally essential. 



320 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

A severe test in filing would consist in producing a true, flat 
surface upon narrow work, or say that whose width does not 
exceed one-eighth the length or stroke of the file. To the uniniti- 
ated, this would seem to require that the file should have a per- 
fectly true and straight surface, but were it practicable to make 
the file absolutely straight lines acro'ss the work, even were this 
operation possible, the pressure, if applied to each end of the file, 
as is the usual custom, would give it sufficient spring to cause a 
rounding to the surface of the work. 

Therefore, to produce a flat surface, under this severe test, 
or even under more favorable circumstances, the file should have 
a convexity given to its surface. 

Convexity in Files. 

Undoubtedly few, even of the old filers, have given the sub- 
ject of convexity as it bears upon broad surface filing, the 
thought it is entitled to. It is known to many mechanics that a 
file which will bite and cling, with the accustomed downward 
pressure, upon wrought iron, or soft steel, will require a greater 
pressure to prevent it from glazing or slipping over the work, 
when applied to broad cast iron surfaces. This is owing to their 
glassy nature, and their extremely granular formation, requiring 
that the teeth should enter the surface deeper than in the more 
fibrous metals, or they will soon glaze over, and become dulled 
or shiny, thus giving to the file the appearance of being soft, while 
the contrary may be the fact. 

Considerable convexity is, therefore, needed in such cases; 
for, while it gives greater control of the file from the point to 
heel, it also presents fewer cutting points to the work, with a 
given pressure downward, than in the less convex file the bite 
being increased in proportion to the increase of the convexity ; 
the ability, therefore, to increase it more or less, at the wi41 of the 
operator, is of considerable importance. 

In finishing many kinds of work, the absence of a suitable 
convexity limits the usefulness of the file as in the preparation 
of the valves of steam engines, tables of printing presses, stereo- 
type plates or other work requiring a true surface and in the 
finishing of accurate blanking and drawing dies. 

While an absolutely true surface is confessedly unattainable, 
it is evident that, as in the above cases, a degree of perfection is 
sometimes desirable beyond what the necessities of other work 



THE USE OF FILES. 321 

may require ; and to be able to touch the exact spot indicated by 
the straight edge or surface plate with the file, is to utilize it in 
a manner which could not be done if the convexity did not exist. 

Files Properly Handled. 

Before using the file, it should first of all be properly handled ; 
not, as is too often the case, by driving the handle half way down 
upon the tang, and thereby doubling the chances of breaking it, 
but by forcing it well up to the shoulder. Some of the file handles 
found on the market will not stand this amount of driving, with- 
out splitting; in such cases, the tang of an old or worn-out file, 
of similar dimensions, should be heated, taking care, of course, 
not to draw the temper, and the hole in the handle burned out to 
nearly the desired size and shape, before driving it upon the tang. 
It not infrequently happens that the tang hole is not drilled cent- 
ral, or is badly out of line; this may also be corrected by using a 
heated tang. 

Of the many file handles of special construction hitherto de- 
vised, there are none which have, as yet, combined that simplicity, 
utility and economy necessary to take the place of the ordinary 
wooden handle; nor do we think it possible to improve upon a 
wooden handle that is conveniently formed and properly ferruled 
for most applications of the file,, provided it be firmly affixed, 
and carefully used. 

Devices for Holding Files. 

The file, when used in ordinary manner, considerably exceeds 
the length of the work ; but when such is not the case, as in filing 
large table surfaces, and shaping out recesses of considerable 
length, or when, from causes, the ordinary handle will not answer, 
it then becomes necessary to grasp the file by holders of special 
construction. These special devices (many x of which are quite 
rude) are numerous, and vary to suit the particular shape of the 
file and the work to be performed. 

Short pieces of files, of special construction, are sometimes 
clamped to the slide rest, -to be used upon work revolving in the 
engine lathe, and are soldered or screwed to bent handles when 
required to be used in finishing in and around the bottoms of 
shallow cavities. 

The necessity, however, of this last and troublesome method of 
holding the file may be avoided, by the use of the stub file 



322 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



holder, Fig. 407. Woodworkers not infrequently clamp one 
or more files to pieces of board, or fasten them by means of 
staples and wire pins, or by cutting in, in such a manner as 
Avill enable them to smooth out grooves, or true up the edges of 
their work, using the board or holder as a gage. 

: Bent rifflers are oftentimes required in reaching certain 
irregular shaped cavities in drop dies and irregular shaped draw- 
ing and forming dies. 

In filing large surfaces, the tang is frequently bent upward, 
as in Fig. 409, to admit of the hands clearing the work, when 




FIG. 407. STUB FILE HOLDER 





FIG. 408. BENT RIFFLER. 



FIG. 409. 



SURFACE PILE HOLOER 



FIG. 410. 



FIG. 411. 



the file passes over the surface ; sometimes a crank-shaped holder 
is employed, having one end fitted to the tang of the file, while 
the other is fitted to receive the handle, as in Fig. 410. These 
devices, which facilitate somewhat the handling of the file, do 
not give that perfect control which enables the operator to manip- 
ulate it at will, nor do they aid in governing its convexity. 

The improved surface file holder, illustrated in Fig. 411, was 
designed especially to meet these points, thus enabling the skillful 
operator to do much of the work with the file which has hitherto 
teen done with the scraper. 

To have the file truly and firmly handled or properly affixed to 
a suitable holder is the first step in point of economy, as well as 
in the production of good work. 



THE P'SE OF FILES. 323 

Height of Work. 

Various ideas very naturally exist am6ng mechanics, as to 
the height at which the jaws of the vise should be set from the 
floor, for use in filing ; arising largely, no doubt, from the varied 
nature of the work upon which the advocates of the different 
ideas have been accustomed to operate. 

For filing general work, the top of the vise jaws should be 
placed so as to be level with the elbow of the workman, which 
will be found to range from 40 to 44 inches from the floor 
therefore 42 inches may be considered as an average height, 
best suited for all heights of workmen, when the vise is to be 
permanently fixed. This position enables the workman to get 
the full, free swing of his arms from the shoulder ; the separate 
movement of the wrist and elbow shoulcl be done away with, as 
much as possible. 

If the work to be filed is small and delicate, requiring simply 
a. movement of the arms, or of one hand and arm alone, the vise, 
should be higher, not only in order that the workman may more 
closely scrutinize the work, but that he may be able to stand more 
erect. 

If the- work to be filed is heavy and massive, such as large 
cutting dies, requiring great muscular effort, its surface should 
be below the elbow point, as the operator stands farther from his 
work, with his feet separated from 10 to 30 inches, one in ad- 
vance of the other, and his knees somewhat bent, thus lowering 
his stature ; besides, in this class of work, it is desirable to throw 
the weight of the body upon the file, to make it penetrate, and 
thus, with a comparative fixedness of the arms, depend largely 
upon the momentum of the body to shove the file. 

It will therefore be seen, that in fixing the height of the vise, 
the nature of the work and the stature of the operator should be 
considered, if it is deemed necessary to apply the principle cor- 
rectly. 

Grasping the File. 

In using the large files, intended to be operated by both hands, 
the handle should be grasped in such a manner that its end will 
fit into, and bring up against, the fleshy part of the palm, below 
the point of the little finger, with the thumb lying along the top 
of the handle, in the direction of its length ; the ends of the 



3^4 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

fingers pointing upward, or nearly in the direction of the oper- 
ator's face. 

The point of the file should be grasped by the thumb and first 
two fingers, the hand being so held as will bring the thumb, as its 
ball presses upon the top of the file, in a line with the handle, 
when heavy strokes are required. When a light stroke is wanted, 
and the pressure demanded becomes less, the thumb and fingers 
may change their direction, until the thumb lies at a right angle, 
or nearly so, with the length of the file, the positions changing 
more or less, as may be needed to increase the downward pres- 
sure. 

In holding the file with one hand, as is often necessary in fil- 
ing light work, pins, etc., the handle should be grasped as already 
described, with the exception that the hand should be turned a 
quarter turn, bringing the forefinger on top, and lying along the 
handle nearly in the direction of its length. In this position, 
the freest action of the hand and wrist may be made upon light 
work. 

Amateurs will find by following these directions, the move- 
ments of the file will be simplified, and made somewhat easier 
than if grasped at random and without consideration. 

Carrying the File. 

The most natural movement of the hands and arms in falling 
is to carry the file in circular lines, the several points of the limbs 
being the center of motions ; this movement with a convex file 
would apparently give a concavity to the work, but the real tend- 
ency, especially on narrow work, is the reverse, owing to the 
work acting as a fulcrum, over which the file moves with giore or 
less of a rocking motion, giving an actual convexity to its sur- 
face, except when in the hands of a skillful operator. The real 
aim, therefore, should be to cause the file to depart only so much 
from a true right line as will be necessary to feel that each inch 
of its stroke is brought into exact contact with the desired por- 
tion of the work ; and by thus changing the course of the stroke 
slightly, thereby preventing "grooving," a more even surface 
results and the work is completed sooner. 

The movements here referred to have reference to those in 
which both hands are used upon flat work, requiring nicety and 
trueness of finish, and the difficulties to be overcome in producing 



THE USE OF FILES. 325 

even a comparatively true flat surface with a file require much 
practice on the part of the operator. 

In filing ovals and irregular forms, the movements, while not 
considered so difficult or trying, nevertheless require considerable 
experience and a good eye, to so blend the strokes of the file upon 
the round or curved surfaces as to give the best effect ; the varied 
nature of the work upon this class of surfaces, though much 
might be said, prevents any detailed definition as to the move- 
ments of the file, within the limit of this article. 

In point of economy, the pressure on the file should be re- 
lieved during the back stroke ; this will be apparent to any one 
who will examine the formation of the points of the teeth (see 
illustration, Fig. 406), when it will be seen that the file can only 
cut during the ordinary or advancing stroke, and that equal pres- 
sure during the back stroke must be very damaging to the points 
of the teeth. 

Draw-Filing. 

Files are sometimes used by grasping at each end, and moving 
them sidewise across the work, after the manner of using the 
spoke-shave. This operation is known as draw-filing, and is 
Usually performed in laying the strokes of turned work, length- 
wise, instead of circular, as left from the lathe finish, as well as 
when giving a final fit to the shaft that is to receive a coupling; 
cases, generally, in which no considerable amount of stock is 
to be removed, and thus any defection from the principle of con- 
struction or arrangement of the teeth of the file are not so readily 
apparent. 

Files, as they are ordinarily made, are intended to cut when 
used with a forward stroke, and the same file cannot work 
smoothly, or to the best advantage", when moved sidewise, unless 
care is taken that the face of the teeth present themselves, during 
the forward movement of the file, at a sufficient angle to cut, in- 
stead of scratching the work. To accomplish this the angle at 
which the file is held with respect to the line of .its movement, 
must vary, with different files, depending upon the angle at which 
the last or up cut is made. The pressure should also be relieved 
during the back stroke, as in ordinary filing. 

When properly used, work may be finished somewhat finer 
and the scratches more closely congregated than in the ordinary 
use of the same file ; as, in draw-filing, the teeth produce a shear- 
ing or shaving cut. 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

First Use of a File. 

In economizing the wear of the files intended for general pur- 
poses, consideration should be given to the kind of material which 
they, may be subjected to, in the different stages of their use. 

In the ordinary use of the machine shop, the first wear of 
these files should be in finishing the larger surfaces of cast iron, 
bronze, or brass metals, all of which require a keen cutting tooth; 
they may then be made to do good execution upon the narrower 
surfaces of these metals, also upon wrought iron and soft steel ; 
as a file that has been used more or less upon this kind of work 
will not tear the surface of these metals and will consequently do 
more effective work. To obtain the best results, the file suited 
for general purposes is not so well adapted to riling brass or other 
similar soft metals as those whose teeth are arranged for this 
purpose. 

New files, particularly double cuts, are severely worn down 
by use upon narrow surfaces, as the strain comes wholly upon a 
few teeth and frequently breaks them. 

Preparing Work. 

The corners or thin edges of iron castings are very likely to 
become chilled, and a thin scale or skin produced over the entire 
surface of the casting, caused by the hot metal coming in contact 
with the moist sand of the foundry molds ; this outer skin is us- 
ually much harder than the metal beneath it, and many times the 
thin edges or corners are chilled so as to be harder even than the 
file itself. 

The necessity, therefore, of removing this scale and chilled 
surface becomes readily apparent, and all mechanics who give any 
consideration to the proper and economical use of the file will be 
careful to see that the scale and sand are first removed by pickling, 
and the surfaces which have become chilled by grinding, before 
applying the file. 

