Skip to main content

Full text of "Dio's Roman history"

See other formats






..R.e.v.e.r..e.ud....H.#. Garr..,.. 

June 1, 1938 

G •.§.•. 3.• 




, t 


CAPI'S, I'H.D.. I.L.F). Γ. K. PAGE, I.rnJ). W. H. D. ROUSE, Lirr.D 


Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2011 witii funding from 

University of Toronto 








\1 ( Μ \ \ 11 

'JUN - 1 P^*» 




υυυκ \Λ - 

BOOK r.ii 7tS 

Μ(κ»κ I. Ill 192 

Ι5<ΚΜ< M\ 280 

r.ooK i.v ;^7b 

INDFA 485 






Τάδβ iueariv iu τω ττίντηκοστω πρώτω των Διωνοϊ Ρωμαϊκών 

α. 'η$ ΚαΊσαρ νικτ]σα$ ττβρί "λκτιον τα τταρύντα Βΐίθΐτυ. 

β. Uep\ 'Αντωνίου κάΙ Κλεοπάτρα? καϊ ων ϊίπραζαν ^€τά την 


y. 'D.s Άντώνιυ$ τ/ττηθει? iv AlyvTrTCt) ΐαντον απίκτανίν. 

δ. 'Πϊ ΚαΊσαρ AiyvirTov 4χ€ΐρωσατο. 

6. 'Cls ΚαΊσαρ is 'Ρώμην -ήλθε κα\ τα iiriv'ixia fjyayiv. 

ζ. 'Γί$ Th βουλ^υτ-ηριον Th Ίούλιον καθκρώθη. 

7]. Ώί Μυσία Ιάλω. 

Χρόνου TrArjuos τα λοίττά τη5 Kalaapos τυ y κοΧ Μ. Ουαλ^ρΙου 
Κορουίνου Μβσσάλου ύττατ(ία5 κα\ άλλα ετη δύο eV oJs άρχοντΐί οΐ 
αριθμούμ^νοι οί'δε iyevovTO 

ΚαΊσαρ τ υ δ' ^ 

Μ. AiKLvvios Μ. υί. Kpaaaos ^ 
ΚαΊσαρ το e' 

2e|Tos ^Απουλ€ΐθ5 ~ '2,ίξτου υΐ. 


Ύοιαυτη τις ή ναν μαγία αυτών rfj Sevrepa του 
Χβπτβμβρίου eyevero. τούτο Be ουκ αλλω? είττον 
(ούΒβ yap είωθα αίιτο ττοίβΐτ) αΧΧ' οτι τότβ 
πρώτον 6 Καίσαρ το κράτος ττάν μόνος βσχβν, 
ώστ€ καϊ την άτταρίθμησιν των της μοναρχίας 

^ ΚράσσοΒ supplied by Η. Stepli. 

^ ΆΐΓουλ€ΐο5 Gary, αττουληιο^ Μ, άπυυιλιθ5 V. 



The following is contained in the Fifty-first of Dio's 
Rome : — 

How Caesar after his victory at Actium settled matters of 

immediate concern (chaps. 1-4). 
Concerning Antony and Cleopatra and their movements 

after their defeat (chaps. 5-8). 
How Antony, defeated in Egypt, killed himself (chaps. 9-10). 
How Caesar subdued Egypt (chaps. 15-18). 
How Caesar came to Rome and celebrated his triumph 

(chap. 21). 
How the Curia lulia was dedicated (chap. 22). 
How Moesia was conquered (chaps. 23-27). 

Duration of time, the remainder of the consulship of 
Caesar (III) and M. Valerius Corvinus Messalla, together 
Λvith two additional years, in which there were the magis- 
trates (consuls) here enumerated : — 


30 Caesar (IV), M. Licinius M. F. Crassus. 
29 Caesar (V), Sextus Apuleius Sexti F. 

Such was the naval battle in which they cniiaffcd n.c. 3i 
on the second of September. I do not mention this 
date without a particular reason, nor am 1, in fact, 
accustomed to do so ; but Caesar now for the first 
time held all the power alone, and consequently 

** ί/π. supplied by Bs. 

u 2 


αυτοί) ircop air €Κ€ίρη(; ττ}? ημξ.ρα<; άκριβονσθαι. 
κα\ €7Γ^ αύττ] τω re ^ΑττόΧλωνι τω Ακτίΐρ τριήρη 
τ€ καΐ τ£τ ρήρη, τά τ€ άΧλα τα εζη^ Η-^ΧΡ^ 8€κή- 
ρους, €Κ των αΙ\μα\ώτων νβων άνβθηκε, κα\ 
ναον μείζω ωκο^ομησεν, αηωνά re τίνα και ηυμ- 
VLKOV καΧ μουσικής ίττιτο^ρομίας τε ιτεντετηρικον 
ιερόν {ούτω yap τους την σιτησιν έχοντας ονυμά- 
ζονσι) κατεΒειξεν, "Ακτια αύτον ττροσα^ορεύσας. 

3 ττοΧιν τε τίνα εν τω του στρατοττε^ου τόπω, τους 
/L€V συνα^ειρας τους δ' άναστησας των ττΧησιο- 
'χωρων, συνφκισε, ΝικόττοΧιν όνομα αυττ) 8ούς. 
τό τε -χωρίον εν ω εσκήνησε, Χίθοις τε τετραττεΒοις 
εκρητΓίΒωσε καΐ τοις άΧοΰσιν εμβόΧοις εκόσμη- 
σεν, ε8ος τι εν αύτω του ^ ΑττόΧΧωνος υτταιθ ριον 

4 Ύαϋτα μεν ύστερον iyiv£To, τότε 8ε μέρος μεν ^ 
τι των νέων ες Βίωξιν του τε ''Αντωνίου καΐ της 
ΚΧεοττάτρας εστειΧε' καΐ εκείνοι εττε^ίωξαν μεν 
αυτούς, εττεί δ' ουκ εν καταΧήψει - εφαίνοντο, 
ανεχωρησαν ταΐς 8ε Χοιτταΐς το τάφρευμα αυτών, 
μηΒενος εναντίουμενου δ^' οΧι^οτητα, εΧαβε, καΐ 
μετά ταύτα καΐ τον Χοιττον στρατον ες Ma/ce- 
Soviav άτΓΐόντα καταΧαβων άμαγεί τταρεστήσατο. 

5 ή8η δε καΐ 8ιεφυ^ον άΧΧοι τε καΐ των ττρώτων 
οΐ μεν 'Ρωμαίοι ττρος τον Άντώνιον, οΐ δ' έτεροι 
οι συμμαχήσαντες αύτω οίκα8ε. ου μεντοι ^ε 
καϊ άντετΓοΧεμησαν ούτοι γε ετι τω Καισαρι, 

1 A^eVBk., eV VM. 

•^ iv καταλήψβί R. Steph., iyKaTa\r,\pei VM, 


the years of liis reign are |)roperly reckoned from b.c. 31 
that day.^ In honour of the day he dedicated to 
Apollo of Actium from the total number of the ca})- 
tured vessels a trireme_, a quadrireme^ and the other 
ships in order up to one of ten banks of oars ; and 
he built a larger temple. He also instituted a quad- 
rennial musical and gymnastic contest, including 
horse-racing, — a "sacred" festival, as they call 
those in connexion with which there is a distribu- 
tion of food, — and entitled it Actia. Furthermore, 
he founded a city on the site of his camj) by gather- 
ing together some of the neighbouring peoples and 
dispossessing others, and he named it Nicopolis.^ 
On the spot where he had had his tent, he laid a 
foundation of square stones, adorned it with the 
captured beaks, and erected on it, open to the sky, 
a shrine of Apollo. 

But these things were done later. At the time 
he sent a part of the fleet in })ursuit of Antony and 
Cleo})atra ; these ships, accordingly, followed after 
the fugitives, but when it became clear that they 
were not going to overtake them, they returned. 
With his remaining vessels he ca})tured the enemy's 
entrenchments, meeting with no o})position because 
of their small numbers, and then overtook and Avith- 
out a battle won over the rest of the armv, which 
was retreating into Macedonia. There were various 
important contingents that had already escaped ; of 
these the Romans Hed to Antony and the allies to 
their homes. The latter, however, no longer fought 

^ Dio is very careful to date each emperor's reign pre- 
cisel}'. Cf. Preface to vol. i. p. xiii. 

' i.e. "City of Victory." The same name had been given 
by Pompey to a town founded after his defeat of Mithri- 
dates. See xxxvi. 50. 


αλλά καθ^ ησυγίαν καΧ €Κ€Ϊνοί και οΐ ^ήμοί 
πάντες, όσοι καΐ ττρότερον βρρωμάίζον, οι μ€ν 
2 βύθνς οι he καΧ μβτα τοΰθ' ωμοΧό^ησαν. καί δ? 
τα? μεν ττολβί? γ^ρημάτων re εσιτράζει και της 
Χοίττής €9 τους ττοΧίτας σφών ev ταΐς έκκΧησίαις 
εξουσίας τταραιρεσει μετήλθε, τους Se ^η ^υνάστας 
τους τε βασιλέας τα μεν γωρία, οσα ιταρα του 
Αντωνίου ειλήφεσαν, ττάντας ττλην του τε Αμυν- 

2 του καΐ του ^ Αργελάου άφείλετο, Φιλοττάτορα 
Βε τον Ύαρκον8ιμότου καΐ ΑυκομηΒην εν μέρει 
του ΥίαττΎταΒοκικοΐ) ΥΙοντου βασιλεύοντα τον τε 
^ΑλεξανΒρον τον του Ίαμβλίχ^ου άΒελφον καΧ 
των δυναστειών ετταυσε' καΧ τούτον, ότι μισθον 
αύτην της εκείνου κατηηορίας ειληφει, καΧ ες τα 

3 ετΓίνίκια irapa^yayoov άττεκτεινε. την 8ε του Αυκο- 
μήΒους Μ,ηΒείω τινΧ εΒωκεν, ότι τους τε ^ίυσούς 
τούς^ εν ττ) ^ Ασία άττο του ^Αντωνίου ιτρο της 
ναυμαχ^ίας άττεστησε, καΧ μετ αυτών τοις εν ττ} 
μερίΒι αυτού ούσιν εττολεμησε. Κ^υΒωνιάτας ^ τε 
καΧ Ααμτταίους ελευθέρους άφηκεν, Οτι τίνα αυτω 
συνηραντο' καΧ τοις ^ε Ααμτταιοις και την ττολιν 

4 άνεστώσαν συ'^κατωκισε. των τε βουλευτών 
καΧ τών ίττΊτεων τών τε άλλων τών κορυφαίων 
των συμιτραξάντων τι τω Άντωνίω ττολλούς μεν 
γ^ρημασιν εζημίωσε, ποΧλούς Βε καΧ εφόνενσε, καί 
τίνων καΧ εφείσατο. καΧ εν μεν τούτοις 6 τε 
Χόσσιος εττιφανης ε^γένετο {ττολλάκις τε yap 
άντιτΓολεμήσας αυτω καΧ τότε φυ^ων καΧ κατα- 
κρυφθείς, γ^ρόνω τε ύστερον ευρεθείς, όμως εσώθη) 

5 καΧ Σαρκός τις ^καύρος' άΒεΧφός τε yap τού 
Χεξτου ομομήτριος ων καΧ θανατωθήναι κεΧευσθεΧς 

^ Tohs supplied by St. ^ KvSwviaras Bk., «yScovearos VM. 



against Caesar, but l)otli they and all the peoples b.c. 31 
which had long been subject to Rome remained 
quiet and made terms, some at once and others later. 
Caesar now punished the cities by levying money 
and taking away the remnant of authority over their 
citizens that their assemblies still possessed. He 
deprived all the princes and kings except Amyntas 
and Archelaus of the lands which they had received 
from Antony, and he also deposed from their thrones 
Philopator, the son of Tarcondimotus, Lycomedes, the 
king of a part of Cappadocian Pontus, and Alexander, 
the brother of lamblichus. The last-named, because 
he had secured his realm as a reward for accusing 
Caesar, he led in his triumphal procession and after- 
wards put to death. He gave the kingdom of Lyco- 
medes to one Medeius, because the latter had de- 
tached the Mysians in Asia ^ from Antony before the 
naval battle and Λvith them had waged war upon those 
who were on Antony's side. He gave the people of 
Cydonia and Lampe "^ their liberty, because they had 
rendered him some assistance ; and in the case of 
the Lamj)aeans he helped them to found anew their 
city, which had been destroyed. As for the senators 
and knights and the other leaders who had aided 
Antony in any way, he imposed fines upon many of 
them, slew many others, and some he actually 
spared. In this last class Sosius was a conspicuous 
example ; for though he had often fought against 
Caesar and was now hiding in exile and was not 
found until later, nevertheless he was saved. Like- 
wise one Marcus Scaurus, a half-brother of Sextus on 
his mother's side, had been condemned to death, 

^ Cf. imte oil xlix. 36. 
^ Usually called Lappa. 


elra 8ta την μητέρα την Μονκίαν άφείθΐ], των 
δβ κοΧασθεντων ^ΑκύΧιοί re ΦΧώροι κα\ Κουριών 
όνομα μαΧίστ^ βσ'χον, οντος μεν otl του Κουρίωνος 
εκείνου του ιτοτε τω Καίσαρι τω ττροτέρω ττοΧΧα 

6 συναραμενου υΙος ην, οΐ Εε ^η ΦΧώροι otl τον 
έτερον τον Χαγόντα κεΧεύσαντο^ αυτοί) σφα^ηναι 
αμφότεροι Βίεφθάρησαν. ήσαν μεν yap ττατηρ 
τε καΐ τταΐς' ώ? δ' οντος ττρίν Χα'χεΐν αύτ6<ί εαυτόν 
τω σφα<γεΐ εκών τταρέ^ωκε, ττερίήΧγησε τε εκείνοι 
και αυτοχειρία αύτω επαττεθανεν. 

3 Ούτοι μεν οΰν ούτως άττήΧΧαξαν, 6 δ' ομιΧος 
των ^ Αντωνιείων στρατιωτών ες τα του Καίσαρος 
στρατόπεδα κατετάγθη, καΐ εττειτα τους μεν 
ΤΓοΧιτας τους εζω της ηΧικιας αττ* αμφοτέρων, 
μη^εν μηΒενΙ Βούς, ες την ΙταΧιαν άττέττεμψε, 

2 τους δβ δ^ Χοιττούς Βιεσττειρεν εττεώη yap εν τ?) 
^ικεΧία φοβεροί οι μετά την νίκην iyivovTO, 
εΒεισε μη καϊ αύθις θορυβησωσι, καΐ Βια τοντ 
έσπευσε, πρΙν καΐ οτιοΰν υποκινηθηναι, τους μεν 
παντεΧώς εκ των οπΧων άπεΧάσαι, των δε το 

3 πΧηθος Βιασπάσαι. τους τε εξεΧευθέρους hi 
υποψίας ετι καϊ τότε εχ^ων την τεταρτην αυτοίς 
εσφοραν άφήκεν, ην εκ των προσταγθεντων σφίσι 
'χρημάτων επώφειΧον. καϊ ούτοι μεν ούχ οτι 
εστερηντό τίνων εμνησικάκουν ετι, άΧΧ ως καϊ 

4 Χαβόντες οσα μη συvεσήvεyκav εχαιρον οϊ τε εν 
τω τετayμεvω ετι^ καϊ τότε οντες, το μεν τι προς 
των στρατιαρχών κατεχόμενοι, το δε δ^ πΧεΐστον 

^ €Τί Leuncl., eret VM, 



but was later released for the sake of his mother b.c. si 
Mucia. Of those who were punished, the Aquilii 
Flori and Curio were most talked about, the latter 
because he was a son of that Curio who had once 
been of great assistance to the former Caesar, and 
the Flori because, when Octavius commanded that 
the one of them who should draw the lot should be 
slain, they both perished. They were father and son, 
and when the son, without waiting for the lot, volun- 
tarily offered himself to the executioner, the father 
was exceedingly distressed and died upon his son's 
body by his own hand. 

These men, then, fared in the manner described. 
The mass of Antony's soldiers was incorporated in 
Caesar's legions, and he later sent back to Italy the 
citizens of both forces who were over the military 
age, without giving them anything, and scattered 
the rest. For they had caused him to fear them in 
Sicily after his victory there, and he was afraid they 
might create a disturbance again ; hence he made 
haste, before they gave the least sign of an uprising, 
to discharge some entirely from the service and to 
scatter the majority of the others. As he v>as still 
at this time suspicious of the freedmen, he remitted 
to them the fourth payment which they still OΛved of 
the money levied u})on them.^ So they no longer bore 
him any grudge because of what had been taken from 
them, but rejoiced as if they had actually received the 
amount they had been relieved from contributing. 
The men still left in the rank and file also made no 
trouble, partly because they were held in check by 
their commanders, but chiefly because of their hopes 

* i.e. one-([uaiter of the tax of 12^ per cent, levied upon 
them a little earlier. iSeu 1. 10, 4. 


rj] του AlyuTTTLov ττΧοντον βΧτπΒι, ov^ev eveoy- 
μωσαν οι Be Βη συννικησαντβς αύτω καΐ της 
στρατβιας άφεθβντες ήσχ^αΧΧον άτε μηΒβν yepa<; 
evpofievoL, καΐ στασιαζειν ουκ e? μακράν ηρζαντο. 

5 καίτοι ^ ο Κ^αΐσαρ ύττοτοττησα^; re αυτούς, καΐ 
φοβηθείς μη του ^αικηνου, ω καΐ τότε η τ€ 'νώμη 
καΐ ή Χοίττη ^ΙταΧία ττροσβτέτακτο, καταφρονή- 
σοίσιν οτί ίττιτβυς ην, τον Krip'iinrav ώς καΐ κατ 
άΧΧο τι €ς την ^ΙταΧίαν βττεμψε. καϊ τοσαύτην 
y 67γΙ ττάντα καϊ Ικείνω καΐ τω ^Ιαικηνα εζουσίαν 
εΒωκεν ώστε σφάς καϊ τας επιστοΧάς, ας τη τε 
βουΧη καϊ τοις άΧΧοις εypaφε, ττροαναηί^νώσκείν, 
κάκ τούτου καϊ μετα^ράφειν οσα εβούΧοντο. 

6 καϊ Βια τούτο καϊ ΒακτύΧιον εΧαβον τταρ* αυτού, 
Χν ετησφραηι'ζεσθαι αύτας έ'χωσί. ΒιιτΧην yap 
Βη σφpayΐBa, fj μάΧιστα τότε εχ^ρήτο, εττεττοίητο, 
σφiyya εν εκατερα ομοίαν εκτυπώσας. ύστερον 
yap την εΙκονα την εαυτού εyyXύ^|raς εκείνη τα 

7 ττάντα εσημαίνετο. καϊ αύτη καϊ οΐ μετά ταύτα 
αυτοκράτορες, ττΧην ΤάΧβου, εχρησαντο' ούτος 
yap irpoyovLKiu tlvl σφpayίσμaτL, κύνα εκ ττρωρας 
νεώς ττροκύτΓτοντα εχοντί,~ ενόμισεν. εττεστεΧΧε 
Βε καϊ εκευνοις καϊ τοις άΧΧοις τοις ττάνυ φίΧοις, 
οτΓοτε TL Βεοίτο Bl^ απορρήτων σφίσι ΒηΧώσαι, το 
Βεύτερον άε\ στοιχ^εΐον τού τω ρήματι ττροσή- 
κοντος άντ εκείνου άvτεyypάφωv. 

4 ΚαΙ ό μεν, ώς ούΒενος ετι Βεινού τταρα των 
εστρατευμενων εσομενου, τά τε εν τη ΈλΧαδί 
Βιωκησε καϊ των τοΐν θεοΐν μυστηρίων μετεΧαβεν, 
ες τε την Άσίαν κομισθείς καϊ εκείνα ττροσκαθί- 

^ καίτοί Μ, καίτοι καϊ V. 
- έ'χοντί Xiph., exouTa VM. 



of gaining the wealth of Egypt. The men, however, b.c. 31 
who had helped Caesar to gain his victory and had 
been dismissed from the service were irritated at 
having obtained no reward, and not much later they 
began to mutiny. But Caesar was suspicious of 
them and, since he feared that Maecenas, to whom 
on this occasion also Rome and the rest of Italy had 
been entrusted, ΛVϋuld be despised by them inasmuch 
as he was only a knight, he sent Agrippa to Italy, 
ostensibly on some other mission. He also gave to 
Agri])pa and to Maecenas so great authority in all 
matters that they miglit even read beforehand the 
letters which he Avrote to the senate and to others 
and then change Avhatever they wished in them. 
To this end they also received from him a ring, 
so that they might be able to seal the letters 
again. For he had caused to be made in duj)licate 
the seal which he used most at that time, the design 
being a spliinx, the same on each copy ; since it was 
not till later that he had his own likeness engraved 
upon his seal and sealed everything with that. It 
was this latter that the emperors who succeeded him 
employed, except Galba, who adopted a seal which 
his ancestors had used, its device being a dog 
looking out of a ship's prow. It was the custom of 
Caesar in writing to these two ministers and to his 
other intimate friends, whenever there Avas need of 
giving them secret information, to substitute in each 
case for the aj)propriate letter in a word the letter 
next in order after it. 

Now Caesar, believing there would be no further 
danger from the veterans, administered affairs in 
Greece and took part in the Mysteries of tiie two 
goddesses.^ He then went over into Asia and 

^ Uemeter and Kore. 



2 στατο, τά τ€ τον ^Αντωνίου άμα βκαραόοκβΐ' ου 
yap ττω σαφε^; re οτγτ) hieire^evyeL εττέττυστο, καί 
τταρεσκβνάζβτο ώς καί eV αύτον ορμησων, άν η 
ακρίβώστ]. θορυβησάντων δ' αύτων ev τούτω 
φανερώς ατ€ κα\ ττοΧύ άττο σφώρ άτταρτωντο^ 
αυτού, βφοβήθη μη τι κακόν ττροστάτου τίνος 

3 Χαβόμενοί Βράσωσί, καϊ Sia τοντ Άντώνιον μεν 
αΧλοίς άναζητήσαί ττροσεταξεν, αύτος δε e? την 
^ΙταΧίαν ήττείχθη μεσουντοζ τον 'χειμωνο^ εν ω το 
τέταρτον μετά ^ Μάρκου Κράσσον ηρχεν ούτος 
yap, καίττερ τά τε τον %εξτον καϊ τά του 'Αντω- 
νίου τιράξας, τότε μη8ε στ/9ατ>;77;σα? συνυττά- 
τευσεν αύτω. εΧθων 3ε ες το Έρεντεσων ούκετί 

4 ττεραίτερω ττρουχ^ώρησεν. εττεί yap η τε y€poυσίa 
ττνθομενη τον ττρόσττΧονν αντοΰ ττάσα εκεΐσε, 
ττΧην των τε δημάρχων καϊ στpaτηyώv 8νο κατά 
Bόyμa καταμεινάντων, απήντησε, καϊ η ίτΓΤτάς 
του τε 8ημου το ττΧεΐον καϊ έτεροι, οΙ μεν κατά 
ττρεσβείας οΐ Βε εθεΧονταί, ττοΧΧοϊ συνήΧθον, 

5 ούκετ ούΒεν υττ ούΒενος ττρός τε την άφί^ιν αυτού 
καϊ ττρος την των ττΧειονων σττουΒην ενεο'χ^μώθη. 
καϊ yap εκείνοι, οΐ μεν φόβω, οι Βε εΧττίσιν, οι hk 
καϊ μετάττεμτΓΤΟι, ττρος ^ το Βρεντεσιον άφίκοντο' 
καϊ αυτών 6 Ίίαΐσαρ τοις μεν άΧΧοις -χ^ρηματα 
εΒωκε, τοις 8ε Sia τταντος αύτω συστρατεύσασι 

G καΧ yrjv π ροσ κατένειμε.^ τους yap Βι^μους τους 

^ μζτα. Μ, /<6τσ τοΟ V. ^ nphs Μ, is V. 

^ ■προσκατίναμ.ζ Μ, προσκατίμαν6 \ . 



settled matters there also, keeping watch meanwhile b.c. 31 
upon Antony's movements ; for he had not yet 
learned anything definite regarding the refuge to 
which the other had fled, and so he Avas making pre- 
parations to proceed against him in case he should 
receive any precise information. But meanwhile the 
veterans made an open demonstration now that he was 
gone so far away from them, and he began to fear 
that if they found a leader they would cause some mis- 
chief. Consequently he assigned to others the task of 
seeking Antony, and hurried to Italy himself, in the 
middle of the winter of the year in which he was 
holding office for the fourth time, along with Marcus b.c, so 
Crassus. For Crassus, in spite of having sided with 
Sextus and with Antony, was then his fellow-consul 
even though he had not held the j)raetorship. 
Caesar, then, came to Brundisium, but proceeded no 
fjirther. For when the senate ascertained that his 
ship was nearing Italy, its members Avent there to 
meet him, all except the tribunes and two praetors, 
who remained in Rome in pursuance of a decree ; 
and the equestrian order as well as the greater 
part of the populace and still others, some as envoys 
and some of their own accord, came together 
there in large numbers, with the result that there 
was no furtlicr act of rebellion on the part of any 
one in view of his arrival and of the enthusiasm of 
the majority. For the veterans, too, had come to 
Brundisium, some of them induced by fear, some by 
hopes, and still others in response to a summons ; 
and Caesar gave money to some of them, while to 
those who had served Λvith him throughout his 
campaigns he also made an additional assignment 
of land. For by turning out of their homes the 



iv rfj ΙτάΧία του? τα του \\ντωνίου φρονησαρτας 
βξοίκίσας τοις μεν στρατίώταις τα? τ€ ττόλβί? 
και τα 'χίύρια αύτων β'χ^αρίσατο, εκείνων he 8η 
τοις μεν ττΧείοσί τό τε Ανρρά-χιον καϊ τους Φί- 
Χίττπονς άΧλα τε εττοικεΐν άντε^ωκε, τοις Be \οι- 
ΤΓοΐς apyvpiov άντϊ της 'χ^ώρας το μεν ενειμε το 

7 δ' ύττεσ'χετο. συγνα μεν 'yap καϊ εκ της νίκης 
εκτησατο, ττοΧλω Se ετυ ττΧειω ανηΧισκε. καϊ Βία 
τούτο καϊ ιτροε^^ρα'ψεν εν τω ττρατηρίω τά τε 
εαυτού κτήματα καϊ τα των εταίρων y Ίνα αν τε 
Ίτρίασθαί τί αύτων αν τε καϊ άντίΧαβεΐν τις 

8 εθε\ησΎ}, τούτο ττοιηση. καϊ εττράθη μεν ούΒέν, 
ούδ' άντεΒόθη ούΒεν τις yap αν καϊ ετόΧμησεν 
οτΓοτερονοΰν αυτών ιτράξαι; της Βε Βη ετταγγελ/α?^ 
άναβοΧην εκ τούτου εύπρεττη Χαβων ύστερον 
αύτην εκ των ΚΙ^υτττίων Χαφύρων άττήΧΧαζε. 

5 Ύαΰτά τε ούν καϊ τα άΧΧα τά iireiyovTa Bioi- 
κησας, τοις τ ε τίνα άΒεΐ-αν Χαβονσι καϊ εν ttj 
^ΙταΧία Βίαιτάσθαι (ού yap εξήν) Βούς, καϊ τον 
Βήμον τον εν τη 'νώμη ύττοΧειφθεντα τταρεμενος 
ΟΤΙ μη ττρος αύτον ηΧθεν, ες τε την 'ΚΧΧάΒα 
αύθις τριακοστή μετά την άφίξίν ήμερα άττήρε, 

2 καϊ Βίά του Ισθμού του της ΤΙεΧοττοννήσου τάς 
ναύς ύίΓο του 'χ^ειμώνος ύ^Γεpεvεyκωv ούτω ταγεως 
ες την ^Ασίαν άνεκομίσθη ώστε καϊ τον Αντώνιον 
την τε ΚΧεοττάτραν εκάτερον αμα, καϊ οτι άφωρ- 

3 μήθη καϊ οτι εττανήΧθε, μαθεΐν. ως yap τότε εκ 
της ναυμαχ^ίας εφυyov, μ^χρι μεν τΡ]ς ΐΙεΧοττον- 

^ i-n-ayyeXias Xvl., cnrayyiXias ^ Μ. 



communities in Italy which had sided witli Antony b.c. so 
he was able to f^rant to his soldiers their cities and 
their farms. To most of those who were dispossessed 
he made compensation by permitting them to settle 
in Dyrrachium, Phili])pi, and elsewhere^ while to the 
remainder he either granted mone}^ for their land or 
else promised to do so ; for though he had acquired 
great sums by his victory, yet he was spending still 
more by far. For this reason he advertised at 
auction both his own possessions and those of his 
companions, in order that any one who desired to 
purchase any of them, or to t.ake any of them in 
exchange for sometliing else, might do so. And 
althougii nothing was purchased, and nothing taken 
in exchange, either — for who, pray, would ever have 
dared follow either course ? — yet he secured by this 
means a plausible excuse for delay in carrying out 
his promise, and later he discharged the debt out of 
the spoils of Egypt. 

After settling this and the other business that 
pressed, giving to those who had received a grant of 
amnesty the right also to live in Italy, not before 
permitted them, and forgiving the })opulace which had 
remained behind in Rome for not having gone to 
meet him, he set out once more for Greece on the 
thirtieth dav after his arrival. Then, because it was 
winter, he carried his ships across the isthmus of the 
Peloj)onnesus ^ and got back to Asia so quickly that 
Antony and Cleopatra learned at one and the same 
time both of his departure and of his return. Tliey, 
it appears, when they had made their escape from the 
naval battle at Aetium, had gone as far as the 

^ In order to avoid the dangerous passage around Cape 



νήσου 6 μου άφίκοντο, εντεύθεν he των συνόντων 
Τίνάς, όσους ύττώπτευον, άττοττεμψαντβς {ττοΧΧοΙ 
δε καΙ ακόντων αύτων άττβ'χ^ώρησαν) Κ^Χεοττάτρα 
μβν €9 την ΑΓγυτΓτοζ^, μ}} τι της συμφopάs σφων 

4 τΓροττυθόμβνοί νεωτερίσωσιν, ηττεί'χθη, καΧ οττως 
ye και τον ττρόσττΧουν άσφαΧή ττοίησηταί, τάς τ€ 
ττρωρας ώς καΐ κεκρατηκυία κατεστεψε και ωόάς 
τινας επινικίους υπ αύΧητών ySev eirel Se iv τω 
άσφάΧεΐ iy άνετο, ττοΧΧούς μεν των ττρώτων, άτε 
καϊ αεί οι ^ ά'χθομενων καΐ τότε εττΐ τη συμφορά 

6 αυτής εττηρμένων, εφόνευσε, ττοΧύν 8ε καϊ ττΧουτον 
6Κ τε των εκείνων κτημάτων καϊ εκ των άΧΧων 
καϊ οσίων καϊ θείων, μ7]8ενος μηΒε των ττάνυ 
άβατων Ιερών φείΒομενη, ηθροιζε, δυνάμεις τε 
εξηρτύετο καϊ συμμα-χ^ίας ττεριεσκόττεί, τον τε 
^Αρμενιον άτΓΟΚτείνασα την κεφαΧην αυτοί) τω 
Μτ^δω, ώς καϊ εττίκουρησοντί σφισί Sia τουτ, 

6 εττεμψεν. ^Αντώνως 8ε εττΧευσε μεν ες την 
Αιβύην ττρός τε Τίίνάριον ^κάρττον καϊ ττρος το 
στράτευμα το μετ αυτού εττΐ τη της Alyυπτoυ 
φυΧακη ενταύθα 7ΓpoσυvεLXεyμεvov' εττεί δ' ούτε 
ττροσ^εζεσθαι αύτον εφη,^ καϊ ττροσετί καϊ τους 
ττροττεμφθεντας ύττ αυτού έσφαξε, τών τε στρα- 
τιωτών ών ηρχ^ν άyavaκτήσavτάς τινας εττΐ 
τούτω Βίέφθειρεν, ούτω 8η καϊ αύτος ες την 
^ΑΧεξάν8ρειαν μη8εν ττεράνας εκομίσθη. 

6 Kat τά τε άΧΧα ώς εττΐ τα^^εΐ ττοΧεμω τταρε- 
σκευάζοντο, καϊ τους υΐεΐς, ΚΧεοττάτρα μεν 
Κ,αίσαρίωνα ^Αντώνιος 8ε "ΑντνΧΧον, ον εκ της 
ΦουΧουίας yεvvηθεvτa οΐ είγεν, ες εφήβους εσε- 

1 οί Μ, οιη. V. 

^ €φ-η supplied by Leuncl. 



Peloponnesus togetlier ; from tliere, after they had b.c. 30 
first dismissed a number of their associates whom 
tliey suspected, — many, too, withdrew a<^ainst their 
wishes, — Cleopatra had hastened to Egypt, for fear 
that her subjects would begin a revolt if they heard 
of the disaster before her arrival. And in order 
to make her a{)proach, too, safe she crowned her 
j)rows with garlands as if siie had actually Λνοη a 
victory, and had songs of triumph chanted to the 
accomj)animent of flute-players. But as soon as she 
had reached safety, she slew many of the foremost 
men, inasmuch as they had always been displeased 
with her and Λvere now elated over her disaster ; 
and she proceeded to gather vast wealth from their 
estates and from various other sources both profane 
and sacred, sparing not even the most holy shrines, 
and also to fit out her forces and to look about for 
allies. She put to death the Armenian king and sent 
his head to the Mede, who might be induced thereby, 
she thought, to aid them. Antony, for his part, had 
sailed to Pinarius Scarpus in Africa and to the army 
under Scarpus' command previously assembled there 
for the protection of Egypt. But when this general 
not only refused to receive him but furthermore slew 
the men sent ahead by Antony, besides executing 
some of the soldiers under his command who showed 
dis}>leasure at this act, then Antony, too, pro- 
ceeded to Alexandria without having accomplished 

Now among the other pre})arations they made for 
speedy warfare, they enrolled among the youths of 
military age, Cleo})atra her son Caesarion and Antony 
his son Antyllus, who had been born to him by 
Eulvia and was then with him. Their purpose was 



Ύρα-ψαν, iv ol re Kl'^/otttlol ώς καΐ άρΕρός τινο<ζ 
η8η βασίλβύοντός σφων ττροθυμηθώσι, καΐ οι 
aWoi ιτροστατα<; βκανονς, αν ye τί Secvov σφίσι 

2 σνμβτ}, βχ^οντβς καρτερησωσί. και τοις μεν 
μειρακιας καί τούτο αίτιον του οΧεθρου ε^ενετο' 
ουδέτερου yap αυτών 6 Ιίαΐσαρ, ώ? καΐ άντρων 
όντων και ττροσ'χ^ημα τι ττροστασιας ενόντων, 
εφείσατο' εκείνοι δ' ουν τταρεσκευάζοντο μεν ως 
καΐ εν τχι A.ιyύ^Γτω καΐ ναυσι καΐ ττεζω ττοΧεμη- 

3 σοντες, και εττΐ τούτω και τα έθνη τα όμόχ^ωρα 
τους τε βασιλέας τους φίλιους σφίσι ττροστταρε- 
κάλουν, ητοιμάζοντο δ' ονΒεν ήττον ως και ες την 
^Ιβηρίαν, αν τί κατεττείξτ], ττλευσούμενοι καΐ τα 
εκεί αΧλως τε καΐ τω ττληθει των χρημάτων 
άτΓοστησοντες, η καΐ ττρος την ερυθραν θάλασσαν 

4 μεταστησομενοι. και οττως yε εττΐ ττΧεΐστον 
βουλευόμενοί ταύτα ΒιαΧάθωσιν, ή και εζαιτατη- 
σωσί ττ-η τον Κ,αίσαρα ή και Βολοφονήσωσιν, 
έστειλαν τ ίνας εκείνω μεν λ6yoυς ύττερ ειρήνης 
τοις δε Βη συνουσιν αύτω 'χ^ρήματα φέροντας. 

5 καν τούτω καΐ ή ΚΧεοττάτρα σκήτττρόν τε τι ^ 
•χρυσοΰν και στεφανον 'χρυσοΰν τον τε Βίφρον τον 
βασιΧικόν, κρύφα του Αντωνίου, ως και την 
άρ'χ^ην οι 8ι αυτών ~ 8ιΒουσα εττεμ^Ιτεν, Ιν^ αν καΐ 

6 εκείνον ^χθηρη, αλλ' αύτην yε ελεηση. ο δε τα 
μεν 8ώρα ελαβεν οιωνον ττοιούμενος, άττεκρινατο 
8ε τω μεν 'Άντωνίω ούΒεν, τη δε ΚΧεοττάτρα 
φανερώς μεν άλΧα τε άττειΧητικά καΐ οτι, αν των 
τε οΊτλων και της βασιλείας άττοστη, βουΧεύσεται 

^ Ti Μ, οηι. V. 

^ αυτών Μ, ahruv \ 



to arouse the enthusiasm of the Egyptians^ who b.c. 30 
would feel that they had at last a man for their 
kintr^ and to cause tlie rest to continue the struggle 
with these boys as their leaders, in case anything 
untoward should happen to the parents. Now as 
for the lads, this j)roved one of the causes of their 
undoing ; for Caesar spared neither of them, claiming 
that tliey were men and were clothed with a sort of 
leadership. But to return to Antony and Cleo})atra, 
they were indeed making tlieir })reparations with a 
view to waging war in Egypt botli on sea and on 
land, and to this end they were calling to their 
aid the neighbouring tribes and the kings who were 
friendly to them ; but they were also making ready, 
none the less, to sail to Spain if need should arise, 
and to stir up a revolt there by their vast resources 
of money and by other means, or even to change 
the base of their operations to the Red Sea. And 
in order that while engaged in these plans they 
might escape observation for the longest possible 
time or even deceive Caesar in some way or actually 
slay liim by treachery, they despatched emissaries 
λυΙιο carried peace pro})osals to him and bribes of 
money to his followers. Meanwhile Cleoj)atra, on 
her })art, unknown to Antony, sent to him a golden 
scc})tre and a golden crown together with the royal 
throne, signifying tliat tIn*ough them she offered him 
the kingdom as well ; for slie hoped that even if he 
did hate Antony, he would yet take pity on her 
at least. Caesar accepted her gifts as a good omen, 
but made no answer to Antony ; to Cleoj)atra, how- 
ever, although he publicly sent threatening messages, 
including tlie announcement that, if she would give 
u}) her armed forces and renounce her sovereignty, 

c 2 


TTcpl αυτής οσα ^ρη ττρίιξαι, Χάθρα he 'ότι, eav 
τον Κντώνίον άττοκτείνΎ], και την ahetav αύττ) κάί 
την άρχ^ην άκίραιον Βώσβι, 
7 Έΐ' ω δέ ταύτα eyiyveTO, τα? re ναΰ<; τας ev τω 
^Αραβίκω κόΧττω ττρος τον e? ^ την βρνθράν 
θάλασσαν ττΧοΰν vaυ'π^ηyηθeίσa<^ οι Άράβιοι, 
ΤΓΕίσθεντβς υττο Υ^υ'ίντου ΑώΙον τον τής ουρίας 
άρχ^οντος, κατβττρησαν, καΐ τας βιηκουρίας καΐ οι 

2 ζήμοι, καϊ οΐ Βυνάσται ττάντβς άττηρνησαντο. και 
μοι θαυμάσαί eirepyeTaL otl άΧλοι μεν συχνοί, 
καίττερ ττοΧλα ιταρ αυτών εΙΧηφότες, iy/caTeXiTrov 
σφας, οΐ δε βττϊ ταΐς οιτΧομα'χίαίς iv τοις ατιμό- 
τατα τρεφόμενοι ττροθυμία τε ες αυτούς ττΧειστττι 

3 εχ^ρησαντο καϊ άνΒρειότατα ήyωvίσavτo. ούτοι 
yap εν }ίυζίκω ττρος τους εττινικίους άyώvaς, ους 
εττΐ τω Κ^αίσαρι άζειν ηΧττιζον, ασκούμενοι, τότε 
εττειΒη τάχιστα των yεyov6τωv γσθοντο, ώρμησαν 

4 ες την Aϊyυ7Γτov ώς καϊ βοηθήσοντες αύτοΐς, καϊ 
ΊΤοΧΧα μεν τον ^Αμύνταν εν Ty ΤαΧατία ττοΧΧα 8ε 
καϊ τους του Ύαρκον8ιμ6του τταΐΕας εν τ τ} ΚιΧικια, 
φίΧους μεν σφισιν ες τα μάΧιστα yεvoμεvoυς, rore 
Be Ίτρος τα τταρόντα μεταστάντος, ττοΧΧά 8ε καϊ 
τον ΑίΒιον κωΧύοντά σφας τής 8ιο8ου εΒρασαν. 

5 ου μεντοι καϊ Βιαττεσεΐν ες την Aiyvmov η8υνη- 
θησαν, αλλ' εττειΒη ττανταχόθεν ττεριεστοί'χ^ι- 
σθησαν, Xoyov μεν ού8^ ως ού8ενα, καίτοι του 
Αι8ίου συ-χνά σφισιν υτησγνουμενου, ττροσεΒε- 

^ is Μ, rrphs V. 


he would consider what ought to be done in her u.c. so 
case, he secretly sent word that, if she would kill 
Antony, he would grant her pardon and leave her 
realm inviolate. 

While these negotiations were proceeding, the 
Arabians, instigated by Quintus Didius, the governor 
of Syria, burned the ships in the Arabian Gulf which 
had been built for the voyage to the Red Sea,^ and 
the i)eoj)les and princes without exception refused 
their assistance to Antony. Indeed, I cannot but 
marvel that, while a great many others, though 
they had received numerous gifts from Antony and 
Cleopatra, now left them in the lurch, yet the men 
who were being kept for gladiatorial combats, 
Λνΐιο were among the most despised, showed the 
utmost zeal in their behalf and fought most bravely. 
These men, I should explain, were training in 
Cyzicus for the triumphal games which they were 
expecting to hold in celebration of Caesar's over- 
throw, and as soon as they became aware of Λvhat 
had taken place, they set out for Egypt to bear 
aid to their rulers. Many were their exploits 
against Amyntas in Galatia and many against the 
sons of Tarcondimotus in Cilicia, who had been their 
strongest friends but now in view of the changed 
circumstances had gone over to the other side ; 
many also were their exploits against Didius, who 
undertook to j)revent their passing through Syria ; 
nevertheless, they were unable to force their way 
through to Egypt. Yet even when they were sur- 
rounded on all sides, not even then would they 
accept any terms of surrender, though Didius made 

^ The " Red Sea" of the ancients is the Persian Gulf of 
to-day, their "Arabian (Julf " the modern Red Sea. 



ξαντυ, τον δέ ^Αντώνιον μβταπέμψαντες ώ? καΐ 
iv T7J Έ,υρία άμβινον μετ αύτοΰ ττοΧεμήσοντες, 

6 evretr' εττβίΒη βκείνο^ μητ αύτος ηΧθε μητ αγ- 
yeXiav TLva αυτοί'; βττβμ^ΙτΒν, ούτω 8η νομίσαντε^ 
αύτον ατΓοΧωΧεναί και ακοντ€<; ώμοΧόγισαν ίττϊ 
τω μηΒβΤΓΟΤβ μονομαχησαί, και την ηε Αάφνην 
Ίταρα του ΑιΒίου, το των \\ντιο^€ων ττροάστειον, 
ενοίκείν μβ'χρις αν τω Ιίαίσαρι ταύτα 8η\ωθ^ 

7 ΚαΙ οΙ μεν ύττο του Μεσσαλου ύστερον άττατη- 
θεντες εττεμφθησαν άΧΧος άΧΧοσε ώ<ζ καΧ ες τα 
στρατόττεΒα καταΧεχ^θησόμενοί, καΐ εκ τρόττου Βη 

8 Τίνος ετΓίτηΒείου εφθάρησαν 'Αντώνιος Βε καΐ 
ΚΧεοττάτρα άκούσαντες των ττρεσβεων τα τταρα 
του }ζ.αίσαρός σφίσιν εττισταΧεντα, εττεμ^^ταν 
αύθις, η μεν 'χ^ρηματα αύτω ττοΧΧα Βώσειν ύτησ- 
'χνουμενη, 6 he της τε φίΧίας καΐ της συγγενείας 
αύτον άναμιμνησκων, καΐ ττροσετί και ττερί της 
συνουσίας της ττρος την ΑΙ^υτττίαν άττοΧο'γού- 
μενος, οσα τε συνηράσθησάν ττοτε καΐ οσα 

2 συνενεανιεύσαντο άΧΧηΧοίς εξαριθ μου μένος, καΐ 
τέΧος ΤίούττΧίον ΎουρούλΧίον βουΧευτην τε οντά 
καΐ σφαγέα του Κ,αίσαρος 'γε'γονότα τότε τε 
φίΧικως οι συνόντα εζεΒωκεν αύτω, καΐ εαυτόν, 
άν Ύε καΐ Βιά τούθ' η ΚΧεοττάτρα σωθη, κατα- 

3 'χ^ρησεσθαι, εττη'γγείΧατο. Καίσαρ he τον μεν 
ΎουρούΧΧίον άττεκτεινε (^καΐ ετυγε yap εκ της εν 
Κω του ΆσκΧητΓίοΰ ΰΧης ζύΧα ες ναυτικον κεκο- 
φώς, hίκηv τινά καΐ τω θεω, οτί εκεί εhικaLώθη, 

ουναο εοοξε), τω ο Αντωνιω ουοεν ουοε τότε 

4 άττεκρίνατο. τρίτην τε ούν ττρεσβείαν εστειΧε, 



them many promises. Instead, they sent for Antony, n.c so 
feeling that they would fight better even in Syria 
if he were with them ; and then, when he neither 
came himself nor sent them any message, they at 
last decided that he had perished and reluctantly 
made terms, on condition that they were never to 
fight as gladiators. And they received from Didius 
Daphne, the suburb of Antioch, to dwell in until 
the matter should be brouiiht to Caesar's attention. 

These men were later deceived by Messalla and 
sent to various places under the pretext that they 
were to be enlisted in the legions, and were then 
put out of the way in some convenient manner. 
Antony and Cleopatra, for their part, upon hearing 
from the envoys the demands which Caesar made of 
them, sent to him again. Cleopatra promised to give 
him large amounts of money, and Antony reminded 
him of their friendship and kinship, made a defence 
also of his connexion with the Egyptian woman, and 
recounted all the amorous adventures and youthful 
pranks which they had shared together. Finally, 
he surrendered to him Publius Turullius, who was a 
senator and one of the assassins of Caesar and was 
then living with Antony as a friend ; and he offered 
to take his own life, if in that way Cleopatra might 
be saved. Caesar put Turullius to death (it chanced 
that this man had cut wood for the fleet from the 
grove of Aesculapius in Cos, and since he was executed 
in Cos, he was thought to be making amends to the 
god as well as to Caesar), but this time also he gave 
no answer to Antony. So Antony despatched a 



καί τον υ'ίον τον'ΆντυΚΚον μβτά ^ρυσίον ττοΧλού 
αντω βττεμψβν ο δε τα μεν 'χρήματα βΧαβεν, 
€Κ€Ϊνον Be Sua /cevfj^ άνταττβστβιΧε, μη^βμίαν 
άττόκρισιν Βούς. ttj μέντοι ΚΧβοττάτρα ττολλά, 
ωσττερ το ττρώτον, οΰτω κάϊ το BevTcpov τό τ€ 

5 τρίτον καΐ βττηττείΧησβ κα\ νττεσγβτο. φοβηθεί^; 
Β ουν και ώ? μη ττως άττο^νόντε^ συ'γ^/νώμη<; τταρ 
αυτοί) τεύ^εσθαι Βίακαρτερήσωσι, κάί ήτοι, κα\ 
καθ* εαυτούς ττερι^ενωνται, η καΐ ες την Ίβϊ}ρίαν 
την τε ΓαΧατίαν άττάρωσιν, η καΐ τα 'χρήματα, 

6 α τταμΊτΧηθ?) -ηκουεν είναι, φθείρωσιν (ή yap 
ΚΧεοττάτρα ττάντα τε αύτα ες το μνημεΐον, ο εν 
τω βασιΧείω κατεσκεύαζεν, ηθροίκει, και ττάντα, 
αν γε τίνος καΐ ελαχίστου Βιαμάρτη, κατακαύσειν 
μεθ^ εαυτής ήπείΧει), ^ύρσον εζεΧβύθερον εαυτού 
εττεμ'ψεν άΧΧα τε ττοΧΧα καϊ φιΧάνθρωττα αύττι 

7 ερούντα, καϊ οτι καϊ ερών αύτης τυγχάνει, ει ττως 
εκ <γε τούτου, οΙα ανιούσα ττρος ττάντων άνθρώ- 
ττων εράσθαί, τον τε ^ Αντώνιον άναχρήσαιτο και 
εαυτην τά τε χρήματα ακέραια τηρήσειε. και 
εσχεν ούτως. 

9 ΐΐρίν Βε Βη ^ ταύτα 'γί'γνεσθαι, μαθών 6 
^Αντώνιος ΟΤΙ ΚορνηΧιος Γάλλο? τό τε του 
άκαρπου στράτευμα τταρείΧηφε καϊ μετ αυτών 
το ΤΙαραιτονιον εξαίφνης τταρεΧθών κατεσχηκεν, 
ες μεν την ^υρίαν, καίτοι βουΧηθεΙς κατά την 
των μονομάχων μετάττεμψιν ορμήσαι, ουκ εττο- 

2 ρεύθη, εττΐ Βε εκείνον εχώρησεν ώς μάΧιστα μεν 
άκονιτί τους στρατιώτας ττροσθησομενος (τ}σαν 
yap εννοιάν τίνα αυτού εκ της συστρατείας 
έχοντες), ει Βε μη, βία γε χειρωσόμενος άτε καϊ 

^ δ^ Leuncl., ^δτ? VM. 


third embassy, sending him his son Antyllus with b.c. 30 
much gold. Caesar accepted the money, but sent 
the boy back empty-handed, giving him no answer. 
To Cleopatra, however, as in the first instance, so 
again on the second and third occasions, he sent 
many threats and promises alike. Yet he was afraid, 
even so, that they might perhaps despair of obtaining 
pardon from him and so hold out, and either prove 
su[)erior by their own efforts, or set sail for Spain and 
Gaul, or else might destroy their wealth, which he 
kept hearing was of vast extent ; for Cleopatra had 
collected it all in her tomb which she was construct- 
ing in the royal grounds, and she threatened to burn 
it all up with her in case she should fail of even 
the slightest of her demands. So he sent Thyrsus, 
a freedman of his, to say many kind things to her 
and in particular to tell her that he was in love 
with her. He hoped that by this means at least, 
since she thought it her due to be loved by all 
mankind, she would make aAvay with Antony and 
keep herself and her money unharmed. And so it 

i3ut before this happened, Antony learned that 
Cornelius Gall us had taken over Scarpus' army and 
had suddenly marched with these troops upon 
Paraetonium and occupied it. Hence, although he 
wished to set out for Syria in response to the 
summons of the gladiators, he did not go thither, 
but proceeded against Gall us, in the hoj)e of winning 
over the troops without a struggle, if possible, inas- 
much as they had been with him on campaigns and 
were fairly well disposed toward him, but otherwise 
of subduing them by force, since he was leading 



}>νναμίν ΤΓοΧΧην και ναυτίκην κ αϊ ττεζην eTrayo- 

3 μβρος. ου μβντοί ovBe ^ ΒίαΧε'χθηναί τι αντοΐς 
ηΒννηθη, καίττβρ iTpo<^ re ro τ€Ϊγ^ο<ζ ττροσεΧθων 
καί 'γ€<γωι>ον βοησα^;' ο yap Γάλλο? τους σαΧ- 
ΤΓίκτας ^ συνη'χβίν κβΧευσας ού^βν ούΒενΙ €σακοΰσαι 
έττέτρεψε. και ιτροσετι καΐ βττεκΒρομτ} αΙφνίΕίω 
eiTTaiae, καΐ μετά τούτο καΐ ταΐς ναυσίν βσφάλη. 

4 άΧύσ€ΐ<; yap τινας ύφύ^ρους νύκτωρ hia του στό- 
ματος τοϋ Χιμβνος 6 Γάλλο? Βίατείνας ούΒβμίαν 
αυτού φανεραν φυΧακην εττοίησατο, άΧΧα και 
ττάνυ άΒεώς εϊσω μβτα καταφρονη ματος εσ- 
ττΧεοντάς σφας περιεΐΒεν εττεί μεντοι ενΒον 
iyivovTO, τάς τε άΧύσεις μη'χαναΐς άνεσττασε, και 
ττανταγόθεν αμα τας ναυς αυτών εκ τε της yr}^ 
καΐ εκ των οικιών της τε θαΧάσσης ττερισγ^ών 

5 τας μεν κατεττρησε τάς 8ε κατεττόντωσε. καν 
τούτω και το ΐΙηΧούσιον 6 Κ,αΐσαρ, λόγω μεν 
κατά το Ισ^ζυρον εpyω δε ττροΒοθεν υιτο της 
ΚΧεοττάτρας, εΧαβεν. εκείνη yap ως οΰτε τις 
εβοηθησε σφισι καΐ τον }ίαίσαρα άvavτayώvL- 
στον οντά ησθετο, το τε μεyιστov άκούσασα τους 
Βιά του Πυρσού ττεμφθεντας οΐ X6yoυς, ειτίστευσεν 
όντως ερασθαι, ττρώτον μεν οτι καΐ εβούΧετο, 
εττειτα Βε οτι και τον ττατερα αύτου τον τε 

6 ^Αντώνιον ομοίως εΒεΒούΧωτο. κάκ τούτου ούχ 
οττως την τε αΒειαν και την τών Aιyυ7Γτίωv βα- 
σιΧείαν, άΧΧά καΐ το τών Ύωμαιων κράτος εζειν 
ττροσεΒόκησε, τό τε ΤΙηΧούσιον ευθύς αύτω ττροη- 
κατο, και μετά τοΰτο ττροσεΧαύνοντι ττρος την 
ττόΧιν εκώΧυσε τους ^ΑΧεζανΒρεας Χάθρα εττεξεΧ- 

1 ovd€ Bk., οΰτ€ VM. 

^ σαλπί/ίτάί Μ, σαλπίγκτοί V. 



agcainst them a large force both of ships and of b.c. so 
infantry. Nev^ertheless, he Λνα8 unable even to talk 
with them, although he approached their ramparts 
and raised a mighty shout ; for Gallus ordered his 
trumpeters to sound their instruments all together 
and gave no one a chance to hear a \vord. More- 
over^ Antony also failed in a sudden assault and later 
suffered a reverse with his ships as Avell. Gallus, 
it seemSj caused chains to be stretched at night 
across the mouth of the harbour under water, and 
then took no measures openly to guard against his 
opponents but contem})tuously allowed them to sail 
in with perfect immunity. When they were inside, 
however, he drew up the chains by means of machines, 
and encompassing their ships on all sides — from the 
land, from the houses, and from the sea — he burned 
some and sank others. In the meantime Caesar took 
Pelusium, ostensibly by storm, but really because 
it was betrayed by Cleopatra. For she saw that 
no one came to their aid and perceived that Caesar 
was not to be withstood ; and, most important of 
all, she listened to the message sent her through 
Thyrsus, and believed that she was really beloved, in 
the first place, because she wished to be, and, in the 
second place, because she had in the same manner 
enslaved Caesar's father and Antony. Consequently 
she expected to gain not only forgiveness and the 
sovereignty over the Egyptians, but the empire ot 
the Romans as well. So she yielded Pelusium to 
him at once ; and later, when he marched against 
the city, she prevented the Alexandrians from making 
a sortie. She accomplished this secretly, of course. 



Oelvy €7Γ6ΐ όσον ye άττο βοή^ί καί ττάνυ σφά<; 
ττροβτρβψατο τούτο ττοιήσαι. 
10 Ο δ' ονν Αντώνιος βκ του Υίαραίτονίου ττρος 
την Trepi του ΠβΧουσίου ττύστιν βττανεΧθών ττρο- 
αιτηντησβ ττρο της ^ ΑΧεξαν^ρείας τω Καίσαρι, καί 
αύτον κεκμηκοτα εκ της ττορείας ύποΧαβών τοις 

2 ίτΓττεΰσιν ενίκησεν. άναθαρσησας τε εκ τε τούτου 
καί ΟΤΙ βίβΧία ες το στρατυττεΒον αυτοί) τοζεύ- 
μασιν εσεττεμ^ψε ττεντακοσίας σφίσι και -χ^ιΧίας 
Βρα^μας ύττισχ^νον μένος, συνεβαΧε και τω ττεζω 

3 και ?}ττ7;^7;• 6 yap Ιίαΐσαρ αύτος τα βιβΧία 
εθεΧοντης τοΐς στρατιώταις άvεyvω, τον τε Άζ/τώ- 
viov ΒίαβάΧΧων και εκείνους ες τε την της ττρο- 
Βοσίας αίσγυνην καΐ ες την υττερ εαυτού ττροθυ- 
μίαν αντικαθιστάς, ώστε καΐ Βια τούτο αυτούς τη 
τ€ της ττείρας άyavaκτησεL καΐ τη του μη εθεΧο- 

4 κακεΐν Βόζαι ενΒείζεί σιτουΒάσαι. καΐ 6 μεν εττει- 
Βη Ίταρά Βόξαν 7]Χαττώθη, ττρός τε το ναυτικον 
άττεκΧινε, καΐ τταρεσκευάζετο ως καΐ ναυμαχησων 
ή πάντως ye ες την Ίβηρίαν ιτΧευσού μένος' ΙΒούσα 
Βε τουθ* η ΚΧεοττάτρα τάς τε ναΰς αύτομοΧησαι 

5 ετΓΟίησε, καΐ αύτη ες το ηρίον εξαίφνης εσεττηΒησε, 
Xόyω μεν ως τον Κ^αίσαρα φοβούμενη και ττρο- 
Βιαφθεΐραι τρόττον τινά εαυτην βουΧομενη, epy(p 
Βε καΧ τον ^Αντώνιον εκεΐσε εσεΧθεΐν ττροκαΧου- 
μενη' ύττετοττει μεν yap ττροΒιΒοσθαι, ού μεντοι 
καΐ εττίστευεν ύττο του έρωτος, άΧΧά καΐ μάΧΧον 

6 ώς είττείν εκείνην η εαυτόν ^ ηΧεει. οττερ ττου η 
Κ,Χεοττάτρα ακριβώς εΙΒυϊα ήΧτησεν' οτι, αν ττύ- 
θηται αύτην τετεΧευτηκυΙαν, ουκ εττιβιώσεται 
άΧΧά τταραχ^ρήμα άττοθανειται. και Βιά τούτο €ς 

* (avrhv Μ, eowrV ^''• * ^λπισεν Μ, ί'ιλπιζξν V. 



since, to judge by the outcry she made, she exhorted b.c. 30 
them vigorously to do so. 

At tlie news concerning Pelusium Antony returned 
from Paraetonium and went to meet Caesar in front 
of Alexandria, and attacking him with his cavalry, 
while the other was wearied from his march, he won 
the day. Encouraged by this success, and because he 
had shot arrows into Caesar's camp carrying leaflets 
which promised the men six thousand sesterces, 
he joined battle also with his infantry and Avas 
defeated. For Caesar of his own accord personally 
read the leaflets to his soldiers, at the same time re- 
viling Antony and trying to turn them to a feeling of 
shame for the suggested treachery and of enthusiasm 
for himself; the result was that they were fired by 
zeal through this very incident, both by reason of 
their indignation at the attempt made upon their 
loyalty and by way of demonstrating that they were 
not subject to the suspicion of being base traitors. 
After his unexpected setback, Antony took refuge 
in his fleet, and was preparing to give battle on the 
si;a or at any rate to sail to Spain. But Cleopatra, 
upon perceiving this, caused the ships to desert, and 
she herself rushed suddenly into the mausoleum, 
pretending that she feared Caesar and desired by 
some means or other to forestall him by taking her 
own life, but really as an invitation to Antony to 
enter there also. He had a susjucion, to be sure, 
that he was being betrayed, yet in his infatuation he 
could not believe it, but actually pitied her more, 
one might say, than himself. Cleopatra, doubtless, 
was fully aware of this and lu)])cd that if he should 
be informed that she was dead, he would not wish 
to survive her, but >vould die at once. Accordingly 



re TO μνημεΐον συν re εύνούγ^ίρ rcvl και συν θερα- 
τταίναΐ'ζ Svo βσβ^ραμε, καΐ βκεΐθεν ayyeXiap αύτω 

7 ώς και άττοΧωΧυΐα βττεμψε. καΐ 09 άκουσας τούτο 
ουκ εμεΚΚησεν, αλλ ετταττοθανείν αύττ] ίττεθύμησε. 
καΐ το μεν ττρωτον των παρόντων τίνος ε^εηθη ίνα 
αύτον άτΓοκτείντ)' εττεί Βε εκείνος σττασάμενος το 
ζίφος εαυτόν κατειρ^άσατο, ζηΧωσαι τε αύτον 
ηθεΧησε και εαυτόν ετρωσεν, και εττεσε τε εττΐ 
στόμα καϊ Βοζαν τοις τταροΰσιν ως καΐ τεθνηκως 

8 ιταρεσ'χε, θορύβου τε εττΐ τούτω γενομένου τίσθετό 
τε η Κ,Χεοπάτρα καϊ ύττερεκυψεν ύττερ του μνη- 
μείου' αΐ μεν yap θύραι αυτού συyκXείσθεlσaι 
άτταξ ούκετ ανοίγθηναί εκ μη'χανήματός τίνος 
εΒύναντο, τα δ' άνω ττρος ττ} οροφτ} ού^εττω τταν- 

9 τεΧως εζειpyaστo. εντεύθεν ουν ύττερκύψασαν 
αύτην ΙΒοντες τίνες άνεβοησαν ώστε καϊ τον ^ Αν- 
τώνιον εσακούσαΐ' καϊ ος μαθών οτί ττερίεστιν, 
εζανεστη μεν ως καϊ ζήσαι δυνάμενος, ττροχ^υθεν- 
τος δ' αύτω ττοΧΧού αίματος άπεyvω τε την σωτη- 
ρίαν, καϊ Ικετευσε τους τταρόντας οττως ττρός τε 
το μνήμα αύτον κομισωσι καϊ Βια των σγοινίων 
των ττρος την άνοΧκην των Χίθων κρεμάμενων άνι- 

Καϊ 6 μεν ενταύθα ούτω καϊ εν τοις της ΚΧεο- 
11 ττάτρας κόΧττοίς εναττεθανεν, εκείνη δβ εθάρσησε 
μεν ττως τον Καίσαρα, καϊ ευθύς αύτω το yεyovoς 
ε^ηΧωσεν, ου μην καϊ ττάνυ ετηστευε μ7]Βεν κακόν 
ττείσεσθαί. κατείγεν ουν εαυτην εν8ον, IV εΐ καϊ 
δίά μη^εν άΧΧο σωθείη, τω yε φόβω των γ^ρημά- 
των καϊ την άΒείαν καϊ την βασιΧείαν εκττρίηταί. 
2 οΰτω τΓου καϊ τότε εν τηΧίκαύτη συμφορά ούσα 
της δυναστείας εμεμνητο, καϊ μάΧΧόν yε εν τε τω 



she hastened into the tomb witli a eunuch and two u.c. so 
maidservants, and from there sent a message to him 
from which he should infer that she was dead. 
And he, when he heard it, did not delay, but was 
seized by a desire to follow her in death. He first 
asked one of the bystanders to slay him ; but when 
the man drew his sword and slew himself, Antony 
wished to imitate his courage and so gave himself a 
wound and fell upon his face, causing the bystanders 
to believe that he was dead. At this an outcry was 
raised, and Cleopatra, hearing it, peered out over 
the top of the tomb. By a certain contriv^ance its 
doors, once closed, could not be opened again, but 
the upper part of it next to the roof was not yet 
fully completed. Now Λvhen some of them saw her 
peering out at this point, they raised a shout so that 
even Antony heard. So he, learning that she sur- 
vived, stood up, as if lie had still the poΛver to live ; 
but, as he had lost much blood, he despaired of his 
life and besought the bystanders to carry him to the 
monument and to hoist him up by the ropes that 
were hanging there to lift the stone blocks. 

So Antony died there in Cleo})atra's bosom ; and 
she now felt a certain confidence in Caesar, and im- 
mediately informed him of what had taken j^lace ; 
still, she Avas not altogether convinced that she 
would suffer no iiarm. She accordingly kept herself 
within the building, in order that, even if there 
should be no other motive for her preservation, she 
might at least purchase })ardon and her kingdom 
through his fear for the money. So thoroughly 
mindful was she even then, in the midst of her dire 
misfortune, of her royal rank_, and chose rather to 



οροματι καί iv τω σχ/;/χατ^ αυτής άττοθανβΐν ή 
ΙΒιωτεύσασα ζην γρβίτο. α/χελβί βίχε μβν καί το 
ττυρ έττΐ τοις -χ^ρημασιν, εΐ'χε he καϊ άσττίΒας ά\\α 
τ€ βρττετα βφ' βαυττ}, ττροττείραθβΐσα αύτων ev 
ανθρωτΓοις, οντινα τρόπον €καστόν σφων άποκτίν- 

3 νυσι. Ιίαΐσαρ Be βττβθνμβί μεν και των θ^ισαυρών 
Ι^κρατης γενέσθαι καϊ εκείνην ζώσάν τ€ σν\Χα- 
βεΐν και €9 τα νικητήρια avayayeiv, ου μεντοι καϊ 
αυτός ττιστιν τίνα αύτη Βούς άττατεων Βόζαι yeyo- 
vevai ηθεΧησεν, ϊν ως καϊ αΙ^^μαΧώτω καϊ ακουσία 

4 τροτΓον τίνα 'χειρωθειση 'χρήσηται. καϊ Βιά τοντ 
εττεμψε ττρος αύτην Τάιόν τε ΐΙροκουΧείον^ ίτΓΤτεα 
καϊ ΕτταφρόΒίτον εξεΧεύθερον, εντειΧάμενός σφι- 
σιν Όσα καϊ ειττείν καϊ ττραζαι ε-χ^ρήν. καϊ ούτως 
εκείνοι συμμίξαντες τη ΚΧεοπάτρα καϊ μετριά 
τίνα ΒιαΧε'χθεντες, εττειΤ^εξαίφνης συνήρττασαν 

5 αύτην ττριν τι ομοΧο^ηθήναι. κάκ τούτου εκττοΒων 
τταντα άφ ων άττοθανείν εΒύνατο ττοιησάμενοι, 
ημέρας μεν τινας κατά γ^ώραν αύττ] το του ^Αν- 
τωνίου σώμα ταρι-χευούστ] Βιατρΐψαι εττετρεψαν, 
εττειτα Βε ες τα βασίΧεια αυτήν i)yayov, μήτε της 
άκοΧουθίας τι μήτε της θεραττείας της συνήθους 
οι τταραΧύσαντες, οττως ετι καϊ μάΧΧον εΧττιση τε 
οσα εβούΧετο καϊ μηΒεν κακόν εαυτήν Βράση. 

6 άμεΧει καϊ οφθήναι καϊ ΒιαΧεγθ?]ναί τι τω Κ,αισαρι 
εθεΧήσασα εττετυγ^ε• καϊ Ίνα ye ζττϊ ιτΧεΙον άττα- 
τηθή, αύτος άφίζεσθαι ττρος αυτήν ύττεσγ^ετο. 

12 ΟΙκόν τε ούν εκπρεττή καϊ κΧίνην ττοΧυτεΧή 
τταρασκευάσασα, καϊ ιτροσετι καϊ εαυτήν ήμεΧη- 
μενως ττως κοσμήσασα (καϊ yap εν τω ττενθιμω 

^ ΥΙροκουΧίιον Bs., ιτρυκούλιον VM. 


die with the name and dignity of a sovereign than u.c. so 
to live in a })rivate station. At all events, she kept 
at hand fire to consume her wealth, and asps and 
other reptiles to destroy herself, and she had the 
latter tried on human beings, to see in what Avay 
they killed in each case. Now Caesar was anxious 
not only to get possession of her treasures but also to 
seize her alive and to carry her back for his trium})h, 
yet he was unwilling to appear to have tricked her 
himself after having given her a kind of pledge, 
since he wished to treat her as a captive and to a 
certain extent subdued against her will. He there- 
fore sent to her Gains Proculeius, a knight, and 
Epaphroditus, a freedman, giving them directions 
as to what they were to say and do. Following out 
this plan, they obtained an audience with Cleopatra, 
and after discussing with her some moderate pro- 
posals they suddenly seized her before any agree- 
ment was reached. After this they put out of her 
way everything by means of Λvhich she could cause 
her own death and allowed her to spend some days 
where she was, occupied in embalming Antony's 
body ; then they took her to the j)alace, but did not 
remove any of her accustomed retinue or attendants, 
in order that she should entertain more hope than 
ever of accomplishing all she desired^ and so should 
do no harm to herself. At any rate, when she ex- 
pressed a desire to appear before Caesar and to have 
an interview with him, she gained her request ; 
and to deceive her still more, he promised that he 
Avould come to her himself. 

She accordingly prepared a splendid apartment 
and a costly couch, and moreover arrayed herself 
with affected negligence, — indeed, her mourning 




σχ?//χατί Ββίνώς iveTrpeTrev) ^καθίζετο eVt τ/}? 
κΧίνη<ζ, τΓολΧά? μ€ν εικόνας τον ττατρος αυτού καϊ 
τταντο^αττας τταραθβμίνη, ττάσας δε τα? εττίστολα? 
τας τταρ* εκείνου οΙ ττεμφθείσας 6? τον κόΧττον 

2 Χαβονσα. καϊ μετά τούτο εσεΧθόντος τού Καί- 
σαρος άνεττήΒησε τε ερρυθμίσμενη,^ καϊ εφη 
" χαίρε ω δέσποτα' σοΙ μεν ηαρ τούτο θεός ε8ω- 
κεν, εμε 8ε άφείΧετο. αλλ' 6ρας μεν ττου καϊ 
αύτος τον πάτερα σου τοιούτον οίος ττοΧΧάκις 
Ίτρος εμε εσηΧθεν, ακονεις 8ε όπως τά τε άΧΧα 
ετίμησε με καϊ 8η καϊ βασίΧί8α των Αί'^/νπτίων 

3 εποιησεν. Ίνα δ' ουν τι καϊ αυτού εκείνου περί 
εμού πνθτ], Χάβε καϊ άνά^νωθι τα 'γράμματα α 
μοί αυτοχειρία επεστειΧε'' 

Ύαύτά τε άμα εΧε'^/ε, καϊ ποΧΧά καϊ ερωτικά 
αυτού ρήματα άνε<γί^νωσκε. και τότε μεν εκΧαε 
καϊ τάς επίστοΧάς κατεφίΧει, τότε 8ε προς τάς 
εικόνας αυτού προσεπιπτε καϊ εκείνας προσεκύνει. 

4 τά τε βΧεφαρα ες τον Καίσαρα επενεκΧα, καϊ 
εμμεΧώς άνωΧοφύρετο, θρυπτικόν τε τι προσε- 
φθεγγετο, άΧΧοτε μεν Χε^ουσα ''πού μοι, Καίσαρ, 
ταύτα σου τά 'γράμματα;'' άΧΧοτε 8ε otc "αλλ* 
εν τούτω καϊ συ μοι ζτ)ς'' είτα αύθις " εϊθε σον 
προετεθνήκειν, ' κα\ μάΧα αύθις " άΧΧά και τούτον 
έχουσα σε εχω. 

δ ΎοιαύτΎ) τινί ποικιΧία και των ρημάτων και των 
σχημάτων εχρητο, μεΧιχρά άττα καϊ ^ προσβΧε- 
πονσα αύτω και ΧαΧούσα. ό ουν Καίσαρ σννίει 
μεν αντης και παθαινομενης καϊ πΧηκτιζομενης, 

^ €ρρυθμισμ4νη is the reading of VM ; some editors have 
preferred -ηρυθριασμίνη, the reading found in Xiphilinus' 
Epitome. - κα\ Μ, om. V. 



garb wonderfully became ber,-and seated iierself 
upon the coucJi ; beside lier she plaeed many 
of Ins fat UMv nf ,,]] L•;.,^. 1 •. , , •'' . ^^^"^ 

οΠη. faU.e,, of a., Idnds;;;:!?,;?;. bos ^s T^t 
a the letters timt his father had sent her. VVhen 
alter this, Caesar entered, she leaped gracefully i to feet and cried : "Hail, n,aster-for Heaven has 
granted you the mastery and taken it from me " 

vnUr 'fH^ ^"", Τ ?^ '""' y"' °^^" «=J*^s I'ow 
VOur rarlier lf\f\lri^A λ.,Ιλ^., κ „._••. τ •' 

νη,;7.ι•^ you can see w,th your own eyes how 
your father looked when he visited me on many 
occasions and you have heard peo,,]e tell how I,e 
honoured me in various ways and made me queen of 
he Lgypfans. I hat you may, however, learn some- 
hmg about me from him Inmself, take and read the 
letters which he wrote me with his own hand " 

After she had spoken thus, she proceeded to read 
many passionate expressions of Caesar's. And now 

wo'ui7fi; rr' ;""' "^'^^ '''^ '^'"^'•^' -"^ ■■««.-π she 

would fa 1 before his nnages and do them reverence 
Me kept turning her eyes toward Caesar and be- 
wailnig her fate in musical accents. She spoke in 
■nelting tones, saying at one time, "Of what avail to 
me Caesar, are these thy letters.?" and at another, 
Λλ '",',"■'? ''""^ "'°" •■•'«« "'t alive for me " • 

:;^"n' L f /"'' ' !'"'' t,'' ^'^''"'•^ tl>ee,•• and still' 
again, Hut if I have him, I have thee " 

Mlh?"'' *'r "T^'^i"' °f ^P^^^>> "nd of attitude 
wh ch she employed, and sweet were the glances she 
ost at him and the words she murmured to li m 
Now Caesar was not insensible to the ardour of her 
speech and the appeal to his passions, but he pre- 

linus*^i;e"ac'epuT'" " """ ™"'"'' -'><'-8 offered by Xiplii- 
coLInlU^rfwK",,;'',:,','!"'•-^•^'• -:- Caesar, iu 




ου μβντοί και ττροσ€ποΐ€Ϊτο, αλλ' eV τΐ /u yiji^ τους 
οφθαΧμονς epeiaa^ τούτο μόνον elirev, " θάρσει, ω 
ηυναι^ καΐ θυμον €χ^€ α'^αθόν ovSev yap κακόν 
G ττείστ], ' ττβριαΧ^ήσασα ουν εκείνη οτι μήτε ττροσ- 
eihev αύτην μήτε τί ή ττερί τή<; βασιΧείας ή καΐ 
ερωτικόν τι εφθε^ζατο, ττρός τε τα γόνατα αντον 
ττροσεπεσε καΐ άνακΧαύσασα '' ζην μεν " εφη, 
" Καίσαρ, ούτε εθεΧω ούτε Βύναμαΐ' ταύτην δε σε 
την χάριν ες την του ττατρος μνήμην αΙτώ, ίν 
εττειΒή με ^ Α^ντωνίω μετ εκείνον ό δαίμων τταρε- 

1 8ωκε, μετ αυτού καΐ αποθάνω. εϊθε μεν yap 
άττωΧωλειν ευθύς τότε μετά τον Καίσαρα' εττεί 
δε μοι καϊ τούτο τταθείν εττεττρωτο, ττεμψον με 
ττρος ^Αντώνιον, μηΒε μοι της συν αύτω ταφής 
φθόνησες, ΐν ωσττερ 8ί εκείνον άττοθνήσκω, ούτω 
καϊ εν "Αώου αύτω συνοικήσωΓ 

13 Kat η βεν τοιαύτα ά^ς καϊ εΧεηθησομενη έλεγε, 
Καίσαρ δε ττρος μεν ταύτα ούΕεν άττεκρίνατο, 
φοβηθείς δε μη εαυτην 8ιαχρήσηται,^ θαρσεΐν τε 
αύτΐ) αύθις τταρεκέΧεύσατο, και ούτε την θερα- 
ττείαν αύτϊ]ς άφείΧετο καϊ εν εττιμεΧεία αύτην 

2 ετΓοιεΐτο, οττως οι τα ετηνίκια εττιΧαμιτρύντ). τούτο 
τε ουν ύττοτοτη^σασα, καϊ μυρίων θανάτων χαΧε- 
ττώτερον αύτο νομίσασα είναι, όντως τε άττοθανεΐν 
εττεθύμησε, καϊ ττοΧΧά μεν του Καίσαρος, οττως 
τροτΓον τίνα άττόΧηται, ε8εΐτο, ττοΧΧα δε και αύτη 

3 εμηχανάτο. εττεΙ δ' ούΒεν εττεραινε, μετayιyvώ- 
σκειν τε εττΧάσατο ώς καϊ iXiriha ττοΧΧην μεν καϊ 
ες εκείνον ττοΧΧην δε καϊ ες την Αιουίαν έχουσα, 
καϊ εκούσια τε ττΧευσεΐσθαι έλεγε, καϊ κόσμους 
τινάς άτΓοθετους ες 8ώρα ήτοιμάζετο, εΐ ττως ττί- 

^ 5ιαχρ7}σ7]ται R. Steph., διαχρ-ησ^ται ΥΜ. 



tended to be ; and letting his eyes rest upon the 
ground, he merely said : " Be of good cheer, woman, 
and keep a stout heart ; for you shall suffer no harm." 
She was greatly distressed because he would neither 
look at her nor say anything about the kingdom nor 
even utter a word of love, and falling at his knees, 
she said Avith an outburst of sobbing: "I neither 
wish to live nor can I live, Caesar. But this favour 
I beg of you in memory of your father, that, since 
Heaven gave me to Antony after him, I may also 
die with Antony. Would that I had perished then, 
straightway after Caesar ! But since it \vas decreed 
by fate that I should suffer this affliction also,^ send 
me to Antony ; grudge me not burial with him, in 
order that, as it is because of him I die, so I may 
dwell with him even in Hades." 

Such words she uttered, expecting to move him to 
pity, but Caesar made no answer to them ; fearing, 
however, that she might destroy herself, he exhorted 
her again to be of good cheer, and not only did not 
remove any of her attendants but also took special 
care of her, that she might add brilliance to his tri- 
umph. This purpose she suspected, and regarding 
that fate as worse than a thousand deaths, she con- 
ceived a genuine desire to die, and not only addressed 
many entreaties to Caesar that she might perish in 
some manner or other, but also devised many plans 
herself. But when she could accomplish nothing, 
she feigned a change of heart, pretending to set 
great hopes in him and also in Livia. She said she 
Avould sail of her own free will, and she made ready 
some treasured articles of adornment to use as gifts, 

^ That is, that she had not been able to die with Caesar. 



στιν ifc τούτων μη τεθνηζείν ^ Χαβοΰσα r^TToi/ τβ 

4 τηρηθείη καΐ εαυτην eξ6py(ίσaίτo. ο και iy ενετό, 
εττεώη yap οί τε αΚΧοι κα\ ό Έτταφ/^όδίτο?, ωττερ^ 
εττετετρατΓτο, ττίστεύσαντες ταΰθ^ ώς άΧηθως φρο- 
νεΐν, της ακριβούς φνΧακής ημελησαν, τταρεσκευ- 
άζετο 'όπως ως αΚυττότατα άττοθάντ]. και ypaμ- 
ματεΐόν τί, Βι ου εΒεήθη τον Κ^αίσαρος ίνα αύτην 
μετά του ^Αντωνίου ταφηναι κεΧενστ], αντω τω 

5 ^ΈίΤταφρο^ίτω σεσημασμενον, οττως ττροφάσει της 
άτΓοκομίΒής αύτοΰ ως και άΧΧο τί εγ^οντος εκττο- 
8ών οί yεvητaί, 8οϋσα εpyoυ εί)(ετο. την τε yap 
εσθητα την ττερίκαΧΧεστάτην ενΒΰσα, καΐ εαυτην 
εύπρεττεστατα εύθετήσασα, τ6 τε σ'χ^ήμα το βασι- 
Χικον ττάν άναΧαβουσα, άττεθανε. 

14 ΚαΙ το μεν σαφές ούΕεΙς οΐ^εν ω τρόττω Sl- 
εφθάρη' κεντήματα yap Χεπτα ττερί τον βραχίονα 
αυτής μόνα ευρέθη' Xiyovai 8ε οΐ μεν οτί άσττί^α 
εν ύΒρία^ ή καΐ εν άνθεσί τισιν εσκομισθεΐσάν οΐ 

2 ιτροσεθετο, οί Βε οτί βεΧόνην, η τας τρίχ^ας αν- 
εΐρεν, Ιω tlvl, Βύναμιν τοιαύτην εχοντι ώστε αΧΧως 
μεν μηΒεν το σώμα βΧάτττειν, αν δ' αίματος καΐ 
βρα'χυτάτου αψηται, καΐ τάχ^ιστα καΐ άΧυττότατα 
αυτό φθείρειν, γ^ρίσασα τέως μεν αυτήν εν τή 
κεφαΧΐ] εφόρεί ώσπερ εΐώθει, τότε δε ττροκατανυ- 
ξασά Τί * τον βρα'χίονα ες το αίμα ενεβαΧεν. 

3 οΰτω μεν, η otl kyyxjTaTa, μετά τών δύο θερα- 
Ίταινών άττώΧετο' 6 yap εύνουγ^ος άμα τω συΧ- 
Χηφθήναι αυτήν τοΙς τε ερττετοΐς εαυτόν εθεΧοντής 

^ τζθνηξξΐν Dind., τ^θνησ^ιν \}>1. 

^ ωπίρ Μ, ωστν^ρ Λ". 

^ υδρία Τ\. Steph.. vSpeiai VM. 

^ Tt Oddey, tluI VM. 



in tlie liope that by these means slie might inspire 
belief that it was not her purpose to die, and so 
might be less elosely guarded and thus be able to 
destroy herself. And so it came about. For as soon as 
the others and E})aphroditus, to Λvhose charge she had 
been committed, had come to believe that she really 
felt as she ])retended to, and neglected to keep a 
careful Λvatch, she made her preparations to die as 
painlessly as })ossible. First she gave a sealed paper, 
in which she begged Caesar to order that she be 
buried beside Antony, to Epaphroditus himself to 
deliver, pretending that it contained some other 
matter, and then, having by this excuse freed herself 
of his presence, she set to her task. She put on her 
most beautiful apparel, arranged her body in most 
seemly fashion, took in her hands all the emblems of 
royalty, and so died. 

No one knows clearly in what way she perished, 
for the only marks on her body were slight pricks on 
the arm. Some say that she apjilied to herself an 
asj) wliich had been brought in to her in a water-jar, 
or perhaps hidden in some flowers. Others declare 
tliat she had smeared a \nn, Avith which she was Λνοηί to 
fasten licr hair, with some poison possessed of such a 
property that in ordinary circumstances it Λvould not 
injure the body at all, but if it came in contact with 
even a drop of blood would destroy the body very 
quickly and painlessly ; and that previous to this time 
she had worn it in her hair as usual, but ηοΛν had 
made a slight scratch on her arm and had dij)ped the 
pin in the blood. In this or in some very similar 
way she perished, and her two handmaidens witli 
her. As for the eunuch, he had of his own accord 
delivered liimself up to the scrjuMits at the very time 



7Γαρ6οωκ6, καΐ ^ηγθεί^ ύττ' αύτων €<? σορον ττρο- 
τταρεσκβνασμβνην οί εσεπεττη^ηκει. άκουσα'^ he 6 
Κ,αΐσαρ την τεΚευτην αυτής β^επλάγτ;, καΙ τό τε 
σώμα αυτής εΙΒε, καΐ φάρμακα αύτω καΐ Ψύλ- 

4 Χους, εΐ ττως άνασφήΧείε, Ίτροσηνε'^/κεν. οί Βε Βη 
"ΨύΧΧοί ούτοι, ανΒρες μεν είσι (^/υνη yap ου yi- 
yvετaί 'ΨύΧΧα), Βύνανται Be ττάντα τε Ιον τταντος 
ερττετοϋ παραχρήμα, ττρίν θνήσκειν τινά, εκμυζάν, 
κα\ αυτοί μηΒεν ύττο μηΒενος αυτών Βη-χθεντες 

5 βΧάτΓτεσθαι. φύονται Βε εξ άΧΧήΧων, καΐ Βοκι- 
μάζουσι τα yεvvηθεvτa ήτοι μετ οφεών ττου ευθύς 
εμβΧηθεντα, ή καΐ τών airapyavwv αυτών ετη- 
βΧηθεντων τισίν ούτε yap τω τταιΒίω τι Χυμαί- 
νονται, καΧ ύττο της εσθήτος αύτοΰ ναρκώσι. 

6 τούτο μεν τοιούτον εστίν, 6 Βε Βη Καΐσαρ μηΒενα 
τρόπον άναβιώσασθαι την ΚΧεοπάτραν ΒννηθεΙς 
εκείνην μεν κα\ εθαύμασε καΐ ήΧεησεν, αύτος Βε 
Ισ'χυρώς εΧυπήθη ως καΐ πάσης τής επΙ τ^ νίκτ) 
Βόξης εστερημενος. 

15 ^Αντώνιος μεν Βη κα\ Κ,Χεοπάτρα, ποΧΧών μεν 
τοις A.lyυπτίoL•ς ποΧΧών Βε καΐ τοις Ύωμαίοις 
κακών αϊτιοί yεv6μεvoι, ούτω τε εποΧεμησαν καΐ 
ούτως ετεΧεύτησαν, εν τε τω αύτώ τρόπω εταρι- 
γ^εύθησαν, καν τγ αυτή θήκη ετάφησαν. εσχ^ον 
Βε την τε φύσιν τής ψυχρής καΐ τήν τύχην τον 
2 βίου τοιάνΒε. ό μεν συνεϊναί τε το Βεον ούΒενος 
ησσων εyevετo καΐ ποΧΧα άφρονως επραζεν, 
άνΒρεία τε εν τισι Βιεπρεψε καΐ ύπο ΒειΧιας συχνά 
εσφάΧη, τή τε μεyaXoψυχίa καΐ τή ΒουΧοπ ρεπεία 



of Cleoi)atra's arrest, and after being bitten by them b.c. 30 
liad leaped into a coHin already prepared for him. 
When Caesar heard of Cleopatra's death, he was 
astounded, and not only viewed her body but also 
made use of drugs and Psylli ^ in the hope that she 
might revive. These Psylli are males, for there is no 
woman born in their tribe, and they have the power 
to suck out any poison of any reptile, if use is made 
of them immediately, before the victim dies ; and 
they are not harmed themselves when bitten by any 
such creature. They are propagated from one 
another and they test their offspring either by having 
them thrown among serpents as soon as they are 
born or else by having their swaddling-clothes thrown 
u})on serpents ; for the reptiles in the one case do no 
harm to the child, and in the other case are benumbed 
by its clothing. So much for this matter. But Caesar, 
when he could not in any way resuscitate Cleopatra, 
felt both admiration and j)ity for lier, and was ex- 
cessively grieved on his own account, as if he had 
been deprived of all the glory of his victory. 

Thus Antony and Cleopatra, Λνΐιο had caused 
many evils to the Egyptians and many to the Romans, 
made Avar and met their death in the manner I have 
described ; and they were both embalmed in the 
same fashion and buried in the same tomb. Their 
qualities of character and the fortunes of their lives 
were as folloAvs. Antony had no superior in com- 
prehending his duty, yet he committed many acts 
of folly. He sometimes distinguished himself for 
bravery, yet often failed through cowardice. He 
was characterized equally by greatness of soul 

1 Of. riiny, Nu(. Hi-if. xxi. 78. 



e^ ίσου β'χρητο, και τά re άΧλοτρια ηρτταζβ καϊ 
ra οικεία ττροιετο, rfKeei re αλόγω? σνχ^νονς καϊ 

3 βκόλαζβν ά8ίκω<; τΓΧεΙονας' κάκ τούτων Ισγυρό- 
τατο<ζ τ€ βξ ασθενέστατου καϊ 7Γ\ουσιώτατο<ζ εζ 
άτΓορωτάτου γενόμενο'; ουδέτερου αυτών άττώνητο,^ 
άΧλα και το κράτος το των 'Ρωμαίων μόνο<; εζειν 

4 ελτΓίσα? αυτό? εαυτόν άττεκτεινε. ΚΧεοττάτρα Βε 
απ\ηστο<ζ μεν Αφροδίτης άπ\ηστο<; δε 'χρημάτων 
'γενομένη, καϊ ττοΧΧη μεν φιλοτιμία φιΧοΒόζω 
TToWfj Βε καϊ ττεριφρονησει θρασεία γ^ρησαμενη, 
την τ€ βασιΧείαν την των ΑΙ'γυτττίων υπ έρωτος 
εκτησατο, και την των 'Ρωμαίων Χηψεσθαι hi 
αύτου εΧττίσασα ταύτης τε εσφάΧη και εκείνην 
ΊτροσαττώΧεσε, Βύο τε άνΒρών 'Ρωμαίων των καθ^ 
εαυτην μεγίστων κατεκράτησε, και Βιά τον τρίτον 
εαυτην κατεχρησατο. 

5 Ούτοι μεν 8η τοιούτοι τε iyivovTO καϊ ούτως 
άττηΧΧαζαν των Βε Βη τταίΒων αυτών "ΑντυΧΧος 
μεν, καίτοι την τε του Κ,αισαρος θυγατέρα 
ηγγυημενος " καϊ ες το τού ττατρος αυτού ηρωον, 
ο η ΚΧεοττάτρα ετΓειτοιηκει, καταφυ'^/ών, ευθύς 
εσφά^η, Κ,αισαρίων Βε ες Αίθιοττίαν φεύ^ων κατε- 

6 Χηφθη τε εν ττ} 6Βω καϊ Βιεφθάρη. ή τε Κλβο- 
ττάτρα Ιούβα τω τού Ιούβου τταιΒΙ συνωκησε' 
τούτω yap 6 Καίσαρ τραφεντι τε εν ττ} ^ΙταΧία 
καϊ συστρατευσαμενω οι ταύτην τε και την 
βασιΧείαν την ττατρωαν εΒωκε, καϊ αύτοΐς καϊ 
τον ΆΧεζανΒρον καϊ τον ΐΙτοΧεμαΐον εχαρίσατο. 

7 ταις τε άΒεΧφιΒαΐς, ας εκ τού ^Αντωνίου η ^Οκτα- 
ονία άν^ίρητό τε καϊ ετετρόφει, χρήματα άττο 

* αττώνητο Naber, άπωνατο VM cod. Peir. 

■^ Τ]'^Ύυτ]μίνο$ Dind., ('γ'/^'γυημ(ΐΌ5 Μ, ('^γίίημίΐ'ΟΒ V, 



and by servility of mind. He would plunder the u.c. so 
property of others and Avould squander his own. 
He showed compassion to many without cause and 
punished even more without justice. Consequently, 
though he rose from utter weakness to great power, 
and from the depths of poverty to great riches, he 
derived no profit from either circumstance, but after 
hoping to gain single-handed the empire of the 
Romans, he took his own life. Cleopatra was of in- 
satiable passion and insatiable avarice ; she was 
swayed often by laudable ambition, but often by 
overweening effrontery. By love she gained the 
title of Queen of the Egyptians, and when she hoped 
by the same means to win also that of Queen of the 
Romans, she failed of this and lost the other besides. 
She caj)tivated the two greatest Romans of her day, 
and because of the third she destroyed herself 

Such were these two and such was their end. Of 
their children, Antyllus was slain immediately, 
though he was betrothed to the daughter of Caesar 
and had taken refuge in his father's shrine, Λvhich 
Cleopatra had built ; and Caesarion while fleeing to 
Ethiopia was overtaken on the road and murdered. 
Cleopatra was married to Juba, the son of Juba ; 
for to this man who had been brought up in Italy 
and had been with him on cam})aigns, Caesar gave 
both the maid and the kingdom of his fathers, and 
as a favour to them spared the lives of Alex- 
ander and Ptolemy. To his nieces, the daughters 
whom Octavia had had by Antony and had reared, 
he assigned money from their father's estate. He 



των ττατρωων άτΓβνβιμε. κα\ τω ^λούΧΚω τω του 
^Αντωνίου τη<ζ τ€ Φου\ονία<ζ υΐεΐ τους έ^εΚευθερους 
αυτοί) ιτάνθ' όσα τβΚευτώντάς σφας καταΧίττεΐν 
αύτω κατά τους νόμους eSet τταρα'χρημα Βούυαι 
16 βκέλ,ευσε. των τβ άΧλων των τα του \\.ντωνίου 
μ^χρί' Tore ττραξάντων τους μεν εκόΧασε τους Be 
άφήκεν, ή 8ί εαυτόν η Βιά τους φίΧους. εττειΒή 
Τ6 συγ^νοί τταρ^ αύτω καΐ Βυναστων καΐ βασιΧεων 
τταίοες οι μεν εφ ομηρεια οι οε και εφ υμρει 
τρεφόμενοι ευρέθησαν, τους μεν οϊκαΒε αυτών 
άττέστειΧε, τους Βε άΧληΧοις συνωκισεν, έτερους 

2 τε κατεσγεν. ών εγώ τους μεν άΧΧους εάσω, 
Βύο Βε Βη μονών όνομαστί μνησθήσομαΐ' την μεν 
yap λωτάττην τω ^ΙήΒω καταφυ^όντί μετά την 
ητταν ττρός αυτόν εκών άττεΒωκε, τω δ' ^Αρτάξ-η 
τους άΒεΧφους καιττερ αΐτησαντι ουκ εττεμψεν, 
ότι τους ύποΧειφθέντας εν τη \\ρμενία 'Ρωμαίους 

3 ΐίερί μεν Βη τους άΧΧονς τοιαύτα iyiyveTO, των 
Βε Alyυ7Γτίωv των τε ΑΧε^ανΒρεων ττάντων 
εφεΐσατο ώστε μη ΒιοΧεσαι τινά, το μεν άΧηθες 
ότι ουκ ηξίωσε τοσούτους τε αυτούς Οντας καΐ 
'χ^ρησιμωτάτους τοις 'Ρωμαίοις ες ττοΧΧα αν yevo- 

4 μένους άνηκεστόν τι Βράσαΐ' ττροφασιν Βε Ομως 
ττρουβάΧΧετο τον τε θεον τον 'ϊ,άραττιν και τόν 
^ ΑΧεξανΒρον τόν οίκιστην αυτών, καΐ τρίτον 
"Αρειον τόν τΓοΧίτην, ω ττου φιΧοσοφουντί τε και 
συνόντι οι ε'χ^ρητο. καΐ τον yε Xoyov Βι ου 
συvεyvω σφίσιν, εΧΧηνιστί, όττως συνώσιν αυτού, 

5 είττε. καΐ μετά ταύτα τό μεν τού ^ΑΧεξάνΒρον 
σώμα εΙΒε, και αυτού και ττροση^Ιτατο, ώστε τι 
της ρινός, ως φασι, θραυσθηναί' τά Βε Βη τών 



also ordered Antony's freedmen to give at once b.c. 30 
to lullus, the son of Antony and Fulvia^ every- 
thing which by law they would have been required 
to bequeath him at their death. As for the rest 
Λνΐιο had been connected with Antony's cause up 
to this time_, he punished some and pardoned others_, 
either from personal motives or to oblige his friends. 
And since there were found at the court many 
children of princes and kings who were being kept 
there_, some as hostages and others out of a spirit 
of arrogance, he sent some back to their homes, 
joined others in marriage with one another, and 
retained still others. I shall omit most of these 
cases and mention only two. Of his own accord he 
restored lotape to the Median king, who had found 
an asylum with him after his defeat ; but he refused 
the request of Artaxes that his brothers be sent to 
him, because this prince had put to death the Romans 
left behind in Armenia. 

This was the disposition he made of such captives ; 
and in the case of the Egyptians and Alexandrians, 
he spared them all, so that none perished. The 
truth was that he did not see fit to inflict any irrepar- 
able injury upon a people so numerous, who might 
prove very useful to the Romans in many Λvays ; 
nevertheless, he offered as a pretext for his kindness 
their god Serapis, their founder Alexander, and, in 
the third place, their fellow-citizen Areius, of whose 
learning and companionship he availed himself. The 
speech in Avhich he proclaimed to them his pardon 
he delivered in Greek, so that they might under- 
stand him. After this he viewed the body of Alex- 
ander and actually touched it, whereupon, it is said, 
a piece of the nose >vas broken off. But he declined 



ΤΙτοΧβμαυων, καίτοι των WXe^avhp^odv σττουΒτ} 
βουΧηθβντων αύτω ^βίζαι, ουκ εθβάσατο, ^Ιττων 
ΟΤΙ ** βασίΧεα αλλ' ου νεκρούς iSecv εττεθύμησα.^' 
κάκ τ>}? αύτη<^ ταύτης αίτιας ούΒβ τω "Αττίδί 
εντνχβίν ήθβΧησβ, Χί^ων θεούς αλλ* ού^^Ι βούς 
17 ττροσκυνείν είθίσθαι. εκ 8ε τούτου την τε Αί'γυ- 
ΤΓΤον ύτΓΟτεΧή εττοίησε καΐ τω ΤάΧΧω τω Κ,ορνηΧίω 
εττετρεψε' ττρός τε yap το ττοΧύανΒρον καΐ των 
ττόΧεων καΐ της γωρας, καΐ Ίτρος το ράοιον τό τε 
κονφον των τρο'ίτων αύτων, την τε σιτοττομττίαν 
καΐ τα 'χ^ρήματα, ούΒενΙ βουΧευττ} ούχ^ όπως 
εγχειρίσαι αύτην ετοΧμησεν, αλλ' ούδβ ^νεττι- 
8ημεΐν αύτη εξουσίαν ε8ωκεν, αν μή τινι αύτος 

2 ονομαστί συ^^ωρηση. ού μεντοι ού8ε εκείνοις 
βουΧεύειν εν τη '"Ρώμη εφήκεν. αλλά τοις μεν 
άΧΧοίς ώς εκάστοις, τοις δ' ΆΧεξανΕρευσιν άνευ 
βουΧευτών ττοΧιτεύεσθαι εκεΧευσε' τοσαύτην ττου 

3 νεωτεροτΓοιίαν αυτών κατε^νω. και σφων ούτω 
τότε τα'χθεντων τα μεν άΧΧα καΙ νυν Ισ'χυρώς 
φυΧάσσεται, βουΧεύουσι 8ε 8η καΐ εν τη ΑΧεξαν- 
Βρεία, εττΐ ^εουηρου αύτοκράτορος άρξάμενοι, καΐ 
εν τη 'Ρώμη, επ Άντωνίνου του υΐεος αύτοΰ 
ττρώτον ες την ^ερουσίαν εσ^ραφεντες. 

4 Αί'γυπτος μεν ούτως ε8ουΧώθη• ττάντες yap οΐ 
αντισ'γόντες αυτών γ^ρονον τίνα εχ^ειρώθησαν, 
ώς ττου καΐ το 8αιμ6νι6ν σφισιν ivapyiaTaTa 
ττροεΒειξεν. νσε τε yap ούχ^ οττως ν8ατι, ένθα 
μηΒε εψεκασε ττοτε, αλλά και αΐματί' ταύτα τε 
άμα εκ τών νεφών ε^επιτττε καΐ οττΧα τταρε- 

5 φαίνετο. κτυττήματά τε τίνα ετερωθι κα\ τνμ- 
ττάνων κα\ κυμβάΧων καϊ βοήματα και αύΧών 



to view the remains of the Ptolemies, tliougli the 
Alexandrians were extremely eager to show them, 
remarking•, " I wished to see a king, not corpses." 
For this same reason he would not enter the presence 
of Apis, either, declaring that he was accustomed 
to worshi[) gods, not cattle. Afterwards he made 
Egypt tributary and gave it in charge of Cornelius 
Gallus. For in view of the populousness of both the 
cities and country, the facile, fickle character of the 
inhabitants, and the extent of the grain-supply and 
of the wealth, so far from daring to entrust the land 
to any senator, he Avould not even grant a senator 
permission to live in it, except as he personally made 
the concession to him by name. On the other hand 
he did not allow the Egyptians to be senators in 
Rome ; but whereas he made various dispositions as 
regards the several cities, he commanded the 
Alexandrians to conduct their government without 
senators ; with such capacity for revolution, 1 suppose, 
did he credit them. And of the system then imposed 
upon them most details are rigorously preserved at 
the present time, but they have their senators both 
in Alexandria, beginning first under the emperor 
Severn s, and also in Rome, these having first been 
enrolled in the senate in the reign of Severus' son 

Thus was Egypt enslaved. All the inhabitants 
who resisted for a time were finally subdued, as, 
indeed. Heaven very clearly indicated to them 
beforehand. For it rained not only Avater where no 
drop had ever fallen jireviously, but also blood ; and 
there were Hashes of armour from the clouds as this 
bloody rain fell from them. Elsewhere there was 
the clashing of drums and cymbals and the notes of 



Koi σαΚττί^^ων εγ^γζ^ετο, και τί? οράκων vwep- 
μβ'γβθης βξαίφνη^ σφίσίν οφθεί^; άμή-χανον όσον 
6^eavpLG€. καν τούτω καϊ αστ€/36? κομήται 
εωρωντο, καί νεκρών είδωλα εφαντάζετο, τά τε 
ά^άΧματα εσκυθρώττασε, καϊ ό ' Αττις οΧοφυρτικόν 
τι εμυκτ)σατο καϊ κατεΒάκρυσε. 

6 Ύαυτα μεν ούτως iy ενετό, 'χρήματα δε ττοΧΚα 
μεν εν τω βασιΧικω ευρέθη (ττάντα yap ώς είττεΐν 
και τα εκ των άyLωτάτωv ιερών αναθήματα η 
ΚΧεοπάτρα άνεΧομενη συνεττΧηθυσε τα Χάφνρα 
τοις 'Ρωμαίοίς άνευ τίνος οΙκείου αυτών μιάσμα- 
τος^),τΓθΧ\ά 8ε καϊ Ίταρ εκάστου των αΐτιαθεντων 

Ί TL^ ηθροίσθη. καϊ χωρίς οΐ ΧοιττοΙ ττάντες, όσοι 
μη^εν Ihiov εyκXημa Χαβεΐν εΒύναντο, τά 8νο 
μέρη των ουσιών ητηθησαν.^ καϊ άττ αυτών 
ττάντες μεν οΐ στρατιώται τα ετίοφειΧόμενά σφίσιν 
εκομίσαντο, οι δε 8η καϊ τότε τω Ιίαυσαρι, συγγ^' 
νόμενοί πεντήκοντα καϊ 8ίακοσίας Βραχμάς, ώστε 

8 μη Βίαρπάσαί την ττόΧίν, ιτροσεττεΧαβον. τοις 
τε ΊτροΕανείσασί τι ττάντα ά7τη\Xάyη, καϊ τοις 
συ μμετασχουσι του ττόΧεμου και των βουΧευτών 
καϊ των ΙτΓττεων "ττάμττοΧΧα εΒόθη, το τε σύμτταν 
η τε άρχη η των 'Ρωμαίων εττΧουτίσθη καϊ τά 
Ιερά αυτών εκοσμηθη. 
18 Ό δ' ούν Ίίαΐσαρ ως τά τε ττροειρημενα ειτραξε, 
καϊ ττόΧιν καϊ εκεί εν τω της μάχης χωριω 
συνωκισε, καϊ το όνομα καϊ τον άyώva αύττ} 
ομοίως τη Ίτροτερα Βούς, τάς τε Βίώρυχας τάς μεν 
εξεκάθηρε τάς δε εκ καινής Βίώρυξε, καϊ τάΧΧα 
τά ττροσηκοντα ττροσΒίωκησεν, ες τε την Άσιαν 

^ μιάσματο$ Μ, βιάσματο5 V. ^ τι Μ, ΟΠΙ. Λ . 

^ "^τηθησαν R. Steph., ηττηθησαρ VM. 



flutes and trumpets, and a serpent of huge size u.. . 30 
suddenly appeared to tliem and uttered an incredibly 
loud hiss. Meanwhile comets were seen and dead 
men's ghosts appeared, the statues frowned, and 
Apis bellowed a note of lamentation and burst into 

So much for these events. In the palace quantities 
of treasure were found. For Cleopatra had taken prac- 
tically all the offerings from even the holiest shrines 
and so helped the Romans swell their spoils without 
incurring any defilement on their own part. Large 
sums were also obtained from every man against 
whom any charge of misdemeanour was brought. 
And apart from these, all the rest, even though no 
particular complaint could be lodged against them, 
had two-thirds of their property demanded of them. 
Out of this wealth all the troops received what was 
owing them, and those who Avere with Caesar at the 
time got in addition a thousand sesterces on con- 
dition of not plundering the city. Repayment was 
made in full to those who had previously advanced 
loans, and to both the senators and the knights who 
had taken part in the war large sums Avere given. 
In fine, the Roman empire was enriched and its 
temples adorned. 

After accomplishing the things just related Caesar 
founded a city there on the very site of the battle 
and gave to it the same name and the same games as 
to the city he had founded previously.^ He also 
cleared out some of the canals and dug others over 
again, besides attending to other important matters. 
Then he went through Syria into the province of 

^ See chap. 1, H. 




TO Wvo<^ Sta T/}9 ουρίας ηΧθβ, κάνταυθα τταρε- 
'χείμασε, τα re των ύττηκύων ως ί'καστα καΐ τα 

2 των Τίάρθων άμα καθιστάμ€νο<ζ. στασιασάντων 
yap αυτών και τίνος 'Γιρί8άτον ^ τω Φραάτη 
βτταναστάντος, ττρότβρον μεν, καΐ βως €tl τα του 
^Αντωνίου καΐ μετά την ναυμα'χίαν ανθειστηκει, 
ουγ^ όσον ου ττροσεθετό τω - αυτών συμμαγίαν 
αΐτησάντων, άΧλ' ούδ' άττεκρίνατο άΧΧο ούΒεν ι) 
οτί βουΧεύσεται, ττροφασυν μεν ώ? κα\ ττερί την 
Αϊ^γυπτον άσγρΧίαν ε'χων, ερ^ω 8ε Ί.ν εκτρυγω- 

3 θεΧεν εν τούτω μα'χ^ομενοι ττρός άΧΧήΧους. τότε 
δε εττειΒη 6 τε ^Αντώνιος ετεΧεύτησε, καΐ εκείνων 
6 μεν Ύιρώάτης ηττηθείς ες την ^υρίαν κατεφυ^εν, 
6 δε Φραάτης κρατησας ττρεσβείς εττεμψε, τούτοις 
τε φίΧίκώς εχρ7]μάτίσε, καΐ τω Ύι,ρώάττ) βοη- 
θησειν μεν ούχ ύττεσχετο ^ιαιτάσθαι δε εν Tjj 
^υρία εττέτρεψεν, υιόν τε τίνα του Φραάτου εν 
ευεργεσίας ^ μεpεi ιταρ αυτού Χαβών ες τε την 
'Ρώμην ανηηα^ε και εν όμηρεία εττοίησατο. 

19 Έι^ δε τούτω καΐ ετι ττρότερον συγ^να μεν καΐ 
εττΐ τη της ναυμαγίας νίκη οΐ εν οϊκω 'Ρωμαίοι 
εΛ^τηφισαντο. τά τε yap νικητήρια αύτω, ώς καΐ 
της ΚΧεοττάτρας, καΐ άψΐΕα τροτταιοφόρον εν τε 
τω Βρεντεσυω καΐ ετεραν εν τη Ρωμαία ayopa 
2 εΒωκαν την τε κρηττΐ^α του ^ΙουΧιειου ηρώου 
τοις τών αίγ^μαΧωτίΒων νεών εμβόΧοις κοσμη- 
θήναί, καΐ '7τavηyυpίv οι ττεντετηρί^α άyεσθaι, 
εν τε τοις yεvεθXίoίς αύτοΰ καΐ εν τη της αγ- 
γελίας της νίκης ήμερα ίερομηνίαν είναι, καΐ ες 
την ττόΧιν εσιόντι αύτω τάς τε ιέρειας τάς 

^ Ύιρί5άτου Diiid,, τβφίδάτου VM (and SO just below). 
" T(jf> Μ, Gin. V. "^ cvepyeoias M, evepyeaia Λ". 



Asia and passed the winter there settlinir the various b.c. su 
affairs of the subject nations as well as tliose of tlie 
Parthians. It seems there liad been dissension among• 
the Parthians and a certain Tiridates had risen 
against Pln*aates ; and liitherto^ as long as Antony's 
0})position lasted^ even after the naval battle, Caesar 
had not only not attached himself to either side, 
though they sought his alliance, but had not even 
answered them except to say that he would think the 
matter over. His excuse was that he was busy >vith 
Egypt, but in reality he wanted them in the mean- 
time to exhaust themselves by fighting against each 
other. But now that Antony was dead and of the two 
combatants Tiridates, defeated, liad taken refuge in 
Syria, and Phraates, victorious, had sent envoys, he 
entered into friendly negotiations with the latter ; 
and, without promising to aid Tiridates, he per- 
mitted him to live in Syria. He received from 
I^hraates one of his sons by way of conferring a 
favour upon him, and taking him to Rome, kept him 
as a hostage. 

During this time and still earlier the Romans at 
home had passed many resolutions in honour of 
Caesar's naval victory. Thus they granted him a 
triumph, as over Cleopatra, an arch adorned Λ\4ί1ι 
trophies at Brundisium and another in the Roman 
Forum. Moreover, they decreed that the foundation 
of the shrine of Julius should be adorned with the 
beaks of the captured shij)S and that a festival should 
be held every four years in honour of Octavius ; that 
there should also be a thanksgiving on his birthday 
and on the anniversary of the announcement of his 
victory ; also that when he should enter the city the 


i: -2 


α€ί7Γαρθ€νους καί την βονΧην τον re όημον μ€τά 
re των yvpai/coji> και μβτά των τίκνων άτταν- 

3 τησαυ eyvcoaav. τας yap βύχ^ας τα? re ζΙκυνα<; 
και ri]v rrpoehpLav καΐ ταλλα τα τοίουτότροττα 
ΊΓβρίττον εστίν η8η Xeyeiv. την μ€ν ουν ττρώτην 
€Κ€ίνω τε ^ ταντ €ψ7]φίσαντο, και τα του Άζ/- 
τωνίον κοσμήματα τα μεν καθεΐλ,ον τα δ άττη- 
Χβίψαν, την τε ημεραν εν y εyεyεvvητo μιαραν 
ενομισαν, καϊ το του Μάρκου ττροσρημα άττείττον 

4 μηΒενΙ των συγγβζ^ώζ^ αυτού είναι, ώς μεντοι καϊ 
τεθνεωτα αύτον ειτύθοντο (r]yyεKθη δε τούτο ΚίΛτε- 
ρωνος του ίίίκερωνο^; τταίδο? εν μέρει του ετου^ί ύττα- 
τεύοντος), τοΰτό τε τίνες ως - ουκ άθεεί 8η συμβάν 
εΧάμβανον, εττεώήττερ 6 ττατηρ αυτού ύττο του 

5 ^Αντωνίου οτι μάΧιστ ετεθνήκει, καϊ ττροσεψη- 
φίσαντο τω Ίίαισαρί καϊ στεφάνους καϊ Ιερομη- 
νίας τΓοΧΧάς, καϊ αύτω καϊ έτερα εττινίκία ως καϊ 
των Alyυ7Γτίωp ayayecv εΒοσαν τον yap^ Αντώνίον 
καϊ τους άΧΧους Ύωμαίους τους συν εκείνω νικη- 
θέντας οΰτε ττρότερον ούτε τότε, ώς καϊ εορτάζειν 

6 σφάς εττ αύτοΐς hiov, ώνόμασαν. την τε ημεραν 
εν y ή ^ΑΧεζάνΒρεια εάΧω, ayaOtiv τε είναι καϊ 
ες τα εττειτα ετη άρχ^ην της άτταρίθμήσεως αυτών 
νομίζεσθαι, καϊ τον Υίαισαρα την τε εζουσιαν 
την των Βημάργ^ων Sia βίου εχειν, καϊ τοις 
ετηβοωμενοις αύτον καϊ εντός τού ττωμηρίου καϊ 
εξω μέχρις 6yB6oυ ημισταΒίου άμύνειν, ο μηΒενΙ 

^ Τ6 Μ, οηι. V. - ws supplied b\• Bk. 



Vestal Virgins and the senate and the people with «.< . so 
their wives and children should go out to meet 
him. But it would be quite superfluous to go 
on and mention the prayers, the images, the 
privilege of the front seat, and all the other honours 
of the sort. At the beginning, then, they not 
only voted him these honours but also either took 
down or effaced the memorials of Antony, declared 
the day on Λvhich he had been born accursed, and 
forbade the use of the surname Marcus by any of 
his kin. When, however, they learned of Antony's 
death, the news of which came wliile Cicero, the son 
of Cicero, was consul for a part of the year, some 
held that it had come to pass not without divine 
direction, since the consul's father had OΛved his 
death chiefly to Antony ; and they voted to Caesar 
crowns and thanksgivings in great number and 
granted him the privilege of celebrating another 
triumph, this time over the Egyptians. For neither 
on the previous occasion nor at this time did they 
mention by name Antony and the other Romans 
who had been vanquished with him and thus imply 
that it was pro})er to celebrate their defeat. The 
day on which Alexandria had been captured they 
declared a lucky day, and directed that in future 
years it should be taken by the inhabitants of that 
city as the starting-point in their reckoning of time. 
They also decreed that Caesar should hold the 
tribunician poΛvcr for life, that he should aid those 
Λνΐιο called upon him for help botli within the 
pomerium and outside for a distance of one mile,^ — 

* Literally, "as far as the eighth half-stade," Λvhich means 
seven ami a half stades, that is, one mile, according to Dio's 
usage. See note on xxxviii. 18. 


7 των Βημαρ-χ^ονντων ε^ην, βκκΧητόν re Εικάζειν, 
καΐ Λίτηφόν τίνα αυτού Ιν ττάσι τοΓς• ^ίκαστηρίοΐ'ζ 
ωσττερ ^Αθηνάς φβρεσθαι, τους re ίβρβας καΧ 
τας Ιερβίας iv ταΐς νττερ τε του ^ημου και της 
βονΧης ενχαί<; κ αϊ υττερ εκείνου ομοίως εύχε- 
σθαι, καί εν τοις συσσιτίΟίς ούχ^ ort τοις κοίνοΐς 
αλλά καΐ τοις 18ίοι,ς ττάντας αύτω σττενΕείν 
20 Tore μεν δ?) ταΰτ ε^νώσθη, ΰττατεύοντος δ' 
αυτοί) το ττεμτττον μετά "Σεξτου ^ΑττουΧειου τά 
τε ττραχθεντα υττ αυτού ττάντα εν αυτί) τ^ του 
^Ιανουαρίου νουμηνία ορκοις εβεβαίώσαντο, καΐ 
εττεώη καΐ τα ττερί των ΤΙάρθων 'γράμματα ηΧθεν, 
ες τε τους ύμνους αύτον εζ 'ίσου τοις θεοΐς iaypci- 

2 φεσθαί,^ καΐ φυΧην ΊουΧίαν εττ αυτού εττονομά- 
ζεσθαι, τω τε στεφάνω αύτον τω επίνικίω Sta 

^ ' ί Τι. ι ι 

ττασών των ττανη'γύρεων ')(ρήσθαι, κα\ τους συν- 
νίκήσαντάς οι βουΧευτας εν ττερατορφύροίς Ιμα- 

3 τίοίς την ττομττην αύτω συμττεμψαί, την τε ημεραν 
εν y αν ες την ττόΧιν εσεΧθτ] θυσίαις τε ιταν- 
ΒημεΙ a'yaXer}vaL καΐ Ιεραν άεΐ ά^εσθαι, ιερέας 
τε αύτον καΐ ύττερ τον αριθμόν, όσους αν άεΐ 
εθεΧηστ), ττροαιρεΐσθαι ιτ ροσ κατεστησαντο' οττερ 
τΓου εξ εκείνου τταρα^οθεν ες αόριστον εττηυξηθη^ 
ώστε μη8εν ετί γ^ρηναί με ττερΙ τού ττΧηθους 

4 αυτών άκριβοΧο'^/εΙσθαί. ο ουν Κ,αΐσαρ τα μεν 
αΧΧα ττΧην βραχ^εων εΒεξατο, το Βε 8η σύμ- 
τταντας αύτω τους εν ττ} ττοΧει οντάς άτταντήσαι 

^ (σΎράφβσθαι Μ, ("γΎράφ^σθαι V. 

^ The tribunes' authority, as a matter of fact, extended to 
the first mile-stone outside the city : see Livy iii. 20, 7. 
Dio is apparently labouring under a misapprehension. 



a privilege possessed by none of the tribunes,^ — also 
that he should judge appealed cases, and that in all 
the courts his vote was to be cast as Athena's vote.- 
The priests and priestesses also in their prayers in 
behalf of the people and the senate were to pray for 
him likewise, and at all banquets, not only public 
but private as well, everybody was to pour a libation 
to him. 

These were the decrees passed at that time ; and 
when he was consul for the fifth time, with Sextus 
Apuleius, they ratified all his acts by oath on the 
very first day of January. When the letter came 
regarding the Parthians, they further arranged that 
his name should be included in their hymns equally 
with those of the gods ; that a tribe should be called 
the "Julian" after him; that he should Avear the 
triumphal crown at all the festivals ; that the senators 
w^ho had })articipated in his victory should take part 
in the triumphal procession arrayed in purple- 
bordered togas ; that the day on Λvhich he entered 
the city should be honoured Avith sacrifices by the 
whole population and be held sacred for evermore ; 
and that he might choose priests even beyond the 
regular number, — as niany, in fact, as he should Λvisll 
on any occasion. This last-named privilege, handed 
doΛvn from that time, was afterwards indefinitely 
extended, so that I need not henceforth make a point 
of giving the exact number of such officials. Now 
Caesar accepted all but a few of these honours, 
though he expressly requested that one of them, the 
proposal that the whole population of the city should 

2 That is, in case of a tie vote, Caesar's vote, like Athena's 
in the Areopagus at Athens, Λvas to decide in favour of ac- 
quittal. Cf. Aesch., Eumen. 737 AT.; Eur., Ij^h. T. 965 f., 1472. 



7Γαρτ)τησατο άντικρνς μη yei^eadai. ττΧβΐστον Be 
όμως υττερ ττάντα τά ψηφισθέντα οΐ ΰπερησθη 
οτί τάς τ€ ττυλας τα? του ίανοΟ ώ? καΐ ττάντων 
σφισί τ6)ν ττόΧεμων τταντβΧως ττετταυμενων e/cXet- 
σαν, και το οΐώνισμα το τής 'Tyi€ia<; Ιττοίησαν 

5 κα\ yap τότε Si αττερ eirrov SieXeXetTTTo. ήσαν 
μεν yap iv οττλοις βτι κα\ Ύρηουηροι ^ KeXroi;? 
i^τayayoμevoι καΐ Κ.άνταβροι'^ καΐ Ονακκαΐοι 
κα\ "Αστνρες' κα\ οντοι μ^εν υιτο του Ταύρου του 
Έ^τατιλιου, εκείνοι 8ε υιτο ιωνίου ΤάΧλου κατε- 
στράφησαν άΧλα τε ώ? καθ^ εκάστους ταραγ^ώΖη 
συ'χνα εyίyvετo' ά\\ εττειΒη μηΕεν μεya αττ' 
αυτών συνηνέχ^θη, ούτε εκείνοι τότε ττολεμεΐσθαι 
ενόμιζον ούτε εγώ επιφανές τι ^ ττερί αυτών 
y ρ άψα ι εχω. 

6 Κ,αΐσαρ δε εν τούτω τά τ ε άΧΧα εγ^ρημάτιζε, 
και τεμένη ττ} τε ^Ρώμυ καΐ τω ττατρί τω 
Κ,αίσαρί, ήρωα αύτον ^ΙούΧιον ονομάσας, εν τε 
Έφεσω καϊ εν δικαία yεvεσθaι εφηκεν αύται yap 
τότε αΐ ΊτόΧεις εν τε τη Ασία καϊ εν τη Βιθυνία 

7 ττροετετίμηντο. καϊ τούτους μεν τοις Ρωμαίοις 
τοις παρ αύτοΐς εποικοϋσι τιμάν προσεταζε' τοις 
δε δ^ ζενοις, ' ΕΧΧηνάς σφας επικαΧεσας, εαυτώ 
τίνα, τοις μεν Ασιανοΐς εν ΐlεpyάμω τοις δε 
Έίθυνοΐς εν Ί^ικομηΕεΙα, τεμενισαι επέτρεψε, καϊ 
τουτ εκείθεν άρξάμενον καϊ εττ άΧΧων αυτοκρα- 
τόρων ου μόνον εν τοις ΕΧΧηνικοΐς εθνεσιν, αλλά 
καϊ εν τοις άΧΧοις οσα τών 'Ρωμαίων ακούει, 

8 iy ενετό, εν yap τ οι τω αστει αύτω τη τε άΧΧη 

^ Ύρ-ηουηροι Bs. , τρηούροι VM. 

■^ Κσ.νταβροι R. Stepll., &ι>ταβροί V^f. 

3 τί Μ., ojn. V. 



go out to meet him, should not be put into effect, b.c. 29 
Nevertlieless, the action which pleased him more 
than all the decrees was the closing by the senate of 
the gates of Janus, implying that all their wars had 
entirely ceased, and the taking of the augiiriimi 
salutis, which had at this time fallen into disuse for 
the reasons I have mentioned. ^ To be sure, there 
were still under arms the Treveri, who had brought 
in the Germans to help them, and the Cantabri, the 
Vaccaei, and the Astures, — the three last-named of 
whom were later subjugated by Stiitilius Taurus, and 
the former by Nonius Gallus, — and there were also 
numerous other disturbances going on in various 
regions ; yet inasmuch as nothing of importance 
resulted from them, the Romans at the time did not 
consider that they were engaged in war, nor have I, 
for my part, anything notable to record about them. 
Caesar, meanwhile, besides attending to the gene- 
ral business, gave permission for the dedication of 
sacred precincts in Ephesus and in Nicaea to Rome 
and to Caesar, his father, Λνΐιοηι he named the hero 
Julius.2 These cities had at that time attained chief 
place in Asia and in Bithynia respectively. He 
commanded that the Romans resident in these cities 
should pay honour to these two divinities ; but he 
))ermitted the aliens, whom he styled Hellenes, to 
consecrate precincts to himself, the Asians to have 
theirs in Pergamum and the Bithynians theirs in 
Nicomedia. This practice, beginning under him, has 
been continued under other emperors, not only in 
the case of the Hellenic nations but also in that of 
all the others, in so far as they are subject to the 
Romans. For in the capital itself and in Italy 

* Cf. xxxvii. 24. ^ i.e. Divus lulius. 



