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VOL-I .Part-I 



KVVL.Narasimhc Rao a Chinna Oommen 

Revised ond Enlarged 

S.V Varada Bhatta Char 

Central Institute of Indian Languages.Mysore -37C00S 





KVV.L.Narasirrtha RaO 8 Chinna Oommen 

Revised and Enlarged 

S.V Varada Bhatta Char 


MYSORE- 570006 

Fust Published : March 1972, China 1894 - 1,000 copies. 

Revised and F.nlargcd lidition : January 1978, Pausa 1899 - 5,000 copies. 

© Central Institute of Indian Languages, 1978 

Printed and Published by Dr. D. P. Pattanayak, Director, Central Institute of Indian 
Languages, Mysore, at the CIIL Press, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006, S. India. 


(First Edition) 

Reading is not merely a "duty’ or 'lesson" but a part of an active 
living providing both relaxation and enjoyment As a part of the growing 
up of a young child it not only provides for family closeness but initiates 
a life-long friendship. Good reading which impresses on the child that even 
difficult reading could he fun, widen; the horizon, provides escape and 
consolation at times of stress and teaches one to lead a full and meaning¬ 
ful life. 

The Plow den Committee Report on Primary Schools in the UK. 
showed that 29 per cent of the children in schools are “deprived" as they 
come from families of less than five books. If such a survey is conducted 
m India, probably, more than 90 per cent children would be deprived in 
this sense. If we consider the non-availability of graded reading material 
designed for specific age groups and levels, then almost all ciiildren in 
India would have to be termed “deprived". It is high time that our 
academic system takes a serious view of this situation. 

The Social, Economic, Linguistic and Psychological settings for 
understanding the varying reading problems of the high achievers and the 
low achievers, the socially average, different, deficient and the antago¬ 
nistic has to be kept in view in designing instructional maleriaL In ail 
countries the standard language creates a problem for tlie non-standard 
dialect speakers and could pose a series of complex problems. Similarly, 
reading readiness in terms of control of oral language, vocabulary enrich¬ 
ment and building storehouse of meaning in earlier stages of preparation 
b an essential pre-condition for efficient reading at later stages. If the 
right to read U to be conceded to all, then one cannot treat the problem 
of reading so lightly. In India with its two thousand mother tongues, with 
fifteen major languages with their standard and dialects, with multifarious 
layers of socio-economic stratifications, with linguistic pluralism and con- 



sequent intensive bi anil itiultHingualism, the problem of reading is bound 
to be a continuing challenge needing instant attention. 

The Central Institute of Indian Languages has initiated a number of 
programmes in the area of reading. Besides undertaking a survey of avai¬ 
lable materials in the area of reading it has embarked upon the produce 
tion of reading materials designed for two levels: one series for the 
schools and one senes for the colleges. We also plan to bring out at least 
one Reading Manual in each of the m^jor Indian Languages. We hope that 
academic institutions in the country will take tire cue and produce mate¬ 
rial designed for their specific needs. 

Central Institute of Indian 

Mysore 570 006. 




f oreiuord 

(Second Edition) 

The explosion of knowledge and the printing technology have made 

accelerated reading a necessary condition of educated life. Communica¬ 
tion from a writer to a reader has become in some senses more important 

than the communication from a speaker to a hearer in the present cen¬ 
tury. The Central Institute of Indian Languages which is chiefly concerned 
with vorbal communication In its various aspects is naturally concerned 
about reading. It has succeeded in impressing upon those involved m 
formal education that neglecting reading is neglecting a major aspect of 
language performance, it has also succeeded in informing all educated 
persons irrespective of whether they arc business managers, bankers, 
administrators, civil and military officials, university and college teachers 
or pursuing any other vocation that reading for business is as important 
as reading for fun, enjoyment and knowledge. 

It is gratifying that the first edition of the book has been widely 
circulated. I have every hope that this second edition revised and enlarged, 
will go a long way in filling up a gap in an area which is of such vital 
importance, I congratulate all those who are responsible for putting it 

Central Institute of Indian (DEBI PRASANNA PATTANAYAKj 

Languages, Director 

Mysore 570 006. 



In 1971 Ihe Ford Foundation conducted a summer orientation 
course in teaching improved reading Tor adults at the Central Institute of 
Indian Languages, Mysore, India. 1 had previously conducted such a 
course at the Indian Institute of Administration, New Delhi, and was given 
the opportunity, with the able assistance of Dr. Qiliuia Clucku of Die 
Institute, to introduce tliis course (o selected students at C11L From 
their course work* students developed materials to teach effective reading 
skills at their own schools and colleges. 

Interest has been maintained in improving reading skills, and ideas 
from this first Institute along with many other ideas gathered along Die 
way have been carried into many different areas of South India. 

This present volume READ FASTER, UNDERSTAND BETTER, is 
a culmination of those efforts. The Central Institute of Indian Languages 
and the creators of this book are to be congratulated for yet another 
proof of their continued contribution to the professional and liUnary 
growth of India. 

Paul Conrad Berg 
University of South Carolina 






RR ... 
CR ... 



Rapid Reading 
Critical Reading 

SI. No. 











Tabic of Contents 



Fo Introduce 









Directions For Using This Book 




Linguistics .And Reading 



Introduction To Reading Techniques 



Pre-Test (Instructions) 



The Jews l Pic-Test 1 





Jules Verne’s Trip To The Moon 




«L . 

Student Power .And the Student Role In institutional 

Cover ail lc .... 




1 listory of Nursing 





Books Tnat Influenced Great Men 





Gifted With An Far For Language 




Page* From Dictionary 




F.lhel Florey : Pcncillin Pioneer 




Ambedkar : The Social Revolutionary 




The University : Amateur Vs. Professional 




Tips To Avoid Hear [ Diseases 




Brig)iter Than A Billion Suns 





Siinikaxu’s Gift To Indian Culture 





Spaslic Dysphonu . Problem Cases For Therapy .... 




The Book 





Radio Broadcasting Programme 





SI. No. 


Exercises Page 


Sri Aurobindo’s Philosophy Of Education 

• • m a 




Twilight World Of The Sleepwalker 

a a a a 




Under The Altai Of Sakti 




Secret Service In Ancient India 

• • • • 




A New linage For The Police 

• • • • 




Young Managers Of Today 

a • • • 




Srirangam : The Past Recaptured 

• r * a 




The Air Force Story 

• a • • 




Why The World Lcanu English 

• a • » 




Snake Man Of Madras 

a • ■ a 




Ruses From India 

• a ■ • 




A Page From Southern Railway Time-Table 

a a m a 




Tracking The Stan 

a a • a 




Putting The Pill In Perspective 

l « a i 




Computing The Weather 

a m » a 




How To Stop The Hijacker 

a • • a 




Saving The Spaceship Earth 

• • • • 




A Sleeping Giant Awakes 

a m a ■ 




The Nations Second bread 

• ■ a a 




Job Satisfaction - The Main Factor 

a a a a 




Was The Buddha An Aryan 

» f • 1 




Pollution And Public Health 

• • • • 




Indian Air Lines Schedule 

« a a • 




Gravitational Waves 

a • a a 




Socrates And Gandhiji 

• a • • 




Life Line Of Nation 

a • • a 




Microwave Technology 

* • • • 




Space And International Development 

• law 




Tne Futurists - Explorers of Tomorrow’s World 

• • • • 




Gandhi And America 

• a » a 




Air India Time- fable 

• • • • 



v u (continued} 

SI. No. 





Wonted : A Revolution In Education 

• • • • 




Brain Drain Or Overflow 

• • • • 




What Is Hypnotism 

• • • • 




Ytiur Job 

• • • • 




Youi Murriugt 

• • • • 



Post-Test (.Inslnictions) 



litc Arabs | Post-Test| 

• • • • 




• • • • 



Developing Perception .And Reading Skills 



11 . 

Reading Habit Inventory 


111 . 

Checklist Of Reading Difficulties 

• ♦ • • 




Critical Analysis For Articles And Newspapers 




Efficient Reading Programme 




Teacher-1 raming Programme 




A rwo-wcek Course in Efficient Reading 
Procedures and Practices 




Rending F<t*c Index Table 

• • » • 




Introduction to Reading Gadgets 

« « i • 


1H( (NO 


From a survey conducted in India and the 
U.S.A. by Paul C. Berg and Edmund Faulker, it 
was found that on the average people in various 
professions are required to read as much as 100 
pages every day. This survey had another interest¬ 
ing finding that normally people take <i hours for 
reading a day's material. The average reading 
speed of a normal individual was found to be 274 
words per minute and at this rate one requires a 
minimum of 4'A hours to read 100 pages material. 
Thus, any professional needs to spend a lot of 
lime only in reading apart from the other duties. 
Under tlicsc circumstances, it was found that the 
daily work cannot be disposed of on time as the 
reading process itself consumes about 4Vj hours 
while the total time available for any professional 
in a day is about 6 hours. It is a known fact that 
a number of techniques and methods were deve¬ 
loped in same foreign countries to improve the 
reading speed by giving supervised reading prac¬ 
tise With these techniques and methods, the 
• large amount of time consumed in reading could 
be considerably reduced and tins, in turn, helps 
any profession alb to work more efficiently und 
effectively. The Central Institute of Indian 
Languages (CIIL) has conducted five training 
programmes foi the development of speed reading 
without loss of comprehension and the experi¬ 
ence of the Institute has been that a two-week 
intensive training programme for improving read¬ 
ing rate and also developing the reading skills, the 
reading rate of an individual can easily be doubled. 
In certain cases, it was also found that the speed 
could he improved much more while the degree 
of comprehension could also increase. Adequate 
resea re I evidence is available with the Institute in 
this regard. Constant application of the reading 
techniques in day to day reading would go higher 
and higher up. It is needless to mention that 
various techniques of reading should be applied, 
depending upon tl>e nature of the material and 
purposes of reading. 

experiments in the area of reading arc very 
recent in our country and it could be said that 
very little about reading is known to us. How¬ 
ever, whatever is known to us would be fruitful 
only when it is applied in day to day life. Keep¬ 
ing the acute need for the development of read¬ 

ing at various levels in mind, lire ClIL has deve¬ 
loped carefully selected and graded materials far 
faster reading with better comprehension. Such 
materials have been developed by the Institute in 
English, Tclugu, Kannada and Hindi As the 
materials, so far developed, have been found to he 
extremely useful and have been received with lots 
of interest and enthusiasm by people all over the 
country, the Institute felt the need to bring out 
such materials in various other Indian languages. 
It may be mentioned here that the first edition of 
the hook entitled “Read Faster Understand 
Better". which was published by Use Institute in 
1972 has been most fruitfully utilised and was 
found to be mstjunicntal in the development of 
reading rate among people working in various 
disciplines likes tlic State Bank of India. Indian 
Navy, Officers of the Lok Sabha Secretariat and 
Cabinet Secretariat, etc There has been an acute 
need to tiring out the second edition of this title 
as the demands from all over the country arc- 

Fhe purposes of llus book are- 

1. to acquaint the readers with various 
techniques and skills adopted for the 
development of fast reading, 

2 . to provide a set of good reading mate¬ 

3. to provide comprehension questions and 
exercises based on tins material for prac¬ 
tising efficient reading while maintaining 
a check over the degree of comprehen¬ 

4. to help the readers in improving their 
reading speed and comprehension, and 

5. to create an incentive to other resear¬ 
cher* to work in tnis line. 

One of the very important factors kept in 
mind in bringing out this book is to see that the 
people who are interested in developing faster 
reading should become flexible readers, in order 



to adjust their reading rate by the application of 
various reading skills to suit their reading pur 
poses. It would be necessary to mention here 
that comprehension is a crucial factor in reading 
and therefore reading speed in itself has no 
meaning without comprehension . Researches 
have shown that comprehension cannot be 
ensured by slow reading either. It is, therefore, 
necessary to adjust one s reading speed to com¬ 
prehend the material depending upon the kind of 
material and purpose of reading. There are 
different levels of comprehension which vary on 
the basis of the above two factors, viz., the kind 
of reading materials and the reader's purpose. 
Comprehension may be confined only to the 
level of locating specific information from the 
printed page and sometimes it may be neces¬ 
sary to find the main idea or general content of 
the material read. At times comprehension not 
only involves simple understanding of the main 
idea and supporting details, hut also critical 
examination and value judgement too. Keeping 
ail the above factors, namely, different reading 
skills and techniques and various levels of com¬ 
prehension in view, a number of interesting 
articles and essays were selected for inclusion in 
llus book. Other factors like wide range of 
topics, lucid style and enjoyment of an ordinary 
man in reading were kept in view in selecting the 

The present book is brought out in two 
volumes. Volume 1 is the textbook which con¬ 
tains a description of various skills for fast reading 
like Slumming, Scanning, Rapid Reading, and 
Critical Reading. In order to facilitate improve¬ 
ment of reading speed, a collection of carefully 
selected reading material is presented in it, 
printed in various ways : single column, double 
column, triple column, Accelerated Reading 
Equipment size, and different letter sizes as in 
newspaper pnnt, typewriting etc. A few passages 
have been printed in different colours. This is to 
see hows different colours correlate with reading 

speed and comprehension. It has been suggested 
that some of the passages be read by using the 
Skimmer and Reading Accelerator. We generally 
provide these gadgets to the participants who 
undergo an intensive Rapid Reading Course 
conducted by the C11L. In case file reader can 
avail of these gadgets he can make uses of them 
for his reading practice. (For an introduction to 
the Reading Gadgets, see page Nos. 277 to 279). 

An appendix containing vanouss tables and 
charts concerned with efficient reading is given 
at the end of the volume. 

Volume II (Work-Book) of this book contains 
comprehension questions and exercises with a 
bearing on various skills of fast reading which are 
mentioned above, and answer key. speed conver¬ 
sion table, comprehension (percentage) conver¬ 
sion table and participants evaluation proforma 
for the effective use of this book. Necessary- 
instructions for the reading skills have been given 
before the exercises concerned. At the end of the 
second volume is an answer key which wQ] enable 
those who practise fast reading with the aid of 
these two books to check their comprehension. 
It is hoped that the second edition will prove to 
be much more useful than the earlier edition arid 
it is also hoped that this will be received with 
much more zeal, enthusiasm and interest in the 
discipline by scholars working In the area of read¬ 
ing and also those who are interested in develop¬ 
ing fast reading. 

The methods outlined here cannot be genera¬ 
lised to be equally effective in all reading situa¬ 
tions. Some reading requires more attention and 
repetitions and lakes longer time (for example, 
reading research articles, proof reading, etc.). 
However, to the extent they are helpful, the 
authors hope that the readers will take advantage 
of the suggested techniques. Any observations, 
comments or suggestions from the readers will be 
gratefully accepted. 

K. V, V. L. Narasimha Rao 

Chinna Oommen 

S. V. Vara da Bhatta Char 



There are many individuals and organizations who have co-operated 
with us in various ways in preparing this book. 

We are grateful to various authors of the articles included in diis 
book and to the Editors of the following Magazines/Journals/Newspaper* 
and hook for permitting us to reproduce the articles without payment 
(I) Tlie Illustrated Weekly of India, (2) The Tunes of India, (3) Span, 
(4) The American Review, (5) Science Today, (6) The Mirror, (7) The 
Reader’s Digest, (8) The Financial Times, (9) Deccan Herald, (10) The 
Indian Express, (11) The Hindu, (12) Silent World: A Socio-Medical 
Journal, (13) The Asia Publishing House, (14) MacMillan Publishing Co., 
(IS) Southern Railway, (16) All India Radio, (IT) Air India and Indian 
Airlines, (18) Times Weekly, (19) Dr. Paul Berg etc., and (20) Oxford 

It is a great privilege for us to acknowledge the able guidance and 
constant help rendered to us by L>r. D.P. Pattanayak, Director, Central 
Institute of Indian Languages. 

Our thanks arc due to Dr. Paid C. Berg, Director of the Reading 
Clinic and Professor of Education, Southern Carolina University, USA, 
for giving us necessary training in preparing this hook. 

We express our sincere thanks to Dr. C.1I.K. Misra, the then Deputy 
Director, GIL, Mysore, presently Professor, Industrial Training Institute, 
Madras, for his academic help in bringing out the first edition. 

Our tliaaks are due to Ur. A.K. Srivastava, Deputy Director, CIIL, 
Mysore, for constant help and overall supervision in bringing out this 
revised and enlarged edition. 

We express our appreciation to Dr. (».C. Aliuja, Research Officer 
and Dr.(Mrs) Primila Ahujn, Junior Research Officer for going through 
the manuscript and offering suggestions for improvement. 

Our sincere thanks to Mr. P.P. Giridhar, Research Assistant, CIIL, 
who lias keeidy and minutely gone through the manuscript and offered 
his valuable suggestions and also supervised the final draft typing. 

We are also thankful to Mr, B.D. Jayaram, Junior Research Officer, 
CIIL, who prepared conversion tables. 









1. Have a desire to improve your HEADING SPEED ami COMPREHENSION. 

2. Make it a point to read INTRODVCTION TO READING TECHNIQUES , (Volume I. 

pp. 12-20 ) before you start practising with the text 

3. Follow the instructions given in the Work-Book very carefully. 

4. If you are practising Rapid Reading by yourself with the help of this book, follow the sche¬ 
dule given below -{This programme is scheduled for practice at the rote of I hour |>er day 
for 12 days). 

1st day : Tuke Pro-lest before you staid practising the 

Reading Techniques with the help of this book. 

Then practice only skimming technique-5 exercises. 

2nd day : Practise 2 exercises in Skimming and 6 exercises 
in Scanning. 

3rd day Practise only scaiming-8 exercises. 

4th day : Practise 3 scanning and 5 Rapid Reading exercises. 

5th day : Practise only Rapid Reading-7 exercises. 

6 th day ; Practise 2 skimming, 2 scanning and 2 Rapid 
Reading exercises. 

7th day : Practise 1 skimming, 1 scanning, 3 Rapid Reading 
and I critical reading exercises. 

8 th clay : Practise 2 Rapid Reading and 1 critical Reading 

9th day Practise 1 skimining, 2 Rapid Reading and 2 Criti¬ 
cal reading exercises. 

10th day : Practise I skimming, 1 scanning, 2 Rapid Reading 
and 1 critical reading exercises. 



11 ill day 

Practise 1 skimming, 1 scanning, 2 Rapid Reading 
and I critical reading exercises. 

12til day : Practise I skimming, I scanning and 2 Rapid Read* 
ing exercises. Take Post-Test at the end of this 
practice session. 

5. Fill up the columns in Appendix IV (Work-Book) as and when you practice reading with 
this material. After completing the whole course, detach the filled in duplicate copy 
of the Appendix (retain the original with you) and mail it to the "Reading Unit", Central 
Institute of Indian Languages, Manasa Gangotri, Mysore 570 006, S. India, for evaluation 
and future guidance. 

6 . If you are practising Rapid Reading under the supervision of a trained Rapid Reading 
Expert, fill out the columns in Appendix-IV(Work-Book) and submit it to the instructor 

7. Apply the reading skills you have acquired in your day-to-day reading materials like 
Newspapers, Novels, Short stones, Physics, History, Geography, Commerce, Office 
papers etc. 

8 . Use both tlte parts (Text and Work-Book) simultaneously. 

9. Carefully 90 through column No.4-“Participants Individual Progress-cum-Evaluation of 
the Reading Material" [Appendix-IV| given in the Volume-II (Work-Book) and then 
read the passages as directed. 



J-incjixiitLcs. cornet c^yzaaLncj 

In this age of Communication Revolution 
every man Is bombarded with information 
from various mass media and hence the impor¬ 
tance of reading is not properly realised. Under 
such circumstances, with the steady and rapid 
increase of publication of books and other 
printed documents there has been almost pro¬ 
portion j te increase in superficiality in 'reading' 
and this acts as an important factor in the 
lowering of standards. It is little appreciated 
that reading is a sharing of experience between 
the writer and the reader and involves critical 
judgement on the part of the latter. This is 
different from other communication media 
where one is exposed to a passive explication 
of information through entertainment and 
where the goal is knew ledge-made-easy. 

Book is both a 'storehouse and a genera¬ 
tor'. Reading not only involves reasoning and 
comprehension, extensive and critical reading 
also sparks one’s intelligence to organise 
material and see their relationship besides 
collecting information and being able to see 
view points. Unlike speech, which is evanes¬ 
cent, written material lets one ‘to stop and 
think, to re-read, to go back and compare, to 
verify and adjust'. There is no need to adjust 
oneself to the speed of the speaker as is re¬ 
quired in a speaking situation. Although, there 
is this advantage of the pause, there Is the 
danger of complacence, when the student 
instead of actually reading is deceived by slow 
decipherment of the written symbols and an 
apparent satisfaction of proyress. 

It has been hinted above that the effort 
needed for reading a book is much more than is 

A UTHOR ; DJ\ Pattanayak 

SOURCE : Aspects of Applied Linguistics 

required for information elicitation in other 
media. It is all the difficult oecause reading 
books is, in one sense, an end in itself. One 
does not necessarily gain a skill a earn a job by 
reading a book. But it has its own rewards. 
Unfortunately no attempt is made today to 
maximise the compensatory increase of 
rewards commensurate with the efforts ex¬ 
pended in reading books. 

Style is an important factor in the process 
of reading. Not only the content, 'what is said', 
but its expression, r now it is said', plays a part 
in the facility or otherwise of reading. Nume¬ 
rous factors make up the difference between 
auding and reading. Question in one and state¬ 
ment in the other, short sentence in audirvg and 
long sentence in reading, simple sentunce in the 
former and complex sentence in the latter, 
conversation in the first place and narration 
in the second and trie difference in the relative 
range of vocabulary explain the differences 
between auditory' comprehension and reading 

Among the factors which have any bearing 
on the reading achievement are the causative 
factors, the educational media and the educa¬ 
tional process. The causative factors are cither 
physical or psychological. The more important 
among the former are reading readiness, indivi¬ 
dual differences, intelligence, bilingualism, 
vision and hearing, testing, diagnosis, promo¬ 
tional policies, parent-teacner attitude, socio¬ 
economic factors and the like. Among the 
latter motivation, interests, pupil attitude and 
personal adjustmvnt are the most Impor¬ 
tant factors. 


f continued) 

The purpose of reading also determines the 
effort and the level of achievement on the part 
of a reader. Whether something is read for 
light reading, for rapid scanning for news or 
with a view to gather salient points, for serious 
reflective reading or something is read by 
proxy (notes, abstracts, etc.), will make a diffe¬ 
rence! in the nature of concentration. As Bacon 
says in his famous essay 'Of Studies', ‘Some 
books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, 
and some few to be chewed and digested, that 
is, some books are to be read only in parts, 
others to be read but not cursorily, and some 
need to be read wholly, and with diligence and 
attention. Some books also may be read by 
deputy, and extracts made of them by others, 
but that would be only in the less important 
arguments and the meaner sort of books, else 
clistillec books arc, like common distilled 
waters, flashy tilings 1 ' 

The purpose of reading as wbII as the 
general competence in the language concerned 
determine the manner of reading to a great 
extent. For instance in scientific presenta¬ 
tions where there are compact blocks of infor¬ 
mation without repetition, close reading 
becomes almost imperative. On tne other hand 
in certain types of literature, cnaracter sway 
and landscape paintaing as well as Lhc very 
persuasive nature of the appeal permit over¬ 
statements and repetitions. In such cases it is 
possibles to skip areas without loss of much 
information. Actually the native speakers of a 
language do not read a piece of literature as 
closely as a person learning the language os a 
foreign language. Since in our schools and 
colleges no distinction is nudo with regard to 
teaching mother tongue, second and foreign 
languages, there has been a great deterioration 
in reading literature. Mr. D.Y. Morgan, writing 
in the New Trends of Education' (Education 
Extension Center. W. Pakistan, Miscellany 
Two, p. 67), very* pertinently refers to this 

problem when he writes, *1 should very much 
like to see the student of Literature forced to 
make the same close and exact study of tests 
so that we might get rid of the type of litera¬ 
ture teaching which deals mainly in outlines, 
movements, trends, summaries of plot and 
plotted characterisations, and neglects the real 
stuff of literature-an author's words on a 


Historically two broad approaches and 
three methods cross-cutting each other may be 
discerned, though there have been overlaps at 
any one time. Broadly the two approaches may 
be termed phonic and graphic, whereas the 
three methods are die alphabet and phonics 
mediod, the word method, and the sentence 
method. The phonic approach emphasises 
pronouncing the words and requires children to 
spell words by sounding letters. A Leacher 
following the graphic approach adopts the 
word or the sentence method depending on 
whether he accepts the word or the sentence 
as the unit of expression. The word method, 
which was popular in the early and middle 
nineteenth century, was a revolt against the 
random presentation of combination of letters. 
Whether such combination formed syllables or 
not, they were not meaningful units. As against 
this, words stood for a particular object or 
notion just like any other pictorial presenta¬ 
tion. A word, which could as easily be learnt 
as a letter, is a meaningful unit and induces the 
reader to think, which is not true either of a 
letter or of a syllable. The sentence method, 
which came into prominence about the Utter 
par: of the 19th century, accepts as its ground 
rule ‘things are cognised as a whole’. The 
sentence then is considered as the unit of 
thought and expression of which words anc 
letters are cognised as parts rather than the 
other way about. Recognising letters and 



words became so automatic that the conscious 
focus of attention becomes the thought under¬ 
lying the expression. Considering the functions 
of reading, it may be pointed out that whether 
one reads to oneself silently or one reads aloud, 
one recognises the written symbols not as ends 
in themselves, but as representing thought and 
expression of the writer. This suggests that 
sight reading is primary and oral reading is 
incidental in the sense that it involves merely 
the transfer or addition of the ability of giving 
oral expression to the already achieved ability 
of recognition of symbols. This has a parallel 
in the transfer stage when one adds the ability 
to talk to his already achieved ability of 
speech. But this whole area of transfer is a 
moot question and a lot more empirical evi¬ 
dence is needed before one can come to any 
definitive conclusion about the primacy of one 
stage over the other. 


'ITie major purposes of reading may be cate, 
gorisad as follows. One needs to seek enter¬ 
tainment and relaxation to avoid boredom to 
escape from the immediate, to be challenged 
or to identify oneself with one s own social 
world. This sodal identification may be viewed 
from three dimensions. One may seek the con¬ 
firmation or extension of experience, look far 
the psychological aspect of self-understanding 
or seek some sort of aesthetic fulfilment. A 
due to the reading interest of children may be 
found from the things they read about, the 
questions they ask, and the topics they look up 
and discuss at home and outside. It has been 
demonstrated that the parents’ reading habits 
are passed on to the children. It is also gene¬ 
rally admitted that the children’s interests are 
learned. Since interests are learned and fami¬ 
liar it cannot be the sole basis of a curriculum 
of reading. A curriculum being a vehide for 
acquiring new knowledge, cannot be circum¬ 

scribed by interest, but interests must be 
realistically utilised for the purpose of framing 
a curriculum. 


From quick recognition of well-known 
patterns to slow decipherment of puzzling 
codes, some major problems are posed by 
graphic differences, difference in writing 
systems, and difference in the direction of eye 
movement between the native language and the 
target language. The intra-language graphic 
difference may be a source of problem in read¬ 
ing also. A transfer from standard Oriya script 
to the cursive karoni may be relatively easier 
than a transfer from, say, Oriya to Russian; 
yet it poses a problem. Tha intra-language 
■graphic difference poses different problems 
depending an whether both the languages share 
the same letters with different values, both 
have similar graphemes or both have entirely 
different graphemes, English and the Roman 
languages use the same letters with different 
values. Most of the letters of Russian are 
simiLai to that of English and English and 
Japanese have entirely different characters. In 
the Indian context where all the scripts are 
derived from a common source irrespective ot 
the families of languages empirical evidence is 
necessary for locating the problems arising out 
of transfer from one script to the other. Any 
one conversant with an alphabetic system will 
face problems in trying to read even the same 
thing presented through a logographic system 
of writing. As regarcs the eye movements is 
concerned, Urdu in relation to the other Indian 
languages and both of these in relation to 
Chinese present good examples. It would be 
interesting to test the reading of a passage in 
any Indian language from right to left, from 
the left to right and the mirror image of the 
normal writing and note the speed of reading 
and set up norms. It would be also interesting 



to test the reading speed of Hindi and Urdu 
speakers with the same piece in English. 


The most common reading test is a closely 
timec passage on which comprehension ques¬ 
tions are asked. Such a piece could be given as 
an isolated exercise, but more often it serves 
its purpose better if it forms a part of a larger 
battery of test. Since the material tested U the 
same as the material taught, it needs no 
emphasis that faster reading habits can be 
developed by using the same technique in the 
class-room where the vocabulary and the syn¬ 
tactic patterns are controlled so as to proceed 
from simple to complex. Another reading pro¬ 
gramme was developed by Halmuth Schaefer 
and subsequently improved by Waldo Sweet. 
This is popularly known as the substitution 
programme. By mastering the techniques of 
syntactic analysis of both the languages and by 
controlling the rate and order of substitu¬ 
tions the instructor progressively substitutes 
elements of the language to be read in a pas¬ 
sage written In the known lanyuage of the 
learner. By thus giving clues to meanings of 
substituted vocabulary, this programme helps 
in developing speed reading. 

Ever since 1955, when Dr. Rudolph Flesh's 
Why Johnny Can’t was published, the ensuing 
debate brought to tors the controversy over 
the use of specific techniques. Dr. Flesh's 
claim, "Teach the child what each letter stands 
for and he can read”, was a protest against the 
excessive dependence an printed farm without 
caring for their sound value. Although 

Dr. Flesh rightly emphasised the phonic princi¬ 
ple, he did not utilise the principle which could 
have given him insight into the relationship of 
sound and printed form. The Bloomfield 
system of reading, which was the result of his 
dissatisfaction with the then prevailing system, 
came to be more widely known as a result of 
his Flesch controversy. Bloomfield emphasised 
thorough recognition of letters in the alphabet 
and their pronunciation before one reads 
connected writing or is presented with diffe¬ 
rences in paired words such as pin and pun. 
The Bloomfield system, which was later known 
as the Bloomfield-Bamharl system formulates a 
logical system of reading by presenting regular 
patterns at Die initial stages and keeping the 
regular features to later lessons. It lays heavy 
stress on the interest and the initiative of the 
child to read and exploit the principle that 
once the mechanical aspects such as recogni¬ 
tion and pronunciation are thoroughly 
mastered it would be relatively easy to go into 
more complexities 

In the Indian context very little work has 
been done in the field of reading research. 
Recently one of the experiments conducted by 
a British Council 9 * 0 up in reading Englisn 
shows that the rate of comprehension remaiis 
constant with the increase in speed. This is yet 
to be further tested. It is yet to be seen what is 
the level of difficulty in transferring from one 
related language and script to another. It is 
high time when our language and linguistic 
departments join their voices witn Bloomfield 
and give the slogan ‘Let's Read', and carry on 
vigorous programmes of research and material 

me ind 



I, Skimming find Sconning Technique/ 

AUTHOR : PaulC. Berg. 

SOURCE : Skimming and Scanning .Work Book. 


In reading, there is a predictable, somewhat 
regular pattern of moving the eyes across the 
lines of print. In skimming and scanning, how¬ 
ever, there is no one “beet" approach to be 
learned. There are, however, certain visual 
techniques that are quite important. 

Skimming and scanning have been des¬ 
cribed as processes of reading and looking. 
The reading process is the Bame as that typi¬ 
cally employed in u usual” or accelerated read¬ 
ing. It is the looking process that is unique. 
When the reading stops and the looking starts, 
the process can best be described as ‘ floating' ; 
that s, moving hack and forth and downward 
at the same time, in a fair rapid manner. One 
of the difficult yet vital aspects of "floating" 
is remaining relaxed while maintaining a high 
level of attention. When you are truly floating 
down a page, you will probably feel that you 
are not stopping your eyes at all though of 
course you are. 

While floating, you are giving yourself 
completely to the content, and, as a result, 
you are more sensitive to its meaning. If you 
■top to look at specific words, your awareness 
will be considerably restricted. When this 
happens, you see only a meaningless string of 
words. On the other hand, when you float in 
an attentive but relaxed manner, you are aware 
of more words, receiving them an what might 
be termed a ‘'subliminal* level. Maintaining 
this relaxed but attentive state increases the 
probability that related words and ideas will 
spring forth from the oontent and keep you 

on the track of the meaning. One writer 
expressed this feeling rather well when he said : 

u usually h»t a «nrt nl . Ktnc} v( Mp»cunrv. 
nral iuix*>iiaUuuvir.«-. vwn» |«> piny • l«igt rotr tVoidt 
ivr p»ir*.w-j wrn | jmp <*n at or.r front th* Wr .nn 

only mp!at*i ihn by U..H lh< aoiUt*.-h -amt* 

aab tin Mil at. m «h,r rapid itxan.'.lii ila m.i m.iM ti j|’<ir,* 
wmujh tmpyaaatnr. urlMt thty wiumci %ilh Vr q ...tlx, 
ol pvirpMc mini. >nri dm •> ll were, 'h.-v .prlng into 

Some authors have recommended a parti 
cular eye-movement pattern for use during 
skimming : moving straight down the middle, 
the right-hand aide, or the left-hand side of 
the column , zigzagging back and forth in a 
regular pattern; attempting to make pre¬ 
determined number of eye stops per line;or 
reading lines at regular intervals, perhaps every 
third or fifth line. However, attempting any 
such pattern of attach is very likely to restrict 
your awareness and make you to conscious of 
what your eyes are doing and of the words at 
which you are looking, with the result that 
little meaning comes through. 

It may be helpful to run your finger down 
the page in advance of your eyes. Some people 
report that this technique helps them to 
maintain greater alertness to the content. 

At all times your primary concentration 
should be on the meaning. 


In scanning, you are trying to locate speci¬ 
fic words, numbers, names or ideas, or attempl- 


( continued 1 

ing to answer specific questions. The first step 
in successful scanning is to fix clcariy in your 
minti what you are looking for* The second 
step is to anticipate how the information you 
arc seeking might be stated. If you arc looking 
for a name place, or title, capital letters will 
provide a visual clue. If you arc looking for a 
distance or a time, you may look for numbers 
or for clue words such as miles, feet, minutes, 
hours, etc. If you are looking for an idea, you 
will probably try to anticipate lire words that 
could be used in stating it. Ifyouare looking 
for a relationship, you may find it expressed 
after such clue w-ords as thus, consequently, or 
as a result. 

When you start looking for your informa¬ 
tion, use the "floating" approach until you 
find what you are looking for. Then read as 
much as you need to answer your question. 


There are three different kinds of skim¬ 
ming : 

1. PREVIEW, most often followed by a 
second skimming or a thorough reading, is 
used in selecting a book, in surveying a chapter 
before reading or studying it, in finding appro¬ 
priate material for use in research, in sorting 
through correspondence before answering it, 

2. Oi'ER VIEW\ which is usually an and in 
itself, serves to give the reader an over-all 
impression, a feeling for the general nature of 
the content, main ideas, etc. 

3. RE VIEW, following a previous reading, is 
used when the reader goes back over material 
ta study for a test or to prepare a report. 
Reviewing helps one to refresh one s mind, 
clarify the structure, and better remember 
the material. 


Before you start to read or skim, you need 
to get ready, to gain insight into the material. 
The first step is to ask the question, “What is 
this all about?" 

Before previewing an article, your prepara¬ 
tion might be as brief a step as reading the 
tide, the lead-in (introductory statements that 
appear above the body of trie content), and 
the author’s name, anu then reflecting for a 
moment on what the article might ue aoout 
and what information it might contain. 

In previewing a book, you can laam what it 
is about by studying the jacket, if it is avai¬ 
lable. You will find on it the title, author's 
name, and usually, in capsule form, a descrip¬ 
tion of the book’s contents, the author's back¬ 
ground and qualifications, and perhaps com¬ 
ments by reviewers as to the book's value and 
special slant. (You are likely to find Liiat jacket 
information is on the flattering side.) 

The title page of most texts and many non¬ 
fiction books and in some cases, the first page 
of magazine article* provide you with the 
author's professional affiliation. Sometimes, on 
the facing page, a list of the author's previous 
publications will be given. This information 
can be used in weighing the author's experience 
with and qualifications to write about the 

A book's copyright date provides informa¬ 
tion as to its recency, and this is important in 
fields with many new developments. Previous 
copyright dales and indications as to the 
number of editions or revisions show how 
many times the book has been changed since 
its original publication ; the number of 
printing provides an indication of popularity. 



A book preface should be checked, as this 
is a likely place to gain insight into the author's 
purpose, the nature of the content, and the 
audience he anticipated. If the preface is 
Largely devoted to acknowledgements, these 
should bo checked to determine the amount of 
contribution or guidance by others, and who 
they were. 

The table of contents provides a descrip- 
don of the book in a most compact form and 
should be studied carefully. A valuable exer¬ 
cise at this point is to write a summary of the 
book’s contents or a description of what might 
be found in tho various chapters or groups of 


Your PRKVIEh is an effort to leam about 
tne ideas to be presented and the structure of 
their development. The technique for preview¬ 
ing a book is somewhat different from that 
used in previewing a chapter or an article. 

Previewing a bock is accomplished by 
thumbing through the pages with which you 
are dealing. Typographical aids are a boon to 
the previewing process: headings, subhead¬ 
ings, marginal summaries, italicizing, under¬ 
lining, changes in type face, and what printers 
call “dingbats'-dota or arrows at the left 
sice of paragraphs or sections, used to call 
special attention to them. Illustrations, charts, 
and diagrams and their captions also add a 
great deal of information in easily digestible 

Sometimes an author will use an outline 
form. This is especially helpful. By using 
Roman numerals for the most important ideas, 
the author shows you where to place major 
attention. Capital letters indicate important 
sub topics, Arabic numbers are less important 

If no typographical aids are present, read¬ 
ing the first paragraphs, letting your eye travel 
or “float’ over the content, and reading the 
last paragraphs may prove helpful in giving a 
preview of the information to be covered. It 
is helpful at this point to make note* on the 
probable content of the selection and to pose 
questions that are likely to be answered. 

Next, look at the paragraphs. Since the 
paragraph is perhaps the key thought unit, it 
is must helpful to pay close attention to tne 
way the paragraphs are put together. Noticing 
their relative length can be quite informative. 
If paragraphs are long, the author may present 
a key thought with a good deal of elaboration , 
if they are short, it may be that the reader is 
expected to link many separate ideas together. 

Thoroughly read a paragraph or two. This 
not only gives a toe hold on the content, but 
also provides clues as to how the author tends 
to put his thoughts together. Is he analytical 
and methodical, or does he ramble and reite¬ 
rate? Does he appear to be accurate and 
thorough, or is hix writing superficial or vague? 
At this time, preliminary judgments as to the 
author's purpose can be made. Is he writing 
to inform, to prove a point, to share an expe¬ 
rience, to descrioe a procedure, etc.’ 

If you are previewing a shorter selection, 
such as an article or a chapter of book, you 
would spend less lime on your preview. You 
might read only the first paragraph, the head 
ings, perhaps a sentence or two under each 
heading ; and then gLance over tile rest of each 
of the paragraphs. You may encounter selec¬ 
tions in which the headings give little informa¬ 
tion : in such cases, you might need to read the 
first sentence of every paragrapn. As in pre 
viewing a book, you should always be alert 
to typographical aids, illustrations and cap¬ 
tions. Often, an author will end a selection 
or chapter with a summary paragraph, which 



you should read carefully. 


When you skim for an overview your 90 a] 
is to sample the reading material more tho¬ 
roughly than you do in a preview for usually 
you do not intend to read the material at a 
later time. 

As you do in preview-skimming, you would 
read the first paragraph, the headings, first 
sentences, etc., but in addition, as you alter¬ 
nately read and "float", you alert yourself to 
the structure and content of the material 
through an awareness of paragraph patterns; 
thought transitions, and clue words. This 
awareness will help you to reach deeper into 
the content, to recall more information, and to 
see relationsnips more clearly and more 


As you "tackle" each paragraph, read 
only as much as is necessary to realize its 
meaning. Sometimes this will mean reading 
only the first sentence and spot-checking the 
balance. Ln other cases, the key thought will 
be in the middle or even in the last sentence. 
Sometimes, however, the key thought will not 
be stated at all, anc you'll have to link ideas 
together to realize the key thought. 

An understanding of the six major types of 
paragraph structure will help you to find or 
determine the Important Ideas. Below are 
samples of these patterns and suggestions for 
dealing with them most effectively. 


tyiesllitn nnswvr 

t>« nwiBftn ihirJt I here It Ilk oft Mim’C kU>tK i.i *xh 

nil tay for me mlr.luU Ihuilt llmr m<tv I- tJ Itfr, h't a 1 no* Mfe 'ktl found oil ititli llctxrvri 
l-« rug* pi.Ur rap* atlnmimm uio \»xr gru-nl ,h blue cuter 
IRnt may u-*ll hr l>di» uf plain lift Iheo milur* ladr ftn.Ti 
Irtiplit III dull in a pxlirrr Ih at may t* cauiM Si 
ikin|n Although Unit it probably plum lift- i»r miiw Hint 
i n Marl, molt tocfltlfU agree that tfiOre u mi lift- inmpiir 
ulilrlu luniiua I II- on eorlh 

Problem Mil niton 

No matter boa R*rd l.vt ftcamije tried thrombi nul k- ' 
'li- rak» rocifo «h» fouu*l ui ■ aiageoinc In mirk proper v 
u|i‘d tn bufcr hr eakt three diflcrrrat lime* but wm> m 
«ay» r l-wii 1 rii’il »tth f«il ur<- Slnoe ihl had t hue rrputulum 
ui u baker the ii«vln: in nvaiigatr hr niiiiiu lor her 
'it chirr Shr rhreked Pot Mm». the utmjkcxi III* lug redumti 
• lie ated and tin- in* recipe. She rooced lhat tlir 
fK ft had lim dm.d-.tpM by a *oer.|iitti> lurutnl in lVtv*.». 
Culuraiiu She <M iim rumen auc four, a lliul ihr aitmatla 
■■•I certain mgrrdlrr U I ad to bi- a rrtxl ai oifltixrt tv.lgftti 
above Ml Itval if Lite ilk* itripe uae h.i tv uh -1 «uttWuIIv 
Him. »Ik dekvimlneii tttr change* dial *-*r« nM-ded. n>rn 
tl.» trial let bake thr rale a kw I mm, earh flit*' dlf- 
firetit ortiounlt ._■( certain lugrvdiciiu Klnall} till- iu w upon 
»hal u-cmed |u he • perfect proportion of Ingrid ant* lut 
the mm In uhK-ti itv- kvi-i 


Look for the question or the problem and 
then for the answer or the solution. 


Conciua Ion-proof 

The ror a not qu 1 * uerth the amount Ibt Oealti U nxklng 
lh» engine- needi alien It on. at evidenced by iht toond* d 
U>r v alvei and pialona. The uphixiifi need* rr-Oliver lag 
tha it iHif «b in-rttpetativr job It li»nk» as if the nr had been 
ahuied b> tru pnvtou* oxen.-. Sight aenu appear on On 
troni arul rear Irodrrt, and Ihr tlrn arc laf from next Olhoi 
tign* of »f«r aiuhr nrv «.»|vct '.but ihr mlk-egr aliniwti 11 
tui l.-ota uiiitk. 