If it is impossible or impracticable to remove the scale by 
pickling, a file that has been used until it is too dull for narrow 
steel work may be employed ; the teeth will then not be broken by 
the hard scale. 

' Pickling the Work. 

The pickle for gray iron castings is generally made by mixing 
sulphuric acid and water, in the proportion of two or more parts 



THE USE OF FILES. 

of water to one of acid, and is usually kept for this purpose in a 
trough lined with lead. 

The articles to be pickled are sometimes immersed in this bath, 
where they remain for a short time; they are then removed and 
the acid is allowed to act upon their surfaces until the scale has. 
loosened, when they are washed off with water. More often, how- 
ever, the pickle is dipped from the trough and poured over the 
castings, which are placed on a sloping platform (thus allowing" 
the acid to return to the trough), where, after remaining for 3- 
sufficient time, they are washed. When dry, the castings are 
either rattled, or scraped and cleaned with old files and wire 
scratch-brushes, until the surface is freed from scale and sand. 

To pickle brass, or gun-metal castings, a mixture of nitric 
acid and water may be used, in the proportion of, say, one part 
acid to five of water ; the treatment being the same as that of the 
iron castings. While not in general use upon the coarser kinds 
of brass work, the pickle is desirable for smaller castings, or those 
requiring to be protected with lacquer. 

When Oil Should Not be Used. 

All files, when they leave the manufactory, are covered with 
oil to prevent them from rusting. While this is not objectionable 
for many uses to which the file is put, there are cases where the 
oil should be thoroughly removed, as when the file is to be used 
in finishing the. .large cast iron surfaces which are of a glassy 
nature ; the principal difficulty being to make the file "bite," or 
keep sufficiently under the surface to prevent glazing ; otherwise 
the action not only hardens or burnishes the surface operated 
upon, but dulls the extreme points of the teeth, thus working" 
against the desired end in both directions. 

When Oil May be Used. 

Oil may, however, be used to good advantage on new files, 
which are put immediately to work upon narrow fibrous metals of 
a harder nature ; in such cases it is not uncommon, with good 
workmen, to fill the teeth with oil and chalk. 

Oil is also useful on fine files, in the finishing of wrought 
iron or steel, as by its use the teeth will not penetrate to the same 
degree, and the disposition to "pin" and scratch the work is ma- 
terially less than when used dry. 



328 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

Cleaning the File. 

The dust and small particles removed from the material oper- 
ated upon are always more or less liable to clog and fill the teeth. 
This tendency is especially aggravated when the file is used upon 
wood, horn and such other materials, as upon being mixed with 
the oil in the teeth, become baked, when dry, and thus prevent the 
teeth from penetrating the work, to say nothing of the appear- 
ance of being worn, or the tendency to injury from rust. 

It therefore becomes necessary that the file should be cleaned 
not only at intervals during its use but carefully before being 
laid aside, if the best results are to be attained. 

This cleaning is done in several ways ; sometimes, in the finer 
files, by rubbing the hand over them, or by drawing them across 
the apron of the workman (which is a more common method 
upon the large files) ; by the use of a strip of old or worn-out 
card clothing, tacked to a piece of wood, having a handle-shape 
at one end a device which is usually rudely constructed by the 
operator. 

The file card and file brush, illustrated in Figs. 412 and 413, 




FIG. 412. FIG. 413. 

will be found excellent tools, and master mechanics should see 
that every person in their employ using a file is furnished with 
one or the other of them, and insist that they be used, if he 
deems it desirable to economize in the wear of his files. 

In removing oil from the teeth of a new file, a ready way is to 
rub chalk or charcoal across the teeth, and brush thoroughly. By 
repeating the operation a few times, the oil will be entirely ab- 
sorbed, and the file will be in the best possible condition for use 
upon cast iron. 

When the teeth of files are clogged with wood, or other soft 
substance, which has become baked into them, if held in boiling 
hot water for a few moments, the imbedded substance becomes 
so loosened, that it may be easily carded out of the teeth. If the 
operation is quickly performed, any .moisture remaining will be 
readily evaporated by the heat retained in the file. 



THE USE OF FILES. 329 

Care in Putting Away. 

One of the most destructive customs among a large number 
of mechanics of the present day is that of loosely throwing their 
files, fine and coarse, small and large, into a drawer filled with 
cold chisels, hammers and other tools. 

Now when we consider the small portion of -the points of the 
teeth which is worn off by extreme wear, and that to effectually 
dull them for some kinds of work requires but slight rubbing 
upon a hard substance, it will be easily seen that the evils of this 
habit should be more carefully considered by the master mechanic, 
and suitable provision made to avoid its destructive tendencies. 



CHAPTER XII. 

MISCELLANEOUS DIES, FIXTURES, PRESSES, DEVICES AND SPECIAL 
/' ARRANGEMENTS FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 

Artistic Die-Making. 

As a rule it is popularly supposed that the finer classes of die 
work can be turned out only in shops equipped with the latest 
improved tools, and if one were to make the assertion that many 
of the shops in which the finest of such work is done possess only 
such tools and machines as are to be found in anv little country 
jobbing shop, he would be laughed at. Now, while an equip- 
ment of up-to-date machine tools is always to be desired in any 




FIG.' 414. SAMPLES OF ARTISTIC. DIR WORK. 

line of mechanical work, in order that less shall depend on the 
skill of the workman and more on the machines, it is a fact that 
a skillful workman can often accomplish the most astonishing 
results with tools that are far from being what they should be. 

'In Fig. 414 are shown a number of samples of work which are 
remarkable principally from an artistic standpoint and for the 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 33! 

principles of construction adopted in the tools used to produce 
them. The dies and fixtures used to produce these pieces were 
made in a little shop in Brooklyn, New York, the machine tool 
equipment of which consisted of : One medium sized lathe, a 
speed lathe, a shaper, two drill presses, large and small ; an emery 
wheel, a forge and an old German screw press. There were six 
men employed in this shop, one being an engraver and the others 
die and tool-makers. The class of work turned out in this shop 
would bear favorable comparison with that turned out in any 
other shop in the country, and what is more they turned it out at 
a good profit for the "boss." This little shop has been in exist- 




FIG. 415. 



ence for a number of years, and we hope that it will continue to 
do good work for a number of years to come, for we dearly love 
the "little shop." 

The flower design shown in Fig. 414 was produced in three 
operations ; embossing or striking up the design, piercing or 
punching out the sections marked A, ten in all, and trimming 
and punching out the finished piece. The embossing die is not 
shown, as its construction will be understood from the other 
cuts. Fig. 416 is a plan of the piercing die. The punch for this 
die consists of the regular cast-iron holder and machine-steel pad 
in which the ten piercing punches are located, after which solder 
(hard) is run around them at the face of the pad. These punches. 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



are left soft and when dull are upset and sheared into the die so 
as to punch clean again. Fig. 415 is a plan of the blanking and 
trimming punch for the finishing operation. It is fastened to 
the holder by two flat head screws let through from the back, 
after which solder is run around the face, as shown by the ir- 
regular line around the punch. This punch is also left soft. Any 
die-maker who has made many dies in which gangs of piercing 
punches had to be located will appreciate the skill required to 



Gage Plate 



Die Plate 




Stripper Screw Holes 



FIG. 416. 

locate ten irregular shaped punches, as in Fig. 416, so as to have 
them in perfect alinement with the dies. 

Fig. 417 is a plan of a gang die used to produce the sword 
shown in Fig. 414 in one operation. The work to be done con- 
sists of embossing or striking up the design at K, then moving 
the metal one space and piercing the two small holes D D, 
Fig. 414, at the dies M M, and lastly blanking out the finished 
piece at the blanking die N. The construction of this die is 
shown plainly in the engravings, and very little description is 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 33J 

necessary. The embossing die and the blanking die are two 
pieces of tool steel with one end of each finished to the angle on 
which the dies are laid out. The two pieces of steel are fitted 
to the bolster in a seat between F F, and are located with their 



OH 




/'OH ' 



10 



C 



FIG. 417. 

inner ends tightly together by strong taper pins at L and P. The 
piercing dies are two tool steel bushings, hardened, lapped and 
ground to size, and forced into holes in the inner faces of the 
blanking and embossing dies. 

The punch used with this die is shown in Fig. 418. The 




FIG. 419. SECTION OF EMBOSSED 
BORDER. 



blanking and piercing punches are fastened and located in a pad, 
while the embossing punch is located on, and fastened direct to, 
the face of the holder by screws and solder, not shown. The 
piercing punches are, because of their small diameter, No. 60 



334 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



drill, forced into supplementary holders R, and are allowed to 
project beyond the face sufficiently to allow of their passing 
through the stripper and stock and entering the die. The blank- 
ing punch is made longer than the others, so as to pass through 
the stock and enter the die before the other punches touch the 
stock, thus preventing an unequal drawing of the metal by the 
action of the embossing punch, and also insuring the proper 
locating of the "follow" operations on the work, as it is fed along 
the die-face. 

In Fig. 419 we show a section of an embossed border which 
was produced in strips 36 inches long by the gang die shown in 
Fig. 420. 

The strips of metal are fed from left to right and are first 
acted upon by the embossing punch and die and are then fed for- 




FIG. 420. PLAN OF DIE. 

ward and trimmed. The stripper is located on the trimming 
punch and is of the usual spring type. The embossing die and 
the trimming die are located in dovetailed channels in the bolster 
by taper pins at X and W. The points T T, in Fig. 419, are the 
gage points for locating the work in the proper position on the 
trimming die, the stock being fed forward until the point strikes 
the stop-pin. 

To finish these embossed strips so that four of them will form 
a picture frame when soldered together, two bending operations 
are necessary. The results, after the operations, are shown at 
the right end of Fig. 419, while the dies used to accomplish the 
results are shown in Figs. 421 and 422. 

The punch and die for the first bending operation are shown 
in Fig. 421, giving an end view and a front view of both sections. 
The punch and die for the second bending operation are shown 
in Fig. 422. The manner in which the work is accomplished may 
be understood from the end view of both sets of tools, in which 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES,, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 335 

the work is shown by heavy dark lines as located upon the dies 
in position for bending. These dies were 37 inches long, and 
\vhen it is" considered that they were machined and finished in an 




FIG. 421. PUNCH AND DIE FOR FIRST BENDING OPERATION. 

1 8 inch stroke shaper, it will be conceded that considerable skill 
was involved in the accomplishing of the desired results. All 
working parts of these dies, except the spring and fastening por- 
tions, and the holders, were of tool-steel and were left soft, as the 




FIG. 422. SECOND BENDING OPERATION. 

shop did not possess the necessary facilities to allow of their being 
hardened. 

The animal design shown in Fig. 414 was produced in one 
operation by means of a die similar to Fig. 417, the work done 
comprising embossing, piercing two holes at B B and blanking 



336 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

out the finished piece. The beetle, shown in Fig. 414, was also 
produced in a die of this construction, there being two holes 
pierced at E E, the stock used being thin sheet copper, while for 
the dog, brass was used. 

The maple leaf design was produced in one operation by an 
embossing and trimming die. 

The piece shown at the bottom of Fig. 414 is the best of the 
lot, and required but two operations to produce. In the first 
operation, the metal was embossed and the piece was blanked out, 
while in the second the portions marked by the dots were pierced. 
The making of the piercing dies for this piece was a job worthy 
the skill of any die-maker, as the piece had to be produced clean 
and free from burrs, fins and irregular margins. In the piercing 
twenty punches were used. They were all let into and fastened 
in a machine steel pad, and solder run about the face of the pad. 

When it is considered that the people who go to this little 
jobbing shop, where the above dies were made, to have tools 
made, do so because they can get them cheaper and as good as if 
they went to some of the larger shops, and when the tool equip- 
ment of the shop and the classes of work produced in it are also 
considered, the skill of the men and the mechanical and business 
ability af the "boss" may be imagined. 

Dies for Punching Leather Shoe Tips. 

For the production of shoes and various other articles of 
leather, the parts of which are required to be pierced in fancy 
designs, the work of the tool-maker plays an important part, as 
the variety and number of tools used is very large, and, as they 
are kept in quite constant use, even their renewal gives employ- 
ment to a large number of. mechanics. In the following we will 
describe the means employed for the production of elaborate de- 
signs, which are accomplished by punching. 

In Fig. 423 are shown samples of work, full size, produced 
in this manner, and in Fig. 424 the type of die used. The 
construction of the dies for their production entails a lot of ac- 
curate work, both in the laying out of the shapes and designs and 
in the finishing of the tools. 

