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Full text of "Distribution and use of hearing aids, wheel chairs, braces, and artificial limbs, United States, July 1958-June 1959 : statistics relating to the distribution and use of hearing aids, wheel chairs, braces, and artificial limbs. Based on data collected in household interviews during the period July 1958-June 1959"

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I *58/ 51. 



SERIES B — No .27 




STATISTICS 

FflOM THE U.S. NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY 



distribution and use of 

Hearing Aids, Wheel Chairs, 
Braces, and Artificial Limbs 

United States 
July 1958 -June 1959 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE 
Public Health Service 





See inside of back cover 
for catalog card. 





Jn, 

H E A L T H*"*^*' 
STATISTICS ***" 

FROM THE U..S,. NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY 



distribution and use of 

Hearing Aids, Wheel Chairs 
Braces, and Artificial Limbs 

United States 
July 1958-June 1959 

Statistics relating to the distribution and use of hearing aids, wheel 
chairs, braces, and artificial limbs. Based on data collected in 
household interviews during the period July 1958-June 1959. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE 
Abraham A. Ribicoff, Secretary 

Public Health Service 
Luther L. Terry, Surgeon General 



Washington, D. C. 



June 1961 



NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



Forrest E. Linder, Ph. D., Director 
Theodore D. Woolsey, Assistant Director 



U. S. NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY 



Theodore D. Woolsey, Chief 
Alice M. Waterhouse, M.D., Chief Medical Advisor 
James E. Kelly, D.D.S., Dental Advisor 
Walt R, Simmons, Statistical Advisor 
O. K. Sagen, Ph.D., Chief, Health Examination Survey 
Philip S. Lawrence, Sc. D., Chief, Health Interview Survey 
Margery R. Cunningham, Staff Assistant 
Robert T. Little, Chief, Computer Applications 



The U. S. National Health Survey is a continuing program under which 
the Public Health Service makes studies to determine the extent of ill- 
ness and disability in the population of the United States and to gather 
related information. It is authorized by Public Law 652, 84th Congress. 



CO-OPERATION OF THE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Under the legislation establishing the National Health Survey, the 
Public Health Service is authorized to use, insofar as possible, the 
services or facilities of other Federal, State, or private agencies. For 
the Health Interview Survey the Bureau of the Census designed and 
selected the sample, conducted the household interviews, and proc- 
essed the data in accordance with specifications established by the 
Public Health Service. 



Public Health Service Publication No. 584-B27 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Summary 1 

Source of Data 1 

Distribution of Special Aids 2 

Hearing Aids 3 

Other Special Aids 5 

Wheel Chairs 5 

Braces 6 

Artificial Limbs 8 

Detailed Tables 9 

Appendix I. Technical Notes on Methods — 15 

Background of This Report 15 

Statistical Design of the Health Inter- 
view Survey 15 

General Qualifications 16 

Reliability of Estimates 16 

Appendix II. Definitions of Certain Terms 

Used in This Report 19 

Terms Relating to Special Aids 19 

Demographic, Social, and Economic 

Terms 19 

Location of Residence Terms 19 

Terms Relating to Disability 20 

Terms Relating to Conditions 20 



Appendix III. Questionnaire 



21 



SYMBOLS AND NOTES 



Data not available (three dashes) — 

Category not applicable (three dots) 

Quantity is zero (1 dash) 

Magnitude greater than zero but less than 
one-half of the unit used 0 or 0.0 

Magnitude of the sampling error precludes 
showing separate estimates (*) 



NOTE: Due to rounding detailed figures within 
tables may not add to totals 




HEARING AIDS, WHEEL CHAIRS, BRACES, 
AND ARTIFICIAL LIMBS 



SUMMARY 

From data collected in the National Health 
Survey during the period July 1958-June 1959 
on the civilian, noninstitutionalized population 
of the United States, it was estimated that 1,161,000 
persons had hearing aids. When related to the 
persons reporting impairment of hearing during 
the same period of time, this estimate indicates 
that 1 person out of 5 with hearing impairment 
had a hearing aid. 

Based on persons with hearing impairment, 
more females than males had hearing aids, 
and the rate of hearing aids was consistently 
higher in urban than in rural areas with the 
magnitude of the differential by residence in- 
creasing with age. 

Approximately 253,000 persons possessed 
wheel chairs during the data-collection period. 
About 54 percent of these persons were con- 
fined to the house except in emergencies. 

Estimates of 201,000 persons with leg or foot 
braces and 494,000 with other types of braces were 
obtained from the survey. About 82 ,000, or 41 per- 
cent of the leg or foot braces, were reported for 
children under 15 years of age, and about three 
fourths of the 82,000 reported were worn because 
of conditions due to poliomyelitis or of congenital 
origin. 

Of the estimated 139,000 persons with arti- 
ficial limbs, 132,000, or 94 percent, were re- 
ported for males. About 106,000, 76 percent 
of the total number, were persons with an 
artificial leg or foot. Based on the 274,000 
persons who reported absence of major ex- 
tremities during the survey period, July 1958- 
June 1959, it is estimated that approximately 
one half of such persons had an artificial limb. 

SOURCE OF DATA 

The information contained in this report 
was obtained from a continuous probability sam- 
ple of the civilian, noninstitutional population 



This report was prepared by Geraldine A. Gleeson of the Nation- 
al Health Survey staff and Maria Craig as a participant in a Summer 
Internship Program. 



residing in the United States. The report is based 
on interview data collected during the period 
July 1958-June 1959, during which time inter- 
views were conducted in approximately 37,000 
households throughout the United States and in- 
cluded about 120,000 persons. 

In addition to the basic questions on the 
questionnaire, supplementary questions to col- 
lect information on special aids were included 
during the period July 1958-June 1959. These 
questions were designed to determine the num- 
ber of persons who had aids (hearing aid, wheel 
chair, brace, or artificial limb), conditions for 
which the aids were used, the frequency with 
which the aids were used, and the reasons for 
their occasional use or complete disuse. 

A description of the survey design, methods 
used in estimation, and the general qualifications 
of the data is presented in Appendix I. Par- 
ticular attention is called to information con- 
tained in the section Reliability of Estimates. 
The data in all of the cells in the tables in the 
report are subject to errors of sampling, i.e., 
errors resulting from the use of a sample of 
households instead of all the households in the 
United States. The sampling errors for most 
of the estimates presented are of relatively 
low magnitude. However, for estimates of items 
of very low frequency in the population, such as 
the rate of hearing aids among persons under 
45 years of age, the relative sampling error 
may become quite large. While such an estimate 
represents the general order of the frequency 
of occurrence of the item, it should be inter- 
preted with caution. 

Definitions of certain terms used in this 
report with particular emphasis on the kinds 
of appliances considered as special aids are 
presented in Appendix II. Many of the terms 
have specialized technical meanings for the 
purposes of this survey, and familiarity with 
these definitions is necessary for the inter- 
pretation of the findings presented. 

The data presented in this report are based 
on responses to a supplementary question on 
the questionnaire used by the National Health 
Survey during the period July 1958-June 1959. 



I 



A facsimile of the questionnaire used in the sur- 
vey is presented as Appendix III. 

DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIAL AIDS 

The number of special aids reported in the 
household interview produced nationwide esti- 
mates of relatively small magnitude. Because 
of the sampling error associated with such 
estimates it is not possible to present detailed 
information on all types of aids by age, residence, 
family income, and some of the other factors 
which may have some effect on the distribution 
of special aids. For this reason the greater 
part of this report deals with hearing aids, the 



only type of aid reported in sufficient number 
to permit cross-classification of the data by 
the aforementioned factors. 

The comparative distribution of the various 
types of aids in the noninstitutionalized popu- 
lation is shown in table A, and, because of the 
low frequencies, has been limited to a series 
of dichotomous classifications. 

With the exception of wheel chairs, special 
aids were reported more frequently for males 
than for females. While some of the differ- 
entials by sex shown in table A are not statis- 
tically significant, a pattern of higher rates 
among males is fairly well established. 

As would be expected, the number of hearing 
aids and of wheel chairs per 1,000 population 



Table A. Number of special aids and rate per 1,000 population by type of aid according 
to sex, age, and residence: United States, July 1958-June 1959 



Characteristic 






Type of 


special 


aid 




Hear ing 
aid 


Wheel 

chair 


Brace 


Artificial 

limb 


All 

types 


Leg or 
foot 


Other 






Number of aids in thousands 




All persons 


1,161 


253 


695 


201 


494 


139 


Sex 














Male 


589 


93 


454 


127 


327 


132 


Female 


572 


161 


240 


74 


167 


(*) 


Age 














Under 65 years 


514 


99 


633 


189 


444 


115 


65+ years 


648 


154 


62 


(*) 


50 


25 


Residence 














Urban 


750 


160 


403 


122 


281 


97 


Rural 


411 


93 


292 


79 


213 


42 






Rate per 1 


,000 population 




All persons 


6.8 


1.5 


4.1 


1.2 


2.9 


0.8 


Sex 














Male 


7.1 


1.1 


5.4 


1.5 


3.9 


1.6 


Female 


6.5 


1.8 


2.7 


0.8 


1.9 


(*) 


Age 














Under 65 years 


3.3 


0.6 


4.0 


1.2 


2.8 


0.7 


65+ years 


43.7 


10.4 


4.2 


(*) 


3.4 


1.7 


Residence 














Urban 


7.3 


1.6 


3.9 


1.2 


2.7 


0.9 


Rural 


6.0 


1.4 


4.3 


1.2 


3.1 


0.6 



2 






was very much higher among persons 65 years 
of age and older than among younger persons. 
Braces were reported at about the same rate 
for the two age groups. The higher rate of leg 
and foot braces among persons under 65 years 
was largely attributable to the number reported 
for children. In the age group 0-14 years, polio- 
myelitis and conditions of congenital origin were 
most frequently reported as conditions for which 
the leg or foot brace was needed. 