IraXia ουκ βστιν όστις των καΐ εφ' οττοσονουν 
Xoyov Τίνος άζίων 6τό\μησ€ τούτο ττοιήσαί' μεταΧ- 
\άξασί μβντοί κάνταυθα τοις ορθώς αύταρχ^ιίσασιν 
αΧλαι τ€ Ισοθβου τιμαΐ BiSovTac καΐ 8η καί ήρωα 
9 Ύαντα μβν iv τω 'χειμώνί iyeveTO,^ καί βΧαβον 
καί οΐ Il€pyaμηvol τον aycova τον lepov ώνομα- 
21 σμβνον eirl ττ) τον ναού αύτου τίμτ} ττοιεΐν. του 
Be 8η θέρους βς Τ€ την Ελλάδα καΐ βς την 
^ΙταΧιαν 6 Κ,αΐσαρ ειτεραιώθη, και αύτου ές 
την ττόΧιν βσβΧθόντος οι τε άΧΧοί βθυσαν, ωσττβρ 
€Ϊρηται, καϊ ο ΰττατος ΟναΧεριος Ώοτΐτος' εκείνος 
μεν yap καϊ τούτο ττάν το έτος, ωσττερ καϊ τα 8ύο 
τα ττροτερα, ύττάτενσε, τον 8ε 8η ^έζτον 6 

2 ΤΙοτΐτος 8ιε8εξατο. ούτος ούν Βημοσία καϊ αυ- 
τός ύττερ τε τού Βήμου καϊ ύττερ της βουΧής 
€7γΙ TTj τού Κ,αίσαρος άφίξεί εβουθύτησεν ο 
μηττω ττρότερον εττΐ μηΒενος άΧΧου iyεyόvεί. 
μετά Βε τούτο τους τε ύττοστρατψ/ους καϊ εττη- 

3 νεσε καϊ ετυμησεν ωσττερ εϊθίστο, καϊ τον τε 
'AypuTTwav άΧΧοίς τε τισι καϊ σημείω κυανοει- 
ΒεΙ ναυκρατητίκω ττροσεττεσεμνυνε, καϊ τοις στρα- 
τίώται,ς εΒωκε τίνα' τω τε Βήμω καθ^ εκατον'- 
Βρα'χ^μάς, προτεροις μεν τοις ες ανΒρας τεΧούσιν, 
εττείτα Βε καϊ τοις τταισΐ Βίά τον ^ΙάρκεΧΧον τον 

4 άΒεΧφιΒούν, Βιενειμε. καϊ εττί τε τούτοις, καϊ 
OTL Ίταρα των ττόΧεων των εν τη 'Ιταλία το 
'χ^ρυσίον το τοις στεφάνοις ττροσηκον ούκ εΒεζατο, 

^ iyivero V, cyivovro W. ^ kKarhv "SI, iavrhv \ . 

1 Cf. chap. 1, 2. 2 cf. chap. 20, 3. 

•^ In earlier times it had been customary, Λvhell a general 



generally no emperor, however worthy of renown he b.c. 20 
has been, has dared to do this ; still, even there 
various divine honours are bestowed after their death 
upon such emperors as have ruled uprightly, and, in 
fact, shrines are built to them. 

All this took place in the winter; and the Per- 
gamenians also received authority to hold the 
^^sacred " games, as they called them, in honour of 
Caesar's temple.^ In the course of the summer 
Caesar crossed over to Greece and to Italy ; and 
wlien he entered the city, not only all the citizens 
offered sacrifice, as has been mentioned,^ but even 
the consul Valerius Potitus. Caesar, to be sure, Avas 
consul all that year as for the two preceding years, 
but Potitus was the successor of Sextus. It Λvas he 
who })nblicly and in person offered sacrifices in behalf 
of the senate and of the [)eople upon Caesar's arrival, 
a thing that had never before been done in the case 
of any other person. After this Caesar besto>ved 
eulogies and honours upon his lieutenants, as was 
customary, and to Agrippa lie further granted, among 
other distinctions, a dark blue flag in honour of his 
naval victory, and he gave gifts to the soldiers ; to 
the people he distributed four hundred sesterces 
apiece, first to the men who were adults, and after- 
Avards to the children because of his nephew Mar- 
cellus. In view of all this, and because he Λvould not 
acce])t from the cities of Italy the gold required for 
the crowns -^ they had voted him, and because, 

Avon a triumph, for the cities of his province to send gold 
crowns, which were cariiod before him in the triumphal pro- 
cession. By Cicero's time it was a common practice to send, 
instead of the crowns themselves, their vahie in money 
{aiirc.nm coronnrium) ; and this was now regarded as a form 
of tribute. 



fcal OTL ^ καΐ ιτάντα a re αύτος ώφε^λε riatu 
άττεόωκε, καί a οι άΧΧοί ΙτΓωφβιΧον ουκ, έσε- 
ττραξβν, ωσττβρ εϊρηταί, των τε ^υσ-χερων ττάντων 
οΐ ^ΙΡωμαΙοι βιτεΧάθοντο, και τα βττινίκια αυτού 
τ^δεω? ώ? και άΧΧοφυΧων άιτάντων των ήττη- 

5 θβντων όντων elSov τοσούτον yap το ττΧηθο^ των 
'χ^ρημάτων Βία ττάσηζ 6μοίθ)ζ της ττοΧβως εχ^ώ- 
ρησεν ώστε τα μεν κτημ^ατα εττίτιμηθήναί, τα he 
Βανείσματα αγατττ^τως ε'ττΐ Βραχμτ} ττρότερον οντά 
τότε ετΓί. τω τρίτημορίω αυτής yeveaOai. εώρτασε 
δε ΤΎ} μεν ττρώττ] ήμερα τά τε των Τίαννονίων καΐ 
τα των ΑεΧματών, της τε ^ΙαπυΒίας " καΐ των 
ττροσ'χωρων σφισι,^ Κελτωζ^ τε καΐ ΓαΧατων τίνων. 

6 Τάίος yap Κ^αρρίνας τους τε Ί^Ιωρίνους καΐ άΧΧους 
τινάς συνειταναστάντας αύτοϊς εγειρώσατο, καΧ 
τους ^ουηβους τον ^ ΎΡ]νον εττΐ ττοΧεμω Βια- 
βάντας άττεώσατο' καΐ Βια ταύτα τ/γαγε μεν καΐ 
εκείνος τα νικητήρια, καίτοι τού τε πατρός αυτού 
ντΓο τού %ύΧΧου θανατωθεντος, καΐ αύτος άρζαι 
ΤΓΟτε μετά των άΧΧων των ομοίων οΐ κωΧυθεις, 
ήyayε δε καΐ ο Κ.αΐσαρ, εττειΒη ή αναφορά της 
νίκης ττ) αύτοκράτορι αυτού αρ'χ^τ) προσήκουσα 

7 ην. εν μεν ουν τη πρώτη ήμερα ταύτα Βιεωρτά- 
σθη, εν δε τη Βευτερα ή προς τω ^Ακτίω ναυ- 
κρατία, καν τή τρίτη ή της Α^/ύπτου κατα- 
στροφή, επιφανείς μεν Βη καΐ αΐ άΧΧαι πομτταΐ 
Βίά τα αττ' αύτης Χάφυρα iyivovTo (τοσαύτα yap 
ήθροίσθη ώστε πάσαις επαρκεσαι), ποΧυτεΧεστάτη 

8 δ' ουν καΐ αξιοπρεπέστατη αύτη ή Aiyυπτίa. τά 
τε yap άΧΧα καΐ ή ΚΧεοπάτρα επΙ κΧίνης εν τω 

^ ΟΤΙ Rk., ert YjSI. - Ίαττυδίαί Xvl., lanuyias VM. 

^ σφίσι Μ, om. V. ^ rhv Bk., το'γ re Λ'ΛΙ. 



furtlierniore^ lie not onlv i)ai(l all the debts he himself b.c. 'J9 
owed to others, as has been stated/ but also did not 
insist on the payment of others' debts to him, the 
Romans forgot all their unpleasant experienees and 
viewed his triumj)h with pleasure, quite as if the 
vanquished had all been foreigners. So vast an 
amount of money, in fact, circulated through all parts 
of the city alike, that the price of goods rose and 
loans for which the borrower had been glad to pay 
twelve per cent, could now be had for one third that 
rate. As for the triumph, Caesar celebrated on the 
first day his victories over the Pannonians and Dal- 
matians, the lapydes and their neighbours, and some 
(jcrmans and Gauls. For Gaius Carrinas had sub- 
dued the Morini and others who had revolted Avith 
them, and had repulsed the Suebi, who had crossed the 
Rhine to wage war. Not only did Carrinas, therefore, 
celebrate the triumph, — and that notwithstanding 
that his father had been put to death by Sulla and 
that he himself alon«: with the others in like con- 
dition had once been debarred from holding office, — 
but Caesar also celebrated it, since the credit of the 
victory properly belonged to his position as supreme 
commander. This was the first day's celebration. 
On the second day the naval victory at Actium was 
commemorated, and on the third the subjugation of 
Egypt. Now all the processions proved notable, 
thanks to the spoils from Egypt, — in such quantities, 
indeed, had spoils been gathered there that they 
sufficed for all the processions, — but the Egyptian 
celebration surpassed them all in costliness and mag- 
nificence. Among other features, an effigy of the 
dead Cleopatra upon a couch was carried by, so that 

1 Cf. chap. 17, 8. 



του Θανάτου μιμηματι τταρ^κομίσθη, ώστε τρόττον 
TLva και έκβίνην μετά τβ των άΧλων αΙγ^μαΧώτων 
καί μετά του ^ΑΧε^άνΒρου του καί ΊλΧίου, της τ€ 
ΚΧεοττάτρας της και ΖεΧηνης, των τέκνων, ώ? 
9 ΤΓομττεΐον οφθηναι. μετά 3e hrj τούτο ό Κ.αΙσαρ 
εφ* άττασιν αύτοΐς εσεΧάσας τα μεν άΧλα κατά 
το νομίζόμενον εττραξε, τον 8ε 8η συνύττατον τους 
τε Χοίττούς άργ^οντας περιείχε τταρά το καθεστηκος 
ετΓίστΓομενους οΐ μετά των Xolttojv βουΧευτών των 
συννενικηκότων εΐώθεσαν yap οι μεν ψ/εΐσθαι οι 
Βε εφεπεσθαί.^ 
22 ΈττεΙ δε ταύτα ΒιετεΧεσε, τό τε \\.θηναίον το 
^αΧκώίκον ώνομασμενον καΐ το βουΧευτηριον το 
ΙονΧιείον, το εττϊ τη του ττατρος αύτου τιμή 
^ενόμενον, καθιερωσεν. ενεστησε δε ες αυτό το 
ά^αΧμα το της ^ίκης το καΐ νυν 6ν, ΒηΧων, ώς 

2 εοίκεν, οτί τταρ* αυτής την άρ'χ^ην εκτήσατο' ην 
δε Βη των Ύαραντίνων, και εκείθεν ες την 'Έώμην 
κομισθεν εν τε τω συνεΒριω ΙΒρύθη καΐ ΑΙ'γυ- 
ΤΓτίοις Χαφύροις εκοσμηθη. καΐ τούτο καΐ τω τού 

3 ^ΙουΧίου ηρωω οσιωθεντί τότε υπήρξε' συχνά yap 
καΐ ες εκείνο ανετέθη, καΐ έτερα τω τε Δα τω 
ΚαπιτωΧίω καΐ τη 'Ήρα τη τε Άθηνα Ιερώθη, 
ττάντων των ττρότερον ενταύθα άνακεΐσθαι Βοκούν- 
των η καΐ ετί κείμενων εκ Bόyμaτoς τότε καθαι- 
ρεθεντων ως καΐ με μιασ μένων." κάϊ οΰτως η 
Κ,Χεοττάτρα καίττερ καΐ 7)ττηθεΐσα καΐ άΧούσα 

2 μ^μιασμ^νων ν. Herwerden, μ^μιαμμίνων VM. 



in :i way slie, too, together with tiie other captives 
and with her children, Alexander, called also Helios, 
and Cleopatra, called also Selene, was a part of the 
spectacle and a troj)hy in the procession. After 
this came Caesar, riding into the city behind them 
all. He did everything in the customary manner, 
except that he permitted his fellow-consul and the 
other magistrates, contrary to precedent, to folloΛv 
him along with the senators who had participated in 
the victory ; for it was usual for such officials to 
march in advance and for only the senators to 
follow, 1 

After finishing this celebration Caesar dedicated 
the temple of Minerva, called also the Chalcidicum, 
and the Curia lulia, which had been built in honour 
of his father. In the latter he set up the statue of 
Victory which is still in existence, thus signifying 
probably that it was from her that he had received the 
empire. It had belonged to the peoj)le of Tarentum, 
whence it Avas now brought to Rome, placed in the 
senate-chamber, and decked with the spoils of Egypt. 
The same course was followed in the case of the 
shrine of Julius Avhich Avas consecrated at this time, 
for many of these spoils Λvere placed in it also ; and 
others were dedicated to Ju|)iter Capitolinus and to 
Juno and Minerva, after all the objects in these 
temples which were supposed to have been placed 
there previously as dedications, or were actually 
dedications, had by decree been taken down at this 
time as defiled. Thus Cleopatra, though defeated and 
captured, was nevertheless glorified, inasmuch as her 

* The custom was for the magistrates to issue from the 
city to meet the victorious general, and then to turn and 
nuirch ahead of him. Octavius, b}• putting them behind him, 
Bvmbolized his position as chief citizen of the state. 



€ύο^άσθη, υτί τά re κοσμήματα αύτης iv τοΓν 
ί€ροΐ^ ημών άνάκβίται καΐ αύτη iv τω ΆφροΒίσίω 
γ^ρυσή οραται. 

4 EiV δ' ουν ττ] του ηρώου οσιώσει aycuve<; τ€ 
παντοΒατΓοΙ iyepovTO, καΐ την Ύροίαν εύπατρίΕαι 
τταίδες ΐττττβυσαν, avBpe^ τε etc των ομοίων σφίσιν 
eVt TG Κ€\ητων fcal βττΐ συνωρίΕων εττί ^ τ€ τεθρίττ- 
ττων άντη^ωνίσαντο, Κυζζ^τός τε τίς Ουίτβλλίο? 

5 βουΧευτης εμονομά'χ^ησε. καΐ θηρία καϊ βοτα 
άΧΧα τε τταμττΧηθή καϊ ρινόκερων Γτγτγο? Τ€ 
ΤΓοτάμίος, ττρωτον τότβ εν ττ} 'Ρώμΐ) οφθεντα, 
εσφά^η. καϊ 6 μεν ϊττιτος 6ποΐ6<; εστί, ττολλο?? 
τ€ εϊρηται καϊ ττοΧύ ττΧείοσιν εώραταΐ' 6 δε δ37 
ρινόκερως τα μεν αΧΧα εΧεφαντί irrj ττροσεοικε, 
κέρας Βε τι κατ αύτην την ρίνα ιτροσε'χεί, καϊ Βία 

6 τούτο ούτω κέκΧηται. ταύτα τε ούν εσηγ^θη, 
καϊ αθρόοι ττρος άΧΧήΧους Αακοί τε καϊ ^ουήβοί 
εμαχεσαντο. είσϊ 8ε ούτοι μεν ΚεΧτοί, εκείνα Βε 
Βη Ζ,κύθαι τρότΓον tlv/c καϊ οΐ μεν ττέραν τού 
^Ρηνου ώ? γ6 τάκριβες είττείν (ττοΧΧοΙ yap καϊ 
άΧΧοι τού των- ^ουηβων ονόματος αντιποιούν- 
ται), οΐ Βε €77* αμφότερα τού "Ιστρου νέμονται, 

7 αλλ οι μεν επϊ τάΒε αυτού καϊ ττρος τη Ύρι- 
βαΧΧικΎ] οίκούντες ες τ ε τον της θυσίας νομον 
τεΧούσι καϊ Μυσοί, ττΧην τταρα τοΐς ττάνυ εττι- 
'χωρίοις, ονομάζονται, οι Βε εττεκεινα Αακοϊ κε- 
κΧηνται, εϊτε Βη Τεται τίνες εϊτε καϊ βράκες τού 
Αακικού <γενους τού την 'ΡοΒόττην ττοτε ενοική- 

8 σαντος οντες. ούτοι ουν οι Αακοϊ εττρεσβεύσαντο 
μεν ττρο τού 'χρόνου τούτου ττρος τον Καίσαρα, 

^ i-ni Polak, των VM. 

'■^ του των Pflugk, τοντωρ των V, τοΰταν του Μ. 



adornineiils re[)()sc as dcdicalions in our temples and n.c. 2y 
she herself is seen in gold in the sin'ine of V^eniis. 

At the consecration of tiie shrine to Julius there 
were all kinds of contests, and the boys of the 
patricians performed the equestrian exercise called 
*^Troy/' and men of the same rank contended with 
chargers, with pairs, and with four-horse teams ; 
furthermore, one Quintus Vitellius, a senator, fought 
as a gladiator. Wild beasts and tame animals were 
slain in vast numbers, among them a rhinoceros and 
a hippopotamus, beasts then seen for the first time 
in Rome. As regards the nature of the hippopotamus, 
it has been described by many and far more have 
seen it. The rhinoceros, on the other hand, is in 
general somewhat like an elephant, but it has also a 
horn on its very nose and has got its name because of 
this. These beasts, accordingly, were brought in, and 
moreover Dacians and Suebi fought in crowds with 
one another. The latter are Germans, the former 
Scythians of a sort. The Suebi, to be exact, dwell 
beyond the Rhine (though many peo})le elsew'here 
claim their name), and the Dacians on both sides of 
the Ister ; those of the latter, however, who live on 
this side of the river near the country of the Triballi 
are reckoned in with the district of Moesia and are 
called Moesians, except by those living in the 
immediate neighbourhood, while those on the other 
side are called Dacians and are either a branch of 
the Getae or Thracians belonging to the Dacian race 
that once inhabited Rhodope. Now these Dacians 
had before this time sent envoys to Caesar ; but 



ώ? δ' ούδει^ο? ων iheovro βτνχον, άττέκΧίναν ττρος 
τον ^Αντώνίον, και εκείνον μεν oifhkv μεηα ώφε- 
Χησαν στασιάσαντες εν άΧληΧοι^, αΚόντες δβ i/c 
τούτου Τίνες εττειτα τοΐς ^ουηβοις συνεβΧηθησαν. 

9 ε'γενετο 8e ή θεωρία άττασα εττΐ ττολλά?, ώσττερ 
eifc6<; ην, ημέρας, ούΖε ΒιεΧιττε ^ καίτοι '^ του Καί- 
σαρος άρρωστησαντος, άλλα καϊ άττόντος αυτού 
8ι έτερων εττοιήθη. και εν αύταΐς οι βουΧευταΙ 
μίαν τινά, ως έκαστοι ημεραν εν τοις των οικιών 
σφων ττροθύροις είστιάθησαν, ουκ ο2δ' όθεν ες 
τούτο ττροα'χθεντες' ου "yap τταραΒεΒοται. 

S Ύότε μεν 8η ταύθ* οΰτως εττράχ^θη, τού δβ Βη 
Καίσαρος το τέταρτον ετι ύττατεύοντος 6 Ταύρος 
6 ^τατίΧιος θεατρόν τι εν τω Αρείω ττεΒίω 
κυνη'γετικον Χίθινον καϊ εζειτοίησε τοις εαυτού 
τέΧεσι καϊ καθιερωσεν οττΧομαγ^ια, και Βια τούτο 
στρατη^ον ενα τταρά τού Βημου κατ έτος αί- 
ρείσθαι εΧάμβανε. 

2 Κατά Βε Βη τους αυτούς τούτους χρόνους εν 
οΐς ταΟτ' ε'γί'γνετο, 6 Κράσσος 6 ^ίάρκος ες τε την 
^ίακεΒονίαν καϊ ες την Ελλάδα ττεμφθείς τοις τε 
Αακοΐς και τοις ^ Έαστάρναις εττοΧεμησε. καϊ 
ττερί μεν εκείνων, οΐτινες τε είσι καϊ Βια τί εττο- 

3 Χεμώθησαν, εϊρηταΐ' Έαστάρναι Βε Έκύθαι τε 
ακριβώς νενομίΒαται, καϊ τότε τον "Ιστρον Βια- 
βάντες την τε Μ,υσίαν την κατ άντιττερας σφών 
καϊ μετά τούτο καϊ ΎριβαΧΧούς όμορους αύττ} 
οντάς τους τε ΑαρΒάνους εν τη χωρά τη εκείνων 
οίκούντας εχειρώσαντο. τέως μεν ούν ταύτ 
εποίουν, ούΒέν σφισι irpaypa ττρός τους ^Ρωμαίους 

^ δΐ€λι•7Γ6 Bk., δί€λ6ΐ•7Γ6 VM. '^ καίτοι Μ, καίτοι καϊ ν. 

" τοΓί supplied by Bk. 



when they obtained none of tiieir requests, tliey went 
over to Antony. I'liey proved of no great assistance 
to him, however, owing to strife among themselves, 
and some who were afterwards captured were now 
matched against the Suebi. The Avhole spectacle 
lasted many days, as one would expect, and there 
was no interruption, even though Caesar fell ill, but 
it was carried on in his absence under the direction 
of others. On one of the days of this celebration 
the senators gave banquets in the vestibules of their 
several homes ; but what the occasion was for their 
doing this, I do not know, since it is not recorded. 

These were the events of those days. And while 
Caesar was still in his fourth consulship, Statilius 
Taurus both constructed at his own expense and 
dedicated with a gladiatorial combat a hunting- 
theatre of stone ^ in the Campus Martius. Because 
of this he was permitted by the people to choose one 
of the ])raetors each year. 

During the same period in which these events 
occurred Marcus Crassus was sent into Macedonia and 
Greece and carried on war with the Dacians and 
Bastarnae. I have already stated Λνΐιο the former were 
and why they had become hostile ; the Bastarnae, on 
the other hand, who are properly classed as Scythians, 
had at this time crossed the Ister and subdued the 
part of Moesia opposite them, and afterwards sub- 
dued the Triballi who adjoin this district and the 
Dardani who inhabit the Triballian country. And as 
long as they were thus engaged, they had no trouble 
^ This was the first stone amphitheatre in Rome. 


V 2 


4 ijv' €TTet he τόν re Αίμον υττβμεβησαν και την 
^ράκην την ^ενθέλητων ενσττονοον αύτοίς ουσαν 
κατ€8ραμον, ενταύθα ό Κρασσο? το μεν tl τω 
Ζιίτα τω των Αενθ€Χητό)ν βασιΧεΐ τνφΧω οντι 
άμύνων, το 5e ^η ττΧεΐστον ττερί ttj ^ΙακεΒονία 
φοβηθεί άντεττήΧθε σφισι, καΐ αυτούς εκ της 
ττροσόΒου μόνης καταιτΧηζας εζεωσεν άμα'χεί εκ 

5 της γ^ώρας. κάκ τούτου οϊκαΒε άναχ^ωρούντας ^ 
επιΒίώκων την τε %ε^ετίκην καΧουμενην ττροσε- 
ητοιησατο καΐ ες την Μυσιδα ενεβαΧε, καΐ την τε 
'χωράν σφων εκάκωσε καΐ ιτρος τείχος tl καρτερον 
ττροσεΧάσας τοΐς μεν ττροΒρομοις επταισε (μόνους 
yap αυτούς οι λΐι^σοί οίηθεντες είναι εττεξο^ον 
ετΓΟίησαντο), ττροσβοηθήσας Si σφισι τταντί τω 
Χοιττω στρατεύματι καΐ άνεκοψεν αυτούς και 

24 ΊτροσεΒρεύσας εξεΐΧε. ττράσσοντος δε αυτού ταύτα 
οι Έαστάρναι της τε φυyής εττεσχον καΐ ττρος τω 
Κ,εΒρω ΤΓΟταμω κατεμειναν, ττεριορώμενοι τα ^ενη- 
σόμενα. εττειΒη τε νικήσας τους ^Ιυσούς και εττ 
εκείνους ώρμησε, ττρεσβεις εττεμψαν ατταηο- 
ρεύοντες αύτω μη Βιώκειν σφάς, ως ούΒεν τους 

2 'νωμαίονς ήΒικηκότες. καΐ αυτούς ό }ίράσσος 
κατασχων ώς καΐ τη ύστεραια την άττόκρισιν 
Βώσων, τά τε άΧΧα εφιΧοφρονησατο καΐ κατε- 
μεθυσεν ώστε ττάντα τα βουΧεύματα αυτών εκ- 
μαθεΐν άπΧηστως τε yap εμφορείται ττάν το 
%κυθικον φύΧον οίνου, και ύττερκορες αυτού ταχύ 

3 yίyvετaι. Κράσσος 8ε εν τούτω της νυκτός ες 
νΧην τίνα ττροχωρησας, καΐ ττροσκότΓους ττρο 
αύτης καταστησας, άνέτταυσε τε το στράτευμα, 

* V omits from here to ire^ovs in chap. 26, 1, without 
indicating a lacuna. 



with the Romans ; but when tliey erossed Haemus b.c. 2P 
and overran the part of Thrace belonging to the 
Dentheleti, which was under treaty with the Romans, 
then Crassus, partly to defend Sitas, king of the 
Dentheleti, who was blind, but chiefly out of fear for 
Macedonia, went out to meet them. By his mere 
approach he threw them into a panic and drove them 
from the country without a battle. Next he pursued 
them as they were retiring homeward, gained pos- 
session of the region called Segetica, and invading 
Moesia, ravaged the country and made an assault upon 
one of the strongholds. Then, although his advance 
line met with a repulse when the Moesians, thinking 
it an isolated force, made a sortie, nevertheless, when 
he reinforced it with his Avhole remaining army, he 
hurled the enemy back and besieged and destroyed 
the place. While he was accomplishing this, the 
Hastarnae checked their flight and halted near the 
Cedrus ^ river to observe what would take place. And 
when, after conquering the Moesians, Crassus set out 
against them also, they sent envoys bidding him not 
to pursue them, since they had done the Romans no 
harm. Crassus detained the envoys, on the })lea that 
he would give them their answer the following day, 
treated them kindly in various ways, and made them 
drunk, so that he learned all their plans ; for the 
whole Scythian race is insatiable in the use of wine 
and quickly becomes sodden with it. MeanΛvhile 
Crassus moved forward into a forest during the night, 
stationed scouts in front of it, and halted his army 

' The spelling is unceilain ; the forms Cebrus, Cibius, and 

Ciabrua are also found. Now the T/,ibrit/.a. , 



καΐ μ€τά τούτο των ]^ασταρνων μόνους re 
€Κ€ίνονς elvai νομισάντων καί βττίΒραμόντων 
σφίσιν, €9 τ€ τα Χάσια άνα'χ^ωρουσιν ΕΤτακοΧου- 
θησάντων, ττοΧλου? μ€ν ενταύθα ττοΧλούς δε καΐ 

4 φνγοντα'ζ βφθβίρεν ύττο τ€ yap των αμαξών 
κατοτΓΐν αντοΐς ονσών eveir ολίσθησαν, και ττροσ- 
€Τί και του? τταΐδα? τά<; re yvvaiKa<i σώσαι 
εθβΧησαντβς βπταυσαν. καΐ τον ye βασιΧέα 
αυτών ΑβΧΕωνα αυτό? ο }ίράσσος άττέκτβινβ' καν 
τα σκύΧα αυτού τώ Φερετρίφ ΔίΙ ώ? καΐ οττΐμα 
άνβθηκεν, eiirep αυτοκράτωρ στpaτηyo<ί iyeyovei. 

5 €Κ€Ϊνά τ€ ούν οΰτω<; ίιτρά'χθη, καΐ οΐ ΧοίττοΙ οΙ μεν 
€? αλσο9 τί κaτaφυyόvτ€<; ττερίβττρησθησαν, οι he 
€9 Τ6ίρ^09 TL €σπη8ήσαντ€ς εξγρεθησαν. aXXot €9 
τον "Ιστρον εμιτεσόντες, άΧΧοί κατά την χ^ώραν 

6 σκ€Βασθ€ντ€<; εφθάρησαν. ττεριΧειφθέντων δ' ούν 
καΐ ft>9 Τίνων, καΐ -χ^ωρίον Ισ'χυρον καταΧαβόντων , 
ημβρα^; μεν τινα'ζ μάτην σφίσιν ο Κ,ράσσος ττροσ- 
ηΒρευσεν, eireiTa Ρώλου οΐ Τετών τίνων 

7 βασίΧέως ετηκουρήσαντος εξεΐΧεν αυτούς, και 6 
τε ^¥ώΧης ττρος τον Κ,αίσαρα εΧθων φίΧος τε εττϊ 
τούτω καΐ σύμμαγ^ος αυτού ενομίσθη, καΐ οι 
αΙ'χ^μάΧωτοί τοις στρατιώταις Βιε^οθησαν. 

25 ΤΙράξας δε ταύτα 6 Κ,ράσσος εττϊ τους ^Ιυσούς 
ετράττετο, κα\ τα μεν ττείθων τινάς τα Βε εκφοβών 
τα δε καΐ βιαζό μένος, ττάντας μεν ττΧην ττάνυ 
6xίyωv, ετΓίττόνως δε δ^ καΐ εττικινΒυνως κατεστρε- 
2 ψατο. καΐ τότε μεν {'χειμων yap ην) ες την 
φίΧίαν άνε'χωρησε, ττοΧΧά μεν ύττο τού ψυχρούς 



there. Then, when the Bastarnae, in the belief that 
the scouts were all alone, rushed to attack them and 
pursued them as they retreated into the thick of the 
forest, he destroyed many of them on the spot and 
many others in the rout which followed. For not 
only were they hindered by their waggons, which 
were in their rear, but their desire to save their 
wives and children was also instrumental in their 
defeat. Crassus himself slew their king Deldo and 
would have dedicated his armour as spolia ophna to 
Jupiter Feretrius had he been general in supreme 
command. Such was the nature of this engage- 
ment. As for the remainder of the Bastarnae, some 
perished by taking refuge in a grove, which was 
then set on fire on all sides, and others by rushing 
into a fort, in which they were annihilated ; still 
others were destroyed by leaping into the Ister, 
or as they Λvere scattered here and there through 
the country. But some survived even so and 
seized a strong position, where Crassus besieged 
them in vain for several days. Then with the aid 
of Roles, king of a tribe of the Getae, he destroyed 
them. Now Roles, when he visited Caesar, was 
treated as his friend and ally because of this ser- 
vice ; and the captives were distributed among the 

After accomj)lishing this task Crassus turned his 
attention to the Moesians ; and partly by persuasion 
in some cases, partly by terrifying them, partly also 
by applying force, he subdued all except a very few, 
though only after great hardships and dangers. And 
for the time being, since it was winter, he retired 
into friendly territory, after suffering greatly from 



ΤΓολ,λω Be €TL ττΚείω ύττο των βρακών, Si^ ων ώ? 
φίΧων eiravrjeLy τταθών oOevTrep 'γνωμην βσγβν 
άρκεσθηναί τοΙ<; κατ€ίρ^ασμενοι<ζ. και yap καΐ 
θυσίαί καΐ νικητήρια ονχ otl τω Κ^αίσαρι άΧΧα 
κα\ εκβίνω βψηφυσθη' ου μύντοί και το του 
αύτοκράτορο<; όνομα, ώ? ye τίνες φασιν, εΚαβεν, 

3 αλλ' ό Κ,αΐσαρ μόνο<ζ αύτο ττροσεθετο. εττει δε οι 
^αστάρναι ταΐς τε συμφοραΐς άγθόμενοι, και 
μηκετ αύτον εττιστρατεύσειν σφίσι ττυθόμενοι, 
ττρό? τε τους ΑενθεΧητας και ττρος τον ^ιτάν 
αύθις ως καΐ αιτιώτατον αύτοΐς των κακών 
yεyov6τa ετράττοντο, οΰτω και άκων εζανεστη, 
και στΓονΒτ} γ^ωρησας άνεΧττιστός τε αύτοΐς εττε- 
ττεσε, και κρατήσας σττονΒας όττοίας ηθεΧησεν 

4 ε8ωκεν. ως δ' άιταζ των οττΧων αύθις ήψατο, 
εττεθύμησεν άμύνασθαι τους αρακάς τους εν τγι 
ανακομιΒτ) ttj εκ της ^ΙνσΙας Χυττησαντας αυτόν 
και yap τότ6 γ^ωρία τε εντεΐ'χ^ιζόμενοι και ττοΧε- 
μησείοντες r/yyiXXovTO. και σφων ^ΙαίΕους μεν 
και Έ^ερΒούς μά'χ^αις τε κατακρατων, και τάς 
^χείρας των άΧισκομενων άττοτεμνων, ουκ άττόνως 
μεν, ε'χειρώσατο δ' ουν τα δ άλλα ττΧην της των 

5 ^ΟΒρυσών yής κατεΒραμε. τούτων yap, οτι τω 
τε Αιονύσω πρόσκεινται καΐ rore άνευ των οττΧων 
απήντησαν οι, εφείσατο' και αύτοΐς καΐ την 
'χ^ώραν εν y κάϊ τον θεον άyάXXoυσιv εχαρισατο, 
Ιβησσούς τους κατε'χ^οντας αυτήν άφεΧόμενος. 

ί^() ΤΙράσσοντα Βε αυτόν ταύτα ό 'ΡώΧης Δαττυγ^ 
Τετών τίνων καΐ αύτω βασιΧεΐ ιτοΧεμωθεις μετε- 



the cold and much more still at the hands of the b.c. 20 
Thracians, through whose country he was returning 
in the belief that it was friendly. Hence he de- 
cided to he content with what he had already 
accomplished. For sacrifices and a triumph had 
been voted, not only to Caesar, but to him also ; 
nevertheless, he did not receive the title of imperator, 
as some report, but Caesar alone assumed it. The 
Bastarnae, now, angered at their disasters and 
learning that he would make no further campaigns 
against them, turned again upon the Dentheleti and 
Sitas, whom they regarded as having been the chief 
cause of their evils. Thus it came about that Crassus 
reluctantly took the field ; and falling upon them 
unexpectedly after advancing by forced marches, he 
contjuered them and im})osed such terms of peace as 
he pleased. And now that he had once taken up 
arms again, he conceived a desire to punish the 
Thracians who had harassed him during his return 
from Moesia ; for it was reported at this time that 
they were fortifying positions and were eager for Avar. 
He succeeded in subduing some of them, namely 
the Maedi and the Serdi, though not without difficulty, 
by conquering them in battle and cutting off the 
hands of the captives ; and he overran the rest of the 
country except the territory of the Odrysae. These 
he spared because they are attached to the service 
of Dionysus, and had come to meet him on this 
occasion without their arms ; and he also granted 
them the land in which they magnify the god, 
taking it away from the l^essi who were occupy- 
ing it. 

While he was thus engaged. Holes, who had 
become embroiled with Dapyx, himself also king of 



ΤΓβμψατο. καν ος €7ηκονρησα<ζ οι την τ€ ΐτητον 
των εναντίων e? τοι/9 ττεζΌι/? βσηραξβ, και συμ- 
φοβησα<; εκ τούτου καϊ εκείνους μάγτιν μεν oxjhe- 
μίαν ετ εττοίησατο, φόνον δβ Βη φευ'^/όντων 

2 εκατερων ττοΧύν εΙρΎασατο. καϊ μετά τούτο τον 
Δαττυγα ττρος φρούριον τι καταφυ^όντα άττο- 
\αβων ετΓοΧίόρκεο' καν tjj ττροσεΒρεία ελΧηνιστί 
Tt9 αύτον άτΓΟ του τεί-χους άσττασάμευος €9 τε 
Χόγου? οΐ ηΧθε καϊ ττροΒοσίαν συνεθετο. άΧισκό- 
μενοί ουν οΰτως οι βάρβαροι eV άΧλιίΧους ωρ- 
μησαν, καϊ 6 τε Αάττυξ άττεθανε καϊ άΧΧοι 
ΤΓοΧΧοί. τον μεντοι άΒεΧφον αυτού ζω^ρησας ό 
}ζ.ράσσοζ ούχ^ οτι τι ^ κακόν εΒρασεν, άΧΧα καΙ 

3 Υίοιήσας Βε ταύτα εττΐ το σττηΧαιον την Κεΐριν 
καΧουμενην εστρατεύσατο' τούτο 'yap με^ιστόν 
τε άμα καϊ ε'χυρώτατον ούτως ον ως καϊ τους 
Ύίτάνας ες αύτο μετά την ητταν την ύττο των θέων 
Βη σφισι ^ενομενην συ^καταφυ^εϊν μυθεύεσθαι, 
καταΧαβόντες οι εττιχώριοι ττΧήθει ττοΧΧω τά 
τε άΧΧα τά τιμιώτατα καϊ τάς ά^εΧας ες αύτο 

4 ττάσας εσεκομίσαντο, 6 ουν }ζ.ράσσος τά τε 
στόμια αυτού ττάντα σκοΧιά και ΒυσΒιερεύντιτα 
οντά άναζητησας άττωκοΒόμησε, κάκ τούτου κάκεί- 
νους Χιμώ κατεστρεψατο. ώς Βε ταύτα αύτω 
ττροε'χωρησεν, ούΒε των άΧΧων Τετων, καίττερ 

5 μηΒεν τω Αάττυ'γι ττροσηκοντων, άττεσχ^ετο, αλλ' 
εττΐ ΤενουκΧα το εύερκεστατον της Ζυράξου άρχ^ής 
τεί'χος ηΧθεν, οτι τά σημεία, α τού ^Αντωνίου τού 
Τα'ίον οΐ Έαστάρναι ττρος τη των ^ϊστριανών ~ 
ττόΧει άφηρηντο, ενταύθα ηκουεν οντά' καϊ αύτο 

^ τί Μ, οηι. V. - Ίστριανών Leuncl., Ιστράνων VM. 



Λ tribe of the Getae, sent for him. Crassus went to r c. 29 
his aid, and by hurling' the horse of his opponents 
back upon their infantry he so thoroughly terrified 
the latter also that what followed was no longer a 
battle but a great slaughter of fleeing men of both 
arms. Next he cut off Dapyx, who had taken refuge 
in a fort, and besieged him. In the course of the 
siege someone hailed him from the walls in Greek, 
obtained a conference with him, and arranged to 
betray the place. The barbarians, thus captured, 
turned upon one another, and Dapyx was killed 
along with many others. His brother, however, 
Crassus took alive, and not only did him no harm but 
actually released him. 

After finishing this campaign Crassus led his troops 
against the cave called Ciris. For the natives in great 
numbers had occupied this cave, which is extremely 
large and so ca})able of defence that the tradition 
obtains that the Titans took refuge there after their 
defeat suffered at the hands of the gods ; and here 
they had brought together all their herds and their 
other most cherished belongings. Crassus first sought 
out all the entrances to the cave, which are tortuous 
and difficult to discover, walled them up, and in this 
way subdued the men by famine. After this success 
he did not leave in j)eace the rest of the Getae, either, 
even though they had no connexion with Dapyx, 
but he marched uj)on Genucla, the most strongly 
defended fortress of the kingdom of Zyraxes, because 
he heard that the stiindards which the Bastarnae 
had taken from Gains Antonius ^ near the city of the 
Istrians Λvere there. His assault was made both by 

1 Cf. xxxviii. 10. 



πεζ*^ re άμα και Βία του 'Ίστρου (προς yap τω 
ΰΒατί 67Γ67ΓΟΧίστο) ιτροσβαΧων ουκ iv ττοΧλ,ω μεν 
'χ^ρονω, συν ττοΧΚω Be Βη ττόνω, καίτοι του Ζυράξον 
G μη τταρόντος, elXev. €κείνο<; yap ως τάχιστα της 
ορμής αυτοί) ησθβτο, ττρος τε τους Έ^κύθας εττΐ 
συμμαγίαν μετά των 'χρημάτων άττήρε, και ουκ 
εφθη άνακομισθείς. 

Ύαϋτα μεν εν Τεταις εττραξε, των Βε Βη ^Ιυσό)ν 
τους μεν εκ των κεχειρωμενων ετταναστάντας Βι 
ί^7 έτερων άνεκτησατο, εττΐ Βε ^Αρτακίους άΧΧους τε 
τινας οΰθ' άΧόντας ττοτε οΰτ αΰ ττροσχωρήσαί οι 
εθεΧοντας, καΐ αυτούς τε μεyίστov εττΐ τούτω 
φρονοΰντας καΐ τοΐς άΧΧοις opy/jv τε άμα καΐ 
νεωτερισμον εμττοίοϋντας, αυτός τ εττεστρά- 
τευσε, και σφας τα μεν βία, Βράσαντας ουκ 
oXiya, τα Βε καϊ φόβω των άΧισκομενων ττροσ- 

2 Ύαϋτα μεν εν -χρόνω εyεvετo, ypάφω Βε τά τε 
άΧΧα ως ττου τταραΒέΒοταί, καϊ αυτά τά ονόματα, 
το μεν yap ττάΧαν ^\υσοί τε καΐ Τεται ττάσαν 
την μεταξύ του τε Αίμου καϊ του Ίστρου ουσαν 
ενεμοντο, ττροϊόντος Βε του γ^ρονου και ες άΧΧα 

3 Τίνες αυτών ονόματα μετεβαΧον, καϊ μετά ταϋτ 
ες το της lsJ[υσίaς όνομα ττάνθ^ οσα ό Έ,άουος ες 
τον "Ιστρον εμβάΧΧων, ύττερ τε της ΑεΧματίας 
καϊ ύττερ της ^ΙακεΒονίας της τε Θράκης, άττο 
της ΤΙαννονίας αφορίζει, συyκεχ^ώpηκεv. και εστίν 
εν αύτοΐς άΧΧα τε έθνη ττοΧΧά καϊ οι ΎριβαΧΧοί 
ττοτε ττpoσayopευθεvτες, οΊ τε ΑαρΒάνιοι και νυν 
οΰτω καΧούμενοι. 



land and from the Ister (the city is huilt upon n/. 20 
the river), and in a short time, though with much 
toil, despite the absence of Zyraxes, he took the place. 
The king, it seems, as soon as he heard of the 
Romans' approach, had set off" with money to the 
Scythians to seek an alliance, and had not returned 
in time. 

These were his achievements among the Getae. 
And when some of the Moesians who had been sub- 
dued rose in revolt, he won them back by the aid 
of lieutenants, while he himself made a campaign 
against the Artacii and a few other tribes who had 
never been captured and would not acknowledge his 
authority, priding themselves greatly upon this point 
and at the same time inspiring in the others both 
anger and a disposition to rebel. He brought them 
to terms, partly by force, after they had made no 
little trouble, and partly by fear for their countrymen 
who were being captured. 

All these operations took a long time ; but the 
facts I record, as well as the names, are in accord- 
ance with the tradition Avhich has been handed down. 
In ancient times, it is true, Moesians and Getae occu- 
pied all the land between Haemus and the Ister ; 
but as time went on some of them changed their 
names, and since then there have been included 
under the name of Moesia all the tribes living above 
Dalmatia, Macedonia, and Thrace, and separated from 
Pannonia by the Savus, a tributary of the Ister. 
Two of the many tribes found among them are those 
formerly called the Triballi, and the Dardani, who still 
retain their old name. 



TciSe (veaTiV 4v τφ ττίντηκοστψ ζΐυτ^ρψ των ^lu>vo5 'Ρωμαϊκών 

a, 'Λ$ ΚαΊσαρ (βουλ^ύσατο την μοναρχίαν αφ^Ίναι, 
β. Ώ$ αυτοκράτωρ καΚ^Ίσθαι ^ρ|ατο. 

Χρόνου πληθοί τα λοιτια τη5 Kaiaapos τ6 «' κα\^ Σί^του 
ΆτΓουλί'/ου ύπατίίαί.''^ 

Ύαντα μβν ev τβ τ^ βασιΧεία καΐ iv rfj δημο- 
κρατία ταΐ<; τ€ Βυναστείαίς, irevre re και βϊκοσι 
καΐ βτΓΎακοσίοί'ζ ετεσυ, καΐ βττραξαν οι 'Ρωμαϊοί 
καΐ βτταθον €Κ Se τούτον μοναρχεΐσθαι ανθίς 
ακριβώς ηρ^αντο, καυτοί του Καισα/οο? βουΚευ- 
σαμενου τά τε οττλα καταθεσθαι καΐ τα ττρά- 
'γματα ττ} τε γερουσία καΐ τω Βημω εττιτρεψαι. 

2 ετΓΟίησατο 8ε την ΒιαΎνωσιν μετά τε του Άγ/ο^ττ- 
ΤΓου καΐ μετά του ^Ιαικηνου (τούτοις yap ττάντα 
τα απόρρητα άνεκοίνου), και αύτω 6 ^Α'γρίττττας 
πρότερος είττε τοιάΒε' 

2 " Μ^ θαύμασες, ώ Κα^σα/ο, εΐ μέ\\ω σε άττο- 
τρεττειν άττό της μοναρχίας, καίττερ ττοΧλα καΧ 
ά^αθα άτΓοΧαύσας αν cvk αυτής σου yε αύτην 
ε'χρντος. εΐ μεν yap καΐ σοΙ ωφέλιμος yεvησε- 
σθαι εμεΧλε, και πάνυ αν αύτην εσπούΒασα' 

2 επειΒη δ ούΒεν ομοιον τοις τε αύταρχ^οϋσι καΐ 

^ κα\ supplied by R. Steph. 
'^ oTTouAe/oi» υττατίίαί Μ, om, V. 



The following is contained in the Fifty second of Dio's 
Rome : — 

How Caesar planned to lay aside his sovereignty (chaps. 

How he began to be called emperor (chap. 42). 

Duration of time, the remainder of the consulship of 
Caesar (V) and Sextus Apuleius. (r>.c. 29.) 

Such were the achievements of the Rorricans and R-f- 20 
such their sufferings under the kingship, under the 
republic, and under the dominion of a few, during a 
period of seven hundred and twenty-five years. 
After this they reverted to what was, strictly 
speaking, a monarchy, although Caesar planned to 
lay down his arms and to entrust the management 
of tlie state to tlie senate and the people. He made 
his decision, however, in consultation Λvith Agrippa 
and Maecenas, to whom he was wont to communicate 
all liis secret plans ; and Agrippa, taking the lead^ 
spoke as follows : 

" Be not surprised, Caesar, if I shall try to turn 
your tlioughts away from monarchy, even though I 
should derive many advantages from it, at least if it 
was you Λνΐιο held the position. For if it >vere to be 
profitable to you also, I sliould advocate it most 
earnestly ; but since the privileges of a monarchy 



roL•^ φίΧοί'^ σφών irape^^erai, αλλ' οι μ€ν και 
ανετΓίφθϋρω'ς και άκιν^νι^ω^; ττάνθ' όσα ^Θ^Κουσυ 
καρτΓουνταί, τοί<ζ δε καΐ φθόνοι και κίνδυνοι 
σνμβαινονσιν, ου το βμαυτου iStov, ωσττβρ ovBe ev 
τοις α\Χυι<ί, άΧλα το σον τό τβ κοινον ιτροϊ^ίσθαι 

3 " Χκεψώμεθα Be καθ' ησνχ^Ιαν ττάντα τα 
ττροσόντα αύττ}, και οτττ) ττοτ αν ό λογίσ/^ο? 
ημάς ayayy τραττώμεθα' ου yap ττου και βξ 
άτταντος τρόττου φησβι τις heiv ημάς βΧβσθαι 

4 αυτήν, καν μη ΧυσιτβΧουσα η. €ΐ Be μη, Βόξο- 
μεν^ ήτοι της τε ευlτpayίaς ηττησθαι και υττο 
των κατωρθωμενων εκττεφρονηκεναι, η και ττάΧαι 
αυτής εφιεμενοι τον ^ τε πάτερα και την ες αυτόν 
εύσέβειαν εσκήφθαι και τον Βήμον την τε yεpoυ- 
σίαν ττροβεβΧησθαι, ούχ Ίνα αυτούς των εττι- 
βουΧευσάντων σφίσιν άτταΧΧάξωμεν, αλλ' ϊνα 

5 εαυτοΐς ΒουΧωσώμεθα. εκάτερον Βε ύτταίτιον. τις 
μεν yap ουκ αν '^ άyavaκτησεLεv άΧΧα μεν ορών 
ημάς είρηκοτας, άΧΧα Βε αίσθανόμενος ττεφρονη- 
κότας; ττώς δ' ουκ αν μάΧΧον νυν μισήσειεν ημάς 
η ει κατ άρ'χ^ας ευθύς την τε εττιθυμιαν άττε- 
yυμvώσaμεv καΐ εττϊ την μοναρχ^ιαν άντικρυς 

6 ώρμησαμεν; το μεν yap βιαιόν τι τοΧμάν ττροσ- 
ηκειν ττως ττ) των άνθρώττων φύσει, καν ττΧεονε- 
KTLKOV είναι Βοκη, ττεττίστευταΐ' πάς yap 6 ττρο- 
φερων εν τινι πΧέον άζιοΐ του καταΒεεστερου 
ε^ειν, καΐ κατορθώσας τε τι ες την τΡ]ς ψυχής ^ 

^ δόξομ^ν Κ. Steph., 5όξωμξν VM, 

2 Thv Μ, rh V. 

^ tiv supplied by St. 

* ψυχη$ Rk., τύχη! Λ^Μ. 



are hy no luciuis Ihc same for the rulers as for their bx. 29 
iVieiids, but, on the contrary, jealousies and dangers 
i'all to the lot of the rulers while their frit nds reaj), 
without incurring either jealousies or dangers, all the 
benefits they can wish for, I have thought it right, 
in this question as in all others^ to have regard, not 
for my own interests, but for yours and the state's. 

" Let us consider, now, at our leisure all the 
characteristics of this system of government and 
then shape our course in whichever direction our 
reasoning may lead us. For surely no one will assert 
that we are obliged to choose monarchy in any and 
all circumstances, even if it be not profitable. If we 
choose it, people will think that we have fallen 
victims to our own good fortune and have been bereft 
of our senses by our successes, or else that we have 
been aiming at sovereignty all the >vhile, making of 
our appeals to your father and of our devotion to his 
memory a mere pretext and using the people and the 
senate as a cloak, with the purpose, not of freeing 
these latter from those who plotted against them, 
but of making them slaves to ourselves. And either 
explanation involves censure for us. For who could 
help being indignant when he finds that we have 
said one thing and then discovers that Ave have 
meant another ? Would he not hate us much more 
ηοΛν than if we had at the outset laid bare our desires 
and set out directly for the monarchy .'* To be sure, 
men have come to believe that it somehow is an 
attribute of human nature, however selfish that may 
seem, to resort to deeds of violence ; for every one 
who excels in any respect thinks it right that he 
should have more than his inferior, and if he meets 
with any success, he ascribes his success to the force 

vol.. VI. ο 


ισ')(νν άναφβρεταί, καϊ ^υαμαρτών τίνος ttj του 
7 Βαίμονίου φορά ττροστίθεται. ό δβ βξ €7ηβου\ης 
καϊ /cafCOupyLa<^ τοίοϋτό τί ττοίων ιτρωτον μεν 
ΒοΧβρος καϊ σκοΧώζ καϊ κακοήθη<^ καϊ κακό- 
τροτΓος elvat νομίζβταί, άττβρ ev οΖδ' οτί ιτερΧ 
σου ovheva αν υπομξίνβίας eiirelv η φρονησαι, 
ούδ' el πάση<; ifc τούτον της οίκονμβνης άρξβιας' 
67Γ€ίτα δέ καϊ κατορθώσας άΒίκον την ττΧεονεξίαν 
7Γ€7Γ0ίήσθαι καϊ σφαΧβΙς Βίκαίαν την κακοττρα^ίαν 
3 βΙΧηφβναί Βοκβΐ. τούτου δε δ?/ ούτως βγοντος, 
ovhev αν ήττον εττικαΧέσειέ τις ήμΐν καΐ el μηΒεν 
τοιούτον άπο ττρώτης ενθυμηθεντες εττειτα νυν 
εττιθυμησαιμεν αυτού, το yelp τοί των τε τταρόν- 
των νικάσθαι καϊ μήτε εαυτούς κατέχ^ειν τοις τ€ 
Ίταρα της τύ'χτ^ς ΒοθεΙσι μη καΧως 'χ^ρησθαι ττοΧύ 

2 'χ^εΐρόν εστί του εκ κακοττ ρα^ίας άΒικεΐν τίνα' οι 
μεν yap υπ αυτών των συμφορών ττοΧΧάκις 
άvayκάζovτaί προς την τού συμφέροντος σφίσί 
'χ^ρείαν καϊ άκοντες πΧημμεΧεΐν, οι δ' εθεΧονταΙ 
άκράτορες εαυτών καϊ παρά το ΧυσίτεΧούν yi- 
yvovTai. τους Be Βη μηθ* άττλόττ^τά τίνα εν ttj 
'ψυχτ] εγρντας μήτε τα ΒοΘεντα σφίσίν ayaOa 
μετρίάσαί Βυναμενους πώς αν τις προσΒοκησειεν 
ητοί τών άΧΧων καΧώς ηyεμovεύσeLV η ταΐς 

3 συμφοραΐς ορθώς 'χ^ρησεσθαι; ώς ούν μηΒετερον 
αυτών πεπονθότες, μηΒ^ άXόyως τι πράξαι επι- 
θυμούντες, άΧΧ* 6 τι ποτ αν βουΧευσαμενοις ημΙν 
άριστον φανη τούθ^ αίρησόμενοι, την Bίάyvωσιv 



of his own iiitclligfiK-e, wliercas if he fails, he lays n.r. 20 
the blame for his failure upon the influence of the 
divine will. But, on the other hand, the man who, 
in following such a course, resorts to plotting and 
villainy, is, in the first place, held to be crafty and 
crooked, malicious, and depraved, — an opinion which 
I know you would not allow anyone to express or to 
entertain about you, even if you might rule the 
whole world by such practices ; and, in the second 
place, if he succeeds, men think that the advantage 
he has gained is unjust, or if he fails, that his dis- 
comfiture is merited. This being the case, men 
would reproach us quite as much if we should now, 
after the event, begin to covet that advantage, even 
though we harboured no such intention at the outset. 
For surely it is much Λvorse for men to let circum- 
stances get the better of them and not only to fail 
to hold themselves in check but to abuse the gifts of 
Fortune, than to wrong others in consequence of 
failure. For men who have failed are often compelled 
by their very misfortunes to commit wrongs even 
against their will in order to meet the demands of 
their own interests, whereas the others voluntarily 
abandon their self-control even when it is unprofitable 
to do so. And when men have no straightforwardness 
in their souls, and are incapable of moderation in 
dealing with the blessings bestowed u})on them, how 
could one expect them either to rule well over others 
or to conduct themselves properly in adversity ? In 
the conviction, therefore, that we are guilty of 
neither of these shortcomings, and that Ave have no 
desire to act irrationally, but that Ave shall choose 
whatever course shall appear to us after deliberation 
to be best, let us proceed to make our decision 

ο :2 


αυτού ττοίησωμβθα. Xe^o) 8e yLtcra 7rappjjaLa<;' 
ουτ€ yap αύτο<^ άΧλως άν re elirelv ουναίμην, ovie 
σοι σύνοώα τα ψβν^ή μβτα κοΧακβίας ?}δ€ω? 
4 " Η μβν TOLVVV Ισονομία το τε ττρόσρημα βνώ- 
ννμον καΐ το epyov δικαιότατου fc'%e/. την τ€ 
yap φυσιν την αυτήν τινα<; €ΐΧηγ^οτα<^ και όμο- 
φυΧου<; άΧΧηΧοις οντα^ί, ev τ€ τοί? αύτοΐς ηθεσι 
τβθραμμβνους και iv τοις ομοίοις νόμοις ττετται- 

2 Βευμένους, καΐ κοινην και την των σωμάτων και 
την των ψυγών 'χ^ρησιν Trj ττατρί^ι παρέχοντας, 
πώς μεν ου δίκαιον και τάΧΧα πάντα κοινούσθαι, 
πώς δ ουκ άριστον εν μη8ενι πΧην άττ' αρετής 

3 προτιμάσθαι; ή τε yap ισoyovίa Ισομοιρίας ορι- 
yvaTai, καΐ τυχ^οΰσα μεν αυτής γ^αίρει, Βιαμαρ- 
τοϋσα 8ε αχθεταΐ' και το άνθρώπειον πάν, άτε 
εκ τε θεών yεyovoς και ες θεούς άφήξον, άνω 
βΧεπει, και ούτε εθεΧει υπο του αυτού Sia παντός 

4 άρ'χεσθαι, οΰθ^ υπομένει τών μεν πόνων καΐ τών 
κινΒύνων τών τε 8απανημάτο^ν μετεχ^ον, της Βε 
κοινωνίας τών κρειττόνων στερομενον, άΧΧα καν 
άvayκaσθfj τι τοιούτον ύποστήναι, μισεί το βε- 
βιασμενον, καν καιρού Χάβηται, τιμωρείται το 

5 μεμισημενον. άργειν τε yap πάντες ά^ιούσι, καΐ 
8ιά τούτο καΐ άρχ^εσθαι εν τω μέρει ύπομενουσΐ' 
καΐ πΧεονεκτεΐσθαι ουκ εθεΧουσι, και Βιά τούτο 
ού8^ αύτοΙ πΧεονεκτεΐν avay κάζονται. ταΐς τε 
τιμαΐς ταΐς παρά τών ομότιμων χ^αίρουσι, καΐ 

6 τάς τιμωρίας τάς εκ τών νόμων επαινούσι. καν 
ούτω ποΧιτεύωνται, κοινά ^ μεν τα άyaθa κοινά 

^ κοινά Rk., καί κοινά Λ'Μ. 



accordingly. I shiill speak quite frankly, for I could 
not, for my part, speak otherwise, and I know you 
too well to think that you like to listen to falsehood 
mingled with flattery. 

"Equality before the law has an auspicious name 
and is most just in its workings. For in the case of 
men who are endowed with the same nature, are of 
the same race with one another, have been brought 
up under the same institutions, have been trained in 
laws that are alike, and yield in an equal degree the 
service of their bodies and of their minds to their 
country, is it not just that they should have an equal 
share in all other things also, and is it not best that 
they should secure no distinctions except as the 
result of excellence ? For equality of birth demands 
equality of privilege, and if it attains this object, it is 
glad, but if it fails, it is displeased. And the human 
race everywhere, sprung as it is from the gods and 
destined to return to the gods, gazes upward and is 
not content to be ruled forever by the same person, 
nor Λνϊΐΐ it endure to share in the toils, the dangers, 
and the expenditures and yet be deprived of partner- 
ship in the better things. Or, if it is forced to sub- 
mit to anything of the sort, it hates the power Λvhich 
has a})plied coercion, and if it obtains an o})portunity, 
takes vengeance upon what it hates. All men, of 
course, claim the right to rule, and for this reason 
submit to being ruled in turn ; they are unwilling to 
have others overreach them, and therefore are not 
obliged, on their part, to overreach others. They are 
jileased with the honours bestowed upon them by 
their equals, and approve of the penalties inflicted 
upon them by the laws. Now if they live under this 
kind of polity and regard the blessings and also the 



Be καΧ τα εναντία νομίζοντες elvai, ovre τί κακόν 
ovSevl των ττόΧίτων ηίην€.σθαι βούΧονται, καΐ 
Ίτάντα τα κρείττω ττάσιν αντοΐς συνεύγονται. 

7 καΐ αν τε τ^? αύτος άρετην τίνα ε'χτ], καΐ προ- 
φαινει αύτην ττρο'χ^είρως καΐ ασκεί ττροθύμοίς κα\ 
επιΒεικνυσιν άσμενεστατα, αν τε κα\ εν βτερω 
ΪΒύ), καϊ ττροά^ει ετοίμων καΐ συναύζει σττουδαιω? 

8 καϊ Τίμα Χαμττρότατα. καϊ μεντοί καν κακύνηταί 
τ^9, ττάς αύτον μισεί, καν Βνστυχ^τ}, ττάς εΧεεΐ, 
κοινην της ττολεως καϊ την ζημίαν καΐ την αίσχ^ύνην 
την ατΓ* αυτών είναι νομίζων. 

5 " Κντη μεν η των Βημων κατάστασις, εν Βε Βη 
ταΐς τυραννίσι ττάντα τάναντία συμβαίνει, καϊ 
τα μεν ττοΧΧα τί Βεΐ μηκύνειν Χέ^οντα; το Βε Βη 
κεφάΧαιον, -χ^ρηστον μεν ούΒεΙς ούΒεν οΰτ εΙΒεναι 
οΰτ €')(ειν ΒοκεΙν βούΧεται (ττοΧεμιον yap αύτγ 
Ίταν εττϊ τούτω το κρατούν ως ττΧηθει ηίηνεται), 

2 τόι^ Βε εκείνου τις τρόττον κανόνα του βίου 
ΊΓΟίησάμενος, 6 τι ττοτ αν εΧττίστ) Βι αυτού 
ιτΧεονεκτησας άκινΒύνως κερΒανεΙν, μετερχ^εται. 
καϊ Βιά τούθ* οι ττΧείους σφών τό τε καθ' εαυτούς^ 
μόνον σπεύΒουσι και ττάντας τους αλΧους μι- 
σουσι, τάς τε εύττρα^ίας αυτών οικείας ζημίας 
καϊ τας συμφοράς ϊΒια κερΒη ποιούμενοι. 

3 ** Τοιούτων Βε Βη τούτων όντων ούγ^ ορώ τί ττοτ 
αν εΐκότως επάρειε σε μοναρχήσαι επιθυμήσαι. 
ττρος yap τω τοις Βημοις χαΧειτον είναι το ττοΧι- 
τευμα, ττοΧύ Βυσ'χερεστερον αύτώ σοι yivoiTO αν. 

^ At this point a quaternion (containing the chapters 
down to 20, 4) is missing from ]\I. L', the copy of M, here 
becomes of importance, since the scribe filled the lacuna in 
Μ from L, which was then complete. See vol. i. p. xxv. 



opposite as belonging to all alike, they not only wish 
no harm to befall any one of the citizens, but devoutly 
hope that nothing but prosperity will fall to the lot 
of each and all. And if one of them possesses any 
excellence himself, he readily makes it known, 
practises it enthusiastically, and exhibits it most 
joyfully ; or if he sees it in another, he readily brings 
it to the light, eagerly takes part in increasing it, 
and bestows the most splendid honours upon it. On 
the other hand, if any one shows himself base, every- 
body hates him, and if any one meets with misfortune, 
everybody pities him ; for each person regards the 
loss and the disgrace that arise therefrom as shared 
in by the whole state. 

'' This is the character of democracies. Under 
tyrannies exactly the opposite conditions are found. 
But why go into all the details at length ,'* The 
chief thing is that no one is willing to be thought to 
have any superior knowledge or j)ossession, because 
the dominant power generally becomes wholly hostile 
to him on account of such superiority ; on the con- 
trary, every one makes the tyrant's character Iiis 
own standard of life and pursues whatever objects he 
may hope to gain through him by overreaching 
others without personal risk. Consequently, the 
majority of the people are devoted only to their own 
interests and hate all their neighbours, regarding the 
others' successes as their own losses and the others' 
misfortunes as their ΟΛνη gains. 

" Such being the state of the case, I do not see what 
motive could reasonably induce you to desire to 
become sole ruler. For that system, besides being 
difficult to apply to democracies, would be vastly 
more difficult still for you yourself to put into effect. 



η οίιχ 6ρα<ζ 07Γω9 η τ€ ττόΧίς και τα ττρά^ματα 
4 αυτη<ζ 6TL καΐ νυν ταράττεται; καΐ γ^αΧζττον μ€ν 
€στι το τον ομιΧον ημών, τοσοντοις ereacv ev 
iXevdepia βββίωκότα, καταΧυσαί, 'χ^αΧβττον δέ καί 
το τους συμμάγ^ους τους re ύττηκόους, τους μ€ν 
άττο τταΧαιου Βημοκρατουμενους τους δ' ύφ' ημών 
αυτών ηΧευΘβρωμίνους, €ς ΒουΧβίαν αύθις κατά- 
στησαν, τοσούτων ττβριξ ττοΧβμίων ήμΐν ττροσ- 
6 " ΚαΙ ίνα y€ άττο ττρώτου του βρα'χυτάτου 
άρζωμαι, γ^ρηματά σοι ττοΧΧά και τταντα'χ^όθεν 
avajKaiov βσται ττοριζβιν αδύνατον yap τάς νυν 
ούσας ττροσοΒους προς τ€ ταΧΧα και ττρος την 
τών στρατιωτών τροφην εζαρκβσαι. τούτο δε 
βστί μβν καΐ iv ταΐς Βημοκρατίαις' ου yap οιόν τ€ 

2 τΓοΧιτβίαν τίνα άνβυ Βαττάνης συστήναι. αλλ' iv 
μ€ν ΕΚβίναις μάΧιστα μβν βκοντες ττοΧΧοι ττοΧΧα 
€7ΓΐΒιΒόασιν, iv φιΧοτιμΙας μέρει το irpaypxi 
Ίτοιουμενοι καΐ τιμάς άντ αυτών άξιας άντι- 
Χαμβάνοντες' αν δε ττου καϊ avayKaiai τταρά 
ττάντων iσφopaϊ yεvωvτaι, εαυτούς τε ^ ττείθοντες 

3 καϊ ύττερ εαυτών συντεΧουντες άνεχ^ονται. iv δε 
δ^ ταις 8υναστείαις το τε άρχ^ον ττάντες μόνον ώς 
και υττερττΧουτουν άξιοΰσι Βαττανάσθαι, τάς μεν 
ττροσόΒους αυτοί) ετοίμως iξεpευvώμεvoι, τά δ' 
άναΧώματα ονκεθ* ομοίως iκXoyιζόμεvoι' καϊ οιίτ' 
Ihia ή8εως ή και εκόντες i7Γl8ιSoaσί τι, ούτε τας 

1 τ€ R. Steph., 7€ VL'. 


Or do you not see how the city and its affairs are b.c. 29 
even now in a state of turmoil ? It is difficult, also, 
to overthrow our populace, which has lived for so 
many years in freedom, and difficult, when so many 
enemies beset us round about, to reduce again to 
slavery the allies and subject nations, some of which 
have had a democratic government from of old, 
while others of them have been set free by us our- 

" To begin first with the least important consider- 
ation, it will be necessary that you procure a large 
sup})ly of money from all sides ; for it is impossible 
that our present revenues should suffice for the 
support of the troops, not to speak of the other 
expenses. Now this need of funds, to be sure, 
exists in democracies also, since it is not possible for 
any government to continue without expense. But 
in democracies many citizens make large con- 
tributions, preferably of their οΛνη free will, in 
addition to what is required of them, making it a 
matter of patriotic emulation and securing appro- 
priate honours in return for their liberality ; or, if 
perchance compulsory levies are also made upon the 
whole body of citizens, they submit to it both because 
it is done with their own consent and because the 
contributions they make are in their own interests. 
In monarchical governments, on the other hand, the 
citizens all think that the ruling power alone, to 
which they credit boundless wealth, should bear the 
expense ; for they are very ready to search out the 
ruler's sources of income, but do not reckon his 
expenses so carefully ; and so they make no con- 
tril)utions from their private means gladly or of their 
own free will, nor are the public levies they make 



4 κοίνας συντέλειας αυθαίρετους ποιούνται, εκείνο 
μεν yap ουτ αν εσεχησείε τις (ουόε yap ουο 
c)μo\oyήσειεv αν ραΒιως ττΧουτεΐν) ούτε συμφέρει 
τω κρατουντί yιyvεσθaι' αύτίκα yap αν Βόζαν 
•παρά τοις πυΧλοΐς ώς και φιΧόποΧις ε'χων 
6yκωθείη και νεωτερισειε. το δ' έτερον πάνυ 
τους ποΧΧούς βαρύνει, καΐ μάΧισθ* οτι την μεν 
ζημίαν αύτοΙ ύπομενουσι, το δβ 8η κέρΒος έτεροι 

5 Χαμβάνουσιν. εν μεν yap ταΐς Βημοκρατίαις καΐ 
στρατεύονται ώς πΧηθει οι τα γ^ρήματα συνεσ- 
φεροντες, ώστε τρόπον τινά αύθις αυτά άπο- 
Χαμβάνουσιν εν 8ε ταΐς μοναρχίαις άΧΧοι μεν ώς 
το ποΧύ καΐ yεωpyoϋσι και hημLoυpyoυσL και 
ναυτίΧΧονται καΐ ποΧιτεύονται, παρ' ώνπερ καΐ 
αι Χηψεις μάΧιστα yiyvovTai, άΧΧοι Βε τα οπΧα 
εχουσι καΐ τον μισθον φερουσιν. 

7 **'Έζ^ μεν 8η τούτο τοιούτον ον πpάyμaτά σοι 
παρεζει, έτερον δε εκείνο, πάντως μεν τίνα Βεΐ 
Βίκην τον άεΐ κaκoυpyoΰvτa hihovai' οΰτε yap εκ 
νουθεσίας οΰτε εκ πapahειyμάτωv οΐ ποΧΧοΙ 
σωφρονίζονται, άΧΧα άvάyκη πάσα αυτούς καΐ 
ατιμία και φυyf| καΐ θανάτω ζημιοΰσθαι, οΙα εν 
τε άργτι τηΧίκαύττ) καΐ εν πΧήθει ανθρώπων 
τοσούτω} άΧΧως τε καϊ εν μεταβοΧτ] ποΧιτείας, 

2 φιΧεΐ συμβαίνειν. τούτοις -^ δ' αν μεν έτερους 
Βικαστάς κάθιζες, άποΧύοιντό τε αν ΒιασπευΒο- 
μενοι, καϊ μάΧιστα όσους αν εχθραίνειν νομισθείς• 
καϊ yap προσποίησίν τίνα εξουσίας οι Βικάζοντες 
Χαμβάνουσιν, όταν τι παρά το Βοκοΰν τω 

3 κρατοΰντί ποιήσωσΐ' καν άρα τίνες άΧισκωνται,^ 

' τυσοντω St., τοσούτων VL'. ^ tovtois Χ}'!., τούτου? Λ^'. 
^ aXlffKUiVTai R. Steph., άλίσκονται VL'. 



voted of their own free choice. As for the vohiiitary b.c. 20 
contributions^ no citizen would feel free to make one, 
any more than lie would readily admit that he was 
rich, and it is not to the advantage of the ruler that 
he should, for immediately he would acquire a re- 
putation for patriotism among the masses, become 
conceited, and incite a rebellion. On the other 
hand, a general levy weighs heavily upon the masses, 
the more so because they suffer the loss while the 
others reap the gain. Now in democracies those 
who contribute the money as a general rule also 
serve in the army, so that in a way they get their 
money back again ; but in monarchies one set of 
people usually engages in agriculture, manufacturing, 
commerce, and politics, — and these are the classes 
from which the state's receipts are chiefly derived, — 
and a different set is under arms and draws pay. 

" This single circumstance, then, which is as 1 have 
described it, will cause you trouble. But here is 
another. It is by all means essential that whoever 
from time to time commits a crime should pay some 
penalty. For the majority of men are not brought 
to reason by admonition or by example, but it is 
absolutely necessary to punish them by disfranchise- 
ment, by exile, or by death ; and such punishments 
are often administered in an empire as large as this 
is and in a population as great as ours, especially 
during a change of government. ΝοΛν if you 
appointed other men to judge these Λvrongdoers, 
they would vie with each other in acquitting the 
accused, and particularly all Λvhom you might be 
thought to hate ; for judges, you know, gain an 
appearance of authority when they act in any way 
contrary to the Avish of the ruler. And if an 



hia ae Βόξονσιν €κ κατασκευάσματος; κατεψη- 
φίσθαι. αν Κ αντος Βικάζ'ης, ττολλοι/ς dvay- 
κασθηστ) κα\ των ομότιμων κοΧάζειν {τούτο he 
ουκ εύτυχε^\ και ττάντως τινάς αυτών opyf) 

4 μαΚΧον η δικαιώσει 3o^et9 ^ εύθύνειν τού<; yap 
βίάζεσθαί Βυναμενους ούΒεΙς Βίκάζοντας Βικαιο- 
Ίτρα^εΙν ιτιστευει, αλλ' οϊονται ττάντε^ζ αυτού<ζ 
σχτίμα καϊ σκια^ραφίαν ττοΧιτείας αίσ'χυντ) ττρο 
τη<ζ αληθεία<ί ττροττεταννύντα^, ονόματι εννόμω - 
Βικαστηρίου την εαυτών εττιθυμίαν άττοπιμ- 
ττΧάναι. εν μεν ουν ταΐς μοναρχίαι^; ταυθ^ ούτω 

5 ^ί^νεταΐ' εν Βε Βη τα?9 Βημοκρατίαις, αν τ' ιΒία 
Τί9 άΒικεΐν αιτίαν Χάβτ], ΙΒίαν Βίκην πάρα Βικα- 
σταΐς ϊσοις φεύ^ει^ αν τε Βημοσία, και εκείνω 
Βικασταϊ καθίζουσιν ^ εκ τών ομοίων ους άν^ 6 
κΧήρος άττοΒείξτ), ώστε ραον τα άττοβαίνοντα αττ' 
αυτών του<; άνθρώπου<; φερειν, μήτ ισγ^ύι Βικα- 
στοΰ μήτε γ^άριτι άνα^κασττι ^ νομίζοντας τι 

8 " 'Έτί τοίνυν ΤΓοΧΧοΙ χο)ρι<ζ τών τι άΒικούντων, 
οΐ μεν ^ενει, οι Βε ττΧούτω, οι Βε ετερω τινί ετται- 
ρόμενοι, άΧΧως μεν ου κακοί άνΒρες, ttj Be Βη 
ττροαιρεσει τη της μοναρ-χιας ενάντιοι φύονται' 
καϊ αυτούς οΰτ αύζεσθαί τις εών άσφαΧώς Βύνα- 
ται ζην, οΰτ αυ κοΧούειν εττιχ^ειρών Βικαίως 

^ So^eis L', So|rjs V. ^ 4ννόμψ Naber, 4ννόμυυ VL'. 

^ καθίζουσιν Rk. , καθΙζ(ι.•σιν VL'. 

^ 0V5 hu Xyl., ovaau VL'. 

^ auayKaarfi L', άνα-γκασθη V. 



oc'CiisioM.'il criminal is in fact convicted, it will l)c h.c. 29 
thought that he has been coiidenined deliberately, 
in order to })lease you. But if, on the other hand, 
you sit ill judgment yourself, you will be obliged to 
punish many also of your peers — an unfortunate 
situation — and you will certainly be thought to be 
calling some of them to account through resentment 
rather than through a sense of justice. For no one 
believes that those who have the power to use com- 
pulsion are acting honestly when they give judgment, 
i)ut all men think they are led by a sense of shame to 
spread out before the truth a mere semblance and 
illusive picture of a constitutional government, and 
under the legal name of a court of justice are but 
satisfying their own desires. This, then, is Avhat 
happens in monarchies. In democracies, on the 
other hand, when any one is accused of committing 
a private wrong, he is made defendant in a private 
suit before a jury of his equals ; or, if he is accused of 
a public crime, in his case also a jury of his peers, 
men whom the lot shall designate, sits in judgment. 
It is therefore easier for men to bear the decisions 
which proceed from such juries, since they think that 
any penalty dealt out to them has been inflicted 
neither by a judge's power nor as a favour which a 
judge has been forced to grant. 

"Then again, apart from those who are guilty of 
wrongdoing, there are many men who pride them- 
selves, some on their birth, others on their wealth, 
and still others on something else, who, though in 
general not bad men, are yet by nature op})osed to 
the principle of monarchy. If a ruler allows these 
men to become strong, he cannot live in safety, 
and if, on the other hand, he undertakes to impose a 



2 Ύοΰτο iroieiv. τι ποτ ουν τούτοι^; XP'j^V» τγ^ϋ 
αυτούς μβταχ^ειρίστ); αν μβν 'yap τά τε ^yevi) σφων 
καΘελ,Ύ]^; καΧ τους ττΧούτους βλαττώστ;? τα τ€ 
φρονήματα τα7Γ€ίνώστ)<;, ούΒεμίαν αν εΰνοιαν τταρα 
των άρ'χομίνων Χάβοις' ττώ? 7"/^' ^^ P'V'^^ '^/ev- 
νηθήναί τω καΧώς μήτε ιτΧουτησαί δικαίως, μητ 
Ισχ^υρω μήτ άν^ρείω μήτε συνετω ηενεσθαι εξείη; 

3 αν δέ εάσ^ς ταυθ* ώς έκαστα αΰξειν, ουκ αν 
ραΒίως αύτα Βιάθοίο. καΐ yap εΐ αυτός μόνος 
ττρος τε το ^ τα ττοΧίτικά καΐ ττρος το τα ττοΧε- 
μίκά καΧώς καΐ κατά καιρόν ττράττειν εξήρκεις, 
καΐ μηΕενος συνεργού ττρος μηΒεν αυτών εγ^ρτ)ζες, 

4 έτερος αν ην λόγο?* νυν δε ττάσά σε ανάγκη 
συνα^ωνιστας ττοΧΧούς, άτε τοσαύτης οικουμένης 
άρχ^οντα,'^ ε'χειν, καΐ ττροσήκεο ττου ττάντας αυτούς 
καΐ ανδρείους καΐ φρόνιμους είναι, ούκοΰν αν 
μεν τοιούτοις τισΐ τά τε στρατεύματα και τας 
άρ'χ^ας εγχειρίζης, κίνδυνος εσται καΐ σοι καΐ τ^ 

5 ΤΓοΧιτεια καταΧυθηναί' ου yap εστίν ουτ άνευ 
φρονήματος a^ioXoyov avhpa φυναι, οΰτ αν 
φρόνημα μεya Χαβεΐν εκ ΒουΧοττρεττους επι- 
τηΒεύσεως, ου μην ούΒε φρονηματίαν yεvόμεvov 
μη ουκ εΧευθερίας εττιθυμησαι και πάν το 8ε- 

6 σττόζον μισησαι. αν δε δ?; τούτοις μεν μηΒεν 
ετΓίτρεττης, τοις δε δ^ φαύΧοις και τοις τυχουσι 
τά 7Γpάyμaτa ττροστάσσης, τάχιστα μεν αν opy-qv 
Trap εκείνων ώς άττιστουμενων Χάβοις, τάχιστα 

7 δ' αν εν τοις μεyiστoις ττταίσειας. τί μεν yap αν 
ayadov άμαθης η άyεvvης ^ άνθρωττος εpyάσaιτo; 
τίς δ' ουκ αν καταφρονησειεν αυτού των ττόΧεμίων; 

^ rb supplied b}' Bs. - άρχοντα Leuncl., i.pxovras VL'. 
" p.y(vv\)s V, ayfv^s L'. 



check on Lhciii, he cannot do so justly. Wliat, then, u.c. 29 
will you do with them? How will you deal with 
them ? If you root out their families, diminish their 
wealth, and humble their i)ride, you will not have 
the good-will of your subjects. How could you 
have it, if no one is permitted to be born to noble 
rank, or to grow rich honestly, or to become strong or 
brave or intelligent ? Yet if you allow these various 
classes to grow strong, you will not be able to deal 
with them easily. True, if you alone were equal to 
carrying on the business of the state and the business 
of warfare successfully and in a manner to meet the 
demands of each situation, and needed no assistant for 
any of these matters, it would be a different matter. 
As the case stands, however, since you would be 
governing this vast world, it would be quite essential 
for you to have many helpers ; and of course they 
ought all to be both brave and high-spirited. Now 
if you hand over the legions and the offices to men 
of such parts, there will be danger that both you and 
your government will be overthrown. For it is not 
possible either for a man of any real worth to be 
naturally lacking in spirit, or on the other hand for a 
man sprung from a servile sphere of life to acquire a 
proud si)irit ; nor, again, if he proves himself a man 
of sjiirit, can he fail to desire liberty and to hate all 
master3\ If, on the other hand, you entrust nothing 
to these men, but jnit affairs in charge of common 
men of indifferent origin, you will very soon incur 
the resentment of the first class, who will think 
themselves distrusted, and you will very soon fail 
in the greatest enterprises. For what good thing 
could an ignorant or ΙοΛν -born person accomplish ? 
Who of our enemies would not hold him in con- 



Tt? δ' (ϊν ττείθαργ^ησεύν ^ οι των συμμάχ^ωυ; τί<ζ 
δ ουκ αν και αυτών των στρατιωτών άττα^ιώσβιβν 
ύτΓΟ τοιούτου τινο<ζ άρχβσθαι; και μην 'όσα €κ 
τούτου κακά ^ί^νεσθαι ττβφυκβ, τα μβν αλΧα 

8 ούΒβν Βεομαί σοι σαφθ)<; elhoTi ^ιη'^/Εΐσθαι, ckclvo 
Be Βη μόνον άνα'-γκαίως epo), ότι αν μβν μηοβν heov ό 
τοίοϋτο^ ττράτττ), ττοΧύ ττΧύω αν σε το)ν ττοΧβ- 
μίων βΧάψ€ί€ν, αν Be τι των ττροσηκόντων Troifj, 
καϊ αύτος αν σοι φοβεροί €κφρονήσας ύττ' άτται- 
Βευσία<^ ^evoiTO, 

9 ** ΟΙ) μίντοι καϊ ταΐς ΒημοκρατΙαι<; τοιούτο τι 
ττροσεστιν, αλλ' οσω αν ττΧείους και ττΧουτώσι 
και άνΒρίζωνται, τόσω μάΧΧον αυτοί τε φιΧοτι- 
μουνται καϊ την ττοΧιν αΰζουσι, και σφισι καϊ 
εκείνη κεγ^ρηται καϊ γ^αίρει, ττΧην αν τις τυραν- 
νίΒος ετΓίθυμηση' τούτον yap Ισγυρώς κοΧάζουσι. 

2 καϊ ότι ταυθ^ οΰτω<^ ^Χ^^ '^^^ ττοΧΧω κρείττους αΐ 
Βημοκρατιαι των μοναρχ^ιών είσι, ΒηΧοΙ μεν καϊ το 
ΕίΧΧηνικον τέως μεν yap ούτως εττοΧιτεύοντο, 

ούΒεν μεya κατεττραζαν, εττειΒη Βε εκείνως - ζην 

3 ήρξαντο, ονομαστότατοι iyivovTO' ΒηΧοΐ Βε καϊ 
τα των άΧΧων ανθρώπων, ων οι μεν εν τυραννίσι 
καϊ νυν €τι Bιayόμεvoι αεί τε ΒουΧεύουσ ι καϊ άεϊ 
τοις άρχ^ουσιν εττιβουΧεύουσιν, οι Βε Βη προ- 
στατείαις εττετησίοις ή καϊ εττϊ ττΧείω τίνα γ^ρόνον 
γ^ρώμενοι καϊ εΧεύθεροι καϊ αυτόνομοι ΒιατεΧούσιν 

4 όντες. άΧΧα τί Βεΐ ημάς άΧΧοτρίοις τταραΒεί- 
yμaσιv οικεία εχ^οντας 'χ^ρήσθαι; ημείς yap αύτοϊ 
οι Ρωμαίοι αΧΧως το πρώτον ττοΧιτευόμενοι, 

^ τΓίΐθαρχ'ησ6ΐ4ν {τηθαρχησα^ν) L', ΐΓΐθάρχησ€ν V 
^ e/ceiVws L', ifie^vos ^^ 



tempi? Who of" our allies would obey liini r Who ί.ί.29 
even of the soldiers themselves would not disdain to 
be ruled by sueh a man ? And yet I need not 
explain to you all the evils that naturally result 
from such a condition, for you know them thor- 
oughly ; but this one thin•»• I shall say, as 1 am con- 
strained to do — that if a minister of this kind failed 
in every duty, he would injure you far more than the 
enemy, while if he met Avith any success in the 
conduct of his office, his lack of education would 
cause him to lose his head and he as well would 
prove formidable to you. 

"Such a situation, however, does not arise in demo- 
cracies, but the more men there are who are wealthy 
and brave, so much the more do they vie with each 
other and upbuild the state, and the state, on its part, 
rejoices in them, unless one of them conceives a 
desire for tyrannical jK)wer ; for the citizens severely 
punish such an one. Tliat this is so, ηοΛν, and that 
democracies are far su})erior to monarchies, is shown 
by the experience of Greece. For as long as the 
peo})le had the monarchical form of government, they 
accomplished nothing of importance ; but >vhen they 
began to live under the democratic system they 
became most renowned. It is shown also by the 
experience of the other races of mankind. For those 
which still live under tyrannies are always in slavery 
and are always j)lotting against their rulers, whereas 
those which have governors chosen for a year or a 
longer j)eriod continue to be both free and in- 
dependent. Hut why should we resort to examples 
furnished by other peoples when we have examples 
here at home ? We Romans ourselves at first had a 
different form of government, then later, after we 

vol.. VI. n 


€7Γ€ΐτα €7Γ€ίδ/; τΓολλά καΐ heiva βττάσ'χ^ομ^ν, της τ€ 
eXevOepiaf; βττβθνμησαμβν καΐ Χαβοντες αυτήν 
5 7Γ/309 τοσούτον ο'^/κον ττ ροηΧθ ο μεν , ουκ άΧΧοις 
τισίν 7] τοις €κ τή<ζ ζημοκρατία<; ά^αθοί^^ Icryy- 
σαντες, εξ ών ή τε^ 'γερουσία ττροεβούΧευε καΐ 6 
8ήμος εττεκύρου τ6 τε στρατευόμενον ττροεθυμεΐτο 
καΐ το στρατη<γοΰν εφίΧοτυμεΙτο. ων ού^εν αν εν 
τυραννΙΒί ττραχ^θείη." αμελεί τοσούτον αύτή<; δίά 
ταύτα μίσος οΐ ιτάΧαι 'Ρωμαίοι εσχ^ον ώστε κα\ 
εττάρατον το ττοΧιτευμα ττοίήσασθαι. 
10 " Χω/5ί.9 8ε τούτων, εΐ 8εΐ τί και ττερί των 
ihla σοι αύτω συμφερόντων είιτεΐν, ττως μεν αν 
ύτΓομείνειας τοσαύτα και μεθ^ ημεραν και νύκτωρ 
8ιοικών, ττως δ' αν μη ΰ'γιαίνων εξαρκεσειας; 
τίνος δ' αν των ayaOcuv των άνθρωττίνων άττο- 
Χαύσειας, ττώς δ αν στερόμενος αυτών εύΒαιμο- 
νησειας; τίνι δ' αν ακριβώς ησθείης, ττότε δ' ουκ 

2 αν Ισγυρώς Χυττηθείης; ττάσα yap ανάηκτ] τον 
τηΧικαύτην άρ^)^ην έχοντα καΐ φροντίζειν ττοΧΧα 
και ΒεΒιεναι ττοΧΧά, καΐ τών μεν ήΒίστων εΧά- 
γ^ιστα άτΓοΧαύειν, τα δε Βυσχ^ερεστατα άεΐ και 
ττανταγ^οϋ και άκούειν καϊ όράν καΐ ττοιεΐν και 
Ύτάσγειν. όθεν, οΐμαι, καΐ "ΚΧΧηνες και βάρ- 
βαροι τίνες ού8ε 8ιΒομένας σφίσι βασιΧείας εΒε- 

3 ** Ύαυτ ουν προϊΒόμενος ^ ττροβούΧευσαι ττριν 
εν αύτοΐς γενέσθαι• αίσχ^ρον yap, μάΧΧον δε και 
άΕύνατον εστί τταρακύψαντά τίνα άτταξ ες αυτά 

^ 77 Τ€ L', τ} Τ6 η ν. 

* ττραχθίίη Λ^ , προαχθ€ί-η L'. 

' ηροϊδόμ€Ρθ5 Bk., προ€ΐ56μ(νο5 VL'. 



had gone tlirou<rh many hitter experiences, conceived h.••. 2•.• 
a desire for Hherty ; and when we had secured it, we 
advanced to our present proud eminence, strong in 
no advantages save tliose that come from democracy. 
It was on the strength of these that the senate 
deliberated, the people ratified, the soldiers in the 
ranks were filled with zeal and their commanders 
with ambition. None of these things could happen 
under a tyranny. At any rate the ancient Romans 
came to feel so great a hatred of tyranny for these 
reasons that they even laid that form of government 
under a curse. 

" And apart from these considerations, if one is to 
speak about matters which touch your personal in- 
terests, how could you endure to administer affairs 
so manifold, not only by day but also by night ? 
How could you hold out if your health should fail ? 
VVliat human blessings could you enjoy, and how 
could you be happy if dei)rived of them ? In what 
could you take genuine pleasure, and when would 
you be free from the keenest pain ? For it is 
quite inevitable that a man who holds an office of 
this kind should have many anxieties, be subject to 
many fears, and have very little enjoyment of Avhat 
is most pleasant, but should always and everywhere 
both see and hear, do and suffer, only that which is 
disagreeable. That, I imagine, is the reason why, in 
certain instances, among both Greeks and barbarians, 
men have refused to accept the office of king w hen it 
was offered to them. 

" Therefore I Avould have you foresee all these 
disadvantages and take counsel before you become 
involved in them. For it is disgraceful, or rather 
it is (|uite impossible, for a man to withdraw \vhen 




(ivahvvai. μη^β ae i^aTrarrjarj μήτ€ το μί'^/εθος 
της €^ovaia<; μιβ η irepiovaia των κτημάτων, 
μη το στίφος των σωματοφυλάκων, μη ό ' ογΧος 
4 των θβραττευόντων. οΐ τ€ yap ττοΧύ δυνάμενοι 
ΤΓοΧλα πράγματα β'χ^ουσι, και οΐ σνχνα κεκτη- 
μένοι συγνα άναΧίσκειν αναγκάζονται, τά τ€ 
ττΧηθη των δορυφόρων Sia τα ιτΧηθη των iiri- 
βονΧευόντων αθροίζεται, καΐ οι κοΧακεύοντες εττι- 
τρίψειαν αν τίνα μαΧΚον ή σώσειαν.^ ωσθ^ 
ένεκα μεν τούτων ονΚ αν εΙς εν φρονών αυταρ- 
11 'χ^ησαι εττιθυμησειεν εΐ δ' οτι και ττΧουτίζειν και 
σώζειν τινάς αΧλα τε ττολλά καΐ άηαθα Spav οι 
τοιούτοι δύνανται, και νη Αία καΐ υβρίζειν σφίσι 
και κακώς ττοιεΐν ον αν εθέΧήσωσιν εζεστιν, άζίαν 
τι<ζ Βιά ταύτα σττον^ής την τνραννίΒα είναι νομί- 

2 ζει, τρν τταντος άμαρτάνει. το μεν yap άσελ- 
yaίvειv και κακόν τι ττοιεΐν οΰθ^ ως αίσχ^ρα ονθ' ώς 
σφαΧερα και μεμισημενα και προς θεών καΐ ττρος 
άνθρώττων εστί, Βεομαί σοι Xεyειv' ούτε yap άΧΧως 
τοιούτος εΐ, οντ αν Βιά ταύτα μοναρχήσαι εΧοιο. 
7ΓρθΎ]ρημαι τε εγώ νυν ου ττάνθ^ οσα αν τις κακώς 
το ιτραημα μετ άγει ρ ιζο μένος εξεpyάσaιτo ειπείν, 
άΧΧ οσα και οι πάνυ άριστα αύτώ γ^ρώμενοι καΐ 

3 ποιεΐν και πάσ'χειν άvayκάζovτaι. το δ' έτερον, 

τό τίνα άφθόνως εύεpyετεΐv εγειν, ά^ιοσπούΒα- 

στον μεν, αλλ' εν μεν ιΕιώτη yιyv6μεvov καΐ 

καΧον καΐ σεμνον και εύκΧεες και άσφαΧες εστίν, 

εν δε Βη τάίς μοναρχίαις πρώτον μεν ουκ άντ- 

^ δ supplied by Bk. 

^ iniTpLipiiau . ^ίί\(\ί"-" ^Yuv] ^ττίτρ/ψαίίΓ .' . . σώσακί' VL'. 


once he has entered upon the position. And do b.c. 29 
not be deceived, cither, by the greatness of its 
authority or tlie abundance of its possessions, or by 
its array of bodyguards, or by its throng of courtiers. 
For men wlio have much power have many troubles ; 
those vviio liave large possessions are obliged to 
spend largely ; the multitude of bodyguards is 
gathered merely because of the multitude of con- 
spirators ; and as for the flatterers, they would be 
more likely to destroy you than to save you. Con- 
sequently, in vicAv of these considerations, no sensible 
man would desire to become supreme ruler. But it 
the thought that men in such a station are able to 
enrich others, to save their lives, and to confer many 
other benefits ui)on them — yes, by heaven, and even 
to insult them and to do harm to whomsoever they 
please — leads anyone to think that tyranny is worth 
striving for, lie is utterly mistaken. I need not, 
indeed, tell you that the life of wantonness and evil- 
doing is disgraceful or that it is fraught with peril 
and is hated of both gods and men ; for in any event 
you are not inclined to such things, and you would 
not be led by these considerations to choose to be 
sole ruler. And, besides, 1 have chosen to speak 
now, not of all the mischief one might work who 
managed the task badly, but only of what even those 
wlu) make the very best use of the position are 
obliged both to do and to suffer. But as to the 
other consideration, — that thus one is in a position 
to bestow favours in profusion, — this is indeed a 
privilege Λvorth striving for ; yet however noble, 
august, glorious, and safe it is when enjoyed by a 
private citizen, in a king's position it does not, in the 
iirst place, counterbalance the other considerations 



a^iov των άΧΧωρ των ατοττωτβρων, ώστε TLva 
Sia τούτο καΐ €Κ€Ϊνα ^ βΧβσθαί, αλλω? re καΐ 
μβΧλοντα την μβν €Κ τούτου άττόΧαυσιν 6Τ6ροί<ί 
12 Scoaetv την Be βξ εκείνων άηΒίαν αύτον e^eiv, 
6π€ίτα δ' ουδ' άττΧοΰν, ώ? Τί9 ο'ίβται. οΰτε yap 
αν ττάσι τοις Ββομάνοις τίνο<; errapKeaeie τί<ζ. οι 
μβν yap άξιοΰντ6(; τι ιταρ* αύτου Χαμβάνβιν 
'π•άντ€<ί ώ? elirelv elaiv άνθρωττοι, καν μηΒεμία 

2 ευθύς ευεργεσία αύτοΐς οφείΧηταΐ' ττάς yap τις 
φύσεί καΐ αύτος εαυτω αρέσκει, KayaQov τι 
ετταυρεσθαι πάρα του Βούναι Βυναμενου βού- 
Χεταΐ' α 8ε ενΒεχεται αύτοΐς ΒίΒοσθαι {τιμάς τε 
καϊ άρχας Xεyω, κα\ εστίν οτε καΐ χρήματα) 
πάνυ αν εύαρίθμητα ως προς τοσούτο πΧήθος 
εύρεθείη. τούτου τε ούτως έχοντος εχθος αν 
αύτω πάρα των 8ιαμαρτανόντων ων χρηζουσι 
μάΧΧον ή φιλία πάρα των τυyχav6vτωv ύπάρ- 

3 ζειεν. οι μεν yap, ως και οφειΧόμενόν τι Χαμ- 
βάνοντες, ούτ άΧΧως μεyάXηv οίονται Βεΐν τω 
SiSovTi αύτο " χάριν εχειν άτε μηΕεν παρά Βόξαν 
ευρισκόμενοι, καϊ προσέτι καϊ οκνούσι τούτο 
ποιεΐν, ινα μη καϊ αναξίους εν τούτω σφάς τού 

4 καΧώς πάσχειν άποφήνωσιν ^ οι δε ων εΧπί- 
ζουσιν άτυχούντες Χυπούνται κατ αμφότερα, 
τούτο μεν ως οίκείομ τίνος στερισκόμενοι {πάντες 
yap εχειν ηΒη νομίζουσιν ων αν επιθυμησωσι), 
τούτο δε ως καϊ αύτόϊ ^ εαυτών άΒικίαν τινά 

^ δίά τούτο κα\ ^κ^ΐνα Bk., δι' ίκΰνα και τοντο WJ 

^ avrh L', αύτώ Υ. 

■' άτΓοφ'ηννσιν St., άίΓοφανονσιν VL', * αυτοί L'j layrol Λ", 



of a less agreeable nature, so that a man should be b.c. 29 
induced for the sake of gaining this advantage to 
accept those disadvantages also, especially when the 
sovereign is bound to bestow upon others the benefit 
to be derived from this advantage and to have for 
himself alone the unpleasantness that results from 
the disadvantages. In the second place, this advan- 
tage is not without complications, as people think ; 
for a ruler cannot possibly satisfy all who ask for 
favours. Those, namely, who think they ought to 
receive some gift from the sovereign are practically 
all mankind, even though no favour is due to them 
at the moment ; for every one naturally thinks well 
of himself and wishes to enjoy some benefit at the 
hands of him who is able to bestow it. But the 
benefits which can be given them, — I mean titles 
and offices and sometimes money, — will be found 
very easy to count when compared with the vast 
number of the applicants. This being so, greater 
hostility will inevitably be felt toward the monarch 
by those who fail to get what they want, than friend- 
liness by those who obtain their desires. For the 
latter take what they receive as due them and think 
tliere is no particular reason for being grateful to 
the giver, since they are getting no more than they 
expected ; besides, they actually shrink from showing 
gratitude for fear they may thereby give evidence of 
their being unworthy of the kindness done them. 
The others, when they are disap})ointed in their 
hopes, are aggrieved for two reasons : in the first 
place, they feel that they are being robbed of what 
belongs to them, for invariably men think they 
already possess whatever they set their hearts upon ; 
and, in the second place, they feel that, if they are 



κ.ατα'^/ί^νώσκοντ€<^, αν ρα^ίως eirl τω μη τνχύν 

5 ων αν ττροσ^οκησωσί φέρωσι. και yap ο 6ρθώ<; 
δίδου9 τα τοιαύτα τυ τ€ κατ άζίαν εκάστου hrjfkov 
οτί ττρο πάντων ιτροσκοττεΐ, καΐ τους μβν τι,μα τους 
Se τταρορα, ώστε κάϊ βκ της εκείνου yvώμης τοις μεν 
φρόνημα τοις δ' ά^ανάκτησίν υπ' αύτοΰ του συνβι- 
Βότος σφών ιτροσ^ι^νεσθαι. ως άν γε τις τουτ 
εύΧαβούμενος άνωμάΧως αυτά Βιανεμειν εθεΧηση, 

6 το σύμπαν άμαρτησεταΐ' οΓ τε yap πονηροί παρά 
το προσήκον τιμώμενοι γείρους άν, ήτοι καΐ 
επαινεΐσθαι ώς ayaOol η πάντως yε θεραπεύεσθαι 
ώς φοβεροί Βοκοΰντες, yiyvotVTO, καϊ οι 'χρηστοί 

. μηΒεν πΧεΐον αυτών ευρισκόμενοι, αλλ' εξ ϊσου 
σφισιν άyόμεvoι, μάΧΧον άν εκ της προς εκείνους 
Ισομοιρίας Χυποΐντο ή τώ^ καϊ αυτοί τίνος άξιοΰ- 

7 σθαι χαίροιεν,^ κάκ τούτου την τε επιτηΒευσιν 
τών κρειττόνων εώεν άν καϊ την ζήΧωσιν τών 
χειρόνων μετερχοιντο, καϊ ούτω καν ^ εξ αυτών 
τών τιμών ούθ οι ΒιΒοντες αύτάς ayadov τι 
καρποΐντο καϊ οι Χαμβάνοντες κακίους yiyvoiv- 
το. ώστε σοι τούτο, ο μαΧιστα άν τισιν εν 
ταΐς μοναρχίαις άρέσειε, Βυσμεταχειριστότατον 

13 *' Ύαύτά τε ούν καϊ τάΧΧα ά μικρώ πρόσθεν 

^ τφ supplied bj' Pflugk. 

"^ Xa'ipotev R. Steph., χαίροΐ€ VL'. 

3 Ktcv y, κα\ L'. 



not indignant at their failure to obtain whatever they b.c. 29 
expect to get, they are actually acknowledging some 
shortcoming on their own part. The reason for all 
this is, of course, that the ruler who bestows such 
gifts in the right way obviously makes it his first 
business to weigh well the merits of each person, and 
thus he honours some and passes others by, with the 
result that, in consequence of his decision, those who 
are honoured have a further reason for elation, while 
those who are passed by feel a new resentment, each 
class being moved by their own consciousness of 
their respective merits. If, however, a ruler tries to 
avoid this result and decides to award these honours 
ca})riciously, he will fail utterly. For the base, finding 
themselves honoured contrary to their deserts, would 
become worse, concluding that they Avere either 
being actually commended as good or at any rate 
were being courted as formidable ; and the uj)right, 
seeing that they were securing no greater consider- 
ation than the l)ase but were being regarded as being 
merely on an equality with them, would be more 
vexed at being reduced to the level of the others 
than pleased at being thought worthy of some honour 
themselves, and consequently would abandon their 
cultivation of the higher principles of conduct and 
become zealous in the pursuit of the baser. And 
thus the result even of the distribution of honours 
would be this : those who bestowed them would reap 
no benefit from them and those who received them 
would become demoralized. Hence this advantage, • 
which some would find the most attractive in mon- 
archies, proves in your case a most difficult problem 
to deal Λvith. 

" HeHecting upon these considerations and the 



eiTTov €νθνμηθ€Ϊ<; φρόνησον έω? βξεστί σοι, καί 
άττοοο^ τω ^ημφ καί τα οττλα καΐ τα βθνη κα\ 
τας άρχ^ας καΐ τα 'χρήματα, αν μβν yap ήΒη re 
και €κων αύτο 7Γ0ίήσ7)(ί, βρΒοξότατός re άμα 
άνθρώττων ear] καΐ άσφαΧβστατος' αν δ' άνα- 
μ€ίνΎ)<ζ βίαν τινά σοι ιτροσαχθηναι, τάχ αν τι 

2 Beivov μετά κακοΒοζία<ζ ττάθοις. τεκμηριον he, 
yidpio^ μβν καΐ ΧνΧΧας καΐ λίβτελλο?, καΐ ΙΙομ- 
ττηιος το ττρώτον, iv κράτει των ττρα^μάτων 
γενόμενοι οΰτ ήθβΧησαν Βυναστβΰσαι οΰτ βτταθον 
τταρά τούτο Seivov ovSev KtVz^a? Se 8η καΐ Στρά- 
βων, 6 τ€ Μάρίο? ό €Τ€ρο<; καΐ 6 ^ερτώριος, 6 re 
ΤΙομτΓηιος αντος μ€τα ταύτα, της δυναστείας εττι- 

3 θυμησαντες κακώς άττώΧοντο. Βυσγερες yap 
εστί την ττόΧιν ταύτην, τοσούτοις τε ετεσι ΒεΒη- 
μοκρατημενην καϊ τοσούτων άνθρώττων αρχονσαν, 
ΒουΧεύσαί τινι εθεΧήσαι. καϊ άκούεις μεν οτι 
τον ΚάμιΧΧον ύπερώρισαν, εττειΒη Χενκοΐς ΐτττΓΟίς 

4 ες τα εττινίκια εχρήσατο, άκούεις Βε οτι τον Έ,κι- 
ττίωνα κατεΧυσαν, εττειΒή τίνα ιτΧεονεζίαν αύτοΰ 
κατετ^νωσαν, μεμνησαι Βε οττως τω ττατρί σου 
Ίτροσηνεχθησαν, οτι τίνα ύττο'^ιαν ες αύτον μοναρ- 
χίας εσχον. καίτοι τούτων μεν άμείνους άνΒρες 
ούΒενες άΧΧοι yεy6vaσιv. 

5 " Ου μεντοί καϊ άττΧώς ούτω συμβουΧεύω σοι 
την άρχην άφεΐναι, άΧΧα ττάντα τα συμφέροντα 
τω Βημοσίω ττροττράξαί καϊ Bόyμaσι καϊ νομοις α 
προσήκει κατακΧεΐσαι, καθάττερ ττου καϊ ο Έ,ύΧ- 
λας ετΓοίησε' καϊ yap ει τίνα αυτών μετά ταύτα 



others which 1 mentioned a little while a^o, be 
j)riKient while you may and duly place in the hands 
of the [)eople the army, the provinces, the offices, 
and the public funds. If you do it at once and 
voluntarily, you will be the most famous of men 
and the most secure ; but if you wait for some 
compulsion to be brought to bear ui)on you, you 
will very likely suffer some disaster and gain in- 
famy besides. Consider the testimony of history : 
Marius and Sulla and Metellus, and Pompey at first, 
when tliey got control of affairs, not only refused to 
assume sovereign power but also escaped disaster 
tiiereby ; whereas Cinna and Strabo,^ the younger 
Marius and Sertorius, and Pompey himself at a later 
time, conceived a desire for sovereign power and 
perished miserably. For it is a difficult matter to 
induce this city, which has enjoyed a democratic 
government for so many years and holds empire 
over so many peo})le, to consent to become a slave to 
any one. You have heard how the ])eople banished 
Camillus just because he used white horses for his 
triumph ; you have heard hoAv they deposed Scipio 
from power, first condemning him for some act of 
arrogance ; and you remember how they i)roceeded 
against your father just because they conceived a 
suspicion that he desired to be sole ruler. Yet there 
have never been any better men than these. 

" Nevertheless, I do not advise you merely to 
relinquish the sovereignty, but first to take all the 
measures which the public interest demands and by 
decrees and laws to settle definitively all important 
business, just as Sulla did, you recall ; for even if 
some of his ordinances were subseipiently overthrown, 

^ Cf. xliv. 2S, I. 



άνβτράττη, αλλά τα γε ττΧείω καΧ μβίζω Βίαμ€ν€ΐ. 

6 καΐ μη €ΪτΓτ)(; on καΐ ως στασίάσουσί τίΐ^ε?, 'ίνα 
μη και εγω αυθί<; βϊττω ότι ττολλω μάΧλον ουκ 
αν άνάσ'χριντο μοναρ'χονμζνοι. ώς βΓγε ττάνθ 
'όσα eVSe^erat τισι συνβνβχ^θήναι ττροσκοττοιμβθα, 
αΚο'^ώτατα αν τά? διχοστασία? τα? εκ ττ)? 
δημοκρατίας; συμβαίνούσα<; φοβηθείημβν αν μαΧ- 
\ον ή τα<; τυραννίδας τα? €κ της μοναργ^υας 

7 εκφυομενας. ττερϊ ων της ^εινότητος ούδε eVe- 
γείρησά τι είττβΐν ου yap Βη ^ καΐ καταΒραμεΐν 
άΧλ,ως ευκατη^ορητον ούτω ττρά'γμα ήθεΧησα, 
αλλά ΒεΙζαί σοί τουθ^ 'ότι τοιούτον εστί τη φύσει 
ώστε μη^ε τους 'χ^ρηστούς άνδρας - . . ." 

14 *'(... ούτε ττεΐσαί τι ρα^ίως ύττο παρρησίας τους 
ούχ ομοίους Βύνανται) καν ταΐς ττράξεσιν ατε μη 
ομο^νωμονούντων σφών κατορθούσιν. ώστε εϊ τί 
κήΒτ) της ττατριΒος, ύττερ ής τοσούτους ττοΧεμους 
ττετΓοΧέμηκας, ύττερ ής καϊ την ψνχ^7]ν ήΒεως αν 
εττώοίης, μεταρρύθ μισόν αύτην καϊ κατακόσμησον 
2 ττρος το σωφρονεστερον. το yap εξεΐναί τισι 

1 δί, R. Steph., δ6ΓΛ^υ. 

2 υ indicates a lacuna at this point, \ does not. In their 
common archetj^e L one folio \vas lost, containing some 
sixty lines. Zonaras' epitome at this point is as follows : 
ό δε Maii{T}vas τουναντίον συν^βονλ^υίν, airav ^Ιπων ί)5η τ^ν 
μοναρχίαν iirl πολύ ζιοικησαι avrhv καϊ άια-γκάϊον elvai Svolv 
θάτβρον, η μ^Ίναι 4πΙ των αυτών ί) άττοΚίσθαι ταντα ιτροίμ^νον, 
κ. τ. λ. 



yet the majority of them and the more important ».<■ 
still remain. And do not say that even then some 
men will indulge in factional quarrels, and thus 
require me, on my })art, to say once more that the 
Romans would be much more apt to refuse to sub- 
mit to the rule of a monarch. For if we should 
undertake to provide against all possible con- 
tingencies, it would be utterly absurd for us to be 
more afraid of the dissensions which are but 
incidental to democracy tlian of the tyrannies Avhich 
are the natural outgrowth of monarchy. Regarding 
the terrible nature of such tyrannies I have not so 
much as attempted to say anything ; for it has not 
been my wish idly to inveigh against a thing that so 
readily admits of condemnation, but rather to show 
you that monarchy is so constituted by nature that 
not even the men of high character. . ." ^ 

"(. . . nor can they easily convince by frank 
argument those who are not in a like situation) and 
they succeed in their enterprises, because their 
subjects are not in accord with one another. Hence, 
if you feel any concern at all for your country, for 
which you have fought so many wars and ΛνοηΚΙ so 
gladly give even your life, reorganize it and regulate 
it in the direction of greater moderation. For while 

* The conclusion of Agrippa's speech ia missing in our 
MSS., as is also the earlier portion cf that of 5laecenas 
together with the introduction to it. Zonaras' brief rosiimd 
(down through chap. 17) is as foUoAvs : "But Maecenas 
advised the contrary course, declaritig that he (Caesar) had 
already for a long time been directing the monarch}', and 
that he must inevitably do one of two things— either remain 
in the same position or abandon his present course and 



ττάνθ^ άττλώς οσα ^ βούΧοιηαι και iroielv και 
Xeyeiv, αν μβν eVl των ev φρονούντων €ξ€τάζ7}ς, 
βύΒαιμονίας άττασιν αίτιον ^ι^ν^ται^ αν he €7γΙ 
των ανόητων, συμφοράς' καϊ Slcl τούτο 6 μ€ν τοΙ<; 
τοιοντοος την βξουσίαν ΒιΒούς τταίδΐ Βή τινι καϊ 
μαινομενω ξίφος opeyei, ο δ' ^κείνας τά τε α\\α 
καϊ αυτούς τούτους καϊ μη βουΧομβνους σώζει. 

3 Bioirep καϊ σε άξιώ μη ττρος τας εύττρβττείας των 
ονομάτων άττοβΧβ'^αντα άττατηθήναι, άΧλ,ά τα 
'γΐ'γνομενα εζ αυτών Ίτροσκοττησαντα την τε θρα- 
σύτητα του ομίΧου τταυσαι καϊ την 8ίοίκησίν των 
κοινών εαυτώ τε καϊ τοΐς άΧΧοις τσΐς άρίστοις 
ττροσθεΐναι, ϊνα βουΧεύωσι - μεν οι φρονιμώτατοι, 
άρχωσι 8ε οι στρατη^γικώτατοι, στρατεύωνται δε 
καϊ μισθοφορώσίν οι τε Ισγυροτατοι καϊ οΐ ττενε- 

4 στατοι. οΰτω yap τά τε εττιβάΧΧοντά σφισιν 
έκαστοι ττροθύμως ττοιουντες, καϊ τάς ώφεΧίας 
άΧΧήΧοις ετοιμως άντιΒιΒοντες, ούτε τών εΧαττω- 
μάτων, εν οΐς κατα^εουσί τίνων, ετταισθήσονται, 
καϊ την Βημοκρατίαν την άΧηθή την τε εΧευθερίαν 

5 την άσφαΧη κτησονταΐ' εκείνη μεν yap η του 
οχΧου εΧευθερία του τε βεΧτίστου ΒουΧεία ιτικρο- 
τάτη yiy νεται καϊ κοινον άμφοΐν οΧεθρον φέρει, 
αύτη Βε το τε σώφρον ττανταγού ττροτιμώσα καϊ το 
ϊσον άττασι κατά την άζίαν άττονεμουσα ττάντας 
ομοίως εύΒαιμονας τους -χ^ρωμενους αύττ} ττοιεΐ. 

^ άπλώϊ 'όσα Pflugk, οσα airXws VL'. 
^ βουλ^νωσι R. Steph., βουλ^ύονσι VL'. 



tlie privilege of doing and saying precisely what one 
pleases becomes, in the case of sensible persons, if you 
examine the matter, a cause of the highest happiness 
to them all, yet in the case of the foolish it becomes 
a cause of disaster. For this reason he who offers 
this privilege to the foolish is virtually putting a sword 
in the hands of a child or a madman ; but he who 
offers it to the prudent is not only preserving all their 
other privileges but is also saving these men them- 
selves even in spite of themselves. Therefore I ask 
you not to fix your gaze upon the specious terms 
applied to these things and thus be deceived, but to 
weigh carefully the results which come from the 
things themselves and then put an end to the 
insolence of the populace and place the management 
of public affairs in the hands of yourself and the 
other best citizens, to the end that the business of 
deliberation may be performed by the most prudent 
and that of ruling by those best fitted for command, 
while the \vork of serving in the army for pay is left to 
those who are strongest physically and most needy. In 
this way each class of citizens will zealously discharge 
the duties which devolve upon them and will readily 
render to one another such services as are due, and 
will thus be unaware of their inferiority when one 
class is at a disadvantage as compared >vith another, 
and all will gain the true democracy and the freedom 
which does not fail. For the boasted freedom of the 
mob proves in experience to be the bitterest servitude 
of the best element to the other and brings upon both 
a common destruction ; whereas this freedom of which 
I speak ever3'where prefers for honour the men of 
prudence, awarding at the same time equality to all 
according to their deserts, and thus gives happiness 
impartially to all who enjoy this liberty. 


15 " M77 '^/('tp TOL οΙηθ?}<ζ ότι τυραννησαί σοι, τον 
Τ€ Βήμον καϊ την βουΧην ^ουΧωσαμβνω, τταραινώ. 
τοντο μ€ν yap οΰτ αν εγώ ττοτε είττεΐν οΰτ αν συ 
ττρά^αι τοΧμτίσβίας' ΙκβΙνα he 8η και κα\α καϊ 
'χρήσιμα καϊ σοΙ καϊ ττ) ττολβι yevoiTO αν, τό 
τ€ ττάντα τα ττροσηκοντα αυτόν σ€ μετά των 
αρίστων άνΒρών νομοθετείν, μηΒβνος των ττοΧΧών 
μητ avTiXeyovTO^ αύτοΐς μητ ^ ενάντιου μενού, 

2 καϊ το τους ττοΧβμους ττρος τα υμέτερα βουΧη- 
ματα Βιοικεΐσθαι, ττάντων αύτίκα των άΧΧων το 
κεΧευόμενον ττοιούντων, τό τε τας των αρχόντων 
αιρέσεις έφ^ νμΐν είναι, καϊ το τάς τιμάς τάς τε 
τιμωρίας ΰμας όρίζειν, 'ίνα και νόμος ευθύς y ττάν 
6 TL αν βουΧευσαμένω σοι μετά των ομότιμων 

3 άρέστ], καϊ οι ττοΧέμιοι κρύφα και κατά καιρόν 
ΤΓοΧεμώνται, ο'ί τε τι εyχειpιζόμεvoι αττ αρετής 
άΧΧα μη κΧηρω και σττουΒαρχία άττοΕεικνυωνται, 
καϊ οι μεν ayaOoX άνευ φθόνου τιμώνται, οι δε 

4 κακοί άνευ συστάσεως κοΧάζωνται. ούτω yap 
αν μάΧιστα τά τε ττραττόμενα ορθώς Βιοικηθείη, 
μήτε ες τό κοινόν αναφερόμενα μήτε εν τω 
φανερω βουΧευόμενα μήτε τοις - τταρακεΧευστοΐς 
ετΓίτρεττόμενα μήτε εκ φιΧοτιμίας κινούν ευ ο μεν α, 
καϊ των υπαρχόντων ήμίν άyaθώv ήΒεως αττο- 
Χαύσαιμεν, μήτε ττοΧέμους ετηκινΒύνους μήτε 

1 μντ' Bk., ,αηδβ VL'. 
^ ToTs Xyl., ev To7s VL'. 



"For I would not h;ive you think that 1 am advising b.c. 29 
you to enslave the people and the senate and then 
set uj) a tyranny. This is a thing I should never 
dare suggest to you nor would you bring yourself to 
do it. The other course, however, would be honour- 
able and expedient both for you and for the city — 
that you should yourself, in consultation with the 
best men, enact all the appropriate laws, without 
the possibility of any opposition or remonstrance 
to these laws on the part of any one from the 
masses ^ ; that you and your counsellors should con- 
duct the wars according to your own wishes, all other 
citizens rendering instant obedience to your com- 
mands ; that the choice of the officials should rest 
with you and your advisers ; and that you and they 
should also determine the honours and the })unish- 
ments. The advantage of all this would be that what- 
ever pleased you in consultationwith your peers would 
immediately become law ; that our wars against our 
enemies would be waged with secrecy and at the 
opportune time ; that those to whom any task was 
entrusted would be appointed because of their merit 
and not as the result of the lot or rivalry for office ; 
that the good would be honoured without arousing 
jealousy and the bad punished without causing re- 
bellion. Thus whatever business was done would be 
most likely to be managed in the right Λvay, instead 
of being referred to the popular assembly, or de- 
liberated upon openly, or entrusted to partisan dele- 
gates, or exposed to the danger of ambitious rivalry ; 
and we should be happy in the enjoyment of the 
blessings which are vouchsafed to us, instead of 
being embroiled in hazardous wars abroad or in 

^ Piohably a rofeience to the tvibunusi. 

vol.. VI. I 


Γ) στασ€69 άροσιους ^ ττοιουμβίΌί. ταντα yap ττάσα 
μεν δημοκρατία e^et* οΐ yap ^υνατώτερυι, των τε 
ιτρωτείων ^ υρε^ομβνοί και τους ασθενέστερους 
μίσθούμενοί, ττάντα άνω καΐ κάτω φύρουσΐ' 
ττΧεΐστα δε Βη Ίταρ ημίν ^ε^ονε, καΐ ουκ εστίν 
6 οττως άΧλως τταύσεταί. τεκμηρίον 8ε, ττάμττοΧυς 
εζ ου 'χ^ρόνος και ττοΧεμουμεν και στασιαζομεν. 
αίτιον δε τό τε ττΧήθος των άνθρώττων και το 
μέγεθος των ιτρα^μάτων εκείνοι τε yap τταντο- 
δατΓοΙ καΐ τα yivr] καΐ τάς φύσεις οντες και 
τΓοικίΧας και τας 6pyaς και τάς εττιθυμίας εγ^ουσι, 
και ταύτα ες τοσούτον ττροήκται ώστε και ττάνυ 
Βυσ'χερως αν Βιοικηθήναι. 
16 " ΚαΙ ΟΤΙ ταύτα αληθή \εyω, μαρτυρεί τα 
yeyovoTa. τέως μεν yap ούτε ττοΧλοΙ ήμεν ούτε 
μεyά\ω τινϊ των ττΧησιοχ^ώρων Βιεφέρομεν, καΧώς 
τε ετΓοΧιτευομεθα καΐ ττασαν oXίyoυ την ΙταΧιαν 

2 κατεστρεψάμεθα' άφ' ου δε ε^ω αυτής ε^η-χθημεν, 
και ετΓΐ ττοΧΧα και των ήττείρων καϊ των νήσων 
εττεραιώθημεν, και ττασαν μεν την θάΧασσαν 
ττασαν δε την yήv και τού ονόματος καϊ τής 
Βυνάμεως ημών ενεττΧησαμεν, ούΒενος )(ρηστοϋ 
μ6τεσχ^7]καμεν, άΧΧα το μεν ττρώτον οίκοι και 
εντός του τεί-χους κατά συστάσεις εστασιάσαμεν, 
εττειτα δε καϊ ες τα στρατόττεΕα το νόσημα τούτο 

3 7Γpoηyάyoμεv. καϊ 8ιά ταύθ^ ή ττόΧις ημών, ώσττερ 
οΧκάς μεyάXη και ττΧήρης οχΧου τταντοΒαττού 
χωρίς κυβερνήτου, ττοΧΧάς ή8η yεvεάς εν κΧύ8ωνι 
ττολΧω φερομένη σαΧεύει τε καϊ αττει Βεύρο 
κάκεΐσε, καθάττερ ανερμάτιστος ούσα. μήτ ουν 

4 γειμαζομένην ετ αυτήν ττεριίΒυς, οράς yap ώς 

^ avoaiovs Bk., avoaias VL'. ^ πρωτείων Rk., -πρώτων VL'. 



unholy civil strife. Vov these are Ihe evils foiirid in h.*. 2!> 
every demoerai^y, — the more powerful men, namely, 
in reaching out after the primacy and hiring the 
weaker, turn everything upside down, — but they 
have been most frequent in our country, and there 
is no other way to j)ut a stop to them than tlie way 
I pro}K)se. And the evidence is, that we have now 
for a long time been engaged in wars and civil strife. 
The cause is the multitude of our population and 
the magnitude of the business of our government ; 
for the population embraces men of every kind, in 
res})ect both to race and to endowment, and both 
their tempers and their desires are manifold ; and 
the business of the state has become so vast 
that it can be administered only \vith the greatest 

" Witness to the truth of my words is borne by our 
j)ast. For while we were but few in number and 
differed in no important respect from our neighbours, 
we got along well with our government and subjugated 
almost all Italy ; but ever since we were led outside 
the peninsula and crossed over to many continents 
and many islands, filling the whole sea and the 
whole earth with our name and power, nothing good 
has been our lot. At first it was only at home and 
within our walls that we broke up into factions and 
quarrelled, but afterwards we even carried this 
plague out into the legions. Therefore our city, like 
a great merchantman manned with a crew of every 
race and lacking a j)il()t, has now for many genera- 
tions been rolling and plunging as it has drifted this 
way and that in a heavy sea, a ship as it were 
Avithout ballast. Do not, then, allow her to be 
longer exposed to the tempest ; for you see that she 

I 2 


virepavrXos can, μητβ irepi βρμα ττβμίρρα'^ηναί 
iaarjf;, σαθρά y/ip eVrt καΐ ov^eva crc 'χ^ρόνον 
αντισ'χβίν ^ννησεταΐ' αλλ' eTreihj'jTrep oi θεοί 
€\€ησαντ6<; αύτην και eiTL'^ /νωμονά σε και εττι- 
στάτ'ην αύτη<; επέστησαν, μη ττρο^ως την ττατρίΒα, 
'w ωσττερ νυν Sia σε μικρόν άναττειτνευκεν, οντω 
καΐ τον ΧοίΤΓον αΙώνα μετ άσφαΧείας Biayayr}. 
17 *' 'Ότί μεν ονν ορθώς σοι τταραινώ, μοναρχεΐσθαι 
τον Βήμον αξιών, ττάΧαί σε ηγούμαι ττεττεΐσθαί' 
τούτον Βε 8η όντως έχοντος καΐ ετοίμως καΐ 
ττροθνμως την ττροστασίαν αύτον άνάΒεξαι, μαΧ- 
Χον 8ε μη rrpofj. ον8ε yap ούδ νττέρ τον Χαβεΐν 
τι βονΧευόμεθα, αλλ' νττερ τον μη άποΧεσαι και 

2 ττροσέτι και κιν8ννενσαι. τις yap σον φείσεται, 
αν τε ες τον Βήμον τα irpaypaT άνωσης, αν τε ^ 
και ετερω τινί εττιτρεψ^ς, τταμττόΧΧων μεν όντων 
των ντΓΟ σον ΧεΧνττημενων, πάντων δ ώς είττεΐν 
της μοναρχίας άντιποιησομενων, ων ονΒεϊς ούτε 
μη άμύνασθαί σε εφ' οΐς ττεττοίηκας οντ άντί- 

3 τταΧον ντΓοΧιτΓεσθαι εθεΧήσει. τεκμήριον 8ε οτι 
καΐ 6 ΥΙομττήιος εκστάς της Βνναστείας καΐ κατε- 
φρονήθη καΐ εττεβονΧενθη, κάκ τούτου μηκέτ 
αύτην άναΧαβεΐν ΒννηθεΙς εφθάρΐ], και ο ls.alσap 
6 ττατηρ 6 σος το αύτο τοντο ττοιήσας - ττροσ- 
απώΧετο. πάντως δ' αν και 6 ^Ιάριος καΐ ο 
ΧύΧΧας όμοια αντοΐς επεπόνθεσαν, ει μη προετε- 

^ ττρά'γματ' α.νώστ)5 au Τ€ Bk., ττρά'/ματα ώί ήσαν re \L•'. 
" ιτοιτ]σα$ V, ττοιτισαι ^ββλήσοχ L'. 



is waterlogged. And do not let her be {)ounded to b.c. 20 
pieces upon a reef ^ ; for her timbers are rotten and 
she will not be able to hold out much longer. But 
since the gods have taken pity on her and have set 
you over her as her arbiter and overseer, prove not 
false to her, to the end that, even as now she has 
revived a little by your aid, so she may survive in 
safety for the ages to come. 