The principles of construction involved in these dies differ 
somewhat from those usually carried out in the making of dies 
for sheet-metal working, as the conditions under which the tools 
are worked and the material pierced are different. In Fig. 424 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 337 

is shown a die complete, and in Fig. 425 are the essential parts of 
the same the die plate, the stop and the stripper. The die is 
made to pierce eighty-eight holes of comparatively small diam- 
eters. This number is small compared with some designs. The 




FIG. 423. SAMPLES OF LEATHER TIPS. 

crown shown in Fig. 423 requires 137 holes, and others even 
more. 

For the die plate Fig. 425 a piece of annealed tool steel is- 
finished all over and left about 5-16 inch thick. The stripper 







FIG. 424. PERFORATING DIE FOR LEATHER TIPS. 

plate is then got out and finished to a thickness of about 5-32? 
inch. This stripper plate is clamped to the face of the die plate 
and holes are drilled for the two dowel-pins, as shown at D D in 
the die plate and at K K in the stripper. Three more holes are 



338 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



then drilled for the fastening screws, as shown at F F F in the 
die and at J J J in the stripper. The two dowel-pin holes are 
carefully reamed, and the stripper is removed from the die. The 
three screw holes are tapped in the die and enlarged in the 
stripper for clearance, and the two dowel-pins are forced into the 
holes D D in the die. 

We now take a piece of hard sheet brass and, after getting 







6 
























FIG. 425. PARTS OF DIE. 

it perfectly straight, the design is laid out upon it, the holes are 
spaced, prick-punched and drilled to size. In the making of the 
templet care must be taken to get it accurate and the holes evenly 
spaced for the design to present a symmetrical and artistic ap- 
pearance. Note the fancy design of the templet shown in Fig. 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 339 

426. The templet being finished, we fasten the stripper plate 
.and the die together by screws and dowels, and soft solder the 
templet to the stripper, so that the design will be in the position 
shown in Fig. 425, transfer the holes through it to the stripper 
plate, and drill entirely through it and the die, being sure to keep 
the drill sharp and using lard oil freely. After the holes have 
been drilled, the templet is removed and the holes in the stripper 
are slightly countersunk at the top, while those in the die are 
reamed to a very slight clearance from the back. The two holes 
CC are now drilled and countersunk for fastening the die plate 
to the press bolster. 

We now take another piece of steel and finish it to the same 



o 
o 
o 



o o o 

53 oOO 53 

_ ooo n ^ 

o o ooo o o 

o o o o o 

o o 

o o ooo o o 

o 



o 
o 
o 



65 -rV 

o O 



55 



55 



FIG. 426. A TEMPLET. 



size and shape as the die plate for the punch plate, and after lo- 
cating it true on the die we clamp it there and drill two holes at 
E E through both, and ream them to 5-16 inch. These holes are 
for the punch and die alining dowels. The two dowels are made 
to the length shown and the ends are rounded. The pins are 
then driven into the holes E E in the die, and the two correspond- 
ing holes in the punch plate are reamed so that the plate will 
slide up and down on them without play. The punch plate is 
now located on the face of the die by means of the dowels, a pair 
of thin parallel strips are placed between them, and the holes are 
transferred through the die to the punch plate and drilled through. 
The punch plate is then removed from the die and the holes are 



34 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

countersunk at the back, a hole is also drilled and tapped at each 
end to fasten it to the press plunger. 

The punches are made from drill rod of the correct size, are 
forced into the punch plate, as shown in Fig. 425, and are upset 
at the back, first entering all the smaller punches and grinding 
them on the ends, getting them sharp and even with each other, 
by entering them into the die and allowing them to project 
through slightly, and grinding them all while thus supported. 
The larger punches are then fastened into the punch pad and 
ground in the same manner, leaving them about 3-32 longer 
than the others, as shown. The stop-plate, Fig. 425, is got out 
and finished to allow of adjustment, all the parts are assembled 
as shown in Fig. 424, and the die is complete. 

In use the punch plate is fastened to the press plunger by a 
screw at each end, and the die-locating dowels E E are entered 
into their holes in the punch plate. The ram of the press is then 
brought down until all the punches have entered the dies, and the 
die plate is securely fastened to the press bolster. The con- 
struction of the dies in the manner here described insures perfect 
alinement of all the punches with the dies, and the dowels E E 
secure the setting of the tools in the press. For this work neither 
punches nor dies are hardened. 

A Cheap Grinder for Round Dies. 

As there are a large number of shops where a lathe center 
grinder is unknown, and where they worry along and try to do 
good work with soft centers, or at the best, one hard center and 
the other soft, I think the small tool post grinder shown in Figs. 
427-428 will if adopted, prove the means for overcoming these 
obstacles that prevent the production of first-class work. We 
have often, when in various shops, had our attention called to the 
condition of the lathe centers. Really, it was terrible ; here one 
with the point burred up, and there another running out fear- 
fully. Then again, the slipshod manner in which they were re- 
paired, first turned down to gage with a wide-nose tool, and 
then filed to a finish, after which they were hardened and drawn. 
And they were then expected to run true ! The day is past when 
this sort of work would do. All centers should be turned, hard- 
ened and drawn, and then ground true while in the lathe. This 
is the only correct way to finish lathe centers. 

The grinder shown in Figs. 427 and 428 respectively is about 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. "34! 




FTG. 427. 




FIG. 428. 



342 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

as cheap and compact a tool as could be devised for the purpose 
mentioned, and can be used to advantage for other work as well 
as center grinding. In fact one of the best uses to which it can 
be put is the grinding and finishing of round dies and punches. 
Whenever dies of the combination blanking and drawing type 
are constructed, this grinder will answer the purpose as well as, 
if not better than, a more expensive one, as it can be easily 
handled, requires very little adjustment, and can be laid away on 
a shelf or in a drawer when not in use. The engravings show 
clearly its construction and no further description is necessary. 
A wooden drum, which is fastened opposite the" countershaft of 
the lathe, drives the grinder by means of the round belt shown 
in Fig. 428, the wheel, of course, revolving in an opposite di- 
rection from the work. When grinding a blanking die that tapers 
slightly (that is larger at the back than at the cutting edge) the 
grinder is set off to the proper angle, and the carriage of the lathe 
is moved up until the wheel of the grinder is near the face of the 
die. Then, while the die is revolving slowly, and the wheel fast, 
the handle, F, Fig. 427, is grasped and pulled in and out slowly, 
feeding the wheel to the die by the cross slide, until it has been 
ground to the size required. 

A Compressed Air Drop Hammer for Making Sheet Metal 

Caskets. 

What is certainly one of the largest drop presses ever built 
for working sheet metal is here illustrated in Fig. 429, in its 
principal features. This hammer was built by the Perkins Ma- 
chine Co., of Boston, Mass., and was designed for the special 
purpose of making sheet metal caskets, the different parts of 
which, ready to be assembled, are shown in Fig. 430, after being 
struck up from the plain sheet. A casket complete is shown in 

Fig. 43 1- 

This drop hammer will handle a blank 30 inches wide by 7 I /> 
feet long of No. 22 gage sheet steel. The distance between the 
guides is 8 feet, the stroke of the hammer being 5 feet. The 
height of the press over all is 17 feet, and it occupies a floor space 
of 4 x 12 feet. The largest cover it will make will measure 6 
feet 7 inches by 24 inches, the form of the cover being shown 
in Fig. 430. The piston and hammer weigh 3 tons, while the 
cast iron anvil weighs 12 tons. The dies used for producing the 
casket parts are composed of cast iron bodies faced with steel. 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 343 




FIG. 429. COMPRESSED AIR DROP HAMMER, WEIGHT 64,000 POUNDS, 
USED FOR MAKING SHEET STEEL CASKETS. 



344 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



The piston rod may be said to be attached to the hammer in 
two ways : First it is keyed into the block, then a short length, 
just above the block, is reduced in diameter to receive a collar 
which is bolted to the top of the hammer, as shown in the illus- 







W P* 
M O 



Sg 



< H 
^ S 



w ^ 

EE 



tration. This double protection was deemed necessary owing- to 
the fact that should the piston rod break while the air pressure 
was on the result might be disastrous as far as the cylinder head 
was concerned. 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 345 



In using the hammer it was found that a stroke of 3 feet was 
amply sufficient to upset the metal, although long enough to 
allow a drop of 48 inches. Some idea of the distortion which 
takes place may be conceived from the fact that the cup formed 
has a depth of 4^/2 inches, the contour being plainly indicated in 
the half-tones, Figs. 430 and 431. 

The machine is made so as to allow of the operator handling 
it with perfect ease, allowing the hammer to drop every tw r o 
minutes, thereby producing 30 complete covers for metal caskets 
every two hours. 

A Special Blanking and Piercing Die. 
The punch and die shown in Figs. 432 to 436 was designed 




M N M 

FIG. 432. PUNCH. 




c-cb 




D-D 



FIG. 433. PUNCH. 



FIG. 434. DIE. 



and used to produce pierced blanks of the shape shown in Fig. 
437, which were required to interchange perfectly. As the 
making of this punch and die involves some new principles and 



346 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



illustrates an improved method for producing work of great 
accuracy, a description is here presented. 

After a templet of sheet steel was made and finished, as 
shown in Fig. 437, we were ready for the die, which is shown 



A-A. 




D-D 



^:%c-cU /-,-;\c-c 

m @T-V@) 




FIG. 435. PI^AN OF DIE. 

in different views in Figs. 432-433. The die blank, after being" 
fitted to the bolster, was ground on the face and then drawn to 
a dark blue. The templet was clamped to the face of the die and 




c-c 



FIG. 436. CROSS-SECTION OF DIE. 

an outline of it transferred to it with a sharp scriber. The 
corners of the outline were drilled and reamed to the radius re- 
quired with a straight reamer, as were also the ends of the wings.. 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 347 

The stock between these points was then worked away and the 
templet carefully worked through the die from the back, finishing 
all parts of the die perfectly straight (no clearance being allowed) 
so that the templet would fit perfectly at the cutting edge, and 
all the way down through the die. The inside of the die was 
then finished and polished as smooth as possible, after which the 
holes for the four stripping pins D and the gage pin A were 
drilled. The die was then hardened, heating it to an even cherry 
red, and when quenching it dipping perfectly straight, thereby 
avoiding as far as possible the tendency of the steel to crack or 
warp excessively. The die was immediately warmed to take the 
chill out, after which the face was ground and drawn to a straw 
temper. 

The punch is shown at L in Figs. 432 and 433. A piece of 
well-annealed tool steel, after being roughed out and finished in 
a dovetail at the back, was tinned on the face and the templet- 
sweated on. The punch was then 
worked out, first in the shaper and /- 

then with the file, down to the edges 
of the templet, leaving a margin of 
about .003 of an inch at all points. 
Then, by using the templet on the 
face of the punch as a leader, the I , E 

punch was gradually sheared into (pc cOj 

and through the die, in the press, I A O p A/ 

removing the punch several times 

during the process and filing away ! ' """ 

the surplus stock curled up by the FIG - 437- TH 3 BLANK. 
shearing. The punch was then fin- 
ished and polished until it fitted nicely within the die. The holes 
for the piercing dies (M) were transferred through the tem- 
plet to the face of the punch by using center drills, which 
fitted exactly the holes in the templet. The holes were then 
drilled through the punch and reamed from the back to the 
required diameter, allowing them to taper slightly. The oblong" 
piercing dies O shown in Fig. 433 were drilled and worked out 
to the edges of the holes in the templet, allowing them to taper 
the same amount as the round piercing dies, The templet was 
then removed from the face of the punch, which was then ready 
to be hardened. 

The hardening of the punch was a difficult thing to accom- 



348 



DIES. THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



plish successfully, as the tendency to warp and the possibilities 
of cracking were considerably greater and harder to overcome 
than with the die, the presence of the piercing dies being a factor 
greatly to our disadvantage. All the piercing dies in the punch 
were rilled with fire clay to within about 3-16 inch of the punch 




MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 349 

face. The punch was then heated in a gas muffle and quenched 
in a tank of water which had been first slightly warmed and 
with about 3 inches of oil on top. The punch came out all 
right except for a few tight spots which were lapped down. The 
use of the oil contributed greatly to the successful hardening of 
the punch the warming of the water also helped. The face of 
the punch was ground, after which it was drawn, tempering the 
edges to a dark blue by standing the punch alternately on each 1 
side on a hot plate; the rest of the face, which comprised the 
piercing dies, being tempered to a straw. 