Opinion rc«MM 

II It lb« belief of Out paper ih*l you ahoulel vote 'NO" 
fur the pri|K..«t arhcul buJaii Mi luoioriow » election* 
Nett oof board townbert aad hdmt.-iutr»tort are lading to 
Ml parent* ahflT they aunt to know ahrelthr-r ef+cnU Sx> 
Information hat bet* glien io She uikn about itule aid. 
gram*. or older ippivpiMfllM Ki the tClx>ol tyitanv In 
gaunt »t thr vnttrt, arr left Ir Ihr dark uiiinit xntiiy m 
parti of the ediool budget lor flu coining voor 


Ftont Die beginning* uf a rihieuT at d-r ruling force to 


( continued) 

Huirta ttv CrtiTimuninl party hat endyaveiftd to wipeout r|! 
irwn-i rtf rvllglun Ifi Hutu* It Sri*. «l ihlt lima, rxilltc .<iy 
iki>« lu lucxecdlrig Prlrata urui mimaUri hai* vary Itmllrrl 
Mghu ami arr nu lunget allowed lo rondure tch'wl*. Com* 
miiiirtin a at rjpjn>*n! to take iHw pirns of Clod; th* people 
»«n urged in rlrvntr IhemarK'm rnuntv to Ibr *nd* of itir 
party Today, irrvaturn Agbuiit rrl iglim itr» anil great. ‘la 
tfiliv ttic fart iha - -wlginut frmimn vjpp-rxtdit ex alt under 
UM Communal rr*»m» 


Look for the centra) thought or main 
idea and then for the supporting details. 


h union of detail* 

Rair. sad drem-fon the ctljr lor hall tf.i day, anal no* In 
dir !a:r night. lr* prop t talked the ‘Iran* leal they be 
in is* dr.*-npiHiT Himi Sad owen lluraiee.lng liner the 
ru n let up Ttir ran g’linf dmr llif nu n <r«i thmugli 
Ida untn lo**«rd lit* mtidi amt rlutot >11 Ihr ollin U4) of 
IS* hlghauy. made a urtaluna aujixl a* darir nrrt rolled 
■moodily aver Uir wwt bfacklsp Thi rtflmiiint t>{ Ihr neon 
lifhti bounced »>ff h< ttilry pa.nurui m a aynad of xofore 
Svery runt tml ib*w ihr touad of whistling er+oed r tbr 
nnt imjlv uruii 


Al first flauu m uctopui touht libr a monilar tpldrr 
Kighi writhing triastlikt urtnt—inuuilew ttr attached M 
i MialvJ b album body Thate Mntsdrt Ir* tludded vtth 
toothed torUon dm. tb.rh prruily imnx iMr rfflusi y 
»« gruapl»g organt ‘A hSIa lb* but*, rtf tin 'miacitJ u an 
euumout pnrnxlik* wuk >tti wr.icn th» latopui wari Ma 
fond nr nioiiio to |»tu A pair <4 1 allot. tywt, often 
largr at otjerr* awpi'im «••• unpUasaru. e«-m irrrlfylng 


Note what is being described and how. 


This type of paragraph does not usually 
break up into sentences of conventional length , 
it presents solid pages of print. It is usually 
devoid of punctuation and presents a flow of 
ideas. Here is the beginning of such a para¬ 
graph from Mark Twain'* lufe on the Mississi ¬ 

My litihcr out t iliter al the p*axr. and I tuppoae hr 
poaaocard dir |ww« of Ilf* If id death nvr-iill mm n ml maid 
I aim anybody thai .dWndtrl ban. Thu ru duarxiicn enough 
for utr iu> ■ gttwia thing, bat the drtlrr h. b* a atamboti 
man k*pt intruding, anrertheie-** I lift! warned loM a r*l».o 
boy. M) dial t 1 ‘iuiU umn out with a while ajtma mi n»l 
tlutkv a In Cil in loti' 'hi >irlr. where nil my »ikl Ceiauadei 

could m rtH" Inter I liiivjgtil I «uuM r oilier b« “ rirrfe utrd 
who -tool ui liar end vf if*** titgr-plank with thr uti of rt'P< 
m tut hand. Cnrnur hr ana purlieu la ily ia»napicui>aa But 
dif-vr a/rrr nn.y tiuyOneami- Ihry ware too Krnvnily I' br 
remlnrplalad at rtai pontlbUIhr-r 


Look at tne beginning and end and note 
how the transition is made. 


During the laU IfOO'i arid al thr hrgianing of Uie ltMX>'s. 
Ifi* island water ruuitw wvtr impruvrd. In 141J thr An* 
Ruitian Mrarna m uunl la SI. I'Mrrthorg 41 that Kmc tlw 
mam nvm rtrt otnna by runah. boi dir .nnitxuciion of 
heavy duty roarli wow cx^un only in I# I 7, The ronururtloi. 
nt railroadt »«» piannecf m 1635. and ihr flral rallruad 
wat optocti u IBJ By ldf 1 Magtaphic cuimtiutiicaeon 
* at rmuhlltbrd lietwim » Crtarat urg and Mo»to» 


Note the beginning and ending thoughts 
and the nature of the intermediate steps. 


Uh M a fourami |i rmauatM from • tourer for rrmuvml 
Ill'll, mail • taimmiialr eumpfrbrnalon at duot ttlti ft on 
deep wilhln Ihi rarlb l,if* l&r walar fiiniir.uo ai a flow. 
Moweiiinn Rawing twaUlly. Knuirno bubbling umi apt* 
rn die. ii>m*Unta< guahing forth in •m.ioii W fwlever ihr 
*M>la<J’.lor p r * mul.mtct lu mu lit «iun unui. at with 
Ok kmulaia. ia< ivum a! tllalliv and tupply givat out. 
and Ilk etaao So doe* tlw lourlnm matt a yen UM *ofi|»l> 
of wtki It i«a*uwL 


Find the main idea that is being repeated. 

Of course, when you re moving through 
the content at high speeus, you won't be able 
to analyse the types of paragraphs you encoun¬ 
ter or even to search out a topic sentence. If 



you find that you’re having difficulty in locat¬ 
ing of sensing what is important in a para¬ 
graph, you may need additional practice in 
analyzing paragraph patterns. To be really 
successful in skimming, you must be able to 
’’sense” what is important without cons¬ 
ciously analyzing it. 


At all times, aa you more from paragraph 
to paragraph, try to sense the author’s pattern 
of thinking. Notice how he will devote a 
cluster of paragraphs to amplifying one area or 
part of his subject. After having made his 
point, he will move to another phase, and then 
to another, until the total structure is com¬ 
plete. Try to "think along" with the author 
and to anticipate thought transitions. 

Sometimes you con skip one ex' more 
paragraphs completely, for It will be obvious 
that the paragraphs are continuations of ideas 
with which you are already familiar. The 
amount of material you "float" over, as 
opposed to reading, is dependent on the diffi¬ 
culty of the content, your fam&Larity with the 
subject, and the depth to which you need to 
probe the content to satisfy your purpose. 

Do not skip a paragraph just because its 
main idea is not immediately obvious. Some¬ 
times the following paragraph will help to 
clarify its role in the sequence of ideas; but 
if that does not help, you may be in trouble. 
Too many missing links may make it impos¬ 
sible to pick up the chain of ideas. If you get 
lost, go back to find s famflar idea, then start 

it Is sound procedure to read thoroughly 
the closing paragraph or two. If your conclu¬ 
sions and feelings parallel those expressed, you 
probably did a good job of skimming. 


A* mentioned earlier, words varysin their 
importance to total meaning. In overview- 
skimming, you are searching for the most 
important words, words that tell you IV/-/0, 
TO WHOM, WHEN, WHERE, and possibly 
WHY. You are forcing yourself to pas over 
less important words like AN, THE, A, YOU, 
YOUR, IT, IN, WITH, FROM, etc., and many 
descriptive words that merely add embroidery. 
In actual practice, you do not really omit 
these words , you see most of them, but are 
extra-sensitive to those words that are funda¬ 
mental to the trend of thought or to the imme¬ 
diate purpose. Notice the italicised words In 
the following paragraph. 

The bright re«i »U pejoeng-n turning car had been driven 
le*i than two hurerto in lie* when It carried two royal per- 
»a:ia.K« W> their tragic rptidcivon. In fee!, the car had been 
buiM especially fur then v dll in the Ihiy Hu man capital of 
Sarajevo . The dak war June 28, 1914 The political iftuation 
throughout Karat* wai eanlottve . war war innutn;ni All 

that was rented uh a ^iark In hnje-h tiff the wjai tiwiill- 
eil only an tacuse. 

Other words that merit special attention 
are referred to as d; r ect(on words-words that 
tell you to "go ahead” or “turn about". If 
you have read part of a sentence and come 
upon and. mune, nuireoitr, furthermore, and 
also. you might judge correctly that the 
sentence will "go ahead" or continue with the 
same point or thought. Other go-ahead words 
such as th us. so. (here/ore. consequently, 
flriully, and in conclusion, indicate that a more 
important thought is coming up; perhaps a 
summary or conclusion. Turnabout words, 

Such as but. Aotrever. yet. ncverthe’esy despite, 

and to Ute contrary, indicate that the thought 
is apt to be reversed and will proceed in a diffe¬ 
rent direction. In the following paragraphs, 
direction words are marked. 

Lh'toif ta th« cuuntrN prvvtfa ctfiAir. *d\an'Mc«. Tfc« 

yjrjiirful t iiIni itf rural muni i y slil*» MlluuH Ik.** rurfea* atuJ 



rl.uiKir <»l rttv lr«<TK- biki ItuMlmg urvwila <»f • imimi 

ilriiglllfvl In dll >0)1. Ui« dell CIO U» urixmt .i| tloBK irruttfl 
liBV it W n on- pl/Hting <Jmr> tAr atpitv*uitiii{| upon ura 
up Irom Win inokir vilntlM and lictorv *niok*» *t Qu 
!hf Othir Mni 'be caoim ■ lint* u.-k tl .r rxulrmtn: •( lit* 
•ponir.p night of a Bruaaway ‘Inm fft* MUlMilUJ provided 
liy iruirvnl't, Iticaatcis. and liK >i*> ard\iilr« o| |wopla tk 
iMtnd u«l.oti«l Miipieurli arr op.j Uitrg « rou.Mrv 


The clue woros will never be quite the same 
for any two readers, for everyone organizes his 
thoughts differently. There are no infallible 
formulas for selecting and omitting wards. 
With practice, you develop the ability to 
respond to the important and ignore the unim¬ 


In reviewing, your purpose is to re-familia¬ 
rize yourself with material you have previously 

read thoroughly or skimmed. 

Before skimming to review, prepare your¬ 
self by trying to remember as many of the 
ideas and details of the content as possible 
Then establish your purpose clearly in mind. 
It may be that you already have a good grasp 
of the main ideas and will be stopping prim a 
rily to note significant details names, places, 
terms, etc. You may be trying to establish in 
your mind a sequence of events or a procedure. 
Or you may be attempting to fill in a skeleton 
outline to clarify the structure of the whole. 

Because of your familiarity with the 
material, you should be able to float over a 
good deal of it; your need to stop and read 
should be reduced. 

2. Rapid Reading 

Rapid Reading-Speed Reading-Fast Read¬ 
ing—Quick Reading-Straight Reading-are the 
various nomenclatures for the same advanced 
Reading skill. 

Rapid Reading means not reading word 
by word but phrase by phrase or clause by 
clause, lino Dy line; moving eyes horizon¬ 
tally across the reading material with rapid 
speed. The Rapiu Redding aims to road faster 
with the application of better reacting skills 
and good comprehension. 

Rapid Reading is a skill. It is a skill simul¬ 
taneously involving both physical and mental 
activities. It can be mastered by practice like 
any other skill: cycling, drawing, painting, 
swimming, etc. 

Three factors may be visualized in Rapid 

1. Reading the material fast. 

2. Reading the material with comfort. 

1 Reading the material with better compre¬ 

If all the above three factors are taken care 
of in the reading process, then the reader 
becomes an efficient reader i.e., he can read 
faster with a high degree of comprehension. 

A good fast reader must avoid eye fixa¬ 
tions of longer duration, lip movement, and 


{ continued^ 

localization and rub-vocalization as ha reads, 
aulty aya movements, inappropriate pauses, 
egression tendencies, etc. 


-Improve your vocabulary in the subject- 
areas of your interest. 

-Recognize the format ana content of 
various books. 

-Adjust your reading rets for various 

-Recognize areas of comprehensions : Fast 

Versus opinion, Bias and prejudice, 

Author’s theme and purpose, inferences, 


The end result of the many training pro¬ 
grammes at the adult or college level is literally 
to train one to finally become a critical reader. 
All tha training in reading and all the practice 
in various reading skills lead ultimately to this 
goal-that of preparing the reader for critical 
reading—for helping him to read with analysis 
and judgement 

Critical reading requires a contribution by 
both the author and the reader and an inter¬ 
play which usually results in a new under¬ 
standing, according to TRJGGS. The reader 
must have all the various skills of reading. He 
must be able to analyse quickly through skim¬ 
ming, the directions, the main idea, the 

humour, satire, bony, and other Literal 

Fast reading depends on what you are rea 
ing, your purpose in reading it, how much of 
is already known to you. A good reader con 
cems himself less with speed itself and more 
with his purpose of reading. 


Rapid Reading technique is employed 
whenever a person refers Newspapers, Maga¬ 
zines, Journals, preparing for Tests and Exami¬ 
nations, Preparing for interviews, Preparing to 
visit a place-to know quickly what the impor¬ 
tant places arc etc., 


AUTHOR : Paul C. Berg. 

SOURCE : Teaching Efficient Reading. 

purpose of the wnttr, so that as he then reads, 
he can make some decisions in his own mind 
as to whether the author has fulfilled his appa¬ 
rent intended direction and purpose for the 
writing. Before he can evaluate such aspects as 
the author's purpose, accuracy or implications, 
the reader must be able to identify the tacts. 

Once he identifies the facts then he should 
begin to apply his tools for evaluation. He 
should check how reliable the information is; 
how recent it is;how accurate it is; and how 
competent the writer is. 

In addition, the reader must find out what 
is the author’s purpose. Is it to inform? Is it to 



persuade? Is it to entertain? Is it to interpret a 
point of view? Is it to incite into action? A 
casual glance at daily newspapers will give you 
examples for all of these. One article may be 
informational, such as news report, e.g., such 
and such a tiling happened in certain town , or 
it may be that the purpose of the article is to 
persuade you. It may be that the person who 
writes it wishes to leave you with a particular 
feeling aoout hia topic. May be that he simply 
wants to entertain you and you find much of 
that in the newspaper especially the Sunday 
supplement. Many times one can find articles 
that interpret a situation. Ayain, one might 
write an article to incite you into some action 
such a> aid to the Bangla Desh. Advertisements 
are again of this nature. They would not have 
been written in the fust place if it were not to 
incite you into action. 

Or.ce the reader finds out the hidden pur¬ 
poses or view points, then he must examine 
the implications present in the material. What 
inference is suggested by his tone, choioe of 
words or style? Obviously if his purpose is to 
inform, then he generally uses a matter of fact 
tone. The writer may not use colourful adjec¬ 
tives or adverbs, but simply states the facts 

precisely as they happened. On the contrary 
if he wants to persuade you, then he may us 
the tone or mood which will be in keeping wit 
the way he wishes you to react For example 
J he is attempting to persuAde you to vote for 
him and persuade you not to vote for th« 
other party, then his attitude or tone or his 
mood could be cynical, it could be satirical, it 
coula be sarcastic, it could be critical ana so 
forth. A good example of this is the famous 
speech of Mark Antony on Caesar's assassina¬ 
tion. Haw cleverly Mark Antony incites action 
against Brutus and his associates. Mark Antony 
used many of the above mentioned techniques, 
such as irony and satire. 

A wnter or speaker uses special styles also. 
For example, he may get attention by repiti- 
tion. Hitler used this technique extensively. He 
boasted that one can make people believe any¬ 
thing if it is repeated often enough. Advertise¬ 
ments also get results in the same way. On the 
‘Critical Analysis Checklist' (Appendix-IV) is 
a Listing of other styles that writers or speakers 
use best to carry their thoughts. Study the 
listing and remember it the next time that you 
read or listen to a speaker. 



(1) Read the passage entitled *7 HE JEWS" as fast as you 
can. Before you start reading the passage, note down 
the time and as soon as you finish reading note the 
time again. Calculate the time you have taken to 
read the whole passage. 

(2) Read the passage only once. 

(3) Find out the reading speed with the help of Appendix 
Ho.II and enter in Appendix No.IV - Wont-Book. 

(4) Answer the questions in the Work-Book as fast as you 

(5) Do not look into the text when you answer the ques¬ 


(6) Score your answers by checking them with the Answer 

Key (Appendix No.I - Work-Book) and convert the 
scares into percentages with the help of Conversion 
Table (Appendix No.HI - Work-Book). 

(7) Make the entries in the column’s in Appendix No.IV - 



the rouuantG rArtttn or zt omism, 

THiedar UtrA, a r«U(ivtly tfbaciir* Auitnw 
irwiN jaunuxlMi ta nw into IS* IlitvrUaM *« 
IMS inIvU book, Ti»« J«WMh Suit. Hi wet 
mottd by iKr conmrtKm by a Frrncli eonrt- 
Tncmd. of am A l frit. Dreyfus o* 
tKcrgts v / htajo* of u>Juch hr izru Ulirr 
found inuoeont. 17ml oiit<i for a Jtwuh 
Homoi«n4 and organiied Ui« (Ini Zuwrin 
CcmflTTf* In S«tl« <StoiU*rl4»d} in 1(W7 
dmonf olHir Zunul Itodro urn* Dr CHaim 
Wiumann, ftr»* Pretia**! of Itrael, 




A. N.S. 

The Illustrated Weekly of 
India, November 25, 1973. 

The Jew? hare a 4,000-year-old history of truth and tribulations of DIASPORA (dispersion), 
exile end homelessness. Israel represents the ingathering of the tribes. However, of the 12 
million Jews of the world, over Mi million are in Soviet Russia and about 5 million in the United 
States-only 2Vt millions have settled in Israel. 

According to the Bible, the Jews descended from the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, 
who probably lived around 1800 BC. They were a clan of nomadic shepherds who originated in 
Mecapotaraia (today's Iraq). Led by Abraham , they settled in If ad, once called Canaan and 
later Palestine. 

In 1600 BC, famine drove Jacob and Iris 12 eons (forming 12 tribes) to Egypt where they 
were enslaved few several generations Later,under Moses, they left Egypt and roamed the Sinai 
desert for 40 years. 

In 1300 BC, the 12 tribe* led by Joshua, conquered Canaan and settled on both side* of the 
Jordan. Saul is considered to be the first King of the Jews (1020-1004 BC), transforming them 
from a tribal to a feudal society. His successor, David, consolidated the kingdom with its capi¬ 
tal at Jerusalem (1000 BC) and founded a dynasty that ruled for 400 years. 

Solomon, son of David, made the kingdom an important Middle Eastern power (965-925 
BC) and built the Fust Temple (960 BC). After his death, the Kingdom split into Judah (Capital: 
Jerusalem) under the Davidic dynasty and Israel (Capital: Samaria) under a series of dynasties. 
Israel was conquered by the Assyrians in 722 BC-part of the population was exiled. Judah was 
taken in 586 BC by the Babylonians, who also destroyed the Fust Temple and exiled the 
majority to Babylon and Egypt. 

King Cyrus of Persia, who conquered the Babylonia empire, allowed the Jews to return and 
rebuild the Temple (538 BC). In 63 BC, Palestine came under Roman Rule. In 70 AD, Romans 
destroyed Jerusalem and the Second Temple and exiled the Jews from the country which was 
renamed Palestina. From this time till 1948, when the state of Israel was proclaimed, the area 
came under a succession of conquests. 

The DIASPORA (from the Greek word meaning “scattered" - Hebrew: CALUTJ was a 



continuous process of dispersion that assumed significant proportions within a couple of genen 
Uons of Pompcy’s conquest of Jerusalem in 63 AD. This was a period when the Jews lei 
Palestine in large numbers and scattered all over the Roman empire. 

Contrary to popular belief, it is the "civilized 1 ' Christum nation t of Europe that haver perse 
cuted the Jews far longer arui more brutally than the Arabs, For roughly IJ00 years after 
Emperor Constantine adopted Christianity as the official Roman religion, the. hounding oj the 
Jeus was given free rein under the sometimes tacit, mostly active, encouragement oj the Christian 

Throughout the Middle Ages it was commonly felt that to secure the baptism of a Jew or to 
kill him if tie refused would ensure the pardon of ail sins. In Europe, at best the Jews could 
expect everyday discrimination debarring them from most professions, ownership of land, forc¬ 
ing arbitrary taxes and the wearing of distinctive dresses and badges. At worst they were killed. 

The massacre of 150 Jews in New York Castle and in London during the coronation of 
Richard the Lion Heartac was a beginning of a trend that ended with the extinction of over six 
million Jews in Nazi Germany. 

It was the industrial revolutions of the 18th-19th oentunes, the period of free trade and 
freedom of speech, that also brought the emancipation of the Jews. They had the much-needed 
capital (accumulated through usury) for industrialisation. They formed a sizable section of the 
serfs freed for the industrial labour market. But emancipation and assimilation were not 
synonyms. For each Rothschild at the top of his profession, there was still a Disraeli who could 
only rise after conversion to Christianity. 

Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, Russia, with its two million Jews, had the largest single 
representation. Though theoretically emancipated under the relatively enlightened Czar, 
Alexander II, his assassination led to a resumption of widespread attacks on Jews, which conti¬ 
nued intermittently for one generation. This led to the formation of the Chowivi Zion (Lovers 
of Zion) with the objective of organising agricultural settlements of biluim (early settlers) in the 


Varied theories of what typo of community and where it should be set up sprang up to meet 
the Jewish aspirations for a "national identity". Some, like Moses Hess (an admirer of Kari 
Marx), talked of a socialist state, others, like Asher Ginzburg, of a rescue of Judaism, 

Amidst them ail came a short book, THE JEWISH STATE, by Theodor Herzl, a relatively 
obsure Austrian Jewish journalist. Written in 1896, the book called for a state to save the Jews. 
In 1897, the World Zionist Organisation was established under Herzl. 


f continued) 

Unsuccessful attempts to purchase Palestine from Turkey led Herd to turn to the British, 
who offered him Uganda as a Jewish homeland. This offer split the Zionist—one group led by HorzJ, 
prepared for any compromise, was defeated by the other (l«d, among others, by Chaim Weizmann, 
later first President of Israel), which was not prepared for anything less than Palestine. 

The Balfour Declaration in November 1917 was the first British acknowledgement of the 
need for a Jewish “national home" in Palestine. Prompted by the desire to harness powerful 
Zionists for the war effort (in a still reluctant American and a suspiciously revolutionary Russia) 
it was vaguely worded and contradicted the McMahon letters of 1915 to the Shrif of Mecca, promis¬ 
ing British support for Arab independence. 

In 1919, Faisal (son of the Sharif) met Dr. Weizmann in Versailles and promised to 
encourage Jewish immigration to Palestine. Dr. Weizmann, on tbs other hand, assured the Arab lea¬ 
den that the Zionists were not seeking exclusive political power in the region. Amidst such scene 
of admirable amity, the British, with a Mandate from the League of Nations, declared Palestine a 

For the next 28 yean, contradictory policies of the British led to an increasingly harden¬ 
ing attitude of both the Arabs and the Jews. Jewish immigration was encouraged aide by side with 
Arab sentiments of independence. The exact definition of “national home" was never spelt out. By 
1935 Jewish immigration had reached 60,000 a year. Most of them were more educated and there¬ 
fore dominated the economic, social and cultural scene. Arab revolts against immigration between 
1920 and 1939 led to the massacre of about 1,000 Jews. 

Came the rise and consolidation of Fascism in Germany and the extermination of 6 million 
Jews. The feeling now that Palestine was the only safe place far them grew. By 1946, there were 
608,000 Jews in the area their ratio changing from 6)6 per cent In 1918 to 33 per oent in 1946. 
By 1948 the Jews controlled 80 per oent of the area. Jewish terrorism mounted against Arab inha¬ 
bitants to conaolidate their hold. An Arab exodus began. Following the numacre of some Arab 
settlements by the Jewish troops of the irgun, 750,000 to 1 ,000,000 Arabs left Palestine in 1948. 

On May 14. 194$, jmt before the British Mandate was due to expire. David Ben Cunoo held a *peci*l icmioii 
of the *V«‘ad Learnt'* in Tel Avtv which proclaimed the ‘Jewist state in the land of Israel*. In 1949 Israel w*» 
admitted to the UN and over a hundred countries, including the Soviet Union and India recognised the nation. 

Almost simultaneously with the declaration of the Jewish state of Israel in 1948, a major battle 
began between the Arabs and the Jews revolving around the questions . “Why Palestine?* and “Why 
not Palestine?* 






: William A.H. Bimic. 

; Reader’s Digest, 
December, 1969. 

: 823. 


The Blast-off from Florida was almost flawless, and the spacecraft was hurtling toward 
its rendezvous with the moon. Inside, the Intrepid “aeronauts" arose from their 'couches' and 
decided that now was the time for a bit of oelobration. One of them produced a bottle of vintage 
Burgundy and they all toasted happily the "union of the earth and her satellite." 

This incident occurred not during this summer's flight of Apollo 11, but 104 years ago- 
in the fertile imagination of the French author Jules Verne (1828-1905). 

Writing in 1865, Verne described a trip (“From the Earth to the Moon" and “Around the 
Moon") which bears remarkable similarities to the qreat exploit of 1969. His space capsule 
contained three men—two Americans and a Frenchman. The dimensions of hts capsule and the real 
one were startlingly close. Verne’s cylindro-conical aluminium shell was 4.8 metres high and 2.7 
metres in diameter; the Apollo command module was 3.2 metres high and 3.9 metres in diameter. 

The launch sites were almost identical: Verne chose a location near the 27 degree latitude 
in Florida, only 225 kilometres wi»st of Cape Kennedy. In the Verne narrative, Texas fought to the 
last moment for the honour of becoming the launching site; in actuality, Texas, was the rite of 
Mission Control. 

Initial velocity for the Verne craft was estimated atl 1,000 metres per second: after the 
firing of Apollo U’s third-stage engine, velocity was 10,830 metres per second! 

Verne gave his capsule 97 hours, 13 minutes, 20 seconds to reach the moon. Apollo's time 
was 103 hours, 30 minutes. 

Verne's capsule orbited the moon several times, often at the exact height flown by the 
Apollo command ship. 

Specimen m both capsules experienced weightlessness. Both made numerous photographs 
and observations of the lunar surface, anc the Vome men even charted the Sea of Tranquility 
where Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were tu take their fabulous stroll. 



Even the conclusions of the trip were unbelievably alike. In both cases the capsules splashed 
down in the Pacific, the spacemen were picked up by an American warship and returned to the U.S. 
mainland where they received enthusiastic coast-to-coast acclaim. 

Verne was not a clairvoyant or mystic. Be was a remarkable master of science fiction, 
writing in a climate that challenged scientific imagination. In the mid-19th century, the steam 
engine and other products of science were beginning to open the eyes of perceptive people to the 
fact that the world was undergoing profound change. Verne was one of them, and he translated his 
ideas of the future into adventure stories. He wrote ru*«tr **•>«*<*"■/ pi d*r t*« s** before 

the submarine was invented; he master •minded the fastest circumnavigation of the globe, 4raa*d 
f hf Iter Id in 40 dab* before the invention of the aeroplane. 

In his moon epic, Verne's calculations proved to be accurate because he based them on the 
laws of physics and immutable solitudes of astronomy, the most ancient of sciences. Modem tech¬ 
nology provided Apollo 11 with the power to escape earth's gravity; Verne endowed his capsule 
with the power of his precisely informed imagination. 

Ho aimed his capsule just as America's National Aeronautic and Space Administration aimed 
Apollo 11, towards the position where the moon would be at the time of arrival But Verne’s pro¬ 
pulsion power came not from a missile but a 275 metre cannon containing 45,000 kilograms of gun¬ 
cotton. It was, however, named the coiu*oUd (Apollo 11 command ship was the Columbia ). And 
nobody who watched the Apollo blast-off could quibble with Verne's 1665 description: 

"An appalling, unearthly report followed instantly, such as can be compared to nothing 
whatever known, not even to the roar of thunder or the blast of volcanic explosions! 

"An immense spout of fire; the earth heaved up, and with c^eat difficulty some few spec¬ 
tators obtained a momentary glimpse of the projectile victoriously cleaving the air in midst of the 
fiery vapours!" 

Inside Verne's spacecraft, the astronauts relaxed on sturdy couches and cooked meals with 
gas. They had as passengers two pet dogs, plus six chickens. They also brought along some cuttings 
from Modoc Vineyards to plant on the moon, so as eventually to be able to wash down their 
chicken dinners more palatably, 

Verne's spacemen did not land on the moon, because they made a slight objection error. 
(This was fortunate because the author had failed to provide them with Apollo-like space suits). 
But Vema had provided his heroes with a set of rockets which the ingenious astronauts used in 
order to conquer the moon's gravity and start the journey back to the Pacific. 

Fantasy, fiction and fact were finally fused not long ago in the French town of Amiens 
where Verne, who had dreamed the impossible dream of a trip to the moon, spent his last yean. 
Amiens made astronauts Collins, Armstrong and Aldxin honorary citizens. 


THt 1ND 


AUTHOR ; Robert S. Powell, Jr. 

SOURCE : The American Review, 

January 1971. 
h*ORD COUNT i 910. 


You and I meet at a time when the qualities that meat accurately characterize our national 
life are ominous indeed; violence, racial hatred, one of deepest generational divisions in our history, 
bitter frustration among the middle class who represent the backbone of our political institutions, 
a frustration about the hollow quality of their lives, and the bankruptcy of the institutions that are 
supposed to be serving them. 

The context, then, that I bring to our deliberations here is that the old institutions and 
values and myths that once bound this country together are beginning to unravel, and in the process 
our nation is paying a dear price indeed for its attention end past mistakes. 

That context is real for students too. For many college students today the Fundamental 
question that is beinq posed, not just to you but to our institutions and to each other, can be ex¬ 
pressed in its most blunt form as fallows citizenship in the country is becoming a deeply moral 



That may come as a shock to those of you who grew up in the depression and who feel 
that wa conquered some of the country’s most severe problems, which I think in one context is 
true. All of us, college students as well your generation, are rather comfortably situated now, par¬ 
ticularly if we are white. Those Issues that you fought so hard for-and 1 give you credit for fight¬ 
ing those batlles-have by and large been resolves, at least to the satisfaction of most of us. 

But now wc are finding a whole new series of problems that the culture faces, and 1 do not 
see and your generation speaking to those problems, nor do 1 see univenritias speaking to them. It 
is that context that I would like briefly to discuss with you what student power is all about. Let 
me first try to characterise what I see as the campus scent today. 


C continued) 


The country is finding some of her most loyal and courageous young people choosing to 
go to jail rather than bear their country's arms in Vietnam, while countless others are condoning 
and oven utilising techniques to avoid the service. This year more than 1,000 students are willing 
to commit suicide on campus, if last year’s figures are any indication and 90,000 students are 
going to threaten to commit suicide this year. Student power demands are becoming more shrill 
and more militant as students seek control over their education and control over their own lives. 
Last year, according to our survoys, over 50,000 students took part in disruptive demonstration to 
colleges and universities-a small number statistically, but a growing number. 

And while some see all of this as an expression of student power, my analysis of it is that 
it is an expression of student powerlessness. University officials express shock and anger that 
students would do such things as disrupt the university that is trying to carry on free and open in¬ 
quiry. The university, they say, should have taught students that the only way to deal with pro¬ 
blems in our society is through persuasion and dialogue and discourse. 

Well, are our colleges really teaching students that? Does persuasion work in a university? 
Or have school officials responded only to abrasive and strident student power tactics? 

Many of the officials at Columbia that testified before the Cox Commission admitted quite 
candidly dial most of the issues that the students were demonstrating about probably would not 
have been faced had a few students not had their heads cracked by the police. 

The question of student power tactic is one that will hopefully continue to be the subject 
of healed debate for I, as others, could not offer support for tactics such as denying other students 
access to buildings or recruiters, tactics which cut across our better notions of civil liberties. 

Yet we must be clear about where we place the responsibility for the dimiption and turbu¬ 
lence now rocking our campuses. I for one must place the blame for these problems squarely on 
the shoulders of the university. I blame our universities for teaching powerlessness to the young 
people of this country, and 1 blame them for creating one of the most undemocratic, authoritarian 
institutions that young people have to pass in order to achieve an educated adulthood. 


There can be no persuasion and no conversation, as the current language goes, when school 
officials deny the students any effective participation in the governance of the college. And make 
no mistake, two students on a faculty committee is not effective participation in governance. [ 
think we both at this point know how decisions get made in the university. One of the mod 
effective ways to keep students from taking part in the university is to put one or two ol them 
on a committee and call it a voice in governance, 

I am not the least hit surprised that many student (Baders are rejecting “dialogue” in favour 


f continued J 

of more powerful tactics, because 1 think university administrators have demonstrated in the past 
that dialogue is by and large a fruitless exercise, and the only agent of change left to utilize is direct 


On the issue of who governs, let us be dear about the objectives. Student power is a 
movement for democracy in the university, not a movement for more liberal decisions on the part 
of the administrators. We should make a dear distinction between the admmisTration'fl granting stu¬ 
dents a change in a rule and granting students the power to make the rule. The first is a right; the 
second is power. We want student power. 

The premise behind the exclusion of students from the real governance of their lives is 
that they are not mature enough to be trusted with responsibility, whether that responsibility is 
deciding when to come in at night or whether it is learning hew to evaluate one’s own educational 
objectives and then deciding upon a course of study. 

And yet nothing could be more central to the objectives of higher education than just 
that-developing a capacity in our young for taking responsibility for their own lives. If you fear 
that your students cannot learn what taking responsibility means, then what you really fear is that 
your institution and those preceding it m the educational hierarchy, have failed to develop in their 
students a capacity far self-judgement and for taking responsibilities and obligations for their be¬ 
haviour. Are you prepared to acknowledge this failure? What will you do to correct it? 

Is your college going to become more democratic? If that is a serious objective of yours, 
apply this yardstick; he who must live by the rule should make it. This means student control 
over social rules, over dormitory policies, over student activities such as political clubs and the stu¬ 
dent press. It means shared power with the faculty over curriculum and grades. And it means 
sharing over-ail institutional policy-making with the faculty and the administration on an equal 

Such a programme would not have students running the entire university, as many have 
deplored, nor would it be throwing in the towel to license and permissiveness, another common 
charge. The search for all-permissibility but rather for new ways of directly facing up to wha f 
truly counts in hiqher education-that is self-development. 

T.S. Eliot suggests that: thi 3/<non(i| von 

4*4 Iht 

t« Ivm<i t h * »»<.*» 

4«J iflm MKpSXM 

/ait* f.*i« jijccv 

Can you move beyond it? If we are to create a higher education that can nourish our culture 
rather than retard it, that Shadow that separates our words from our actions must be bridged. I 
came to your gathering sceptical of your committment. I hope that your students are in for a plea¬ 
sant surprise this year. 



3 . ! I I S T O R Y O F N URSI N G* 

A. S. 

The Illustrated 
Weekly of India, 
November 8, 1970. 


Florence Nightingale gave nursing a dignity and ob¬ 
tained for it an honoured recognition. But the profession 
is much older than her reformist arrival on the scene. 

Probably the earliest reference to nursing is in the 
Sushrut Samhita. It is not easy to date this except for the 
fact that Dhanvantari Divodas, the Guru of Sushrut, is 
supposed to have been the ruler of Kashi about 3,000 B.C. 
Sushrut says that for the treatment of any illness four things 
must be considered: the patient, the Vaidya, the medicine 
and the Paricharak. The last word changed later to Pari- 
karmi, which means a nurse. 

Distinct details about the duties and the personality 
of the nurse are given. He should be strong-minded, healthy 
and compassionate. Instructions are given to him regarding 
diet, types of dressing, the needs of the patient, and other 

Other early references to this service are found in 
the Ashtang Hridaya by Vaghbhatt, where he discusses 
surgery and wound dressing. 

'"First reading with Skimmer. 

^Second reading with Accelerator. 



Even in the Kama Sutra there is a mention of the care 
of the sick in the art of home-making. The inference has been 
drawn by many that this is for the house-wife who should 
know how a patient should be looked after at home. 

In India "Rugnaseva" or serving the sic-c has always 
been regarded as the highest service one can render one’s 
fellow beings. Gandhiji believed in the paramount value of 
nursing. In fact he himself cared for one of his followers, 
Parchurs Shastri, who had qot leprosy due to servinq the 

In general, nursinq can be divided into the Pre- 
Nightingale period, the pioneer Nightingale period I860* 
1900, the period of professional internationalism between 
the two world wars, and the present. 


Since Phoebe's time in A.D. 60 nursing has been 
recognised as the work of mercy by the Christian church. 
In the 6th Century this was one of the services done under 
the rules laid down by St. Benedict. These were later adap¬ 
ted by the Catholic and Protestant nursing orders and also 
by the Red Cross. 

Strict discipline in nursinq came about when mili¬ 
tary nursing orders like Knights Hospitaller of St. John of 
Jerusalem were started. 

In 1634 Louise de Marillack took a vow to work 
under St. Vincent de Paul-modemisation started then with 
orders like Sisters of Charity. 



In 1639 the first nursing Sisters crossed the Atlantic 
to Quebec. Jeanne Mance (1606-73) was the first white 
woman to arrive at Montreal in 1664. Visiting nursing was 
introduced in Canada by Mme d'Youville who started the 
order of the Grey Nuns in 1755. The foundations of the 
modem Deconesses Movement were laid in 1836 by Pastor 
Theodor Fliedner. 

In U.S. an indigenous order was organised by Eliza- 
beth Ann Seton in 1809 and in 1917, it was assimilated 
in the Sisters of Charity. In 1923 these Sisters undertook 
hospital nursing. Anglican Sisterhoods provided nursing 
services in St. Luke's Hospital, New York, in 1858, and in 
the Children's Hospital, Boston in 1871. 


Florence Nightingale was the founder of modem 
nursing. Convinced of the need for reform in nursing she 
had just opened an institution for the care of the sick In 
London when in 1854, the Secretary of War asked her to 
undertake the nursing of woundeo soldiers in the Crimea. 
After her arrival the death rate dropped dramatically from 
50% to 2%. 

The glory of this achievement was rightly recog¬ 
nised by the world. Funds were raised in her honour and 
she used these to start a school of nursing at St. Thomas’s 
Hospital in London. Fifteen probationers joined on June 15, 
1860. The modern era in nursing had begun. 



By the latter part of the 19th century the general 
principles laid down by her were adopted in English speak¬ 
ing countries. Pioneers from England and the U.S.A. estab¬ 
lished mission schools in China, Japan and India and a little 
later in the Middle East. 

The first “Nightingale" school of nursing in the 
U.S.A. was established at Bellevue Hospital, New York City, 
in May 1873. 


Just before the end of the 19th century the pro¬ 
fession had developed a marked trend towards self-organisa¬ 
tion. In 1887, Mrs. Bedford Fenwick established the British 
Nurses’ Association. A few Associations were established 
in the U.S. Mrs. Fenwick became the founder of the Inter¬ 
national Council of Nurses in 1899. 

In 1908 the Canadian nurses formed an association. 
The American Association (1896) joined the I.C.N. The 
Finnish (1896) and Danish (1899) organisations joined a 
little later. 

In America the National League of Nursing Educa¬ 
tion (1883) and the National Organisation for Public Health 
Nursing (1912) helped in the advancement of Nursing. In 
Britain the College of Nursing was the force behind the pro¬ 
gress in nursing techniques and knowledge. 

By 1912 nurses from the U.S., Great Britain, New 
Zealand and a few other countries started nursing in homes 
and took part in specialised health programmes like child 
welfare, school nursing, and eradicating tuberculosis. 



In thB U.S.A. the conditions in hospitals durinq 
the American Civil War were quite as shocking as those 
in the Crimea before Miss JNiqhtingale came on the scene. 
Only when the Spanish-American War brought out the need 
for military nursing, was the Naval Nursing Corps organised 
in 1903. In England the Territorial Army Nursing Service 
was organised in 1907, and its members commissioned in 
1941. In 1904 Canada became the first country to give 
commissions to nurses in the Armed forces. In the U.S.A. 
this was done after World War I, and then only on a tempo¬ 
rary basis. It was in 1947 that nurses in the U.S. Armed 
Forces were permanently commissioned. 

After the two World Wars, many National Red 
Cross Societies established nursing schools to train non¬ 
professional volunteers for nursing services, and more and 
more emphasis was laid on traininq nurses professionally. 

The Modem Age in nursing is significant for its 
emphasis on scientific training and tremendous speciali¬ 

This profession has always attracted women because 
women are naturally sympathetic and used to caring for 
people. They also have the capacity of giving scrupulous 
attention to the smaller details which is one of the requi¬ 
sites of nursing. 

Nursing cannot be only a profession, it is also a voca¬ 
tion which demands conscientiousness, devotion and all- 
embracing compassion for suffering humanity. 



4 • ^oolz± Dfi a t iJnj'tuncsd D'lzcit Dlizn 

Books are known to 
cliange Lite lives of humans. 
They are "like some wondrous 
birds out of fairy tales." 

Can books influence 
people? Certainly. Books have 
a wonderful capacity not only 
to influence people but to 
change them. Lives of great 
men bear testimony to this 
fact. Great men, it can be 
seen had been changed by 
one book or the other during 
their lifetime, and in some 
cases most decisively. 

“In this world," Gandhi- 
ji once wrote from jail, "good 
books make up for good com¬ 
panions." Reading was not 
merely a pastime for him. He 
never read; he studied. And 
what appealed to his con¬ 
science he immediately put 
into practice. 

Asked what book or per¬ 
son influenced him most Gan- 
dhiji said: “The Bible, Ruskin 
and Tolstoy." It is well known 
how much he was changed by 
the me ia, by Ruskin's c?*r<* 

rhit u«t and by Tolstoy’s 

r*i * Hinfdcn Jed is 

Vitkin tow. Ana the nu 

was his life’s "spiritual refe¬ 
rence book." 

"To books 1 owe every¬ 
thing that is good in me," 
said Maxim Gorky. "Like 
some wondrous birds out of 
fairy tales, books sang their 
songs to me and spoke to 
me as though communing with 
one languishing in prison. 
They sang of the variety and 
richness of life, of man’s auda¬ 
city m his strivings towards 
goodness and beauty. Ea c h 
book was a rung in my as¬ 
cent from the brutish to the 
human, towards an under¬ 
standing of a better life and 
thirst after that life." 

Roussaeu’s father taught 
him to read. First the long 
romances of Send ere and the 
elder CrebiUon were put into 
his hands. His father also 
shared the pleasure he took in 
this occupation, and parent 
and child often sat up all 

V.V. BaJakrishnan. 

The Illustrated Weekly of 
India. March 19, 1972. 

The boy read to his father 
as he sat at work. "I, thus," 
wrote Rousseau, "imbibed a 
singular taste, perhaps un¬ 
exampled at my age. Plutarch, 
above all, became my favou¬ 
rite reading, and the pleasure I 
took in it cured me somewhat 
of my love of romances, and 
1 soon learnt to prefer Agesi- 
Laus, Brutus and Aristides to 
Oorondates, Artamenes and 
Juba. Those delightful books 
formed that independent spi¬ 
rit, that proud untamable cha¬ 
racter, impatient of yoke and 
servitude which has tormen¬ 
ted me throughout my life." 

Madam Rolland was se¬ 
rious minded from her infan¬ 
cy. Books and flowers were 
her earliest passions. She 
siezed on books wherever she 
could find them. Plutarch fell 
into her hands at tho age of 
nine and he delighted her 
more than all the fairy tales. 
She drank in republicanism 
even then. Her imagination 
and her heart were warmed 
meanwhile by reading Fene- 
lon and Tasso. 



Her days were chiefly 
ia»ed in study; her meditative 
'xiind speculated on ail she 
ead: her mother permitted 
ler to read every book that 
:air.e her way, and the self- 
taught girl preferred philoso¬ 
phical works to every other; 
die enlarged the sphere 
of her ideas and erected rigid 
:ules of morality as her guide. 
The several principles of Pa* 
seal and the writers of poet- 
Royal had a great attraction 
for her ardent mind; and when 
the sought in philosophy far 
urinciples of equal self-denial, 
die endeavoured to adopt the 
system of the stories. 

The book that most in¬ 
fluenced Darwin was the 
“Wonders of the World", 
which gave him a desire to tra¬ 
vel. This finally resulted in his 
trip in the ‘Beagle". From 
reading White's "Selbome", 
he took much pleasure in 
watching the habits of birds 
and even made notes. 

It was while reading Mal- 
ti ills’ ‘Essay’’ Darwin was 
struck by a chance phrase; 
"The struggle for existence". 
He remembered this while 
struggling for a clue to the bio 
logical changes in the process 
of natural selection, and it was 
these books which helped him 
write in 1S59 ‘The Theory of 
Evolution **. 

It was from Darwin’s Ori¬ 

gin of Species that his cousin, 
Francis Gallon, was Inspired 
to investigate the factors that 
lead to the improvement or 
deterioration of the humrn 
race from a biological angle, 
and today the world recogni¬ 
ses him as the founder of the 
science of eugenics. Meteo¬ 
rological scientist, psycholo¬ 
gist and explorer, Gal ton was 
each of these, but it is in the 
field of eugenics that his 
lasting fame is found. When 
Darwin's work first appeared, 
Gallon acknowledged : "The 
appearance of the books forms 
a real crisis in my life. It drove 
away the constraint of my old 
superstition as it had been a 
nightmare and was the first 
to give me freedom of thou¬ 
ght. ” For from that time on¬ 
wards he began the study of 

When Riebau, the book¬ 
seller and stationer, promoted 
Faraday to a “free appren¬ 
ticeship" in book-binding at 
his shop, it was a precious gift 
to the young energetic boy. 