HEARING AIDS 

During the year July 1958-June 1959 ap- 
proximately 1,161,000 persons in the civilian, 
noninstitutional population of the United States 
possessed hearing aids. This represents a rate 
of 6.8 persons per 1,000 population with al- 
most equal distribution among males and females 
in each of the age groups shown in table 1. 
Among persons under 45 years of age, 1.3 per- 
sons per 1,000 population had a hearing aid, with 
the rate steadily increasing with age to 72.6 
persons per 1,000 population among those 75 
years of age and older (table 1). 

For certain purposes, such as the com- 
parison of the distribution of hearing aids with 
that of other special aids, the entire population 
is appropriate to use as a base for the com- 
putation of rates. However, a more suitable base 
to use in the evaluation of differences in the 
distribution of hearing aids by demographic fac- 
tors is the number of persons with hearing 
impairment. Not only do persons in this category 
constitute a more specific base for the use of 
hearing aids, but their distribution by age group 
is quite similar to that for persons with hearing 
aids. Because users of the data employ rates 
for various purposes, both types of rates are 
presented in the detailed tables on hearing aids. 

Another factor which must be taken into 
account in the interpretation of rates, partic- 
ularly in the consideration of differences in 
crude rates by demographic characteristics, is 
the age distribution of the populations on which 
the rates are based. For example, in table 2 
the rate of hearing aids is higher among persons 
with family income $4,000 and over in four of the 
five age groups shown. Yet a rate computed for 
all ages in the lower income bracket, after 
summing the number of hearing aids in the 
individual age groups and dividing by either 
the total population or the number of persons 
with hearing impairment, is higher than a com- 
parable rate auion^, ill persons with family in- 
come $4,000 and over. This apparent discrepancy 
is due to the disproportionate number of older 
persons in the income group under $4,000 About 
15 percent of the total population and approxi- 



mately 60 percent of persons with hearing im- 
pairment in the lower income bracket were 65 
years or older, as compared with 4 percent of 
the total population and 26 percent of the per- 
sons with hearing impairment in the group with 
family income $4,000 and over. This results 
in the rate for all ages in the lower income 
group being heavily weighted by the high rate 
of hearing aids among persons 65 years and 
over. 

Because of the danger of misinterpretation 
of crude rates which are subject to distortion 
caused by the concentration of the measurement 
item (hearing aids, in this instance) in a partic- 
ular segment of the population or by the ab- 
normal age distribution of the base population, 
only age-specific rates have been shown in the 
detailed tables. For users of the data who wish 
to compute age-adjusted rates, suitable pop- 
ulation data are presented in tables 5 and 6. 

The number of persons with hearing im- 
pairment was obtained from replies to the "ill- 
ness recall" questions and the check list of 
selected impairments on the questionnaire (see 
Appendix III) Estimates are based on all hearing 
impairments reported, with no attempt to deter- 
mine the proportion which could be corrected 
by the use of a hearing aid. 

Roughly 200 persons per 1,000 persons with 
hearing impairment, or 1 person out of 5, had 
a hearing aid. Since the rate of hearing impair- 
ment was higher among males than among fe- 
males, this method of computation shows that 
more females than males with hearing impair- 
ment possess hearing aids (table B). The number 
of hearing aids per 1,000 persons with hearing 
impairment increases with age for both of the 
sexes, but, unlike the rates based on the total 
population of the United States, the sex differential 
was greatest in the 55-64 and 65-74 age groups 
(table 1 and fig. 1). 

The rates shown in columns 2 and 3 of 
table 2 for hearing aids by amount of family 
income are somewhat inflated because of the 
exclusion of persons with "unknown" income 
in the population base. Income data were not 
available for an estimated 12 million persons 
in the population, and with no information by 
which to prorate these persons by income status 
in the various age groups, they were of neces- 
sity excluded from the population figures In 
some instances rates shown in column 1 for 
"all incomes are lower than the rates by in- 
come status because persons of unknown income 
are included in the total column. These rates 
represent the true average level of the rates 
shown by the amount of family income. 

The estimate of the number of hearing 
aids per 1,000 population increased with age 



3 



Table B. Number and rate per 1,000 population of persons with hearing aids and with 
hearing impairment, and the rate of persons with hearing aids per 1,000 persons 
with hearing impairment: United States, July 1958-June 1959 



Persons with hearing aids and hearing impairment 


Male 


Female 


Persons with hearing aids 






Number (in thousands) 


589 


572 


Rate per 1,000 population 


7.1 


6.5 


Persons with hearing impairment 






Number (in thousands) 


3,279 


2,495 


Rate per 1,000 population 


39.3 


28.4 


Rate of hearing aids per 1,000 persons with hearing 






impairment 


179.6 


229.3 



in both urban and rural areas of residence, 
but no appreciable difference by area of resi- 
dence was present in any of the age groups. 
However, rates based on persons with hearing 
impairment were consistently higher in urban 
areas for all of the age groups, with the magni- 
tude of the differential by residence increasing 
with age (table 3). 

Similar to the distribution of hearing aids 
by other demographic characteristics, the num- 
ber of hearing aids per 1,000 population in- 
creased with age in all of the activity status 
groups. The distribution of hearing aids by age 
was quite similar among those working or going 
to school and those keeping house, with the ex- 
ception of the age group 65-74 where the rate 
for those working was 17.5 per 1,000 popula- 
tion compared with 28.1 for those keeping house. 
This difference may be partially explained by 
the number of working persons who retire at 
65 years of age, while those keeping house con- 
tinue to report keeping house as their major 
activity even after 65. Rates based on the num- 
ber of persons with hearing impairment dis- 
play a similar pattern with the same significant 
differential for those working and those keeping 
house in the age group 65-74 (table 4). 

About 12 percent of the hearing impairments 
which had caused persons to obtain hearing aids 
were due to an accident or an injury (excluding 
birth injury). Approximately 20 percent were due 
to infections and inflammations, and about 2 
percent were of congenital origin or due to a 
birth injury. The remainder of the hearing im- 
pairments responsible for the use of a hearing 
aid, representing about two thirds of the hearing 
aids reported, were due to other causes or condi- 
tions. This category includes ill-defined causes, 
such as old age, "wear and tear," gradual loss 



of hearing, and continued exposure to noise. 

Of the estimated 1,161,000 persons with 
hearing aids, 432,000 persons, or 37.2 percent, 
used the aid all of the time, and 208,000 per- 
sons, or 17.9 percent, used it most of the time. 
About 340,000 persons, or 29.3 percent of those 
with hearing aids, used the aid occasionally, 
while 172,000, or 14.8 percent, no longer used 
the device. For approximately 10,000 persons, 



Figure 1. Number of hearing aids per 1,000 persons with hearing 
impairment by age and sex. 




4 






Table C. Distribution of persons with hearing aids according to amount of time used 
and reason for occasional or discontinued use of hearing aid: United States, July 

1958-June 1959 



Amount of time used and reason for occasional or dis- 
continued use of hearing aid 


Number 

(in thousands) 


Percent 


Total persons with hearing aids 


1,161 


100.0 


Persons using hearing aid all or most of 






the time 


640 


55.1 


Persons using hearing aid occasionally: 






Aid not needed all the time 


195 


16.8 


Aid caused discomfort 


114 


9.8 


Other reason 


30 


2.6 


Persons no longer using hearing aid: 






Aid not needed all the time 


32 


2.8 


Aid caused discomfort 


100 


8.6 


Other reason 


40 


3.4 


No information on use of hearing aid 


10 


0.9 



about 0.9 percent of the total with aids, no in- 
formation was available on the frequency of 
use. 

While various reasons were given for the 
occasional or discontinued use of hearing aids, 
in general they can be classified as (1) aid 
not needed all the time, (2) aid caused dis- 
comfort, and (3) other reasons. The distribution 
of persons with hearing aids according to the 
amount of time the aid was used and the reason 
for the occasional or discontinued use of the aid 
is shown in table C. It is of particular interest 
that the reason reported most frequently for the 
occasional use of a hearing aid was "the aid 
was not needed all the time," while discomfort 
caused by the hearing aid was most frequently re- 
ported as a reason by those persons no longer us- 
ing a hearing aid. 

OTHER SPECIAL AIDS 

Wheel Chairs 

Approximately 253,000 persons in the non- 
institutional population were estimated to have 
wheel chairs during the data-collection period 
July 1958-June 1959. Of this number 99,000, 
or 39.1 percent, were reported by persons 
under 65 years of age, 46,000, or 18.2 percent, 
by persons 65-74 years of age, and 109,000, or 
43.1 percent, by persons 75 years and over. 
The distribution by sex and age is shown graph- 
ically in figure 2. 



About 70,000 (27.7 percent) of the persons 
with wheel chairs reported their usual activity 
as working or going to school or keeping house. 
Of the remaining 183,000, about 98,000 were 
retired and 85,000 were classified as other or 
unknown activity status, a category which would 
include those who had never been able to work, 
go to school, or keep house, and would there- 
fore not be classified in any of the major ac- 
tivity groups provided on the questionnaire. 

Approximately 54 percent of the persons 
with wheel chairs were confined to the house, 
except in emergencies The percentage disabled 
to this degree among those 65 years and over 
was almost twice as high as the comparable 
percentage for those under 65 years (table D) 
This reflects to some extent the higher per- 
centage of impairments reported as conditions 

Percent 



Sex 0 20 40 60 80 100 




Under 65 65-74 75 + 

Figure 2. Percent di stributi an of persons with wheel chairs accord- 
ing to age by sex. 