The die S, Fig. 435, was now tightly fastened within the 
bolster by the key R and against the two Stub steel pins T T. 
The punch was inserted within the die until its face rested on 
the bolster. The holes for the seven round piercing punches X 
and Y were transferred through the punch by means of a center 
drill, and also the outlines for the oblong piercing punches Z. 
These outlines were then milled with a "butt" mill, so that two 
pieces of finished tool steel, about y$ inch larger all around than 
the finish size, could be driven in, holes being drilled completely 
through the bolster, so that they could be removed when required, 
as shown by the dotted lines in the cross-section view of the die. 
These two punches were then reduced and finished by inserting 
the blanking punch within the die and shearing the two punches 
Z up into the dies O. They were then hardened and drawn 
to a dark blue, and driven into their respective positions. The 
holes for the round piercing punches in the bolster were drilled 
and enlarged by counterboring, the seven punches finished, hard- 
ened, drawn to a dark blue and driven tightly into the holes. 
The faces of th-e piercing punches came within y% inch of the 
face of the blanking die. 

The spring stripper plate B was worked out to fit freely 
within the blanking die. Two holes were drilled in the bolster 
to admit the stripper studs C, and were counterbored to admit 
the springs E. The springs, studs and stripper plate were then 
assembled in the die and bolster as shown in the cross section, 
Fig. 436. The gage pin A and the four scrap stripping pins 
D were made and fastened within the die as shown in the 
plan view. 

The holder for the punch was of cast iron, finished with a 
dovetailed channel in the face to allow of locating and fastening 
the punch, as shown in Fig. 432, by the key M. A hole was. 



350 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

drilled straight through the holder at K, breaking through into 
the dovetailed channel in the face to act as an outlet for the 
central piercings. Holes were also drilled through for the 
punchings from the dies X. The punch and die were now set 
up in the press, the body of which was tilted back to an angle 
of 25 degrees, and the intermediate horseshoe-shaped pad P was 

placed around the stem I of the 
1 punch-holder H, in the position 
I shown in Figs. 432 and 433, 
thus insuring the easy escape of 




Intermediatepadused er 

'to allow the escape 



of the scrap metal to be punched was 1-16- 

inch flat cold-rolled stock, and 
was fed beneath the stripper 
pins D-D and against the stop- 



FIG. 439. pin A-A, and, the punch de- 

scending, the blank was punched 

into the die and held securely between the face of the stripper 
plate B and the blanking punch L. All the holes were then 
pierced, and on the return stroke the stock was stripped from 
the punch by the four pins D-D, while the finished blank was 
stripped from the die by the stripping plate B, the blank falling 
oft the face of the die at the back through gravity. 

The rapidity with which a punch and die of this improved 
construction can be worked, and the absolute interchangeability 
of the product should commend it for all work which is to be 
produced in large quantities and in exact duplication, thus allow- 
ing for the increased cost of the die. 

The Cutting of Armature Disks. 

According to the size and quantity of disks required they 
are usually cut in one of the following ways : 

i. For very large diameters or relatively small quantities, 
the shearing of the outside and inside circles is done on circular 
shearing machines. These disks are then notched on a notching 
machine and the key-notches on the inside are usually slotted 
after the disks have been put together by means of a vertical 
shaping machine. For disks 18 inches or less in diameter, with 
small center holes, as shown in Fig. 440, a circular shear may be 
used for the outside and the inside punched on a strong power 
press. 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 35! 

2. For such disks as are made in large quantities and which 
are of moderate diameter (for street-car motors, for instance), 
the best factories use power presses, with tools so arranged that 
the inside with its kevseats and the outside with its notches are 




Fig- 4. Fig. 5. 

FIG. 440. ARMATURE DISK DIES AND SAMPLES OF DISKS. 



oooooooooooo 




FIG. 441. ARMATURE SEGMENTS. 



cut simultaneously at one stroke, as shown in Fig. 440. This 
constitutes the quickest, most accurate, and most economical way 
of manufacturing armature disks in large quantities. The presses 
used for these dies are provided with knockout attachments 



352 DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

which discharge the scrap and the disks so as to lie loosely on top 
of the dies, whence they may be easily and quickly removed. 

The requirements of armature work for electric motors and 
dynamos have led to the construction of presses which differ in 
essential points from those used for other styles of sheet-metal 
work. The usual form of armature is made up of annular 
disks with notches on the outside or inside circumference. As 
it is essential to have the outside and inside exactly concentric, 
it has been found best to adopt dies which, by cutting them simul- 
taneously, eliminate the inaccuracies which are almost unavoid- 
able when the cutting is done in two or more operations. In 
many cases the notches and keyseats are also punched at the 
same time, all of which calls for tools having "throw-out pads," 
in addition to the cutting parts, so as to automatically push the 
disks and scrap out of the dies and punches. 

3. In the many cases where dies mentioned in connection 
with the second method would be too costly to be economically 
used, we recommend the cutting out simultaneously of the plain 
outside and the notched inside as indicated by Fig. 440. This 
method produces an absolutely concentric blank ready to be 
notched, and, as the outside notches are cut separately, the power 
of the presses is equal to much larger diameters than those 
specified in connection with the second method. The notching 
is then done on notching presses. 

From the inside scrap which results from the punching of 
the large disks, the projections corresponding to the key notches 
are usually removed by a die which at the same time cuts the 
inside with its key slots, thus working the scrap over into smaller 
disks without any loss of stock. 

4. In some works it would not pay to use the dies mentioned 
for the third method, which dies are still somewhat expensive, 
on any but the most current sizes of disks. In that case we 
recommend dies which cut the outside and inside separately 
by means of a combination die in a single-acting press. 

The Cutting of Armature Segments. 

For segments used in very large qauntities the outside and 
the holes or notches are frequently cut simultaneously by means 
of dies which are so arranged that they discharge the scrap and 
the segments automatically from the lower and the upper tools. 
A press equipped in this manner and designed specially for 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 353 

this class of work is shown in Fig. 442. It will cut the inside 
and outside simultaneously on plain disks, Figs. 440 and 441, up 
to 35^4 inches in diameter when disks are not less than 3 inches 
wide, and up to 14 or 15 inches diameter when all the outside 
notches are also cut at the same stroke, as shown in Figs. 440 and 




FIG. 442. ARMATURE DISK-CUTTING PRESS WITH DIES IX POSITION. 

441. It is also used when equipped with a set of dies of the type 
shown for cutting segments or sections complete at one stroke, 
with all their teeth or holes, up to 35^4 inches long. Most seg- 
ments have their plain outsides cut first, and are perforated or 
notched separately in a second operation. 



354 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION .AND USE. 



A Multiple Piercing and Projecting Punch and Die. 

The punch and die shown in Figs. 443 to 445 was used to 
produce the results shown in Fig. 447 in the drawn shell shown 
in Fig. 446. In this die the usual positions of the punches and 
dies are reversed, the punches being below and the dies above. At 
first a bolster F of cast iron was bored and faced as shown, and 
the holder G, for the punches, of tool steel was turned up and 




M 



FIG. 443. CROSS-SECTION OP UPPER DIE. 




FIG, 444. CROSS-SECTION OP LOWER DIE. 

fitted to it. The holder G was then laid out for the holes for 
the punches, which were nineteen in number, by indexing in the 
milling machine. They were then drilled through and reamed 
to size and the holder hardened. The holes for the dies in L, 
which had been finished from tool steel as shown to fit the 
holder N, were then transferred through the holder G to the 
face of L at M M. They were then drilled and reamed to size. 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 355 

The die L was hardened and drawn to a light straw temper and 
the face ground. Nineteen punches, all of the same length, of 
Stubs steel, were finished and sheared on the side as shown at 
H H, each one exactly the same amount. They were then hard- 
ened and drawn to a blue and forced tightly into their relative 
positions within the holder G, resting on the face of the bolster 
F. The stripper for the punches (shown at I I) was finished to 
fit freely over the punches H H with a stud J fastened in the 
center and fitting freely within a hole in the holder G, and 




FIG. 445. PLAN OF LOWER DIE. 





(*\rer<>rrewqeoira\ 



FIG. 446. THE SHELL. 



FIG. 447. THE SHELL FINISHED. 



equipped with two jam nuts to regulate the height. The outside 
diameter of the stripper I I was the same as the inside diameter 
of the shell, Fig. 446. The stripping arrangements on the die 
L require no description. 

When in action the cap was located on the stripper 1 1, and, 
the die descending, it was held between the two, while the 
punches pierced and pushed the projections up into the dies, 
which were set so that the punches would enter it far enough 
to just leave a narrow section of each of the projections united 
to the cap and leave all of them stand off at the same angle. 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

When the die rose a spring within the circle of punches caused 
the stripper I I to rise and strip the cap from the punches, while 
the stripper on the die stripped it from the dies. The shell 
was then removed from I I by hand. The projections thus made 
on the cap served as vents for small jets of gas as part of a 
special gas burner, causing the jets to be directed off at an angle 
and thereby increasing their range. 

Drawing and Punching Continuous Strips of Hemispheres. 

In Fig. 448 are shown two views of a strip of thin sheet 
brass that has been drawn and punched to resemble a number 
of brass balls joined together. These were made in continuous 
strips and were used for ornamental purposes on wood fixtures. 
The strip of stock left after the operation is shown in Fig. 448. 

OCXXXX)OXXXDOOCXXX)OOCOO 



FIG. 448. 

The punch and die used for this job are shown in Figs. 449 and 
450, respectively. 

In this case the punch, Fig. 449, was made first. A cast 
iron holder F was first machined. A piece of tool steel G was 
then got out 3 3-16 inches long by J-i inch wide, to be used as 
a holder for the forming punches, and to act also as the trim- 
ming punch. This piece of steel was left )4 inch high half way 
from the right-hand side while the other half was reduced to 
y 2 inch. It was fastened to the face of the punch holder by- 
four fillister head screws J J J J and the two dowels, L L, placed 
so as not to interfere with any of the holes for the punches. 
The holder was then set up in the miller with the front facing 
the spindle. The stock to be worked on was .010 inch thick 
and the balls were to be l /4 inch in diameter; we were to draw 
six and trim six at each stroke after the first. 

After the work was set up a center drill was used, and, 
starting from the left-hand side, the first hole H for the forming 
punch was centered. A drill was then used .020 inch less than 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 



34 inch and the holes were drilled almost through. The table 
Avas then moved forward exactly J4 mcn an( l tne next no ^ e was 
centered and drilled, and the other four in the same manner. 




M 



H o K oboo 




(f 

M 



FIG. 449. 



C D 




FIG. 450. 

The table was then moved another y\ inch, and the next hole 
was centered and drilled and reamed with a special rose reamer 
.002 inch larger than l /4 inch to the depth shown at I I. 
Then, with accurate spacing, the other five were finished like- 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

wise. After all this was done the holes just run into each other 
(the six at the right, we mean) and were touched up and fin- 
ished to leave open spaces 3-32 inch wide between to hold the 
metal together after punching. The punch G was then removed 
from the holder. 

Before finishing the punch the die, Fig. 450, was got out. A 
blank B of tool steel was planed and fitted to the bolster A. A 
butt mill was then made and finished to a j/s-inch radius and 
stoned to dead sharp edges. The die B was strapped to an angle 
plate on the miller table facing the spindle, and with the butt 
mill in the chuck the first forming die was finished by letting 
the mill in just .130 inch, then coming back and moving the 
table l /4 inch and finishing the next one, and the same with the 
other four. The six trimming dies D D were placed and milled 
in the same manner to .005 inch less in depth than the others, 
leaving six circles just }/\ inch in diameter, the lines of which 
served as guides for finishing the cutting dies. This was done 
by drilling and cutting out two sections E E, one on each side, 
and from the back one degree taper from the cutting edge to 
just the edges of the circles, leaving a neck between each 3-32 
inch wide, as will be seen in the plan view, Fig. 450. 

The punch was then carefully hardened and drawn and 
entered into the die, just fitting and showing the tight spots. 
These were then eased up and the die hardened and drawn to 
a blue. The face of the die was then ground down .005 inch, 
thereby leaving the forming dies *4 mcn deep and the cutting- 
dies .120 inch and leaving a margin around them, this being 
necessary as the edges would not stand up if left dead sharp. 
Holes were then let into the bolster A to allow the escape of the 
scrap. 

The stripping was done on the punch in the following man- 
ner : A stripper plate K, of 5-i6-inch flat cold-rolled stock, was' 
made and worked out to fit around and within the punches as 
shown ; that is, fitting freely around the drawing punches H H 
and within the trimming punches I I. Two studs or screws 
M M were then made and let down through the body F, shoul- 
dering in the bottoms of counterbored holes N N and screwing 
into K tightly. This allowed the stripper plate to move up and 
down freely when in action. A piece of good stiff rubber P, 
Y* inch thick, was then placed between the face of the holder 
F and the stripper plate K, being cut away in the center to clear 






MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 359 

the punches. When the screws M M were tightened and ad- 
justed to hold the stripper plate K perfectly level, there was 
enough tension in the rubber P to allow of the stripper acting 
as a blank holder while the drawing was being done and to strip 
the metal afterward. We neglected to state the holes for the 
drawing punches H H were drilled all the way through the 
holder to allow them to shoulder against the face of F. 