" Now I think you have long since been convinced 
that I am right in urging you to give the people a 
monarchical government ; if this is the case, accept 
the leadership over them readily and with en- 
thusiasm — or rather do not throw it away. For the 
question we are deliberating upon is not whether 
we shall take something, but whether we shall de- 
cide not to lose it and by so doing incur danger into 
the bargain. Who, indeed, will s})are you if you 
thrust the control of the state into the hands of the 
people, or even if you entrust it to some other 
man, seeing that there are great numbers Λvhom you 
have injured, and that practically all these will 
lay claim to the sovereignty, and yet no one of them 
will wish either that you should go unpunished for 
what you have done or that you should be allowed 
to survive as his rival ? Pomi)ey, for example, once 
he had given up the supreme power, became the 
object of scorn and of secret plotting and conse- 
quently lost his life when he was unable to regain 
his poΛver. Caesar also, your father, lost not only 
his position but also his life for doing precisely what 
you are proposing to do. And Marius and Sulla would 
certainly have suffered a like fate had they not died 

* Cf. Thucydides vii. 2Γ>, a passage which Dio seems to 1)6 



4 θνηκβσαν. καίτοι τον %νΧλαν φασί τινβς αύτο 
τοντο φοβηθεντα φθήναι και εαυτόν άναχρη- 
σασθαΐ' συγνα 'yovv των νομοθετηθεντων υττ 
αυτού ζώντος ετ αυτού Χύεσθαυ ηρξατο. ώστε 
καΐ συ ττοΧλούς μεν Λεττίδους ττολλού? δε Έ,ερ- 
τωρίους 3ρούτου<; Κασσίους 'γενήσεσθαί σοι ττροσ- 
18 " Ύαϋτά τε ουν ΙΒων κα\ τάΧΧα ττάντα Xoyiaa- 
μενος, μη irpofj καΐ σεαυτον καΐ την ττατρ'ώα, 
ινα ^ μη 8όξΎ)<; τισίν εθεΧούσιο^ τη<; «ρχ>^? 
εφεΐσθαί. ττρωτον μεν yap, αν καΐ τουτό τί? 
ύτΓΟτττεύση, οΰτ άττο του άνθ ρωττείου τροττου το 
εττίθύμημά εστί, καϊ καΧος ο κίν8υνο^ αυτού' 
εττειτα δε τί-9 ουκ οιΒε την ανάγκην ύφ' η<ζ ες τα 

2 ττρά^ματα ταύτα ττροη'χθη^;; ώστε εϊττερ- τυ 
αΐτίαμα αυτής εστί, τοις του ττατρός σου σφα- 
^ευσί Βικαιότατα αν τις αύτο ε^καΧεσειεν εΐ yap 
εκείνοι μητ άΒίκως μητ οίκτρώς ούτως αύτον 
άτΓβκτόνεσαν, οντ αν τα οττΧα άντήρω, οΰτ^ αν τα 
στρατεύματα συνεΧεζω, ούτ^ αν^ ^Κντωνιω καϊ 
ΑεττίΒω συνεθου, οΰτ αν αυτούς εκείνους ημυνω. 

3 κα\ οτο μεν ορθώς καϊ Είκαίως ττάντα ταύτ 
εττοίησας, ουδείς άyvoεΐ• εΐ δ ουν τι καϊ ττεττΧημ- 
μέΧηται, αλλ' ούτι ■* καϊ μεταθεσθαι ετ άσφαΧώς 
δυνάμεθα, ώστε καϊ ημών αυτών ένεκα καϊ της 
ττόΧεως ττεισθώμεν τη τύγτ) τη την μοναρχιαν σοι 

4 Βώούση. καϊ χάριν yε μεyάXηv αύτη εχωμεν, 
οτι μη μόνον τών κακών τών εμφυΧίων άττεΧυσεν ^ 

1 'lua L', 'ίνα δή V. 

^ ώστε eJfTrep R. Steph., ώσπίρ Λ^L'. 

3 ttv supplied by St. ^ ovtl Dind., ov τοι VL'. 

' ave\vaev Bk., άν^πλησ^ν \L•'. 



first. And yet some say that Sulla, fearing this very 
fate, forestalled it by making away with himself ;i at 
any rate, much of his legislation began to be undone 
while he was yet alive. Tiierefore you also must 
expect that there will be many a man who will prove 
a Lepidus to you and many a man who will prove 
a Sertorius, a 13rutus, or a Cassius. 

" Looking, then, at these facts and reflecting upon 
all the other considerations involved, do not abandon 
yourself and your country merely in order to avoid 
giving the impression to some that you deliberately 
sought the office. For, in the first place, even if men 
do suspect this, the ambition is not inconsistent with 
human nature and the risk involved is a noble one. 
Again, what man is there who does not know the 
circumstances which constrained you to assume your 
present position ? Hence, if there be any fault to 
find with these compelling circumstances, one might 
with entire justice lay it upon your father's murderers. 
For if they had not slain him in so unjust and pitiable 
a fashion, you would not have taken up arms, would 
not have gathered your legions, would not have 
made your compact with Antony and Lepidus, and 
would not have had to defend yourself against these 
men themselves. That you were right, however, 
and were justified in doing all this, no one is unaware. 
Therefore, even if some slight error has been com- 
mitted, yet we cannot at this time with safety undo 
anything that has been done. Therefore, for our 
οΛνη sake and for that of the state let us obey 
Fortune, who otters you the sole rulership. And let 
us be very grateful to her that she has not only freed 
us from our domestic troubles, but has also placed in 

^ This tradition is found here only. 



ημά<ί, aWa καί την καταστασιν της 7Γθ\ίΤ€ΐας 
€7γΙ σοΙ 7Γ€7Γθίηταί, 'ίν εττιμ^Χηθεις αυτη<^ ωσττερ 
ιτροσηκεί, Ββί^ης άττασιν άνθρωττοις οτι, i/celva 
μβν άΧλοί καί βτάραζαν καί βκακούρ^ησαν, συ he 
Βη 'χ^ρηστος el. 

5 ** ΚαΙ μη μοι το μβ'γεθος της ^ψχής φοβηθτ]ς. 
οσφ re yap TrXeiwv ^ ύττάρχ^ει, τόσω ττλβ/ω καΐ τά 
σώζοντα e%ei, καΐ μακρω το φνΧάξαί τί του 
κτησασθαί ραον Ιστί' ττρος μβν yap το τάΧλότρια 
ττροστΓΟίήσασθαί και ττόνων καΐ κινδύνων δεΓ, 
7Γ/309 he το τα ύττάρχ^οντα σώσαι βραχεία φροντΧ<ζ 

6 αρκεί. μη μεντοι μηΚε Βείστ]^ οτι ουχί καΐ 
άσφαΧεστατα εν αύτη βίωση καΐ ττάντων των εν 
άνθρώτΓοις ayaOcov άττοΧαύσείς, αν yε εθεΧησης 
αύτην ως παραινέσω σοι Βιοικήσαι. καί με μη 
νομισης άτταρτάν ^ άττο της τταρούσης ύττοθεσεως 
τον Xoyov, αν εττΐ ττΧεΐόν σοι ττερί αυτής Βια- 

7 Χεχθώ' ου yap ττου καϊ υττ άΒοΧεσχίας τίνος 
άΧΧως τούτο ττοιήσω, αλλ' ίνα ακριβώς κατα- 
μάθης οτι καϊ δυνατόν και pahiov τω yε εμφρονι 
το καϊ καΧώς και ακινδύνως άρζαι εστί. 

19 ** Φ?7//'ί' τοίννν χρηναί σε κατά ιτρώτας ευθύς το 
βουΧεντικον ττάν και φνΧοκρινήσαι^ καϊ ΒιαΧεζαι, 
εττει^ή τίνες ούκ εττιτηΒειοι Sia τας στάσεις βε- 
βονΧεύκασι, καϊ τους μεν άρετήν τίνα αυτών 
έχοντας κατασχεΐν, τους όε Χοιττούς άτταΧεΐψαι. 
2 μη μεντοι καϊ Βιά ττενίαν τίνα ayaOov yε arSpa 
δντα άτταΧΧάξης, άΧΧα καϊ χρήματα αύτω τα 
avayKaia Βός. άντϊ Βε 8η τών άΧΧων τους τε 
yεvvaιoτάτυυς καϊ τους αρίστους τους τε ττΧου- 

^ πλξ'ιωΐ' V, πλβΐον L'. ^ άπαρταν L', άπαντα;' V. 

^ ψυλοκρινησαι V, φίλοκρινησαι L•'. 



your hands the organisation of the state, to the end b.c. 29 
that you, by bestowing due care upon it, may prove 
to all mankind that those troubles were stirred up 
and that mischief wrouglit by other men, whereas 
you are an upright man. 

" And do not, I beg you, be afraid of the magnitude 
of the empire. For the greater its extent, the more 
numerous are the salutary elements it possesses ; 
also, to guard anything is far easier than to acquire 
it. Toils and dangers are needed to win over what 
belongs to others, but a little care suffices to retain 
what is already yours. Moreover, you need not be 
afraid, either, that you will not live quite safely in 
that office and enjoy all the blessings which men 
know, provided that you will consent to administer 
it as I shall advise you. And do not think that I am 
shifting the discussion from the subject in hand if I 
s})eak to you at considerable length about the office. 
For of course my purpose in doing this Λνίΐΐ be, not 
to liear myself talk, but that you may learn by a 
strict demonstration that it is both possible and easy, 
for a man of sense at least, to rule well and without 

" I maintain, therefore, that you ought first and 
foremost to choose and select with discrimination the 
entire senatorial body, inasmuch as some Λνΐιο have 
not been fit have, on account of our dissensions, 
become senators. Such of them as possess any 
excellence you ought to retain, but the rest you 
should erase from the roll. Do not, however, get 
rid of any good man because of his poverty, but even 
give him the money he requires. In the place of 
those who have been dropped introduce the noblest, 



σιωτάτονς avreaayaye, μη μόνον €κ της ^Ιταλίας 
ά\\ά και τταρα των σνμμά'χ^ων των re υττηκόων 

3 βτΓίλβξάμενος' οΰτω 'yap συ Τ€ ττολλοίς avv€pyoL<i 
Xprjcrr), teal του? κορυφαίους i^ άττάντων των 
εθνών 6V άσφαΧεΐ ττοιηστ), καΙ οΰτβ εκείνα νεο- 
γ^μώσεί τι μηΒενα ελΧό^ιμον ττροστάτην εχ^οντα, 
καϊ οΐ ττρωτεύοντες τταρ αύτοΐς φί\Ύ}σουσί σε ατε 
καΐ κοινωνοί σοι της αρχής ^ε^ονότες. 

4 "Ύα δε αυτά ταύτα καϊ εττΐ των Ιτητεων ττοίη- 
σον. τους yap τα ^ευτερεΐα εκασταχόθι κα\ ηενει 
καϊ άρετη καϊ πΧουτω φερομένους ες την ΙττπάΒα 
κατάΧεξον, τοσούτους εκατερους άντεγ^/ρά^Ιτας 
οσοί ΤΓοτ αν άρεσωσί σε, μη8εν ττερί του ιτΧηθους 
αυτών άκριβοΧο^ού μένος' οσω yap αν ΊτΧείους 
εύΒοκίμοί άν8ρες συνώσί σοι, τοσούτω ραον αυτός 

5 T€ εν Βεοντί πτάντα Βιοικήσείς, κα\ τους αρχό- 
μενους ττείσεις οτι οΰτε ώς Βουλοις σφίσιν οΰθ^ 
ώς χείροσί τττ) ημών ουσι χρη, αλλά τά τε άλΧα 
ayada ττάντα τα υττάρχοντα ήμΐν καϊ την Tjye- 
μονίαν αύτοΐς ^ κοινοΐ, οττως ώς οίκείαν αύτην 

6 στΓουΒάζωσι. καϊ τοσούτον yε Βεω τουθ* ώς ουκ 
ορθώς είρημενον άναθεσθαι, ώστε καϊ της ττο- 
ΧίτεΙας ττάσι σφισι μεταΒοθήναί φημι Βεΐν, ίνα 
και ταύτης ισομοιροΰντες ττιστοί σύμμαχοι ημΐν 
ώσιν, ώσττερ τινα μίαν την ημετεραν ττόΧιν 
οικοΰντες, και ταύτην μεν όντως ττόΧιν τά Βε Βη 
σφετερα ay ρους καϊ κώμας νομίζοντες είναι, 

^ avTo'is L', auTTjs V. 


the best, and the richest men obtainable, selecting b.c. 29 
them not only from Italy but also from the allies and 
the subject nations. In this way you will have 
many assistants for yourself, and will have in safe 
keeping the leading men from all the provinces ; 
thus the provinces, having no leaders of established 
re})ute, will not begin rebellions, and their prominent 
men will regard you with affection because they have 
been made sharers in your empire. 

"Take these same measures in the case of the 
knights also, by enrolling in the equestrian order 
such men as hold second place in their several 
districts as regards birth, excellence and wealth. 
Register as many new members in both classes as 
you please, without being over particular on the 
score of their number. For the more men of repute 
you have as your associates, the easier you Avill find 
it, for your own part, to administer everything in 
time of need and, so far as your subjects are con- 
cerned, the more easily will you persuade them that 
you are not treating them as slaves or as in any way 
inferior to us, but that you are sharing with them, 
not only all the other advantages which we ourselves 
enjoy, but also the chief magistracy as well, and thus 
make them as devoted to that office as if it were 
their own. And so far am I from retracting this 
last statement as rashly made, that I declare that 
the citizens ought every one actually to be given a 
share in the government, in order that, being on an 
equality with us in this respect also, they may be 
our faithful allies, living as it were in a single city, 
namely our own, and considering that this is in very 
truth a city, whereas their own homes are but the 
countryside and villages. 



" Άλλα irepl μ€ν ^ τούτου ανθι<; άκρίββστβρον 
σꀕψ6μ€θα a γ^ρη ττράζαί, ϊνα μη και ττάντα 
20 αθρόα αύτοί^ 'χ^αρισώμβθα' KaTaXeyeaOaL Be 'χρη 
e? μβν την ίτΓττάΒα οκτωκαίΒβκβτβις, iv yap ταύττ) 
ΤΎ) ήΧίκία μάΧιστα η Τ6 των σωμάτων αυτών 
εύβξία καΐ ή των ψυχρών έπιτηΒβιότης Βιαφαίνεται, 
69 Be το συνίΒρυον 7Γ€ντ€καί€ίκοσιίτ€ΐ<ζ' ττώ? yap 
ουκ αίσ'χ^ρον καΐ σφαΧερόν εστί τα μεν οΙκεΐα 
μηΒβνΙ ττρο ταύτη<ζ τή<; ήΧίκίας ετητρεπεσθαι, τα 
Be Βημόσια καΐ νεώτεροι^; τισίν εyχείpLζεσθaι; 

2 ταμίεύσαντες τε καΐ άyopavoμησavτες η Βημαρχή- 
σαντε^ στpaτηyεLτωσav,^ τριακοντουται yεvό- 
μενοι. ταύτας τε yap τάς άρχας καΧ τάς των 
ύττάτων μονάς οϊκοί, της τε των ττατρίων μνήμης 
ένεκα καΐ του μη τταντεΧώς την ττοΧιτεΙαν μεταΧ- 
Χάττειν Βοκεΐν, άποΒείκνύναι σε φημι χρήναί. 

3 αύτος μεντοί συ ττάντας αυτούς αίροΰ, καΐ μήτε 
επΙ τω ττΧηθει η καϊ τω Βημω ετί τινά αυτών 
ΤΓΟίηστ),^ στασιάσουσί yap, μήτε εττΐ τω συνεΒρίω, 
ΒιαστΓουΒάσονται yap. μη μεντοί καϊ τας Βυνά- 
μεις σφών τας αρχαίας τήρησης, ϊνα μη τα αύτα 
αύθις yεvητaL, άΧΧα την μεν τιμήν φύΧαζον, της 
δ' ισχύος τταράΧυσον τοσούτον όσον μήτε του 
αξιώματος τι αυτών άφαιρήσει καϊ τοις νεωτερισαι 

4 τι εθεΧήσουσι μή εττιτρεψει.^ εσται Βε τούτο, αν 

' Trep\ μ^ν L', μ^ν πβρί V. 

"~ στρατηΎίίτωσαν L', στρατ-η'/^^τωσαν V. 

^ ττοιτίστ} St., ποίήσηι VL'. * 4πιτρ4\1/€ί V, ^ττίτρβψτ; L'. 



"But regarding this matter we shall at a later time b.c, 20 
examine more carefully the question of what measures 
should be taken to prevent our granting the people 
every privilege at once. As for the matter of 
eligibility for office, now, we should put men on the 
roll of knights when they are eighteen years old, for 
at that age their physical soundness and their mental 
fitness can best be discerned ; but we should not 
enrol them in the senate until they are twenty-five 
years old. For is it not disgraceful, and indeed 
hazardous, to entrust the public business to men 
younger than this, when we never commit our 
private affairs to any one before he has reached this 
age ? After they have served as quaestors and 
aediles or tribunes, let them be praetors when they 
reach the age of thirty. For it is my opinion that 
these offices, and that of consul, are the only ones 
at home which you ought to fill by election, and 
these merely out of regard for the institutions of our 
fathers and to avoid the appearance of making a 
complete change in the constitution. But make all 
the appointments yourself and do not any longer 
commit the filling of one or another of these offices 
either to the plebs or to the people,' for they will 
quarrel over them, or to the senate, for the senators 
>vill use them to further their private ambitions. 
And do not maintain the traditional powers of these 
offices, either, for fear history may repeat itself, but 
preserve the honour attaching to them, at the same 
time abating their influence to such an extent that, 
although you will be depriving the office of none of 
its prestige, you will still be giving no opportunity 
to those who may desire to stir up a rebellion. Now 

^ i.e. to the conci/iiuji phbU or to the comitia. 


ra T€ aWa κηϊ evhrj[H)v<; αύτον<^ άττοφην-ρς, και 
μητ€ ev τω ττ}^ (^ρχπ^ καιρώ οττΧα τινί αυτών 
€γχ^6ΐρίστ)ς μητ€ evOv^, αλλά 'χ^ρόνου Βΐ€Χθ6ΐ'το<ζ, 
όσον αν αυτάρκη εκάστω σφών νόμισες elvat. 
οντω yap οντ€ τινβς νβο-χμώσουσι, στρατοπέδων 
κύριοι ev τω των ονομάτων φρονήματι 'γενόμενοι, 
και 'χ^ρόνον τίνα ιΒιωτεύσαντες ττεττανθήσονται. 
5 καΐ ούτοι μεν τά^ τε ττανη^ύρει^, οϊ γε και 
ττροσηκοντε^ σφισιν, εττιτεΧείτωσαν, και τας 
Βίκας ττάντες ώ? έκαστοι, ττΧην των φονικών, εν 
τω της ενΒημον άρχ^ής 'χρόνω Βικαζετωσαν συνα- 
^εσθω μεν yap Βικαστι^ρια και εκ τών αΧλων 
βουΧευτών τών τε Ιτητεων, το δ' οΧον ες εκείνους 
21 " ΥΙοΧίαρχ^ος Be Βή τις εκ τε τών ττροηκόντων 
και εκ τών ττάντα τα καθήκοντα π ροττεττοΧιτεν μέ- 
νων άτΓοΒεικνύσθω, ούχ^ Ινα άττοΒημησάντων ττου 

2 τών ύττάτων άρ'χτ), αλλ' ϊνα τα τε άΧΧα άει τΡ]ς 
ττόΧεως ττροσταττ}, καΐ τάς Βίκας τάς τε τταρα 
ττάντων ών elirov άργ^οντων εφεσίμους τε καΐ 
άναττομπίμ^ους καΐ τάς του θανάτου τοις τε εν τη 
ττόΧει, ττΧην ών αν εΐττω, καΐ τοις εξω αυτής 
μ€χρι ττεντήκοντα και επτακοσίων ^ σταΒίων 
οίκουσι κρινη. 

3 **"Ετε/ο09 τε τις εκ τών ομοίων και αυτός αΐ- 
ρείσθω ώστε τά τε yεvη καΐ τας ουσίας τους τε 

^ (ΤΓτακοσΙων Casaub. , ^ζ,ακοσ'καν ΥΛΙ. 


this will be ;iccoin})lislicd ii you assign thcni on n.r. 29 
appointment chiefly to home affairs and do not 
permit any of tliem to have armed forces during their 
term of office or immediately afterward, but only after 
the la})se of some time, as much as you think sufficient 
in each instance. In this way they will never be put 
in command of legions while still enjoying the pres- 
tige of their oiHcial titles and thus be led to stir up 
rebellions, and after they have been private citizens 
for a time they will be of milder disposition. Let 
these magistrates conduct such of the festivals as 
naturally belong to their office, and let them all 
severally sit as judges in all kinds of cases except 
homicide during their tenure of office in Rome. 
Courts should be established, to be sure, with the 
other senators and knights as members, but final 
authority should rest with these magistrates. 

" As for the })refect of the city, men should be 
appointed to that office who are leading citizens and 
have previously passed through the a})propriate 
offices ; it should be the prefect's duty, not to govern 
merely when the consuls are out of town, but in 
general to be at all times in charge of the affairs of 
the city, and to decide the cases which come to him 
from all the other magistrates I have mentioned, 
whether on appeal or for review, together with those 
which involve the death penalty ; and his jurisdiction 
siiould extend, not only to those who live in the city, 
except such as I shall name, but also to those who 
dwell outside the city for a distance of one hundred 

*' Let still another magistrate be chosen, this man 
also from the class described, whose duties shall be 
to pass u])on and supervise all matters pertaining to 



τροτΓονς κα\ των βουΧβυτων και των ίττττβων, άν- 
8ρώυ re ομοίων; καΐ iraihoyv yvvatKOyv re των ττροσ- 

4 ηκονσών αύτοί^, ζξετάζβίν re καΐ έτησκοττείν, καϊ 
τα μεν αυτόν εττανορθουν 'όσα μητβ τίνο<; τίμωρία<ζ 
αζυά €στί καϊ τταρορώμβνα ττοΧλών καϊ με^αΚων 
κακών αϊτία yiyveTai, τα δε 8η μείζω σοΙ ίτηκοι- 
νουσθαί. βουΧευττ} yap tlvl, καϊ τω ye άρίστω 
μβτα τον ττοΧιαρχ^ον, μάΧλον η tlvl των ίτΓττβων 

5 7Γ/)οστ€ταχ^αί τούτο Bel. καϊ το ye όνομα άττο 
της σης τιμαρ'χίας (ττάντως yap σε ττροβστάναί 
των τιμήσεων ττροσήκει) εΐκότως αν Χάβοι, ώστε 
ντΓοτιμητης καΧεΙσθαι, άρ'χ^βτωσαν δε Βή οι Βνο 
ovTOL ^ δίά βίου, αν ye μη κακυνθτ} τις αυτών 
τρότΓον TLva η καϊ νοσώΒης ή καϊ υ'πepyήpως 

6 yevητaL. εκ μεν yap της 'χ^ρονίου αρχής ούΒεν 
αν BeLVov, άτε 6 μεν τταντεΧώς άοττΧος ων, ό δ' 
6Xίyoυς τε στρατιώτας έχων καϊ εν τοΐς σοΐς 

7 οφθαΧμοΐς το ττΧεΐστον άρχων, €pyάσaίvτo' εκ Be 
Βη του ετείου - καϊ οκνήσειαν ^ αν ιτροσκρούσαι 
τινι καϊ φοβηθεΐεν ερρωμενως τι ττράξαι, την τε 
εαυτών ΙΒιωτείαν καϊ την άΧΧων ^ τινών Βυνα- 
στείαν ττροορώμενοι. καϊ μισθόν ye τίνα φερε- 
τωσαν καϊ της άσχοΧίας ένεκα καϊ τν}ς αξιώσεως. 

8 ** ΥΙερϊ μεν Βη τούτων ταύτην σοι την yvώμηv 

^ ούτοι Μ, οηΐ. V. 

'^ 4τ€ίου Sauppe, irepov VM. 

^ οκνησ^ιαν Dind., οκρ-ίισακν VM. 

* άλλων Leuncl., άλλ-ην Λ"Μ. 



the families, property, and morals both of the senators u.c. 2y 
and of the kniglits, alike of the men and of their 
wives and ehildren. lie sliould personally correct 
such behaviour as deserves no punishment, yet if 
neglected becomes the cause of many evils ; but 
about the more important matters of misconduct he 
should confer with you. For the officer to whom 
these duties are assigned should be a senator, and 
in fact the best one after the prefect of the city, 
rather than one of the knights. As for the title of 
his office, he would naturally receive one derived 
from your censorial functions (for it is certainly 
appropriate that you should be in charge of the 
censuses), and be called sub-censor. ^ Let these two, 
the city })refect and the sub-censor, hold office for 
life, unless one of them becomes demoralized in 
some way or is incapacitated by sickness or old age. 
For no harm could result from their holdin"; office 
for life, since the one would be entirely >vithout 
armed forces and the other would have but few 
soldiers and would be acting for the most part under 
your eyes ; whereas the effect of the yearly tenure 
would be that they would shrink from offending 
any one and ΛVould be afraid to act with energy, since 
they Λvould be looking ahead to their own retirement 
to private life and to the exercise of the power of 
the office by others. They should also driiw a salary, 
not only to compensate them for the loss of their 
leisure but also to enhance the prestige of their 

"This is the opinion I have to give you in regard 

^ Cf. Suetonius, Aikj. 87. In practice there were six of 
them — three to nominate senators and three to hold a 
review of the kniglits. 


VOL. VI. κ 


^ί^ωμί, οι Se Βη στρατη^ησαντβ'; άρ-χ^ετωσάν TLua 
άρ^ην iv τοΓν ύττηκοοίς (ττρίν yap στρατη^ησαι 
σφα? ούχ 7)-γοΰμαί Selv τούτο yiyveaOaL' efcelvoL 
δ' ύ7Γοστρατ7ρ/€ίτωσαν οίς αν βϊττω, καΐ άτταξ και 
hevTepov), βΐθ" ούτως υττατευετωσαν, αν ye και 
6ρθώ<ζ 8ίάρζωσί, και μβτα ταύτα τάς μβίζου^; 
22 7)y6μovLaς Χαμβανβτωσαν. ώδε yap συμβουΧβύω 
σοι Βιατά^αί. την re ^ΙταΧίαν ττάσαν την ύττβρ 
ΤΓβντηκοντα καϊ ετττακοσίους άττο της ττόΧβως 
σταδίου? ονσαν, καϊ τάΧλα ττάντα τά τ€ iv ταΐς 
νήσους καϊ τα iv ταΐς ^ ηπβίροίς 6μoλoyoύvτa 
ήμΐν, κατάνβιμον βκαστα'χ^όθο κατά τε yevη καϊ 
βθνη, τάς τ€ ^ ττόΧεις άττάσας, όσας ye καϊ 
αΰταρκές εστίν ύψ' ίνος άνΒρος αύτοτεΧούς αρχ€- 

2 σθαΐ' κάνταύθα στρατίώτας eyκaτάστησov, καϊ 
αρ'χοντας καθ" εκάστους eva μεν εκ των ύττα- 
τevκότωv έττΐ ττάσί ττεμττε, 8ύο 8ε εκ των 
εστpaτηyηκότωv,^ τον μεν άρτί εκ της ττοΧ^ως 
εζίόντα, καϊ αύτω τά τε ΙΒίωτικα 7Γpάyμaτa καϊ 
ή των ετΓίτηΒειων τταρασκευη ττροσκείσθω, τον δε 
e/c των τούτο ττεττοιηκότων, ος τά τε κοινά των 
7ΓΟ\€ων 8ίθίκησ€ί καϊ των στρατιωτών άρξει, 

3 ττΧην οσα ατιμίας η θανάτου e^eTai. ταύτα yap 
ες μόνον τον ύ7Γατ€υκότα άρχοντα άνηκετω, ττΧην 
Trepi τε των εκατοντάργ^ων των εν τοις κaτaXόyoις 
όντων καϊ irepl των ΙΒιωτών των τταρ' εκάστοις 
ττρώτων τούτους yap 8η εκατερους μη8ενΙ άΧΧω 

^ Tats R. Steph. , tois VM. ^ ^g supplied by Ocldej^ 

"^ e/rl ττασι — iarpaTrjyTjKOTwu M, om. V. 



to tliese officiuls. As for tliose who have served as 
praetors, let tlieiri hold some office among the subject 
nations (before tliey have been })raetors I do not 
think they sliould have this privile<;e, but they 
ought first to serve for one or two terms as lieu- 
tenants to the ex-praetors just mentioned) ; then 
they should next hold office as consuls, provided 
that they have proved satisfactory officials to the end 
of their terms, and after that they should receive 
the more important governorships. I advise you, 
namely, to arrange these j)Ositions as follows. Take 
Italy as a whole (1 mean the part of it which is 
more than one hundred miles from the city), and 
all the rest of the territory which owns our sway, 
the islands and the continents, and divide it into 
districts, in each case according to races and nations, 
and take also all the cities that are strong and in- 
dependent enough to be ruled by one governor Avith 
full powers. Then station soldiers in them and send 
out as governor to each district or inde})endent city 
one of the ex-consuls, who shall have general charge, 
and two of the ex-praetors. One of the latter, fresh 
from the city, should be put in charge of all matters 
j)ertaining to })ersons in private life and of the com- 
missary ; the other, a man who has had special 
training for this work, will administer the public 
business of the cities and will have command of the 
soldiers, excej)t in cases that involve disfranchisement 
or death. Such cases, of course, should be referred to 
the ex-consul who is governor, and to him alone, except 
where the persons involved are centurions recruited 
from the levies or private persons of prominence in 
their respective communities; as for both these classes, 
do not allow any bod}• but yourself to punish them, 


κ 2 


κοΧ(ίζ€ΐν iir LT pe'^r}(; y Lva μη οντω τιι>α αύτων 

4 φοβώνταί ojare ττοτβ καΐ κατά σου tl ττράξαι. ο 
δ eiiTov, on τον erepov των βστρατη'γηκότων εττϊ 
τοις στρατίώταις ίτΓίτβτάγβαί 8et, τοίούτόν ίστιν. 
αν μεν oXiyoL τινβς iv ξβνίκοΐς τβίχεσίν η καΐ €v 
6VL• τΓοΧιτίκω στρατενωνται, καΧώς βχβι τούτο 
jLyveaOat' αν Se hvo ττοΧιτικα στρατεύματα iv 
ταύτω βθνεί χευμάζτ) {ττΧβίω yap τούτων ουκ αν 
συμβουΧεύσαιμί σου τω αύτω αργοντι επιτρβψαί), 

ί) ^βησβί ΤΓου τους 8ύο τους εστρατη^η κότας καΐ 
€Κ€ίνων, 18ία βκατέρου, καΐ των άΧΧων των re 
τΓοΧιτικών καΐ των ΙΒίωτικών ομοίως ττροίστασθαί. 
ο δ οΰν νττατευκως ταυτά re ... -^ κα\ ττροσίτι καΐ 
τας 8ίκας τάς τβ βκκΧητους καΐ τας άναιτομττίμους 
τας άπο ^ των στρατηγών αύτω ^ φοίτώσας κρινε- 

6 τω. και μη θαύμασες el καΐ την ^ΙταΧίαν τοιαύτα 
μέρη νεΐμαί σοι τταραινώ' ττολλ?; re yap καΐ 
ΊΓοΧυάνθ ρωτΓος ούσα άΒύνατός εστίν ύττο των εν 
τω άστει αρχόντων καΧώς 8ίθίκεΐσθαι. Set yap 
τοις τε 8ήμοίς τον άρχοντα άεΐ ιταρεΐναι καΙ τοΐς 
άρχουσι τα δυνατά ττροστάσσεσθαί. 
23 ** Ααμβανετωσαν Be μισθον ιτάντες ούτοι οι τας 
εξω της ττόΧεως αρχάς ετητρεττόμενοι, ττΧείω μεν 
οι μείζους, εΧάττω 8ε οΐ κατα8εεστεροί, μέσον Se 
οΐ μέσοΓ ούτε yap άττο των οΙκειων οΙόν τε εστίν 
αυτούς εν ττ) άΧΧοτρία άττοζήν, οΰτ άοριστω καϊ 

2 άσταθμήτω άναΧώματι ωσττερ νύν χρήσθαι. καϊ 
άρχετωσαν μήτε εΧαττον ετών τριών, εΐ μη τις 
ά8ικησειε τι, μήτε ττΧεϊον ττέντε, το μεν οτι αϊ 

^ Lacuna recognised by Bk. 
2 aTTbRk., ύπΙΥΜ. 
^ αύτψ Rk., αύτον Λ'^Μ. 




lest they come to fear some of these officials to such an 
extent as to take measures, on occasion, against you as 
well as against them. As for my suggestion tliat the 
second of the ex-praetors should l)e put in charge of 
the soldiers, it is to be understood as follows : if only a 
small body of troops is serving abroad in the military 
posts or at home in a single post, my proposal is 
satisfactory ; but if two citizen legions are wintering 
in the same province (and more than this number I 
should not advise you to trust to one commander), it 
will no doubt be necessary for both the ex-praetors 
to hold the command over them, each having charge 
of one, and for each to have his share of authority 
similarly in matters affecting either the state or 
private citizens. Let the ex-consul, accordingly, 
[have] these [duties], and let him also decide the 
cases which come to him on appeal and those which 
are referred to him by the praetors for review. And 
do not be surprised that 1 recommend to you the 
dividing of Italy also into these administrative dis- 
tricts. It is large and populous, and so cannot possibly 
be Avell administered by the magistrates in the city ; 
for a governor ought always to be present in the 
district he governs, and no duties should be laid upon 
our city magistrates Avhich they cannot perform. 

" Let all these men to whom the commands outside 
the city are assigned receive salaries, the more 
important officers more, the less important less, and 
those between an intermediate amount. For they 
cannot live in a foreign land upon their own resources, 
nor should they indulge, as they do now, in unlimited 
and indefinite expenditure. They should hold office 
not loss than three years, unless they are guiltv of 
misconduct, nor more than five. The reason is that 



evLavaiOi /cat oXtyoxpovioi ο,ρ-χ^αϊ ΒιΒάξασαί τίνα^ 
τα avay/caia άτΓοττβμτΓονσί ττρίν τι αύτό)ν άττο^βί- 
γθηναί, το δε on αϊ μακροτβραί και ττοΧυ-χρονιώ- 
τεραί ειταίρουσυ ττως ττολλού? καΐ e? νεωτεροττούαν 
3 i^ayovat. StoTrep ovSe βτταΧΧήΧας τα? μβίζους 
ηyeμovίa^ οΐμαί ησι ιτροσηκειν ^ ΒίΒοσθαί. ούτε 
yap Βιαφερεί τί αν τ€ ev τω αύτω βθνευ αν re κα\ 
iv ττΧείοσίν βφε^τ)? βπΐ μακρότερον του SeovTo<; 
άρ'χωσυ' καΐ άμεινονες yiyvovrai, εττεώαν StaXi- 
ττωσί ^ τε τίνα γ^ρόνον καΐ οϊκα^ε εττανεΧθωσι καΐ 

''Του? μεν Βη ουν βονΧευτας^ ταντά τε κα\ οντω 

24 Βιεττειν φημί 'χ^ρήναι, των Βε 8η ίΤΓττεων δυο του? 

αρίστου^; ττ}? ττερί σε φρουράς αρ^χειν το τε yap 

ενί avSpl αύτην εττιτρεττεσθαί σφαΧερον καΐ το 

2 ττΧείοσι ταραχ^ωΒες εστί. δύο τε οΰν εστωσαν οι 
ετταρχοί ούτοι, ΐν αν καΐ 6 έτερος αυτών ετταί- 
σθηταί Τί τω σώματι, μητί^ yε καΐ ενΒεης του 
φυΧάζοντός σε ε'ίης' κα\ καθιστάσθωσαν εκ τών 
ττοΧΧάκίς τε εστρατευμενων καΐ ττοΧΧά καΐ άΧΧα 

3 Βίωκηκότων. άργ^ετωσαν δε δ^ ^ τών τε Βορυφόρων 
καΐ τών Χοίττών στρατιωτών τών εν ττ} 'Ιταλία 
ττάντων, ώστε καΐ Θανατουν τους άΒίκοϋντας 
αυτών ττΧην τών τε εκατοντάργ^ων καΐ τών άΧΧων 
τών τοις εκ του βουΧευτίκου αργουσι ττροστετα- 

4 yμεvωv. τούτους μεν yap αύτοΙ εκείνοι Βικαιού- 

^ ττροσ7]κ€ΐν Bk., -προστίκον VM. 

^ δίαλίττωσί Bk., δίαλβίττωσί Λ^Μ. 

•' ούν /Βουλευτά? Bs. , συμβoυ\iυτa.s VM, 

^ ;Ur)Tt Dind., μ-ητοι VM. ^ δη ^ΝΙ, 0111. V. 



offices held for only one year or for short periods 
merely teach the officials their bare duties and then 
dismiss them before they can put any of their acquired 
knowledge into use, while, on the other hand, the 
longer terms of many years' duration somehow have 
the effect, in many cases, of filling the officials with 
conceit and encouraging them to rebellion. Hence, 
again, I think that the more important posts ought in 
no case to be given consecutively to the same man. 
For it makes no difference whether a man is governor 
in the same province or in several in succession, if he 
holds office for a period longer than is advisable ; 
besides, appointees improve when there is an interval 
between their incumbencies during which they return 
home and resume the life of ordinary citizens. 

" As regards the senators, therefore, I declare that 
they ought to discharge the duties named and in the 
way described. Of the knights the two best should 
command the bodyguard >vhich protects you, for it is 
hazardous to entrust it to one man, and sure to lead 
to confusion to entrust it to more than two. There- 
fore let the number of these prefects be two, in order 
that, if one of them feel indisposed, you may still not 
lack a person to guard you. And men should be 
appointed to this office who have served in many 
military c;uTi})aigns and have, besides, held many 
administrative positions. And they should have com- 
mand both of the Pretorians and of all the other 
soldiers in Italy, Avith ]x)wer even to put to death 
any of them Λνΐιο do wrong, with the exception of 
the centurions and of those in general who have 
been assigned to the staffs of magistrates of senatorial 
rank. For these soldiers should be tried by the 



τωσαν, Ίνα άττροφασίστως σφίσί γ^ρήσθαι, are 
καΐ κοΧάσαι και ημήσαί σφα<; i^ovaiav βχ^οντβς, 
8ύρωνταί' των δ' άΧλων των iv rfj ΙταΧία στρα- 
τιωτών οΙ βτταρχοί €Κ€Ϊνοι, ττ ροστατείτωσαν , ΰττάρ- 
χονς €'χ^οντ€<;, κα\ ττροσβτι και των Κ.αίσαρ€ίων ^ 
των τ€ iv TYj θβραττεία σου όντων καί των αλΧων 

5 των Xoyov τίνος αξίων, ταύτα yap καΐ ττροσή- 
κοντα καΐ αυτάρκη αύτοΐς Biayeiv βσται,- Ινα μη 
καΐ ττΧβίω ττρά^ματα ων καλώς φερειν 8υνήσονταί 
ετΓίτα'χθίντες άσγ^οΧοί ττρος τα αναγκαία η κα\ 
αδύνατοι, ττάντων αυτών ιτροίστασθαυ ^ένωνται. 

6 κα\ ούτοι μίν Βία βίου, ώσττβρ ττου καΐ 6 ττοΧί- 
αρ'χος 6 θ* υττοτιμητης, την άρχ^ην β'χ^βτωσαν 
νυκτοφύΧαζ δβ βτερος, καΐ βττΐ του σίτου της τε 
αγοράς της Χοιττής έτερος εκ τε τών ίττττεων τών 
ττρώτων μετ εκείνους καΐ ες τακτον χρόνον άττο- 
Βεικνύσθωσαν, καθάττερ οι εκ του βουΧευτικοΰ 

25 προχειριζόμενοι. τάς τε διοικήσεις τών χρημά- 
των, τών τε του 8ημου καΐ τών της αρχής λέγω, 
καΐ τας εν τη ^Ρώμη τη τε άΧΧη ΙταΧία καΐ τας 

2 εξω ττάσας οι ίτητής ^ Βιαχειριζέτωσαν, καΐ μισθον 
ουτοί τε καΐ οι άΧΧοι ττάντες οι εκ του αύτου 
τεΧους διοικούντες τι, οι μεν ττΧείονα οι δε εΧάτ- 
τονα,^ ττρός τε το αξίωμα καΐ ττρος το μέγεθος της 

3 ττράξεως φερετωσαν, τούτο μεν οτι ^ ουχ οιόν τε 

^ Καισαρ€ΐων Η. Steph. , καισαρίων VM• 

" Siayeiy εσταί Bs., 5iayiv€aeaL Λ^Μ. 

^ Ιππη5 Μ (ί7Γπηί$), inne7s \ . 

•* ξΧάττονα R. Steph. , rhv βλάττονα Λ"Μ. ^ οτι Μ, om. V. 



senatorial ina<;istrates themselves, in order that the b.c 29 
latter, by virtue of the authority they would thus 
possess of dealing out punishments to them as well 
as honours, may be able to command their un- 
hesitating support. Over all the other soldiers in 
Italy, however, the j)refects I have mentioned should 
be in command, having lieutenants under them, and 
likewise over the Caesarians, both those Λνΐιο are in 
attendance upon you and such of the others as are 
of any account. These duties will be both fitting 
and sufficient for them to discharge, for if they have 
more responsibilities assigned to them than they are 
able to carry satisfactorily, there is danger that they 
may have no time for the essential things, or, if they 
have, may j)rove incompetent to exercise oversight 
over all their duties. These prefects also should hold 
office for life, like the prefect of the city and the sub- 
censor. Let another official be apj^ointed to be com- 
mander of the night-watch ^ and still another to be 
commissioner of grain ^ and of the market in general, 
both of them from the equestrian order and the best 
men after the prefects, and let them hold their posts 
for a definite term, like the magistrates elected from 
the senatorial class. The management of the public 
funds, also, — I mean both those of the people and 
those of the empire, not only in Rome but also in the 
rest of Italy and outside Italy, — should be entirely in 
the hands of the knights, and they, as well as all the 
other members of the equestrian order Λνΐιο are 
charged witli an administrative position, should be 
on salary, greater or less in proportion to the dignity 
and importance of their duties. The reason for the 
second part of this suggestion is that it is not possible 

1 Praefeclus vigilum. - Praefectus annonae. 



iariv αυτούς, are καΐ irevearepov^ των βονΧευτών 
οντάς, άτΓο των οικείων, ovBe ev ttj 'Ρώμτ} τι 
ττράττοντας, άναλίσκβίν, Ικβίνο he οτι μήτβ Svva- 
τον μητ€ συμφέρον έστί σοι τους αυτούς των re ^ 
δυνάμεων καΐ των γ^ρημάτων κυρίους yiyveadai. 

4 ττρος δ* €τι καΐ καΧώς έ'χβί hia ττΧβίόνων ττάντα 
τα τ^ ^ ^ΡΧν "τ^ροσηκοντα Βιά^βσθαί, οττως καΐ 
ώφεΧωνται άμα συγνοΧ καΐ βμττειροί των ττ ρα- 
μμάτων μίμνωνταΐ' ούτω yap ο'ί τβ άργόμενοι 
μάΧΧον εύνοησουσί σοι, ττοΧυβίΒή άττόΧαυσιν των 
κοινών άμαθων καριτούμβνοι, καΐ συ αφθονώτατα 
τοις άβΐ άρίστοις ττρος ττάντα τα άναμκαΐα Xp^crr). 

5 άττό'χρτ] Se ev μεν Ty rroXei καθ βκαστον χρ^)- 
ματισβως €ΐοος, βξω de καα βκαστον βσνος, €ΐς 
τις €κ των Ιττιτεων, ύττομβίονας όσους αν ή χρεία 
airaiTy ^ εκ τε των Ιττιτεων και εκ των εξεΧευ- 
θερων σου ε^ων Βεΐ yap και τοιούτους τινάς 
συζευμνύναι σφίσιν, Ίνα η τε θεραπεία σου άθΧόν 
τι αρετής ε'χτ), καΐ συ μη άττορΐις τταρ^ ων και 
ακόντων την άΧηθειαν, αν >γε τι ΤΓΧημμεΧηθί}, 
μαθεΐν 8υνηση. 

6 "'Όστις δ' αν των ιττιτεων hia ττοΧΧών ΒιεξεΧ- 
θων εΧΧόμιμος ώστε και βουΧευσαι μενηται, μη8εν 
αύτον η ήΧικία εμττοΖιζετω ττρος το μη ου και ες 
το συνεΒριον καταΧε'χ^θήναι, αλλ' εσμραφεσθωσαν 
καϊ εξ εκείνων, καν ΧεΧογ^αμη κότες τίνες εν τοις 
ΊτοΧιτικοΐς στρατοττεΒοις ώσι, ττΧην των εν τω 

7 τεταμμενω εστρατευμενων. τούτων μεν yap των 

^ Tfc Μ, οηι. V. ^ τά ττ) Μ, τά iv τί) V. 

"^ άιταίττ? V, άπαίΤίί Μ. 

138 ■ • 


for tlie knights, since they are poorer than the b.c 29 
senators, to meet their expenditures out of their 
own means, even when their duties keej) them in 
Rome, and for the first ])oint, that it is neitlier 
practicable nor to your interest that the same men 
should be given authority over both the troops and 
the public funds. And, furthermore, it is well that 
the whole business of the empire should be transacted 
by a number of agents, in order that many may at 
the same time receive the benefits and gain ex- 
j)erience in public affairs ; for in this way your 
subjects, reaping a manifold enjoyment of the common 
blessings, will be more favourably disposed towards 
you, and you will have at your disposal in the largest 
measure those who are at any particular time the best 
men for all urgent needs. One official of the eques- 
trian order is sufficient for each branch of the fiscal 
service in the city, and, outside the city, for each pro- 
vince, each one of them to have as many subordinates, 
drawn from the knights and from your own freedmen, 
as the needs of the case demand ; for you need to 
associate with the officials such assistants in order 
that your service may ofiTer a prize for merit, and 
that you may not lack those from whom you may 
learn the truth, even contrary to their wishes, in 
case any irregularity is committed. 

"If any of the knights, after passing through many 
branches of the service, distinguishes himself enough 
to become a senator, his age ought not to hinder him 
at all from being enrolled in the senate. Indeed, 
some knights should be received into the senate, 
even if they have seen service only as company com- 
manders in the citizen legions, except such as have 
served in the rank and file. For it is both a shame 



καί φορμοφορησάντων καί Χαρκοφορησάντων καΐ 
αίσ'χ^ρον καΐ ετΓονε'ώίστον βστιν iv τω βοϋΧβυτίκω 
ηνα<ί βζβτάζεσθαΐ' εκ δε ht] των αττ' αρχη^ €κα- 
τονταρχησάντων ovhev Koikvei τους iX\oyίμωτά- 
του<ζ αυτοί) μετάλαμβάνΕΐν. 
26 ** Uepl μβν ουν των βουΧβυτων των re Ιττπεων 
ταΰτά σοι συμβουΧευειν β%ω, καϊ νη Αία καΐ 
ifceLva,^ ϊνα €ως Τ€ βτι τταΓδε? elaiv, βς τα SiSa- 
a/caXeta συμφοιτωσι, καϊ iireihav €9 μβίράκια 
βκβάΧωσιν, βτη re του<; ίττττου? καϊ eirl τα οττΧα 
τρεττωνταί, ΒώασκάΧους ίκατβρων Βημοσιβύοντας 

2 6μμΙσθου<ζ βχοντβς. οΰτω <γαρ βύθύς iic ττα'ώων 
ττάνθ^ οσα χρη άν8ρα<; αυτούς 'γενομένους βττι- 
τβΧεΐν καϊ μαθοντες καϊ μεΧετησαντες ετητη- 
Βειότεροί σοι ττρος ττάν ερ'^ον Ύενήσονται. τον 
yap άρχοντα τον άριστον, ου τε τι οφεΧός εστί, 
Sei^ μη μόνον αύτον ττάνθ α προσήκει ττοιεΐν, 
άΧΧά καϊ των άΧΧων, οττως ώς οτι βέΧτιστοι 

3 ^ί^νωνταί, ιτρονοεΐν. τοΰτο δ' ύττάρξειεν άν σοι 
ουκ αν εάσας ^ αυτούς οσα βούΧονται ττράττειν, 
εττειτ εττιτιμας τοις άμαρτάνουσιν, αλΧ' άν ττρίν 
τι ττΧημμεΧεΐσθαι, 7Γρο8ι8άσκ7]ς ττάνθ^ οσα άσκή- 
σαντες χρησιμώτεροι καϊ εαυτοΐς καϊ σοΙ ηενη- 
σονται, καϊ μη^ενί γ6 το τταράτταν ττρόφασιν 

4 τταρέχΎ)ς,^ μήτε Sia ττΧοΰτον μήτε Βι εύ<γένειαν 
μήτε hi άΧΧο τι αρετής εχόμενον, ραθυμίαν η 
μαΧακίαν ή καϊ εττιτή^ευσιν τίνα κίβ^ηΧον ττροσ- 
ΤΓοιεΐσθαι. ττοΧΧοΙ yap φοβούμενοι μη και Βιά 

^ καϊ νη Δία ι<α\ Καζίνα Μ, om. V. 

2 δεΓΑοΓ., δβΓι/Λ^λΙ. 

3 ουκ Uv iaaas Rk., ουκ h.u 4άσηΐ5 Λ^Μ flor. (cod. Β), el ουκ h-v 
βάσηίϊ flor. (cod. A), 

^ παρ€χγς R. Steph., παρ^χοΐΒ VM. 




and a rcproacl» tliat men of tliis sort, wlio liave carried b.c. 29 
f"a<»gots and cliarcoal, should be found on the roll of 
the senate ; but in the case of knio,hts wlio began 
their service with the rank of centurion, there is 
nothing to prevent the most notable of them froin 
belonging to the senate. 

"With regard, then, to the senators and the knights, 
this is the advice 1 have to give you, — yes, and 
this also, that while they are still children they should 
attend the schools, and when they come out of child- 
hood into youth ^ they should turn their minds to 
horses and to arms, and have paid public teachers in 
each of these departments. In this way from their 
very boyhood they will have had both instruction 
and practice in all that they will themselves be 
required to do on reaching manhood, and will thus 
prove more serviceable to you for every undertaking. 
For the best ruler, — the ruler who is worth anything, 
— should not only perform himself all the duties which 
devolve ujion him, but should make provision for the 
rest also, that they may become as excellent as possible. 
And this title can be yours, not if you allow them to 
do whatever they please and then censure those who 
err, but if, before any mistakes are made, you give 
them instruction in everything the practice of which 
will render them more useful both to themselves 
and to you, and if you afford nobody any excuse 
whatever, either wealth or nobility of birth or any 
other attribute of excellence, for affecting indolence 
or effeminacy or any other behaviour that is counter- 
feit. For many persons, fearing that, by reason of 

^ The (J reek term indicates approximatel}• the age of 



TOLOVTo TL και φθονηθ6)σί και κιν^υνβύσωσι, 
ΤΓολλα και ανάξια εαυτών ττοιούσιν ώ? και άσφα- 

5 Xearepov αττ' αυτών βιωσυμβνοί' κάκ τούτου 
CKeivoL μβν βΧεουνται ώς και αύτυ τούτο αδικού- 
μενοι, το μη 8υκ€Ϊν εξβΐναί σφισιν 6ρθω<^ ζην, τω 
δ' άργοντι αυτών και ζημία άμα ά^αθ6)ν άντρων 
στβρομενω καΐ κακοΒοξία της αιτιάσεως συμβαίνει, 
μήτ ουν ΊτεριίΒης ττοτε τούτο ιτραγΟεν, μητ αυ 
Βείσης otl τραφείς τε τις και παώευθεις ως iyo) 

6 λέγω ^ νεώτερον τι τοΧμησει. ττάν yap τουναντίον 
τους τε αμαθείς και τους άσεΧ^εΙς ύττοτοττεΐν 8εΐ''- 
01 μεν yap τοιούτοι ττάντα άττΧώς και τα αϊσγ^ιστα 
καΐ τα δεινότατα, πρώτον μεν ες σφάς αυτούς 
εττειτα δε καΐ ες τους αΚΚους, ραΒίως ττοιεΐν ττρο- 
ayovTai, οι δε δ^ καΧώς τραφεντες τε κα\ τταιΒευ- 
θεντες οΰτ άΧλον τίνα άΒικεΐν προαιρούνται, και 
πάντων ηκιστα τον της τε τροφής καΐ τΡ]ς παι- 

7 Βείας αυτών επιμεΧηθεντα. αν δ' οΰν τις και 
κακός και αχάριστος yivi^Tai, μηΒεν αύτω τοιού- 
τον επιτρεψ7)ς εξ ου Βεινόν τι Βράσαι Βυνησεταΐ' 
καν yε καΐ ως νεοχμώστ] τι, καΐ ε\εy■χ^θήτω και 
κοΧασθητω. μη yap Βη φοβηθης οτι σε αίτιάσεταυ 
τις επΙ τούτω, αν yε πάνθ οσα εϊρηκα πράττης, 

8 συ μεν yap ούΒεν άμαρτηση τον άΒικησαντα 
τιμωρησάμενος, ώσπερ ούΒε ο ιατρός καύσας τίνα 
και τεμών εκείνον δε Βη πάντες Βικαιώσουσιν, 

^ λ€7ω R. Steph., xiyuv VAI. * 5et Μ, δί? V. 



some such advantage, they may incur jealousy or b.c. 29 
dan<;er, do many lhiii<;s that are unworthy of them- 
selves, expecling by such beliaviour to live in greater 
security. As a consequence, not only do they, on 
their part, become objects of pity as being victims of 
injustice in precisely this respect, that men believe 
that they are deprived of the opportunity of leading 
upright lives, but their ruler also, on his part, suffers 
not only a loss, in that he is robbed of men who 
might have been good, but also ill-repute, because lie 
is blamed for the others' condition. Therefore never 
permit this thing to happen, and have no fear, on 
the other hand, that anyone who has been reared 
and educated as I propose will ever venture upon 
a rebellion. On the contrary, it is the ignorant and 
licentious that you should suspect ; for it is such 
persons who are easily influenced to do absolutely 
any and every thing, even the most disgraceful and 
outrageous, first toward themselves and then toward 
others, whereas those who have been well reared and 
educated do not deliberately do wrong to any one 
else and least of all to the one who has cared for 
their rearing and education. If, however, one of 
these does show himself wicked and ungrateful, you 
have merely to refuse to entrust him Λvith any 
position of such a kind as will enable him to do 
any mischief ; and if even so he rebels, let him be 
convicted and punished. You need not, 1 assure you, 
be afraid that anyone will blame you for this, pro- 
vided that you carry out all my injunctions. For in 
taking vengeance on the wrongdoer you ΛνΐΙΙ be 
guilty of no sin, any more than the physician is Avho 
resorts to cautery and surgery; but all men will 
assuredly say that the offender has got his deserts, 



on Koi τροφής; καΐ τταιΒείας της αύτή<; τοις άΧΧοις 
μβΎασ-χ^ων βττββούΧβυσβ σοί. 

** ΐίβρί μεν ουν τους βονΧευτάς τους τε ίτητεας 
27 ταύτα ηΐ'^νεσθω- τους Κε Βη στρατιώτας αθανά- 
τους, εκ τε των ττοΧίτών κάκ των νττηκόων των τε 
συμμάγων, ττ} μεν πΧείους ttj δε εΧάττους, καθ^ 
εκαστον έθνος, οττως αν η χρεία των ττρα^μάτων 

2 άιταιττ), τρεφεσθαι ττροσήκει, καΐ αυτούς αεί τε εν 
τοις οττΧοίς είναι καΧ την άσκησιν των ττοΧεμικων 
Βια τταντος ττοίεΐσθαί 8εΐ, χειμάδια τε εν τοις ετη- 
καιροτάτοίς χωρίοίς κατεσ κευασ μένους καΐ χρόνον 
τακτον στρατευόμενους, ώστε τι αύτοΐς καΐ ττρο 

3 τον 'γήρως της ήΧίκίας ττεριεΐναί. ούτε yap επΙ 
των καιρών βοηθείαις τισίν ετι χρησθαι Βννά- 
μεθα, αυτοί τε τοσούτον άττο των της αρχής 
εσχατιών άπτηρτημενοι καϊ ττόΧεμίους εκασταχόθι 
Ίτροσοικουντας έχοντες' αν τε εττιτρεψωμεν ττάσι 
τοις εν TTj ηλικία ονσι καϊ τα οττΧα κεκτήσθαι 
καϊ τα εμτΓοΧεμια άσκεΐν, στάσεις καϊ ττόΧεμοι 

4 αττ' αυτών εμφύΧιοι άεΐ ^ενηοονται. καϊ μεντοι 
καν κώΧύσαντες σφας ταύτα ποιεΐν εττειτα συμ- 
μαχίας τίνος ττα/ο' αυτών Βεηθώμεν, κιν^υνεύσο- 
μεν^ άττείροις τε καϊ ά^υμνάστοις στρατιώταις άε\ 
χρώμενοι. Sia μεν Srj ταύτα ^νώμην ττοιουμαι 
τους μεν αΧΧους ττάντας άνευ τε οττΧων και άνευ 
Tet%coi^ ζην, τους Βε ερρωμενεστάτους καϊ βίου 
μάΧιστα Βεομενους καταΧε^εσθαί τε καϊ άσκεΙν, 

5 αυτοί τε yap άμεινον ΊτοΧεμΎ)σουσι τούτω μονω 

^ κιν^υν^ΰσομΐν R. Steph., κιν^υν^ύσωμ^ν \^1. 



because, after partakin<i of tlie same rearing and b.c. 29 
education as tlie rest, he j)lotted against you. 

" Let this be your j)roeedure, then, in tiie case of 
tlie senators and the kniglits. A standing army also 
should be supj)orted, drawn from the citizens, the 
subject nations, and the allies, its size in the several 
provinces being greater or less according as the 
necessities of the case demand ; and these troo})s 
ought always to be under arms and to engage in the 
practice of warfare continually. They should have 
winter-quarters constructed for them at the most 
advantageous points, and should serve for a stated 
period, so that a j)ortion of life may still be left for 
them between their retirement from service and 
old age. The reason for such a standing army is 
this : far removed as Λν6 are from the frontiers of the 
empire, with enemies living near our borders on 
every side, we are no longer able at critical times to 
depend u})on expeditionary forces ; and if, on the 
other hand, we permit all the men of military age to 
have arms and to practise warfare, they will always 
be the source of seditions and civil wars. If, however, 
we prevent them from all making arms their pro- 
fession and afterwards need their aid in Avar, we 
shall be exposed to danger, since we shall never have 
anything but inexperienced and untrained soldiers to 
dejiend upon. For these reasons I give it as my 
opinion that, while in general the men of military 
age should have nothing to do with arms and walled 
camps during their lives, the hardiest of them and 
those most in need of a livelihood should be enlisted 
as soldiers and given a military training. For they 
will iight better if they devote their time to tliis one 



τω €/3γω σ'χ^οΧάζορτες, καΐ oi ΧοιττοΙ paov ^εωρ^η- 
σουσι καϊ ναντίΧουνταί τά re άλλα τα rfj βίρηνη 
ττροσήκοντα• ττράξουσι μητ€ εκβοηθβΐν άνα'^καζϋ- 
μβνοι καϊ προψύΧακάς σφων €Τ€ρου<; β'χρντβ^, το 
Τ6 άκμαώτατον καϊ Ισ'χυρότατον και Ικ. Χ^σιείας 
μάΧιστα ζην άνα<^/καζομ€νον άΧύττω^ τραφήσεται, 
καϊ το Χοίττον ττάν άκιν8ύνω<; βιώσεται. 
28 '' ΐΐόθβν ουν -χ^ρήματα καϊ e? τούτον; καϊ e? τα 
άΧΧα τα άνα'γκαίως άναΧωθησόμενα βσται; iyo) 
καϊ τούτο δίδά^ω, σμικρόν εκείνο υττειττών, οτι 
καν ^ημο κρατηθώ μεν, ιτάντω<ζ ττου χρημάτων 
Βεησόμεθα'^ ου yap οΙόν τε οι5τ' άνευ στρατιωτών 
ημά(ί σώζεσθαι οντ άμισθί "^ τίνα<; '^ στρατεύ- 

2 εσθαι. μη ουν ώς καϊ ττ} μοναργία μόντ) τή(; 
avayKaia^; των γ^ρημάτων αθροίσεως ττροσηκούσης 
βαρυνώμεθα, μηΒε St* αύτην καϊ άττ εκείνης 
άποτρεττώμεθα, αλλ' ώ? καϊ ττάντως αναηκαΧον 
ον ημίν, οττως πτοτ αν ττοΧίτευωμεθα, και άρ^υ- 

3 ρίζεσθαί τίνα, ούτω ^ βουΧευώμεθα. φημί τοίνυν 
'χ^ρηναι σε πρώτον μεν απάντων τά κτήματα τά 
εν τω Βημοσί(ρ οντά (ττολλα δε ταύτα ορώ Βιά 
τους ποΧεμους γβγοζ^οτα) πωΧήσαι, πΧην οΧί^ων 
τών και πάνυ γ^ρησίμων σοι καϊ αναγκαίων, και 
το άρ^ύριον τούτο πάν επι μετρίοις τισΐ τοκοις 

4 εκΒανεΐσαι. οΰτω yap ή τε yrj εvεpyoς εσται, 
Βεσπόταις aύτoυpyoΐς δοθείσα, καϊ εκείνοι άφορ- 
μην Χαβόντες εύπορώτεροι yεvήσovτaι, τ υ τε 

^ ^ΐ-ησόμζθα Dind., δ€ηθησόμ£θα Υ}>1. 

^ αμισθΐ St., αμισθύ VM. 

"' Tivas Λ1, τίνα Λ". * ούτω ^ί, υντω5 V, 



business, and the rest will find it easier to carry on 
their farming•, seafaring-, and the other pursuits appro- 
priate to i)eace, if they are not coni[)elled to take 
part in military expeditions but have others to act as 
their defenders. 'Jhus the most active and vigorous 
element of the po})ulation, which is generally obliged 
to gain its livelihood by brigandage, will support 
itself without molesting others, while all the rest 
will live Avithout incurring dangers. 

" From what source, then, is the money to be pro- 
vided for these soldiers and for the other expenses 
that will of necessity be incurred ? I shall explain 
this point also, prefacing it with a brief reminder 
that even if we have a democracy we shall in any 
case, of course, need money. For we cannot sur- 
vive without soldiers, and men will not serve as 
soldiers Avithout pay. Therefore let us not be 
opjiressed by the idea that the necessity of raising 
money belongs only to a monarchy, and let us not be 
led by that consideration to turn our backs u})on this 
form of government, but let us assume in our delibera- 
tions that, under whatever form of government we 
shall live, we shall certainly be constrained to secure 
funds. My pro})osal, therefore, is that you shall first of 
all sell the property that belongs to the state, — and 
I observe that this has become vast on account of 
the wars, — reserving only a little that is distinctly 
useful or necessary to you ; and that you lend 
out all the money thus realized at a moderate rate 
of interest. In this way not only will the land 
be put under cultivation, being sold to owners who 
will cultivate it themselves, but also the latter will 
accpiire a capital and become more prosperous, while 
the treasur}'^ will gain a permanent revenue that will 

L 2 


Βημοσιον διαρκή καί αθόνατον ΊτρόσοΖον e^eu. 
είτα σύλΧο^ισασθαί ταύτα τ£ κα\ τάΧλ,α όσα etc 
τ€ μεταΧλβίας ical el όή ττοθεν άΧΧοθβν βββαίως 

5 Βύναται ττροσίβναί, καΐ μβτα τούτο avTiXoyiaa- 
σθαί μη μόνον τα στρατιωτικά αλλά και τάΧΧα 
τταντα Si ών Αταλώ? ττολί? οικείται, και ττροσετι 
κα\ όσα €9 re τα? αιφνώίονς στρατείας και e? τα 
Χοιττά όσα εϊωθεν εττΐ καιρόν συμβαίνειν, ava'y- 

6 καΐον εσται Βαττανάσθαι• κάκ τούτον 7Γρο<ζ τταν 
το ΧεΐτΓον φόρον τε εττιτάξαι ττάσιν άττλω? τοΐ<ζ 
επικαρτΓίαν ^ τινά τω κεκτημενω αντά τταρε'χονσι, 
καϊ τεΧη καταστήσαι τταρά ττάσιν ών άρχ^ομεν 
(καϊ yap καϊ δίκαιον καϊ ττροσήκόν εστί μη8ενα 
αυτών άτεΧή είναι, μη ΙΒιώτην, μη 8ήμον, άτε καϊ 
της ώφεΧίας της άττ' αυτών ομοίως τοις άΧΧοις 

7 άτΓ οΧαν σοντ ας ^), καί σφων εκΧογεας τονς εττι- 
τροΊτενσ οντάς εκαστα'χόθι ττοιησαι, ώστε αντονς 
τταν το τω της εττιτροττείας αντών 'χ^ρόνω ττροσή- 
κόν εζ άττασών τών ττροσόΒων εσττράττειν. τοντο 
yap καϊ εκείνοις ράω την εσττραξιν ττοιήσει καϊ 
τοις ΒιΒονσί τι ώφεΧίαν ονκ εΧαχ^ίστην τταρεξεί' 

8 Xεyω 8ε το " κατ oXiyov σφας εν ταΐς τάξεσιν 
όσα οφείΧονσιν εσφερειν, και μή, βραχούν ραθν- 
μησαντας 'χ^ρόνον, εττικεφαΧαιωθεντα ττάντα εσά- 
τταξ άτταιτεΐσθαι. 

29 '* Καϊ ονκ άyvoώ μεν ότϊ τίνες τών τε φόρων καϊ 
τών τεΧών καθιστάμενων αγβεσθησονταΐ' αλλά 
καϊ εκείνο οϊΒα ότι, αν μήτε ττροσεττ7]ρε(ίζωνται 
καϊ τω εpyω ττεισθώσιν Οτι ττάντα ταντα καϊ 

^ 4πικαρττίαν ΛΙ, eirl καρτίαν V. 

^ α,ΤΓθ\αύσοντα$ R. Steph., άττολανσανταε VM. 

3 rh R. Steph., τοΓ; VM. 



suffice for its needs. In the second place, I advise b.c. 29 
you to make an estimate of the revenues from tliis 
source and of all the other revenues which can Avith 
certainty be derived from the mines or any other 
source, and then to make and balance against this a 
second estimate of all the expenses, not only those 
of the army, but also of all those which contribute to 
the well-bein<r of a state, and furthermore of those 
which will necessarily be incurred for unexpected 
campaigns and the other needs which arc wont to 
arise in an emergency. The next step is to provide 
for any deficiency by levying an assessment u})on 
absolutely all property which jiroduces any profit for 
its possessors, and by establishing a system of taxes 
among all the peoples we rule. For it is but just and 
proper that no individual or district be exempt from 
these taxes, inasmuch as they are to enjoy the 
benefits derived from the taxation as much as the 
rest. And you should appoint tiix-collcctors to have 
supervision of this business in each district, and 
cause them to exact the entire amount that falls 
due during the term of their supervision from all the 
sources of revenue. This plan will not only render 
the work of collection easier for these officials, but 
will in particular benefit the tax-payers, inasmuch, I 
mean, as these will bring in what they owe in the 
small instalments a])p()inted, whereas now, if they 
are remiss for a brief ])eriod, the entire sum is added 
up and demanded of them in a single payment. 

"I am not unaware that some will object if this 
system of assessments and taxes is established. But 
I know tiiis, too, — that if they are subjected to no 
furtiicr abuses and are indeed convinced that all 
these contributions of theirs will make for their own 



virep τή<ζ σωτηρίας σφών και virep του τα Xolttcl 

2 αδβώ? καριτουσΘαί συνεσοισουσυ, και ττροσίτι ^ 
τα ττΧαω αυτών ούχ βτβροι tiv€<; αλλ' αύτοΙ 
€K€LVOC, οΐ μεν αρχοντβς οι Se εττιτροττβύοντζ^ οΐ 
δε στρατευόμενοι, Χι^ψονται, καΐ ττάνυ ττοΧλην 
χάριν βισονταί σοι, βραχέα άττο 7το\Χό)ν ων αν 
μηΒεν βττηρεαζόμενοι καρττώνται Βώόντβ'ς, αλλω? 
τ€ καν ορώσί σε σωφρονω'ζ τε ζιαιτώμενον καΐ 

3 μη^εν μάτην τταραναΧίσ κοντά, rt? γαρ ουκ αν 
18ών σε Ίτρο^ί μεν τα οικεία φειΕωΧότατον ττρος δε 
τα κοινά άφειΒέστατον οντά, εθεΧοντΙ συντεΧέσειε 
τι, και άσφάΧειαν καΐ εύττορίαν εαυτού το σε 
ττΧουτεΐν είναι νομίζων; 

30 " χίρϊίματα μεν 8η καΐ ττάνυ ττοΧΧά εκ τούτων 
ύττάρζειεν αν τα Βε Βη Χοιττά τόνΒε τον τρόπον 
Βιοικεΐν σοι τταραινώ. το μεν άστυ τούτο καΐ 
κατακόσμει ττάστ) πτοΧυτεΧεία καΐ ετΓίΧάμττρυνε 
τταντι εΐ8ει ττανη^ύρεων ιτροσηκει τε ηάρ ημάς 
ΤΓοΧΧών άρχοντας εν ττάσι ττάντων ύττερεχειν, καΐ 
φέρει ιτως καΐ τα τοιαύτα ττρός τε τους συμ- 
μάχους αιΒώ καΐ ττρος τους ττοΧεμίους κατά- 
2 ττΧηξιν. τα δε δr/ των άΧΧων ώδε δίεττε. ττρώτον 
μεν οΐ Βήμοι μήτε κύριοι τίνος εστωσαν μήτε ες 
εκκΧησίαν το τταράτταν φοιτάτωσαν ούτε yap 
ayadov ^ ούΒεν φρονήσειαν αν και συχνά αν άει ^ 
ταράζειαν. όθεν ουδέ τον τταρ ήμΐν Βήμον ούτε "* 
ες Βικαστήριον ούτε ες αρχαιρεσίας, ούτε ες άΧΧον 
τινά τοιούτον σύΧΧο^ον εν φ τι καΐ χρηματι- 

^ προσίτι R. Steph., -n-pos iirl V^l. 
- ayaOhu Μ, oni. V. 

3 aei M, om. V. 

* οίίτ6 R. Steph., ovSe VM. 



security and for their fearless enjoyment of the rest 
of their })roperty, and tliat, again^ the larger part of 
their contributions will be received by none but them- 
selves, as governors, procurators, or soldiers, they 
will be exceedingly grateful to you, since they will 
be giving but a slight portion of the abundance from 
which they derive the benefit without having to 
submit to abuses. Especially will this be true if 
they see that you live temperately and spend nothing 
foolishly. For who, if he saw that you Λvere quite 
frugal in your expenditures for yourself and quite 
lavish in those for the commonwealth, would not 
willingly contribute, believing that your wealth 
meant his own security and prosperity ? 

" So far as funds are concerned, therefore, a 
great abundance would be supi)lied from these 
sources. And I advise you to conduct as follows 
the administration of such matters as have not yet 
been mentioned. Adorn this capital with utter dis- 
regard of ex})ense and make it magnificent with 
festivals of every kind. For it is fitting that we who 
rule over many people should surpass all men in all 
things, and brilliance of this sort, also, tends in a way 
to inspire our allies with res})ect for us and our 
enemies with terror. The affairs of the other cities 
you should order in this fashion : In the first place, 
the })o]nilace should have no authority in any matter, 
and should not be allowed to convene in any assembly 
at all ; for nothing good would come out of their 
deliberations and they would always be stirring up a 
good deal of turmoil. Hence it is my opinion that 
our populace here in Rome, for that matter, should 
not come together either as a court or to hold the 
elections, or indeed in any meeting whose object is 



3 σθηναι hel, avvievai φημί γ^ρηναι. βττειτα he μήτ 
οΙκοΒομημάτων ττΧήθβσιν η καί ^ με^ίθεσιν vnep 
TavayKaia 'χ^ρησθωσαν, μητ άφωνων ττοΧΧών καί 
τταντοΒαπων άνάΧώμασι Βαττανάσθωσαν, 'ίνα μήτε 
στΓονΒαΐ^; ματαίαις βκτρύχωνται μήτε φίλοτίμίαι<; 

4 αλογοί9 ττοΧβμώνταί. εχετωσαν μεν yap καϊ 
ττανη'γύρει^ καϊ θεωρία<ί τίνά<^, χωρίς της Ιτητο- 
Βρομιας της τταρ ημίν ττοίονμενης, μη μεντοι ώστε 
καϊ το δημόσιον η καϊ τους ΙΒίονς οϊκονς Χνμαί- 
νεσθαί, ξένον τε τίνα άvayκάξεσθaί τταρ' αύτοΐς 
και οτίουν άναΧισκειν, και σιτησυν άθάνατον 
ττάσιν άττΧως τοις aycova τίνα νικησασί ΒίΒοσθαί. 

5 τους τε yap εύττορονς dXoyov εστίν εξω τι των 
ττατρίΒων άvayκaστoυς Βαττανάν, καϊ τοις αγω- 
νισταΐς άττόχρη τα άθΧα τα τταρ* εκάστοις 
Τιθέμενα, χωρίς η εϊ τις αυτών ΟΧύμιτία η 

6 ΐΐύθια ή Τίνα ενταύθα aycova άνεΧοιτο''^ τους yap 
τοιούτους μόνους σιτεΐσθαι Βεΐ, ίνα μήτε αΙ ττόΧεις 
μάτην ειτιτρίβωνται μήτε εξω τις των άξ ιονικών 
άσκΎ), Βυνάμενος άΧΧο τι χρησιμώτερον καϊ εαυτω 
καϊ τω κοινω μετιεναι. ττερί μεν ουν τούτων 

7 ταύτα yίyvώσκω, τας δ' ίτττΓοΒρομίας τας άνευ των 
yυμvικώv άyώvωv εττ ιτεΧου μενας ούχ ηyoύμaι ΒεΙν 
άΧΧη TLVI ττόΧει ττοιεΐν εττιτρεπειν, οττως μήτε 
χρήματα τταμττΧηθή είκτ) τταραποΧΧυηται μηθ 

1 κα\ Μ, om. V. 

2 aveXoiTO Rk., αρ tXoiro \, h-v ξλοιτο Μ, 



to transact business. In the second place, the cities b.c. 29 
should not indulge in })ublic buildings unnecessarily 
numerous or large, nor waste their resources on 
expenditures for a large number and variety of 
public games, lest they exhaust themselves in futile 
exertions and be led by unreasonable rivalries to 
quarrel among themselves. They ought, indeed, to 
have their festivals and spectacles, — to say nothing of 
the Circensian games held here in Home, — but not 
to such an extent that the public treasury or the 
estates of private citizens shall be ruined thereby, or 
that any stranger resident there shall be compelled 
to contribute to their expense, or that maintenance 
for life shall be granted to every one without 
exception who has won a victory in a contest. For 
it is unreasonable that the well-to-do should be put 
under compulsion to spend their money outside 
their own countries ; and as for the competitors in 
the games, the ])rizes which are offered in each event 
are enough, unless a man wins in the Olympian or 
Pythian games or in some contest here in Rome. 
For these are the only victors who ought to receive 
their maintenance, and then the cities will not be 
wearing themselves out to no purpose nor Avill any 
athlete go into training except those who have a 
chance of Avinning ; the rest will be able to follow 
some occupation that will be more jirofitable both to 
themselves and to the commonwealth. Ihis is my 
opinion about these matters. Hut as to the horse- 
races in connection with which there are nogvnmastic 
contests,^ 1 think that no city but Home should be 
joermitted to have them, the object being to prevent 
the wanton dissipation of vast sums of money and to 

^ He has reference to the Circensican games in Rome. 



ol άνθρωτΓΟί κακώς βκμαίνωνται, καΐ το μΑ^ιστον, 
IV οί στρατβνομβί'Οί το?9 άρκττοι^ί ίττττοί? άφθο- 

8 νω<; 'χ^ρ?}σθαί βγ^ωσι. τοΰτο μβν Εη Sia ταυτ 
άττα^ορεύω τταντάττασι μηΒαμόθο άΧλοθί ττΧην 
ενταύθα yiyveaOai, τα δε 8η Χοιττα βμβτρίασα, 'ίν 
ενΒαττάνονς τά? άττοΧαύσεί^; καΐ των θεωρημάτων 
καΐ των ακουσμάτων ώ? έκαστοι ττοίονμενοί και 
σωφρονεστερον καΐ άστασιαστοτερον Ειά^ωσι. 

9 " Μτ/τε δε νομίσματα η κα\ σταθμά η μέτρα ι8ία 
τις αυτών εγετω, ά\\α τοΙ<ζ ημέτεροι^ και εκείνοι 
ττάντες 'χ^ρησθωσαν μήτε ητρεσβείαν τίνα ττρος 
σε, ττΧην εΐ ττρα^μά τι δίαγζ/ώσ-εω? ε'χ^ομενον εϊη, 
ττεμττετωσαν, άλλα τω τε άργοντί σφων 8η\ου- 
τωσαν οσα βούΧονται, καΐ 8ι εκείνου ^ σοι " τά? 
αξιώσεις, όσας αν Βοκιμάστ}, ττροσφερετωσαν. 

10 οΰτω yap οΰτ άναΧώσουσί τι οΰτ αίσχ^ρώς Sia- 
ττράξονται, αλλ' ακεραίους τάς αποκρίσεις άνευ 
Βαττάνης η και ττρα^ματείας τίνος Χή-^^ονται. 

31 " ΚαΙ μεντοι καΐ ταλλα ώδ' αν μοι Βοκεΐς ^ 
άριστα Βιατάξαι, αν ττρώτον μεν τάς ττρεσβείας 
τάς τε τταρά τών ττοΧεμιων καϊ τάς τταρά τών 
ενσττόνΒων καϊ βασιΧεων και 8ήμων άφικνουμενας 
ες το συνέΒριον ε'σάγτ;? (τά τε yap άλλα και 
σεμνον καϊ a^ioXoyov εστί τ6 τε την βουΧην 
ττάντων κυρίαν 8οκεΐν είναι, καϊ το ποΧΧούς τους 

^ ΐκ^Ίνου Μ, €KeiiOus V. '~ σοι Λ^, σου Μ. 

^ SoKUs Bk., δοκηΐΒ νλΐ. 



keep the populnce froin becoming• deploriil)ly crazed b.c. 2'j 
over sucli a s})ort, and, above all, to give those who 
are serving in the army an abundant supply of the 
best horses. It is for these reasons, therefore, that I 
would altogether forbid the holding of such races 
anywhere else than here in Rome ; as to the other 
games, I have proj)osed to keep them within bounds, 
in order that each comnuuiity, by j)utting upon an 
inexpensive basis its entertainments for both eye and 
ear, n)ay live with greater moderation and less 
factious strife. 

" None of the cities should be allowed to have its 
own separate coinage or system of Aveights and 
measures; they should all be required to use ours. 
They should send no embassy to you, unless its busi- 
ness is one that involves a judicial decision ; they 
should rather make what representations they will to 
their governor and through him bring to your attention 
such of their petitions as he shall approve. In this way 
they will be spared expense and be prevented from 
resorting to crooked practices to gain their object; 
and the answers they receive will be uncontaminated 
by their agents and will involve no expense or red 

^' Moreover (to pass to other matters), it seems to 
me that you would be adopting the best arrangement 
if you should, in the first j)lace, introduce before the 
senate the embassies which come from the enemy 
and from those under treaty with us, Avhether kings 
or democracies ; for, among other considerations, it 
is both awe-inspiring and calculated to arouse com- 
ment for tile impression to prevail that the senate 
lias full autiiority in all matters and for all men to be 
fully aware that those envoys who are unfair in their 



άντίτταΧονζ τοις ά^νωμ^ονουσυν αυτών φαινεσθαι), 

2 €7Γ€ΐτα δέ άρ ττάντα τα νομοθβτούμβνα δί αυτών 
TTOifi, καΐ μηΒβν το τταράτταν άΧλο επί, ττάντας 
ομοίως φέρτ) ττΧην τών εκείνης Βο'γμάτων ούτω 
yap τό τ€ αξίωμα το της αρχής μάΧλον αν 
βββαιοΐτο, καΐ τα δικαιώματα τακ τών νόμων κα 
άναμφίΧο'γα καΐ Βοά^ηΧα ττάσιν άμα yiyvoLTo} 

3 τρίτον, αν τους re βουΧβυτάς τους εκ της yεpoυ- 
σιας καΐ τους τταΐΒας τάς re yυvalκaς αύτο)ν, αν 
ΐΓοτε Τίνα αΐτίαν βαρυτεραν, ώστε τον άΧόντα 
σφών άτιμίαν ή φυyηv ή καΐ θάνατον οφΧεΐν, 
Χάβωσυν, υπό τε τό βουΧευτηριον ύτταγ??? μη^εν 

4 7Γpoκaτayvoύς, καΐ εκείνω ιτα,σαν την ττερί αυτών 
Βία^Ιηίφισιν άκεραιον ετητρεττης, \ν οΊ τε (ISlkovv- 
τ€9 τι εν ττάσι τοις ομοτίμοις iX€y'χoμ€VOl κοΧά- 
ζωνται χωρίς του σου φθόνου, και οι άΧΧοι ταϋθ^ 
όρώντες βεΧτίους yίyvωvτaL• φοβω του μη καΐ 
αύτοΙ εκΒημοσιευθήναι. 

5 *' ΚαΙ ταύτα μεντοι ττερϊ εκείνων τών αδικη- 
μάτων, ττερί ων αϊ τε νομοί κείνται καΐ αΐ κρίσεις 
αί κατ αυτούς yίyvovτaι, Xεyω. τό yap Οτι τις 
εΧοιΒόρησε σε ή καΐ έτερον τι άνεττιτήδειον είττε, 
μητ ακούσης ττοτε κaτηyopoΰvτός τίνος μήτε 

6 εττεξεΧθης. αίσχρόν μεν yap τό ττιστεύειν οτι 
τις μήτε τι άδικουντά σε καΐ εύεpyετoύvτa ττάντας 

^ yiyuoiTo St., yiyuoivro VM. 


dealings will have many to oppose them. In the b.c. 29 
second place, you would do well to have all your 
legislation enacted by the senate, and to enforce no 
measure Λvhatever u{)on all the people alike except 
the decrees of this body. In this way the dignity of 
the empire would be more securely established and 
the judgments rendered in accordance with the laws 
would instantly be free from all dispute or un- 
certainty in the eyes of all the peo})le. In the third 
place, it would be well in the case of the members of 
the senatorial order who are actually members of the 
senate,^ their children, and their wives, if ever they 
are charged with a serious offence for which the 
I)enalty on conviction would be disfranchisement, 
exile, or even death, that you should bring the 
matter before the senate without prejudgment against 
the accused, and should commit to that body the 
entire decision uninfluenced by your opinion. The 
[)urpose of this is, that the guilty, thus tried by a 
jury consisting solely of their peers, maybe punished 
without there being any resentment against you, and 
that the others, seeing this, may mend their ways 
through fear of being publicly pilloried themselves. 

" These suggestions have to do only with those 
offences regarding which laws have been established 
and judgments are rendered in accordance with these 
laws. For as to a charge that some one has vilified 
you or in some other way has used unseemly language 
regarding you, I would have you neither listen to 
the accuser nor follow up the accusation. For it is 
disgraceful for you to believe that any one has 
wantonly insulted you if you are indeed doing no 

^ Aa distinguished from those of the senatorial order Λνΐιο 
have not yet gained admission to the senate. 



7Γρο67Γη\άκίσ€, καΐ μοροί τούτο ττοίονσιν οι κακω<ζ 
άρ'χοντ€<;' βκ yap του συν€ί86το<; καί το ττίστυν 

7 των Χε^ομ,ίνων βίρήσθαι τεκμαίρονται' Becvov Be 
καΐ το γαΧετταίνβίν ετγΪ τοϊς τοιούτοις, α el μεν 
αληθή εϊη, κρείττόν εστί μη ττοιείν, εΐ Βε ψευΒή, 
μη ττροστΓΟίεΐσθαι, ώς ττοΧλοί <γε ήΒη Βία τούτον 
τΓοΧν ττΧειω κα\ 'χαλ.εττώτερα Χο^οιτοιεΙσθαι καθ^ 

8 εαυτών εττοιησαν. ττερί μεν οΰν των λόγω τί 
ΤΓροττηΧακίζειν αΐτίαζο μένων ταύτ iyoD φρονώ' 
κρειττω τε yap κα\ ύψη\6τερον ιτάση^ ύβρεως 
είναι σε χρή, καϊ μηΒ ες εννοιάν ττοτε μητ αύτον 
άφικνεΐσθαί μήτε τους αΧλους τΓpoάyείv οτί 
Βύναταί τις άσε\yάvaί τι ες σε, 'ίν ώς ττερΙ των 
θεών, οΰτω ^ καϊ ττερΙ σου φρονώσιν οτι σετττος 

9 el. αν Βε Βη τις εττιβουΧεύειν σοι αΐτίαν Χάβτ) 
(yivoiTO yap αν τι καϊ τοιούτον), αυτός μεν μηΒε 
ττερΙ εκείνου τι μήτε Βικάστ]ς μήτε 7ΓpoBιayvώς 
{άτοτΓον yap τον αύτον και KaTTjyopov καϊ Βικα- 
στην yίyvεσθaι), ύττο ^ Βε Βη την βουΧην αύτον 
ayaycuv άlτoXoyησaσθaί τε ττοίησον, καν εXεyχθfj, 
κοΧασον μετριάσας ώς οιόν τε εστί το τιμώρημα, 

10 ινα και ττιστευθη το άΒίκημα. χαΧεττώτατα yap 
οι ΊΓοΧΧοϊ Ίτείθονται οτι τις άοττΧος ων εττιβου- 
Χευει τω ώττΧισμενω' και μόνως αν οΰτως αυτών 
τυχοις, εΐ μήτε ττρος opyrjv μητ άνηκεστως, εφ^ 
όσον yε καϊ ενΒεγεται, την τιμωρίαν αύτου ττοιοΐο. 
Xεyω Βε ταύτα χωρίς η εϊ τις στράτευμα τι έχων 

1 ο'ύτω Μ, om. V. 2 {,^^ Bg^ ^νΐ VM. 



wrong and are but conferring benefits upon all^ and b.c. 29 
it is only those who are ruh'ng badly who believe 
such thin<;s ; for they draw evidence from their 
own conscience of the credibility of the alleged 
slanders. And it is, furthermore, a dangerous thing 
even to show anger at such imputations (for if they 
are true, it were better not to be angry, and if they 
are false, it were better to pretend not to be angry), 
since many a man in times past has, by adopting 
this course, caused to be circulated against him- 
self scandals far more numerous and more difficult 
to bear. This, then, is my advice concerning those 
who are accused of cahnnniating you ; for you 
should be su})erior to any insult and too exalted to 
be reached by it, and you should never allow your- 
self even to imagine, or lead others to imagine, that 
it is possible for any one to treat you with contumely, 
since you desire that men shall think of you, as they 
do of the gods, that your sanctity is inviolable. If, 
however, any one is accused of })lotting against you 
(and such a thing might also happen), refrain, in his 
case also, from either giving judgment yourself or 
prejudging the charge (for it is absurd that the 
same man should be both accuser and judge), but 
bring him before the senate and let him plead his 
defence there, and, if he is convicted, punish him, 
moderating the sentence as far as possible, in order 
that belief in his guilt may be fostered. For most 
men are very reluctant to believe that an unarmed 
man is i)lotting against one who is armed ; and the 
only way you can win them to the belief is by 
showing, so far as possible, neither resentment nor 
the desire to exact the utmost when you inflict the 
penalty. But I make an exception to this rule in 



αντικρυς Ιττανασταιη' ov^e ^ap Βίκάζβσθαί rov 
τοιούτον ΤΓον 7Γροσήκ€Ρ, αλλ' ev ποΧεμίου fioipa 

32 <( ΤαΟτα τ€ ουν οΰτω, καΐ τάΧλα τα τιΧεΙστα 
καΐ pueyLaTa των τω Βημοσίω ττροσηκόντων, τύ) 
^γερουσία άνατίθβΓ τά τ€ yap κοινά κοινώς Βιοι- 
κείσθαι 8ei, καΐ βστι ττην ττάσιν άνθρώττοις €μ- 
φντον καΐ το 'χ^αίρειν β'φ' οϊς αν τταρα του κρείτ- 
τονος ώς καΐ ισότιμοι αντω οντβς άζιωθωσι^ και 
το ττάντα τα μβτα σφών τινι ^νωσθεντα και 
eiraiveiv ως οίκβΐα καΐ ayajrav ά>ς αυθαίρετα. 

2 €9 μεν ουν το βουΧευτηριον τα τοιαύτα εσφερε- 
σθαί φημι γ^ρήναι, καΐ ττερί μεν των άΧλων 
ττάντας ομοίως τους τταρόντας ^νώμην SiSovai, 
όταν Βε 8η κατη^ορηταί τις αυτών, μη ττάντας, 
ττΧην αν τις ή μηΒεττω βουΧεύτ] η καΐ εν τοις 

3 τεταμιευκοσιν ετι ων κρινηται. άτοττον yap τον 
μηΒεττω ΒεΒημαρχτ^κοτα η ηyopavoμηκ6τa ψήφον 
κατά τίνος των τοιούτων φερειν, ή νη Αία τούτων 
τίνα κατά των εστρατηγηκότων, ή καΐ εκείνων 
κατά των ύττατευκότων. αλλ' ούτοι μεν εττΐ 
ττάντας την τού τι άποφήνασθαι εξουσίαν εχ^ετω- 
σαν, οΐ δ αΧΧοι εττι τε τους ομοίους καΐ εττι τους 

33 " Αίκαζε 8ε καΐ αύτος ιΒία τά τε εφέσιμα καϊ 
τα άνατΓομτημα, οσα civ τταρά τε των μειζόνων 


the case of a commander of an army who openly n.c 2y 
revolts ; for of course it is fitting that such an one 
should not be tried at all^ but chastised as a public 

"These matters, then, should be referred by you 
to the senate, and also those others which are of the 
greatest importance to the state. For interests which 
are shared in common should be administered in 
common. Besides, it is doubtless a quality implanted 
by nature in all men that they take delight in any 
marks of esteem received from a superior which 
imply that they are his equals, and that they not 
only approve of all decisioiis made by another in 
consultation with themselves, as being their own 
decisions, but also submit to them as having been 
imposed by their own free choice. Therefore I say 
that such business ought to be brought before the 
senate. Furthermore, all the senators alike, that is, 
all who are present, should vote on all other matters ; 
but when one of their own number is accused, not 
all of them should do so, unless the one λυΙιο is on 
trial is not yet sitting as a senator or is still in the 
ranks of the ex-quaestors. For it is absurd that one 
who has not yet been a tribune or an aedile should 
cast a vote against men who have held those offices, 
or, worse yet, that any one of the latter should vote 
against men who have been praetors, or one of these 
last against men who have been consuls. Rather, let 
the ex-consuls alone have authority to render deci- 
sions in the case of all senators, and let the rest of the 
senators vote only in the cases of senators of a rank 
equal or inferior to their own. 

"But do you judge by yourself alone the cases which 
come to you on appeal or reference from the higher 




άρ'χονΎων και irapa των βτητρόττωΐ', του re 
ττοΧίάργ^ου και του υττοτιμητου και των βιτάρχ^ων 
του τε τον σίτον ετησκοττουντο^ κα\ του νυκτοφυ- 
Χακοϋντος, άφικνήταί' μητβ yap αύτόΒίκος μήτ 
αυτοτελής; ούτω τί? το τταράτταν βστω ωστς μη 

2 ουκ βφεσιμον άττ αυτού 8ίκην yiyveaOai. ταΰτά 
τ€ οΰν κρίνε} καΐ ττερί των ίττπεων των τε εκατον- 
τάρ'χ^ων των εκ του κατάΧό^ου και των Ιδιωτών 
των πρώτων, όταν ττερΙ θανατώσεως ή καΐ ατιμίας 
τινός ά<γωνίζωνταί. σοΙ yap ζη - τα τοιαύτα 
μονω ττροσκείσθω, κα\ μηΒεΙς αλΧος ττερΙ αυτών 
αύτος καθ' εαυτόν, Bt απερ εΐιτον, 8ίκαζετω. 

3 μετά yap Srj σου άεΐ μεν οΐ εντιμότατοι καΐ τών 
βουΧευτών καϊ τών ίττττεων, τ/δ»; δε καΐ έτεροι 
τίνες εκ τε τών ύττατευκότων καϊ εκ τών εστρα- 
τηyηκότωv άΧλοι άΧΧοτε Sιayιyvωσκετωσav, ίνα 
συ τε τους τρόπους αυτών άκριβεστερον εν τούτω 
προκαταμανθάνων ορθώς σφισιν εγτ^ς 'χρήσθαι, 
και εκείνοι πpoσυyyιyvόμεvoι^ τοις τε ηθεσι καϊ 
τοις βουΧεύμασί σου οΰτως ες τας τών εθνών 

4 ηyεμovίaς ε^ίωσι. τας μεντοι yvώμaς αυτών μη ^ 

φανερώς, οσαι yε και επισκέψεως ακριβεστέρας 

Βεονται, Βιαπυνθάνου, ίνα μη τοις προηκουσί ^ 

σφων εφεπόμενοι κατοκνώσι παρρησίάζεσθαι, 

αλλ* 69 yρaμμaτεla ypaφoμεvaς, οίς αύτος μόνος 

εντυχών, ύπερ του μηΒενΙ άΧΧφ εκΒιίΧους αύτάς 

yίyvεσθaι, εύθεως αύτας άπαΧείφεσθαι κεΧευε' 

οΰτω yap αν μάΧιστα την εκάστου yvώμηv Βιακρι- 

^ Kplue R. Steph., κρίναι V^J. 

" δί,Κ. Steph., 5erVM. 

^ ττροσυ^'γΐ'γνόμίνοι Xyl., ιτροσσυγγι^νόμ^νοι VM. 

* μ)) Μ, om. Λ^. 

^ προ-ηκονσί Rk., ιτροσ-ηκουσι Λ'Μ. 



oflficiiils and the })rociii'ator.s^ from the prefect of the b.c. 29 
city, the sub-censor^ and from the prefects in charge 
respectively of the grain-supply and the night-watch. ^ 
For none of these should have such absolute juris- 
diction and final authority that an appeal cannot 
be made from him. Do you, therefore, pass upon 
these cases and those which involve knights and 
centurions recruited from the levies and the foremost 
private citizens, when they are defendants on a charge 
punishable by death or disfranchisement. For such 
cases should be conmiitted to you alone, and for the 
reasons mentioned no one else should judge them 
solely upon his own responsibility. Indeed, in the 
rendering of decisions generally you should be brought 
into consultation, invariably by the senators and 
knights of highest rank and also, as occasion calls for 
one or another, by the other senators who are ex- 
consuls and ex-praetors, the object being twofold : 
that you on your part may first become more in- 
timately acquainted with their characters and may 
then be able to j)ut them to the right kind of 
employment, and that they, on their part, may first 
become familiar with your habits of mind and your 
plans before they go out to govern the provinces. 
Do not, however, ask for a public expression of their 
opinion on any matter that requires an unusually 
careful consideration, lest they hesitate to speak 
freely, since in giving their o})inions they follow 
their superiors in rank ; make them, rather, write 
their opinions on tablets. These you should read in 
private, that they may become known to no one else, 
and should then order the writing to be erased forth- 
with. For the best way for you to get at each man's 

^ Prueftctus annonae una praefeclus vig^ihun. 

Μ '2 


βωσ€ΐας, el avekeyKTOv αντην irapa τοϊς άΧλοίς 
ΤΓίστευσβιαν 'ύσεσθαι. 

5 ** ΚαΙ μεντοί και ττρος τα? ^ίκα<; τά<; re eVt- 
στοΧας καϊ τα 'ψηφίσματα των ττόΧβων τά? Τ€ 
των ΙΒιωτών ά^ίώσβίς, καϊ οσα άΧΧα ττ} Tr}«? 
αρ'χ^ης Βιοίκησει ττροσήκβι, avv€pyov<; τε τίνα<; καϊ 
υ7Γηρετα<; ifc των ίττττβων e^e* ραύν τε yap ούτως 
ώς €καστα ^υα'χωρησει, και συ οΰτ αυτο^νω- 

6 μονών σφαΧηστ) ούτ^ αυτουργών εκκαμ-τ}. τι^ν τε 
τταρρησίαν τταντί τω βουΧομενω καϊ οτιοΰν συμ- 
βουΧευσαί σοι μετά αδείας νέμε' αν τε yap 
άρεσθτϊς τοις Χεχθεΐσιν υιτ αύτου, ττοΧΧά ώφε- 
ΧησΎ)} αν τε καϊ μη ττεισθ^ς, ού^εν βΧαβήστ]. 

7 καϊ τους μεν τνχ^όντας της yvώμης καϊ ετταινει 
καϊ τίμα (τοΐς yap εκείνων εξευρήμασιν αύτος 
ευδοκιμήσεις) y τους δ' άμαρτόντας μητ άτιμάσ-ρς 
ΤΓοτε μητ αΐτιάστ)' την yap hiavoiav αυτών hel 
σκοττεΐν, αλλ' ου την ουκ εττιτυχιαν μεμφεσθαι. 

8 το δ' αύτο τούτο καϊ εττϊ των ττοΧεμικών φύΧαττε, 
καϊ μήτε εττϊ ^υστυχ^ία άκουσίω 'χ^αΧεττήνος τινί 
μήτε εττ ευτυχία φθονησης, ΐνα καΙ ττροθύμως 
και ηΒεως ττάντες ύττερ σου κινΒυνεύωσι, ττισ- 
τευοντες οτι ούτε ττταίσαντες τι κοΧασθησονται 

9 ούτε κατορθώσαντες εττ ιβουΧευθ ήσονται . ττοΧΧοΙ 
yoOv τον τταρα των το κράτος εχ^όντων φθονον 

^ ώφ€\'{}σ^ R. Steph., ωψ^λ-ήσ^ί VM, ωψίληθν,ση flor. 


precise opinion would he to give him the certainty n.r. 29 
tliat liis vote cannot be detected among the rest. 

'^ Moreover, for your judicial work and your cor- 
respondence, to help you attend to the decrees of 
the states and the petitions of private individuals, 
and for all other business which belongs to the ad- 
ministration of the empire, you must have men 
chosen from the knights to be your helpers and 
assistants. For all the details of administration will 
move along more easily in this way, and you will 
neither err through relying upon your own judg- 
ment nor become exhausted through relying upon 
your own efforts. Grant to every one Λνΐιο wishes 
to offer you advice, on any matter Avhatever, the 
right to speak freely and without fear of the con- 
sequences ; for if you are pleased with what he says 
you will be greatly benefited, and if you are not 
convinced it Avill do you no haiTn. Those Λvho win 
your favourable opinion for their suggestions you 
should both commend and honour, since you your- 
self will gain credit through their discoveries ; but 
do not treat with disrespect or criticise those who 
fail of your apj)roval, since it is their intentions that 
you should consider, and their lack of success 
should not call forth your censure. Guard against 
this same mistake in matters of Avarfare, also ; give 
wav neither to anffer against a man for an unin- 
tentional misfortune nor to jealousy for a piece of 
good fortune, that all may zealously and gladly 
incur danger for your sake, confident that if they 
meet with any reverse they will not be punished 
for it and that if they gain success they will not 
have snares laid for them. There have been many, 
at any rate, who through fear of jealousy on the 



φοβονμβνοί σφαληναί η μάΧλον η καταττράζαί 
7Γρο6ίΧοντο, κάκ τούτον το μβν άσφα\€ς αύτοΙ 
εσχον, το δε 8η ^ ζημίωμα εκείνοι^ ττροσβτρί- 
ψαντο. ώστε αντος το ττΧεΙον απ' αμφοτέρων 
ομοίως καϊ των γειρονων καί των άμεινόνων άττο- 
Χαύσων, μη^βττοτ εθεΧήσγς λόγω μεν αλλοί? ^pyfo 
δε σαυτω φθονησαι. 
34 ** Τ1άν0* οσα τους άρ'χομενους καΐ φρονεΐν καϊ 
ττράττειν βουΚει, καϊ λέγε καΐ ττοίει, ούτω 'yap 
αν μάΧλον τταώεύσειας αυτούς η ταΐς εκ των 
νομών τιμωριαις ^ Βειματώσειας' το μεν yap ζήΧον 
το δε φοβον εχεί, καϊ ραόν τι,ς μιμείται τα 
κρείττω, ορών ερ^ω ηι^νόμενα, ή φυΧάττεται τα 

2 γ^ειρω, άκουων Xoyca κεκωΧυμενα. και αύτος μεν 
ακριβώς ττάντα ττράττε, μη^εμίαν συyyvώμηv 
σεαυτω ^ νεμων, ώστε καϊ ευ ε18ώς οτι irapa- 
χρήμΛ ττάντες και baa αν εϊττ^ς καϊ όσα αν 
7Γ0ΐησ7]ς μαθησονται. καθάττερ yap εν ενι τινι 
της οΧης οικουμένης θεάτρω ζηστ], καϊ ού% οΙόν 
τε σοι εσται ούΒε βρα'χυτατον άμαρτόντι Βια- 

3 Χαθεΐν οΰτε yap κατά μόνας ττοτε άΧΧα καϊ 
μετά συχνών άει τι Ίτράζεις, καϊ ττοΧυττρα- 
yμovoΰσί ττως τα ύττο τών αρχόντων yιyvόμεva 
καϊ οι ΧοιτΓοΙ ττάντες ηΒιστα, ώστ αν άτταζ κατα- 
μάθωσί σε άΧΧα μεν αύτοΐς τrpoayopεύovτa άΧΧα 
δε αύτον ττοιοΰντα, ου τας άττειΧάς σου φοβηθή- 
σονται ^ άΧΧα τα εpya μιμησονται. 

4 '^Ύον δε hrj τών άΧΧων βίον εττισκοττει μεν, μη 
μεντοι καϊ χαΧεττώς εξέταζε, αλλ' οσα μεν αν ύφ' 

1 5η Μ, om. V flor. ^ τιμ(ϋρίαΐ5 flor., om. Λ'Μ. 
^ ααντω flor. Β, Ιαυτφ Λ^Μ flor. Α. 
^ (poβηθi)σovτaι \Μ, φοβ-ησονται flor. 



part of tliose in power liave chosen to accept defeat 
rather than acliieve success, and as a result have 
gained safety for themselves while inflicting the loss 
upon their rulers. Therefore, since you yourself 
stand to reap the major part of the fruits of both 
outcomes, the failures as well as the successes, you 
should never consent to become jealous, nominally 
of others, but really of yourself. 

" Whatever you wish your subjects to think and 
do, this you should always say and do yourself. In 
this way you will be educating them, rather than in- 
timidating them through the punishments prescribed 
by the laws. The former policy inspires zeal, the 
latter fear ; and one finds it easier to imitate that 
which is good when he sees it actually practised 
than to avoid that which is evil Avhen he hears it 
forbidden by mere words. Be scrupulous yourself 
in all your actions, showing no mercy to yourself, 
in the full assurance that all men will forthwith 
learn of whatever you say or do. For you \vill live 
as it Λvere in a theatre in which the spectators are 
the whole world ; and it will not be possible for you 
to escape detection if you make even the most 
trivial mistake. Indeed, you will never be alone, 
but always in the company of many when you do 
anything ; and since the remainder of mankind 
somehow take the keenest delight in prying into 
the conduct of their rulers, if once they ascertain 
that you are recommending to them one course but 
are yourself taking another, instead of fearing your 
threats they λνίΐΐ imitate your actions. 

"You should, of coarse, supervise the lives of your 
subjects, but do not scrutinise them with too much 
rigour. Sit in judgment upon all offences reported 



€Τ€ρων ηνων βσά^ηται, κρίνο.^ οσα V αν ίιττο 
μη8ενο<ί αΐτιάζηταί, μη^ε ττροσττοιον eiSevai, βζω 

5 των €9 το δημόσιον ττΧημμεΧονμβνων. ταύτα μβν 
yap της ττροσηκούσης έττιστροφής, καν μηΕεΙς 
ijKaXy, Tvy^aveLV οφείΧβΓ τα δε άΧΧα τα 
ί^ιωτοκα ισθι μβν, ίνα μη καΐ - σφαΧη^; ττοτβ 
άνβτητη^ειω τινί υπηρέτη ττρός τι -χρησάμενος, 

6 μη μεντοι καΐ i^eXey^^e. ττοΧΧα yap ι) φύσις καΐ 
ιταρα τον νόμον ττοΧΧούς άμαρτάναν e^ayei, οΊς 
αν μεν ακριβώς τις εττεξίτ), η τίνα η ούΒενα αν 
αυτών άτιμώρητον καταΧίττοι, αν δ' άνθροίττίνως 
το ετΓίεικες τω νενομισμενω τΓapaμιyvΰr\, τάγ^ αν 

7 καΧ σωφρονίσειεν αυτούς, ο μεν yap νόμος, 
καίτοι Ισ'χυρα τα κοΧάσματα άvayκaιως ττοιού- 
μενος, ου δύναται της φύσεως άε\ κρατείν τών δ' 
άνθρώττων τίνες Χανθάνειν μεν ^όζαντες η και 
μετρίως ιτως νουθετηθεντες άμείνους yiyvovTai, οι 
μεν αίσ'χυνόμενοι εXεy'χθηvaι οι δε αΙΒούμενοι 

8 ττάΧιν σφαΧηναι, φανερωθεντες δε καΐ άττερυθ ριά- 
σαντες η καΐ ττερα του μετρίου κοΧασθεντες τά τε 
νενομισμενα ττάντα συηγεουσι και καταττατούσι, 
καΐ μόναις ταΐς της φύσεως ορμαΐς 8ουΧεύουσι. 
κάκ τούτου ούτε το ττάντας αυτούς κοΧάζειν 
paSiov, ούτε το ττεριοράν φανερώς τ ίνας άσέΚτ^αί- 
νοντας εύττρεττες yίyvετaι. 

9 " Τα μεν 8η ούν αμαρτήματα τών άνθρώττων 
τούτον σοι τον τρόττον, ττΧην τών ττάνυ ανήκεστων. 

^ κρ7ν€ R. Stepli., κρίναι VM. 
- μη κάΙ Μ, κάΙ μη V, 



to you by others, hut act as if you were not even n.c•. 29 
aware of offences concerninf^ which no one lias made 
accusation — except in the case of trespasses against 
tlie public interest. These ought, of course, to re- 
ceive proper attention, even if no one files a charge ; 
but as to private shortcomings, Λvhile you should 
indeed have knowledge of them, in order that you 
may avoid making a mistake some day by employing 
an unsuitable j^erson as your agent in some matter, 
yet you should not go so far as to convict those who 
are guilty of them. For human nature often tempts 
men to commit many a violation of the law, and if 
you were to prosecute such offences rigorously, you 
Λvould leave unpunished few or none of the offenders; 
but if in a kindly spirit you mix reasonableness with 
the prescriptions of the law, you may succeed in 
bringing the offenders to their senses. The law, 
you know, though it of necessity makes its punish- 
ments severe, cannot always conquer nature. And 
so in the case of some men, if they think that their 
sins have not been discovered, or if they have been 
reproved but not unduly, they reform, either be- 
cause they feel disgraced at having been found out, 
or because their self-respect keeps them from falling 
again ; whereas, if they have been publicly ex})osed 
and have lost all sense of shame, or have been 
chastised unduly, they overturn and trample under 
foot all the conventions of the law and become 
Avholly slaves to the impulses of nature. Therefore 
it is neither easy to punish offenders in\'ariably in 
all cases nor is it seemly to alloAv them in particular 
cases to flaunt their wickedness openly. 

" Now this is the way I advise you to deal with 
men's shortcomings, with the exception of those 



μ.€τ α'χειριζεσθ ai τταραινω, τα δ' ορθω<^ ύττ' αυτών 
'γί'γνόμενα και iirrep την άξίαν των epyωv τιμάν 
οντω yap αν μαΧιστα ττοίησειας αύτου? των τ€ 
'χ^ειρονων άιτε^βσθαι, ττ) φίΧανθρωττια, και των 

10 βέλ,τίόνων βφίβσθαί, ττ) μβ^αΧο^ωρία- μη yap tol 
καταΒβίσης μήθ^ οτί ετηΧβίψβί σβ ιτοτε η γ^ρηματα 
τ) ταΧΧα οίς τους αηαθόν τι ττοωνντας αμξίψτ) 
{τΓοΧύ yap μάΧΧον βγωγε βΧάττονς αυτών τους ευ 
TL τταθεΐν άξιους οΐμαυ yεvησεσθaL, τοσαύτης σου 
κα\ yr}<; καΐ θαΧάττης άρ'χοντος), μηθ οτί τίνες 

11 εύερyετηθεvτες άχαρίστως τι ττράξονσιν ούΒεν 
yap οΰτω καΐ 8ουΧοΐ καΐ οίκειουταί τίνα, καν 
άΧΧότρίος καν εχ^θρος ών τύχ-η, ώς το μήτ άΒικεΐ- 
σθαι καΐ ττροσετί καΐ ευ ττάσ^χειν. 

35 " Προ? μεν ουν τους άΧΧους οΰτω σοι ττροσφε- 
ρεσθαι yvώμηv ΒίΒωμί' σαυτώ δε δ^ /^^^τε εξαΧΧόν 
TL μηθ ύττερηφανον μήτε τταρα τών άΧΧων μήτε 
Ίταρα της βουΧης η ε/)γω η και λόγω 8οθεν ττερι- 

2 ιδ?79. τοις μεν yap άΧΧοις κόσμον ή τταρα σου 
τιμή φέρει, σοΧ δ' αύτω μείζον μεν τών υτταργ^όν- 
των ούΒεν αν Βοθείη, ύττοΛίτία δ' αν κιβΒηΧίας 
τΓοΧΧή TrpoayivoLTO' καΐ yap tol τών μεν άΧΧων 
ούΒεΙς εκών τοιούτο τι τω κρατουντι Λίτηφίζεσθαι 
Βοκεΐ, ττάντα δε δ?; τις αύτα αύτος τταρ' εαυτού 
Χαμβάνων ου\ όσον ουκ ετταινον ισχύει, άΧΧα και 

3 yεXωτa ττροσοφΧισ κάνει. την τε ουν άΧΧην 
Χαμττρότητα σαυτώ ^ 8ιά τών άyaθώv εpyωv 
τταρασκεύαζε, καΐ εικόνας σου 'χρυσάς μεν ή καΐ 
άpyυpάς μηΒεττοτε επιτρεψης yεvεσθaι {ου yap 
μόνον ΒαττανηραΙ άΧΧά και ευεττιβούΧευτοι και 

* (Ταυτω R. Stepll., eotiT^ VM. 


persons who are utterly incorri<]jible ; and you should b.c. 29 
honour their good actions even beyond the merits of 
the deeds themselves. For you can best induce men 
to refrain from evil ways by kindness, and to desire 
better Avays by liberality. You need have no fear 
that you will ever lack either money or the other 
means of rewarding those who do good deeds. On 
the contrary, I fancy that those who will deserve 
your favours will prove far too few, seeing that you 
hold empire over so vast an extent of land and sea. 
Nor need you fear that any who have received your 
benefactions will ever act ungratefully ; for nothing 
so captivates and conciliates a man, be he foreigner 
or foe, as being not only the object of no Avrongs 
but, in addition, the recipient of kindness. 

" As regards your subjects, then, you should so 
conduct yourself, in my ojiinion. So far as you your- 
self are concerned, permit no exceptional or prodigal 
distinction to be given you, through word or deed, 
either by the senate or by any one else. For whereas 
the honour which you confer upon others lends 
glory to them, yet nothing can be given to you 
that is greater than what you already possess, and, 
besides, no little suspicion of insincerity Λvould 
attach to its giving. No subject, you see, is ever 
supposed to vote any such distinction to his ruler 
of his own free Λνϋΐ, and since all such honours as 
a ruler receives he must receive from himself, he 
not only wins no commendation for the honour but 
becomes a laughing-stock besides. You must there- 
fore depend ii})on your good deeds to provide for 
you any additional splendour. And you should 
never permit gold or silver images of yourself to be 
made, for they are not only costl}^ but also invite 



oXcyo^povioi elaiv), άλλα? ^e iv αύταΐς ταΖ? τώρ 
άνθ ρώττων ψνχαΐς και ακήρατους και αθανάτους 

4 ef evepyeatcov SημtoύpyGί. μη μβντοι μηΕβ ναόν 
7Γ0Τ6 7Γ€ριί^ΐ)<; σαντω ^βνομ^νον. μάτην yap 
τταμττΧηθη 'χ^ρηματα €<? τα τοιαύτα άναΧίσκεται, 
α KpeLTTov Ιστιν e? τα avayKala Εαττανάσθαί 
{ιτΧοντο'ζ yap ακριβής ού-χ^ ούτως εκ του ττολλά 
\αμβάν€ίν ως €Κ του μη ττολλά άναΧίσ κειν αθροί- 
ζεται), και ες εΰκΧβιαν ούΒεν άιτ αυτών irpoayi- 

5 yvGTai. άρετη μεν yap Ισοθεους ττοΧλούς ττοιεΐ, 
'χ^ειροτονητος δ' ού^εΙς ττώττοτε θεός εyεvετo, ώστε 
σοΙ μεν άyaθω τε οντι καΐ κα\ώς άρ'χρντι πάσα 
μεν yrj τεμενισμα εσται, ττάσαι 8ε ττόΧεις ναοί,^ 
ττάντες 8ε άνθ ρωττοι άyakμaτa (εν yap ταΐς yvo)- 

6 μαις αυτών άεΐ μετ^ εύΒοξίας ενιΒρυθηστ)), τους δ' 
αλΧως ττως τα κράτη Βιεττοντας ου μόνον ου 
σεμνύνβι τα τοιαύτα, καν εν άττάσαις ταΐς ττόΧεσιν 
εζαιρεθη, άΧλα καΐ ττροσΕιαβάΧλει, τρότταιά τε 
τίνα της κακίας αύτων και μνημεία της άΒικίας 
yιyvόμεva' οσω yap αν εττΐ ττΧεΐον άνταρκεστ), 
τοσούτω μαΧΧον καΐ ή κακοΒοζία αίιτων διαμένει. 

36 ωστ εϊττερ αθάνατος όντως εττιθυμεΐς yεvεσθaι, 
ταΰτά τε ούτω ττράττε, καΐ ττροσετι το μεν θείον 
ττάντη Ίτάντως αυτός τε σέβου κατά τα ττάτρια 
και τους άΧλους τιμάν ανάγκαζε, τους 8ε 8η ξενί- 
2 ζοντάς τι ττερί αύτο και μισεί καΐ κοΧαζε, μη 
μόνον των θέων ένεκα, ων ο " καταή) ρονησας ού8^ 

' ναοί ΛΓ, οιη. V. 2 ό supplied by St. 



destruction and last only a brief time ; but rather b.c. jy 
by your benefactions fasliion other images in the 
hearts of your people, images which will never 
tarnish or perish. Neither should 3OU ever permit 
the raising of a temple to you ; for the expenditure 
of vast sums of money on such objects is sheer 
waste. This money would better be used for neces- 
sary objects ; for wealth which is really wealth is 
gathered, not so much by getting largely, as by 
saving largely. Then, again, from temples comes 
no enhancement of one's glory. For it is virtue 
that raises many men to the level of gods, and no 
man ever became a god by popular vote. Hence, 
if you are upright as a man and honourable as a 
ruler, the whole earth will be your hallowed pre- 
cinct, all cities your tem})les, and all men your 
statues, since within their thoughts you will ever be 
enshrined and glorified. As for those, on the con- 
trary, who administer their realms in any other way, 
such honours not only do not lend holiness to them, 
even though shrines are set apart for them in all 
their cities, but even bring a greater reproach upon 
them, becoming, as it were, trophies of their base- 
ness and memorials of their injustice ; for the 
longer these temples last, the longer abides the 
memory of their infamy. Therefore, if you desire 
to become in very truth immortal, act as I advise ; 
and, furthermore, do you not only yourself worship 
the Divine Power everywhere and in every way in 
accordance with the traditions of our fathers, but 
compel all others to honour it. Those Λνΐιο attempt 
to distort our religion with strange rites you should 
abhor and punish, not merely for the sake of the 
gods (since if a man despises these he will not pay 



άΧλον αν τίνος ττροτιμησβιβν, αλλ' οτι και καινά 
τίνα Βαιμόνια οι τοιούτοι άντ€σφ€ροντ€<ζ ττολλού? 
ανατΓβίθουσιν άΧΧοτριονομβΐν, κάκ τούτον καΐ 
σννωμοσιαι και συστάσβις βταιρεΐαί τε ηίηνονται, 
OLTrep ήκιστα μοναρχία συμφερβι. μήτ οΰν άθεω 

3 TLvl μήτ€ yoητί συyχ^ωρησr)(; είναι, μαντική μεν 
jap αναγκαία εστί, καΐ ιτάντως τίΐ^ας καΐ Ιερότττας 
καΐ οιωνιστας άττοΒείξον, οϊ^ί οι βουΧόμενοί τι, 
κοινώσασθαι συνεσονταΐ' τους 8ε 8η μα^ευτας 
ττάνυ ουκ είναι ιτροσηκει. ττοΧλούς yap ττοΧλάκις 
οΐ τοιούτοι, τα μεν τίνα αληθή τα δε Βη ττΧείω 

4 ψευΒή Χε^οντες, νεοχ^μονν ετταίρουσι. το δ* αύτο 
τούτο καΐ των φιλοσοφείν ττροσιτοιου μίνων ουκ 
oXiyoi Βρώσΐ' Sib καΐ εκείνους φυΧάσσεσθαί σοι 
τταραινώ. μη yap οτι καΐ ^Αρείου καΐ \\θηνο- 
Βώρου καΧών καΐ ayaOoiv άνΒρων ττεττειρασαι, 
Ίτίστευε καϊ τους άΧΧονς ττάντας τους φιλοσοφείν 
Xiy οντάς ομοίους αύτοΐς εΙναί' μνρία yap κακά 
καϊ Βήμονς καΐ ΙΒιώτας το ττρόσ'χΊΐμά τίνες τούτο 
ττροβαΧΧόμενοι 8ρώσι. 

37 ** Ττ} μεν οΰν yvώμr) καϊ τω μηΒενος ττΧειονος 
των υτταργ^όντων εττιθυμείν είρηνικώτατον είναι σε 
χρη, ταΐς 8ε τταρασκευαις ττοΧεμικώτατον, οττως 
μάλιστα μεν μήτε εθελήστ} μήτε εττιχειρήστ} τις 
άΒικήσαί σε, ει 8ε μη, ραΒίως και τταραχρήμα 
2 κολασθτ). καϊ εττειΒή yε avayKalov εστί καϊ 8ιά 
ταύτα καϊ 8ιά ταλΧα καϊ ώτακουστεΐν τινας καϊ 
ΒιοτΓτενειν ττάντα τα ττ} ηyεμovιa σου προσήκοντα, 
Ίνα μηΒεν των φυλακής τίνος καϊ εττανορθώσεως 



lionour to any other beiii^), but because such men, b.c •-"> 
by bringing in new divinities in place of the old, 
persuade many to adopt foreign practices, from which 
spring up conspiracies, factions, and cabals, Avhich 
are far from profitable to a monarchy. Do not, 
therefore, ])ermit anybody to be an atheist or a 
sorcerer. Soothsaying, to be sure, is a necessary 
art, and you should by all means ap})oint some 
men to be diviners and augurs, to whom those ΛνίΙΙ 
resort who wish to consult them on any matter ; 
but there ought to be no Λvorkers in magic at all. 
For such men, by speaking the truth sometimes, 
but generally falsehood, often encourage a great 
many to attempt revolutions. The same thing is 
done also by many who pretend to be philosophers ; 
hence I advise you to be on your guard against them, 
too. Do not, because you have had experience ot 
good and honourable men like Areius and Atheno- 
dorus,^ believe that all the rest who claim to be 
philosophers are like them ; for infinite harm, both 
to connnunities and to individuals, is worked by cer- 
tain men who but use this profession as a screen. 