This enabled him to be¬ 
come acquainted at first hand 
not only with the outside but 
also inside af the books. In 
his spare moments he read 
all sorts of volumes that came 
to be bound at Riebau's shop 
and he saw a new enchanted 
world unfolding itself before 
his eyes. "I loved especially," 
he said once, “to read the 


scientific books which were 
under my hand, and amongst 
them delighted in Nlercet’s 
Conversation in Chemistry' and 
the electrical treatises in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica." 

Guided only by his read¬ 
ing, he made such simple ex¬ 
periments in Chemistry as 
could be defrayed in their 
expense by a few pence per 
week. He also constructed an 
electrical machine first with 
glass phial and afterwards with 
a real cylinder. Tho result of 
his reading we are now en¬ 

"Books,’’ Henry Wads 
worth Longfellow said, “are 
in fact the cheapest of all plea¬ 
sures", but “some books are 
to be Lasted, others to be swa¬ 
llowed, and some few to be 
cheweo and digested" is the 
saying of Bacon. The secret 
lay only in the selection of 
books. Books aro potent and 
purposeful; they not only en¬ 
tertain and educate but also 
will influence to a very great 

THi wo 



SOURCE ; The Hindu. 

October 31. 1976. 
bORDCO L’\T: 1030. 

As a world economic, educational, and dip¬ 
lomatic centre, and a a host to hundreds of 
international organisations, Geneva needs all 
the interpreters and translators it can attract. 

That's why Susan Biegel, Jacqueline Mit¬ 
chell, and Va lerie Mitchell decided to make 
their home here to work in jobs as 'free¬ 
lancers or under permanent contract, where 
they could practise and further develop their 
professional language skills. 

As a professional interpreter for 13 years. 
Mrs. Beigel has worked at conferences in Kyo¬ 
to, Istanbul, Kampala (Uganda) Phnem Penh, 
Delhi, Teheran and many cities in Europe. 
She has dealt with a potpourri of subjects, 
from electric-contact phenomena to ice cream. 
She knows Spanish and some Russian, but 
usually translates from French and German 
into English. 

Mrs. Beigel, one of 227 Geneva-based mem¬ 
bers (93 men, 134 women) of the Interna¬ 
tional Association of Conference Interpreters 
(AIIC) enjoys the flexibility and variety of 
working "freelance". 

How doee she find most of her jobs? 
“A lot of job often come by telephone", 
says M.*s. Beigel. 

"Another experienced interpreter who 
knows my work will ask me to join a one-time 

team he or she is putting together for a confe¬ 
rence. Or the chief interpreter at one of the 
International organisations will augment his 
resident staff of interpreters with free-lance 
interpreters for a meeting", she says. 

It is estimated that some 300 to 350 in¬ 
terpreters are based in Geneva, a place which 
appeals particularly to these with combinations 
of the five official UN languages: English, 
French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese. 

Brussels, which ties with Geneva in num¬ 
bers of interpreters in residence, appeals to 
those with combinations of the European 
Common Market languages: English, French, 
German, Dutch, Italian and Danish. 

Jacqueline Mitchell is one of 50 interpre¬ 
ters on the largest permanent interpreters 
staff in Geneva-the European office of the 
United Nations. In contrast to Mrs. Biogel's 
free-lance status, Miss Mitchell joined the 
UN staff as a "trainee" in the spring of 1974, 
because she liked the “on-the-job-" training 
advantages of working with her languages— 
Russian and French—on a daily basis. 

By passinq a series of examinations, she 
moved from trainee to probationary contract, 
to a permanent contract with the UN. She is 
planning to transfer to the UN's permanent 
staff in New York, an area "in desperate need 
of interpreters" according to Mias Mitchell. 


( continued) 

Interpreters usually translate from two 
“passive" languages into an 'active' language, 
i.e., their mother tongue, which is describod 
as the only language in which nursery rhymes 
are familiar. 

"Interpreters schools". Miss Mitchell points 
out, "usually require a degree in language, a 
minimum of three languages (mother tongue 
included) and entrance examinations for admi¬ 
ssion.” Interpreters schools do not teach lan¬ 
guages *3 such, but concentrate on problems 
and techniques of translation and interpre¬ 
tation and on background work in interna¬ 
tional law, geography, history, sociology, etc. 

These two women travelled different 
routes to earn their interpreter’s diploma. Mrs. 
Bieyal, with a BJY. in French from Pnncipia 
College, a small liberal arts college in Illinois, 
spent 4v4 ycara at the Ecole de Traduction el 
d'lmerpretation at the University of Geneva. 

Miss Mitchell, with a background in 
Russian and "good school French", quali¬ 
fied for an accelerated six-month interpreter's 
course at the Polytechnic of Central London. 
She also earned a degree in Russian at Oxford 
University, spent a year at the University of 
Leningrad studying Russian language and lite¬ 
rature, and an additional year at the Univer¬ 
sity of London studying Russian theatre. 

Although qualified by their diplomas to 
do both consecutive and simultaneous inter¬ 
pretation, both Mrs. Biegel and Miss Mitchell 
agreed that at least 90 per cent of interpret¬ 
ing today is simultaneous, that is, spoken in¬ 
to a microphone which connects with the 
headsets, of delegates simultanenuidy with 
the floor speaker. 

Consecutive interpretation involves listen¬ 

ing to a speech in one language, taking notes 
with a personal system of symbols and abbre¬ 
viations, and reproducing the speech in another 

Mrs. Biegel points out the simultaneous in¬ 
terpretation orginated in 1945 at the Nurem 
burg war crimes trials and was adopted by the 
UN in 1949 For use in a majority of its meet¬ 

Interpreters usually work in glassed-in lan¬ 
guage booths in pairs, spoiling eacn other at 
half-hour intervals. “It requires tremendous 
concentration to interpret simultaneously and 
you can be exhausted after half an hour”, Mrs. 
Biegel explains. 

Jokes ana Russian proverbs are often stum¬ 
bling blocks. "If a joke is difficult to translate, 
we just say Mr. So-and-So is telling a joke 
which is untranslatable. Will you please laugh 
when he has finished", says Mrs. Biegel. "Or, 
if a joke can be translated, you will see people 
laughing in layers as the joke is translated ac¬ 
ross the floor." 

Given a choice, Miss Mitchell says she 
“much prefers" a scientific and technical meet¬ 
ing to a diplomatic or political meeting. "Scien¬ 
tists don't speak in ccnvulted language. A tech¬ 
nical speech Is much easier to render than a 
political speech where there are subtle layers 
of meaning. 

Valerie Mitchell, Jacqueline’s younger sis¬ 
ter, also plays an important role in Geneva's 
many-facetea linguistic drama as a translator. 

She does not work in a gl.-w* booth, but at 
home, alone at her typewriter, writing transla¬ 
tions of highly technical documents on hydro¬ 
logy to radio frequencies, from French, 


! continued) 

Spanish, Russian, German and Czech into 

Valerie has a degree in Russian and French 
from Oxford and received her translator’s dip 
loma after a year's course also at the Polytech* 
nic of Central London. 

The main difference between translators 
and interpreters, she says, is the fact that "wo 
(translators] can use our dictionaries, and they 
cannot.’' A translator has all the time he needs 
to polish his text in order to have the finishec 
product sound like it was actually written in 
English, she added. 

These three women, gifted with an ear for 
language, must work constantly to keep up to 
date with their languages—by reading maga¬ 
zines, newspapers and books, watching TV, 
attending movies, and speaking their languages 
as much as possible. 

In fact, they have become so comfortable 
with this instinctive "double think" that they 
can scarcely switch it off. “I cannot hear a sen¬ 
tence in Russian or French without at ancc 
beginning to give it its English shape”, says Jac¬ 
kie MitchelL 



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etc. MR. Ali» tf jlif tjjy a. >y. 
Anrehing cctupbred to IT.* preurdirg ML ' j. 
tlik*. a. Muting. I l>o slccnlMpej-rd rairrmp nf 
a rein or a coal-bed 6 Tl* colour of a hooo 

who.* h-in ore wnsie ssuaeo #itls rcerei cr Lay. 
yeadsalaui; a lsor*a ao wdnssred. 

I. a. Tka kr.enchM U ■ ( kkxaaa rulke Oruirtsa 
/If 11» t»eal sir* V. ef bn iwllvr-. w laxa-rauu a 
is. Vi— u '-e nfcoedr terwe M».*»*. M, babe, 
my k Ta-mra Hits »la. U — .. . II, llru. 

t’-*k b,Tuned ol La-t g a rui Uaiat (scei te 
•»MM Iface Slftivsaiicil 0 Blcusoiy A 

Hlottom iblflMil, X [Ok-/A k/wiom, Mk. 

iwiaarte. f. prate. | fair. To pit fonh blotSOBl, 

boon, flower. Alto trail', 4 fti ft*-. 

►V lk*£ b c—on— ftr»f a I'inU W fijtf Siuuk 
Blot Mku |Oiiljr m i-rj;.; >] 

*e A -f-y or tlala of tbk. mud. etc. b. Au 
oofUtnl nr. :yc- 4 . c .trait.'. Any ymmls, 

1. n. a Islemish or H fa^xtremeejt 1 r*|. 1. fg, 

A nunrsl sta'n; a ifctgime, t fasdt ME, b. I »■ 
l> >-f elitemce ‘■j-7- 
s. lilyUrtwejieun FI, 

» L&« e OL1* hwN ««»4 r»H4-.i 

A£n.T. .Cnfaf fit, lltiM - Bloll^N * 

Ulc.t, ij - 1598, pi. lit. tUi ttcoeercd ' 
L la /Ulyanae ; An r. pc soil j.etn, linlile to 
!< ulcen; *Im. tin r.tioc of «>poi ng x piece 
e Jg. As aapewed |.auil In ana a iwoceeluie ; u 
t. or- ur lolling; ftLfa * mark, hull idt5 
ft- TrAitdi.: to take .1. — I (.Oft fch lifts 
s> - cilss. bar Iris a lo led; 

Blotitily*'. r. iffo (f. BtorT y/.f] j. 
Iran. I o ajwd or (ton. #iUi Uk, taarft, etc ; fu 
biur. Atvaefwf b. sftlr. To fieeosM tilaliml 
tdAn a To ocrwer n lh »0*tbl,a» wnlsaTf, to 
.1 if-ftne (r rd.| 1404 b. lo (allot comely 

s«4( 9.jf,- a. T'a *.il a tdof upon; t« itrmsli 

(rr.k. or t>r | 15S*. 1b. T« tOrnsal 
B ite-lf»rt. 4.. fotiU*.rtr.ii*. [Util, with 


#*/ ) ui* To f, •Ificun:, rc 5 «;*e 

Lyt*. 0. To di j hitW Uou u^-ib;+ 
u Mt«<4 fiN b* [my p?n] (A L« •i»*:U U • i •?. a 
ItM ^NUM'I i hw t-LXK«i |«(*f 

> Mfi. f , »•«. 11 c}V V IM n vfi- 

lutMJt WvNt .ll Ww4» ;bv 1-**- *m f* 9 k tv* 

4 M f " t.TM W ftM !Ml fro« tf* Wft « «f |.if« KV< Jf. 

I. I t im K j** .11 u 1 ytmf viat r*yl* M 

*•« .iff 9 L i> 

Blotch ;b!<HjK i&o| fFijc <mly. Ap|*. 

hIxkk ( PLOT. WilL *^*t 1 IS*>TC 1 I.] 1. 
A ciacaiouraJ paid; on lha >Jt' a; a poxui!*, 
ta.M] «>f tou k a. \ L j* nr.jroltr 11**•! or 
I s* ml MIC 0*1 If, rc 1;OIL Al*o jA/. »i .4 
^ 1' 3 • Hi 4 >t jol mkl *. ^-4 **^.V 4 . ii(i^ 

1 I u NT* Ic'J In krp Macckn il&j Hriri 

lfld Uhv a 

Blotch Lt#tr),r. 1604. [r.pfvce] I. ^ 
TonyrkalthMOuhei ft. -BiorK* 

|Dlot£. blot. 1657. [?c:<mn. %». lirot 

iim tic.] or Uro of fiici. etc. 

Blotter <.l»Vi»iV Hur. [f. Bi.ot o.] l 
(jnt who or t)ur fV*. ■ lorry wiin?r 

i 5 ol ft. A ihtnjr Qf^d Jor dry irjj? a el tnk*mi.:lLj. 

. 1 a k'.viui ^ |wil J>gr 3. C **m. AV. 4 SSC- 
Uxvk al*a « rcarijS flOff eJ a lr«m OAK. 

V«r’»k'.^- iftSo, [C. 

*llr- fr^rxsv* rta) fta <J!,4: Lh«ra«^ 

"pfiird by Uoitrd touche* Scarfly U A or h. 
•fUtit if A dio* itil H'MKt UtcrtU atjmety 
air. **v.h b. cited. 

Blotting fUgr»ii)\ rS:. 4 . 44° f. Burr 

» 1 T b« action of U* vt* r. a im<u a 


Pt r. JT. tmi t oUllrrilftat of wtiilaft, ci«r. i aU*, 
tRanmit, livinxiljn. 

t gfabsai ; F -.^o- k, a kwdk ccmmif m j trf V-* •-« ml k - 

ala*, a »«*u Ik%« , •;*M, » ca«*f tiduunj 
k i a pad ioo»i*. atm U M> n d id L }*)« 

^•*ro: mi lbe ntjo; -caper, a 'tUiQbi aaa **«l (4pn, 
.*>4 U lUori tdficfaiMf um. 

Bioumc (bhiai> 1S.H. a. hr. fblflr), of 

unka e:rm. J A vbort loo*e gamrot of cchmi 

Or as... icros'Trg a shirt, warn On the upfar 
part of lha body; prop- *rpf nd Ur »r. allca 
u,m) inlhe I,In# I Joe or nf Ihr Frets, -i w wVirrr- 

r. frmdif. A I i«ocb eorkrobo iWy. Hens* 
lil-IKbla. vitisrsssg a b. 

Blew I.FU-', r.' Tft. I bl«W. T'ft pj'le. 
htuWB. (OE. //dnare ;—Outk. tyj< *>i'j,r». 
’fadiV. OFeiiL i*tfJ/ajt, tugs. 1*. L. /'n | 
I 1. i.»/r. The prursrr rrrh naming the metoa 
or Lrtioes of Use %ind. or of as aerial aurrenl. 
>. U tend mit « &Trorj current ol ilr. t.g. from 
m rwils, cr fun hamtOE. j.T*l»te«inc 
karri, psnt, puff ML 4. Uf wbalfa. Mr: To 
eyaat sr alar iilisl air Irons Ihsbto* Ixiot; tn ajwvt 
•7»i- B. rotmeraaliyUrealh; tobeagM .ellr 
■tin, ] ; 10 norm (chi.rty nitty.) ML 1 Jit. 
la an.-dte a pure- 6. [easrsasl of a } ML j. 
;«n .aal of 4) To noniM in (ant: *•» of fciwe* 
llsjl. 8 frJftL To emit |a cun edict air. Ueaaii. 
etc 1 arils the innislh, aho to lo'ee (• current of 
.vr) ftresyl. 1 ».‘r. a y v» fcy otls« muiL Alia 
Jg. Iff- fft To iftseU tAesouj : uLo win 
y,#.'.) IM. Ip. To » lar; aU»%-itb.a< II Mle 
•a a baj To stiff bottftnily, Mifrhy, 

•'ir 14 ^ 1 . IS. frjmL To dikVS ui carry by 
sctai ol ft usiDnt of a «: alwi 4 % \IK b. 
tmir. To 1 m“ dr-v n or carried by iL alanl 
I f ,.Vi ml. (/*'•> To prociaiis, ItUm 4 *'*r*d, tea/, 
Mi.. ML 

L. ll**ik V»W U rain* bmJ blrara Wu^nw. T>' A 
frtfa/pan lffli.wEiijl«cM|i«k 
^ TSM i* few. a /»» \ bl a</lAie/i In W laiofT 
ihimm i m rvcSUrhic i^m .t^i i tftbica) A. tiw 
•T*v«a a* J L« lliw* u Ui* ulN* K»m\ a Tawn 
aatrba* k *>n*Ci lUf 7 .;U mH lftr-1 |a lb* 
i"»r* - i(W ■ igfdJd :? • -iL’i « « bto~m iaLu a 
• naa by Ckrf M»mnv Tj * 4/1 ts * Im 

itttaovo *tCo> lo Auf* injr»il » «iiU a Umr^ mi#j 
■ w>/ M |«4 rvJ vt 1ft 4 M*r r*» . Mm r. ilc* rtM.'j 
•it *«iiB||a\ «ML! 1* rtfbf< ft:rot'y. la 'S Lai 

# 4 rai*kWw |(ajbithar a Fm *9 * Htm Fi\ v lil, ^ 
T,' S rw-i kiIimux, *K.i im \maia a*at t»ntac* *t k- 
mf dMoidir.| uf->6 ii t ^« t« -.j aJ 1 aW V> 
wf adi/onurv*, flsn^rr, »ic 

II 1. lorn (a * »d eat rumen) joixtd bf 
bio * 1 r r air in^o 11 OL. b. To »juud u UU.t) 
h fK wa.'ft aa itilrtiiacftl ML c. I o ucmt K4 
ii^saJ ol las#bd*r#x>ac ete.)*«an irvatrvuarnt Mkl 
CL I T^Ucma^i c*l the 1*^ >in rmca( 1593. a, 

L 7 <ft lalftsl-iaitiUB^Q:: I or i««'<jr«n a wind by 
Irr | Ibtwm MF. Oi ik-IAww: To ic«n<!i 
1 k*m ME. 04 me Umi : To |«mhm) 1^9. 3 

*e [roouj. M^fsafaL on tlrsoil. t> (.eaij. { s.l-i. ebaf). * ( 7 , iyt\, i [Ft. *au cr t«). I (»n). •' .Fiyctw). ^ (orbot; f 




IVimrtabk a. [U»-l ij | u. <*«•• ml b. Lb D. fn U a a u Uncvta-ly I 

M fVn-» a] tyA*. Onrnrtakb <• [U*- 1 ll 

Hitt.. -biy nA 

Une nvlcd./^'.tf. lateME. [Usri*.’ 41 . 
Unir *ed with tnvy. late ME. only, g. Mot 
r*4t»rj*-1 Willi er.iy >61^, t- Not 1-a.itxiaiy 
drilled ik gnalratj 1 lu. - 
l)w nvnna 1 1 Hx-* 1] tdc*. -ly a- v i< 

Unepi-ieopaf. u. 161.9. Tu*- 1 1.] I. Not 
eondrilled btliiihnpi; urn eritacofCAllan In cHa- 
tnvttf f«voriiiii«>ii. g. Kut fwrtAinkag loop 
bgltllinf g Ixiiiop sfrii. 

Uuctc atful *- rVn- 1 1] I too -ly tdv.'tv 
UM-«Umb 1 uj. >. Jllg-'i itu Uaa 
d«rt «. [Un-' iJUte VIE. Umuu«.[U 


d«rt *. [Un-* V)llte ElF. Uhu'iIkIIV 

t) tjjl Onim-rprilK! ffi, a [Um - 1 • 
1770. " UaaiaiUd fri. a. IU«.-> g] ion. On-1 
ux uikImi) ft i, a- [j LV’ i] Ittt* Dneia aiu> 
*'trr ! * [Un* 1 4] » 48 *. 

UiieiatnpJed, ffi 4. 1610. [On-'* 

11—-in|« no preedUnx o- similar trample; iu- I 

1 TV tUbay Vat • , I- »«*•. * ui »k 1 iw> a. Frao*d«m«J, ®OfauAllH6l 
1*1.411 .Jr 1K97. III*. Ur.r"pr»C'>pklIy a* IfclWlIM ffi a. Pel 

Une-^uil,.! .1 r.T, 1^5. [U>.»l,6] e*?«*d ffi d-TUii- 1 sj * 


•SIS- [l/V* *,« 1 

A. **/. I. No: c iu .,1 in aiaom 1 gov. quality, 
ate 1 a. Of tig o> mare ttitip nr pmt-ut h 

< tf a. a] U 

a. 1 aj X6i| 


|lla i , ) 


CntadaMa a- [U»-* l] tCaS. Unfit' C*A ffL 

a (Ul- 1 •] 15^1 U«h dlaf/yf k [I ».f|] 

E*'C2. If ii'r. -II—a. 

Until ling, ffi- 1*. 1*1' ME. rt’.n-l 4.] 
I- Nd NUlni or |1V«4 »n% t. IJrcraii'f. 
ocrtiiuu-1. Inc Lli. a lnia!|ib>, eeruin. hK& 

A —mmirf , Itr m tn.m .I* .TV 

lr«W*a truth -J u—U ■ *rnl 15;.> lloit tnftt 1 ]- 
Iftr-ly Wi. >wik 

(Jntut'tl. -1 ti/t A ■ >J .V-*,'. f OK. unfm- 

y. I. I'n-* 1 ■*■ fay l Miv a ’ Nut g id ; ill- 
. rehab ML 

Unfair, a. [< F. mtitrn, f Un -1 1* 

/irr.'Ftin' tl. NmI.i 4 In.ulitgl 1 11a 

Tn *5 -an or * \ic'n r.» <xc<ptvxi t xu l/c Lukct:, roir e2jr »=(>) A* Nu( (All ck c-s,iJ.aH« j 

«***p*rtv%* viS ft.cfe Oilier j«fe. t*- With m\*- | pcriccth aU 4 U*x/-gcaJcjuil- A./limlitir- «n;uU X7i> h. Not f»tvli*g tb«it*—Init* 
Xi aol )Ih.i* Hit il.|iui *W>- l - *-*f logic .a i u oiorpim («n) 1*71 limit CtmMtf. J *»C«. Of »»[.), *if. 1 Ivto* !l: ictmil 
!<• mu t gr tWigcl 16,7. a. Nwt dinciU* Itila j HmiM lty. CamcpttanctiUittaa Uwxcc y ntir. rW. J.Oflk< *M.Uii!itou.iU*.iIiih. 

I no-qua) Eniahr!r$,<l 4 J iSqy. Vc-atly s</v. 

tna^«<;uau n. Not a^ jal or *dtn,iiau Uiidice-pU 

/♦ Kttt r uJt. ele. l<OJ. 4. Variable Cur 1 .terra — u r 

i__w. . . .v . _* _ *_. —a ... r- 1. 1 

nciceTtfoul, .t 

[Um.i 1 

Ia <y«uMi; 1 ^ 13 • ne - Jr. \saj.itl. ifiWr 

-176^ 4 . I u »*!trelk |i»c Iwo f« l c* atc «>ol c*»* 

eq'JJi NTSU. ji hftre not m)unl AilraJiU^e 
b. !>? <X ooojIjhiii tVrr*iriI<-ii< rt j4. 

1. ». If |M» V ’ib-hjjaB t' h. 

xiim 1A4 \- 

ViUALM i iH G * IVlrjMl Ul Ml 

ipq fimml n-« lnpcnirin, iivl %, 

QMMxmn ; 

A Thm m 

Ul3R)e<n4HCC4 bJ. [UH- 1 c| Ibttt. 

i. «. K imr Cy b 4 |(ii i^j). b. 1 •—l*m 04 l *4l* a. f LJM- • a, 3 1I71. liifirl 

lfj‘ la« <H u iitUev i 4 «. vu« C*r*r%A €. A *•**». W ! r. | iJV - 1 f | 1AJ9 UncicHw! jf}. k, | C 
mlstuHi ItiWrtimrr i TkrV. klul .v.,i , , n , Uuaccllla* f+J. «. [Ux- 1 4] lit}. 

d«««4 ncnVm pluK- .V tlfneaoaaaWc«. f L X-i 1I-1J5. V-t ucuUJ 

I.MI D.IIUC I b. rwr..UK*. ttIKttJ Hit. . ,. , .... r. aM 1 

it* rrtTn tlitvu | A An, Wit it tt*'?" i a ijllt. Cn'i* mplary <». , l_ M- 

Aii u. umtiKia ot but if/s % Ta p-M.ul.fc r- I I i'mo Ltrar-rnplMMl ffi j, aj 1 * 14 - 

ht IUI TOB cull CM d» bon Baci uu.nH LHKltt »rl. ua*xrapta 4 ffi 'Tn- 1 a 

At u. eunuacKs cj but t E fA, 4 Ta p-M»Mi m 
V * ul rag atli cm d* S m»m saci n»w i.H 
Been. 4 (o a. a barraia *74!. b. In aarb a Mi l. 
ikilttc 1. Parsons .Inire Kt on *a Oftaik; 
•nth «t't otbai la raak of saaiai waif nc 
a. Trln^t ’i no--1 .1 ta Mill eUcr iAh 1 

!*■ Milt. JurmaiMd ffi' a. lift.' al l*ir 
MK. IJaci u r tad ffL a. [t!h-‘ » t 4 j<. Ut. 
**r eslun-.end rfi. a. | lia- 1 1] i?<,l ' Unci 

bau-aUMe c.’|now rarr) [U»-i 1 XnS. Uu 
cx; sicncs rii*•- 1 6) i«9B Ui**J-alont x. 
“* I! a- 1 1 tmx Uncxt attng ffi. a ^l'M -1 4] 
r- tiBv Ovmrtlrfi Afl. iflp.' a} xyve 

11.__a_a *1 • _ * l - I m rr.. . 

I-' a) I Air 
i 4 ;<. P* 

I. Smm 4 11 1*40.1. ubxl nuMli Cm ••!. *l*»t 
bajtactile ■ truadXiibil Mu rag 

C rf>. or <|UUrllh. UKrtpa'I) Ifoc No 

lln.-qnatly tat’., <*«, 

Uco quiltt d ffi. a. ( Ux- 1 u | ttua. line emu- 

attic 4. [Utt-* ll 1647, *fc. 

Unequi vocal, u. 1784. [tlx-i i.l <M 

■raml.tAkxblii tnr-anlng. f-ro Iron ambtpit'.y. 
liraoi UaiqiU vocally t-tt.. -Orel. 

Uuara-dkcicbla 4. [UX- 1 ll Riattfi, Une-r. 
raney [I h- 1 S', 1S4A 

»- iii/ltiifiii*, hot hittiie or to-t wt|ncthrj 
- ex««l. 1*64 H fitt UwlWlTly cJr , 4 !cu 

ui uu Vnfki tbful, «• Uu ML [Uu- l i.| I- 
Nx buLiU^ 1 r t u* loth; in^riel a. N<^'ker^.- 

rvl v Irp toth ; UUkcIv Or I;a: mit 1). 

blit MFu b. t**H*f. W Mutifi: Drwi |iy»>^iiliii[ 

d’lWI- 97 .|*atc.U>«, t>e*CT|{lV». unrelinlJ 1 * 16 . t* 

k-IiaTBprernifnij thr al lntivrrt iKt.sri 

**. i pc. Niti in >*<b-vUut*L iSaA. 

J *’i II Mf C&dU't; Cktiiut«|i«i i. i w«n 1 uJ 

iut#J bula ; r-.< Ikw^nI w »«r tT 'r**• 

i VnleilW mi vi-aft— Ki rarmrwt w> ' W« tv’r. 
10 t 4 - Clir A L IS m. lii« Cw«r Im«i) iflarn nf 1*4 • 
*1 f WniJitUT t'<*- wnI .,i v.ibiaxvvi. 

I Uir •'I I a H* ti nurt U*»»v‘ U 

' t- k*. mmvA -Jlt.U q^utbu iiftpc* Uuixi*thml 

L "“ If 4 ^. 4 NM. 

L,0 . < j Jl Dnlx Xl— ffj . n. ( Ux- » »1 Unftil^nf 

Ul * A. (U A-* 17> 7 . ly 0 f»<A*i»rJ A* f, 

4 ;j [l-’u 1 *] OhaVlJ, UuIajai LAai i # 

Ufc* ^/. tf. I 


Unexpa mled «*'. [l*K- 1 ■ [ H&4. U»«A 

be cruli- MiVB 1 i] it|d* L V ArA|» e«itbUj A. 

| HA- 1 l| 159IL UnriprTfnn! .» [l.lN-l | 

• 1 '*'*• Vmsprmf+t, a ijBAl »!y 

*•1 j/ii.. iiein U ha 1 per Med n [Un«> • 

s57*• llrurpr-rilTr a l] Utl.T., * 4 y 

UitfmmOUTily [L’K- 1 hi 17SC. t’Btu- 
Cu'ilATixcJ ff*. 4 I IIm* 1 *1 177^ UNfAim - H- 
t j 0r1h*rrlrd f/f. J- (^K* 1 

al UofAAtAatiAA PV>* 1 *J l?X 

L’nta riliion, i*. (Lk.» jl] Outu, 

To uixlo tlift favliinn tu aiaVf of. 
tJiilfi ^Iikytuihlr. «. c.m! >^. 154S9* [Uh 1 

i.] A. 4gfy. fl* T>il c«nrM >ia fMkfMcd or 

Z 7 ~ f l . -i/ - riiw i f.Nol tiirnlbicd witft ^ ur<ut 6 r «q.wuno- 

Unrrrlnc(.«l il,l,/y *. Uil Uk-' 4.] n£>t |UUeJ tniliczj n , N , 

VI ,'.U* atiarnw 1 rtrl nil!* IW 1 - ' - - a.tmu ... • 

I. M bbi( no emn 1 ri« going or trading aurnv 
mSo. 1. Not dinarginc (rss a lUDdixl 61 
aid . duct l66$- 3- Of nuri'lu. aim. ato. t 

No' (Iliac ulf>l from Ire ialmttnri gnark; gar* 

Lli.UA.Sir*7d,XCM..LO. R lii..«- ~' 7 .]'la 

lira «t K.nb im*. v Hgw t.^tly ibiu «. U-l WEa (UX-l ■] 1M1 UrarwjiTyt fft * [tX-l 
Ston. ItuoL. Co rringly a**, hmuk. *1 ilN DaeTplgl agtta r, [UK* ij 1711. 

Unaac*f.aSla a. [Uic‘ t| EkMKf. Una*. UKipUJ ccil c. I 1 . 1 -* a| iy»l. Ua«a 
chew-abl* *.[U* ‘ ThKaco rt.d pi* ailucv a. | Ulf-i il IIBKThau. Lira -1 pit 

ffl.*. [UK-laj 1774. Uneapie-dogla.IUlt-' tul*d ffC j. l.’M ») 1M6. UgexpUcit a. 
x| CilAUOU. Uneamay oil ff'.. x. [On-' a LUR- 1 > lSji. -ly *Wf. UMiploTOd ffi. a. 
li^a. [Uk *1 al 1C77. Uturxpo-aiU ffi. *. |_U.K- 

Unopc-rlanced, ffi. a. 1 [Uh.l ■.] •'-■pni -tdoj-. lujlv Xcatoi or bxnoi 
. Not tumUbed wltn O, ur«hlbr **r,«tooc-: VOKkilbra, lad.x.ktui, o-imlouc, «r. . 

ot 1 killed gr trained m tin wai a- Nm 1 - v<>t l! * »«ord*n.« wid* Ibe preradn* (axlnrai 
itu n or Irll b* enwrirev tAaS I »*-!«- «- N«t l-rieo#M l« hshionaHe tocklj . 

ung aurny U ira n or Irll by BxprTimr iSyl 
indltft Oi (j(sexiie-rifiiented, ffi. 4. xiva. (Ux- • a 
aun.*lr • | la a(rarianced -;6 jl a. Null rind, know- 

aare; “' -r urerraigw) by eeperlmeat J594. 

UUMMCOCC.P. 164* [U.v.= a.l fraiu. l£«- jWxpnraud^./, a. 

Tu ikffin (t cssanixtor raacatlal prupatlira frrar^nrr.',xitc' " ^ 
Uoraraouti*!, c .nil rUx-l 

i Jlg»tn« no <a»ra« * aabgUacc, ImragUiU. No - CKpt ui,„ . U^. uiU to « 
1667- a* Not bTcctIii^ or pMrtalnmx tu Ihj ^ kqii„ r i-r* 

KAtter* rnTr^por.»nl , n» ^4 

i. Th* 1 —Aland cf b XUh M*ir • TW iLrox L'naisi > a‘Auv*4 

Xdi«ot 4 itn-hImiAJ« & F— if Chf-aaai.f - 5^ n£ 

A a!*d' Va nnrxwraTia'. lhir f it- fax lire l8a€ ^t^' "T 

b. TV.I .b*<h t. nx «mo«,M ,1 u I * 

U mUi(rBi 4 i..iUlriMi «nU V.til<i. . ^MlU lMlCy, ffi, tf. 1S43 

llnusa-MIuti u. ll]*-* ,| \1 „t Uerata-tv 
Baked f*i 4 [Uj*- 1 *T iSjS. UnnaUaiu‘xC a ' hlw < hnrgg. rs-. i V. ihoot 

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AUTHOR : S.S. Ahuja. 

SOURCE i ’Mirror’, June 1971. 

WORD COUNT : 1080. 

In the grim winter of 1941-42, London was still under the blitz. 

The Nazis held all Europe. In Oxford Dr. Howard Walter Florey said good¬ 
night to his laboratory workers and walked home through the blackout, 
worn, tired and worried. 

Work, on penicillin, the experimental drug which he was convinced 
could save a million lives in World War D was approaching an impasse. 
Painstakingly, Florey and his associates had learned how to cultivate the 
mysterious mould in flasks of broth, and how to extract from it the tiny 
pinch of yellow-brown powder which contained penicillin. 

They had used these precious pinches on laboratory animals to de¬ 
monstrate how penicillin annihilates the vicious 'cocoi' germs which cause 
scores of deadly infections. 

But penicillin was virtually untried on human beings. A year before, 
Dr. Okhries Fletcher had made limited trials, but the scant supply of the 
drug had been exhausted before conclusive results were obtained. Without 
clinical evidence of penicillin’s value, pharmaceutical houses were unlikely 
to tackle the multi-million-dollar job of manufacturing it in useful quanti¬ 

Although Florey's supply was still small, the laboratory now could 
produce enough to enable a meticulous medical worker to make some real 
trials. With the war time shortage of doctors, who could be found to 
undertake the job? Dr. Florey laid the problem before ha wife, Mary 

While she pondered, her husband remained silent. Then he made 
a suggestion that left her breathless. She herealf should do )L 

Ethel Florey was qualified professionally. She hod received her 
medical degree from the University of Adelaide in Australia two years 
after Howard Florey hod been graduated, by the same school and sent to 
England as a Rhcdes-scholar. $he knew the pan i rill in story by heart, Bock 

Ux Lie Accelerator Tot Readmj 



in 1928, Dr. Alexander Fleming had discovered a strange mould growing 
on a culture plate in his London laboratory. Somehow, ihia mould had 
killed off all the bacteria immediately surrounding it. Experience estab¬ 
lished that it could be introduced into wounds without harming living 
tissues. But for ten years, Fleming’s discovery was ignored. 

In 1938, Dr. Howard Florey seeking out new infection fighters, 
recalled Fleming’s experiments and began an entirely new senes of stu¬ 
dies. Finally, out of qreat quantities of the broth on whum the mould was 
cultivated, the Oxford researchers succeeded in extracting a small amount 
of powder containing the new drug, penicillin. 

Howard Florey now asked several Oxford hospitals to permit his 
wife to administer penicillin to suitable patients. The amount of penici¬ 
llin entrusted to har on that fateful day in 1948 would hardly be consi¬ 
dered an adequate doao for a single patient today. Yet she prepared the 
precious hoard In solution and ointment which she placed in little bottles 
and sterilised cold-cream jars. 

These sho stored in an old Victoria Yanity-case, strapped it to her 
bicycle, and set out on the momentous mission to demonstrate penici¬ 
llin to a needy world. Ethel first selected cases involving surface infections 
in which the result could be doociy observed, ulcers, absesses, pus-filled 
wounds teeming with deadly staphylococci. Penicillin caused the vicious 
'cocci’ to disappear, and enabled the ravaged flesh to heal cleanly. En¬ 
couraging response, but only a beginning. 



Penicillin's biggest field was treating infections that were deep 
within the body. Dr. Fletcher had already Injected penicillin into the 
veins successfully, but it was difficult to maintain an effective level of the 
drug in the blood. Why not inject penicillin into the muscles? 

Just then, the Radcliffe infirmary admitted a young woman suffer¬ 
ing from severe pelvic infection and haemorrhage following a self-induced 
abortion. Life was ebbing fast. Twice a day, for six days, Ethel adminis¬ 
tered what iwmec enormous doses of tha drug had produced no Ul 

Ethel was learning fast Demands for the new therapy increased 



rapidly and she found herself prayiny that the supply of the drug trick¬ 
ling! out of Howard Flurey's laboratory would keep pace with her widen¬ 
ing operations. 

Ono day, she was ushered to the crib of a two-month old baby. Its 
small spine twisted, the child was afaire with Ostcomuelitis, a severs bone 
infection. Ethel Florey began a series of p email in injections. By the ninth 
day, he gained a few ounces. Six months later, pink and lively, lus spine al¬ 
most straight, die baby was handed back to his parents. Soon the list of the 
triumphs yrew longer; empyema, step-meningitis, bacterial endocarditis, 
septicaemia, and a host of other infectious. Unlike sulpha drugs, penicillin 
was just as effective in curbing the staphylococci as the streptococci, and 
unlike sulpha drugs, it could be administered safely In enormous doses. 

Every effort now as being made to produce Larger amounts. A Gmail 
but woefully inadequate quantity was coming from an English drug firm. 
Since penicillin is excreted through the kidneys, the patient’s urine was 
collected and tie drug recovered, purified and used again. 

By September 1942, the first stage of Ethel Florey’s one woman was 
against infection seemed over, Penicillin had been used successfully in 187 
cases. Techniques for administering it intramuscularly, intravenously, by 
meuth, in ointments and on dressings had been developed. Early in 1943 a 
report announcing the news to the medical profession was published in the 

With obviously restrained enthusiasm, an editorial in tae same jour¬ 
nal declared that “Florey's amazing work leaves no doubt about the poten¬ 
tial value of this bacteriostatic agent." But in three words, the editorial’s 
title spelled out the tragedy of the situation. "Unequalied, but unob¬ 
tainable." ir penicillin was to do war time service, a miracle ol production 
would be needed. 

Howard Florey had tried to interest American scientists in Peni¬ 
cillin's wartime possibilities in July 1941. However, mass production of 
the then improved drug involved a huge gamble, high priority materials, 
and the improvising of new high-speed motheds. 

The report of Ethel Florey’s convincing clinical work now turned the 
trick. American pharmaceutical firms with Government aid, now went all- 
out for penicillin production. 




D-Day found Ethel Florey in Charge of her own unit, administering 
penicillin therapy in one of England's biggest hospitals. In that one hospi¬ 
tal, the drug saved 3,000 Normandy casualties from gas gangrene, most 
dreaded battlefield infection. Penicillin also enabled surgeons to patch up 
mangled limbs, avoiding amputation, and made possible new wanders of 
plastic and orthopaedic surgery. 

After V-J Day, penicillin became the 'byword for quick, gentle in¬ 
fection fighting. Today, many a drug store sells more penicillin on a single 
prescription that Ethel Florey had at her disposal over a period of months 
in lOd-J 








L A. LzekicL 
Times Weekly, 
April 11, 1971. 


Dr. B.K. Ambcdkar, whose eightieth birth 
anniversary will be celebrated on 14th April, 
was a person who had amazing experiences of 
the woxking of the orthodox mind. After 
living for several yean in England and America, 
he returned to find that even the humble Bliat 
of Bombay High Court would not serve hun 
tea, and then he joined the Sydenham College 
of Commerce as Professor, his university-edu¬ 
cated colleagues seriously objected to his using 
water from the common chatty. 

According to his agreement with Maharaja 
Sayajirao of Baroda, who had financed his 
education in England, Dr. Ambedkar joined the 
Baroda Civil Service. Here the peons would not 
handle his files, and the clerks would keep 
themselves at a respectable distance. Before 
tilings got too hot the Maharaja transferred him 
to the Army, but his career here was soon cut 

In Baroda no Hindu would accommodate 
him as a boarder. So he lived with a Pars 
family. To the orthodox even this was un¬ 
bearable. lTiey warned the Pard family to clear 

hun out. On their refusal to do so, a Large 
crowd one night surrounded the house and 
threatened to bum it down. To avoid such a 
calamity, Dr. Ambcdkar escaped at midnight to 
the Baroda railway station, and came to Bom¬ 
bay the next morning, never again lo go back.* played an important port in puri¬ 
fying the places ‘defiled’ by Dr. Am bedkar. In 
Thakurdwar, Bombay, a new temple was built 
in about 1930, and the Secretary and the tem¬ 
ple pncsl invited Dr. Ambcdkar to vmt it. The 
news of his presence in the temple leaked out 
and soon a big crowd surrounded the temple 
and booed the depressed class leader. 

Dr. Ambedkar protested that he had gone 
there only on the invitation of the temple 
authorities. The Secretary and the priest, how¬ 
ever, went back on their word, and Dr. Ambed¬ 
kar had no alternative but to walk out oi the 
temple amidst a howling crowd. The temple 
was afterwards washed and purified by plenti¬ 
ful use of "Gomutra". 

‘Goinutra" was also associated with an 

lh« (tie swimmer for Reeduic- 


f continued J 

important incident at the very start of his 
movement. This was in 1927. A Depressed 
Class Conference at Mahad in Kolaba District, 
presided over by him, decided they should ilo 
more than pass paper resolutions. Accordingly, 
the delegates went «« to the public tank 

nearby to use its water. Tlus was a signal for 
the release of caste fury. The fanatical crowd, 
equipped with stones and sticks, rushed into 
the conference smashed up every thing, and 
beat up the Malian. The life of Dr. Ambedkar 
was in danger. The police came to hn rescue 
in time and he spent the whole night in the 
police station. The aggressive crowd remained 
rampant till midnight. Later Dr. Ambedkar 
look the matter to the Bombay High Court 
which upheld the right of the Untoucliablcs 
to use the public tank. 

Immediately after the tank sutyagraha, the 
orthodox Hindus decided that the tank, de¬ 
filed by Dr. Ambedkar, could be purified only 
by pouring a sufficiently large quantity of 
into It. And they did so. 

Though his father was a Subhedar Major 
of the 2nd Grenadiers, Dr. Ambedkar had dis¬ 
covered what it was to be outside the pale of 
Hindu society even in his childhood days. In 
the primary school and early stages of high 
school he used to be seated apart from others. 
No barber would give him a hair-cut. His sis¬ 
ters had to do it. Grocers should not allow him 
into their shops, and he could not enter the 
houses of his fellow students. 


Once he and a few other children were re¬ 
turning home after the summer vacation. They 
were detrained late at night at a nearby camp 
station. So they took a tonga to go to the can¬ 
tonment, but after travelling for a couple of 
miles the tongawalla discovered who Uicy were 

threw them out and gave them a severe thrash¬ 
ing. Thus they lay strained in a jungle in mid¬ 
night darkness when, some sepoys who 
happened to pass that way recognised them as 
the Subhedar Major’s children and escorted 
them home. 

Twenty years of futile struggle to secure 
human dignity for his people enforced Dr. 
Ambedkar to quit Hinduism. The Nasik temple 
satyagraha which went on fix five years was 
one aspect of the tussle. The invest! tude of 
thousands of untoucliablcs with Sacred Thread 
was another aspect of it. The burning of the 
Manusmriti at the Mahad Conference was a 
third feature of it. His fiery articles against 
caste hierarchy in “Balushknt Uliarat" and “Ja¬ 
nata" journals founded by him were also aimed 
in this direction. The organisations of Social 
Equality League and Social Justice Volunteers 
were its other phases. 

When all these failed he thought of conver¬ 


Dr. Ambedkar had great admiration for the 
Sikiis and their military traditions. He felt that 
Sikhism would be most useful to uplift the de¬ 
pressed class. A regular conference between 
Sikh leaden and Dr. Ambedkar was then iietd 
at Amritsar. A mutch of Mahars was olio 
trained as priests. For the education of the 
scheduled castes, Dr. Ambedkar secured the es¬ 
tablishment of the Kluilsa College in Bombay. 
Its magnificienl campus-fool tshly given up 
later- would liave made tire college unique in 
the city. 

Unfortunately, the conversion plan later 
fell through and Dr. Ambedkar turned to 



In spite of conversion, Dt. Ambedkar re¬ 
tained his /cal for modernising Hinduism. He 
was a staunch believer in constitutional me¬ 
thods, and so, in spite of his lifelong hostility 
to the Congress, he joined the Nehru Govern¬ 
ment after independence and became its Law 
Minister. In that capacity he became the Chair¬ 
man of the Drafting Committee, and thus 
played a commanding roll- in the framing of 
the Constitution. The Directive Principles of 
the Constitution are entirely lus work. It is a 
constitution which has enabled hundreds of un¬ 
touchables to sat shoulder to shoulder with 
others in State Legislatures, in Parliament and 
in District and Municipal bodies. 