5 



Table D. Number and percent of persons with wheel chairs who were confined to the 
house according to age: United States, July 1958- June 1959 



Age 


Number of persons 
with wheel chairs 
(in thousands) 


Persons confined to the house 


Number 

(in thousands) 


Percent 


All ages 


253 


137 


54.2 


Under 65 years 


99 


35 


35.4 


65-74 years 


46 


31 


67.4 


75+ years 


109 


71 


65.1 



for which wheel chairs were needed in the older 
age group. Since data on all wheel chairs were 
collected, whether the person was permanently 
confined or only temporarily so due to injury 
or other acute condition, data for persons under 
65 would be more heavily weighted by persons 
with temporary disability. 

Of the 253,000 persons with wheel chairs, 
134,000, or 53.0 percent, used a wheel chair 
all of the time, 39,000, or 15.4 percent, most 
of the time, 66,000, or 26.1 percent, occasionally, 
and the remainder, about 5 percent of the total 
had discontinued the use of a wheel chair. 



Braces 

The distribution of leg and foot braces is 
quite different from that of other braces, par- 
ticularly when considered by age, amount of 
time used, and the type of conditions neces- 
sitating the use of a brace. For this reason 
data for leg and foot braces have been tabu- 
lated as a separate category (table E). 

Approximately 41 percent of all leg and 
foot braces were reported for children under 
15 years of age as compared with 6 percent of 
the braces of other types. Of the 82,000 leg 
or foot braces reported for children, 61,000, 
or 74 percent, were worn because of conditions 
due to poliomyelitis or of congenital origin. 
The proportion of persons 45 years and over 
among those with other kinds of braces, such 
as back or neck braces, was twice the pro- 
portion in this age group among persons with 
leg and foot braces. 

Of the persons with leg or foot braces, about 
70 percent used the brace all or most of the 
time; a comparable percentage among those 
with other types of braces was 50 percent. 
The appreciably higher percentage who reported 
occasional use of the brace among those with 
other types of braces was probably due to the 



type of condition for which the brace was used. 
About one half of the other types of braces were 
used for conditions classified as nonimpairments; 
many of these were conditions causing temporary 
or recurrent disability, such as displacement of 
intervertebral disc, arthritis, ill-defined back 
conditions, and current injuries. The high per- 
centage of impairments among the conditions for 
which a leg or foot brace was needed accounted 
for the higher percentage reporting constant 
use of the appliance. 

About 113,000, 56 percent of the 201,000 
persons with leg or foot braces, reported working 
or going to school as their usual activity. About 
16,000 were keeping house or retired. Of the 
remaining 72,000 whose usual activity was clas- 
sified as other, 49,000 were children under 15 
years of age. Even though the small numbers 
involved precluded a more detailed age grouping, 
there is little doubt that the group included 
many children under 6 who had not yet started 
to school. 

In the group reporting other types of braces, 
312,000, 63 percent of the total group, reported 
working or going to school as their usual ac- 
tivity; 80,000 were keeping house, 26,000 were 
retired, and 75,000 were classified in the other 
or unknown group. 

The percentage of persons who were unable 
to carry on their major activity was higher among 
persons with other types of braces than among 
those with leg or foot braces, but, conversely, 
a higher proportion of those with leg or foot 
braces had limitation of mobility (table F). It 
should be pointed out that limitation of activity 
and mobility is considered on a person basis, 
and no attempt has been made to determine if 
the limitation is due to the condition causing 
the use of the brace. In addition, there is a 
possibility that an individual may have leg or 
foot braces as well as other types of braces, 
and thus would be included in both groups. 



6 



Table E 
age, 
1959 



. Percent distribution of persons 
amount of time aid used, and type 



with leg or foot braces and other braces by 
of condition: United States, July 1958-June 



Characteristic 


Leg or foot 


braces 


Other braces 


Number 

(in thousands) 


Percent 


Number 

(in thousands) 


Percent 


Age 










All ages 


201 


100.0 


494 


100.0 


Under 15 years 


82 


40.8 


29 


5.9 


15-44 years 


71 


35.3 


238 


48.2 


45+- years 


48 


23.9 


226 


45.7 


Amount of time used 










Total 


201 


100.0 


494 


100.0 


All of the time 


116 


57.7 


178 


36.0 


Most of the time 


28 


13.9 


78 


15.8 


Occasionally 


37 


18.4 


168 


34.0 


Never used now 


21 


10.4 


70 


14.2 


Type of condition 










All conditions 


201 


100.0 


494 


100.0 


Impairment 


188 


93.5 


228 


46.2 


Non impairment 


13 


6.5 


266 


53.8 



Table F. Percent distribution of persons with leg or foot braces and other braces by 
chronic limitation of activity or mobility: United States, July 1958-June 1959 



Chronic limitation 


Persons with leg or 
foot braces 


Persons with other braces 


Number 

(in thousands) 


Percent 
of total 


Number 

(in thousands) 


Percent 
of total 


Total 


201 


100.0 


494 


100.0 


Unable to carrv on major 










activity 


15 


7.5 


63 


12.8 


Limited in amount or kind of 










.usual or outside activity 


93 


46.3 


227 


46.0 


No limitation of activity 


93 


46.3 


204 


41.3 


Total 


201 


100.0 


494 


100.0 


Limited in mobility 


60 


29.9 


92 


18.6 


No limitation of mobility 




141 


70.1 


402 


81.4 



7 



Artificial Limbs 

About 132,000 representing 94 percent of the 
139,000 artificial limbs reported in the survey 
were reported for males, and about 106,000, or 
76 percent of the total, were classified as artifi- 
cial leg or foot. 

About 57,000, 41 percent of the total number, 
were reported for persons under 45 years of 
age. Approximately 90 percent of the artificial 



limbs were used all or most of the time. All 
of the conditions causing the use of artificial 
limbs were classified as impairments since the 
use of an artificial limb implies the absence 
of a major extremity. 

Based on the 274,000 persons who reported 
conditions classified as absence of major ex- 
tremity, it is estimated that approximately one 
half of such persons had an artificial limb. 



8 



DETAILED TABLES 



Page 



Table 1. Number of persons with hearing aids and number per 1,000 population and per 

1,000 persons with hearing impairment by sex and age: United States, July 1958- 

June 1959 10 

2. Number of persons with hearing aids and number per 1,000 population and per 

1,000 persons with hearing impairment by family income and age: United States, 

July 1958- June 1959 10 

3. Number of persons with hearing aids and number per 1,000 population and per 

1,000 persons with hearing impairment by residence and age: United States, July 
1958-June 1959 11 

4. Number of persons with hearing aids and number per 1,000 population and per 

1,000 persons with hearing impairment by major activity and age: United States, 

July 1958-June 1959 — 11 

5. Number and rate per 1,000 population of persons with hearing impairment accord- 
ing to age by sex, family income, residence, and major activity: United States, 

July 1958-June 1959 12 

6. Population used in obtaining rates shown in this publication by sex, family in- 
come, residence, and major activity: United States, July 1958-June 1959 13 



9 



Table 1. Number of persons with hearing aids and number per 1,000 population and per 1,000 per- 
sons with hearing impairment by sex and age: United States, July 1958- June 1959 

[j)ata are based on household interviews of the civilian, noninstitutional population. The survey design, general qualifications, and information 
on the reliability of the estimates are given in Appendix I. Definitions of terms are given in Appendix II] 



Age 


Both sexes 


Male 


Female 




Number 


of persons in thousands 


Under 45 


156 


94 


62 


45-54 - 


146 


81 


65 


55-64 


212 


116 


96 


65-74 


281 


131 


149 


75+ 


367 


167 


199 




Rate 


per 1,000 population 


Under 45 


1.3 


1.6 


1.0 


45-54 


7.3 


8.3 


6.3 


55-64 


14.1 


16.1 


12.3 


65-74 


28.8 


28.8 


28.5 


75+ - 


72.6 


76.5 


69.4 




Rate per 1,000 


persons with hearing impairment 


Under 45 


101.9 


104.9 


97.5 


45-54 


200.3 


189.3 


215.9 


55-64 - - 


218.6 


183.8 


283.2 


65-74 


230.7 


192.9 


276.4 


75+- - 


276.8 


258.9 


292.2 



Table 2. Number of persons with hearing aids and number per 1,000 population and per 1,000 per- 
sons with hearing impairment by family income and age: United States, July 1958-June 1959 



(See headnote on table 1) 



Age 


Family income 


All incomes 1 


Under $4,000 


$4,0001- 




Number 


of persons in thousands 


Under 45 


156 


40 


116 


45-54 - 


146 


69 


77 


55-64 


212 


99 


112 


65-74 - 


281 


192 


89 


75+ 


367 


249 


116 




Rate 


per 1,000 population 


Under 45 


1.3 


1.0 


1.6 


45-54 


7.3 


11.0 


6.3 


55-64 


14.1 


15.5 


15.9 


65-74 - 


28.8 


31.3 


32.9 


75+ 


72.6 


78.7 


88.2 




Rate per 1,000 


persons with hearing impairment 


Under 45 


101.9 


85.5 


121.3 


45-54 - 


200.3 


293.6 


177.8 


55-64 - 


218.6 


219.0 


249.4 


65-74- 


230.7 


237.0 


290.8 


75+ 


276.8 


288.2 


347.3 



1 

Includes persons with “unknown” family income. 