" Now you should be wholly inclined to peace, so 
far as your purpose is concerned and your desire for 
nothing more than you now possess, but as regards 
your military preparations you should be distinctly 
warlike, in order that, if possible, no one may either 
wish or attempt to wrong you, but if he should, that 
he may be punished easily and instimtly. And inas- 
much as it is necessary, for these and other reasons, 
that there shall be persons Λνΐιο arc to keep eyes and 
ears open to anything which affects your imperial 
position, in order that you may not be unaware of 

^ For Areius see li. 16, 4 ; for Athenodorus, hi. 4.?, 2. 


Ββομβνων ayvofjf;, μ€μν7)σο otl ου γ^μη ττάσιν 
άττΧώς τοϊ<; Χβ'γομβνοι^; νττ αυτών τΓίστζυβιν, αλλ 

3 ακριβώς αύτα ^ιασκοττεΐν. συχ^νοί yap, οι μ€Ρ 
μισουρτβς ηνας, οι δ' Επιθυμούντες ών βχ^ουσιν, 
αΧλοί 'χ^αρίζόμενοί τισιν, αΧλοί γ^ρήματα αίτή- 
σαντβς τι,νας καΐ μη Χαβόντες, εττηρεάζουσιν 
αυτούς ως νεωτερίζοντας ή καΧ άΧΧο τι άνετητη- 
8ειον κατά του αύταρχοΰντος ή φρονονντας ή 

4 Χέζοντας, οΰκουν ευθύς ούΒε ραΒυως ιτροσε'χείν 
αύτοίς Set, άΧΧα καΐ ττάνυ πάντα ΒιεΧεγχ^ειν 
βραΒύνας μεν yap εν τω ττιστεύσαί τίνα ού8εν 
μεya ά8ικηθ7]σΎ], σττεύσας 8ε τα^' αν τι και 
εξαμάρτοις, ο μη Βννηθήστ} άνακεσασθαι. 

5 " Ύιμάρ μεν οΰν σε τους άyaθoύς καΐ τών 
άττεΧευθερων καΐ τών άΧΧων τών συνόντων σοι 
και 8εί και avayKalov εστί' και yap κόσμον καΐ 
άσφάΧειάν σοι μεyάXηv τούτο οίσει. μη μεντοι 
κάϊ VTripoyKov τι ισγυετωσαν, άΧΧα ακριβώς 
πάντες σωφρονείτωσαν, ώστε σε μη8εν ύπ' αυτών 

6 ΒιαβΧηθηναί' πάντα yap οσα αν η καΧώς ή 
κακώς πράξωσι, σοΙ προστεθήσεται, καΐ τοιούτος 
αύτος νφ^ απάντων νομισθηστ) οποία αν εκεινοις 
ποιεΐν επιτρεπτις. 

''Ύούς μεν 8η ονν δυνατούς μη πΧεονεκτεΙν τίνα 
μη8ε αύ συκοφαντεΐσθαι εα• μη8ε έστω τινί αυτών 

lUJOK υ I 

any situation that rc'(jiiir('.s measures of precaution or u.c. 29 
correction, you should have such agents, but re- 
member that you should not believe absolutely 
everything they say, but should carefully inves- 
tigate their reports. For there are many who, 
from various motives, — either because they hate 
others or covet their possessions, or because they 
want to do a favour to some one else, or because 
they have demanded money from some one and have 
not obtained it, — bring false charges against the 
persons concerned, pretending that they are en- 
gaged in sedition or are planning or saying some- 
thing prejudicial to the ruler. Therefore one ought 
not to give heed to them forthwith or readily, but 
rather should prove everything they say. For if 
you are too slow in placing your trust in one of 
these men, you will suffer no great harm, but if 
you are too hasty you may possibly make a mistake 
>viiich you cannot repair. 

" Now it is both right and necessary for you to 
honour the good who are associated with you, both 
your freedmen and the rest ; for this course will 
bring you credit and a large measure of security. 
They should not, however, acquire excessive power, 
but should all be rigorously kept under discipline, 
so that you shall never be brought into discredit by 
them. For everything they do, whether good or ill, 
will be set to your account, and you will yourself be 
considered by the world to be of a character akin to 
the conduct which you do not object to in them. 

"As regards the men of power and influence, then, 
you should not permit them to overreach others, 
nor yet, on the other hand, to be blackmailed by 
others ; neither let the mere fact that a man 


vol.. VI. Ν 


avTO^ Tovro €yκ\ημa, on δύναται, καν μηΒβν 

7 άμαρτάντ). τοΐ<^ Be 8η ττοΧλοΐ^ άμννβ μ€ν Ιο-χν- 
ρώς αδικούμενοι^, μη ττρόσεχβ he ρα^ίως αΐτιω- 
μένοις, αλλ' αύτα τα epya καθ' εαντα εξέταζε, 
μήτε ες το ιτροεγον ττάν ύττοπτεύων μήτε τω 

8 καταΒεεστερω τταντί ττιστενων. καΐ το υ? μεν 
εργαζομένους 'χ^ρησιμόν τε tl τε'χνωμενους τίμα, 
τους δ άρΎοΰντας η καΐ φΧαυρόν τι 7Γpayμaτευo- 
μένους μίσει, ϊνα των μεν hia τας ώφεΧίας ορι^νώ- 
μενοι, των 8ε Sia τας ζημίας άττεχόμενοι, ττρός τε 
τα οικεία άμείνους καΐ ττρος τα κοινά συμφορω- 
τεροί σοι ^ί^νωνται. 

9 " Καλοί^ μεν ονν εστί καΐ το τα των ι8ιωτών 
άμφισβητηματα ώς ελάχιστα ττοίουντα τ ας 8ια- 
Χύσεις αυτών ώς τά'χ^ιστα καθιστάναι, κάΧλιστον 
8ε το τας τών 8ήμων όρμας κοΧούειν, καν επευχ^ο- 
μενοί τίνα τη τε ^ρχη καΐ τη σωτήρια τη τε τύχη 
σου εκβιάζεσθαί τ ίνας ή ττράζαί τι η άναΧώσαι 

10 τταρα 8ύναμιν εττιχειρώσι, μη επιτρεττειν, τάς τε 
έχθρας αυτών και τας φιλοτιμίας τας ττρος αλλ?;- 
Χους τταντάττασιν εκκότττειν, και μήτε εττωνυμίας 
τ ίνας κενας μητ^ άΧλο τι εξ ου Βιενεχθήσονταί 
τισιν εφιεναι σφίσι ττοιεΐσθαι. ραΒίως 8ε σοι 
ττάντες καϊ ες ταύτα και ες τα άΧλα καΐ ι8ία καΐ 


κοινή ττειθαρχήσουσιν, αν μη^εν τταρα ταύτα 

^ avrh Μ, οιη. Υ. 


possesses power l)e imputed to liim as a eriine even u.c. 2'j 
though he eoiniiiit no off'enee. But in the ease of 
the masses, viridieate them vigorously when they are 
wronged and be not too ready to give heed to accu- 
sations against them ; but make the accused persons' 
actions alone and by themselves the object of your 
scrutiny, neither harbouring suspicion against what- 
ever is superior nor placing your trust in whatever is 
inferior. Honour those who are diligent and those 
who by their skill devise something useful, but ab- 
hor those who are slothful or who busy themselves 
with trivial things, in order that your subjects, 
cleaving to the former by reason of your emolu- 
ments and holding themselves aloof from the latter 
by reason of your punishments, may become, as you 
desire, more comj)etent in respect to their private 
affairs and more serviceable in respect to the in- 
terests of the state. 

" It is well to make the number of disputes on the 
part of private citizens as few as possible and to 
render as expeditious as possible their settlement ; 
but it is most important to restrain the rash enter- 
prises of connnunities, and if they are attempting to 
coerce others or to go beyond their capacity or 
means in any undertaking or expenditure, to forbid 
it, even though in their petitions they invoke 
blessings upon the em})ire and pray for your >velfare 
and good fortune. It is important also to eradicate 
their mutual enmities and rivalries, and not to 
permit them to assume empty titles or to do any- 
thing else that Avill bring them into strife with 
others. And all will readily yield obedience to you, 
both individuals and connnunities, in this and in every 
other matter, provided that you make no exceptions 


Ν 2 


μηΒβτΓΟΤβ συ^^^ωρηστ)^ tlvL' ^ ?'/ '^/ap άνωμ,αΧία καΐ 
11 τα καλώς ιτεττη^ότα Βίάλύβί. και hia τοντ ούδ* 
αΐτείν η ap^y]v, ο ye μη 8ώσ€ί<;, βττίτρβτΓβιν σφίσιν 
οφ€ν\€ί<ζ, άλλα καΐ αύτο τούτο ττρώτον Ισχ^νρώς 
φυΚάττείν σφα? άνα^κάζευν, το μη^εν αζιουν των 
38 ** Ύαντα μεν ττερί εκείνων \εyω, καθ" αττάντων 
Βε σοι συμβουλεύω μητ άττογ^ρησασθαί ττοτε ττ} 
εζουσια, μητ οίηθήναί μείωσίν τίνα αυτής είναι αν 
μη ττάντα άτταζαττΧώς όσα Βύνασαι κάϊ ττοιησης- 
αλλ όσω μαΧλον ττάνθ Όσα αν βου\ηθτ]ς καϊ 
Βυνηστ) Ίτραξαι, τόσω μάΧλον ιτροΘυμού ττάνθ' 

2 οσα ττροσηκει βούΧεσθαι. καϊ αεί ye αύτος τταρα 
σαυτω εξέταζε, εϊτε ορθώς τι ποιβΐς εϊτε καϊ 
μη, TL τε ττράττοντά σε φιλησουσί τίνες καϊ 
τι μη. Ινα τα μεν ττοιγς αυτών τα δε εκκΧίντις. 
μη yap Βη ήyησr) ^ Βεόντως τι τταρα τούτο ττράτ- 
τειν Βόξειν, αν μηΒενος αΐτιω μενού σε ακουστές' 
μηΒ άναμείνης ούτω τίνα εκφρονήσαί ττοτε ώστε 

3 σοι φανερώς τι εξονεώίσαι. τούτο μεν yap ού- 
ΒεΙς αν ττοιήσειεν, ουδ' εΐ σφοΒρα άΒίκηθειη' τταν 
yap τουναντίον καϊ ετταινεΐν ττοΧλοΙ εν ye τω 
φανερω τους άΒικοϋντάς σφας avayκάζovτaι, 
άvτayωvιζ6μevoι μη 8οκεΐν ορ^ίζεσθαι. τον δ 
άρχοντα χρη μη εξ ών \έyoυσι τίνες τεκμαιρε- 
σθαι την Βιάνοιαν αυτών, αλλ εξ ών φρονεΐν 
αυτούς εικός εστί. 

39 "Ύαΰτά σε καϊ τα τοιαύτα βούΧομαι ττράττειν 

^ τιν R. Steph., η VM. ^ δ?/ i)V)(^V ^^' Sivyi](^Vi ^ • 



whatever to this rule as a concession to anyl)ocly ; b.c. 29 
for the uneven application of laws nullifies even 
those which are well established. Consequently 
you ought not to allow your subjects even to ask 
you, in the first place, for what you are not going 
to give them, but should compel them strenuously 
to avoid at the outset this very practice of peti- 
tioning for what is prohibited. 

" So much for these things. And I counsel you 
never to make full use of your power against your 
subjects as a body, nor to consider it any curtailment 
of your power if you do not actually put into effect 
all the measures you are in a j)osition to enforce ; 
but the greater your ability to do all you desire, the 
more eager you should be to desire in all things 
only what it is fitting you should desire. Always 
(juestion your own heart in private whether it is 
right or not to do a given thing, and Λvhat you 
should do or refrain from doing to cause men to 
love you, with the purpose of doing the one and 
avoiding the other. For do not imagine that men 
will think you are doing your duty if only you hear 
no word of censure passed upon you ; neither must 
you expect that any man Λνϋΐ so abandon his senses 
as to reproach you openly for anything you do. No 
one will do this, no matter how flagrantly he has 
been Avronged ; on the contrary, many are com- 
pelled even to commend their oppressors in public, 
though they must struggle to keep from showing 
their resentment. But the ruler must get at the 
disposition of his subjects, not by what they say, 
but by what they in all likelihood think. 

"These are the things I would have you do — these 
and others of like nature ; for there are many which 



TToWa yap και τταραΧευττω hia το μη οΙόν re elvai 
ττάντα αυτά καθάτταζ συΧλαβόντα elirelv. €v δ* 
ουν iv κεφαΧαιω καΐ κατά των βίρημερων και 

2 κατά των Χοιττών φράσω. αν yap οσα αν βτερόν 
Τίνα άρζαντά σον ττοίβΐν €θ€Χηστ]<;, ταύτα αύτο<; 
αύτεττάγγελτο? ιτράσσ^ς, οΰτε τί άμαρτηστ) και 
ττάντα κατορθωσ€ί<ζ, κάκ τούτον και η^ιστα καΐ 

3 άκιν^ννοτατα βιώστ). ττω? μβν yap ούχ ώ? 
ττατβρα, ττω? δ' ούχ ώ? σωτήρα και Ίτροσοψονταί 
σβ άτταντε^ καΐ φιΧησονσίν, όταν σε όρωσι 
κόσμιον ενβίοτον ενττοΧεμον βιρηναΐον οντά, όταν 
μήθ* νβρίζ'ης τι μητβ τΓΧβονβκττ]^;, όταν €Κ τον 

4 ομοίου σφίσι ττροσφίρτ), καΐ μη αύτο? μεν 
ττΧουτη^; τους δ' άΧΧους apyvpoXoyfj^, μηΒ^ αυτός 
μεν τρνφας τους δ' άΧΧους ταΧαιττωρ^ς, μηΒ^ 
αύτος μεν άκοΧασταινης τους δ άΧΧους νουθεττ)ς, 
άΧΧ ες ττάντα Βη ττάντως όμοίοτροττώτατα αύτοίς 
ζης; ωστ αύτος τταρά σαυτω pAya φυΧακτηριον 
εν τω μηΒενα ττοτε άΒικήσαο ε'χων θάρσει, καΙ 
τηστευε μοι XiyovTi οτι ούτε μισηθήση ττοτε ούτε 

5 εττιβονΧενθηστ}. τούτου δε δ^ ούτως έχοντος 
ττασά σε avayKyj και η8εως βιωναί' τί μεν yap 
ηΒιον, τί δε εύΒαιμονεστερόν εση του ττάντων των 
εν άνθρωττοις ayaOoiv μετ αρετής άττοΧαύοντα 
κοΧ τοις άΧΧοις αντά ΒιΒόναι 8ύνασθαι; 

40 '* Ταύτα τε ονν καΐ τάΧΧα ττάνθ^ οσα εϊρηκα εν- 
νοησας ττείσθητί μοι, καΐ μη ττρόη την τύ-χην, ήτις 
σε εκ ττάντων εττεΧεξατο και ττροεστήσατο. ως 



I must pass over, sinco it is impossible to include b.c. 2'j 
them all in a single discussion. There is, however, 
one statement which will serve as a summary with 
respect both to wliat has been said and to what has 
been left unsaid : if you of your own accord do all that 
you would wish another to do if he ])ecame your 
ruler, you will err in nothing and succeed in every- 
thing, and in consequence you will find your life 
most happy and utterly free from danger. For how 
can men help regarding you with affection as father 
and saviour, wiien they see that you are orderly and 
uj)right in your life, successful in war though in- 
clined to peace ; when you refrain from insolence 
and greed ; when you meet them on a footing of 
ecpiality, do not grow rich yourself while levying 
tribute on them, do not live in luxury yourself 
while imj)osing hardships upon them, are not licen- 
tious yourself while rej)roving licentiousness in them, 
— when, instead of all this, your life is in every 
way and manner precisely like theirs } Therefore, 
since you have in your own hands a mighty means 
of protection, — that you never do Avrong to another, 
— be of good courage and believe me Λvhen I tell 
you that you will never become the object of hatred 
or of conspiracy. And since this is so, it follows of 
necessity tliat you will also lead a happy life ; for 
what condition is happier, what more blissful, than, 
possessing virtue, to enjoy all the blessings Λvhich 
men can know and to be able to bestow them upon 
others } 

" Think upon these things and upon all that I have 
told you, and be })ersuaded of me, and let not this 
fortune slip which has chosen you from all mankind 
and has set you up as their ruler. For, if you 



el ye το μ€ν ττρα^μα το τή^ μοναργ^ία^ ci^fj) το δ 
όνομα το τη(; βασ Ckeia^ ώς• κοΧ Ιττάρατον φοβτ}, 
τούτο μ€ρ μη 7Γροσ\άβΎ)<;, ττ} Se Srj του Καίσαρος 
2 ττροση^ορία χρώ/^ει^ο? αντάρ'χ€ί. el δ' ουν καΐ 
άΧλων τίνων €7ΓίΗ:\ησ€ων irpoaher], όώσουσι μίν 
σοι την του αύτοκράτορο<;, ώσττβρ καΐ τω ττατρί 
σου €Βωκαν, σ€βίοΰσι δε σε καΐ ^τάρα τινί ττροσ- 
prjffei, ώστ6 σε ιταν το της βaσL\eίaς epyov avev 
τον της ίττωνυμιας αυτής έττιφθόνου καριτουσθαυ. 
41 Μαικήνας μίν ταΰτα elircov βτταύσατο, ό δε δή 
Καίσαρ αμφότερους μεν σφας καΐ εττΐ τη ττοΧυνοία 
και ετΓΐ τη ττοΧυΧο'για τη τε τταρρησία ισγυρως 
εττηνεσε, τα δε δ^ του ^Ιαικηνου μάΧλον είΧετο. 
ου μεντοι κα\ ττάντα ευθύς ώσττερ ύττετεθειτο 
βττραξε, φοβηθείς μη καΐ σφαΧη τι, αθρόως 

2 μεταρρνθμισαι τους άνθρώιτους εθεΧήσας' άΧλά 
τα μεν τταραγ^ρήμα μετεκόσμησε τα δ' ύστερον, 
και τίνα και τοις μετά ταύτα αρ^ουσι ττοιήσαι 
κατ^Χίττεν ώς καΐ κατά καιρόν μάΧΧον εν τω 
γ^ρόνω ^ενησόμενα. καΐ αύτω καΐ ό 'Α'γρίττττας 
ττρος ττάντα, καιττερ την εναντίαν σφίσι ^νωμην 
δου?, προθυμότατα συνηρατο, ώσττερ αν ει καν 
εση^ητης αυτών εγεγόζ^εί. 

3 Ύαυτά τε ό Καίσαρ, καΐ ^ οσα άνω μοι του 
Χο^ου εϊρηται, εττρα^εν εν τω ετει εκείνω εν ω 
το Ίτεμτττον ύττάτευσε, καΐ την του αύτοκρά- 

^ 6 ΚαΊσαρ και R. Steph., καϊ δ Καίσαρ VM. 

^ Α reference to the title of " Augustus." The Greek 
verb σ^βίζ^ιν, here rendered by this long phrase for the sake 



prefer the monarcliy in f;ict but fear the title of n.c. 2!» 
^ king ' as being accursed, you have but to decline 
this title and still be sole ruler under the appel- 
lation of 'Caesar.' And if you require still other 
epithets, your people will give you that of ' hnpcrator ' 
as they gave it to your father ; and they will pay 
reverence to your august position ^ by still another 
term of address, so that you will enjoy fully the 
reality of the kingship without the odium Avhich 
attaches to the name of ' king.' " 

Maecenas thus brought his speech to an end. 
And Caesar heartily commended both him and 
Agripj)a for the wealth of their ideas and of their 
arguments and also for their frankness in expressing 
them ; but he preferred to adopt the advice of 
Maecenas. He did not, however, immediately put 
into effect all his suggestions, fearing to meet with 
failure at some point if he purposed to change the 
ways of all mankind at a stroke ; ])ut he introduced 
some reforms at the moment and some at a later 
time, leaving still others for those to effect who 
should subse(piently hold the principate, in the 
belief that as time j)assed a better opportunity would 
be found to })ut these last into operation. And 
Agrippa, also, although he had advised against these 
j)olicies, cooperated with Caesar most zealously in 
respect to all of them, just as if he had himself pro« 
j)osed them. 

These and all the rest that I have recorded earlier 

in this narrative were the acts of Caesar in the year 

in which he was consul for the fifth time ; and he 

of the word-play, is from the same root as 2€)8σστοί, the 
usual term for Augustus (cf. liii. 16, 8). Dio, however, regu- 
larly transliterates the Roman title, when he uses it ; but he 
generally refers to Augustus as Caesar. 



ropo^ €7ΓίκΧησίν εττεθβτο. λέγω he ου την eVl 
ΎαΙ<ζ νίκαι^ κατά το άργαΐον 8ί8ομ,6νην τισίν 
(βκβίνην yap 7Γθ\\άκί<^ μεν κα\ ττρότερον ττοΧλάκις 
8ε και ύστερον άιτ αυτών των ερ'^/ων εΧαβεν, 
4 ώστε και ατταζ καΐ εικοσάκι^; ^ όνομα αύτοκρα- 
το/909 σ'χείν) άΧλ,ά την ετεραν την το κράτο<ζ 
ΒιασημαΙνουσαν, ωσττερ τω τε ττατρι αυτού 
τω Καίσαρί καΐ τοΐ<; τταισΧ τοΐ<ζ τε iKyovoi^; ^ 
42 Και μετά ταύτα τιμητεύσας συν τω WypiTTTra 
άΧλα τε τίνα Βιώρθωσε καϊ την βουΧην εζητασε. 
ΤΓοΧλοϊ μεν yap ιττττής ττοΧΧοΙ 8ε καϊ ττεζοί τταρά 
την άξίαν εκ των εμφυΧίων ττοΧεμων εβυύΧευον, 
ώστε καϊ e? χίΧίου^ το ττΧηρωμα της yεpoυσίaς 

2 αυξηθηναι. τούτους ουν εκκρίναι βουΧηθεις αυτός 
μεν ούΒενα αυτών άττήΧειψε, πρότρεψα μένος δε 
σφας εκ του συνει86τος του τε yεvoυς και του 
βίου 8ι,καστας εαυτοΐς yεvεσθaL το μεν ττρώτον 
ττεντηκοντά ττου εττεισεν εθεΧοντάς εκστήναι του 
σννεΒρίου, εττειτα Βε καϊ άΧΧονς εκατόν καϊ τεσ- 

3 σαράκοντα μιμησασθαι σφας ηvάyκaσε. καϊ 
αυτών ητιμωσε μεν ούΒενα, τά h ονόματα τών 
Βευτερων εζεθηκε' τοις yap ττροτεροις, ότι μη 
^χρόνισαν άΧΧ ευθύς εττ ειθ αρχησ άν οι, άφηκε το 
6νεί8ισμα, ώστ αυτούς μη εκΒημοσιευθήναι. 
ούτοι μεν ουν ^ εκούσιοι 8ήθεν ΙΒιώτευσαν, 
}ζ.νιντον Βε Βη %τατίΧιον καϊ πάνυ άκοντα της 

^ άπαξ κσΧ (ϊκοσάκΐί Reim., ev ζΐκόσιν Λ"Μ. 

'^ eKyavois VM, iyy ovois Xiph. ^ ούν Μ, oni. V. 



assumed tlie title of imperator. I do not here refer 
to the title which had occasionally been bestowed, in 
accordance with the ancient custom, upon generals 
in recognition of their victories, — for he had re- 
ceived that many times before this and received it 
many times afterwards in honour merely of his 
achievements, so that he won the name of imperator 
twenty-one times, — but rather the title in its other 
use, which signifies the possession of the supreme 
power, in which sense it had been voted to his 
father Caesar and to the children and descendants of 

After this he became censor with Agrippa as his 
colleague, and in addition to other reforms Avhich he 
instituted, he purged the senate. For as a result of 
the civil wars a large number of knights and even of 
foot-soldiers were in the senate Λvithout justification 
in merit, so that the membership of that body had 
been swollen to a thousand. Now though it was 
his wish to remove these men, he did not erase any 
of their names himself, but urged them rather, on the 
strength of their own knoΛvledge of their families and 
their lives, to become their own judges ; he thus first 
persuaded some fifty of them to withdraw from the 
senate voluntarily, and then compelled one hundred 
and forty others to imitate their example. He dis- 
franciiised none of them, but posted the names of 
the second group only ; for he spared the members 
of the first grouj) the re})roach of the publication ot 
their names, because they had not delayed but had 
straightway obeyed liim. So all these men returned 
to private life of their own free will, so far as ap- 
pearances were concerned ; but Quintus Statilius 
was deposed, decidedly against his will, from the 



4 δημαρχίας, e? ην direheheiKTo, είρξβν. βτβρους re 
Tiva<; βουΧεύβιν βττοίησε, κα\ e? γε τους• ύττατβνκό- 
τας 8ύο άν8ρα<; εκ των βονΧενόντων, ΚΧούονιόν 
τ€ Τίνα καί Φονρνιον Ταίον^, eyKareXe^er, οτί 
ΤΓ poaTToBeSeiy μενοί ουκ ηΕυνηθησαν, άΧΧων τινών 
τα? άρ'χ^α^ί αυτών ττροκαταΧαβόντων, ύττατεΰσαί. 

5 το τε τών εύττατρι^ών ^ενοζ συνεττΧηθυσε, τή(ζ 
βουΧή<; οΐ 8ήθεν εττιτρεψάση^; τούτο ττοίήσαι, 
εττεώη το τε ττΧεΐστόν σφων άττωΧώΧει ^ (ούΒεν 
jap όντως ως το ^ενναΐον εν τοις εμφνΧίοίς ττοΧε- 
μους άναΧίσκεταί) καΐ ες την ττοίησιν τών 

6 πατρίων αναγκαίοι del είναι νομίζονται, ταύτα 
τε οΰν εττραζε, καΐ προσαττεΐττε ιτασι τοις βου- 
Χενουσι μη εκΒημεΐν εζω της ^ΙταΧίας, αν μη 
αυτός τινι κεΧεύση η καΐ εττιτρεψη. καΐ τοντο 
καΐ 8ενρο άεΐ φύΧάσσεταΐ' ττΧην yap οτι ες τε 
την Έ,ικεΧίαν κα\ ες την ΤαΧατίαν την ττερϊ 
^άρβωνα, ονΕαμόσε άΧΧοσε βονΧεντη άττοΒη- 

7 μησαι εζεστιν. εκεΐσε yap Sid τε το συζ^εγγυ? 
καΐ Sid το άοττΧον το τε είρηναΐον τών dvθpώ^τωv 
ΒεΒοται τοις yi τι κεκτημενοις αυτόθι κ&ι άνευ 
•παραιτήσεως, οσάκις αν εθεΧήσωσιν, αττιεναι. 

8 εττεώη τε ττοΧΧούς ετι και τών βονΧεντών καΐ 
τών αΧΧων τών τα του ^Αντωνίου σττονΒασάντων 
νττότΓτως ττρος αυτόν διακείμενους εώρα, και 
εφοβήθη μη νεοχμώσωσί τι, πάντα εφη τα 
ypdμμaτa τα εν τοις κιβωτίοις αύτον ευρεθέντα 

ατακεκαυκέναι. και ως άΧηθώς yε 8ιεφθάρκει 
τινά' τα yap 8η πΧείω και πάνυ ετηρει, ώστε μηΒ^ 
όκνήσαι ύστερον αύτοΐς γ^ρησασθαι. 

^ ά•7Γωλωλ€ί Dind., άτΓολώλεί VM. 




tribuncshi]), to wliich lie liad been appointed. And 
Caesar caused some other men to become senators, 
and he enrolled amon^• the ex-consuls two men 
of the senatorial class, a certain Gaius Cluvius 
and Gaius Furnius, because, after they had already 
been elected consuls, they had been unable to 
serve, since others had occupied their offices first. 
And at the same time he increased the number of 
patrician families, ostensibly with the senate's per- 
mission, inasmuch as the greater part of the patricians 
had })erished (indeed no class is so wasted in our 
civil Λvars as the nobility), and because the patricians 
are always regarded as indispensable for the per- 
})etuation of our traditional institutions. In addition 
to these measures he forbade all members of the 
senate to go outside of Italy, unless he himself 
should command or j)ermit them to do so. This 
restriction is still observed down to the present day ; 
for no senator is allowed to leave the country for 
the })urpose of visiting any |)lace except Sicily and 
Gallia Narbonensis. But in the case of these regions, 
since they are close at hand and the inhabitants are 
unarmed and peaceful, those who have any posses- 
sions there are conceded the right to re})air to them 
as often as they like without asking permission. And 
since he saw that many of the senators and others 
who had been j)artisans of Antony were still inclined 
to be suspicious of him, and was fearful lest they 
might set a revolution on foot, he announced that all 
the letters that had been found in Antony's strong 
boxes had been burned. And it is quite true that 
he had destroyed some of them, but he Avas very 
careful to keep the larger part, and afterwards lie 
did not scru])le to make use of them, either. 



43 Ύοντό T6 ουν οΰτω<^ ζττοιησβ και την K.ap^rjSova 
έτταττωκίσβν, οτι ο Λβττίδο? μβρο^ί η αυτής τ}ρη- 
μώκ€ΐ καΐ Sia τούτο τα hi/caia της άττοίκίας σφό)ν 
XeXvKevac ihoKeL. τον τε ^ Α.ντίο'χρν τον Κόμμα- 
'γηνον μβτετΓβμψατο, otl τίνα ττρβσβευτην υττο 
του άΒεΧφοΰ Βιαφόρου οι οντος σταΧεντα ες την 
νώμην εΒοΧοφόνησε, και ες τε το συνέδρων 
2 εση<γα>γε και καταψηφίσθεντα άττεκτεινε. κα\ 
την Καττρίαν τταρα των ΝεοττοΧιτών, ώνττερ το 
άρ'χαΐον ην, άντώοσει γ^ωρας ήΧΧάξατο. κείται 
8ε ου ττόρρω της κατά %υρρεντον ^ ηιτείρου, χρη- 
στον μεν ούΒεν, όνομα δε καΐ νυν ετι Βιά την του 
Ύίβερίου ενοίκησίν έχουσα. 

^ 'XvppiVT'bv Η. Steph., ffupeprhy VM. 



So much for these matters. Caesar also settled 
Carthage anew, because Lepidus had laid waste a 
part of it and by this act, it was held, had abrogated 
the rights of the earlier colonists. And he sent a 
summons to Antiochus of Commagene, because he 
had treacherously murdered an envoy who had been 
despatched to Rome by his brother, who was at 
variance with him. Caesar brought him before the 
senate, and when judgment had been passed against 
him, put him to death. He also obtained Capreae 
from the Neapolitans, to whom it originally belonged, 
giving other territory in exchange. It lies not far 
from the mainland in the region of Surrentum and is 
good for nothing, but is renowned even to the 
present day because Tiberius had a residence there. 



τάδε ΐΐχστιν eV τφ ττΐντηκοστφ τρίτφ των ΑίωΡ05 'Ρωμαϊκών 

α. Ώϊ δ του ΆττόΚλωνοε vaos eu τφ ΪΙαΚατίψ καθιίρώθη. 

β. 'η$ ΚαΊσαρ εδη^ιηγόρησει/ eV ττ) yepovaia is τη$ μοναρχίαί 

αψιστάμίΡΟί καΐ μ^τα τούτο τα ίθν-η trphs αυτήν 4ν(ίματο. 
y. Uepl τη$ καταστάσ^ω! των αρχόντων των is τα. (θνη 

δ. 'CLs ΚαΊσαρ AvyovaTos επβ/ίλήΟτ?. 

€, Ώβρϊ των ονομάτων ων οι αυτοκράτορ^$ Άαμβάνουσιν. 
ζ. '£ls τα σεπτά καθι^ρώθη. 

7). 'Cls ΚαΊσαρ'Άστυρσι καΐ Καντάβροι$ 4ττοΚ(μ•ησ(ν. 
θ. 'Cls Γαλατία inrh 'Ρωμαίων άρχβσθαι ^ρ|ατο. 
ι. 'Γί$ η στοά τ) του TloaeiSoovos κα\ Th βαλανβΊον του 'Aypirrirov 

κ. 'η$ Th Ώανθίΐον καθιίρώθη. 

λ. 'ris AvyouCTOS άφβίθη tijs avajK-qs του to7s νύμοιε ττβίθ€σθαι. 
μ. Ώ5 €7γ' Άραβίαν τ^ν ίύ^αίμονα στρατ^ία iyeveTo. 

Χρόνου ττληθοϊ ετη βξ, 4ν ols &ρχοντβ5 οΐ αριθμούμ^νοι οΤδβ 

ΚαΊσαρ Th ς-' „ 

Μ. Obi\pavLos Α. υΐ. Άγρίππο5 Th β' ^ 

Καίσαρ Th ζ' „ 

Μ. Ούίψάί/ί05 Λ. υΐ. 'AypLTnras Th y 

ΚαΊσαρ Aΰyoυστos Th t{ „ 

Τ. 2τατίλί05 Τ. υΐ^ Ύαυρο% rb β' ^'^' 

Aϋyoυστos Th θ' „ 

Μ, Ίούνιο$ Μ. υΐ. SiAavos 

Aϋyoυστos Th ι'^ " i 

Γ. Nωpβavhs Γ. υΐ, Γ. €77• Φλά /c/fos 

AuyouTTos Th ια' „ ^ 

Τν. KaKtrovpvios^ Τν. υΐ. Τν. 677• Γΐίσων^ 

Tore μ6ν ταυτ iyevero, τω Se βξή'ζ erec βκτον ό 
}ίαΐσαρ ηρζβ, zeal τά re άΧλα κατά το νομιζό- 

1 Th β' Xyl., τ^ y' VM. 2 Τ. υΐ supplied by Bs. 

"' Μ. 'loovLos 2ίλαν05 Aυyoυστυs Th ι' supplied b}" Χ3Ί. , Μ. υΐ. 
added by Bs. * ΰπ. supplied b}- Bs. 



The following is contained in the Fifty-third of Dio's 
Rome : — 
How the temple of Apollo on the Palatine was dedicated 

(chap. 1). 
How Caesar delivered a speech in the senate, as if he were 

retiring from the sole rulership, and afterwards assigned 

to that body its provinces (chaps. 2-12). 
About the appointment of the governors sent to the pro- 
vinces (chaps. 13-15). 
How Caesar was given the title of Augustus (chap. 16). 
About the names which the emperors receive (chaps. 17, 18). 
How the Saepta were dedicated (chap. 23). 
How Caesar fought against the Asturea and Cantabri 

(chap. 25). 
How (Jalatia began to be governed ])y Romans (chap. 26). 
How the Basilica of Neptune and the Baths of Agrippa were 

dedicated (chap. 27). 
How the l*antheon was dedicated (cliap. 27). 
How Augustus was freed from the obligation of obeying the 

laws (chap. 28). 
How an expedition was made against Arabia Felix (chap.29). 

Duration of time, six years, in which there were the 
magistrates (consuls) here enumerated : — 


28 Caesar (VI), M. Vipsanius L. F. Agrippa (IT). 

27 Caesar (VII), M. Vipsanius L. F. Agrippa (III). 

26 Caesar Augustus (VIII), T. Statilius T. F. Taurus (II). 

25 Augustus (IX), M. Junius M. F. Silanus. 

24 Augustus (X), C. Norbanus C. F. C. N. Flaccus. 

23 Augustus (XI), Cn. Calpurniiis Cn. F. Cn. N. Piso. 

These were the occurrences at that time. The b.c. 28 
followinnj year Caesar held oliice for the sixth time 
and conformed in all other respects to the usages 

^ Ka\troi>pvios Xyh, καλπούρνινο! VM. 
' niawv Dind., τηίσχν VM. 




μβνον άτΓΟ του ττάνν άργ^αιου εττοίησε, και του? 
φακ€\ονς των ράβδων τω W'ypiinra συνάργ^οντί 
οι κατά το έτηβάΧΧον τταρβΒωκβν, αυτός τε ταΐ<ζ 
ετβραις β'χρήσατο, καΐ ^ίάρξας τον ορκον κατά 

2 τα ττάτρία ετττ^γαγβ. καΐ el μεν καΐ αύθις ταΰτ 
ετΓοίησεν^ ουκ οϊΒα' τον yap WypLTTTrav ες ύττερ- 
βοΧην ετίμα' άμΛΧει την τε ά8ε\φώΡ]ν^ αύτω 
συνωκίσε, καΐ σκηνην, οττοτε συστρατεύοιντο, 
ομοίαν TTj εαυτού ιταρβίγε, το τε σύνθημα τταρ 

3 αμφοτέρων σφων εόιΒοτο. εν δ' ονν τω τότε 
τταρόντι τά τε αΧλα ωσττερ εϊθιστο εττραξε, καϊ 
τας άττο^ραφας εξετεΧεσε, καϊ εν αύταΐς ττρό- 
κριτος της γερουσίας εττεκΧηθη, ωσττερ εν ττ) 
άκρίβεΐ δημοκρατία ενενομιστο. το τε Άττολ- 
Χώνιον ^ το ^ εν τω ΤΙαΧατίω καϊ το τεμενισμα 
το ΊτερΧ αυτό, τάς τε άττοθηκας των βίβΧίων, 

4 εξετΓοίησε καϊ καθιέρωσε. καϊ την ττανψ/υρίν 
την εττΐ ΤΤ) νίκΎ) TJ] ττρος τω ^ Ακτίω γενομένη 
'ψηφισθεΐσαν τ/γαγβ μετά του ^ Α^ρίΐΓττου, καϊ 
εν αύτΎΐ την Ιτητο^ρομίαν Sia τε των τταίΖων 

5 καΐ 8ια των άντρων των ευγενών εττοίησε. καϊ 
αύτη μεν Sia ττέντε άεΐ ετών μέχρι του ^ iyl- 
yvετo, ταΐς τεσσαρσιν ιερωσύναις εκ ττεριτροττής 
μεΧουσα,^ Xεyω δε τους τε ττον τίφικας καϊ τους 
οίωνιστας τους τε ετττα καϊ τους ττεντεκαίΒεκα 
ανΒρας κ αΧου μένους' τότε δε καϊ yυμvικoς ay ων 

1 άδελψίδηι/ Μ (oSeA^iSV), a5eAi/)V V Xiph. Zon. 

^ Άπολλώνιον St., απολλώνιων Λ^Μ. ^ τ^ Bk., τό re VM. 

* /ue'xpi του v. Herw, , μ4χρΐ5 ου VM. 

^ μιλούσα R. Steph., μίλλουσα Λ^Μ. 



handed down from the earliest times, and, in par- 
ticular, he delivered to Agrippa, his colleague, the 
bundles of rods as it was incumbent upon him to do, 
while he himself used the other set,^ and on com- 
pleting his term of oHice he took the oath according 
to ancestral custom.'-^ Whether he ever did this 
again, I do not know, for he always i)aid exceptional 
honour to Agrippa ; thus he gave him his niece in 
marriage, and provided him with a tent similar to 
his own Λvhenever they were campaigning together, 
and the watchword was given out by both of them. 
At this particular time, now, besides attending to his 
other duties as usual, he completed the taking of 
the census, in connection with which his title was 
princcps senalus, as had been the practice when 
Rome was truly a republic. Moreover, he com- 
])leted and dedicated the temple of Apollo on the 
Palatine, the precinct surrounding it, and the 
libraries. He also celebrated in company Avith 
Agrippa the festival which had been voted in 
honour of the victory won at Actium ; and during 
this celebration he caused the boys and men of the 
nobility to take part in the Circensian games. This 
festival was held for a time every four years and was 
in charge of the four priesthoods in succession — 
I mean the pontifices, the augurs, and the septem- 
viri and quindecimviri, as they were called. On 
the present occasion, moreover, a gymnastic contest 

^ Augustus seems to have used twenty-four lictors until 
29 B.C., and thereafter twelve, first as consul (until 23), then 
as proconsul (until 19), and later on all occasions. Cf. liv. 10, 5. 

^ The customary oath taken by the consuls at the close of 
their term of oilice to the effect that they had done nothing 
contrary to the laws and had acted for the highest interests 
of the state. Cf. xxxvii. 38, 2, and xxxviii. 12, 3. 

ο 2 


σταδίου τίνο<; ev τω ^ Αρείω irehiw ξυΧίνον κατά- 
σκβνασθβντος εττοίηθη, όιτΧομχΐ'χία τε €κ των αΐ- 

6 γ^μαΧωτων e'yevero. και ταύτα και ^ eiri ΊτΧβίους 
ήμεραζ εττράχ^θη, ovSe SieXtTre καίτοι νοσήσαντος 
τον Ιίαισαρος, αλλά καΐ ως ο Άγρίττττα? καΐ το 
βκείνον μέρος άνειτΧηρου. 

2 Ό δ' ουν Καίσαρ ες τε τας θεωρίας εκ των 
ΙΒίων Ζηθεν άνηΧισκε, και εττει^η 'χ^ρημάτων τω 
Βημοσίω ε^εησεν, εΒανείσατό τίνα και εΒωκεν 
αυτω, ττρος τε την Βιοίκησίν σφων 8ύο κατ έτος 
εκ των εστ ρατη^ηκότων αίρεΐσθαι εκεΧευσε. καΐ 
τω ττΧηθεί τετραττΧάσιον τον σίτον ενειμε, βον- 

2 Χενταΐς τε τισι 'χ^ρηματα ε-χ^αρίσατο' ούτω yap 
8η τΓοΧΧοί σφων ττενητες εηεηονεσαν ώστε μηΚ 
ay ο ραν ο μη σαι τίνα Sia το μέγεθος των άναΧω- 
μάτων εθεΧήσαι, άΧΧά τά τε άΧΧα καΐ τα δικα- 
στήρια τα τη αγορανομία ττροσήκοντα τοις στρα- 
τη^οΐς, καθάττερ εϊθιστο, τα μεν μείζω τω 
άστννομω τα δε έτερα τω ζενοκω ττροσταγθήναι. 

3 ττρος δβ δ^ τούτοις τον άστυνόμον αύτος άττε- 
Βειξεν ο καΐ αύθις ττοΧΧάκις εποίησε. καΐ τάς 
ε^^ύας τάς ττρος το δημόσιον ττρο της ττρος τω 
^ Ακτίω μά^ης ^γενομενας, ττΧην των ττερί τά οικο- 
δομήματα, άτηίΧΧα^ε, τά τε παΧαιά συμβόΧαια 

4 των τω κοινω τι οφειΧοντων εκανσε. καΐ τα μεν 
ιερά τά Αιγύπτια ουκ εσεΒε^ατο εϊσω του ττωμη- 
ρίου, των 8ε 8η ναών ττρόνοιαν εττοιήσατο' τους 
μεν yap ύττ ΙΒιωτών τίνων yεyεvημεvovς τοις τε 
τταισίν αυτών καΐ τοις ε Ky όνους, εϊyε τίνες ττεριήσαν, 
εττισκευάσαι εκεΧενσε, τους δβ Χοιττούς αύτος άνε- 

^ κάϊ Μ, οηι. V. 


was held, a wooden stadium having been constructed 
in the Camj)us Martius, and there was a gladiatorial 
combat between captives. Tliese events continued 
for several days and were not interrupted even when 
Caesar fell ill ; but Agrippa went on with them even 
so, discharging Caesar's duties as well as his own. 

Now Caesar allowed it to be understood that he 
was spending his private means upon these festivals, 
and when money was needed for the public treasury, 
he borrowed some and supplied the want ; and for 
the management of the funds he ordered two 
annual magistrates to be chosen from among the 
ex-j)raetors. To the populace he distributed a 
quadruple allowance of grain and to some of the 
senators he made i)resents of money. For so many 
of them had become impoverished that none was 
willing to hold even the office of aedile because of 
the magnitude of the expenditures involved ; indeed, 
the functions which belonged to that office, and 
particularly the judicial functions, >vere assigned to 
the praetors, as had been the custom, the more im- 
portant to the praetor urbanus and the rest to the 
praetor peregrinus. In addition to all this, Caesar 
himself a})pointed the praetor urbanus, as, indeed, 
he often did subsequently. He cancelled all obli- 
gations which had been given to the public treasury 
previous to the battle of Actiuni, except those 
secured by buildings, and he burned the old notes 
of those who were indebted to the state. As for 
religious matters, he did not allow the Egyptian rites 
to be celebrated inside the pomerium, but made ])ro- 
vision for the temples ; those which had been built 
by private individuals he ordered their sons and 
descendants, if any survived, to repair, and the rest 



Γ) κτησατο. ου μβντοι καϊ την Βοξαν της οίκοΒομή- 
σεώς σφων βσφετβρυσατο, αΧλ* άττεόωκβν αύτοΖ? 
τοις κατασκβυάσασιν αυτούς, βττβί^ή τ€ ττολλά 
ττάνυ κατά τβ τας στάσβις καν τοις ττολβ/χο/?, 
άΧΧως τ€ καΐ iv τη του Αντωνίου του τ€ Αβττι^ου 
σνναρ'χία, καΐ άνομως καΐ αδίκως €Τ€τάχ^€ΐ, πάντα 
αύτα hi ενός irpoy ράμματος κατίΧυσβν^ ορον την 

6 €κτην αυτού ύτΓατβίαν ιτροθείς} βύ^οκιμων τ€ 
ουν €7γΙ τούτοις καΐ βτταινούμβνος ΙτΓβθύμησε καΐ 
€Τ6ραν τινά μβ'γαΧοψυ'χ^ίαν ΕιαΕβί^ασθαι, οττως 
καϊ €κ του τοιούτου μάΧΧον τιμηθείη, καΐ ιταρ 
€κ6ντων Βη των άνθρώττων την μοναρχ^ίαν βε- 
βαιώσασθαι του ^ μη Βοκεΐν άκοντας αυτούς βε- 

7 βίάσθαι. κάκ τούτου τους μάΧιστα εττιτηΒείους 
οί των βουΧευτών τταρασκευάσας ες τε την 
'γερουσίαν εσήΧθεν εβ^ομον ύττατεύων, καϊ άνε^νω 

3 " "Απιστα μεν ευ οίδ' οτι 86ξω τισίν ύμών,^ 
ω πατέρες, προηρΡ]σθαΐ' α yap αύτος έκαστος των 
άκουόντων ουκ αν εθεΧησειε ποιήσαι, ταυτ ούΒε 
έτερου Χε^οντος πιστεύειν βούΧεται, καΐ μάΧισθ* 
ΟΤΙ πάς π αντί τω ύπερεγ^οντι φθόνων ετοιμοτερον 

2 άπιστεΐ τοις υπέρ εαυτόν Χε^ομενοις. καϊ προσέτι 
καϊ ^ί^νώσκω τοΰθ\ οτι οι τά μη πίστα 8οκουντα 
είναι Xεyovτες ούχ^ όσον ου πείθουσί τινας, άΧΧα 
καϊ κόβαΧοι Βοκοϋσιν είναι, ου μην aXV ει μεν 
τι τοιούτον επηyyεXX6μηv ο μη παραχ^ρήμα ποιη- 
σειν εμεΧΧον, σφόΒρα αν άπώκνησα αύτο εκφήναι, 
μη καϊ αΐτίαν τίνα μογθηραν iii^Tt 'χ^άριτος Χάβω' 

^ προθ(ί$ Rk., npodOeis VM. 
- ToD R. Steph., rh VM. 
■' υμών Μ, ύμΊν V. 




he restored himself. He did not, however, appro- b.c. t 
priate to liimself the credit for their erection, but 
allowed it to go as before to the original builders. 
And inasmuch as he had put into effect very many 
illegal and unjust regulations during the factional 
strife and the wars, esjx'cially in the period of his 
joint rule with Antony and Lepidus, he abolished 
them all by a single decree, setting the end of his 
sixth consulship as the time for their expiration. 
When, now, he obtained approbation and praise for 
this act, he desired to exhibit another instance of 
magnanimity, that by such a policy he might be 
honoured all the more and might have his sovereignty 
voluntarily confirmed by the people, so as to avoid 
the appearance of having forced them against their 
will. Therefore, having first primed his most in- 
timate friends among the senators, he entered the 
senate in his seventh consulship and read the fol- b.c. 2 
lowing address : 

" 1 am sure that I shall seem to some of you, Con- 
script Fathers, to have made an incredible choice. 
For what each one of my hearers Λvould not Λvish 
to do himself, he does not like to believe, either, 
when another claims to have done it, especially as 
everyone is jealous of anybody Avho is superior to 
him and so is more prone to disbelieve any utter- 
ance that is above his own standard. Besides, I 
know this, that those who say what appears to be 
incredible not only fail to persuade others but also 
appear to be im})ostors. And indeed, if it Avere a 
question of my j)romising something that 1 was not 
intending to put into effect inmiediately, I should 
have been exceedingly loath to proclaim it, for fear 
of gaining, instead of gratitude, some grievous im- 



3 vvv δ' όττότε βύθυς και τημβρον ίττακοΧουθησβί το 
epyov αύτω, ιτάνυ θαρσούντως βγο) μη μόνον 
μη^βμίαν αίσχυνην -χ/Λβυδολογί,α? οφΧησειν, αλλά 

4 καΙ τταζ^τα? άνθρώττον; εύΒοξία νικησειν. 'ότι μεν 
yap πτάρεστί μοι Βια 7Γαντο<ζ υμών άργειν, καϊ 
αυτοί οράτε' το τβ yap στασίασαν ττάν ήτοι 
Βίκαιωθεν ττίτταυται ή καΐ εΧεηθβν σεσωφρόνι- 
σται,^ καϊ το σνναράμενον μοι ττ) τε άμοιβτ] των 
εύεpyεσιώv ωκειωταυ καϊ ττ} κοινωνία των ττρα- 

2 7Α''^'7'β^ϊ^ ωγυρωταί, ώστε μήτε εττιθυμήσαί τίνα 
νεωτέρων εpyωv, καν άρα tl καϊ τοίοΰτο yεvητaL, 
το yovv βοηθήσον ημίν ετοιμον ετι καϊ μάΧλον 
είναι, τα τε στρατιωτικά ακμάζει μοι και εύνοια 
και ρώμτ), καϊ 'χρήματα εστί καϊ σύμμαχ^οι, καϊ 
το μεyιστov, ούτω καϊ ύμεΐζ καϊ 6 Βήμος Βιά- 
κεισθε ττρός με ώστε καϊ ττάνυ αν ττροστατεΐσθαι - 

3 ύττ' εμον εθεΧήσαι. ου μεντοι και εττί ττΧεΐον 
υμάς εξηyήσoμaι, ού8ε ερεΐ τις ως εγώ τ?)? 
αύταργίας ένεκα ττάντα τα πpoκaτ€ιpyaσμεva 
εττραζα' αλλά άφιημι την άρ^χ^ην άττασαν καϊ 
άτΓοΕίΒωμι ύμΐν ττάντα άττΧώς, τα οττλα τους 
νόμους τα έθνη, ούχ οττως εκείνα οσα μοι ύμεϊς 

4 εττετρε^Ιτατε, αλλά καϊ οσα αύτος μετά ταυθ^ ύμΐν 
ττροσεκτησάμην, ΐνα καϊ εζ αυτών τών εpyωv 
καταμάθ7]τε τούθ , οτι ούδ' αττ' «/^χ^}? δυνα- 
στείας τίνος εττεθύμησα, αλλ' όντως τω τε ττατρί 
Βεινώς σφayεvτι τιμωρήσαι καϊ την ιτόΧιν εκ 
μεyά\ωv καϊ ετταΧΧήΧων κακών εζεΧεσθαι ήθε- 

5 Χησα. οφεΧον μεν yap μη8ε εττιστηναί ττοτε 
ούτω τοις ^τpάyμaσι' τούτ εστίν, οφεΧον μη 

^ iXerjOev σ^ατωφρόνισται Μ, eAerjeeVres σωφρόιισται V. 
^ ττροστατΐΊσθαι Μ, προστατ^Ίσθ^ V. 



putatioii. But as it is^ when the performance will b.c. 27 
follow the promise this very day, I feel quite con- 
fident, not only that I shall incur no reproach of 
falsehood, but that I shall surpass all mankind in 
good repute. You see for yourselves, of course, 
that it is in my j)ower to rule over you for life ; for 
every factious element has either been put down 
through the ap})lication of justice or brought to its 
senses by receiving mercy, while those who were on 
my side have been made devoted by my reciprocat- 
ing their friendly services and bound fast by having 
a share in the government. Therefore none of them 
desires a revolution, and if anything of the sort 
should take place, at least the party which will 
stand by me is even more ready than it was before. 
My military is in the finest condition as regards both 
loyalty and strength ; there is money and there are 
allies ; and, most important of all, you and the 
people are so disj30sed toward me that you would 
distinctly wish to have me at your head. HoAvever, 
1 shall lead you no longer, and no one will be able 
to say that it was to win absolute power that I did 
whatever has hitherto been done. Nay, I give up 
my office completely, and restore to you absolutely 
everything, — the army, the laws, and the provinces, 
— not only those Avhich you committed to me, but 
also those which I myself later acquired for you. 
Thus my very deeds also will })rove to you that even 
at the outset I desired no position of power, but in 
very truth wished to avenge my father, cruelly 
murdered, and to extricate the city from great evils 
that came on unceasingly. Indeed, I Avould that I 
had not gone so far as to assume charge of affairs 
as I did ; that is, 1 would that the city had not 



^εΒβησθαί μου ττρος τοίοΰτυ τί την ττοΧιν, αλλ,' 
ev βιρηντ) και ομόνοια, καθάττβρ irore καϊ οι 
Trarepe^; ημών, και ημάς τους ev rfjSe ττ} ηΧικία 

2 ατΓ* ^ρχή^ βεβίωκέναι. eVel δε βίμαρμβνη τί?, 
ώ? eoLKev, e? τούτο ττροή'^α^εν υμάς ώστε και 
βμου, καιττερ veov βτί τότε οντος, καϊ 'χ^ρείαν σγείν 
καϊ 7Γ€Ϊραν Χαββΐν, μ^χρι μεν ου ^ τα ττρά^ματα 
της Trap βμού επικουρίας έχρηζε, ιτάντα τε 
Ίτροθύμως καϊ ύττερ την ήΧικίαν εττοίησα και 
Ίτάντα ευτυχώς καϊ ύττερ την Εύναμιν κατειτραξα' 

3 καϊ ουκ εστίν ο τι των ττάντων άττετρεψε με 
κιν^υνεύουσιν ύμΐν εττικουρήσαι, ου ττόνος, ου 
φόβος, ουκ εχθρών άττειΧαί, ου φίΧων Βεήσεις, 
ου το ττΧήθος τών συνεστηκοτων, ούχ η άττόνοια 
των άντιτεταΎμένων, αλλ* εττεΒωκα άφβιΒώς ύμΐν 
εμαυτον ες ττάντα τα ττεριεστηκότα, και έπραξα 

4 καϊ επαθον άπερ ϊστε. εζ ων αύτος μεν ού^εν 
κεκερ^α^κα πΧην του την πατρίδα περιπεποιή- 
σθαι, ύμεΐς δε καϊ σώζεσθε καϊ σωφρονεΐτε. 
εττειΒη δε καΧώς ποιούσα η τύχη καϊ την είρηνην 
άΒοΧον καϊ την ομονοιαν άστασίαστον hi εμού 
ύμΐν άπο^ε^ωκεν, αποΧάβετε καϊ την εΧευθερίαν 
καϊ την Βημοκρατιαν, κομίσασθε καϊ τα οπΧα 
καϊ τα έθνη τα ύπηκοα, καϊ ποΧιτεύεσθε ώσπερ 

6 ** Καϊ /χ/;τε - θαυμάσητε ει ταύθ^ ούτω φρονώ, 
την τε άΧΧην επιείκειάν μου καϊ πραότητα καϊ 
απρα'^μοσύνην όρώντες, καϊ προσεκΧο^γιζόμενοι 
ΟΤΙ ούΒεν πώποτε ούθ^ ύπερο'^κον ούθ^ ύπερ τους 
ποΧΧούς, καίπερ ποΧΧα ποΧΧάκις ψηφισαμενων 

2 υμών, εΒεξάμην μητ αύ μωρίαν μου κατα^νώτε, 

^ ου Bk., που Λ"Μ. ^ μτ\Ύζ Bk., μητοι VM. 



required me for an}' such task^ but that we of this b.c. 
generation also might have Hved from the beginning 
in peace and harmony, as our fathers lived of yore. 
But since some destiny, as it appears, brought you 
to a position where you had need even of me, young 
as I still was at the time, and put me to the test, I 
did everything Avith a zeal even beyond my years 
and accomplished everything with a good fortune 
even beyond my powers, so long as the situation de- 
manded my help. And nothing in the world could 
deter me from aiding you when you were in danger, 
— neither toil, nor fear, nor threats of foes, nor 
prayers of friends, nor the multitude of the conspira- 
tors, nor the desperation of our adversaries ; nay, I 
gave myself to you unstintingly for any and all the 
exigencies which have arisen, and Λvhat I did and 
suffered, you know. From all this I have derived 
no gain for myself except that I have kept my 
country from perishing ; but as for you, you are 
enjoying both safety and tranquillity. Since, then. 
Fortune, by using me, has graciously restored to you 
peace without treachery and harmony without 
faction, receive back also your liberty and the re- 
public ; take over the army and the subject j)ro- 
vinces, and govern yourselves as has been your 

" You should not be surprised at this purpose of 
mine, when you see my reasonableness in other 
resi)ects, my mildness, and my love of quiet, and 
when you reflect, moreover, that 1 have never ac- 
cepted any extraordinary privilege nor anything 
beyond what the many might gain, though you have 
often voted manv of Ihem to me. Do not, on the 



on βζόν μοί και νμων αρ'χείν και τηΧικαντην 
ηΎβμονίαν τοσαύτης θίΚουμ€Ρ7]ς ^χ^ιν ου βού- 
Χομαί. εγώ yap, civ re το δίκαιον τις βζβτάζτ), 
Βικαιότατορ elvaL νομίζω ίο τα ύμετβρα ύμά<; 
hieireiv, αν re καΐ το συμφέρον, συμφορώτατον 
7]>γονμαι καϊ €μοΙ το μήτε ττ pay ματ α εχειν μήτε 
φθονείσθαί μήτε εττιβουΧευεσθαι ica\ ύμΐν το μετ 
εΧευθερίας καϊ σο^φρονως καϊ φιΧικώς ττοΧιτεύ- 

3 εσθαο' αν τε καϊ το εύκΧεες, οΰττερ ένεκα ττοΧΧοΙ 
καϊ ΊτοΧεμεΙν καϊ κινΒυνευειν ττοΧΧάκις αίροΰνται, 
ττώς μεν ουκ εύ8οξοτατόν μοι εσταί τηΧίκαύτη<^ 
άρ'χτ^ς άφεσθαι, ττω? δ ουκ ευκΧεεστατον εκ 
τοσούτον ή^εμονια'ζ oyKov εθεΧοντΙ ΙΒιωτενσαι; 
ώστ ει τί<; υμών άτηστεΐ ταΟτ* οντω^ τίνα άΧΧον 
καϊ φρονησαι εττ άΧηθείας καϊ είττεΐν Βύνασθαί, 

4 εμοί^ε ττιστευσάτω. ττοΧΧα yap καϊ μεyάXa 
καταΧεζαι ε^ων όσα καϊ ύττ' εμοΰ καϊ ύττο του 
ττατρός μου εύηρyετησθε, εφ' οΙ? εΐκότως αν 7)μάς 
ύττερ ττάντας τους άΧΧους καϊ φίΧοίητε καϊ τι- 
μωητε, ούΕεν αν άΧΧο τούτου μάΧΧον εΐττοιμι, ουδ' 
αν επ άΧΧω tlvl μαΧΧον σεμνυναιμην, οτι την 
μοναρχίαν μήτε εκείνος καίτοι Βώόντων υμών 
Χαβεΐν ήθεΧησε καϊ iyco εχ^ων άφίημι. 

7 *'Ύί yap αν τις καϊ τταρεζετάσειεν αύτω; την 
ΤαΧατιας άΧωσιν y την ΐϊαννονίας ΒούΧωσιν ή 
την Μυσι'α? "χείρωσιν ή την AlyoiTTOV κατα- 
στροφήν; άΧΧα τον Φαρνάκην τον ^Ιουβαν τον 
Φραάτην, την εττΐ τους Βρεττανούς στρατείαν, 


BOOK υπ 

other hand, condemn me as foolish because, wlien it b.c. 27 
is in my power to rule over you and to hold so great 
a sovereignty over this vast world, 1 do not wish it. 
For, if one looks into the merits of the case from 
the point of view of justice, I regard it as most just 
for you to manage your own affairs ; if froin the 
point of view of expediency, I consider it most 
expedient, both that 1 should be free from trouble 
and not be the object of jealousy and intrigue, and 
that you should have a government based upon 
liberty and conducted with moderation and friendly 
feeling ; and if, finally, from the point of view of 
glory, to win which many men are often found ready 
to choose war and personal risk, will it not add most 
to my renown to resign so great an empire, Λνϋΐ it 
not add most to my glory to leave so exalted a 
sovereignty and voluntarily become a private citizen ? 
Therefore, if there is any one of you Λνΐιο believes 
that no man except me can really and sincerely hold 
to such ideals and give them utterance, at least let 
him believe it of me. For, though I could recite 
many great benefits conferred upon you both by me 
and by my father, for >vhich Ave beyond all other 
men could reasonably claim your affection and your 
honour, I could single out no other act in preference 
to this, nor could I feel a greater pride in any other 
thing than in this, — that he refused the monarchy 
although you offered it to him, and that I, Λvhen I 
hold it, lay it aside. 

" What achievement, indeed, could one compare 
with these acts of ours ? The conquest of Gaul, the 
enslavement of Pannonia, the subjugation of Moesia, 
the overthrow of Egypt ? Or Pharnaces, or Juba, or 
Phraates, or the campaign against the Britons, or 



την τον ^Vrjvov Βίάβασιν; καίτοι τοσαυτα και 
τοιαύτα ταυτά ίστιν όσα καΐ οΙα ού^β σύμπαντες 
οΐ 7Γατ€ρ€ς ημών iv τταντί τω ττρυσθεν χρόνω 

2 ΤΓβτΓΟίηκασιν. α\Χ όμως ούτ€ τούτων τί τω 
παρόντι epyo) παραβαΧεΐν εστίν άξων, οΰθ* ότι 
τους εμφυΧιονς ττοΧεμους καΐ μέγιστους κα\ ττοι- 
κιλωτάτονς hia ττάντων 'γενομένους καΐ ΕιεττοΧε- 
μησαμεν καΧώς καΐ Βιεθέμεθα φιΧανθρώττως, του 
μεν άντιστάντος ως καΐ ττοΧεμίου τταντος ^ κρατη- 
σαντες, το δ ύττεΐξαν ώς και φίΧιον ττάν ττερισώ- 

3 σαντες, ωστ εϊπερ ττοτε καΐ αύθις ττεττρωμενον 
€Ϊη την ττόΧιν ημών ^ νοσησαι, τούτον αύτην τον 
τρότΓον εΰζασθαί τίνα στασιάσαΐ' το yap τοι 
τοσούτον τε ισχ^ύσαντας ημάς και ούτω και τη 
άρετη και τη τύχη άκμάσαντας ώστε και εκόντων 
και ακόντων υμών ανταρχήσαι ^υνηθΡ]ναι, μήτε 
εκφρονήσαι μήτε της μοναρχίας εττιθυμήσαι, 
άΧΧα καϊ εκείνον Βώομενην αυτήν άττώσασθαι 
καΧ εμε ΒεΒομενην aTroSiSovai, ύττερ άνθρωττόν 

4 εστίν. Χε^ω δε ταύτα ουκ άΧΧως ετηκομττών 
(ουδέ yap αν ειττον αύτα αρχήν, ει καϊ οτιούν 
ττΧεονεκτήσειν αττ αυτών ήμεΧΧον), αλλ' 'ίνα 
ειΒήτε ότι ττοΧΧών καϊ μεyάXωv ες τε το κοινον 
eύεpyετη μάτων καϊ ες τα οικεία σεμvoXoyημάτωv 
ήμΐν όντων, εττΐ τούτ(ύ μάΧιστα άyaXX6μεθa Οτι, 
ων έτεροι καϊ βιαζόμενοί τινας ετηθυμούσι, ταύθ^ 

8 ημείς ούδ* άvayκaζόμεvot Ίτροσιεμεθα. τις μεν 
yap αν μεyaXoψυχ6τεp6ς μου, ίνα μη και τον 
Ίτατερα τον μετηΧΧαχότα αύθις ειττω, τις δβ 8αι- 
μονιώτερος ευρεθείη; Οστις, ώ Ζεύ και 'ΉρακΧες, 

^ iraprhs Μ, Tivhs Λ^. 

^ eifrj τ-ήν πόλιν τιμών V, ημών (ίη τ})ν ττυλιν Μ. 



the crossing of the Rhine ? Yet these are greater b.c, 27 
and more important deeds than even all our fore- 
fathers togetlier performed in all previous time. 
Nevertheless, no one of these exploits deserves a 
place beside my present act, to say nothing of our 
civil wars, of all which have ever occurred the 
greatest and most varied in its changing fortunes, 
which we fought to an honourable conclusion and 
brought to a humane settlement, overpowering as 
enemies all who resisted, but sparing as friends all 
who yielded ; therein setting an example, so that if 
it should be fated that our city should ever again be 
afflicted, one might pray that it should conduct its 
quarrel in the same way. Indeed, I will go further : 
that we, when we possessed a strength so great, and 
when we so clearly stood at the summit of prowess 
and good fortune, that we could exercise over you, 
with or without your consent, our arbitrary rule, did 
not lose our senses or conceive the desire for sole 
supremacy, but that he thrust that supremacy aside 
when it was offered him and that I return it after it 
has been given me, — that, I say, transcends the 
deeds of a man ! I say this, not by way of idle 
boasting, — indeed, I should not have said it at all, if 
I were going to derive any advantage whatever from 
it, — but in order that you may see that, although we 
can point to many benefits conferred upon the state 
at large and to many services rendered to individuals 
of which we might boast, yet we take the greatest 
pride in this, that what others so desire that they are 
even willing to do violence to gain it, this we do not 
accept even under compulsion. Who could be found 
more magnanimous than I, — not to mention again 
my deceased father, — who more nearly divine ? For 



στρατίωτας τοσούτους και τοιούτους, και ττοΧίτας 
καί συμμάγ^ους, φίλοΰντάς με έχων, και ττάσης 
μβν της βντος των ΉρακΧείων στηΚων θαΚάσσης 
ττΧην οΧί^ων κρατών, iv ττάσαίς δε ταΐς ήττβίροίς 

2 καΐ ΤΓοΧβις καί έθνη κεκτημένος, καΐ μητ ά\\ο- 
φύ\ου Τίνος ετί ττροσττοΧε μουντός μοί μητ οΙκείου 
στασίάζοντος, αΧλα ττάντων ύμων καΐ είρηνούν- 
των καΐ ομονοουντων και εύθενούντων ^ καΐ το 
μέ'γιστον εθεΧοντηζον ττειθαρχούντων^ επειθ^ εκού- 
σιος αύτεττάγγεΧτος καΐ αρχής τηΧίκαύτης άφι- 
σταμαι καΐ ουσίας τοσαύτης άτταΧλάττομαι. 

3 ωστ ειττερ ο Όρατιος ο Μουκιος ο ίχ,ουρτίος ο 
'Ϋη'γουΧος οΐ Αεκιοί καΐ κιν^υνεϋσαι καΐ άττο- 
θανεΐν ύττερ του με^α τι και καΧον ττεττοιηκέναί 
Βό^αί ηθεΧησαν, ττώς ουκ αν βγω μαΧΧον ετη- 
θυμήσαιμι τούτο ττραζαι εξ ου κάκείνους κάϊ 
τους άΧΧους άμα ττάντας άνθρώττους εύκΧεία ζων 

4 ύττερβαΧώ; μη yap τοί νομίστ) τις υμών - τους 
μεν τταΧαι 'Ρωμαίους καΐ αρετής καϊ ευδοξίας 
εφεΐσθαι, νυν 8ε εξίτηΧον εν ττ] ττόΧει τταν το 
άνΒρώΒες ηεηονεναι. μη μεντοι μηΚ υττοιττεύστ] 
ΟΤΙ ττροεσθαι τε υμάς καϊ ττονηροΐς τισιν άνΒράσιν 
εττιτρέψαι, η καϊ οχΧοκρατία τινί, εξ ης ου μόνον 
ούΒεν χρηστον άΧΧα καϊ ττάντα τα Ζεινοτατα αεί 
Ίτάσιν άνθρώτΓΟίς ^ί^νεται, εκΕούναι βούΧομαι. 

5 ύμΐν yap, ύμΐν τοις άριστοις καϊ φρονιμωτάτοις 
ττάντα τα κοινά άνατίθημι. εκείνο μεν yap ού- 
ΒετΓΟτ αν εττοίησα, ουδ' εΐ μυριάκις άττοθανείν 
η καϊ μοναρχήσαί με εΒεΐ' τούτο 8ε καϊ ύττερ 

6 εμαυτού καϊ ύττερ τής ττόΧεως ττοιώ. αυτό? τε 

^ evdevovPTwy Dind., ζυθηνούντων Rk., ΐυσθ^νούντων Λ"Μ. 
^ υμών Μ, τ]μων V. 



I, — tlie gods be my witnesses ! — who have so many 
gallant soldiers, both Romans and allies, who are 
devoted to me, I, who am supreme over the entire 
sea within the Pillars of Hercules except for a few 
tribes, I who possess both cities and provinces in 
every continent, at a time when there is no longer 
any foreign enemy making war upon me and no one 
at home is engaged in sedition, but when you are all 
at peace, are harmonious and strong, and, greatest of 
all, are content to yield obedience, I, in spite of all 
this, voluntarily and of my own motion resign so 
great a dominion and give up so vast a possession. 
So then, if Horatius, Mucius, Curtius, Regulus, and 
the Decii were willing to encounter danger and to 
die to win the fame of having done a great and 
noble deed, why should not I desire even more to do 
this thing, whereby, without losing my life, I shall 
excel both them and all the rest of mankind in 
glory? In truth no one of you should think that 
the ancient Romans sought to win fair fame and 
reputation for valour, but that in these days every 
manly virtue has become extinct in the state. And 
further, let no one suspect that 1 wish to betray you 
by delivering you into the hands of a group of wicked 
men, or by giving you over to government by the 
mob, from which nothing good ever comes, but 
rather in all cases and for all mankind nothing but 
the most terrible evils. Nay, it is to you senators, 
to you who are the best and Λvisest, that I restore 
the entire administration of the state. The other 
course I should never have followed, even had it 
been necessary for me to die a thousand deaths, or 
even to assume the sole rule ; but this policy I adopt 
both for my own good and for that of the city. For 


vol.. VI. 1» 


ηαρ καΐ ΤΓβττόνημαί καΐ τβταΧαίττώρημαι, καΐ 
ούκβτ^ ούτ€ rfj ylrv)(fj ovre τω σώματι άντέχβιν 
Βύναμαΐ' κάϊ ττροσβτι καΧ τον φθόνον και το 
μΐσα, α καΐ tt/do? τού<ζ άριστους άνΒρας iyyiyve- 
ταί τισι, τάς re βζ αυτών βττιβουΧας ττροορώμαι. 
7 fcal Sia ταύτα καϊ ΙΒίωτβύσαί μάΧλ,ον βύκΧβώς η 
μοναρ'χ^ησαι βττίκίν^ύνως αίρουμαι. και τα κοινά 
κοινώ'ζ αν 7Γθ\ύ βεΚτίον ατε ^ κάϊ νπο ττοΧλών 
αμα ^ια^ομενα καϊ μη e? eva τίνα άνηρτημΑνα 


9 " Ai συν ταύτα καϊ Ικετεύω καϊ Βεομαι ττάντων 
υμών ομοίως καϊ συνετταίνέσαι καϊ συμττροθυμη- 
θηναί μοί, \ο^ισαμενου<; ττάνθ' οσα καϊ ττεττο- 
Χεμηκα ύττερ υμών καϊ ττεττοΧίτευμαι, καν τούτω 
Ίτασάν μοί την ύττερ αυτών χάριν άττο^όντα^, εν 
τω συγχωρησαί μοι εν ησυχία ή8η ττοτε κατα- 
βίώναί, ϊνα καϊ εκείνο ε18ήτε οτί ου μόνον άρχειν 
άΧΧα καϊ άρχεσθαι εττίσταμαι, καϊ ττάνθ* οσα άΧ- 
Χοις επεταξα, καϊ αύτος άντεττιταχθήναι Βύναμαί, 

2 μάΧιστα μεν yap καϊ άσφαΧώ^ί ζήσειν καϊ μη^εν 
ύτΓΟ μηΒενος μήτε εpyω μήτε Xόyω κακόν ττείσε- 
σθαι ττροσΒοκώ' τοσούτον ττου τι} εύνοια υμών, εξ 

3 ών αύτος εμαυτω συνοι^α, ττίστεύω. αν 8έ τι 
καϊ ττάθω, οΙα ττολλο?? συμβαίνει (ού8ε yap οΙόν 
τε εστί ττασί τίνα, άΧΧως τε καϊ εν τοσούτοις 
ΊΓοΧεμοις, τοις μεν οθνείοις τοις δε καϊ εμφυΧίοίς, 
yεvoμεvov καϊ τηΧικαύτα 7τpάyμaτa εττιτραττεντα, 
άρεσαι), καϊ ττάνυ ετοίμως καϊ ττρο του είμαρ- 

^ βίΚτιον οτ€ Rk., βζΚτίομά re VM. 
2 ΙΟ 



I myself have undergone both labours and hardships b.c. 27 
and am no longer able to stand the strain, either in 
mind or in body. Furthermore, I foresee the jealousy 
and hatred wliich are engendered in certain persons 
against even the best men and the plots which arise 
therefrom. It is for these reasons that 1 choose the 
life of a {)rivate citizen and fair fame rather than 
that of a sovereign and constant peril. And as for 
the business of the commonwealth, it would be 
carried on far better by all in common, inasmuch as 
it would be transacted by many men together instead 
of being dependent ujwn some one man. 

" For these reasons, then, 1 ask and implore you 
one and all both to approve my course and to 
cooperate heartily with me, reflecting u})on all that 
1 have done for you alike in war and in public life, 
and rendering me complete recomi)ense for it all by 
this one favour, — by allowing me at last to be at 
peace as I live out my life. Thus you will come to 
know that I understand not only how to rule but 
also how to submit to rule, and that all the commands 
which I have laid upon others I can endure to have 
laid u})on me. I ask this because I expect to live in 
security, if that be })ossible, and to suffer no harm 
from anybody by either deed or word, — such is the 
confidence, based upon my own conscience, which I 
have in your good-will ; but if some disaster should 
befall me, such as falls to the lot of many (for it is 
not possible for a man to please everybody, especially 
when he has been involved in Λvars of such magnitude, 
both foreign and civil, and has had affairs of such 
importance entrusted to him), with entire willingness 
I make my choice to die even before my appointed 

ρ 2 


μβνου μοί γ^ρυνου τέΧ^υτησαί μάΧΧον Ιοίωτεύσα^, 
ή καί άθάνατο<^ μοναρχ^ήσας yeveaOai, αίρουμαι. 

4 €μοϊ μβν yap ev/cXeiav καί αυτό τούτο o\aei ότι 
ου μόνον ουκ Ιφονευσά τίνα inrep του την άρχ^ην 
κατασ^χείν, αλλά κα\ ττροσαττβθανον ΰττβρ του 
μη μοναρ'χ^ησαΐ' ο he Βη το\μησα<ζ άττοκτβΐναί 
μ6 τταζ^τω? ττου καΐ ύττο του Βαιμονίου καΐ ύφ' 

5 υμών κόΧασθήσεταί. airep ττου καΐ iirl του 
7Γατρ6<; μου yiyovev €Κ6Ϊνο<^ μεν yap καΐ ίσόθεος 
άττε^είχθη καΐ τιμών άώίων ετυχεν, οΐ δ' άττο- 
σφάξαντες αύτον κακοί κακώς άττώΧοντο. αθάνα- 
τοι μεν yap ουκ αν Βυνηθευημεν yεvεσθaι, εκ δε 
8η του καΧώς ζησαι καΐ εκ του καΧώς τεΧευ- 

6 τήσαι κα\ τοΰτο τρόττον τίνα κτώμεθα. άφ' 
οΰττερ καΐ εγώ το μεν ήΒη έχων το δε εξειν εΧττί- 
ζων, άττοΒίΒωμι ύμΐν καΐ τα οττΧα και τα έθνη τάς 
τε ττροσόΒους καΐ τους νόμους, τοσούτον μόνον 
ύττειττών, Ινα μήτε το μεyεθoς ή καΐ το Βυσμετα- 
χείριστον τών 7Γpayμάτωv φοβηθεντες άθυμησητε, 
μητ αυ καταφ ρονησαντες αυτών ως καΐ ραΒίως 
ΒίΟίκεΐσθαί Βυναμενων άμεΧησητε. 

10 *' Καίτοί καΐ καθ^ εκαστον τών μειζόνων ουκ αν 
όκνησαιμι ύμΐν εν κεφαΧαίοις οσα χρη ττράττειν 
ύτΓοθεσθαί. τίνα δε ταύτα εστί; πρώτον μεν 
τους κείμενους νόμους Ισχυρώς φυΧάττετε, καΐ 
μηΒενα αυτών μεταβάΧητε' τα yap εν ταύτώ 
μένοντα, καν χείρω rj, συμφορώτερα τών άεΐ 
καινοτόμου μένων, καν βεΧτίω είναι Βοκη, εστίν. 
2 εττειτα δε, οσα ττροστάττουσιν ύμΐν ούτοι ττοιεΐν 



time as a private citizen, in preference to living u.c. 27 
forever as the occupant of a throne. Indeed, this 
very choice will bring me renown, — that I not only 
did not deprive another of life in order to win that 
office, but went so far as even to give up my life in 
order to avoid being king ; and the man who dares 
to slay me will certainly be punished, I am sure, both 
by Heaven and by you, as happened, methinks, in 
the case of my father. For he was declared to be 
the equal of the gods and obtained eternal honours, 
whereas those who slew him })erished, miserable men, 
by a miserable death. As for immortality, we could 
not })ossibly achieve it ; but by living nobly and by 
dying nobly we do in a sense gain even this boon. 
Therefore, I, who already possess the first requisite 
and hope to possess the second, return to you the 
armies and the provinces, the revenues and the laws, 
adding only a iew words of suggestion, to the end 
that you may not be afraid of the magnitude of the 
business of administration, or of the difficulty of 
handling it and so become discouraged, and that you 
may not, on the other hand, regard it v/iih contempt, 
with the idea that it can easily be managed, and thus 
neglect it. 

" And yet, after all, I feel no hesitancy about 
suggesting to you in a summary Avay Avhat ought to 
be done in each of the leading departments of 
administration. And what are these suggestions .'* 
In the first place, guard vigilantly the established 
laws and change none of tiiem ; for what remains 
fixed, even though it be inferior, is more advan- 
tageous than what is always subject to innovations, 
even though it seem to be superior. Next, ])ay 
strict heed to do whatever these laws enjoin upon 



Kol όσων αιτα'^ορεύουσιν άττε'χεσθαί, μη τω 
λόγω μόνον αλλά καϊ τω epycp, μη^^ iv τω κοινω 
μόνον άλλα καϊ ISla ακριβώς τταρατηρβΐσθβ,^ 

3 οττως μη τιμωρίας άλλα τιμ.ών τνγχ^άνητε. τάς 
Τ€ άρ'χ^άς καϊ τας είρηνικας καϊ τας ττοΧεμικας 
τοις del άρίστοις re καϊ Ιμφρονεστάτοίς iiri- 
τρ€7Γ€Τ€, μήτ€ φθονονντ€ς τίσί,^ μήθ^ νττερ του 
τον helva ή τον heiva ττΧεονεκτήσαί τί, αλλ' virep 
τον την τΓοΧιν καϊ σώζεσθαι καϊ evirpayelv 

4 φιΧοτίμούμβί'Οί. καϊ τους μεν τοιούτους τί/χατε, 
τους δ' αλλω? ιτως ττοΧιτευομενους κοΧάζετε. καϊ 
τα μεν tSia κοινά τη ιτοΧει τταρε'χετε, των hk 
δημοσίων ώς άΧΧοτρίων άττε'χεσθε. καϊ τα μεν 
ύττάρ'χονθ^ υμίν ακριβώς φυΧάττετε, τών δε μη 

5 ττροσηκόντων μηΒαμώς εφίεσθε. καϊ τους μεν 
συμμά'χους καϊ τους υττηκόους μηθ^ υβρίζετε 
μήτε εκ'χ^ρηματίζεσθε, τους δε ττοΧεμΙους μήτ 
άΒικεΐτε μήτε φοβεϊσθε. τα μ.εν οττΧα εν ταΐς 
'χερσϊν άεϊ εχ^ετε, μη μεντοι μήτε κατ άΧΧηΧων 

C μήτε κατά τών είρηνούντων αύτοΐς γ^ρΐ^σθε.^ τους 
τε στρατίώτας τρέφετε μεν αρκούντως, ώστε μη• 
Βενος τών άΧΧοτρίων Si άττοριαν εττιθυμήσαι, 
συνέχετε δε καϊ σωφρονίζετε, ώστε μηΒεν κακόν 
Βία θ ρασύτητα Βράσαι. 

7 " Άλλα τί Βεΐ μακροΧο'γεΐν, ττάνθ α ττροσήκει 
τΓοιεΙν υμάς εττεζιόντα; καϊ yap τα Χοιττά ραΒιως 
αν εκ τούτων ώς 'χ^ρή ττράττεσθαι συνίΒοιτε.^ 
εν ουν ετι τούτο εΐιτών τταύσομαι, οτι αν μεν ούτω 
ΤΓοΧιτεύσησθε, αυτοί τε εύΒαιμονήσετε καϊ εμοϊ 

^ παρατηρ^Ίσθΐ R. Steph., ιταρατηρζ'ΐσθαι Λ"Μ. 
2 τισι jNT, τίΓί V. 3 χρησθβ Μ, χρΐισθαι Υ. 

* συνί5οιτ€ Pflugk, συν(Ιδοιτ€ VM. 



you ;md to refrain from whatever they forbid, and do «c u? 
this not only in word but also in deed, not only 
in public but also in private, that you may obtain, 
not penalties, but honours. Entrust the offices both 
of peace and of war to those who are the most 
excellent and the most prudent, harbouring no 
jealousy of any man, and indulging in rivalry, not to 
advance the j)rivate interests of this or that man, 
but to keep the city safe and make it prosperous. 
Honour men who show this spirit, but punish those 
who act otherwise in political life. Treat your private 
means as the common property of the state, but 
refrain from the })ublic funds as belonging to others. 
Guard strictly what you already have, but never 
covet that which does not belong to you. Do not 
treat the allies and subject nations insolently nor 
exploit them for gain, and in dealing Λvith the 
enemy, neither wrong him nor fear him. Have your 
arms always in hand, but do not use them either 
against one another or against those who keep the 
peace. Maintain the soldiers adequately, so that 
they may not on account of Λvant desire anything 
which belongs to others ; keep them in hand and 
under discipline, that they may not become pre- 
sumptuous and do harm. 

'' 13ut why make a long speech by going through 
everything in detail which it behooves you to do ? 
For you may easily understand from these hints how 
all other matters should be handled. I will close with 
this one further remark, that if you will conduct the 
government in this manner, you will both enjoy 



'χαρίείσθβ, οστίς υμάς στασιάζοντας κακώ<; Χαβων 
8 τοιούτου^; ciTreSec^a, αν δ ά8υΐ'ατήσητ€ καΐ otlovp 
αυτών ητραζαι, εμβ μίν μετανοησαί ττοίησβτε, την 
Be 8η ττόΧιν €9 τ€ ττοΧβμους ττολλου? καΐ e? κίνδυ- 
νους μ€yάXoυς αύθις εμβαΧεΙτβ. ' 
11 Ύοιαυτα του }ίαίσαρος άναΧε'^/οντος ττοίκίλον 
Τί ττάθος τους βουΧευτας κατβΧάμβανεν. oXiyoL 
μβν yap την τ€ Βιάνοιαν αυτοί) τΙΒβσαν κάκ τούτου 
καΐ συνεσττούΒαζον αύτω' των δ' άΧΧων οί μεν 
υττωτττευον τα Χε^ομενα οί δε επίστευόν σφίσι, 
καΐ Βία ταύτα καΐ εθαύμαζον ομοίως αμφότεροι, 

2 οί μεν την ττεριτεχνησιν αυτού οί δε την ^νώμην, 
κα\ ηχθοντο οί μεν τη ττρα^ματεια αυτού οί δε τη 
μετάνοια, τό τε yap Βημοκρατικον ήΒη τίνες ώς 
καΐ στασιωΒες εμίσουν, καΐ τη μεταστάσει της 
ΤΓοΧιτείας ηρεσκοντο, τω τε Υίαίσαρι εχαιρον, 
καΐ ατΓ* αυτών τοις μεν τταθημασι Βιαφόροις τοΐς 

3 δε ετΓίνοημασιν ομοίοις εγ^ρώντο. ούτε yap πι- 
στεύσαντες άΧηθώς αύτα Xέyeσθaι γ^αίρειν ΙΒύ- 
ναντο, οΰθ^ οί βουΧόμενοι ^ τούτο Βια το Βεος, οΰθ^ 
οί έτεροι Βια τας εΧττίΒας' οΰτ άτηστησαντες 
ΒιαβαΧεΐν τε αύτον καΐ εXέy^aι ετόΧμων, οί μεν 

4 ΟΤΙ εφοβούντο, οί δ' οτι ουκ εβούΧοντο. οθενπερ 
καΐ τΓίστεύειν αύτω πάντες οί μίν ηvayκάζovτo 
οί δε εττΧάττοντο. και ετταινείν αύτον οί μεν ούκ 
εθάρσουν οί δ' ούκ ηθεΧον, άΧΧα ττοΧΧα μεν και 
μεταξύ άvayιyvώσ κοντός αυτού Βιεβοων ττοΧΧα 
δε καΐ μετά τούτο, μοναρχ^εΐσθαί τε Βεόμενοι καΐ 

^ βυυλόμ€ΐΌΐ R. Steph., βουλ^υόμ^νοι VM. 


prosperity yourselves and you will gratify me, who b.c. j? 
found you engaged in wretched strife and made you 
what you now are ; but if there is any part whatever 
of this programme that you shall prove unable to 
carry out, you will cause me to regret my action and 
you will at the same time cast the city again into 
many wars and grave dangers." 

While Caesar was reading this address, varied 
feelings took possession of the senators. A few of 
them knew his real intention and consequently kept 
a])plauding him enthusiastically ; of the rest, some 
were suspicious of his words, Λvhile others believed 
them, and therefore both classes marvelled equally, 
the one at his cunning and the other at his decision, 
and both were dis})leased, the former at his scheming 
and the latter at his change of mind. For already 
there were some who abhorred the democratic con- 
stitution as a breeder of strife, Λvere pleased at the 
change in government, and took delight in Caesar. 
Consequently, though they >vere variously affected 
by his announcement, their views Avere the same. 
For, on the one hand, those who believed he had 
spoken the truth could not show their pleasure, — 
those who wished to do so being restrained by their 
fear and the others by their hopes, — and those, on 
the other hand, Λνΐιο did not believe it did not dare 
accuse him and expose his insincerity, some because 
they were afraid and others because they did not care 
to do so. Hence all the doubters either were com- 
pelled to believe him or else pretended that they did. 
As for praising him, some had not the courage and 
others were unwilling ; on the contrary, both while 
he was reading and afterwards, they kept shouting 
out, begging for a monarchical government and urging 



ττάντα τα f? τούτο φέροντα CTTLXeyovTe^, μβ'χ^ρι^ 
5 ου κατηνά^κασαν ^ηθεν αύτον αύταρχ^ησαι. καϊ 
Ίταραυτίκα ye τοις ^ορνφορήσονσιν αύτον ΒιττΧά- 
σιον τον μισθον του τοΙς aWoi^ στρατιώται<ζ 
8ί8ομενου ψηφίσθήναι ^ίεττράζατο} οττω? άκρίβη 
την φρουράν €χτ). οΰτως ώ? άΧηθώς καταθεσθαί 
την μοναρ'χ^ίαν εττεθύμησε. 
12 Τ^ι^ μεν ουν η^εμονίαν τούτω τω ~ τρόττω κα\ 
τταρα της γερουσίας του τε ^ημου εβεβαιώσατο, 
βουΧηθεΙς δε δτ; κα\ ω<ς Βημοτικός τις είναι 8όξαι, 
την μεν φροντίδα την τε ττροστασίαν των κοινών 
ττάσαν ώ? καϊ εττίμεΧείας τίνος Βεομενων ύττεΒε- 
ξατο, ούτε Βε ττάντων αύτος των εθνών άρξειν,^ 

2 ούθ^ όσων αν αρξη, hia τταντος τούτο ττοιησειν 
εφη, αλ\α τα μεν ασθενέστερα ώς καϊ είρηναΐα 
καϊ άττόΧεμα άττεΒωκε τη βουΧη,^ τα δ' Ισ-χυρότερα 
ώς καϊ σφαΧερα καϊ ετηκίνΒυνα καϊ ήτοι ττοΧε- 
μίον<ί τινας ττροσοίκους ε'χ^οντα ή καϊ αύτα καθ 

3 εαυτα με>γα τι νεωτερίσαι δυνάμενα κατεσγε, λόγω 
μεν οττως ή μεν γερουσία αδβώς τα κάΧΧιστα της 
άρ'χ^ης καρττώτο, αύτος δβ τούς τε πόνους καϊ τους 
κινδύνους βχ^η, ερ^ω Βε Ίνα εττϊ τη ττροφάσεί 
ταύτη εκείνοι μεν καϊ άοττΧοι καϊ άμαθοι ωσιν, 
αύτος Βε Βη μόνος καϊ οττΧα εχη καϊ στρατιώτας 

4 τρέφη. καϊ ενομίσθη Βια ταύτα η μεν Αφρική 
καϊ η Ί^ουμιΒία η τε ^ Ασία καϊ η Έλλα? μετά 
της ^Ήττείρου, καϊ το ΑεΧματικον το τε ylaκε- 
Βονικον καϊ ^ικεΧία, 1\ρ?]τη τε μετά Αιβύης της 

^ δΐ6πρά|ατο Bk., διειτράζαντο VM Xiph. 

- τφ Xiph., re Λ'Μ. 

•' &p^€iv Bk., άρχ€ΐν VM Xiph. 

* τί) βονλτι Xiph. Zon,, om. VM. 



every argument in its favour, until they forced him, b.c. 27 
as it was made to appear, to assume autocratic power. 
His very first act was to secure a decree granting to 
the men Avho should compose his bodyguard double 
the pay that was given to the rest of the soldiers, so 
that he might be strictly guarded. When this \vas 
done, he Avas eager to establish the monarchy in 
very trutli. 

In this way he had his supremacy ratified by the 
senate and by the people as well. But as he Avished 
even so to be thought democratic, Avhile he accepted 
all the care and oversight of the public business, on 
the ground that it required some attention on his 
part, yet he declared he would not personally govern 
all the provinces, and that in the case of such pro- 
vinces as he should govern he would not do so 
indefinitely ; and he did, in fact, restore to the 
senate the weaker provinces, on the ground that 
they were peaceful and free from Avar, Avhile he 
retained the more powerful, alleging that they were 
insecure and precarious and either had enemies on 
their borders or were able on their own account to 
begin a serious revolt. His professed motive in this 
was that the senate might fearlessly enjoy the finest 
portion of the empire, while he himself had the 
hardships and the dangers ; but his real purpose was 
that by this arrangement the senators sliould be 
unarmed and unprepared for battle, while he alone 
had arms and maintained soldiers. Africa, Numidia, 
Asia, Greece with Epirus, the Dalmatian and Mace- 
donian districts, Crete and the Cyrenaic portion of 



TTepi Κ^υρήνην καΧ Υ^ίθυνία μβτα τον ττροσκβίμίνον 
οι YlovTOVy ΖαρΒώ re καΧ Ι^αιτίκη του re δ/;/χου 

5 καί της ^γερουσίας eivat, του Se 8η Καίσαρος ή re 
Χοίττη Ιβηρία, η τ€ 7Γ€ρΙ Ύαρράκωνα κα\ η Χυσι- 
τανια, καΧ ΤαΧάται ττάντες, ο'ί τε ^αρβωνήσιοι 
καΐ οι Αου'γΒουνησιοι ^Ακυίτανοί τε καΐ ν>ε\^ίκοί} 

6 αυτοί τε καΐ οΐ εττοικοί σφων Κελτών» yap τίνες, 
ους 8η Τερμανούς καΧοΰμεν, ττασαν την ττρος τω 
^νηνω ^ε\^ικην ^ κατασγόντες Τερμανίαν ονο- 
μάζεσθαί εττοιησαν, την μεν άνω την μετά τάς 
τον ττοταμον ττη^άς, την δε κάτω την μεχρί τον 

7 ωκεανού τον Έρεττανικον ονσαν. ταντά τε ούν 
καΐ ή Χυρία ή κοίΧη καΧουμενη ή τε Φοινίκη καΐ 
Κιλικία καΐ Κυττρος καΐ Αΐ^ύιττιοι εν τη τον 
Καίσαρος μερί8ι τότε ^ iyivovTc νστερον yap την 
μεν Κνττρον καΐ την ΤαΧατίαν την ττερί ^άρβωνα 
τω 8ήμω άττεΕωκεν, αύτος 8ε την ΑεΧματιαν 

8 άντεΧαβε. καΐ τούτο μεν καΐ εττ άΧΧων εθνών 
μετά ταύτ* εττράγθη, ώς ττου και η ΒιεξοΒος τού 
Xoyov 8ηΧωσεΐ' ταύτα 8ε οντω κατεΧε^α, οτι νύν 
χωρίς εκαστον αντών ήyεμovεvετaι, επεί τό yε 
άρχαΐον καΐ εττϊ ττοΧν καΐ σύν8νο καΐ σύντρια τά 

9 έθνη άμα ηρχετο. των 8ε 8η Χοιττών ουκ εμνη- 
μόνευσα, ότι τά μεν ύστερον αυτών ττροσεκτηθη,^ 
τά 8ε, ει καΐ τότε η8η εκεχειρωτο, άΧΧ ούτι yε 
καΐ ντΓΟ των 'Ρωμαίων ηρχετο, άΧΧ' ή αυτόνομα 
άφεΐτο η καΐ βασιΧείαις τισίν εττετετρατττο' καΐ 

^ BeXyiKOL Bs. , βίληκοί VM. 

2 BeKyiK^v Bs., β^λτικην Υ Μ. '* τοτ6 Μ, οίη, V. 

* ττροσ^κτ'ηθη Υ , προσίκτ-ησθη Μ. 



Liby<a, 15ithynia with Pontiis ^\vlucll adjoined it, 
Sardinia and IJaetica were lield to belong to the 
people and the senate ; while to Caesar belonged the 
remainder of wSpain, — that is, the district of Tarraco 
and Lusitania, — and all the Gauls, — that is, Gallia 
Narbonensis, Gallia Lugdunensis, Aquitania, and 
Belgica, both the natives themselves and the aliens 
among them. For some of the Celts, whom we call 
Germans,! jj^^j occupied all the Belgic territory 
along the Rhine and caused it to be called Germany,^ 
the upper portion extending to the sources of that 
river, and the lower portion reaching to the British 
Ocean. These provinces, then, together with Coele- 
Syria, as it is called, Phoenicia, Cilicia, Cyprus and 
Kgypt, fell at that time to Caesar's share ; for after- 
wards he gave Cyprus and Gallia Narboneiisis back 
to the people, and for himself took Dalmatia instead. 
This same course Λvas followed subsequently in the 
case of other j)rovinces also, as the progress of my 
narrative Λνίΐΐ show ; but I have enumerated these 
provinces in this way because at the present time 
each one of them is governed separately, whereas in 
the beginning and for a long period thereafter they 
were administered two and three together. The 
others I have not mentioned because some of them 
were acquired later, and the rest, even if they were 
already subjugated, Λvere not being governed by 
the Romans, but either had been left autonomous or 
had been attached to some kingdom or other. "^ All 

^ See note on xxxviii. 34. 

^ Die's name for fJennany proper is Κ€\τικ•η ; Λvhen he uses 
the name Γερμανία, as here, ho refers to the provinces of tliat 
name, (Jermania Superior and (iermania Inferior, both Ijing 
west of the Kliine. 

3 Cf. chap. 2() and 11 v. 9. 



αυτών οσα μετά τουτ e? την των 'Ρωμαίων άρ-χ^ην 
άφίκβτο, τω ael κρατουντι ττροσβτίθη. 
13 Τά μεν ουν βθνη ούτω ^>ΐΐ)ρίθη, βονΧηθεΙς Be 8η 
καΐ ως 6 Καίσαρ ττόρρω σφά? αιταηαηύν του τι 
μοναρχ^ίκον φρονβΐν hoKetv, €9 Βεκα ετη την άρχ^ην 
των Βοθεντων οι υττεστη' τοσούτω τε 'yap γ^ρόνω 
καταστησειν αυτά ύττεσχ^ετο, καΐ ττροσενεανιεύ- 
σατο είττων οτι, αν καΐ θάττον ημερωθη, θάττον 

2 αύτοΐς καϊ εκεΐνα άποΒώσει. κακ τούτου ττρώτον 
μεν αυτούς τους βουΧευτας εκατερων των εθνών, 
ττΧην Αΐ<γυ7Γτίων, άρχειν κατεΒειξεν {εκείνοις yap 
8η μόνοίς τον ώνομασμενον ΙτΓΤτεα, 8t' άττερ είττον, 
ττροσεταξεν)' εττειτα 8ε τους μεν καϊ εττειησίονς 
καϊ κΧηρωτούς είναι, ττΧην εϊ τω ττοΧυτταιΒίας η 

3 ^άμου προνομία ττροσείη, καϊ εκ τε του κοινού της 
γερουσίας συXXoyoυ ττεμττεσθαι μήτε ^ιφος τταρα- 
ζωννυμενους μήτε στρατιωτική εσθήτι χρωμενους, 
καϊ άνθυττάτους καΧεΐσθαι μη οτι τους 8ύο τους 
ύττατευκότας άΧΧα καϊ τους άΧΧους τους εκ των 

4 εστρατη^ηκότων η Βοκούντων ^ε εστ ρατη^ηκεναι 
μόνον οντάς, ραβΒούχ^οις τε σφας εκατερους 
οσοισττερ καϊ εν τω άστει νενόμισται γ^ρησθαι, 
καϊ τα της αρχ^ης επίσημα καϊ τταρα-χρήμα άμα 

1 In li. 17, 1. 

^ The details of the earlier legislation of Augustus (cf. liv. 
16, 1 ; Iv. 2, 6) in the interest of more marriages and larger 
families are not clear ; but as finally embodied in the Lex 
Julia et Papia Poppaea (cf. Ivi. 10), the special privileges of 
a father of three legitimate children (the ius trium lihtrorum) 


BOOK LI 1 1 

of them whicli came into the Roman empire after 
this period were added to the provinces of the one 
who was emperor at the time. 

Such, then, was the apportionment of the pro- 
vinces. And wishing, even then, to lead the 
Romans a long way from the idea that he was at all 
monarchical in his purposes, Caesar undertook for 
only ten years the government of the provinces 
assigned him ; for he promised to reduce them to 
order within this period, and boastfully added that, 
if they should be pacified sooner, he ΛνουΜ the 
sooner restore them, too, to the senate. Thereupon 
he first appointed the senators themselves to govern 
both classes of provinces, except Egypt. This 
province alone he assigned to a knight, the one we 
have already named,^ for the reasons mentioned 
there. Next he ordained that the governors of 
senatorial provinces should be annual magistrates, 
chosen by lot, except when a senator enjoyed a 
sj)ecial privilege because of the large number of his 
children or because of his marriage.'- These govern- 
ors were to be sent out by vote of the senate in 
public meeting ; they were to carry no sword at 
their belt nor to wear military uniform ; the name of 
I)roconsul was to belong not only to the two ex- 
consuls but also to the others who had merely served 
as praetors or who held at least the rank of ex- 
praetors ; both classes were to employ as many 
lictors as were usual in the capital ; and they Avere 

inchulcd the right to receive inheritances left to bachelors 
(who couhl not inherit), preference in standing for the various 
oflices, including the right to be a candidate before the regu- 
lar age or without the usual interval between oltices, pre- 
cedence before cijuals and colleagues, and exemption from 
certain civic obligations. 



τω βξω τον ττωμηρίου yeveadai ιτροστίθεσθαι και 
Οία τταντος μί)(^ρι<; αν ανακομισθωσιν €-χ€.ίν €Κ€- 

5 Xevae. του? Se βτβρους ύττο τβ εαυτού αίρείσθαι 
καΐ ττρΕσβευτας αυτού άντιστρατψ/ου'^ τ€ ονομά- 
ζεσθαι, καν eic των ύττατευκότων ώσί, hieTa^e. 
των 'yap 8η 8ύο τούτων ονομάτων βττΐ ττΧβΐστον iv 
TTJ δημοκρατία άνθησάντων, το μεν τού στρατη- 
yov τοις αίρετοΐς ώς καΐ τω ττοΧεμω ^ άττο τού 
ττάνυ αργαίου ττροσηκον ε8ωκεν, αντιστράτηγους 
σφάς ιτροσείΐτων, το δε 8η των υπάτων τοις 
ετέροις ώς κα\ είρηνικωτεροις, ανθυπάτους αυτούς 

6 επικαΧεσας. αυτά μεν yap τα ονόματα, τό τε 
τού στρατηγού κα\ το τού υπάτου, εν τη Ίταλια 
ετήρησε, τους 8ε εζω πάντας ώς κα\ άντ εκείνων 
(άρχοντας προση^όρευσε. τη τε ούν επικΧησει 
τη των αντιστράτηγων τους αιρετούς χρήσθαί, 
καΐ επΙ πΧείω καΐ ενιαυτού χρόνον, εφ' όσον αν 
εαυτω Βόξη, άρχ^ειν εποίησε, τήν τε στρατιωτικην 
σκευην φορούντας καΐ ζίφος, οίς γβ κα\ στρατιώ- 

7 τα? Βίκαίώσαί εζεστιν, έχοντας. αΧλω yap ού8ενΙ 
ούτε άνθυπάτω ούτε άvτLστpaτηyω ούτε επίτροπω 
^ίφηφορεΐν 8ε8οταί, ω μη καΐ στρατίώτην τίνα 
άποκτεΐναι εζεΐναο νενόμισταί' ου yap οτι τοΐς 
βουΧευταΐς άΧλά καΐ τοΐς Ιππεύσιν, οϊς τούθ 

8 υπάρχει, καΐ εκείνο συyκεγωpητaL. ταύτα μεν ούν 
ούτως έχει, ραβΒούχοις 8ε 8η πέντε πάντες ομοίως 
οΐ άvτίστpάτηyoL χρώνται, καΐ όσοι yε ουκ εκ των 
ύπατευκότων είσί, καϊ ονομάζονται eV αυτού τού 

^ τφ ΤΓολ^μω Μ, του ΊΓθλ4μου λ . 

^ Lcgati Augnsti pro praelore. 

^ The expression to wliich Dio here refers is apparently 
the adjective quinquefascalis, found in inseriptional Latin. 



lo assunie the iTisi<^ni;i of llieir office iin)ncdiately 
upon leaving• the poineriuni αικί were to wear tliem 
cunstantly until tliey returned. Tlie other governors, 
on the other hand, were to be chosen l)y tlieemj)eror 
himself and were to be called his envoys and 
j)ro})raetors/ even if the men selected Λvere ex- 
consuls. Thus, of these two titles which had been 
in vofijue so long under the republic, he gave that of 
praetor to the men chosen by him, on the ground 
that from very early times it had been associated 
with v/arfare, calling them propraetors ; and he gave 
the name of consul to the others, on the ground that 
their duties were more peaceful, styling them pro- 
consuls. For he reserved the full titles of consul 
and praetor for Italy, and designated all the governors 
outside of Italy as acting in their stead. So, then, 
lie caused the ajipointed governors to be known as 
propraetors and to hold office for as much longer 
than a year as should please him ; he made them 
wear the military uniform, and a sword, with which 
they are permitted to execute even soldiers. For 
no one else, whether proconsul, pro})raetor, or pro- 
curator, has been given the privilege of wearing a 
sword without also having been accorded the right 
to })ut a soldier to death ; indeed, this right has been 
granted, not only to the senators, but also to the 
knights who are entitled to wear a sword. So much 
for this. All the propraetors alike employ five 
lictors, and, indeed, all of them except those who 
were ex-consuls at the time of ap))ointment to 
governorships receive their title from this very 
number.'- Both classes alike assume the decorations 

All the editions ])revious to that of Boissevain gave "six 
lictors," an error corrected by Mommsen {Jiumijichtu Staats- 
recht, i^ p. 309, note 4). 

vol.. VT. 


αριθμού τούτον, τά τβ τΡ/'ς ψ/βμ.ονία'^ κοσμήματα, 
όταν τε fc"9 την ττροστβτα^μ^ην σφίσι χώραν 
€σ€Κθωσιν, εκατβροί ομουω^ άναΧαμβύνονσι , α αϊ 
eTreihav Βιάρξωσιν, βύθύ^ κατατίθενται. 
14< Οιίτω μεν κα\ εττι τούτοι^; εκ τε των εστρατη- 
'^/ηκότων κα\ εκ των ύττατενκότων άρχ^οντε'^ άμφο- 
τερωσε ττεμιτεσθαι ενομίσθησαν. καΐ αυτών ό 
μεν αυτοκράτωρ οττοι τε τίνα καΐ όττότε ήθεΧεν 
εστεΧλε, καΐ ττοΧλοΙ καϊ στρατη'^/ούντ€<ί και 
υττατεύοντε^ η'γεμονία'ζ εθνών εσγον, ο καϊ ^ νυν 

2 εστίν οτε <γ1^νεταί' ττ} Βε Βή βονΧτ} ΙΒία μεν τοΓς 
τε νττατευκόσι την τε \\φρικην καϊ την \\σίαν 
και τοί"? εστρατη'^/ηκοσι τα Χοιττά ττάντα άττε- 
νειμε, KOivfj Βε Βη ττάσιν αύτοΐς άττη^όρευσε 
μηΒενα ττρο ττεντε ετών μετά το εν τη ττόΧει άρξαι 

3 κΧηρουσθαι. καϊ γ^ρονω μεν τινι πάντε<ζ οΐ 
τοιούτοι, εΐ καϊ τΓΧείου^ τών εθνών ήσαν, iXay- 
'χανον αυτά' ύστερον Βε, ειτειΒή τίνες αυτών ου 
καΧώς ηρ'χ^ον, τω αύτοκράτορι καϊ εκείνοι "προσ- 
ετέθησαν, καϊ ούτω καϊ τούτοις αύτος τρόπον 

4 τινά τάς ήyεμovίaς ΒίΒωσιν. ισαρίθμους τε yap 
τοις εθνεσι, καϊ ους αν εθεΧηση, κΧηρουσθαι 
κεΧεύει. αιρετούς τε τίνες καϊ εκεΐσε εττεμψαν, 
καϊ εττϊ ττΧείω ενιαυτον 'χρόνον εστίν οις άρξαι 
εττετρεψαν και τίνες καϊ ίτητευσιν άντϊ τών 
βουΧευτών έθνη τινά ττροσεταξαν, 

1 κα.\ Bk.. re \'Μ. 


of tlicir position of aiiLhority when they enter their 
a[)pointe(i jjroviiicc and lay tliem aside immediately 
upon completini>• their term of oifiec. 

it was thus and on tliese conditions tiiat the 
custom was established of sending out ex-praetors 
and ex-consuls respectively as governors of the two 
classes of provinces. In the one case, the emperor 
would commission a governor to any province he 
wished and when he wished, and many secured 
provincial commands while still praetors or consuls, 
as sometimes happens even at the present day. In 
the case of the senatorial provinces, he assigned 
Asia and Africa on his own responsibility to the 
ex-consuls, and all the other provinces to the ex- 
praetors ; but by public decree, ap})licable to all the 
senatorial governors, he forbade the allotment of any 
senator to a governorship before the expiration ot 
five years from the time he had held office in the 
city.^ For a time all who fulfilled these require- 
ments, even if they exceeded the number of the 
{)rovinces, were allotted to governorships ; but later, 
inasmuch as some of them did not govern well, the 
appointment of these officials, too, Λν35 put in the 
emperor's hands. And thus it is, in a manner of 
speaking, the emperor who assigns these governors 
also to their commands ; for he always orders the 
allotment of precisely the number of governors that 
there are provinces, and orders to be drawn whom- 
soever he pleases. Some emperors have sent men of 
their own choosing to these provinces also, and have 
allowed certain of them to hold office for more than 
a year ; and some have assigned certain provinces to 
knights instead of to senators. 

^ This was merely a renewal of the decree of 52 R.r. which 
had remained in force. Cf. xl. 46, "2, and lii. 20. 4. 

Q ^ 


5 Ταύτα μεν οντω τότε rrepl τηύς βουΧβυτας 
τους 76 καΐ θανατοΰν του? άρχ^ομάνονς e^ovaiav 
β^οντα^ ^νομίσθ?]. πέμπονται yap και οϊς ουκ 
βζεστί τούτο, e? μβν τα του ^7]μου τή<; τβ βουλής 
Χε^ομενα έθνη οϊ τε ταμιεύοντες, ους αν ό κΧήρος 
άποΒείξτ], καΐ οι παρεΒρεύοντες τοΐς το κύρος της 

6 α,ρ-χτις ε^ουσιν. οΰτω yap αν ορθούς αυτούς, ου 
προς το όνομα άΧλα προς την πράξιν, ωσπερ 
είπον, καΧεσαιμι, επεί ο1 ηε ^ αΚΧοι πρεσβευτας 
καΐ τούτους εΧληνιζοντες ονομάζουσι. καΐ περί 
μεν της επίκΧήσεως ταύτης αρκούντως εν τοις 

7 άνω Χο^οις εϊρηται, τους 8ε 8η πάρεδρους αυτό? 
εαυτω έκαστος αίρεΐται, ενα μεν οΐ εστpaτηyηκότες 
εκ των ομοίων σφίσιν ή καΐ των υποδεέστερων, 
τρεις 8ε οΐ ύπατευκότες και εκ των ομότιμων, ους 
αν καΐ ο αυτοκράτωρ Βοκιμάση. εκαινοτομηθη 
μεν yap τί καΐ κατά τούτους, uXX' επεί8η τα'χυ 
επαύσατο, αρκέσει τότε αύτο Χεχ^θήναι. 

15 ΤΙερΙ μεν ουν τα του 8ήμου έθνη ταΰθ^ ούτω 
yiyveTar πέμπονται δε καΐ ες τα έτερα, τα του 
τε αύτοκράτορος ονομαζόμενα καΐ ποΧιτικα στρα- 
τόπεδα πΧείω ενός ε'χ^οντα, οΐ υπάρχοντες σφων, 
νπ^ αύτοΰ εκείνου το μεν πΧεΐστον εκ των εστρα- 
τηyηκότωv η8η δε καΐ εκ των τεταμιευκοτων η 
καϊ άΧΧην τινά άρ'χ^ην των Sia μέσου άρξάντων 

1 y€ Η. Steph., re Λ'Μ. 


These were the principles established at that b.c. 27 
time in regard to the particular class of senators 
who had the right to inflict the death penalty upon 
their subjects in the provinces. For it should be 
stated that there is a class who have not this right, — 
those, namely, who are sent to the provinces styled 
the " provinces of the senate and people," — I mean 
those who serve either as quaestors, being designated 
by lot to this office, or as assessors ^ to those Λνΐιο 
hold the actual authority. For this would be the 
correct vjixy for me to style these officials, having 
regard not to their name, but to their duties as just 
described, although others in hellenizing their title 
call these also " envoys." ^ Concerning this title, 
however, enough has been said in what precedes.^ 
As to assessors in general, each governor chooses his 
own, the ex-praetors selecting one from their peers 
or even from their inferiors, and the ex-consuls three 
from among those of equal rank, subject to the 
emperor's approval. For, although a certain change 
was made in regard to these men also, yet it soon 
lapsed and it will be sufficient to mention it at the 
proper time. 

This is the system followed in the case of the 
provinces of the peoj)le. To the others, which are 
called the imperial provinces and have more than 
one citizen-legion, are sent officials Λνΐιο are to govern 
them as lieutenants ; these are appointed by the 
emperor himself, generally from the ex-praetors, 
though also from the ex-quaestors, or men wlio have 
held an office between the praetorship and the 

^ Ltgati. Cf. Iv. 27, 6. 

' ΐΓρ^σβίυταί. This, the literal translation of legati, Avas 
in fact the ordinary (ireek term. ^ See chap. 13, 5. 



2 Ύών μ€ν όη ovv βουΧενόιττων ταύτα f.yerait Ικ 
C€ C7J των linreoyv τού<ζ τ€ χίλίά/^χοί'?, και τού<; 
3r/υX^.vσovτa-y ^ καϊ τοίτς Χοιττου^, ων Trept της 
ααφορά^ άνο) μοι τον \ο'/ου irpoeiprp-aiy αυτός ο 
αντοκμάτο}ρ τους μβν ες τα ττοΚιτικα τβί-χτ) μόνα 
τονς C€ και ίς τα ξενικά υ.ττοστίΧΚει, ωσττερ τότε 

3 ττρο<; τον^ Καίσαρος ενομίσθη' και τους ετητρό- 
ΤΓΟί/ς (οντω yap τους τάς τε κοινας ττροσόίους 
eKXe'/ovTa^ και τα προστετα^μενα σφίσιν άναΧί- 
σκοντας ονομ,άΧομεν j ες ττάντα ομοίους τα εθντ], τά 
Τ€ εαυτοί) ryrj και τα, του οημΛυ, τους μεν εκ των 
ίττ'ττεων τους οε καϊ εκ τό)ν άττεΧευθεροίν ττεμττει, 
ττΧην καθ" όσον τους φόρους οι άνθύττατοι τταρ' 

4 ων άρχουσιν εσττράσσουσιν. εντοΧάς τε τινας 
κο,ι τοΙς εττιτρόττοις και τοΙς ανθυττάτοις τοις τε 
άντιστρατψ/οις οίλθ)σιν, οττως επΙ ρητοΐς εξίωσιν. 
κοΛ 'fap τούτο καϊ το'' μισθοφοραν καϊ εκείνοις 

' και τοις άΧΧοις οιοοσθαι τότε ενομχσθη. το μεν 
'/αρ TTfiKai, IfxfO/' α^^ουντες τίνες πάρα του δημο- 
σίου ττάντα, σφίσι τα προς την αρχήν φέροντα 
παρείχον επι λε οη του Κα>.σ αρος πρό)τον αυτοί 
εκείνοι τα,κτόν τι Χαμί^άνειν ηρξαντο, κολ τοίτο ^ 
μλν ουκ εκ του Ισου πασί σφισιν, αλλ* 0)ς που 
καϊ η Xpf^id άπητει, (τάχΟη- και τοΙς ηε επιτρό- 
τΓΟίς και αυτό το του " αξιώματος όνομα άπο του 
αριθμού τό)ν οιοομενων αυτοίς χρημάτων προσ- 

2 ιηυ fie., οΜο'υ του V\f. ^ t'h Hk., Ύ'η*' ^ S] . 

* Τοί/'/Ό Κ. St.i-iiii,, 7θΌ VM. ' ro -Toil Bk . TUVTO VM, 


These positions, tlien. appertiiin to the senators. 
Passing now to the knights, tlie emperor liimself se- 
lects knights to be sent out as miHtary tribunes (both 
those who are prospective senators and the others ; 
concerning their difiVrence in rank I have already 
spoken M, despatching some of them to take command 
of the garrisons of purely citizen-legions, and others 
of the foreisjn legions as well. In this matter he fol- 
loAvs the custom then instituted by Caesar. The 
procurators (for this is the name we give to the men 
who collect the ]niblic revenues and make disburse- 
ments according to the instructions given them) he 
sends out to all the provinces alike, to those of the 
people as weW as to his ΟΛνη, and to this office knights 
are sometimes appointed and sometimes even freed- 
men ; but the proconsuls may exact the tribute from 
the people they govern. The emperor gives in- 
structions to tlie procurators, the proconsuls, and the 
propraetors, in order that they may be under definite 
orders when they go out to their provinces. For both 
this practice and the giving of salaries to them and to 
the other officials was established at this time. In 
former times, of course, certain persons had made a 
business of furnishing the officials with all they needed 
for the conduct of their office, drawing upon the 
treasury for the money ; but under Caesar these officials 
now for the first time began to receive a fixed sidary. 
This was not assigned to them all on the siime basis, 
but approximately as their needs required : and tht^ 
prociu'ators, indeed, get the very title of their rank 
h*om the an\ount of the salaries assigned to theni.- 

* In lii. •2,"'>, (» f. 

- i.e. cnUoiarii, (liictuan't, anJ (receimrii, receiving one 
hunilreil, Ιλυο hundred, and three hundred thousand sesterces 
respect ivoly. 


•2 Τώι^ μβν 8η ουν βούΧευόντων ταντα βχβται, €κ 
Be Βη των Ιττττέων τους τβ 'χ^ιΧιάργους, και τους 
βουΧβυσοντας ^ καΐ τους Χοιττους, ων ττβρί της 
Βιαφορας άνω μοί του λόγου ττροΕίρηταί, αυτός ό 
αυτοκράτωρ τους μβν βς τα ττοΧίτικά τβί'χτ) μόνα 
τους Be καΧ €ς τα ^evLKci άποστ€Χλεί, ωσττερ τότε 

3 7Γ ρος του ^ Καίσαρος ενομίσθη' καΐ τους εττίτρό- 
ττους (ούτω <yap τους τάς τ€ κοίνάς ττροσόΒους 
eK\ey οντάς καΙ τα TrpoaTeTayp^va σφίσιν άναΧί- 
σκοντας ονομάζομ€ν) €ς ττάντα ομοίως τα έθνη, τά 
Τ€ εαυτού Βη καΙ τα του Βημου, τους μεν €κ των 
ΙτΓΤΓεων τους Be κ αϊ εκ των άττεΧευθερων ττεμτΓει, 
πΧην καθ* όσον τους φόρους οι άνθύττατου ιταρ 

4 ων άρχουσίν εσττράσσονσίν. εντοΧάς τε τι,νας 
καΐ τοις εττίτρόττοις καΐ τοΐς άνθυττάτοις τοις τε 
άντίστρατή<^οίς ΒίΒωσιν, οττως εττΐ ρητοΐς εξίωσιν. 
και yap τούτο καΐ το ^ μισθοφοραν καΐ εκείνοις 

ο καΐ τοΐς άΧΧοίς ΒίΒοσθαί τότε ενομισθη. το μεν 
yap ττάΧαί εpyoXaβoϋvτες τίνες τταρα του Βημο- 
σίου ττάντα σφίσι τα προς την άρχ^ην φέροντα 
τταρεΐχον εττΐ Βε Βη του Καίσαρος πρώτον αύτοΙ 
εκείνοι τακτόν τι Χαμβάνειν ηρξαντο. και τούτο ^ 
μεν ουκ εκ του ίσου πάσι σφισιν, αλλ* ως που 
καϊ ή χρεία άπ^τει, ετά-χθη- καΐ τοΐς yε επιτρό- 
πους καΐ αυτό το του ^ αξιώματος όνομα από του 
αριθμού τών ΒιΒομενων αύτοΐς χρημάτων προσ- 

* βου\ζύσοντα$ Dind., ^ov\ci-ao.vTP.s V^I. 

'" τοΓ' Bs., αντοΰ του V^M. '^ το l>k.. t)]v VM. 

* τοΰτο R. Steph., του VM. ^ το του J>k., rovro \ Λ1. 


Tliese positions, then, appertain to tiie senators. 
Passing now to the knights, tlie em})eror himself se- 
lects knights to be sent out as military tribunes (both 
those who are prospective senators and the others ; 
concerning their difference in rank I have already 
spoken ^), despatching some of them to take command 
of the garrisons of purely citizen-legions, and others 
of the foreign legions <as well. In this matter he fol- 
lows the custom then instituted by Caesar. The 
procurators (for this is the name we give to the men 
who collect the ])ublic revenues and make disburse- 
ments according to the instructions given them) he 
sends out to all the provinces alike, to those of the 
people as well as to his own, and to this office knights 
are sometimes appointed and sometimes even freed- 
men ; but the proconsuls may exact the tribute from 
the people they govern. The emperor gives in- 
structions to the procurators, the proconsuls, and the 
propraetors, in order that they may be under definite 
orders when they go out to their provinces. For both 
this practice and the giving of salaries to them and to 
the other officials was established at this time. In 
former times, of course, certain persons had made a 
business of furnishing the officials v.ith all they needed 
for the conduct of their office, draΛving upon the 
treasury for the money ; but under Caesar these officials 
now for the first time bee;an to receive a fixed salary. 
This Avas not assigned to them all on the same basis, 
but a})proximatcly as their needs required ; and th(i 
prociu'ators, indeed, get the very title of their rank 
from the amount of the salaries assigned to them.- 

» In Hi. 2Γ), (I f. 