The most formidable weapon he employed 
for modernising Hinduism was the Hindu Code 
Bill. It sought among many other reforms, to 
put an end to a variety of marriage systems pre¬ 
vailing in India and legalise only monogamous 
marriages. The Code also sought to confer on 
women the right of property and adoption de¬ 
nied by Manu, It put men and women on an 
equal level in all legal matters. The Code was 
withdrawn because of strong opposition. It was 
later split into the Hindu Marriage Bill (1955), 
the Hindu Succession Bill (1956), the Hindu 
Minority and Guardianship Bill (1956) and the 
Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Bill (1956), 

and these were put on the Statute Book by Par¬ 
liament. They incorporate the ideas and prin¬ 
ciples of the Hindu Code Bill formulated by 
Dr. Ambedkar. 

E>r. Ambedkar has been described as the 
modem Manu. There Ls however, a hig diffe¬ 
rence between the two. While Manu legalised 
caste gradation, Ambedkar abolished it; while 
the former sanctified untouch ability, Ambed¬ 
kar put an end to it. 


Manu hud also lard down that a woman 
should remain under the guardinnsliip of her fa¬ 
ther before marriage, of her husband during 
married life, and of sons in widowhood ; the 
Dills mentioned above gave independent status 
to women, and endowed them with the right 
of adoption, succession und property, so com¬ 
pletely denied hy Manu. In fact it is due to 
Dr. Ambedkar that a large part of the Hindu 
law today is on par with the legal system pre¬ 
vailing in advanced Western countries. 

Dr. Ambedkar had brought about this so¬ 
cial revolution without any violence. He did it 
entirely through peaceful und democratic me¬ 
thods. Therein lies his statesmanship. 



9. The University: Amateur v$ Professional 




Robert Brustcin. 

[■he American Review, 
January 1971. 




I do not wish to comment here on the validity of individual student demands- certainly, a 
student role in University affairs in Doth practical and desirable as long as that role remains advi¬ 
sory. Nor will I take the time to repeat the familiar litany of admiration fur the currant, student ge¬ 
neration- it has, to my mind, already been sufficiently praised, even over-praised, since for all its 
intrinsic passion, intelligence, and commitment, the proportion of serious, gifted, hardworking stu¬ 
dents remains about what it always was (if not actually dwindling fox reasons I hope soon to deve¬ 
lop). I do want, however, to examine the analogy which is now helping to politicize the university, 
and scholarship itself, because it seems to me full of falsehood. 

Clearly, it is absurd to identify electoral with educational institutions. To compare tne 
state will) the academy is to assume that the primary function of the university is lo govern and to 
rule. While the relationship between the administration and the faculty ooes have certain political 
overtones, the faculty and administration can hardly be considered the elected representatives of 
the student body. Nor can the students, in the University, be considered free-born citizens of a de¬ 
mocratic state. 


(continued i 

The relationship between teacher and student is strictly tutorial. Thus, the faculty member 
,'unctions not to represent the student's interests vis-a-vis the administration, but rather to 
communicate knowledge from one who knows to one who doesn’t. That the reasoning behind this 
analogy has not been more frequently questioned indicates the extent to which some teachers are 
refusing to exercise their roles as professionals. During a time when all authority is being radically 
questioned, faculty members are becoming more reluctant to accept the responsibility of their 
wisdom and experience and are, llietefore, often willing to abandon their authoritative position in 
order to placate the young. 


The issue of authority is a crucial one here, and once again we can see how the concept of 
professionalism is being vitiated by false analogies. Because soma authority is cruel, callow, or in¬ 
different (notably the government in its treatment of certain urgont issues of the day), the Platonic 
idea of authority comes under attack. Because some faculty members are remote and pedantic, the 
credentials of distinguished scholars, artists, and intellectuals are ignored or rejected, and anyone 
taking charge of a classroom or a seminar is open to charge* of “authoritananism 1 *. 

This explains the hostility of many students towards the lecture course -where an “autho¬ 
rity’' communicates the fruits of his research, elaborating on unclear points when prodded by stu¬ 
dent questioning (still valuable pedagogical technique, especially foe beginning students, along with 
seminars and tutorials). Preferred to this, and therefore replacing it in some departments, is the dis¬ 
cussion group or "bull session", where the student's opinion about the material receive* more 
attention than the material itself, if indeed the material is still being treated. 

The idea-so central to scholarship—that there is an inherited body of knowLcoge to be trans¬ 
mitted from one generation to anot’ner-lostt favour Decause it puts the student in an unacceptably 
subordinate position, with the result that the learning process gives way to a general free-for-all 
in which one man's opinion is as good as another's. 

The problem is exacerbated in the humanities and soda) sciences with their more subjective 
criteria of judgement; one hardly senses the same difficulties in tha clinical sciences. It is unlikely 
(though anything is possible these days) that medical students will insist on making a diagnosis 
through majority vote, or that students entering surgery will refuse anasthesia because they want to 
participate In decision that affect their lives and, therefore, demand to chos* the surgeon's instru¬ 
ments or tell him where to cut. 

Obviously, some forms of authority are still respected, and some professionals remain un¬ 
touched by the incursions of the amateur. In liberal education, however, where the development of 
the individual assumes such weighL and importance, the subordination of mind to material is often 
looked on as same kind of repression. 

One begins to understand the current loss of interest m the past, which offers a literature and 
history verified to som* extent by time, and the passionate concern with the immediate present, 


( continued) 

whose works will reman: to b« objectively evaluated. When one's educational concerns are con¬ 
temporary, the material can be subordinated to one’s own interests, whether political or aesthetic, 
as the contemporary literary journalist is often more occupied with his own ideas than with the 
book of reviews. 


That the university needs improvement goes without saying. Ana students have been very 
helpful in breaking down its excesses of impersonality and attempting to severe its ties with the mi¬ 
litary-industrial complex. But students need improvement too, Which tney are hardly receiving 
through all this self-righteous bustle over power. 

That students should pay so much attention to this activity creates an even, more serious 
problem; the spectre of an ignorant, uniformed group of graduates or drop-outs who when they 
finally leave the academic sanctuary are incompetent to deal with society's real evils or to function 
properly in professions they have chosen to enter. 

My very simple point u that in order to become a doctor and help the sick of the ghettos, one 
must first study “irrelevant” subjects like anatomy and organic chemistry. In the aame way, one 
must give oneself up to the seeming irreievancies of the past in order to be relevant to the present. 
Otherwise we will be condemned to repeat the errors of history, as the saying goes-and as we seem 
to be doing at the present moment. 


Clearly, the system is not workinq, and I share a profound sense of disturbance about it. But 
1 do not believe it can or should be improved by violence, and the eagerness of the radical young to 
escalate their actions to their irrational rhetoric makes me worry whether the society they would 
substitute would not be worse than the one we now have. What we need are ideas, not romantic qai- 
tuies, and the current situation is preventing ideas from being formulated. 

A last word. I must be very careful-indeed, everyone must be careful—not to generalize 
wildly about students. They are an incredibly diverse and various group of people. My quarrel is 
with radical students of the extremist persuasion;all others I can reason with. I believed in students, 
as must surely be obvious from the fact that I am continuing in my present academic poet. The 
temptation these days to withdraw from the academy into private life is simply overwhelming. But 
1 still believe that the dialogues what needed change can best he held intki: the university - so long 
as that institution is permitted to function and survey. 

rm iHD 




b’ORD CO l//NT . 

Thiinkamma Jacob. 
The Sunday Standard, 

The recent report by the President of the Joint Conference of the Cardiological Society of 
India and the Thoracic Section of the Association of Surgeons of India that coronary heart diseases 
has almost reached epidemic proportions in the industrialised cities of India id disturbing, to say the 

Coronary' heart disease affects one or more of the three coronary arteries situated on top of 
he heart. A disease which had the status of only a Number 6 killer some three decades ago has now 
merged as a Number 3 killer, according to available statistics. In tlsc metropolitan areas of Bombay 
and Puona, the mortality from this rich man's disease has reportedly risen by 225 per cent between 
1942 and 1972. 

In India research findings indicate that 10 to 20 out of every 1,000 school children examined 
suiter from rheumatic heart disease. Tnis trend is far from reassuring, because it means that both 
the major causative factors in heart attacks— atherosclerosis and rheumatic heart disease arc 
now operative in India to a marked extent. 

The sudden spurt in the incidence of heart disease in Indian cities is apparently due to artiic- 
rosclcro&is, the disease of affluence, which has been recognised as America's No. I killer. It is one of 
a group of blood-vessel disease colled arteriosclerosis and is commonly known as hardening of the 
arteries. The hardening or thickening of the arteries is due to the deposition of fatty material on 
their walls. The deposit is composed of cholesterol, a white odourless and tasteless fatty alcohol, 
other fatty matter, fibrous tissues and red blood cells. As the deposit of “plaque" grows in thick¬ 
ness, it progressively restricts blood flow through the artery, ^hen this happens in the coronary ar¬ 
teries. heart attack and death may follow. 

Atherosclerosis also causes roughening and Irregularities in Hie otherwise smooth artery . The 
roughened areas may break loose at anytime and rupture the walls of the artery or they may cause 
blood dots to form. The liny grooves found in between the layers of plaque tend to collect small 
quantities of blood when later form clots. A dot tan form in any artery. But it is most common in 
the comparatively bigger arteries of the body-in the brain, kidney, heart and legs. 

The mortality is highest when Hie coronary artenes of Die heart are involved. Ln a coronary 
artery which is already narrowed down by irUierasclerosis, the formation of a blood clot may re¬ 
sult in blocking Die normal blood supply to the heart muscle, Tills is coronary thrombosis, a serious 
heart ailment. It is obvious that coronary thrombosis is also one of the consequences of arDien> 



Blood clots in a coronary artery usually cause heart attacks characterised by severe ami pro¬ 
longed pam in contrast with the brief type of pain oyer the heart(anguia pectoris) which comes with 
simple arthcrosclerosis. The latter type of pain is due to the heart muscle not getting enough oxygen 
from the blood. It can lead to strokes, which occur when blood circulation is cut off or an artery 
ruptures in the brain. 

A number of factors are known to contribute to the occurrence of heart attacks. Hie most 
important of these axe obesity (overweight), hypertension (high blood pressure), and high blood 
cholesterol and fat levels. Obesity and hypertension are best avoided if one wants to prevent heart 
attacks. The extra poundage an obese person has to lug around is a strain on his heart making it 
work harder to pump blood through the faL Hypertension and arthcrosclerosis often go hand in 
tiand but this need not be the rule. Lowering the blood pressure may not prevent a heart attack 
but in most cases, it can certainly prevent death from heart failure ami stroke. More than obesity 
and hypertension, however, high cholesterol and fat levels in blood seem to directly contribute to 
the occurrence of heart attacks. High levels of cholesterol in blood can be hereditary or can be 
caused by improper diot. Hereditary factors of the Indian population remaining the same, the 
sudden increase in the incidence of heart disease among the city-dwelling middle-aged people must 
be due to change in environment and undesirable changes in tlic diet. 

Hardening of arteries was once considered an inevitable radical change. That the foundations 
for the disease arc laid in childhood was brought home to the medical profession by a team of doc¬ 
tors who found, on autopsy of young soldiers kBJed in the Korean War, that eight out of 10 had 
considerable hardening of coronary arteries. Most of these men were in then late teens and early 

It has been noted that when children are weaned off mother’s milk and put on cow’s milk, 
they develop fatty streaks on the inner lining of their arteries. These are harmless and usually dis¬ 
appear. But in certain cases, the yellowish streaks l ave been found to thicken with fresh deposits of 
fats and cholesterol, which later tend to damage the blood vessel. In experiments on animals, it 
was found tlial monkeys which were given a high fat diet promptly developed hardening of arteries. 
When the same monkeys were put on ■ low fat diet, not only was the progress ot the disease arres¬ 
ted but the trend was actually reversed. 

Although the complex inter-relationships between heart disease and diet have not yet been 
fully understood, there is enough evidence to indicate that diet is the central factor in liigli blood 
fat (serum lipids)- and high blood cholesterol levels which lead to heart attacks. Foods rich in cho¬ 
lesterol such as whole milk, cheese, cream, eggs, meats, especially organ meats, as well as foods 
made out of substantial amounts of sugar and saturated fats, like barf, and cream-filled baked 
goods, tend to raise the cholesterol level in blood. 

Further, a diet consisting of appreciable amounts of saturated fats (Vanaspati, Dalda, Butter, 
Ghee and Coconut oil) raise not only the blood cholesterol level but also the level of blood fats. 
In fact, the latter has been found to correlate even more closely with coronary disease than with 
high levels of blood cholesterol. 



Any attempt to prevent heart attack, must, therefore, start with a reduction in the amount 
of saturated fats consumed in the diet, since these fats can promote both the causative factors in 
heart atucks-high levels of fats in the blood. On the other hand, when polyunsaturated vegetable 
oils such as Cottonseed oil. Sesame or Til oil, Soyabean oil. Com oil, and Sunflower oil are con¬ 
sumed instead of saturated fats, the blood cholesterol level comes down. 

Also, when oils like Mustard and Groundnut oil are substituted for saturated fats, the blood 
cholesterol levels remain station ary-they are neither raised nor lowered. Habitual consumption of 
Mustard oil, however, is not desirable since it cun cause inflammation of the heart muscle (myo¬ 
cardial fibrosis). 

Statistics from many countries indicate that low levels of blood fat and cholesterol in an in 
dividual virtually confer on liim an immunity to heart attacks. This is best achieved by limiting the 
consumption of such ndi foods as barl. ice cream, pastnes, nch layer cakes, eclairs, chocolate bars, 
butter, ghee, vanaspati, fatty meats and so on, and going in for vegetables, fruits, vegetable oils (not 
Coconut oil), lean meats and fish (not Shell fish), instead. 

Parents will be failing in their duty if they do not teach their children to be frugal in regard 
to the consumption of foods nch in saturated fats as well us in chulcslcrul, At the same time, an 
adequate intake of fats must be ensured for good health approximately 40-60 grams daily, of 
which at least 15 grams should be vegetable oil. 





P. R. Gupta. 

Span, May 10, I97Q. 


l ast July, American aatronomeis aimed pencil-thin light pulses at the moon to measure the 
distance between it and the eartlu Their target was the 18 inch square panel of mirrors left on the 
Sea of Tmnquillilyby the Apollo-11 astronauts. This light was a laser beam. 

Alter two weeks of trial and error, scientists of Ihe University of California's Lick Observa¬ 
tory succeeded in bouncing the User beams. By measuring the time taken for the laser to complete 
iLs trip to the moon and back, they calculated more precisely than ever before the earth-moon dis 
lance-226,970.9 miles, accurate to within 10 feet. Before this experiment, this distance was known 
to within a mile. 

Over the next few years, the accuracy is expected to improve to within Inches. Tliis refine¬ 
ment will enable scientists to measure precisely such tilings as the lunar orbit motion, the lunar ra 
dius and fluctuations in the earth’s rotation rate. It will also answer such age-old questions as whe¬ 
ther continents on earth are drifting. 

An optical radar is only one of the laser’s numerous new uses. Since Dr. Theodore H. Maiman 
built the first working model—a ruby laser small enough to be lield in the palm-in I960 at the 
Hughes Research Laboratories in California, tlie laser is no longer a laboratory curiosity. Its possibi¬ 
lities often seem much more like science fiction than scientific fact. 

Unlike the sun or a common light bulb, a laser emits light of only one wavelength or colour, 
each wave moving in exactly the same direction at the same phase, each reinforcing the other. It is 
akin to Ihe waves formed by a pebble dropped into the still waters of a pond. 

The laser device has been compared to the vacuum tube which, when invented 60 years ago, 
was also little more than a curiosity, but which formed the basis for the electronic technology that 
has today transformed society. The possibility of drama, ix. unforeseen developments^ the most 
exciting aspect of the laser’s future. Already lasers and their components constitute u 2S0-mUlion- 
dollar industry that is expected In reach an annual output of $ 1,000 million early in tills decade. 

Runked in a class with the transistor as one of the most important postwar inventions, the 
laser continues to amaze even the scientists who work with it. Dr. Charles J. Townes, who deve¬ 
loped the maser and laser that won him u Nobel Prize in 1964, says: “What the laser does essentially 



is to give us electronic-type control over Light, It’s a marriage of optics and electronics." Klahnrating 
this, Dr. Arthur L. Schawlow, another pioneer who worked with Dr. Townes on the theoretical as¬ 
pect, remarks: “Perhaps this is one of the most important things about the laser .... Light has be¬ 
come something not only to look with, but also a palpable force to be reckoned with". 

Laser beams, especially those produced as bursts rather than continuous beams, can be extra¬ 
ordinarily bright— as much as 10 billion Limes brighter than the sun as seen from the earth. They 
can be concentrated into a spot measuring no more than 5/ I000,000ths of an inch where the tem¬ 
perature would rise instantly to a degree higher than that at the sun’s surface. Even without focus¬ 
ing, a powerful laser can concentrate 750 trillion watts on an area smaller than the face of a sugar 
cube. It is like squirting Niagara Falls through a water pistol in one shot. 

the laser's intense light has been put to varied uses. In ten minutes, a laser can bore a hole 
through a diamond-the hardest substance found in nature-that would take a mechanical drill 24 
hours. Low-power lasers have been used for spot welding. As they can be focused through trans¬ 
parent casings to weld enclosed metal pieces, they can repair the elements in vacuum tubes. Sur¬ 
geons have focused laser beams through the lens of the eye to weld detached retinas painlessly, 
without surgery—so fast, limt the eye need not be immobilized nor the patient anaesthetized. 

Low-cnergy lasers have removed some forms of cancerous growth in the body. Research is 
under way to extend the laser’s scope as the healing knife for the bloodless removal of organs and 
for heart surgery. Surgeons value the laser light's capacity to sterilize and cauterize the tissue as it 
cuts, causing little bleeding and exerting no pressure. They have used the User beam to excise brain 
tumours in mice. 

The laser beam Jus set up a new standard of straightness. For guiding Uie drilling of a 21- 
foct-wide tunnel in New Mexico, the l&scr-guided boring macliine was off the course by only 5/8th 
of an inch in a onc-and-a-half mile length. Ordinarily, tunnelling machines drift as much as two to 
three inches in five feet. 

in one of the most spectacular experiments cairied out in 1962, scientists flashed a Laser 
beam through space. Within seconds, the beam made a bright spot, two miles wide, on the moon. 
The brightest searchlight could not travel such a distance, but if it could, its beam on reaching 
there would spread out 26,000 miles-more than 12 times the moon’s diameter. 

These diverse uses are based on the three mam characteristics of tlie laser light—its purity, 
power and “pointability". The laser purifies and amplifies ordinary light and transforms it into a 
narrow intense beam. It may be in any one of the rainbow colours of the light spectrum, including 
the invisible infrared and ultraviolet, although red, orange and blue-green are common visible co¬ 
lours. The early lasers, made from substances such as ruby, gave only short pulses of light. The 
later types, made from gases such as carbon dioxide, helium and neon give a steady, but less power¬ 
ful beam. 

While the current uses of lasers are rapidly multiplying, the potential uses are truly slavering. 



Perhaps the biggest future for the User will be in the field of communications. Theoretically, one 
beam could simultaneously carry all radio, television and telephone messages ot the world. When 
man goes to Mars, his landing may be viewed from earth by means of a Laser space-communications 

Another application will enable lire blind to see. A tiny laser camera would convert truc-to- 
life three dimensional images into electrical impulses to be fed to the blind person'a brain, bypass¬ 
ing the eye and normal optical nerve route. These impulses impinging on a tiny plate implanted in 
the brain would be reconstructed by normal brain processing into images. 

A sceptic once called the laser "an invention in search of applications.” Some science fiction 
writers quickly seized on the laser to prophesy that the age of “death ray guns" was at hand. 
According to a laser pioneer, “The death ray (of Buck Rogers and 1LG. Wells) is not lierc. If it ever 
will be, 1 don’t know." 

One anecdote circulated among laser men sums up the prospects best. A scientist posted on 
the door of his laser lab a magazine article showing laser death rays blasting a rocket ship out of 
the air. The article was titled “The Incredible Laser." Underneath, the scientist had scrawled: “For 
credible lasers, sec inside." 




AUTHOR : S.K. Ram Chandra Rao. 

SOURCE ; Dcccan Herald, 

May 2, 1976. 


Samkara's gift to Indian culture is as spectacular as it is unique. He is rightly regarded ax the 
□olden link between old India and what may be described ax near new India. The alaim that he wax 
the father of Hinduism is not ill-founded. But his distinctive contribution has not sufficiently been 

His celebrity has continued in two distinct traditions : in the da meal Vedanik tradition and 
in the Tantrik tradition. The precise Import and practical significance of the Advaita doctrine that 
he espoused and expounded become meaningful only when the two traditions are regarded ax mu¬ 
tually complementary. That be was e genius of synthesis becomes dear when details of thus back¬ 
ground are understood. 

The line of Advaita teachers that orthodoxy accepts ax prior to Samkara includes the names 
of sages (like those of Vasishtha, Sakti, Parasara, Vyasa and SukaJ and historical names (like those 
of Gaudapada and Gorinda). It is impossible to reconstruct the background of Samkara's Advaita 
by relying on the ideas and works ascribed to these teachers. The one exception of course, is Gauda¬ 
pada, whose Karika on Mandukya Upanishad has come down to us along with Samkara’s gloss on 
it. Samkara regards Gaudapada as his master. 

This work no doubt holds an Advaitic view, but appears to incorporate familiar Madhyamika 
ideas and reconciles them with the Upanishadic ideology. The work also makes a powerful plea for 
scriptural authority. It is significant that Samkara described Gaudapada ax ‘One who was acquain¬ 
ted with Tradition’ (Sumpradaya-vit), and he held that “although learned in all scriptures, if one 
should be ignorant of tradition, he is to be disregarded as a fool" (Gita-bhashya). 

What tradition is ho referring to here? Obviously not the classical Vedantic tradition, becajse 
he criticizes several of his predecessors who belonged to this tradition. He even criticizes many ear- 
liei Auvaiu teachers such as Bhartrprapancha. Brahmadatta and Bhrtrhari. He severely criticizes 
the Mimamsakas who relied exclusively on Vedic Wisdom. 

While we know practically nothing about Gaudapada the man, his Karika reveals ideas fami¬ 
liar to Madhyamika rites. The ideas of vivaria and mays, and the supposition of a dichotomous 
reality, which were prominent in the Mxhayana works belonging to the first few centuries of the 
Christian era, are to be found in the Karika. Nevertheless Gaudapada makes much of scriptural 
authority and sets out to Interpret an Upanishadic text, in fact, the seeds of the ideas which became 
so characteristic of Buddhist texts are to be found noL only in the Upanishads but even in the earlier 
Vedic hymns. 




Gjudapdua appears to have recognised the continuity of thought from the Vedic hymns to 
the Buddhist works. It is probable that Samkara acknowledged the merit of Gaudapada’s contri¬ 
bution towards the reinterpretation, reconciliation, and reintegration of Indian thought. This may 
indeed be what Samkara meant by Tradition. Gaudapada and Samkara inherited an indistinct ideo¬ 
logy of Advaita, crystallised it, and communicated it to posterity as a clear-cut system. 

Prior to Samkara, Advaita was more or less an abstract outlook on metaphysical problems, di¬ 
vorced from daily life. It was confined to a few whose loyalties were divided between the old Brah- 
nuina tradition and the emergent Sr am ana tradition represented by the teachings of the Buddha, 
Mahavira, Makkhali Gouda and others. 

There was already an attempt to synthesis, especially in the academic circles of Nalanda, 
TakflluisiLi, Mathura Dhanyakauka and Xasi. Hagarjuna and several Siddhas had evolved a sort of 
religious Advaita, which inclined towards cultivation of Void. Samkara's work should be considered 
in this context. 

The traditional list mentions a Govinda as the pupil of Gaudapada and the teacner of Sam¬ 
kara. We know nothing about him, and none of hrs Vedantic works (if he wrote any) is extant It 
is not a little intriguing that Samkara ia altogether silent about him in all his comments tonal works. 
But Govinda as well as Gaudapada figure also in the Tar.tnc tradition as Samxara's predecessors, and 
here Govinda is not such a ‘dummy’. 

Sri Vidyarnava-tantra gives a long list of teachers prior to Samkara including the sages like 
Kapila, Vamahtha, Sanaka, Narada, Suka and Vyasa, little itnown peraorugr-s like Kapardi, Visuddha. 
Yoga Viresvara Bhairava and Vijnana, ana wall-known masters like Gaudapada and Govinda. How¬ 
ever, between Gaudapada and Govuida there ate at least four teachers,and considerable time must 
have elapsed between them 

An Important Tantnk work Subhagooaya, and seme Sakta Sutras (according to Bhaskara- 
raya) are ascribed to Gaudapada'* authorship. Another major Tantrik work, Jayaaratha-Yamala, is 
ascribed to Govinda. A Cambodian inscription raters to Govinda as the autner also of Nihsvasa- 

Govinda s jayadraLna-Yamala was recovered from employs Trans-HimaJayan expres¬ 
sions described as Paisacha and B’nota (i.e., Tibetan). "Hie Tantric tradition holds that Samkara wu 
initiated into the Tantric cult in this region. Samkara is regarded as a great Tantric teacher not only 
in this tradition, the traditions of the extant Vedanhc seats also make him a master of Sn-Vidya. 
Kanchipuram with which Samkara was intimately associated, was undoubtedly a great Tantric 
centre in the South. Even Sringcri nad this background. 

Amonq the Tantric works ascri&ed to Samkara, Prapanchasara and Saundarya-lahari are 
well-known. Samkara’s direct disciple in both traditions, Padiruipada, wrote a gloss on the former 
work, entitled Sambandhadipika. In Padmapaaa's hue come Lakshmana-desika (author of Sarada- 
tilaka) of Kashmir, Mallikarjuna of the Vindhyas, Sri ah or a of Bengal, Trmkrama of Orissa, and 



Kapardi of Banaras. Vidyatirtha and Vidyaranya, who belong to the same line, were adepts in Sri- 
Vidya. The latter, whose careet was connected with the founding of the Vijayanaqara empire, Ls 
said to have written, besides many Vedantic works, an authoritative Tantric manual, Sri-Vidyara- 
nava-tantra, and another piece, Bhuvanesvari-stotiu. 

The Tantric line through Samkara and Padmapada specialises in Sn-Vidya, which was essen¬ 
tially the worship of the Mother Goddess In the form of Sri-Chakra. Besides the works mentioned 
above, other works like Chintamanistava (according to Bhaskararaya). Lalita-trisati-bhashya, and 
several Devi-hymns are ascribed to Sam ora, 

Of interest is the ascription of a work devoted to the worship of Tara (Tora-pajjhatikd) to 
Samkara. Tara-bhagavati is clearly a Buddhist divinity, borrowed from trans-Himalayan sources, 
possibly from Tibet. Tnere are several centres in India connected with her worship. Kanclii (Kama 
kottani), Kollur (Mukambika), Sringeri (Sarada), Kashmir (Sarika) and Puri (Vimala) were among 
them. The absorption of this sixth century Buddhist goddess into the Hindu pantheon as the cen¬ 
tral divinity was perhaps Samkara’s work. 

Tantra is in fact Advaita in practice. It affirms in the negative, and negates in the affirma¬ 
tive. It is in this context that dichotomisation of reality into transactional and transcendental is to 
be considered. The Mahayana Tantras developed the negative idea of vacuity (sanyata), while the 
earlier Tantras had emphasised its positive aspect. But both alike encouraged the Advaitic outlook. 
Advaita had to be practised and achieved by a Sadhana which incorporated the techniques of visua¬ 
lization and identification, contemplation and abstraction. 

Advaita as a mere intellectual understanding was far from Samkara's conception. It was for 
him not only a conviction but a device to reach the highest state. His convictions and their justifi¬ 
cations occur in his Vedantic works; his practical approach is contained in his Tantric works. 

The total perspective of Samkara's contribution can be obtained only when the two sets of 
his works are studied together. Samkara's position in the Tanuik tradition provides the key for 
understanding the import of practical Advaita. 



13. Spostlc Dlysphonlai Problem Coses For Theropy 


R. K. Oza. 

The Silent World’. 

Spastic dysphonia is a syndrome rather than a voice symptom. Several terms have been used 
to describe this condition in the past eight years or so. Actual description of this condition was pub¬ 
lished by the Viennese Laryngologist Dr. J. Scnnitzclr in 1875 and he coined the diagnostic term 
“Spastic Dy aphonia*. 

In order to describe this condition one has to consider the auditory features, visual features 
and muscular movements associated with phonation. The subject has a strained, jerky, stuttering 
like voice with intermittent, breaks of pitch and loudness. The voice starts after a very strenuous in¬ 
trinsic and extrinsic muscular effort of larynx, neck, and respiratory muscles. In most oi the cases 
sudaen expiration precedes phonation resulting in strained hoarseness, with low pitch, reduced 
loudness and severe breathing discomfort. Flushing of the face on severe spasm and in severe cases 
even cyanosis is observed. The neck anc face muscle become tense and the lips start quivering. One 
of the important features is that the subject may exhibit normal speech for a few words in the 
3ame sentence but this is not consistent. There is complaint of pain in neck region and feelinq of 
"Squeeze" on the thoracic and abdominal region which is due to spasm of the musdes during pho- 
nation. This disorder disturbs the "Communicative function of Speech" (Arnold). 

maathcs Since spastic dysphoria is considered to be a rare voice disorder, exact incidence is 
not known but Aronsom et al have reported a total of 122 cases with nearly equal proportion of 
males to females. The age of onset is generally in late thirties. In our study the minimum aqe of on¬ 
set was 26 yean and maximum 50 years. The average of onset was 40.2 years. Out of 5 cases, one 
was a female and four males. 

Arnold nas considered this disorder to be of middle years of life “after the struggles of life 
may have left sufficient marks on the personality of the sufferer’'. Segre and Greene also contribute 
it to be a problem of third and fourth decade of life. The psychiatric theory explains that the 
summation of the emotional stress and strain of Life effect during this age group when individuals 
are more vulnerable. 

cojrcc: Ail our patients reported sudden onset. One of them reported the onset with sore throat 
but the symptoms have not only persisted since onset but had gone worse. They started with 
hoarseness and gradually there was intermittent loss of voice while continuing conversation. There 
was no period of total aphonia. The severity of symptoms was more related to their subjective feel¬ 
ing of "well being". 




(1910 TILL 1969) 


No. of cases 

Collection period 



t3r»n dez 









riavar (Heidelberg) 



Brondnitz (U.S.) 



Fritzell (Go ten berg) 



Kiml (Praha) 



Pe'rello (Barcelona) 



Van Thall (London) 



Robe et al (U.S.) 



Aramon et a! (U.S.) 



Oza (Lidia) 



Total 200 



Age range 

No. of cases 
















Average age of onset 40.2 

Thus two of them believed that they could talk well- more towards normal voice-in the 
morning for about an hour or so and then tho difficulty increased. One of them felt Detter with 
change of place for two or three days and again reverted to similar difficulties. 

In terms of physical complaints, all of them had pains in chest after talking for more than 
5 to 10 minutes, pain In throat breatolessness and choking sensation. The female patient com¬ 
plained of burning sensation in laryngeal region. The loudness of voice and danty of speech also de¬ 
creased progressively as speech continued. 

The striking difference in the complaints of these patients and those with psychologcnic dys- 
phonias of other nature was that these cases never experienced any relief from the symptoms since 
onset There were no normal periods of speech with normal voice. Moreover, these causes not only 
exhibited a voice problem but also had difficulty in fluency of speech, i.e. ( mild hesitancies and di¬ 
fficulty in uttering plosives (plb) and sibilants if they occurred in the middle or final positions of 
a word in a sentence. Dysphonias of psychologenic origin do allow periods of normal voice and do 
not generally have difficulty in speech. In contrast to tlieir difficulty in talking for Longer periods, 
three of my patients could recite religious matter in normal voice and clearly. Their difficulty was 
associated with propositional conversional speech situation. 

IN VESTIGA riON : All these five cases were subjected to OtoUryngological, Neurological and Psy¬ 
chiatric check up. The findings were as follows: 


The vocal cord movements were normal. No pathology was reported of the cords except 
in one case who had mild congestion of vocal cords and this case had history of colds. Normal 



coughing forced vocal attack. 


No abnormality of any nature.Cranial nerve functions normal, no exaggerated reflexes, no 
history of illness indicative of cerebral lesions. One of the patients recently developed facial para¬ 
lysis and left side hemiplegia, seven moulds after lie was seen first at trie dinic. 


Only three of the five cases submitted for psychiatric evaluation. Two were diagnosed as 
cases of conversion hysteria and one was suspected to be case of early schizophrenia. Since the 
patients were irregular and not much interested to attend the psychiatric out door, it was not possi¬ 
ble to carry out a detailed psychiatric work up. 


There is no doubt that these five cases presented symptoms which were different from typi¬ 
cal organic dysphonia* or dyiphonias of psychogenic origin. From their personal history and related 
backt^ound it was difficult to associate definite instances m their personal life as direct etiological 
factor as there was the effect on the part of the patient to blame any individuals or tneir environ¬ 
ments, described by their home people as 'well balanced, calm and quiet” type. This is In contrast 
with cases of psychogenic dysphonias, where a direct cause-effect relationship to certain emo¬ 
tionally charged incidents is obvious. The only possible hypothesis to explain this disorder as that 
belonging to a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome. Detailed neurological investigations as reported, 
by Aronson et al indicated chances of some CNS disorder responsible for the slow progressive sym¬ 
ptoms without periods of remissions. 


Our efforts to treat these causes symptomatically have not yielded any positive and lasting 
results. Efforts were made to induce relaxation and leach abdominal breathing for strain-freephona- 
tion. Though the patients learned to relax they were unable to carry over this state of relaxation to 
induce effortless phonation and unfailingly they would revert to their previous state of phonation 
and speech. In two cases electrical stimulation was given to see if it would serve as an effective 
means of releasing vocal symptoms. The stimulation was purely for psychological reasons, in order 
to observe the degree of functional overlay of symptoms. None of the conservative or radical me 
thoos gave any indication of improvement in these cases. Thus cases of spastic dysphonia hare 
proved difficult to treat since the edopathology is not clear. The prognosis is therefore not very 
bright. However, the speech pathologist should consider all etiopathologioal factors for a given case 
before labelling a case as that of spastic dysphonia. 







Ella V. Aldrich. 

Using Books and Libraries. 
Chapter 2, pp.8-12. 


A broken back shortens the life even of a book. Have you seen a person open a book, espe¬ 
cially a new one, and bend it back so sharply that it cracked? Each book received by a lihrary is 
opened carefully. It is held with tire backbone flat and each cover is opened and a few pages pressed 
down, first from the front and then from the back, until the whole book is gone through. Oocn 
books should not be put face down; neither should the place be murked with a thick object. 


Understanding the parts of a book saves time. Skill in the intelligent use of books can be de¬ 
veloped easily, and is much more satisfactory tlun the “hunt and peck" system. 


The Unit important printed page in u book is the title page. Betides the fuLl name or title of 
the book it gives the author, place, or places of publication, publisher’s name and usually the date 
of printing. 


The full name of a book always appears on the title page. Occasionally it is fuller or longer 
than Lite title on the back of the book because it includes a descriptive phrase or sub-title—as, A 
Christmas Carol in Piuse; Being a Ghost Story of Christmas. In luting titles in a bibliography, be 
sure to use the one on the title page. 


The list of degrees after an author’s name, especially in non-fiction books, is a due to his 
standing as an authority. Occasionally a few of his most important works may be given. 


If anyone of importance besides the author is responsible for the book, his name also appears 
on the title page-for example, an outstanding critic editing an author's works, an illustrator of note 
or some one Collecting or Compiling the stories, poems or essays of a number of authors. 




All copies of u book printed from a set of plates make up an edition. If more copies arc prin¬ 
ted later changes are made in the book either bringing it up to date or adding material, it is called 
a new or revised edition. In science ami many other subjects, it is important to have the latest edi¬ 


If a publisher specializes in a certain kind of book, his name on the title page suggests the 
excellence of the work. The same applies to almost any book printed by a publisher of established 


Copyrighting a book is like patenting an invention. It guarantees ownership and protection 
in publishing for a penod of twentyeight years, with the privilege of renewal for a similar period. 
The copyright date verities the first publication of the book in the United States,it usually appears 
on the back of the title page. For famous books that have been printed in many editions, the copy¬ 
right date indicates only the first appearance of that particular edition. An auLhor copyrighting a 
book must deposit two copies in the library of Congress in Washington and pay a fee foi copyright- 


In the preface or foreword the author states his purpose in writing the book and expresses 
indebtedness to those who assisted him. 


Hie tabic of contents near the front of the book cannot be used as nr take the place of an in¬ 
dex. It is merely a list of the chapters or parts of the book, occasionally including a summary or 
analysis of each chapter. 


A list of pictures, maps, and other illustrations, in the order of their appearance m the book, 
helps the reader locate one of them quickly. 


The introduction differs from the preface in that it Is about the subject matter of the book. 
It prepares the reader for the content of the book or interprets it to him. It is important in under¬ 
standing the book and should not be passed over. 




The main part of Hie book » the text. Explanatory material in the form of notes frequently 
appears at the bottom of the page (footnotes) at the end of the chapter, or at the end of the book. 
Thu same small printer’s mark is used in the text and beside the note to which it refers. 


A glossary is a list of uncommon words, technical terms, or words with a special meaning for 
a science, an art, a dialect, or some other work, it should not be confused with a vocabulary in a fo¬ 
reign grammar. 


Many instructors expect you to know material found not only m footnotes, but also in 
appendix. The latter is Supplementary' or added material that cannot be introduced easily into tiie 
test, such as tables, notes and bibliographies. 


A bibliography Is a list of references-books, magazine or newspaper articles, manuscripts, 
documents, pamphlets, and so forth often appearing at the end of u chapter, at the end of a book, 
or at the end of an article in an encyclopaedia or other reference book. I requently the material 
printed on an important subject is so extensive that the list fills a whole book. People who plan to 
specialize in a subject should find out what bibliographies hove been printed in that field. Many 
such reference lists have descriptive notes which help in selecting the best books or other mate¬ 
rials. These are called annotated bibliographies, a subject bibliography is a list of an author's work. 


Do you “thumb” tltrough a book to find what you want? That is like sharpening your pen¬ 
cil with a knife when a mechanical sharpener is al hand. In comparison, an index saves even mure 
time. It is an alphabetical list of everything of importance treated in llic book, and is usually found 
at the end of the book. An index saves time by locating information buried somewhere in the hook 
and by preventing fruitless seardiing for m formation nut treated in tlw book. 


The most common type of index is the general index ot names, subjects, titles, and so forth. 
In some books, it is broken up into several indexes: for example, a subject index, a title index, and 
an author index. Be sure to notice the type of index if the book has more than one, each volume in 
a sot of books may have an index, but a general index usually appears in the last volume. In a gene¬ 
ral index the volume number Is indicated in Roman numerals to distinguish it from the page num¬ 
ber. Some sets of books group tlicii information under large subjects, and a general index is the only 



clue to their sub-divisions or small subjects. Frequently the set is published over a period of yean, 
and up-to-date material is included in the later volumes with no plan for it at the begiunii g. in the 
earlier volumes. This new material is, therefore, not referred to by cross references. You can soe 
the necessity of consulting the index volume to get every bit of needed information. The following 
list of a few of the references under Industrial Hazards is from the index volume of the Encyclo¬ 
paedia of the Social Sciences. 

INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS.vii 697-705; Accidents 
Industrial i Z91-401; Automobile Industry 
ii 227 a; Cement Hi 290a; Child (Labor) 

Hi 422a; Clerical Oeaupatione Hi S22b; 

Only two of the above references are listed among the cross references at tlie end of the 
article '“Industrial Hazards," which shows the importance of consulting the index volume. 

A cumulative index is one dial becomes larger by successive additions. This is true of in¬ 
dexes to periodicals, which are published each month and then cumulate into an annual volume 
by adding together all of the monthly indexes into a single index, all in one alphabet. The same 
is true of some yearbooks which cumulate the index every few years to reveal information found 
in previous volumes. 


Very often two or more words mean exactly or nearly the same thing. I he page referen¬ 
ces (in an index) cannot be entered under every one of these synonymous subjects; therefore, 
it is necessary to provide some device to assist people who would each look under a different 
word. This device is called a cross reference, because it leads across to the subject in the index 
where the desired information is listed; for example. Farming, see Agriculture. 

Another type of cross reference is the- see also reference, which tells where additional ma¬ 
terial can be found; Tor instance. Farm Buildings, see also Agricultural Engineering, Barns, Stable. 
Be sure to follow up a cross reference in order to get all the inform a tion you need. Besides lieing 
useful in indexes, they are an indispensable device in alphabetically arranged books and card ca¬ 



15 . RfiDIO BROfiD-CflSTIflG PROGRRmme 


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According to Sri Aurobindo, "The child's 
education ought to be an out bringing of ail 
that is best, most powerful, moat intimate and 
living in his nature; the mould into which 
man's action and development ought to run is 
that of his innate quality and power. 

"He must acquire new things but he will 
acquire them best, most wholly, on the basis 
of his own developed type and inborn force.” 

True education is thus, self-education, a 
creative process in which man achieves the 
objectives of his own Innate nature and his 

Despite lus internationalism, Sri Aurobin- 
do was a staunch nationalist. He felt dial na¬ 
tionalism should form the basis of every* as¬ 
pect of life within the country. He was con¬ 
vinced that all over the world human beings 
have the same needs, that knowledge and truth 
are not the possessions of any one country. But 
he knew that every' nation, and every indivi¬ 
dual in each nature, which compelled him to 
develop according to this tendency. He there¬ 
fore argued that any pattern of education 
evolved for the country should be based on 
nationalistic principles. 

He said that the education that we arc 
striving for is an education equipped with an 
Indian soul, Indian needs and nature, and on 
Indian culture. It is not an education which 
looks to the past for faith and inspiration, 
but an education that evinces faith in the 
developing and evolving soul of India, in the 

A l /TWO A . K. Thaigura j an. 

SOURCE : Deccan Herald 

(Weekly Magazine). 
WORV COUNT i 1493 . 

future aspirations and needs of the country, in 
its greater glory to he achieved in Uib future, 
and above all, a faith in the abiding universal 

In his book "A System of National Educa¬ 
tion" , Sri Aurobindo has presented a plan for 
national education in which he has expressed 
his faith in the principle of unity in diversity, 
He believes that there is infinite variety in na¬ 
ture, and that Decause of this variety nature 

A national education means amply that all 
the knowledge which is acquired should be clo¬ 
thed in an Indian garb so that it may become a 
living part of our existence. For this reason Sri 
Aurobin do stressed the importance of a na¬ 
tional language as the medium of education, al¬ 
though he himself had received his education 
through English. 

In every part of his philosophy Sri Auro- 
bindo has maintained that all human develop¬ 
ment should follow a natural pattern. Tliia 
fact must be borne in mina even more tena¬ 
ciously when thinking about education. Educa¬ 
tion does not mean filling the child’s mind with 
bits and pieces of loosely co-ordinated infor¬ 
mation. Instead, it Lies in inspiring the child to 
employ knowledge, character and culture as 
the means of developing his mind and realis¬ 
ing his own nature and soul; Sri Auio bin do 
writes, "The true basis of education is the 
study of the human mind, infant, adolescent 
and adult.” 

•U* Ih* Slammer far Reading. 



Sn Aurobindo believes that man and socie¬ 
ty are two important aspects of the same reali¬ 
ty, differentiated merely for convenience of 
thought. Hence, in diaciuring the aims of edu¬ 
cation he lies paid adequate attention to the 
social aspect of education, because he feels 
that education is not determined only by the 
psychology of the individual. 

FUNDAMENTAL: Education ia also a 
eodal process. Its objectives are determined by 
the land of society we are seeking to create 
Sri Aurobindo envisages a divine man and 
divine society in which both have achieved 
the level of complete development. 

Aurobindo's philosophy of education ia 
based on certain fundamental principles, the 
first is that the child haa to learn for itself 
and develop itself, while the educator plays 
the role of the guide and the friend. The se¬ 
cond principle ia that education lhuuld con¬ 
form to the specific traits, abilities, ideas, 
good qualities of the educand. 