The punches were next made and finished .105 inch in diam- 
eter, and the points, with a special forming tool, to a radius of 
.0525 inch. They were then hardened and drawn to a straw 
at the forming ends. The ends of H H and the forming dies 
C C were lapped to a high polish. After all parts were assembled 
and adjusted the tools were set up in the press and a roll of 
metal of the width required was placed on a reel on one side 
and to wind up automatically at the other side. 

It will be seen that by placing the stripper and the metal 
holder on the punch the work is constantly before the operator, 
and there is no trouble in locating it on the die. The strip was 
first entered and moved in far enough to cover the six forming" 
dies and project slightly over the trimming edge. The punch 
descending, the metal was held by the pressure of the stripper 
K while it was being formed and drawn, and trimmed on the 
end. At the next stroke the strip was moved along far enough 
to allow of the six half-balls previously drawn to locate them- 
selves within the seats of the trimming dies D D. The punch 
then formed six, and trimmed six, at each stroke, cutting the 
scrap in the die in sections, as shown by the cross-lines in Fig. 
448. The strip was moved continually until the entire length was 
finished, trimming and forming nicely, there not being a burr 
or a line to show where the successive sections commenced or 
finished. The one thing most necessary in work of this kind is 
accuracy in spacing, as the die cannot be used, as is usually the 
case, as a gage to transfer the locating points for the punches. 

Watch and Clock Makers' Power Presses for Sub-Press Work- 

Fig. 451 shows a type of power press which is made in a 
number of different sizes and styles, and they are specially 
adapted for the manufacture of watch and clock work, jewelry, 
and other articles of a similar character. They are essentially 
the same as other solid back presses, but are made with consid- 
erably more distance between bed and slide so as to accommodate 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

"sub-presses" such as the illustration shows. A bridge bolster 
is used to shorten this distance if ordinary cutting or forming 
tools are also to be operated in the press. Such a bridge bolster 




FIG. 451. WATCH AND CLOCK MAKERS' POWER PRESS EQUIPPED 
WITH A "SUB-PRESS " FOR DELICATE PUNCHING. 



is shown on the floor in the illustration. These watch presses are 
frequently furnished with an adjustable stroke, permitting to 
vary the movement of the slide in accordance with the construc- 
tion of sub-presses of different sizes, and also with a positive 



}JlSCKLLAXEOfS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 361 

stop attachment, which makes it impossible for the operator 
accidentally to make. two strokes in succession if he should forget 
to take his foot off the treadle. 

Siih-presses are now almost entirely used for the delicate 
dies .required in the manufacture of watches and clocks. These 
dies are generally so arranged as to cut the outside and perfora- 
tions of the pieces simultaneously, thus insuring the accuracy of 
the relative finished points. By the use of sub-presses the most 
accurate work may be accomplished with ease, as the dies may 
be always kept finely adjusted for the work and the alinement 
will be perfect. 

An Automatic Trimming Machine, a Beading Machine and a 
Double-Head Crimping Machine. 

The half-tone, Fig. 452, represents an automatic trimmer 




FIG. 452. 



302 1)1 KS, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USK. 

recently designed for trimming seamless tin boxes, brass, copper, 
zinc and aluminum shells, lamp collars, etc., from I to 3 
inches in diameter, and from }/\ to \Y\ inches deep. It is pro- 
vided with a device for cutting the rings of scrap into short 
pieces so that they may fall freely and avoid clogging. This 
machine will trim from 35,000 to 40,000 shells a day. The action 
of the machine is automatic throughout, it being only necessary 
to keep the feeding chute supplied with shells. The rapidity and 
perfection of the work produced in machines of this type make 
them invaluable in the manufacture of articles like those men- 
tioned above. A separate feeding chute, disk and cutters are 
required for each size of shell. 

The strongly-built machine shown in Fig. 453 is used for 




FIG. 453. 



beading, corrugating and embossing sheet iron stove bodies, 
stove pipe, powder kegs and similar work : also for tin, zinc and 
brass. It has steel shafts 2,^/2 inches in diameter and 4 inches 
center to center ; also steel cut gears with a proportion of 4 to 
i. The driving pulley runs continuously, and is connected at 
will to the driving shaft by means of a friction clutch controlled 
by the treadle. An adjustable apron gage is provided and also- 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 363 

an extension arm with adjustable roller support for long cylindri- 
cal work. For short work this outer support is not required, 
and is so attached as to allow of being quickly removed if de- 
sired. The rolls are brought together by means of a screw and 
hand wheel, while strong spiral springs throw them apart when 
released by the screw. A pair of embossing rolls are shown on *. 
the machine. 

The machine shown in Fig. 454 is a double-head crimping 







FIG. 454. 

machine and is used to crimp round cans on the outside, either 
one or both ends, at one operation. A pair of crimping disks are 
required with each size of can, and the ends of the cans have 
to be slightly sunken. 

Hand Bending Fixtures. 

We sometimes come across a bending job in sheet metal that 
for one reason or another it would be impracticable to do in the 
press, sometimes for want of a press, and oftener because the 
tools themselves would be too expensive. The bending shown in 



364 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



Figs. 455, 456 and 457 was of this character. Fig. 455 shows 
the blank, of sheet brass 1-16 thick, with three holes pierced in 
the position shown, one l /\ inch at B and two 3-32 inch at A. 

The first bend was the one shown at A, Fig. 456, which was 
to bend over the end so that both holes would match and leave 
space enough to insert the small roller a, Fig. 457, the holes form- 
ing for the roller to turn freely in. The bending was done in 
the jig, Fig. 458. C is an oblong block of cast iron with two ears 
cast on to allow of its being fastened to the bench ; this was the 
body of the jig. E is a piece of tool steel worked out and finished 
in the way shown, and fastened by screws and dowels. This 
acted as the bending form. It was cut away taper at F and 
also cut away at the bottom, and left with a square shoulder, so 
as to allow the work to slip under it. This shoulder also acted 






n 



FIG. 455. 



FIG. 456. 



FIG. 457. 



as a gage to push the work against. This piece was hardened 
and drawn. H was the bender, which consisted of a machine 
steel forging, turned and finished on centers, leaving a square 
shoulder and bearing at each end. The handle portion was fin- 
ished on centers also. It was then cut away to the center, as 
shown at I, to within one inch from the end. The side pieces, or 
"bearings, G G, were got out and finished and fastened, one at 
each side of the block C, so that when the bender was down, the 
-center or flat part I would be level with the top of the block C. 
The pieces G G were held by screws and a dowel, as shown. The 
gage pin K was let in, and the block cut away to allow of the 
easy removal of the work. The work was located in position for 
bending by entering the hole B over the gage pin K, and pushing 
it under and against the piece E, as shown. This finishing the 
jig, it \vas fastened to the bench by two wood screws through 
the ears D D, and was ready for work. The work being in posi- 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 365 

tion, the bender H was brought up quickly by hand, which 
caused the end of the work J to bend over the thin part of the 
former E, which finished the operation. The piece was then re- 
moved and another inserted. 

The second bend, the one at B, Fig. 457, was a simple right 
angle bend, and was done in the same manner as the first, as will 
be seen from the two views in Fig. 459, using the same style of 
block as in the other case, the same kind of side pieces, and in. 




FIG. 458. JIG FOR FIRST BEND. FIG. 459. JIG FOR SECOND BEND.. 

fact the same mode of construction throughout, except that the 
bender N was of a different shape. It was cut away to the center, 
as the other was, and after the ends or journals were inserted 
within the side pieces M M, they were set above each side of 
the block enough so that when the bender N was in position 
shown in the bottom view, there would be just space enough for 
the work S to pass under freely. Instead of the bending form 
E used in the first operation, the edge of the block was used as> 



366 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 



such. After the work S was placed in position on the block, 
the gage pin T entered into the hole in the work as shown, and 
the sides of the work held between the two stop pins, the bender 
N was brought down sharply, which caused the part of the 
work projecting over the edge at R to be bent over the edge of 
the block at P, which completed the bend and finished the piece. 

A Combination Blanking Die for Heavy Stock. 
The punch and die shown in Figs. 461 and 462 were made 





FIG. 461. THE PUNCH. 

for producing at one operation blanks from 3-16 inch cold-rolled 
sheet steel of the shape shown in Fig. 460. As the drawings 
are very clear and as the construction can be understood from 
descriptions of similar dies in other parts of the book, a very 
slight description will suffice. 

The punch and die portions were forgings, with mild steel 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES., ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 367 

Tracks and tool steel faces. They were machined and finished 
in the milling machine. In making the punch, L, it was first 
turned and machined to finish the stem and then milled around 
the outside and inside to the shape of the templet, this being 
accomplished with ease by soldering the templet to the face of 




PIG. 462. THE DIE. 



the punch and using the vertical attachment on the universal 
milling machine, and leaving about .007 inch of surplus stock 
all around. The edges both inside and outside were then nicely 
beveled, after which the punch was sheared into the die A by 
fastening both punch and die in the press in which they were to 



3 68 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND 



be used when finished, thus making sure of a perfect match of all 
the cutting edges. 

Tool Holder and Tools Self-Hardening Steel. 

The sketch, Fig. 464, shows a simple, home-made tool-holder 
for lathe or planer, with set of tools for it in Fig. 465, neither 
of which will require description. A set of these tools and a 
holder of the construction shown will be found handy things for 
a tool or die-maker to have in his drawer. 

A great many toolmakers complain about self -hardening steel 
cutting tools, and say that it is impossible to accomplish fine re- 
sults in turned or planed work with them, and for that reason 




FIG. 464. SIMPLE HOME-MADE TOOL-HOLDER. 



a great many will not use them. Now, when they say that for 
fine work they are useless, they are right, as it is impossible to 
get the edges of such tools keen enough to allow of taking 
smooth finishing cuts. But for the preliminary work or rough- 
ing, for medium cuts and feeds and coarse thread cutting, ma- 
chining cast iron in the shaper, planer or lathe, and for turning 
brass castings, and also for accomplishing different operations on 
cast-iron repetition parts in the turret lathe they are unequaled, 
and should always be used where the production of machine 
parts at the minimum of cost and labor is imperative. For face 
milling of large castings where inserted tooth cutters are adapt- 
able, the self-hardening steel tools will be found to give the best 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 369 

F 



Thread 



Broad / 

Nose / 



Kough o 
Slot 



II 



\ 



\ Rounding 
x Corners 



Flat Bottom 
Th 



Turning Steel 



Cast Iron / 



L 



\ 



Side Tools 



Turning 



Parting 
Tools 



Tool for Shaper 



7_7 



FIG. 465. SET OP SELF-HARDENING STEEL CUTTING TOOLS. 



370 



DIES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 







Fig. 467. 



Fig. 468. 



Fig. 469. 





Fig. 470. 



Fig. 471. Fig. 472. Fig. 473. Fig. 474. 





Fig. 480. 




Fig. 485. 



Fig. 486. 



Fig. 484. 

FIGS. 466 TO 486. SAMPLES OF FINISHED ARTICLES FROM COMBINA- 
TION AND DOUBLE-ACTION DIES. 



MISCELLANEOUS DIES, ETC., FOR SHEET METAL WORK. 3/1 



X] ) 

Fig. 487. 



Fig. 488. 



Fig. 489. 




Fig. 490. 



Fig. 491. Fig. 492. Fig. 493. 



B > < 



U J :IM 



Fig. -194. 



Fig. 498. 




Fig. 497. 



Fig. 498. 




Fig. 439. 



FIGS. 487 TO 499. PARTS FROM COMBINATION AND DOUBLE- ACTION 
DIES FOR LAMP FOUNTS AND LAMP LININGS, CLOCK CASES, RE- 
FLECTORS, LANTERNS, OILERS, ETC. 




Fig. 500. 



Fig. 501. 




Fig. 502. 




Fig. 503. 



Fig. B05. 



FIGS. 500 TO 505. DIAGRAMS OF PARTS FROM COMBINATION AND 
DOUBLE-ACTION DIES FOR TOYS, PEPPER BOX. COVERS, BURNERS 
AND GAS FIXTURE PARTS, CURTAIN-POLE ENDS, DOOR-KNOB 
HALVES, ETC. 



D1ES ; THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 

results. There are a number of brands of this steel on the mar- 
ket, in which it will be found possible to hold an edge suffi- 
ciently keen to allow of their being used for the purposes above 
enumerated. 

Rules for Calculating the Speed of Poivcr Presses. 