10 



Table 3. Number of persons with hearing aids and number per 1,000 population and per 1,000 per- 
sons with hearing impairment by residence and age: United States, July 1958-June 1959 

(Data arc based on household interviews of the civilian, noninstitutional population. The survey design, goneral qualifications, and information 
on the reliability of the estimates are given in Appendix I. Definitions of terms are given in Appendix II] 



Age 


Residence 


All areas 


Urban 


Rural 




Number 


of persons in thousands 


Under 45 


156 


97 


59 


45-54 


146 


95 


51 


55-64 


212 


139 


73 


65-74 


281 


175 


106 


75+ - 


367 


244 


123 




Rate 


per 1,000 population 


Under 45 


1.3 


1.4 


1.2 


45-54 


7.3 


7.3 


7.2 


55-64 - - 


14.1 


13.8 


14.6 


65-74 


28.8 


27.5 


31.2 


75+ 


72.6 


75.4 


67.8 




Rate per 1,000 


persons with hearing impairment 


Under 45 


101.9 


111.1 


89.7 


45-54 


200.3 


209.7 


184.8 


55-64 


218.6 


227.9 


202.8 


65-74 


230.7 


248.6 


206.2 


75+ 


276.8 


297.6 


243.6 



Table 4. Number of persons with hearing aids and number per 1,000 population and per 1,000 per- 
sons with hearing impairment by major activity and age: United States, July 1958-June 1959 

(See headnote on table 3) 



Age 


Major activity 


All activities 1 


Working or 
going to school 


Keeping house 


Retired 






Number of persons 


in thousands 




Under 45 — 


156 


112 


33 




45-54 


146 


107 


31 


- 


55-64 


212 


121 


59 


21 


65-74 


281 


41 


113 


110 


75+ 


367 


28 


126 


195 






Rate per 1,000 


population 




Under 45 


1.3 


1.5 


1.7 




45-54 


7.3 


8.1 


5.2 


- 


55-64 


14.1 


14.3 


11.6 


31.5 


65-74 


28.8 


17.5 


28.1 


36.8 


75+ 


72.6 


72.5 


67.2 


81.4 




Rate per 


1,000 persons with hearing impairment 


Under 45 


101.9 


100.0 


114.6 




45-54 


200.3 


217.5 


169.4 


- 


55-64 


218.6 


209.7 


255.4 


259.3 


65-74 


230.7 


173.0 


272.9 


222.2 


75+ 


276.8 


337.3 


286.4 


272.3 



1 

Includes persons whose major activity was classified as other (as defined in Appendix II). 



Table 5. Number and rate per 1,000 population of persons with hearing impairment according to 
age by sex, family income, residence, and major activity: United States, July 1958-June 1959 

[Y)ata are based on household interviews of the civilian, noninstitutional population. The survey design, general qualifications, and information 
on the reliability of the estimates are given in Appendix I. Definitions of terms are given in \ppendix II] 



Characteristic 


Age 


All ages 


Under 45 


45-54 


55-64 


65-74 


75+ 






Number of persons 


in thousands 




All persons with hearing impairment-- 


5,774 


1,531 


729 


970 


1,218 


1,326 


Sex 














Male - - 


3,279 


896 


428 


631 


679 


645 


Female 


2,495 


636 


301 


339 


539 


681 


Family income 














Under $4,000 


2,829 


468 


235 


452 


810 


864 


$4,000+ 


2,478 


956 


433 


449 


306 


334 


Residence 














Urban 


3,459 


873 


453 


610 


704 


820 


Rural 


2,315 


658 


276 


360 


514 


505 


Mai or activity 














Working or going to school 


2,509 


1,120 


492 


577 


237 


83 


Keeping house 


1,556 


288 


183 


231 


414 


440 


Retired 


1,299 




8 


81 


495 


716 






Rate 


per 1,000 population 




All persons with hearing impairment-- 


33.7 


12.6 


36.4 


64.5 


124.7 


262.5 


Sex 














Male 


39.3 


15.0 


43.9 


87.4 


149.2 


295.5 


Female 


28.4 


10.3 


29.3 


43.4 


103.3 


237.4 


Family income 














Under $4,000- 


45.8 


11.7 


37.5 


70.9 


132.2 


273.2 


$4,000+ 


25.3 


12.8 


35.7 


63.6 


113.1 


254.0 


Residence 














Urban- 


33.6 


12.4 


35.0 


60.8 


110.5 


253.3 


Rural 


33.8 


12.9 


39.0 


72.1 


151.4 


278.2 


Mai or activity 














Working or going to school 


25.4 


15.0 


37.3 


68.3 


101.0 


215.0 


Keeping house 


43.0 


14.9 


31.0 


45.3 


103.1 


234.8 


Retired 


211.6 


* * * 


88.9 


121.4 


165.8 


298.7 



12 



Table 6. Population used in obtaining rates shown in this publication by sex, family income 
residence, and major activity: United States, July 1958- June 1959 



[Data are based on household interviews of the civilian noninstitutional population. The survey design, genera! qualifications, and information 
on the reliability of the estimates aro given in Appendix I. Definitions of terms are given in Appendix if] 





Age 


Characteristic 


All 

ages 


Under 

45 


45-54 


55-64 


65-74 


75+ 






Number of 


persons 


in thousands 




Total population 


171,300 


121,424 


20,026 


15,029 


9,769 


5,052 


Sex 














Female 


83,360 

87,941 


59,649 

61,775 


9,759 

10,267 


7,219 

7,810 


4,550 

5,219 


2,183 

2,869 


Family income 














Under $4,000 

$4,000+ 


61,827 

97,774 


39,888 

74,567 


6,271 

12,127 


6,376 

7,059 


6,128 

2,706 


3,163 

1,315 


Residence 














Urban 

Rural 


102,815 

68,486 


70,225 

51,200 


12,941 

7,085 


10,038 

4,991 


6,373 

3,395 


3,237 

1,815 


Mai or activity 














Working or going to school 

Keeping house 

Retired 


98,848 

36,189 

6,139 


74,463 

19,288 


13,204 

5,909 

90 


8,449 

5,100 

667 


2,346 

4,017 

2,986 


386 

1,874 

2,397 



NOTE: For official population estimates for more general use, see Bureau of the Census reports on the civilian population of the United States, 
in Current Population Reports : Series P-20, F-25, P-50, P-57, and P-60. 



13 



APPENDIX I 



TECHNICAL NOTES ON METHODS 



Background of This Report 

This report, Hearing Aids, Wheel Chairs, Braces, 
and Artificial Limbs, is one of a series of statis- 
tical reports prepared by the U. S. National Health 
Survey which cover separate health-related topics. 
It is based on information collected in a continuing 
nationwide sample of households in the Health Inter- 
view Survey, which is one of the major projects of 
the U. S, National Health Survey. 

The Health Interview Survey utilizes a question- 
naire which elicits information on illnesses, injuries, 
chronic conditions, disability, medical care, and other 
health topics in addition to personal and demographic 
characteristics. As data relating to each of these 
various broad topics are tabulated and analyzed, 
separate reports are issued which cover one or more 
of the specific topics. 

The population covered by the sample for the 
Health Interview Survey is the civilian noninstitutional 
population of the United States living at the time of 
interview. The sample does not include members of 
the Armed Forces, U. S. nationals living in foreign 
countries, or crews of vessels. 

Statistical Design of the 
Health Interview Survey 

General plan. — The sampling plan of the survey 
follows a multistage probability design which permits 
a continuous sampling of the civilian noninstitutional 
population of the United States. The first stage of 
this design consists of drawing a sample of 500 from 
the 1,900 geographically defined Primary Sampling 
Units (PSU's) into which the United States has been 
divided. A PSU is a county, a group of contiguous 
counties, or a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. 

With no loss in general understanding, the re- 
maining stages can be telescoped and treated in this 
discussion as an ultimate stage. Within PSU's then, 
ultimate stage units called segments are defined, 
also geographically, in such a manner that each seg- 
ment contains an expected six households. Each week 
a random sample of about 120 segments is drawn. 
In the approximately 700 households in these seg- 
ments, household members are interviewed concern- 
ing factors related to health. 

Since the household members interviewed each 
week are a representative sample of the population, 
samples for successive weeks can be combined into 
larger samples for a calendar quarter or a year. 
Thus the design permits both continuous measure- 
ment of characteristics of high incidence or prevalence 
in the population and, through the larger consolidated 
samples, more detailed analysis of less common char- 



acteristics and smaller categories. The continuous 
collection has administrative and operational advan- 
tages as well as technical assets, since it permits 
field work to be handled with an experienced, stable 
staff. 

Sample size and geographic detail. — The national 
sample plan over the 12-month period ending June 
2 b, 1959 included approximately 120,000 persons from 
37,000 households in 6,200 segments, with repre- 
sentation from every State. The over-all sample 
was designed in such a fashion that, from the annual 
sample, tabulations can be provided for various geo- 
graphic sections of the United States and for urban 
and rural sectors of the Nation. 

Collection of data. — The field operations for the 
household survey are performed by the Bureau of 
the Census under specifications established by the 
Public Health Service. In accordance with these spec- 
ifications the Bureau of the Census designs and se- 
lects the sample, conducts the field interviewing, 
and edits and codes the questionnaires. Tabulations 
are prepared by the Public Health Service using 
the Bureau of the Census electronic computers. 

Estimating methods. — Each statistic produced by 
the survey— for example, the number of persons with 
hearing aids — is the result of two stages of ratio 
estimation. In the first of these, the factor is the 
ratio of the 1950 decennial population count to the 
1950 estimated population in the U.S. National Health 
Survey's first-stage sample of PSU's. This factor 
is applied for more than 50 color-residence classes. 

Later, ratios of sample-produced estimates to 
official Bureau of the Census figures for current 
population are computed for about 60 age-sex-color 
classes, and serve as second-stage factors for ratio 
estimating. 

The effect of the ratio estimating process is to 
make the sample closely representative of the U. S. 
population by age, sex, color, and residence, thus 
reducing sampling variance. 