And, for both individual and group alike, 
nationalism is the basic foundation of all 
development and progress, while blind imita¬ 
tion of others is a sure means of destruction. 
In Sri Aurobindo's words, "The chief aim of 
education should be to help the growing soul 
to draw out Lhat in itself which is best and 
make it perfect for a nobis uss". 

According to Sri Aurobindo, "The third 
principle of education is to work from the 
near to the far, from that which ia to that 
which small shall be". This principle is s 
corollary of the second principle. It is de¬ 
sirable that the curriculum, the general 
atmosphere in the school, the mode of edu¬ 
cation, in fact anything concerned with the 
educative process should conform to the 
nature of the educand. 

Education must have an indigenous dealas 
well as indigenous form, the product of the 
nation. The national plan for education should 
be based on the nation's past experience and 
heritage, and it should be imparted through the 
medium of the national language. 

But this does not lead to the conclusion 
that one must never borrow anything from 
other nations. As he himself expressed it: “The 
aim and principle of a true national education 
is not certainly to ignore modem truth and 
knowledge, but to take out foundation on our 
own belief, our own kind, our own spirit," 
Other contemporary thinkers like Tagore, Vive- 
kananda and others also subscribed to this 

Being a staunch nationalist, Sri Aurobindo 
favoured the use of the national language as 
the medium of education. He had a keen in¬ 
sight into human psychology which enabled 
him to see that the child learns everything 
more easily when taught through his mother- 

Besides, knowledge of the mother-tongue 
enabled the child to acquaint himself with the 
history and literature of his motherland and 
thus nude it easier for the child to understand 
the life and people around him. Henoe foreign 
languages should be taught only after the 
mother-tongue has been learnt. Most contem¬ 
porary thinkers agree with Sri Aurobindo on 
this paint. 

Sri Aurobindo expressed the opinion that 
the educator's first tank was to acquaint the 
child with the environment in which the latter 
lived so that the child may develop some inte¬ 
rest in the life and sources of knowledge. Every 
child is bom possessed of certain mental facul¬ 
ties and powers. 


f continued) 

HNTE R TA IN I ,YC: The curriculum for the 
child's education should be shaped after de¬ 
ciding how these powers can be developed and 
uaed properly. The child should be acquainted 
with more entertaining aspects of the national 
literature. In the teaching of history the child's 
instinctive desire for hero-worship can be ex¬ 
ploited. Similarly his curiosity can also be 
exploited in teaching him science. But in 
general it is not desirable to fill up the curri¬ 
culum with too many subjects. 

In cetermining a pattern of education it 
must always be kept in mind that the natural¬ 
ness of education should never be destroyed. 
All artificiality must be avoided and care must 
be taken to avoid any one sided development, 
repression or a forced motivation. A compre¬ 
hensive programme should be initiated in 
order to develop every aspect of the child. That 
is why Sri Aurobindo feels that mental educa¬ 
tion should be supplemented by physical, 
religious and moral education. 

It is seen from this brief outline of the 
various aspects of Sri Aurobindo’s educational 
philosophy that it is a clear approximation of 
the ideal of integral growth. His philosophy 
if based on his ideal of evolutionism. The 
object of every activity of man is his develop¬ 
ment, and the aim of education is the com¬ 
plete development of man. But this ideal is 
not to be achieved in schools alone. 

In Sn Aurobindo's opinion, yoga is nece¬ 
ssary for the achievement of this ideal, be¬ 
cause yoga is the most Important and power¬ 
ful instrument of human development. Certain 
yogic exercises can help the pupil to concern 

trate and focus his attention. Merely mental 
and physical training is not the aim of educa¬ 
tion. Education must try to put man and 
society on the path to perfection.. In this 
process a stage comes when formal education 
fails to help. At this stage one should turn to 

Although many educational philosophers 
may not agree with Sn Aurobindo about the 
role that yoga can play in the process of educa 
tion, it is amply evident front the brief sketch of 
his philosophy of education that ne has 
achieved a fine synthesis of harmony between 
Lite Indian and Y/estern educational philoso¬ 
phies not less than between the ancient and 
modern ideas. His educational ideals are clearly 
founded on strong psychological facts, the 
validity of which cannot be questioned. 

Thu pattern of education suyjostec by him 
looks after the physical, mental, spiritual, 
moral and religious development of the indivi¬ 
dual. Ho relieves that human perfection is 
impossible unless supported by development of 
its social aspect, and therefore his theory 
achieves a syntnesis between the development 
of individual qualities, abilities and powers and 
the development of social qualities. 

Today the educationists of India arc con¬ 
fronted with perennial problems, and in search¬ 
ing for the solutions, they car. turn to Sri Auro 
bindo's philosophy, because he has se&rcned 
for truth in this sphere with a profound and 
comprehensive vision. His educational philo¬ 
sophy thus has wider significance not only 
for India but for the whole world. 



17. Twilight World 

Of The Sleepwalker 

AUTHOR Isabella lave*. 

SOURCE Reader's Digest, 




Fourteen-year-old Donald Elliott got up from!his bunk in his sleep, looked in the refrigerator, 
then, still asleep, walked out of the back door. It would hare been just another sleep-walking 
episode except that Donald was in a Dormcbile travelling 70 kilometres an hour on a busy road. 
Miraculously, he escaped with cuts and bruises. But his experience, and that of many other sleep¬ 
walkers, disproves one of the myths about somnambulism: that people who walk in their sleep 
don't hurt themselves. 

The phenomenon of sleep-walking has until recently confounded the medical profeeeaon, So 
far as is known, no other living creature can walk, move and behave normally, and still be clinically, 
in a state of sleep. Physically, somnambulists are acting and moving in the real world But their con¬ 
sciousness remains in the shadowy realm of sleep. There are reports of deep walkers driving cars, 
buying tickets and boarding planes, even crossing from the rooftop of one tall building to another. 

In a bizarre case reported by one psychiatrist, a young man on a hunting trip got out of bed 
m hat sleep, donned hunting clothes, gathered up his shot-gun end cartridges ana, stall feet aaleep, 
walked several miles to a duck hide and sat there for nearly an hour, until his father founu and 
wakened him. 

Dr. Nethaniol Kleitmen, an international expert on sleep, who has conducted extensive ex 
pesiments at the University of Chicago, reports the case of a student who would get up in his sleep, 
fraae end walk a kilometre to a river. He would then strip, swim, get dressed, return to lus room and 
go back to bed-all without waking. As is characteristic in sleep-walking episodes, when questioned 

the next day the student would say that he had no memory of the incident. 

« • 


Until recently, most doctors, psychologists and psychiatrists accepted that a person who 
walked in his sleep was acting out his dreams. A deeper understanding began in 1952, when Dr. 
Ki&itman and Dr. Euyena Aaerinsky discovered that a sleeper’s eyes invariably move rapidly beneath 
his closed lids during dreams. Subsequent experiments proved that everyone dreams every night, 
and that we seldom dream during periods of light sleep and never during the alternating periods of 
deep sleep. 



Among the first doctors to examine sleep walking in the light of these findings were Anthony 
Kales and Allan Jacobson, of the University of California, experiments beginning in 1960 swept 
them to an astonishing conclusion: sleep-walkers aren't acting out dreams after all. Test subject} 
walked in their sleep only during the deep sleep periods when there were no rapid eye movements 
and no dreams reported. 

Further studies showed that all sleep-walking episodes in very young children begin with « 
sudden paroxysm of high-voltage brain-wave activity. Bursts such as these occur naturally in 95 pa 
cent of ail Infants six to eleven months old, les frequently in older children. Study of sieep-wiiidm 
episodes convinced Kales and Jacobson that the nervous system of a child sleep walker la still 
somewhat immature and underdeveloped. As the child grows up, his brain paroxysms stop. Usually 
sleep walking does, too. 

In Marseilles, France, Dr. Roger Broughton and Dr. Henri Gastaut investigated sleep-walking 
in conjunction with two other childhood disorder*- nocturnal enuresis (bed-wetting) and pavor 
noctumus or sleep terror. Later, Dr. Broughton discovered that such episodes often occur together. 
That is, a child may experience an attack of sleep terror, or wet his bed, and then walk In his sleep. 
Most episodes occur towards the end of the first or second cycles of deep, non-dreaming sleep. Be¬ 
cause these cy cles end about one and a quarter hours and two and a half hours after a child has gone 
to sleep, the sleep-walking episodes may take place about the same time each night. 

Any child, if lifted out of bad ana put on hto feet during cou-dreammg sleep, may experience 
a minor sleep-walking episode. He will walk, groggily to the bathroom, and sometimes will haltingly 
answer questions. But when he wakes up, be will not remember the incident. 

Sleep researchers sometimes compare deep walkers of all ages to people under hypnosis. Al¬ 
though women have been known to sleep-walk in the nude outside their homes—une husband found 
his wife sound asleep in e tree, nake d-and males of all ages liave tried to chrrb into bed with 
women in their deep, there is no evidence that s somnambulist does anything contrary to his true 


In general, a sleep-walker will not try overtly to harm himself. I lis attention seems fixed on 
what He is doing. He seems in a robot like trance. If spoken to, ho may not answer: if he does, he 
tends to be vague and detached as if annoyed. If he appears oblivious to danger, doctors believe, it 
is because of this strange fixation of purposet He simply doesn't ace the car bearing down on him as 
he crosses the street. 

Not all questions about sleep walking, of course, have been answered. For instance, is the 
tendency to walk in one’s sleep inherited? An Italian doctor reported that bis patients included a 
family of six, all of whom walk in their sleep : husband, wife (who to also the husband's cousin} 
and their four children. One night all six got up, one by one, walked downstairs in their sleep, 
and eventually made their way to a table in the sward's quarters. They sat there m a trance until 
something aroused one of them, who then woke the others. 



In spile of such isolated ease histories, researchers have no proof tnat somnambulistic tenden¬ 
cies are inherited. Boy sleep-walkers outnumber girl sleep-walkers by a ratio of between two and 
four to one. And certain theories about the causes of this strange twilight behaviour an gaining 

As far as researchers can tell, sleep-walking seems to be part of the responae of the personality 
to dome kind of anxiety-causing disruption or disturbance. According to Dr. Kales and Dr. Jacob¬ 
son, for example, a child may start sleep-walking when parental arguments seem to threaten the 
stability of his home. Other typical triggering situations are the death of a parent, the loss of a pet 
dog or cat, distressing pressures at school, or moving to a new house and strange neighbourhood. 


Researchers have found that temporary pressures can cause sleep walking in adults. As soon 
as th« pressures are relieved, it ceases. A widow who represses her grief over the death of her hus¬ 
band, for example, may walk in her sleep. But she will stop doing so if she allows herself to break 
down and cry once in a while, A young man leaving home far the first time may walk in his sleep 
until ho grows adjusted to his new environment. (A study of 1,800 male students in their Gist year 
. at university revealed that five per oent were sleep-walkers.} 

Doctors agree that it is best not to awaken a sleep-walker abruptly but to leave him alone un¬ 
less he's potentially dangerous to himself or others. If the purpose of the sleep-walking is impeded, 
it is quite possible that the subject may become violent. He may strike out at the person who tries 
to prevent him from accomplishing what his sleeping mind has ordereu him to do. * But almost in- 
variably,” says Dr. Broughton, "if you let the sleep-walker alone, he will complete hx mission and 
return quietly to bed.” 

There are, of course, isolated reports to the contrary-of sleep-walking sons killing fathers, 
of young men choking their sweethearts, of children trying to injure younger sibling. But there is 
no reason to be afraid of the vast majority of sleep-walkers, for generally they are gentle, unasser¬ 
tive people. 

Dr. Broughton advises that If it b essential to rouse a sleep-walker, never seize him and shake 
him awake. Repeat his name calmly over and over again, saying it more loudly, if necessary, until 
it penetrates his consciousness. Then, reassuringly, help him realize where he is, and that he is safe. 

Nor should a child be punished for sleep-walking. Whatever the cause of his distress or 
anxiety, this may only complicate it. And it does little good to discourage sleep-walking by such 
primitive and potentially Hurtful means as surrounding a child's bed with pans of cold water so that 
he will step into them and wake up, Parents of ebep-walking children should take obvious precau¬ 
tions against self-injury, however. These include tightly fastened gates at the head of steep stair¬ 
ways, ano bedroom windows that can be latched in s partially open position. 

If your j’HilH walks in his sleep, you can be assured that it is probably of little s ig n i fi cance. 
If it worries you, or persists, by all means consult your doctor. But in most cases time itself is the 


tHI tND 

l8. C Llnd&% HL c z/f[tax Oj- Jbakti 

AUl'HOR : C. H. K. Misra. 
IvORDCOUM' : 1600. 

The worship of Sakti or en-eryy in the female form lias been prevalent in all ethnological 
groups in India from very ancient time*. The Sakti cult, however, is reqarded as a minor one by 
historians, who argue that in the * 4 *. the most ancient of tha four Vedas, there is no direct 
reference to any mother-culL It is well-ruiown that in the r. t **J* too Ushas is mentioned as tlie 
mother of Gods, and it is not impossible to relate the same reference to a later stage when ail the 
different mother deities were combtrveo into one Adyasakti, parallel to Praknti of the Samkhya sys¬ 
tem This mother deity is unique to Hinduism. In no other major religion such a supreme concept 
exists; but beyond the motherhood of Christ, little significance is attached to her. In lilam, Allah 
is supposed to have sent 12,400 prophets for a place of respect foe Lie woman in society, no woman 
ever enters the divine life, none has become a saint. 

Ln the historical perspective, scholars have tned to locate the starting point of mother wor 
ship. Whether their hunches are right or wrong is beyond the present issue, but the objective facts 
are interesting indeed. In the Harappa civilization, the female principle appears in the pottery 
images and also in the ring stones. Ln one of the seals, an upturned female figure is shown From 
her womb a plant is shown issuing out. This image has been inlet peeled as a seal of Bhu or Prithvi. 
Oil the other side of the seal, a man is sitting with a sickle shaped knife in his hand. A woman is 
sitting by his side with her hands joined in supplication. This has been interpreted as a pictuie of 
human sacrifice. Another picture of the tame place and period shows a woman sitting on tne bi¬ 
furcated branch of the pipal tree, to which some people are offering aruraala as sacrifice. This is 
much closer to the Saxta-cult. 

Prcbaoiy the first reference to Sakti is in the (Circa 3ra cent. B.C. wnere 

Rudra and Ambika, hitherto mentioned as brother and sister, have been treated as husband and 
wife. Here Rudra ie also called Umapati. The names Durga, Katyayani, Karali, Bhadrakali, Vara da, 
Kanyakumari, Sarvavarna, Saraswati and Vedamata appear in the same source It is interesting to 
note that the name of Unu has been traced to the LH a vidian word Amma, meaning mother, by 
some authors. Karali and Kali are two of the seven tongues of Agoi, as mentioned in 
1 fan. Taittiriya-Axanyaka, moreover, treats Durga in the same vein as the sacred Gayatri in 
the utterance : ■ Tania Buryi rraeliGditf a t " . In the Hahaikarmia we corr.e across Bhadrakali, the 
wife of Mahadeva. Urged by her cwn anger the is said to have assumed a dreadful form known as 
Mahakali, who then proceeded, along with a being coining out of Mahadeva's mouth, for beholding 
with her awn eyes the acts of destruction which were her own. Ln waH«fc>ur<i*« Durga occurs in 
two Jtotras-one by Arjuna in the Bhismaparva and the other by Y udhisthire in the Virataparva 
ln them she is described as having her perpetual abode in the Vindhyas anc delighting in spirituous 
Liquor and flesh of sacrificial victims. Arjuna addresses her as holding, and at being skilled in the use 
of arms Like Khetaka, Sul a, Khadga, etc. What is more interesting is that she is described as the 
younger sister of Gopendra (Narnia), belonging to the Nanda-Gopa kula, delighting In the blood 


( ccutinucd ) 

of buffaloes; yellow robed and laughing loudly. She is addressed as the wife of Koka or Vishnu, and 
as a lever of war. It is imaginable that heroes like Arjuna would worship war-loving deities: never¬ 
theless this representation smacks of an attempted relationship between the Sakta and the Vaish- 
nava cults. 

The same trend is evident in the utirivam**. In his designs to kill the demon Kamsa, Krishna 
went to ratals to seek help from Kala-nibra, or the goddess representing sleep in the form of time. 
She was requested to be born on the same day as Krishna was to come as the eighth offspring of 
Devaki. This done, the infants were interchanged through Vasadeva. The demon took the eighth 
child from Devaki, caught her by the feet and was about to smash her or. a rock.. The holy child 
flew up into the sky. There she was received by Indra and was kept there as his own sister, known 
as Kaushiki. She got a permanent abode in the Vindhyas, where she killed two demons, Sumbha 
and Nisumbha. People then worshipped her with the sacrifice of animals. Besides, Duiga is 
addressed as Narayani, the wife of Visbu. Sakti has thus been subordinated to the Vishnu concept. 
On the other hand, there is a distinct Puranic origin of Sakti-puja. In the n*rk**dii,c 
from which the widely used Saptasati Candi has been extracted, there is a description worship¬ 
ping an earthen image. It has stood the test of time against many other competing practices. 

Archaeological findings show three kinds of Saktas in the Maury* age: (a) one Living in the 
north-western part of the empire, worshipping the mother-goddess in combination with a father- 
god, Le., Sakti and Siva together, (b) one living in the eastern part that laid emphasis on the ynntru* 
or magic figures, having no direct conception of the father-god, and (c) one existing in the far 
south where the goddess was worshipped as a virgin, reflected ill thd Worship of Konyikuniari. under 
the conditions of full celibacy . Somewhere later in point of time the Saivas must have joined forces 
with the Saktas, presumably a stronger and war-like sect. The treble phallus worship was pro¬ 
bably attached with Saivism and subsequently to Saktism for comparable reasons. During the Gupta 
period, Tantra was officially a part of the Sakta system. The Ganyadhar stone inscription reveals 
how a minister of the king Visvavarman erected a temple for Vishnu, housing also a temple within 
it for the goddess and her Dakinis. The whole atmosphere, says the inscription, was charged with 
the magical shoutings of the Dakinis. It is yet an unsolved riddle as to how even Buddhism, a 
supposedly atheistic religion, came under the spell of the Tantras, which has a predominance of 
sorcery and magic, but sufficient indication of the influence can be observed in the Mahayana and 
Hinayana Tantras. It should also be noted that the Vaishnavas, Suryaj and Sams had also their 
own Tantras. It is possible that these cults, including the Buddhists appropriated some portion of 
the Tantra for their owe use because of its popular appeal. 

Sakti-puja combines the intellectual with the popular appeal-the simple, rustic faith in 
magic with the most complex philosophical arguments. The fact of ita later development does not 
reduce its importance, since by the very nature of development, it lias risen over its predecessors. 
Nothing inspires man better than the image of his mother. This is where Saku-puja has scored ed¬ 
ges over the rivals. It is an extension of man's own family. There are essential similarities between 
the teachings of his cult and those of the <nta In the Devisukta, the Devi says that it is only 
through her that people sense, live and eat, and that those who neglect her are destroyed. Compare 
this with the '}ita* i Vurna pdft vjnaks*' Bctrctn -w In the same suktas, She 



says that She had been living In the arms of Rudra as his energy to kill demons, the enemies of 
Brahmasakti. It is She who fights and protects people which reflects the same tone as " Yi t-ia ijr JC5 
autitrtam- of the site. Moreover, the Sakta cult is not fatalistic,« a*« its absolute reliance on the 
providential powers of the Goddess. It believes in Karma, and not in mantras alone. In effect, the 
very concept of Sakti can be and has been extended upto the Kunddiru of Hathayoga, There, as 
well as in our daily existence, Sakti is our will to wake up and react. It is In us as our mother (the 
origin), intelligence, consciousness, and inspiration. By invoking it we collect ourselves up for 
action, which indeed is our only salvation. 

There have been corruptions of this cult just like the others. We hear of the famous var>« 
™re*, including the live .va-«ar«e. sacrificial rites, and so on. These might have been attempts at 
breaking down the conventional taboos for better realisation, as some scholars have interpreted 
them. But the point is that they are not taken in the intended light As has been the case with 
Hinduism In general, the original higher values advocated by the scriptures have been subsequently 
reinterpreted. Religion has come to be a bundle of mere rituals and kitchen practices. It has become 
quite difficult to view its pure and soothing form through this horrible camouflage. 






AUTHOR : lkbal Kaul. 

SOURCL : The Hindu, 

May 16, 1971. 

KORD COUNT : 1622. 

Kautilya's *r i*Miu»cr< and Machiaveii’s fn-»* are the renowned treatises on the monarchi¬ 
cal State. Kautilya, was a king-marker 'par excellence'. He lays great emphasis on Lhe organisation 
of a secret service system for the stability and well being of the State, In all probability,spying to 
a Large extent, was responsible lot the overthrow of the Greeks from the north-weit India and 
Mnnda from Magadha. 

It is interesting to note, the later works on the ‘nitasara' or political philosophy 'Braha 
spatya Arthasastra' of Bnhaspati (Cira AD 400), Nitastra’ of Kamandaha (C 700), ‘Nitivakyamitra’ 
of Jain writer Somadeva (C 900), 'Laghuarthaniti* of Hemachandra (C 1,100) and Nitastra' of 
Sukra (C 1,400)-have exhaustively dwelt on espionage. The spies are "rays of political light", 
says Kalidasa, for the information they bring is like a shaft of bright beam in a dingy corner. 

Espionage was the most important aspect of administration, both in peace and war within 
and without the realm. Soon after appointing the ministers, Vishnugupta advises, tlie king should 
create his spy corps. The king should know the intentions and potentialities of the surrounding 
States, their strength and weakness. The spurs should be spread among friends and enemies. Friends 
aro friends as Long as it is expedient to call them so, actually they are potential enemies! 


Indeed, the Kautflyan prescription for the prosecution of espionage and counter-espionage 
is a challenge to the modern intelligence institutions. It is noteworthy that no political philosopher 
of the world has dwelt on this subject. In fact, there is no such blue-print on spying anywhere in 
the world as is contained in the ‘Arthasastra'. 

Chanakya gives a superb pen picture of his spies. The chief quality of a spy is the ability to 
get intelligence without seeming to do so. He must determine from gesture and pose, from expres¬ 
sion and hint, something of the mind of a would-be informant. But one spy should not know 
another or his superiors. Agents could be recruited from any walk of life and sex, actors and asce¬ 
tics, barbers and bards, fighters and farmers, merchants and musicians, pimps and prostitutes, 
poets and perfumers, rope-walkers and wrestlers, savants and sooth-say ere and vendors and Vin¬ 
ters. Even a householder could be drafted for the purpose. 

The choice of spies, however, from various social orders is interesting, in aa much as most 
of them are, or have been, in one way or other active in medi eval and mocom age 

Each category of secret service men was assigned an appropriate avocation as a cover Spies 
were salaried servants-getting their remuneration in cash or kind. Some were paid 1,000 'panas’ 



per month; others took to apiculture, ranching and trade with money and land provided by the 

The information gathered by the spies was immediately conveyed to the '‘Institutes of Es¬ 
pionage" or the intelligence bureaux These were five in number, and the intelligence was carefully 
co-related, evaluated and acted upon. 

Dut the information brought by an agent was held reliable only if it was corroborated by 
three different sources. In case of frequent discrepancies the spy concerned was cither secretly 
punished or dismissed. The intelligence reports were channeled through various subtle means to 
the espionage headquarters. Cipher, in this connection, was in common use. 

Chanakya states that the ministers must be "tried under espionage". This dictum is very 
significant indeed. To the monarchies of the world no small harm has been done by any other 
factor than the court intrigue. It is for this reason, therefore, that Kautilya pleads for proper screen¬ 
ing of ministers prior to their appointment. This is still in vogue today in the form of character 


The merchant spies ascertained the quality and price of minerals, produce of gardens, forests 
and fields and manufactures. Regarding the merchandise of foreign origin tltey ascertained the 
amount of various taxes payable by traders to the State. Their services were also utilised for gather¬ 
ing information In the enemy countries. They rendered yeoman service during conquests and sieges 
of cities and fields. 

Ghengii Klian (1162-1277) greatly relied upon his merchant spiee. Verily, his pro^amme of 
conquest was mainly baaed on the information furnished by these travelling tradesmen. Chosen 
from all nationalities, but with the common factor of intelligent observation, the merchant spies, 
while trading with the unwary peoples of distant lands, looked and noted sent back their infor¬ 
mation to the "Scourge of God" who cane and conquered. Zorawar Singh-the General of Gulab 
Singh, the founder of the Jammu and Kashmir State—is also reported to have employed merchant 
spies in the course of his campaigns in West am Tibet. 

The spies, masquerading as savants and ascetics, gathered information regarding the activities 
of cultivators, cowherds, merchants and persons holding gubernatorial posts. Spies in various 
common place dresses brought to light the shady deals of people and public servants. They hunted 
out the anti-90cial elements who resorted to bribery, jobbery, sorcery, counterfeiting quackery and 
other social evils. Exacting and extortionate officials were duly reported by them. 


The two professions-savants and soothsayers-are “specially trusted by the public" and 
they can "gain access to information which otliers might find" difficult to obtain. May we not 


( continued) 

trace the origin of modem Bairagis to this institution of spies? The austerities practising ascetic 
spy is employed in our country even to-day. A good example of this brand of spy is that of the 
intelligence agents, who, disguised as mendicants, traced the whereabouts of the Holy Relic in 
Srinagar in January 1964. 

Another instance is the case of the C.I.D. man, who, in the garb of a sadhu, brought to book 
the perpetrators of the Lloyds Bank, Bombay, in 1951. The Bombay police got a slender clue that 
the robbers, who had decamped with Rs. 12 lakhs belonged to Delhi. Therefore, an intelligence 
officer dressed in loin cloth, smeared ashes on his body and set himself up before a traditional fire 
m the summer in a Delhi bazaar. The agent got all Information relevant to his mission which helped 
in the recovery of a major portion of the loot and the conviction of the culprits. 

The methods of espionage detailed earlier may be categorised as passivo -the quiet, unob • 
trusive collection of information. 

There is then active espionage. To this category belong the violent activities of the profes¬ 
sional prize overthrow of opposing organisations or States, sabotage and llie like. Disguised as 
robbers, spies caused the arrest of notorious briyanda, thus putting an end to their nefarious deeds. 
Mixing with the criminal tribes, they instigated them to attack carvanaaries and villages where armed 
guards had been posted previously, thereby causing their capture or death m the ensuing fight. 

The “firebrand spies”, i.e., the prize-fighters acted as the bodyguard and as the personal 
attendants of Lhe king. Their other duty was die .imaanation of those enemies of the king for whom 
a public trial was not expedient, but who also performed other secret duties of daring and violence 
on behalf of theur master.” Modem examples of this type of agent are not rare. The security-men, 
trading to day's V.I-Ps can certainly be bracketed with this type. Apart from this, their dirty work 
is emulated by their current counterparts. Examples of political assasmations-by Gestapo, NKVD, 
MVD and other such organisations-could be enumerated by the score. 

The Kautilyan spies played a major role in the annihilation of the ancient Indian republics- 
the ‘yarns' of 'sanghaa'. He does not mince matters for their destruction, but gives a straight-from- 
the-ahoulder answer. The acquisition of a ‘sangha’, says Chanakya, is better than acquiring an army, 
a friend or profits. The 'sanghas* are “invincible by others because of their unity”. Kautilya illus¬ 
trates the many methods by which dissensions could be fomented by the spies in these formidable 
societies which were too strong to be destroyed by military action-for the kiny’s gain. 

It is an eloquent commentary on Kautilya’s system of spying that it did not exclude counter¬ 
espionage, for the spies had to detect and bring to justice alien agents. In the enemy country, actual 
or potential, spies had to carefully watch and, observe the intention of the ruler, and, if need be, 
sabotago his expansionist efforts and plot his assasination and that of his ministers. 

During conquests, the spies played an outstanding part. They encouraged the kiny’s army and 
also became trouble-shooters when the occasion demanded. In employment of the enemy king in 
various capacities they subtly countered his efforts for defence and offence. Residing as traders in 



the enemy country, they struck at his weak spots. Spies, disguised as vinters, crippled the enemy 
by poisoning his army; slew his regimental chiefs; destroyed his rear and flanks, sabotaged his 
supply convoys and communications lines. Their endeavours in the course of sieges was invaluable 
to the conquerer. 

It is commonly held that sabotage was introduced into espionage by the Japanese In the 
Russo-Japanese War of 1904. In fact, the devastating do bade of Czahrt Russia during the war 
was mainly due to the well-knit Japanese espionage organisation. But die above facts prove to the 
mlt that sabotage was resorted to by tive Indian agents when the so called advanced countries were 
in their darkest days. 

It is clear that espionage played not an insignificant par. in the well beings of a State during 
400-300 BC. However, many have boon led to condude that Kautilya's advocacy of an elaborate 
system cut spying helped to make d despotic State in ancient India. But it is an inescapable fact 
that this was a necessary evfl-a fact which is so essential even for the present day democracies and 
dictatorships. It cannot be denied that die great Maury an Empire flourished due to the 'unremitting 
exertions of a vast web of spies-so much so the people in these golden days kept their houses 




A British Iraprctor-Geaaral of Police 
la Mysore u reported to here seid: *'I 
want gunmen and not penmen*, when 
iho question of recruiting only graduawa 
*a police tub-inspector* came up. But the 
Him have changed. 

The ways ansi the atotucee or 
the polk* are coming in Toe crttidam. 
Political Uadar* arm otoan want the 
force fo Inspire -respect rather than 
awe People luw Wen toying that tha 
police should he i social service orryj 
niBiuon, in addition to In main func¬ 
tion ai a lavr enforcing agency. For 
instance, a traffic policeman should 
also act a* a tr-iffe warden 

Public criticism of the police can 
be soiled down to points like ihwe 
they are unhelpful, nnie, dishonest and 
often in league with the underworld and 
use third degree irv»thoa.i an wupeets 
However, tha public view is unchari¬ 
table. An IPS os floor mote in the Indian 
Pohca Journal. "Lhe police u. .ge has 
become tamsshec because ther contacts 
with the public are usually in unplea¬ 
sant ckcumsunces’. 

KKJM ArmvULS. Tha police 
ire else trying to change tnc attitude of 
serving personnel and develop an entirely 
new cadre ai constable*. Mon than the 
IPS top brass, constables and Don- 
gazetted officers like sab-lnapeclan, 
come into close contact with tha people 
Tliey should cultivata the right etotudea. 

A subject receiving increasing 
importance it tiw training of constables. 
A report submitted In 1971 by the AI 
India Committ-v on Police Training, 
headed by Prof. M.S. Gore, the eminent 
woolojwt, brought to tne attention of 
State Governments tba need io improve 
the training ol poho* personnel. WhJe 
the defence forces ami the para-military 
Torces laid y*ai strew on training, tne 
polk* lied neglected It For lack of 
training fatalities. many forces were 
directly putting or the constable job 
raw rdLige youth aoi exposed to tha 
world In the natural course, (he recruit 
acquired the police iua:' much rpekan 
of by the public. 

With good (ruining, tha present- 
day recruit to the poet of constables— 
whose minimum qualification ■ 3SLC 
In Kerne Uxa-liolds out the promise 
of becoming the type of polio*man who 
can be eveei-barvied. It b not that tha 
police should be deprived of inn a 
small measure of toughness 

The Importance luting given to the 
training of refutable* should not create 
the impreiDon that the country's polios 
forces had no training facflJttea at all 
in earlier year*. Training institutions for 
constable* and sub-inspectors existed in 
many Sutra. Tha progressiva State that 
it w«, Mysore started syr.anutic train 
ing of police personnel as early as L&92 
by opening a school in Bangalore Since 
then, the history of police training uo 

Bangalore Cones p on dent. 
The Hindu WeekJy Magazine 
(October 3, 1976). 


Karnataka it one of many experiments 
In 1897, cir.ricl polic* training acbu-jia 
wcia opened in Mysore, 1 fatten, Shi¬ 
rr oga, Kadur and Chilradurgs rheat 
datnet aehooit caasec to function m 
1913. rh* then podee school in Banga¬ 
lore existed at mar.c Square in Cliaroa- 


Polios training hi Mysore was found 
to he so innovative that tha famous 
poboa training school at Vdlora, in 
Madras Presddancy, we* patterned after 
the Bangalore school. 

Until 1949. tiwre war* two schools 
hi the Suta-st Mysore (cat*tilth*a m 
1939) *nc Bangalore Trut year in Lite 
Mysore school was closed down and a 
combined school was startec it Knsnr-a 
rail?train on tha ouakirti of banga¬ 
lore. Tha school was mma to Mysore 
in 1952. At the bate of Suae* reorya- 
miaUon in 19t6 Ltrrs wire police 

schools at Mmuirs (dooad la 1957) 
ana Umar. 

it mu only in 1464 the present 
Karnataka Slats Police Training School 
in Channapetna (Bangalore District) was 
itartca two years after tne faiaar School 
ceased to exist vrhan tha bud damp ware 
Iimd aver by tha defeoot authorities 
The L'hannapatna adnool is the only 
or a to train cooitablaa in Karnataka. 
Far rub-inspector trainees ther* Is a 
training college at Mysore. 


f continued) 

Karnataka ia one of the State* to 
tnr>pem*iit tha recommendations of lb* 
Gocu repeat. As a first step, an officer 
cf the rank of Deputy Inepoctor-Ganeral 
wee appointed to be exclusively La 
charge of training Mr.N.G Saelke was 
the Dnt DIG (Trammq). He was 
succeeded in 1973 by Mr. A. Varyhes*. 
B«idea changes in the course foe 
constable trainees, the period of train¬ 
ing has been increased from nx to nine 
months. The new syllabus was intro¬ 
duced shout two years ago. 

Karnataka has also been deputing 
more and more gazetted and non- 
gaze tied pc lice officers for orientation 
oourseB, especially on police public re¬ 
lations. Superintendents of Police in 
being deputed for courses like those on 
luverdle delinquency and publicity, 
administration, excise and prohibition 
and personnel management Oapdty 
Superin tendon ts and ASPs «* being 
sent for course* on police community 
relations and industrial nsanagemant 
Today the country has facilities to 
train and educate the police (from con 
stables to senior officers) in 102 sub 
jeota Mast of these relate to aims de¬ 
tection end lew end order duties. The 
polkc training Institutions in Karnataka 
conduct couraa* Ln 41 subjects. 

fiftC/At. ASPECT: The Gore 

Committee had fait that police training 
institutions in the country laid mors 
stress on law and order duties of a 
eoneteol* to tha neglect of the social 
aspect ol his work. The public, has been 
accustomed to thinking that all tbs 
training a constable receives is drill and 
lathi-vredding. On the contrary, a wide 
rang* of topics are taught at the Clunns- 
patn* echoed. Besides drill and law, a 
constable studies Indian national tradi¬ 
tion. trie Constitution. Fur.aamer.uJ 
Rights and Directive Principles of State 
Policy, political, economic and social 
cJianges stnc# 1947 and their imptica- 
tioni for trie police, major social prob¬ 
lems. national Integration uplift of trie 
weaker asottons, political and communal 
parties and theii ideologies, understand¬ 
ing human behaviour (individual, group 
■nd crowd) police behaviour towards 

public, principles of police conduct, 
police sttitudei towards disputes, men ln 
euelocy complaints and ended sections 
like youth and workers 

Reserve police cons la Lie trainees, 
whose duties are different and who rub 
shoulders with trie public in conflict 
situations. have separate training futili¬ 
ties in Karnataka. They study topics 
Like political parties, the Constitution 
and civil liberties, national intauratior., 
caste, untouah ability, land reforms and 
Indian national tradition 

Tlia Channapauu School has turned 
out 22 batches of train eta since 1%4. 
The last two batches had the benefit, 
of the new syllabus The present batch 
consists of about 600 constables, of whom 
3Q are graduates. But none of the gra¬ 
duates has come first in any subject. 

Fatalities at the school have been 
Stretched to the maximum. It has also 
not teen possible for the state police 
to sand ell recruits straight sway to the 
training school 

RuransfiER th« n- 
truila are put on trie lob after rudimen¬ 
tary training and are later sect to the 
training school. The school Has also 
starts I i ratrasher courses for constables 
and head-constables already in service. 
A course lor 100 constables ana SO 
read cons tub lei was held soait time ago. 

A major atticism of police training 
is trial trie instructors are IU-equipped 
Tim Our* Commiti.cs hsc recomansrvdec 
that best talent ahoulci man training 

It is pertinent to quote tii* farmer 
Tamil Nadu Inspector General of Police 
Mr. F.V. Arul who is reported to have 
told an annual symposium of heads oi 
police training Inrdrations held at O-bU 
camund “A common problem in all 
police training Institutiona is lack of pro 
periy equipped staff. Uniew this recctwi 
trie serious conadderation of tha Gtwn 
mant, triers will be no appreciable pro¬ 
gress or improvement in police training". 

Mr Arul had suggested that stall 
be nude by the National Police Aca¬ 
demy, Moult Abu, in setting up a wing 
to train instructors for State Police 
Training Institutions. 

There is also the Longstanding 
criticism that inefficient sub-inspectors 
and inspectors or those lacking integrity 
are posted as instructors to training 
inatituoana. Tha pellet authorities deny 
this allegation. 

It is suggested that a separate tadn 
of instructors be created in view of iris 
new syllabus. It is a fallacy to think that 
leadung can be entrusted to all and 
sundry. Many offiorri lack the tempura 
it. ant, aptitude and oxpericnce A tuggaa 
tica has been mad* to appoint retiree 
officers aa law instruct on. Thera is i 
view that ai tha pcaaant-day constable! 
are matriculate* or even graduates, i' 
would be advantageous to train them for 
the station house officers' oouran scraiglv. 
away. A constable should have a sounr 
knowledge of Law and [vocedui* and in 
vwtigauon methods u in due course hi 
ia promoted as a head constable and wiL 
have to function aa station house cf finer 
as defined in tha Criminal Procetiun 
Code, In the auwnoe of a aub-Uispeator 
Many heac-coiwublee, It »* add, are no- 
qualified to function aa Si 10a. 

He* there been a fall In the standard 
of teaching of law and procedure? 
Mr. P.S. Venkatararruiya, a retired police 
officer who was an instructor in trie 
bangalore school, says •'judging from 
the performance of Ititn who leave the 
institutions after training ana the 
frequent judicial stricture* on the 
investigating police, the ccncluikn is 
inescapable that the standard of instruc¬ 
tion in law and procedure and investiga¬ 
tion has deteriorated costaULarably'. 

Mr. Venkataramaiya further points 
out that in the older days eub-wspeoicn 
and constable trains** war* given such 
a good grounding in Law and procedure 
that they easily passed the gra mkriatinr 
cord noted by the new-defunct Mysore 
Local Service end Fleecers' Examina¬ 
tion Board. 


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M. S. S. ViraJan. 

Tuc Hindu. 
(September 4, 19761. 
1652 . 

Health*^ growth of industry very much depends on the calibre of the management. X 
careful study of talent and inclinations should torn the basis of providing u meaningful 
work experience to the Yo»n n iM»»« fl «rt of Today 

Trua lo the uying, "Tin old ardor 

cxun.jBih, yielding pDce to new.* 

renewed interest U emerging on youth 
and their ml* In society. As the your 
2,000 looms on the horizon, the air U 
full of predictions . out whet the turn 
of the century will here in stare far us. 
It to obvious that ths people who will 
actually be in the driving soars It tv'll an 
those who still Lave * quarter century 
of working Ilf? spun ahead of them. Ad- 
mittodiy UiO future of e nation depends 
on the quality of its youth end so they 
ere the focus of our attention end con¬ 
cern today. Whd« this concern is 
common in most or all up.j, il a deeply 
felt aid concentrated in the Industrial 

sector. The meeting be^nning is Madras 
today of Young Managers tram ell ov»r 
ths country reflects the industry’s aware- 
iiuob of Lhii importance and is indicative 
of its effort* lo oast the young manager 
In the role of the turbingtsa of change. 

There ore several factors to reckcn 
with. First there is a major qualitative 
change met is taking placs in the exist¬ 
ing situation. which will necessarily 
lead lo changes toward* meetmg Itte 
challenges ahead. The industrial rune 
get* for about a quarter of a century 
after independence have jean engaged 
in di'vt-loping the infrastructure. In 

contrast to tim, lire anaLanore ot tha 
coming decade* will call for an acian- 
talic n Umar da making our murk, on the 
Inter national Indus triAl scene. India’s 
pre-eminent role in (tie developing world 
will coll far more and mors ol sharing 
know-how with the developing ccun 
true, m addition to the demands for 
Increasing experts An objective com 
portion here of the conditions under 
which the older managers have grown 
and that of young manager* Unlay will 
parriaiu <jiw us an icea of the directtau 
of change that are already initiated, 
or need to lie 


Old Managers 

Young Managers 

Nature of Task 

Ptuneanng type 

Sa plus Lea cod 


Information helping 

Pretty little 

Faxiy good hi qua¬ 

Duciaaon f.lakmy 

Had to operate oil intuition 

lity and quantity 

Directions of Growth 

General and Oman 

Cryitslllsed ana 


Market Outlook 


In tarna Lionel 

Back, ground 

Tecnrucal Specialisation 

Management know 
ledge as a plus factor 

Social Responsibility 

Vague or no idea 

Definite Corunilnaint 

Organisation Culture 

Extension of Bureaucratic 

Demanding more pr> 



Wh&a Lfca older ruci^n wen on- 
gaged in estnbhBaiog the Umc products, 
processes tnd aurkali the j-ourujBT 
rr.Ar.»>j*n now have the Usk of moving 
into sophisticated areas. This also main* 
that whereas earlier the market outlook, 
was predominantly national In chorister, 
today it vROompasses international mar¬ 
kets. la fact, it is predicud that many of 
our firms in the corporate sector will 
turn into xulti nationals of ona kind or 

Again, whereas the direction of 
growth wu characunstsd ear bar with 
s smumani to build up the baste tech¬ 
nological capabilities, today's technology 
forec a stwi demanc precise arsis and ex¬ 
tents of growth. This, of course, requires 
dels sod informs lion for deddons which 
is available in more and bettor forms 
now than bofocs, in fact, in Dim earlier 
year*; -nar y a decision had to depend on 
intuition, but then tools and techniques 
have also boen developed to deal with 
information. Many an older manager had 
a yoke to carry-the extension of 
bureaucratic culture, today with 
increasing appreciation of profeaBone- 
lum and speed of decision making re¬ 
quired, higher standard* are being de¬ 
manded . In fact, of the pioneers of 
vsster yean, is many fell by the way 
sad* as those who mecatoed, in today's 
conditions this risk cannot simply exist 
because of the magnitude of investments 
involved. Also, professionalism is seen 
as a ‘preventive for avoiding industrial 
sicknesi which will enbul tremendous 
social cost and which an economy like 
ours cannot afford. All this naturally 
points to the need for the yowti of 
young profesrionals in tie management 
who will be capable of meeting 
challenges of a higher order. 

Tile knowledge explosion has re¬ 

sulted in tni young professionals being 
exposed to a wide variety or information 
at a very aariy wage. Thny hava battar 
facilities to equip thanuslvoa with know¬ 
ledge, tranks to the many management 
institutes and the saoree of other pro¬ 
grammes started by unJverhtiec and 
various agencies. Some times, one 
vrorders if there we not too marry. The 
debate goes on at lo whether these 
programmes are practically oriented or 
not, whether they at* becoming less 
and leas relevant But what is of mors 
relevance now is how to tap the poten¬ 
tial of dies* young people who ara 
equipped with better knowledge. There 
it also the availability of better expe¬ 
rienced people to quids them. 

Tits problem hitherto has been one 
of attitudes of the young maneyera, 
developing into wbat they themselves 
nail tbs ‘Board Room Complex'. As put 
across by the prize winning team of 
young managers in last yew's All India 
Essay Corn pen nor. on the ‘Image of the 
Young Professionals'. there b total 
need for ‘rs definition nf management 
education’ to build in practical job 
challenge in sedition to knowledge, and 
for academic institutions to provide 
'a larger mirror' to taa young managsra 
to be able to me their own oncomings 
end to adjust to tha realities. 

JUiveraJ research studants have been 
initiated in reoent years to study the die 
position of young managers in Ixmi of 
vxiuxs, ettitudee, etc. An international 
study on managerial thinking reveels 
that in the area of shwiau information 
and objectives there is a consiutncl 
and fairly strong trend lit the direction 
of a mors favourable attitude on the 
pert of younger manager*. It was re¬ 
vealed that in Sweden and in the Unitec 
States, younger managers consistently 

endorsed more democratic and pertmt- 
peuve star. as. However, an Indian 
study on Public Sector managers by 
Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Rela¬ 
tions shows that the older experienced 
managers have a Higher participative 
disposition. The difference U indicative 
perhaps of the need to develop tolerance 
towards others' view points, on the pm 
of our young managers. 