'-' i.e. centcnnvii, iliicenatii, :uul frecenarii, receiving oiu• 
hundred, two hundred, and three hundred thousand sesterces 



6 ηίην^ται. εκβίνα he βττΐ ττάσιν ομοίως βνομοθβ- 
τηθη, μ.ητε καταΧο^ονς σφάς ττοΐΈΐσθαι, μητ^ 
apyvpLOV βξω του τετα^μίνου βσττράσσειν, ei μη 
ήτοι η βουΧη ψηφοσαιτο ή ό^ αυτοκράτωρ Κ€- 
\εύσ€ί€ν' 'όταν τε τω 6 8ίά8οχ^ος eXOrj, εκ τε του 
εθρον<ζ αύτίκα αύτον εζορμασθαι καΐ εν ttj άνα- 
κομώτ} μη ε^γ^ρονιζείν, αλλ εντο<; τριών μηνών 
16 Ύαΰτα μεν οΰτω τότε ώς ^ε εΙπεΐν Βιετάχθη' 
τω yap 'ipyco καΐ ττάντων καΐ Βία τταντος αύτο<ζ ο 
Καίσαρ, άτε καΐ τών 'χρημάτων κυριεύων (λόγω 
μεν yap τα 8ημοσία άιτο τών εκείνου άιτεκεκριτο, 
'ipycu δε κάϊ ταΰτα 7rp6<s την yvώμηv αυτού άνη- 
Χίσκετο) κα\ τών στρατιωτών κρατών, αύταρ- 

2 'χ^ησειν εμεΧλε. της yoOv δεκαετίας εξεΧθούσης 
άΧΧα ετη ττεντε, είτα ττεντε, κα\ μετά τούτο 8εκα 
καΐ έτερα αύθις 8εκα καΐ άΧΧα Βεκα,'^ ττεμιττάκις^ 
αύτώ εψηφίσθη, ώστε ττ} τών 8εκετηρίΒων ^ Βια- 

3 Bo)(7j Βιά βίου αύτον μ.οναρχ^ησαι. καϊ Βιά τούτο 
καΐ οΐ μετά ταύτα αυτοκράτορες, καίτοι μηκετ ες 
τακτον 'χ^ρόνον άΧΧ ες ττάντα καθάτταξ τον βιον 
άττοΒεικνύμενοι, όμως Βιά τών Βεκα άεΐ ετών 
εώρτασαν ώς καϊ την ηyεμovίav αύθις τότε άνα- 
νεούμενοί' καϊ τούτο καϊ νύν yίyvετaι. 

4 Ό δ' ούν Καίσαρ ττοΧΧά μεν και ττρότερον,^ 

οτε τά ττερί της εζωμοσιας της μ.οναρ)(ίας καϊ τα 

ττερί της τών εθνών Βιανομής ΒιεΧεχθη,^ εΧαβε' 

κα\ yap τό τε τάς Βάφνας ττρο τών βασιΧειων 

^ δ supplied by R. Steph. 

2 καϊ άλλα δβ'/ίο supplied by Mouinisen. 

•* 7Γ6/Λ7Γτά/£ί5 Zon., 7Γ6^ίπτάκυ δ VjSI. 

* 5€Κ€τηρί5ωΐ' Xiph., Se/caeTTjutScsr Ζοπ., 5€Κ€τηρίων λ Μ. 

^ ττρότζρον Rk., nporif'a VM. ^ ζκλίχθη Μ, ζι^λί-γχθη Λ'. 



The following regulations were laid down for them n.t. 27 
hU alike : they were not to raise levies of soldiers or 
to exact money beyond the amount ai)pointed, unless 
the senate should so vote or the emperor so order ; 
and when their successors arrived, they were to leave 
the province at once, and not to delay on the 
return journey, but to get back w ithin three months. 

These regulations Avere established at that time, 
to speak generally ; for in reality Caesar himself 
was destined to have absolute control of all matters 
for all time, because he was not only master of the 
funds (nominally, to be sure, he had separated the 
public funds from his own, but as a matter of fact, 
he always spent the former also as he saw fit), but 
also commanded the soldiers. At all events, when 
his ten-year period came to an end, there was voted 
to him another five years, then five more, after that 
ten, and again another ten, and then ten for the 
fifth time, so that by tlie succession of ten-year 
periods he continued to be sole ruler for life. And 
it is for this reason that the subsecpient emperors, 
though no longer appointed for a specified period, 
but for their whole life once for all, nevertheless 
always held a celebration every ten years, as if then 
renewing their sovereignty once more ; and this is 
done even at the present day. 

Now Caesar had received many privileges and 
honours even previously, when the question of de- 
clining the sovereignty and that of apportioning the 
provinces were under discussion. For the right to 
place the laurel trees in front of the royal residence 



αυτού ττροηθεσθαί, και το τον στέφανου τον 
Βρύίνον virep αυτών άρτάσθαι, τότβ οι ώς και ae\ 
τους τβ ττοΧεμίου^; νικώντί κα\ τους ττοΧίτας 

Γ) σώζοντι εψηφίσθη. (καΧεΙταί oe τα βασίλεια 
τίαΧάτίον, ούχ^ οτι κα\ ε^οξε ποτέ ούτως αύτα 
ονομάζεσθαι, αλλ otl εν τε τω Υ\α\ατίω ό 
Κ,αΐσαρ ωκει καΐ εκεί το στρατη^ιον είχε, και 
Τίνα και ττρος την τού 'Ρωμύλου ιτροενοίκησιν 
φημην ή οΙκια αυτού άττο τού τταντος ορούς ^ 

C εΧαβε' καΐ Βία τούτο καν άΧλοθί ττου 6 αυτο- 
κράτωρ καταΧύτ}, την τού τταΧατίου επίκΧησιν η 
κατα'γω'γη αυτού ισχύει), εττεί δε καΐ τω έργω 
αυτά εττβτεΧεσεν, ούτω Βη και το τού Αυγούστου 
όνομα καΐ τταρά της βουλής και τταρά τού Βημου 

7 εττεθετο. βουΧηθεντων yap σφων ΙΒίως ττως 
αύτον ττροσείττεΐν, καΐ των μεν το των 8ε το και 
εση<γουμενων καΐ αίρουμενων, 6 Καίσαρ επεθύμει 
μεν Ισ'χυρώς 'ΡωμύΧος ονομασθηναι, αίσθόμενος 
δε OTL ύποτΓτεύεταί εκ τούτου της βασιλείας 

8 ετΓίθυμεΐν, ούκετ αυτού άντεττοιησατο, άλΧά 
Αύγουστος ως καΐ ττΧεΙόν τι η κατά ανθρώπους 
ων επεκλτιθη' πάντα yap τα εντιμότατα καΐ τα 
Ιερώτατα aΰyoυστa πpoσayopεύετaι. εξ ούπερ 
καΐ σεβαστον αύτον καΐ ελΧηνίζοντες πως, ώσπερ 
τινά σεπτόν, άπο τού σεβάζεσθαι,- προσεΐπον. 

17 Ούτω μεν 8η τό τε τον 8ημου καΐ το της yεpov- 
σίας κράτος πάν ες τον Aΰyoυστov μετεστη, καΐ αττ' 
αυτού καΐ ακριβής μοναρχ^ία κατεστιγ μοναρχία 
yap, εΐ καΐ τά μάλιστα καΐ 8ύο καΐ τρεις άμα 
το κύρος ποτέ εσχον, αληθέστατα αν νημίζοιτο. 

1 opous R. Sleph., υρου V, ορον ^J. 
- σ€βάζ(σθαι Ζοη., α^θίζ^σθαι ΥλΓ, 



and to hang the crown of oak above tlieni was then b.l. 27 
voted him to symboHze that he was always victor 
over his enemies and the saviour of the citizens. 
The royal residence is called Palatiuni, not because 
it was ever decreed that this should be its name, but 
because Caesar dwelt on the Palatine ^ and had his 
military headquarters there, though his residence 
gained a certain degree of fame from the mount as a 
whole also, because Romulus had once lived there. 
Hence, even if the emperor resides somewhere else, 
his dwelling retains the name of Palatium. And when 
Caesar had actually carried out his promises, the 
name Augustus was at length bestowed upon him by 
the senate and by the people, for when they wished 
to call him by some distinctive title, and men were 
proposing one title and another and urging its 
selection, Caesar Λvas exceedingly desirous of being 
called Romulus, but when he perceived that this 
caused him to be suspected of desiring the kingship, 
lie desisted from his efforts to obtain it, and took the 
title of ^'Augustus," signifying that he was more than 
human ; for all the most precious and sacred objects 
are termed (tugusta. Therefore they addressed him 
also in Cireek as Sehas/os,^ meaning an august person- 
age, from the passive of the verb sebazo, '• to revere." 

In this way the power of both j)eo})le and senate 
passed entirely into the hands of Augustus, and from 
his time there >vas, strictly speaking, a monarchy; for 
monarchy would be the truest name for it, no matter 
if two or three men did later hold the power at the 

^ In both CJieelv and Latin the common form of the nanu- 
for the Palatine {ΧΙαΚάηον and Palatium) is the same as thai 
for the im})orial residence. It is liaidiy necessary to stiiti• 
that Pal(tfiinn has given tlie lOiiglish " palace."' 

•-• Cf. lii. 4<). 


2 TO μίν 'yap όνομα αυτό το μοναρχ^ικον οντω 8η τί 
οι Ρωμαίοι e μίσησαν ώστε μήτε δικτάτορας μήτε 
βασίλ€α<ζ μητ άλ\ο το τοίουτότροπον τους αυτο- 
κράτορας σφων ονομάζειν του he 8η της ττοΧιτείας 
τάΧους €9 αυτούς άνακβιμενου ουκ βστιν οττως ου 

3 βασιλεύονται, αΐ μεν ηάρ άργ^αΐ αϊ εκ των 
νόμων ώς ττΧηθει yεv6μ€vaί καΐ νυν ττΧην της των 
TfcyLtT^TCOi^ καθίστανται, δίάγεταί δε καΐ διοικείται 
ττάντα άττΧώς οττως αν 6 άεϊ κρατών εθελήση. 
και ινα <γε μη εκ δυναστείας αλλ' εκ των νόμων 
τοϋτ ε'χειν ^οκώσι, ττάνθ^ οσα εν τη δημοκρατία 
με<^α τταρ εκοΰσι σφισιν ϊσ'χυσεν, αύτοΐς τοις 
ονομασι χωρίς του της δικτατορίας -προσεττοιη- 

4 σαντο, ΰττατοί τε yap ττΧειστάκις ^ί^νονται, και 
άνθυττατοι αει, οσάκις αν εζω του ττωμηρίου ώσιν, 
ονομάζονται' την τε του αύτοκράτορος ττρόσρησιν 
δίά τταντος ου μόνον οι νικήσαντες τινας άΧΧά 
καΐ οΐ αΧΧοι ττάντες, ττρος 8ήΧωσιν της αύτοτε- 
Χους σφων εξουσίας, άντΙ της του βασιΧεως του 

5 τε Βικτάτορος εττικΧησεως εχουσιν. αύτάς μεν 
yap εκεινας ου τίθενται, ε7Γει8Ί]τΓερ άτταξ εκ της 
ΤΓοΧιτείας εξέπεσαν, το 8ε Βη 'ipyov αυτών τη του 
αύτοκράτορος 7Γpoσηyopίa βεβαιούνται, και εκ 
μεν τούτων των ονομάτων κaτaXόyoυς τε ττοιεΐ- 
σθαι καΐ χρήματα άθροίζειν ττοΧεμους τε άναι- 

6 ρεΐσθαι καΐ είρηνην σττενΒεσθαι, του τε ξενικού 
καΐ τού τΓοΧιτικού άεϊ καΐ ττανταχού ομοίως 
άρχειν, ώστε καΐ εντός τού ττωμηρίου και τους 
ίττπεας και τους βονΧευτάς θανατούν Εύνασθαι, 



siinie time.' The name of inoiiaicliy, Lo be sure, the 
Romans so detested that they called their emperors 
neither dictators nor kin/^s nor anything of the sort ; 
yet since the final autiiority for the i]fovernment 
devolves upon them, they must needs be kings. The 
offices established by the laws, it is true, are main- 
tained even now, except that of censor; but the 
entire direction and administration is absolutely in 
accordance with the wishes of the one in power at 
the time. And yet, in order to jireserve the ap- 
pearance of having this power by virtue of the laws 
and not because of their own domination, the em- 
perors have taken to themselves all the functions, 
including the titles, of the offices which under the 
republic and by the free gift of the people were 
powerful, with the single exception of the dictator- 
ship. Thus, they very often became consuls, and 
they are always styled proconsuls whenever they are 
outside the pomerium. The name of " hnperatoi' is 
held by them all for life, not only by those who have 
won victories in battle, but also by those Λνΐιο have not, 
in token of their independent authority, and this has 
displaced the titles "king" and ^'^ dictator." These 
last titles they have never assumed since the time they 
first fell out of use in the conduct of the government, 
but the functions of those offices arc secured to them 
under the appellation of "/////^6νγ//ί>/•."ΓΒν virtue of the 
titles named they secure the right to make levies, to 
collect funds, declare war, make peace, rule foreigners 
and citizens alike everywhere and always, — even to 
the extent of being able to put to death both knights 
and senators inside the pomerium, — and all the other 

* See note on § 8 in/. 



II \αμβαν6ντ(οι>, ιτροβαίνζί. ταύτα fif.v eV τ?}? 
δημοκρατίας, ώ? ττου και '4καστα ^νομίσθη^ ούτω 
τ€ και hia τούτων των ονομάτων βΙΧήφασιν, οττως 
18 μηΒβν dvev δοσεώ? τίνος e^eiv Βοκωσιν η^η Be 
καΐ βτερόν τι, ο μηΒβνΙ των irakai 'Ρωμαίων €ς 
ττάντα άντίκρυς βΒόθη, ττροσεκτησαντο, ύφ ονττβρ 
κάί μόνου κα\ εκείνα αν καΐ ταΧλ,α αύτοΐς ττράτ- 
TGtv εζην. ΧεΧυνταί <γσφ όη των νόμων, ώς• αύτα 
τα Αατΐνα ρήματα XejGr τουτ εστίν εΧενθεροί 
ατΓο ττάσης avayKaia^ νομίσεώς είσι καΐ ούΕενΙ 

2 των ^ε^ραμμενο-)ν ενέχονται. καΐ ούτως ίκ 
τούτων των δημοκρατικών ονομάτων ιτάσαν την 
της ΤΓοΧίτείας Ιο-χυν ττεριβεβΧηνται ώστε καΐ τα 
τών βασιΧεων, ττΧην τον φορτικού της ττροση- 
^ορίας αυτών, εγειν. η yap Βη τού Κ,αίσαρος η 
τ€ τού Aύyoυστoυ ττροσρησις Βύναμιν μεν ούόε- 
μιαν αύτοΐς οίκειαν ττροστιθησι, 8ηΧοΐ δ' άΧΧως 
το μεν την τού yεvoυς σφών ΒιαΒοχιίν, το Βε την 

3 τού αξιώματος Χαμττρότητα. καΧ η ye τού 
ττατρος επωνυμία τάχ^α μεν καΐ εξουσίαν τινά 
αύτοΐς, ην ττοτε οι πατέρες επΙ τους παΐΒας εσχ^ον, 
κατά πάντων ημών ΒίΒωσιν, ου μεντοι καϊ επϊ 
τούτο άργ^ην iy ενετό άΧΧ ες τ ε τιμήν και ες 
παραίνεσιν, Ίν αυτοί τε τους άργομενους ώς καϊ 

^ That is, the}'^ measured the length of their reign by 
tribunician years, dating either from the very day Avhen the 
tribunician poAver Mas conferred upon them (even if before 


HOOK Llli 

made tribunes.^ These are the institutions which b.c 
they have taken over tVoni the republic^ essentially 
in the form in wliich they severally existed then, 
and also niakin*»• use of these same names, their 
purpose bein<r to create the impression that they 
possess no power that has not been granted them. 
And further, they have acquired also another pre- 
rogative Λνΐιύϊΐι was given to none of the ancient 
Romans outright and unreservedly, and the possession 
of this alone would enable them to exercise the 
powers above named and the others besides. For 
they have been released from the laws, as the very 
Avords in Latin declare ; - th;it is, they are free from 
all compulsion of the laws and are bound by none of 
the written ordinances. Thus by virtue of these 
democratic names they have clothed themselves with 
all the })owers of the government, to such an extent 
that they actually possess all the })rerogatives of 
kings except their })altry title.^ For the appellation 
"Caesar" or "Augustus" confers upon them no 
peculiar power, but merely shows in the one case 
that they are heirs of the family to Λνίπίΐι they 
belong, and in the other the splendour of their 
official position. The term " Father " perhaps gives 
them a certain authority over us all — the authority 
which fathers once had over their children ; yet it 
did not signify this at first, but betokened honour, 
and served as an admonition both to them, that 
they should love their subjects as they would their 

their accession, by way of designating thcni ofileially as 
successors to the imperial power), or (beginning with Trajan) 
from Decembei' 10th, the date of the regular tribunician 

" Frinceps lef/ihH,•^ sohifiis est. Ulpian {Ditjest, i, 3. 31) ; cf. 
Mommsen, Slaatsrtcht, ii". 7-8 ff. 




τταΐύα^ ayaTTfoev και eKeivoi σφα<^• ώς και 7Γ(ΐτ€ρα<; 
4 Ύοσαυταί re και τοιαυται αι ττροση^ορίαι eiatv 
(ΐΐς οι το κράτο<; e')(ovre<^ κατά re το 1/9 νόμους και 
κατά το ήΒη ττάτριον νομίζουσι. και νυν μβν 
ττάσαι άμα αυτοί'; ώ? το ττοΧύ, ττΧην της των 
TLμητώv, ΒΙΒονταί, τοις Be 8η ττάΧαί κατά 'χ^ρόνους 
Γ) ώ? βκασται βψηφιζοντο. την yap όη τιμητε'ιαν 
βλαβον μεν τίνες καΐ των αυτοκρατόρων κατά το 
άρχ^αΐον, εΧαβε 8ε καΐ Αομιτιανος ^ Βιά βίου' ου 
μεντοί καϊ νυν ετί τούτο ^ί^νεταΐ' το yap *4pyov 
αυτής εγοντες ούτε αιρουνται εττ^ αυτήν, ούτε 
TYj ττροσκΧήσει " αυτής ττΧην εν ταις άτΓoypaφa'iς 
19 Ή μεν ουν ττοΧιτεία ούτω τότε ιτρός τβ τό 
βεΧτίον καϊ ττρος το σωτηριωΒεστερον μετεκο- 
σμ7]θη' καϊ yap ττου καϊ τταντάττασιν ά8ύνατον 
ην 8η μοκ ρατου μένους αυτούς σωθήναι. ου μεντοι 
καϊ ομοίως τοις ττροσθεν τα μετά ταύτα ττρα- 

2 γθεντα Χεχθήναι 8ύναται. ττρότερον μεν yap ες 
τε την βουΧην και ες τον 8ήμον ττάντα, κα\ ει 
Ίτόρρω ττου συμβαιη, εσεφερετο' καϊ 8ίά τούτο 
ττάντες τε αυτά εμάνθανον και ττοΧΧοι συvεypa- 
φον, κάκ τούτου καϊ ή άΧηθεια αύτων, ει και 
τά μάΧιστα καϊ φόβω τινά καϊ γ^άριτι φιΧία 
τε καϊ εχ^θρα τισίν ερρήθη, τταρά yoύv τοις αΧ- 
Χοις τοις τά αυτά ypd^aai τοις τε ύττομνήμασι 

3 τοί9 8ημοσίοις τροττον τινά ευρίσκετο. εκ 8ε 8ή 
του γ^ρόνου εκείνου τά μεν ττΧείω κρύφα καϊ 8t 
άτΓορρητων yiy νεσθαι ήρξατο, ει 8ε ττου τίνα και 

^ Αομίτιαν})$ F. Stepli., 5ομηΓΐαι•ο5 V]\J. 
^ τ?) προσ.ιλήσίί Bs. , την TrfoaK\'i]aiy VM. 



children, and to Llieir subjects, tliat llicv should 
revere them as they would their fathers. 

Such is the MUinhcr and naturr of the appella- 
tions which those who possess the imj^erial power 
employ in accordance with the laws and with Λvhat 
has now beconie tradition. At present all of them 
are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one 
and the same time, with the excej)tion of the title 
of censor ; but to the earlier emj)erors they were 
voted se{)arately at different times. As regards 
the censorshij), some of them took it in accordance 
with the ancient practice, and Domitian, in fact, 
took it for lilV, but this is no longer done at the 
present day ; for, inasmuch as they possess its 
powers, they are not elected to the oftice and do 
not use the title except in connexion Avith the 

In this way the government was changed at that 
time for the better and in the interest of greater 
security ; for it was no doubt quite impossible for 
the people to be saved under a republic. Never- 
theless, the events occurring after this time can not 
be recorded in the same manner as those of previous 
times. Formerly, as we know, all matters were re- 
ported to the senate and to the peo})le, even if they 
happened at a distance ; hence all learned of them 
and many recorded them, and consequently the 
truth regarding them, no matter to what extent 
fear or favour, friendshij) or enmity, coloured the 
rej)orts of certain writers, was always to a certain 
extent to be found in the works of the other writers 
who wrote of the same events and in the public 
records. Hut after this time most things that hap- 
pened began to be kept secret and concealed, and 

R 2 


οημοσίευθείΐ), άλλα ave^eXeyicra ye ' opt a άτη- 
στ€Ϊταί• και yap Xeyeadai και ΐΓράττεσθαι ττάντα 
7rpo<i τα των ael κρατούντων των τ€ irapahvva- 

4 στευόντων σφίσί βουΧι^ματα ντΓΟτττεύεται. καΙ 
κατά τούτο ττολλά μεν ου ητ/νομενα ΘρυΧεΙται, 
TToWa δε καΐ ττάνυ συμβαίνοντα αγνοείται, 
πάντα he ώ? είττείν αλλω? ττως η ώ? ττράττεται 
8ίαθροεΐται. και μεντοι και το της άρ-χ^ης μέγε- 
θος τ6 τε των πραγμάτων ττΧηθος 8νσχ^ερεστάτ7]ν 

5 την "^ άκρίβειαν αυτών τταρεχεται. εν τε yap ττ} 
Ρώμγ) συχνά καΐ τταρά τω υττηκοω αυτής ττοΧλά, 

ττρός Τ€ το ττοΧεμίον άει και καθ ημεραν ώς είττείν 
yίyvετaί τι^ ττερί ων το μίν σαφές ούΒεις ρα^ίως 
ε^ω των ττραττόντων αύτα yιyvωσκεί, ττΧεΙστοί Κ 

6 οσοί ουδ* άκούουσι την άρχην οτι yεyovεv. οθεν- 
Ίτερ καΐ εγώ ττάντα τα εξής, οσα ye * καί avay- 
καΐον εσται είττείν, ώς ττου καΐ ΒεΒι^μωται φράσω, 
εϊτ όντως όντως εϊτε καϊ ετερως ττως έχει. ττροσ- 
έσταί μεντοι τι αύτοΐς και της εμής δοξασίας, ες 
όσον ενΒεχεται, εν οϊς άΧΧο τι μάΧΧον ή το θρυ- 
Χούμενον ηΒυνήθην εκ ττοΧλών ων άvεyvωv ή καΐ 
ηκονσα ή καϊ εΙΒον τεκμήρασθαι. 

20 Avyoυστoς μεν Βη 6 Καίσαρ, ώσττερ είττον, 
εττωνομάσθη, και αύτω σημεΐον ου σμικρόν ευθύς 
τότε της νυκτός επεyεvετo' 6 yap Ύίβερις ττελαγι- 
σας ιτασαν την εν τοις ττεΒίοις 'νώμην κατεΧαβεν 
ώστε ττΧεϊσθαι, καϊ απ' αυτού οι μάντεις 'ότι τε 

1 ye R. Steph., re VM Xipli. - Τ7> Xiph., om. VM. 
3 Tt VM, Tiva Xiph. * y^ H. Steph., re VM. 



even thougli some thini>;.s are percliance made })ublic, 
they are distrusted just because they can not be 
verified ; for it is suspected that everything is said 
and done witli reference to the wishes of the men 
in power at the time and of their associates. As a 
result, much that never occurs is noised abroad, and 
much that liappens beyond a doubt is unknown, and 
in the case of nearly every event a version gains 
currency that is different from the way it really 
happened. Furthermore, the very magnitude of the 
empire and the multitude of things that occur 
render accuracy in regard to them most difficult. 
In Rome, for example, much is going on, and much 
in the subject territory, Λvhile, as regards our 
enemies, there is something happening all the time, 
in fact, every day, and concerning these things no 
one except the [)artici})ants can easily have correct 
information, and most people do not even hear of 
them at all. Hence in my own narrative of later 
events, so far as they need to be mentioned, every- 
thing that I shall say will be in accordance with the 
reports that have been given out, whether it be 
really the truth or otherwise. In addition to these 
reports, however, my own o})inion Λνΐΐΐ be given, as 
far as possible, whenever I have been able, from the 
abundant evidence which I have gathered from my 
reading, from hearsay, and from what I have seen, 
to form a judgment that differs from the common 

Caesar, as I have said, received the name of 
Augustus, and a sign of no little moment to him 
occurred that very night ; for the Tiber overflowed 
and covered all of Home tliat was on low ground, so 
that it was navigable for boats. From this sign the 



eVl μe'ya αύ^ησοι καί on ττασαν την iroXtv νττο- 

2 'χβιρίαν βξοί 7Γpoe'yvωσav. χαριζομβνωρ δ' αύτω 
καθ^ ντΓβρβόΧην άΧλων άΧΚα} ^βξτος Τί9 Τίακού- 
ουιος,^ ώς δ' erepoc Xiyovaiu Άττοι^δίο?, ττάντας 
έξενίκησβν iv yap τω συνε^ρίω βαυτόν re οι 
τον των Ιβήρων τροττον καθωσίωσβ καΐ τοΖν 

3 άΧΧοι^ί σννεβούΧευβ τούτο ττοιήσαι. iireiByj re 
ο Αι;γουστο9 βμττοΒών οΐ iy ενετό, ττρός τ€ το 
ττΧήθο^ το ττροσεστος εζεττή^ησεν ^ε^ημάρ-χεί 
yap) καΐ εκείνους τε καϊ μετά ταύτα καΐ τους 
ΧοίΤΓούς, κατά τε τας 68ούς καϊ κατά τους στενω- 
ΤΓούς ττερινοστήσας, καθιερώσαί σφας τω Αύ- 

4 yoύστφ κaτηvάyκaσεv' αφ' ουπερ καϊ νύν ττροσ- 
τρεττόμενοί ^ τον κρατούντα 'Kεyειv εΐώθαμεν οτι 
" σοι καθωσιώμεθα^ 

Και ό μεν καϊ θύσαι εττΐ τούτω τταντας εττοίει, 
εν τε τω 6μί\ω ττοτε κΧηρονόμον εφη τον Αΰ- 
yovaTOV εξ ίσου τω υίεΐ κατά\εί'>^είν, ούχ^ οτι 
τι εΐ'χ^εν, αλλ οτι καϊ ττροσΧαβεϊν ήθεΧησεν, ο καϊ 
ί21 εyεvετo' Aΰyoυστoς δε τά τε άΧλα τά τγι άρ'χτι 
ττροσήκοντα ττροθυμότερον, ώς καϊ εθε\οντΙ 8η 
τταρά ττάντων αύτην είΧηφώς, ειτραττε, καϊ ενο- 
μοθετει ττοΧλά. ούΒεν δε Βεομαι καθ^ εκαστον 
ακριβώς εττεξιεναι, χ(ορΙς ή οσα ττ} συyypaφf] 
2 ττρόσφορά εστί. το δ' αυτό τούτο καϊ εν τοις 
€7Γ€ΐτα ττραχθεΐσι ττοιήσω, Ίνα μη καϊ δί' οχΧου 

^ άλλα Μ, άλλαι V. ^ Πακούουιοε Bk,, ττακούβωε VM. 

•^ Ίτροστρζπόμίνοι Bk., ττροτρξίτόμξνοι Λ^Μ. 



soothsayers prophesied that he would rise to ^reat 
heights and liold the wliole eity under his sway. 
And while various persons were trying to outbid 
one another in different kinds of flattery toward 
him, one wSextus Pacuvius, or, as others say, Apudius,^ 
surpassed them all. In the open senate, namely, he 
dedicated himself to him after the fashion of the 
.Spaniards " and advised the others to do the same. 
And when Augustus hindered him, he rushed out to 
the crowd that was standing near, and, as he was 
tribune, compelled first them and then the rest, as 
he went up and down the streets and lanes, to dedi- 
cate themselves to Augustus. From this episode we 
are Λνοηί even now to say, in appealing to the 
sovereign, ^'^ We have dedicated ourselves to you." 

Pacuvius ordered all to offer sacrifice in view of this 
occurrence, and before the multitude he once declared 
that he was going to make Augustus his heir on equal 
terms with his own son, — not that he had much of any- 
thing, but because he hoped to receive still more ; and 
so it actually turned out. Augustus attended to all the 
business of the empire with more zeal than before, 
as if he had received it as a free gift from all the 
Romans, and in particular he enacted many la>vs. I 
need not enumerate them all accurately one by one, 
but only those which have a bearing upon my history; 
and I shall follow this same course also in the case 
of later events, in order not to become wearisome 

' Inasmuch as Sextus Pacuvius Taurus is first heard of (as 
tribune) in h.v. 9, it is probable that Apudius is the proper 
form to be read liere. 

- According to Valerius Maximus (ii. G, 11), the Celti- 
l)erians thought it wrong to survive a battle wlien the leader 
for whose preservation they had vowed their life {<p{ri(um 
i/et'orfranO had perished. Cf. Caesar, B.O. iii. 22. 



^βνωμαι πάντα τα τοιαύτα βπβσφβρων α μηΚ 

3 αυτοί οΐ ττάνν αυτά μ€\€τωρτ€<^ άκριβουσιν. ου 
μβντοί καΐ πάντα ISioyvo) μονών €νομοθ€Τ€ΐ, αλλ' 
βστι μβν α και €<? το Ζημοσιον προβξετίθβι, οττω?, 
άν TL μη άρεστ) τινά, προμαθων βπανορθώστ)' 
προβτρεπβτό τβ yap πάνθ' όντινουν συμβουΧεύειν 
οι, €Ϊ Tt9 τι αμβινον αυτών βπινοησειβν, καΐ παρ- 
ρησίαν σφίσι ποΧλην eve με, και τίνα κα\ μετε- 

4 άγραφε, το δέ St) πΧεΐστον τους τε υπάτους η 
τον νπατον, οπότε καΐ αύτος ύπατεύοι, κάκ των 
αΧλων άργ^όντων ενα παρ εκάστων, εκ τε του 
Χοιπον των βουΧευτών πΧηθους πεντεκαίΕεκα 
τους κΧηρω ^ Χα'χόντας, συμβούΧους ες εξάμηνον 
παρεΧάμβανεν, ώστε 8ι αυτών καΐ τοις άΧΧοις 
πάσι κοινουσθαι τρόπον τίνα τα νομοθετούμενα 

5 νομίζεσθαι. εσεφερβ μεν yap τίνα καΐ ες πάσαν 
την yepoυσίav, βεΧτιον μεντοι νομίζων είναι το 
μετ 6Xίyωv καθ ησυ'χίαν τά τε πΧείω και τά 
μειζω π ροσ κοπείσθ αι, τουτό τε εποίει καΐ εστίν 

6 οτε καΐ εΒίκαζε μετ αυτών, έκρινε μεν yap κα\ 
καθ εαυτην η βονΧη πάσα ως καΐ πρότερον, και 
τισι καΐ πρεσβείαις καΐ κηρυκείαις καΐ Βημων 
και βασιλέων ε'χρημάτιζεν, ο τε 8ήμος ες τας 
άργ^αιρεσίας καΐ το πΧηθος αυ συveXεyετo' ου 
μεντοι καϊ επράττετό τι ο μη και εκείνον ήρεσκ€.~ 

7 τους yodv άρχοντας τους μεν αύτος εκXεyόμevoς 
προεβάΧΧετο, τους he καϊ επΙ τω διίμω τω τε 

^ κλ-ηρψ Xiph., KXripovs Λ ΛΙ. 

" ^pea/ic Xiph. Zon., ijpcafv VM. 



1)}^ iiitrudiicin^ all tluit kind of detail that even the b.c 27 
men who devote themselves to such studies do not 
know to a nicety. He did not, however, enact all 
these laws on his sole resj)onsibility, but some of 
them he hrouoht before the public assembly in 
advance, in order that, if any features caused dis- 
pleasure, he might learn it in time and correct them ; 
for he encouraged everybody whatsoever to give him 
advice, in case any one thought of any possible im- 
j)rovement in them, and he accorded them complete 
liberty of speech, and actually changed some pro- 
visions of the proposed laws. Most im])ortant of 
all, he took as advisers for periods of six months the 
consuls (or the other consul, when he himself also held 
the office), one of each of the other kinds of officials, 
and fifteen men chosen by lot from the remainder of 
the senatorial body, with the result that all legislation 
proposed by the emperors is usually communicated 
after a fashion through this body to all the other 
senators ; for although he brought certain matters 
before the whole senate, yet he generally followed 
this plan, considering it better to take under pre- 
liminary advisement most matters and the most im- 
portant ones in consultation with a few ; and some- 
times he even sat with these men in the trial of cases. 
The senate as a body, it is true, continued to sit in 
judgment as before, and in certain cases transacted 
business with embassies and heralds, from both 
peoples and kings ; and the peo])le and the plebs, 
moreover, continued to meet for the elections ; but 
nothing was done that did not jjlease Caesar. It 
Avas he, at any rate, >vho selected and placed in 
nomination some of the men Λνΐιο were to hold 
otlicc, and though in the case of others he adhered 



όμίΧω κατά ro άρχ^αΐον ττοιούμενο^ €7Γ€μ€\€Ϊτο 
οττως μήτ άνβπιτή^βίΟί μήτ €Κ τταρακεΧΕυσβως ή 
καί Ψεκασμοί) αττο^βικνυωνται} 
2ί2 Το μεν ουν σύμτταν οντω την άρχ^ην Βιωκησε, 
\εζω he και καθ^ βκαστον όσα αναηκαΐον εστί 
μετά το)ν υπάτων, εφ '" ών εyεvετo, μνημονεύ- 
εσθαι. εν μεν 'yap τω ττροείρημενω ετει τάς οΒούς 
τ ας εζω τον τεί'χου<=; Βνσττορεύτονζ υττ' άμεΧείας 
ορών ούσα'ζ τα? μεν άΧλας α\Χοι<ζ τισΐ των βου- 
Χευτών εττισκενάσαί τοις οίκείοις τεΧεσι ττροσε- 
ταξε, της Βε 8η ΦΧαμινΙας'^ αυτός, εττειΒήττερ 
εκστρατεύσειν hi αυτής ημεΧΧεν, επεμεΧήθη. 

2 καΐ ή μεν ευθύς τότε εyεvετo, καΐ hia τούτο 
καΧ εικόνες αύτω εφ^ ά\ΙηΒων εν τε ττ} τον Ύι- 
βεριΒος γέφυρα καΐ εν Άριμίνω εττοιηθησαν αϊ 
δ* άΧΧαί ύστερον, εϊτ ουν ττρος του Βημοσίου, 
εττειΒη μηΒεϊς των βουΧευτών ήΒεως άνηΧίσκεν, 
εϊτ€ καΐ ττρός τον Κύ^ούστου τις είττεΐν εθεΧει, 

3 εττεσκενάσθησαν. ου yap Βνναμαι Βιακρΐναι τους 
θησαυρούς αυτών, ούΒ' εΐ τα μάΧιστα 6 Αΰ- 
yoυστoς καΐ άνΒριάντας τινάς εαυτού άpyυpovς, 
Ίτρός τε των φίΧων καΐ ττρος Βημων τινών yε- 
yov6τaς, ες νόμισμα κατεκοψε τον Βη καΐ οίκοθεν 

4 ττάνθ^ οσα ye καΐ εXεyε Βαττανάν Βοκεΐν καΐ Βιά 
τοντο οντ €ί ττοτε εκ τών Βημοσιων τι γ^ρημάτων 
ό άεΐ κρατών εΧαβεν, οντ εϊ ττοτε αντος εΒωκε,^ 
yvώμηv ε'χω συyypάψaι. ττοΧΧάκις τε yap εκά- 
τερον αντών iy ενετό, καΐ τι αν τις ες Βανείσματα 
ή κα\ Βωρεας τά τοιαύτα KaTaXiyoi,^ όττότε και 

^ αΐΓο5€ΐκνύωνται R. Steph., απο$€ίκνυνται VM Xiph. Ζοη. 
2 ίφ' St., νφ' VM. 3 φχαμινίαε R. Steph., φλαμηνΙα$ VM. 

* ίδωκ€ R. Steph., ίλα^8€ ΥΜ. 
' KaraXiyoi Keim.. κα\ Atyoi VM. 

nooK Liii 

Ιυ tlie ancient custom and Iclt them under the con- 
trol of the people and the j)lebs, yet he took care 
that none should be appointed who were unfit or 
as the result of j)artisan cliques or bribery- 
It was in this way, broadly speaking, that he ad- 
ministered the empire. I sliall now relate in detail 
also such of his acts as call for mention, together 
with the names of the consuls under whom they 
were performed. In the year already named, j)er- 
cciving that the roads outside the walls had become 
difficult to travel as the result of neglect, he ordered 
various senators to repair the others at their own 
expense, and he himself looked after the Flaminian 
Way, since he Avas going to lead an army out by that 
route. This road was finished promptly at that time, 
and statues of Augustus Avere accordingly erected on 
arches on the bridge over the Tiber and at Ariminum ; 
but the other roads were repaired later, at the expense 
either of the public (for none of the senators liked 
to spend money upon tiiem) or of Augustus, as one 
chooses to put it. For I am unable to distinguish 
between the two funds, no matter how extensively 
Augustus coined into money silver statues of himself 
which had been set up by certain of his friends and 
by certain of the subject peoples, purposing thereby 
to make it appear that all the expenditures which 
he claimed to be making were from his own means. 
Therefore I have no opinion to record as to whether 
a particular cm])eror on a particular occasion got the 
money from the public funds or gave it himself. 
For both courses were frequently followed ; and why 
should one enter such expenditures as loans or as gifts 
respectively, when both the people and the emperor 



τούτοις και €Κ€ΐνοις και ο Βημο'ζ και ό αυτοκράτωρ 
ίττΊκοινον άε\ 'χ^ρωνται; 
5 Τότε p,ev 8η ταύτα 6 ^ Αύγουστο? βττραξε, και 
βξώρμησβ μβν ώ? καΐ e? την Έρβττανίαν στρα- 
τεύσων, βς δε 8η τΑ? Γαλατία? βΧθων ενταύθα 
βνΒιβτριψεν εκείνοι τ€ yap eir ικη ρυ κεύσ εσθ αϊ ' 
οι ehoKovv, και τα τούτων ακατάστατα ετι, άτε 
των εμφνΧιων ττοΧεμων εύθυς επι ττ) άΧώσει σφων 
ετΓΐ^ενο μένων, ην. και αυτών και άττο'^/ραφάς 
ετΓΟίησατο και τον βίον την τε ττοΧιτείαν Βιεκό- 
σμησε. κάντεύθεν e? τε την Ίβηρίαν άφίκετο, καΐ 
κατεστ7]σατο και εκείνην. 
23 Μετά δε δ^ τούτο αυτός τε το oySoov συν τω 
Ύανρω τω %τατιλιω ύττάτενσε, καΐ ο Άγριττττα? 

2 τα Σεπτά ωνομασμενα καθιερωσεν 68ον μίν 
yap ^ ον^εμίαν εττισκευάσειν ύττεσγετο, ταύτα δε 
εν τω ^Αρειω ττεδιω στοαΐς ττεριζ υττο τού Αεττί^ον 
7Γ/309 τα? φυΧετίκας άργ^αιρεσίας συνωκοΒομημενα 
καΐ ΊτΧα^ί Χιθίναις και ζωypaφημaσLv εττεκό- 
σμ7]σεν, ^ΙονΧια αύτα άττο τού Xύyoύστoυ ττροσ- 

3 ayopεύσaς. καΐ 6 μεν ούγ^ οττως φθόνον τινά ε'ττ' 
αύτοΐς ώφΧισκανεν, άΧΧά καΐ πάνυ και ττρος 
αυτού εκείνου καΐ Ίτρος των άΧΧων άττάντων 

4 ετιμάτο (αϊτιον δε οτι τα φιΧανθρωττότατα καΐ τα 
εύκΧεεστατα τά τε συμφορώτατα καΐ συμβου- 
Χεύων οΐ καΐ συμπράττων ούδ' εττι βραχύ της 
Βόζης αυτών άντεττοιεΐτο, ταΐς τε παρ αυτού 
τιμαΐς ούτε ες πΧεονεζίαν ούτε ες άπόΧαυσιν Ihiav 
εγ^ρητο, αλλ* ε? τε το αύτώ εκείνω καΐ ες το 

^ δ supplied by R. Steph. 

^ 4πίκηρυκ€νσ€σθαι Cobet, ίττικηρυκ^ύσασθαι VM. 

^ yap M, om. V, 


HOOK LI 1 1 

are constantly rcsorlin^ to l)()th the nnc and llic M.f.27 
other indiscriminately ? 

These were the acts of Augustus at that time. He 
also set out to make an expedition into Britain, but 
on coming• to the provinces of Gaul lingered there. 
For the Britons seemed likely to make terms Avith 
him, and the affairs of the Gauls were still unsettled, 
as the civil wars had begun immediately after their 
subjugation. He took a census of the inhabitants 
and regulated their life and government. From 
Gaul he proceeded into Spain, and established order 
there also. 

After this he became consul for the eighth time, «.c. 26 
together with Statilius Taurus, and Agrippa dedicated 
the structure called the Saepta ; for instead of under- 
taking to rejiair a road, Agrippa had adorned Avith 
marble ta])lets and paintings this edifice in the Cam- 
pus Martius, which had been constructed by Lepidus 
with })orticos all around it for the meetings of the 
comitia trihida, and he named it the Saepta lulia in 
honour of Augustus. And Agrippa not only incurred 
no jealousy on this account, but was greatly honoured 
both by Augustus himself and by all the rest of the 
people. The reason Avas that he consulted and 
cooperated with Augustus in the most humane, the 
most celebrated, and the most beneficial j^rojects^ 
and yet did not claim in the slightest degree a share 
in the glory of them, but used the lionours Avhich 
the emperor bestowed, not for personal gain or en- 
joyment, but for the benefit of the donor himself and 



Γ> TO) ^ ^ημοσίω συμφβροιι), ή he Βη Γάλλος K.opv7}- 
λ/.ο? fcal βξνβρισεν ΰττο ττ)? Ύίμης. ττολλ/χ μ€ΐ' 
yap και μάταια eV τον AvyovaTov άττβΚηρα, 
τΓολλά he και tVatr/a τταρέττραττε• καΐ yap και 
eiKova'; eavTov ev 6\r] ώς el.Trelv τη AlyviTTfn 
βστησβ, και τα epya Οσα eTreirotrjKeL e? τας ττυρα- 

μί8ας eaeypay\re.~ κaτηyopηθη re ονν eir αύτοΐς 
υτΓΟ OvaXepLov Aapyov, €ταίρου τ€ οι καΐ συμ- 
βίωτοΰ οντο^, καΐ ητίμωθη ύπο τον Αύγουστου, 
ώστε καΐ ev τοΐς (ίθνβσιν αυτού κωΧνθηναι 8ίαιτά- 
σθαι, yevoμevc)υ he τούτου κα\ άΧΧοι αύτω 
συ'χνοϊ βττίθβντο και ypaφά<; Λτατ' αυτού 7ΓθΧΧα<; 

7 aTTrjveyKav,^ και η yepoυσL•a άττασα άΧώναι τε 
αύτον ev rot? hίκaστηpLOί^ καΐ φυyelv τή<ζ ουσίας 
στερηθίντα, καΐ ταύτην τε τω Aύyoύστω Βοθήναι 
καΐ εαυτού^; βονθυτήσαι εψηφίσατο. καΧ ο μεν 
7ΓεριαΧγησα<; εττΐ τούτοις εαυτόν 7Γροκατεχρ7]σατο, 
24 το δε hrj των ττοΧΧών κίβΒηΧον καΐ εκ τούτου 
ΒιηΧεγχθη οτί εκείνον τε, ον τέως εκοΧάκευον, 
ούτω τότε Βιεθηκαν ώστε καΐ αύτοχ^ειρία αττο- 
θανείν άvayκάσaL, και ττρος τον Aapyov άττε- 
κΧιναν, εττεώηττερ αύξειν ηργετο, μεΧΧοντες ττου 
καΐ κατά τούτου τα αυτά, civ yi το τοιούτον οι 

2 συμβτ), ψηφιεΐσθαί. 6 μεντοι ΤίροκουΧείος * 
ούτω ττρος αύτον εσ'χ^εν ωστ άτταντήσας ττοτε 
αύτω την τε ρίνα κ αϊ το στόμα το εαυτού ττ} 
χειρί ετΓίσχ^εΐν, ενΒεικνύμενος τοις σννούσιν οτυ 
μηΚ άναττνεύσαί tlvl τταρόντος αυτού άσφάΧεια 

1 τψ cod. Peir. , οηι. Λ^Μ. 
'■^ iaiypaype Xiph. , iaiypa<pe Λ^Μ cod. Peir. 
"^ atrriv^yKav Pflugk, in-qveyKUv VM cod. Peir. 
■* TlpoKOv\4ios Bs. , TTpoKOvAios VM Xiph., Προκουληιο5 



of the public. Oil the f)thcr haiid^ Cornelius Gallus u.c. 26 
Mas encouraged to insolence hy the honour sho^vn 
him. Thus, he indulged in a great deal of dis- 
respectful gossip about Augustus and was guilty of 
many reprehensible actions besides ; for he not only 
set up images of himself practically everywhere in 
bigypt, but also inscribed u|)on the pyramids a list of 
his achievements. For this act he was accused by 
\'^alerius I.argus, his conu*ade and intimate, and was 
disfranchised by Augustus, so that he was prevented 
iVom living in the emperor's provinces. After this 
had happened, many others attacked him and brought 
numerous indictments against him. The senate unani- 
mously voted that he should be convicted in the 
courts, exiled, and deprived of his estate, that this 
estate should be given to Augustus, and that the 
senate itself should offer sacrifices. Overwhelmed by 
grief at this, (iallus connnitted suicide before the 
decrees took ett'ect ; and the insincerity of the majority 
of })eople was again proved by his case, in that they 
now treated the man wliom formerly they had been 
wont to Hatter in such a way that they forced him to 
die by his own hand, and then went over to Largus 
because he was beginning to grow^ powerful — though 
they were certain to vote the same measures against 
him also, if a similar situation should arise in his case. 
Proculeius, however, conceived such contempt for 
Largus that once, on meeting him, he clappetf^ his 
hand over his nose and mouth, thereby hinting to the 
bystanders that it w as not safe even to breathe in the 



3 eti-j. άλλθ9 Τ€ τί9 ττροσηλθέ re αύτω, καίττερ 
ά'^/νως ων, μετά μαρτύρων, κα\ Εττήρετο el ηνω- 
ρυζοί eavTov, iireihi] re βξηρνήσατο, €9 ^ραμμαΊβίον 
την άρνησιν αυτού eaeypa-^ev, ο^σττβρ ουκ i^ov 
τω κακω και ον ουκ Ίί^ξί ττρυτερον συκοφαντήσαι. 

4 οΰτω δ' οΰν οι ττοΧλοΙ τα epya τινών, καν πονηρά 
Ύ], μαΧΧον ζηΧοϋσιν ?; τα ιταθήματα φυΧάσσον- 
ται, ωστ€ καΐ τότε ^ίάρκος ^liyvciTio^ ^ 'Ρούφο<; 
ά^ορανομησα<ζ, καΐ άΧΧα re ττολλά καΧώ<; ττρά^ας 
και ταΐς οΙκίαι<ζ ταΐ<; iv τω βτει έκείνω εμττρη- 
σθεισαις εττικουρίαν μετά των εαυτού ΒούΧων κα\ 
μεθ έτερων τινών μισθωτών ττοιησάμενος^ καΐ 

5 Βια τούτο τά τε άναΧώματα τα τη άρ-χτ) αυτού 
ττροσηκοντα τταρα τού Βημου Χαβών και στρα- 
τ»7709 τταρανόμως άττοΒειχ^θείς, εττήρθΐ] τε υπ 
αυτών τούτων καΐ τον \ΰyoυστov ύττερεφ ρόνησεν , 
ώστε καΐ irpoypdyai οτι άθραυστον καΐ όΧόκΧηρον 

6 τω ΒιαΒόχ^ω την ττόΧιν τταρεΒωκεν. eV οΰν τούτω 
οι τε άΧΧοι πάντες οι πρώτοι και αύτος οτι 
μάΧιστα 6 Aΰyoυστo(; opyrjv εσχ^ε, και εκείνον 
μεν εκΒιΒά^ειν ουκ ες μακράν εμεΧΧε το μη νπερ 
τους ποΧΧούς φρονεΐν, τοις δ άyopav6μoις παρα- 
'χρημα επιμεΧεΐσθαί τε όπως μηΒεν εμπίμπρηται, 
καν άρα τι τοιούτο συμβη, κατασβεννύναι το πύρ 

25 Και/ τώ αύτω ετει τούτω ο τε ΤίοΧεμων 6 εν τω 

Τΐ6ντ(ό βασιΧεύων ες τε τους φίΧους και ες τους 

συμμά')(^ους τού Βημου άvεypάφηi~ και προεΒρια 

τοις βουΧευταΐς εν πάση τη άρχ^η αυτού ες πάντα 

2 τά θέατρα εΒόθ)]• τον τε Aΰyoυστov ες την 

^ 'Eyi'arios Η. Stepll., alyvdrtos "\'Μ cod. Peir. 
^ aueypdcprj Naber, (Ρίγράφη Λ'Μ. 



man's j)resence. Another man, although unknown to b.c. 2••. 
hiiu, approaclied him with witnesses and asked Largus 
it" lie knew him ; then, when the other rei)lied that 
he did not, he reeorded liis denial on a tiiblet, as 
though the raseal could not blackmail even a man 
whom he had not previously known. But we see 
how most men rather emulate the deeds of others, 
even though they be evil deeds, than guard against 
their fate, by what Marcus Egnatius Rufus did at this 
very time. He had been an aedile, and in addition 
to having performed his duties well in many other 
ways, had with his own slaves and other persons 
whom he hired helped to save the houses that took 
fire during his year of oitice, and in return for all this 
he had received from the people the amount of the 
exj)enditures incurred in the discharge of his office 
and had been elected praetor contrary to law. But 
he became so elated over these very honours and so 
contemptuous of Augustus, that he issued a bulletin 
to the effect tliat lie had handed the city over 
unim})aired and intact to his successor. All the most 
prominent men became indignant at this, Augustus 
himself most of all ; and he was not long afterward to 
teach the fellow a lesson, not to exalt his mind above 
the mass of mankind. For tiie time being, however, he 
ordered the aediles to take care that no building 
took fire, and if anything of the sort did happen, to 
})ut the fire out. 

In this same year Polemon, the king of Pontus, 
was enrolled among the friends and allies of the 
Uoman })eople ; and the })rivilege was granted the 
senators of occupying the front seats in all the 
theatres of his realm. Augustus Avas planning an 




TipeTTnvLav, βττειΒη μη ηΘβΧησαν oiioXoyvjaai, 
στρατβυσειοντα κατίσγ^ον οι τβ \ά\ασσοί βττανα- 
arapre^i αύτω και υι Κ,ήνταβροί οι τβ "Αστνρες 
ΤΓοΧβμωθβντε^. οίκουσι he εκείνοι μίν ΰττο τάς 
"ΑΧττεί?, ωσττβρ βϊρηται μοι, ούτοι δε βκάτεροι του 
τ€ ΤΙνρηναιου τον ^ ττρος ττ} ^Ιβηρία το καρτερώ - 

3 τατον και την TreSidSa την υττ αύτου ούσαν. Βι 
ουν ταύτα 6 Αΰ<γονστο<; (η^η Be βνατον μετά 
^[άρκου ^ιΚ,ανου ύττάτενεν) εττι μεν τους ^α- 
Χάσσους Ύερεντιον Ούάρρωνα εττεμψε. και δ ς 
ΤΓοΧΧαχτ} αμα, οπω? μη συστραφεντε<; Βυσ^χ^ειρω- 
τότεροί <γενωνται, εμβαΧών ραστά τε αυτούς, άτε 
και κατ oXiyov^ ττροσίΓίτττοντάς σφισιν, ενίκησε, 

4. καΐ συμβηναι κατ αν α'^/ κάσας άρ^ύριόν τε τι 
ρητόν, ώς και μη8εν 8εινον άΧΧο 8ράσων, ητησε, 
κάκ τούτου ^ ττανταγ^τ] ττρος την εσττραξιν Βγ}θεν 
αύτου στρατιώτας Βιαττέμψας συνεΧαβε τε τους 
εν τη ηΧικια καΐ άττεΒοτο, εφ ω /Χ7;δεί,9 σφων 

5 εντός εϊκοσιν ετών εΧευθερωθείη. καΐ αυτών η 
άριστη της γ/}? τών τε δορυφόρων τισίν εΒόθη, 
και τΓοΧιν την Αΰ'γουσταν ττραιτωριανών ώνομα- 
σμενην εσγ^εν. αύτος δε ό Αύγουστο? ττρός τε τους 
Αστυρας καΐ ττρος τους Ι^αντάβρους άμα ε'ττολε- 

μησε, καΐ εττειΒη μήτε ττροσεχώρουν οι άτε ^ εττΙ 

6 τοις ερυμνοΐς ετταιρομενοι, μήτε ες 'χ^εΐρας Βιά τε 
το τω ττΧηθει εΧαττούσθαι και hia το άκοντιστάς 
το ττΧεΐστον είναι ησαν,^ καΐ ττροσετι καΐ ττρά- 

^ του Reim., του re VM. 

^ τούτου R. Steph., τούτου του !Μ, τούτου Τ6 V. 

•^ οΊ άτ6 Dincl., ατ6 Bk., οΐά xe VM. "• γσαν Dind., ^σαν VM. 


tixpedition into Hritain, since the ])eo])le there n.c. •>>; 
would not ί'οηκ" to tenns^ l)iit lie was (ktained by 
the revolt of the Salassi and by the hostility of 
the Cantabri and Astures. The former dwell at the 
foot of the Alps, as 1 have stated,,^ whereas both the 
other tribes occupy the strongest part of the 
l*yrenees on the side of Spain, together with the 
plain which lies below. For these reasons Augus- b.c. 25 
tus, who was now consul for the ninth time, with 
Marcus Silanus as colleague, sent Terentius Varro 
against the Salassi. Varro invaded their country at 
many points at the same time, in order that they 
might not join forces and so be more difficult to 
subdue ; and he conquered them very easily, inas- 
much as they attacked his divisions only in small 
groups. After forcing them to come to terms he 
demanded a stated sum of money, as if he were 
going to impose no other j)unishment ; then, send- 
ing soldiers everywhere ostensibly to collect the 
money, he arrested those Λνΐιο were of military 
age and sold them, on the understanding that none 
of them should be liberated within twenty years. 
'I'he best of their land was given to some of the 
Pretorians, and later on received the city called 
Augusta Praetoria.^' Augustus himself waged war 
upon the Astures and upon the Cantabri at one and 
the same time. But these peoples would neither 
yield to him, because they \vere confident on account 
of their strongholds, nor would they come to close 
(juarters, owing to their inferior numbers and the 
circumstance that most of them were javelin- 
throwers, and, besides, they kei)t causing him a 

^ Probably in a lost portion of tlie work, perhaps Book 
xxii. Cf. Fray. 74 and Book xlix. 34. ^ The luodcin Aosta. 

s 2 


7//,ατα αντω ττολλά, et ττου κίν7]θ€ίη, τά re virep- 
he^La aei ττ po κ ατ αΚαμ^βάνον τ e<; και iv τοί? κοίΧοί^ 
τοί9 Τ€ vXooheaiv epeSpevovre^ τταρβΐ^ζ^ον, iv άττυρω 

7 τταντάττασίν eyeveTO. και ό μεν (ίκ re τον 
καμάτου καϊ €κ των φροντίδων νοσησας ε? Ύαρρά- 
κωνα άνζ'χωρησβ καΐ 6Κ€Ϊ ηρρώστβί' Γαίος Be 
^Αντίστίο^ί 7Γpoσe7Γo\eμησe τε αύτοΐ^; iv τούτω καϊ 
συχνά κατ€ΐρ<γάσατο, ούχ οτι καϊ άμείνων του 

8 Αύ'γούστου στρατη^ο^ί ην, αλλ' otl καταφρονη- 
σαντες αυτοί) οΐ βάρβαρου ομόσε τε τοΐ<; 'Ρωμαίοις 
i'χωpησav και iviKriQ7]aav} και όντως iKelvo^ τέ 
Τίνα εΧαβε, καϊ Τίτος μετά ταύτα Ίίαρίσιος την 
τε Αα^κίαν το με^ιστον των ^ Αστύρων ττοΧισμα 
iκXεcφθ€v εϊΧε καϊ αΧΧα ττοΧΧά τταρεστήσατο. 

26 ΤΙανσαμενου Βε του ττοΧεμου τούτου 6 Αΰ'γου- 
στος τους μεν άφηΧικεστερους των στρατιωτών 
άφήκε, καϊ ττόΧιν αύτοίς iv Αυσιτανία την Αύ^ου- 
σταν ^Υίμεριταν καΧουμενην κτ'ισαι εΒωκε, τοις Βε 
την στρατεύσιμον ηΧικίαν ετ εχονσι θέας τινάς 
Βιά τε του Μ,αρκεΧΧου καϊ Βιά του Ύιβερίου ώς 
και ay ο ραν ο μουντών iv αύτοΐς τοις στρατοιτεΒοις " 

2 i7Γoίησε. καϊ τω μεν ^Ιούβα της τε ΤαιτουΧιας 
τίνα άντΙ της ττατρωας άρχ7]ς, iπεί7Γεp iς τον των 
'Ρωμαίων κόσμον οι ττΧείους αυτών iσεyε<ypάφaτo, 

3 καϊ τά του Έόκχ^ου του τε Βογουου εΒωκε' του δ' 
^ Αμυντου τεΧευτήσαντος ου rols τταισίν αύτοΰ την 
άρχην iπετpε^|rev, αλλ 69 την υττηκοον iσ'^ίyayε, 
και οΰτω και η ΤαΧατία μετά της Αυκαονιας 

Ρωμαΐον άρχοντα εσχε, τά τε χωρία τά iK τΡ}ς 
ΤΙαμφυΧίας ττρότερον τω ^Αμύντα ιτροσνεμη- 

^ βΐΊκτιθησαν Μ, 4κιν'{]θ'ησαν V. 

^ TOLS στρατοπέδου R. Steph., στρατόΐε VM. 


HOOK LI 1 1 

great deal of annoyance, always forestalling him by n.c m 
seizing the higher ground whenever a manoeuvre 
was attempted, and lying in ambush for him in the 
valleys and woods. Accordingly Augustus found him- 
self in very great embarrassment, and having fallen ill 
from over-exertion and anxiety, he retired to Tarraco 
and there remained in poor health. Meanwhile 
(iaius Antistius fought against them and accom- 
plished a good deal, not because he was a better 
general than Augustus, but because the barbarians 
felt contempt for him and so joined battle with the 
Romans and were defeated. In this way he captured 
a few places, and afterwards Titus ^ Carisius took 
Lancia, the principal fortress of the Astures, after 
it had been abandoned, and also won over many 
other places. 

U|)on the conclusion of this Avar Augustus dis- 
charged the more aged of his soldiers and alloAved 
them to found a city in Lusitania, called Augusta 
Emerita.2 For those who were still of military age 
he arranged some exhibitions in the very camps, 
under the direction of Tiberius and Marcellus, since 
they were aediles. To Juba he gave portions of 
Gaetulia in return for the prince's hereditary domain, 
the most of whose inhabitants had been enrolled in 
the Roman state, and also the possessions of Bocchus 
and Bogud. On the death of Amyntas he did not 
entrust his kingdom to the sons of the deceased, 
but made it part of the subject territory. Thus 
Galatia together with Lycaonia obtained a Roman 
governor, and the portions of Pamphylia formerly 
assigned to Amvntas were restored to their own 


^ Possibly this praenoinen is an error for Publius. 
'^ The modern Merida. 



4 Oevra τφ ΙΒιφ νομω άτΓβΒύθη. ύττο δε τοι> αύτον 
τούτον γ^ρόνον Μάρκος Ούινίκίος ΚβΧτό)^ τίνας 
μβτεΧθων, οτο Ρωμαίους άνΒρας e? την 'χ^ώραν 
σφών κατά την βτημίξίαν eaekO όντας συΧλα- 
βόντβς βφθβιραν, το ονημα καΐ αύτος το του 

5 αύτοκράτορος τω Αύ^ονστω βΒωκβ. καΐ €λ|τ7^- 
φίσθη μεν 7Γου καΐ τά βπινίκια αύτω και εττΧ 
τούτοις καΐ βττΐ τοις άΧλοις τοις τότε 'γβνομβνοις' 
eVel δ' ουκ ηθεΚ,ησεν αυτά ττεμψαί, άψίς τε εν 
ταΐς^ 'ΑΧττεσί τροτταίοφόρος^ οι ωκο8ομήθη, και 
εξουσία εΒόθη του ττ} ττρώττ) του έτους ήμερα καΐ 
τω ^ στ εφ άνω καΐ ττ} εσθήτι ττ} νικητήρια άεΐ 

ΑνΎουστος μεν ταυτά τε εν τοις ττοΧεμοις 
εττραξε, και το του ^\ανου τεμενισμα άνοι^ζβεν Βι 
27 αυτούς εκΧεισεν^^ Άιγριτητας 8ε εν τούτω το άστυ 
τοις ιΒιοις τεΧεσιν εττεκοσμησε. τούτο μεν 'yap την 
στοάν την του ΐίοσεώώνος ώνομασμενην καΐ εξω- 
κοΒόμησεν εττίταΐς ναυκρατίαις καΐ ττ} των Wpyo- 
ναυτων Ύραφτ} εττεΧάμττρυνε, τούτο Βε το ττυριατή- 
ριον το Αακωνικον κατεσκεύασε' Αακωνικον yap 
το ^υμνάσιον, εττειΒήιτερ οι ΑακεΒαιμόνιοι ^νμνού- 
σθαί τε εν τω τότε 'χ^ρόνω καΐ Χίττα άσκεΐν μάΧιστα 

2 εΒόκουν, εττεκάΧεσε. τό τε ΤΙάνθειον ώνομασμενον 
εξετεΧεσε' ττροσα^ο ρεύεται Βε ούτω τάχ^α μεν οτι 
τΓοΧΧών θεών εικόνας εν τοις ά^άΧμασι, τω τε τού 
Αρεως και τω της Αφροδίτης, ελαρεν, ως όε εγω 
νομίζω, οτι θοΧοειΒες ον τω ούρανω ττροσεοικεν. 

3 ήβουΧήθη μεν ούν ^ 6 "Ά^ρίττΎτας και τον Αύ^ου- 

^ TOis Bk., Tois ΎΜ.. - τροτταιο(ρ6ρο$ Μ, τροπαιοφόροι! V. 

^ τφ Rk., τφ τ€ Λ^Μ. ■* 6/ίλ€ίσ6ί' ΛΙ, οηι, V. 
δ ονν Μ, ϋΐη. V. 



district. About this siiine time Marcus Vinicius 
took vengeance uj)()n some of the Germans because 
they had arrested and slain Romans wlio entered 
their country to trade with them ; and thus he, too, 
caused the title of imperaior to be bestowed upon 
Aufrustus. For this and his other exploits of this 
j)eriod a triuin])h, as well as the title, was voted to 
Augustus ; but as he did not care to celebrate it, a 
triumphal arch was erected in the Alps in his honour 
and he Λvas granted the right always to wear both 
the crown and the triumphal garb on the first day 
of the year. 

After these achievements in the wars Augustus 
closed the precinct of Janus, Avhich had been opened 
because of these wars. Meanwhile Agrippa beauti- 
fied the city at his own expense. First, in honour 
of the naval victories he completed the building 
called the Basilica of Neptune and lent it added 
brilliance by the painting representing the Argonauts. 
Next he constructed the Laconian sudatorium. He 
gave the name " Laconian " to the gymnasium be- 
cause the Lacedaemonians had a greater reputation 
at that time than anybody else for stripping and exer- 
cising after anointing themselves with oil. Also he 
completed the building called the Pantheon. It has 
this name, perhaps because it received among the 
images Λvhich decorated it the statues of many gods, 
including Mars and Venus ; but my own opinion of 
the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it re- 
sembles the heavens,^ Agrippa, for his part, wished 
to place a statue of Augustus there also and to 

' The present I'antheon, as is now, dates from 
the roii^n of Hadrian. Ύ\\ο vast rotunda is surmounted by a 
dome, in the centre of which there is a circular opening 
nearly thirty feet in diameter for the admission of Hght. 



στον βνταυθα ΙΒρνσαί, την re του epyov ^ττίκΚησιν 
αύτω hovvar μη Ββξαμενον δε αντον μη^ίτβρον 
€Κ€Ϊ μεν του ττροτβρου Καίσαρος,^ iv he τω 
ττρονάω του τ€ Αυγούστου καί εαυτού άνΒρίάντας 

4 έστησε, καΐ ε^ι^νετο 'yap ταύτα ουκ εξ άντι- 
ττάλου τω ^AypLTTTra ττρος• τον Αύ^ουστον φιΧο- 
τίμία'ζ, αλλ εκ τε της ττρος εκείνον Χίτταροΰς 
εύνοιας καΐ εκ της ττρος το Βημοσιον εν8ε\εχοΰς 
στΓουΒής, ου μόνον ού8εν αύτον eV αύτοΐς ό 
Αύγουστος ητίάσατο, άΧλα καΐ εττϊ ττΧεΐον ετί- 

5 μησε. τους τε yap yάμoυς της τε θυyaτpoς της 
^ΙουΧίας κα\ του ά8ε\φί8οΰ του ^ΙαρκεΧλου μη 
δυνηθείς ύττο της νόσου εν τη Ρώμη τότε^ ττοίΤ^σαι 
hi εκείνου καΐ άττων εώρτασε' καΐ επεthη η οΙκία 
η εν τω ΤΙαΧατίω ορεί, ή ττρότερον μεν του 
^Αντωνίου yεvoμεvη ύστερον hε τω τε '' Aypiirrra 
και τω Μεσσαλα hoθεΐσa, κατεφλε'χ^θη, τω μεν 
Μεσσαλα apyoptov εγ^αρίσατο, τον δε Aypiinrav 

6 σύνοικον ειτοιησατο. ουτός τε ουν εκ τούτων 
ούκ άττείκότως εyaυpoΰτo, καί τις Τάιος ^οράνιος 
αΐτίαν ayaOrjv εσχ^εν, οτι hημapχώv τον ττατερα, 
καίττερ εξεΧεύθερόν τίνος οντά, ες τε το θεατρον 
εσηyayε καΐ εν τω hημapγ^ίκω βάθρ(ύ τταρεκαθί- 
σατο. ΤίούττΧιός τε ^ερουίΧιος όνομα καϊ αυτός 
εΧαβεν, οτι στpaτηyωv άρκτους τε τριακοσίας 
καϊ Αιβυκά έτερα θηρία ϊσα εν Ίτavηyύpει τινί 

28 Έλ: δε τούτου hUKaTOV ό Aΰyoυστoς μετά 
Τα'ίου ^ωρβανοΰ ηρζε, καϊ εν τε τη νουμηνία 
όρκους η βουΧη βεβαιούσα τας ιτράζεις αυτού 

^ Kalaapos Λ1, κτίσματο5 V 
■^ Τ(ίτ6 Μ, τοντο Λ" 



bestow upon him the honour of liaving the structure b.c. 20 
named after him ; but when the emperor would not 
accept either lionour, he placed in the temple itself 
a statue of the former Caesar and in the ante-room 
statues of Augustus and himself. This was done^ 
not out of any rivalry or ambition on Agrippa's part 
to make himself equal to Augustus, but from his 
hearty loyalty to him and his constant zeal for the 
public good ; hence Augustus, so far from censuring 
him for it, honoured him the more. For example, 
when he himself was prevented by illness from being 
in Rome at that time and celebrating there the mar- 
riage of his daughter Julia and his nephew Marcellus, 
he commissioned Agrippa to hold the festival in his 
absence ; and >vhen the house on the Palatine Mount 
Λvhich had formerly belonged to Antony but had 
later been given to Agri])pa and Messalla was burned 
down, he presented money to Messalla, but made 
Agrippa share his own house. Agrippa not un- 
naturally took great pride in these honours. And 
one Gaius Toranius also acquired a good reputation 
because while tribune he broufjlit his father, althoujih 
a frcedman of somebody or other, into the theatre 
and made him sit beside him upon the tribunes' 
bench. Publius Servilius, too, made a name for him- 
self because while praetor he caused to be slain at a 
festival three hundred bears and other African wild 
beasts equal in number. 

Augustus now became consul for the tenth time, b.( . 24 
with Ciaius Norbanus as colleague, and on the first 
day of the year the senate confirmed his acts by 



€7Γθίησατο, καΧ 67Γ€ί8η ττΧησιάζβιν re ηΒη rfj irokei 
'η'γyekθη (νττο yap τ?}? αρρώστιας έ-χρόνισε) και 
τω Βημ(ύ καθ" εκατόν Βραγ^μας Βώσειν ύττεσχετο, 

2 το Τ6 Ύράμμα το ττερί αυτών άττη'γόρενσβ μη 
ττρότβρον Ικτβθηναυ ττριν αν και εκβίντ) συνΕόξτ], 
ττάσης αυτόν της των νομών ανάγκης άττήΧΧα^αν, 
ΐν\ ωσιτβρ βίρηταί μου, κα\ αύτοτεΚης όντως καϊ 
αυτοκράτωρ καϊ εαυτού καϊ των νόμων ττάντα 
τε οσα βούΧοιτο ττοιοοη καϊ ττάνθ^ οσα άβουΧοιη ^ 

3 //.r; ττράτττ). ταύτα μεν άττοΕημοϋντι ετ αυτω 
εψηφισθη, άφικομάπρ δε ες την Ί^ωμην άλλα 
Τίνα ετΓΐ τε τη σωτηρία καϊ εττΐ τη άνακομώη 
αυτοί) ε^ενετο, τω τε ^ΙαρκεΧΧω βουΧεύειν τε εν 
τοις εστρατη'γηκοσι καϊ την ύττατείαν Βεκα θάττον 
ετεσιν ηττερ ενενόμιστο αΐτήσαί, καϊ τω Ύιβερί(ό 
ττεντε ττρο εκάστης άρ'χ^ης ετεσι το αύτο τούτο 

4 ΐΓΟίησαι εΒόθη' καϊ τταρα'χρημά ^ε ούτος μεν 
ταμίας εκείνος Βε ά^ορανόμος άττεΒείχθησαν. των 
τε ταμιευσόντων εν τοις εθνεσιν εττιλε lit όντων 
εκ\ηρώθησαν ες αυτά ττάντες οι μεχρί Βεκα άνω 
ετών άνευ τού ερ'γου τούτου τεταμιευ κότες. 

29 Έζ^ μεν ουν τη ττοΧει ταύτα τότε άξια μνήμης 
ε^ενετο' οι οε όη Κανταρροί οι τε Αστυρες, ως 
τάχιστα ο Αύγουστος εκ της ^Ιβηρίας, Αούκων 
ΑίμίΧιον άρχοντα αυτής καταΧιπών, άττηΧΧάγι, 
εττανεστησαν, καϊ ττέμψαντες ττρός τον ΑίμίΧιον, 
ττριν και ότιούν εκφήναί οι, σΐτόν τε καΐ άΧΧα 
Τίνα χαρίσασθαι τω στρατεύματι βούΧεσθαι 

^ άβονλοίν Dind., α βουλοίη VM. 


BOOK LI 1 1 

taking oatlis. And when word was brouglit tliat he n.c 24 
was ah'cady drawing near the city (for liis illness had 
delayed his return), and he promised to give the 
people four hundred sesterces each, though he for- 
l)ade the posting of the edict concerning the dona- 
tives until the senate sliould give its approval, they 
freed him from all compulsion of the laws, in order, 
as I have stated,^ that he might be in reality in- 
dependent and supreme over both himself and the 
laws and so might do everything he wished and 
refrain from doing anything he did not wish. This 
right was voted to him while he was yet absent ; 
and upon his arrival in Rome various other privileges 
>vere accorded him in honour of his recovery and 
return. Marcel 1 us was given the right to be a 
senator among the ex-praetors and to stand for the 
consulship ten years earlier than Λvas customary, 
while Tiberius was permitted to stand for each 
office five years before the regular age ; and he Avas 
at once elected quaestor and iMarcellus aedile. And 
when there were not enough men to serve as 
quaestors in the provinces, all drew lots for the 
places who during the ten years previous had held 
the quaestorship Avithout being assigned to any 

These, then, were tlie notcAvorthy occurrences that 
took place in the city at that time. As soon as 
Augustus had departed from Spain, leaving behind 
Lucius Aemilius as its governor, the Cantabri and 
the Astures revolted ; and sending word to Aemilius, 
before revealing to him the least sign whatever of 
their purpose, they said that they wished to make a 
present to his army of grain and other things. Then, 

1 Sec chap. 18. 



2 βφασαν, κά /c τούτου στρατίώτας σνχνού'^ ώς και 
κομίονντας αυτά \αβοντ€<ί e? re 'χ^ωρία αυτούς 
€7Γΐτή8€ΐά σφίσιν Ισηηαηον και κατβφόνευσαν. 
ου μβντοί καϊ iirl ττοΧύ ησθησαν της Τ€ yap 
γ^ωρας αύτων 8τ)ωθ6ίσης καΐ τειχών τίνων καυ- 
θεντων, τό τ€ pueyiaTov των γειρών τοις ael 
άΧισκομενοις άττοκοτΓΤομενων, ταχέως εχειρώ- 

3 Έι^ ω 8ε ταυτ iyiyveTo, και άΧλη τις στρατεία 
καινή αρχήν τε αμα καϊ τέλος εσχεν επΙ yap 
^Αραβίαν την εύΒαίμονα καΧουμενην, ης ^αβως 
εβασιΧευεν,^ Α.Ϊ\ιος Γάλλο? ό τ^9 Alyύ7ττoυ 

4 άρχων εττεστράτευσε. και ες μεν όψιν ούΒεΙς 
αύτω την yε ττρώτην ηΧθεν, ου μην καϊ άττονως 
Ίτροεχώρεί' ή τε yap ερημιά " καΐ 6 ήΧιος τά τε 
ΰΒατα φύσιν τίνα άτοττον έχοντα ττάνυ αυτούς 
εταΧαΐΊτώρησεν, ώστε τό ττΧεΐον του στρατού 

5 φθαρήναι. τό 8ε 8η νόσημα ού8ενΙ των συνήθων 
ομοιον εyiyvετo, άΧΧ^ ες την κεφαΧην ενσκήψαν 
ε^ήραινεν αυτήν, καϊ τους μεν ττοΧΧούς αύτίκα 
άπώΧΧυε, των 8ε 8ή lτεpίyίyvoμεvωv ες τε τα 
σκεΧη κατήει, ττάν το μεταξύ του σώματος ύττερ- 
βάν, καϊ εκείνα ^ εΧυμαίνετο, ϊαμά τε αυτοί) ού8εν 
ην χ(ορΙς ή εϊ τις εΧαιον οΐνω μεμιyμεvov καϊ εττιε 

6 καϊ ήΧείψατο. οττερ ττου ττάνυ 6XLyoLς σφών 
ύττηρζε τΓοιήσαΐ' οΰτε yap ή χώρα ούΕετερον 
αυτών φέρει οΰτε εκείνοι άφθονα αυτά ττροπαρε- 
σκευά8ατο} καν τω ιτόνω τούτω καϊ οι βάρβαροι 

^ €Qaai\iv(v Μ Xiph. (cod. V) Zon., iBaaiXevffev V Xiph. 
(cod. C). 2 4ρημία R. Steph., i]pe,uia Λ'Μ. 

■' βκ^Ίνα Rk., eKe7va τ€ V^I. 

"* -κρυτΓαρ^σκ^υάδατο Bk., ■προτταρ^σκίνάσαντο VM, [fK^lvois] 
TTpoirapeaKivaaTo Zon. 



after securinpj a coiisiderable number of soldiers, «.c 24 
ostensibly to take back the presents, they conducted 
them to places suitable for their purpose and mur- 
dered them. Their satisfaction, however, was short- 
lived ; for their country was devastated, some of 
their forts burned, and, Λvorst of all, the hands of all 
who were caught were cut off, and so they were 
quickly subdued. 

While this was going on, another and a new cam- 
paign had at once its beginning and its end. It was 
conducted by Aelius Gallus, the governor of Egypt, 
against the country called Arabia Felix, of which 
Sabos was king. At first Aelius encountered no one, 
yet he did not proceed without difficulty ; for the 
desert, the sun, and the water (which had some 
peculiar nature) all caused his men great distress, so 
that the larger part of the army perished. The 
malady proved to be unlike any of the common com- 
plaints, but attacked the head and caused it to become 
parched, killing forthwith most of those \vho were 
attacked, but in the case of those who survived this 
stage it descended to the legs, skipping all the inter- 
vening parts of the body, and caused dire injury to 
them. There was no remedy for it except a mixture 
of olive-oil and wine, both taken as a drink and used 
as an ointment ; and this remedy naturally lay within 
reach of only a few of them, since the country pro- 
duces neither of these articles and the men had not 
prepared an abundant supply of them beforehand. 
In the midst of this trouble the barbarians also fell 



7 σφισί ΊΓροσβττίθβντο. τεω? μλν yap ηττονς, οττοτβ 
ye και ^ ττροσμίξείαν αντοΐς, eyiyvovro, και τίνα 
καΐ ^χωρια αττββαΧΧον τότε Be σνμμά^ω rfj νοσώ 
αυτών 'χ^ρησάμενοί τά re σφβτβρα εκομίσαντο και 
εκείνων τους 7Γ€ρί\€ίφθ6ντα<; εξήΧασαν εκ τ/)? 

8 χω/?α9. ττρώτοί μεν 8η 'Ρωμαίων ούτοι, νομίζω 
δ ότι καϊ μόνοι, τοσούτον εττΐ ττόΧεμω τη<^ ^Αρα- 
βίας ταύτης εττήΧθον μεχρί yap των \\θ\ού\ων 
καΧουμενων, χωρίου τίνος ετηφανούς, εχώρησαν. 

30 Ό δ Αύγουστος ενΒεκατον μετά Κ,αΧττουρνυου 
ΤΙίσωνος άρζας ηρρώστησεν αύθις, ώστε μη^εμιαν 
εΧτΓίΒα σωτηρίας σχεΐν ττάντα yovv ώς και, 
τεΧευτησων Βίέθετο, καΐ τάς τε "" άρχας τους τε 
αΧΧονς τους πρώτους καϊ τών βουΧεντών καϊ τών 
ίτΓΤτεων άθροίσας Βίά8οχον μεν ούΒενα άττε^ει^ε, 

2 καίτοι τον lS^lάpκεXXov ττάντων ιτροκρίθησεσθαι ες 
τούτο ττροσΒοκώντων, ΒίαΧεχθεΙς δε τίνα αύτοΐς 
ΊτερΙ τών δημοσίων ^τpayμάτωv τω μεν ΤΙισωνι 
τάς τε δυνάμεις καϊ τάς ττροσόΕονς τάς κοινας ες 
βίβΧίον εσypά^|raς ε8ωκε, τω δ' WypLTTira τον 

3 8ακτνΧιον ενεχείρισε, καϊ αύτον μηΒεν ^ετί^ 
μηΒε τών πάνυ άvayκaίωv ποιεΐν Βυνάμενον 
^Αντώνιος τις Μούσα? καϊ ψυχροΧουσίαις καϊ 
ψνχροποσίαις άνεσωσε' καϊ δίά τούτο καϊ χρή- 
ματα παρά τε τού Aύyoύστov καϊ πάρα της 
βονΧής ποΧΧά καϊ το χρυσοΐς ΒακτυΧωις (αττε- 
Χεύθερος yap ην) χρησθαι την τε άτεΧειαν και 
εαυτώ καϊ τοις ομοτεχνοίς, ούχ οτί τοις τότε 
ούσιν άΧΧά καϊ τοις έπειτα εσομενοις, εΧαβεν. 

4 αλλ' εδεί yap αύτον τά τε της τύχης καϊ τά της 

^ 7^ '^"' ^^ Xiph., 76 V. ~ ras re Xiph., τά$ ye VM. 

•' 6Ti " Ν '" ill Reimar's etl., on VM. 



upon llicni. lor hitherto they had been defeated b.c. 24 
whenever they joined battle, and iiad even been 
losinfif some ])la('es ; but now, w ith the disease as 
their ally, Lluy not only won baek their own posses- 
sions, but also drove the survivors of the expedition 
out of the country. These Λvere the first of the 
Romans, and, I l)elieve, the only ones, to traverse 
so much of this part of Arabia for the purpose of 
makin<»war; for they advanced as far as the place 
called Athlula, a famous locality.^ 

When Augustus was consul for the eleventh time, b.c. 23 
with Calpurnius Piso, he fell so ill once more as to 
have no hope of recovery ; at any rate, he arranged 
everything as if he were about to die, and gathered 
about him the magistrates and the foremost senators 
and knights. He did not, to be sure, appoint a suc- 
cessor, though all were expecting that Marcellus 
Avould be preferred for this position, but after talking 
with them awhile about the j)ublic affairs, he gave 
Piso the list of the forces and of the [)ublic revenues 
written in a book, and handed his ring to Agri})pa. 
And although he lost the {)ower of attending even 
to the most urgent matters, yet a certain Antonius 
Musa restored him to health by means of cold baths 
and cold potions. For this, Musa received a great deal 
of money from both Augustus and the senate, as well 
as the right to wear gold rings (for he was a freed- 
man), and he was granted exemption from taxes, 
both for himself and for the members of his profes- 
sion, not only those living at the time but also those 
of future generations. But it was fated that he who 
had taken to himself the functions of Fortune or 

' ΊΊ10 place has not been identified ; Strabo (xvi. 4, 24) 
calls it Aliu-ula. 



ΤΓβττρωμβνης epya ττροσττοίούμ,ενον irapa ττύΒας 
άΧωναι, ο μεν Λιίγουστο? οΰτω<ζ εσωθη, ό ce 8η 
Μ,άρκβΧλος νόσησα'^ ου ττοΧλω varepop και τον 
αύτυν εκείνον ΰιτ αυτού του Μούσα τρόττον 
5 θεραττευόμενος άττεθανε. καί αυτόν ό Αί/γουστο? 
δημοσία τε εθαψεν, ετταινέσας ωσττερ εϊθίστο, καΐ 
ε<ζ το μνη μείον ο ωκοΒομεϊτο κατεθετο, ττ} τε 
μνημτ} του θεάτρου του ττροκαταβΧηθεντο'; μεν 
G υττο του Καίσα/?ο?, ^ΙαρκεΚΧου hk ωνομασμενου 
ετίμησεν, καΐ οΐ καΐ εικόνα χρυσήν καΐ στεψανον 
'χ^ρυσούν 8ίφρον τε αρ^ίκον ες τε το θεατρον εν τγι 
των ^Υωμαίων ττανη'^/ύρεί εσφερεσθαι καΐ ες το 
μέσον των αρχόντων των τεΧούντων αυτά τίθε- 
σθαι εκεΧευσε. 
31 Ύαΰτα μεν ύστερον εττρα^ε, τότε δε σωθείς 
τας 8ίαθηκας έσηνεηκε μεν ες το συνε^ριον καϊ 
άναΧέ^ασθαι ηθέΧησεν, ενΒεικνύμενος ^ τοις άν- 
θρώτΓΟίς ΟΤΙ ούΒένα της άρχ^ης ΒίάΒοχ^ον καταΧε- 
Χοίττως ην, ου μεντοί καϊ άνεηνω' ούΒεΙς yap 

2 εττετρεψεν. εθαύμαζον μέντοί καϊ ττάνυ ττάντες 
αυτού οτι τον ^ΙάρκεΧΧον καϊ ώς ^αμβρον καϊ 
ως άΒεΧφίΒούν α^αττων, καϊ άΧΧας τε αύτω τιμάς 
8ι8ούς καϊ την εορτην ην εκ της αγορανομίας 

3 εττετεΧει συνΒιαθεΙς Χαμττρως, ώστε τΊ]ν τε ayo- 
ράν εν τταντί τω θέρει ^ τταραττετάσμασι κατά 
κορυφην ΒιαΧαβεΐν καϊ ορχ^ηστήν τίνα Ιτητεα 
yυvaΐκά τε εττίφανή ες την ορ'χ^ηστραν εσayayεlv, 
όμως την μοναρ'χίαν ουκ εττίστευσεν, άΧΧά καϊ 

4 τον ^AypiTTTTav αυτού ττροετίμησεν. ούτως, ώς 
εοίκεν, ούΒεττω τη τού μειρακίου yvώμΎ) εθάρσει, 

^ 4ν5€ΐκνύμ€νοί Μ Ζοη., ίΐ'δ€ΐκνυμίνοΐ5 V. 
- 0ep6t Bk. following Xipli., eepei ip Λ^Μ. 



Destiny sliould speedily be caught in her toils ; for 
though Augustus had been saved in tliis manner, yet 
when Mareellus fell ill not long afterward and was 
treated in the sanui way by Musa, he died. Augustus 
gave him a publie burial after the customary eulogies, 
placing him in the tomb which he \vas building, 
and as a memorial to him finished the theatre 
whose foundations had already been laid by the 
former Caesar ^ and which Avas now called the theatre 
of Mareellus. And he ordered also that a golden 
image of the deceased, a golden crown, and a curule 
chair should be carried into the theatre at the Ludi 
Romani and should be placed in the midst of the 
officials having charge of the games. 

This he did later ; at the time, after being restored 
to liealth, he brought his will into the senate and 
desired to read it, by way of showing people that 
he had left no successor to his realm ; but he did 
not read it, for none would permit it. Absolutely 
everybody, liowever, was astonished at him because, 
although he loved Mareellus both as son-in-law and 
nephew, and in addition to other honours shown him 
had to such an extent helped him make a brilliant 
success of the festival which he ii'ave as aedile that he 
had sheltered the Forum durinij the whole summer 
by means of curtains stretched overhead and had 
exhibited on the stage a dancer who was a knight, 
and also a woman of high birth, nevertheless he had 
not entrusted to him the monarchy, but actually had 
preferred Agrippa before him. Thus it would appear 
that he was not yet confident of the youth's judg- 

^ Suetonius {Au(/. 29, 4) names this theatre among various 
other buiUliiigs which Augustus "nomine aiieno . . . fecit. ^^ 




ά\Χ ήτοί τον 8Ρ]μον την eXevOepiav κομισασθαι 
7) και τον ^AypiTTTrav την ιρ/εμονίαν τταρ" accivov 
Χαββΐν ηθίΧησαν ev re 7^/^ ^/ττιστατο ττροσφίΧή 
σφίσίν 69 τα μάΧιστα αυτόν οντά, κα\ ουκ 
ββονΧβτο Trap* eavTod Βη 8οκ€Ϊν αύτην εττυτρέττε- 
2 σθαί. ραισας δ' συν, καΐ μαθών τον ^ίάρκβΧλον 
ουκ έτΓίτηΒείως τω "Ά^ρίτητα Sia τούτ βχοντα, 
€9 την Χνρίαν βύθύς τον ^ Ky piirir αν , μη καΐ 
Βίατριβη τις καϊ ά-ψυμα'χία αύτοΐς Ιν ταύτω 
ονσι συμβτ), βστβίλβ. καϊ 09 eV μεν της ττόΧβως 
βύθύς έ^ώρμησβν, ου μβντοι καϊ €9 την Έ,υρίαν 
άφίκ€Τ0, αλλ' €Τί καϊ μάΧΧον μβτριάζων ΙκεΙσε 
μεν του9 υττοστρατη^ους εττεμψεν, αύτ6<ζ Βε εν 
Αέσβω Βιέτρίψε. 

2 Ύαντά τ€ οΰτως 6 Αΰ'γονστος εττοίησε, καϊ 
στρατηΎουζ Βεκα, ως ούΒεν ετί ττΧειονων Βεόμενος, 
άττεΒειζε- καϊ τούτο καϊ εττΐ ττΧείω ετη iy ενετό. 
εμεΧΧον Βε αυτών οΐ μεν άΧΧοί τα αυτά αττερ καϊ 
ττρόσθεν ττοιήσειν, Βύο Βε εττΐ τη Βιοικήσει όσα 

3 ετη ^ενησεσθαί. Βιατάζας Βε ταύτα ώς έκαστα, 
άττεΐττε την ύττατείαν ες το ^ \\.Χβανον εΧθών 
ετεϊ yap αυτός, εξ ουττερ τα ττ/^άγ/χατα κατέστη, 
καϊ των άΧΧων οι ττΧείους Βί έτους ηρξαν, ετη- 
σ'χ^εΐν τε τούτο αύθις, οττως Οτι ττΧεΐστοι ύπα- 
τεύωσιν, ηθεΧησε, καϊ εξω τού άστεως αύτο 

^ rh supplied b}' Bs. 

^ D. Magie ("The Mission of Agrippa to the Orient in 
23 B.C.," in Classical PhUolo<jy, iii., 1908, 145 ft'.) points out 
the difficulties in the popular version of Agrippa's journey to 
Lesbos, and suggests that he was in realit}' sent out by 


HOOK LI 1 1 

ment, and that lie either wished the people to re<]jaiii β.γ. •2•λ 
their liberty or for A^rippa to receive the leadership 
i'roin them. Tor lie well understood that Atrrippa 
was exceedingly beloved by them and he pre- 
ferred not to seem to be committing the supreme 
power to him on his own responsibility. When he 
recovered, therefore, and learned that Marcellus be- 
cause of this was not friendly toward Agrij)pa, he 
innnediately sent the latter to Syria, so that no 
occasion for scoffing or for skirmishing might arise be- 
tween them by their being together.^ And Agrippa 
straightway set out from the city, but did not reach 
Syria ; instead, acting with even more than his usual 
moderation,- he sent his lieutenants thither, and 
tarried himself in Lesbos. 

Besides doing all these things in the manner 
related, Augustus appointed ten praetors, feeling 
that he no longer required a larger number ; ■^ and 
this happened for several years. Most of them were 
to perform the same duties as formerly, but two were 
to be in charge of the financial administration each 
year. Having arranged these matters in detail, he 
went to the Alban Mount and resigned the consul- 
shi}). For ever since conditions had become settled, 
both he himself and most of his colleagues had held 
the office for the whole year, and he now wished to 
end this practice, in order that as many as possible 
might become consuls ; and he resigned outside the 

Augustus on a diplomatic mission calling for secrecy — 
nothing less, in fact, than for the purpose of inducing 
Pluaates to return the captured lloman standards and 
receive in return his son. Cf. chap. 3'Λ, 2 i)if\ 

- ('f. liv. 11, (>. 

^ Under Julius Caesar the number had been as high as 
sixteen; see xliii. 49, 1, and ol, 4. 

Τ 2 


4 βιτοιησεν, iva μη κωΧυθτ}, καΐ eVt re τούτω 
βτταίνον €σχ^€, καΐ 6tl Aovklov άνθ" εαυτού λη- 
στών άνθβίΧετο, αεί Τ€ τω ]^ρούτω συσττουόά- 
σαντα καί iv ττάσι τοΐς ττοΧεμοις συστρατεύ- 
σαντα, καί ετί καΧ τότε καϊ μνημονενοντα αυτού 
καΐ εικόνας ε'χ^οντα καϊ επαίνου^; Ίτοίούμενον 
το τε 'yap φιΚίκον καϊ το τηστον του άν^ρος 
ου μόνον ουκ εμίσησεν άΧλα καϊ ετίμησε. 

5 καϊ Βία ταΰθ' η ^γερουσία Βημαρχ^όν τε αύτον 
Sia βίου είναι εψηφίσατο, καϊ 'χρηματίζειν 
αύτω ττερί ενός τίνος οπού αν εθεΧηστ) καθ' 
εκάστην βουΧην, καν μη ύττατεύη, ε^ωκε, την τε 
αρχήν την άνθύττατον εσαεί καθάτταξ εχειν ώστε 
μήτε εν ttj εσοΒω τη εϊσω του ττωμηρίου κατα- 
τίθεσθαί αύτην μητ αύθις άυανεοϋσθαι, καϊ εν 
τω ύττηκοω το ττΧεΐον των εκασταχόθί άργόν- 

6 των Ισχύειν εττετρεψεν. αφ' ου 8η καϊ εκείνος 
καΐ οΐ μετ αύτον αυτοκράτορες εν νόμω 8η tlvl 
τοις τε άΧΧοίς καϊ τη εξουσία τη Βημαρχικη εχρη- 
σαντο' το yap τοι όνομα αύτο το των Βημάρχων 
οΰθ ο Αύγουστος οΰτ άΧΧος ούΒεΙς αυτοκράτωρ 

33 Kat μοί Βοκεΐ ταΰθ' ούτω τότε ούκ εκ κοΧα- 
κείας άΧΧ eV* άΧηθείας τιμηθείς Χαβεΐν. τά τε 
yap άΧΧα ώς εΧευθεροις σφίσι ττροσεφερετο, καϊ 
εττείοη ο μεν Ιιριοατης ^ αυτός, τταρα οε οη του 
Φραάτου ττρέσβεις, εφ' οΐς άντενεκάΧουν άΧΧη- 
Χοις άφίκοντο, ες την βουΧην αυτούς εσηyayε, 
2 καϊ μετά τούτ ετητραττείς τταρ αύτΡ/ς την Βιά- 

^ Ύφιζάτ-ηΒ Dind., TeipiSarrjs Λ^λΙ (and similarly just 


BOOK Llli 

city, to prevent l)eing hindered from liis purpose, b.c. 23 
For this act he received [)raise, as also because he 
chose in his stead Lucius Sestius, who had always 
been an enthusiastic follower of Brutus_, had fought 
with him in all his wars, and even at this time kept 
alive his memory, had images of him, and delivered 
eulogies upon him. Augustus, it would a})pear, so far 
from disliking the man's devotion and loyalty, actually 
honoured these qualities in him. And because of 
this the senate voted that Augustus should be 
tribune for life and gave him the privilege of bring- 
ing before the senate at each meeting any one 
matter at whatever time he liked, even if he Avere 
not consul at the time ; they also permitted him 
to hold once for all and for life the office of pro- 
consul, so that he had neither to lay it down upon 
entering the pomerium nor to have it renewed again, 
and they gave him in the subject territory authority 
superior to that of the governor in each instance. 
As a result both he and the emperors after him 
gained a certain legal right to use the tribunician 
})ower as well as their other powers ; for the title 
of tribune itself Λvas taken neither by Augustus nor 
by any other emperor.^ 

And it seems to me that he then acquired these 
privileges as related, not by way of flattery, but 
because he was truly honoured ; for in most ways he 
comported himself toward the Romans as if they 
were free citizens. Thus, when Tiridates in person 
and envoys from Phraatcs came to settle their mutual 
recriminations, he brought them before the senate ; 
and afterwards, when the decision of the question 
had been referred to him by that body, he did not 

1 Cf. chap. 17, lU. 



yvayaiv top μ^ν ΎιρίΒάτην τω Φραάτ]ΐ ουκ 
βξβΒωκβν, TOP δ' νίορ αύτω, ορ ττρότβρορ τταρ^ 
βκείρου Χαβωρ €ΐχ^€Ρ, άιτίττβμ^^ερ έττΐ τω τους τε 
αΙ'^ζμαΧίοτονς και τβ σημεία τα στρατιωτικά τά 
€Ρ τ€ TTj του Ιίράσσον καΐ ip τύ] του \\ρτο)ρίου 
συμφορά άΧοΡτα κομισασθαι. 

3 Υ^άρ τω αύτω τούτω βτβί ayopapopop re τιρα 
τώρ κατα^εβστβρωρ άττοθαρορτα Γαίο? Καλττου,ο- 
z/fc09, καίτοι Ίτροη^/οραρομηκως ip τοις άμβίροσι, 
SieSe^aTO, oirep eir'' ούΒερος αΧλου μρημορεύεταί 
>γ€ρ6μ€Ρ0Ρ' κάρ ταΐς άροχ^αΐς Βύο καθ' βκάστηρ 
ημβραρ €7Γθ\ίάρχ^ΐ]σαν, καΐ el? ye τί? αύτώρ ούδ' 
€9 μβιράκίά ■'• ττω τεΧώρ όμως ηρξβρ. 

4 ΑΙτΙαρ μερ ουν η Αίουία του θαράτου του 
νίαρκεΧΧου εσχερ, οτι τώρ υίεωρ αυτής ττροετε- 
τίμητο' ες άμφίβοΧορ δ οΰρ ή ίιττο^^ία αύτη καΐ 
ύτΓ εκείρου του έτους καΐ ύττο του εττειτα, οΰτω 
ροσωΒώρ ^ερομερωρ ^ ώστε ττάρυ ττοΧΧους ερ αύ- 

5 τοΙς ατΓοΧεσθαι, κατέστη, καΐ φίΧεΐ yap ττως 
αεί TL Ίτρο τώρ τοίούτωρ ιτροσημαίρεσθαί, τότε 
μεν Χύκος τε εν τω αστει συρεΧΎ]φθη, καΐ ττυρ 
'χειμώρ τε ττοΧΧοΐς οΙκοΒομημασίρ εΧυμηρατο, 6 τε 
Ύίβερίς αυξηθείς τ?/ι^ τε yεφυρap τηρ ξυΧίρηρ 
κατεσυρε καΐ τηρ ττόΧίΡ ττΧωτηρ εττΐ τρεΐς ημέρας 

^ μαράιαά ν. Herw. , μ^ιράκιόν Λ'Μ- 

^ voσωζόύu Ύ^νομίνων Bk., voffw^ovs yevou4vov VM. 



surrender Tiridatcs to Pluviates, but sent back to the 
latter his son whom lie liad once received from him 
and was keejiing,^ on condition tliat the captives 
and the military standards taken in the disasters of 
Crassus and of Antony should be returned. 

During this same year one of the minor aediles 
died and (xaius Calpurnius succeded him^ in spite of 
having served previously as one of the major aediles. ^ 
This is not recorded as having occurred in the case 
of any other man. During the Feriae there were two 
prefects of the city for each day ; and one of them 
held the office in spite of the fact that he had not 
yet the standing even of a youth. 

Livia_, now, was accused of having caused the 
death of Marcellus, because he had been preferred 
before her sons ; but the justice of this suspicion be- 
came a matter of controversy by reason of the 
character both of that year and of the year follow- 
ing, which })roved so unhealthful that great numbers 
perished during them. And, just as it usually hap- 
pens that some sign occurs before such events, so on 
this occasion a wolf was caught in the city, fire and 
storm damaged many buildings, and the Tiber, ris- 
ing, carried away the Λvooden bridge and made the 
city navigable for boats during three days. 

1 Cf. li. 18, 3. 

2 l>y "minor" and "major" aediles Dio means the 
plebeian and eurule aediles respectively. 



τάδε eueariv iv τω ττ^ρτηκοστφ τ^τάρτίρ των Διωνοζ 'Ρωμαϊκών 

α. Ώ$ 4πιμ€ληταϊ των οζών €κ των ίστρατη'/ηκότων^ κατίστησαν. 
β. '0,5 ζττιμζληται τον σιτηρ^σίου e/c των έστρατηγηκότων^ 

y, 'Π$ "Νώρικον^ Ιάλω. 
δ. Ώί "Ραιτία ίάλω. 

e. Ώί afAXireis at τταραθαΧασσίοι 'Ρωμαίων ακούίΐν ^ρ^αντο. 
ζ. 'Cls τ))^ του Βάλβου θίατρον καθι^ρώθη. 
7). 'ils Th ^ του Μαρκΐλλου θίατρον καθί€ρώθη. 
θ. Ώε 'Aypinnas αττίθανβ καΐ τ^ν Χ^ρρόνησον Αϋγουστθ5 

ί. Ώ,5 τα Αυ'γουστάΚία κατέστη. 

Χρόνου ΤΓληθθ5 (τη τρία καΐ δ^'κο, iv oJs &ρχοντΐ$ οΐ αριθμούμίνοι 
o'ide iy4vovTo 

Μ. Κλαυδί05* Μ, υΐ. MapKeWos AtVepttvos ^ « 

Α. Αρρουντιθ5 Λ. ιη. 

Μ. AoWios^ Μ. υ// 

Κ.^ Αΐμίλί05 Μ. υΐ.^ ΑίτΓίζ OS 

Μ. ^ ΑτΓ ουλ4 10 s^'^ 2€|τοι; υΐ. „ 

Π. 2ίλίο$ ^^ Π. υΐ. Nepovas 

Γ. SerTios Γ. υΐ. Saroupi'u'os „ 

Κ.^^ Αουκρητιθ5 Κ. νί. Ουισττίλλων^^ 

Γν. Κορνηλιθ5 Λ. υ'ι. AevTovXos „ 

Π. Κορνηλΐ05 Π. υΙ. AevTodKos Μαρκ€λλ7νο5 

Γ. Φούρνιθ5 Γ. νι.^* „ 

Γ. 'loovios'^^ Γ. νΐ. :2iXavhs ^'^' 

^ ^στρατη^ηκότων Isl, ίκστρατη^ηκότων V, 

2 ι^ώρικον Bs., Νώρικο5 Λ"Μ. ^ rb supplied by Bs. 

^ Κλαυδιοϊ Η. Steph,, κλ' VM. 

^ AtVepvTiOS Xyl., αΙσίρινο$ Μ, δισβρινοε V, 

^ P/I. AjAAios supplied by Xyl. 

' M. vt supplied by Bs. ^ K. supplied by Xyl. 



The following is contained in tiie Fifty-fourth of Die's 
Rome : — 

How road commissioners Averc appointed from among the 

ex-praetors (ciiap. 8). 
How grain commissioners were appointed from among the 

ex-praetors (chaps. 1 and 17). 
How Noricum was captured (chap. 20). 
How Rhaetia Avas captured (chap. 22). 
How the jNIaritiine Alps began to yield obedience to the 

Romans (chap. 24). 
How the theatre of lialbus was dedicated (chap. 25). 
How the theatre of Marcellus was dedicated (chap. 26). 
How Agrippa died and Augustus acquired the Chersonese 

(chaps. 28, 29). 
How the Augustalia were instituted (chap. 34). 

Duration of time, thirteen years, in \vhich there were the 
magistrates (consuls) here enumerated : — 


22 M. Claudius M. F. Marcellus Aeserninus, L. Arruntius 

L. F. 
21 M. Lollius M. F., Q. Aemilius M. F. Lepidus. 
20 M. Apuleius 8ex. F., P. Hilius P. F. Nerva. 
19 C. tSentius C. F. Saturninus, Q, Lucretius Q. F. Vispillo. 
18 Cn. Cornelius L. F., P. Cornelius P. F. Lentulus 

17 C. Furnius C. F., C. lunius C. F. Silanus. 

^ ΑΐμΙ\ιο$ Μ. ι^ί. supplied by 15s. 
^" ΆτΓουλίιοί 1>8., απυύ\ιο$ VM. 
11 2/Atos Xyl., σ€ΐλ ΧΜ. ^^ Κ. Reim., λ VM. 

i"* ΟνίσττΙΧλων Diud., ούισπιάΚων Μ, ουισστηά\ων V. 
1» vL Μ, ύη V. 
1" Γ. "lovyios Χ3Ί., π ovivios VM. 



Λ. £ίομίτιυ$ Γί/. fi. ' Γι>. €77. Ά•ηνύβαρβθ3 '~ „ 3 
Π. KopV7]\ius Π. υί. Π. ^77• ^κιττίων 


Μ. Aiouios ■* Λ. ut. Δρ(ΐνσο5 Αίβων 
Λ. Καλπουρί'ίο$ Λ. υί. Τϊίσων 
Μ. AikIvvios μ. ft. Κράσσο5^ 


Γ»'. Kopvi]\i()S Vv. υί. AcptovXos 

Ύιβ. Κλαύδιο5 ' Τιβ. υί. Nfpwv 

Π. Κυιρτίλΐ05^ ^ίξτου υί. Ouupos 

Μ. Ουαλ4ριο$'^ Μ.'" ut. Μβσσάλα? Bap^Saroj " ,. 

Π. ζουΑτΓίκιΟ! Π. wt. Kypii/ios 

Παΰλο5 Φάβιο5 ^'^ Κ. υί. Ma|ijUos „ 

Κ. Αίλίθ5^3 Κ. υί. Ίουβίρων ^'^' 

Ίοΰλλοε ^^ Άντώι/ιο$ ^^ Μ. υί. „ ^^ 

^ Ac^piKavhs Κ. Φάβί05 Κ. υί. 

ΤλΟ-'? / 17" > '^ΛΤ'* 

ω ο εττί^ί'^νομ.ενω ^' eret, ev ω Μαρκο'ζ τε 

Μα/3Λ:€λλθ9 καΐ ΑούκίΟ'^ Wppovvrio^ virarevaav, 

η τ€ ΊτόΧίς TreXayiaavTO'^ ανθί<; του ττοταμου 

βπΧενσθη, καί κβραυνοΐς άΧλα re ττολλά ββΧηθη 

καϊ οΐ ανδριάντες οι ev τω ΐΐανθείω, ώστε καΐ 

το Sopv iic τή<; του Αυγούστου 'χ^ειρος Ικττεσείν. 

ΤΓονούμενοί οΰν υττό τε τή<ζ νόσου καϊ ύττο του 

2 \ίμου (ev τε yap ττ} 'Ιταλία ιτάστ] ο \οίμο<ζ 
εγεζ/ετο καϊ την 'χωράν ούΒεΙς είρ^άσατο' Βοκώ δ' 
οτί καϊ ev τοΐ'; εξω χωρίοί<ζ το αύτο τούτο συνη- 
νεχθη) νομίσαντες οΐ Ρωμαίοι ουκ αλλω? σφίσυ 
ταύτα συμβεβηκεναι, αλλ' οτί μη καϊ τότε υττα- 

3 τεύοντα τον Αΰ^ουστον εσγον, δικτάτορα αυτόν 
ηθεΧησαν ττροχειρίσασθαι, καϊ την τε βουΧην 

1 Γν. υί. R. Steph., λν υί. Λ^Μ. 

^ Άηνόβαρβοε R. Steph., ανη6βαρβθ5 Μ, αννόβαρβοί V. 

-'• υτΓ. supplied by Bs. 

"^ Αίουιο5 Leopard, λ ϊούνιο5 Μ, λ oouios V. 

^ Φρου7' (Φρυ7ί) R. Steph., ψούρτιο5 λ Μ. 

^ υί. Κράσσο5 supplied by Xyl. 

' Τί;8. Κλαύδιο? Η. Steph., τ β κλ V, τιβ. ic\. Μ. 

^ Κυιντίλιοϊ Xyl, , κ υι VM. 




10 L. DoriiitiuH Cn. F. Cii, N. Ahcnobarbus, P. Cornelius 

P. F. P. N. Scipio. 
15 M. Livius L. F. Drusiis Libo, L. Calpuniius L. F. Piso 

14 M. Licinius M. F. Crassus, Cn. Cornelius Cn. F. Lentulus. 
1.3 Tib. Claudius Tib. F. Nero, P. Quintilius Sex. F. Varus. 
12 M. Valerius M. F. Messalla Barbatus, P. Sulpicius P. F. 


11 Paulus Falnus Q. F. Maximus, Q. Aelius Q. F. Tubero. 
10 lullus Antonius M. F., Africanus Q. Fabius Q. F. 

The following year, in Avhich Marcus Marcelliis 
and Lucius Arruntius were consuls, the city Avas 
again submerged by the overflowing of the river, 
and many objects were struck by thunderbolts, 
especially the statues in the Pantlieon, so that the 
spear even fell from the liand of Augustus. Tlie 
pestilence raged tliroughout all Italy so that no one 
tilled the land, and I suppose that tlie same was the 
case in foreign })arts. The Romans, therefore, re- 
duced to dire straits by the disease and by the 
consequent famine, believed that these Λvoes had 
come ui)on them for no other reason than that they 
did not have Augustus for consul at this time also. 
They accordingly wished to elect him dictator, and 

" Ovcipos M. Oua\4pios Xvl., ουαυπτ€ρο$ ouapios V, ου αυττ' 
yepoaovapios Μ. ^^ Μ. Η. Stcph., μάρκου VM. 

^' Μ€σσάλα$ Βάρβατο$ Χ}'!., μίσσαΚο$ &ρβατο$ ΛΜ. 
1- «I>ij8ios Χγΐ., φλ λ'Μ. 
1=* Κ. ΑίλίοϊΉ. Steph., και λ VM. 
*' 'IoCaAos Bs., iOuAios λ'λΐ. 
^^ 'λντώνιο3 Xyl. , avTwvlvos VM. ^^ ύ'π. supplied by Bs. 

^' ίττί'γΐ'γνομίΐ'φ Bk., 4ττΐΎ€ΐΌμ(ΐ'ω VM. 



κατακ\€ίσαντ€<; e? to avvehpLov εττηνά^κασαν 
τούτο ψ')]φίσασθαί, αττείΧοΟζ^τε? σφας καταττρή- 
σβίν, και μβτα ταύτα τας 'ράβοου<; τα? τεσσάρας 
καϊ είκοσι \αβοντε<; ττροσήΧθορ αντω,^ Βικτάτορά 
τε άμα Βεομενοι Χε'χθηναι καϊ εττιμεΧητην του 
σίτου, καθάττερ ττοτε τον Τίομττιμοί', γενέσθαι. 

4 καϊ ος τούτο μεν άνα'γκαιως εΒεξατο, καϊ εκεΚευσε 
δι/ο avhpa<^ των ττρο ττεντε ττου άεΐ ετών εστρα- 
τη'γηκότων ττρος την του σίτου Βιανομην κατ* 
6Τ09 αίρεΐσθαι, την '6ε Βικτατορίαν ου ττροσήκατο, 
άΧλά καϊ την εσθήτα ιτροσκατερρηζατο, εττειΕη 
μη8ενα τρόπον αλλω? σφάς επισχ^εΐν, μήτε Sia- 

5 Χε'γόμενο'ζ μήτε 8ε6μ.ενο<;, ή^υνήθη' την τε yap 
εζουσίαν καϊ την τιμήν καϊ ύττερ τους δικτάτορας 
έχων, ορθώς τό τε εττίφΘονον καϊ το μισητον 

2 της εττικΧήσεως αυτών ^ εφυΧάζατο. το δ' αύτο 
τοΰτο καϊ τιμητην αυτόν 8ια βίου χειροτονήσαι 
βουΧομενων εττοιησεν ούτε <γαρ την άρχ^ήν υττε- 
στη, καϊ ευθύς έτερους τιμητάς, ΤΙαΰΧόν τε Αίμί- 
Χιον Κεττώον καϊ Αούκιον 'Μουνάτιον UXayKov, 
τούτον μεν άΒεΧφον τού ΠλαγΛτοί' εκείνου τού 
εττικηρυχθ εντός οντά, τον 8ε 8ή ΑεττιΒον αύτον 

2 τότε θανατωθεντα, άττέΒειξεν. εσχ^ατοι 8ή ^ ούτοι 
την τιμητείαν ιΒιώται άμα εσ^χ^ον, ίόσττερ ττου 
καϊ παραχρήμα αύτοΐς εΕηΧώθη' το yap βήμα 
άφ* ου τι ττράξειν τών προσηκόντων σφίσιν 

^ αί'τφ Ζοη. , ahrhv Λ^ΛΙ. ^ αυτών Μ, avrhv \. 

^ b)} V, οιη. Μ. 



shutting the senators up in tlieir meeting place, they b.c. 22 
forced llicni to vote tliis measure by threatening to 
burn down the buildintj over their heads. Next 
they took the twenty-four rods ^ and aj)proached 
Augustus, begging him to consent both to being 
named dictator and to becoming commissioner of 
the grain supply,^ as Pompey liad once done.^ He 
accepted the hitter duty under compulsion, and 
ordered that two men should be chosen annually, 
from among those who had served as praetors not 
less than five years previously in every case, to at- 
tend to the distribution of the grain. As for the 
dictatorship, however, he did not accept the office, 
but went so far as to rend his garments when he 
found himself unable to restrain the people in any 
other way, either by argument or by entreaty ; for, 
since he Λvas superior to the dictators in the power 
and lionour he already jiossessed, he })roperly guarded 
against the jealousy and hatred which the title would 
arouse. He took the same course also when they 
wished to elect him censor for life ; for, declining to 
take the office himself, he immediately appointed 
others to be censors, namely Paulus Aemilius 
Lepidus and Lucius Munatius Plancus, the latter a 
brother of that Plancus who had been proscribed, 
and the former a man who had himself been con- 
demned to die at that same time. These were the last 
two private citizens to hold the censorship together, 
wliich was no doubt tlie meaning of the sign given 
to them ; for the ])latform, on >vhich they were to 
perform one of the functions devolving u})on them, 

^ The fasces ; the dictator was regularly attended by 
twenty-four lictors. Cf. liii. 1, n. 1. 
'^ Curator annonae. •' Cf. xxxix. 0. 



ημβΧλον, συνεττεσεν άναβάντων αυτών εν rfj 
ττρωττ] της άρ'χί)ς 7)μ€ρα και σννετρίβη, καΐ μετά 
τουτ ού^ενες ciWoc τιμηταΧ όμοιοι αύτοΐς άμα 

3 ε^γενοντο. καΐ τότε ce 6 Αύγουστος, καίττερ 
εκείνων αίρεθεντων, ττοΧλα των e? αυτούς ανη- 
κόντων εττραξε. των τε συσσιτίων τα μεν τταν- 
τεΧώς κατέλυσε, τα 8ε ττρος το σωφρονεστερον 
συνεστειλε. καΐ τοις μεν στρατη^γοΐς τας ττανη- 
^ύρεις ττάσας ττροσεταξεν, εκ τε του δημοσίου 

4 ΒίΒοσθαί τι αύτοΐς κεΧεύσας, καΐ προσαττειττων 
μήτε ες εκείνας οίκοθεν τίνα ττΧεΙον του έτερου 
άναΧίσκειν μηθ^ οττΧομα'χίαν μητ άΧΧως ει μη 
η βουΧη ψηφίσαίτο, μητ αυ ττΧεονύκις η δι? εν 
εκάστω ετει, yLtr;T6 ττΧεώνων εΧκοσι και εκατόν 
άνΒρών τΓοιεΐν τοις δ ά^ορανόμοις τοις κουρου- 
Χίοις την των εμτΓΐμττραμενων ^ κατάσβεσιν ενε- 
χείρισεν, εξακόσιους σφίσι βοηθούς ΒούΧους Βούς. 

5 εττει^η τε ^ καΐ ιττπής '^ καΐ γυναίκες εττιφανεΐς εν 
τη ορχήστρα καΐ τότε yε εττεΒείξαντο, άττη'^όρευσεν 
ούχ ΟΤΙ τοις τταισι των βουΧευτών, όπερ ττου καΐ 
ΊτρΙν εκεκώΧυτο, άΧΧα και τοις εγγόνοις, τοις γ^ ^ 
ει> τη ΙττΊτάΒι ΒηΧον οτι εζεταζομενοις, μηΒ^^ν ετι 
τοιούτο Βραν. 

3 ΚαΙ εν μεν τούτοις τό τε του νομοθέτου καΐ το 
του αύτοκράτορος καΐ σγ^ημα και όνομα εττεΒει- 
κνυτο,^ εν δε δ?; τοις άΧΧοις εμετρίαζεν, ώστε και 

2 φίΧοις τισίν εύθυνομένοις τταρα'γί'γνεσθαι. Μάρ- 
κου τε Τίνος ΐΐρίμου αΐτίαν εχ^οντος οτι της 
Μ.ακε8ονίας άρχ^ων ^ΟΒρύσαις εττοΧεμησε, και 

^ βμιημτΓραμβρων Dind., ζμπιπραμίνων Λ^Μ. 

- επειδή Τ6 Λ^, επειδή περ Μ. "^ 'nnr?)s ^J, ίππε?? V, 

^ 7^ Rk., τε Λ^Μ. ^ ε'πεδε/κϊΊ/το \, άπεδε/κν-υτο Μ, 



collapsed as they ascended it on the first day of their v.c. 22 
holdiii*^ the office, and was shattered in pieces, 
and after that no others of the same rank as these 
l)ecanie censors toiicthcr. Even at this time, in 
spite of their having been cliosen to the position, 
Augustus performed many of the duties belonging 
to their office. Of the public banquets, he abolished 
some altogether and limited the extravagance of 
others. He committed the charge of all the 
festivals to the praetors, commanding that an 
appropriation should be given them from the j)ublic 
treasury, and also forbidding any one of them to 
spend more than another from his own means on 
these festivals, or to give a gladiatorial combat unless 
the senate decreed it, or, in fact, oftener than twice 
in each year or with more than one hundred and 
twenty men. To the curule aediles he entrusted 
the putting out of fires, for which purpose he granted 
them six hundred slaves as assistants. And since 
knights and women of rank had given exhibitions 
on the stage even then,^ he forbade not only the 
sons of senators, who had even before this been 
excluded, but also their grandsons, so far, at least, 
as these belonged to the equestrian order, to do 
anything of the sort again. 

Although in these measures he showed himself, in 
form as Avell as in name, both law-giver and arbitrary 
ruler, in his behaviour generally he was moderate, to 
such a degree, in fact, that he even stood by some of 
his friends when their official conduct Λvas under 
investigation. Also Λνΐιεη a certain Marcus Primus 
was accused of having made war upon the Odrysae 
while he was governor of Macedonia, and declared at 

1 Cf. liii. ;U. 



XeyoPTO'i rore μεν rrj του Avyovarov rore Se rrj 
Μ.αρκ€Χλου Ύνωμτ) τούτο ιτειτοίηκεναι, e9 τε το 
Βίκαστηριον αύτετταγγβλτος η\θ6, καΐ βττερωτη- 
(9el? υτΓΟ του στρατηγού el ττροστάξειβρ οί ττοΧβ- 

3 μησαί, εξαρνος iyeveTO. του τε συvayopeύovτo<; 
τω ΐΐρίμω Αίκίνίου^ ^Ιουρήνου άΧλα τε ες αύτον 
ουκ ετΓίτηΒεία άττορρίψαντος, καΐ ττυθομενου " τι 
8η ενταύθα ποιείς, καΙ τις σε εκαλεσ εν ;'^ τοσούτον 
μόνον άττεκρίνατο otl " το ^ημόσιον.^^ εττΐ ουν 
τούτοις ύτΓο μεν των ευ φρονούντων επτ)νεΙτο, 
ώστε καΐ το την βουΧην άθροίζειν οσάκις αν 
εθεΧησΎ) Χαβεΐν, των δ' άΧΧων τίνες κατεφρό- 

4 νησαν αύτον. άμέΧει καΐ του ΐΐρίμου ουκ oXiyoi 
άττεψηφίσαντο, καΐ εττιβουΧην έτεροι eV αύτω 
συνέστησαν, Φάννιος - μεν yap Ίίαιττίων άpγr}yoς 
αυτής iy ενετό, συνεττεΧάβοντο 8ε και aXXor και 
σφισι και 6 ΊStloυpηvaς συνομωμοκέναι, εϊτ ουν 
άΧηθώς εϊτε καΐ εκ 8ιαβοΧής, εΧεχθη,^ εττεώη και 
άκράτω καΐ κατακορεΐ ttj τταρρησία ττρος ττάντας 

5 ομοίως εγ^ρήτο. καΐ ου yap ύττεμειναν το Βικα- 
στήριον, ερήμην μεν ως και φευζόμενοι ήΧωσαν, 
ά^Γεσφάyrjσav δέ ού ττοΧΧω ύστερον, ού8ε εττηρ- 
κεσαν τω Μ,ουρι^να ούτε 6 ΐΙροκουΧειος^ άΒεΧφος 
ων ούτε ο ϋ^Ιαικι^νας τη άΒεΧφτ} αυτού συνοικών, 
καίττερ ες τα ττρωτα νττο τού Aύy ουστου τιμώ- 

6 μενοί, ως δ' ουν καΐ τούτου^ των δικαζόντων 
τίνες άττέΧυσαν, ενομοθετησε μήτε κρύφα τας 
"ψήφους εν ταϊς ερημοις Βικαις φερεσθαι, καΐ 
ττάσαις αύταΐς τον εύθυνομενον άΧίσκεσθαι. και 
ΟΤΙ yε ταύτ ούχ ύττ* 6pyής αλλ' ώς και συμφε- 

^ Αικινίον Λ], Χικιννίου^Ύ . ^ φάνΐ'ΐοε Leuncl. , (pavdos Λ^Μ. 

^ eAex^Tj ΑΙ, 6λ€7χθ7? V. ^ ΥΙρυκου\ίιο$ν>^.,ιτροκοϋλιυ$ VM. 



one iiionient that he had done it with the approval uc. 22 
of Augustus^ and at another with that of Mareellus, 
Augustus came of liis own aeeord to the court- 
room ; and u})on l)eing asked hy the praetor whether 
he liad instructed the man to make war, he denied 
it. And when the advocate of Primus, Licinius 
Murena, in the course of some rather disrespectful 
remarks that he made to him, enquired : " What are 
you doing here, and who summoned you ? " Augustus 
merely replied: "The public weal." For this he 
received praise from the people of good sense and 
was even given the right to convene the senate 
as often as he j)leased ; but some of the others 
despised him. At all events, not a few voted for the 
acquittal of Primus, and others formed a })lot against 
Augustus. Fannius Caepio Avas the instigator of it, 
but others also joined with him. Even Murena Λvas 
reported to be in the conspiracy, whether truly or by 
way of calumny, since he was immoderate and un- 
restrained in his outspokenness toward all alike. 
These men did not stand trial, and so were convicted 
by default, on the sui)position that they intended to 
Hee ; and a little latter they were slain, Murena 
found neither Proculeius, his brother, nor Mae- 
cenas, his sister's husband, of any avail to save him, 
though these men were most highly honoured by 
Augustus. And inasmuch as some of the jurymen 
voted to ac(juit even these conspirators, the emperor 
made a law tliat in trials at which the defendant 
was not })resent the vote should not be taken 
secretly and the defendant should be convicted only 
by a unanimous vote. Now that he took these 
measures, not in anger, but as really conducive to 




7 povra τω Βημοσιφ hiera^ev, Ιαγυρω^ BiiSei^e• του 
>yovv ττατρο^ του Υί^αιττίωνο^ rbv μβν erepov TOiv 
^ονΧων των συμφν^όντων τω vlel βΧβνθερώσαντος, 
OTL άμνναί οΐ θνήσκοντί ήθβΧησβ, τον δβ ^ βτβρον 
τον irpohovTa αυτόν 8ίά τε της αγοράς μβσης μετά 
<γραμμάτων την αΐτίαν της θανατώσεως αυτού 
ΒηΧούντων S^ayayovTO^ καΐ μετά ταύτα άνα- 

8 σταυρώσαντος, ουκ η^ανάκτησε. καν εζηκεσατο 
ττάσαν την των ουκ άρεσκομενων τοις ττραχ^θεΐσι 
μεμψιν, εΐ μη καΐ θυσίας ως ~ καΐ εττΐ νίκτ) τινί 
καΐ ψηφίσθείσας ττεριεΐΒε καΐ ^ενομενας. 