As noted, each week's sample represents the 
population living during that week and characteristics 
of the population. For statistics which measure the 
prevalence of a characteristic at one point in time, 
consolidation of the weekly samples over any time 
period, such as a year, produces an estimate of 
the average prevalence of the characteristic during 
that time period. 

For statistics which measure the incidence of 
conditions or disability days during a specified period 
of time, the procedure is different. For such items, 
the specified period on the questionnaire is the 2 
weeks prior to the interview. Therefore, the response 
is multiplied by 6.5 to produce an estimate for the 



15 



13- week quarter and the quarterly estimates are 
added to obtain an estimate of the incidence during 
any longer time period, such as a year, Thus, the 
experience which actually occurred for each person 
in a 2-week period is treated as though it measured 
the total of such experience during the year. Such 
interpretation leads to no significant bias. 

General Qualifications 

Nonresponse. — Data were adjusted for nonresponse 
by a procedure which imputed to persons in a house- 
hold which was not interviewed the characteristics 
of persons in households in the same segment which 
were interviewed. The total noninterview rate was 
5 percent; 1 percent was refusal and the other 4 
percent was primarily due to the failure to find any 
eligible household respondent after repeated trials. 

The interview process. — The statistics presented 
in this report are based on replies secured in in- 
terviews in the sampled households. Each person 18 
years of age and over, available at the time of in- 
terview, was interviewed individually. Proxy respond- 
ents within the household were employed for children 
and for adults not available at the time of the inter- 
view, provided the respondent was closely related 
to the person about whom information was being ob- 
tained. 

There are limitations to the accuracy of diag- 
nostic and other information collected in household 
interviews. For diagnostic information, the house- 
hold respondent can, at best, pass on to the inter- 
viewer only the information the physician has given 
to the family. For conditions which were not medi- 
cally attended, diagnostic information is often no 
more than a description of symptoms. However, other 
facts, such as the number of disability days caused 
by the condition, can be obtained more accurately 
from household members than from any other source 
since only the persons concerned are in a position 
to report information of this type. 

Population figures. — Some of the published tables 
include population figures for specified categories. 
Except for certain over-all totals which are adjusted 
to independent estimates, these figures are based on 
the sample of households in the U. S. National Health 
Survey. They are given primarily for the purpose of 
providing denominators for rate computation, and for 
this purpose are more appropriate for use with the 
accompanying measures of health characteristics than 
other population data which may be available. In some 
instances they will permit users to recombine pub- 
lished data into classes more suitable to their specific 
needs. The population figures differ from corre- 
sponding figures (which are derived from different 
sources) published in reports of the Bureau of the 
Census. For population data for general use, see the 
official estimates presented in Bureau of the Cen- 
sus reports in the P-20, P-25, P-50, P-57, and P-60 
series. 

Reliability of Estimates 

Since the estimates are based on a sample, they 
will differ somewhat from the figures that would have 
been obtained if a complete census had been taken 
using the same schedules, instructions, and inter- 
viewing personnel and procedures. As in any survey. 



the results are also subject to measurement error. 

The standard error is primarily a measure of 
sampling variability, that is, the variations that might 
occur by chance because only a sample of the popu- 
lation is surveyed. As calculated for this report, the 
standard error also reflects part of the variation 
which arises in the measurement process It does not 
include estimates of any biases which might lie in 
the data. The chances are about 68 out of 100 that an 
estimate from the sample differs from the value ob- 
tained from a complete census by less than the stand- 
ard error. The chances are about 95 out of 100 that 
the difference is less than twice the standard error 
and about 99 out of 100 that it is less than 2 Vi times 
as large. 

In order to derive standard errors which would 
be applicable to a wide variety of health statistics 
and which could be prepared at a moderate cost, a 
number of approximations were required. As a result, 
the tables of standard errors shown in this Appendix 
should be interpreted as providing an estimate of 
approximate standard error, rather than as the pre- 
cise standard error for any specific statistic. 

The following rules will enable the reader to 
determine the sampling errors for the data contained 
in this report. 

1. Estimates of aggregates : Approximate stand- 
ard errors of estimates of aggregates, such 
as the number of persons with a special aid, 
with an impairment, or in a major activity 
category, are obtained from table I. 



Table I. Standard errors of estimates of ag- 
gregates 1 (all numbers shown in thousands) 



Size of estimate 


Approximate 

standard 

error 


100 


22 


500 


50 


1,000 — - 


70 


2,000 


100 


3,000 - 


120 


5,000 


160 


10,000 - 


220 


20,000 


300 


30,000 - 


330 


50,000 


350 


100,000 


400 


200,000 


- 


500,000 


- 


750,000 


- 


1,250,000 


“ 



The total U. S. population by age, sex, and residence has been 
adjusted to official Rureau of the Census figures and therefore is not 
subject to samplinn error. 



Example: 

There were 367,000 persons, 75 years 
and over with hearing aids (table 1). Since the 
standard error for this estimate is not shown 



16 



Table II. Standard errors of percentage distributions 



When the base of the percentage 
is: (in thousands) 


For estimated percentages of: 


2 or 98 


5 or 95 


10 or 90 


25 or 75 


50 




The approximate standard error (expressed in 


percentage 








points) is: 






100 - 


3.6 


5.6 


6.8 


9.8 


12.9 


500 


1.6 


2.5 


3.0 


4.4 


5.8 


1,000 


1.1 


1.8 


2.1 


3.1 


4.1 


2,000 


0.8 


1.3 


1.5 


2.2 


2.9 


3,000 


0.7 


1.0 


1.2 


1.8 


2.4 


5,000 


0.5 


0.8 


1.0 


1.4 


1.8 


10,000 


0.4 


0.6 


0.7 


1.0 


1.3 


20,000 


0.3 


0.4 


0.5 


0.7 


0.9 


30,000 


0.2 


0.3 


0.4 


0.6 


0.7 


50,000 


0.2 


0.3 


0.3 


0.4 


0.6 


100,000 


0.1 


0.2 


0.2 


0.3 


0.4 



in table I, it is necessary to interpolate be- 
tween the standard error for 100,000 per- 
sons which is 22,000 and the standard error 
for 500,000 persons which is 50,000. Such 
interpolation gives 41,000 as the standard error 
for 367,000 persons 75 years and over with 
hearing aids. 

2. Estimates of percentages in a percent distri- 
bution: Approximate standard errors for the 
percentage distribution of persons with spe- 
cial aids by age, amount of time aid used, 
limitation of activity or mobility, or type of 
condition for which aid was used are given 
in table II. 

Example: 

An estimated 40.8 percent of the 201,000 
persons with leg or foot braces were under 
15 years of age (table E). Since neither the 
base nor the percentage is shown in table II, 
it is necessary to interpolate between 25 per- 
cent and 50 percent to obtain 11.76 as the 
standard error of 40.8 percent with a base 
of 100,000 and 5.28 as the standard error 
of 40.8 percent with a base of 500,000. A 
final interpolation between these results yields 
10.1 as the standard error for a statistic of 
40.8 percent with a base of 201,000. 

3. Estimates of the prevalence of an impairment 
or the number of special aids per 1,000 total 
persons or persons in an age-sex group are 
obtained from table II. Since table II is set 
up for the estimation of the standard error of 
a rate per 100, the rate per 1,000 must first 
be converted to a percentage; table II is then 
entered with this percentage and the number 
of persons in the category (base of the per- 
centage). The entry in the body of the table 
(as interpolated) must then be multiplied by 
10 to apply to the rate per 1,000 persons. 



Example: 

There were 72.6 hearing aids per 1,000 
persons 75 years and over (table 1). This rate 
expressed as a percentage is 7.3, and it is 
based on 5,052,000 persons 75 years and over 
Since neither the base nor the percentage is 
shown in table II it is necessary to interpolate 
between 5 percent and 10 percent to obtain 
0.89 as the standard error for 7.3 percent 
with a base of 5,000,000 and 0.64 as the 
standard error of 7.3 percent with a base of 
10,000,000. A final interpolation between these 
results yields 0.88 as the standard error of 
7.3 with a base of 5,052,000. Multiplying this 
standard error by 10 gives 8.9 as the stand- 
ard error for a rate of 72.6 hearing aids per 
1 ,000 population. 

4. Estimates of the number of hearing aids per 
1,000 persons with hearing impairment: Ap- 
proximate standard errors for these rates are 
obtained as follows: 

(a) Obtain the standard error of the 

numerator from table I. Divide the 
standard error by the numerator it- 
self. Square the result. 

(b) Obtain the standard error of the 

denominator from table I. Divide the 
standard error by the denominator 
itself. Square the result. 

(c) Add the answers from steps (a) and 
(b) above and extract the square root. 

(d) Multiply the answer from step (c) by 
the rate. The result is the approxi- 
mate standard error of the rate. This 
procedure normally gives an overesti- 
mate of the true sampling error. 

Example: 

There were 276.8 hearing aids per 1,000 
persons 75 years and over with hearing im- 



17 



pairment (table 1). Using rule 1 we find that 
the standard error for the numerator of 
367,000 hearing aids is 41,000 and the stand- 
ard error for the denominator of 1,326,000 
persons with hearing impairment (table 5) is 
80,000. Completing the computation as follows: 




yields 35.2 as the standard error of 276.8 hearing aids. 



APPENDIX II 

DEFINITIONS OF CERTAIN TERMS USED IN THIS REPORT 



Terms Relating to Special Aids 

Special aid. — A special aid is adevice used to com- 
pensate for defects resulting from disease, injury, im- 
pairment, or congenital malformation. Aids included in 
this survey are hearing aids, wheel chairs, braces, and 
artificial limbs. Information was recorded about spe- 
cial aids even though persons possessing them did not 
use them. 