To calculate the proper speeds of power presses according to 
directions given by the manufacturer, use the following rules, 
according to conditions : 

The diameter of driven given to find its number of revolu- 
tions. Rule. Multiply the diameter of the driver by its number 
of revolutions, and divide the product by the diameter of driven. 
The quotient will be the number of revolutions of the driven. 

The diameter and revolutions of the driver being given to 
find the diameter of the driven, that shall make the number of 
revolutions. 

Rule. Multiply the diameter of the driver by its number of 
revolutions and divide the product by the number of required 
revolutions of the driven. The quotient will be its diameter. 

To ascertain the size of pulleys for given speeds. 

Rule. Multiply all the diameters of the drivers together; 
and all the diameters of the driven together; divide the drivers 
by the driven. Multiply the answer by the known number of 
revolutions of the main shaft. 



INDEX. 



A 

Accuracy in dies 23 

Accurate adjustment of dies 34 

combination, blanking and drawing, making 244 

Acid baths, hardening in 307 

sulphuric, chilling in 307 

Action of metal while curling 204 

of metal while drawing 257 

Adoption of simple dies in the machine shop 59 

Agricultural machine work, power press in 93 

Alignment between punches and dies , 26 

Alignment between ram and bolster 263 

Aluminum, annealing heat for 268 

annealing test for 268 

cutting and drilling 267 

drawing, forming and annealing oi 267 

lubricant for drawing 267 

lubricant for drilling 267 

proper grade of 268 

working successfully 268 

Annealing defined 304 

doubtful steel 317 

metals 304 

quick methods 308 

in bean water 317 

water 308 

Approximate size of blanks for drawn shells 266 

Armature disks and segments 350, 352 

disk with dial feed, notching die 119 

disk notching press 353 

disk and segment cutting dies 351 

disk and segment cutting methods 350, 352 

piercing and blanking in one operation 183 

Arrangement for finding the size and shape of blanks 254 

Artistic die-making 330 

Assembling work in dies by curling. . 203 

work by dial feeding 296 

Attaching dies 18 

Attachments for heavy press work 99 

Automatic actuated die slide 290 

burner perforating presses 181 

burner feed 181 

cam-stripper for multiple punching 183 

combination piercing, bending and twisting-die 88 

dial feeds 296 

double roll feed .'...'.'..' 292 

device for tube feeding, a press with . 151 

ejector 142 

feeds and attachments 286 to 303 

finger gage or finger feed 36 

gravity feed 142 

index feeds 296 

lateral action to feed rolls 293 

lateral feeds 195, 293 

punching 292 

roll feeds 289 to 290 

roll feeds with automatic roll release 294 

single roll feed 287 

slide forming die for ferrule 147 

slide feed and ejector 142 

tube feed, also called "push" or "slide" 151 

B 

Beading machine . 361 

of shells 264 

Bean water, annealing in 317 

Belting up presses 32 

Bending die and closing-in die for round work 157 

and forming dies for round work 151 

and forming "follow" dies '. 161 



374 INDEX. 

Bending and forming of can-bodies 172 

and forming dies and fixtures 129 to 174 

die automatic wire 140 

die for right angle bends 50 

dies for wire lock clasps 134 

dies for wire staples 137 

dies for flat stock 145 

dies simple and intricate 12!) 

in dies 12!) 

processes 129, 1 74 

Best means to adopt, uncertainty as to the 220 

Blank centering device for double seaming 222 

dimensions 200 

formula 200 

holders 254 

margins 200 

sizes, measuring, finding 247, 253, 266- 

Blanking and bending in one operation 51 

and drawing a shell in a single action press 257 

and stamping 142 

die 17 to 2!) 

punch, finishing a square 250 

punch, locating the 25 

portion of drawing die, machining 255 

punch, making 24 

die, a plain 28 

Blanks for rectangular shells, finding 247, 253, 2GG 

for drawn shells, finding. . 2(50 

Bliss Company, E. W 3O 

Body-forming machine 172 

Boiler makers' presses and tools 285 

Bolster, alignment of ram with 203 

plates 18 

sunken, for wiring 225 

sunken combined with horn frame. . 224 

for dies 18, ID 

Box-corner fasteners, dies for 88 

Brass, lubricant for cutting 303 

Bright sheet metal blanks, bluing 317 

Bullion used for coins 26D 

Burner feed, automatic 181 

Burner perforating presses, automatic 181 

Burnishing dies 41 

Burnishing dies for finishing heavy blanks 49 

C 

Calculating the speed of power presses, rules for 372 

Cam-actuated stripper 183 

Can-body bending and forming presses 1T2 

Cheapening utensils by drawing processes 157 

Chilled cast iron dies, softening; 318 

Chilling solutions and their use 307 

Chucks, collapsible, for double seaming 222 

Chute feed 124 

Cheap grinder for round dies 340 

Clearance to die 22 

Clearance excessive 22 

Cleveland Punch and Shear Works Co 99 

Closing in dies for round work 157 

Claying used in hardening 310 

Coining processes 209 

Coins, ingots for 270 

milling 271 

weighing 270 

embossing 271 

feeding 270 

Counting coins 272 

Coping dies, beam-coping press equipped with 2X5 

Coining coins 20!) to 272 

presses 209, 272 

flow in 271 

Collapsible chucks for double seaming 222 

Compounds, hardening 307 

Compressed air drop hammer for sheet metal caskets 342 

Combination cutting 30G 

blanking die 18 

dies, their use 228 

Compound dies 229, 232 



INDEX. 375 

Complete set of dies for sheet metal hinges 8O 

Construction of simple punch and uie IS 

of simple piercing punch and die 177 

of a special punch press 198 

of solid back combination die 25O 

Copper, lubricant for working 303 

Cracks and warping, how to prevent 23 

Crank presses for operating large blanking dies 275 

Crude petroleum for heating furnaces 269- 

Curling and seaming processes 203 

assembling by 203 

drawing, embossing 233 

dies 203 to 217 

in horn press 210> 

inwardly 200, 207 

hinges " 43 

or wiring presses 210 to 215 

outwardly 205 

pressure 205 

principles of 204 

processes 203 

punch and die for .deep shells 21O 

punch and die for milk pans 209- 

straight work 204 

tapered work 21 0> 

Cutting and drawing dies, construction of 234 

and drawing dies, double action 22O 

die, machining the 248 

dies 30> 

die, hardening the 2.~>(> 

perforating and shaping in one operation 142 

D 

Dangers of press feeding 286 

Decorated tin boxes of rectangular shape, dies for 258 

Deep shells, diagrams of operations in making 345) 

Deep shells, curling punch and die for 210> 

Deep shells, finding the blanks for 20(> 

Deflecting device and bracket for double seaming 218 

Diagrams of blanks from cutting dies 31 

of operations of combination dies 248 

of double and single acting die operations 233 

of operations in the production of deep shells 233 

Dial feeding 29G 

feed and ejector 299 

feeds, presses with 295 

Dies, automatic wire bending 14O 1 

automatic slide forming. . .-. . 147 

adoption in the machine shop 59- 

attaching to bolsters IS 

blanks, planing the angle on 51 

blanking 28 

olanks from 31 

cutting, forming and embossing 232 

cutting-off and end-finishing 124 

combination, their use 228 

compound 229> 

curling 204 

cutting 30> 

cutting and drawing 227 

cutting and punching 227 

curling and wiring 208 

double acting 229- 

double 112 

drawing 22(> 

double blanking, small 112 

double blanking, large 112 

fitting the punches in 24 

fitting the templet in 22 

female 28 

finishing the '. 2(> 

for a sheet me-tal bracket 63 

for assembling work in 203 

for armature disk and segment cutting 351 

for bending 1 21) 

for box-corner fasteners 88 

for curling milk pans 209 



376 



INDEX. 



Dies for curling deep shells 21<) 

for curling and wiring . 208 

for finishing holes in heavy stock 42 

for finishing heavy blanks 40 

for hinge curling 43 

for large blanks 29 

for making large safety pins 129 

for parts of electric cloth-cutting machine 110 

for right angle bends 50 

for the manufacture of sheet metal hinges 80 

for tube curling 40 

for switchboard clips 122 

for wire lock clasps 134 

for wire staples 137 

gang cutting 01 

grinding in the lathe 340 

hardness of 312 

hardening of 311 

iron, chilled cast 318 

hardening of large steel ring 314 

"follow" 61 

laying out 318 

large double blanking 112 

large blanking 29 

lubricant for 303 

male 28 

master 28 

plain blanking 28 

perforating 177 

setting and using 20 

showing how sheet metal may be drawn and formed ">:; 

sectional, with chute feed 124 

soft or hard punches and 312 

piercing, cutting off, and forming 77 

triple-action 232 

types in general use for drawn shells 227 

wiring 208 

warping in hardening 23 

Die making, artistic 280 

Different methods for constructing blanking dies 18 

Disks, punching heavy 279 

Disks, hardening thin 315 

Double-action press 302. 

action dies 229 

and single-action die operations, diagrams of 270 

head crimping machine 303 

or piercing and blanking dies 26 

roll feeds 290 

seamers and attachments 222 

Doubtful steel, to anneal 317 

Dougherty, B. J 107 

Draw-filing 325 

Drawing and forming of aluminum 207 

and punching continuous strips of hemispheres "'!.". 

dies, construction of 234, 250, 258 

dies, combination 228 

dies, double action "2-'.\ 

dies, for hemispherical cups 356 

dies, hardening of 256 

dies, hardening fluids for 311 

dies, plain 231 

dies, push through or solid dies 239 

dies, with cutting and embossing 232 

dies, with inside blank-holders 231 

dies, with outside blank holders 229 

dies, soft or hard 312 

dies, triple action 232 

die making 245 

die bolster 246 

die for decorated stock 258 

die for second operation 261 

die hardening 256 

die irregular shaped 260 

die use and action of 257 

die using the 249 

small shells from heavy stock 242 

processes, scarcity of mechanics who understand 226 

punch, making the 245 

Drawn shells, perfect blanks for 266 



INDEX. 377 

Drawn shells, finding the blanks for 266 

Drawn shells, work, use of trimming dies for 268 

Drawn shells, lubricant for 303 

Drilling, softening chilled cast iron dies for 318 

Duplication in die work 22 

Doubt as to the best means to use 37 

Demands for and use of perforated metal 177 

E 

Ejector, automatic 142 

Embossing in dies 2dj- 

presses ~ J 

with cutting and drawing ^oJ 

Emergency die -. 38 

Excessive clearance, when to give ' 2? 

Experts, writing to M 

P 

Feeding attachments 286 to 300 

by gravity 

by hand 28b 

by rollers 287, 290 

by revolving dials 29b 

by sliding carriages f 

partly finished parts and articles to dies 290 

parts which have been previously punched 290 

presses 286 

speeds -^ to 302 

stock a factor in production . . ^t> 

Feeds 28 1 to 3< 

double-roll and lateral 293 

double-roll with automatic release 294 

Female templet 21 

Files care in putting away 329 

convexity in 320 

carrying the 3 

cut of teeth, kinds of 311 

cleaning the 3 

common tanged 319 

devices for holding 321 

distinguishable features of 319 

double-cut 319 

for angular surface 319 

partially worn, use of 326 

grade of 226 

grasping 323 

handling of 324 

holders for 321 

improved surface holder for 322 

keeping of 329 

kinds of 319 

properly handled 325 

rasp-out 319 

Finding the blanks for drawing shells 266 

Finisning a square blanking punch 256 

the punch for drawing shell 249 

the blanking portion of drawing die 255 

the inside of a die 22 

the die 245 

press work 41 

Figuring the approximate size of blanks for drawn shells 266 

First operation for rectangular shells 258 

First use of the file 326 

Flatness of work after punching 52 

Flat-bottom double seamers 218 

Flat, round, deep, bottoms, double seaming of 218 

Floating ring 208 

"Follow dies," use of "gang" and 61 

"Follow" die which draws, pierces, and finishes, cuts off and bends in one 

operation 77 

"Follow die" from bending and forming 161 

Folding and seaming for lock seams, duplex 218 

Forming of aluminum 267 

die, a special 170 

and bending machine, two can-body 172 

Forging and welding large cutting dies 29 

Forming and bending body blank for petroleum cams 174 



373 



INDEX. 