4 Τότε δ' ουν καΐ την Έίύττρον και την ΤαΧατίαν 
την ^αρβωνησίαν άττέΒωκε τω Ζημω ώς μη^εν 
των οττΧων αυτού Βεομενας' καΐ ούτως ανθύπατοι 

2 καΐ ες εκείνα τά έθνη ττεμττεσθαί ηρξαντο. καΐ 
τον τού Αίος τού Έροντώντος ετηκαΧουμένου ναον 
καθιέρωσε' ττερί ου δυο ταύτα τταρα^έΒοται, οτι 
τότε τ€ εν ττ} Ιερουργία βρονταΙ iyivovTO, καΐ 
μετά ταύτα οναρ τω Κύ^ούστω τοωνΒε εττεστη. 
των yap άνθρώττων, το μεν τί ττρος το ^ένον καΐ 
τού ονόματος αυτού καΐ τού εϊ8ους, τό δε καΐ ότι 

3 ύτΓο τού Aύyoύστoυ ιΒρυτο, μεycστov Βε οτι 
ττρώτω οΐ ανιόντες ες το Ι^αττιτώΧιον εvετυyχ^avov, 
ττροσ έργο μένων τε αύτω ^ καΐ σεβοντων, εΒοξε 
τον Δια τον εν τω μεyάXω ναω οντα opyrjv ώς 
καϊ τά Βεύτερα αυτού φερόμενον ττοιεΐσθαι, και 
εκ τούτου εκείνω τε είττεΐν εXεyεv οτι προφύΧακα 

4 τον Βροντώντα εγοι, καϊ επειΒη ημέρα εyέvετo, 
κώΒωνα αύτω ττεριήψε, βέβαιων την όνείρωξιν ^ 

^ rhv δβ Bk., ηνα δέ VM, ^ καΐ Θυσ1α$ ω$ V, οηι. Μ. 

^ αύτψ R. Steph. , αυτών VM. 
'* ονίίρωξιν Μ, oveipa^ip \, 



the public• good^ he gave very strong proof; at any n.c. 2J 
rate, when Caepio's father freed one of tlie two 
slaves Λνΐιο had accompanied his son in his flight 
because this slave had wished to defend his young 
master when he met his death, but in the case of 
the second slave, who liad deserted his son, led him 
through the midst of the Forum with an inscription 
making known the reason why he was to be put to 
death, and afterwards crucified him, the emperor was 
not vexed. Indeed, he would have allayed all the 
criticism of those who w ere not pleased with Avliat had 
been done, had he not gone further and permitted 
sacrifices to be both voted and offered as for a victory. 
It was at this time that he restored to the people 
both Cyprus and Gallia Narbonensis as districts no 
longer needing the presence of his armies ; and thus 
proconsuls began to be sent to those })rovinces also. 
He also dedicated the temple of Jupiter Tonans. 
Concerning this tcm})le two stories have been handed 
down, first, that at that time claps of thunder occurred 
when the ritual was being performed, and, second, 
that at a later time Augustus had a dream as follows. 
The people, he thought, approached Jupiter Λνΐιο is 
called Tonans and did reverence to liim, partly be- 
cause of the novelty of his name and of the form of 
his statue, and partly because the statue had been 
set u]) by Augustus, but chiefly because it was the 
first they encountered as they ascended the Capitol ; 
and thcreui)on the Jupiter in the great temple 
was angry because he Avas now reduced to second 
|)lace as compared with the other. At this, Augustus 
related, he said to Ju})iter Capitolinus, " You have 
Tonans as your sentinel " ; and w hen it was dav, he 
attached a bell to the statue as confirmation of the 


υ 2 


ol yap τας συνοικίας νύκτωρ φυΧάσσοντες κωΒωνο- 
φοροΰσίρ, όπως σημαινβιν σφισιν οττόταν ό€η- 
θωσυ^ hvvowTai. 
b ϊί,ι> μεν οη τ?; 1 ω/χ?; ταυτ eyiyveio, υπο ce όΐ] 
τους αυτούς τούτους 'χρόνους και οι Ιίάνταβροί 
οι τ€ "Αστυρβς βττοΧβμησαν αυθις,'^ ούτοι μεν Βιά 
τ€ τρυφην καΐ δ/' ωμότητα του Κ.αρισίου, οΐ Se 
Sr) Κ,άνταβροι, εττεώη εκείνους τε νεωτερίζοντας 
7)σθοντο καΐ του άρχοντος σφων Ταιου Φουρνίου 
κατεφρόνησαν, οτι τε νεωστι άφΐκτο και οτι 
άττειρον αύτον των τταρ εαυτοΐς ττρα^μάτων είναι 

2 eSo^av. ου μεντοί και εν τω ερ^ω τοιούτος σφισιν 
εφάνη, αλλ' ηττηθεντες αμφότεροι ύττ αύτοΰ (καΐ 
yap τω Κ,αρισίω ττροσημυνεν) ε8ου\ώθησαν. και 
των μεν Κ,αντάβρων ου ττοΧλοΙ εάΧωσαν εττειΒη 
yap άνεΧτΓίστον την εΧευθερίαν εσχον, ού8ε ζην 

3 ήθεΧησαν, αλλ' οι μεν τα ερύματα ττροεμττρή- 
σαντες εαυτούς άττεσφαξαν, οι Βε κ αϊ εκείνοις 
εθεΧοντάϊ συyκaτεκaύθr|σav, άΧΧοι Βημοσια φαρ- 
μάκων ενεττΧΎΐσθησαν , ώστε τό τε ττΧεΙστον και 
το aypiaiTaTov αυτών φθαρηναί' υΐ δ' ^Αστυρες 
ως τάχιστα χωρίον τε τι ττοΧιορκούντες άττηΧά- 
θησαν καΐ μάχτ) μετά tout' ενικηθησαν, ούκετ 
άντήραν αλλ' ευθύς εχειρώθησαν. 

4 'ΤτΓΟ δε τον αύτον τούτον χρόνον οι Αιθίοττες 
οΐ ύττερ Aιyύ7Γτoυ οίκοΰντες ττροεχώρησαν μεν 
μ€.χρι της ττόΧεως της ^ΚΧεφαντινης ώνομασμενης, 
ττάντα τα εν ττοσΐ ττορθοΰντες, ηyoυμεvης σφισιν 
Κ,ανΒάκης' ττυθόμενοι δε ενταύθα ττου Τάιον 
ΤΙετρώνιον τον της Alyύ^ΓToυ άρχοντα ττροσιεναι, 

^ 5€ηθώσι Dind., ζυνηθώσι VM. 
* αύθίΒ Χνΐ., avTo7s Λ Μ 


BOOK ί.ΐν 

vision. For those vvlio ^nard comnuiiiities at niglit b.c. 22 
carry a bell, in order to l)e able to signal to the 
inhabitants whenever they need to do so. 

These were tJie events that occurred in Rome ; 
and at about this same period the Cantabri and the 
Astures broke out into Avar again, the Astures on 
account of the luxurious ways and cruelty of Carisius, 
and the Cantabri because they perceived that the 
others were in revolt and because they despised their 
own governor, Gaius Furnius, since lie had but 
lately arrived and they supposed that he was 
unacquainted with conditions among them. Never- 
theless, he did not appear to them that sort of man 
when it came to action ; for they were defeated and 
reduced to slavery by him, and the Astures likewise, 
since he also aided Carisius. Not many of the 
Cantabri were ca})tured ; for when they had no 
hope of freedom, they did not chose to live, either, 
but some set their forts on fire and cut their own 
throats, and others of their own choice remained 
with them and were consumed in the flames_, while 
yet others took poison in the sight of all. Thus the 
most of them and the fiercest element perished. As 
for the Astures, as soon as they had been repulsed 
while besieging a certain stronghold and had later 
been defeated in battle, the ν offered no further resist- 
ance, but were promptly subdued. 

About this same time the Ethiopians, who dwell 
beyond Kgypt, advanced as far as the city called 
Elephantine, \\'\\\\ Candace as their leader, ravaging 
everything they encountered. At Elephantine, how- 
ever, learning that (Jaius ^ Petronius, the governor of 
l\gypt, was approaching, they hastily retreated before 

' Pliny (lYa/. /^V. vi. LSI) calls him Pnblius. 



ΊτροαττηΧθον μίν ώς και Βίαφευξόμβνοι, καταλη- 
φθβντΕς δέ €v TTj οδώ ήττήθησαν, κάκ τούτου καΧ 

5 €9 την οίκείαν αντον βτΓβσττάσαντο. και καΧώς 
καΧ 6Κ6Ϊ ά'γωνίσάμ€νο<ζ ττόλεί? άΧλα<; τ€ ^ και την 
^αιτάτην^ το βασίλβιον αύτων βΧαββν.^ και 
εκείνη μεν κατεσκάφη, εν ετερω Si tlvl 'χωρίω 
φρουρά κατεΧείφθη• ^ 6 yap ΙΙετρώνως μήτε 
Ίτεραιτερω 8ίά τε την άμμον καΧ Sia το καύμα 
ττροεΧθεΐν μήτε κατά γ^ώραν μετά τταντος του 
στρατού μεΐναί καΧω^ ΒυνηθεΧς ανεχ^ώρησε, το 

6 ττΧεΐον αυτού επαγόμενος, καν τούτω των Αι- 
θιόπων τοις φρουροΐς εττιθεμενων αύθις τε εττ 
αυτούς εστράτευσε, καΧ τους σφετερους ερρύσατο, 
καΧ την Κ.αν8άκην συμβηναι οι ήνά'γκασεν. 

6 Έι^ φ 8ε ταύτα ε^ί^νετο, ό Αύγουστος ες 
^ικεΧιαν ηΧθεν, οττως και εκείνην καΧ ταΧΧα τα 
μέχρι της 'ουρίας καταστησηται. καΧ αυτού 
ενταύθα ετ οντος ο Βημος των Ρωμαίων τους 
υπάτους χειροτονων εστασίασεν, ώστε καΧ εκ 
τούτου ΒιαΕειχθήναι οτι αδύνατον ην Βημοκρατου- 

2 μένους σφάς σωθήναι. μικρού yovv τίνος εν τε 
ταΐς ίΐργαιρεσίαις καΧ εν ταΐς άρχαΐς αΰταΐς 
κυριεύοντες εθορύβησαν. ετηρεΐτο μεν yap η 
έτερα χωρά τω Aΰyoύστω, καΧ 8ια τούτο ^Ιορκος 
ΑόΧΧιος κατ άρχας τού έτους μόνος ηρξεν εκεί- 
νου Βε ^ μη Βεζαμενου αύτην Κ,ύιντός τε ΑεπιΒος 
καΐ Αούκίος Έ^ιΧουανος εσπουΒαρχίασαν, καΧ 
ούτω yε πάντα συνετάραζαν ώστε καΧ τον Aυyoυ- 

3 στον ύπο των εμφρόνων άνακΧηθηναι. επειΒη Βε 

^ Τ6 supplied by Rk. - Ναπάτηι/ Diiul., τανάττ-ην Λ"Μ Xipli. 
^ βασίλζίον αυτών ίΚαβ^ν Xiph., βασιλέων αττίΧαβ^ν VM. 
■* κατ€λζΊ(Ι>θη Xiph., κατ€\-ηφθη VM. ^ 5e Μ, δε δη V. 



he arrived, lioping to make good their escape. But 
being overtaken on the road, they were defeated and 
thus drew him after them into their own country. 
There, too, he fought successfully with them, and 
took Naj)ata, their ca})ital, among other cities. This 
place was razed to the ground, and a garrison left at 
another point ; for Petronius, finding himself unable 
either to advance farther, on account of the sand and 
the heat, or advantageously to remain where he Λvas 
with his entire army, Λvithdrew, taking the greater 
part of it with him. Thereupon the Ethiopians at- 
tacked the garrisons, but he again proceeded against 
them, rescued his own men, and compelled Candace 
to make terms with him. 

While this was going on, Augustus went to Sicily in 
order to settle affairs in that island and elsewhere as 
far as Syria. While he was still there, the Roman popu- 
lace fell to quarrelling over the election of the consuls. 
This incident showed clearly that it was impossible for 
a democratic government to be maintained among 
them ; at any rate, although they had but little 
authority either in the matter of the elections or of the 
offices themselves, they fell to rioting. One of the 
consulships, it seems, was being kept for Augustus, 
and accordingly at the beginning of the year Marcus 
Lollius alone entered upon ofhce ; but when the em- 
peror would not accept the position, Quintus Lepidus 
and Lucius Silvanus became rival candidates and threw 
everything into such turmoil that Augustus was sum- 
moned home by those who retained their senses. He 



OL'% υττεστρ£'^€ μβν, εΧθόντας he αντονς irpo^ 
αυτόν άτΓβπβμΛίτβν έττίτιμησα^ σφίσι καΧ κέΧενσας 
άμφοτβρων αντώρ άττοντων την "^ηφον Βοθήναί, 
ovSev μάΧλον ησύχασαν, άΧΧα καΐ ιτάνυ αυθι<; 
ουηνίχθησαν, ωστβ τον Αβττώον οψβ ττοτβ alpe- 

4 θηναι, α'^ανακτησα'^ ουν βττΐ τούτο) ο Αύγουστος, 
καΐ μητ€ μοντ) τη 'Ρώμη σ'χ^οΧάζβιν Βννάμβνος μητ^ 
αν αναρ')(ον αυτήν καταΧίττεΐν τοΧμων, βζητει 
Τίνα αυτή €7Γ(στήσαι, καΐ ercpive μεν τον 'AypLTr- 

5 τταν βτΓίτηΒβιότατον €9 τούτο είναι, βουΧηθεΙ<; Βε 
Βη καΧ αξίωμα αύτω μείζον ττεριθεΐναι,, ίνα καΧ εκ 
τούτου ραον αυτών αρχ^η, μετεττεμψατο αυτόν, 
καΐ κατανα'γκάσα<; την γυναίκα, καίττερ άΒεΧφιΒήν 
αΰτοϋ ονσαν, άιταΧΧάζαντα τη ΙουΧία συνοική- 
σαι, 69 την 'Ρώμην τταρα'χρήμα καΐ εττΐ τω ^άμω 
καΧ εττΧ τη τή<^ ττόΧεω'ζ Βιαγ^ειρισει εττεμψε, 8ίά τ€ 
ταΧΧα καΧ οτι ο ^ίαικήνα<; συμβουΧευομενω οι 
ττερΧ αυτών τούτων είττείν Xεyετat οτι " τηΧι- 
κουτον αύτον ττετΓοίηκας ωστ η ^αμβρόν σου 

6 γενέσθαι ή φονευθί]ναι.^' καΧ 09 τά μεν άΧΧα 
οΙΒοΰντα ετί εύρων κατεστησατο, τά τε ιερά τα 
Aly ύπτια εττεσ ιόντα αύθις ες το άστυ άνεστειΧεν, 
άττειττών μηΒενα μηΒε εν τω ιτροαστείω αυτά εντός 
ό^Βόου ημισταΒίου ττοιεΐν ταρα-χν,ς Βε τίνος ττερΧ 
την ^ του ττόΧιάργ^ου του Βιά τας άνοχ^ας αίρου- 
μενου 'χειροτονίαν σύμβασης ουκ εττεκράτησεν 
αυτής, άΧΧά άνευ της άρχ^ής ταύτης τον ενιαυτον 
εκείνον BieyivovTO. 

^ tV supplied by R. Steph. 


would not rc'liini, however, and wlien the two 
candidates themselves came to him, he rebuked them 
and sent them away, giving orders that the vote 
should be taken during the absence of them both ; 
thereupon the people were no more quiet than 
before, but fell into great strii'e again, until at last 
Lepidus was chosen. Augustus Avas displeased at the 
incident, for he could not devote all his time to Rome 
alone and did not dare to leave the city in a state of 
anarchy ; accordingly, he sought for some one to set 
over it, and judged Agrippa to be most suitable for 
the purpose. And as he wished to invest him 
w^th a dignity above the ordinary, in order that he 
might govern tiie people more easily, he summoned 
him, comj)elled him to divorce his wife, although she 
was the emjieror's own niece, and to marry Julia ; 
and he sent him to Rome at once to attend both to 
the wedding and to the administration of the city. 
This step is said to have been taken partly on the 
advice of Maecenas, who in counselling him upon 
these very matters said : " Vou have made him so 
great that he must either become your son-in-huv or 
be slain." Agrippa, then, checked Avhatever other 
ailments he found still festering, and curtailed the 
Kgy})tian rites which Avere again invading the city, 
forbidding anyone to perform them even in the 
suburbs within one mile of the city.^ And when a 
disturbance arose over the election of the prefect of 
the city, the official chosen on account of the Feriae,^ 
he did not succeed in quelling it, but they went 
through that year without this official. 

1 Cf. note on li. 19, (5. 

- The prefect of the city mus a])point(Hl to have charge of 
the city during the al)sence of the two consuls in atten(lance 
upon the cclebratioti at the All»an Mount. 



7 ΚαΙ ο μ.€ν ταυτ βττραττβν, 6 δε Avyovaro^ τά 

Τ€ αΧλα τα iv rfj Έ,ικβΧία 8ίθΐκησα<;, καΐ τα? 

Έ,υρακούσας ^ βτβρας τβ τινας ττόλεί? " άττοίκονς 

Ρωμαίων αττοδβί^^α? e? την 'Ελλάδα εττβραίωθη. 

2 κα\ ΑακβΒαιμονίους μεν τοΐ<ζ τ€ }ίνθήροις και rfj 
συσσίτια βτίμησεν, οτι ι) Α ιόνια, 6τ€ εκ της 
'Ιταλία? συν τε τω avSpl καΐ συν τω νίεΐ εφν^/εν, 
εκεί Βιετριψεν Αθηναίων δε την τε Aiyivav και 
την Κρετριαν (εκαρττονντο yap αυτά?), ως τίνες 
φασιν, άφειλετο, οτι τον Άντωνιον εσττονΒασαν, 
καΐ Ίτροσετι καΐ άπηyόpευσε σφισι μη^ενα ττοΧίτην 

3 apyvpiov τΓΟίεΐσθαι. καΐ αύτοίς ες ταύτα ε8οξε 
το τω της ^Αθηνάς άyά\μaτι συμβάν άττοσκήψαΐ' 
εν yap τη άκροττοΧει προς ^ άνατοΧων ΙΒρνμενον 
προς τε τας Βυσμάς μετεστράφη και αίμα απε- 

4 πτυσεν. ο δ' ουν * Aΰyoυστoς τό τε Ε,Χληνικον 
Biiiyaye και ες Χάμον επΧευσεν, ενταΰθά τε εχ^εί- 
μασε, καΐ ες την ^Ασίαν εν τω ηρι εν ω ^Ιάρκος 
τε *ΑπουΧειος^ καΐ ΤΙούπΧιος Έ,ίΧίος υπάτευσαν 
κομισθείς πάντα τά τε εκεί καΐ τα εν τη Έιθυνία 

5 Βιεταξεν, ουχ οτι του Βημον καΐ ταύτα τα έθνη 
καΐ τα πρότερα εΒόκει είναι εν 6XιyωpΊa αύτα 
ποιησάμενος, άλλα καΐ πάνυ πάντων σφων ως 
καϊ εαυτοί) όντων επιμεΧηθεις' τά τε yap άΧΧα 
οσαπερ καϊ προσήκον ήν επηνώρθωσε, καϊ χρή- 
ματα τοις μεν επεΒωκε τοϊς Βε καϊ υπέρ τον φόρον 

6 εσεvεyκεΐv προσεταξε. τους τε Κυζικηνούς, οτι 
'Ρωμαίους τινάς εν στάσει μaστιyώσavτες άπε- 
κτειναν, εΒουΧώσατο. καϊ τούτο και τους Ύυριους 

^ 'ϊ,νρακούσα$ R. Steph,, συρακονσσα$ VM. 

2 πολ6ί5 Μ, οηι. V. ^ irphs Reim., ττ? irpls VM. 

*• δ' ουν Pflugk, yovv VM. ^ ΆτΓουλίιθ5 Bs., άπούλιο5 VM. 



Wliile Agrij)pa was thus occu})ied, Augustus, after b.c. ί 
arranging various matters in Sicily and making 
Roman colonics of Syracuse and certain other 
cities, crossed over into Greece. He honoured the 
Lacedaemonians by giving them Cythera and at- 
tending their public mess, because Livia, when she 
fled from Italy with her husband and son/ had spent 
some time there. ]5ut from the Athenians he took 
away Aegina and Eretria, from which they received 
tribute, because, as some say, they had espoused the 
cause of Antony ; and he furthermore forbade them 
to make anyone a citizen for money. And it seemed 
to them that the thing Avhich had happened to the 
statue of Athena was responsible for this misfortune ; 
for this statue on the Acropolis, which was placed 
to face the east, had turned around to the w^est and 
spat blood. Augustus, now, after transacting Avhat 
business he liad in Greece, sailed to Samos, where 
he passed the winter ; and in the spring of the year b.c. 2 
when Marcus Aj)uleius and Publius Silius were 
consuls, he Λvent on into Asia, and settled everything 
there and in Bithynia. For although these provinces 
as well «ns those previously mentioned Λvere regarded 
as belonging to the people, he did not for that 
reason neglect them, but gave most careful attention 
to them all, as if they were his own. Thus he 
instituted various reforms, so far as seemed desirable, 
and made donations of money to some, at the same 
time commanding others to contribute an amount 
in excess of the tribute. He reduced the })eo})le of 
Cyzicus to slaver}' because during a factious quarrel 
they had flogged and put to death some Romans. 
And wlien he reached Syria, he took the same action 

1 Cf. xlviii. 1Γ). 



T0f9 T€ ^ιΒωνίον^; 8ιά τα? στάσβι^ έττοίησεν, iv 

8 Καν τούτω 6 Φραάτης φοβηθβΐς μη καΐ Ιτη- 
στρατβνσΎ) οι, οτι μη^βττω των σν^/κβίμΕνο^ν 
€7Γ67Γ0ίηκ€ί τι, τά τβ σημεία αύτω ^ καΐ του? 
αί^μαλώτον<;, ττΧην οΧί'γων οΐ vii αΙσ'χυνη<; σφα? 
έφθειραν η και κατά -χ^ώραν Χαθόντες έμειναν, 

2 απεττεμψε. και αύτον^ εκείνος ώς• καΐ ττοΧεμω 
τινί τον ΊΙάρθον νενικηκως εΧαβε' καΐ yap εττι 
τούτοις * εφρονει /χβγα, Χε^ων ότι τα ιτρότερόν 
ττοτε εν ταΐς μ/ιγ^αις άποΧόμενα άκονιτί εκεκό- 

3 μιστο. αμεΧει καΐ θυσίας eV αύτοΐς καΐ νέων 
'Αρεως Ύιμωροϋ εν τω ΚαττιτωΧίω, κατά το του 
Αιος του Φερετρίου ζηΧωμα, ττρος την των 
σημείων άνάθεσιν καΐ Λ^ηφισθηναι εκεΧευσε και 
ετΓοιησε, και ιτροσετι καΐ εττι κεΧητος ες την 
ττοΧιν εσηΧασε και a^iSi τροτταιοφόρω ετιμηθη. 

4 ταύτα μεν εττ εκεινοις ύστερον είΓράγθη' τότε δβ 
αύτος τε προστάτης των ττερϊ την 'Ρώμην 6Εών 
αιρεθείς καΐ το 'χρυσοϋν μίΧιον κεκΧημενον 
έστησε, και οΒοττοιονς αύταΐς εκ των εστρατη^η- 
κότων, ραβΒούχοις 8ύο γ^ρωμενους, ττροσεταξε. 

5 καΐ ή ΊουΧία τον Τάιον ονομασθεντα ετεκε, βου- 

θυσια τε τις τοις ^ενεθΧίοις αυτοί) άιΒιος ε86θη' 

καΐ τούτο μεν εκ ψηφίσματος, ώσττερ ττου καΐ 

^ τρ Μ, om. V. 

2 ')/€νόμ€ί/ο$ — rhv του Κυρί (chap. 19, 4) omitted in V, whose 
archetype L had lost five folios at this point. 
" αυτφ Xiph., αυτών Μ. 
'' 4π\ ToUTOis snpplied by Reini. from Xipli. 

^ That is, he celebrated an ovafio. - Curator riorum. 

■'• The milliarium anreum stood at the nortli end of the 
Forum near the Temple of Saturn, marking tlie point where 



in tlie case of the [)eoi)le of Tyre and Sidoii on 
account of tlieir factious quarrelling. 

Meanwhile Phraates^ fearing that Augustus would 
lead an expedition against him because he had not 
yet performed any of his engagements, sent back to 
him the standards and all the captives, with the 
exception of a few who in shame had destroyed 
themselves or, eluding detection, remained in the 
country. Augustus received them as if he had 
conquered the Parthian in a war ; for he took great 
pride in the achievement, declaring that he had 
recovered without a struggle Avhat had formerly been 
lost in battle. Indeed, in honour of this success he 
commanded that sacrifices be decreed and likewise a 
temple to Mars Ultor on the Ca{)itol, in imitation of 
that of Jupiter Feretrius, in which to dedicate the 
standards ; and he himself carried out both decrees. 
Moreover he rode into the city on horseback ^ and 
was honoured with a triumphal arch. Now all this 
was done later in commemoration of the event ; but 
at the time of which we are speaking he was chosen 
commissioner of all the highways in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rome,- and in this caj)acity set up the 
golden mile-stone,•^ as it was called, and appointed 
men from the number of the ex-praetors, each with 
two lictors, to attend to the actual construction of 
the roads. And Julia gave birth to a boy, who 
received the name Gaius ; and a j)ermanent annual 
sacrifice on his birthday was granted. Now this, like 
all the other acts mentioned, was done in pursuance 

all the great roads met. It was a column covered with gilt 
])ronze, and \vas ongiavod with the names of the more 
important cities of the empire with their distances from 
Rome. Distances were actually measured, however, from 
the city gates. 



raXka, iyevero' Ihia he Βη ol ά^ορανόμου ίττττο- 
Βρομίαν Ύ6 iv τοί'•; του Avyovarov ^ενεθΧίοι^ και 
θηρίων σφα^α<^ Ιττοίησαν. 
9 Ε/^ μεν ουν rfj ττοΧει. ταΰτ βτΓράττβτο, 6 δε 
Αύγουστο? το μεν ύττηκοον κατά τά των 'Ρωμαίων 
εθη Βίωκει, το δε ενσττονΒον τω ττατρίω σφίσι 
τρόττω εϊα ^ αρχ^εσθαί' ούδ' ηξίωσεν ούτε εκείνω "' 
τί ττροσθεσθαί οΰτε έτερον τι ττροσκτήσασθαί, 
άΧλ, άκρίβώ<; άρκεΐσθαι τοί^ ύττάρ-χ^ουσιν ε'δί- 

2 καίον, καϊ τούτο καΐ ττ) βονΧτ} εττεστειΧεν. ώστε 
ττοΧεμου μεν ού8εν τότε y εφ^ίψατο, 8νναστεία<; 
δε δ^ ^ΙαμβΧί'χ^ω τ ε τω ΙαμβΧίγ^ου την των 
^Αραβίων την ττατρωαν κα\ ΎαρκονΒιμυτω τω 
ΎαρκονΒιμοτον την της Υίίλ,ικίας, ην ό Ίτατηρ αυ- 
τού εσχε, ιτΧην τταραθαΧασσώίων τινών εΒωκεν 
εκείνα yap τω ^Αρ'χ^εΧάω μετά τη<; σμικροτερας 
^Αρμενίας εχαρυσατο, otl ο Μ.ήΒος ο ττρίν αύτή<; 

3 βασίΧεύων ετεθνηκεί. τω τε ΉρώΒη ΖηνοΒώρου 
TLV0(; τετραρχ^ίαν, καϊ ^ΙιθρώάτΎ) τινί την Ιζ,ομ- 
μayy]vήv, εττείδ?) τοζ^ ττατερα αυτού 6 βασίΧευς 
αύτης άττεκτόνεί, καίτοι τταιΒίσκω ετ οντι εττε- 

4 τρέψε, των τε 'Αρμενίων των έτερων του τε 
Άρτάζου ^ κaτηyopησάvτωv καϊ τον Ύιypάvηv 
τον άΒεΧφον αυτοί) εν τη 'Ρώμτ] οντά μεταττεμψα- 
μενων, εστειΧε ^ τον Ύίβεριον, οττω? τοι^ μεν 
εκβαΧη της βασιΧείας, τον δε ες αύτην άττοκατα- 

5 στηση. καϊ εττρά'χθη μεν ούοεν της τταρασκευής 
αυτού άξιον οΐ yap 'Αρμένιοι τον Άρτάξην 
ιτροαττεκτειναν 6 δ' ουν Ύιβεριος, άΧΧως τε καϊ 

^ 6ΪΟ Leuncl. , aei Μ. " βκ^ίρφ Bk., ^κ^ίνων Μ. 

•' Άρτάξου St., άρτάζου Μ (and similarly just below). 
■* ?στ€ίλ€ Bk., μ€τ4στ€ίλ€ Μ. 



of a decree ; on their own initiative, however, the 
aediles gave games in the Circus and a slaughter of 
wild beasts on Augustus' birthday. 

This is what was going on in the city. Augustus 
administered the subject territory according to the 
customs of the Romans, but permitted the allied na- 
tions to be governed in their own traditional manner ; 
and he did not regard it as desirable either to make 
any additions to the former or to extend the latter 
by any new acquisitions, but thought it best to be satis- 
fied with precisely Avhat they already possessed, and 
he communicated this opinion to the senate. There- 
fore he undertook no war, at any rate for the time 
being, but actually gave away certain principalities 
— to lamblichus, the son of lamblichus, his ancestral 
dominion over the Arabians, and to Tarcondimotus, 
the son of Tarcondimotus, the kingdom of Cilicia, 
which his father had held, except for a few places 
on the coast. These latter together Λvith Lesser 
Armenia he granted to Archelaus, because the Mede, 
who previously had ruled them, was dead. To 
Herod he entrusted the tetrarchy of a certain 
Zenodorus, and to one Mithridates, though still a 
mere boy, he gave Commagene, inasmuch as its king 
had put the boy's father to death. And since the other 
Armenians had preferred charges against Artaxes 
and had sunnnoned his brother Tigranes, Λνΐιο was in 
Rome, the emperor sent Tiberius to drive Artaxes 
out of the kingdom and to reinstate Tigranes. And 
although nothing was accomplished by Tiberius 
commensurate with his preparations, since before his 
arrival the Armenians slew Artaxes, yet he assumed 
a lofty bearing, especially after sacrifices had been 



ε'τΓβίδϊ) θυσίαι eirl τούτω ^ψηφίσθησαν, Ισεμνύ- 
(j vejo ώ<; καΧ και αρ^την tl Ίτοιησα'^• και η^7] ye 
κα\ τΓβρΙ της μοραρχ^ία<ζ evevoei, eVet8>) 7γ/>ο9 τους 
ΦίΧίτητους αύτου^ irpoaeXavvovTos θόρυβο^; re 
τις €Κ του τής μάχης χωρίου ως καΐ εκ στρατο- 
rrreSou ηκούσθη, καΙ ττνρ €Κ των βωμών των ύττο 
του ^ KvToyvLOV iv τω ταφρεύματί ίΒρνθεντων αυτό- 

7 ματον άνεΧαμψε. Ύιβέρίος μεν Βη εκ τούτων 
eyavpovTO, ο 8ε Χν^ουστος ες τε την \άμον 
εττανήΧθε κάνταυθα αύθις εχείμασε, καΐ εκείνοις 
τε εΧενθεριαν μισθον της διατριβής άντεΒωκε, 

8 καΐ άΧΧα ουκ oXiya ττροσΒιωκησε. ττάμττόΧΧαι 
yap Βη ττρεσβεΐαι ττρος αντον άφίκοντο, καΐ οί 
^ΙνΒοΙ ττροκηρνκενσάμενοι ττρότερον φίΧίαν τότε 
εσττεισαντο, Βώρα ττεμψαντες άΧΧα τε καΐ τLypetς, 
ττρωτον τότε τοΐς ^Ρωμαίοις, νομίζω δ' οτι καΐ 
τοις ' ΚΧΧησιν, οφθεισας. και τι και μειράκίόν 
οί άνευ ώμων, οΐονς τους 'Κρμάς όρώμεν, εΒωκαν. 

9 καΐ μεντοί τοιούτον 6ν εκείνο ες ττάντα τοΐς ττοσίν 
άτ€ καΐ χερσίν εχρήτο, τό^ον τε αύτοΐς εττετεινε 
καΐ βεΧη ηφιει καΐ εσάΧτηζεν, ουκ olh^ οττως' 

10 ypάφω yap τα Xeyoμεva. εϊς δ' ούν των ^ΙνΒών 
Ζάρμαρος, εϊτε 8η του των σοφιστών yεvoυς ών, 
καΐ κατά τοντο νττο φιΧοτιμίας, εϊτε καΐ ύττο του 
yήpως κατά τον ττάτριον νόμον, εϊτε και ες εττί- 
Βειζιν του τε Aύyoύστoυ καΐ των \\θηναίων (^κα\ 
yap εκεΐσε ήΧθεν) άττοθανεΐν εθεΧήσας εμυήθη τε 
τα τοΐν θεοΐν, των μυστηρίων καίττερ ουκ εν τω 

^ αντου Dind.j αυτώι Μ. 



voted to commenionite what he liad done, as though b.c 20 
he had accompHshed something by valour. And his 
thoughts were ah*eady on the monarchy^ inasnnucb as, 
wlien he was aj)|)roacIiing Phili})|)i, a tumult Avas 
Jieard coming from the field of the battle, as if from 
an army, and fire blazed up spontaneously from the 
altars which Antony had built in the fortified camp. 
Tiberius, accordingly, was feeling elated over these 
occurrences. J5ut Augustus, for his part, returned to 
Samos and once more passed the Avinter there. In 
recognition of his stay he gave the islanders their 
freedom, and he also attended to many matters of 
business. For a great many embassies came to him, 
and the people of India, who had already made over- 
tures, now made a treaty of friendship, sending among 
other gifts tigers, which were then for the first time 
seen by the llonians, as also, I think, by the Greeks. 
They also gave him a boy who had no shoulders or 
arms, like our statues of Hermes. And yet, defective 
as he was, lie could use his feet for everything, as it 
they were hands : with them he would stretch a bow, 
shoot missiles, and put a trum})et to his lips. How 
he did this I do not know ; I merely state what is 
recorded. One of the Indians, Zarmarus, for some 
reason wished to die, — either because, being of the 
caste of sages, he was on this account moved by 
ambition, or, in accordance with the traditional 
custom of the Indians, because of old age, or be- 
cause he wished to make a display for the benefit 
of Augustus and the Athenians (for Augustus had 
reached Athens) ; — he was therefore initiated into 
the mysteries of the two gOddesses,^ which were held 

' uemeter and Kore. 


vol.. M. \ 


καθηκοντί καιρώ, ώ? φασι, Sia τον Avyovarov 
καΐ αύτον^ μβμυημβρον ^€νομ€νων,^ και ττυρί 
βαυτον ζώντα e^eSwKev. 
10 'Ύττάτβνβ μ€ν Βη iv τω €Τ€ί έκείνω^ νάιος 
Sei^Tio?• eVel Se καΐ τον σννάρζοντα αντω ττροσ- 
αττο^ειγΟηναι eBet (ο yap Αι/γουστο? ovBe rare 
τηρηθβίσάν οΐ την αργιών βδε^ατο), στάσις τ€ 
αυθί^ iv Trj 'Ρώ/χτ; συνηνίγθη καΐ σφα^αΐ συνέ- 
βησαν, ώστε T0L/9 βον\6ντα<ζ φρονραν τω Έ,βντίω^ 

2 λίτηφίσασβαι. βττβώή τ€^ μη^' ηθβΚησβν ^ιύτη -χρί]- 
σασθαί, ττρίσβεις προς τον Αΰ^ουστον, μετά Svo 
ραβΒούγ^ων βκαστον, εττβμψαν. μαθών ονν ταΰτ 
εκείνος, καΐ σννι8ων οτι ούΒεν ττίρας του κακού 
^ενησοιτο, ουκετ αύτοίς ομοίως ώσιτερ καΐ ττρίν 
Ίτροσηνε'χθη, αλλ εκ τε των ττρεσβευτών αυτών 
JivLVTOv Αουκρητίον, καίττερ εν τοΐς εττίκηρυ- 
'χθείσιν άνα^ραφεντα, ΰττατον άττεΒειξε, καΐ αυτός 

3 ες την νώμην ηττευ'χθη. καΐ αύτώ εττί τε τούτοις 
καΐ εττΙ τοΐς άΧλοις τοΐς εν τη άττοΒημία ττραχθεΐσι 
ΤΓολλά καϊ τταντοΐα εψηφισθη• ων ούΒεν ττροση- 
κατο, ττΧην Ύύ'χ^η τε Έτταζ^αγώγω (ούτω yap ττως 
αύτην εκάΧεσαν) βωμον ΙΒρυθηναι καϊ την ημεραν 
ην άφίζοιτο εν τε ταΐς Ιερομηνίαις άριθμεΐσθαι 

4 καϊ Aύyoυστά\ιa ονομάζεσθαι. εττεϊ Βε καϊ ως αϊ 
τε άρ-χαϊ καϊ οι αλΧοι ττροαπαντήσαί οΐ ττρο- 
τταρεσκευάσαντο, νύκτωρ ες την ττολιν εσεκο- 
μίσθη, καϊ τη υστεραία τω τ6 Ύιβερίω τ ας τών 
εστρατηγηκότων τιμάς ε8ωκε, καϊ τω Αρούσω 
ττέντε ετεσι θάσσον τταρα τα νομιζόμενα τάς 

^ avrhu supplied by Rk. ^ -γξνομίνων Rk., •γξν6μ^νον Μ. 

^ 4κύνψ Reim., iv ωι Μ. ^ ^^,^ντίψ R. Steph., yiPTiwi M. 

^ T6 supplied by Bs. ^ μ^ Dind., ^ιήτ€ Μ. 



out of season on account, tliey say, of Au<rustus, who b.c. 20 
also was an initiate, and he then threw himself alive 
into the fire. 

The consul that year was Gains Sentius ; and when b.c. ly 
it became necessary for a colleague to be elected (for 
Augustus on this occasion, also, did not accept the 
position after it had been kept open for him), factious 
(juarrelling again took place and murders occurred, 
so that the senators voted a guard for Sentius ; and 
Avhen he was unwilling to use it, they sent envoys to 
Augustus, each with two lictors. Now when the 
emperor learned of these things, realizing that there 
would be no end to the evil, he did not this time 
deal with the matter as he had before, but appointed 
one of the envoys themselves, Quintus Lucretius, to 
the consulship, though this man's name had been 
posted in the list of the })roscribed ; and he hastened 
to Rome himself For this and the other things he 
had done while absent from the city many honours 
of all sorts were voted him, none of which he would 
accept, save the founding of an altar to Fortuna 
Redux (for this was the name they gave to her), and 
the provision that the day on which he arrived 
should be numbered among the holidays and be 
called Augustalia. Since even then the magistrates 
and the rest made preparations beforehand to go 
out to meet him, he entered the city by night ; and 
on the following day he gave Tiberius the rank of an 
ex-praetor and allowed Drusus to stand for the 
various ottices five years earlier than was the practice. 

\ 2 


5 άρ'χα'ζ αΐτήσαί εττβτρβψβν. εττεώη re μηΒβν ώμο- 
Xoyet οσα τε άττόντος αύτου στασιάζοντβ^ καΐ 
οσα παρόντος φοβούμβροι βττρασσον, βιημϋβΧητης 
Ύ€ των τρόττων e? ττεζ^τβ €τη ^ τταρακΧηθεΙς 8η 
βγβίροτονηθη, καΧ την εξουσίαν την μεν τό)ν τιμη- 
τών €9 τον αύτον χ^ρονον την δε των ύττάτων δία 
βίου εΧαβεν, ώστε και τοις 8ώ8εκα ράβΒοις άεΐ 
καί τταντα^ον γ^ρησθαί, καΐ εν μέσω των άε\ "" 
ύττατευόντων εττΐ του άργ^ικοΰ δίφρου καθίζεσθαι. 

6 'ψηφισάμενοί 8ε ταύτα Βίορθονν τε ττάντα αύτον '^ 
καΐ νομοθετείν οσα βούΧοίτο ηξίουν, καΐ τους τε 
νόμους τους y ραφή σο μένους υττ αυτοΰ Αύγου- 
στους εκείθεν η8η 'πpoσηyόpευov, καΐ εμμενεΐν * 
σφισιν ομοσαί^' ηθεΧον. ο Βε τα μεν άΧΧα ώ?*^ 
καΐ avay/caia εΒεξατο, τους δ' όρκους άφήκεν 

7 αύτοΐς' καΐ yap εν ^Βει οτι, εΐ μεν από yvώμης τι 
■ψηφίσαίντο, τηρήσουσιν ' αύτο καν μη ομόσωσιν,^ 
εΐ δβ μη, ου8εν αυτοΰ, καν μυρίας πίστεις επα^/ά- 
yωσi, προτιμησονσιν.^ 

1 1 Kΰyoυστoς μεν 8η ταΰτ εποίει, καί τις των 
άyopavόμωv εθεΧοντης υπό πενίας άπεΐπε την 
αρχήν ΆypLππaς δε ώ9 τότε ες την Ρώμην εκ 
της ^ίκεΧίας πεμφθείς 8ιωκησε τα κaτεπείyovτa, 
2 ταΐς ΤαΧατίαις προσετάχθη' εν τε yap άΧΧήΧοις 
εστασιαζον καΐ ύπο των ϊζ,εΧτών εκακουντο. 
καταστήσας 8ε καΐ εκείνα ες ^Ιβηρίαν μετεστη- 
οι yap Κάνταβροί ο Ι ζωpyηθεvτες τε εν τω πο- 

^ €Τ7? supplied by Xyl. (cf. Zon : ets ttiVTairiav). 

2 0.U Bk., aU\ M. ^ αυΎ))ν Rk. , αΐ»τά Μ. 

* €μμ€νζΊν Dind., 4μμΐν€ΐν Μ. 

^ ομόσαι Xyl., ομοσ€ Μ. * is Bk., us are Μ. 

" τηρ-ησουσιν Reim., τηρονσιν Μ. 

^ ομόσωσιν Rk, , υμοΧογησωσιν Μ. 

^ προτιμησουσιΐ' Rk., ττροξβ^ίσωσιρ λΐ. 



And inasmuch as there was no similarity between the b.c. vj 
conduct of the people during his absence, when they 
(juarrclled, and while he was present, when they 
were afraid, he accepted an election, on their in- 
vitation, to the position of supervisor of morals ^ for 
five years, and took the authority of censor for the 
same period and that of consul for life, and in 
consequence had the right to use the twelve rods 
always and everywhere and to sit in the curule 
chair between the two men who were at the time 
consuls. After voting these measures they begged 
him to set everything to rights and to enact what- 
ever laws he liked ; and the laws which should be 
proj)osed by him they called "leges Augustae " from 
that very moment, and desired to take an oath that 
they would abide by them. He accepted all the 
other measures, believing them to be necessary, but 
did not require the oatiis from them ; for he w^ell 
knew that, if any measure they decreed should 
represent their judgment, they would observe it 
even without taking an oath, but if it should not, 
they would pay no heed to it, even if they should 
offer ten thousand guarantees. 

Augustus, then, was engaged \vith these matters ; 
and one of the aediles voluntarily resigned his office 
by reason of poverty. As for Agri{)pa, as soon as he 
had settled whatever business was urgent in Rome, 
whither he had been sent from Sicily on the occasion 
mentioned,'- he was then assigned to the provinces 
of Gaul ; for the people there not only were (piarrel- 
ling among themselves, but also were being harassed 
by the (iermans. After putting a stop to those 
troubles, too, he went over to S])ain. It seems that 
the Cantabri who had been captured alive in the war 

^ Praefectus moribus. ^ See chap. 6, 5. 



Χβμω καΧ ττραθεντες τους τε Βεσττυτα^ σφών ώς 
€καστοί άττβκτειναν, καΐ ττρο'ζ την οίκείαν eirav- 
€\θόντ€^ 7Γθ\\ού<; συνατΓβστησαν, καΐ μετ αυτών 
'χωρία καταΧαβόντες καΐ εντείχισάμενοί τοις των 

3 'Ρωμαίων φρονροΐς εττεβούΧευον. εττ ονν τούτους 
6 ^AypLTTTra^ εττιστρατεύσας εσχε μεν τι καΐ ττρος 
τους στρατίώτας ερ^ον ττρεσβύτεροί yap ουκ 
oXiyoi αυτών οντες καΐ ττ} συνεχεία τών ττοΧέμων 
τετρυχωμενοί, τους τε Καντάβρους ώς καΐ Βυσττο- 

4 Χεμήτους Βε^ιότες, ουκ εττείθοντο αύτω. αλλ* 
εκείνους μεν, τα μεν νουθετήσας τα hε τταραμυθη- 
σάμενος τα Βε καΐ επεΧπίσας,^ Sia ταχέων ττειθ- 
αρχησαί εττοίησε, ττρος Ε>ε Βη τους }ίαντάβρους 
ΤΓοΧΧα Ίτροσειτταίσεν καΐ yap εμττειρία Trpaypa- 
των, ατε τοις Ύωμαυοίς ΒεΒουΧευ κότες, καΐ άττο- 
yvώσεί τον μη αν ετί σωθηναι άΧοντες εχρώντο. 

5 τεΧος δε ττοτε συχνούς μεν άττοβαΧων τών στρα- 
τιωτών, συχνούς δβ καΐ άτιμώσας otl ηττώντο (τά 
τε yap άΧΧα καϊ στρατόττεΒον οΧον Aΰyoυστov 
εττωνομασ μενον εκώΧυσεν οΰτως ετί καΧεΐσθαι), 
τους τε εν τη ηΧικια ττοΧεμιους ττάντας 6Xίyoυ 
Βιεφθειρε καϊ τους Χοίττούς τά τε οττΧα άφείΧετο 

6 καϊ ες τά ττεΒία εκ τών ερυμνών κατεβίβασεν. ου 
μην οντε εττεστειΧε τι τη βουΧη ττερί αυτών, ούτε 
τά ετηνίκια καίτοι εκ της τον Aύyoύστoυ ττροσ- 
τά^εως Λίτηφισθεντα ττροσήκατο, αλλ' εν τε τού- 
τοις εμετρίαζεν ώσττερ εΐώθει, καϊ yvώμηv ττοτε 
ύτΓΟ του ύττάτου ύττερ του άΕεΧφου αυτού ερωτη- 

^ ΐ-τΓ^λ-πίταε Bs., άπβλττίσαϊ ^ί. 



and sold, had killed their masters in every case, and 
returning home, had induced many to join in their 
rebelhon ; and with the aid of these they had seized 
some i)ositions, walled them in, and were plotting 
against the Roman garrisons. It was against these 
people, then, that Agrippa led an expedition. But 
he had some trouble also with his soldiers ; for not a 
few of them were too old and were exhausted by the 
continual wars ; and fearing the Cantabri as men 
hard to subdue, they would not obey him. Never- 
theless, partly by admonishing and exhorting them, 
and partly by inspiring them with hopes, he soon 
made them yield obedience. In fighting against 
the Cantabri, however, he met with many reverses ; 
for they not only had gained practical experience, as 
a result of having been slaves to the Romans, but 
also despaired of having their lives granted to them 
again if they were taken captive. But finally Agrippa 
was successful ; after losing many of his soldiers, 
and degrading many others because they kept being 
defeated (for example, he gave orders that the 
entire Augustan legion, as it had been called, should 
no longer bear that name), he at length destroyed 
nearly all of the enemy who were of military age, 
deprived the rest of their arms, and forced them to 
come down from their fortresses and live in the 
plains. Yet he sent no communication concerning 
them to the senate, and did not accept a triumph, 
altliough one Avas voted at the behest of Augustus, 
but showed moderation in these matters as was his 
wont ; and once, when asked by the consul for his 
opinion about his brother,' he would not give it. At 

^ Nothing of this sort is recorded elsewhere. ΊΊκ' passage 
may })e corrupt ; it has been proposed to read vph for ύτέρ, 
" ahead of the consul's brother," i.e. out of his turn. 


7 ^el? ουκ β^ωκε. τό re v8o)p το ΥΙαρθαηον καΚού- 
μ,βνον τοις ISioif; τβΧβσιΐ' eaayaycov AvyovaTov 
ττροση^όρευσε. καΐ ούτω ye €κ€Ϊνο<; eV αύτω 
βγ^αιρβν ώστε σιτάνεώς ^ ττοτβ οϊνου yevoμevη<ζ, 
και των άνθρώιτων Betva Βίαβοώντων, ίκανώτατα 
βφη τον ^AypLTTTTav ττρονβνοηκβναί ώστβ μη Βίψΐ] 
7τοτ€ αυτούς άττοΧεσθαί. 

Χι ίοίουτος μβν οή ούτος ο ανηρ ην tojz^ oe οη 
αΧΧων τινβς ουχ οτυ τα αύτα αύτω ττράσσοντβς, 
άλ,λ' οΐ μεν Χηστάς συΧλαμβάνοντες οι δε ττόΧεις 
στασιαζουσας καταΧΧασσοντες, και εττωρε'^ιοντο 

2 των νικητήριων καΐ εττεμττον αυτά. ο yap Aΰyoυ- 
στος καΐ ταύτα άφθονως τισΐ την ye ττρώτην 
ε'χαρίζετο, καΐ Βημοσίαις ταφαΐς ττΧειστους όσους 
ετίμα. τoιyapoύv εκείνοι μεν εν τούτοις εΧαμττρύ- 
νοντο, 6 8ε ^Aypί7Γ7Γaς ες την αύταρ'χίαν τρόπον 

3 τίνα υπ αυτού ττροηγβη. ο yap Aύyoυστoς, ως 
τά τε κοινά θεραπείας ακριβούς εΒεΐτο, και ε8ε8ίει 
μη, οΙα εν τοις τοιουτοις φιΧεΐ συμβαινειν, επι- 
βουΧευθτ) (βρα-χ^ύ yap τι καΐ σμικρόν τον θώρακα, 
ον ύπο τη στοΧη ποΧΧάκις και ες αύτο το συνε- 

4 Spiov εσιών είγεν, επικουρήσειν οι ενόμιζε), πρώτον 
μεν αύτος πέντε της προστασίας ετη, επει^ηπερ 6 
8εκετ7ις γ^ρόνος εξήκων ην, προσεθετο {ταύτα yap 
ΥΙουπΧιου τε και Τναίου ΑεντούΧων" υπ ατευ όντων 
iyivcTo), έπειτα 8ε καΐ τω AypLππa άΧΧα τε εξ 
ϊσου πη εαυτώ και την εξονσίαν την 8η μαργ^ικην 

5 ες τον αύτον 'γ^ρόνον ε8ωκε. τοσαύτα yap σφισιν^ 
€τη τότβ επαρκεσειν εφη' ύστερον yap ού ποΧΧώ 

' σπάν€(1ύ5 Bk., anauios Λ1. 

^ AevTOvAccv Bk., λ€ντονλου ^Ι. 

*•" σψισιν R. Steph., σφισι Μ. 



his own expense he broiiglit into the eity the water- b.(. I'j 
supply known as the Aqua Virgo, and named it the 
Augusta. The emperor took such great delight in 
this that once, when there was a great scarcity of 
wine and people were loudly complaining, he de- 
clared that Agrippa had in a most competent 
manner seen to it that they should never j)erish ot" 

Such was the character of this man ; but others 
both strove for triumphs and celebrated them, not 
only for no ex})loits comparable to his, but merely 
for arresting robbers or for restoring harmony to 
cities that were torn b}^ factious strife. For Augus- 
tus, at least in the beginning, bestowed these rewards 
lavishly upon certain men, and those Avhom he hon- 
oured by public funerals were very many. Accord- 
ingly, while these men gained lustre through such 
distinctions, Agrippa Avas promoted to the supreme 
power, one might say, by him. For Augustus saw 
that the public business required strict attention, 
and feared that he himself might, as often ha])pens 
to men of his position, fall victim to a plot. (As for 
the breastplate which he often wore beneath his 
dress, even when he entered the senate, he believed 
that it would be of but scanty and slight assistance to 
liim.) He therefore first added five years to his own 
term as princeps, since his ten-year period was about 
to expire (this was in the consulshi]) of Publius and bc is 
Gnaeus Lentulus), and then he granted to Agrippa 
many privileges almost ecpial to his own, especially 
the tribunicial! power for the same length of time. 
For that number of years, he said at the time, would 
be enouiih for them ; though not lon<r afterward lie 



καΧ τα άΧλα Trevre^ της αύτοκράτορο<; ή'^/εμονίας 
ΊτροσεΧαβεν, ώστε αυτά Se/ca αύθις yeveaUat,. 

13 ΐΐράξας Se ταύτα το βουΚβυτίκον €ξήτασε' 
ΤΓοΧλοί τ€ yap καΐ ω? ihoKOVv αύτω είναι (πΧήθει 
δε ovSeu vyie^ ενεώρα'^), καΙ 8ια μίσους ούχ οτι 
τους κακία τινί ετηρρητους, άΧλα και τους 

2 κοΧακεία εκφανεΐς εττοιεΐτο. καΐ εττειΒη μήτε τις 
εκών ωσττερ ττρότερον άττηΧΧάττετο, μητ αύ μόνος 
εν αίτια τινΙ yεvεσθaι εβούΧετο, αυτός τε τριά- 
κοντα άνΒρας τους άριστους, οττερ ιτου^' και ορκω 
ετΓίστώσατο, εξεΧε^ατο, και εκείνους εκεΧευσε 
ττροομόσαντας τον αύτον ορκον κατά ττεντε, ττΧην 
των συyyεvώv, ες ττινάκια ypά^|ravτaς εΧεσθαι. 

3 κα\ μετά τούτο τας ττεμττάΒας εκΧήρωσεν, ώσθ^ 
ενα καθ* εκάστην τον Χαγόντα αυτόν τε βουΧευσαι 
καΐ έτερους ττεντε εττι τοις αΰτοΐς iyypayfrai. εΒει 
τΓου και τους τριάκοντα εν τε τοις αίρουμενοις υττο 
των^ έτερων και εν τοις κΧηρουμενοις yεvεσθaι. 
εττειΒή τε τίνες αυτών άττεΒήμουν, άΧΧοι άντ εκεί- 
νων Χαχ^όντες τα εττιβάΧΧοντά σφισιν εττραξαν. 

4 το μεν ουν ττρώτον ταυθ" ούτως εττΙ ΊτΧείους 
ημέρας εyεvετo' εττεί δε εκaκoυpyήθη τινά, ούτε 
εττι τοις ταμίαις τα ypaμμaτεΐa ετ' εττοιήσατο 
οΰτε €τι τω κΧηρω τας ττεμττάΒας εττετρε'^^εν, αλλ' 
αυτός τε τα Χοιττα άνεΧεζατο και αύτος τους 
ενΒεοντας ττροσείΧετο, ώστε ες εξακόσιους τους 

14 ττάντας άττοΒει-χθήναι. εβουΧεύσατο μβν yap τρια- 

^ άλλο TTfvre Rk., TTeVre άλλα Roilil., ττολλά !Μ. 
^ iveopa Rk., Ιώρα Μ. ^ Toy Pflugk, ττω Μ. 

* vnh των Capps, ύψ' Μ. 



obtained tlic otlicr five years of his imperial power in b.c. i{ 
addition, so that the total number became ten again. 
When he had done this, he purged the senatorial 
body. For the members seemed to him to be too 
numerous even now, and he saw nothing good in a 
large throng ; moreover, lie hated not only those 
who were notorious for some baseness, but also those 
who were conspicuous for their flattery. And when, 
as on the previous occasion, ^ no one would resign of 
his own free will, and Augustus, in his turn, did not 
wish to incur blame alone, he himself selected the 
thirty best men (a point which he afterwards con- 
firmed by oath) and bade them, after first taking the 
same oath, choose five at a time, relatives not to be 
included, by writing the names on tablets. After this 
he made the groups of five cast lots, with the arrange- 
ment that the one man in each grouj) who drew the 
lot should be a senator himself and should write 
down five other names according to the same plan. 
The original thirty, of course, Λvere to be included 
among those Λνΐιο were available for selection by 
the second thirty and for the drawing of lots. 
And since some Λνΐιο were chosen were out of 
to\vn, others Λvere drawn in their place and dis- 
charged the duties that belonged to them. At 
first all this went on for several days in the way de- 
scribed ; but when various abuses crept in, Augustus 
no longer entrusted the lists to the quaestors 
and no longer submitted the groups of five to the 
lot, but he himself thenceforth made the selection 
and himself chose the senators who were still re- 
([uired in order to make the number of men aj)- 
pointed six hundred in all. It had, indeed, been his 

1 Cf. lii. 42. 



KoaL()v<^ αντου^ κατά το άρ'χαΐον ττοιησαι, κα\ 
ττανυ ά^αιτητον νομίζων etuai τοσούτου^; άξιους 
του συνβ^ρίου σφών ευρεθηναί' ^υσγ^ε ρ αναντών δβ 
ττάντων 6μοίω<ζ (τω jap ττοΧύ ττΧεΙους των εμμε- 
νούντων εν αύτω τους hiay ραφησ ο μένους εσεσθαι, 
φοβεΐσθαί μάΧλον αυτούς μη ΙΒίωτεύσωσιν η 
7Γροσ8οκάν ότί καΐ βουΧεύσουσιν συνέβαινε) τους 

2 εζακοσίους κατεΧεξατο. καΐ ούΒβ ενταύθα εστη, 
ά\\α καΐ μετά τούτο, ειτεί^η τίνες ουκ εττίτήΕειοί 
καΐ τότε εγγεγραμμένοι ήσαν, καΐ Αίκίνιός τε τις 
'Ρη<γουΧος, ά'γανακτήσας οτι του τε υΐεος καϊ 
αΧλων τΓοΧλών, ών^ κρείσσων είναι ηξίου, Βιει- 
Χεσμένων άτταΧηΧιτττο, την τε εσθητα εν αύτω τω 

3 βουΧευτηρίω κατερρηξατο, καϊ το σώμα ^υμνωσας 
τάς τ€ στρατείας κατηριθ μησατο καΐ τας ούΧάς 
ΤΓροσεττεΒειξε σφισι, καϊ ΆρτικυΧειος- ΤΙαΐτος^ 
εν μεν τοις βουΧεύσουσιν ων τω 8ε 8η πατρί εκ- 
πετΓτωκότι τταρα'χ^ωρήσαι της βουΧείας άξιων 
ίκετευεν, εξετασμον αύθις σφων ειτοιησατο, και 

4 τινας άτταΧΧάξας άΧΧους άντικατεΧεξεν. εττειΒη 
τ€ τΓοΧΧοΙ καϊ ως ^ιε^ε^ράφατο, και τίνες αύτον 
Βί αίτιας,'^ οϊα εν τω τοιούτω φιΧεΐ συμβαίνειν, 
ώς καϊ αδίκως άττεΧηΧαμενοι ^Ιχον, τότε Τ6^ 
αύτοΐς καϊ συνθεάσασθαι καϊ συνεστιάσασθ αι 
τοις βουΧεύουσι, τη αύτη σκευή 'χρωμενοις, συνε- 
γ^ώρησε, καϊ ες το εττειτα τας άρ-χ^ας αΐτεΐν εττε- 

5 τρέψε. καϊ αυτών οι μεν ττΧείους εττανήΧθον 

^ wf supplied by R. Steph. 

- 'ApTiKvXeios Gary, Άρτί/ίϋλήίθ$ Μ. 

'' Παίτος Bk., ireros Μ. 

^ avrhv δι' alrias Bk., αυτών alrias M. 

5 re Bk., ye M. 


plan to limit the senators to three hundred, as in nr. is 
the early times, and he thought he ought to be well 
eontent if that number of men were found who were 
worthy of the senate. But the number he actually 
em'olled was six hundred, since all alike were dis- 
pleased with the other arrangement ; for it turned 
out that those whose names would be stricken off" the 
roll would be much more numerous than those who 
kept their places, so that the present senators were 
more afraid of being reduced to the ranks than hope- 
ful of being in the new senate. Indeed, he did not 
stop even when this was done, but subsequently took 
other measures. It seems that certain unsuitable 
persons were even then found on the lists ; and one 
Licinius Uegulus, indignant because his name had 
been erased, whereas his son and several others to 
whom he thought himself su])erior had been selected 
by the lot, rent his clothing in the very senate, laid 
bare his body, enumerated his cam})aigns, and showed 
them his scars ; and Articuleius Paetus, one of those 
who were to remain senators, earnestly begged that 
he might retire from his seat in the senate in favour 
of his father, who had been rejected. Consequently 
Augustus })urged the senate again, removing some 
and choosing others in their places. And since, even 
so, the names of many had been stricken out, and 
some of them, as usually happens in such a case, 
found fault with him on the ground that they had 
been unjustly expelled, he at that time accorded 
them the right to attend sj)ectacles and celebrate 
festivals along with the senators, wearing the same 
garb as they, and for the future he allowed them to 
stand for the various offices. The majority of them 
came back in the course of time into the senate ; 



'χρόνω €9 TO avviSpiov, oXlyot 3e τίνες iv τω μίσω^ 
μητβ της γερουσίας μήτε του 8ημου νομιζόμενοι, 
κατέΧβίφθησαν . 
15 Ύουτων ουν οΰτω γενομένων σνχνοί μεν ευθύς 
συχνοί δε καΐ μετά τούτο και εκείνω καϊ τω 
^ ΚηριττΊτα εττιβουΧεύσαι, είτ ουν άΧηθώς εϊτε καϊ 

2 ψευ8ώς, αΐτίαν εσχ^ον. ου jap εστίν ακριβώς τα 
τοιαύτα τοΐς εξω αυτών οΰσιν εΐ^εναι• ττοΧλα yap 
ων αν ο κρατών ττρος τιμωριαν, ώς καϊ ετηβεβου- 
Χευμενος, ήτοι hi εαυτού η καϊ Sia της 'γερουσίας 
ττράζΎ), ύτΓΟΤΓτευεταί κατ^ εττήρειαν, καν οτι μά- 

3 λίστα δικαιότατα συμβτ}, ηεηονεναι. και δίά 
τοΟτο καΧ βγω ^νώμην εγω ττερί ττάντων τών 
τοιουτοτροττων αύτα τα Χε'γόμενα συγγράψαι, 
μη8εν ύττερ τα ^ε^ημοσιευμενα, ττΧην τών ττάνυ 
φανερών, μήτε ιτοΧυιτραημονών μήθ* υττοΧεηων, 
μήτ ει δικαίως μητ εΐ ά81κως τι ηε/γονε, μητ ει 

4 '^ευΖώς μήτε ει αΚ,ηθώς εϊρηται, καϊ τούτο μεν 
μοι καϊ κατά τών μετά ταύτα 'γραφησομενων 
ειρήσθω* εν Βε Βή τω τότε τταρόντι 6 Αύγουστος 
άΧλους μεν τιιας ε^ικαίωσε, τον δε δ^ Κειτώον 
εμίσει μεν Bid τε ταΧλα καϊ οτι 6 υίος αυτού καϊ 
εττεφώρατο επιβουΧεύων αΰτω καϊ εκεκολαστο, 
ου μεντοι καϊ άττοκτεΐναι ήθεΧησεν, αλλ' εν τρόττω 

5 τινϊ άλλοτε αλλω^ ττ ροεττηΧάκιζεν. ες τε yap την 
ΤΓοΧιν καϊ άκοντα αύτον εκ τών α^ρών κατιεναι 
εκεΧευε, καϊ ες τας συνόδους άεϊ εσψ/εν, οττως οτι 
ττΧείστην καϊ 'χΧευασίαν καϊ ύβριν ττρός τε την 

1 ολλω R. Steph., άλλο Μ. 


but some few were left in an intermediate position, b.c. is 
being regarded as belonging neither to the senate 
nor to the people. 

After these events, many innnediately and many 
later were accused, whether truly or falsely, of 
plotting against both the emperor and Agrippa. It 
is not i)ossiblc, of course, for those on the outside to 
have certain knowledge of such matters ; for what- 
ever measures a ruler takes, either personally or 
through the senate, for the punishment of men for 
alleged plots against himself, are generally looked 
upon with suspicion as having been done out of spite, 
no matter how just such measures may be. For 
this reason it is my j)urpose to report in all such 
cases sim})ly the recorded version of the affair, with- 
out busying myself with anything beyond the pub- 
lished account, except in perfectly patent cases, or 
giving a hint as to the justice or injustice of the act 
or as to the truth or falsity of the re})ort. Let this 
ex})lanation a])ply also to everything that I shall 
write hereafter. As for the time of which we are 
speaking, Augustus executed a few men ; in the case 
of Lepidus, however, although he hated the man, 
among other reasons, because his son had been 
detected in a plot against him and had been pun- 
ished, yet he did not wish to ])ut him to death, but 
kept subjecting him to insult from time to time in 
various ways. Thus he would order him to come back 
to the city from his estate in the country,^ whether 
he wished to do so or not, and would always take him 
to the meetings of the senate, in order that he 
might be subjected to the utmost to jeering and 

* At Circeii. 



της Ισχύος καΐ ττρυς την τ/}? α^ίώσεω? μβταβοΧην 
οφΧι,σκάνΎ]' και ούτ€ €*> άΧλο τι ώ? καΐ άζίίρ οι 
Xuyov βχ^ρήτο, τότε Be και την -ψηφον ύστάτω των 

6 υττατβυκοτων €7rf]ye. τους μβν yap αΧΧους iv ττ} 
καθηκούση τάζει εττβ'^ηφιζε, των δ' υττατευκοτων 
ττρώτόν τ€ τίνα και hevTepov τρίτον re έτερον καΐ 
τέταρτον, τους τε Χοιπούς ομοίως, ως ττου καΐ 
εβούΧετο' καΐ τούτο κα\ οι ΰττατοι εττοίουν. ούτω 

7 μεν St] τον Αβττώον μετε'χειρίζετο, και εττειόή yε 
^Αντίστιος Ααβεών ες τους βουΧεύσοντας^ αυτόν, 
οτε η Bιayvώμη'^ εκείνη εyίyvετo, εσεypά^|/aτo, 
ΊΓρωτον μίν εττιωρκηκεναι τε αύτον εφη καΐ τιμω- 
ρησεσθαι ηττείΧησεν, εττειτα δε είττοντος αύτον 
" και TL Βεινον ττεττοίηκα κατασ'χοίν εν τω συνε- 
Βρίω avSpa ον συ άργ^ιερεων ετι καΐ νυν ττεριορας 

8 οντά ; ' ούκετ ού8εμίαν opyrjv εττοιησατο' ττοΧ- 
Χακις yap καΐ ISia και κοιντ} της Ιερωσύνης ταύτης 
άζιουμενος ούκ ε8ικαίωσε ζώντος του ΑεττίΕον 
Χαβεΐν αύτην. ^Αντίστιος μεν ουν τούτο τε ούκ 
άτΓο καιρού είττεΐν εΒοξε, καί ττοτε X6yωv εν τι) 
βουΧη yιyvoμεvωv ώς χρεών εϊη τον Aΰyoυστov εκ 
ΒιαΒοχής σφας φρουρεΐν, εφη, μητ άντειττεΐν τοΧ- 
μών μήτε συyκaτaθεσθaι ύττομένων, δτι " pεyκω 
καΐ ου Βύναμαι αυτού ττροκοιτήσαι.^^ 

16 ^Ο 8' ούν Aΰy ουστος άΧΧα τε ενομοθετησε, 
καΐ τους Βεκάσαντας τινας εττΐ ταΐς άρχαΐς ες 

^ βου\€ύσοντα$ R. Steph. , βουΧ^ΰσανΎα8 Μ. 
" ό'τ6 η ΖιαΎνώμ-η Rk., ό'τί ίδίαί Ύνώμ-ηι Μ. 



insults, so tliat he might realize his loss of power 
and dignity. In general he did not treat him as 
worthy of any consideration on his part, and on the 
occasions referred to called on him for his vote the 
last of all the ex-consuls. For Λvhile he was wont 
to put the vote to the other senators in the regular 
order, in the case of the ex-consuls he used to call 
on one first, another second, and others third and 
fourth, and so on, just as he pleased ; and the consuls 
also did the same. Thus it Avas that he used to treat 
Lei)idus. And when Antistius Labeo wrote down 
the name of Lepidus among those Λνΐιο might be 
senators, at the time when the process of selection 
which we have described Avas being followed, the 
emperor first declared that he had perjured himself,^ 
and he threatened to punish him. Thereupon Labeo 
replied : " Why, what harm have I done by keeping 
in the senate one whom you even now permit to be 
high priest?" At this Augustus desisted from his 
anger ; for though he had often been asked, both 
privately and })ublicly, to take this priesthood, he 
did not feel that it was right to do so while Lepidus 
lived. 2 This reply of Antistius was regarded as a 
haj)py one, as Avas also another remark of his : when 
it was said in the senate, on one occasion, that the 
senators ought to take turns in guarding Augustus, 
Antistius, not daring to speak in o})position nor yet 
willing to assent, remarked, '^ As for me, I snore, and 
so cannot sleep at the door of his chamber." 

Among the laws that Augustus enacted was one 
Avhich provided that those who had bribed anyone in 
order to gain office should be debarred from office for 

^ Presunuvbly because of tlic oath the thirty men hatl 
taken that they would select the best men. 
2 Cf. xlix. 15, 3, and chap. 27, 2 inf. 



irevTe €τη αυτών βίρξε.^ τοΐς re ά'^/ύμοις και ταΙ<ζ 
avavSpoL(; βαρύτερα τά εττΰτίμια €7Γ€τα^6, καΐ 
€μ7Γα\ίΐ> του τε ^άμου κα\ της τταιΒοττοιίας αθΧα 

2 εθηκεν. έττεώή τ€ ττοΧύ ττΧεΐον το άρρεν του 
θήΧεος του €ύ<γενοΰ(; ην, εττετρεψε καΐ εξεΧευθερας 
τοις εθεΧουσι, ττΧην των βουΧευόντων, άyεσθaί, 
εννομον την τεκνοττούαν αυτών εΙναί κεΧεύσας. 

3 Καν τούτω καταβοήσεως^ εν τω συνεΒρίω ττερί 
τε της τών ηυναικών καί ττερΙ της τών νεανίσκων 
άκοσμίας, ττρος άποΧο^ίαν 8ή τίνα του μη ρα^ίως 
8ί αύτην τας τών <γάμων συναΧΧα/γας ττοίεΐσθαι, 
yεvoμεvης, /cal εναγόντων αΰτον καΐ εκείνην εττα- 
νορθώσαυ γΧευασμώ οτυ ττοΧΧαΐς ^υναιξίν εχρήτο, 

4 το μεν ττρώτον άττεκρίνατο αΰτοΐς οτί τα μεν 
αναγκαιότατα Βιώρισται, τα δε Χοίττα αδύνατον 
εστίν ομοίως τταραΒοθήναί, εττείτα 8ε εκβιασθείς 
είττεν οτί *' αύτοϊ οφείΧετε ταΐς ^αμεταΐς καΐ 
τταραίνεΐν καΐ κεΧεύειν οσα βούΧεσθε' οττερ ιτου 

5 κα\ εγώ ττοίώ.^' άκούσαντες ουν ταυτ εκείνοι 
ΤΓοΧΧω μάΧΧον ενεκειντο αύτω, βουΧόμενοι τ ας 
παραινέσεις ας ττ} Αιουία τταραίνεΐν εφη μαθεΐν. 
καΐ ος άκων μεν, εΊττε δ ουν τίνα καΐ ττερΙ της 
εσθητος καϊ ττερΙ του Χοιττου κόσμου τών τε 
εξόδων καϊ της σωφροσύνης αυτών, μη8' οτιουν 
φροντίσας οτι μη καϊ τω φγω αυτά εττιστουτο. 

6 καϊ έτερον 8ε τι τοιόνΒε τιμητεύων εττετΓοιηκεΐ' 

εττειΖη ryap ττροση^α^ε τις αΰτώ νεανίσκον γυναίκα 

εκ μοί'χ^είας ηεηαμηκότα, καϊ ττΧεΐστα οσα κατη- 

^ elp^e R. Steph., efp^e Μ. 
^ καταβοησ€ω5 R. Steph., κατ^βό-ηαν Μ. 


five years. He laid heavier assessments upon the 
unmarried men and U])on tlie women witliout hus- 
bands, and on tlie other hand offered prizes for 
marriage and tlie begetting of children. And since 
among the nobility there ^vere far more males than 
females, he allowed all who wished, except the 
senators, to marry freedwomen, and ordered that 
their offspring should be held legitimate. 

Meanwhile a clamor arose in the senate over the 
disorderly conduct of the women and of the young 
men, this being alleged as a reason for their re- 
luctance to enter into the marriage relation ; and 
Avhen they urged him to remedy this abuse also, >vith 
ironical allusions to his ΟΛνη intimacy Λvith many 
women, he at first re{)lied that the most necessary 
restrictions had been laid down and that anything 
further could not possibly be regulated by decree in 
similar fashion. Then, when he Λvas driven into a 
corner, he said : " You yourselves ought to admonish 
and command your >vives as you wish ; that is >vhat I 
do." When they heard that, they plied him with 
questions all the more, wishing to learn >vhat the 
admonitions were which he professed to give Livia. 
He accordingly, though Λvith reluctance, made a few 
remarks about women's dress and their other adorn- 
ment, about their going out and their modest be- 
haviour, not in the least concerned that his actions 
did not lend credence to his words. Another in- 
stance of such inconsistency had occurred while he 
was censor. Some one brought before him a young 
man who had taken as his wife a married woman 
with whom he had previously committed adultery, 
and made ever so many accusations against the 

Υ 2 


<yopqaev αΰτον, ^ίηιτορηθη μήτ€ Trapiheiv ro 
ττρά^μα ρϋήτ ^τητιμήσαί τι τοΧμήσας, καΐ μολ,ι^^ 
7Γ0Τ€ οψβ aveve<yK(uv ** πολλά," (Ιφη, " καΐ heiva 
αΐ στ(ίσ€ί<ζ ην€<γκαν, ό)στ6 €Κ€ίνων μ€ΐ> άμνημονώ- 
μεν, Ύουβε 3η Χουττου ττρονοωμεν οιτω^ μηΕβρ roi- 
7 οντο <^/ί^νηταίΓ ώ? δ' ουν βρέφη τινε^ εη^^υωμενοι 
τα? μεν Ύίμα<ζ των ^ε^αμηκότων εκαρττουντο, το 
Be epyov αύτων ου τταρείχοντο, ττροσέταξε μηΒε- 
μίαν ε'^'^ύην Ισ'χ^ύείν μεθ' ην ού8ε 8υοΐν ετοΐν 
8ιε\θόντων (γαμήσει ^ τί?, τουτ εστί Βεκετιν 
ττάντως iyyvaaOai τον ji τι άττ' αυτής άιτοΧαύ- 
σοντα' Βώ^εκα yap ^ ταΐς κυραις ες την του yάμoυ 
ωραν ετη ττΧηρη, καθάττερ είττον, νομίζεται. 
17 Ύαντά τε ουν ώς έκαστα Βιενομοθετεί, καΐ Ίνα 
εττΐ τη του σίτου ΒίαΒόσει, ττροβάΧλωνταί οΐ ^ εν 
ταΐς αργαις αεί οντες ενα έκαστος ^ εκ των ιτρο 
τριών ετών εστpaτηyηκότωv, καΐ εζ αυτών τβσ- 
2 σαρες οΐ Χα'χ^οντες σιτοΒοτώσιν εκ ΒιαΕο-χ^ης. τον 
τε τΓοΧίαργ^ον τον ες τάς άνοχ^ας καθιστάμενον 
ενα αεί αιρεισσαι, και τα εττη τα ΖίρυΧλεια εξι- 
τηΧα ύπο του χρόνου yεy ονότα τους ιερέας αύτο- 
'χειρια εκypά^|raσθaι, εκεΧευσεν, ίνα μηΒεΙς έτερος 

^ μό\ΐ5 Pflugk, μάλιστα Μ. ^ Ύαμ•ησ€ΐ Ζοη., 'γαμ-ησηι Μ. 

^ yap supplied by R. Stepli, * οί Bk., καϊ οί Μ. 
^ €«αστον Reim., e /ίαστον Μ. 

1 Cf. note on liii. 13, 2. 

- Apparently in a lost portion of his work. 



mean, and Augustus was at a loss what to do, not 
daring to overlook the affair nor yet to administer 
any rebuke. At length, though Λvith difiiculty, he 
recovered himself and said: "^ Our factious quarrels 
have borne many terrible fruits ; let us, then, forget 
them and give our attention to the future, that 
nothing of the sort may occur again." Inasmuch, 
too, as certain men were betrothing themselves to 
infant girls and thus enjoying the privileges granted 
to married men,^ but without rendering the service 
expected of them, he ordered that no betrothal 
should be valid if the man did not marry within two 
years of such betrothal, — that is, that the girl must 
in every case be at least ten years old at her be- 
trothal if the man was to derive any advantages 
from it, since, as I have stated,- girls are held to 
have reached the marriageable age on the com- 
pletion of twelve full years. 

Besides these several enactments, Augustus further 
provided that, for the distribution of grain, one 
candidate, who must have served as praetor three 
years previously, should be nominated each year by 
each of the officials then serving, and that, from 
these nominees, four men should be chosen by lot 
to serve in succession as distributors of grain. •^ And 
he commanded that the office of prefect of the citv, 
who was chosen for the Feriae,'* should always be 
filled by the election of one man, and that the 
Sibylline verses, Avhich had become indistinct 
through lajise of time, should be co])ied off by the 
priests with their own hands, in order that no one 

* Suetonius {Ακ(/. ^1) παπιού among the new oilices esta- 
hliishcd by Augustus the ^' curam . . . frumcnti populo 

* See note on chap. ; and of, xli. 14, 4, and xlix. 10, 2. 



3 αύτα άναΧβξηται. τάς re άρ'χ^ας αττασι τοις Ββκα 
μυρίάΒων ουσίαν βγ^ουσυ και άρχ^βιν e/c των νόμων 
Βνναμβνοίς eTrayyeWeiv βττβτρεψβ. τοσούτον yap 
το βουΧβυηκον τίμημα την πρώτην elvat εταξβν, 
€7Γ€ίτα καΐ €9 7Γ6ντ€ Κ αϊ είκοσι μνρίά8α<; αυτό 
TTpoi^yaye. και τισι των ev βίούντων βλάττω, 
τότε μεν των Se/ca, ανθις δβ των ττεντε καΐ είκοσι, 

4 κεκτημενοί^^ εχαρισατο όσον ενέχει, καΐ Βία 
ταύτα τοΓ? βουΧομενοΐζ των στpaτηyώv τρίττΧά- 
σίον του τταρα του Βημοσιου σφίσιν e? τα? ττανη- 
^ύρεί<; Βώομένου ττροσαναΧίσκειν εφήκεν. ώστε 
εΐ κα\ ττρος την άκρίβείαν των άΧλων αυτού νομο- 
θετημάτων ηχθοντό τίνε<;, αλλ* νττό τε τούτου, 
καΐ ΟΤΙ ΐΙυΧάΒην rcva ορχ^ηστην Βιά στάσιν εξεΧη- 
Χαμενον κaτηyayεVy ουκετ εκείνων εμεμνηντο, 

5 οθενττερ πάνυ σοφώζ ό ΤΙυΧάΒης, εττίτιμώμενος 
υπ αύτοΰ επεώη ^αθύΧΧω όμοτεχνω τε οι οντι 
καΐ τω Μαικήνα προσηκοντί Βιεστασίαζεν, εΙπεΐν 
Xεyετat οτί " συμφέρει σοι, Καίσαρ, περί ήμα<ζ 
τον Βήμον άποΒιατρίβεσθαί!^ 

Ιο ΐαυτα μεν εν εκεινω τω ετει εyεvετo' επί οε οη 
Ταίου ^ τε Φουρνίου καΐ Τα'ίου ^ιΧανοΰ υπάτων 
υΐον αύθις ο ^AypL•ππa<ζ άνείΧετο τον Χούκιον 
όνομασθεντα, καΐ αύτον εύθύ<; ό Αύγουστο? μετά 
τού άΒεΧφού τον Τα'ίου εποιησατο, μη άναμείνα<ζ 
σφας άνΒρωθηναι, αλλ' αύτόθεν ΒιαΒόχους της 
2 αρχής άποΒευζας, ιν ήττον επιβουΧεύηταί. την 
τε τής Τιμής καΐ τής ^Αρετής πavηyυpLv ες τάς 
νυν ημέρας μετεστησε, καΐ τοις τα επινίκια πεμ- 
ΤΓουσιν epyov εκ των Χαφύρων ες την των πράξεων 

^ κ(κτημ€ΐΌΐ5 Bk., κ^κτ-ημίνων Μ. 
^ Ταϊου Bk., του yaiov Μ. 



else might read them. He permitted all to stand 
for office who possessed proj)erty worth four hundred 
thousand sesterces and were eligible by the laws to 
hold office. This was the senatorial rating which 
he at first established ; but later he raised it to 
one million sesterces. Upon some of those who lived 
upright lives but })ossessed less than the four 
hundred thousand sesterces in the first instance, or 
the million in the second, he bestowed the amount 
lacking. And because of this he allowed the 
praetors who so desired to spend on the public 
festivals three times the amount granted them from 
the treasury. Thus, even if some were vexed at 
the strictness of his other regulations, yet by reason 
of this action and also because he restored one 
Pylades, a dancer, who had been exiled on account 
of sedition, they remembered them no longer. 
Hence Pylades is said to have rejoined very cleverly, 
when the emperor rebuked him for having quar- 
relled Avith 15athyllus, a fellow-artist and a favourite 
of Maecenas ^ : ''It is to your advantage, Caesar, that 
the people should devote their spare time to us." 

These were the occurrences of that year. In the 
consulship of Gains Furnius and (Jaius Silanus, 
Agrippa again acknowledged the birth of a son, who 
was named Lucius ; and Augustus immediately 
adopted him together with his brother Gains, not 
Avaiting for them to become men, but appointing 
them then and there successors to his office, in order 
that feΛver plots might be formed against him. He 
transferred the festival of Honor and Virtus to the 
days Avhich are at present theirs, commanded those 
who celebrated triumphs to erect out of their 

1 Cf. Tac. Ann. i. 54. 



μνήμην ΤΓΟίβΐν ττροσβταξε, τά re σαικουΧάρι,α τα 
ΤΓβμτΓτα εττετελβσε. καϊ τους ρήτορας άμισθΐ ^ 
avvayopev€iv, ή τβτραπΧάσιον όσον αν Χάβωσιν 
3 ifCTLvetv, eKeXevae. τοις Se 8ίκάζ€ΐν ael λαγχά- 
νουσι,ν άττείττβν ές μηΒβνος OL/caSe τον iviambv 
€Κ€Ϊνον iaievat. βττβώή re ασττουδβΐ οΐ ^ βουΧβνταΙ 
69 το avveSpLov σννβφοίτων, έιτηύζησβ τας ζημίας 
τοις ουκ βξ evXoyov τίνος αίτιας ύστβρίζουσί. 
19 ΚαΙ μ€τα ταντα €ς τήν ΤαΧατίαν, Αουκίου re 
ΑομίΤίου καΐ ΐΙονπΧίον ^κιττίωνος υττατενόντων, 
ωρμησε, ττροφασιν τους ττοΧβμους τους κατ Ικείνο 

2 κίνηθίντας Χαβών. βττεώη yap βΤΓαχ^θης ττοΧΧοΐς 
etc της iv τη ττόΧβι γ^ρονίου διατριβής iyeyovei, 
καΐ σνχνους μεν βξω τι των τeτayμevωv ττράτ- 
τοντας Βίκαιών ΙΧύττει, σνχνών δε κα\ φειΒόμβνος 
τα νβνομοθβτημένα ύφ' εαυτοί) τταραβαίνβίν ήνα- 
yκάζeτo, €κ8ημησαί τρόττον τίνα κατά τον ΧόΧωνα 

3 eyvω. και τίνες καΐ Βιά τήν Ύβρεντίαν τήν του 
Τ^ίαικήνου yvvaiKa άττοΒημήσαι αύτον ύττετόττη- 
σαν, Ίν εττεώή ττοΧΧα ττερί αυτών εν τη 'Ρώμη 
εXoyo7ΓOιεLτo, άνευ θροΰ τίνος εν τη άΧΧο^ημία 
αύτη συνη' οϋτω yap οΰν ττάνυ αυτής ήρα ώστε 
καΐ άyωvLσaσθaί ττοτε αυτήν ιτερί του κάΧΧους 

4 7Γ ρος τήν Αίονίαν ττοίήσαί. ττρίν 8ε ή αφορμα- 
σθαι, τον του Κ,υρΙνου ναον καθίερωσεν εκ καινής 
οΙκοΒομήσας. εΐττον Βε τούτο otl εξ καΐ εβΒομή- 
κοντα κίοσιν αύτον εκόσμησεν, οσαττερ τα ττάντα 
€τη ^ Βιεβίω, κάκ τούτου Xoyov τισΐ τταρεσγεν ώς 
καΐ εξετΓίτηΒες αύτο αλλ' ού κατά τύχην άΧΧως 

5 ττράξας. εκείνον τε ουν τότε εθειωσε, και μονο- 

^ αμισθι St., αμισθά Μ. ^ ^,ι supplied by Rk. 

' ίτ-η Dine!., ίττ? tis V^NI. 



spoils some monument to commemorate tlieir deeds, b.c. 17 
and held the fifth celebration of the Ludi Saeculares. 
He ordered th(; orators to give their services as 
advocates without pay, on i)ain of a fine of four 
times the amount they received ; and he forbade 
those who were drawn as jurymen from time to 
time to enter any person's house during their year 
of service. And since the members of the senate 
showed a lack of interest in attending its sessions, 
he increased the fines for those Λνΐιο were late with- 
out a good excuse. 

Next he set out for Gaul, during the consulship β c. i6 
of Lucius Domitius and Publius Scipio, making the 
wars that had arisen in that region his excuse. For 
since he had become disliked by many as a result of 
his long stay in the capital, and now was offending 
many who committed some act contrary to his 
decrees by the punishments he was inflicting, and 
at the same time, by sparing many others, was being 
compelled to transgress his ΟΛνη enactments, he 
decided to leave the country, somewhat after the 
manner of Solon. Some even suspected that he 
had gone aAvay on account of Terentia, the Avife of 
Maecenas, and intended, inasmuch as there was 
much talk about them in Rome, to live with her 
abroad free from all gossip. So great, indeed, was 
!iis passion for her that he once made her enter a 
contest of beauty against Livia. Before setting out 
he dedicated the temple of Quirinus, which he had 
rebuilt. I mention this for tlie reason that he 
adorned it with seventy-six columns, Avhich was the 
exact number of the years he lived, and thus caused 
some to declare that he had chosen this number 
deliberately and not by mere chance. So he dedi- 
cated this temple at that time, and also exhibited 



μ,α'χία^; άιγώνας δία re του Ύιβερίου καϊ Sta του 
Κρούσου, σν^/ 'χω ρηθέν hrj σφισίν υττο τή<ζ βουΧης, 

6 €θηκ€. καϊ οΰτω το pbev άστυ τω Ύαύρω μετά 
τήζ αλΧης 'Ιταλίας ^ιοικεΐν εττιτρβψα'ζ (του τβ 
yap ^AypLTTTTav eV την ^υρίαν αύθις έστάΧκει, καϊ 
τω yiaLKTjva Sia την γυναίκα ούκεβ" όμοίο)ς 
e^aLpe), τον δε δ^ Ύίββριον καίτοι, στρατη-^ουντα 
τταραΧαβων εξώρμησεν. βστρατη^ησβ yap καίττερ 
τα<ζ aTpaT7]yiKa<; τιμάς έχων καϊ την ye αρχήν 
αυτοί) ττάσαν 6 Αροΰσος i/c B6yμaτoς Sirjyayev. 

7 εζεΧθοντων δ ουν αυτών το της ^βότητος μeyapov 
ύπο την ετΓίοΰσαν νύχτα κατεκαύθη, καϊ 8ίά τε 
τούτο καϊ Bca ταΧΧα τα 7Γpoyεv6μεva (Χύκος τε 
yap Βια της ιεράς 68οΰ ες την ayopav εσττεσων 
ανθρώπους έφθειρε, καΐ μύρμηκες οΰ^ ττόρρω της 
dyopάς εμφανέστατα ^ συνεστράφησαν, Χαμττάς 
τε τις ατΓο μεσημβρίας εττϊ την άρκτον Sia ττάσης 
της νυκτός ηνέχθη) εύχας υττερ της εττανόΒου του 

8 Aΰyoύστoυ εττοιήσαντο, καν τούτω καϊ την 
ττενταετηρί^α της αρχής αυτού Βιεώρτασαν, του 
*AypL7Γ7Γoυ (εν yap τοις ττεντεκαίΒεκα άνΒράσιν, 
οίς εκ της ττερίτροττής η Βιοίκησις αύτΡ]ς εττεβαΧ- 
Χεν, ίερωτο) Βια των συνιερεων άναΧώσαντος. 

^0 Πολλά μεν ουν καϊ άΧΧα κατά τους χρόνους 

εκείνους εταράχθη. καϊ yap Κ,αμμούνιοι καϊ Ού- 

εννιοι, ^ΑΧτΓίκα yεvη, οττΧα τε άντήραντο καΐ 

νικηθεντες υττο ΤΙουτΓΧίου Έ^ιΧίου εχειρώθησαν 

2 καϊ οί ΐΐαννόνιοι την τε Ίστρίαν μ.ετά ^ωρίκων 

^ ου supplied by Leuncl. ^ 4κφανίστατα }>!, (μώαρίστατα V. 



gladitatorial combats, Tiberius and Drusus represent- 
ing him in the matter after the senate had granted 
them permission. Tiien he committed to Taurus 
the management of the city together with tlie rest 
of Italy (for he liad sent Agrippa again to Syria and 
no longer looked with equal favour upon Maecenas 
because of the latter's wife), and taking Tiberius, 
though })raetor at the time, along with him, he set 
out on his journey. Tiberius, it appears, had 
become [)raetor in spite of his already holding the 
rank of a praetor ; and Drusus now performed all 
the duties of his office in pursuance of a decree. 
The night following their departure the temple of 
Inventus^ was burned to the ground. Other portents 
also had occurred : a wolf had rushed into the Forum 
by the Sacred Way and had killed people, and not 
far from the Forum ants >vere conspicuously swarm- 
ing together ; moreover, a flame like a torch had 
shot from the south towards the north all night 
long. Because of all these signs prayers Λvere 
offered for the return of Augustus. Meanwhile they 
held the (juadrennial celebration of his sovereignty, 
Agrippa, represented by his fellow-priests, bearing 
the expense ; for he had been consecrated as one of 
the quindecimviri, upon Avhom the management of 
the festival devolved in regular succession. 

There were many other disturbances, too, diu'ing 
that period. The Camunni and Vennii,'- Alpine 
tribes, took up arms against the Romans, but were 
con(juered and subdued by Publius Silius. The 
Pannonians in company Avith the Norici overran 

^ Aedes ΙκΐΊη/κίί,^. 

2 Other forms of this name are Venuones, Veiiuonles, and 


κατβ^ραμον, και αυτοί τε ττρο^ re του Έ,ιλίον κα\ 
των ίιττοστ ρατη^ο)ν αυτοί) κακωθβντες ανθις ώμο- 
\6yy]aav, και τοΐ<^ Νωρίκοις αϊτιοΰ της αυτής 

3 ΕουΧβίας eyevovTO. τά τ€ iv ττ} ΑεΧματία καΐ τά 
iv τ?7 ^ϊβηρία νεο'χ^μώσαντα δί' οΧί^ου κατέστη, 
καΐ ή ΜακεΒονία ύττό τε των ΑενθεΧητών καΐ ύπο 
των ^κορΒισκων επορθήθη. εν τε ττ} ^paKrj ττρό- 
τερον μβν Ήίάρκος ΑόΧλιος 'νυμητάΧκη ^ θείω τε 
των τον Κότυο? τταιΒων καΐ ετητροττω οντι βοηθών 
Έησσούς κατεστρεψατο, εττείτα 8ε Αούκως Τάιος 
Μαυρομάτας εκ της αυτής αίτιας κρατήσας ύττερ 

4 τον'Ίστρον άττεώσατο. 6 δε 8ή μέγιστος τώι/ τότε 
συμβάντων τοις ^Ρωμαυοίς ττοΧεμων, οσττερ ττου 
καΐ τον Κΰ^ονστον εκ της ττόΧεως εξήyayε, ττρος 
τους Κελτου? iy ενετό. 'ZύyaμβpoL τε yap καΐ 
Ούσιττεταί καΐ Ύεyκτηpoι^^ το μεν ττρώτον εν τη 
σφετερα τινάς αυτών συΧλαβόντες άνεσταύρωσαν, 

5 εττειτα δε καΐ τον Frjvov δίαβάντες την τε Τερ- 
μανίαν καΐ την ΤαΧατιαν εΧεηΧάτησαν, το τε 
Ιττπικον το των Ρωμαίων εττεΧθον σφισιν ενή- 
Βρευσαν, καΐ φεύyoυσιv αύτοίς εττιστΓομενοί τω τε 
AoWUp άρχοντί αυτής ενετυ'χον άνέΧττιστοι καΐ 

6 ενίκησαν καΐ εκείνον, μαθών ουν ταύτα 6 Αΰ- 
yoυστoς ωρμησε μεν εττ^ αυτούς, ου μεντοί καΐ 
'ipyov τι τΓοΧεμου εσγεν οι yap βάρβαροι τον τε 
ΑόΧΧιον τταρασκευαζόμενον καΐ εκείνον στρατεύ- 
οντα ττνθόμενοι ες τε την εαυτών άνεχώρησαν και 
στΓονΒάς εττοιησαντο, ομήρους Βόντες. 

21 Τωζ^ μεν ουν οττΧων ούΒεν 8ίά ταΰθ^ ο Auyov- 
στος εΒεήθη, τα δε δ?; άΧΧα καθιστάμενος τούτον 

^ 'Ρυμητάλκτ) R, Steph. , ^ωμ-ητάλκηι Λ'Μ (but 'Ρυμητά\κη$ 
elsewhere). ^ Ύΐ-^κτ-ηροι R. Steph., τ^γκρητοι Λ'Μ. 



Istria ; but the former, upon being discomfited by b.c. ig 
Silius and liis lieutenants, both came to terms again 
tliemselves and caused the Norici to be subjected 
to the same slavery. The uprisings in Dalmatia and 
in Spain were quelled in a short time. Macedonia 
was ravaged by the Dentheleti and the Scordisci. 
In Thrace somewhat earlier Marcus Lollius, while 
aiding Ilhoemetalces, the uncle and guardian of the 
sons of Cotys, had subjugated the Bessi. Later 
Lucius Gallus conquered the Sarmatians for the 
same reason and drove them back across the Ister. 
The greatest, however, of the wars Avhich at that 
time fell to, the lot of the Romans, and the one 
presumably which drew Augustus away from the 
city, was that against the Germans. It seems that 
the Sugambri, Usipetes, and Tencteri had first seized 
in their own territory some of the Romans and had 
crucified them, after >vhich they had crossed the 
Rhine and j)lundered Germania and Gaul. When 
the Roman cavalry approached, they surprised them 
from ambush ; then, pursuing them as they fled, 
they fell in unexpectedly with Lollius, the governor 
of the province, and conquered him also. On 
learning of all this, Augustus hastened against them, 
but found no warfare to carry on ; for the barbarians, 
learning that Lollius was making preparations and 
that the emperor Λvas also taking the field, retired 
into their own territory and made peace, giving 

For this reason Augustus had no need of arms, 
but in arranging other matters he consumed the 



re Tou iviavTOv κατανάΧωσε καϊ τον ύστερον, iv 

ω ^ίάρκος τ€ Αίβων καΐ ΚαΧττονρνιος Πισωι^ 

υττάτενσαν. ττοΧλα μίν yap καϊ ύττο των ΚβΧτώι^, 

ΤΓολλά he καϊ νττο Αικίνίον^ tlvo<; έτΓβττόνηντο.' 

και μοι, Βοκεΐ τονθ' οτί μάΧίστα το κήτϋ<ζ σφισι 

ττροσημηναί' ττλατο? μεν yap ττοΒών είκοσι μήκος 

δέ τρίΎτΧάσίον ε'χρν, καϊ yvvaiKl τιΧηντής κβφαΧης 

ioLKo^i €9 την yrjv εαυτό εκ τον ωκεανού εξώκει- 

Χεν, 6 δε ^η Αίκίνιος το μεν άρχ^αΐον ΤαΧάτης 

ην, άΧονς δε 69 τους Ύωμαίονς καϊ ^ονΧεύσας 

τω Κ,αισαρί ύττο μεν εκείνον ήΧενθερώθη, ύττο δε 

του Aύyoύστoυ εττίτροττος της ΤαΧατίας κατέστη. 

ούτος ονν ττΧεονεξία μεν βαρβαρικΐ) αξιώσει δε 

Ρωμαϊκτ] 'χ^ρώμενος, ττάν μεν το κρείττόν ττοτε 

αύτοΰ νομισθεν καθαιρεί, ττάν δε το εν τω τταροντι 

Ισγνρον ηφάνιζε, καϊ σνχνα μεν καϊ ττρος τα 

avayKata της 7Γpoστετayμεvης οί^ Βιακονίας εξε- 

Ίτόριζε, συγνα δε καϊ εαντω τοις τε οίκείοις τταρεξ- 

εXεyε. καϊ ες τοσοντον yε κακοτροττίας εγω- 

ρησεν ώστε, εττεώη τίνες εσφοραΐ κατά μήνα τταρ 

αντοίς iyiyvovTO, τεσσαρεσκαίΒεκα αντονς^ ττοιή- 

σαι, Xεyωv τον μήνα τούτον τον Αεκεμβριον καΧού- 

μενον ^εκατόν όντως είναι, καϊ Βεΐν Βιά τούτο 

αντονς καϊ τους Svo τονς νστάτονς,^ ων τον μεν 

εν^εκατον τον δε Βω^εκατον ώνόμαζε, νομίζειν, 

καϊ τα 'χρήματα τα εττιβάΧΧοντα αύτοΐς εσφερειν. 

Βια μεν ούν ταύτα τα σοφίσματα εκινΒύνευσεν 

οι yap ΤαΧάται τού Aύyoύστoυ Χαβόμενοι 8εινα 

* Αικινίου Xiph., λικιννίου Λ"Μ (and similarly just below). 
^ itrenovrjvTO Rk., euerotr/VTO Λ'Μ. 
•^ ot Μ cod. Peir. , αύτώ V. 

■* avTovs Reim., αυτά Λ^, ούτάϊ Μ cod. Peir., rovs μηναΐ 
Xiph. ^ νστάτον5 Dind., auyovarovs VM cod. Peir. 



whole of tliis year, as well as the next, in wliich b.c. 15 
Marcus Libo and Calpiirniiis I*iso Avere consuls. 
For not only had the Ciauls suii'ercd much at the 
hands of the Germans, but much also at the hands 
of a certain Licinus.^ And of this, I think, the 
sea-monster had given them full warning before- 
hand ; twenty feet broad and three times as long, 
and resembling a woman excej)t for its head, it 
had come in from the ocean and become stranded 
on the shore. Now Licinus was originally a Gaul, 
but after being captured by the Romans and be- 
coming a slave of Caesar's, he had been set free by 
him, and by Augustus had been made procurator of 
(xaul. This man, then, with his combination of bar- 
barian avarice and Roman dignity, tried to overthrow 
every one Λνΐιο was ever counted su})erior to him and 
to destroy every one who was strong for the time 
being. He not only supplied himself Λvith plenty 
of funds for the requirements of the office to which 
he had been assigned, but also incidentally collected 
plenty for himself and for his friends. His knavery 
went so far that in some cases where the people 
paid their tribute by the month he made the months 
fourteen in number, declaring that the month called 
December was really the tenth, and for that reason 
they must reckon two more (which he called the 
eleventh and the twelfth ^ respectively) as the last, 
and contribute the money that was due for these 
months. It was these quibbles that brought him 
into danger ; for the Gauls secured the ear of 
Augustus and })rotested indignantly, so that the 

* Licinus appears to bo the proper spelling of tlie name, 
although we find Licinius even in .some Roman Avriters. 

- liekker plausibly suggested Έΐ'5(κ(μβριον and ΑωΒίκίμβριον, 
I.e. Undecember and Duodecember. 



€7Γ0ίησαν, ώστε και εκείνον τά μεν συνά'χθεσθαι ^ 
σφισι τα 8ε καΐ τταραίτεΐσθαΐ' ά^νοείν τε τίνα 
εΧε'γε, καΐ ττροσεττοίεΐτο έτερα μη ττιστεύειν, κα\ 
εστίν α καΐ συνεκρνπτεν, αίσ'χυνομενο^ otl τοιον- 

7 τω ετΓίτρόττω εκε'χ^ρητο' άΧλο 8ε τοιον^ε τί 
τε'χνασάμενος καΐ ττάνυ πάντων αυτών κατε'γε- 
Χασεν. εττειΒη yap χαλεττώ? οι τον AvyovaTOV 
έχοντα γσθετο καϊ κοΧασθησεσθαι εμεΧΧεν, ες τε 
την οΐκίαν αύτον βστ/γαγβ, κα\ ττοΧΧονς μεν καϊ 
apyvpiov καϊ 'χ^ρνσίου θησαυρούς ττοΧΧα 8ε καϊ 

8 τάΧΧα σωρη8ον συννενημβνα' αύτω οείζας, '^ εξε- 
ττίτηΒες,^' εφη, " ταύτα, ώ Βέσττοτα, καϊ ύττερ σου 
καϊ ύττερ των άΧΧων 'ΐ'ωμαίων ηθροισα, \να μη 
τοσούτων γ^ρημάτων εyκpaτεΐς οι ετηχ^ώρωί οντες 
άτΓοστώσίν. άμεΧει καϊ ετηρησά σοι ττάντα αυτά 
και Οίόωμι. 

ΚαΙ ό μεν οΰτως, ό^ς καϊ ύττερ του Aύyoύστoυ 

την των βαρβάρων Ισχ^ύν εκνενευρικώς, εσώθη, 

22 Αρούσος 8ε εν τούτω καϊ Ύιβερως τά8ε εττραξαν. 

VaiTol οίκούντες μεταξύ του τε Ί^ωρΙκου καϊ της 

ΤαΧατίας, ττρος ταΐς "ΑΧττεσι ταΐς ττρος τη 

ΊταΧία ταΐς Ύρώεντίναίς, τής τε ΤαΧατΙας της 

ττροσόρου σφίσι ττοΧΧά κατετρεχ^ον καϊ εκ τής 

^ΙταΧίας^ άp7τayaς εττοωΰντο, τους τε όδω των 

Ρωμαίων i) καϊ των συμμάγ^ων αυτών 8ια τής 

2 σφετερας yής 'χ^ρω μένους εΧυμαίνοντο. καϊ ταύτα 

μεν καϊ συνήθη ττως τοις ουκ ενσττόνΒοις ττοιεΐν 

εΒόκουν, ττάν 8ε 8η το appev τών άΧισκομενων, 

ού'χ^ ΟΤΙ το φαινόμενον άΧΧά καϊ το εν ταΐς 

1 συνάχθβσθαί Xipli., &χθ€σθαί ΥΜ. 

- συνν^νημίνα Svlburg, σνν€ν€μημ4να V, συνν^ημ-ημίνα Μ 
cod. Peir. 
^ Ίτολί'αϊ Bk., IraXi^os VM. 


emperor in some matters sliared tlieir vexation and 
in others tried to excuse Licinus. He claimed to 
be unaware of some of his extortions and affected 
not to believe others, while some matters he actually 
concealed, feelin<i^ ashamed to have employed such 
a procurator. Licinus, however, devised another 
scheme as follows, and laughed them all to scorn. 
When he perceived that Augustus was displeased 
with him and that he was likely to be punished, he 
brought the emperor into his house, and showing 
him many treasures of silver and gold and many 
other valuables piled up in heaps, he said : '^ 1 have 
gathered all this purposely, master, for you and for 
the rest of the Romans, lest the natives, by having 
control of so much money, should revolt. At any 
rate, I have kept it all for you and now give it ^to 

Thus Licinus was saved, by pretending that he 
had sapped the strength of the barbarians in order 
to serve Augustus. Drusus and Tiberius in the 
meantime were engaged in the following exploits. 
The Rhaetians, who dwell between Noricum and 
Gaul, near the Tridentine Al})s ^ Λvhich adjoin Italy, 
were overrunning a large part of the neighbouring 
territory of Ciaul and carrying otf plunder even from 
Italy ; and they Λvere harassing such of the Romans 
or their allies as travelled through their country. 
Now these acts of theirs seemed to be about what 
was to be exj)ected of nations \vhich had not accepted 
terms of peace ; but they went further and destroyed 
all the males among their captives, not only those 
who had already come into the world, but also those 
who were still in the women's wombs, the sex of 

^ The Alps around Tridentum (Trent). 




yaarpaaiv en των yvvaiKOjp ov μαντείαις τισίν 

3 άρευρίσκοντβς, ^φθβιρον. δί, ουν ταύτα ο Λυ- 
γοι^στο? πρώτον μεν τον Αροΰσον eV αντονς 
βτΓβμ-ψβ' καΐ ος τους ττ ροατταντησαντάς οι αΰτίΖν 
ΤΓβρΙ τα ΎριΒβντΐνα όρη Βια ταχ^εων βτρεψατο, 
ώστε fcal τιμάς στρατη^ικας eVl τούτω ΧαβεΙν. 
€7Γ€ίτα δβ €7Γ€ί8η τηζ μεν Ίταλια? άττεκρού- 
σθησαν, ττ} δε δ^ ΤαΧατία καΐ ως ενεκειντο, τον 

4 Ύίβεριον ττροσαττεστείΧεν. εσβαΧόντες ^ ουν ες 
την γ^ώραν ττοΧΧαχ^όθεν άμα αμφότεροι, αυτοί τε 
και Βιά των υττο στρατηγών, καΐ 6 γε Ύιβεριος καΐ 
Βια της Χίμνης ττΧοίοις κομισθείς, άττό τε τούτου 
κατεττΧηζαν αυτούς ώς εκάστοις σφίσι συμμι- 
'^νύντες, τους τε άεϊ ες 'χείρας άφικνουμενους ου 
χαΧεπώς, άτε Βιεσττασμεναις ταΐς Βυνάμεσι χρω- 
μένους, κατειρ^άσαντο, καΐ τους Χοιττούς ασθενέ- 
στερους τε εκ τούτου καΐ αθυμοτερους γενομένους 

5 εΙΧον. εττειΒη τε εττοΧυάνΒρουν καΐ εΒόκουν τι 
νεωτεριεΐν, τό τε κράτιστον κ αϊ το ττΧεΐστον της 
ηΧικίας αυτών i^yyayov, καταΧιττόντες τοσούτους 
όσοι την μεν γώραν οίκείν Ικανοί νεοχμώσαι Βε τι 
άΒύνατοι ήσαν. 

23 Καζ^ τω αύτω τούτω ετει ΟύηΒιος ΤΙωΧίων 
άττεθανεν, άνηρ άΧΧως μεν ούΒεν μνήμης άξιον 
τταρασχόμενος (καΐ yap εξ άττεΧευθερων "^ εyεyόvει 
καΐ εν τοις Ιττπευσιν εξητάζετο καΐ Χαμττρον ούΒεν 
elpyάσaτo), εττΐ Βε Βη τω ττΧούτω τη τε ώμότητι 
ονομαστότατος yεvόμεvoς, ώστε καΐ ες ιστορίας 
2 Xoyov εσεΧθεΐν. ούτος yap τα μεν άΧΧα όσα 
εττραττε, Βι όχΧου αν Xεyόμεva yivoiTO, μυραίνας 

* άν^λ^υθίρων VM cod. Peir., απ€λ(υθ(ρου Xiph. 


wliom tliey discovered by some means of divination. 
For these reasons, then, Augustus first sent against 
them Drusus, who speedily routed a detacliment of 
them wliicli came to meet him near the Tridentine 
mountains, and in consequence received the rank of 
praetor. Later, when the Rhaetians had been re- 
pulsed from Italy, but were still harassing Gaul, 
Augustus sent out Tiberius also. Both leaders then 
invaded Rhaetia at many points at the same time, 
either in person or through their lieutenants, and 
Tiberius even crossed the lake ^ with ships. In this 
Avay, by encountering them separately, they terrified 
them and not only easily overwhelmed those with 
whom they came into close quarters at any time, 
inasmuch as the barbarians had their forces scattered, 
but also captured the remainder, >vho in consequence 
had become weaker and less spirited. And because 
the land had a large population of males and seemed 
likely to revolt, they deported most of the strongest 
men of military age, leaving behind only enough to 
give the country a population, but too few to begin 
a revolution. 

This same year Vedius Pollio died, a man who in 
general had done nothing deserving of remem- 
brance, as he was sprung from freedmen, belonged to 
the knights, and had performed no brilliant deeds ; but 
he had become very famous for his wealth and for his 
cruelty, so that he has even gained a place in history. 
Most of the things he did it would be wearisome to 
relate, but I may mention that he kept in reservoirs 

* The Lacus Venetiis (Lago di Garda). 

ζ 2 


Be B€SίSayμ6paς ανθρώπους έσθίειν iv ^εξαμεναΐς 
τρβφων τους SovXov^; αύταΐ<ς ους Ιθανάτου τταρύ- 
βαΧλβ.^ και 7τοτ€ το^» Avyovarov εστιών, είτ 
€7Γ€ΐΒη 6 Οινοχόος κυΧίκα κρυσταΧλινην fcarea^ev, 
69 τας μυραίνας αυτόν, μηΒβ τον haiTV μόνα aloe- 

3 σθβίς, βμβΧηθηναί ττροσέταξεν. ό ουν Κΰ^ουστος, 
ττροσττεσόντος οΐ του τταί^ος καΐ ικβτεύσαντος 
αυτόν, τα μεν ττρώτα ττείθείν τον ΐΙωΧίωνα 
€7Γ€ΐράτο μηΒεν τοιούτον 8ράσαι, ώ? δ' ούχ ύττή- 
κουσβν αύτω, " φέρβ,^' ^φη, " πάντα ταΧλα έκττώ- 
ματα, οσα^ ττοτε τοίουτότροττα ή καΐ ετερά τίνα 

4 έντιμα κεκτησαι, Ίνα αύτοϊς γ^ρησωμαι^^ και 
αυτά κομισθεντα συντριβηναι εκεΚευσεν. ί8ών 
δε τουτ εκείνος άΧΧως μεν ήσχαΧλεν, ούτε 8ε του 
ενός ετι ττοτηρίου ττρος το ττΧήθος των άΧλων των 
άτΓοΧωΧότων 6ρ<γην έχων, οΰτ αυ τον Βιάκονον ων 
ye καΐ 6 Κν^ουστος ειτεττοιηκει τιμωρησασθαι 

5 δυνάμενος, ήσυχίαν και άκων jjyaye, τοιούτος 
ουν 8η τις 6 ΐΙωΧίων ων ετεΧευτησεν άΧλοις τε 
ΤΓοΧΧοΐς τΓοΧΧά και τω Kύyoύστω του τε κΧηρου 
σνχνον μέρος καΐ τον ^ ΐΙαυσίΧυπον, το χωρίον το 
μεταξύ της τ€ 'Νέας ττόΧεως καϊ των ΥΙουτεόΧων 
6ν, καταΧιττών, τω τε 8ήμω ττερικαΧλες epyov 

6 οΙκο8ομηθηναι κεΧεύσας, ο ουν Aΰyoυστoς την 
οΐκίαν αυτού ες ε8αφος ττροφάσει της εκείνου 
κατασκευής, όπως μη8εν μνημόσυνον εν ttj πόΧει 
€χτ}, καταβαΧών περίστωον ωκο8ομησατο, και ου 

^ "ίΓαρίβαλλβ cod. Peir. Xiph. Zon., irap4$a\e VM. 
* 'όσα — τψ κοινφ (chap. 24, 7) omitted by V, Λν1ΐ036 arclietype 
L had lost one folio at this point. ^ rhv ίΛ Xiph., rb Xyl. 


iiuge lampreys that had been trained to eat men, 
and he was accustomed to throw to them such of his 
slaves as lie desired to put to death. Once, when 
he was entertaining Augustus, his cup-bearer broke 
a crystal goblet, and without regard for his guest, 
PoUio ordered the fellow to be thrown to the 
lampreys. Hereupon the slave fell on his knees 
before Augustus and supplicated him, and Augustus 
at first tried to persuade Pollio not to commit so 
monstrous a deed. Then, when Pollio paid no heed 
to him, the emperor said, '^ Bring all the rest of the 
drinking vessels Avhich are of like sort or any others 
of value that you possess, in order that I may use 
them," and when they were brought, he ordered 
them to be broken. When Pollio saw this, he was 
vexed, of course ; but since he was no longer 
angry over the one goblet, considering the great 
number of the others that were ruined, and, on the 
other hand, could not punish his servant for what 
Augustus also had done, he held his peace, though 
much against his will. This is the sort of person Pollio 
>vas, who died at this time. Among his many be- 
quests to many persons he left to Augustus a good 
share of his estate together with Pausilypon,^ the 
place between Neapolis and Puteoli, Avith instructions 
that some public work of great beauty should be 
erected there. Augustus razed Pollio's house to the 
ground, on tlie pretext of ])reparing for the erection 
of the other structure, but really with the purpose 
that Pollio should have no monument in the city ; 

^ Τ1)θ modern Posilipo, betAvecii Naples and Poz/uoli. 
The (Jreck name Pausilypon means " grief-assuaging," thus 
corresponding to such modern names as Sans Souci, Hearts- 
ease, etc. 



TO όνομα το του ΥΙω\ίωνο<; αλλά το τ^? Χιουία<; 

7 ΤοΟτο μ€ν ουν ΰστβρον €7Γθίησ€, rare Se ττόΧβις 
ev Τ€ jfi ΤαΧατία καί ev ry ^Ιβηρία σνχ^νας 
άττωκισβ, και }ίνζικηνοί<ζ την iXevOepiav άπέ^ωκβ, 
ΤίαφίΟίς τ€ σ€ίσμω ττονήσασί καϊ γ^ρήματα e^api- 
σατο καϊ την ττόΧιν Κΰ^ουσταν καΧβΐν κατά 

8 hoy μα βπβτρβψβ. ταύτα he eypayfra ονχ οτι ου ^ 
και αΧΧαι<ζ ττοΧεσι ττολλα?? καϊ ττρότβρον καϊ 
μ€τά τούτο καϊ αυτό? ό Αύγουστο? εφ* όμοίαος 
σνμφοραΐ<ζ καϊ οΐ βουΧευταΙ βττβκούρησαν, ων εϊ 
Tfc9 άττάντων μνημονεύοι, άττβραντον αν το epyov 
τή? avyypa^rj<; ykvoiTO' αλλ* οτ^ καΧ τα? εττω- 
νυμία<; ταΐ<; ττόΧεσιν ή yepovaia ev μέρει τιμής 
ένεμε, καϊ ούχ^ ωσττερ νυν αυτοί εαυτοΐζ έκαστου 
κaτaX6yoυ<ζ ονομάτων ους αν εθεΧησωσιν ώς 
ττΧηθει τΓΟίουνταί. 

24 Τω δ* ε^nyLyvoμεvω ετει ^Ιάρκος μεν Κράσσος 
καϊ Τναΐος ΚορνήΧιος ύπάτευσαν, oi δ' άyoρav6μoι 
οΐ κουρούΧιοί, άττειττόντες την άρχην οτι εξαίσιων 
σφίσι των ορνίθων yεvoμεvωv ηρηντο,* αύθις 
αυτήν εξω των ιτατρίων εν έτερα εκκΧησία άνε- 

2 Χαβον. η τε στοά η ΉαύΧειος εκαύθη, καϊ το 
ττυρ άτΓ αυτής ττρος το ^Εστιαΐον άφίκετο, ώστε 
καϊ τά Ιερά ες τε το ΙίαΧάτιον υττο των άΧΧων 
άειτταρθένων (η yap ττρεσβεύουσα αυτών ετε- 
τύφΧωτο) άνακομισθήναι καϊ ες την του ιερέως 

3 του Αιος οΐκίαν τεθήναι. ή μεν ουν στοά μετά 
τούτο ονόματι μεν υπ ΑίμιΧίου, ες ον το του 

^ ου supplied by Bs. [μ^ή by Xyl.)• 
^ ^ρηντο Rk., ηίραντο Μ. 



and he built a colonnade, inscribing on it the name, b.c. i5 
not of Pollio, but of Livia. 

However, he did this later. At the time we are 
considering he colonized numerous cities in Gaul and 
in Spain, restored to the people of Cyzicus their 
freedom, and gave money to the Paphians, who 
had suffered from an earthquake, besides allowing 
them, by a decree, to call their city Augusta. I re- 
cord this, not that Augustus and the senators, too, 
did not aid many other cities also both before and 
after this occasion, in case of similar misfortunes, — 
indeed, if one should mention them all, the Avork in- 
volved in making the record would be endless, — but 
my purpose is to show that the senate even assigned 
names to cities as a mark of honour and that the 
inhabitants did not, as is usually done now, make 
out for themselves in each instance lists of names 
according to their own pleasure. 

The next year Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Corne- pc• u 
bus were consuls ; and the curule aediles, after 
resigning their office because they had been elected 
under unfavourable auspices, received it again, con- 
trary to precedent, at another meeting of the as- 
sembly. The Basilica of Paulus Avas burned and the 
flames spread from it to the temple of Vesta, so 
that the sacred objects there Avere carried up to the 
Palatine by the Vestal Virgins,^ — except the eldest, 
who had become blind, — and were placed in the 
house of the priest of .Jupiter. The basilica was 
afterwards rebuilt, nominally by Aemilius, who was 
1 Cf. xhi. 31, 3. 



ιτοίησαντό<; ττοτβ αύτην γε^ο? βΧηΧνθει, τω Se 
kpycp ύττο τ€ τον Αύγουστου καί νττο των του 
ΥΙαυΚου φίΧων άνωκο^ομήθη' τότε he οΐ τ€ Τίαν- 
VOVLOL νβωτβρίσαντβς αύθις ά^βιρώθησαν, καί αϊ 
ΆΧ7Γ€ί9 αϊ τταραθαΧασσίΒιοί ύττο Αίγυων των 
κομητών καΧονμενων έΧβυθβρως €το καΐ τότε ve- 

4 μομβναί Ι^ουΧώθησαν. τά τ€ iv τω Βοσττο/^ω τω 
Ι^ιμμβρίω νβο'χ^μώσαντα κατέστη. ^κρίβώνιος 
yap τις τον τ€ ^ίιθρώάτου eyyovo^ elvac καΐ 
τταρα τον AvyovaTov την βασιΧβίαν, εττεώήττερ 
ο "ΑσανΒρος ετεθνηκβι, εΙΧηφίναι X€yωv, την 
yvvatKa αντον Ανναμίν Τ€ καΧονμβνην καΐ την 
άρ'χΎ)ν τταρα τον άν8ρο<ζ βττιτετραμμενην, ή τον 
re Φαρνάκον θvyάτηp καϊ τον 1^1ιθρί8άτον eyy όνος 
άΧηθώς ην, rjyayeTO, καϊ τον Βόσπορον Sia 'χειρός 

5 ετΓΟίεΐτο. ττνθόμενος ονν ταντα 6 ^Aypί^τ^τaς τον 
ΐΙοΧεμωνα eV αντόν, τον τον Ώόντον τον ττρος 
τη ΊίατΓΤΓα^οκία οντος βασίΧενοντα, έπεμψε• καϊ 
ος "ϊ^κριβώνιον μεν ονκετί ττεριόντα κατεΧαβε 
(μαθοντες yap οΐ Έοσττόρίοί την εττίβοΧην ^ αντον 
ΤΓΟοαττεκτειναν αντόν), άντυστάντων Βε οΐ εκείνων 
8εει τον μη βασιΧενεσθαι αντω Βοθηναι, ες 'χείρας 

6 σφίσίν ηΧθε. καϊ ενίκησε μεν, ον μην και τταρε- 
στησατό σφας ττρίν τον WypLTTTrav ες ^ινώττην 
εΧθεΐν ώς καϊ επ αντονς στρατενσοντα. οντω 8ε 
τά τ€ οττΧα κατεθεντο καϊ τω ΤΙοΧεμωνι τταρεΒό- 
θησαν η τε yvvrj η Ανναμίς σννωκησεν αύτω, του 

7 AvyovaTOv SrjXov otl ταύτα Βίκαίώσαντος. καϊ 
ετΓ αντοΐς θυσίαο μεν τω τον ^ Ay ρίττττον ονόματι 
kykvovTO, ον μεντοι καϊ τα εττινίκια καίτοι ψηφι- 
σθέντα αντω εττεμφθη' οντε yap εypaψεv αρχήν 

^ Ηιβολ^ν Rk., eni0ov\^v Μ. 



the descendant of tlie family of the man who had b.c 14 
formerly erected it, but really by Augustus and the 
friends of Paul us. At this time the Pannonians re- 
volted again and were subdued, and the Maritime 
Al})s, inhabited by the Ligurians who were called 
Comatij^ and were still free even then, were reduced 
to slavery. And the revolt among the tribes of the 
Cimmerian Bosporus was quelled. It seems that one 
Scribonius, who claimed to be a grandson of Mithri- 
dates and to have received the kingdom from Augustus 
after the death of Asander, married Asander's wife, 
named Dynamis, \vho was really the daughter of 
Pharnaces and the granddaughter of Mithridates and 
had been entrusted \vith the regency by her husband, 
and thus he was holding Bosporus under his control. 
Agrippa, upon learning of this, sent against him 
Polemon, the king of that part of Pontus bordering 
on Ca})padocia. Polemon found Scribonius no longer 
alive, for the people of Bosporus, learning of his 
advance against them, had already put him to death ; 
but when they resisted Polemon through fear that 
he might be allowed to reign over them, he en- 
gaged them in battle. But although he conquered 
them, he was unable to reduce them to submission 
until Agrippa came to Sinope Λvith the purpose 
of conducting a campaign against them. Then 
they laid down their arms and were delivered up 
to Polemon ; and the woman Dynamis became his 
wife, naturally not without the sanction of Augustus. 
For these successes sacrifices were offered in the 
name of Agrippa, but the trium})h which was voted 
him was not celebrated. Indeed, he did not so nmch 

* i.e. the '* long-haired." Cf. Gallia Comata, xlvi. 55, 5. 