1. Hearing aid is defined as any kind of mechanical 
or electrical device used to improve hearing. 

2. Wheel chair is any device stated by the respond- 
ent to be a wheel chair, but excluding wheeled 
"walkers" and nonwheeled devices for support. 

3. Brace is defined as any kind of supportive de- 
vice for the arms, hands, legs, feet, back, neck, 
or head, exclusive of temporary casts, slings, 
bandages, trusses, belts, or crutches. Dental 
braces are also excluded. 

4. Artificial limb is a device used to replace a 
missing leg, arm, hand, or foot. It does not have 
to have moving parts, but a device employed 
only for lengthening a leg where the whole leg 
and foot is present is not included. 

Use of special aid. — The frequency of use of a spe- 
cial aid was recorded as reported by the respondent in 
terms of "all of the time," "most of the time," "occa- 
sionally," or "never used now." When necessary, it was 
explained that these terms referred to the times when a 
person possessing such a device would ordinarily be ex- 
pected to use it, such as during the waking hours and un- 
der the circumstances that would normally require it. 

Demographic, Social, and Economic Terms 

Age. — The age recorded for each person is the age 
at last birthday. Age is recorded in single years and 
grouped in a variety of distributions depending upon the 
purpose of the table. 

Income of family or of unrelated individuals. — Each 
member of a family is classified according to the total 
income of the family of which he is a member. Within 
the household all persons related to each other by blood, 
marriage, or adoption constitute a family. Unrelated in- 
dividuals are classified according to their own income. 

The income recorded is the total of all income re- 
ceived by members of the family (or by an unrelated in- 
dividual) in the 12-month period ending with the week of 
interview. Income from all sources is included, e.g., 
wages, salaries, rents from property, pensions, help 
from relatives, and so forth. 

Major activity. — All persons are classified accord- 
ing to their major activity during the 12-month period 
prior to the week of interview. The "major" activity, in 
case more than one is reported, is the one at which the 
person spent the most time during the 12-month period. 



The categories of major activity are: usually work- 
ing, usually going to school, usually keeping house, re- 
tired, and other (including preschool) . For several rea- 
sons these categories are not comparable with some- 
what similarly named categories in official Federal la- 
bor force statistics. In the first place, the responses 
concerning major activity are accepted without detailed 
questioning, since the objective of the question is not to 
estimate the numbers of persons in labor force cate- 
gories but to identify crudely certain population groups 
which may have differing health problems. In the sec- 
ond place, the figures represent the major activity over 
the period of an entire year, whereas official labor 
force statistics relate to a much shorter period, usually 
one week. Finally, in the definitions of the specific cat- 
egories which follow, certain marginal groups are clas- 
sified in a different manner to simplify the procedures. 

1. Usually working includes paid work as an em- 
ployee for someone else; self-employment in own 
business, or profession, or in farming; and un- 
paid work in a family business or farm. Work 
around the house, or volunteer or unpaid work, 
such as for church. Red Cross, etc., is not count- 
ed as working. 

2. Usually going to school means attendance at a 
regular school or college which advances a per- 
son toward an elementary or high school diploma 
or a college degree. 

3. Usually keeping house includes any activity de- 
scribed as "keeping house" which cannot be clas- 
sified as "working" or "going to school." 

4. Retired includes persons 50 years old or over 
who consider themselves to be retired. In case 
of doubt, a person 50 years old or over is count- 
ed as retired if he, or she, has either voluntarily 
or involuntarily stopped working, is not looking 
for work, and is not described as "keeping house." 
A retired person may or may not be unable to 
work. 

5. Other includes persons not classed in any of the 
other categories. Examples of inclusions are: a 
preschool child, a person who states that he 
spent most of the past 12 months looking for 
work, a person doing volunteer work only, a per- 
son under 50 years of age who describes him- 
self as "retired" or "taking it easy," a person 
under 50 years of age who is described as "un- 
able to work," or "unable to go to school," or a 
person 50 years of age or over who describes 
himself as "unable to work" and is not "retired." 

Location of Residence Terms 

Urban and rural residence. — The definition of urban 
and rural areas used in the U. S. National Health Survey 
is the same as that used in the 1950 Census. According 



19 



to this definition, the urban population comprises all 
persons living in (a) places of 2,500 inhabitants or more 
incorporated as cities, boroughs, and villages; (b) in- 
corporated towns of 2,500 inhabitants or more except in 
New England, New York, and Wisconsin, where "Towns" 
are simply minor civil divisions of counties; (c) the 
densely settled urban fringe, including both incorporated 
and unincorporated areas, around cities of 50,000 or 
more; and (d) unincorporated places of 2, 500 inhabitants 
or more outside any urban fringe. The remaining popu- 
lation is classified as rural. 



Terms Relating to Disability 



Chronic activity limitation . — Persons with chronic 
conditions are classified into four categories according 
to the extent to which their activities are limited at 
present as a result of these conditions. Since the major 
activities of preschool children, school-age children, 
housewives, and workers and other persons differ, a 
different set of criteria is used for each group. There 
is a general similarity between them, however, as will 
be seen in the descriptions of the four categories below: 
1. Persons unable to carry on major activity fo r 

their group 

Preschool children: inability to take part in 
ordinary play with other 
children. 

School-age children: inability to go to school. 

Housewives: inability to do any house- 

work. 



Workers and all 

other persons: inability to work at a job 

or business. 

2. Persons limited in the amount or kind of major 

activity performed 

Preschool children: limited in the amount or 

kind of play with other 
children, e.g., need spe- 
cial rest periods, cannot 
play strenuous games, 
cannot play for long peri- 
ods at a time. 

School-age children: limited to certain types of 
schools or in school at- 
tendance, e.g., need spe- 
cial schools or special 
teaching, cannot go to 
school full time or for 
long periods at a time. 

Housewives: limited in amount or kind 

of housework, i.e., cannot 
lift children , wash or iron , 
or do housework for long 
periods at a time. 

Workers and all 

other persons: limited in amount or kind 

of work, e.g., need spe- 
cial working aids or spe- 
cial rest periods at work, 
cannot work full time or 
for long periods at a time , 
cannot do strenuous work. 

3. Persons not limited in major activity but other- 
wise limited ~ 



Preschool children: not classified in this cate- 

gory. 



School-age children: not limited in going to 
school but limited in par- 
ticipation in athletics or 
other extracurricular ac- 
tivities. 

Housewives: not limited in housework 

but limited in other ac- 
tivities, such as church, 
clubs , hobbies , civic proj- 
ects, or shopping. 

Workers and all 

other persons: not limited in regular 

work activities but limit- 
ed in other activities, such 
as church, clubs, hobbies, 
civic projects, sports, or 
games. 

4. Persons not limited in activities 

Includes persons with chronic conditions whose 
activities are not limited in any of the ways de- 
scribed above. 

Chronic mobility limitation. — Persons with chronic 
activity limitation of some degree as a result of one or 
more chronic conditions are classified according to the 
extent to which their mobility is limited at present. 
There are four categories as follows: 

1. Confined to the house — confined to the house all 
the time except in emergencies. 

2. Cannot get around alone — able to go outside but 
needs the help of another person in getting around 
outside. 

3. Has trouble gening around alone — able to go out- 
side alone but has trouble in getting around 
freely. 

4. Not limited in mobility — not limited in any of the 
ways described above. 

Terms Relating to Conditions 

Condition. — A morbidity condition, or simply a 
condition, is any entry on the questionnaire which de- 
scribes a departure from a state of physical or mental 
well-being. It results from a positive response to one 
of a series of "illness-recall" questions. In the coding 
and tabulating process, conditions are selected or clas- 
sified according to a number of different criteria, such 
as, whether they were medically attended; whether they 
resulted in disability; whether they were acute or chron- 
ic; or according to the type of disease, injury, impair- 
ment, or symptom reported. For the purposes of each 
published report or set of tables, only those conditions 
recorded on the questionnaire which satisfy certain 
stated criteria are included. 

Impairment . — An impairment is a chronic or per- 
manent defect, usually static in nature, resulting from 
disease, injury, or congenital malformation. An im- 
pairment usually results in decrease or loss of ability 
to perform various functions, particularly those of the 
musculoskeletal system and the sense organs. Impair- 
ments are restricted to conditions included in the Clas- 
sification of Impairments (referred to as the X-Code) 
and are coded by type, site, and etiology according to 
that classification. Type and site are expressed by the 
numbers X00-X99, and etiology is indicated by adding 
to each type the appropriate 1 -digit code from one of 
the two lists of etiologic factors. In this publication, all 
hearing impairment codes (X06-X09) are grouped to- 
gether. 



20 



APPENDIX HI 



QUESTIONNAIRE 



The items below show the exact content and wording of the questionnaire used in the household survey. The actual 
questionnaire is designed for a household as a unitand includes additional spaces for reports on more than one person. 



The National Health Survey is authorized by Public Law 652 of the 84th Congress (70 Seat 489; 42 U.S.C. 305). All information which 
CONFIDENTIAL: would permit identification of the individual will be held strictly confidential, will be used only by persona engaged in and for the 
purposes of the survey, and will not be disclosed or released to others for any other purposes (22 FR 1687). 



Form NHS-2 
(4-18-58) 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
Acting as Collecting Agent for the 
U.S. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 



NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY 



1. Questionoair 



2. (a) Addrc 



r description of location 



ing quarters .Q3 Other 



4. Sub- 
sample 
weight 



5. Sample 



6. PSU 
Number 



7. Segment No. 



9. Is this house < 



. Q Yes Q No 



10. Whot Is the telephone number here? 

I I No phone 



11. Whot is the best time to coll? 



12. Are there ony other living quarters, occupied or 

vocont, in this building (apartment)? I 1 Yes 



I I No 



14. Does anyone else living in this building use YOUR 

ENTRANCE to get to his living quarters? | | Yes | | No 



Ask at all units except apartment houses 

13. Is there any other building on this property for people 

to live in - either occupied or vacant? | | Yes (33 No 



INSTRUCTIONS 

If "Yes" to questions 12, 13 or 14 apply definition of a dwelling unit to determine 
whether one or more additional questionnaires should be filled and whether the 
listing is to be corrected. 