Forming a funnel ended tube 132: 

dies for square grooved tubes 57 

novel bending and 174 

press, pick eye 161 

sheet metal in successive stages r>4 

Foot-presses 1.1!), 160, 172, 173 

Friction dials 296 

Fundamental points to be remembered 1_'6, 260 

principle, curling dies 204 

practical points for making irregular shaped drawing-dies 260 

Fixtures, hand bending 363 

for perforating burner shells 181 

Friction clutch 276 

Finest f orgings 30 

Filing large dies 32 

G 

Gang combination die press 298 

cutting dies 61 to 88 

cutting or punching 61 

double action drawing press 302 

dies 61 

dies, their use 61 

die simple, and its work 61 

die for sheet metal bracket 68 

die for metal tags 65 

die for umbrella rib tips 67 

die for odd shaped piece 71 

die for compass sliding bracket 75 

die, when to use 77 

punching 298 to 302 

press 302 

washer die 48 

Gas muffle 23 

German silver lubricant for working 303 

Grade of steel to use 17 

Grasping the file 323 

Grease and white lead 303 

Grinder for round dies 303 

Grinder a tool post 341 

Grooved tubes, forming die for 57 

Grinding, piercing and blanking punches 74 

Grade of steel to use 18 

Grinding large blanking dies 32 

H 

Hand bending fixtures 363 

feed spacing table, multiple punch with 281 

feeding 286 

Hardened pieces, straightening 319 

Hardening around a hole 308 

a blanking and piercing die 23 

and tempering small tools 305 

baths _ 307 to 31 1 

poor steel 317 

springs 316 

thick round die 31 <j 

compounds 3O7 

thin disks 31 5 

of machine steel 313 

the walls of a hole 3<>8 

dies 311 

defined 304 

3H!) 

3 1.1 

3(1!) 

. 311 



warpage of tools in 

effect of previous annealing in. 

furnaces, location of , 

fluids for dies 



in mercury 3<n 

judgment and carefulness in 313 

large ring dies 3 

small saws 316 

tool steel 305 

the cutting die , 85i 

steel special methods for 306 

use of clay in 31 o 

very small parts 305- 






INDEX. 379 

Hardness and toughness in steel .... ................................. 30& 

of dies ....................................................... 312 

Heavy beam punching .............................................. 281 

disc punching ^ ........................................... ...... 27J> 

stock, drawing a small shell from ................................. 242 

notching press ........ .......................................... 277 

pressure, press for work requiring ................................. 272 

stock combination blanking die for ................................ 366 

stock punches and presses for operating on .................. 272 to 285 

Height of work when filing ............................................ 323 

Hemispherical cups, die for ................ . ...................... ... 356 

drawing and forming strips of .................................... 356 

Hold-downs and strippers ........................................... 183 

Holders file ........................................................ 321 

Hole hardening around a ....................................... ..... 308 

Horizontal dial press with pick-off attachment .......................... 217 

Horning or side seaming ............................................ 218 

Horn frame and sunken bolster combined .............................. 224 

Horning or seaming tools and fixtures ............................... . . 218- 

I 

Inaccuracy of parallelling in parts of punch and die ..................... 263 

Inclined press ...................................................... 60 

press with dies for stamping and blanking ......................... 144 

Indexing feeds ............................. . .................. 296 to 302 

ingots moulding .................................................... 269 

Importance of the proper selection of steel for dies ..................... 17 

Inside blank nolders drawing dies with ................. : .............. 231 

Introductory ....................................................... 17 

Inward curling ............................................... 206 to 207 

Iron, lubricant for working ........................................... 303 

Inclinable power press .............................................. 6O 

Improving working quality of machine .......... ...................... 17 

Increasing the daily product ......................................... 33 

Improving feed devices ............................................. 286 

J 

Judgment and carefulness in hardening ........ . ....... . ........ ... ....... 3TE 

K 

Kerosene, use in working aluminum ................................... 267 

Kink, a welding .................................................... -1& 



Lard oil, use in drawing aluminum ................................... 267 

Large blanks, dies for ............................................... 29 

dies ........................................................... 29 

safety pins, dies for ..................... . ....................... 129 

work wiring ................................................... 211 

Lateral feeds ...................................................... 293 

feed attachment automatic ....................................... 293 

Laying out a blanking die ........................................... 21 

Lead bath hardening in ............................ : ................. 31O 

Leather shoe tips dies for perforating .................................. 336 

Lightness, Intel-changeability and finish of sheet metal blanks ........... 59 

Lining up and leveling a power press .................................. 35 

Locating the blanking punch in the punch plate ........................ 25 

the drawing punch within the die ................................. 256 

the piercing dies ................................................ 23 

the piercing punches in the punch plate .......................... 25 

Location of hardening furnace ........................................ 309 

Locked seams, duplex folding and seaming for .......................... 218 

Lubricants to use in the working of sheet aluminum ................. 303 

to use in the working of sheet brass .............................. 303 

to use in the working of sheet copper. .......................... . 303 

to use in the working of sheet German silver ................... 303 

to use in the working of sheet iron .............................. 303 

to use in the working of sheet steel .............................. 303 

to use in the working of sheet zinc .............................. 303 

Lubrication of dies and materials ............................... '.'.['. 303 

Laying out a gang die .............................................. 71 

if 

Manufacturing a new article. . 33 



INDEX. 

Machining the drawing portion of' the punch proper 252 

the cutting die 248 

the punch holder 20 

the stripper plate-punch plate 20 

mild steel forgings 318 

Machine steel for press tools, use and hardening of 313 

Making a punch and die 18 

irregular shaped drawing dies, practical points for 260 

the blanking punch 24 

an accurate combination and drawing die 244 

the drawing punch 245 

the templets and the drawing punch 251 

pinions ratchet by punching 102 to 104 

Male die 29 

Margins and blanks 266 

Mercury, hardening in 305 

Master blank, making 21 

Medium size press 60 

Metal blanks, bluing bright sheet 317 

hinges set of dies for 80 

Milling coins 271 

Milk pans, curling punch and die for. . i'09 

Mint, Philadelphia 269 

Moulding ingots for coins 269 

Muffle gas , 23 

Multiple double action presses 300 

drawing 300 

piercing and projecting punch and die '. . . 354 

punch, steam-drfven 279 

punch, with hand feed spacing table 281 



Needle slot screens ................................................. 102 

Nicholson File Company ............................................ 31 S 

O 

Obsolete processes .................................................. 17 

Odd shaped pieces, gang die for ....................................... 77 

Oil bath heating in ................................................. 310 

when not to use ................................................. 327 

when to use .................................................... 327 

vitriol, chilling in .................... ........................... 307 

Open back presses ................................................... 34 

Ordering a press ................................................... 34 

Outward curling ................ ................................... 204 

Oval, oblong, square, shapes, double seaming of ........................ 222 

Ordinary steel ...................................................... 18 

Operating a blanking die. . ........................................... 126 

Ordinary bending of sheet metal ....................................... 129 

P 

Parallels, for planing die blanks .................................. f> J 

Parts of blanking punch and die .................................. 1 77 

Perforating dies, use of ................ ...................... i '-'-' V toe 

dies and processes ........................................ l ' ' to J*g 

leather shoe tips ....................................... *f? 

metal, samples of ...................................... , 193, l.)o 

press having lateral feed ......................................... ';'' 

l ................................ ' | 

' ;' i 
' ' ' 



press with automatic spacing table 
regular and staggered 



single rows of holes 

sample of staggered patterns of ................................... "J| 

tin ferrules .................................................... .'!?, 

Perkins Machine Company ........................................... JJj 

Perfect blanks for drawn shells ................................... 7 ! ' 

Petroleum can machinery and dies ............................... Jgg' JJjg 

can outfit for .................... ..................... '~' ' ' ' .,<<> 

crude for heating furnaces ............................ op,i> 

Piercing? forming and' punching' heavy' blanks in one operation. . 1[JO 

Pick eye forming press with dies ................................. ,- - 

Pick off attachment horizontal press with 



...... 

Piercing two W holes"in"opp'osite"sides of draw shells ---- [J 

Piercing and blanking armature disks ......................... 



INDEX. 381 



Tlain blanking die 28 

drawing dies and redrawing dies 231 

Planing the angle on die blanks 51 

the die blank 51 

Poor steel, hardening . . 317 

Power and adjustable and open back 34 

armature disk and segment cutting 356 

bench 296 

cutting 275 

double action 294 

double crank 275 

double crank forging 162 

drawing cam 294 

embossing 272 

horning and wiring 210 

horn punching and riveting 221 

lock seaming 221 

perforating 197 

punching 275 

punching and shearing 275 

reducing -. . 300 

press 36 

riveting power 95 

with automatic feeding devices 287 to 302 

Press feeding, definitions 286 to 300 

for general work 60 

manufacturers writing to 37 

with adjustable punch carriers 299 

with cam-actuated stripper 183 

Presses, coining 272 

cutting 275 

drawing 60 

double action 294 

double crank 275 

embossing 272 

foot 159, 160 

for curling or wiring 215 

for coining . . . 292 

for cutting dies 275 

for drawing dies 294 

for forming and embossing 272 

for redrawing .- 300 

for seaming 210. 

for horning 221 

inclined 60 

punching 275 

redrawing 300 

reducing 300 

rules for calculating the speed of 372 

wiring 215 

Preparing work 326 

Preparation and machining of the bolster 246 

Producing drawn shells, types of dies for 327 

Production, feeding of stock a factor in 286 

Progressive die 88 

Proper selection of steel for dies . 17 

Punches 274 

Punching presses 60 

Punching and dies for parts of electric cloth cutter 116 

Punch, fitting in the die 24 

hardening the 24 

laying out the 24 

roughing out the 24 

Punching a mild steel strap 96 

heavy die 279 

tools' for heavy press work 273 

Putting away files, care in 329 

Press for medium size parts 36 

Punch tapered holes 95 

Points to be settled before ordering a press 33 

Press for general work 34 

a 

Quadruplicate automatic slide die 1 84 

Quick annealing 308 

R 

Ratchet dial feeds 297 

dial plates, cutting and assembling pieces by means 297 

dial automatic feeds 29<> 



382 



INDEX. 



Reannealing after roughing 39^ 

Rectangular shells, methods of finding the blank's for.' ! !. 247* 263 ''GO 

shells, a set of dies for decorated "> 

shells, first operation for ^'- )(S 

shells, second operation for ' ~>ui 

Redrawing dies 

processes 

operation 

Regular and staggered perforations 

Riveting '.."..".!'. 95 

Rolling seams on square cans ' .>> 4 

Round dies, hardening thick Sir 

dies, a cheap grinder for " Si? 

Roller feeding ' VV ->qn 

Rotary operations .... ' OQ 

Roller curling ......'. 918 

Round work, bending and forming dies for 

work, bending and closing inside for 

Rules for calculating the speed of power presses....!.!!'.'. 

for figuring sizes of blank for drawn shells. . ' > 

Rolling tires ! ! "95 

Reducing cost of production ! -|7 

Rough usage, dies to stand .....!...!...!.!!!! '. 129 

S 

Safety attachment for clutches 215 

devices for presses 215 

pins, dies for 129 

Sand bath, drawing by means of a 30? 

Saws, small hardening 315 

Samples of combination die work 248 

of perforating die work 179 

of perforated metal 192, 193, 194 

of staggered perforations 194 

Seaming or horning in presses 218 

process 204 

machine, double attachment on the 222 

Seeing power presses at work 98 

Second operation trimming and drawing die 261 

Section of die with chute feed and finger stripper 124 

Segment cutting 353 

cutting dies 351 

Set of dies for funnel-ended tube 104 

for rectangular decorated tin boxes 258 

for drawing of sheet metal 53 

for sheet metal hinges 80 

Self-hardening steel 3(j9 

Setting the die and using it 26 

Sharpening dies by hammering 312 

Shallow shells, finding the blank for 266' 

shells, rectangular shells, constructing a die for 250 

f ihearing dies 51, 52 

die for heavy blanks 39 

the punch through the die 24 

large blanking dies 29 

punches 51 

Sheet brass lubricant for working B03 

metal caskets, compressed air drop hammer for 343 

metal goods establishments 32 

metal hinges, flies for t 80 

metal work stamped or raised 371 

Shell, the beading of 264 

punching holes in 17? 