69 TO avveSpiov υττβρ των ττρα'χ^θέντων ouSeV, άφ* 
ου 8η καϊ οι μετά ταΰτα, νομω τινϊ τω εκείνου 
τρυττω 'χ^ρώμενοι, ού^' αυτοί τι τω κοινω ετ 
εττεστεΧλον, ούτε την ττεμψιν των νικητήριων 
8 εΒε^ατο' '^ καϊ Sia τούτο ovS άΧλω τινί ετί των 
ομοίων αΰτω, ώ? 7^ '^^^ ^Ύ^ κρίνω, ττοίησαι τούτο 
εΒόθη, άΧλα μόναι<; ταΐ<; ειηνικίθί<; τυμαΐ^ ε^αυ- 
25 Ό δ' ούν ^ Αύγουστο? εττεώη πάντα τά τε εν 
ταΐ<; ΤαΧατΙαις καϊ τα εν ταΐ? Τερμανίαις ταΐ<; τ 
^Ιβηρίαι<ί, ΊΓοΧλα μεν άναΧώσας ώς εκάστοις ττοΧ- 
\α 8ε καϊ τταρ έτερων Χαβών, την τε εΧευθερίαν 
καϊ την ΤΓοΧίτείαν τοΐς μεν 8ού<ζ τους δ' άφεΧόμενος, 
Βιωκησατο, τον μεν Αρούσον εν τη Τερμανια 
κατεΧίττεν, αύτος δε ες την Ρώμην ειτί τε του 
Ύίβερίου καϊ επΙ Κ.υιντίΧίου ^ Ούάρου ύττάτων 

2 άνεκομίσθη. καϊ ετυ'χε jap ή άγγεΧία της άφί- 
ξεως αυτού εν εκείναις ταΐς ημεραις ες το άστυ 
εΧθούσα εν αίς Κ,ορνήΧίος ΈάΧβος το θεατρον το 
καϊ νύν eV αυτού καΧούμενον καθυερωσας θέας 
εττετεΧεί, εττί τε τούτω ώς καϊ αύτος τον Αύγουστοι^ 
εττανάξων εσεμνύνετο, καίτοι ύττο τού ττΧήθους 
τού ΰΒατος, οττερ 6 Ύίβερίς ττΧεονάσας εττεττοιηκει, 
μη8ε εσεΧθεΐν ες το Θεατρον εΐ μη ττΧοίω Βυνηθείς, 
καϊ 6 Ύίβεριος ττρώτον αΰτον εττΙ τη τού θεάτρου 

3 τίμη εττεψήφίσεν. ή τε yap βουΧη ηθροισθη, καϊ 
εΒοξε σφίσιν άΧΧα τε καϊ βωμον εν αύτω τω βου- 
Χευτηρίω ύττερ της τού Αυγούστου εττανόΒου ττοιή- 

^ cSe'laro Bk., 4δ(ξαντο ΥΜ. ^ δ' ούν Pflligk, 70^»' VM. 

^ Κυιντιλίου R. Steph., κυιντίΚλου VM. 



«'IS notify the senate of what had been accomplished, b.c. i4 
and in consequence subsequent conquerors, treating 
his course as a precedent, also gave up the practice 
of sending reports to the public ; and he would 
not accept the celebration of the triumph. For this 
reason, — at least, such is my opinion, — no one else 
of his peers was permitted to do so any longer, 
either, but they enjoyed merely the distinction of 
triumphal honours. 

Now when Augustus had finished all the business 
which occupied him in the several provinces of Gaul, 
of Germany and of Spain, ^ having spent large sums 
upon special districts and received large sums from 
others, having bestowed freedom and citizenship 
upon some and taken them away from others, he left 
Drusus in Germany and returned to Rome himself in 
the consulshij) of Tiberius and Quintilius Varus, b.c. is 
Now it chanced that the news of his coming reached 
the city during those days when Cornelius Balbus 
was celebrating with spectacles the dedication of 
the theatre which is ev^en to-day called by his 
name ; and Balbus accordingly began to put on airs, 
as if it Avere he himself that was going to bring 
Augustus back, — although he was unable even to 
enter his theatre, except by boat, on account of 
the flood of water caused by the Tiber, which 
had overflowed its banks, — and Tiberius put the 
vote to him first, in honour of his building the 
theatre. For the senate convened, and among its 
other decrees voted to place an altar in the senate- 
chamber itself, to conunemorate the return of Augus- 

^ Literally, " in the Gauls, in the Germanics, and the 
Spaina," "Germany" here and just below refers to the 
provinces of Upper and Lower Germany, >vest of the Rhine. 
See note on liii. 12, 6. 



σασθαι, rot? re ίκβτβύσασιν αΰτον evro'; του ττω- 
μηρίου οντά aSeiav elvaL. ου μεντοί και β^βξατο 
ούΒβτβρον, άΧλα και, την άττάντησιν του όημου καΧ 

4 τότ€ βζβστογ νυκτός yap e? την ττόλιν εσβκομίσθη, 
οττερ ΤΓου καΐ άβΐ ώς etVeti/, βϊτε e? τα ττρούσταα 
€Ϊτ€ καΐ aXXoae ttol €κ8ημοίη, και άφορμώμενος 
καΐ βττανίων ομουως eiroiet, ϊνα μηΕβνΙ αυτών 
ογΧηρος βϊη. ttj δ' ύστεραία ev re τω τταΧατίω 
τον 8ήμον ησττάσατο, καΐ ες το Κ,ατΓίτώΧίον άνεΧ- 
θών την τ€ Βαφνην άττο των ράβ8ων ττεριεΐλε καΐ 
ες τα του Αίος ηόνατα κατεθετο, τω τε ^ 8ήμω 
προίκα τά τε Χουτρα και τους κουρέας την ήμεραν 

5 εκεινην ιταρεσ'χ^ε. συναηα^ων 8ε εκ τούτου το 
βουΧευτηριον αύτος μεν ούΒεν είττεν ύπο βρά>γχ^ου, 
το 8ε 8η βιβΧίον ^ τω ταμία ^ άνα^νώναι 8ους τά 
τε ιτεττρα^μενα οΐ κατηριθ μησατο, και 8ιεταξε τά 
τε ετη οσα οΐ ττοΧΐται στρατεύσοιντο, και τα χρή- 
ματα οσα τταυσάμενοι της στρατείας, άντΙ της 
χώρας ην άει ττοτε ητουν, Χηψοιντο, οττως εττϊ 
ρητοΐς εκείθεν η8η καταΧε>γόμενοι μη8εν τούτων ye 

6 ένεκα νεωτερίζωσιν. ην 8ε 6 τε αριθμός τών ετών 
τοις μεν 8ορυφ6ροις 8ώ8εκα τοις δ' άΧΧοις εκκαί- 
8εκα, καΐ το * άpyύpιov τοις μεν εΧαττον τοις 8ε 
ττΧεΐον. ταύτα 8ε εκείνοις μεν οΰθ' ή8ονην οΰτ* 
opyrjv εν ye τω τότε τταροντι ενεττοιησε 8ιά το μήτε 
ττάντων ων επεθύμουν τυχεΐν μήτε πάντων 8ια- 
μαρτεΐν, τοις 8ε 8ή άΧΧοις άyaθάς εΧπί8ας του 
μηκετι τών κτημάτων άφαιρεθησεσθαι. 

26 Μετά 8ε 8ή ταύτα τό τε θεατρον το του Μα/3- 
κεΧΧου καΧούμενον καθιέρωσε, καν τη πavηyύpεL 

1 Τ6 Bk., δ6 VM. 2 β^βχίον ν, βνβλίον Μ. 

^ ταμία Bk., ταμίΐίαί VM. * rh Bk., rh μ^ν Λ"Μ. 



tus, and also voted that those who approached him n.c la 
as suppHants while he Λvas inside the pomeriiim 
shouUl not be i)unished. Nevertheless, he accepted 
neither of these honours, and even avoided en- 
countering the })eople on this occasion also ; for he 
entered the city at night, j This he did nearly always 
whenever he went out to the suburbs or anywhere 
else, both on his way out and on his return, so that 
he might trouble none of the citizens. The next 
day he welcomed the peo})le in the palace, and then, 
ascending the Capitol, took the laurel from around 
his fasces and placed it upon the knees of Jupiter ; 
and he also placed baths and barbers at the service 
of the people free of charge on that day. After 
this he convened the senate, and though he made no 
address himself by reason of hoarseness, he gave his 
manuscript to the quaestor to read and thus enu- 
merated his achievements and promulgated rules as 
to the number of years the citizens should serve in 
tile army and as to the amount of money they should 
receive when discharged from service, in lieu of 
the land which they Avere always demanding. His 
object was tliat the soldiers, by being enlisted hence- 
forth on certain definite terms, should find no excuse 
for revolt on this score. The number of years was 
twelve for the Pretorians and sixteen for the rest ; 
and the money to be distributed was less in some 
cases and more in others. These measures caused 
the soldiers neither pleasure nor anger for the time 
being, because they neither obtained all they desired 
nor yet failed of all ; but in the rest of the i)oj)ula- 
tion the measures aroused confident hopes that they 
would not in future be robbed of their possessions. 

He next dedicated the theatre named after Mar- 
cellus. In the course of the festival held for this 



TTJ δίά τοΰτο ryevofxevr) την re Ύροίαν ol τταΐΒβς oi 
evirajpihaL oi re aWoi καΐ ο eyyovo^i αυτοί) ο 
νάίος ϊτΓττευσαν, καΙ θηρία Χιβυκα β^ακόσια 

2 ά^Γ€σφάyη' τά re yeveOXia του Χύ^ούστου ο 
"Ιουλλο? ό του ^Αντωνίου τταΐς στρατηγών καΐ 
ΙτΓΤΓοΒρομία και σφαγαί? θηρίων ίώρτασβ, καΐ iv 
τω Καπίτωλ^ω καΐ εκείνον καΐ την βουΧην κατά 
hoypLa αύτης είστίασεν. 

3 Έλ: δέ τούτου βξβτασις αύθι^; των βουΧευτών 
εyεvετo. εττεώη yap το μεν ττρώτον 8έκα μυριά- 
δων το τίμημα αύτοΐς ώριστο δίά το συχνούς των 
πατρώων ύττο των ττοΧεμων εστερήσθαί, ττροϊόντος 
8ε του χρόνου καΐ των ανθρώπων περιουσίας 
κτώμενων ες πέντε καΐ εϊκοσι προήχθη, ούκετ 

4 ούΒεΙς εθεΧοντΙ ^ βουΧεύσων εύρίσκετο, άΧΧά καΐ 
παΐΒες είσϊν οΐ καΐ 'iyyovoL βονΧευτων, οι μεν ώς 
άΧηθώς πενόμενοί οι δε καΐ εκ συμφορών προ- 
yovLκώv τεταπεινωμενοι, ούχ όσον ούκ άντεποι- 
ουντο του βουΧευτικου αξιώματος, άΧΧα καΐ προσ- 

5 κaτεiXεyμεvoι η8η εζώμνυντο. και Βια τούτο 
πρότερον μεν, άπο^ημοΰντος ετι του Aΰyoύστov, 
S6yμa εyεvετo τους εϊκοσι καΧουμενους άνδρας 
εκ των ιππέων άποΒείκνυσθαΐ' όθεν ούκετ ούΒεΙς 
αυτών ες το βουΧευτήριον εσεypάφη, μή και ετεραν 
τίνα άρχην τών ες αύτο εσάyειv δυνάμενων Χαβών. 

6 οι οε οη ^ εικοσιν ούτοι ανορες εκ των εξ και ei- 
κοσίν εΙσιν, οϊ τε τρεις οι τάς του θανάτου Βίκας 
πpoστετayμεvoι, καΐ οι έτεροι τρεις οΐ το του 

^ €θ€λοντ\ R. Steph., ieeXovrri VM. 
•^ Oi δί δτ/ Rk., 6)ίτ€ δή γ, οί re δί? Μ. 



j)nrpose the p;itrician boys, including his grandson b.c is 
(iaius, performed the ecpiestrian exercise called 
'^'IVoy,"^ and six hundred wild beasts from Africa 
were slain. And to celebrate the birthday of 
Augustus, luUus, the son of Antony, who was 
praetor, gave games in the Circus and a slaughter 
of wild beasts, and entertained both the emperor 
and the senate, in pursuance of a decree of that 
body, upon the Capitol. 

After this there was another purging of the lists 
of the senate. At first, as we have seen, the rating 
of senators had been fixed at four hundred thousand 
sesterces, because many of them had been stripped of 
their ancestral estates by the wars, and then, as time 
went on and men acquired wealth, it had been raised 
to one million sesterces. Consequently no one was 
any longer found Λνΐιο would of his own choice be- 
come a senator ; on the contrary, sons and grandsons 
of senators, some of them really poor and others re- 
duced to humble station by the misfortunes of their 
ancestors, not only would not lay claim to the 
senatorial dignity, but also, when already entered on 
the lists, swore that they were ineligible. Therefore, 
previous to this time, while Augustus was still absent 
from the city, a decree had been passed that the 
Vigintiviri, as they were called, should be appointed 
from the knights ; and thus none of these men 
eligible to be senators Λvas any longer enrolled in 
the senate without having also held one of the other 
offices that led to it. These λ igintiviri are what is 
left of the Vigintisexviri, of whom three- are in 
charge of criminal trials, another three ^ attend to 

^ See xliii. 23, 6, and note. ' Tresciri capilaUs. 
^ Tresviri monetales. 



νομίσματος; κόμμα μ€ταχ^6ίρίζόμζνοί, ο'ί re τβσ- 
σαρβς οι των iv τω άστβι, ό^ών βπιμέλούμβίΌΐ, καί 
οι SeKa οι eVl των δικαστηρίων των βς τού<; βκατον 

7 avSpa^ κΧηρουμβνων άττο^εικνύμενοί' οι yap 8η 
8ύο οί τας βξω του τβί'χ^ους όδου? ζ^χ^Είριζόμενοί, 
οι Τ6 Τ6σσαρ€<ζ οί €9 την Κ,αμτΓανίαν ττεμπόμβνοι, 
κατβΧβΧνντο. τούτο τ€ οΰν iv τη του Κύ^ούστου 
βκύημια βγηψίσση, και ιν , εττείΟη μ7)ό€ίς qtl ραόίως 
την Βημαρχ^ίαν ητ€ΐ,^ κΧηρω τινβς ~ έκ των τβτα- 
μιευκοτων καΐ μηιτω τβσσαράκοντα βτη ^ε^ονότων 

8 καθίστώνταί. τότε δε αύτος ιτάντα^ αυτούς Ιξή- 
τασ€, καΐ τα μβν των υττβρ πέντε καΐ τριάκοντα 
€τη 'γβ'γονότων ουκ i'πo\υ'ττpa'yμόvησe, τους δε 
€ντ6ς τε της ηΧικίας ταύτης οντάς καΐ το τίμημα 
€^οντας βουΧβΰσαι κατηνά'γκασβ, χωρίς ή €Ϊ τις 

9 άνάττηρος ην. καΐ τα μβν σώματα καΐ αυτός πτου 
αύτων^ βώρα, ιτβρϊ δε δ^ των ουσιών ορκοις eiri- 
στούτο αυτών τε εκείνων καΐ έτερων συνομνύντων 
σφίσι και ΧοΎΐσμόν της τε άττορίας άμα καΐ του 
βίου 8ι8όντων. 

27 Kat ουκ εν μεν τοις κοίνοΐς τοιούτος ην, τών δ*' 
ΙΒίων * τταρημέΧει, ά\\α καΐ τω Ύιβεριω εττετι- 
μησβν οτι τον Τάιον εν τη ιτανη^ύρει τη ευκταία, 
ην εττΐ τη επανόΒω αυτού Βιετίθει, τταρεκαθίσατο, 
καΐ τω Βημω οτι καΐ κρότοις καΐ ετταίνοις αύτον 
2 ετίμησαν. επειΒή τε του ΑεττίΒου μεταΧΚάξαντος 

γηι Μ, ¥)Τθΐ V. ^ rivis Leuncl. , rivas VM. 

αυτών Μ, ni'ilirVi "^ ι'ίΐιΐιΐΐι rnfl Coisl., Ιδιωτών VM. 



the coinage of the money, four ^ look after the b.c. is 
streets in the city, and ten ^ are assigned to the 
courts which are allotted to the Centumviri ; for the 
two 2 who were once entrusted with the roads out- 
side the walls and the four* \vho used to be sent to 
Campania had been abolished. This was one decree 
that was passed during the absence of Augustus ; 
there was also another providing that, since no one 
was any longer ready to seek the tribuneship, some 
of the ex-quaestors who Λvere not yet forty years old 
should be appointed to the office by lot. But on the 
present occasion Augustus himself made an investi- 
gation of the whole senatorial class. With those 
who were over thirty-five years of age he did not 
concern himself, but in the case of those who were 
under that age and possessed the requisite rating he 
compelled them to become senators, unless one of 
them was physically disabled. He examined their 
persons himself, but in regard to their property he 
accepted sworn statements, the men themselves and 
others as witnesses taking an oath and rendering an 
account of their poverty as \vell as of their manner 
of life. 

Nor did he, while showing such strictness in the 
public business, neglect his private affairs ; indeed, 
he rebuked both Tiberius, because at the festival, 
given under Tiberius' management, in fulfilment of 
a vow for the emperor's return, he had seated Gains 
at the emperor's side, and the people for honouring 
Gains with applause and eulogies.-* On the death of 

^ Quatnorvh'i riis in nrbe purgnndi'i ; of. chap. 8, 4. 

- Decemviri sflifihu•^ iudirandis. 

^ Duoviri viis extra vrbem purgandis, 

* Qnatuor prae/ecti Capiiam Cumrtx. 

^ Vi. Suet., Aug. 56. 


VOL. VI. \ \ 


άρχ^ί€ρ€ω<; άττβ^εί'χθη καΧ hia τουθ^ η βονΧη ψηφί- 
σασθαι . . . } αύτω '^ ηθεΧησεν, ούτε rt αυτών 
ττροσησβσθαο €φη, και ε^κβιμ,βνων οι βζανεστη re 

3 και βξήΧθεν βκ τον avveSpiov. καί ούτε εκείνα 
6τ' εκυρώθη οΰτ οΐκίαν τίνα Βημοσίαν εΧαβεν, 
άΧΧα μεροζ τι της εαυτόν, οτι τον άρχ^ίερεων εν 
κοινω ττάντως οίκείν εγ^ρην, εΒημοσίωσεν. την 
μεντοί τον βασιΧεως των ιερών "^ ταΐς άειτταρθενοις 
εΒωκεν, εττειΒη ^ ομότοιγος ταΐζ οίκησεσιν αυτών 

4 Κ,ορνηΧίον τε Χισεννον ^ αΐτίαν εττΐ τω της yv- 
ναίκος βίω σγόντος, καΐ εν τω συνεΒρίω είττόντος 
OTL καϊ εΙΒότος καΐ συμβονΧεύσαντος οι αυτού 
•ηηάηετο αυτήν, ττεριορηης τε εηενετο καΧ είττε μεν 
ουοεν ουοε εττραξε οεινον, εκττηοήσας οε εκ τον 
βουΧευτηρίου εττειτα μετ oXiyov ειτανηΧθεν, εΧο- 
μενος, ως γβ καϊ τοις φίΧοις μετά ταύτα εφη, τούτο 
μάΧΧον καίιτερ ονκ ορθώς εγον ττοιησαι η κατά 
"χωράν μείνας ανα'^κασθηναι τι κακόν Βράσαι. 

28 Κ,άν τούτω τον ^Α^ρίτττταν εκ της ^νρίας εΧ- 
θόντα Trj τε Βημαρχικΐ] εζονσία ανθις ες άΧΧα 
ετη ττεντε εμε^άΧννε καϊ ες την ΐΐαννονιαν ττοΧε- 
μησείονσαν εξέττεμ^ψε, μείζον αντώ τών εκαστα- 
%όθι εξω της ^ΙταΧίας αρχόντων Ισχύσαι εττιτρε- 
2 Λ/τας. κα\ ος την μεν στρατείαν καίτοι τού χειμώνος, 
εν ω Μ,άρκος τε ΟύαΧεριος καϊ ΤΙούπΧιος Έ,ουΧ- 
ττίκιος ύττάτευον, ενεστηκοτος εττοη]σατο, εκττΧα- 
«γεντων 8ε τών ΥΙαννονίων ττρος την εφόσον αυτού 

^ Lacuna recognized by Eisner. ^ αυτω V, αυτών Μ. 

^ Up5)v Leuncl., Up4wv Λ''Μ. 

^ €'7Γ6ίδί/ Η. Steph., 4π€ΐ δβ VM. 

•'' '^ia€VPov Glandorp, σισβντίον VM. 



Lepidus he was appointed lii^h priest and the senate b.c. i; 
accordingly wished to vote him [other honours (?)] ; 
but he declared that he would not accept any of 
them, and when the senators urged hira, he rose and 
left the meeting. That measure, therefore, now 
failed of passage, and he also received no official 
residence ; but, inasmuch as it was absolutely neces- 
sary that the high priest should live in a public 
residence, he made a part of his own house public 
property. The house of the rex sacnficnlus, how- 
ever, he gave to the Vestal Virgins, because it was 
separated merely by a wall from their apartments. 

When Cornelius Sisenna was censured for the 
conduct of his wife, and stated in the senate that 
he had married her with the knowledge and on 
the advice of the emperor, Augustus became 
exceedingly angry. He did not, to be sure, say or 
do anything violent, but rushed out of the senate- 
house, and then returned a little later, choosing to 
take this course, though it Λvas not the correct thing 
to do, as he said to his friends afterAvard, rather 
than to remain where he was and be compelled to 
do something harsh. 

Meanwhile he increased the power of Agrippa, 
who had returned from Syria, by giving him the 
tribunician power again for another five years, and 
he sent him out to Pannonia, Avhich was eager for 
war, entrusting him Avith greater authority than 
the officials outside Italy ordinarily possessed. And 
Agrippa set out on the camj)aign in spite of the fact 
that the winter had already begun (this was the 
year in which Marcus Valerius and Publius Sulpicius b.c. li 
were the consuls) ; but Avhen the Fannonians be- 
came terrified at his approach and gave up their 


Λ A 2 


fcal [xrihev en νεωτβρίσάντων eiravrfKOe, καϊ iv 
?, Ιίίαμττανία ΎβνόμβίΌς βνόσησε. ττυθόμΕνο^ Be τού- 
το 6 Αι/γουστο? (βτυγβ δε iv τοΐς ΤΙαναθηναίοις 
07Γ\ομα'χία<ί αγώι^α? τω των τταίΒωρ ονόματι 
τιθβίς) βζωρμηθη, καϊ καταΚ,αβων αύτον τεθνηκό- 
τα 69 Τ6 το άστυ το σώμα αυτού €σ€κ6μισε και iv 
Tjj ayopa ττροεθηκβ, τον τβ Xoyov τον eV αυτού 
€17Γ€, τταρατΓβτασμά τι ττρο τού νεκρού τταρατείνα^;. 

4 όπερ ε<γώ μεν ουκ olSa 8ια τί εττοίησεν, εϊρηται Be 
6μω<; τοΐ<ζ μεν otl αρχιερέων ην, τοΐς Be οτι τα των 
τιμητών εττραττεν, ουκ 6ρθώ<; φρονούσιν ούτε yap 
τω άρ^ιερεω άττευρηται νεκρον οράν ούτε τω τι- 
μητή, ττΧην αν το τέλος ταΐς ά7Γ0^ραφαΐ<; μεΧΧη 
i'πάξειv' αν yap τίνα ττρο τού καθαρσίου ιΒτ], 
άνάΒαστα τα ττρα'χθεντα αύτω ττάντα yiyv εται. 

5 τοΟτό Τ6 ουν οΰτως εΒρασε, καϊ την εκψοραν αυτού 
εν τω τρόττω εν ω καϊ αύτο'ζ μετά ταύτα iξηvεχθη 
i'πoiησaτo, καϊ αύτον καϊ εν τω εαυτού μνημείω 
εθαψ^ε, καίτοι ϊΒιον iv τω Αρείω ττεΒιω Χαβοντα.^ 

29 Άγ/ο^τΓττα? μεν ουν ούτω μετηΧΧαξε, τά τε 
άΧΧα άριστο'ζ τών καθ' εαυτόν άνθρώττων Βια- 
φανώ<; yεv6μεvo<ζ, καϊ τη τού Aύyoύστoυ φιΧια 
7Γρό<? τε το αύτω iκεivω καϊ ιτρο<^ το τω κοινώ 
2 συμφορώτατον 'χ^ρησάμενο<ζ. όσον τε yap τους 
άΧΧους άρετη κατεκράτει, τοσούτον iκείvoυ iθε- 
Χοντη<ζ ηττάτο, καϊ ττασαν αύτω την εαυτού καϊ 
σοφίαν καϊ άνΒρείαν €9 τά ΧυσιτεΧεστατα τταρε- 

^ λαβόντα Μ, οΐ'τα V. 



plans for rebellion, he returned, and upon reaching 
Campania, fell ill. Augustus happened to be ex- 
hibiting, in the name of his sons, contests of armed 
warriors at the Panathenaic festival,^ and when he 
learned of Agrippa's illness, he set out for Italy ; 
and finding him dead, he conveyed his body to the 
capital and caused it to lie in state in the Forum. 
He also deHvered the eulogy over the dead, after 
first hanging a curtain in front of the corpse. Why 
he did this, I do not know. Some, however, have 
stated that it Avas because he was high priest, others 
that it was because he was performing the duties of 
censor. But both are mistaken, since neither the 
high priest is forbidden to look at a corpse, nor the 
censor, either, except when he is about to complete 
the census ; but if he looks upon a corpse then, 
before his })urification, all his Λvork has to be done 
over again. Now Augustus not only did what I have 
recorded, l)ut also had the funeral procession of 
Agrippa conducted in the manner in which his own 
was afterward conducted, and he buried him in his 
own sepulchre, though Agrippa had tiiken one for 
himself in the Campus Martins. 

Such was the end of Agrippa, who had in every 
way clearly shown himself the noblest of the men 
of his day and had used the friendship of Augustus 
with a view to the greatest advantage both of the 
emperor himself and of the commonwealth. For 
the more he surpassed others in excellence, the 
more inferior he kept himself of his own free will 
to the emperor ; and while he devoted all the 
wisdom and valour he himself possessed to the 
highest interests of Augustus, he lavished all the 

^ In Athens. 



χων ττασαν την ιταρ eKeivov καΐ ημην καϊ Βυναμιν 

3 €9 το του? αΧΧονς evepyerelv άνηΧισκεν. αφ' ου 
8η fcai τα μάΧιστα οΰτ αύτω irore τω Αύγουστο) 
επαχθής; οΰτ€ rol<i άΧΧοίς βττίφθονος iyifeTOy αλλ* 
βκβίνω τ€ την μοναρχίαν ώ? καΧ Βυναστεία^ζ όντως 
βΤΓΐθνμητης ^ συνέστησε, καϊ τον Βήμον exjepye- 

4 σιαί? ώ? καί Εημοτικωτατος ττροσεττοίήσατο. καϊ 
τότε <yodv κηττους τέ σφίσι καϊ το βαΧανεΙον το 
εττώνυμον αυτού κατεΧιττεν, ώστε ττροϊκα αυτούς 
Χοΰσθαι,, χωρία τίνα ες τούτο τω Αύ'γούστω Βούς. 
καϊ ος ου μόνον ταύτ εΒημοσυευσεν, άλλα καϊ 
καθ εκατόν^ Βραχμας τω 8ημω ώς χαΐ εκείνου 

ο κεΧεύσαντος διένειμε. των τε yap ττΧείστων 
αυτού εκΧηρονό μησεν , εν οίς άΧΧα τε καϊ η 
^ερρονησος ην^ η ττρος τω 'ΈΧΧησττόντω, ουκ 
ο2δ' οττως ες τον ^ Κ^ρίττιταν εΧθούσα' καϊ ττάνυ 
εττϊ τΓοΧύ αυτόν εττόθησεν, καϊ Βια τούτο καϊ 
εντίμον τταρα τω Βημω εττοίησε, τόν τε υΐόν τον 
τεΧευτησαντί οι γεννηθέντα W.ypiw7Tav ττροση- 

6 ^γόρευσεν. ου μεντοί ούτε τοις άΧΧοις εκΧίττεΐν τι 
των ττατρίων, καίττερ μηΒενός των ττρώτων ες τας 
ττανη^ύρεις άτταντήσαι εθεΧοντος, επέτρεψε, καϊ 
αύτος τας μονομαχίας ΒιετεΧεσε' ττοΧΧάκις τε * 

7 καϊ άττόντος αυτού εττοιούντο. οΰτω ^ούν ουκ 
iSiov τούτο το ιτάθος tj} τού Α,^ριττΎΤου οΙκια 
άλλα καϊ κοινόν ττασι τοις Ύωμαίοις ε^ενετο, 
ώστε καϊ σημεία οσα ττρό των μεγίστων συμφορών 

^ ίτίίθυμητηε Χνΐ. , (ττιθυμητνι VM cofl. Peir. 

^ ^Karhv Μ, 'ίκαστον \ cod. Peir. 

•' ^ν supplied by Bs. ^ τ6 Bs. , 7e λ'Μ. 



honour and influence he received from him upon b.c. 12 
benefactions to others. It was because of this in 
particular tliat he never became obnoxious to 
Augustus himself nor invidious to his fellow-citizens ; 
on the contrary, he helped Augustus to establish the 
monarchy, as if he were really a devoted adherent of 
the principle of autocratic rule, and he won over the 
people by his benefactions, as if he were in the 
highest degree a friend of popular government. At 
any rate, even at his death he left them gardens and 
the baths named after him, so that they might bathe 
free of cost, and for this purpose gave Augustus 
certain estates.^ And the emperor not only turned 
these over to the state, but also distributed to the 
j)eoj)le four hundred sesterces apiece, giving it to be 
understood that Agrippa had so ordered. And, in- 
deed, he had inherited most of Agrippa's property, 
including the Chersonese on the Hellespont, which 
iiad come in some Λvay or other into Agrippa's hands. 
Augustus felt his loss for a long time and hence 
caused him to be honoured in the eyes of the 
])eople ; and he named the posthumous son born to 
him Agrippa. Nevertheless, he did not allow the 
citizens at large, although none of the prominent 
men wished to attend the festivals, to omit any of 
the time-honoured observances, and he in person 
superintended the gladiatorial combats, though they 
were often held without his presence. The death of 
Agri})pa, far from being merely a private loss to his 
own household, was at any rate such a public loss 
to all the Romans that portents occurred on this 
occasion in such numbers as are wont to happen 

' For the baths, see liii. 27, 1 . The estates here jnentionetl 
were to provide an income for the maintenance of the baths. 



συμβαίνβιν σφίσιν €ίωθ€, καί τοτβ συνενεγ^θηναι. 
βύαι re yap rrj iroXei Ειεφοιτησαν, και κεραυνοί; 
€9 την ev τω ^ ΑΧβανω οίκιαν, βς ην οί νττατοί iv 
S ταΙ<ζ lepovpyiai^; καταΧνονσίν, ενέσκηψε, το τε 
αστρον ο κομητη<ζ ώνομασμενος εττΐ ττολλά? ημέ- 
ρας ΰττερ αυτοί) του άστεως αΙωρηθεΙς ες Χαμ- 
7Γαδα9 ΒοεΧύθη. καϊ ττυρί άΧΧα τε της ττόΧεως 
συγνα καϊ η τον ΎωμνΧου σκηνή εκαύθη, κοράκων 
κρεα ες αυτήν εκ βωμοί) τίνος εμττυρα εμβα- 
30 Οντω μεν τα κατά * Ay ρίτηταν εyεvετo' μετά δε 
8η ^ τούτο 6 Avyoυστoς εττιμεΧητής τε καϊ ετταν- 
ορΘωτης των τρόττων ες έτερα ετη ττέντε αίρεθείς 
(καϊ yap τούτο κατά ττροθεσμίας, ό^σττερ ττον και 
την μοναρ'χ^ίαν, εΧάμβανε) θ ν μιαν τ ε τους βον- 
Χεντάς εν τω συνεΒρίω, οσάκις αν εΒρα αυτών rj, 
καϊ την άφίζιν προς εαυτόν μη " ττοιεΐσθαί, το 
μεν ϊνα θεοσεβώσί, το Sk 1ν άττονητί ^ συνίωσιν, 

2 εκεΧευσε. την 8ε Βημαργ^ίαν 6Xίyωv σφόΒρα 8ιά 
το την Ισγ^ύν σφων καταΧεΧύσθαι αΐτούντων, ενο- 
μοθετησεν εκ των Ιτητεων των μη εΧαττον ττεντε 
καϊ εϊκοσί μυριάδας κεκτημένων ττροβάΧΧεσθαι 
τους εν ταΐς άρχ^αΐς ενα εκαστον, κάκ τούτων το 
ττΧηθος τους ενΒεοντας αίρείσθαυ εφ* ω τε,^ εΐ μεν 
καϊ βονΧεύειν μετά τουτ εθεΧοίεν, εΐ Βε μη, ες 
την ίΤΓΤταδα αύθις εττανιεναι εξεΐναι. 

3 ^ΚττειΒη τε ή Άσ^α το έθνος ετηκουρίας τίνος 
Βιά σεισμούς μάΧιστα εΒεΐτο,^ τον τε φόρον αυτής 

^ δί? V, οηι. Μ. 

" μ^ supplied by Bk., following Casaubon. 

^ αττονητϊ R. Steph. , άττονητ^ϊ VM. 

* €<!>' φ T€ Bk., σψισιν VM. ^ eSetro Dind., iSiero VM. 



to them l)cforc the j^reatest calamities. Owls kept b.c. 12 
flitting about the city^ and lightning struck the 
house on the Alban Mount where the consuls lodge 
during the sacred rites. ^ The star called the comet ^ 
hung for several days over the city and was finally 
dissolved into flashes resembling torches. Many 
buildings in the city Avere destroyed by fire, among 
them the hut of Romulus,"^ Λvhich was set ablaze by 
crows which drop])ed upon it burning meat from 
some altar. 

These Avere the events connected with Agrippa's 
death. After this Augustus was chosen supervisor 
and corrector of morals "^ for another five years ; for 
he received this oflice also for limited periods, as he 
did the monarchy. He ordered the senators to 
burn incense in their assembly hall whenever they 
lield a session, and not to pay the usual visit to him, 
his })urpose being, in the first instance, that they 
should show reverence to the gods, and, in the 
second, that they should not be hindered in con- 
vening. And inasmuch as extremely few candidates 
sought the tribuneship, because its power had been 
abolished, he made a law that the magistrates in 
office should each nominate one of the knights who 
possessed not less than one million sesterces, and 
that the plebs should then fill the vacancies in the 
tribuneship from this list, with the understanding 
that, if the men desired to be senators later, they 
might do so, or otherwise they should return again 
to the equestrian order. 

When the province of Asia was in dire need oi 
assistance on account of earthquakes, he paid into 

* At the Feriae Latinae. - i.e. the '* hairy " star. 

' (^f. xlviii. 43, 4. ■* Pratftdus ιηωΊίηια. 



τον ereiov εκ t6)v eavrov -χ^ρημάτων τω κοιιώ 
€σηνβ^Κ€, fcai άρ'χοντά οί Ικ του κΧηρου, αλλ' οι/χ 
αίρετόν, €7γΙ 8νο βτη ττροσίταξε. 

4 ΚαΛ:ώ? τ€ 7ΓΟΤ6 τον ^ ΑττουΧείου ^ και του ΛΙα^- 
κηνου ev Βοκαστηρίω tlvl μοιχ^είας, ούχ^ οτί τι - 
και αυτοί υβρικεσαν αλλ' ότι τω κρινόμενο) 
aiTOvhfj συντ}ροντο, άκουόντων ηΧθε τε ες το 
Βικαστηριον, και εν ττ} του στρατηγοί) εΒρα 
καθιζησα<ζ Βεινον μεν οΰΒεν εττραζεν, άττειττών δβ 
τω κατηγορώ μήτε τους συγ^/ενεΐς μήτε τους 

ο φίλους αύτου ττ ροττηΧακίζειν ανέστη, και αυτόν 
hid τε ταύτα και Βια τα aWa avhpiaai τε εκ 
συντεΧείας ετίμησαν, και τω τοις τε ά^γύνοις και 
ταΐς ^ άνάν8ροις και συνθεασθαι τοις άΧΧοις και 
συνΒειττνεΐν εν τοις ^ενεθΧίοις αυτοί) Βοϋναί' ου 
yap εξήν ού8ετερον. 
31 Ώςδ' ούν^ 6 ^Α'γρίτΓττας, ονττερ ιτου hi άρετην 
αλλ' ου Βι άνά'γκην τίνα ^γαττα, ετεθνήκει, και 
συνέργου ττρος τα πράγματα ττοΧυ των άΧΧων και 
τγι τιμτ) καΐ τύ) Βυνάμει ττροφεροντος, ώστε και εν 
καιρώ και άνευ φθόνου καΐ εττιβουΧής ττάντα 
Βιά^εσθαι, εΒεΐτο, τον ΐιβέριον καΐ άκων ττροσ- 
είΧετο• οί yap 'iyyovoi αυτοί) εν τταισΧν ετι και 

2 τότε ήσαν, καΐ ττ ροαττοσττάσας καΐ εκείνου την 
yυvaΐκa, καίτοι του τε ^Xypi -πττου θυyaτεpa εξ 
άΧΧης τίνος yaμετής ουσαν, καΐ τεκνον το μεν 
ηΒη τρεφουσαν το Βε εν yaστpϊ εγουσαν^ την τε 
^ΙουΧίαν οί ί}7γι;77σε '* και εττΐ τους ΙΙαννονιους 
αύτον εξεττεμψε' τέως μεν yap τον AypiTrirav 

^ άπουλβίου ΛΙ, άττουλίυν Υ Xiph. 

- τί Μ, om. V. •"' Ta7s y, To7s Μ. 

* δ' ονν Pflugk, yovv VM. ^ T^yyv-qa V, (yyvria^ M. 



the public treasury from liis privat(i funds the e.c. 12 
amount of its annual tribute and assigned to it for 
two years a governor chosen by lot and not 

On one occasion^ when Apuleius and Maecenas 
were subjected to abuse in court when a case of 
adultery was being tried, not because they had 
behaved wantonly themselveSj but because they 
were actively aiding the man on trial, Augustus 
entered the court-room and sat in the praetor's 
chair ; he took no harsh measures, but simply forbade 
the accuser to insult either his relatives or his friends, 
aiid then rose and left the room. For this action 
and others the senators honoured him with statues, 
})aid for by private subscription, and also by giving 
l)achelors and spinsters the right to behold spectacles 
and to attend banquets along with other people on 
his birthday ; for neither of these things had been 
permitted previously. 

When now Agrippa, whom he loved because of his 
excellence and not because of any kinship, was 
dead, Augustus felt the need of an assistant in the 
public business, one Λνΐιο would far surpass all the 
others in both rank and influence, so that he might 
transact all business promptly and without being 
the object of envy and intrigue. Therefore he 
reluctantlv chose Tiberius ; for his own «rrandsons 
were still boys at this time. He first made him, as 
he had made Agrippa, divorce his >vife, though she 
was the daughter of Agrippa by a former n^arriage 
and was bringing up one child and was about to 
give birth to another ; and having betrothed Julia to 
him, he sent him out against the Pannonians. This 
people had for a time been quiet through fear of 



φοβηθβντες ησύχασαν, τότε δε τβΧβυτησαντο^ 

3 αύτου εττανεστησαν. και σφα<; ό Ύίββρίος, ττολλά 
μβν της χώρας ττορθησας ττολΧα δε καΐ τους 
άνθρώτΓους κακώσας, εχειρώσατο, τοις Έ,κορΒί- 
σκοις} ομόροίς τ€ αυτών καΐ όμοσκβύοίς ουσί, 
συμμαχοίς οτί μάλιστα χρησάμενος. κα\ τά τε 
οττλα σφών άφείΧετο, καΐ της ηΧικίας το ττΧεΐον 

4 ετΓ ε^αγωγ^ άττεΒοτο. κα\ αύτω δίά ταύτα η 
μεν βουΧη τά γε ^ εττινικια εψηφίσατο, 6 δ' Αύ- 
γουστος ταύτα μεν ουκ εττετρεψεν εορτάσαι, τάς 
δε τιμάς τας ετηνικίους άντεΒωκε. 

32 Το δ' αύτο τούτο καΐ τω Κρούσω συνέβη, των 
re yap Χυ'γάμβρων καϊ των συμμάχων αυτών δίά 
τε την του Αΰ<^/ούστου άττουσίαν καϊ Βια το ^ τους 
ΤαΧάτας μη εθεΧοΒουΧεΐν ττοΧεμωθεντων σφίσι, 
το Τ€ ύττηκοον ττροκατεΧαβε, τους ττρώτους αύτον, 
ττροφάσει της εορτής ην καϊ νυν ττερί τον του 
Αυγούστου βωμον εν Χου^Βούνω τεΧοΰσι, μετα- 
ττεμψάμενος, καϊ τους ΊίεΧτούς τηρησας τον 
2 ^Vrjvov διαβαίνοντας ανέκοψε, καϊ μετά τούτο 
ες τε την τών Ούσιττετών κατ αύτην την τών 
3ατάουων * νησον Βιέβη, καϊ εττΐ την ^υ^αμβρΙΒα 
εκείθεν ετητταρεΧθών συχνά επόρθησεν. ες τε 
τον ώκεανον hia του ^^ηνου καταττΧεύσας τους τε 
ΦρισΙονς ^ φκειώσατο, και ες την \αυκί8α Βίά 
της Χίμνης εμβαΧών εκινΒύνευσε, τών ττΧοίων 
ντΓΟ ^ της του ωκεανού παΧιρροίας εττΐ του ξηρού 

' σκορ^ΙσκοΐΒ Μ, κορ^ίσκοιε Λ'. 

2 76 Η. Steph., Τ6 VM. 

^ το supplied by R. Steph. 

'^ Βατάουων Leuncl. , Πατάουων Λ'Λ]. 

^ Φρισίου5 Bk., φρ€ΐσίου$ λ Μ. 

« ύπ^) Rk., eVi VM. 


Agrippa^ hnt now after liis death they had revolted, b.c. 12 
Tiberius subdued them after ravaging mueh of their 
country and doing much injury to tlie inhabitants, 
making as much use as possible of his allies the 
Scordisci, λυΙιο vrere neighbours of the Pannonians 
and were similarly equipped. He took away the 
enemy's anns and sold most of the men of military 
age into slavery, to be deported from the country. 
For these achievements the senate voted him a 
triumph, but Augustus did not permit him to cele- 
brate it, though he granted him the triumphal 
honours instead. 

Drusus had this same experience. The Sugambri 
and their allies had resorted to war, owing to the 
absence of Augustus and the fact that the Gauls 
were restive under their slavery, and Drusus there- 
fore seized the subject territory ahead of them, 
sending for the foremost men in it on the pretext of 
the festival which they celebrate even now around 
the altar of Augustus at Lugdunum. He also 
waited for the Oermans to cross the Rhine, and 
then repulsed them. Next he crossed over to the 
country of the Usipetes,i passing along the very 
island of the Hatavians, and from there marched 
along the river to the Sugambrian territory, where 
he devastated much country. He sailed doAvn the 
Rhine to the ocean, Λνοη over the Frisians, and 
crossing the lake,- invaded the country of the 
Chauci, where lie ran into danger, as his ships Λvere 

^ The Usipetes or Usipii dwelt at this time just east of 
the Rhine and north of the Lupia (Lippe). 

■' Some have taken this to be the Zuj'derZee (Lacus Flevo), 
others the baj' at the mouth of the Ems, east of which the 
Chauci lived. Presumably he would already* have sailed 
through the Zuyder Zee to reach the Frisians. 



3 '^ενομ^νων. και τότε μ^ν ΰιτο των Φρισίων ^ 
ΊΤβζΎ) συνεστ ρατευ κοτών αντω σωθβΐς άνεχώρησε 
{'χειμων yap ην), καΐ €9 την 'Ρώμην εΧθων άστυ- 
νομο<; εττί τε Κ^νιντου ΑΐΧίου καί εττΐ Παύλοι' 
Φαβίου υττάτων, καιττερ τας στρατη'^/ίκάς ημάς 
33 ε'χων, άττεΖεί'χθη' άμα oe τω ηρι ττρος τον ττοΧεμον 
ανθις ωρμησε, κα\ τον τε 'Vrjvov εττεραιώθη καΐ 
τους Ούσίττετας κατεστρεψατο, τον τε Χουττίαν 
εζενξε καΐ ες την των Χνγάμβρων ενεβαΧε, καϊ δλ' 
αυτής καϊ ες την ^ερουσκίΒα ττροεχώρησε " /^εχρί 

2 του Ούνσούρ^ου.^ ηΒυνήθη 8ε τούτο ττοίήσαι, οτι 
οι ^ύ^αμβροί τους Χαττον?, μονούς των ττροσ- 
οίκων μη εθεΧτ)σαντάς ^ σφισί συμμα'χ^ήσαι, εν 
opyrj σ'χόντες ττανΒημεΙ εττ αυτούς εζεστράτευσαν, 
καν '^ τω καιρώ τούτω εΧαθε ^ την γ^ώραν αυτών 
ΒιεξεΧθών. καϊ 8ίεβη αν καϊ τον Ούίσουρ^ον, εΐ 
μη των τε εττιτηΒείων εσττάνισε καϊ 6 )^€ίμων 
ενεστη καί τι καϊ σμήνος εν τω στρατοττεΒω αύτου 

3 ώφθη. οΰτ ουν ττεραίτερω Βιά ταύτα ττροεχώ- 
ρησε, καϊ ες την φίΧίαν άνακομιζόμενος Βεινώς 
εκίνΒύνευσεν οΐ yap ττοΧεμωι άΧΧως τε ενεΒραις 
αύτον εκάκωσαν, καί ττοτε ες στενον καϊ κοΐΧον 
'χ^ωρίον κατακΧείσαντες 6Xiyoυ Βιεφθείραν, καν 
ττασσυΒϊ αν "' άττώΧεσαν, εΐ μη καταφρονήσαντες 
σφων ώς καϊ εαΧωκότων καϊ μιας εττίκοττής ^ 

^ φρισίων ΛΙ, ψρ^ισίων V. 
- ττροβχώρησ^ Leuncl., ττροσ^χώρττισΐ λ Μ. 
^ ΟυισούρΎου Leuncl., ουισοντρου VM. (and similarly just 



left high and dry by the ebb of the ocean. He was b.c. 12 
saved on this occasion by the Parisians, who had 
joined his expedition with their infantry, and with- 
drew, since it was now winter. Upon arriving in b.c ii 
Rome he was appointed praetor urbanus, in the 
consulship of Quintius Aeliiis and Paulus Fabius, 
although he already had the rank of praetor. At 
the beginning of spring he set out again for the war, 
crossed the Rhine, and subjugated the Usipetes. 
He bridged the Lupia,^ invaded the country of the 
Sugambri, and advanced through it into the country 
of the Cherusci, as far as the Visurgis.^ He was 
able to do this because the Sugambri, in anger at 
the Chatti, the only tribe among their neighbours 
that had refused to join their alliance, had made a 
campaign against them with all their population ; 
and seizing this opportunity, he traversed their 
country unnoticed. He would have crossed the 
Visurgis also, had he not run short of provisions, 
and had not the winter set in and, besides, a swarm 
of bees been seen in his camp. Consequently he 
proceeded no farther, but retired to friendly terri- 
tory, encountering great dangers on the way. For 
the enemy harassed him everywhere by ambuscades, 
and once they shut him up in a narroAv ])ass and all 
but destroyed his army ; indeed, they would have 
annihilated them, had they not conceived a con- 
tempt for them, as if they were already captured 
and needed only the finishing stroke, and so come 

^ The Lippe. - The Weser. 

■• 4θ€\•{]σαντά5 Bk., ββλήσοι/τάί VM. ^ ha»' Rk., κα\ VM. 

• €λα0€ Μ, δίί'λαθε V. " ttv λΐ, om. V. 

*" iniKOTTTis Μ, ίτΓίσκοπη! V. 



4 όντων ομόσε αύτοΐς άσύντακτοι ^ βχώρησαν. vl- 
κηθβντβζ yap i/c τούτου ούκβθ' όμοιων βθρασύ- 
νοντο, άΧλα ττόρρωθεν μεν σφα<; τταρεΧύττουν, 
βγγυ? Be ου προστ/εσαν, ώστε τον Αροΰσον άντι- 
καταφρονησαντα αυτών εκεί τε fj- 6 τε Αουττία^; 
καΐ 6 Έλισωζ^ συμμί^νυνται φρούριόν τι σφισιν 
ετΓίτει^ισαι, καΐ έτερον εν Χαττοί? τταρ αύτω τω 

5 νηνω. 8ια μεν ούν ταύτα τα9 τε εττίνικίους 
τίμας καϊ το εττΐ κέ\ητο<ζ ες το άστυ εσεΧάσαι, ττ) 
τε του ανθυπάτου εξουσία, εττειΒαν Βίαστρα- 
τη^ηστ), γ^ρησασθαί έλαβε, το yap όνομα το του 
αύτοκράτορος επεφημίσθη μεν νττο των στρα- 
τιωτών καϊ εκείνω τότε καϊ τω Ύίβερίω ττρότερον, 
ου ^ μεντοί τταρα του Κνηούστου εΒόθη, καίιτερ 
αυτού αττ' αμφοτέρων των ερ^ων τον αριθμόν της 
ετΓίχΧησεως αυξησαντος. 

34 Έγ ω δ' ούν 6 Αρούσος ταύτ εττραττεν, η τε 
'π^avηyυpcς η ττ} στpaτηyLa αυτού προσήκουσα 
τΓοΧυτεΧεστάτη εττοιηθη, καϊ τα yεvεθ\La τα τού 
Aύyoύστoυ καϊ εν τω ίττττοΒρόμω και εν ttj aWrj 

2 πόΧει τΓοΧλαχόθί θηρίων σφayatς ετιμηθη. καϊ 
τούτο μεν, καίτοι μη ψηφισθέν, εν ττάσιν ώς 
είττεΐν τοις ετεσι ττρός τίνος τών άει στ paτηynύvτωv 
εyίyvετo' τα Βε Βη Aύyoυστάλ.ιa, α καϊνύν ay-Tai, 
τότε πρώτον εκ Bόyμaτoς ετεΧέσθη. 

3 'Ό τ€ Ύιβεριος τους τε ΑεΧμάτας νεοχμώσαντας 
και τους ΐΐαννονίους μετά τούτο προς τε την 
εκείνου καϊ προς την τον πΧείονος στρατού άπου- 
σίαν νεωτερισαντας ε'χειρώσατο, ποΧεμών τε άμα 

^ ά(τύντακτοι Μ, ασΰντακτον \' . 
' f Μ, ^u Ύ. 

"^ TTporepov ου Leuncl., ου -rrporepov VM. 


to close quarters with them in disorder. This led b.c ii 
to their being worsted, after which they were no 
longer so bold, but kept up a petty annoyance of 
his troops from a distance, while refusing to come 
nearer. Drusus accordingly conceived a scorn of 
them in his turn and fortified a stronghold against 
them at the point where the Lupia and the Eliso ^ 
unite, and also another among the Chatti on the 
bank of the Rhine. For these successes he received 
the triumplial honours, the right to ride into the 
city on horseback,'- and to exercise the poΛvers of a 
proconsul Avhen he should finish his term as praetor. 
Indeed, the title of imperator was given him by the 
soldiers by acclamation as it had been given to 
Tiberius earlier ; but it was not granted to him by 
Augustus, although the number of times the em- 
peror himself gained this appellation was increased 
as the result of the exploits of these two men. 

While Drusus was thus occupied, the festival 
belonging to his praetorship was celebrated in the 
most costly manner ; and the birthday of Augustus 
was honoured by the slaughter of Avild beasts both 
in the Circus and in many other parts of the city. 
This was done almost every year by one of the praetors 
then in office, even if not authorised by a decree ; 
but the Augustalia, which are still observed, Avere 
then for the first time celebrated in pursuance of 
a decree. 

Tiberius subdued the Dalmatians, who began a 
rebellion, and later the Pannonians, who likewise 
revolted, taking advantage of the absence of himself 
and the larger part of his army. He made war 

' The Alme, uniting MJth the Lippe at Paderboru. The 
usual classical form of the name is Aliso. 
^ That is, to celebrate an ovatio. 


VOL. \ I. Η Η 


άμφοτ6ροί<ζ, και τοτ€ μ€Ρ ttj rore δέ Ty μεθιστά- 
μενος, ώστε καΐ των άθΧων ^ των αυτών τω Αρούσω 

4 τν^€Ϊν. κ,ακ, τούτον καΐ ?; ΑβΧματια '^ ttj του 
Αυγούστου φρουρά, ώς καΐ οττΧων τινών ael καΐ 
δλ' iavTTjv καΐ hia την τών ΤΙαννονίων yetTOviav 
8€θμ6νη, τταρεΒοθη. 

ο Ουτοί μεν 8η ταυτ βττρασσον iv δε δ^ τοΓ? 
αύτοΐς τούτοι^ 'χ^ρονοί'ζ ΟύοΧο^αΙση'^^ Spd^ Βτ^σ- 
σο?/ ίερβύς του τταρ* αύτοΐς Αιονύσου, ττροσετΓΟίη- 
σατό τινας ττοΧΧά θβιάσας, καΐ μετ αυτών άττο- 
στάς τον τε Ρασκύττοριν τον του Κοτυο? υΐον 
νικησα<; αττεκτεινε, καΐ τον θείον αυτού τον '¥νμη- 
τάΧκην μετά ταύτα άμαγεί ^υμνώσας τών 8υνά- 
μεων ττ} τταρα του θεού ^ ^οζτ) φυ'^/εΐν εποίησε, καΐ 
αυτόν ετΓίΒίώκων ες τε την ^ερρόνησον ενεβαΧε 

6 καΐ Βεινώς αυτήν εΧυμηνατο. ώς ουν ούτος τε 
ταυτ εττοίει καΐ οΐ ^ίαΧεται την ^ίακεΒονίαν 
εχακουρΎουν, Αούκιος ΐΐίαων εκ ΤΙαμφυΧίας, ης 
ηρχε, ττροσετά'χθη σφίσΐ' καϊ ττροαναγ^ωρησάντων 
οϊκα8ε τών Βησσών εττεί^η εττυνθάνοντο αίτον 
ττροσιοντα, ες τε την yrjv αυτών άφίκετο, καϊ 
ηττηθείς το ττρώτον άντεττ ε κράτησε, καϊ εκείνην τε 
καϊ την τών ιτροσγώρων τών συνετταναστάντων 

7 σφισιν εττόρθησε. καϊ τότε του? μεν εθεΧοντάς 
προσθεμένος ^ τους δ' άκοντας εκττΧη^ας, τοις δε 
καϊ εκ τταρατάζεως συνενεχ^θείς, ιτάντας αυτούς 
ύττη'γά'γετο, καϊ μετά τούτο νεοχμώσαντάς τινας 
αυτών αύθις κατεΒουΧώσατο. καϊ αύτώ 8ι α ταύτα 
καϊ Ιερομηνίαι καϊ τιμαΐ εττινίκίοι εΒόθησαν, 

* άθλων Bk., άλλων VM. - Α€\ματΙα St., δαλματία VM. 
•^ ΟυολυΎαίσηε Reini., βονλθΎαίσ7]5 Υ}<ί. 

* βησσ05 V, βίσσόε Μ. ^ 0eoC Bk., θ^ίου VM. 
*• 7Γροσθ€μ€νο5 Oddey, -κροσθ^μίνουε \^\.. 


BOOK Ι.ί\' 

upon both of them at once, shifting now to one b.c. ii 
front and now to the other. As a result of his 
success he gained the same prizes as Drusus. After 
this Dalmatia was ^iven over into the keeping of 
Augustus, because of the feeling that it would always 
require armed forces both on its own account and 
because of the neighbouring Pannonians. 

These men, then, were thus engaged. At this 
same period Vologaesus, a Bessian from Thrace and 
a priest of the Dionysus worshipped by that people, 
gained a following by practising many divinations, 
and with these adherents revolted. He conquered 
and killed Rhascyporis, the son of Cotys, and after- 
wards, thanks to his reputation for supernatural 
power, he stripped Uhoemetalces, the victim's uncle, 
of his forces without a battle and compelled him to 
take flight. In pursuit of him he invaded the Cher- 
sonese, where he wrought great havoc. Because of 
these deeds of his and because of the injuries the 
Sialetae were causing to Macedonia, Lucius Piso was 
ordered to proceed against them from Pam}:)hylia, 
where he was governor. The Bessi, now, when they 
heard that he was drawing near, retired homeward 
ahead of him. So he came into their country, and 
though defeated at first, vanquished them in turn 
and ravaged both their land and that of the neigh- 
bouring tribes which had taken part in the uprising. 
At this time he reduced all of them to submission, 
winning over some with their consent, terrifying 
others into reluctant surrender, and coming to terms 
with others as the result of battles ; and later, Λvhen 
some of them rebelled, he again enslaved them. 
For these successes thanksgivings and triumphal 
honours were granted him. 


Β Η 2 


35 Ez^ ω δ' ουν eKelva ^yiyvsTO, ο Avyovaro^ 
άτΓΟ'γραφά'; re εττοιησατο, ττάντα ra ίητάργ^οντά οί 
καθάττβρ τις ΙΒίώτης άττο'^/ραψάμβνος, καϊ την 
βονΚην fcareXe^aro. ορών Se on ουκ ael σνγνοί 
avveXeyovTO, CKeXevae τα ^ό^ματα αυτής καϊ ev 
έΧάττοσιν η τετ ρακοσίοις ηίηνξ,σθαΐ' ου ηαρ βξήν 

2 Τίνα €κ τον ττρίν άΧλως κνρουσθαι. βττεί^ή τ€ 
apyvpiov αύθις €ς βίκονας αυτοί) ^ καΐ εκείνη καϊ 6 
Βήμος σvvεσηvεy καν, εαυτού μεν oύ8εμίav/Ύyιείaς 
δβ Βημοσίας καϊ ττροσετι καϊ Ομονοίας ΈΙρήνης 
τε εστησεν. αεί τε yap ως είττεΐν καΐ εττΐ ιτάστ) 
ττροφάσει τοντ εττοίουν, καϊ τέλος καϊ εν ανττ} ττ) 
ΊτρώτΎ) του έτους ι) μέρα ούκετι ISia ττου κατεβαΧ- 
Χον αυτό, αλλ' αύτω εκείνω ττροσιόντες οί μλν 

ί> ττΧεΙον οί δε εΧαττον εΒίΒοσαν. καϊ ος ττροσθείς 
αν έτερον τοσούτον ?) καϊ ττΧεον άντεΒίΒου, ούχ 
οττως τοις βουΧευταΐς άΧΧα καϊ τοις άΧΧοις. ηΒη 
Βε καϊ εκείνο ηκουσα, οτι καϊ άΧΧο τι apyvpiov εκ 
Xoyίoυ τίνος η καϊ ονείρατος τταρά των ττροστυχ^όν- 
των οί, ως καΐ ττροσαιτών, εν μια του ετονς ήμερα 

4 ΚαΙ τοντο μεν, εϊ yi τω ιτιστόν, οντω τταραΒε- 
Βοταΐ' εν Βε τω ετει εκείνω την τε ΊουΧίαν τω 
Ύιβερίω συνωκισε, καϊ την Όκταουίαν την αδελ- 
φοί' άττοθανουσαν ττροεθετο εττΐ του ΊουΧιείου - 
ηρώου, τταραττετάσματι καϊ τότε εττΐ του νεκρού 

5 'χ^ρησάμενος. και αυτός τε εκεΐ τον εττιτάώιον 
είττε, καϊ ο Αρονσος εττΐ του βήματος' Βημόσιον 
yap το ττενθος άΧΧαξαμενων την εσθήτα των 
βουΧευτών εyέvετo. καΐ το μεν σώμα αυτής οί 

' αύτου Ζοη., εαυτόν VM. 

'^ Ίονλΐίίον Dind. , Ιουνίου λ'Μ. 



While these events were oeeurring, Augustus b.* . i 
took a eensus, making a list of all his own property 
like any private eitizen ; and he also made a roster 
of the senate. As he saw that sometimes there were 
not many present at the meetings of that body, he 
ordered that its decrees should ])e passed even when 
less than four hundred were present ; for hitherto 
no decree could have validity if passed by a smaller 
number. When the senate and the people once 
more contributed money for statues of Augustus^ he 
would set up no statue of himself, but instead set 
up statues of Salus Publica^ Concordia, and Pax. 
The citizens, it seems, were nearly always and on 
every pretext collecting money for this same object, 
and at last they ceased paying it privately, as one 
inight call it, but would come to him on the very 
first day of the year and give, some more, some less, 
into his own hands ; and he, after adding as much 
or more again, would return it, not only to the 
senators but to all the rest. I have also heard the 
story that on one day of the year, following some 
oracle or dream, he Λvould assume the guise of a 
beggar and would accept money from those who 
came u}) to him. 

This is the tradition, whether credible to any one 
or not. That year he gave Julia in marriage to 
Tiberius, and when his sister died, he caused her 
body to lie in state in the shrine of Julius ; and on 
this occasion also he had a curtain over the corpse.^ 
He himself delivered the funeral oration there, and 
Drusus delivered one from the rostra ; for the 
mourning was ))ublicly observed and the senators 
had changed their dress. Her body was carried in 

ί Cf. chap. 28, H. 

-^ ■" -^ 



γαμβροί e^r)ve'yKaVy τα δε Εη ψΎ)φίσθ€νΎα avrfj ου 
ττάντα ό Avyovaro(; ehe^aro. 
ii6 Και^ τω αντω τούτω 'χ^ρόνω 6 re ιερεύς τον Αιος 
ττρωτον μετά τον ^ίερούΧαν άττε^είχθη, καΐ τοΐς 
ταμίαις τα ^ό^ματα τα ^ εκάστοτε '^ΐ'^νόμενα 8ta 
φύΧακης ττοίεΐσθαι εκεΧεύσθη, εττεί^η οϊ τε Βή- 
μαρ'χοι καϊ οι ά^ορανόμοί οΐ ττροτερον αύτα ετη- 
τετραμμενοί ^ Βία των ύττηρετών τούτ εττραττον, 
και τις εκ τούτον καϊ Βιαμαρτία καϊ ταραχή 
iy ενετό. 
2 Έιψηφίσθτ] μεν ονν τον ^Ιανον τον Τεμινον ως 
καΐ ττεττανμενων των ττόΧεμων {άνεωκτο yap) 
κΧεισθήναί, ον μεντοί καϊ εκΧείσθη' οϊ τε yap 
ΑακοΙ τον "Ιστρον τΓε^τηyότa Βιαβάντες Χειαν εκ 
της ΐΐαννονίας άπετεμοντο, καϊ οί ΑεΧμάται ■* 
ττρος τας εσττράζεις των 'χ^ρημάτων εττανεστησαν. 

3 καϊ τούτονς μεν 6 Ύιβερως εκ της ΤαΧατίας, ες ην 
μετά τον Aύyoύστov εσεΧηΧύθει, καταττεμφθείς 
άνεκτησατο,"^ τα Βε Βη των ΙίεΧτών των τε άΧΧων 
καϊ ιών Χαττωι^ (προς yap τονς %vyάμβpovς 
μετεστησαν, καϊ τής'^ -χ^ώρας αντών, ην οίκεΐν τταρα 
των Ρωμαίων εΙΧήφεσαν, ε^ανεστησαν) 6 Αρονσος 

4 τα μεν εκάκωσε τα Βε ε')(€ίρώσατο. και μετά 
τούτο ες re την 'Τώμην σνν τω Avyoύστω άνεκο- 
μίσθ7]σαν (εν yap τη AovyBovvLBi*^ τα ττοΧΧα 
οντος ^ €γ7ΐ;^6ΐ^ τοις ΚεΧτοΐς εφεΒρεύων Βίετρίβε), 
καϊ οσα επϊ ταΐς νίκαις εΛίτηφιστο η καϊ άΧΧως 
καθήκοντα ην yεvεσθaL, εττετεΧεσαν. 

^ τά supplied by Rk. 

■^ 4ττιτζτραμμίνοι R, Steph., ζττί'γί'γραμμίνοι VM. 

■^ Δ€λ^άταί St. , ζαλμάταί \Μ. 

^ ίν^κτ-ησατο Pflugk, αν€στ•ησατο VM. 




the procession by her sons-in-law ; but not all the k.c η 
honours voted for her were accepted by Augustus. 

At this same })eriod the priest of Jupiter was 
appointed for the first time since Merula,^ and the 
(|uaestors were ordered to preserve the decrees 
passed at various times, inasmuch as the tribunes 
and aediles, who had previously been entrusted with 
this duty _, were performing it through their assistants, 
and in consequence some mistakes and confusion 

It was voted that the temple of Janus Geminus, 
which had been opened, should be closed, on the 
ground that the wars had ceased. It was not closed, 
hoΛvever, for the Dacians, crossing the Ister on the 
ice, carried oft" booty from Pannonia, and the Dal- 
matians rebelled against the exactions of tribute. 
Against these people Tiberius was sent from Gaul, 
whither he had gone in company Λvith Augustus ; 
and he reduced them again to submission. The 
Germans, particularly the Chatti, were either 
harassed or subjugated by Drusus. The Chatti, it 
seems, had gone to join the Sugambri, having 
abandoned their own country, Avhich the Romans 
had given them to dwell in. Afterwards Tiberius 
and Drusus returned to Rome with Augustus, who 
had been tarrying in Lugdunensis much of the time, 
keeping watch on the Germans from near at hand ; 
and they carried out whatever decrees had been 
passed in honour of their victories or did Λvhatever 
else devolved upon them. 

^ See vol. ii. 477, and note. 

» TTJS Rk., T7JS T6 VM. 

^ AovySovfibi R. Staph., KovySuvioi VM. 
' oi/TosRcim., ovTws VM. 



Τάδ« ivtffTiv fv τφ Ίτ^ντηκοστφ ττίμιττυρ των Δίωνο5 "Ρωμαϊκών 

α. 'ClS Αροΰσυ5 aireOavev. 

β. 'ris τί) Aiovias τ(μ€νο5 καθίίρώθη. 

y. 'Cis τ6 'AypLinrov 7re5/ov καθίίρώθη. 

S. 'ris ro ζιριβιτώριον^ καθίΐρώθη. 

f. Ώ,5 Ύιβ€ρΐ05 es 'Pooou αν^χώρ-ησ^ν. 

ζ. 'ils ή Avyovarov ayopa καθΐ€ρώθη. 

•η. 'iis δ του "Apeus uahs 6 ev avrri i:v καθΐ€ρώθη. 

θ. Ώε Αυύκΐ05 ΚαΊσαρ κάί Faios Καΐσαρ αττίΟανον. 

ι. 'ils AvyovCTOS Ύιβίριον εποιήσατο. 

κ. Ώ,5 Αιουία -παρτιν^σ^ν Avyovara^ φιΚανθρωττόηρον άρχ^ιν. 

λ. nepi των στρατοπέδων καϊ ws οι τα στρατιωτικά χρΊ}ματα 

SioiKriaofTes κατέστησαν, 

μ. 'ils οι νυκτοφύ\ακ€5 κατίστησαν. 

ν. 'CLs Αζ\μάται$ κα\ TlauiOviois Ύιβ4ριο$ €πο\4μησ€ν. 

Χρόνου Ίτληθοί ίτη ίΐΓτακαίζ^κα, 4ν ols άρχοντ6 5 οΐ άριθμονμίνοι 
οίίδβ iyivovTO 

Νέρων Κλαύδχοϊ Τΐ/3. υί. Δροΰσο5 „ 
Τ." Kv'ivKTios Τ. υί. ΚρισιτΙνοΒ 
Γ. Μάρκιοί Λ. υι.'^ ΚηνσωρΊνοε ., 
Γ. Άσίννιοε'^ Γ. υί. Γάλλθ5 ^^' 
Ύιβ. Κλαύδίοϊ^ Τιβ. νί. Τ^έοων τ}> β' „ ^ 
Τν.^ ΚαλττονρνιοΒ Γν.' υί. Πίσωΐ'^ 
Α€Κΐμο5 Aai\tos Δ€κιμου υί. Βά\βθ5 ., 
Γ. Άντίστιοε Γ. υί. Oi'e'rep 

^ 8ιριβιτώριον Bs., δ€ΐριβιτόριον AJ. 
•^ Τ. Bs., Τί Μ. -^ Λ. υί. supplied by Bs. 

* Άσίννιθ5 Bs., άσιάνιοΒ Μ. ^ Κ\αύ5ιο5 Xyl., κ\' Μ. 

« Γν. supplied l)y Η. Steph. ' Γγ. Η. Steph., y Μ. 



The following is contained in the Fifty-fifth of Dio's 
Rome, : — 

How Drusus died (chaps. 1, 2). 

How the Precinct of Li via was dedicated (chap. 8). 

How the Campus Agrippae was dedicated (chap. 8). 

How the T)iril)itorium was dedicated (chap, 8). 

How Tiberius retired to Rhodes (chap. 9). 

How tlie Forum of Augustus was dedicated (lacking). 

How the Temple of Mars therein was dedicated (chap. 10). 

How Lucius Caesar and Gains Caesar died (chap, 10 a). 

How Augustus adopted Tiberius (chap. 13). 

How Livia urged Augustus to rule more mercifully (chaps. 

About the legions and how men were appointed to manage 

the military funds (chaps. 23-25). 
How the night-watchmen were appointed (chap. 2(i). 
How Tiberius fought against the Dalmatians and Pannonians 

(chaps. 29-34). 

Duration of time, seventeen years, in which there were 
the magistrates (consuls) here enumerated : — 

9 Nero Claudius Ti. F. Drusus, T. Quinctius T. F. 

8 C. Marcius L. F. Censorinus, C. Asinius C. F. Gallus. 
7 Ti. Claudius Ti. F. Nero (II), Cn. Calpurnius Cn. F. 

6 Decimus Laelius Decimi F. Balbus, C. Antistius C. F. 


Ιΐίσων Borgheei, ιτίσων τυ Sfurtpov Μ. 
vw. supplied by Bs 



AijyovaTos rh ιβ' „ 

S.y Kopvijhios Π. υΐ. 2ϋλΛα$ 

Γ. KaXoviaios Γ. υϊ. 'ΣαβΊνο5 

Λ. Ώασσΐ7ΐνο5 . . . υΐ. 'PoDi^os' 

ί\..'^ Kopvi]\ios Λ, υΙ. Α^ντοΰλο! „ 

Μ. Ova\€pios Μ. νί. Μ€σσάλα5 MeaaaAtiOs" 

Avyovaros τυ ly' „ 

Μ. Πλαύτιθ5 Μ. υΐ. "SiiKovavos 

Κόσσο5 Κορνηλιοε Tu. υΐ AevTod\os „ 

Λ. KaXiTovpvios Τν. υΐ. Πίσων 

Γ. Καίσαρ Abyouarov'^ υΐ. „ 

Λ. ΑιμίΑΐοε Λ. υι. TiavAos 

Π. OuiVlKlOi^ Μ.^ L•!. ., g 

Π. Άλφηνοε' Π. υί. Ovapos 

Α. ΑΪ\ιο5^ Α. υί. Λα /xtas^^ ., 

Μ. SepoyiAios^^ Μ. νι. 

'XeEros Αϊλίθ5^" Κ. νί. Kotos 

1. zevTios Γ. ι/ί. SaTOfpvtiOs 

Λ. OvaKipLos Ώοτίτου υί. Μεσσάλαχ Ουόλαισο5 ^* ., ^5 

Γ»». KopurjXios Α. νί. Kiuvas Ma')i'os 

Μ, Αΐμί\ιο5 Α. νί. Aeiridos ., 

Λ. AppovvTios Α. υι. 

Αύ\.^^ AiKivios Αΰλ. υί.^~ Nepovas^^ ^i\Lavos^^ „ η.^ 

Κ. KaiKiXios'^ Κ. υί.-^ MereAAos Κρητίκόε 

Μ. Φούρίθ5^^ Μ.^* νί. Κάμιλ\08 ., 

Se^. ΝώρίοΒ^ Τ. νί.'^^ Κνϊντι\ιαν05 

Ταύτα μβν βττί re τον ^ΙούΧλου'-' \\ντωνίου καϊ 
€7γΙ Φαβίον ^Ιαξίμον υττάτων iyeveTo,-^ τω Be 
^γ^ομβνω βτεί 6 Αρονσος μετά Ύίτον Ιίρίστηνου 

^ Λ. Kopvi]\Los . . . νί. 'ΡονφοΒ supplied by Xyl. and Bs. 

" Λ. supplied by R. iSteph. 

^ ΜζσσαλΊνο5 Mommsen, η Meσσαλ^^■os Μ. 

"* AvyovcTov Reiin., avyovaros τον Μ. 

^ OviViKLOS Bs, , ovivIkios V μινονκιθ5 Μ. ^ Μ. Xyl-, v. M. 

' Άλφηνοί Bs. , α\φηνο$ ^ α.λφ-ηνιο$ Μ. 

** Ovapos VTT. Bs., ύπ ούαροί Μ. 

^ Λ. AiAiosR. Steph., λα/λίΟί Μ. ^" Λα /itas R. Steph., ταμίαί Μ. 
^^ 2«pouiAiosR. Steph., σορουιΑίοί M. ^^ Ai'AtosBs.jOiftiAtos M. 
^'^ 'S.arovpv'ivos Leuncl. , σατορν7νο$ Μ. 
^* ΟίΆαίσοϊ Xyl., ουάλαι<Γο$ Μ. 
^* υπ, supplied bv Bs. ^^ a5a. Bs. , <s5aos M. 





5 AuguHtUK (XII), L. Coinelius P. F. .Sulla. 

4 C. Calvisius C. V. Sabinus (II), L. Passienus . . . F. Kiitus. 

3 L. CorneliuH L. F. Lentulus, M.Valerius M. F. Messalla 

2 Augustus (XIII), M. Plautius M. F. Silvanus. 
I Cossus Cornelius Cn. F. Lentulus, L. Calpuiniuis Cn. F. 


1 C. Caesar Augnsti F., L. Aemilius L. F. Paulu.s. 

2 P. Vinicius M. F., P. Alfenus P. F. Varus. 

3 L. Aelius L. F. Lamia, M. Servilius M. Γ. 

4 Sextus Aelius Q. F. Catus, C Sentius C. F. Saturninus. 

5 L. Valerius Potiti F. Messalla Volesus, Cn. Cornelius L. 

F. Cinna Magnus. 

6 M. Aemilius L. F. Lepidus, L. Arruntius L. F. 

7 A. Licinius A. F. Nerv^a Silianus, Q. Caecilius Q. F. 

Metellus Creticus. 

8 M. Furius M.^ F. Camillus, Sex. Nonius C. F. Quin• 


The events related happened in the consulship of b.c. 
lullus Antonius and Fabius Maximus. In the follow- 
ing year Drusus became consul with Titus Crispinus, 

' Or P., if we follow the form given in the Fasti Gapitolini. 

^' Αβλ. υΐ. supplied by Bs. ^^ Nepovas R. Steph., ovepvas M. 

^^ ^iKiavos Bs., aiAavos M. ^o κ. Καικί\ω5 Xyl., κ' και\ιο$ Μ. 

2^ Κ. υί. supplied by Bs. -^ νπ. supplied b}• Bs. 

'^•^ Φούριο! Xyl., φούρνιθ5 Μ. 

^ Instead of M. vl. Bs. would read Π. vl. See Fasti Capitol. 

'5 Ncii/ios H. Steph., νώννιο$ Μ. 

-^ Λ. υί. Leuncl., y. υϊ. Μ. "' ^ΙοΰΚΧου Bs. , Ιουλίου Μ. 

^ The words τοΰτο . . . iyiv^ro appear at the end of liv. in 
VM ; Bk. placed here. V breaks off at this point ; cf. pref. 
to vol. i. p. XXV. 



ύττάτβυσβ, καϊ αύτω σημεία ουκ ayada συυηνβχ^θη- 
ποΧΧα μβν yap καΧ αΧλα καΐ 'χειμωνί κα\ κ€ pavvols , 
τΓοΧλοΙ Be και ναοί βφθάρησαν, ώστε καΐ τον του 
Δί09 του Καττίτωλιοι; των τβ συννάων αυτού κα- 

2 κωθηναί. ου μ€ντοί και εφροντίσβ τι αυτών, αλλ' 
€9 τ€ την των Χάττω^» βσββαΧβ κ,αΐ ττροήΧθβ ρ^χρί 
της Χουηβίας, την τε iv ττοσίν ουκ άταΧαίττώρως 
χειρούμενος καΐ τους ττροσμι^νύντας οι ουκ άναι- 
μωτΐ κρατών, κάντεύθβν ττρος τε την ^ερουσκίΒα ^ 
/Μ-βτεστ?;, καΐ τον Ούίσουρ<^ον ~ Βίαβάς ηΧασε 

3 μέχρι του \\.Χβίου, ττάντα πορθών. εκείνον yap 
{ρεΐ Βε εκ τών ΟυανΒαΧικών ορών, καΐ ες τον 
ώκεανον τον ττροσάρκτιον ττοΧΧώ μεyεθεt εκΒί- 
Βωσιν) επεχείρησε μβν ττεραιωθηναι, ουκ ήΒυνήθη 
Βε, άΧΧα τρότταια στήσας άνεχώρϊ]σε' yυvη yap 
τις μείζων ή κατά ανθρώπου φύσιν άτταντήσασα 
αύτω εφη *' ττοί Βήτα ε'πείyr}, δρούσε ακόρεστε ; 
ου ττάντα σοι ταύτα ΙΒεΙν ττεττρωται. αλλ άττιθι• 
καΐ yap σοι καΐ τών εpyωv καΐ του βίου τέλεια τΡ; 

4 ηΒη ττάρεστι. ' θαυμαστον μεν ουν το τίνα φωνην 
τταρα -ου Βαιμονίου τοιαύτην τω yεvεσθaι, ου 
μέντοι και άττιστεΐν εχω' τταραχρήμα yap άπεβη, 
στΓουΒη τε υττοστρέ'ψαντος αύτου καΐ εν τη οΒώ 
νόσω τινί, ττρίν εττϊ τον '^ήνον εΧθεΐν, τεΧευτή- 

5 σαντος. και μοι τεκμηριοΐ το Χεχθεν ότι κ αϊ 
Χύκοι ττερί το στρατόττεΒον ύττο τον θάνατον 
αύτου ττερινοστοΰντες ώρύοντο, και νεανίσκοι Βύο 
Βια μέσου του ταφ ρεύματος Βιιτητεύοντες ώφθη- 
σαν, θρήνος τε τις yυvaικεΐoς ήκούσθη, καΐ αστέ- 
ρων ΒιαΒρομαΙ iyivovTo. 

^ Χερουσκίδο Bk. , χαρουσκ'ιαν Μ. 
~ ΟύίσουρΎον Reiiii., ουσίσου'γρον Μ. 



,ind uiiiens occurred that were anythin<^ but favour- β.γ. ο 
able to him. Many buildings were destroyed by 
storm and by thunderbolts, amon<^ them many 
temples ; even that of .Jupiter Capitolinus and the 
gods worshipped Avith him was injured. Drusus, 
however, paid no heed to any of these things, but 
invaded the country of the Chatti and advanced as 
far as that of the Suebi, conquering Avith difficulty 
the territory traversed and defeating the forces that 
attacked him only after considerable bloodshed. 
From tiiere he proceeded to the country of the 
Cherusci, and crossing the Visurgis, advanced as far 
as the Albis,^ pillaging everything on his way. The 
Albis rises in the Vandalic Mountains,- and empties, 
a mighty river, into the northern ocean. Dnisus 
undertook to cross this river, but failing in the 
attempt, set up trophies and withdrew. For a 
woman of superhuman size met him and said : 
" Whither, pray, art thou hastening, insatiable 
Drusus ? It is not fated that thou shalt look upon 
all these lands. But dej)art ; for the end alike of 
thy labours and of thy life is already at hand." It 
is indeed marvellous that such a voice should have 
come to any man from the Deity, yet I cannot 
discredit the tale ; for Drusus immediately departed, 
and as he was returning in haste, died on the way of 
some disease before reaching the Rhine. And I find 
confirmation of the story in these incidents : wolves 
were prowling about the camp and howling just 
before his death ; two youths were seen riding 
through the midst of the camp ; a sound as of 
women lamenting was heard ; and there were 
shooting stars in the sky. So much for these events. 

^ The Elbe. '•' The Riesengebirge. 



^l Vavra μβν οΰτω^ ^^X^f προττνθόμβνος δ' ό Αύ- 
γουστος OTt νοσεί (ου yap ην ιτυρρο)), τον Ύιβεριον 
κατά τάχο? βττβμψε' καϊ ος βρπνουν re αυτόν 
κατέΧαββ καϊ αποθανόντα e? την 'Ρώμην Ικόμίσε, 
τα μεν ττρώτα μέχρι του 'χείμα^>ίου του στρατού 
Βί,ά τε των εκατοντάρ'χων καϊ Sta των 'χιΧίάρ-χ^ων, 
εκείθεν 8ε Sea των καθ^ εκάστην ττοΧιν ττρώτων 

2 βαστάσας. καϊ αυτού εν τ9) ayopa ττροτεθεντος 
ΒίττΧοΰς 6 εττίτάφίος εΧεχ^θη' 6 τ ε yap Ύίβερίθ<; 
ενταύθα αύτον ετττίνεσε, καϊ ο Aΰyoυστo'ζ εν τω 
ΦΧαμινίω ίπττοΒρόμω' εξεστράτευτο yap, καϊ ουκ 
ην οί οσιον μη ου τα καθήκοντα εττΐ τοΐ^; κατείρ- 
yaσ μενοί^ τταρ αύτην την είσω του ττωμηριου 

3 εσοΒον ετητεΧεσαι. καϊ 6 μεν e? τε το "Αρείον 
ττεΜον ύπο των Ιτητεων, των τε ες την ίττττάΒα 
ακριβώς τεΧούντων κα\ των εκ του βουΧευτίκοΰ 
yεvoυς όντων, ηνε'χθη, κάνταϋθα ττυρί 8οθεΙς ες το 
του Aΰyoύστoυ μνη μείον κατετέθη. Γερμανικός τε 
μετά των τταιΒων εττονομασθείς, καϊ τιμάς καϊ 
εικόνων καϊ ά^ΐΒος κενοταφίου τε ττρος αυτω τω 
'Ρηνω Χαβών, 

4 Ό Βε Βη Ύιβεριος των τε ΑεΧματών καϊ των 
ΤΙαννονίων νττοκινησάντων τι αύθις ζώντος ετι 
αΰτοΰ κρατήσας, τά τε εττΐ του κεΧητος εττινικια 
εττεμψε, καϊ του Βήμου τους μεν εν τω Κ.α7ΤΐτωΧιω 
τους δ' άΧΧοθι ττοΧΧα'χ^όθι εΒείττνισε. καν τούτω 
καϊ η Αιουία μετά της ^ΙουΧίας τας yυvaΐκaς είστι- 



Augustus, upon learning• of Drusus' iliiiess before b.c i» 
it was far advanced (for he was not far off), liad sent 
Tiberius to him in haste. Tiberius found him still 
breathing, and on his death carried tlie body to 
Rome, causing the centurions and military tribunes 
to carry it over the first stage «of the journey, — as 
far as the winter quarters of the army, — and after 
that the foremost men of each city. When tlie body 
had been laid in state in the Forum, two funeral ora- 
tions were delivered : Tiberius j^ronounced a eulogy 
there in the Forum, and Augustus pronounced one 
in the Circus Flaminius. The emperor, of course, 
had been away on a campaign, and it was not law- 
ful for him to omit the customary rites in honour 
of his exploits at the time of his entrance inside 
the pomerium.^ The body was borne to the Campus 
Martius by the knights, both those Λνΐιο belonged 
strictly to the equtstrian order and those who were 
of senatorial family \'^ then it was given to the flames 
and the ashes were deposited in the sepulchre ot 
Augustus. Drusus, together Λvith his sons, received 
the title of Germanicus, and he was given the further 
honours of statues, an arch, and a cenotaph on the 
bank of the Rhine itself. 

Tiberius, while Drusus was yet alive, had over- 
come the Dalmatians and Pannonians, Avho had once 
more begun a rebellion, and he had celebrated the 
equestrian trium})h,^ and had feasted the people, 
some on the Capitol and the rest in many other 
places. At the same time Li via, also, with Julia, 
had given a dinner to the women. And the same 

^ He could not return the customary thanks to the gods 
at this time because he Λvas in mourning ; hence he remained 
outside the pomerium until his period of mourning should be 
at an end. ^ q^ \\^. o, 5. ^ The ovatio. 


5 ασβ. τά δ' αυτά ταύτα καΐ τω Κρούσω ητοιμΛζβτο' 
και ye αι ανο'χ^αΐ SevTepov την χάριν αύτου, ττρος 
το τα νικητήρια ev βκβίναι^ί αΰτον ^ορτάσαι, yevr)- 
σεσθαι βμεΧΧον. αλλ' ό μ(ίν ττροαττώΧετο, η δε δή 
Χιονιά εικόνων τε βττΐ παραμυθία έτυχε, καΐ ες 

6 τά? μητέρας τας τρις ^ τεκούσας εσε^ράφη. οις 
yap ίΐν το Βαιμονιον, εϊτ^ οΰν άνΒρών εϊτε yυvaι- 
κών, μΐ) δω τοσαυτάκις τεκνώσαι, τούτων τισίν 6 
νομός, ττροτερον μεν Sia της βουΧης νυν Βε Slcl του 
αυτοκράτορος, τα των τρις- yεyεvvηκότωv δικαιώ- 
ματα χαρίζεται, ώστε σφάς μήτε τοις της άτται- 
Βιας ετΓίτιμίοις ενεχεσθαι και τα της ττοΧυτταιΒίας 

7 αθΧα ττΧην 6Xίyωv τίνων καριτουσθαι. καΐ αΰτα 
ουκ ανθρωτΓΟί μόνον αλλά καΐ θεοί ευρίσκονται, 
ϊν αν τις Tfc αΰτοΐς τεΧευτων καταΧίττη Χαμβά- 

3 Ύουτο μεν Βη τοιούτον εστίν, 6 δ' Aΰyoυστoς τάς 
τε της yεpoυσίaς εΒρας εν ρηταΐς ημεραις yίyvεσθaι 
εκέΧευσεν (εττειΒη yap ούΒεν ττροτερον ακριβώς 
ττερί αυτών ετετακτο και τίνες Βιά τούτο ττοΧΧάκις 
υστεριζον, Βύο^ βουΧας κατά μήνα κυρίας άττέΒει- 
ξεν, ώστε ες αύτας ε'πάvayκες, ους yε καΐ ο νόμος 

2 εκάΧει, συμφοιτάν και οττως yε μηΒ^ άΧΧη μηΒε- 
μία σκηψις της άττουσιας αύτοΐς υττάρχτ], ττροσέ- 
ταζε μήτε Βικαστήριον μητ άΧΧο μηΒεν τών προσ- 
ηκόντων σφίσιν εν εκείνω τω καιρώ yiyvεσθaι), 
τον τε αριθμόν τον ες την κύρωσιν τών Boy μάτων 

1 TpU Leuncl., τβ τρ\$ Μ, ^ ^p^y supplied by Xyl. 
^ δυο supplied by Casaubon. 



festivities were being prepared for Drusus ; even 
the Feriae were to be lield a second time on his 
account, so that he miglit celebrate his triunij)h on 
that occasion. But his untimely death upset these 
plans. To Livia statues were voted by way of 
consoling her and she was enrolled among the 
mothers of three children. For in certain cases, 
formerly by act of the senate, but now by the 
emperor's, the law bestows the privileges which 
belong to the parents of three children ^ upoji men 
or women to whom Heaven has not granted that 
number of children. In this way they are not 
subject to the penalties imposed for childlessness and 
may receive all but a few of the rewards offered 
for large families ; and not only men but gods also 
may enjoy these rewards, the object being that, 
if any one leaves them a bequest at his death, they 
may receive it.•^' 

So much for this matter. As to Augustus, he 
ordered that the sittings of the senate should be 
held on fixed days. Previously, it appears, there had 
been no precise regulation concerning them and it 
often hap})ened that members failed to attend ; he 
accordingly appointed two regular meetings for each 
month, so that they were under compulsion to at- 
tend, — at least those of them whom the law 
summoned, — and in order that they might have no 
other excuse for being absent, he connnanded that 
no court or other meeting Avhich recjuired their 
attendance should be held at that time. He also 
fixed by law the nmnber of senators necessary for 

1 See liii. 13, 2 and note. 

^ Certain gods and goddesses (see Ulpian xxii. 6) might 
legally be named as heirt;, but it appears thai they had to 
fulfil the same conditions as the other heirs. 


VOL. VI. c c 


ava'^Kolov καθ' ύκαοΊον eiSo^ αυτών, ως ye tv 
κεφαΧαίΟίς είττείν, ^ιενομοθβτησβ, καϊ τά ζημιώ- 
ματα τοις μη Bl* evXoyov τίνα αΐτίαν της συν€- 

3 Βρβίας άτΓοΧβίΤΓομενοίς βττηνξησβν. εττειΒη Τ6 ττολ- 
λα των τοιούτων ύττο τον ττΧήθους των νττβυθύνων 
ατιμώρητα βϊωθε yiyvea6aL, κΧηροΰσθαί τ€ αυτούς 
el συχνοί τούτο ττοίησειαν, καϊ τον ael ττβμτττον 
Χα'χ^οντα οφΧίσκάνειν αυτά eKeXevae. τά τ€ ονό- 
ματα συμττάντων τών βουΧευόντων €ς Χεύκωμα 
avaypa -ψας βξεθηκε' καϊ εζ εκείνου καΐ νυν κατ 

4 έτος τούτο ττοιεΐται. ταύτα μεν εττΐ ttj της συμ- 
φοίτησεως αυτών avayKr) ειτραζεν εΐ δ' ούν ττοτε 
εκ σνντυχ^ιας τίνος μη συΧΧεχ^θεΐεν όσους ή χρεία 
εκάστοτε εκάΧει (ττΧην yap οτι οσάκις αν αύτος ό 
αυτοκράτωρ τταρη, εν yε^ ταΐς άΧΧαις ημεραίς ες 
ττάντα oXiyov το τών αθροιζόμενων ττΧήθος και 
τότε καϊ μετά ταύτα ακριβώς εξητάζετο), εβου- 
Χεύοντο μεν καϊ ή yε yvώμη συvεypάφετo, ου 
μεντοι καϊ τεΧος τι ως κεκυρωμένη εΧάμρανεν, 
άΧΧά αΰκτώριτας εyίyvετo, οττως φανερον το βου- 

5 Χημα αυτών η. τοιούτον yap τι η Βυναμις τού 
ονόματος τούτου 8ηΧοΐ' εΧΧηνίσαι yap αύτο καθ- 
άτταξ αδύνατον εστί. το δ' αύτο τούτο και ει 
ττοτε εν τόττω τινί μη νενομισμενω η ήμερα μη 
καθηκούστ), η και ε^ω νομίμου 7τapayyελμaτoς, 
ύττο στΓουΒης ηθροίσθησαν, η καϊ εναντιωθεντων 
τινών Βημάργων το μεν hoy μα ουκ ηΒυνήθη yεvε- 
σθαι, την δε δ^ yvώμηv σφών ουχ ύττεμενον άττο- 

^ ye Rk.. re ΝΓ. 


passing decrees, according to the several kinds of b.c. i) 
decrees, — to state only the chief points of the 
matter ; and he increased the fines of those who 
without good excuse stayed away from the sessions. 
And since many such offences had regularly gone un- 
punished owing to the large number of those who 
were liable to punishment, he commanded that if 
many were guilty, they should draw lots and one 
out of every five, according as the lot should fall, 
should incur the fine. He had the names of all the 
senators entered on a tablet and posted ; and this 
practice, originating with him, is still observed each 
year. Such were the measures he took to compel 
the attendance of the senators ; but if on any 
occasion, as the result of some accident, fewer as- 
sembled than the occasion demanded, — and it should 
be explained that at every session, except when the 
emperor himself was present, the number of those 
in attendance was accurately counted, both at that 
time and later, for })racti('ally every matter of 
business, — the senators would proceed with their 
deliberations and their decision would be recorded, 
though it would not go into effect as if regularly 
passed, but instead, their action was what was 
termed audoritas, the purpose of which was to make 
known their will. For such is the general force of 
this word ; to translate it into Greek by a term that 
will always be applicable is impossible. This same 
custom prevailed in case they ever assembled in 
haste at any but the usual place, or on any but the 
appointed day, or without a legal summons, or if by 
reason of the opposition of some of the tribunes a 
decree could not be passed and yet they were un- 
willing that their opinion should remain unknown ; 

c c 2 


κρνφθήναι, βνομίζετο' καί avry μετά ταντα καΐ ή 
κύρωσις κατά τά ττάτρια eTrr/yeTO καί η βττίκΧησι^ 

6 η του δόγ/χατο? άττεφέρβτο. τοΰτό τε ουν Ισ-χυρω^ 
67γΙ ττΧείστον τοΐ<; ττάΧαι τηρηθεν εζίτηΧον τρόπον 
τινά η8η ^ε^ονε, καΐ το των στρατηγών και yap 
εκείνοι ά^ανακτησαντε<ζ otl μηΒεμίαν ^νώμην, 
καίτοι των Βημάρ-χ^ων ττροτετιμημενοί, ες την 
βουΚην εσεφερον, τταρά μεν του Αυγούστου εΧα- 
βον αΰτο ΤΓοιεΐν, υιτο δε δ?) του 'χρόνου άφτ}ρε- 

4 Ύαΰτά τε ουν καΐ ταλλα α ^ τότε ενομοθετησεν, ες 
τε το συνεΒριον εν Χευκωμασϋ yey ραμμένα ιτροε- 
θηκε ττρίν χρηματίσαί τί περί αυτών, καΐ τοις 
βουΧενταΐς μεθ' ενός έτερου εσεΧθοΰσιν avayvcovai 
εττετρεψεν, οττως αν τι μη άρεση αυτούς η καΐ 
έτερον τι βεΧτιον συμβουΧεύσαι Βυνηθώσίν εϊττω- 

2 συν. ούτω yap ττου δημοκρατικός ή^ίου είναι 
ώστε Τίνος των συστρατευσαμένων ττοτε αύτω 
συvηyopημaτoς τταρ^ αύτου Βεηθεντος το μεν ττρώ- 
τον των φίΧων τινά, ώς καΐ εν άσχ^οΧία ων, 
συνειττεΐν αύτω κεΧεΰσαι, εττειτ επειΒη εκείνος 
6pyισθεlς εφη " εγώ μέντοι, οσάκις εττικουριας 
'χ^ρείαν εσ'χες, ουκ άΧΧον τινά άντ εμαυτου σοι 
έπεμψα, άΧΧ' αύτος πανταχ^οΰ προεκινΒύνευσά 
σου," ες τε το Βικαστήριον εσεΧθεΐν καΙ συvηyopή- 

8 σαί οι. φίΧω τετινι Βίκην φεύyovτι συνεξητάσθη, 
προεπικοινώσας αΰτο τούτο ττ) yεpoυσίa• καΐ εκεί- 
νον τε έσωσε, καΐ τον KaTrjyopov αύτου ού'χ^ όπως 

^ h supplied by Rk. 


afterwards the resolution would be ratified according b.c. 9 
to established precedent and would receive the name 
of a decree.^ Tiiis method, strictly followed for a 
long period by the men of old time, has in a way 
already become null and void, as has also the special 
privilege of the praetors. For they, becoming in- 
dignant that they could bring no proposal before the 
senate, though they outranked the tribunes, received 
from Augustus the right to do so, but in the course 
of time were deprived of it. 

These and the other laws which Augustus enacted 
at this time he had inscribed on tablets and posted 
in the senate before bringing them up for con- 
sideration, and he allowed the senators to enter the 
chamber in groups of two and read them, so that 
if any provision did not please them, or if they could 
advise anything l)etter, they might speak. He was 
very desirous indeed of being democratic, as one or 
two incidents will illustrate. Once, Avhen one o£ 
those who had campaigned with him asked him for 
his assistance as advocate, though he at first 
pretended to be busy and bade one of his friends 
speak in the man's behalf, yet when the petitioner 
became angry and said, " But I, whenever you had 
need of ni}' assistance, did not send some one else to 
you in place of myself, but personally encountered 
dangers everywhere in your behalf," the emperor 
then entered the court-room and })leadcd his friend's 
cause. He also stood by a friend Λνΐιο was de- 
fendant in a suit, after having first communicated his 
purpose to the senate ; and he saved his friend, but 
was so far from being angry with the friend's ac- 

^ It Λναβ now a eenutus consuKum, and no longer merely 
senatus aucioritas. 


δί* ορΎης έ'σχ€ καίττβρ ττάνυ TroXXfj τταρρησία 
'χ^ρησάμ€νον, άλλα καΙ εΰθυνόμζνορ iin τοις τρό- 
ΊΓΟΙ^ άφήκεν, είττων αντίκρυ^; ^ ore αναγκαία σφίσιν 
η τταρρησία αυτού hca την των ττοΧλών ττονηριαν 
€Ϊη. άΧλους ye μην βττίβονΧβνειν οΐ μηυνθβντας 

4 €κο\ασ€. και ταμίας ev Τ€ Trj τταραΧία ττ) ττρος 
TTj ττόλβί καΐ iv ίτέροίς τισΐ της Ίταλια? γ^ωρίοις 
άρ-χ€ίν €7Γθίησ€' και τούτο καΐ iirl ττλβιω βτη 

Τότε μεν ουν ουκ ηθεΚησεν ες την ττόΧιν hia τον 

5 του Κρούσου θάνατον, ωσττερ είττον, εσεΧθεΐν, τω 

e εξ7]ς ετεί, εν ω Ασινιος τε 1 άλλος καί 1 αως 
^ίάρκίος ύπάτευσαν, την τε άφιξίν εττοιησατο καΧ 
την Βάφνην ες του Αιος του Φερετρίου τταρα το 

2 νομίζόμενον εσηνε^κε. καΧ αύτος μεν ού^εμιαν 
εττΧ τούτοις εορτην η^α^ε, ττοΧύ ττΧεΐον εν τω του 
Αρουσου οΧεθρω εζημιώσθαί η εν ταΐς νίκαις 
ώφεΧησθαι νομίζων οΐ δε hr) ΰττατοι τά τε άΧΧα 
οσα επΧ τοις τοιούτοις yLyvετat εττοίησαν, καΧ εκ 

3 των αΙγ^μαΧωτων τινας άΧΧήΧοις συνεβαΧον. καΧ 
μετά τουθ^ 6 Aΰyoυστoς, αΐτιαθεντων καΧ εκείνων 
καΧ των αΧΧων αργόντων ως εκ Βεκασμοΰ τίνος 
ά7Γohεhεiy μένων, τούτο μεν ούτε εζηXεy^εv οΰτ^ 
άργην ΤΓ ροσετΓΟίησατο ει^εναί' ούτε yap κοΧάσαι 
Τίνας οΰτ αΰ συyyvώvaL εΧε^γθεΙσίν ηθέλησε• 
τους δε δ^ στΓουΒαρχιώντας 'χρήματα ττρο των 
αρχαιρεσιών ωσττερ τι ενεχυρον ττροητησεν, εττΧ 
τω μη8εν τοιούτο αυτούς ττοιήσαι ή στερηθήναι 

^ auTiKpvs is omitted in Μ, but has been added in the 
margin by an earl}" corrector who indicates its place as 
between ίίττίύν and 'ότι. 



cuscr, tli()u<^li tliis man had inilul<^cd in the; utmost 
frankness in liis speech, tliat later on, when the same 
man appeared before liim, as censor, for a scrutiny 
of his morals, the emperor acquitted iiim, saying 
openly that the other's frankness was necessary 
for the Romans on account of the baseness of the 
majority of them. However, he punished others 
who were reported to be conspiring against him. 
He also caused quaestors to serve along the coast 
near the city and in certain other parts of Italy ; 
and this practice was followed for many years. 

At the time in question he was unwilling, as I 
have stated,^ to enter the city because of Drusus' 
death ; but the next year, when Asinius Gallus and 
(xaius Marcius Avere consuls, he made his formal 
return and carried the laurel, contrary to custom, 
into the temj)le of Jupiter Feretrius. He himself 
did not celebrate any festival in honour of the 
achievements mentioned, feeling that he had lost 
far more in the death of Drusus than he had gained 
in his victories ; but the consuls performed the cere- 
monies usual on such occasions, among other things 
exhibiting combats between some of the captives. 
And later, when both they and the rest of the 
officials were accused of having secured their election 
by bribery, Augustus failed to investigate the matter, 
and furthermore pretended not even to know of it 
at all ; for he Avas unwilling either to punish any of 
them or yet to pardon them if they were convicted. 
In the case of candidates for office, however, he 
demanded of them in advance of the elections a 
deposit of money on the understanding that they 
should forfeit this money in case they resorted to 

^ in chap. "J. 


4 των heho μίνων, και τοντο μβν ττάντες βτττ/νβσαν 
ΟΊΐ δ ουκ e^ov ον SovXov κατά Βεσπότου βασανι- 
σθηναι eKeXevaev, οσάκις αν χρεία τοιούτου τίνος 
'γβνηταί, τω Βημοσίω αύτον ή καΐ βαυτω τηττρά- 
σκβσθαι, όττως ως άΧλοτριος του κρινόμενου ων 
εξετάζηται, οι μεν γτιώντο, οτι ο νόμος ττ) του 
Βεσττότου μεταΧλαγτ} καταΧύεσθαι εμεΧλεν, οι δ* 
avayKatov αύτο εφασκον είναι, οτι ποΧλοΙ δίά 
τούτο καΧ εττ* αύτω εκείνω και εττΐ ταΐς άρχαΐς 

6 Mera 8ε Srj ταύτα την τε η^εμονίαν, καίιτερ 
άφιεις, ως εΧε<γεν, εττεώη τα Βεκα ετη τα δεύτερα 
εζε\η\ύθει, άκων Βήθεν αύθις ύττεστη, καΐ εττ^ 
τους Κ,εΧτούς εστράτευσε. καΐ αύτος μεν εν ttj 
οικεία υττεμεινεν, ο οε όη Ιιρεριος τον νηνον 

2 Βιεβη. φοβηθεντες οΰν αυτούς οι βάρβαροι ττΧην 
των Έ^υ^άμβρων ^ εττεκηρυκεύσαντο, καΐ ούτε τότε 
ετυχον τίνος (ο yap Aΰyoυστoς ουκ εφη σφίσιν 
άνευ εκείνων σττείσεσθαι) οΰθ^ ύστερον, εττεμψαν 

3 μεν yap καϊ οι Έύyaμβpoι ^ ττρεσβεις, τοσούτου 
Βε εΒεησον^ Βιαπράξασθαί τι ώστε και εκείνους 
ττάντας, καϊ ττοΧλούς καϊ εX\oyιμovς οντάς, ττροσ- 
αίΓοΧεσθαΐ' 6 τε yap Aΰyoυστoς συΧλαβων 
αυτούς ες ΊτόΧεις τινάς κατεθετο, καϊ εκείνοι 
Βυσανασχετησαντες εαυτούς κατεχρήσαντο. κάκ 
τούτου χρόνον μεν τίνα ησύχασαν, εττειτ εττΐ 
ΤΓοΧΧω το ττάθημά σφων τοις ^Ρωμαίοις άνταττε- 

^ ^νγάμβρων Bucher, καντάμβρων Μ, καντάβρων U'\ 
' ^νΎαμβροι Reim., σύγγαμβροι Μ and ϋ^. 
"* ^^ίησαν U^, ^ζζ-ηθησαν Μ. 



any illegal methods. This action of liis was approved 
by all ; but it was otherwise with another of his 
laws. As it was not permitted that a slave should 
be tortured for evidence against his master, he 
ordered that, as often as the necessity for such a 
course should arise, the slave should be sold either 
to the state or to him, in order that, being now no 
longer the property of the defendant, he might be 
examined. Some found fault Avith this, on the 
ground that the change of masters would in effect 
nullify the law ; but others declared it to be neces- 
sary, because many \vere taking advantage of the 
old arrangement and conspiring against both the 
emperor himself and the magistrates. 

After this, now that his second period of ten years 
had expired, Augustus once more accepted the 
su])reme power, — though with a show of reluctance, 
— in spite of his oft-expressed desire to lay it down ; 
and he made a campaign against the Germans. He 
himself remained behind in Roman territory, while 
Tiberius crossed the Rhine. Accordingly all the 
barbarians except the Sugambri, through fear of 
them, made overtures of peace ; but they gained 
nothing either at this time, — for Augustus refused 
to conclude a truce with them Λvithout the Sugambri, 
— or, indeed, later. To be sure, the Sugambri also 
sent envoys, but so far were they from accom- 
plishing anything that all these envoys, Λνΐιο were 
both many and distinguished, perished into the 
bargain. For Augustus arrested them and placed 
them in various cities ; and they, being greatly dis- 
tressed at this, took their own lives. The Sugambri 
were thereupon quiet for a time, but later they 
amply requited the Romans for their calamity. 



4 Soaav. ο δ ovv AvyovaTo<; τοΰτό re ovro)<; 
€7Γθίησ€, καί Tot? στρατιώταις άρ^/ύριον, ov)( ώς 
καϊ κβκρατηκόσι, καίτοι το του αντοκράτορο<; 
όνομα καϊ αντος Χαβων καϊ τω Ύιββρίω Βον<;, 
αλλ' οτί. Toif VUlov ev ταΐς ^υμνασίαις τότε 
ττρώτον συνβξεταζόμβνόν σφισιν βαγκόν, βχαρίσατο. 

5 τον δ' οΰν Ύίββριον €9 την του αύτοκράτορος 
άρχ^ην άντΙ του Αρούσου ττ poayayoov ttj τε βττί- 
κΚ,ησβι eKeivT] βγαυρωσβ κα\ ΰττατον αυθι^ airk- 
Sei^e, γράμματα τε κατά το άργαΐον βθος, καϊ 
ττρίν €9 την αρ'χ^ην εσβΧθεΐν, εκθεϊναι ττρος το 
KOLVOV ετΓοίησε, καϊ προσέτι καϊ toU εττινικίοίς 

6 εσεμνυνεν αύτος yap εκείνα μεν ουκ ηθεΧησε 
ττεμψαι, ε<ζ 8ε Βη τα ^ενεθΧια ίπττοΒρομίαν aiSiov 
εΧαβε. τά τε του ττωμηρίον όρια εττηύξησε, καϊ 
τον μήνα ^ τον ^εζτίΧιον εττικαΧούμενον Αιίγου- j 

7 στον άντωνόμασε' των yap αΧΧων τον Σετττε/ι- ' 
βριον ούτως, εττειΒηττερ εν αύτω εyεyεvvητo, 
7Γpoσayopευσaι εθεΧησάντων εκείνον αύτοϋ ττρο- 
ετίμησεν, οτι καϊ ΰττατος εν αύτω το ττρώτον 
άττεΒεΒεικτο καϊ /χαχα9 ττολλάς καϊ μεyάXa<ζ 

7 ΈτγΙ μεν οΰν τούτοις εyaυpoΰτo, του Βε Βη 
Μαικήνου τέΧευτησαντος ηXyησε. ττοΧΧα μεν j 
yap καϊ άΧΧα αττ' αύτου άττώνητο, όθεν καίττερ ' 
ίτΓττεΐ αύτω οντι καϊ το άστυ εττϊ ττοΧύν 'χ^ρόνον 
εττετρε'^ε, μάΧιστα Βε οσάκις άκρατοτέρω τω 
θυμω ε'χ^ρήτο' της τε yap 6pyής αύτον άεϊ ~ τταρε- 

2 Χυε καϊ ες το ήττιώτερον μεθίστη. τεκμηριον Βε, 
Βικάζοντί ττοτε αύτω ττροσστάς, καϊ ΙΒων οτι 

* μήνα R. Steph., μ^ν μήνα Μ. 

" ael omitted by Μ, but added in margin by early corrector, 



Besides doing this, Augustus granted money to b.c. 8 
the soldiers, not as to victors, thougli lie himself 
had taken the title of hnperator and had also con- 
ferred it upon Tiberius, but because then for the 
first time they had Gaius taking j)art with them in 
their exercises. So he advanced Tiberius to the 
position of commander in place of Drusus, and 
besides distinguishing him with the title of imper- 
ator, appointed him consul once more, and in 
accordance with the ancient practice caused him 
to post up a proclamation before entering upon the 
office. He also accorded him the distinction of a 
triumph ; for he did not wish to celebrate one him- 
self, though he accepted the privilege of having his 
birthday permanently commemorated by Circensian 
games. He enlarged the pomerium and changed the 
name of the month called Sextilis to August. The 
people generally Avanted September to be so named, 
because he had been born in that month ; but he 
[)referred the other month in Λvhich he had first 
been elected consul and had won many great 
battles. 1 

All these things filled him with pride ; but he was 
grieved at the death of Maecenas. He had received 
many benefits at his hands, for which reason he had 
entrusted him, though but a knight, with the over- 
sight of the city for a long period ; but he had found 
him of especial service on occasions >vhen his ΟΛνη 
temper was more or less uncontrollable. For 
Maecenas Avould always banish his anger and bring 
him to a gentler frame of mind. Here is an in- 
stance. Maecenas once came upon him as he was 
holding court, and seeing that he was on the point 

' Cf. Suet., Any. 31. 



ΤΓοΧλούς θανατώσβιν μβΧΧοι, έτΓΕ'χ^βίρησβ μεν 
Βιωσασθαί τους 7Γ€ρί€στηκοτα<; και εγγυ? οΐ 
ττροσέλθβΐν, μη Βυνηθεί^ δβ eypayjrev e? 'γραμ- 
ματβΐον " άνάστηθί η8η ττοτε, Βήμιβ,' και αύτο 
ώ? καΐ 6Τ€ρόν τι eyov βς τον κυΧττον αύτον 
eppiyfrev, ώστ i/ceivov μήτ άττοκτβΐναί τίνα καϊ Ι 

3 ενθνς βξαναστηναι. ου yap οττωο η^ανάκτβι τοις 
τοιοντοις, άΧλ,α καϊ β'χαιρεν οτι 'όσα αύτος υπό re 
της iavTov φύσεως καϊ ύττο της των ττρα'^/μάτων 
άνά'γκης καϊ τταρα το προσήκον ίθυμοΰτο, ταύτα 

4 ΤΎ} των φίΧων ιταρρησία Βίωρθοντο. μβΎΐστον δ' 
ονν καϊ εκείνο της του 1\\αικηνου αρετής Βεΐ'γμα 
ην, ότι τω τε Αύ<γούστω, καίτοι ττρός τας όρμας 
αύτοΰ άνθιστάμενος, ωκείωτο καϊ τοις άΧλοις 
ττάσιν ηρεσκετο, ττΧεΐστόν τε τταρ αύτω Βυνηθείς, 
ώστε ΤΓοΧλ,οΐς καϊ τιμάς καϊ αργίας δούναι, ουκ ϊ 
εξεφρόνησεν άΧΚα εν ^ τω των ίτΓΤτεων τεΧει κατε- 

5 βίω. τούτων τε οΰν ένεκα ισχ^υρώς αυτόν 6 
Αύγουστος εττόθησε, καϊ Οτι και κΧηρονόμον 
αυτόν, καίιτερ εττΐ τη ^υναικί ΒυσκοΧαίνων, κατε- 
Χιπε, και εττ αύτω ττΧην εΧαγιστων εττοιήσατο 
αν τε τινι των φίΧων αυτού Βούναι τι εθεΧηση αν 
τε καϊ μη. τοιούτος μεν ο Μ.αικ7ίνας ε^ενετο, καϊ 

6 οΰτω τω Κύ^ούστω εχ^ρήτο' ττρώτος τε κοΧυμ- 
βηθραν θερμού ύΒατος εν τη ττόΧει κατεσκεύασε, 
και ττρωτος σημεία τίνα γραμμάτων ττρος τάχο? 

^ 4ρ supplied by Reim. (and so Zon. cod. B). 


of condemning many people to death, he attempted b.c. 
to push his way through the bystanders and get 
near him. When he was unable to do this, he 
wrote on a tablet, " Pray rise at last, executioner ! " 
Then he threw the tablet into the lap of Augustus, 
as if it contained some indifferent matter, and the 
emperor imposed no death sentences, but arose and 
de})arted. Indeed, he not only was not dis})leased at 
such liberties, but was actually glad of them, because 
whenever he Avas led into unseemly outbursts of 
passion by his natural disposition or by the stress of 
liis afi'airs, these were corrected by the frank speech 
of his friends. This also was a supreme proof of 
Maecenas' excellence, that he not only made himself 
liked by Augustus, in spite of resisting his impulsive- 
ness, but also pleased everybody else, and though lie 
had the greatest influence with the emperor, so that 
he bestowed ofKces and honours upon many men, 
yet he did not lose his poise, but was content to 
remain in the equestrian order to the end of his life. 
Not only for these reasons, then, did Augustus regret 
his loss exceedingly, but also because Maecenas, 
although vexed at the emperor's relations Avith his 
wife, had left him as his heir and had empowered 
him to disjwse of all his property, with very feΛv 
reservations, in case he wished to make gifts to any 
of his friends or otherwise. Such was the character 
of Maecenas and such was his treatment of Augustus. 
He was the first to construct a swimming-pool of 
warm water in the city, and also the first to devise 
a system of symbols to give speed in writing,^ and 

^ This invention is usually asciibed to Tiro, Cicero's 
freed man ; and Aquila is said to have made improvements 
upon his system. 



e^eOpe, καί αύτα Bia ΑκύΧου άττέΧζυθίρου συ- 

8 Ύίβεριος Se ev rfj νουμηνια iv rj vwareveiv μ€τά 
Tvaiov ΐΙΙσωρο^; ηρζατο 69 τε το ^Οκταονίαον ^ 
την βουΧην ηθροισε Sia το βζω του πωμηρίον 

2 αντο eivat, καΐ το Όμονόβίον αύτος βαυτω eVi- 
σκαυάσαι ττροστάζα^, οττω? το τε iSiop καί το του 
Αρουσου όνομα αυτω iTriypd^r), τά τε νικητήρια 
η'γα'γε καϊ το τεμενισμα το Alovlov ωνομασμενον 
καθιέρωσε μετά της μητρόν κα\ αυτός μεν την 
'^ερουσιαν εν τω Καττίτωλιω, εκείνη hk τας ^υναΐ- 

3 κας ΙΒία τΓου είστίασε. και ου ττοΧλω ύστερον 
κινηθεντων τινών εν τη Τ ερ μανία εξωρμηθη' την 
Βε Βη ττανη'γυρίν την ύττερ της εττανοΒου του 
Αύ'γουστου <γενομενην ο Γαιος αντ αυτού συν τω 
ΐΐίσωνι Βιεθηκε. τό τε πεδίον το Ά'γρίττττειον, 
ττΧην της στοάς, και το Βιριβιτώριον ^ αύτος 6 

4 Αΰ<γουστος εΒημοσίευσε. τούτο μεν yap (ην Βε 
οίκος μέγιστος των ττώττοτε μιαν οροφην σ-χόντων 
νύν yap Βη ττάσης της στεyης αυτού καθαιρε- 
θείσης, οτι ουκ ηΒυνηθη αύθις συστηναι, αγανης 
εστίν) 6 τε Άγ/ο/,ττττα? οΙκοΒομούμενον κατεΧιττε, 
καϊ τότε συνετεΧεσθη' η Βε εν τω ττεΒίω στοά, ην 
η Πώλλα η άΒεΧφη αυτού ή καϊ τους Βρόμονς 

5 Βιακοσμήσασα εττοίει, ούΒεττω έξείpyaστo. καν 
τούτω καϊ αΐ^ εττιτάφιοι εττΐ τω WypiTrTra οττΧο- 
μαχ^ίαι, φαιαν εσθήτα των τε αΧΧων ττΧην του 
Aύyoύστoυ και αυτών τών υΐεων αυτού Χαβόντων, 

^ Ό.,ταονί^ιοι/ Dind., οκταούιον Μ. 
^ Zip βιτώρ.ον Bk., Ζ^ιριβιτώριον λΐ. 
^ at Dind., οί Μ. 


BOOK \y 

he used Aquila, a freednian^ to train a considerable b.<. 8 
number in the system. 

Ti))erius on the first day of the year in vvliich he was f*•^• ' 
consul with Gnaeus Piso convened the senate in the 
Curia Octaviae, because it was outside the pomerium. 
After assigning• to himself tiie duty of repairing the 
temple of Concord, in order that he might inscribe 
upon it his own name and that of Drusus, he cele- 
brated his triumph, and in company with his mother 
dedicated the precinct called the precinct of Livia. 
He gave a banquet to the senate on the Capitol, and 
she gave one on her own account to the women 
somewhere or other. A little later, when tliere was 
some disturbance in the province of Germany, he 
took the field. The festival held in honour of the 
return of Augustus was directed by Gaius, in place 
of 'J'iberius, with the assistance of Piso. The Cam- 
j)us Agrippae and the Diribitorium were made public 
property by Augustus himself. The Diribitorium 
was the largest building under a single roof ever 
constructed;^ indeed, now that the whole covering 
has been destroyed, the edifice is wide open to 
the sky, since it could not be put together again. 
Agrippa had left it still in process of construction, 
and it was completed at this time. The })ortico in 
the Campus, however, which was being built by 
Polla, Agrip})a's sister, who also adorned the race- 
courses, was not yet finished. Meanwhile the 
funeral combats in honour of Agrip})a were given, all 
except Augustus i)utting on black clothing and even 
Agripj)a's sons doing the same. There were not 

' The Diribitorium was used for the sorting {dirihere) of 
the ballots used in voting. Phny {Kat. Hist. xvi. 201 and 
xxxvi. 102) speaks of its remarkable roof ; this was destroyed 
by fire in SO a.o. (cf. Dio, Ixvi. 24). 



fcal €v6<i 7rpb<; eva και ττΧείόνων 7rp6<; 'ίσους, iv τοΐς 
σέτΓτοίς 8ίά re την e? τον AypLTTTrav τιμήν καΐ 8ίά 
το ΤΓολλα των irepl την ayopav οΙκοΕομημύτων κε- 

6 καυσθαι, eyevovTO. καΐ το μεν του ττυρος αίτιον 
€9 τους 'χρβωφβίΧας άνεφέρετο, ως καΐ επίτηδες 
αυτό τταρασκευάσαντας Ίν άττοκόψωσί τι των 
χρεών, συχνά Βόξαντες εζημι6)σθαι• ετυχον Βε 
εκείνοι μεν ούΒενός, οί δε hrj στενωποί εττιμεΧητων 
τίνων εκ του 8ημου, ους καΐ στενωττάρχους καΧοϋ- 

7 μεν και σφισι καΐ τύ) εσθήτι τη αρχική καΐ 
ραβΒούχοις 8ύο, εν αύτοίς τοις χωρίοις ων αν 
άρχωσιν, ήμεραις τισΐ χρησθαι iSo07], η τε Βου- 
Χεία η τοις άyopavoμoις των εμπιμττραμενων 
ένεκα συνοΰσα εττετράττη, καίτοι καΐ εκείνων κα\ 
των Βημάρχων των τε στpaτηyωv ττάσαν την 
ττόΧιν, Βεκατεσσαρα ^ μ^ρν νεμηθεΐσαν, κΧηρω 
ΊΤ ροσταχθ εντων ο καΐ νυν yίyvετaι. 

9 Ύοσαΰτα μεν εν τω ετει τούτίρ εττράχθη' εν yap 
δ?7 τη Τερμανία ούΒεν άξιον μνήμης συνέβη' τω 
Βε υστερώ, εν φ Τάιός τε Αντιστιος καϊ ΑαίΧιος 
ΈάΧβος ύττάτευσαν, ΙΒων 6 Aΰyoυστoς τον τε 
Τάιον καΐ τον Αούκιον αυτούς τε μη ττάνυ, οΙα εν 
ήyεμovίa τρεφόμενους, τα εαυτού ήθη ζηΧουντας 
{ου yap οτι άβρότερον SiPjyov, άΧΧα καϊ εθρα- 
σύνοντο' ες yodv το θεατρόν ττοτε καθ^ εαυτόν 

2 ό Αούκιος εσήΧθε) καϊ ττρος ττάντων των εν τη 
^ ζ€κατ4σσαρα R. Steph., $€κατ4σσ€ρα Μ. 


only combats between single champions but also b.c. 7 
between grou|)s of equal numbers on either side ; 
and they were held in the Saepta both as an honour 
to A<;rippa and because many of the structures 
around the Forum had been burned. The blame 
for the fire was laid upon the debtor class, who 
were suspected of having contrived it on purpose, 
in order that they might have some of their debts 
remitted when they ap})eared to have lost heavily. 
They, for their part, however, gained nothing from 
the fire ; but the streets were put in charge of 
supervisors, chosen from the people, whom λ\■e call 
street commissioners.^ These men were allowed 
to use the official dress and two lictors, but only in 
the regions under their administration and on certain 
days, and they were given control over the force of 
slaves which had previously been associated with 
the aediles to save buildings that caught fire. The 
aediles, however, together with the tribunes and 
praetors, were still assigned by lot to have charge 
of the whole city, which was divided into fourteen 
wards. This is also the present arrangement. 