15. RECORD OF CALLS AT HOUSEHOLDS 



Entire household 



Callbacks for 

individual K . 

respondents CoL N °' - 



Date 

Time 



16. REASON FOR NON-INTERVIEW 



I | Refusal 

| | No one at home- 

repeated calls 
| 1 Temporarily absent 

I I Other (Speclty) 



□ Vacant - non-seasor 

□ Vacant - seasonal 

| 1 Usual residence elsi 

| 1 Armed Forces 

I I Other (Specity) 



| 1 Demolished 

[ 1 In sample by mistake 

I 1 Eliminated in sub- 
sample 

I I Other (Spaclty) 



Cols. 

becaus 



i-mterview 



17. Signature of Interview 



Special instructions or notes 



(Enter name in first col 


umn) 


t here? (Li 


st all persons 


; who usua 


place of re 


sidence elsewhere. L. i ; 


(31 No 




(List) — 


[331 No 


□ Y.s 


(List) — 


(771 No 


□ Yes 


(List) _ 



(b) Whot are the nomes of oil other persons w 
and all persons staying here who have no 
persons in the prescribed order.) 

(c) Do ony (other) lodgers or roomers live her 

(d) Is there anyone else who lives here who i 
away on business? On a visit? Temporal 
o hospital? 

(e) Is there anyone else staying here now? 



(f) Do any of these people have o home elsewhere? 

| 1 No (leave on questionnaire) [3! Yes (If r 



i household member, delete) 



2. How are you reloted to the head of the household? (Enter relationship to head, for e 
head, wife, daughter, grandson, mother-in-law, partner, lodger, lodger’s wife, etc.) 



3. How old were yo 



« your lost birthdoy? 



4. Race (Check one box for each person) 



F irst name and in 



Undei 
1 ye« 



[ | White | | Negro 

(_ J Other 



5. Sex 'Check one box for each person) 

6. Where were you born? (Record state or foreign country) 



r foreign country) 



If 14 years old or over, ask: 

7. Are you now married, widowed, divorced, separated or never r 

(Check one box for each person) 



I 1 Under 14 years 

I I Married fZJ Divorced 

| | Widowed ! ) Separated 

[_“J Never married 



8. What is the highest grade you completed in school? 

(Circle highest grade completed or check "None”) 



|~ 1 Under 14 yean 
Elem: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7! 

High: 12 3 4 

College: 1 2 3 4 5 * 



If Male and 14 yeaii old or over, ask: 

9. (o) Did you ever larva in tha Armad Forcas of the Unitad Sfoiat? 
If -Yes." ask: 

(b) Ara you now In tha Armad Forcas, not counting tha raitrvai? 
If a Yea, B delete this person from ) 



i It peace-time only? 



(c) Wos on y of your sarwlca during o wor or i 
If a «ar, a ask: 

(d) During which wor did you serve? 

If a Pence-time a only, ask: 

(e) Wos ony of your sorvlce batwaan Juna 27, 1950 ond Jonuory 31, 1955? 



If 6 years old or over, ask: 

10- (o) Whot wars you doing most of tha post 12 months — 

(For males over 16): working, looking for work, or doing something alsa? 

(For females over 16 y. working, looking for work, keeping house, or doing something alsa? 
(For children 6-16): going to school or doing something alsa? 

If "Something else* checked, and person is 50 years old or over, ask: 

(b) Ara you retired? 



OVe- 

□ Yes 



f" 1 Fern, or und. 14 yri 
I No 



Cl No 



□ War 



□ *»-i 



71 fw-n 

I ] Korean 



Cl Yes 



CD No 



Cl Under 6 yea 

□ Working 
CD Looking for work 
( 1 Keeping house 

( I Going to school 
o Something else 



U2 



r 1 no 



Interview each adult person for himself for qucstioi 
he is at home. Enter column number of respondent 



> 11-26 and Tables I, II, and A, if 
i each column. 



C) Responded for self 



Wa ora Interested In oil kinds of lllnaas, whether serious or not — 
11. Ware you sick ot ony time LAST WEEK OR THE WEEK BEFORE? 
(o) What wos tho matter? 

(b) Anything else? 






I 1 No 



12. Last week or the wreak before did you hove ony Occidents or ln|urles, 
homo or away from homo? 



(a) Whot wore thoy? 

(b) Anything also? 



□ Yc. 



CD No 



13. Did you foal any III effects last week or the < 
ln|ury that happened before that time? 

(a) Whot were these effects? 

(b) Anything else? 



reek before from on accident or 



0 Ye. 



□ No 



14. Lost week or the weak before did you toko ony modlcine or treatment for any 
condition (besides. . .which you told me about)? 



(a) For what conditions? 

(b) Anything also? 



CD Ye 



I I No 



15. AT THE PRESENT TIME do you hovo ony ailments or condition* that have lasted 
for o long time? (If "No") Even though they don't bother you all the time? 



(a) Whot are they? 

(b) Anything else? 



□ Ye. 



I I No 



Tobla I • ILLNESSES, IMPAIRMENTS AND ACCIDENTS 



doctor 
about 
. . .? 



What did tho doctor say It 
wos? -—did he use ony 
medical terms? 

(If doctor not talked to - a No F 
in col. (c) - record respon- 
dent's description) 

(If ill-effects of earlier 
accident, record ill effects 
and also fill Table A) 

For an accident or injury 
occurring during past 2 
weeks, ask: 

What part of the body was 
hurt? What kind of Injury 
wos It? Anything else? 

(Also, fill Table A) 

(d-1) 



If an impairment or 
symptom or a condition 
from q. 13 or q. 17, 

ask: 



Whot i 



i the cause of. . .? 



(If accident or injury, also 
fill Table A) 



If eye 
trouble 
of any 
kind 
and 
6 yrs. 
old or 

ask: 



Con 

you 

read 

ordin- 

ary 

news- 

paper 

print 

with 

glasses? 



What kind of. . .trouble 



Ask only for: 

allergy asthma 

anemia rheumatism 

arthritis stroce 

tumor (or cysts) 

OR 

Any entry in col. (d-1) 
or (d-2) of: 

trouble condition 

disease 

coupled 

with 

seeing or heaxiag; 
a part of the body; 
"mental* or any 
internal Organ 



(d-4) 



Whot port of the body is 
affected? 



Show in following detail 
for members listed below; 



Head • (Skull, 
face) 



- (Upper, middle < 
lower) 



Arm - (Shoulder, upper, 

elbow, lower, wrist, 
hand) 

Leg - (Hip, upper, knee, 
lower, ankle, foot) 

ALSO 

If arm, leg, eye, or ear, 
state whether ONE or 
BOTH. 



LAST WEEK 
OR THE 
WEEK BE- 
FORE did 



octlvitles 
for os much 
as a day? 



Check c 



Col. 

(*» 



How 
many 
days, 
includ- 
Ing 
the 2 
week- 
ends? 



□ Yet 
I I No 



□ Yes 
I I No 



TabU II - HOSPITALIZATION DURING PAST 12 MONTHS 



Col. 

No. 

of 

per- 



Qu,s- 

tion 

No. 



When did 
you enter 
the hos- 
pital? 

(Month, Year) 



How many 
days wore 
you in the 
hospital, 
not count- 
ing the 
day you 
left? 



To Interviewe, 



many 
of these 
— days 



How 
many 
of these 
— days 
were in 
the past 
2 weeks! 



Was 

this 

still 
in the 
hospital 

Sunday 

night? 



(g) 



Whot did they soy ot the hospltol the condition wai 
did they use ony medical terms? 

(If "they" did’t say, ask): 

Whot did the lost doctor you talked to say It wos? 



(Show same detail i 
(If condition from a< 



i in cols. (d-lHd-5) of T.I) 
cident or injury, fill TableA) 



Were ony operotlons perform 
on you during this stay ot 
the hospital? 



(a) Whot wos the name of the 
operation ? 

(b) Any other operations? 



□ All 



□ Yes 

□ No 



□ Yes 



TABLE A (Accidents and Injuries) 



Line No. 
Table I 



1. Whot port of the body was hurt? What kind of injury wos it? Anything else? 



| 1 Accident happened during 

past 2 weeks 



2. When did It happen? Year_ 



_ (Enter month also if the year is 1957 or 1958) 



\ | Accident happened during 

past 2 weeks 



3. Where did the accident happen? 



I - ] At home , (insid ' ° r ° u ' sid ' th ' ko “ sl 0 (— | While in Armed Services □ Some other pl.c. 

1 — 1 (own home or someone else s) L r 



4. Was a car, truck, bus or other motor vahicle 
Involved in the accident in any way? 



□ Yes 



! I No 



5. Were you at work ot your job or busini 
the Occident happened? 



□ Ye 



□ No 



f | Under 14 years at time of accident 




16. Hot onyon* In the family - you, your—, otc. -hod any of thoao conditions DURINC 
THE PAST 12 MONTHS? 

(Read Card A, condition by condition; record any conditions 
mentioned in ^he column for the person) 






( 1 No 



17. Does anyone in tho family have ony of those conditions? 

(Read Card B, condition by condition; record any conditions 
mentioned in the column for the person) 



□ Y<. 



f I No 



10. (a) LAST WEEK OR THE WEEK BEFORE did anyone In the fomlly - you, your-, etc. -talk 
to o doctor or go to a doctor's office or clinic? Anyone else? 

If "Yes" 

(b) How many times during the post 2 weeks? 