The tone has, therefore, certainly 
arrived to look for new ways of har¬ 
nessing the younger rruxuqen In the 
tight of an observe tsoaa of ir.niwi Orga¬ 
nisations, Prakaah Tendon says. "In¬ 
dian .Manager* like to be kept in touch 
and consulted mors than thtii Western 
counterpai Is. 1 think this arinaa from 
the diffused authority m the joint 
family, where ihe young slulu are con¬ 
sulted even though they have no powers 
ar.ti mors of the deciUcna are taken by 
the ami or* Similarly, the younger 
Indian managers feel they ought to be 
xi on thinw enc not kept out. wnerses 
their Western counterparts will say that 
this Isas nothing to do with them ami 
they hanro the right to deride because 

tney have tha authority_ In the 

Western industrial culture delegation 
warks better man it In India 

because authority and responsibility 
era more clearly denned and not be¬ 
devilled by constant consultation merely 
to keep people happy. 

The younger numgen seem to be 
receiving less 'need iutlilmeat' then aider 
manageri. which is snarply brought out 
» the cats of Japan In general this 
seen is I o be the case in developing coun¬ 
tries u well. The problem of I ugh expec¬ 
tations In thee* countries teems to be re¬ 
sulting also in high diastitisction. The 
trend everywhere has been fur industry 
ic attract better talent, whicr, naturally 


/■continue */1 

ini iK.11 iii<IiuU/ luiiaL I tv oil ila piu- 
Mui pn»cticna to provide Ktis- 
ioc to these bright an tram*. 

In the development of induautaJ 
culture, the organisation* arc not only 
seen a » successful ur itnrj cceeaf ul pro¬ 
ductive, organisations, but also as a pert 
or tlie broad web of ic-cety, c .’urged 
with rssponscnbty to provide in MUitkei 
to materiel production oppotturdtiss fm 
human growth and development. If in¬ 
dustry la to he viewed only as the 
management of means of production, it. 
appears ineyitoUa tnat it would have to 
t-acon* subservient to the round insti¬ 
tution that meets the human motiva¬ 
tional demand. 

On tbs other side of the coin, tha 
social (esponoUiJ'.tM of industry an also 
betmj increasingly reco^nisec. This 
awareness has to permeate into the 
managerial thinking right from the 
young age when tluire is more likeli¬ 
hood of devotion to idealistic causes. 
Younger professionals, by virtue of 
greater energy and lesser demands on 
their time by tlmir families, can be en¬ 
gaged hi social scunner which are 

meaningful Pi the len/rr economic 

As the young managers themes)ver 
poiri out. a ‘'Young Manager attaches 
greatest importance first to stunning 
executive independence, second to 
having quick, growth potential to pod- 
liens of dottrel, and only third to 
enjoying s secured salary and ‘perks’. 
Hie fourth and fifth priorities are: 
Sufficient opportunities to put Ids newly 
acquired techniques in modern manage¬ 
ment to use sad profermcnii-cun:- 
social recognition. 

Apart from Inducting young pro¬ 
fessionals into hierarchies) positions, 
organisations have unfortunately not 
found new ways of harnessing younger 
talents. Cti the one hand there ic a feel¬ 
ing that it ii only which can 
really tuach and whatever a learned 
from bocka tl not of any great value. 
On tlie other extrema, many a time 
ever-expectations arise as a result ot 
putting loo much hope on tha compa¬ 
ratively inexparknoad but know¬ 
ledgeable young professionals. Tms la ana 
to suhssquert riiaappolntmeiit whan 

tiiese unrealistic expectlom do not mate¬ 
rialise. What Is tfiaracore required is s 
balanced approach in terms of provid 
log- (a) tha right type of asaignuieata 
to tha young professionals and (o) tha 
right mlxtirs of guidance and direction. 

A careful study of talent and incli¬ 
nation* should form tha Lass of pro 
vulniq a meaningful week experience 
for these young profman na.« This is 
all the mors important in the initial 
ysars where their capabilities are ui ilia 
proceaa of flowering Tha greet eat qua¬ 
lity of youth la tha freahnosa of approach 
that they can nartily afford to do 
without. And with Use first generation 
of Indian Msnaqon in the oveitirwj of 
thoir careen mellowed with buaiiMas 
maturity, a bland of thair vast reper¬ 
toire of experience and (he creative 
talent of the young should form an 
idaal mix for healthy yon Lb of in- 
duatry. Certainly, much is explored 
today of our young managers, and it 
■ Dot unreasonable to hope that they 
wki equip tr. smashes to taka tha 
country towards a brig titer tomorrow. 





Elizabeth WuhL 



Over the centuries the temple of Sri Ranganatliaswami on the 
island of Srirangam in Tamil Nadu has been richly endowed. Ivory chests, 
gold and silver ornaments, garments made of pearls, and precious jewels 
were heaped at the feci of the Deity. Inscriptions on Hie temple walls re¬ 
cord the names of illustrious donors and their gifts of cattle and fields. 
Other devotees built structures to house the God, laying out vast walls, 
pillared halls and pleasure gardens. 

The temple was favoured by kings. A Pandya monarch offered 
an elephant’s weight of gold and jewels. The iluysalas ire said to have 
built five Venugopala, a charming sanctuary adorned with sculptured 
ladies at their leisure. The Vyayana^ar kings helped to restore the temple 
after the Muslim conquest of the fourteenth century, and the Nayaks of 
Tanjavur lavished gifts including statues of themselves in devotional 
attitudes. Even England gave to the temple. When the Pnnec ol Wales, the 
future King Edward Vn, visited Srirangam in 1875, he contributed a gold 
cup, which still lies in the temple treasury. 

Today the great Icings are gone, and Sri Rangar.athaswami’s artistic 
and historical legacy passes to ordinary men. To protect lliis inheritance, 
modern devotees are contributing time, money and effort in a temple re¬ 
storation project. The gift of preservation may not appear to be as 
spectacular as the munificent gifts of ancient kings, but it is no less 
valuable. Without it, much or the beauty created in tlic past would have 
been lost to the future. 

Before restoration began a year ago, many of the temple’s art 

the Accelerator for Reading 


f continued) 

treasures were concealed under layers of dirt and chipping j>aint 
accumulated over hundreds ul years. The stucco Azures adorning the 
gopurams wore mottled coats of black and grey grime. Whitewash and 
paint so encased surfaces in many of tile mandapas, or pillared halls, that 
men had forgotten that decoration, if any, had been carved on the stone 
underneath. The curling roots of plants had seeped into crevices in walls 
and roofs threatening the structure of some buildings, and unnecessary 
embellishments of paint and cement defaced portious of the temple’s 
magnificent stone masonry. 

The restorer’s task was enormous, in part because of the generosity 
of their ancestors, for the temple’s ancient wealth is reflected in Its vast 
size. Said to be the largest temple in area of India Sri Ranganathaswami 
sprawls across roughly 155 acres and is the only temple in the country 
to have seven conccntnc walls, or prakaras, enclosing the central sanc¬ 
tuary. Twenty one gopurams tower above countless mandapBs and shrines, 
and the major portion of a municipality of 42,000 people with their 
homes, shops and places, of work is sheltered with the temple's three 
outer walla. 

Despite the large outlay of money and yean of labour that restora¬ 
tion would require, temple authorities felt an obligation to meet the cha¬ 
llenge. To Hindus the temple of Sn Ranganatluswami has been an 
important centre of the Vat&hnava tradition since ancient times, and today 
pilgrims frotn every state in India visit its sluine. Non-Hindus, particu¬ 
larly visitors from abroad, could find at the temple a variety of South 
Indian art and architecture and an outstanding opportunity to observe the 
area’s living religious heritage. Restoration, the authorities felt, would not 
utdy preserve the temple, but would also enhance its attraction to pilgrims 
and tourists from all over lilt’ world. 

Before they began however, the restorers sought expert advice. Tlie 
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization 
Contributed the services of two architects -Mr. Patrick Faulkner and 
Mr. George Wrignt, and of art luatorian Miss Jeaiinine Auboyex. 
Mr. Faulkner made an exploratory study of the huge religious complex 
in 1966. Two years later, Mr. Wright outlined a suggested restoration 
plan while Miss Auboyer, who U director of the Musee Guimet in Paris, 
wrote a detailed description of the modem temple and its history'. 

The Wright report became the restoration text book, for it 


( continued) 

combined discussion of guiding principles for the project with technical 
advice. Since only Hindus may enter the temple’s third prakara, the 
architect restricted liis recommendations almost entirely to the outer 
areas, lie suggested that the initial effort focus on the eastern section of 
the fourth prakara, an areu both accessible to non-Hindus and according 
to Mi». AuboycT, rich with 15th and I6tii century stone carving. 
Except for minor damage from vandalism, the structures and carving 
remained intact, but as elsewhere in the temple, the art lay hidden. 

The UNESCO adviser’s suggestions were accepted, and work began 
under the supervision of Mr. S.G.S. Avudaiappan, an engineer from 
the Madras Public Works Department. Labourers recruited from local 
villages took up the tedious task of chipping away thick coats of white¬ 
wash from tits 9S7 columns in the Hall of a Thousand Pillars. Others 
cleaned the fewer but more elaborately carved pillars in the Scsharayar 
mandapa across the courtyard. A huge wooden scaffold was constructed 
around the Vellai gopuram, the tallest in die temple-150 feet high and 
an army of nimble scrubbers began to bathe each of its silent figures. 

Aware that restoration efforts have sometimes damaged structures 
they were intended to improve, Mr. Avudaiappan rehes heavily on the 
housewife's soap, water and brushes. Coir brushes were chosen over wire 
ones to avoid scratching the delicate carvings, and special hardwood 
chisels are used instead of metal tools to stnp away the outer coats of 
whitewash. Only the best workers arc allowed to use stronger materials. 
Hydrochloric acid, lightly applied and swiftly removed, cleans away lime 
that lodges m tiny pockets in the stone after chisels have done their work. 
The acid also helps remove gnme Horn the Vellai gopuram, before it is 
treated with a water resistant compound. Other chemicals are used to kill 
the roots of vegetation. Patience and perseverance are, however, the 
workers’ most important tools. One pillar can take four men three days to 
clean and the task of scrubbing and rinsing the Vellai gopuram has 
occupied roughly 60 men for almost a year. 

Work in the fourth prakara if a little more than half completed, 
but the results are readily apparent- Stone flowers bloom in the Hall of 
a Thousand Pillars from columns wlticJi were smooth painted surfaces in 
1969. In the Scsharayar mandapa, dirt and traces of whitewash have been 
cleaned away, revealing population of charming maidens, gallant heron, 
wandering siiepherds and wise old men. Musicians and dancers seem to 
celebrate the loss of their dull shrouds, and the famous horsemen on the 



facade are as fresh as they were on tlac fust moming of their chase. 
Though still bound in scaffolding, the Vellai gopuram gleams a golden 
colour in the South Indian sun, and throughout the courtyard, one senses 
anew the vitality and soaring ambitions of the famous dynasties of the 

The fourth prakara still resounds with the clatter of chisels, buckets 
and brushes. A few yards away from a recently reborn shepherd, workmen 
excavate pillars buried m a wall of brick and paint, while their colleagues 
strip unnecessary cement from the base of the Vellai goounun. When the 
clean-up is completed, temple authorities plan a special tourist entrance to 
guide visitois through the eastern gopuraim directly to the artistic 
showcase in the Fourth prakara. In deference to religious beliefs, they also 
hope to repair broken figures on the Vellai gopuram. 

Eventually large areas of the temple will be restored, a project that 
is canceled to take more than 20 years and cost more Ilian Rs. 40 lakhs. 
Sections in good condition* will, of course, be left untouchod but llte 
cleaning of the other gopurams and numerous whitewashed surfaces is 
liigh on the priority list, in a fitting tribute to their ancestors, the restorers 
also hope to catalogue the temple’s treasure and exhibit some jewels and 
art objects in new showcases, a UNfcSCO gift, in the temple museum. 

With its emphasis on cleaning structures of recent embellishments 
rather than redecorating them, the Srirangam project differs fioin renova¬ 
tion activity in most living temples in South India. So far. however, it has 
met with wide acdaim, according to Mr. I K. Sriruvasan, Vice-Chairman 
of the Sri Ranganathaswami IX’vasllianam Thiruppani Committee, which 
oversees the restoration work. Extreme care lias been taken not to offend 
religious sensibilities and those who prefer rr|iainting usually change their 
minds when thev visit the fourth nrakara and see the high quality of art 
that had once been obscured. “Anyone who wants a modem goouram 
should build a modem gopuram," Mr. Srinivasan said. “Our object is 
to present the ancient things in the ancient way and prevent them from 

Other temples in South India have recently inquired about the 
approach and teclmiqucs used in the Srirangam restoration. Among Uic 
factors that appeal to temple managements is the low cost uf future 
maintenance, for a simple cleaning every few years is much less expensive 
than periodic redeclaration. 


( continued) 

For ycais to coinc, die temple of Sri Ranganathaswami will enrich 
the lives of bodi Hindus and non-llindus, devotees of die Deity anil stu¬ 
dents of India's culture. As men of faiUi, die restorers have not interfered 
•with the temple’s religious function, so worsliippcrs continue dicir 
devotions in surroundings they know and love. But as modem men, they 
are restoring and preserving a heritage Uiat belongs to all people, regard¬ 
less of nationality or rclipon. Though they lack the wealdi of kings, the 
restorers' gift is great, for at Srirangam, die post is coming alive again. 

AUTHOR : Push pindar Singh. 

SOURCE : The Illustrated Weekly of 

India; April 1, 1973. 
WORD COUNT : 1731. 


it is 1933. Adjusting his goggles on the leather flying helmet, the pilot, wearing plus fours and 
a leather jo-kin, slips into the biplane's cockpit. Carrying out a rudimentary check of the barely 
half-dozen instruments on the control panel, he switches the ignition on and signals to the two 
"hawai sephais" standing near each lower wing root. They furiously crank the engine to life. Chocks 
away and the Wapiti is guided down to the edge of the grass field. Full throttle open, the *Wop" 
starts rolling on a run no longer than a football field. 

The Wapiti ILAs of No.l Squadron could climb at the rate of 1.000 ft. par minute, cruise 
at 100 mph and reach a service ceiling of 20,000 ft. 

It is 1973. The Dilot is helped into his skin-tiaht pressure suit and, with his pressure socks, 
gloves and helmet on top of which is the bone-dome, he looks equipped for space, the inner fringes 
of which he, in fact, will skirt. 

After' external checks concerning tyre pressure, oleo- extension and closed cocks, he goes over 
the lengthy instrument checklist, watching needles on dials and checking circuits, 1 he checks over, 
the MiG taxies on to the runway. Alter bunereon brakes are kicked to release, the MiG begins to 
move, the pilot is pushed into his east by the iotcb of the 13,00U-pound thrust. Hurtling down the 
9,000 ft. concrete runway, the pilot eases back the control column and, at nearly 190 mph, the 
MiG comes smoothly off the surface, the landing gear folds neatly into the fuselage and disappears 
behind doors that snap shut. It will take 3 minutes to reach 40,000 ft. 

The MiG-21 sq of No.l Squadron ore equipped for action with two infra-red homing missiles 
under the wings and a cannon in the belly. The span between the 140 mph Wapiti IIA army- 
cooperation biplane and the 1,400 mph MiG-21FL delta-winged interceptor represents 40 years 
of the Indian Air Farce. The LAF has grown from a token force of 4 aircraft and 25 men to 1,400 
aircraft and 100,000 personnel—one of the wrvld's largest and most committed air arms. 


In age, even by Asian standards, our Air Force is not an aid one. Turkish military aviation. 



for irwt/trice, got their first aircraft in 1912 and the Royal Siamese Air Force in 1913; but tha 
British Government considered India's defence as part of the imperial defence and the Royal Air 
Force took on all responsibility for providing such air support to the land forces as might be 
required in campaigning on the North-West Frontier or in the event of war with Afghanistan or 

A Military Flying School was established at Sitapur, U.P., in December 1913, with Captain 
S.D. Massey of the 29th Punjab Regiment as Commandant. In 1919, six regular RAF squadrons 
were operating from Risalpur, Quetta, Ambala and Lahore with headquarters at Raisina (later New 

Also, by 1919, public opinion and the Central Legislature demanded the admission of Indians 
in the Air Force. The Skeene Committee then recommended that Indians be eligible for 
employment as Command Officers in the air arm of tha Indian Army. Even so the British Govern¬ 
ment took 12 years to establish the token formation of 4 general-purpose biplanes and commission 
5 flying and 1 stores officer. 

Raising of additional flights was made a laborious process and, on the eve of the Second 
World War, the national demand for an Indian Air Force had fructified with tho establishment of 
just one squadron. The Japanese Occupation of Burma and threat to the eastern frontiers of India 
were the spurs for expansion to four squadrons and six coast defence flights, with a Technical 
School at Ambals and an Operational Training Unit at Peshawar. 

Although the IAF had cut its teeth during two spells of military operations on the North- 
West Frontier, the Lysanders of No.l Squadron in the First Burma campaign performed gallantly 
against far superior Japanese aircraft and 41 bombing cor tics, were carried out without loss. Before 
the Second Burma Campaign, the IAF had re-equipped rive squadrons with the Hurricane and raised 
two additional formations on the Vengeance. Pilots were trained on the techniques of dive-bombing 
while actually on operations and they shortly proved to be tne most accurate form of "artillery'* 
in mountain-and-jungle-ahrouded country. 

By 1944 the IAF had 9 squadrons amongst the 90 Allied Units in Eastern Air Command-a 
small force, yet a capable one. By the end of the war the IAF had been equipped with Spitfires, 
bestowed with the prefix "Royal", and its pilots awarded 22 Distinguished Flying Crosses. 


Post-war disbandmerus hampered efficiency and, though the process of re-equipping fighter 
units with Tempest 11s and Spitfires XIVs was well in hand, partition of the small force in 1947 
was a severe challenge, compounded by the Kashmir Operations in 1945 

1949 was the year of stock-taking. The IAF remained to be made into a self-contained 
force. Priority was assigned to the establishment of Air Force academies, navigation, training 
and flight and technical training colleges. 



The funds were limited and many a foreign c bserver shook his head in disbelief as canabilised 
and reconstructed B-24 Liberators took to the air. These had been abandoned by the Allies at his 
“bombers gxavey" and at Kanpur in 1945. 

Late in the year 1948, the R1AF became the first air arm in Asia to receive jet fighters, when 
three Vampire FB 3s were flown to Palaru. The cocoon-shaped fuselage with characteristic booms 
became a familiar sight as more Vampire fighter-com bens, night fighters and advanced trainers re¬ 
placed the venerable Spitfire and Tempest, The transport wing expanded with war-surplus refur¬ 
bished C-47s, former commercial and Maharaja funded Dakotas, Devons and, in 1954, Fairchild 
C119G packets. 

IAF transport units have continuously provided aid to civil authorities, undertaking supply 
drops and rescue operations during floods and earthquakes across the country. 

By 1956, the LAF was near its targeted 20-squadron strength but the bulk of the aircraft was 
obsolete and the period of 1957-58 saw more re-equipment and expansion completed. The final 
choice in procurement of aircraft for the IAF was, and is, governed by the air staff requirement, 
willingness of the foreign government to release the aircraft and its weapon system ;and favourable 
conditions in availability, time and financial capability. Without compromising on quality, Canberra 
bombers and Mystere IVA fighters were purchased in 1957 despite die offer of Soviet FL-28s 
and MiG-17s at far cheaper prices. Although the IAF was always keen on the Hawker Hunter, an 
order was placed only after the British Government released the superior Mark 6 for export. 


Purchase of Soviet logistic-support aircraft in the 1960-62 period was explicable on practical 
grounds, as the Mi4 helicopter was rugged and more suitable than the S-62 in the hilly terrain, 
the An-12 was comparable in performance and load-carrying capability to the C-130 and both 
Soviet types had the additional advantage of price and payment in rupee. 

Late in 1955, India got involved with the new legendary Gnat-more from the point of 
production ease and low coet than from any commitment to the lightweight fighter concept. 
But the diminutive Gnat was soon to be synonymous with IAF superiority following Sts splendid 
performance in the 1965 and 1971 conflicts. The IAF chose the MiG-21, its first Mach 2 fighter, 
in 1963. Licenced production in India began a few year thereafter. 

In December 1971, MiG-21t were the mainstay of air defence in the West and spearheaded 
the strike formations in the East. The indigenous HF-24 Marut fighter-bomber also achieved opera¬ 
tional status in the mid sixties. Procurement of the Sukhoi $u-7s in 1968 was an interim measure, 
pending availability of the supersonic HF-24 Mark FI. 

However, the multiplicity in aircraft types brought staggering management, maintenance 
and-repair, organisational-structure and training problems in its wake. Current emphasis is on 
maintenance of aircraft in IAF service and this will take precedence over any addition to the number 
of aircraft on strength. 



The fourth decade finds the LA.F in the midst of organisation*] changes which have been 
planned over the past few yean, and busily preparing for new equipment. The planned frontline 
45-squadron strength was achieved in the late sixties and air defence, strengthened by surface- 
to-air missiles, is controlled by an extensive Air Defence Ground Environment system which covurs 
wide areas of territory and uses modern radar, computer and display techniques. 


We are striving to be virtually self-reliant in the production of three combat aircraft-the 
MiG-21, Ui8 Gnat Ajeet and the HF-24. The Ministry of Defence have stated that combat 
experience in 1965 and 1971 has shown up the requirement for a deep ponetration-strike aircraft 
and, as the Canberra enters the 20th year of its service with the 1AF, a decision on its replacement 
is assuming urgency. 

Too extensive transport commitments in the Himalayas are bound to continue right through 
the decade and there will be continuing assistance to civil power. It has been planned that the 
IAFs transport force be modernised and retain only two basic types -heavy and medium STOL 
tactical aircraft. An An-12 has been a willing work-horse and, besides normal attrition make-up, 
there is no reason to supplant the type for some yean. 

The Mi-8 medium-lift helicopter has taken over the supply-drop role to some extent but the 
militarised HS-748 to be produced at HAL, Kanpur, would be employed for troop and cargo trans¬ 
port tasks. Tire rotorcraft fleet is being reinforced with the HAL-built Cheetah, which will also 
replace the Krishaks in tlx* Air Observation Post role, and HAL are working on the indigenous 
Advanced Light Helicopter for the early eighties. 

HAL's HPT-32 is being considered as a possible replacement for the HT-2 primary trainer, 
while the HJT-16 Kiran is becoming the standard Jet Kanier. 

Whatever the shapes in the skies of the next decade the Indian Air Force faces the future 
with confidence, “ touching the sky with glory". 

tmi two 


24 - ( \i4iij *Dht { Would Jlza r vni 

A Special 


The Hindu. 
June 9. 1971. 

The English Language is already dominant in Europe. There is 
nothing that the President or France can do about it. No assurance by any 
British Prime Minister can alter the situation, either. For it is a reflection 
of the present status of English as the lion of the world’s languages, this 
in turn is the inevitable result of the fact that English has been the lan¬ 
guage of two predominant empires in succession : first Britain’s, then 

Most ordinary people in Britain have long known that this is so: 
it is the reason why in Britain as in America, few people really put thoir 
hearls into learning any foreign Language. 

It is, of course, a very good thing for British business men to 
acquire a working knowledge of French, German or Spanish-but it is not 
essential for those Britons who wish to get ahead to know any of these 
languages as it is, for, say, an ambitious Frenchman .German or Spaniard 
to know English, 


If this sounds like a chauvinistic and pig-headed response to Pre¬ 
sident Pompidou's understandable concern for the future of his native 
tongue, then consider the facts. Apart from Mandarin Chinese, English 
is now spoken as a first language by more people than any other language 
in the world: it is also the main second language for perhaps 100 m. 
people. And it is the language of first importance for the intelligentsia 
of almost every country. 

According to Janet Roberts, in a study for the Centre for Applied 
Linguistics, of Washington D.C. the order of the first 11 languages listed 
by total numbers of native speakers is: Chinese, English, Hindi-Urdu, 
Spanish, Russian, Japanese, German, Arabic, Bengali, Portuguese-and 
only then French. Of all the Languages in this list , only Spanish has any 

•First reading with Slammer. 

•Second reading with Accelerator. 97 

( continued J 

serious claim to wide international usage, and this is mainly restricted 
to South America; Arabic too is regional. 

Most of the languages in the list Chinese, Russian, Hindi, Japanese, 
Arabic, Bengali arc written in special scripts of their own; English has the 
major advantage of being written in the widely-known Roman script. 
Russian, which might seem to be acquiring status from its position as the 
language of the other major World Power, i3 in fact spoken as a native 
tongue by only half the people of the Soviet Union, It is true that hast 
European are compelled to learn Russian, but in the USSR itself English 
is the principal foreign language taught. 

Of 15 major Western European countries examined in a recent 
survey, English is the principal foreign language taught in nine of them, 
and French in four, while English and French share the honours in the 
remaining two. There is no Western European country in which English 
is not taught in the schools at all. In West Germany English is taught to 
four timesas many pupils as French. 

What is more, the language of the Anglo-Saxons is dominant among 
foreign Languages even in France itself, however much British tourists’ 
experiences may point to the contrary. Much of the evidence for my 
statements of fact is taken from papers delivered to a conference held in 
Luxemburg last year. Organised by the Institute of Linguists [based in 
London), its theme was *English-A European Language?" The evidence 
for the position in France is taken from a paper delivered to thus 
conference by M.D. Girard, Inspector Regional de-I' Academic de Paris. 

In the French academic year 1968-69, according to M. Girard, the 
following were the flm foreign languages being learned by French 
children in secondary schools : 

No. of children 

English . 1,945,759 79.4 

German . 391,320 16.0 

Spanish 97,305 4.0 

Italian 14,341 0.6 

Russian 978 0.05 



Some two-thirds of the total secondary school population of 
France studies English for between two and seven years, most" of it for the 
longer period. Now it is true dial French is highly popular in English 
schools, too, as Mr. Heatn is reported to have reminded M. Pompidou, but 
this is of little consequence to the general picture of English dominance in 
the other countries of Europe 


Part of the reason for this is, of course, technical English is the 
primary language of most scientists today; it is essential in aviation, 
atomic energy, oil, tele-communications, space and a host of other major 
industries. In the March issue of “Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists" 
Professor Murry Tamers, an American chemist working in Venezuela, 
says that the situation is “outrageously unfair*. 

“Engineers and Scientists all over the world feel it is absolutely 
essential to learn to speak and write perfect English", says Prof. Tamers; 
this is the underlying reason, he argues, why the “Brain Drain" to 
America (and in a lesser degree to British Universities) is a continuing 
phenomenon. The International Atomic Energy Agency, he says is “noto¬ 
riously pro-English language and completely open about this". l*Shfle 
France has been a contributor to the agency this has been a cause of some 
bitterns® among Frenchmen. 

M. Girard confirms that English is technologically predominant, 
even in Europe where historically German was a main language of science. 
A number of leading French scientific journals are now accepting articles 
written in English by French Scientists, of a <youp of 440 French science 
articles published in French journals in 1967-68 a quarter were in English. 

The French fear that the proportion will grow until their own lan¬ 
guage is obliterated: M. Girard reports that after the German "Physika- 
llsche Zeitschreft" began to accept English articles in a big way in 1962 
the proportion of German articles fell, untQ by 1968 it was less Lian 
half, with English accounting for 60.5 per cunt. The Italian “Nuove 
Cimento", journal of the Italian Society of Physicists started accepting 
foreign language articles 20 years ago; its material is now entirely Eng¬ 
lish, says M. Girard. 




Another reason for the universal popularity of English is that it is, 
ir. a phrase used in a recent survey by the British Council, “the language of 
good jobs". English, says the Council, is “the language of most computers. 
of nuclear laboratories in Brazil: of the Swedish ball-bearing firm S.K JF. 
for its operations even in Sweden-it is the main language of salesmanship 
for Japan and Germany, and the prime language of debate in the United 

The Council calculates that 60 par cant of the world's radio pro* 
grammes and most television material is in English, "A flood of news¬ 
papers, magazines and comics in English covers the bookstalls of the 

world's airports.More educational material is happily available in 

English than in any other language" The greatest number of hours of 
study is spent on English. 

Many Commonwealth countries use it as an official Language in 
spite of the fact that the natives speak another tongue; even in India and 
Tanzania, where this is resented by some,Hindi and Swahili are 
fighting for their respective places as equals of English in the view of the 

And, of course, English is die language both of youth and of the 
new ideas that come from youth. American and English filma, records 
and expressions contribute to this; as M, Girard says, "a visit to the U.S. 
is the pet dream of most European youngatcra". The extraordinary boom 
in tourism to England 13 no doubt partly attributable to die popularity of 
its language among foreigners. 

There is a groat deal more documentary evidence, but I think I 
have quoted enough to show that aa things stand English is rapidly be¬ 
coming a world languaqe (or at least a language of tliB educated world} 
of potentially greater dominance than was achieved by French during 
its centuries of international usage, or even Latin before that. 

This is not liked in France. A few weeks ago a report on the work 
of the British Council, published by the expenditure committee of the 
House of Commons, gave details of the large amounts of money and 
energy spent by the Directorate-General of Cultural, Scientific and Tech¬ 
nical Relations and the Secretariat of State for Co-operation, both 


( confirmed ) 


attached to the French Foreign Ministry, on promoting world -wide 
knowledge of French. This is supplemented by the heroic efforts of the 
Alliance Franchise. French teachers are seconded to black African 
countries: Africans and Asians are brought to France, all the media are 
usee in the cause. 

But it is clear that the French are fighting a losing battle. There 
are little local victories available to them, however. In Brussels the "main 
working language" of the Continental bureaucrats is undoubtedly French, 
and there is no harm in continuing this system, as Mr. Heath has 
apparently undertaken to do, by sending French-speaking British civil 
servants across when the British are members. 

But even Lliis may not last: the international banking community, 
no less than the IJd.F. uses English as a main working language and with 
England, Ireland and the Scandinavians in the E.E.C. French may be 
unable to hold back the tide, even in Brussels. 


This would not necessarily be bad, English, which combines within 
itself the two g^eat streams of Western European language—Romance and 
Germanic-is well qualified to become a true common language for the 
new Europe. In the process of so doing it would surely develop in a diffe¬ 
rent direction from "American", if only because of the heavy French 
ingredient in the now melting pot on this side of the Atlantic. (It is 
missing trom the U.S.). There is therefore no obstacle in terms of "losing 
Europeanism" as the President of France seems to fear. 

Nor should there be any false modesty on the part of English 
speakers. It is as well to master as many other languages as possible : 
it is culturally enriching to do so, and what is more it helps trade. But in 
spite of this we should not fear to acknowledge the predominance of 
English and perhaps to give it a helpful nudge along the road to becoming 
even more of a world language by the end of the century. 

This would be a good outcome : I like to think that if, say. 
Northern Finnish were in the same position I would speak as strongly on 
its benalf, on the simple around that any move towards a world language 
must be beneficial. 




n 5 hrs f rumos at rite agb or to. -icuess skakiss aal ik xi v ui-< *mj “ 

Romulus Whitaker spends moot of 
rii Os* m a make pit Walking 
confidently whai moot people (mu lu 
7tad. he manoeuvres imon^ liming 
v^jtn 44i<i pull* wnunioiu cobras {tom 
coal hiding places tn tbs earth. 
Sometimes he even oarnM a giant 
on Us iu. aJitii like * Mipen- 

Snakes sr* s hobby snti s rocaitcn 
tor Whitaker, who opsrsttt the Wad:si 
Saakt Psrk. Despite the abundant of 
popular myths shout serpents ills 
young herpetologist suisu that “the 
leek ol real knowledge ■ fanUaUc". 
To dispel at least soma of this igno¬ 
rance, White* rr has gathered sonx 
300 an shot In • seipentarium dedicatee 
to education and research. 

Tbs Madias Siidku Park U rtewtou 
among ilia gratin field* and paLra trass 
of SeUiyur, a Tillage about 15 irilas 
front Madras Al a dtotattes VOdUkar's 
p rotect has tha unpmwtUous ippcarance 
of a group of well* shtalded from tha sun 
by thatched roofs typical of South 
tndto. hut dmr inepaetjon reveals nine 
leap pits vshlcn contact 25 ran etna of 
psoonous and non poisonous laakaa 
bnng among miniature trees made of 
bunches pools of water, shaded ledges, 
racks and pass 

As he radian, who icsghl M fellow 
soaks luffs or amply curious tour els 
with goose bumps cnrvsling op thair 
arms, pom down into the pta from po 
atiorj of Misty. Whitaker —rtho speaks 

Hindi, Tend and Kannada in sedition 
to English-discuanea the ranvM species 
•oil fields lbi tiMYilsbU barrage of 
to anions. In arut pit an tanccuota 
looking but deadly ocrunoc kies dons 
tauter s any tret. Nearby a spotted 
brown P.umll'i riper regarded by many 
«J the world’s moat txnbc snake and 
by Wbitaket as tae ‘hardest to handle*, 
bases In the tun. Tha saw-scaled trtper Ut 
another pit mbs together tha hoy caws 
oc ita suata to mike a husirg sound 
Os tors It strikes. The beautiful black 
srd-yeflcw bonded Knit la pokocoua 
but timid. "He never Ijiles be'i just an 
earthworm,’ Whiuktr says. 

Everyone waiil£ to sea tiu cobras, 
and the herTvtoloqirt oblige* by using 
his snake sack-actually a modified golf 
dab with ■ hook si tha end- to ufeturb 

a duid gray snake until it ismm its beat! 
and spreads its fair, I liar hood. ’’Anyone 
can be a snake charnwr." WUiukor 
insnti. nothing riust tha cobra an only 
itrUs s distance approximately equal w 
CM batghl of ita bead from the ground. 
CcLras are per hi pi the meat 
tnyth-nodar of all rrptil«, and WhiU 
k>n trier to replace ficocc with fact. 
He explains that the snake doe* not 
cheat people is same belters, a or doaa 
It steal oik from cows, soother 
mrnnsnn superstitkai. Aa for the popular 
notUnt that a cobra in water wfii oevur 
tdtc, the espert warns, "Don't bet in 

WMtakm talks shout auks Bit* 
from personal eaparaiueu Now 27. h* 
hoi beet bitter, three timet by pcuoacui 

enakaa, twice by rattle ctakas and ocas 
by ■ water rnccueui. He vwa his 
turnsal to rapid trmuuenl veith ariti- 
toicuM whxxi ha asyi me " 100 par emit 
•ffacUra. It's jut a question cf getting 
tha tejaction m Line “ Although he la 
s oautloua and Kitted snake handler, he 
always seeps andioxtu In his t eft k, et a- 
lor al Ihe park. 

Hut Whitaker stnemes that mast 
rata in harmleca, pointing to tha 
striped kaeJbtck or the sinker make u 
smasnplca of makes Both beautiful and 
benign. A bite from a non-poisonous 
soeM' cun kill, he says, only when tlsw 
victim nirukarjy beUevss he has bean 
bitton by a doily make and goes into 
lilsl shook. Even ■ bite from s poi¬ 
sonous snak* ta not aeeataanly lethal. 
Whitaker hintsall rocsntiy reaatwd s 
"fang slash’ from s cobra whan the 
snnkr bit his thumb but failed to inject 
any venom. 

Dry htcae oacur nanwaliy whan a 
snak* aas used iu pasaoc to kili ita 
prey, but tha Madras &uka Park’s in¬ 
habitants often in voluntary v donate 
their mnom la mod err rreaicine. 
Whitue collectt Tenant by farcing his 
auks* to tat* a piece of rubcortsoti 
Decroc strstebed orm a ylsss. Ha dries 
the poison, ucnq a veetiutn dssiceatioe 
prooam, and sails It to htocnemtoal 
labareiortes for uas in « variety of 
mw-dsiai pcaducls. Veccat m Cv raw 
material for and toxin* ana coirs venom 
yieilis a painkiller Whitaker .tails “Wttor 
than tnorshiftt* to cxr. mifenac m. 



fflniwwa furh aa ctivoar and arthritis. 

A derivative of RumU'i vtpw 
help* in dental extractions bccaua it 
spreads Wood coagulation. Although ha 
now kJi only to companies In India, 
Whitaker uses a lugh potential in taka to 
foreign tirrrj and has applied far an ex¬ 
port licence. 

Venom, however, now wings little 
: (venue to the snake park whkh le 
financed primarily by a ^act front The 
World Wildlife Fuad. VUtora pay a 26 
paiee idmWon fee. "I don't like to 
charge *,-iything.* Whitaker eaya, "be 
cause | want people to learn. But each 
elait does taka a lot of Due,' 

Whitaker devote* hii free momenta 
to laeuardi on Indian sn a kes ■ lucii ha 
camplana ta "a lost subject". H* collects 
careful notation! an stake betuiviour and 
h«a put baited erudea in «uch periodi¬ 
ca la aa. the Bombay Neural History 
Society Journal, the lUuirlrated Weekly 
of l"«iia and the Indian Monitor. Ha b 
also compiling a lexicon of local namaa 
toe make* and photographing every new 
(peon that cornea to the anake perk. 
"Just tun) e photo of every Indian 
anake would be an important contri¬ 
bution to »en«*. he aey*. adding 
that be plana to uee his finding to 
write a com preha nerve popular kook 
on Indian euui. 

AlLitougn Whitaker huna makes all 
over India, many of the species Wudird. 
pkototyapn»d and exhibited el the make 
park we obtained from local lrulu 
trihawnen. Wutaker eexuld—« them 
aoma of Indb'i bait anake Catcher! and 
a/i his Iruhi aauatanl, Nadaee n , *knowi 
more about snakes than 1 do*. 

The Madraa Sr.ike Park eaten pri¬ 
marily to Indian maxes, but fccaignen 
me Wfllcuin* loo. Tue park’i aenioc 
leaidexit b a rathe enike from 
Orangeburg Country. South Carolina, 
and Whitakar itaa developed a mad 
order friandstiip with e Csoahaelovaxiaa 
collector wheat he has never met. 
“We eort of trace reptMav," he explain*. 
*1 send him lizards and ha mhos me 

Whitaker !us been caching end 
keeping eoaktu for es long ae he can 
remember. *3 gue— Bukee ere in my 
blood -cell it genetic coding,* he aeys, 
adding that ae a boy in Huoaich, New 
York, *1 carried makes in my pockets 
and always bed one Inside my slurt_* 
Ilia parents tolerated hii unusual hobby 
despite occasional tneee ruch aa the 
Him a relative, who was deiimtaly not 
a make lover, happened upon one of 
Ram a pets In the glove compartment 
of the tarJIy oar, Eventually Wat taker's 
family yew to expect surprises and 
tnday ha up, "mors people would be 
interested in reptiles if parents were 
patient and willing to put up wild a lew around the houas*. 

Whitakar extra to I atm with ha 
mother in. 1951 and while a student 
at tbe High dare School al Kadaikanal 
continued to study Ids fevuuikte subject. 
He caught hii 9ni python and cobra 
liy the Haw he was 12 and soon had a 
first-rata collection of local snakes 
"1 wee always coaming the jungles,'' 
he recalls “They rarely asw ma around 
the school,* 

After vaduauon lie returned to the 
United Slates to try collage for a year, 
hut lost interest when he found that 
tha Zoology department el the Unlver- 
sty of Wyooung did not share tus 
peano’i for makes So be jauieo the 
Merchant Manna, hoping to work his 
way way hack in India aa a deckhand, 
"1 swear oca ahip shanghaied me,* 
tw eeye. "They prombec we would 
get re hsdU, bat the dens er we came 
wee Knui' 

Witiuker left the see for maxes in 
1961 whea he ]round the staff of tha 
Miami farpertanum near Miami, 
Fiends. rib base waa hVIllleni Haast, 
the famed herpetologist who hsa 
sirmio man than 100 bices from 
poinonoue makes "He wee like e god 
to me*. Whitaker says. 1 cleaned tha 
-«t» pits, guided luuiats, helped with 
venom artractioc, fed tha snakes The 
pay wee nothing, but 1 developed my 
profs—in nil interest under ! least." 

Aft— two yearn In Miami, Wkitaknr 
joined the UJS. Army where be worked 
si i medical lab techrneun and learned 
to op—ate meed of the equipment be 
now uses at the make perk. He spent 
his vacations make catching, first in the 
rice paddles of Japan and later In the 
mountains near U Paso, Texas, tteodaa 
regulation equipment, Yihttakar's will 
locker fat Texas contained a privets 
— of rattle soaker. ‘They used 
to rattle when l came into the room end 
I'd beg them to be quiet,* ha 

M&itary —mra completed, Whitaker 
returned to India in 1967 and after an 
initial attempt to establish a make park 
■a— Bombay, moved to Mad ras 1 c 1963. 
*I just like it to much here,* be es 
pfeinx. *1 spent cine years In school 
In Tamil Nadu, and if you're trough! up 
somewhere you really Ilka It.’ 

Whitaker's affection ft* Madras 
seems to be reciprocated. Vista to the 
■take park have been vocour eying, and 
recently the govcnmwm of Tamil Nadu 
tyanted him peraiisBcin In move rus port 
to tha Gulndy Deer Sanctuary. “It's 
perfect,* he eayv of the new location. 
*1 bop* to show makes in as natural an 
«iwun wDt as eo—ilUe. so tbe dUplay 
itself wil be a research project.* 

Owe goal al Wliilakw'a aew park 
ndl be to campaign for the protection 
of WMskaa. Tbe Python has recently been 
declared a ‘protected annual * m Tamil 
Nadu, a mow Wrntakar prefnes, hut Too 
oft-t in rt— nsticn prnfeera, he enye. 
'Sank— are si the bottom.* According 
to Wtntsk—, nurii ara importerit ale- 
mar, a in the ecological hale oca sad help 
mac in viany ways. For example, they 
m i—nq agricultural karona when they 
kill rats which set foodgraiua. Through 
his aaaka park and research Whitaker 
hopes to overcome the average mar's 
dislike of —eket by pubias urnj the 
good ihmp they do. Althou^t the 
results of hie effarts r—oam to Qe seen. 
Use down trod dec reptiles could Iwofiy 
have a mart advocate 


ma ind 

"We have established that Indian rises are acceptable in foreign mirkcU*. saya Delhi 1‘uw 
Institute scientist L>r. Vishnu Swarup. . lie punned the idea from research to commercial reality. 

Pusa scientists have broad Indian vane ties of roses that have attracted European florists and 
art due for export next winter. 

"The Best wxs have ever imported!* So fjccirirmrd a Kam florist last March on seeing rww 
from India for the flnt time. Similar acclaim echoed in Frankfurt and Amsterdam as the lint trial 
lota tunhipped by the State Trading Corporation (STC) reached these ones. The success of the 
consignments marked the beginning of tlx first organized export of ctit-flowen-Uve result of 
research and developmental efforts of scientists at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute at 
Pum in New Delhi. 

"From the export of a few hundred Iasi year,* says STC Marketing Executive Vidya 
Sugar, H *c have progressed to a few thousand this year and expect to advance to a few hundred 

One enthusiastic florist in Frankfurt has placed & standing order with STC for 3,000 rosea 
daily during the throe winter months. From Budapest is another order for 10,000 stem a week. 
In all, STC has orders for 530,000 rosea from the United Kingdom, France, Weal Genu any, 
Switzerland, Hungary and Chechoslovakia. The problem b not to create a demand, but an assured 
supply from Indian gardens. Rose merely rose gardens, arc reautrvd. 

One STC official earnestly suggests that tlx urea on either side of the rood to 1'alam airport 
be planted with rose bushes. If lx has his way, Delhi may soon become India's *twe city. Already, 
at least a dozen Individual* and institutions in Delhi have planted acres of roses Tor export next 

Typical of Lbe new breed of genllcmcn-fajincis who take to rose cultivation in Delhi U 
Mi. Sandip Dutt, 33. “My roses an primarily a hobby*, he says, “and if they can be profitable, so 
much the better**. On his small form near bhatti village, five miles beyond Qutab, he plans to pul 
in 3.00U bushes llul will be ready foe export by the end of this year. Lost year, while planning how 
beat to use his land with the limited time at his duposol, he decided to plant export iotes-ibcn still 
on the horizon. In tills venture ho credits the Pusa Institute with latpinng him. 