These were all events of that year, for nothing 
worthy of mention happened in Germany. The next b.c. g 
year, in which Gains Antistius and Laelius Balbus 
were consuls, Augustus was vexed when he saw that 
(laius and Lucius were by no means inclined of 
their own choice to emulate his own conduct, as 
became young men who were being reared as mem- 
bers of the imperial house. They not only indulged 
in too great luxury in their lives, but Λvere also 
inclined to insolence ; for example, Lucius on one 
occasion entered the theatre unattended. They 

^ Curatores viarum. 

vol.. VI. 1) I) 


ΤΓϋλβί, τα μίν '^/vOj^lt] τα oe θβραττβία, κοΚακευο- 
μενου^} κάκ τούτον ere και μάΧΧον θρυιττομενου<;^ 
(τα τε 'yap aWa καΐ ΰττατον τον Γάιον μη^^ 
€9 έφηβου^; ττω τελούντα ιτροβ'χβίρίσαντο '^), ψ/α- 
νάκτησε, και ττροσεττηυζατο μ.ηδεμίαν τοιαντην 
καιρών άνά'-γκην οττοία ιτοτε "^ αύτον κατεΧαβε 
'γενέσθαι, ώστε τίνα νεώτερον είκοσιετούς ύττα- 

ο τευσαι. εττειΒη τε καϊ ώ? ενεκειντό οι, τότε εφηχ^ρη- 
ναί Τίνα την άρχ^ην ταύτην Χαμβάνειν, όταν μήτε 
τι αντο<; άμαρτάνειν καΐ ταΐς τον 8-ημον σττονΒαΐς 

4 άνθίστασθαι δννηται. και μετά τονθ' Ιερωσννην 
μεν τίνα αντω καϊ την ες το σννε8ριον σνμφοίτησιν 
το τε σννθεάσθαι καϊ το σννεστιάσθαι ττ) βονΧτ} 
έδωκε' βονΧηθεΙς δε 8η τρόπον'^ τινα^ μάΧΧον 
αντον^ί σωφρονισαι, τω Ύιβερίω την τε εξονσίαν 
την Βημαρχικην ε<; ιτεντε ετη ενειμε^ καϊ την 
^ Κρμενίαν άΧΧοτ ριον μενην μετά τον τον Ύτ/ράνον 

Γ) θάνατον ττροσετα^ε.' σννεβη δ' αντω και εκείνοι^; 
καϊ τω Ύιβεριω μάτην ττροσκρονσαι, τοις μεν οτι 
τταρεωράσθαι εδοζαν, τω δε οτι την opyrjv αντών 
εφοβηθη. άμεΧει καϊ ες ^ΡόΒον ώς καϊ τταώεν- 
σεώς τίνος δεομενος εστάΧη, μητ άΧΧονς τινάς 
μητε την θεραττείαν ττασαν επα<^/όμενος, 'ίν εκ- 
τΓοΒών σφισι καϊ τη όψει και τοις ερ'γοις yεvητaι. 

6 καϊ την τε 6Βον ιδιωτικώς εττοιησατο, ττΧην καθ^ 

^ κολακ€υομ4νου5, θρυιηομίνου5 Pflugk, κο\ακΐυ6μίνο$, θρυντό- 
μ^νοί Μ. 

- Ίτρο^χ^ιρίσαντο Rk. , προ^χαρίσατο ΛΙ. 

^ τΓοτέ Xiph. , τότε Μ. 

•* Between τρό-πον and (''A)pei (chap. 10, 2) two folios iiave 
been lost in M. The text here given is a combination of the 
epitomes of Zon., Xiph., and the Excerpta Valesiana (see 
Introd. to Vol. I. xviii ff. ). 



were being flattered by everybody in the city, some- b.c. β 
times sincerely and sometimes to curry favour, and 
consequently were being• spoiled more and more. 
Among other things of this sort, the people had 
elected Gains consul before he was as yet of military 
age. All this, as I have said, vexed Augustus, and 
he even prayed that no compelling circumstances 
might arise, as had once oecurred in his own case, 
such as to recpiire that a man less than twenty 
years old should become consul. When even so the 
])eople insisted, he then said that one ought not to 
receive the office until one was able not only to 
avoid error oneself but also to resist the ardent im• 
pulses of the })oj)ulace. After that he gave Gains a 
priesthood and also the right to attend the meetings 
of the senate and to behold spectacles and be 
present at banquets with that body. And wishing 
in some way to bring Gaius and Lucius to their senses 
still more sharply, he bestowed upon Tiberius the 
tribunician power for five years, and assigned to him 
Armenia, which was becoming estranged since the 
death of 'J'igranes. The result was that he need- 
lessly offended not only his grandsons but Tiberius as 
well ; for the former felt they had been slighted, and 
Tiberius feared their anger. At any rate he was 
sent to Rhodes on the pretext that he needed in- 
cidentally a bit of instruction ; and he did not even 
take his entire retinue, to say nothing of friends, 
the object being that (iaius and Lucius should be 
relieved both of the sight of him and of his doings. 
He made the journey as a private citizen, though he 

' riva sui)i)licd by scribe of L•'. 

^ (ΐ>€ΐμ€ Xi})li., aTTeVei/ue Zon. 

' προσ(ταζ( Kk., προσηξ( Xiph., προσίκλτιρωσίΡ Zoii. 

η D 2 


όσον τούν ΤΙαρίονζ το τη<ζ Εστίας ά'γαΧμα ττω- 
Χησαί οι 'ηvά'yκaσev, 6πω<ζ iv τω Ομονοβίω 
ίΒρυθτ}' και βς την νήσον έΧθων oucev Ο'^/κηρον 

7 οΰτ6 βττραττεν οΰτβ eXeyev. η μβν ούν άΧη- ] 
^εστάτ/; αίτια της βκΒημίας αύτου τοιαύτη^ εστί, 
Xoyov Se τίνα έ'χβί καΐ Sia την γυναίκα την 
^ΙουΧιαν, ότι μηκετ^ αύτην φερειν ehvvaTO, τούτο 
ττοίήσαΐ' κατεΧίττε ηουν αύτην iv ttj Ρώμη. οι 
Be βφασαν 'χαΧεττηναι αύτον οτί μη κα\ Καίσαρ 
άττεΒβί'χ^θϊ] οί δε ύττ αυτού του Α,ύ^ούστου ώ? και 
τοις τταίσΐν αύτου εττιβουΧεύοντα εκβΧηθηναι. 

8 οτί μεν yap οΰτ€ παιδείας ένεκα οΰτ άβουΧησας 
τα SeSoyμεva άπεΒημησε, ΒήΧον εκ τε των άΧΧων 
ων μετά ταύτα εττραζε, καΐ εκ τού τα? Βίαθηκας 
αύτον ευθύς τότε "^ καΐ Χύσαι καϊ ττ) μητρί τω τε 
Aύyoύστω civayvcovai, iy ενετό• κατεικάζετο ττάνθ^ 
οσα eVeSexero.— Xiph. 100, 18-30, Exc. Λ^ 177 
(p. 662 sq.), Zon. 10, 35. 

9 1ω ο εφεξής ετει οωοεκατον υττατευων ο Αυ- • 
yovστoς εις τους εφήβους τον Ταίον έταξε καϊ 
ες το βουΧευτηρίον άμα εlσήyayε καϊ πρόκριτον 
άττεφηνε της νεότητος ΙΧαρ^όν τε φυΧής yεveσθaL 
εττετρεψε. — Zon. 10, 35. 

10 Κ.αΙ /χ€τ' ενιαυτον καϊ 6 Αούκίος τας τιμάς 
οσαι τω Ταίω τω άΒεΧώώ αυτού εΒεΒοντο εΧαβεν. 
άθροισθεντος 8ε τού 8ήμου καϊ εττανορθωθ P]vai 
Τίνα άξιούντος καϊ τους Βημάρχ^ους Sea τούτο 
προς τον Aΰyoυστov ττέμψαντος, ήΧθεν εκείνος 
καϊ ττερί ων εΒέοντο σφίσι, συνΒιεσκεψατο' καϊ 
εττϊ τούτω^ ησθησαν άπαντες. — Ζοη. 10, 35. 

^ τοιαύτη cod. Peir. , τοίάδε Υ&Ι. 

"^ τ6τ^ Val., Tt) TuTe cod. Peir. ^ τούτω ABC'^, τούτο Ε. 




exercised his autliority by compelling the Parians to b.c. 6 
sell him the statue of Vesta, in order that it might be 
placed in the temple of Concord; and when he reached 
Rhodes, he refrained from haughty conduct in both 
word and deed. This is the truest explanation or 
his journey abroad, though there is also a story that 
he took this course on account of his wife Julia, 
because he could no longer endure her ; at any rate, 
she was left behind in Rome. Others said that he 
was angry at not having been designated as Caesar, 
and yet others that he was expelled by Augustus 
himself, on the ground that he Λvas {)lotting against 
Augustus' sons. But that his departure was not for 
the sake of instruction nor because he was displeased 
at the decrees passed, became plain from many of 
his subsequent actions, and particularly by his open- 
ing his will immediately at that time and reading 
it to his mother and Augustus. But all possible 
conjectures were made. 

The following year Augustus in the course of his b.c. δ 
tAvelfth consulship placed Gains among the youths 
of military age, and at the same time introduced him 
into the senate, declared him princeps iuventnfis, and 
permitted him to become commander of a division of 

And after the lapse of a year Lucius also obtained b.c. 2 
all the honours that had been granted to his brother 
Gains. On one occasion, when the people had 
gathered together and were asking that certain 
reforms be instituted and had sent the tribunes to 
Augustus for this purpose, the emperor came and 
consulted with them about their demands ; and at 
this all were pleased. 



10 ο 3e Αύγουστος το τοΟ σίτοΒοτουμύνου ^ ττΧή- 
Θος αόριστον ον e? είκοσι μυριά8α<^ κατ€κ\€ίσ€, 
κα\ ώ? 7^' TLve<; Χί^ουσι, καθ^ eva εξηκοντα 
Βραχ^μας εδω/^ε. — Xiph. 100, 30—101, 1. 

1* Ώ? ή Αύγουστου ά-^/ορα καθιερωθη. — Index to 
Bk. LV. 1. 6. 

1^ Ώ? ό ToO "Α/)€ω9 ναο'ζ ό ev avrfj ων καθιερώθη. 
—Index to Bk. LV. 1. 7. 

2 ... "A/36t," εαυτόν 8ε καΐ τους ε'^/^όνους, οσάκις 
αν εθεΧησωσι, τους τε εκ των τταί^ων εξιόντας 
καΐ ες τους εφήβους εyypaφoμεvoυς εκεΐσε ττάντως 
άφίκνεΐσθαι, καΐ τους επΙ τας άρχ^άς τάς εκ8ήμους 

3 στεΧλομενους εκείθεν άφορμάσθαι, τάς τε "^/νώμας 
τας περί των νικητήριων εκεί την βουΧην ττοι- 
εΐσθαι, και τους ττεμψαντας αυτά τω "Αρει τούτω 
και το σκητττρον και τον στεφανον άνατιθεναι, 
καΐ εκείνους τε καΐ τους άλΧους τους τάς εττι- 
νικίους τιμάς Χαμβάνοντας εν ττ} ayopa 'χ^αΧκοϋς 

4 Ιστασθαι, αν τε ττοτε σημεία στρατιωτικά ες 
ΤΓοΧεμίους άΧόντα άνακομισθτ], ες τον ναον αυτά 
τίθεσθαι, καΐ ιτανή^υρίν τίνα ττρος τοις άνα- 
βασμοΐς αυτού ύττο των άεΐ ιΧαργούντων ^ ττοι- 
είσθαι, ηΧον τε αύτω υπο των τιμητευσάντων 

5 ττροσττή^νυσθαι, και την τε τταράσγεσιν των 
ϊτΓττων των ες την ίττττοΒρομίαν ά^ωνιουμενων 

^ σίτοΖοτουμίνου L', σιτοδουμίΐΌυ VC. 

- "Apei Morell, pet Λ1. 

^ Ιλαρχούρτων Bk., ζΐλαρχούρτων Μ. 



Augustus limited the number of i)eoj)le to l)e sup- b.c. 2 
plied with grain, a number not [)re\ iously fixed, to 
two hundred thousand ; and, as some say, he distri- 
buted a largess of sixty denarii to each man. 
[ΗοΛν tlie Forum of Augustus was dedicated.] 
[How the Temple of Mars tiierein was dedicated.] 
... to Mars, and that he himself and his grand- 
sons should go there as often as they wished, while 
those Avho were passing from the class of boys and 
were being enrolled among the youths of military 
age should invariably do so ; that those who were 
sent out to commands abroad should make that their 
starting-point ; that the senate should take its votes 
there in regard to the granting of trinmj)hs, and that 
the victors after celebrating them should dedicate 
to this Mars their sceptre and their crown ; that 
such victors and all others who received triumphal 
honours should have their statues in bronze erected 
in the Forum ; tliat in case military standards cap- 
tured by the enemy were ever recovered they should 
be placed in the temple ; that a festival should be 
celebrated beside the steps of the tem})le by the 
cavalry commanders of each year ; ^ that a nail should 
be driven into it by the censors at the close of their 
terms ; '^ and that even senators should have the 
right of contracting to sn])[)ly the horses that were 
to comj)ete in the Circensian games, and also to take 

^ The seviri equitum. 

- This custom is not elsewhere reconled in the case of the 
censors. In early times a nail was driven each 3'ear into the 
side of the cclla of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, for 
the purpose of keeping official count of the years. After the 
practice had lapsed for a time, it Avas again revived on the 
occasion of great disasters or dangers, as a propitiatory rite, 
and a dictator was sometimes chosen for this sole purpose in 
the absence of both consuls. 



και την του ναον φνΧακην και βουΧβνταΐς ipyo- 
Χαβεΐν βζεΐναί, καθάττερ eiri re του ΆττόλΧωζ/ος 
καΐ eVl τοΐ) Δίο? του ΚαττίτωΧίου Ενενομοθετητο. 

6 ΈττΙ μεν τούτο ΐ'^ το μεηαρον εκείνο ό Αύγουστο? 
εθείωσε, καίτοι τω τε Vatoi καΐ τώ Αουκίω ττάντα 
καθάτταζ τα τοιαύτα Ιερουν εττιτρεψα^ ύττατικτ/ 
τινι cipxy κατά το τταΧαιον 'χ^ρωμενοις. καΐ την 
7e ΙτΓΤΓοΒρομίαν αύτοΙ τότε Βιεθεσαν, την τε 
Ύροίαν καΧουμενην οι 7ταΐΒε<; οι πρώτοι μετά του 

7 ^Α'γρίτΓΤΓου του άΒεΧφου αυτών ^ ΐττττευσαν. και 
Χεοντες εζηκοντα και διακόσιοι εν τω ΙτττΓοΒρόμω 
εσφάγισαν. οττΧομαχ^ία τ ε εν τοις σετττοίς και 
ναυμαχία εν τω χωρίω εν ω και νυν ετι σ^ημεΐά 
τίνα αυτής Βείκνυται ΤΙερσών καΐ ^Αθηναίων 
ετΓΟίηθη' ταύτα yap τα ονόματα τοις ναυμαχουσιν 

8 ετέθη, καΐ ενικών καΐ τότε οΐ Αθηναίοι, και μετά, 
τούτο ες τε τον ΦΧαμίνιον ιτητό^ρομον ΰΒωρ 
εσηχθη, καΐ εν αύτω κροκόΖειΧοι - εξ και τριά- 
κοντα κατεκοττησαν. ου μεντοι καΐ Sia ττασών 
τών ημερών τούτων ο Αύγουστος ύττάτευσεν, 
άΧΧ ετΓ oXiyov άρζας άΧΧω το όνομα της ύττατείας 

9 Ιω μεν ουν Αρει ταυτ εy ενετό, αυτω οε οή τω 
Aύyoύστω aya>v τε ιερός εν Νεα ττόΧει ^ τ^ Κα/χ- 
Travihi, Xόyω μεν οτι κακωθεΐσαν αύτην και ύττο 
σεισμού και υττο ττυρος άνεΧαβεν, το δ' άΧηθες 
εττειΒη τα τών ^ΚΧΧηνων μόνοι τών ττροσχώρων 

10 τρότΓον τίνα εζηΧουν, εψηφίσθη, καΐ ή εττωνυμία 
ή του ττατρος ακριβώς ε86θη' lΓpoτεpovyap αΧΧως 

^ αυτών Morelli, αύτον ΛΙ. 

~ κροκόδειλοι R. Steph., κορκόο^ιλοι Μ. 

' Nea TToAet Bk., ycanoXei Λί. 



general charge of the temple, just as had been pro- b.c. 2 
vided by law in the case of the temples of Aj)ollo 
and of Jupiter Capitolinus. 

These matters settled, Augustus dedicated this 
temple of Mars, although he had granted to Gains 
and Lucius once for all the right to consecrate all 
such buildings by virtue of a kind of consular 
authority that they exercised in the time-honoured 
manner. And they did, in fact, have the manage- 
ment of the Circensian games on this occasion, while 
their brother Agrippa took part along with the boys 
of the first families in the equestrian exercise called 
"Troy." Two hundred and sixty lions Λvere slaugh- 
tered in the Circus. There was a gladiatorial combat 
in the Saepta, and a naval battle between the 
" Persians" and the ^^ Athenians" Avas given on the 
spot where even to-day some relics of it are still 
pointed out. These, it will be understood, were the 
names given to the contestants ; and the ^"Athenians " 
prevailed as of old. Afterwards Λvater was let into 
the Circus Flaminius and thirty-six crocodiles were 
there slaughtered. Augustus, however, did not serve 
as consul during all these days, but after holding office 
for a short time, gave the title of the consulship to 

These Avere the celebrations in honour of Mars. 
To Augustus himself a sacred contest ^ was voted in 
Neapolis, the Campanian city, nominally because he 
had restored it when it Avas prostrated by earthquake 
and fire, but in reality because its inhabitants, alone 
of the Campanians, tried in a manner to imitiite the 
customs of the Greeks. He also was given the strict 
right to the title of "Father" ; for hitherto he had 

' Cf. 11. 1, 2. 



av€V ψηφίσματο<; βττβφημίζετο. και μέντοι και 
εττα/ρχου? των δορυφόρων rare ττρωτον Κ^ύιντόν re 
^Οστώριον ^κατΓούλαν καΐ TVovttXlov ^άΧουιον 
"Αττρον άττεΒβίζβν οντω yap τοί αυτούς κα\ εγώ 
μόνους των βιταρχοντων τίνος, άπείΒήττβρ βκνβνί- 

11 κηκβν, ονομάζω, έττοίησε μ€ν οΰν καΐ 6 ΤΙυΧάΒης 
6 ορ-χηστης ττανη^υρίν τίνα, ουκ αύτος 'χ^βιρουρ- 
^ησας are και υττίρ^ηρως ων, ά\\α ττ} re σκβυτ) 
TTj άρ'χ^ίκτ} καΐ τοις άναΧώμασιν, βττοίησε Se καϊ 
}ζ.υίντος }ζ.ρισ7ΓΪνος στρατηγός. Xeyo) Se ου τούτο 
αλλ' οτί dvSpeς re ίττττής καϊ ^υναΙκ€ς ουκ αφα- 
νείς ες την 6ρ'χ^7]στραν eir αυτού εσηγθησαν. 

12 άλλα ταύτα μεν ev ούΒενΙ λόγω 6 Aΰyoυστoς 
ετίθετο, την 8ε 8η ^ΙουΧίαν την θυyaτεpa άσεΧ- 
yaivoυσav ούτως ώστε καϊ εν τη ayopa καϊ eV* 
αυτού yε τού βήματος καϊ κωμάζειν νύκτωρ 
καϊ συμττίνειν οψε ττοτε φωράσας ύπεpωpyίσθη. 

13 κατείκαζε μεν yap καϊ ττρότερον ουκ ορθώς αύτην 
βίούν, ου μεντοί καϊ ετηστευεν οΐ yap τοι τας 
ηyεμovίaς εχ^οντες πάντα μάΧΧον ή τα σφετερα 
yιyvωσκoυσι, και ουτ αυτοί τι τους συναντάς 
ων ΤΓΟίούσι Χανθάνουσιν ούτε τα εκείνων άκρι- 
α βούσι. τότε δ' οΰν μαθών τα ττραττόμενα τοσού- 

τ(ύ θυμώ εγ^ρήσατο ώστε μη^* οϊκοι αύτα ^ κατα- 
σ'χειν άλλα κα\ τη yεpoυσLa κοίνώσαι. κάκ 
τούτον εκείνη μεν ες Τ1αν8ατερίαν την ττρος 
Κ^αμπανία^ νήσον ύττερωρίσθη, καϊ αύτη καϊ ι) 

^ αυτά Rk., avrhv Μ, avThu cod. Peir. Xiph. 
- Καμττανία Xiph., καμ-ττανίαν Μ. 

4 ΙΟ 


merely been addressed by that title without the 
formality of a decree. Moreover, he now for the 
first time appointed two prefects over the Praetorians,^ 
Quintus Ostorius Scapula and Publius Salvius Aper, 
— for I, too, apply this name "prefect" solely to 
them, of all who exercise a similar office, inasmuch as 
it has won its way into general use. Pylades, the 
dancer, gave a festival, though he did not perform 
any of the work himself, since he was very old, but 
merely wore the insignia of office and provided the 
cost of the entertainment ; and the praetor Quintus 
Crisj)inus also gave one. 1 mention this only because 
it was on this occasion that knights and women of 
distinction were brought upon the stage. Of this, 
hoΛvever, Augustus took no account ; but Avhen he 
at length discovered that his daughter Julia was so 
dissolute in her conduct as actually to take part in 
revels and drinking bouts at night in the Forum and 
on the very rostra, he became exceedingly angry. 
He had surmised even before this time that she was 
not leading a straight life, but refused to believe it. 
For those who hold positions of command, it appears, 
are acquainted with everything else better than with 
their own affairs ; and although their own deeds do 
not escape the knowledge of their associates, they 
have no ])recise information regarding Avhat their as- 
sociates do. In the present instance, when Augustus 
learned what was going on, he gave Avay to a rage so 
violent that he could not keep the matter to himself, 
but went so far as to connnunicate it to the senate. 
As a result Julia was banished to the island of Pan- 
dateria,2 lying off' Campania, and her mother Scribonia 

' Praefecti praeforio. 

" The modern Ventotene, between the Ponza islands and 



15 ^κριβωνία rj μητηρ βκουσα συνεξίττΧευσβ' των 
δε Ζη 'χ^ρησαμβνων ανττ} 6 μβν "ίουλλ,ος ^ ό " 
^Αντώνίο^;, ώ? καΐ^ βττΐ rfj μοναρχία τούτο ττράξας, 
αττεθανε μβτ άΧλων τίνων εττίφανων άντρων, οι 
Be ΧοιττοΙ €9 νησου^; υιτερωρίσθησαν. καΐ εττειΒη 
κα\ Βημαρχ^ός τις εν αύτοΐς ην, ου ττρότερον ττρϊν 

16 Βίάρζαί^ εκρίθη. ττοΧλών 8ε εκ τούτον^ καΐ 
αλΧων γυναικών εφ' ομοίοί<ζ τισίν αΐτίαν Χαβου- 
σών ου ττάσας τα? 8ίκας εΒεζατο, άΧλα καΐ γ^ρόνον 
Τίνα άφωρισεν ώστε τα προ εκείνου ττραγβεντα 
μη ΤΓοΧυτΓ pay μονεΐσ θ αι. εττΐ yap της θυyaτpoς 
μη8εν^ μετρίάσας, αλλά καΐ φήσας ότι Φοίβης 
Ίτατηρ μάΧλον ' η εκείνης yeyovkvai ηθεΚε, των 
αλΧων εφείΒετο. ή δε 8η Φοίβη εζεΧβυθερα τε 
της ^ΙουΧίας καΐ συv€pyoς ούσα Ίτροαιτεθανεν 
εκούσια, Βιοττερ και ο Aΰyoυστoς αύτην επ^νεσε. 
— Xiph. 101, 21-32, Exc. Λ^ 178^ 179 (ρ. 665). 

17 "Οτι Τάιος τα στρατόττεΒα τα ττρος τω "Ιστρο) 
είρηνικώς ετηρεί' ττοΧεμον yap ούοενα ειτοΧεμησεν, 
ούχ ότι ουκ εyεvετo, αλλ οτι εκείνος μεν εν τε 
ήσυχ^ία και άσφαΧεια αργειν εμάνθανεν, οΐ δε δ^ 
κίνΒυνοι άΧΧοις ττροσετάσσοντο. — Exc Λ^. 180 
(ρ. 665). 

18 Τώζ^ ^Αρμένιων δε νεωτερισάντων και των ΤΙάρ- 
θων αύτοΐς συvεpyoυvτωv aXyoyv εττΐ τούτοις 6 
Avyoυστoς ηττόρει τι αν ττράξη' ούτε yap αύτος 
στρατευσαι οίος τε ην Βια yήpaς, 6 τε Ύιβεριος, 
ώς εϊρηται, μετεστη ηΒη, αΧΧον δε τίνα ττεμψαι 

1 "ίουλλοϊ Bs. , iovXiGs Μ. cod. Peir. Xipl). 
^ δ supplied by Bk. 

•'' Between ws καΐ and erepovs (10a, i) two folios are lacking 
in M. ^ ζιάρξαι Val., diapnaaai cod. Peir. 



voluntarily accompanied her. Of the men who had b.c. 2 
enjoyed her favours, luUus Antonius, on the ground 
that his conduct had been prompted by designs upon 
the nionarcliy, Avas })ut to death along witli other 
prominent })ersons, while tiie remainder were ban- 
ished to islands. And since there Avas a tribune 
among them, he was not tried until he had completed 
his term of office. As a result of this affair many 
other women, too, were accused of similar behaviour, 
but the emperor would not entertain all the suits ; 
instead, he set a definite date as a limit and forbade 
all prying into what had occurred previous to that 
time. For although in the case of his daughter he 
would show no mercy, remarking that he would 
rather have been Phoebe's father than hers, he 
nevertheless was disposed to spare the rest. This 
Phoebe had been a freedwoman of Julia's and her 
accomplice, and had voluntarilv taken her own life 
before she could be punished. It was for this that 
Augustus praised her. 

Gaius assumed command of the legions on the b.c 1 
Ister Λvith peaceful intent. Indeed, he fought no 
war, not because no war broke out, but because he 
was learning to rule in quiet and safety, Avhile the 
dangerous undertakings were regularly assigned to 

When the Armenians revolted and the Parthians 
joined with them, Augustus was distressed and at a 
loss what to do. For he himself was not fit for 
campaigning by reason of age, while Tiberius, as has 
been stated, had already withdrawn, and he did not 

^ i!{ τούτου Exc. Val., 0111. Xiph. 

^ μτ)δ6ΐ> Xiph., μη cod. Pcir. 

^ TTaT-i]p μαΚΚοι^ Xlj)il., μίΙ\\ον πατί/ρ ooil, Peir. 


των δυνατών ουκ ^τΰΧμα, ό Γαίος he και ό Αούκιο'^ 
veoi κα\ ττρα'γμάτωρ irvyxavov aireipoi. άνά^κη^ 
δ' €τηκ€ίμ6νη<ζ τον Υάιον elXero, καΐ την re e^ov- 
συαν αύτω την άνθύιτατον και γυναίκα βΒωκβν, 
ίνα κάκ τούτου τι ττροσΧάβτ] αξίωμα, και οι και ^ 

19 σνμβούΧους ττροσεταζε. και ο μεν άφωρμηθη 
eVrtyLtft)? irapa ττάντων ύποΒβ'χ^όμενος οια του αύτο- 
κράτορο^ eyyovo^ η καΐ vrat? νομιζομενος," και 6 
Ύφεριοζ €9 XiW εΚθων αΰτον εθβράιτευσε, τά<ζ 
ύτΓοψίας άττοτριβόμβνος' εταιτείνου τε yap εαυτόν 
καΐ ΰττετΓίτΓτεν ot'% οτι τω Τα'ίω, άΧΧα καΐ^ τοϊς 
μετ αυτού οΰσι• άττεΧθων Βε et? την Έυρίαν καΐ 
μηΒεν μέya κατωρθωκως ετρώθη. — Ζοη. 10, 36, 
Xiph. 101, 32-102, 4. 

20 "Οτι ώ? εττύθοντο οι βάρβαροι την επιστρα- 
τείαν του Ταίου, Φρατάκης^ εττεμψε ττρος τον 
Aΰyoυστov, ύττερ των yεyov6τωv arroXoy ου μένος 
καΐ τού(; άΒεΧφού<ζ εττΐ εΙρΊίνη άτταιτών και αύτω 
εκείνος Φρατάκη * αττλώ? ^ άνευ της του βασιΧεως 
ετΓίκΧησεως, άντεττιστείΧας, το τε όνομα το βα- 
σιΧικον καταθεσθαι καΐ της ^Αρμενίας άττοστήναι 
ιτροσεταζεν. εή> ω ^η ο ΐΐάρθος ούχ όσον ού 
κατεπτηζεν, άΧΧα καΐ άvτεypa^|rεv οι τα τε άΧΧα 
ύττερφρόνως,^ καΐ αυτόν μεν βασιΧεα βασιΧεων 
εκείνον Βε Καίσαρα μόνον ονομάσας. 6 8ε 8η 
Ύιypάvης ευθύς μεν ούκ επρεσβεύσατο, του Be 
^ Αρταβάζου νόσω ύστερον τεΧευτησαντος Βώρά τε 

' οί καϊ ΑΕ, οί BC^. 

^ νομιζόμ€νο5 ABC*^, λθ'/ιζόμξνο5 Ε. 

^ και supplied by Bs. 

* Φρατάκηε, Φρατάκτ] Bs. , φρατάκτη5, φρακτάκη (but corrected 
by first hand to φρατάκη) Exc. Urs. cod. A, φρατάκτου Xiph. 
VL', φρατάκτου Xiph. C, φρατάκτη Xiph. AXL•'. 



dare send any other influential man ; as for Gaius u.c. i 
and Lucius, tliey were youn^• and inexperienced in 
affairs. Nevertheless, under the stress of necessity, 
he chose Gaius, «^ave him the proconsular authority 
and a wife,— in order that he might also have the 
increased dignity that attached to a married man,^ — 
and apj)ointed advisers to him, Gaius accordingly 
set out and was everywhere received with marks of 
distinction, as befitted one who was the emperor's 
grandson and was even looked upon as his son. 
Even Tiberius Avent to Chios and paid court to him, 
thus endeavouring to clear himself of suspicion ; 
indeed, he humiliated himself and grovelled at the 
feet, not only of Gaius, but also of all the associates 
of Gaius. And Gaius, after going to Syria and 
meeting with no great success, was Avounded. 

When the barbarians heard of Gaius' expedition, 
Piirataces sent men to Augustus to explain what had 
occurred and to demand the return of his brothers 
on condition of his acce})ting peace. The emperor a.d. ι 
sent him a letter in reply, addressed simply to 
" Phrataces," without the appellation of "king," 
in which he directed him to lay aside the royal 
name and to withdraAv from Armenia. Thereupon 
the Parthian, so far from being cowed, wrote back 
in a generally haughty tone, styling himself " King 
of Kings " and addressing Augustus simply as 
" Caesar." Tigranes did not at once send any en- 
voys, but when Artabazus somewhat later fell ill 
and died, he sent gifts to Augustus, in view of the 

^ 8ee note on liii. 13, 2. 

'' άπλώϊ Xiph., oni. Exc. Ur.s. 

'' vvep<ppouws Kxc. Urs., ύνίρηφάνω! Xiph. 



τω Avyovarrp, ώς καί τον άνιητάΚου νττεζτιρη- 
21 μβνου οΐ, βττεμψε, το του βασίΧβως όνομα 69 την 
€7ΓίστοΧην μη εγγράψας, καί την βασίλείαν Βήθεν 
Trap* αντον Ύΐτησε. τούτοις τ€^ ουν ύτταχ^ββίς καΐ 
τον 7Γθ\€μον άμα τον Τίαρθίκον ~ φοβηθείς τά τβ 
hodpa iSe^aro, καΐ μβτ βΧττίΒων αύτον χ^ρηστών €<? 
την Χνρίαν ττρος τον Τάυον βΧθεΙν έκίΧβυσβν. — 
Exc. υ^ 36 (ρ. 390), Xiph. 102, 4—11. 
10a . . . ετέρους εκ της Αΐ'γύπτου εττιστρατεύσαν- 
τάς σφισιν άττεώσαντο, ου ττροτερον τε ενεΕοσαν 
ΊτρΙν 'χ^ίΧίαργον τίνα εκ του δορυφορικού επ αυ- 
τούς ττεμφθηναί, καΐ εκείνος 8ε εν 'χ^ρονω τας 
καταΒρομάς αυτών επεσ'χεν, ώστε εττΐ ττοΧύ μη- 
8ενα βουΧευτην των ταύτη ττόΧεων άρξαι. 

2 Ύαΰτά τε ουν άμα καϊ τά των Κ^εΧτών εκαινώθη. 
6 yap Αομίτίος ττροτερον μεν, εως ετυ των προς 
τω ^Ίστρω 'χωρίων ηρχε, τους τε ΚρμουνΒούρους 
εκ της οικείας ουκ οίδ' οττως εζαναστάντας καϊ 
κατά ζ7]τησιν ετέρας γης ττΧανωμένους ύττοΧαβών 
εν μέρει της ^ίαρκομαννί8ος κατωκισε, καϊ τον 
^ΑΧβίαν μηΕενός οι εναντιουμενου 8ιαβάς φιΧίαν 
τε τοις εκείνη βαρβάροις συνεθετο καϊ βωμον επ 

3 αύτου τω Κύ^ούστω ιΒρύσατο. τότε δε ττρος τε 
τον ^Vrjvov μετεΧθών, και εκττεσόντας τινάς Χε- 
ρούσκων κατα^α^είν Βι έτερων εθεΧησας, εΒυστύ- 
χησε καϊ καταφρονήσαί σφων καϊ τους άΧΧους 
βαρβάρους εττοίησεν. ου μεντοι και ττΧεον τι τω 
ετει εκείνω υπ αύτου επράχθη' 8ιά yap τον 
ΤΙαρθικον πόΧεμον ύπ6yυov οντά ούΒεμία αυτών 
επιστροφή τότε iy ενετό. 

ϊ τε Α (Β ? V ?). 

"^ rhv ΏαρΘικΙΐ' Bs., των Πάρθων Urs., rhv Uapdhv A (Β ? V?). 



fact that his rival liad been removed, and though lie a.o. i 
did not mention the name " king " in his letter, he 
really did petition Augustus for the kingship. In- 
fluenced by these considerations and at the same time 
fearing the war with the Parthians, the emperor 
accepted the gifts and bade him go with good hopes 
to Gaius in Syria. 

.... others who marched against them from 
Egypt, and did not yield until a tribune from the 
pretorian guard was sent against them. This man in 
the course of time checked their incursions, with 
the result that for a long period no senator governed 
the cities in this region. 

Coincident with these events there was an out- 
break on the part of the Germans. Somewhat 
earlier Domitius, while still governing the districts 
along the Ister, had intercepted the Hermunduri, a 
tribe which for some reason or other had left their 
own land and were Avandering about in quest ot 
another, and he had settled them in a part of the 
Marcomannian territory ; then he had crossed the 
Albis, meeting Avith no opposition, had made a 
friendly alliance Avith the barbarians on the further 
side, and had set up an altar to Augustus on the 
bank of the river. Just now he had transferred his 
headquarters to the Rhine, and in his desire to secure 
the return of certain Cheruscan exiles through the 
efforts of other persons had met with a reverse and 
had caused the other barbarians likewise to conceive 
a contempt for the Romans. This was the extent, 
however, of his oj)erati()ns that year ; for in view of 
the Parthian war which was impending no attention 
was paid to the Germans at this time. 




4 Ου μην ovSe Τ0Γ9 ΤΙάρθθί<; βττοΧεμηθη. ό yap 
Φρατάκης τον Υάίον ev re rfj Ζ,υρία οντά και 
υττατβύοντα άκουσας, καΐ ττροσβτί καΐ τα οίκβΐα 
μη^β ττρότβρον βύνοϊκως οί β'χρντα ύττοτοττησας, 
ττροκατηΧλά'γη enl τω αύτό<ς Τ6 της 'Αρμενίας 
ίίτΓοστηναί καΐ τους ά^εΧφούς αυτοί) ττβραν θα- 

5 Χάσσης elvai. ο'ί <ye μην \\ρμ6νίθί, καιιτερ του τε 
Ύί^ράνου €Κ τΓοΧεμου τίνος βαρβαρικού φθαρίντος 
καΐ της ^Κράτους την άρ'χ^ην άφεισης, όμως εττειΒη 
^Αρίοβαρζάνεί τινί Μη8ω, 6ς ττοτε μετά τον Tipc- 
^άτου ^ Ίτρος τους Ρωμαίους άφΐκτο, τταρεΒίΒοντο, 
ετΓοΧεμησαν σφισι τω υστερώ ετει, εν ω ΤΙον- 
ττΧίός τε Ούυνίκιος καΐ ΤΙούττΧίος Ούάρος υττά- 

Γ) τενσαν. καΐ άΧΧο μεν ούΒεν a^ioXoyov εΒρασαν, 
"Α88ων 8ε τις τα ^Αρτά^ειρα κατε'χων ΰττη^ά^ετο 
τον Τάίον ύτΓΟ το τεΐγ^ος ως καϊ των του ΥΙάρΘου 
τι άτΓορρητων αύτω φράσων, καϊ ετρωσεν αυτόν, 
κάκ τούτου ττοΧιορκηθεΙς εττΐ πΧεΐστον άντεσχ^εν. 

7 άΧόντος δ' ονν ττοτε αυτού το τε όνομα το του 
αυτοκράτορας ούχ ό Αύγουστος μόνον άΧΧά καΐ 6 
Υάίος εττεθετο, καϊ την Αρμενίαν τότε μεν ο 
Άριοβαρζάνης, άττοθανοντος 8ε αύτοΰ ου ττοΧΧω 
ύστερον \\ρτάβαζος 6 υίος παρά τε του Aύyoύ- 

8 στον καϊ τταρά της βουΧής εΧαβεν. 6 δ' ονν 
Τάιος εκ του τραύματος ηρρώστησε, καϊ εττειΒη 
μη8^ αΧΧως ύyιειvbς ην, ύφ^ ουττερ καϊ την 8ιά- 
νοιαν εζεΧεΧυτο, ττοΧΧω μαΧΧον άττημβΧύνθη. 
καϊ τεΧος ΙΒιωτεύειν τε ηζιου καϊ εν ττ} ^υρία ιτου 
καταμεΐναί ήθεΧεν, ώστε τον Aΰyoυστov ττεριαΧ- 
yήσavτa τη τε yεpoυσίa το βούΧημα αντον 

^ Τιριδάτον Dind., τ?ιριδάτου Μ. 




Nevertheless, war did not break out with the 
Parthians, either. For Phrataces, hearing that 
Gaius was in Syria, acting as consul, and, further- 
more, having suspicions regarding his own people, 
who had even before this been inclined to be disloyal 
to him, forestalled action on their part by coming to 
terms with the Romans, on condition that he him- 
self should renounce Armenia and that his brothers 
should remain beyond the sea. The Armenians, 
however, in spite of the fact that Tigranes had 
[)erished in a war with barbarians and Erato had 
resigned her sovereignty, nevertheless went to war 
with the Romans because they Avere being handed 
over to a Mede, Ariobarzanes, who had once come to 
the Romans along with Tiridates. This was in the 
following year, when Publius Vinicius and Publius 
Varus were consuls. And though they accomplished 
nothing worthy of note, a certain Addon, Λνΐιο was 
holding Artagira, induced Gaius to come up close to 
the wall, pretending that he would reveal to him 
some of the Parthian king's secrets, and then 
wounded him, Λvhereupon he was besieged. He held 
out for a long time ; but when he was at last captured, 
not only Augustus but Gaius also assumed the title 
of imperaior, and Armenia was given by Augustus 
and the senate first to Ariobarzanes and then upon 
his death a little later to his son Artabazus. (iaius 
became ill from his wound, and since he was not 
robust to begin \\'\t\\ and the condition of his health 
had impaired his mind, this illness blunted his facul- 
ties still more. At last he begged leave to retire to 
private life, and it Avas his desire to remain some- 
where in Syria. Augustus, accordingly, grieved at 
heart, communicated his wish to the senate, and 

Ε Ε 2 


κοινωσαι και ΙκβΙνον e? yovv την ^ΧταΧίαν c\06ura 
9 irpaTTeiv 6 tl βοΰΧοίτο ττροτρβψασθαί. ττάι/τ' 
οΰν €ύθυ<ζ τα της άρχή'ζ άφβΐς €9 Ανκίαν εν όΧκά8ι 
•παρεττΧβυσε, κάντανθα iv Αιμυροί^; μετηΧΧα^β. 
ττρίν Se i) τεΧευτησαί αύτον ο Αονκίος ev Μασ- 
σαλία ττροαττεσβη' ττοΧΧα'χτι '^μίρ tol κα\ εκείνος 
άΧΧοτε οΧΧύ) ττεμιτόμενο^; ησκείτο, κα\ τα? γ^ '^^^ 
Υαίου ετΓίστοΧας αύτος εν τ[] βονΧτ}, οσάκις αν 

10 Ίταρείη, άνε^'ιηνωσκεν. άττεθανε δε εξαίφνης νοσή- 
σας, ώστε εττ άμφοτεροις σφίσι την Αιονίαν, 
άΧΧως τε καΐ οτί εν τω γρόνω τούτω ό Ύιβεριος 
ες την 'νώμην εκ της 'Vohov άφίκετο, ΰττοιττεν- 

11 Θηναί. αυτός τε yap εμπειρότατος της Βίά των 
άστρων μαντικής o)V, καΐ ^ράσυΧΧον άνΒρα 
ττάσης άστροΧο^ίας Βιαττεφυκότα έχων, ττάντα 
καΐ τα εαυτω καΐ τα εκεινοις ττεττρωμενα ακριβώς 

2 ηττίστατο' καΐ Xoyov γε εχεί οτι μεΧΧησας ττοτε 
εν TTJ 'Ρόδω τον ©ράσυΧΧον άττο του τείχους, 
εττειΒη μονός αύτω ιτάνθ οσα ενενοει συνρΒει, 
ώσειν, ούκετ αύτο ^ εττοιησε σκυθρωττάσαντα 
αύτον ί8ών, ούτι ^ε καΐ Sia τούτο, αλλ' otl εττε- 
ρωτηθείς δίά τι συννενοφε, κίνΒυνόν τίνα ύττο- 
ΐΓτεύειν οΐ ηενησεσθαι εφη' θαυμάσας yap otl 
καϊ την μεΧΧησιν της εττιβουΧης- ττροεΙΖεν;' φυ- 
Χάζαί αύτον εαυτω 8ίά τας εΧττίΒας ηθεΧησεν. — 
Ζοη. 10, 36. 

3 Οιίτω yap ττου ττάντα εκείνος σαφώς η8εί ώστε 
καϊ το ττΧοΐον το την άyyεXίav τω Ύιβερίω της ες 
την 'νώμην άνακομιΒής τταρά τε της μητρός καϊ 

^ avrh Xiph., αντωι Μ. 

* Between 4τΓΐβουλ?ΐ5 and Ύιβϊριον (13, 2) two more folios 
are lacking in M. ^ npoeTSev supplied by Bs. 



urged him to come at least to Italy and then do as (a.i. 
he pleased. So Gaius resigned at once all the duties 
of his office and took a trading vessel to Lycia, 
where, at Lirayra, he passed away. But even before (a i. 
Gaius' death the spark of life in Lucius had been 
quenched at Massilia. He, too, was being trained 
to rule by being despatched on missions to many 
places, and it was his custom personally to read the 
letters of Gaius in the senate, Avhenever he was 
present. His death was due to a sudden illness. 
In connexion with both deaths, therefore, suspicion 
attached to Livia, and particularly because it was 
just at this time that Tiberius returned to Rome 
from Rhodes. Tiberius, it seems, was extremely 
well versed in the art of divination by means of the 
stars, and had with him i'hrasyllus, ΛνΙιο Avas a past- 
master of all astrology, so that he had full and accur- 
ate knowledge of what fate had in store both for 
him and for (iaius and Lucius. And the story goes 
that once in Rhodes he was about to })ush Thrasyllus 
from the walls, because he was the only one who 
shared all his own thoughts ; but he did not carry 
out his intention when he observed that Thrasyllus 
Avas gloomy, — not, indeed, because of his gloom, but 
because, when asked why his countenance Avas over- 
cast, the other replied that he had a premonition that 
some peril was in store for him. This answer made 
Tiberius marvel that he could foresee the mere 
project of the plot, and so he conceived the desire 
to keep Thrasyllus for his own purposes because of 
the ho})cs he entertained. 

Thrasyllus had so clear a knowledge of all matters 
that wlien he descried, approaching afar off, the ship 
which was bringing to Tiberius the message from his 



τταρα του Αύγουστου φβρον ττόρρωθβν κατώων 
ττροσττΧεον, Ύτροβίττεΐν αύτω α ayyeWeiv epueWe} 
1^ ToO δε Κουκιού του τε Vatov τα σώματα hid re 
των 'χι\ίάρ'χων και Βί,ά των εώ' εκάστης; πόλεω? 
ιτρώτων 69 την 'Ρώμην βκομίσθη, καΐ αΙ ττβΧταί 
τά τ€ οόρατα, α τταρα των ίττττβων e? του? έφη- 
βους €σίόντ€ς γ^ρυσα εΙΧηφβσαν, e? το βονΧευτη- 
pLOV ανετέθη. — Xiph. 102, 25-103, 3. 

2 Αεσττότης ~ 8ε ττοτε ^ ο Αϋ^ονστο^; ύττο του 
8ημου ονομασθεί^; ούχ^ οττως άττεΐττε μη^ενα τούτο) 
7Γρο<ζ εαυτόν τω ττροσρηματί 'χ^ρησασθαι, άΧλά καΧ 

3 ττάνυ Sia φυΧακης αύτο εττοίησατο. ττΧηρωθεΙσης 
Βε οΐ καΧ της τρίτης δεκαετίας την ψ/εμονίαν και 
τότε το * τέταρτον, εκβυασθεΧς 8ήθεν, ύττε^εξατο, 
ττραότερός τε /caX οκνηρότερος ύττο του ^ηρως ττρος 
το των βουΧευτών τισιν άττεχθάνεσθαι ^ε^ονώς 
ού^ενΧ ετ αυτών ιτροσκροΰειν ήθεΧεν. — Xiph. 103, 
3-11, Ζοη. 10, 36. 

3a ΧίΧί-α9 τ€ καΧ ττεντακοσιας μυριάδας Βρα-χμών 
ατόκους τοις Βεομενοις Βανείσας εττ ετη τρία, 
επγνείτο τταρα πάντων καΧ εσεμνύνετο. — Ζοη. 
lOj 36. 

4 'Έίμττρησμοΰ δε ττοτε το τταΧάτίον Βιαφθείραντος, 
καΧ ποΧΧών αύτω ττοΧΧα ΒιΒόντων, ού8εν εΧαβεν 
η μόνον τταρα μβν τών 8ημων 'χρυσοϋν τταρα δε 
τών ΙΒιωτών Βρα'χ^μην. 'χ^ρυσοϋν yap δ?; καΧ ε'γώ 
το νόμισμα το τας ττεντε καΧ εϊκοσι Βρα'χ^μας 

δ Βυνόμενον κατά το εττί-χ^ώριον ονομάζω' καΧ τών 
ΈΧΧήνων δε τίνες, ών τα βιβΧία εττΧ τω άττικίζειν 
άνα^ινώσκομεν, οΰτως αύτο εκάΧεσαν. — Xiph. 103, 
11-18, Ζοη. 10, 36. 

^ ^/Α€λλ6 V, ημ^λλί CL'. ^ δΐσπότη$ VC, κα\ δ6σπ(ίττ;5 L'. 



mother and Augustus to return to Rome^ he told \ υ. 
him in advance wliat news it would brin/r. 

The bodies of Lucius and Gaius were brought to (a..d. 
Rome by the military tribunes and by the chief men 
of each city. And the golden targes and sj)cars 
which they had received from the knights on entering 
the class of youths of military age were set up in 
the senate-house. 

When Augustus was once called '^ master" by the 
people, he not only forbade that any one should use 
this form of address to him, but also took very good 
care to enforce his command. And now that his 
third ten-year period \vas completed, he accepted 
the leadership for the fourth time, though ostensibly v.n. 
under compulsion. He had become milder through 
age and more reluctant to incur the hatred of any of 
the senators, and hence now wished to offend none 
of them. 

For lending sixty million sesterces for three years 
without interest to such as needed it he was praised 
and magnified by all. 

Once, when a fire destroyed the palace and many 
persons offered him large sums of money, he accepted 
nothing but an aureus from entire communities and 
a denarius from single individuals. I here use the 
name aureus, according to the Roman practice, for 
the coin worth one hundred sesterces. Some of the 
Greeks, also, whose books we read with the object 
of acquiring a j)ure Attic style, have given it this 

=' TtOTf VC, Τ<ίτ6 L'. * T<{t6 Th CL', Th V. 



JJapa Be τοΐ<; '^ΚΧλησιν είκοσι Βρα'χ^μ6)ν ο Αίων 
φησί το 'χ^ρυσοΰν άΧλάσσεσθαι νόμισμα. — Ζοη. 
10, 36. 

Ο Be Αιίγουστο? την οΐκίαν οΙκοΒομησας βΒη- 
μοσιωσ€ ττάσαν, elre Βη Βία την συντελειαν την 
τταρα ^ του Βήμου οΐ ^βνομβνην, etVe καΐ otl άρ'χ^ιέ- 
ρβως ην, 'ίν ev τοις ΙΒΙοις άμα και iv τοις κοινοΐς 
13 Ύοΰ Be Βημου σφόΒρα ey κείμενου τω Αύ'γούστω 
ινα KaTa'ya'yr) την θυ'γατ€ρα αυτού, θασσον εφη 
ττύρ ΰΒατί μιγθι^σεσθαί η εκείνην καταγθησεσθαί. 
καΐ 6 Βήμος ττυρα ες τον Ύίβεριν ττοΧλα ενεβαΧε' 
καΐ τότε μεν ουΒεν ηνυσεν, ύστερον Βε εζεβιάσατο 
ωστ€ ες youv την ηττειρον αύτην εκ της νήσου 
κομίσθήναί. — Xiph. 103, 19-28. 
la Μετά Βε ταΰτα ΈίεΧτικού ττοΧεμου κεκίνημενου 
αυτός υττό τε 'γηρως " καΐ νόσου κεκμηκος έχων 
το σώμα και εκστρατευσαι μη οΙός τε ων, ττη μεν 
ύτΓΟ των ττρα^μάτων αναγκασθείς ττη Β υττο της 
^ΙουΧυας άναττεισθείς (τ^Βη yap αΰτη ^ εκ της 

2 υττερορίας κατη-χθη), [Ζοη. 10, 36]. τον^ Ύιβέρων 
καϊ ετΓΟίησατο καΧ εττΐ τους Κ,εΧτούς εζεττεμ-ψ-ε,^ 
την εξουσίαν αύτω την Βημαρχίκην ες Βεκα ετη 
Βούς. καΙ μεντοί καϊ αύτον εκείνον^ ύττοτττευσας 
7ΓΎ) εκφρονησειν, καϊ φοβηθείς μη καϊ νεοχ^μώσρ 
τι, τον Τερμανικόν οΐ τον άΒεΧφιΒοΰν καίτοι καϊ 

3 αύτω υΐον ε-χ^οντι εσεττοιησε. κάκ τούτων εττι- 
θαρσησας ώς καϊ ΒιαΒό)(ους καϊ βοηθούς εγων, 
ΒιαΧεζαι την yεpoυσίav αύθις ηθεΧησε, καϊ Βεκα 

^ τταρα L', 4πΙ τα VC. 

- yripws Ε (ω corrected from ου), y-qpovs ABC•^. 

"' αϋτη BC<=, καϊ αΰτη ΑΕ. * τίν supplied by Bs. 



Amon^ the Greeks, Dio says, the aureus is ex- A.r.. 3 
changed for twenty drachmas.^ 

When Augustus liad built liis Iiouse, he made it 
all state |)roj)erty, either on account of the con- 
tributions made by tlie {)eople or because he was 
liigh priest and Avished to live in a])artments that 
were at once private and public. 

The peoj)le urged Augustus very strongly to 
restore his daughter from exile, but he answered 
that fire should sooner mix with Avater than she 
should be restored. And the people threw many 
firebrands into the Tiber ; and though at the time 
they accomplished nothing, yet later on they brought 
such pressure to bear that she was at least brought 
from the island to the mainland. 

Later, when a (German war broke out and Augustus a.d. 4 
was worn out in body, by reason of old age and ill- 
ness, and incapable of taking the field, he yielded, 
partly to the force of circumstances and })artly to 
the persuasions of Julia, who had now been restored 
from banishment, and not only ado})ted Tiberius, but 
also sent him out against the Germans, granting him 
the tribunician power for ten years. Yet suspecting 
that he also would lose his poise somehow or other, 
and fearing that he would begin a rebellion, he made 
him adopt his nephew (lermanicus, though Tiberius 
had a son of his own. After this he took courage, 
feeling that he had successors and supporters, and 
he desired to reorganize the senate once more. So 
he nominated the ten senators whom he most highly 

^ That is, for the cciuivalenl of eighty, instead of α hundred, 

' 4ζ4π€μ\1>€ supplied by Xyl. 

'' iKf'iuov Xyl., ^(ίνου Μ. cod. Coisl. 



βονΧ€ντά<; ους μάλιστα βτίμα ττροβαΧόμβνος ^ 
τρεις άΐΓ αυτών βζεταστάς άττ eoei^ev , ους ό κΧήρος 
elXeTo. ου μεντοι κα\ ττοΧλοϊ ούτε ιτροκατε^νω- 
σάν σφων εξουσίας αύτοΐς δοθείσης, ωσιτερ και 
ττρότερορ, οΰτ άκοντες άττηΚίφησανΡ- 

4 ίουτο μεν οη οι έτερων εττραξεν, αυτός οε 
ά7Γ0<γραφας των εν τε ttj 'Ιταλία κατοικούντων 
και μ7] εΚάττω ττεντε μνριάΕων ούσίαν κεκτημένων 
ετΓΟίησατο' τους yap ασθενέστερους τους τε εζω 
της 'Ιταλία? οίκουντας ουκ ηνάηκασεν άττοηρά- 
ψασθαο, Βείσας μη νεωτερίσωσί τι ταρα-χθεντες. 

δ καΐ όπως γβ μη 8οξειεν ώς τιμητής αύτο ττοιεΐν. 
Si όπερ είπον πρότερον, άνθύπατον εζουσίαν 
προς τε το τεΧος των απ oy ραφών καΐ προς την 

6 του καθαρσίου ποίησιν προσεθετο. επειΒή τε 
συγνοί τών νεανίσκων εκ τε του βουΧευτικοΰ 
yεvoυς κάκ τών άΧΧων Ιππέων επενοντο μη8εν 
επαίτιον ε'χρντες, τοις μεν πΧειοσι το τετayμεvov 
τίμημα άνεπΧηρωσεν, oySoijKOVTa Βε τισι καΐ ες 

7 τριάκοντα αύτο μυριάΒας επηύξησε. ποΧΧών τε 
ποΧΧούς άκρίτως '^ εΧευθερούντων, Βιεταζε την τε 
ηΧικίαν ην τον τε εΧευθερώσοντά τίνα και τον 
άφεθησόμενον ύττ' αύτοϋ ε'χειν Βεησοι, και τα 
Βικαιώματα οίς οι τε άΧΧοι προς τους εΧευθερου- 
μενους καΐ αύτοΙ οι Βεσποται σφών yεvόμεvoι 

14 ΐΐράσσοντι 8ε αύτω ταύτα επεβούΧευσαν άΧΧοι 
τε καΐ Γναΐος ΚορνήΧιος θυyaτpιBoΰς του μεyάXoυ 

^ ττροβαλόμίΡ05 Η. Steph., ΤΓρο8αλλόμ€νο5 ^J. 
'" αίΓ-ηλίφ-ησαι^ St., αττηλζίφησαρ Μ. 
"^ άκρίτωε Casaub., άκριβώ5 Μ. 



lionoured and appointed three of them, selected by a.d. a 
lot, to examine the qualifications of senators. There 
were not many, however, who were affected, either 
by declaring• themselves disqualified Avhen permission 
Avas given them to do so, as had been done on the 
previous occasion,^ or by having their names erased 
against their will. 

Now Augustus caused others to carry through this 
business for him ; but he himself took a census, but 
only of the inhabitants of Italy who possessed 
property Avorth at least two hundred thousand ses- 
terces, for he did not compel the poorer citizens or 
those living outside of Italy to be listed, fearing lest, 
if they were disturbed, they would become rebellious. 
And in order that he might not aj)pear to be acting 
herein in the capacity of censor, for the reason I 
mentioned before,^ he assumed the proconsular 
power for the })urpose of completing the census and 
performing the })urification. Inasmuch, moreover, 
as many of the young men of the senatorial class 
and of the knights as well Avere poor through no 
fault of their own, he made up to most of them the 
required amount^ and in the case of some eighty 
increased it to one million two hundred thousand 
sesterces. Since also many were freeing their slaves 
indiscriminately, he fixed the age which the manu- 
mitter and also the slave to be freed by him must 
have reached and likewise the legal principles which 
should govern the relations of both citizens in 
general and the former masters toward slaves who 
were set free. 

While he was thus occupied, various men formed 
j)lots against him, notably Gnaeus Cornelius, a son 

' Cf. lii. 42, 2, and liv. 26, 4. - Tf. liv. 1, 5-2, 1. 



ϋομτΓηίον ων, ωστ€ iv μβ'γάΧτ) αύτον άμη-χανία 
'χ^ρόνον Τίνα ^evkaQai, μητ άττοκτεΐναί σφας, 'ότι 
ovhev irXeov 7Γ/5Ο9 άσφάΧβιαν βκ των άττοΧΧυμβνων 
βώρα οι <γί'γνομ€νον, μητ άττοΧυσαι, μη καϊ eripuvf; 
€Κ τούτου €φ' εαυτόν βττίσττάσηται, βθβΧοντα. 

2 άτΓορουντί re ούν αύτω 6 τι ττράξτ), καϊ ούτε 
μεθ^ ημεραν άφροντιστεΐν ουτ' αύ νύκτωρ άτρεμείν 
Βυναμενω εφη ττοτε η Αιουία' " τι εστί τούτο, ω 
ανερ ; οία τί ου κασευΰεις ; 

ΚαΙ ό Αΰ<γουστος' " καΐ τίς αν,'' είττεν, " ω 
ηυναι, καν εΧάχ^ίστον άττομερμηρίσειε τοσούτους 
τε άεΐ ε'χθρούς ε'χ^ων καϊ συνεχ^ώς ούτως άΧΧοτε 

3 ύττ' άΧΧων επιβουΧευόμενος ; ή ούχ όρας όσοι 
καϊ εμοί καϊ tjj άργτι ημών επιτίθενται; και 
αυτούς ούδβ αΙ τιμωρίαι των Βικαιουμενων άνα- 
στεΧΧουσιν, άΧΧα καϊ ττάν τουναντίον, ώσττερ 
67γ' ayaOov τι εττεΐΎομενοι, σττεύΒουσι και οι 
ΧοιτΓοΙ ττροσαπόΧΧυσθαι.'' 

4 Άκούσασα ούν τούτων ή Αιουία- " το μεν 
επιβουΧεύεσθαί σε,'' εφη, ** ούτε θαυμαστον 
ούτε εζω του άνθρωττείου τρόπου εστί' και yap 
πράσσεις ττοΧΧα άτε τηΧικαύτην άρχ^ην ε'χων, καϊ 
Χυπεϊς, ωσττερ εικός, συγνούς. ου yap που καϊ 
πάσιν οιόν τε τον άρ'χοντά τίνων αρεσκειν, άλλα 
καΧ άπεχθάνεσθαο ποΧΧοΐς καϊ τον πάνυ όρθιος 

5 βασιΧεύοντα ανάγκη. ποΧΧω τε yap πΧείους 
των 8ίκαιόν τι πραττόντων οι άΒικεΐν εθεΧοντες 
εισιν, ων αδύνατον εστί τάς επιθυμίας άπο- 
πιμπΧάναί' καϊ αυτών τών άρετήν τινα ε-χ^όντων 
οι μεν καϊ ποΧΧών και μεyάXωv, ων ου δύνανται 



of the daugliter of Ponipey the Great. Aut^ustus a.d. 4 
was consequently in great perplexity for some time, 
since he neither wished to put the plotters to death, 
inasmuch as he saw that no greater safety would 
accrue to him by their destruction, nor to let them 
go, for fear this might induce others to conspire 
against him. While he was in doubt what to do and 
was fmding it im{)ossible either to be free from 
apprehension by day or from restlessness by night, 
Livia one day said to him : '^ What means this, 
husband } Why is it that you do not sleep ? " 

And Augustus nnswered : "What man, Λvife, could 
even for a moment forget his cares, who always has 
so many enemies and is so constantly the object of 
plots on the part of one set of men or another? Do 
you not see how many are attacking both me and 
our sovereignty ? And not even the punishment of 
those who are brought to justice serves to check 
them ; nay, quite the opposite is the result — those 
who are left are as eager to accomplish their own 
destruction also as if they were striving for some 
honourable thing." 

Then Livia, hearing this, said : " That you should 
be the object of plotting is neither remarkable nor 
contrary to human nature. For you do a great many 
things, possessing so large an empire as you do, 
and naturally cause grief to not a feΛV. A ruler can 
not, of course, please everybody; nay, it is inevitable 
that even a king whose rule is altogether upright 
should make many men his enemies. For those who 
wish to do wrong are far more numerous than those 
who do right, and it is impossible to satisfy their 
desires. Kven among such as possess a certain ex- 
cellence, some covet many great rewards which they 



τνχβΐν, eTTopeyoprai, οι Be και βτβρωρ ελαττω- 
θβντβς ά'χθονται, καΐ οίίτω? αμφότεροι τον κρα- 

6 τονντα αΐτίώνταί. ωστβ €Κ τε τούτων μη elvai 
κακού (ϊμαρτάνβίν, καΐ ιτροσετι και εκ των επιτι- 
θέμενων οΰτι γε καϊ σοΙ αλλά Try ηγεμονία, σε 
μεν yap ΙΒιωτεύοντα ovS' αν εις εθεΧοντης κακόν 
τι, μηΒέν γβ ττροτταθών, εττοίησε• της Βε 8η αρχ^ής 
και των αηαθων των εν ανττ} ττάντες, καϊ οϊ <γε 
εν Βννάμει τινί οντες ττοΧν μάΧΚον των ύττοΒεε- 

7 στερων, οριηνωνται. τοντο yap εστί μεν άΒικων 
ανθρώπων καϊ ηκιστα νουν εγ^οντων ποιεΐν, ου 
μην αλλ' εν τε τη φύσει αυτών καθάπερ τι και 
άΧλο ενεστι, καϊ οΰ'χ^ οΙόν τε εστί τα τοιαύτα ούτε 
πείθοντα οΰτ άναγκάζοντα εζεΧεσθαι τινών 
ούΒεΙς yap οΰτε νόμος οΰτε φόβος κρείττων τών 

8 φύσει πεφυκότων yίyvετaι. ταντ ονν Xoyιζόμεvoς 
τας μεν τών άΧΧων αμαρτίας μη Βνσγ^εραινε, 
φνΧακην δ' ακριβή καϊ σεαντου καϊ της μοναρ'χίας 
ποιον, Ίνα αύτην μη εκ του σφόΒρα κοΧάζειν τινας 
αλλ' εκ του σφόΒρα φυΧάσσειν άσφαΧώς εχωμεν.'' 

15 11^09 οΰν ταύτα ό Aύyovστoς' " άΧΧ οίΒα μεν 
καϊ εγώ, ώ yύvaι, οτι οΰτ άΧΧο τι τών μεyάXωv 
εξω φθόνου καϊ επιβουΧης καθεστηκεν, ηκιστα 

2 Βε αυταρχια' και yap αν και Ισόθεοι η μεν, ει μη 
καϊ π pay ματα ^ καϊ φροντίΒας καϊ φόβους υπέρ 
πάντας τους ιΒιωτεύοντας ειχομεν. εμε Βε Βη και 
αυτό τούτο Χυπεΐ, οτι καϊ avayKaiov εστί ταύθ 
ούτως yιyvεσθaι, καϊ άΒύνατον θεραπείαν τίνα 
αυτών ενρεθΡ]ναι.'' 

3 *' 'Αλλ' επειΒή yi τίνες τοιούτοι είσιν οίοι 

^ ΊτράΎματα Xipli., πράγμα Μ. 



can not obtain, and some chafe because they are less α.γ>. 4 
honoured than others ; lience both these classes find 
fault with the ruler. I'herefore it is impossible to 
avoid meeting with mischief, either at the hands ot 
these or, in addition, at the hands of those who 
attack, not you personally, but the monarchy. For 
if you were a private citizen, no one would willingly 
have done you any harm, unless he had previously 
received some injury ; but all men covet the office of 
ruler and the good things that office affords, and 
those who already })0ssess some power covet much 
more than those who are lacking in this respect. It 
is, indeed, the way of men who are wicked and have 
very little sense to do so ; in fact, it is implanted in 
their nature, just like any other instinct, and it is 
impossible either by })ersuasion or by compulsion to 
destroy such instincts in some of them; for there 
is no law and no fear stronger than the instincts im- 
planted by nature. Reflect on this, therefore, and 
do not be vexed at the shortcomings of the other 
sort of men, but as for your own person and your 
sovereignty, keep close guard of them, that we may 
hold the throne securely, not by the strictness of the 
punishments you inflict U})on individuals, but bv the 
strictness with which you guard it." 

To this Augustus replied : " But, wife, I, too, am 
aware that no high position is ever free from envy 
and treachery, and least of all a monarchy. Indeed. 
we should be equals of the gods if we had not 
troubles and cares and fears beyond all men in 
private station. But })recisely this is what causes my 
grief, — that this is inevitably so and that no remedy 
for it can be found." 

"Yet," said Trivia, '^since some men are so con- 



ττάντως a^LKeiv βθβΧαν, ' elirev η hiovia, " ημβΐς 
ye αυτούς φνΧαττώμβθα. β'χομ.ξν he και στρα- 
τ^ώτα? τΓοΧλονς, ων οΐ μ€ν ττρος τού? ττοΧβμίονς 
άντ πεταγμένοι οί Βε κα\ ττερί σε οντες φρουροϋσίν 
'ημα<ζ, καΐ Θεραττειαν ττοΧλην, ώστε καϊ οΧκοι και 
εζ(ύ οι ανιονς ασψακω<^ ζην. 

4 'ΎτΓοΧαβων ουν ό Αύγουστος• '* οτι μεν ττοΧλοΙ 
TToWa/cL^ fcal ύττ' αύτων των συνόντων εφθάρη- 
σαν, ού^ενΓ ^φν* " Βεομαί Χε^ειν. ττρος yap 
τοΙς άΧΧοις καϊ τοντ εν rat? μοναρ'χίαί<; 'χαΧεττώ- 
τατόν εστίν, οτι μη μόνον του? ττοΧεμίους, ώσττερ 
οί άΧΧοι, άΧΧα καϊ τού<; φιΧίονς ^ φοβούμεθα, 

5 καϊ ττόΧυ γε ττΧείους ύττο των τοιούτων, άτε καϊ 
αεί, καϊ μεθ^ ημεραν καϊ νύκτωρ, καϊ ^υμνουμενοις 
σφίσι καϊ καθεύΒονσί σιτια τε καϊ ποτά ύττ' 
αύτων τταρεσκενασμενα Χαμβάνονσι συγ^ιηνο- 
μενων, εττεβουΧεύθησαν ή ύττο των μη^εν ττροση- 
κόντων τά τε yap άΧΧα, καϊ 7Γ/909 μεν εκείνους 
εστί τούτους άντίτάξαι, ττρος δε τούτους αυτούς 

6 ουκ εστίν άΧΧω τινί συμμάγ^ω γ^ρησασθαι. ώσθ* 
ημίν Slcl ιτάντων 8εινον μεν την ερημιαν 8εινον 
8ε καϊ το ττΧηθος, καϊ φοβερον μεν την άφυΧαζίαν 
φοβερωτάτους 8ε αυτούς τους φύΧακας, καϊ χαΧε- 
τΓούς μεν τους εχθρούς χαΧεττωτερονς Βε τους 
φίΧους elvar φίΧους yap άvάyκη ττάντας σφάς, 

7 καν μη ωσι, καΧεΙσθαι. εΐ δ' ούν τις καϊ χρηστών 
αυτών τύχοί, αλλ' οντί yε ούτω ττιστεύσειεν αν 
σφίσιν ώστε καΐ^ καθαρά καϊ άφροντιστω καϊ 
άνυττόπτω τη ψυχή προσομιΧεΐν. τοΰτό τε ούν 

^ (pLXiovs Μ, φίλους Xiph. 

- καϊ added (between lines) by corrector in M, om. Xiph. 



stituted as to want to do wroii^ in any event, let us a.d. 4 
guard against them. We have many soldiers who 
protect us, some arrayed against foreign foes and 
others about your person, and also a large retinue, so 
that by their help we may live in security both at 
home and abroad." 

" I do not need to state," Augustus answered and 
said, " that many men on many occasions have 
perished at the hands of their immediate associates. 
For monarchies have this most serious disadvantage 
in addition to all the rest, that we have not only our 
enemies to fear, as have other men, but also our 
friends. And a far greater number of rulers have 
been ])lotted against by such persons than by those 
Λνΐιο have no connexion with them at all, inasmuch 
as his friends are with the ruler both day and night, 
when he takes his exercise, when he slee{)S, and 
when he takes the food and drink Λvhich they have 
prepared. For the ruler labours under this special 
disadvantage as regards his friends, that, although he 
can protect himself from his enemies by arraying 
his friends against them, there is no corresponding 
ally on whom he may rely to protect him from these 
very friends. Consequently we rulers find it to be 
true at all times, that whereas solitude is dreadful, 
company also is dreadful, that whereas unprotected- 
ness is terrifying, the very men Avho protect us are 
most terrifving, and that whereas our enemies are 
dirticult to deal with, our friends are still more 
difficult. ' Friends,' 1 say, for friends they must all 
be called, even if they are not friends. And even if 
one should find loyal friends, still one could by no 
means so C()m])lctely trust them as to associate with 
them with a sincere, untroubled, and unsuspecting 


VOL. \1. F F 


καΐ TO τους άΧΧους τους βττίβονΧβύοντας avay- 
καΐον eivai άμύνεσθαι TravSeivov βστίν. το yap 
τοί τιμωρ€Ϊσθαί τ€ καΙ κοΧάζειν αεί τίνας avay- 
κάζεσθαι μ€yάXηv ά'χθη^όνα τοΐς ye ay αθοΐς 
ανορασι φβρβί. 
16 *' 'Αλλ' ορθώς ye λεγβί?/' άιτεκρίνατο η Αιουία, 
'' καί σοι yvώμηv Sovvai e%ft), αν ye καϊ ττροσ- 
^εζασθαί αύτην έθεΧησ-ρς, καϊ μη Βιαμέμψτ) ^ οτί 
yvvrj ούσα τοΧμώ σοι σνμβονΧενσαΙ τί οϊον ουδ' 
αν βίς άΧΧος ovoe των ττάνυ φίΧων τταραινεσειεν, 
ουχ οτί ουκ ϊσασιν αυτό, αλλ otl ου θαρσουσιν 


2 "Λβ'γ'," η δ' 09 6 Avyoυστoς, '' 6 τι 8η ττοτε 
τούτο εστίν. 

Ή ουν Αίουία " φράσω,' €φη, " μηΒεν κατο- 
κνήσασα, ατ€ καϊ τα ayaOa καϊ τα κακά, εκ του 
ϊσου σοι ε'χ^ουσα, καϊ σωζόμενου μεν σου καϊ αύτη 
το μέρος άρ'χ^ονσα, 8εινον δε τι τταθόντος, ο μη 

3 ykvoiTOy συναιτοΧου μένη . εΐ yap τοι η τε φύσις 
η άνθ ρωττίνη ττάντως τι αμαρτάνειν τινάς άνα- 
Ίτειθει, καϊ άμη'χ^ανον εστίν αύτην ττρά^αί τι 
ώρμημενην ειτισγείν, καϊ η8η ye καϊ αυτά τα 
8οκούντά τίσιν ayaOa είναι, ΐνα μη τα? των 

. ττοΧΧών κακίας εϊττω, και ττάνυ συχνούς ά8ικεΐν 
επαίρει (καϊ yap yεvoυς ανχημα καϊ ττΧούτου 
φρόνημα τιμής τ€ μεyeθoς καϊ eir άνΒρεία'- θράσος 

4 εξουσίας τε 6yκoς ττοΧΧούς εζοκεΧΧειν ττοιεΐ), και 
μήτε το yεvvaΐov Bvσyεvες μήτε το άνΒρεΐον 8ειΧον 
μήτε το εμφρον άνουν εστί ττοιήσαι (^ά8ύνατον 
yap), μητ αύ τάς περιουσίας τινών ττερικότττειν 

^ διαμ4μχΙ/γ R. Steph., 5ιαπ€μ\Ι/7] ΛΙ Xiph. 

^ 67γ' avSp^h Wolf, e'lr' aiSpei'as Μ, fV άνΒρίαΐ' Xipll. 




heart. Tliis situation, tl)en_, and the necessity of 
taking measures to protect ourselves against the 
other grou}) of plotters, combine to make our position 
utterly dreadful. For to be always under the neces- 
sity of taking vengeance and inflicting punishments 
is a source of great sorrow, to good men at least." 

"You are indeed right," answered Livia, "and I 
have some advice to give you, — that is, if yon are 
willing to receive it, and will not censure me because 
I, though a woman, dare suggest to you something 
which no one else, even of your most intimate 
friends, would venture to suggest, — not because they 
are not aware of it, but because they are not bold 
enough to speak." 

"Speak out," replied Augustus, "whatever it is." 
" I will tell you," said Livia, " without hesitation, 
because 1 have an equal share in your blessings and 
your ills, and as long as you are safe I also have my 
part in reigning, whereas if you come to any harm, 
(which Heaven forbid !), I shall perish with you. If 
it indeed be true that man's nature persuades some 
persons to err under any and all conditions, and that 
there is no way to curb man's nature Λvhen it has 
once set out uj)on a course of action, and that even 
what some men look upon as good conduct (to leave 
out of consideration the vices of the many) is forth- 
with an incentive to wrongdoing to very many men 
(for example, boasting of high birth, pride of wealth, 
loftiness of honours, arrogance of bravery, conceit ol" 
power — all these bring many to grief) ; if it be true 
that one can not make ignoble that which is noble, 
or cowardly that which is brave, or prudent that 
which is foolish (for that is impossible) ; if, on the 
other iiand, one ought not to curtail the abundance 

κ κ 2 


7) τας φιλοτιμίας ταττεινοΰν μη^βν ye ττΧημμεΧονν- 
των 'χ^ρή (ahi/cov yap), τό τ άμυνόμενον η και 
7Γ ροκαταΧαμβάνοντά τίνα<ζ και άνιάσθαι και 
κακο^οζειν avayKalov εστί, φέρε μεταβαΧώμεθα 

5 και τινο<ί αύτων φεισώμεθα. και yap μοι ^ δο- 
κεΐ τΓοΧΧω ττΧείω φιΧανθρωττια ή τινι ωμότητι 
κατορθονσθαι. τους μεν yap συyyvώμova<; ου 
μόνον οι εΧεηθέντες ίιπ αυτών φιΧοΰσιν, ώστε 
καΐ άμείβεσθαί σφας σττουΒάζειν, άΧΧα και οι 
άΧΧοι ττάντες και αιδούνται και σεβουσιν, ώστε 

6 μη εύτοΧμεΙν αυτούς άΒικεΐν τους δ άτταραιτη- 
τοις 6pyaΐς 'χ^ρωμενους ουκ εκείνοι μόνοι οϊ τι 
φοβούμενοι μισονσιν, άΧΧα καΐ οι ΧοιττοΙ ττάντες 
8υσ)(εραίνουσι, καΐ εκ τούτου και επ ιβουΧεύουσιν 
αύτοΐς, ϊνα μη ττροαττόΧωνται. 

17 "Η ούχ^ οράς οτι καΐ οι ιατροί τάς μεν τομάς 
καΐ τας καύσεις σττανιώτατά τισι ττροσφερουσιν, 
ϊνα μη εζaypιaίvωσιv αυτών τα νοσήματα, τοις 
δε αίονήμασι και τοις ήττίοις φαρμάκοις τα ττΧείω 
μαΧθάσσοντες θεραττεύουσι ; μη yap, οτι εκείνα 
μεν των σωμάτων ταύτα δε των λίτυχ^ών τταθή- 
ματά εστί, Βιαφέρειν τι νομίσης αύτα αΧΧηΧων. 
2 ττάμτΓοΧΧα yap όμοια τρόττον τίνα και ταΐς yvco- 
μαις των ανθρώπων, καν τα μάΧιστα ασώματοι 
ώσιν, καΐ'^ τοις σώμασι συμβαίνει• σνστεΧΧονταί 
Τ€ yap ύτΓΟ φόβου και εξοι8οΰσιν υπό θυμού, Χύπη 
τε τινας κοΧούει καΐ θάρσος oyKol, ώστ oXiyov 
σφο8ρα τό παραΧΧάττον αυτών είναι, καΐ 8ίά 
τούτο καΙ παραπΧησίων Ιαμάτων αύτα Βεΐσθαι, 

^ yap μοι Pllugk, μοι yap ΛΙ. 

^ ώσιν κάΐ flor. , ώσιν & καΐ Μ (but & deleted by corrector). 



of others or humble their ambitions, when they are 
guilty of no offence (for that were unjust) ; if, finally, 
the policy of defending oneself or even of trying to 
forestall the attacks of others inevitably leads to 
vexation and ill repute — if all this is true, come, let 
us change our policy and spare some of the plotters. 
For it seems to me that far more Avrongs are set 
right by kindness than by liarshness. For those who 
forgive are not only loved by the objects of their 
clemency, who will therefore even strive to repay the 
favour, but are also respected and revered by all the 
rest, who will therefore not readily venture to harm 
them ; those, on the other hand, who indulge in in- 
exorable resentment are not only hated by those who 
have something to fear, but are also disliked by all 
the rest, and are in consequence even plotted against 
by them in their desire to avoid meeting with 
destruction first. 

" Do you not observe that physicians very rarely 
resort to surgery and cautery, desiring not to ag- 
gravate their patients' maladies, but for the most 
))art seek to soothe diseases by the application of 
fomentations and the milder drugs ? Do not think 
that, because these ailments are affections of the 
body Avhile those we have to do Λvith are affections 
of the soul, there is anv difference between them. 
For also the minds of men, however incorporeal the ν 
may be, are subject to a large number of ailments 
which are comj)arable to those which visit their 
bodies. Thus there is the withering of the mind 
through fear and its swelling through passion ; in 
some cases pain lops it off" and arrogance makes it 
grow with conceit; the disparity, therefore, between 
mind and body being very slight, they accordingly 



3 \oyo^ re yap ητηό<; τω λεχθεί? πάν το aypiatvov 
αντου 'χα\α, καθάττερ τρα'χ^ύς erepo^ και ro apei- 
μίνον 6pyLζeL' και ovyyvui^j] hoOeiaa και τον 
ττάνυ Θρασυν hia'^el, καθάττ€ρ y τιμωρία και τον 
ττάνυ ττραον γ^αλ,βτταίνβί. αΐ μβν yap βίαιοι πρά- 
^€69 ael ττάντας, καν ^ίκαιόταταί ωσι, παροξύν- 

4 ουσιν, αΐ Be eTneiKel^; ήμepoύσί. καΐ Sea τούτο 
TreicOel^ άν τι<; ράον καΐ τα SetvoTaTa e/ca>v ή 
βLaσθelς υ^ΓoμeLveLev. και ούτω ye ^vaet τινί 
avay/cala €κάτ€ρον αυτών 'χρήται, ώστε καΐ των 
άXόyωv ζωών των μηΒένα νουν ί'χόντων ττοΧλα 
μ€.ν και των Ισχυρότατων και άypιωτάτωv θω- 
ττείαις τε τισι τιθασ€ύ€ται καΐ he\eάσμaσι χεί- 
ροΰται, TToWct 8e καΐ των Β€ΐ\οτάτων καΐ aade- 
ν€στάτων Χυττήμασί τε καΐ φοβοις καΐ Ικτα- 
paTTeTai καΙ παροξύν€ται. 

18 **ΚαΙ οι; λεγο) τούτο οτι Bel ττάντων άττλώς των 
άΒικούντων ^eiheadai, αλΧ' οτί τοζ; μ€ν ϊτην^ 
καϊ ττοΧυτΓ pay μονά και κακοήθη και κακόβουΧον 
καΐ άν7]Κ€στω τινΙ καϊ SiapKei πονηρία συνοντα 
βκκόπτειν ώσπερ που καϊ τα πάνυ ανίατα μέρη 
2 των σωμάτων, των δε Srj άΧλων όσοι τι νεότητι 
ή άμαθία η ayvoia η καϊ eTepa τινί συντυ-χία οι 
μεν εκόντβς οι δε καϊ άκοντες άμαρτάνουσιν, τους 
μεν Xoyoi^ νουθετεΐν, τους δε άπειΧαΐς σωφρονί- 
ζειν, τους δε και έτερον τίνα τρόπον μετρίως πως 
μετα'χ^ειριζεσθαί , καθάπερ και επΙ των δούΧων 

^ μ^ν ίτην Xiph., μίνίτην Μ. 



require cures of a similiir nature. Gentle words, for 
example, cause all one's inHamed passion to subside, 
just as harsh words in another case will stir to wrath 
even the spirit which has been calmed ; and for- 
giveness granted will melt even the utterly arrogant 
man, just as punishment will incense even him who 
is utterly mild. For acts of violence will always in 
every instance, no matter how just they may be, 
exasperate, while considerate treatment mollifies. 
Hence it is that a man will more readily submit to 
the most terrible hardships — and gladly, too, — if he 
has been persuaded, than if compulsion has been 
put upon him. And so true it is that, in follo\ving 
both these courses, man is subject to a compelling 
law of nature, that even among the irrational 
animals, which have no intelligence, many of the 
strongest and fiercest are tamed by petting and 
subdued by allurements, while many even of the 
most cowardly and weak are aroused to fury by acts 
of cruelty which excite terror in them. 

"' I do not mean by this that ^^'e nnist spare all 
wrongdoers without distinction, but that we must 
cut off the headstrong man, the meddlesome, the 
malicious, the trouble-maker, and the man within 
Avhom there is an incurable and persistent depravity, 
just as we treat the members of the body that are 
(piite beyond all healing. In the case of the rest, how- 
ever, Avhose errors, committed wilfully or otherwise, 
are due to youth or ignorance or misapprehension 
or some other adventitious circumstance, we should 
in some cases merely rebuke them with words, in 
others bring them to their senses by threats, and in 
still others apply some other form of moderate treat- 
ment, just as in the case of slaves, ΛνΙιο commit now 



ά\\ων άμαρτανόντων αΧλα ^ τοι)<? μβν μβίζοσί 

3 του? Be eXarroac •πάνΎ€<^ κοΧάζονσιν. ώστ€ και 
τα κατά τούτους άκίν8νρω<; μετριάζειν βξβστί σοι, 
τού<ζ μβν φνγη τού<ζ δε άτιμια τους Be γ^ρημασι 
ζημίοΰντί, €Τ€ρονς e? 'χωρία eTepov^; e? ττολβί? 
τινας κατατιθ€μ€νω. 

" ΚαΙ ή8η <ye τινβς καΐ υττο τον μη TV-^elv ων 
ήΧτΓίζον καΐ ύτΓΟ του Βιαμαρτ€Ϊρ ων eφίevτo Ισω- 

4 φρονίσθησαν. eSpat re άτιμοι καϊ στάσεί? 
eTroveiBtaTOL το τε ττροΧυπηθήναι, καϊ το ττρο- 
φοβηθηναι συχνού^; βε^κ,τίους eVot7;ae• καίτοι και 
aTToOaveLv βΧοιτ αν τις ev τε yeyovco^ καϊ avBpelo<; 
ων η τοιούτο τι τταθεΐν. ίζ οΰν τούτων eKeivoi<; 
μ€ν ούΒεν ράων ή τιμωρία, άΧλα καϊ χαΧεττωτερα 
yiyvoiT άν, ημίν Be Βη το μήτε τίνα επη^οριαν 

δ e^eiv καϊ άσφαΧώς ζην virap^eiev. ώ? νυν ηε 
ποΧλούς μεν opyfj,'^ ττοΧΧούς Be ειτιθυμία χρη- 
μάτων, άΧΧονς άνΒρείας φόβω καϊ μάΧα άΧΧονς 
αρετής τίνος φθονώ κτείνειν Βοκοΰμεν. ούΒεΙς 
yap ραΒίως ιτιστεύει οτι τις εν τε εξουσία 
καϊ εν Βυνάμει τοσαύτη ων ύττ' ΙΒιώτου τίνος 
άόττΧου ^ ειτ ιβουΧευθηναι Βύναται, αλλ' οι μεν 
ταύτα Χο^οττοιουσιν, οΙ Βε οτι '>^ευΒη ττοΧΧά 
άκούομεν καϊ ττοΧΧοΐς μάτην ώς καϊ άΧηθεσι 

6 Ίτροσεγρμεν. τους yap τοι Βιοτττεύοντάς τε καϊ 
ώτακουστοΰντας * τα τοιαύτα, τους μεν έχθρα 

^ 5ούλων άλλωρ αμαρτανόντων σΛ\α Capps, τά\\α αμαρτανόν- 
των R. Steph. , ΖονΚων τιμωρίαΐ5 Rk., τάλλα ΛΙ Xiph. 

2 7Γολλου$ μ€ν opyr] supplied by Bs. Μ sliows a lacuna of 
fourteen to sixteen letters. 

•' αόπλου R. Steph., άνόπλου Μ Xiph. 

■* ooTUKovaTovuras Xiph. and corrector in -M, ωτακουστάί Μ, 



this and now that offence, all men impose greater a.d. 4 
penalties upon some and lesser upon others. Hence, 
so far as these j)o]itical offenders are concerned, you 
may em|)loy moderation without danger, j)unishing 
some by banishment, others by disfranchisement, 
still others by a pecuniary fine, and another class 
you may dis{)ose of by placing some in confinement 
in the country and others in certain cities. 

'' Experience has shown that men are brought to 
their senses even by failing to obtain what they 
hoped for and by being disa})[)ointed in the object 
of their desires. Many men iiave been made better 
by having assigned to them at the spectacles seats 
which confer no honour, or by being apj)ointed to 
posts to which disgrace attaches, and also by being 
offended or frightened in advance ; and yet a man of 
high birth and spirit would sooner die than suffer 
such humiliation. J5y such means their plans for 
vengeance would be made no easier, but rather more 
difficult, of accomplishment, while Ave on our part 
should be able to avoid any reproach and also to live 
in securit}'. As things are now, people think that 
we kill many through resentment, many through 
lust for their monev, others tlirouu'h fear of their 
bravery and others actually through jealousy of their 
virtues. P'or no one finds it easy to believe that a 
ruler who j)ossesses so great autliority and ])ower 
can be the object of plotting on the part of an un- 
armed person in ])rivate station, but some invent the 
motives I have mentioned, and still others assert 
that many false accusations come to our ears and 
that Ave give heed to many idle rumours as if they 
were true. Spies, they say, and eavesdroppers get 
hold of such rumours, and then — actuated sometimes 



τους Se opyrj, αλΧους apyvpiov irapa των έχθρων 
αυτών Χαβόντας, άΧλους παρ'' αυτών βκεΐνων μη 
Χαβόντας, τΓοΧΧα καΐ ^ΙτευΒή σκβυωρβΐσθαί φασιν, 
ου μόνον οτί τι Beivbv βπραξάν τίνες η καΐ ττοιή- 
σβίν μβΧΧουσι Χέζοντας, άΧΧά καΧ οτι ο μεν 
εφθέ'γ^ατο τοιονΒε τι, 6 δε άκουσας εσίώττησεν, 
άΧΧος ε'γέΧασεν, άΧΧος εΒάκρυσεν. 
19 '* Μ-υρία αν τοιουτότροιτα είττείν εχοιμι, α 
εΐ και τα μάΧιστα αΧηθή εϊη, άΧΧ^ οΰτι ye και 
ττροσηκοντά εστίν οΰτε ττ οΧυττ pay μονεΐσθ αι ιταρ 
εΧευθεροις άνθρώττοις οΰτε σοΙ hιayyεXXεσθaί. 
Χαθόντα μεν yap τα τοιαύτα ούΒεν αν σε βΧά- 
^Ιτειεν, άκουσθεντα δβ τταροξύνειε και άκοντα. 

2 οΊτερ ήκιστα γ^ρη άΧΧως τε καΐ άρ'χ^οντί τίνων 
συμβαίνειν. συ-χνους yodv εκ τούτου, τους μεν 
άκριτους τους δε καΐ εσκευωρημεντ) ηνί κατα- 
γζ^ώσεί- 8ικαστ7]ρίου, αδίκως άττόΧΧυσθαι ττοΧΧοΙ ^ 
νομίζουσιν οΰτε yap τ ας μαρτυρίας οΰτε τ ας 
βασάνους οΰτ άΧΧο τι τών τοιούτων ώς και 

ο άΧηθες 6ν κατ αυτών προσίενται. ταύτα yap 
ούτως, ει και μη δικαίως εστίν α αυτών, άΧΧ εττι 
πάντων yε ώς - ειπείν τών ούτω θανάτου μένων 
θρυΧεΐται. και δε? σε, ώ Aΰyovστε, μη μόνον 
μηΒεν άΒικεΐν, άΧΧά μηΒε Βοκεΐν. ιΒιώττ) μεν yap 
άρκεΐ μη8εν πΧημμεΧεΐν, άρ'χρντι δε δ^ προσήκει 

4 μη^ε Βόκησίν τίνα αυτού Χαμβάνειν. ανθρώπων 
yap, άΧΧ ου θηρίων ηyεμovεύείς' και μόνως αν 

^ τΓολλοί added by collector in ^J, oiu. Xiph. 
■^ ω$ Xiph, Λ^, om. Μ Xiph. C. 



by enmity and sometimes b}' resentment, in some a.i.. a 
cases because they liave received money from the 
foes of their victims, in other cases because they 
have received none from the victims themselves — 
concoct many falsehoods, reporting not only that 
such and such persons have committed some out- 
rage or are intending to commit it, but even that 
when so-and-so made such and such a remark, so- 
and-so heard it and was silent, a second person 
laughed, and a third burst into tears. 

" I could cite innumerable instances of such a 
kind, which, no matter how true they may be, arc 
surely not proper subjects for gentlemen to concern 
themselves about or to be reported to you. Such 
rumours, if ignored, would do you no harm, but if 
listened to, would irritate you even against your 
will ; and that is a thing by all means to be avoided, 
especially in gne who rules over others. It is gener- 
all}' believed, at any rate, that many men arc un- 
justly put to death as the result of such a feeling, 
some Avithout a trial and others by a prearranged 
conviction in court ; for the people will not admit 
that the testimony given or the statements made 
under torture or any evidence of that nature is true 
or suffices for the condenmation of the victims. 
This is the sort of talk that does, in fact, go the 
rounds, even though it is sometimes unjust, in the 
case of practically all who are })ut to death by action 
of the courts. And you, Augustus, ought not only 
to avoid unjust action, but even the susjncion of it ; 
for though it is sufficient for a person in private 
station not to be guilty of wrongdoing, yet it behooves 
a ruler to incur not even the suspicion of wrong- 
doing, Y^ou are ruling over human beings, not wild 



οντω<; evvoelv σοι αΰτου<^ αΧηθώς ττοιησεια^;, αν 
ττανταγ^όθεν σφάς καϊ hia ττάντων όμοίο)ς πείσης 
ότί μ^ητβ βκων τίνα μήτε άκων aOLKr^aeL^} φο- 
ββίσθαί μβν yap τίνα ανα^κασθηναί τίς δύναται, 

5 φιΧβίν δε Ίτβισθηναί οφβίΧβί. ττείθεται Be Ιξ ων 
αν αυτο9 re ev ττάθτ} καΐ €Τ€ρου<ζ evepyerov μίνου<; 
iBrj. ο δ' υτΓΟΎΟττησα^ μη Βικαιω^ τίνα άττοΧω- 
Xevac και φοββΐται μη ττοτε η ομοίον ττάθη καϊ 
μισβίν τον Βράσαντα αυτό αναγκάζεται, το Βε Βη 
μισεΐσθαυ νττο των άργρμενων, ΤΓρο<ζ τω μηΒ^ 

6 άΧΧως καΧ(ος εγειν, άΧυσιτεΧεστατόν εστί. καΐ 
yap καϊ νομίζουσιν οι ττοΧΧοΙ τοις μεν άΧΧθί<ζ 
avajKacov elvac ττάντας τους καϊ οτιοΰν άΒίκή- 
σαντάς σφα^; άμυνεσθαί, Ίνα μήτε καταφρονώνται 
μήτε εκ τούτου ττΧεονεκτώνταί, τους δ' άρ-χοντας 
τοις μεν το κοινον άΒίκοϋσιν εττεζιεναι 'χ^ρήναι, 
τους δ' ΙΒία τί ες αυτούς ιτΧτιμμεΧεΙν Βοκούντας 
φερειν μήτε yap εκ καταφρονήσεως μ7]τ εξ 
ετπΒρομής άΒικηθήναί σφας Βύνασθάί Βιά το 
ΤΓοΧΧά τα ττροφυΧάσσοντα αυτούς είναι. 

ί20 **Ώστ6 έ'γωγε ταύτα τε άκούουσα καϊ ττρος 
ταύτα άττοβΧεττουσα κίνΒυνβύω καϊ τταντεΧώς 
άττειττεΐν σοι μηΒενα Βιά τοιούτο τί- άττοκτιννύναι. 
2 αϊ τε yap ττροστασίαι εττί τε ttj των άρχ^ομενων 
σωτήρια καθίστανται, οττως μηΒεν μήθ' ύπ* άΧΧι']- 
Χων μήθ^ ύτΓΟ των άΧΧοφύΧων βΧάτττωνται, ού 
μα Αια ουχ όπως ύττ' αυτών εκείνων τι Χυττώνταΐ' 

^ άδίκήσ6ί$ tlor. , αζικ-ησηιε Μ, aSiKTjaeias 6.ν Xipli. 




Ueasts, and the onl\ way you can make them truly a.d. 4 
well disposed toward you is by convincing them, 
by every means and on every occasion consistently, 
that you will wron<i^ no one, either purj)Osely or un- 
wittingly. A man can be compelled to fear another, 
but he ought to be persuaded to love him ; and lie 
is persuaded not only by the good treatment he 
himself receives, but also by the benefits he sees con- 
ferred on others. The man, however, who siisj^ects 
that a certain person has been put to death unjustly 
both fears that he may some day meet a like fate 
and is comj)elled to hate the one who is responsible 
for the deed. And to be hated by one's subjects, 
quite apart from its being deplorable in general, is 
also exceedingly unprofitable. For most ])eople 
feel that, although all other men must defend them- 
selves against all who Avrong them in any \v:iy or else 
become objects of contempt and so be oppressed, 
yet rulers ought to prosecute only those who wrong 
the state, tolerating those who are supposed to be 
committing offences against them privately ; rulers, 
they reason, can not themselves be harmed either 
by contempt or by direct attack, inasmuch as there 
are many instrumentalities which protect them from 

'' 1, therefore, when I hear such considerations 
advanced and turn mv thoughts to them, am inclined 
to go so far as to urge you to give up altogether the 
inflicting of the death penalty in any case for reasons 
of this kind. For the office of ruler has been estab- 
lished for the preservation of the governed, to 
prevent them from being injured either by one an- 
other or by foreign peoples, and not for a moment 
that thcA' may be harmed by the rulers themselves ; 



και βυκΚεβστατον eariv ου το ttoWov^ των ττοΧί- 
τών άτΓοΧλνναί, άΧ\ά το ιτάντα<ζ, αν Οίον τβ τ),^ 

3 σωζβίν Βύνασθαι. Traiheveiv μβν yap αυτούς και 
νόμοι<^ καΧ evepyealai^ καΐ νουθεσίαις Bet, οττω? 
σωφρονώσι, καΐ ττροσέτι κα\ τηρεΐν και φυΧαττβίν, 
'ίνα καν άΒίκεΐν βθβΧησωσί μη Βυνηθώσίν αν Be 
Βη νοσηστ) τι, θβραττβνβιν re τρόττον τ ίνα αύτο και 

4 βιτανορθουν, Ίνα μη τταντβΧως ψθαρη. το re yap 
φβρβιν τα των ττοΧΧών αμαρτήματα και ττανν 
μeyάXης κα\ φρονησβω^ καΐ Βννάμεως epyov Ιστιν 
άν τ€ Τί9 Ίτάντα άττΧως τα τοιαύτα κατά την 
άξίαν κοΧάζη, Χησβι του? ττΧβίονς των άνθρωττων 

5 άττοΧεσας. όθεν καΐ Βια ταντά σοι yvώμηv οίΒωμι 
θανάτω μβν ηιιηΒβνα των τοιούτων τίμωρεΐσθαι, 
€Τ6ρως Be ττως αυτούς, ώστ€ μηΒεν ετί BeLvov 
Βράσαί, σωφρονίζειν. τί yap αν άΒίΚ7]σ€ΐ€ τί? e? 
νησον κατακ\εισθεί<;, η καΐ ev ay ρω ttoXbl re τινι, 
ούχ οττως• άνευ ττΧηθους οίκετων η χρημάτων, 
άΧΧά καΐ μετά φρουράς ων, άν ye καΐ τούτου 

6 Βεηστ); εΐ μεν yap εγγύς ττου ενταύθα οι ττοΧέμίοι 
ήσαν, ή καΐ της θαΧάσσης ταύτης άΧΧότριόν τι 
ην, ώστε τινά αυτών ΒιαΒράντα ττρος εκείνους 
κακόν τι ημάς εpyάσaσθaι, ττόΧεις τε τίνες εν τη 
^ΙταΧία ε'χυραΧ καΐ τείγ^η καΐ οττΧα ε'χρυσαι ύττήρ- 
χον, ώστε τινά καταΧαβόντα αύτάς φοβερον 

7 ημίν yεvεσθaι, έτερος άν ην X6yoς' άόττΧων Βε Βη 
ττάντων των ταύτη καΐ ατείχιστων ώς ττρος ττοΧε- 

^ ^ R. Steph., ήρ Μ. 


arid the greatest glory is gained, not by putting a.d. 4 
many citizens to death, but by l)eing in a position to 
save them all, if that be possil)le. We must educate 
the citizens by means of laws and benefits and 
admonitions, in order that they may be right- 
minded, and furthermore, Ave must watch over them 
and guard them, in order that, even if tliey wish to 
do wrong, they may not be able to do so ; and if 
there is any ailment among them, we must find some 
wa}' to cure it and correct it, in order that the ailing 
member may not be utterly destroyed. To endure 
the offences of the multitude is a task demanding at 
once great prudence and great power ; but if any 
one is going to punish them all without distinction 
as they deserve, before he knows it lie will have 
destroyed the majority of mankind. Hence and for 
these reasons I give you my opinion to the effect 
that you should not infiict the death penalty upon 
any man for such offences, but should rather bring 
them to their senses in some other way, so that they 
will not in future commit any crime. What wrong- 
doing, indeed, could a man indulge in who is shut up 
on an island, or in the country, or in some city, not 
only deprived of a throng of servants and a supply 
of money, but also under guard, in case this, too, 
is necessary ? Of course, if the enemy were any- 
where near here or if some part of our sea belonged 
lo a foreign power, so that one or another of the 
})risoners might escape to them and do us some 
harm, or if, again, there were strong cities in Italy 
with fortifications and armed forces, so that if a man 
seized them, he might become a menace to us, that 
would be a different story. But in fact all the 
places here are unarmed and without walls that 



μ,ον όντων, και των ττοΧβμιων 7Γαμ7Γ\ηθ€<^ άττ 
αντών άφεστηκότων (ττοΧΧη μβν yap θάλασσα 
τΓοΧλη Se καΐ ^η, και ορη καΐ ττοταμούς ΒνσΒιαβά- 
8 τους 6'χρυσα, hca μέσον εστί), τι αν τις φοβηθείη 
τον heiva η τον Secva, 'γυμνούς, ΙΒιωτεύοντα^, ev- 
τανθά ττον 6V μβστ) Ty στ} apxfj οντα<; καΐ εντός 
των σων οττΧων κατ ακεκΚευ μένους ^; iyo) μεν yap 
οντ αν εννοήσαί τίνα τοίουτον ovhiv, ούτ^ αν, el - 
καΧ τα μάΧιστα μανείη τις, Βύνασθαί yi τι ττράξαί 
21 "ΐΐεΐραν ονν άττ* αυτών τούτων άρζάμενοι ττοιη- 
σώμεθα. τά'χ^α yap αν καΐ αντοί μεταβάΧοιντο '' 
και τους αΧΧους άμείνους ττοιήσειαν καΐ yap 
όρας ΟΤΙ καΐ 6 Κ,ορνηΧιος καΐ €ύyεvης καΐ ονο- 
μαστός εστί, 8εΐ 8ε ττου καΐ ταύτα ανθρωπίνως 

2 εκXoyίζεσθaί. ου ιτάντα tol το ξίφος διαπράτ- 
τεται {μεya yap ην αν * άyaθόv, ει σωφρονίζειν τε 
τ ίνας καΐ πείθειν η και κaτavayκάζεLv φιΧεΐν τινά 
άΧηθώς ε8ύνατο), άΧΧά το μεν σώμα τίνος φθεί- 
ρειεν αν, τάς 8ε 8η τών άΧΧων ψύχρας άΧΧοτριώ- 
σειεν ου yap εζ ών αν έτερου τιμωρηθώσι, προσ- 
φιλέστεροι τινι, άΧΧ* εξ ών αν αύτοΙ φοβηθώσιν, 

3 εχθίους yiyvovTai. καΐ ταύτα μεν οΰτως έχει, οΐ 
δε Βη συyyvώμης τίνος τυχόντες καΐ μετανοοΰσιν, 
αίσχυνόμενοι αυθίς τι τους εύepyέτaς άΒικήσαι, 
κ αϊ ποΧΧά αύτοΐς άvθυπoυpyoΰσίv, εΧπίζοντες 
πΧείω άντ εν πείσεσθαΐ'' ύφ" ου yap αν τις 
άΒικηθεντος τι σωθΐ], τούτον ευ παθόντα ούΒεν 6 τι 

^ κατακ€κλ€ίμ(νον5 Ό'ΐηά., κατακ€κλ€ΐσμ4ρον5 Μ Xiph. 

2 €t supplied by Pflugk. 

'^ μ^ταβάλοιντο Xiph., μ€ταβάλλοιντο ΛΙ. 

* h.v added b}• corrector of Μ (in margin), om. Xiph. flor. 



would ha of any value in war, and our enemies are 
separated from them by an immense distance ; much 
sea and much land, including mountains and rivers 
hard to cross, lie between them and us. Why, then, 
should one fear this man or that, defenceless men 
in private station, here in the middle of your empire 
and hemmed in by your armed forces? For my 
part, I do not believe that any one could conceive 
any such plot as 1 have mentioned, or that the 
veriest madman could accomplish anything by it. 

" Let us make the experiment, therefore, beginning 
with these very men. Perhaps they may not only 
be reformed themselves, but also make others better ; 
for you see that Cornelius is both of good birth and 
famous, and we ought, I presume, to take human 
nature into account in reasoning out such matters 
also. The sword, surely, can not accomplish every- 
thing for you, — it would indeed be a great boon if it 
could bring men to their senses and persuade them 
or even compel them to love a ruler with genuine 
affection, — but instead, while it will destroy the body 
of one man, it will alienate the minds of the rest. 
For people do not become more attached to any one 
because of the vengeance they see meted out to 
others, but they beome more hostile because of their 
fears. So much for that side ; but as for those who 
are treated in a forgiving spirit, they not only repent, 
because they are ashamed to wrong their benefactors 
again, but also re})ay them with many services, 
hoping to receive still further kindnesses ; for when 
a man has been spared by one who has been wronged, 
he believes that his rescuer, if fairly treated, will go 

* oi/T* fu τνίίσίσθαι Dind., άντ(υπ((σ(σθαι Rk., ανθυττοΐσ^σθαι 
Μ Xiph. 




4 ουκ evepyerijaeiv eavrov ηγείται, ττείσθητι, ουν 
μοί, φιΚτατβ, καΐ μεταβαΧοΐ)} ούτω μεν yap 
καΐ ταΧλα τά ^υσ'χ^ερη ττάντα ανάηκτ) ττβττοίηκεναι 
Βόξβΐ'ζ' ου yap ear ι iroXiv ι-ηΧίκαύτην Ικ ^ημο- 
κρατίας ττρο? μοναρχ^ίαν ayovra άναιμωτΐ μετα- 
στησαΐ' αν Se έτη rot? αύτοΐς ετημεντ}^, καϊ εκείνα 
yvώμr) ^ε^ρακεναι νομισθι^σ^Γ 
22 Ταύτα Τλ}? Αωυίας είττούσης 6 Αιίγουστο? εττεί- 
σθη τε αύττ}, καΐ άφήκε μεν ττάντας τους ύτταιτίους 
XoyoL^ ΎίσΙ νουθέτησαν, τον he Βη Κ,ορνήΧίον καϊ 

2 ΰττατον άιτε^ει^ε} κάκ τούτου καϊ εκείνον καϊ 
τους ΧοιτΓούς άνθρώττους οΰτως ωκειώσατο ώστε 
μηΒενα ετ αύτω των αΚΧων μήτ όντως εττιβου- 
Χεΰσαι μήτε So^ar η yap 8η ΑίουΙα αΐτιωτάτη 
της σωτηρίας τω Κ.ορνη\ίω yevoμεvη ημεΧλεν 
αύτη την αΐτιαν του Θανάτου του Aύyoύστoυ 

3 1οτ€ ό ουν εΐΓΐ τε του Κορνη\ιου και εττι 
ΟύαΧερίου Μ,εσσάΧου υπάτων σεισμοί τε εξαίσιοι 
συνέβησαν, καϊ 6 Ύίβερις την τε yεφυpav κατεσυρε 
καϊ ττΧωτην την ττοΧιν ετΛ ετττα ημέρας εττοίησε, 
του τε ήΧίου τι εκΧιττες εyεvετo, καϊ Χιμος συνη- 

4 νε'χθη. καν τω αύτω ετει τούτω ο τε ^Aypίlnτaς 
ες έφηβους, μηΒενος των αυτών τοις άΒεΧφοΐς 
τυχ^ών, εσεypάφη' καϊ τας ίττττοΒρομίας χωρίς μεν 
οΙ βουΧευταΙ χωρίς 8ε οι Ιτητης άττο του Χοιττοΰ 

5 ττΧηθους εΙΒον, ο καΐ νυν yiy νεται. εττειΒή τε ού 
ραΒίως οι ττάνυ εύyεvεΐς τας θυyaτεpaς ες την της 
^Έιστίας ίερατείαν εττεΒίΒοσαν, ενομοθετήθη καϊ εξ 

^ μβταβαλον Xiph., μίταβάλλου Μ. 

^ άτΓίδβίξε Μ Xiph., Ίτροσαττί^ξί^ίν Ζοη. 



to any lengtl.s in liis I.enefactions. Heed me there 
fore, dearest, and change your course ; if you do II 
your other acts that have caused disp easme wHl be 
thought to have been dictated by neeessity.-^indeed 
t >s nnpossible for a man to guide so great a dtv 
from democracy to monarchy atd make^the ohanse 
without bloodshed,-b«t if you continue in yo r oUl 
policy, you will be thought to have done these nn 
pleasant things deliberately " 

releS'",ll'",'i^"' these suggestions of Livia and 
leleased all the accused with some words of 
adniomtion ; and he even appointed Corneliu con 
sul As a result of this course he so conciliated 
both him and the other persons so treated that 
neither they nor anyone of ?he rest thereafter eite 

do -""ζο" Γ' •■'^"■'■"f 'T '■■• "- -^Peeted ο 
«oing so. It was rather Livia herself, who was 
ohiefly responsible for saving the life of Cornelius 
AiSuXs'" '" '''"'''''' "•^"' "'""'"8• the d:i",l'"of 

V f .*■''«, *"'"■> '" the consulship of Cornelius and 
Valerius Messalla, violent earthquakes occui I'ed ad 

eclipse of JJ^""" "^T; "'''^ "'«^ ■•'''° « P«^«=»^ 
eclipse ot the sun, and famine set in. This same 

year Agrippa was enrolled among the youths of 

m.htary age, but obtained none^ of ihe .me 

Ρ ivdeges as his brothers. The senators witne sTd 

the Ci censian games separately and the kniWits also 

sei,arately from the remainder of the populace as is 

the case to-day also. And since the nob e fluie 

< id not show themselves inclined to .ive lir 

daughters to be priestesses of \-esta a law wa^ 

passed that the daughters of freedme migh lil: 


(ί u 2 


άττεΧβυθ^ρων '^^'^ζ.ννημ.ίνα^ ίβράσθαι.^ και ό μβν 
κ\ηρο<; αΰτων, inel ττΧείου^ ημφβσβητησαν,^ iv 
τω avveSpLO) τταρόντων των ττατέρων σψών, όσοι 
ye ϊτΓΤΓβυον, iyevero, ον μβντοι και τοιαύτη τις 
23 Χαλβττώ? δε δ^ των στρατιωτών ττρος την των 
άθΧων σμικρότητα Βια τον<ζ ττοΧεμονς τους τότε 
βνβστηκότας οΰ'χ ηκιστα 6'χ^όντων, και μη^βνος βξω 
του TSTay μενού της στρατείας σφίσι γ^ρόνου οττλα 
Χαβεΐν εθεΧοντος, εψηφίσθη τοις μεν εκ του δορυ- 
φορικοί) πεντακισχιΧίας Βραχμάς, iireihav εκκαί- 
Βεκα ετη, τοις δε ετέροις τρισχιΧίας, εττεώαν 

2 είκοσι στρατεύσωνται, 8ί8οσθαι. τρία δε δ^ τότε 
καΐ είκοσι στρατόττεΒα, ή ως yε έτεροι Xεyoυσι 
ττεντε καΐ εϊκοσι, ττοΧιτικα ετρέφετο. νυν μεν yap 
εννεακαί8εκα εζ αυτών μόνα διαμένει, το τε 8ευ- 
τερον το Avyoύστειov'^^ το εν Έρεττανία τη άνω 
-χειμάζον, καΐ τα τρία τα τρίτα, το τε εν Φοινίκη 
το ΤαΧατικόν, καΐ το εν ^Αραβία το }ίυρηναϊκ6ν, 

3 τό τε εν Νουμώία το Aΰyoύστειov''^ τέταρτον Έ,κυ- 
θικον εν %υρία, ττεμτττον \Ιακε8ονικον εν Αακία, 
έκτα Βύο, ων το μεν εν Έρεττανια τη κάτω, το τών 
νικητόρων, τό δε εν ^ΙουΒαία, το σιδηρούν, τετα- 
κταΐ' καΐ οί έβδομοι οΐ εν τη ^ίυσία τη άνω, οΐ^ 
και τα μάΧιστα Κ.Χαυ8ιειοι ώνομάδαται, οϊ τε^ 
oySooi Aΰyoύστειoι, εν τη Τερμανία τη άνω οντες' 

4 κα\ οί Βεκατοι εκάτεροι,^ οϊ τε εν ΤΙαννονία τη άνω 
οί 8ί8υμοι, καΐ οί εν ^ΙουΒαία' τό τε ενΒεκατον το 

^ Upaadai R. Steph., Ι^ρωσθαι Μ. 

^ ημφβσβ-ητησαι/ Bs., αμφισβήτησαν Μ (but in margin yp. 
^ ΑυΎούστζίον Xiph., ανΎούστιοι Μ (and simiiai'ly just below). 



wise become priestesses. Many vied for the honour, 
and so they drew lots in the senate in the presence 
of their fathers, so far as these were knights ; how- 
ever, no priestess was appointed from this class. 

The soldiers were sorely displeased at the paltry 
character of the rewards given them for the wars 
which had been waged at this time and none of them 
consented to bear arms for longer than the regular 
period of his service. It was therefore voted that 
twenty thousand sesterces should be given to members 
of the pretorian guard when they had served sixteen 
years, and twelve thousand to the other soldiers when 
they had served twenty years. Twenty-three, or, as 
others say, twenty-five, legions of citizen soldiers 
were being supported at this time.^ At present only 
nineteen of them still exist, as follows : the Second 
(Augusta), with its winter quarters in Upper Britain ; 
the three Thirds — the Gallica in Phoenicia, the 
Cyrenaica in Arabia, and the Augusta in Xumidia ; 
the Fourth (Scythica) in Syria ; the Fifth (Macedonica) 
in Dacia ; the two Sixths, of Λvhich the one (Victrix) 
is stationed in Lower Britain, the other (Ferrata) in 
Judaea ; the Seventh (generally called Claudia ^) in 
Upi)er Moesia ; the Eighth (Augusta) in Upper 
Germany ; the two Tenths in upjier Pannonia 
(Gemina) and in Judaea ; the Eleventh (Claudia) in 

^ The confusion is due to the fact that after the defeat of 
Varus there were but twenty-three legions left (out of 
twenty-six) ; but Augustus later increased the number to 

2 Cf. Ix. 15, 4. 

* oi R. Steph., €. Μ Xiph. 

^ 0Ϊ T6 Xiph. , 01 5f M. 

^ JeVoTot kKartpoi Reim., SfKarepoi M, 84κατοι Xiph. 



iv Μ.νσία rfj κάτω, το KXavSietov ούτω yap τα 
hvo στρατότΓβ^α άιτο του ΚΧαυ^ίου βττεκΧηθη, οτι 
αΰτω iv ttj του ΚαμίΧΧου βτταναστάσεί μη άντ€- 

5 τΓοΧβμησβ' καΐ το 8ω8€κατον το iv Κ^ατηταΒοκία 
το κβραυνοφόρον, το τβ τρίτον καΐ Ββκατον το iv 
Aa/cta το ΒίΒυμον, καΐ το τέταρτον και Ββκατον το 
iv ΐΐαννονία tj} άνω το ΒιΒυμον, τό τε ττεντεκαιΒε- 

Γ) κατον το ^ ΑτΓοΧλώνβίον το iv ΚαττιταΕοκία' καΐ οί 
βίκοστοί οί καΐ ΟναΧερυβίΟί καΐ νικητορβ'^ ό)νομα- 
σμενοί καΐ iv Έρεττανίο. tj} άνω οντες' οΰστινα^ί 6 
Αΰ<γουστος,^ iμoϊ Εοκεΐν, μετά των την τε του 
Βευτερου καΐ ^ εΙκοστου i7Γωvυμίav iγ^όvτωv καΐ iv ^ 
Ty Τερμανία Tjj άνω -χείμαζόντων, εΐ καΐ τα μά- 
Χίστα μηθ^ ύφ' άττάντων ΟυαΧερίείΟΐ i'πεκXηθη- 
σαν μήτε νυν ετι ττ} ιτροση^ορία ταύτη γ^ρώνται, 

7 ΊταραΧαβων iτηpησε. ταΰτ' iK των Κΰ^ουστείων 
στρατοττεΒων σώζεται' τα yap 8η Χοιττά τα μεν 
7ΓαντεΧώ<ζ ΒιεΧύθη, τα δε κα\ ετεροίς τισίν ύττό τε 
αΰτοΰ iκεL•Voυ και υττ άΧΧων αυτοκρατόρων άνε- 
μί'χθη, άφ* οΰττερ καΐ ΒίΒυμα ώνομασμενα νενό- 
24 ΈτΓβίδή Βε άτταζ €9 τον ττερί των στρατοττεΒων 
Xoyov ττροήχθην, και ταΧΧα τα νυν οντά, ώ? ττον 
ττρος των μετά ταύτα αύταρχησάιηων κατεΧεχθη, 
φράσω, iV ενι 'χ^ωριω ττάντα yεypaμμεva ραΒιως 

2 τόι^ βουΧόμενόν τι περί αυτών μαθεΐν ΒιΒάσκη. 6 
τε yap ^ερων το ττρώτον το ^ καΐ ^ΙταΧίκον ονο- 
μαζόμενον καΐ iv τη κάτω Μυσία 'χειμάζον, καϊ 6 

^ δ Avyovaros Bk., avTovs Μ. 

^ 5€υτ4ρου και supplied by Mommsen. 

^ iv supplied by Xyl. 

* ττρωτον rh Bs., πρώτον re M. 




Lower Moesia (for two le/rions were thus named after 
Claudius because they had not fought against him in 
the rebellion of Camillus ^) ; the Twelfth (Fuhninata) 
in Cappadocia ; the Thirteenth (Gemina) in Dacia ; 
the Fourteenth (Gemina) in Upper Pannonia ; the 
Fifteenth (Apollinaris) in Cappadocia ; the Twentieth 
(called both Valeria and Victrix) in Upper Britain. 
These latter,! believe, were the troops which Augustus 
took over and retained, along with those called 
the Twenty-second who are quartered in Cjermany,^ 
— and this in spite of the fact that they were by 
no means called Valerians by all and do not use 
that name any longer. These are the legions that 
still remain out of those of Augustus ; of the rest, 
some were disbanded altogether, and others Λvere 
merged with various legions by Augustus himself 
and by other emperors, in consequence of which such 
legions have come to bear the name Gemina. 

Now that I have once been led into giving an 
account of the legions, I shall speak of the other 
legions also which exist to-day and tell of their 
enlistment by the emperors subsequent to Augustus, 
my purpose being that, if any one desires to learn 
about them, the statement of all the facts in a single 
portion of my book may provide him easily with the 
information. Nero organized the First Legion, 
called the Italica, which has its winter quarters in 

1 Cf. Ix. 15, 4. 

'^ Dio is in error here ; the Twenty-second (Primigenia) 
was organized by Claudius and therefore should be in the list 
of later legions given in chap. 24. 



ΤάΧβας τό τ€ ττρωτον ro eircKovpL/cou το iv rrj 

3 ΐΐαννονία rrj κάτω καΐ το ββ^ομον το 8ί8υμον το 
iv ^Ιβηρία συνέταξαν, Ούεσττασιανος τό re hev- 
Tepov το βτΓίκονρι,κον το iv ΤΙαννονία τι) κάτω καϊ 
το τέταρτον το ΦΧαονίβιον το iv ^ίυσία Trj ανω, 
τό τ€ ίκκαίΒβκατον το ΦΧαονίείον το iv ^νρία, 
Αομιτίανος το ττρωτον το ^Αθήναιον το iv Vep- 
μανία ττ) κάτω, Τραϊανός το SevTepov το Alyv- 

4 ΤΓΤίον καϊ το τριακοστον το Τβρμανικόν, α και άφ* 
eavTov i^τωvoμaσev, ^Αντωνΐνος ο Μάρκος τό τε 
SevTcpov τό iv Ι^ωρίκω καϊ τό τρίτον τό iv 
Ύαι,τία, α καϊ ^ΙταΧίκά κβκΧηται, ^βονήρος τα 
Τίαρθίκά, τό τ€ ττρωτον καΐ τό τρίτον τα ^ iv 
Μ.€σοττοταμία, καϊ τό 8ια μβσου τό hevTepov τό 
iv TTj 'Ιταλία. 

5 Ni}y μεν Βη τοσαΰτα τεί^η των iK του κατα- 
\oyov στρατευομένων εξω του τε αστικού καϊ του 
δορυφορικοί) εστί, τότε δε eVt του Αύγουστου 
ταύτα τε, elV ουν τρία εϊτε ττεντε καϊ εϊκοσιν 
όντα, iτpεφετo, καϊ συμμαγ^ικα και πεζών καϊ 
ίττττεων καϊ ναυτών όσα^ηττοτε ην ου yap εχω τό 

6 ακριβές είττείν οϊ τε σωματοφύΧακες μύριοι οντες 
καϊ Βεκα'χ^τ] τετayμεvoι, καϊ οι της ττόΧεως φρουροί 
εξακισχ^ίΧιοί τε όντες καϊ τετ ρα'χτι ν εν ε μη μεν or 

7 ξένοι τε Ιττττης iττίXεκτoί, οίς τό τών Βατάουων 
άττό της Έατάουας της iv τω '^ηνω νήσου Ονομα, 

8 οτί. Βη κράτιστοι Ιττττεύειν είσι, κείται• ου μεντοι 
αριθμόν αυτών ακριβή, ώσπερ ούΒε τών άνακΧή- 
των, εΙττεΐν Βύναμαι. καϊ yap τούτους ήρξατο μεν 
νομίζειν αφ' ου τους συστρατευσαμενους τω ττατρί 

^ raBk., rhU. 


Lower Moesia ; Galba the First (Adiutrix), with 
quarters in Lower Pannonia, and the Seventh 
(Gemina), in Spain ; Vespasian the Second (Adiutrix), 
in Lower Pannonia^ the Fourth (Flavia), in Upper 
Moesia, and the Sixteenth (Fhivia), in Syria ; 
Domitian the First (Minervia), in Lower Germany ; 
Trajan the Second (Aegyptia) and the Thirtieth 
(Germanica), both of which he also named after 
himself; ^ Marcus Antoninus the Second, in Noricum, 
and the Third, in Rhaetia, both of which are called 
Italica ; and Severus the Parthicae — the First and 
Third, quartered in Mesopotamia, and the Second, 
ijuartered in Italy. 

This is at present the number of the legions of 
regularly enrolled troops, exclusive of the city cohorts 
and the pretorian guard ; but at that time, in the 
days of Augustus, those I have mentioned were 
being maintained, Avhether the number is twenty- 
three or twenty-five, and there were also allied forces 
of infantry, cavalry, and sailors, whatever their 
numbers may have been (for I can not state the 
exact figures). Then there were the body-guards, 
ten thousand in number and organized in ten 
divisions, and the watchmen of the city, six thousand 
in number and organized in four divisions ; and there 
Λvere also picked foreign horsemen, who Avere given 
the name of Batavians, after the island of Batavia in 
the Rhine, inasmuch as the Batavians are excellent 
horsemen. I can not, hoAvever, give their exact 
number any more than I can that of the Evocatir- 
These last-named Augustus began to make a practice 
of employing from the time when he called again 

^ The Second was called Traiana and the Thirtieth Ulpia. 
3 That is, the " ^lecalled." Cf. xlv. 12, 3. 



7Γ/309 τα όττλα ανθι^ iirl τον ^ Κντώνιον άνεκά- 
XeaeVy βτηρησβ δε* καΐ είσΐ καί νυν σύστημα 
lSlov, ράβΒους φεροντβς ωσττερ οΙ εκατόνταρ'χρι. 
9 Δί ουν ταυτ άττορών γ^ρημάτων, ^νώμην e? την 
βουΧην €σην€>γκ€ ττόρον τίνα Βιαρκή καϊ άεί