□ No 



(c) Where did you talk to the doctor? 

(d) How many times ot •• (home, office, clinic, etc.)? 

(Record total number of times for each type of place) 

("Hospital clinic" excludes overnight stays) 

19. (o) Last week or the week before did anyone In the family go to a dentist? Anyone else? 
If "Yes" 

(b) How many times during the past 2 weeks? 



Place 



At home _ 

At office _ 

Hospital clinic . . . . 
Compaoy or industry 
Over telephone .... 
Other (Spicily) .... 



□ y«« 



a no 

_No. of times 



20. How many times altogether in the past 12 months did you go to o dentist? 



□ One □ Three 

I I Two | | Four or more 

CD None 



21. (a) DURINC THE PAST 12 MONTHS has anyone In the family bee 
overnight or longer? 

If "Yes" 

(b) How mony times were you In the hospital? 



i patient in o hospital 



a Yes (Table II) 



a No 



22. (a) During the post 12 > 
sanitarium? 

If "Yes" 

(b) How many times were you i 



inyone in the family been a patient in 
jrsing home or sanitarium? 



inths ho 






a Yes (Table II) 



25. During the post 12 months in which group did the total income of your family fall, that is, 
your's, your —'s, etc.? (Show Card H) Include income from oil sources, such os wogss, 
salaries, rents from property, pensions, help from relatives, etc. 



Group No. 



Table I - ILLNESSES, IMPAIRMENTS AND ACCIDENTS 



If 6 years old 


or o 


ver.ask: 


Lost 


If "Yes" 


week 


in col. (i): 


or the 


How many 


week 


days did 


before 


. . . keep 


would 


you from 


you 


work 


hove 


(going to 


been 


school)? 


working 




at a job 




or busl- 




ness 




except 




for . . . ? 




(If 6-16 




yrs., 




ask, 




(“going 




school") 




(i) 


(j) 


□ Yes 


Days 


□ No 


I | None 



How many 
of these 
— days 
were you 
In bed 
II or 
most of 
the doy? 



Did you first notice . . . 
DURING THE PAST 3 MONTHS 
or before that time? 



During 

3 

months 



Did . . . start 
during the post 
2 weeks or 
before that 
time? 

(If during past 
2 weeks, ask): 

Which week, 
lost week or 
the week 



Inter- 

viewer: 



If col. 
(W) is 
checked, 
or the 
condi- 
tion 

either 
one of 
Cards 
A or B, 
continue; 
other- 



Did you first 
notice . . . 

DURING THE 
PAST 17 
MONTHS or 

before that 
time? 

(If during past 
12 months, ask): 



How long 
last 

talked to 

about . . . ? 

(If less 
thao one 
month, 
enter 
"Und. 1" 
for "Mo.") 



still toko 
any medi- 
cine or 
treatment 
that the 
doctor 
prescribed 
for . . . ? 

Or, follow 
any advice 
he gave? 



About 

many 
days 
during 
the past 
12 months 
has . . . 
kept you 
in bed 
for all 
or most 
of the 
day? 



Ask after completing last 
condition for each person: 



Please 
look at 
this 

cord ond 
read each 
statement 
Then tell 
me which 
statement 
fits you 
best. 
(Show 
Cards C- 
F, as 
appro- 
priate) 



If 1, 2 
or 3 in 
col. (r): 

Is this 
because 
of ony 
of the 

tions 
you 
hove 
told me 
about? 



If "1." 
or "2" 
or "3" 
in col. 

(r) ask: 

Pleose 

this 

cord and 
read each 
statement. 
Then tell 
me which 
statement 
fits you 
best. 
(Show 
Card G) 



Days 

I I None 



I 1 Last week 
| | Week before 

| | Before 2 wks. 



| | Before Cl Birth 



□ Yes 

□ No 

□ No Dr. 



Days 

I | None 



a no 



Table II - HOSPITALIZATION DURING PAST 12 MONTHS 



What is the name and addrt 
hospitol you were In? 



(Enter name, city or county and State) 



For completed hospitalizations only: 



Was any of 


If "No" to 


If "No" to 


What part 


the hospital 


col. (k), 


both cols. 


of the 


bill paid for 


ask: 


(k) and (1) 


hospitol 


by any kind 


Or, by any 


Do you expect 


bill was (will 


of insurance? 




be) taken care 




kind of 


hospital bill 


of by 




plan that 


to be paid for 


insurance? 




pays for 


by insurance 






hospital 


or any plan 






costs? 


of this kind? 




oo 


(I) 


(m) 


(a) 


□ Yes (Skip 


□ Yes (Skip 


□ Yes 


1 1 Under / 


to col.n) 


to col.n) 


CD Vi up to 




CD No 


CD No 


CD No (Stop) 


□ </. o. more 



Who carries the cost of this Insurance-thot is, who 
pays the premium? 



(o) 



| | Family member(s) □ Other (Spicily) 

□ Employer 

r ~| Union, clubs, etc. 



FOOTNOTES AND COMMENTS 






SUPPLEMENTAL QUESTION ON SPECIAL AIDS 






24. Does anyone in the family have a hearing aid? An artificial arm or leg? A brace of any kind? 


□ Yes —a 
Type of Aid: 


□ No 


A wheel choir? 




(a) For what condition? 


Condition: 




(b) Is it used all the time, most of the time, only occasionally, or never used now? 


□ All 


| | Occasionally 


If "Occasionally" or "Never used now,” ask: 


1 | Most 


1 | Never used 


(c) Why is it that you never use it? 
or 

Why is it that you use it only occasionally? 


Verbatim 






24 



*U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961 O - 594871 



SELECTED REPORTS FROM THE U. S. NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY 



Public Health Service Publication No. 584 



Series A (Program descriptions, survey designs, concepts, and definitions) 

No. 1. Origin and Program of the U. S. National Health Survey. 25 cents. 

No. 2. The Statistical Design of the Health Household-Interview Survey. 35 cents. 
No. 3. Concepts and Definitions in the Health Household -Interview Survey. 30 cents. 



Series B (Health Interview Survey results by topics) 



No. 


6. 


No. 


7. 


No. 


8. 


No. 


9. 


No. 


10 . 


No. 


11. 


No. 


12. 


No. 


13. 


No. 


14. 


No. 


15. 


No. 


16. 


No. 


17. 


No. 


18. 


No. 


19. 


No. 


20. 


No. 


21. 


No. 


22. 


No. 


23. 


No. 


24. 


No. 


25. 


No. 


26. 


No. 


27. 



Acute Conditions, Incidence and Associated Disability, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 35 cents. 

Hospitalization, Patients Discharged From Short-Stay Hospitals, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 30 cents. 
Persons Injured by Class of Accident, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 40 cents. 

Impairments by Type, Age, and Sex, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 25 cents. 

Disability Days, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 40 cents. 

Limitation of Activity and Mobility Due to Chronic Conditions, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 30 cents. 

Chronic Respiratory Conditions Reported in Interviews, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 30 cents. 

Heart Conditions and High Blood Pressure Reported in Interviews, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 30 cents. 
Dental Care, Interval and Frequency of Visits, United States, July 1957-June 1959. 35 cents. 

Dental Care, Volume of Visits, United States, July 1957-June 1959. 35 cents. 

Types of Injuries, Incidence and Associated Disability, United States, July 1958-June 1959. 30 cents. 

Peptic Ulcers Reported in Interviews, United States, July 1957-June 1959. 25 cents. 

Acute Conditions, Incidence and Associated Disability, United States, July 1958-June 1959. 30 cents. 

Volume of Physician Visits, United States, July 1957-June 1959. 40 cents. 

Arthritis and Rheumatism Reported in Interviews, United States, July 1957-June 1959. 25 cents. 

Diabetes Reported in Interviews, United States, July 1957-June 1959. 25 cents. 

Los 8 of Teeth, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 25 cents. 

Acute Conditions, Geographic Distribution, United States, July 1958-June 1959. 30 cents. 

Acute Conditions, Seasonal Variations, United States, July 1957-June 1960. 35 cents. 

Hernias Reported in Interviews, United States, July 1957-June 1959. 25 cents. 

Interim Report on Health Insurance, United States, July-December 1959. 45 cents. 

Distribution and Use of Hearing Aids, Wheel Chairs, Braces, and Artificial Limbs, United States, July 1958-June 1959. 



• LIBRARY 




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suits for population groups ) 

ited Health Characteristics, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 35 cents, 
leal Care, United States, July 1957-June 1958. 40 cents. 

, Description and Selected Results, Oahu, Hawaii, October 1 958-September 1959. 40 cents. 

(ealth Characteristics, United States, July 1957-June 1959. 45 cents. 

istics by Area, Geographic Regions and Urban-Rural Residence, United States , July 1957-June 1959. 35 

istics by Area, Geographic Divisions and Large Metropolitan Areas, United States, July 1957-June 1959. 

ion Reports) 

» Medical-History Techniques. 30 cents, 
imination Surveys. 35 cents. 

Last Year of Life. 30 cents. 

>n in the Health Interview Survey. 50 cents, 
s Compared With Medical Records. 



Catalog Card 



U. S. National Health Survey. 

Distribution and use of hearing aids, wheel chairs, braces, and artificial limbs. 
United States, July 1958-June 1959; statistics relating to the distribution and use of 
hearing aids, wheel chairs, braces, and artificial limbs. Based on data collected in 
household interviews during period July 1958-June 1959. Washington, U.S. Dept, of 
Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, 1961. 

24 pp. tables 26cm. ( Its Health statistics, ser. B27) 

U. S. Public Health Service, Publication no. 584-B27 
1. Orthopedic apparatus. I. Title 

Cataloged by Dept, of Health, Education, and Welfare Library. 



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