One of Delhi's biggest rcrtc-gfowen »* Mn. Pretn Sham slier Sir ah, who has a sprawling rose 



faun <jd the outskirts of Lhc capital. Loll year, she exported oji hex owe d.iaa> ,u» m , - Lo 

Germany and Switzerland. In Zurich she organised an exhibition, flying rose* out every third day 

Behind the promise and potential of tills net* venture in eut-flowen is the story of a 
dentist's vision am) his pursuit of it to its logical conclusion. He is Or. Vishnu Swamp, 44. basically 
i geneticist, who has devoted hi* life to plant breeding. In 1965, be first proposed to the Indian 
Touncit of AgrieoUural Research (ICAR) a research scheme for developing roses and other flower* 
'or export. 

ilis strategy was to take advantage of Lac heavy demand for (lower* hi Lurope during the 
winter month* when local production ti small rhit is the time when the roses bloom best in India, 
and some varieties bloom three to four tunes a season. 

Dr. Swamp cited the experience ol the United Arab Republic, wluch since 1955 lias success¬ 
fully exported cut dowers lo snowbound Europe. The objective was to find for kgyotiun funnem 
a more stable a op than cotton, which produced an cm tic return from year to year. More recently, 
Iuad lias entered this field and doubled her exports from one to two million dollar* within one 

In Ids scheme for developing export roses. Dr. Swamp outlined two advantages. One—a 
grower can achieve a big profit from a mull plot. About 8,400 lose plants can be grown uc one 
acre and cadi of tliem give* at kasl six quality blooms during liic season At present SIC k 
purcrtwuijt such flowers at 50 paise each. The second advantage is that its export, uxdike that uf 
fruits and vegetables, will not alfect internal consumption or prices. The local demand for 
cut-flower* a negligible. 

Most significantly, however, rose cultivation can help raise the Irving stanosrds of farmer*. 
With the success of the green revolution a farmer can produce a higher yield in a smaller acreage. 
Now Ik can set apart a imall plot for n»e bushet. 

Tbia picture of rose export trade is not without its bfemiahcci, but l>r. Swamp is fuUy 
aware of them. For this potential actually to be realized, he emphasized hi the scheme outlined to 
ICAR lhat reaearch had to be undertaken on a wide range of problems: method of cultivation, 
pre-treatment of bloonu before packina, storage, packing and handling for export. 

The rase is a highly specialized plant that requires delicate handling. It t* susceptible to 
disease* and is damaged by Insect*. Not only must it have long-lasting quality and fine form, hut 
it must be firm enough to withstand a gap of iom« 24 hours between the time it is clipped on the 
plant and is displayed in a florist's shop in Europe. Some of these problems surfaced when a few 
private grower* attempted rose exports last year. 

In 1965, when Dr. Swamp proposed this scheme of ruse exports, it was pcrlup* considered 
somewlul impractical. The country then w» in the throe* of famine and drought. "We regard 
flower* a* a luxury, rather than as a commodity of trade," lie explains, and so he was not too 
disappointed. But he was encouraged by Dr. fl.P. Pal, then Pusa Institute's Director. A widely 



acknowledged rose finder, Dr. Pal has bred about 30 new varieties and has to his credit many prize- 
wjsuitrui n»w. Quietly, Dr. Swamp and I us team worked on breeding new vane ties as weO as on 
techniques to ensure export-oriented rose bloumafung item* (as long as three feet), good foliage, 
and well-formed rose buds with an assured life of eight to ten days. 

Intensive research on roses and the study of promising vanetm has niAde Puu Use only 
centre in India for large-scale ii»e breeding. It has lo its credit 40 new varieties. With tome '2,000 
varieties from all over die world, it boasts of the single Unseti rose collection in Utc country and la 
now recognized as the national registration centre for new Indian varieties. 

Two yean ago at a seminar in Han galore on the export or fruits ami vegetables. Dr. Swamp 
spelled out the prospect for exporting roses in discussions with one STC official. Within a year, 
the fust trial shipments had reached European fiiinaix. A research Idea had become a commercial 

“Wc have cstabUabed," says Dr. Swarup “that Indian roses are acceptable in foreign 
market* and have proved the economic feasibility of the idea. But that la wot enough. To make « 
business success of it, the soaring demand m Europe for roses in tens of tliuiuamls must be met. 
That requires sellinv up big nbtJitJlions. And roses cannot be mulliptied quickly. Rose growers am 
finding Oicnuceives short of plant material. Also, they need technical suidance to ensure that the 
blooms raised after putting in much care and money do not wither away, attacked by disrates or 

Commercial nurseries In India are geared to selling plants rather than cut-Cowm. The two ora 
grown with different objectives. In the first case, the number of varieties is in hundreds but there 
arc nnly o few plants of each of them. In contrast, the cut-fiowcr grower will have on Uia plantation 
vvry few varieties-may be two or three but these selected ones will be in Use thousands. Moreover, 
he will pay particular attention to the quality of the Nmim. ensuring an attrsetiw foliage on a long 

Dr. Swarup estimates that it may take another four yean for rase cultivation in the country 
to be organized for large export*. A start has been made by concentrating on Delhi, Chandigarh and 
Lucknow, and later, Bangalore and Poona. 

Based on hia research studies, Dr. Swarup recommends to local growers only three varieties 
for axports. The dazzling orange Super Star has no fragrance but is prized for its colour and form. 
Its fust appearance in I960 waa recognized as a breeding break-through in colour. Queen Elizabeth 
i* ■ soft pink rose, developed by an American breeder in 1954. Happiness is distinguished by its 
deep rod colour. 

Bur the market is as fickle as the flower. Every year, some 500 new varklles are evnivod hy 
brooders all over the world to satisfy the desire for something new. A shrewd exporter must 
constantly study and sense the changing preferences of his market, keep up with current research, 
and at times even influence a new trend by introducing a now variety. 


i contiu utd) 

The process of breeding new nineties h slow and tedious. From the time of cross *fatilkAliuu 
tc the final development it lakes three lo lour yean. At liie Puss Institute Or. Swarup with hit 
fellow-breeders R.S. Malik and A.P. Sin 5 b every year crosses some 10,000 cow Inna lions of 
rose varieUei. Of those, only one in Tour is successful enough to yield seeds Out sprout into seed¬ 
lings. It will be a year from tl»e time of first crossing that the first flush of roses bloom on the 
2,500 seedlings. Of tlwse, barely nx to seven are considered procnisin? enough to be selected for 
multiplica linn. Finally, only two or three emersc as new varieties and are released. Last winter, 
four new rose varieties were released hy the Puss scientists. 

The European florals have shown interest in the Indian varieties. Di. Swarup lias great ex¬ 
pects I inn* of his Pusu Sonia, a bright golden-veilnw rose with long, painted, shapely bud, attractive 
and with lush foliage* on n long and sturdy item. He expects lo make trial shipments of this and 
other varieties in the coming winter. 

To Dr. Swarup, the oripiniMd export of rosea is the bcginmnc- “^Vc have certain natural 
advantages which can be exploited hy India to enter llic foreign market fnr ornamental flowers. 
With 1 wide ranee of agnxlimatk conditions prevailing in the country, it is possible to grow almost 
ulJ lands of flowers belonging to temperate and tropical aonca.* 

As un example, he cited the orchid that is native to India and grows wild m Assam, Uarjoclmg 
aid the hills of north-cast Indio. In Shilling, urchins sell one for 12*15 poise, but. in lire West il 
sells for S 2 or more. 

Next month, <1 wide range of Indian flowm and foliage plants will be in would s|MUligfu fur 
the Tint time In the international flower exhibition at Ghent in Itelgium. 

Flnrwurs are mute beauties, says Dr. Swarup,, but they convey best the message of man's 
head and licail. He is fond of reciting Hie following Chinese proverb: 

. // you want to bo happy for throe hmtrx, get drunk 
If you want to be happy for three da vs, eat a pig 
1/ you want to be happy for three months, get married 
If you want to be happy for a lifetime, become a gardener. 

21 <=% 








The Roadaide Astrologer who offers to 
read your future for a rupee is usually a person 
brimming with self-confidence. He professes 
an intimato knowledge of the stars and their 
movements and will perhaps draw a chart to 
show how a particular star is going to affect 
your fortunes. But the astronomer who 
studies the mysteries of the heavens night 
after night through his telescope has no pre- 
tonsions to such profoundness. He will be 
satisfied if during a lifetime of study and 
research his efforts have added an iota to the 
world's knowledge of the universe and lifted 
a little the veil which hides the vast unknown. 

“Isn’t it remarkable, and even exciting, 
that without being able to ‘handle’ the objects 
he studies, the astronomer fills you with the 
reassurance that the universe around us is 
knowable and that the same laws of physics 
we study in our Karth-based laboratories 
find universal application?” With these words 
Dr. S.D. Sinvluil, Director of the Uttar Pradesh 
State Observatory at Naini Tal, summed up 
foT me his attitude towards the science of 
astronomy. Not laying claim to any spectacular 

achievements by the observatory, he pointed 
out how astronomical research in India, as else¬ 
where, is slowly making man more knowledge¬ 
able about the cosmos defining his relationship 
with it and opening up hitherto undreamt-of 
possibilities of contact with new, exciting 

In India the study of astronomy may tie 
traced as far back as the Vedic era and seems 
to have received considerable attention durine 
the Hindu period ranjpng from the 5th lo the 
11th century’ A.D. The early part of the 18th 
century saw a revival of interest, owing mainly 
to the efforts to Raia Sawai Jai Singh, whose 
observatories (Jantar Montars) in Jaipur, Delhi 
and a few other places axe still extant and 
attract both scholars and tourists. 

The first modern Indian observatory was 
opened in Madras towards Die end of the 19th 
century and shifted to Kodaikonal a few years 
later. It was followed by an observatory in 
Hyderabad in 1908, which did some pioneering 
astronomic work. The third modem observa¬ 
tory for optical astronomy in India was not 



established till after independence. It was 
opened by the Government of Uttar Pradesh 
in Varanasi in 1954, shifted to Naini Tal a 
year later and to its present position—10 
kilometres south of Naini Tal town-in 1961. 
A new development in astronomical research 
is tile application of radio technology. Under 
the aegis of tire Tata Institute of Fundamental 
Research, India's first radio astronomical 
observatory was set up m Ootacnmund about 
a year ago. 

Located in Manors Peak, at an altitude of 
1,950 metres and in a region of great silvan 
beauty, the Naini Tal Observatory occupies an 
area of 50 hectares of forest land. Besides the 
main building which houses the offices of the 
scientific staff, the, the library' and 
the electronic workshop, there are seven tele¬ 
scope houses, a workshop, an optics shop, an 
administrative office and residential quarters. 

The Same Lavs of Phyeios That 
We Study in Earth 1 rt Laboratories 
Apply Throughout the Vniveree. 

The total strength of the staff, including 20 
scientists, is about 90. Dr. Sinvhal, an 
astronomer of long standing, has been on the 
staff of the observatory since it was established 
in 1954 and its Director since 1960. 

Stellar research is the most important of 
the observatory’s present activities but, as 
Dr. Sinvhal points out, its scope is currently 
limited by Lite equipment available to the 
researchers. Of the five stellar telescopes 
instullcd in the observatory at present, the 
largest is a 56 cm. reflector. A 102-cm. re¬ 
flector telescope has, however, been acquired 
recently. Installation is expected to be com¬ 
pleted by the end of the year. 

With the Hyderabad Observatory already 

possessing a 120-cm. reflector and the K<nlai- 
kanal Observatory also planning to Instal a 
102 -cm. reflector early next year, the tele¬ 
scope capacity of the three Indian Observa¬ 
tories will thus be more or less at par. For 
purposes of comparison it is relevant to note 
that the largest telescope in Asia is a 184-cm. 
reflector in Tokyo and the largest in the world 
a 510-cnu reflector at Mount Palomai in the 
United States. 

The Naini Tal Observatory lias made 
studies of some variable stars, aunetl at deter¬ 
mining such features ns then distances, and 
masses and the evolutionary changes constantly 
occurring in them. Special attention lias been 
given to the study of eclipsing binaries-pairs 
of stars whose movements in relation to each 
other cause an occasional eclipse with 
consequent reduction in the brightness of die 
system-and of intrinsically variable stars, 
including short-penod Cepheids and stare diat 
emit flares (the last-mentioned project being 
assisted by a PL-480 grant). In tliesc studies 
die techniques of photoelectric photometry 
and spcctro-photometry have been used. 
Solar astronomy has so far been confined to 
theoretical studies of the formation ol mole¬ 
cular lines in the sun. With the recent in¬ 
stallation of a solar spectrograph, observational 
programmes are exoected to begin soon. 

In the field of space research die Naini lal 
Observatory has a unique position as it is die 
only centre in India for the optical trucking of 
man-made Larth satellites. In collaboration 
widi the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa¬ 
tory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, this pro¬ 
gramme started in the International 
Geophysical Year 1957-58 and has since been 
continued without interruption. On loan to 
Naini Tal by the Smithsonian Observatory is 
a 79/51-cm. Baker-Nunn satellite-tracking 
camera and ancillary' equipment. The camera 



u capable of photographing an illuminated 
ball 15 cm. in diameter at a height of 4,000 
kin. The ancillary equipment includes a quartz 
dock made by the Electronic Engineering Co. 
of California, which records time accurately 
up to one millionth of a second, and a set of 
125 solar charts making up a complete atlas of 
the sky up to stars of the ninth magnitude, 
PL-480 assistance also is being provided for this 

The Smithsonian Observatory sends Naini 
Tal advance monthly listings of predicted 
movements of various satellites which are of 
scientific interest from the optical-tracking 
point of view, and the estimated timings of 
theii flights through the Nairn Tal observation 
area. This statement is occasionally supple¬ 
mented by cable information. Acting on it, 
die camera is set after taking into account 
such factors as azimuth, altitude and angular 
velocity, and the satellite is filmed during its 
passage. Exposures are made at a 
predetermined rate which may vary from one 
per second to one every 32 seconds. The 
exact time of each exposure-accurate to 
1 /10,000 of a second-is automatically 
recorded on die film by a “slave" clock in the 
camera controlled by the quartz clock. Photo¬ 
graphed against the background of the stars, 
the satellite appears on the film as a broken 
line while the stars are seen as pinpoints. 

About 35,300 satellite transits have been 
successfully photographed so far. The camera 
is in operation every night except in bad 
weather. The exposed film is processed and 
carefully studied and, when required, the 
data obtained are cabled to the Smithsonian 
Observatory', But the normal procedure is for 
films to be dispatched to the United States 
by sea marl once a month. Naini Tal received 
llight data on the Apollo It and Apollo 12 
flights. Both spacecrafts were successfully 

tracked on their return flights-Apollo 11 on 
July 23, 1969, from 1438 to 15D1, and 
Apollo 12 on November 24, 1969, from 
19 29 to 20 :19 (timings in Universal or 
Greenwich Mean Time). 

Over the yean this programme has 
expanded considerably, yielded some specta¬ 
cular results and corrected some misconcep¬ 
tions. An important discovery, which modified 
a long-accepted geographic concept, was 
made through observation of the movements 
of oilier satellites; it was that the Earth is pear- 
shaped rather than an ellipsoid. 

Among more recent and tangible benefits 
of the U.S. satellite programme are accurate 
weather forecasting and warning of the 
approach of storms, assisting navigation by de¬ 
fining the positions of ships and aircraft, and 
-overshadowing all other developments—the 
revolution in communications which the 
Intelsat class of satellites is effecting by inter¬ 
linking the continents in a vast network of 
radio, television and telephone communication. 

The satellite-tracking station at the Nami 
Tal Observatory is, of course, concerned only 
with the optical tracking of satellites. Set up 
under the supervision of an American tech¬ 
nical adviser from the Smithsonian Obser¬ 
vatory, it is now operated entirely by Indian 
scientists and technicians. Mr. U.M. Tripalhi, 
Assistant Astronomer, who is in immediate 
diargc of the station spent about six montlis 
in the United States familiarizing liimself with 
observatory and said Lite-true king routine, hour 
other members of the staff besides the 
Director, DR. SINVllAL, have also been to die 
United States on professional visits to obser¬ 
vatories and astronomy study centres. 

Together with die other astronomical 
observatories in India, die Naini Tal 



Observatory ix playing a useful, If modest, role 
In the promotion of scientific research. Recog¬ 
nized as a centre of research by Agra 
University*, Banaras Hindu University and 
Osmania University*, it offers facilities for 
the study of astrophysics leading to a doc¬ 
torate in the subject. It also teaches astro¬ 
physics to physics students of the local college 
who are taking a special paper in astrophysics 
for their master’s degree. 

Conducted educational tours by groups 
of students from local and neighbouring 
colleges are a regular feature of the observa¬ 
tory’s activities. It has a well-equipped library 
which contains valuable reference books on 
astronomy, mathematics and physics and 
subscribes to some 70 scientific journals. 

So faj, membeis of the observatory staff 
have written about SO research papers which 

have been published in Indian and foreign 
scientific journals. Apart from these researches, 
individual staff members have shown 
considerable initiative and ingenuity in design¬ 
ing and fabricating some of the instruments 
needed for their studies. The optical grinding 
and polishing machine set up in the optics 
workshop is an example of this constructive 
effort. It has produced plain minors of 45-cm. 
diameter with a high degree of accuracy, 
and is capable of producing minors up to 
75-cm. in diameter. The staff also designed 
and made the mounting for the 56-cm. 
rcHector and the solar spectrograph. 

With able direction, a dedicated staff and 
expanding facilities for research, the Naim Tai 
Observatory may be expected to make an 
increasingly valuable contribution to the 
country’s scientific and technological deve¬ 



2Q ^Putting 'Jfu O^dt On 0^ lc tine 




Elizabeth Connell. 
Reader's Digest, 
January' 1971. 


We are living in an epoch of great medical discoveries-none more liberating for women or 
more potentially stabilizing for the population of the world than the oral contraceptive commonly 
known as “The Pill'*. It has been in general use for about ten years. 

During that time we doctors have learnt that, although there can he side-effects malting it 
unsuitable for some few patients, for the vast majority of women it is safe and-when taken 
pc operly - prac tic ally 100 per cent effective. 

For the first time a woman can plan a career with the certainty that it will nut be disrupted 
by an unwanted pregnancy. Site can plan her children, certain that they will arrive when she and 
her husband are ready and eager to receive them. 

Yet tlie Pill recently came under heavy attack. On January 13, 1970, a sub-committee of 
the United States Senate opened a three-month series of hearings on birtn control, and the safety 
and effectiveness of contraceptives. While the whole ranqe of devices and techniques was examined, 
it was the Pill that received most of the attention and made sensational headlines. 

One of the first witnesses charqed that the Pill was a ‘potential Lime bomb* within woman, 
with a “fuse 15 to 20 years in length*. Another witness chided women fer beinq “ready-maoe 
and superb guinea-pigs” who "don’t cost anything, dean their own cages, feed themselves, and 
pay for their own pills". 

The hearings were so arranged that opponents of the pill were generally heard during the 
opening days when public interest was high and the headlines were large. The initial impression 
given was that every time a woman swallows the Pill she is threatened with disastrous side-effects, 
even sudden death. Yet no new information was presented and with one single major oxception- 
thrombo-eir.bohsm no positive proof of danger or permanent damage could be given. Everything 
else that was discussed and charged must therefore be coruriderBri,as Dr. Alan Guttmacher, 
President of Planned Parenthood-World Population, has pointed out os nothing more than 


(continued 1 


Not until the second phase of the hearings, when Press attention had waned, were doctors 
long experienced in contraception allowed to speak and attempt to restore some balance to the 
proceedings. But by this time the news stories had already told women that their health and even 
their very lives were in <j-eat danger, and that their doctors were sloppy ana poorly informed. 

Small wonder that women by the thousands panicked and gave up the Pill. Some turned to 
the other, less effective methods cf contraception (within the period of one year the intra-uterine 
device fails in 3 of the 100 women; the diaphragm's failure rate is 15 to 20 per cent while that of 
the rhythm method is even higher), some used none. The result was a wave of unwanted 
pregnancies leading to disrupted homes and careers, illegal abortions and statistically certain deaths. 

What were the specific spectres raised regarding the Pill? 

The word that made the biggest Headlines was cancer. Studies of the relationships between 
evarian hormones (contained in the Pill) and cancer have been made in many strains of animals -but 
with highly questionable results as far as applicability to human is concerned. Tumours of 

the cervix have been proauced in mice with massive doses of these hormones-in amounts far 
greater than could conceivably be ingested by a woman in a life-time of taking an oral contraceptive. 

Indeed, Nobel Prne-winner Dr. Charles Huggins reports that chemically induced breast 
tumours in rats can actually be suppressed or prevented by injection of female hormones. And the 
fact is that no laboratory experiments to date have been able to produce a hormone-induced cancer 
in monkeys, the species most closely related to man. 

What's more, there have been no statistical reports of increase in breast of uterine 
women taking the Pill. So long as women who are using the Pill pay regular visits to a doctor, it is 
poadble for them to have better medical care, with less danger from cancer of the certix, than any 
other group of women. 

It has been reported that a few women taking oral contraceptives have developed high blood 
pressure; however, the only published epidemHogical study showed a very slight increase in blood 
pressure in a few Pill users, and the change did not Increase significantly with continued use. On the 
bauds of these very limited statistics the hazard seems minimal. The regular examinations which all 
women on tho Pill should have (preferably twice a year) are sufficient to alert the doctor to any 
idiosyncratic reactions so that he may change or withdraw the prescription. 

A small minority of women on the Pill are afflicted with periodic depression. It is difficult 
to determine whether this is a side effect of the medication or a reflection of the short-term changes 
in mood experienced by many women just before and during menstruation. There is good medical 
evidence that the use of oral contraceptives actually relieves the pre-menstrual syndrome in many 
women. Some are happier and more productive than they have ever boon. 




Changes in sox drive have also seen reported. Social, psychological and endocrine factors oil 
bear upon human sexuality, and it is most difficult to sort out their relative importance. From my 
own practice (1 started out in rural general practice, then went into obstetrics and gynaecology, and 
new work permanently in the area of contraception) I know that the distaste for employing 
mechanical contraceptive devices at the time of intercourse reduces the libido in some women. 
Whereas the use of the Pill, and its all but 100 per cent protection against unwanted pregnancies, 
has released in many women a sexuality they never before experienced. 

The only side effect reported among those taking oral contraceptives which is probably drug- 
related is thrombo-e mbolism -blockages of blood vessels by clots. Even there tire picture is 
confusing, because the increase in thrombosis (the process that can lead to thrombo-embolism) 
began before the advent of the Pill and embraces both men and women. 

Also, one of the known causes of the disorder in women is giving birth, and this fact must be 
put into the final balanced equation. (The extra risk of death from a blood clot for a healthy young 
Pill user, according to studies in the United States, is 1.5 per 100,000, whereas it would appear that 
the rax of death from pregnancy is 22.8 per 100,000. For older women the risks are, respectively 
3.9 and 57.6). New evidence suggests that certain caws may be due to pre-diapoa Ing factors 
(smoking for instance). More research is obviously needed before we can reach firm long-range 

A number of the witnesses at the hearing reported a possible link between the Pill and almost 
every ill to which women is heir-fiver damage, metabolic changes, arthritis, sterility, even heart 
disease. Although they were qualified research scientists, their statistics were admittedly drawn 
from a small percentage of women taking the Pill. In any case, even if a direct cause and effect 
could have been established, it would have weighed little within the context of life’s overall 
hazards. As Dr. Roger Egberg of the U S. Department of Health, Education ana Welfare, pointed 
out, “Ordinary aspirin poses a greater health risk than the Pill". Before the Congress on 
Environmental Health convened by the American Medical Association he pleaded that the oral 
contraceptive be compared in a "fair way* to the other risks of life. 

Nevertheless, such words of assurance came too late to counter fully the sensational head* 
lines. During the first three months of 1970 the International Planned Parenthood Federation 
collected more than 2,000 clipping of stories that appeared in the newspapers of every country 
of Latin America and many other areas around the world. Typical were headlines in thB Press of 
Chile: "Pill Causes Cancer", "Pill Causes Physiological Disturbances* ;“Women Avoid Pregnancy 
with Pill but Get Fatter and Neurotic". 


A Gallop poll taken dunng the first week of February 1970 revealed that 18 per cent of 
American women on the Pill had stopped taking it, and an additional 23 per cent were considering 
giving it up. 



Those of us involved in patient care have been inundated by telephone calls and visit* from 
alarmed women. A colleague of mine recently told me of one of his patients who at her periodic 
check-up last year was blooming with health and good spritis. H What a difference the Pill has made 
in my life", she said. 

"I used to dread my husband's attentions and it almost ruined our marriage. But now I 
actually enjoy sex, and that fact seems to change everything about my life. I don't know how to 
explain it; I just seem to be more of a woman." 

She came to the clinic again last March, slumped into a chair and said, in a hollow voice, “I'm 
pregnant". Then she beyan to sob, “We don't want another baby-we can't afford it. I find myself 
hating It." 

“ What happened?" my colleague asked. 

“My husband read about those hearings on the Pill and he tiirew mine out. He won't let me 
take them any more." 

Another unfortunate reEult of the hearing was the artificial creation of two camps of 
doctors, the “Pro-Pill" and the "Anti-Pill". Except for a few extremists, most doctors do not feel 
that they belong to either camp. We are pro-pill in the sense that we recognize the inherent value 
of these drucp when properly used. We are anti-pill for particular patients who should not use this 
method of contraception because of medical contra-indications. 

Last April the International Planned Parenthood Federation summoned to New York dele 
gates from around the world, to re-evaluate all existing information on oral contraceptives. Their 
committees' conclusion that “while any innovation in medicine carries with it certain risks, which 
are by their nature unpredictable the continuous use of oral contraception is fully justified." This 
opinion is essentially the expressed view of must doctors. 

Fortunately, the storm of controversy has had its beneficial fall out. There is now a wide¬ 
spread awareness of the need to expand services and research studies, and an awakening legislative 
interest in the field of population and family planning. 

Every day we see increasing world problems because of rapidly expanding populations. Safe 
and effective contraception is essential in man's battle to control his environment. Thus far, the 
Pill remains one of our most effective weapons. Taken properly, under careful medical supervision, 
it is still the most reliable means of preventing unwanted pregnancy that man has yet been able tc 
devise for wide scale use. 





SOURCE : Spin, March 1970. 

Ii’ORD COUNT ; 1S84. 



Last year, on November A, the India 
Meteorological Department telegraphed all 
major ports on the east coast to hoist the 
cautionary signal number 1, warning ships and 
fishermen of a brewing cyclone. As the storm 
built up in intensity and was tracked moving 
eastward from the Andaman Sea thousand 
miles away, these warnings were repeated, 
initially eight-hourly and then four-hourly, 
keeping the port and other authorities in¬ 
formed of its progress and direction. 

The cyclone burst on the east coast of 
Andhra Pradesh near Kakinada port on the 
morning of November 7. At its peak it reached 

a fantastic speec of 250 mph for just Uiree 
minutes, bul long enough to trigger a chain of 
disasters. A 30-foot-high tidal wave blasted its 
way inland, washed away several coastal fishing 
villages, levelling everything in its path. “It was 
almo6t like a pre historic monster come alive to 
wreak vengeance." commented one victim. In 
the area affected-the rice bowl of south 
India—not a single paddy or sugarcane field was 
spared. In all some 200 persons were killed, 
and damage to property was estimated at 
Rs. 110 crores. 

The disaster was not without its alver 
lining. Tha reported: “The warning 

Use the Skimmer tor Fust Kevilns. 



given by the weather bureau helped the autho¬ 
rities, to avoid any serious mishap to the rail¬ 
ways. This time the authorities had taken 
prompt steps to see that no train was caught 
between stations.'* In the dreadful Raxnes- 
waram cyclone of 1964, a passenger train 
was swept off the causeway between India and 
Ceylon, and a whole fishing fleet at sea was 
caught by surprise. In all, znare than a 
thousand lives were lost in that calamity. 

The first alarm of the recent Andhra 
Pradesh cyclone was given by a “weather eye 
in the sky"-the Nimbua-3 meteorological 
satellite. On its 2,734th orbit some 700 miles 
above the clouds and weather, it flashed at 
10.56 a.m. on November 4 a picture of the 
Bay of Bengal area to the weather office 
in Bombay local meteorologists studied the 
cloud patterns and other tell-tale markings 
on the picture and sounded the alert. 

Significantly, three hours after Nimbus-3 
had passed over the area, another weather 
sentinel in space, Esse 9, also photographed 
the stormy region and transmitted its picture 
to a ground station in America. Immediately 
the U.S. National Environmental Satellite 
Center (NE5C) near Washington, D.C., cabled 
Delhi's meteorological office about the birth 
of a cyclone in the Bay of Bengal. 

Today, meteorology-the science of 
weath«r-hu advanced to the stage when it 
can predict cyclones, although not prevent 
them. While their awesome fury cannot be 
tamed, the damage to life and property can be 

"Weather satellites!, although novel and 
operational for less than a decade, have already 
helped in accurately forecasting the movement 
of several major cyclonic storms", DrJ. 
Krishna Rao, research scientist at NESC. told 

a group of scientists in Bombay recently. “ Bi 
die difficulty seems to be in relaying the inf or 
mation to local people who arc going to bi 
affected by such storms and evacuating them 
In time." Only when ground facilities for 
warning the people match the capability of the 
globe-girdling satellites will the damage be 
checked. Recognizing this weak line in the 
existing system, the Government of India has 
set up a Disaster Mitigating Committee to 
work, out the logistics of a cyclone alert 

Every year in the Arabian Sea and the 
Bay of Bengal, approximately five cyclonic 
storms occur, of which some two or three 
reach severe intensity. A cyclone is an intense 
whirlpool, and the storm it breeds can extend 
up to a radius of 400 milee. The energy it picks 
has been estimated to equal 360 one-megaton 
nuclear bombs. 

Keeping track of cyclones is just one of 
the many jobs of a weatherman. The moat 
important one is preparing a weather forecast 
and interpreting its impact on the daily life 
of people. It is neither a prophecy baaed on 
intuition or supernatural powers, not a scienti¬ 
fic prediction determined precisely after 
some mathematical computations. It is 
forecasi-an opinion arrived at after a study 
of current weather conditions and based on 
the knowledge of their past behaviour. 

Despite impressive technological 
advances, meteorology has a long way to go 
before it becomes an exact science. Today, it 
is easier tu predict the position of Mars 500 
years hence than to produce a reliable weather 
forecast five days in advance. Thit is because 
meteorology is in the same stage of growth as 
pre-Newtonian astronomy 2500 years ago when 
phenomena were observed but not under¬ 



Weather is a dynamic "brew" stirring 
in a gigantic "pot” of some 4 billion cubic 
miles. But only 20 per cent of the world’s 
weather is adequately observed far the pur¬ 
pose of forecasting, say the meteorologists. 
The blind areas include the vast oceans and the 
polar arid regions. 

Mapping and analysis of worldwide 
weather have been compared to an enormous 
jigsaw puzzle with the 'pieces’ in the form of 
weather reports. Until recently, most of the 
pieces of the atmospheric jigsaw puzzle were 
mixing. Since 1960 weather satellites have 
been providing some of these missing pieces, 
especially for the blind areas. One limitation 
of the satellite has been its inability so far 
to pick up all the important pieces of weather 
information needed by a forecaster, including 
temperature, pressure wind, humidity and 
visibility. The Nimbus-3 satellite launched last 
April, scored a major breakthrough when it 
measured atmospheric temperature from space 
for the whole world, twice every day. 

Commenting on its significance, Dr. 
P. Koteswaram, Director-General of Observa 
lories in India eays: "The achievement of the 
Nimbus-3 satellite in taking vertical profiles 
cf temperature in the atmosphere is bound to 
have a great deal of influence in future weather 
forecasting studies as well as practice. For the 
first time, we shall be able to determine tho 
temperature structure over oceans and un¬ 
inhabited areas which luive been presenting 
a very greal problem." 

A major obstacle in the path of the 
weatherman is not being able to compute the 
available bits of weather oboervaiions quickly 
enough to produce a forecast with some useful 
Ufe. Meteorological information is a perishable 
commodity, becoming obsolete in hours. And 
the volume of such data that needs to be 
collected and digested is truly staggering. 

To describe fairly accurately the state ol 
the atmosphere at a single instant wouk 
require the values of a number of variable! 
such as temperature and pressure at 5,G0C 
uniformly spaced points at each of ten diffc 
rent altitudes. All this adds up Lo 250,000 
pieces of basic data that must be studied just 
to keep track of what's going on. To compute 
a 24-hour weather forecast for the whole of 
the earth would take about one thousand 
million elementary mathematical operations. 

Overawed by the immensity and comple¬ 
xity of the problem, the Late John von. Neu¬ 
mann, one of the most brilliant and versatile 
mathematicians of our time, told a small group 
of his colleagues at the Institute for Advanced 
Study at Princeton, New Jersey, that 
forecasting the weather for more than a day cr 
two in advance is the most complicated and 
difficult physical and mathematical puzzle 
yet proposed or even thought of. 

This remark was made in 1956 when a 
computing machine of sufficient speed and 
capacity had yet to be developed. In 1920 
Prof. L.F. Richardson, the eccentric British 
genius, proposed s mathematical weather pre¬ 
diction and made the first attempt, but he 
failed. His prophetic comment then was : 
" Perhaps some day in the dim future it will be 
possible to advance the computations faster 
than the weather advances and at a cost less 
than the saving to mankind due to the informa¬ 
tion gained. But this is a dream.' 

The "dim future* envisaged by Prof. 
Richardson dawned in 1950 when the first 
successful-though primitive-mathematical 
prediction was made in the United States, using 
the computer ENIAC. Today, tho third-genera¬ 
tion computers hold millions of pieces of data 
in their memory banks and are capable of 
carrying out a million numerical operations in 
a second. Thus, the time required to perform 


(carUinui if > 

the billion operations for a 24-hour forecast for 
the world is reduced by about 1,000 seconds or 
17 minutes. Now, the aynamic combination of 
weather satellites' global coverage, high-speed 
computers to digest the voluminous data, 
and a network, for instant relay or weather 
forecasts offers exciting prospects. 

According to Dr. Glenn, T. Scaborg, 
Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Com¬ 
mission, the ability to forecast the weather 
accurately all over the earth for three days 
in advance would be wortn Rs.45,000 crore* 
each year to all the people of the world- 
quite apart from the human lives saved and 
human suffering avoided. 

To achieve this goal, the World Weather 
Watch (WWW) programme, an international 
co-operative venture, is presently under way, 
sponsored by the World Meteorological Orga¬ 
nization; Supplementing this is the Global 
Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP) 
that will help adeatists to understand com¬ 
plex interactions in the atmoephere-from 
liny eddies lo gigantic cyclones. 

In this worldwide venture to predict 
the vagrant weather, the India Meteorological 
Department is contributing significantly. Since 
1962 the Northern :iemisphore Exchange and 
Analysis Centre (NHEAC) in New Delhi-one 
of five in the hemisphere-has been preparing 
weather maps for the use of the region. Round 
the clock from some 1,700 observatories in 
the world, an endless stream of weather data 
pours into the office through direct radio Links 
with Moscow, Tokyo, Melbourne and Cairo, 
In one 24 nour period, some one hundred 
thousand itarns of weather data are received, 
including the state of weather over Communist 

To cope 'with the increasing volume of 
raw weather data, the meteorologists in India 
have started using computers. As a result, says 
Dr. P.K. Das, NHEAC’s Director, they can now 

forecast fairly accurately 24 hours in advance. 
For such coverage over longer periods, they ore 
conducting research to develop suitable mathe¬ 
matical ■models* that will simulate the be¬ 
haviour of the atmosphere over the Indian 

Presently the Meteorological Department 
is using tne advanced computer at Delhi's 
Institute of Technology. Before the ana of 
1971, it expects to get one of its own. Last 
year, it signed an agreement with IBM for 
installing a tlurd-generation computer. Con¬ 
sequently, more informative weather charts 
for India and adjoining areas will be prepared- 
imtially every twelve hours ana eventually 
tax nourly. 

The introduction of mathematical 
weather predictions for long-term forecasting 
in India will be a major advance. Many experts 
have described India's economy as "largely a 
gamble on the rains* because its timely arrival 
and abundance spells bumper crops and pros¬ 
perity and 

Although the weatherman cannot yet 
control the amount of rainfall, he can through 
his reliable satellite-computer forecasting nelp 
the kisan in scientifically planning his farming 
operations. Forewarned, the agriculturists can 
be well prepared to meet tho vaganes of 
weather, adjusting himself to both the dry and 
wet spells. Reconsider the Amlhra Pradesh 
cyclone of last November. If the local farmers 
had heeded its advance warning and harvested 
their standing crops in time, the damage would 
have been considerably minimized. In West 
Godavari District alone one of the four farm 
districts affected-it has been estimated at 
Rs. 10 crores. Presuming even a tan per cent 
saving in the total loss of Rs. 110 crores, it 
would amount to as much as Rs. 11 crores - 
an amount that would pay for the cost of 
weather services in India for four years. 




Uuvt out of Wi hi|*rk« are ;>ol lMalty 
rnotmtac Tha only way 10 itop tha 
iTwnatn u for all ocumrae to rafter 
ary 1 urn to * n piiilot, Until than tha 
lajack er will find. icmewhitri to 90 to 
for reiiy* juic be traaleii ai 1 :nra 
L-ateaJ of m ta« thu g that ha u 

Since 1947 thrrt havt teen 320 
mcicenta of at temp lee hijackuui. Jr to 
1953 most hijacks wire carried oat by 
peopia win ting to taoap* from East 

European Luunti ms. TLa next «>n unit 

between 19M and 1964 Involving 
Cuban tlie US. Emi theo, no 

atepa war* to pi a 
wilt hipcking 

Tha 118 wn-inUrtu btlwai JawiMry 
1969 and Juna 1970 finally brought 
t£2itl « P <» V«t«d awarw aM that hlUcidng 
wai f aai becoming a teqjlar tenure 

1970 wea the worst your - --h aircraft 
acryuuj B.0Q0 ponangin ware 
u oumj in world. The yaw kail liar illy 
begun whan an armed American torcoc § 
Motional Airiinaa plan* bound fiair. 
Lai Angela to Miaou to land at Cuba 
In Jute 3 ! Um same year, a 12-yaar-oic 
boy took over an Iran Bostnq 727 or 
flight between Teheran and Abadan and 
Liruataiwd to Uow il wn along witn 100 
Feaaangen tl it did not change courts tor 
Baghdad Lata Ji the month, 154 
people aboard a Pan Am 707 were In- 
jacked by in Albanian at piitol point. 

i4l7TJffJJI Aili fk-uraj. 

fOi/XCL- 7 U< IlluitreSi'U Weekly of 


In September, four aircraft* wee* 
wuac by Arab Commandos and 550 
passengen held Montage u the «n- 
prorineu Dawson ‘1 airfield u> the thwart, 
25 miles oil Amman j-. January 1971, 
an 1AC Faskar Friaradahip *-.* locked 
on 1 f-r.nagar-jarainu Eight and flown to 

Tha led Ic an ln<uan order prohi¬ 
biting f .ik.atari from flying onr our air 
ipere, and was actor dbg to several 
"pundits", :1 m beginning of llm braak- 
wav at th« two eehruft. Transport!lieu of 
man rcuipmen* and nippltas aeeame 
difficult and tha fual consumed in the 
eJumiaiirc nowa-end-up route was llire* 
times more. In tha tan months before 
tha 1971 war, Pak military atranoth 
could huve been further consolidated if 
are had permitted overflights. 

Qua of tha luoat daring recaul hi* 
lacke occiotsi! on October 29, 1972 
it 11.2C pm CIST). A Lufthansa iioairvg 
727 wo i luyscied by three Arab Com 
iiiaedca at Munich. On it were 13 pss- 
MOgera, 7 crew mam ben sad 3 Com¬ 
mando* in 101 mid w tha Munich 
miema*. who wart under err air in 
Germany, The West Carman 
Government was com^llad to relaaaa 
taa 1 fir 0 * to saw tna lives of ilia paa 
sender* and crew Tha three were 
tupvosed lo b* exchanges for tint 
p m a n gars, but the Idjatheii Lui re- 
fused to mot. our their pert of da 

litiliH %i»vrmhcr l‘». 1977. 
COCYT 1913 

hergair The plant finally lanaec at 
Tripoli in Idhya. Or* November 6, a 
JAL flight was hijacked to Tokyo. Tha 
hgacKar dvrruruiio $ 2 milbon and a 
plan* to uka him to Cuba in return 
for 120 pwaoira^ra mmi « crew nl r. » 
11a claimed to hare 66 pound* of ax- 
pioeiee cn a ini 


Tha define* against .-u;acici a mil 
wmi 77ie Gaigy* •Convention ooflros 
too and ok piiac-r as an act at nolaace 
o< i»*r,Ucr. parpitrali c for peraoiul 
t iiii Since hQseu on moatVy (uJiti 
cal , Ua Cuowinliac. li powerlesi m 
preec ribing a |Mualty 

Preventive meeturei until now 
ware limited tc Uii Tokyo llonvintmn 
Art of 1963 width allowtii that the 
State nliait a plane liaa laudwti ia Uia 
Moly ana competent to p:rr.aa cr art 
free the htjieker Tut Suts ■ also duty 
Pound to ensure the- aefelv of peaKagera 
ecu airsaf L Ml a deterrent U vru sadly 
inaaavpiau. It took 6 lean fur 12 ooun 
litas lo ratify II 

Since the currant wive ef h becks 
begna is 1967, tit* UN General /ownti 
ly twice diimsecd the tobj*rt (in 1969 
and 1970) wilhaui conirg to an a^ee 
cant Tbart wm doubt wpather tna JN 
w.» umn^tent to declare try rwclutioii 
a*»y act aa an tnlsmaliutal inn,a On 


(continued l 

Capterr. txf 9, 1970, a UN Resolution 
urged J) memben to aoopt mearjrsi 
chit would nop thu return to the *l«ei 
uf the tungL.' 

On Ncvaaaber 2S, through jauumi 

resolution, thi r iwn biy ten- 

damned nii aortal htjacsx aa 
Bui wfcBa Lhi UN efforts rtflsetad linla 
mure Uian an b sp r wa ltKi of tha world 
community, mon practical not* wai 
being earned out by the International 
Ortl Aviation Organisation la UN agency 
for ImeriuiLaoiJ civil xriutic-r.J. Iu legal 
Commit!** ant up In 1969, jxvjiari-ri a 
nnft rceme-.ioon that raguirec. d yuwr 
Stales to ;i mull or extra di!» knjackan, 

Tl.a draft was adopts*! at The lUjua 
Diplomatic In 1970. I: 
kswerat, left to tin <JjktbUou of liw 
State* whether to proaacaU or to aa 

In 1971 the -toe trial Conran non 
pr southed serare peaultiea far f lyicidrg. 
In 1972, Britain and tin US wprau aa 
extniaiuan • jreemar.t. Only after tha *i<iaranan of Airlines 
FiluU' AseocUlk.-n wont on a rtrfxa la 
June |9?Q, iLtd Imiuya l*-gtn to run?. On 
June 20,' the ear/ neat day. tlw UN Se 
cunty Ctrjnctl urueurioutly cocdamrwd 

In 3epteml>ei Use year, a Ib-nxuun 
group tocx tha firrt concrete atc,i to 
warts* an international aitti-iu|ac* law. 
Tha propotal was Lima tad by Ilia US. 
iLmxtui, Attain and Tlia lleuwrinnda. 
Thi Icyal conunittae of the ICAO plan- 
i ati j ilixft eluuii gives the Slate of aee 
mnoon 10 days to ciaar a violation. If, 
hovnvar, pawogcra and craw art In¬ 
volved, tile Slate will have to secure thev 
re Inter wtthtr 72 heart. Inability to da it 
ivBI antxfl auaponaian of air rights of that 
2lata further delay =*a near a total 
Kupanaton at flights ut and out of iu 

Tha committee won tty a 9 to d 
volo. Objections cam a from France and 
USSR that cciy the UM Security Cc lin¬ 
eal crejld Tipoe* puataonrenta fur no¬ 
tating uvltraaUunai law, ana not tlx 

ICAO, Another ob>*.tioH wee that net 
ar arraajarnrel could be a danger uu 
pi wvdent fra nataana handing togttner 
under ad hex agraaniftnU. So tiua debata 
aniiec ia a »Uieniuta to tha extant tfut 
there rat an uumirmui aajMi. 


ibiUln, Franc* ana Egypt coRti- 
■iersd orpsnmruj uaotnar body to deal 
specially with hifacxlng a >veer/ |xmi 
The iliirmix; ru Until ware mo bn Cod 
largely through personal reawma Uniui/i 
was tefuaaat to looper aae net mtereau 
in the Middle Cast. I’isnc* imJ lac pro¬ 
blem of Algeria to de al nttb, area re 
latioiii are ucad y atrtm ec ann Aigten 
Is, after Cuba, tin uioat papular tuyac* 
port, z-jryl a wars abaci! upaamr-g 
‘utoinat* ocuuukn micro r. Hacking la 
a regular mat. A wideaptead fealui j la 
tint it tha UN debate u rail e d lor too 
long it wll be t ha peluIt who mare tha 
Hit. decca n mon by r«fudn<; to fly 
into aowamas that naibota tmackun . 
When i metixitou cl aulutaa I ear i iouny 
lliey nug lit get tiieir goYemmenta coma 

jo the letjjti ul I tfaulen cunUliuc 
to be trv pricKliesi proUtm 

for undw Cuban Law 
1226 Cute retime tha r»wi: to tjnr.t 
political asylum to anybody, uidudnuj 
e lujecler, e+en though tot aame lew 
denouncer hijacuuij ea utiir.inanutl to 
the pultbcel and rvtrucal aacurlnr of tha 
country iUlaokan who flea to II* rtuat 
from Commurlar toutilnn an ml dam 
retiroert, Denmark rtfuaoc to aaiui book 
a 19-yiaroM Pale who hsd vv* 
e pilot xltn hand ^eeadat An Amen 
tan-Italian Uarioe who forctc a Pan Am 
707 to P.araa waa aontaaoed by tna Ita 
ban Court In I /, yean anc than roieueod 
attar tlx moctha and perm itM la it*y 
tm hi Itety. 