Side-seaming or horning 218 

Silver, German 303 

Simple vs. intricate bending dies 1 

or "push through" drawing dies > 

Small parts and articles, feeding 290 

shells from heavy stock making 242 

Soap water as a lubricant 3 

suds as a lubricant 3 

Soft punches 312 

Softening chilled cast iron dies for drilling 318 

Special forming die , 170 

automatic feed double-action gang press 3 

methods of hardening steel 300 

Specimen drawn work ~<*7 

Springs, hardening 3 

.Spr?ng pressure attachment 229 



INDEX. 383 



Specialists, writing to 38 

Spring attachment for combination dies 229 

Square blanking punch finishing a 256 

cans, rolling seams on 224 

Steam-driven multiple punches 279 

Straightening hardened pieces which have warped 310 

Steel tempering, by gas 306 

tool, hardening 305 

and tempering 305 

heating 305 

annealing of 308 

hardness and toughness in 306 

cooling 312 

cutting rings 314 

success in hardening and tempering 313 

tools, hardening, rules for 305 to 307 

annealing in an open fire 317 

bluing 317 

for dies 17 

hardening 305 

lubricant for working 318 

self hardening 368 

for punches 312 

shells, lubricant for drawing 303 

Suggestions as to the use of files 318 

Successive cutting in dies 88 

gang-cutting 80 

Sub-presses 224 

Sunken bolster, with slide plate 225 

Sub press work, watch and clock makers' press for 360 

Substitute for borax in welding 317 

Simple and effective means for producing sheet metal parts 129 

Small establishments 33 

T 

Tempering and steel 305 

a blanking die 23 

defined 304 

in oil 310 

in the sand bath 307 

small tools 305 

steel by gas 306 

Terms, curling, wiring and seaming defined 203 

Tools, twisting of long , 309 

Tool steel, special methods for hardening 306 

Tools, tool holder and 368 

self-hardening cutting 368 

warping of long 309 

Tool holder and toold 368 

post grinder 341 

To soften white or silver iron 318 

To anneal doubtful steel 317 

Toughness in steel 306 

Trimming machine, automatic 363 

and drawing dies 261 

dies for drawn work, use of 263 

Triple action dies , 232 

action drawing dies 232 

Tube feed, automatic 290 

Two bending dies for flat stock 145 

Two can body bending and forming machines 172 

Types of drawing dies in general use 227 

U 

Umbrella rib tips, dies for 67 

Uncertainty as to the best means to adopt .". 226 

Upper and lower dies 29 

Use of curling, wiring and seaming tools'. '. 203 

of drawing dies 249 to 257 

of fire clay in hardening 310 

of "gang" and "follow" dies 61 

of machine steel for press tools . '. 313 

of trimming dies in drawn work : 263 

of the power press 32 

of perforating dies 177 

"Using a blanking die 26 

a combination die . . 249 



INDEX. 



Use of double crank presses . . 

Unskilled help 

Unnecessary work paying for 

Undue friction . 



12'.) 

17 
35 



Vaseline, use in drawing aluminum. .. 



w 



Warping of tools in hardening 
Washer die 

Watch and clock makers' power pre 
Water annealing 
Weighing coins 
When oil should be used 
When oil must nbt be used 
Wire-lock clasps, dies for 
staples, dies for 



Wiring, bolster sunken with horn fram 

curling and seaming 

dies 

dies for shell work 

frame 

presses 

large shells 
Work pickling 

height of when filing 

preparing 
Working aluminum successfully 

aluminum of sheet metal, lubricant to use in 

the templet through the die 
Wrinkles, body, prevented 
Wrinkling in drawing 



ombined ..... 



305) 
48 
>'( i 
3<ix 
371 
3 H 7 
327 
134 
137 
22.~> 
203 

204 

21 KS 



210 to 



230 
241' 



Zinc, lubricant for cutting. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 





Hardening and Annealing Oven, 



Oil Tempering Furnace, 



TI STANDARD HEATINd TOOLS 



OF THE WORLD ARE THE 



Gas Blast Furnaces and Heating Machines 

for Hardening, Tempering, Annealing 



MADE BY 



AMERICAN GAS FURNACE CO. 

23 JOHN STREET, NEW YORK 



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the author in his Thirty Years' Travel and Experience. Second Edition. 
Nearly 400 Pages and 222 Illustrations. Cloth ...................... $2.5l> 

Grimshaw. Engine Runner's Catechism : 

Telling how to erect, adjust and run the principal steam engines in the 
United States. Describing the principal features of various special and 
well-known makes of engines. Fourth Edition. 336 Pages. Fully illus- 
trated. Cloth ................................................... $2 .00 

Grimshaw. Steam Engine Catechism: 

A series of direct practical answers to direct practical questions, 



mainly intended for young engineers and for examination questions. 
Nearly 1,000 questions with t 
Pages. Fully Illustrated. Cloth 



Nearly 1,000 questions with their answers. Eleventh Edition. 



Grimshaw. Locomotive Catechism : 

This is a veritable Encyclopaedia of the Locomotive, is entirely free 
from mathematics, and thoroughly up to date. It contains 1,600 Ques- 
tions with their Answers. Twenty-second Edition, greatly enlarged. 
Nearly 450 Pages, over 200 Illustrations, and 12 Large Folding Plates. 
Bound in Maroon Cloth ........................................... $2 . OO 

Hiscox. Gas, Gasoline and Oil Engines: 

Full of general information about the new and popular motive power, 
its economy and ease of management. Also chapters on Horseless Ve- 
hicles Electric Lighting, Marine Propulsion, etc. Special chapters on 
Theory of the Gas and Gasoline Engine. Utilization of Heat and Efficiency 
of Gas Engines, Retarded Combustion and Wall Cooling, Causes of Loss 
and Inefficiency in Explosive Motors. Economy of the Gas Engine for 
Electric Lighting, The Material of Power in Explosive Engines. Car- 
bureters, Cylinder Capacity, Mufflers, Governors, Igniters and Ex- 



XORMAN W. HENLEY & CO. S PUBLICATION.-. 

ploders, Cylinder Lubricators, The Measurement of Power, The Indicator 
aud its Work, Heat Efficiencies, I'. S.~ Patents on Gas, Gasoline and Oil 
Engines and their adjuncts since 1875, etc. 412 Pages. Large Octavo, 
illustrated with 312 Handsome Engravings. Tenth Edition, Revised and 
Enlarged, Buckram $2.50 

II i-M \. Compressed Air in All Its Applications: 

Giving the thermodynamics, compression, transmission, expansion, and 
uses for power purposes in mining and engineering work ; pneumatic- 
motors, shop-tools, air-blasts for cleaning and painting, air-lifts, pump- 
ing of water, acids and oils ; aeration and purification of water supply, 
railway propulsion, pneumatic tube transmission, refrigeration and 
numerous appliances in which compressed air is a most convenient and 
economical vehicle for work with tables of compression, expansion and 
the physical properties of air. Large octavo. 800 Pages. 600 illus- 
trations. Price $5.00 

II i-.-o \. Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles and Motor Cycles, Oper- 
ated by Steam, Hydro-Carbon, Electric and Pneumatic Motors: 

The make-up and management of Automobile Vehicles of all kinds are 
treated. It also contains a complete list of the Automobile and Motor 
Manufacturers with their addresses as well as a list of patents issued 
since 1856 on the Automobile industry. Nineteen Chapters. Large 8vo. 
316 Illustrations. 460 Pages. Cloth $3.00 

Hiscox. Mechanical Movements, Powers, Devices and Appliances: 

This is a new work on Illustrated Mechanics, Mechanical Movements. 
Devices and Appliances, covering nearly the whole range of the practical 
and inventive field, for the use of Mechanics, Inventors, Engineers, 
Draughtsmen, and all others interested in any way in mechanics. Large 
8vo. Over 400 Pages. 1649 Specially Made II lustrations, with Descrip- 
tive Text. Third Edition $3.00 

Inventors' Manual ; How to Make a Patent Pay : 

This is a book designed as a guide to inventors in perfecting their in- 
ventions, taking out their patents and disposing of them. 119 Pages. 
New Edition. Cloth $1 . OO 

Krauss. Linear Perspective Self-Taught. 

The underlying principle by which objects may be correctly repre- 
sented in perspective is clearly set forth in this book, everything relating 
to the subject is shown in suitable diagrams, accompanied by full 
explanations in the text. Price $2.50 

LeVan. Safety Valves; Their History, Invention and Calculation: 

Illustrated by 69 Engravings. 151 Pages $1.50 

Parsell & Weed. Gas Engine Construction: 

A practical treatise describing the theory and principles of the action 
of gas engines of various types, and the "design and construction of a 
half-horse power Gas engine, with illustrations of the work in actual 
progress, together with dimensioned working drawings, giving clearly 
the sizes of the various details. Second Edition Revised and Enlarged. 
25 Chapters. Large 8vo. Handsomely Illustrated and Bound. 300 
Pages $2 . 50 

Reagan, Jr. Electrical Engineers' and Students' Chart and Hand 
Book of the Brush Arc Llgltt System : 

Illustrated. Bound in Cloth, with Celluloid Chart in Pocket. 8vo. 
Cloth $1 .00 

Sloane. Electricity Simplified. 

The object of "Electricity Simplified" is to make the subject as plain 
as possible, and to show what the modern conception of electricity is. 
158 Pages. Illustrated $1 .00 

Sloane. How to Become a Successful Electrician : 

It is the ambition of thousands of young and old to become electrical 
engineers. Not every one is prepared to spend several thousand dollars 
upon a college course, even if the three or four years requisite are at 
their disposal. It is possible to become an electrical engineer without 
this sacrifice, and this work is designed to tell "How to Become a 
Successful Electrician." without the outlay usually spent in acquiring 
the profession. 189 Pages. Illustrated. 'Cloth $1 .00 

Sloane. Arithmetic of Electricity : 

A Practical Treatise on Electrical Calculations of all kinds, reduced 
to a series of rules, all of the simplest forms, and involving only or- 
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lems, with detailed solution of each one. Fourth Edition. Illustrated. 
138 Pages. Cloth ?1 . 00 



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Sloam^.^Electrlc^Toy Making, Dynamo Building and Electric Motor 

This work treats of the making at home of Electrical Toys. Electrical 
Apparatus, Motors, Dynamos and Instruments in general and is de- 
signed to bring within the reach of young and old the manufacture of 
genuine and useful electrical appliances. Third Edition Fully Illus- 
trated. 140 Pages. Cloth ' f $1.00 

Mount . Rubber Hand Stamps and the Manipulation of India Rubber: 

A practical treatise on the manufacture of all kinds of Rubber ar- 
ticles. 14b Pages. Second Edition. Cloth $1 .00 

Sloaiie. Liquid Air and the Liquefaction of Gases: 

Containing the full theory of the subject, and giving the entire history 
of liquefaction of gases, from the earliest times to the present It 
shows how liquid air like water is carried hundreds of miles and is 
handled in open buckets. It tells what may be expected from it in the 
near future, 36r> Pages, with many Illustrations. Handsomely bound 
in Buckram. Second Edition * $2.50 

Sloane. Standard Electrical Dictionary: 

A practical handbook of reference, containing definitions of about 
5,000 distinct words, terms and phrases. An entirely New Edition 
brought up to date and greatly enlarged. Complete, Concise. Con- 
venient. 682 Pages, 393 Illustrations. Handsomely bound in Cloth 
8vo *. .' $3.00 

Usher. The Modern Machinist: 

A practical treatise embracing the most approved methods of modern 
machine-shop practice, and the applications of recent improved ap- 
pliances, tools and devices for facilitating, duplicating and expediting 
the construction of machines and their parts. A new book from cover 
to cover. Third Edition. 257 Engravings. 322 Pages. Cloth $2 50 

Van Dervoort. Modern Machine Shop Tools; Their Construction. 
Operation and Manipulation, Including Both Hand and Ma- 
chine Tools: 

A new work treating the subject in a concise and comprehensive man- 
ner. A chapter on Gearing and Belting, covering the more important 
cases, also the Transmission of Power by Shafting with formulas and 
examples is included. This book is strictly up-to-date and is the most 
complete, concise and useful work ever published on this subject. 
Containing about 600 Pages and 600 Illustrations $4.00 

dworth. Dies, Their Con 
Working of Sheet Metals: 

A treatise upon the designing, constructing and use of tools, fix- 
tures and devices, together with the manner in which they should be 
used in the pawer press, for the cheap and rapid production of sheet 
metal parts and articles. Comprising fundamental designs and prac- 
tical points by which sheet metal parts may be produced at the mini- 
mum of cost to the maximum of output, together with special refer- 
ence to the hardening and tempering of press tools, and to the classes 
of work which may be produced to the best advantage by the use of 
dies in the power press. Containing 400 Pages. 500 Illustrations ... $3.00 

Woodworth. Hardening, Tempering, Annealing and Forging of 
Steel : 

A new book containing special directions for the successful hardening 
and tempering of all steel tools. Milling cutters, taps, thread dies, ream- 
ers, both solid and shell, hollow mills, punches and dies and all kinds of 
sheet-metal working tools, shear blades, saws, fine cutlery, and metal- 
cutting tools of all descriptions, as well as for all implements of steel, 
both large and small, the simplest and most satisfactory hardening and 
tempering processes are presented. The uses to which the leading brands 
of steel may he adapted ar concisely presented, and their treatment for 
working under different conditions explained, as are also the special 
methods for the hardening and tempering of special brands. Containing 
about 320 Pages, about 250 Illustrations $2 *><> 










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