T irtculi Law, (or one, plainly rtatea 
that no perecei will be extradited for a 
srbna tha; ia of a political nature Hob- 
tiuel Ineoiugia* ar* atBl mom unpom.t: 
than the laves of uuuweut people 

Orrr 20 aoacka by Palaatim an Com- 
naadoa lure been (node on EL AL 
planet and oTRuta u cities as apart u 
Athens Zurich, Brussels and Alum. Tha 
bcyccTt of jw bim Miadla East airp-j-'a 
in a Siahly competitive au ruo* u (lean- 
axil, enpnacikel . 30AC atoppad tu 
rjyhu to Jegl.Jxd, time rmumad them 
m two days because a could not afford 
la be left beam a 

3xi.« iMtuane ere nol will'sg ta come 
to an arranjen-mt, privau arutarpraes 
aii' tfiuivuiuals liave hgmu out several 
idea* to diacojraga wouirt-tM .dmntu- 
rera In dm 'JL. IJXA man are oeir.g 
taauied aa au m ar alula Tlia Frdrrril Aria- 
nor, f cminutruion haa uUiumu s cam- 
Ennxuan r,non ol “ bekav.ctx profile" 
anti metal Catection. An F '\i\ apiotea 
man exile U li-mi-i n- "■< *Tha 
bask uiaa la reougniunii of tratta coni- 
nor to fijacken,* ha teyi. "We osll a 
auty+ct at the dispart and coraumc OJt 
oMersas<xa wna a paaaro uraapona 
acreenirg davica l i.fltsl ilucevtcr) ’ 

Tm- r/stern let a W pe^ rm; rue real 


A Texas firm another lain- 
non 1 icy Base Inventad au sxiveiKvc 
elacUixuc ryaum that dstenr.mea tyjfl 
or mill so tna: alarm J nol raises by 
imixeiil Heme like keys and chains. A 
greet deal of ernUtriaarmer.l ara» tuuavU 
by ’J * lew senamr* «4d detocUa dnea 
srsaeai rrOTan wars meiel upholsrsrs 
a.a Uieir tnann. Checong out every 
“'aia; slartr. tooc an incrrd.Ue amount 
of tuna The nrw tyitvm only tegiaiors 
•juna or cduoka of metxj nvktli tier, 

Metal C etacrtim. aa a prrc*Jtion la 
not -usmvr Ftr# pd ou ndl nail -J a 
bluff of a hijacks* wh c a ar * he haa a gun 
c* 11 * rfatotgir. of hk haviag pamel 
thfougn tna tun Ml leal . 

At Loniotn’i Haaihrow Alrjicct, 
X-ray raroaraa and atnfer Keenly 
precautions sum tha yciag a litlW 




An international Reuter surrey 
showed that major li-porti sli over Lhe 
world have installed (Under mexnctk 
devtoea. Some airlines burs conk dared 
tin* um of dart guns to temporarily 
paralyse a hijsccor. A tutrutjxo it the 
0» gun Cut con harmlessly, but in* 
ramly. knock out «vary ant la (M 
cabin Coupiea with the French rougas- 
t>on to Ex an annoui wl door cutsbi tbs 
cockpit It coaid become the only pkud- 
Lit ioiuti.-3i. What n would do to pas¬ 
senger chans, however, a a bleak ccaii- 

Airunt authorities are rolurUuit to 
start an anything that could detract 
from the glamour and sop h i st ica t ion of 
sir Eying, beaidae adding so lb* paaaer.- 
gars' inborn faar of Eying. So tar. the 
US, Israel and Ethiopia tarry armed 
guards. Israel calls her (quad this 
"007V. Must European pilots feel 
a rmed guartk are unhelpful .You canno t 
heee pressurised ahootcuts at 30JQ0 

faet without getting into troubk. 

la Lisbon, a Porluguees inventor 
rjggaats anaesthetic bullats ruec from 
pans ftxec or pewengcr sects. A cloned 
nnrjil TV follows tha skyjacker's move¬ 
ments and tha guards 'kayo' a siupect 
Cty firing tiro gun closesl to him. The Idea 
is deriraJ from the method adopted for 
capturing wild animals. 

In India, munitometen to datact 
mato, have been installed la tha four 
major airports. The I AT A has su ggested 
the s ea of trained do<w to sniff out 
bom be at airports and plans*. 

It mc-dd ux« roughly tight weeks 
to Taut a dog. Laaredors are considered 
tha bat arced for the job. 

In Chicago a mechanical "dog" » 
behsg tom* dated by aUantale. The 
aasnplea the an in a cabin and 
■-itrvf "red* at tha first whiff of gun¬ 


There a ao end Is lugqsstkina. non 
oiling • hijacker or. landing at hk chorea 
or pert li being uabated by nations who 
do not wont to be involved in poliaaal 

So fat as asylum Is panted to hi- 
kckrtt and p obtscs permit the eu danger- 
mg of patagen, htjecaln; will coo- 
tkuie. Before a world body con be or- 
gamsed certain questioni must be art - 
swarm:. Will Cuba or China sign an mar- 
national ayvemant to rsturn hijocketi! 1 
WL1 the Communists and tha West atop 
regaidmg a defection aa an insult to one 
and a personal triumph for the other? 

WO all notions promptly tcitfu hi' 
jackets to home bear, whatever be tha 
reaaon lor Uta act of peacy? 

Nut Uii thus tiutsocru art answered 
will anybody make the pbate walk the 



32. ^Saving au ,4 ae& ifuji £at 

AUTHOR i P.R. Gupta. 
SOURCE : Span, July 1970. 
WORD COUNT . 2000. 


"Caution-keep out cf the reach of children”. So read a recent protest poster in California 
showing an unclad nursing mother. The caption below explained ; “Milk in such containers may he 
unfit for human consumption. DDT content. 10 to .30 parts per million in milk of r.urong mothers 
(two to six tunes the amount allowed in milk for commercial sale)." 

A gas-masked young man in Washington, D.C., marened in a procession carrying a placard. 

In New York City school children with daffodils in their hair swept streets. In many other 
areas children gathered millions of bottles and cans from oeaches and streets. 

Women picketed a steel mill on the Detroit River which, they saic, was dischar^ng pollutants 
into tne stream. 

Ln Connecticut, college students ceremoniously buried an internal combustion engine, des¬ 
cribed as the single biggest culprit in fouling the atmosphere. 

Two university professors in Arizona have sought the payment of $ 2,000 million from six 
copper companies that operate pollution-causing smelters. A lawyer's wife in New York has sued 
"on behalf of all people in tho United States" eight manufacturers of DDT pesticide and demanded 
$ 30,000 million for damages to environment. 

But last December 20, the Unitec States Government banned the use of DDT in resdenLnl 
areas. This ban will be extended to virtually all other uses by the end of next year. 

The Aluminium Company of .America in full page advertisements announced the develop¬ 
ment of a new air pollution control system that “removes Fumes and particles from the gases 
gathered during production of the primary aluminium so that virtually none escape into the atmos¬ 


( continued ) 

A paper manufacturing company will spend nearly 60 million dollars to control pollution at 
its factories. 

In the State of Wisconsin, a river once polluted and debris-ridden is flowing clean again, 
tdanks to the leadership of a 59-ycar-old marketing consultant and his 400-strong volunteer citizen 
corps which worked for five years. 

These actions-some symbolic, others dramatic, yet others thoughtful—spotlight the current 
concern in the United States over the environmental crisis. The rising national alarm at mankind's 
degradation of the earth’s atmosphere, sea and land surfaced last April in thousands of "Earth Day* 
demonstrations. Millions of Americans protested man's deteriorating environment and demanded 
that technology be applied to improve thB quality of life. 

Significantly, these problems were voiced soon after the Apollo-13 mission during which 
worldwide interest was generated in the availability of the cnpplec craft's “consumables"-water, 
air and power. At one stage of the fight, fouling of the air by carbon dioxide breathed out by the 
astronauts caused much concern. As the *** fork ri«■ editorially pointed out, “Many people 
have begun to realize that earth, too, is a sort of spaceship and that it too has only a limited supply 
of consumables." 

The editorial added : “Not until Apollo-6 sent back earth’s self-portrait were millions able to 
see and realize how ‘small and blue and beautiful' this planet is, and to understand-to quote Archi¬ 
bald MacLeish a gain-that earth is really only a ‘tiny raft in the enormous, empty night’." 

- The abuse of environment is not local or national, but global. Air currents waft poisonous 
gases around the world; sewage and oil pollution in the seas and oceans touch many shores;and 
international rivers carry harmful wastes and poisons across national boundaries. Protecting man's 
environment is a planetary’ problem. 

"The great question of the 'seventies’,” said President Nixon in his State of the Union 
message early this year, "is,, shall we surrender to our surrounding^ or shall wc make our peace 
with nature end begin to make reparations for the damage we have done to our air, to our land, and 
to our water?" 

The question is no longer whether man can stop polluting his environment, but when will he 
do so. “We are in a period of grace," says Barry Commoner, one of the more eloquent and persua¬ 
sive ecologists in the U.S. "We have time-perhaps a generation—in which to save the environment 
from the final effect* of the violence we have done to it." He warnsThe price of pollution could 
be the death of man.” 

Every day, industrial chimneys in the United States spew out 100,000 tons of sulphur di¬ 
oxide, 90 million motor vehicle edd 230,000 tons of carbon monoxide (52 per cent of smog) and 
other lethal gases. Tetraethyl load in auto exhausts affects human nerves, increasing irritability and 
decreasing brain function. Lead is fatal in big doses. In the past 70 yean of the automobile era, the 



average American's lead content has risen an estimated 125-fold, neann j the highest level tolerable. 
The vertical growth of cities has created another man-made problem-the presence of thermal invar 
ions (a currant of warm air above cold) that can trap smog far days. In 1963 some 400 New York¬ 
ers were killed as a result. 

Equally insidious is the pollution of rivers and lakes by industrial effluents, sewage, and resi¬ 
dues of pesticides, fertilizers and detergents. Since the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring 
in 1962 first sounded a worldwide alarm, the effects of pesticides have been studied extensively. 
While they are known to improve farm yields spectacularly, they have also caused widespread des¬ 
truction of fish and wildlife. In one Canadian province, the application of only one-half pound of 
DDT per acre of forest wiped out an entire year's production of young Salmon. 

The natural process by which weaker creatures are eaten by stronger ones, this food chain 
contributes to the concentration of pollutants and the magnitude of the damage done. Rain, for 
example, washes the DDT on the ground into streams, and eventually into the sea, where it is ab¬ 
sorbed by the plankton, passively floetinq plants and animals. Whan fish eat the DDT-tainted plank¬ 
ton, the pesticide becomes concentrated in their bodies and the original doses, seemingly harmless, 
multiplies manifold in fun-eatinq birds which may die or become sterilized. 

Less perceptive but more devastating Is its baneful effect on tne plankton. Their rate of 
photosynthesis and consequently the amount of oxygen produced is diminished. As they arc the 
principal source of oxygen on the earth, responsible for 70 per cent of it, such a deprivation could 
lead to famine of vital oxygen and threaten the survival of all life on this globe. Today's technolo¬ 
gical civilization lives on oxygen. A car travelling 600 miles consumes as much oxygen as a man does 
in a year. At present, more than 200 million automobiles move about on the world's roads. 

Not commonly known is the impact of thermal pollution on marine life, which is alarming 
scientists. Steam powered electric generators, nuclear plants and chemical factories use cool water 
from rivers and lakes and return it hot. Heat decreases the dissolved oxygen content in the water 
and threatens the survival of many fish species. Also, it destroys many oxygen-dependent bacteria 
that disintegrate sewage. So, the existing pollutants become more toxic. 

A textbook example of such a phenomenon is what happened to Lake Eue, one of the Great 
I^akes. Sewage from Detroit and other dries reduced the oxyyen content of most of the lake’s 
centre to zero. In the process, a once magnificent inland sea deteriorated into a vast cess-pool, as 
the lake's tributaries turned into open sewers. With steps taken to police the pollution, Ene may 
be restored in fivo to ten years. 

With the development of a nerve'-ending array of synthetic compounds, it has been estimated 
that 5,000 new chemicals enter the environment every year. Most of the synthetic materials totally 
resist natural decay. The good old tin can which used to rust away has made way for the immortal 
aluminium can which can outlast the Pyramids. Every year, Americans throw away 48 billion cans, 
rtu* 28 billion bottles and uncounted plastic containers and wrapping. Also, they junk seven 
million care, 100 million tyres, 20 million tons of paper. 

This torrential effluence of affluence! Is it the price of progress? Is it a technological tiger 
that man cannot dismount? As President Nixon put it while creating the Council of Environmental 



Quality: "The deterioration of the environment is in large measure the result of our inability to 
keep pace with progress. Y/e have become victims of our own technological genius. But I am confi¬ 
dent that the same energy and skill which gave rise to these problems can also be marshalled for 
tho purpose of conquering them. Together we have damaged the environment and together we can 
improve it." 

Soma argue that thesoniy way to improve the environment is by slowing-if not altogether 
stopping-economic growth. Others favour putting brakes on technology which, they say, is the 
monster that causes pollution. As one commentator put it, man rushes first to be saved by techno¬ 
logy, and then to be saved from it. 

It is true that as production grows bo also does pollution. But economists point out that 
stopping economic growth would automatically doom to continued poverty of hundreds of millions 
of people all over the world. "Growth is compatible with quality-if growth is properly conceived 
and managed," says Russel E. Train, Chairman of the Council of Environment Quality. The environ¬ 
mental problem must be viewed within the context of the revolution of rising expectations which 
is sustained by both economic growth and technology. 

The real culprit, however, is neither production nor technology. It is mac himself. As New 
York Mayor John V. Lindsay said, “people are the real polluters". In the United States, a baby is 
bom every 12 seconds and a car every five seconds. The two together set up a new demand for 
living space and road space which eats away two acres of countryside every minute. 

This race of production and reproduction must be slowed down. Otherwise the penalty is 
stiff and spelled out by tlw mathematical law of compound interest. The world's population 
touched the 1,000 million mark, in 1860, taking some 200,000 years to reach this figure. Only 60 
years later, it had doubled. The next doubling is expected in 1975. if this growth remains un¬ 
checked, by the end of this century the population will be 6,000 million. Children now bom could 
expect to spend their old age among 12,000 millions. 

“ I don't know what's going to atop the population explosion," says Cornell's Ecology Pro¬ 
fessor Dr. LaMont C. Cole, who was in India last month on a lecture tour "We could do it by ratio¬ 
nal means, something else is going to do it. It may be famine, it may be epidemic, It may be nuclear 
war. And it may be a major upset in the environment, so that we begin running out of oxygen, or 
something of that sort". Obviously there is a limit beyond which the earth cannot absorb the pre¬ 
ssures being put on it. 

During the past 70 years, scientists have studied the functioning of living organisms in non¬ 
living environment and the manner in which they exist as one system. More and more attention is 
now being paid to this science, called Ecology, popularly described as the “science of survival". 

In search of new ideas to reverse the galloping pollution, scientists are concentrating on 
“closing the loop’*. By recycling liquid and solid wastes into new products, the life-support systems 
of Spaceship Earth could be revitalized. The prophets of gloom and doom need not have a field day. 
It is true that man is an animal, but he is a rational animal. Confronted by the facts of ecology, he 
if bound to reform. The very affluence which has created the present plight can also provide the 
needed resources in the fight for the survival of his polluted planet and himself. 




In world tourist circles, India is often re¬ 
ferred to as die “sleeping gianl" of the uidus- 
try -because of its vast untapped potential. 
But recent measures by the government, the 
airlines and private industry indicate that the 
giant is now stirring after the slumbci of yean. 

In a Few months, when the jumbo jets 
start roaring into Indian airports, they are ex¬ 
pected to bring with them a sharp increase 
in the number of tourists. At New Delhi's 
Pal am alone, it is estimated that in-coming and 
out-going passengers will total over three lakhs 
a year. Coping with tlic new influx is a major 
challenge facing the Indian tourist industry 

Tourism, of course, is already on the rise 
ui India, Last year it earned Rs. 33 crores in 
foreign exchange as against Rs. 26 crcres in 
1968. And compared to the 1.89 lakh figure 
of 1968, India had a record 2.45 lakh tou¬ 
rists in 1969. Still, in terms of world tourism, 
tills means that only one out of every 1,000 
global travellers visited India. 

The main difficulty in building India’s 
tourist industry has been the fact that it lies 
beyond the world’s most-travelled air lines. In¬ 
deed, most of the country’s visit on come from 
half-way across the globe-from the U.S., 
Europe and Japan. The expenses of air fare is 
so great that few can afford to visit India 

Airj’HOR ; Usha John. 

SOURCE ; Span, November 1970, 
h’ORD COUNT : 2100. 

except as a tiny segment of a oace-in-a-Lfetime 

But there are many reasons why the tourist 
outlook for India, and other developing coun¬ 
tries, is extremely bright. As an Indian official 
once pointed out: “Many people have seen the 
standard attractions and are looking for some¬ 
thing new. This something new is very likely to 
be in a less-developed country, Because these 
countries generally have mild climates, they 
will attract those tourists whose travels follow 
the sun. In addition, the developing country 
usually offers the interest of a distinctive way 
of life, and often the remains of ancient splen¬ 

Few countries in the world can equal India 
in its choice of ancient splendours—magnificent 
temples, old forts and tombs, its profusion of 
places. Few have as rich a tradition in philo¬ 
sophy, religion and history, or as varied a heri¬ 
tage of painting, sculpture and handicrafts. To 
the nature lover India offers unparalleled diver¬ 
sity-from snow-capped mountains to aun dren¬ 
ched beaches, from dense forests to the stark, 
eerie heauty of tlic desert. 

Because of its vast untapped potential, 
India has often been referred to as the “sleep¬ 
ing giant” of the tourist industry. But there art 
signs at lost that the giant is stirring. 

Evidence of this may be found in the large 


( continued) 

number of measures initiated in recent months 
by the Government of India, by the airlines 
and by private industry. One of the most suc¬ 
cessful of these is “Operation Europe', which 
was jointly launched last year by the Depart¬ 
ment of Tourism and Air-lndia. The aim of the 
campaign, according to Air-lndia Manager Mr. 
Narpat Singh, is “to try and sell the many 
tourist attractions in India to selected groups 
of potential European clients in concert with 
other friendly airlines, charter operators and 
agents”. He added: “The campaign in Europe 
has been substantially helped by the removal 
of the limit on the number of tourist charters 
Operated to India by foreign travel agents and 
by liberalizing the rules for their operation. 
Customs and immigration rules have also been 
liberalized. During the past few months the 
Director-General of Tourism has invited a 
number of eminent foreign writers, photogra¬ 
phers, and film producers to tour the countiy 
and convey their impressions to the people at 
home. I "his programme has had a greater im¬ 
pact on foreign travel than paid advertising." 

Tlic success of “Operation Europe” is im¬ 
pressive : a cliarter operator in Switzerland has 
organized 19 charters; travel agents in Italy 
have sponsored 10 large groups of tourists; 
there have boon two charters, each carrying 85 
tourists from Scandinavian countries; and Air- 
India has itself organized several special char¬ 
ters from Germany. “This wedlock between 
Air-lndia and the Department of Toiinsm,* 
commented Mr. Narpat Singh, “enables the 
government to take full advantage of the 19 
Air-lndia in Europe for the promotion 
of tour groups to India". 

During 1969. tourist arrivals from Wes¬ 
tern Europe rose to more than S3,000 (com¬ 
pared to 37,000 in 1968), largely as a result of 
“Operation Europe”. Tliis figure, however, Is 
equalled by the number of tourists from the 

United States alone. Of last year’s total of 2.45 
lakh tourists, the largest number of a single 
nationality came from the U.S.—53,000. 
This was followed by the United Kingdom with 
38,000 and by Ceylon with 19,800. 

Playing an important role in transporting 
American tourists to tills country is Pan Ameri¬ 
can World Airway (Pan Am), which started its 
flights to India in 1947. It is one of the 
friendly airlines which have been assisting India 
and other countries through such organiza¬ 
tions as the Pacific Area Travel Agency . Speak¬ 
ing of this assistance. Mr. Frank Gurney, Direc¬ 
tor-General of Pan Am, said: “Wc have occa¬ 
sional tourist charters operated to India, but 
most travellers find it convenient to use our 

Tourism's goal it India as a destination 
point, not just a slupover, 

scheduled services. Cl .arters become attractive 
to large groups of travellervgroups of 10, 15 
or 25 are common to tins part of the world. 
There has been • reduction in group fares, 
known as promotional or excursion fares. 
Pan Am has also been active in bringing about 
special excursion fares to Europe and the Far 
Bast which, A is hoped, will benefit India as 

Another Pan Am contribution to Indian 
tourism is its calendar, which, over the years 
has regularly carried pictures of exotic and 
interesting locations in India, “flic 1971 Pan 
Am Calendar," said Mr. Gurney, “will have a 
picture of one of the former palaces of Udai¬ 
pur. And one and a half million copies of it will 
be distributed throughout the world." 

While Trans World Airlines (TWA) doe* not 
generally operate charter tours to India, a great 
many tourists visit the country in the course of 
their round-the-world TWA trips. TWA 


front \nuedl 

manager Amarjit Singh Hamana also draws 
attention to the fact Hut “in Lhe United States 
we are trying to promote tourism to India by 
displaying posters of the Taj Mahal and other 
historical monuments and by printing book¬ 
lets on India.” 

The importance of tourist literature is now 
universally recognized. And awareness of this 
has led the Department of Tounsn to adopt a 
new publicity line to attract foreign travellers. 
Colourful, glossy booklets and pamphlets now 
highlight the special attractions of various re¬ 
gions in India-their climate, scenery, architec¬ 
ture, cuisine, dress and crafts. Informative 
material is offered in the shape of maps, road 
maps, and charts listing factual data. 

CummenlinK upon the publicity aspect of 
tounsm, Mis. Sulochana Panigrahi, Deputy 
Director-General in the Department of Tou¬ 
rism, said: “By and large, we have achieved a 
breakthrough. Previously much of the publi¬ 
city that India received in the foreign press was 
bad publicity-whole columns devoted to 
famine and poverty. The inordinate emphasis 
given to such reports was responsible for dis¬ 
torting India's image. To combat tliia we have 
improved our literature and are trying to dis¬ 
tribute it widely. Wc also employ public rela¬ 
tions agencies to place factual stones about 
India, highlighting our tourist spots in foreign 
newspapers and magazines. Recently, Jours de 
France devoted 13 pages in colour to India- 
fascinating pictures of french mannequins pos¬ 
ing before the Taj Mahal and other architec¬ 
tural landmarks." 

Through its various overseas offices, the 
Department of Tourism is proclaiming a new 
image of India to the world-an image that 
emphasizes its hospitality, its infinite variety 
of attractions, and its good all-year-round cli¬ 
mate. Advertisements In foreign magazines 

invite tourists to spend their holidays in India 
to make India their only destination for a two- 
or-thrce-wcck stay rather than just a stopover 
point on a rushed junket. 

Of last year’s total, the percentage of 
tourists arriving in India for pleasure was 
highest from the U.S., 87.8 per oent. Germany 
came next with 82 per cent, the U.K. third 
with 73.7 per cent, Ceylon fourth with 70.7 
per cent, and Japan fifth with 64 per cent. 

Once in India, where do these pleasure- 
seekers go? According to Mr. J.C. Sarkar, Tours 
Manager of a well-known New Delhi trawl 
agency, at least 90 per cent of American tour¬ 
ists visit kashmir, Chandigarh,, Agra, Delhi, Jai¬ 
pur, and Udaipur, about 70 per cent go to 
Bombay, Aurangabad, Goa and some parts at 
South India; and nearly 40 per cent visit the 
Gii I orest, Corbett National Park, Varanasi, 
Patna, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, Konarak, Puri 
and Darjeeling. 

To strengthen the chances of India becom¬ 
ing a destination^ point for tourists, the 
government is carrying out a many-sided pro¬ 
gramme to develop facilities in places already 
on the tourist route a$ well as to open up new 
areas of tourist interest. The Fourth Five Year 
Plan on tourism lists three major projects-the 
development of Gulmarg in Kashmir as a 
winter sports resort, and of Goa and Kovalam 
as beach resorts. 

Winter 1970 will mark the debut of India’s 
ski season at Gulmarg which, the experts say, 
has some of the finest ski slopes in the world, 
(light through the year, visitors can drive into 
the flowery' Gulmarg meadows on a new all- 
weather road. Other development measures in¬ 
clude centrally-heated hotels and cafeterias at 
Gulmarg and Khilanmarg: installation of an 
aerial ropeway between the two places ; setting 


(continued 1 

up of a ski training school ;& practice ski lift; 
an ice-skating rink, and the services of a U.N. 
ski expert, Mr. Otto Sanlncr from Austria. 

At Goa and Kovalam, plans envisage the 
building of new hotels and recreational facili¬ 
ties which will allow vacationers to enjoy not 
only swimming but water skiing as well. At 
kovalam, which is located near Trivandrum, 
yoga is to bo made a tourist attraction and 
schemes are under way to set up a dance school 
and a massage and health centre on the basis 
of the Kerala oil bath system. More and mure 
the Department of Tourism is trying to create 
a firm cultural base for tourist promotional 
activities. An added attraction at kovalam is 
accessibility to the Periyar Game Sanctuary. 

For years, the wealth ami abundance of 
its wild life has lured tourists to India, and 
operators of shikar tours have prospered 
greatly in all parts of tile country. With the 
recent ban on tiger killing in 12 Indian States, 
the Department of Tourism U making every 
attempt to shift tourist interest to the view¬ 
ing of wild life—to “shooting" with a camera 
instead of with a gun. To this end plans arc 
being drawn up to promote “photo safaris" 
and nature tours for visitors. During the Fourth 
Plan, a sum of Rs. 50 lakhs has been allocated 
for the development of wild life tourism. The 
emphasis will be on the provision of adequate 
transport facilities and living accommodation. 

Hie question of hotel accommodation, of 
course, is basic to the development of lire 
tourist industry. And Indian tourism has suffer¬ 
ed from tike shortage of hotel rooms in the big 

cities and the inadequacy of accommodation in 
smaller towns. But today, as never before, steps 
are being taken to remedy the situation. Pri¬ 
vate Indian industry is co-operating with 
American collaborators in the building of three 
huge live-star hotels, and a few live-star govern¬ 
ment hotel is in the works. These will cater to 
the highest spending categories of tourists. To 
meet the needs of middle-income tourists the 
government has built a string of two-star 
hotels, tourist bungalows and travellers’ lodges. 
And in out-of-the-way places, the traditional 
dak bungalows and rest houses are being reno¬ 
vated and modernized. 

Once the infrastructure has been comple¬ 
ted, India can look forward to sharing with 
other countries the manifold benefits that flow 
trom tourism. According to the U.N. Trade and 
Development Council, “invisible trade", or the 
tourist industry, is now the largest single Item 
in world trade. Its blessings are incalculable. 
Every dollar spent by a tounst in a foreign 
country augments the national income, brings 
revenue to the government in the form of 
taxes, provides employment for people in 
hotel, restaurant, transportation, sightseeing 
and shopping services. 

Just as Important is the fact that increased 
international travel breaks down the barriers 
between nations, teaches them more about one 
another, and builds mutual understanding and 
cooperation. Hence the newly-coined proverb: 
“A happy tourist is a roving ambassador of 
good will’. 

nu i no 


AUTHOR i V. S. Namia. 
SOURCE i Span. 

WRD COUNT . 2136. 


Deeriibing the Irish potato (amine of the mid-aincleenlh century 
and its repercussions, a writer remarks: "Here is an outstandinq instance 
of a political event of the first magnitude being predpitatod by the beha¬ 
viour of a simple vegetable". 

The political event referred to waa the resignation of the govern¬ 
ment heeded by Sir Robert Peel In Great Britain. This followed in the 
wake of the famine and a long controversy over abolition of the Corn 
Laws by which imports of cereals were heavily taxed. 

For more than two hundred yean the Irish had dspended on the 
potato as their suple food. When blight affected the crop in 1645 and 
whole fields were des tro y e d, it wea a national disaster marked by star¬ 
vation, disease and large-scale emigration. The damage to the crop waa 
estimated at £ 3,500,000. There were a million deaths, and the total 
population of Ireland was reduced by about two-and-a-half million. 

In recent times the potato, while no longer an ereential food any¬ 
where, has continued to figure prominently in household and hotel menus 
in die West. It has also proved extremely useful in times of emergency. 
Both durinq the First and the Second World Wen, when Great Britain and 
most European countries were faced with cereal shortages, their govern¬ 
ments encouraged the consumption of potatoes as a substitute for bread. 
A poster issued by the Ministry of Food in Great Britain in 1942 urged 

•L'w Sm AAcvitfitor (or Fint Kr»<fm» 


{ continiwdj 

that "potatoes roust 90 into action on the food front*. In India, too, 
whenever the food position has been acute in recent years, efforts have 
been made to popularize the use of potatoes along with other non-cereal 

According to the experts, the potato indeed has a high nutritive 
value. Its protein is richer in lysine-one of the essential amino-adds - 
than most of the cereals. It contains appreciable amounts of vitamins in¬ 
cluding ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) which is absent in cereals and such 
essential body-building minerals as calcium, phosphorus end iron. Yet, 
contrary to the prevailing notions, it is not at all fattening, providing only 
about eighty-five calories per hundred grama, even though on a unit-area 
basis it out-yialds the cereaLi in this respect. 

In spite of its proved dieuc value, however, the potato is still a 
comparatively minor item of food in India, the f* annual con¬ 

sumption being only about four Idlo^ama compared with 174 in 
Germany, 100 in the United Kingdom and 47 in the United States. The 
reason for this low consumption may be partly economic, but it lies 
largely in the people’s reluctance to change their food habits. Cereal] 
made up almost the entire diet of an average Indian, potatoes represent 
a mars 2.6 per cent of the total. Even in the case of cereals, regional pre¬ 
ferences create difficulties. Recent shortages of foodgrains highlighted 
the fact that it is difficult to persuade rice-eaters in the South to switch 
over to wheat, even temporarily or in part. The chappa tie-eating Punjabi 
may be somewhat more tlexible but he too would be averse to giving up 
his ration of wheat for any length of time. 

Yet eating habits must change if the country is to use available food 
resources to the best advantage, and the potato would men a promising 
resource. The Central Potato Research Institute in Simla has done much 
useful work in developing high-yielding and disease-resistant varieties of 
potatoes suited to the agrcnchmatic conditions prevailing in different parti 
of India. 

Originally established in Patna in 1949, the Institute was moved 
seven years later to Simla where the climate and environment are consi¬ 
dered more favourable to breeding of varieties and multiplication of 
disease-free seed potatoes. With a tuff af about 150 at prasnt, including 
a team of scientists headed by the Director, Dr. Mukthar Singh-a noted 
agronomist-the Institute is concerned with all aspects of potato research 


f continued) 

and co-ordination of the results of this research to achieve improvements 
in both yield and quality. Tan regional stations, located In different parts 
of India, supplement its activities and work in collaboration with State 
agricultural deportments. 

In common with other crops, the potato La muceptible to many 
dj — ae o s. Some of these visibly affect the tubers and foliage of the plant, 
while others show few outward symptoms but leed to degeneration and 
considerably reduce yields. One of the mast serious fungal dlseasss in 
India, which may sometimes destroy an entire potato crop within a few 
days, is late blight. It damages the leaves, stems and tubers; the stems 
oftsn break and the plant is killed. Among other fungal diseases are: 
charcoal rot, which resuits in the tubers developing black patches on the 
surface and inside; black scurf, or the appearance of dark-ami inside; black 
scurf, or the appearance of dark-coloured hard bodies on the ridn of 
tubers; end powdery scab or small br o wn spots on young tubers which 
later grow into pimples and disfigure them. The potato diseases caused by 
viruses are often transmitted to healthy plants by aphids or small juice- 
sucking plant lice. Virus-infested plants lose their vigour and give poor 
yields. Once established, the virtues are difficult to eliminate and result 
in a succession of diseased crops and running out of seed stock. 

rtm-/r«« «««4 i» * f$im attniii) fmm patmta 
mIHmiIm, idapti+m 0* 1 *«««i plat* iaalktfia Ua raaatfai 
ait tarpa inaraaiaa <■ piald. 

The Institute has been successful in developing varieties resistant 
to some of these diseases, notably late blight. Among the blight-resistant 
varieties ere i*/w jpeti and tmfri ;mm« released far cultivation in 
Himachal Pradesh, *■/>* and t*r*i far Assam Hills and 

ra/ri i#a !ana« i for the NUgiri hills. Research is in program to breed mors 
varieties which will furthar reduce the incidence of disease 

This ro se a rch is being sided by a number of PL-480 grants from the 
Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Apicul¬ 
ture. A project recently concluded under the programme wee a study on 
transmiarion of two potato viruses by aphids, collected from various 
Localities in Northern India. The finding may lead to more effective 
screening of potato varieties and biological control of the* transmitted 
d ia e aaee . Three other U .S. aided projects cover investigations into charcoal 
rot, brown rot and hairy ^irout rliwi— sffseting the potato. Another 



Allied project, not directly related to chefrMC control, explores the post- 
bilities of a recently developed breeding technique for conducting basic 
and fundamental research in the genetics of the potato and far the pro¬ 
duction of new varieties with desirable attributes. 

Dtacuadng these projects with the writer. Dr. B. B. Nagaiah-a 
■dentist at the Institute who studied plant pathology at the Uni verm ty of 
Dlinob—explained that healthy, virus-free seed is a basic necessity for 
potato cultivation. The Institute has, therefore, given much attention to 
the problems of ensuring adequate supplies of good seed to farmers. As 
it was found impracticable to keep up a regular flow of aeed potatoes to 
the plains from the Government-owned farms and other hill areas in Hima¬ 
chal Pradash, the Institute developed the “seed plot* technique by which 
reliance on hill supplies is no longer necessary. This technique consists in 
raising healthy seed crops In the sub tropical plains of Northern India 
during October-December when the incidence of aphids is low, killing the 
above-ground vegetative parti by the end of the period before the d lee see 
carrying aphids build up, and finally lifting the tubers when they have 
matured after another eight to tan days. The "seed plot* technique is 
reported fao have helped gro wer s considerably, and in the Jullundar region 
has resulted in increases in yield ranging from twenty to forty per cent. 

The hill areas, however, still continue to be an important source of 
seed supply. The Institute's Potato Breeding and Seed Certification 
Station at Kufri-nine miles north of Simla-supplied about 850 quintals 
of aeed potatoes to various States during the last season. The station is 
located in picturesque surroundings at an altitude of 8,600 feet. In winter, 
part of its 30-acre farming area ia the venue of doing and other winter 
■ports, which attract participants from all over India. It is also a favoured 
locale of romantic sequences in Indian Alma. 

Healthy aeed is, of course, only one element of a good harvest. The 
Institute, through its regional stations, training programmes and publicity 
media, also disseminates information on other aspects of potato cultiva¬ 
tion-preparation of the soil, use of manure and fertilizers, planting tech¬ 
niques, irrigation, use of insecticides, harvesting practices, pading market¬ 
ing and storage facilities. 

The anginal home of the potato was South America, and It seems 
to have been cultivated there some 2,000 yean or more before the 
Spanish conquest of the continent. It reached Spain about 1570 and 


t mill'd I 

legend links Sir Walter Raleigh with its introduction into Inland e few 
yean later. It k poadhle that tame of the ships of the Spanish Armada, 
which foundered cat the east cosat of Ireland in 1588 carried potatoes. 

The first mention of the potato in England was in a garden catalogue pub¬ 
lished in 1596, London of the mid-nineteenth century had hundrech of 
potato hawkers, a hot potato put in a lady's muff hung from the neck 
kept her warm when ehe was out on a chilly evening. 

The potato came to India early in the seventeenth century. Tracing 
the history of potato cultivation in this country, Dr. 1-lari Kiahore-ano¬ 
ther senior scientist on the Institute's staff-stated that the British intro¬ 
duced a number of exotic varieties. India participated in the Common¬ 
wealth Potato Collecting Expedition to South and Central America in 
1938 and received a share of the collection. In general, however, exotic 
varieties-which are cultivated in the West as a summer crop, while in 
India the potato is mostly grown in winter-were found unsuitable, and 
in 1949 the Central Potato Research Institute embarked an e breeding 
programme on scientific lines to produce varieties suited to local condi¬ 
tion* Besides those for hill areas, already mentioned, the Institute has 
developed a number of high-yielding varieties of varying maturity groups 
for the plains of India where the potato is a winter crop, to fit in with the 
relay and rotational crop pattern. Among these are n^fri UtUhuri so- 
called because of its light red tubers, »«>( mmUsi for areas susceptible 
tO frost, *»fr i 4l**kmr, Kufri Skatdrantufri ' > ni><r, 

The potato has a wide range of regional adaptability and can be 
grown at almost any altitude. In India two crops a year are the rule, but 
in the Nilgiri Hills climatic condition* permit three crops. The largest 
cultivated area is in the Gang®tic plain in Uttar Pradesh, which accounts 
for about forty per cent of the total annual production of four-and-a- 
half million metric tons. 

Although production has more than doubled since 195B. the area 
under potatoes in India is still only about 0.5 per cent of what under food 
(pains, and currant yields, averaging eighty quintals per hectare, are low. 
With the development of the new varieties and adoption of scientific 
methods of cultivation, however, the Institute is hopeful of progressve 
increase in both acreage and yields and looks forward to the time when 
the potato will become * the nation's second bread”. 

136 tm imo 

[turn THE BOOK OVER AND BEGIN next exercise) 


Tkc Industrial Revolution! 
turned the irtiian into an 
automaton and the introduc¬ 
tion of the assembly line fur¬ 
ther degraded him into a cog — 
a mere cx tension of the 
machine which can be opera¬ 
ted. The bask philosophy be¬ 
hind modem industry became 
centred on ipecialnation. The 
principle was : break up the 
production cycle into simple 
component teaks and let each 
worker handle one particular 
teak to the exclusion of all 

On tha bans grew up the 
whole edifice of industrial 
cngsme«nn 5 as we know it to¬ 
day with ail its methods and 
systems designed to fet peak 
performance from the human* 
manning the system. But, 
whatever be the refinements 
induced in the system, the fact 
remained that flic humans 
were reduced to cogs. They 
might be earning good sums, 
working in excellent environ¬ 
ments. using fatigue urine 



N. N. SachitanaruJ. 
The Hindu 
fNovornbcr 3, 1976). 

methods and gadgets and all 
that but the nature of their 
work remained monotonous, 
soul-killing and mentally 
deadening. Was it any wonder 
that, despite high wages and 
the best of working environ - 
menu, job utiifaction for the 
worker in such a system re¬ 
mained low? 

The trouble wu that 
managements all over the 
world had become so hyp¬ 
notised with the productivity 
effectiveness of the assembly 
line system that they just 
dared not even think about 
any other way of getting the 
job done at the speeds de¬ 
manded by modem economy 
and yet afford job satisfac¬ 
tion to the workers. It took 
Use secure environs of a 
welfare state and the need to 
hang on to iU disenchanted 
workers who could afford to 
chuck up their jobs in such 
a welfare state that finally 
snapped the management of 
one indoetrv out of its hyp¬ 

notic trance and induced it to 
go m for a revolutionary ex¬ 
periment in work reorganisa¬ 

Sense of Pride of Work ; 
The country was Sweden and 
the industry was the car manu¬ 
facturing firm of Volvo. In 
simple terms, what it did waa 
to fire back to the worker a 
sense of pnde in hts talk, 
tome tiling w hich had fallen by 
the wjyndc when the artisan 
waa engulfed in the flood of 
the Industrial Revolution. Of 
course, Volvo did not turn ita 
workers into artisans and its 
manufacturing system into a 
cottage industry. What they 
did was to change the task- 
oriented system of work into a 
perl ol component-oriented 
system. In other words, in¬ 
stead of an individual worker 
being assigned one particular 
task only, he became respon¬ 
sible. slung with allien in Ins 
group, for the production of i 
complete sub-assembly. The 
result was that, imfrad of 


suffering i sense of alienation 
from his job, brought about 
by the monotony of a repeti¬ 
tive task, he began, identify¬ 
ing himself with hu job for 
now, this consisted of an 
entire sequence of tasks which 
resulted in an identifiable end 

The experiment was ex¬ 
tended in scope to allow the 
workers in each group to do 
even the internal planning of 
the group effort and also allow 
tlie workers to rotate jobs, 
Thu led to an active interest 
taken by the workers In their 
jobs, nearly as much ss an 
artisan might take in fashion¬ 
ing the artifact he works on. 
The factory management was 
also pleasantly surprised to 
discover that productivity in¬ 
creased, supervisory troubles 
were reduced and absenteeism 
became less of a problem. 

The Volvo experiment did 
not, of course. lead to an over¬ 
night change in the manufac¬ 
turing system all over the 
world but it did have its re- 
percussions here rnd there, 
especially among the bolder 
and more secure manage¬ 
ments. Over a year ago, the 
vibrations readied Indian 
shorts when Professor Nitish 
Dc of the Central Labour 
Institute returned to India 
brimful of ideas after visit¬ 
ing some industries in Sweden 
and Italy which had tried 

out the new concept. 

The Iiardwar plant of 
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., 
boldly took the initiative to 
try out the concept. This 
waa an ideal site for the experi¬ 
ment since labour-manage¬ 
ment relations were cordial 
and the union was guided by 
enlightened leadership. As a 
pilot project, it was decided 
to start the scheme on a group 
of workers in Block V of the 
factory engaged ui the fabri¬ 
cation of the Upper Part of 
Condenser belonging to the 
200 mw steam turbine. While 
picking this area for experi¬ 
ment, the following points 
were kept in mind: 

1. The group is working In a 
separate area but there is inter¬ 
action of people. 

2. There is less diversity in the 
skill of various trades involved. 

3. The work force b co¬ 

4. The group is compact. 

5. The area b well equipped 
and independent for ah mate¬ 
rial input. 

6 . The product being dealt 
with b directly dbpatchable 
and b not critical for some 
other job. 

As i (list step, all the 

workers, supcnisoit and ofB 
cere were fully briefed abou 
the aims and objectives of th< 
experiment and a talk fora 
comprising some workers 
supervisors and engineers *i 
formed to implement tlu 

The group, which coo 
silted of 22 workers of diffe 
rent trades, was reorganise* 
into two sub-groups of 12 
each. Each sub-group wai 
made responsible far s whole 
task, Le, sub-group A to make 
the right-hand ride of the 
upper pert of the condenses 
and the sub-group B the left- 
hand ride. Both the groups 
were supposed to do alter¬ 
nate shifts and each had a 

The Task Force comprised 
of 3 permanent members (2 
from Group A and I from 
Group B) and 4 temporary 
members (2 from each group) 
besides the supervisor of both 
groups. The overall target for 
a specified period b given to 
the Task Force by the factory 
management. It b then left to 
the Task Force to break down 
the target, detail it and plan 
the Inputs required to meet it 
and this requirement b con¬ 
veyed to the supemaan » 
that they can arrange the In¬ 

Prior to the commence¬ 
ment of the scheme, every 


worker uni lo do the teak 
pertaining to his trade only. 
But, u the scheme got under 
way, the workers started in¬ 
formally picking up end doing 
tasks requiring other skills and 
even underwent formal train¬ 
ing to learn other trades. 
The net effect of this was that 
the production flow wu not 
held up because of tire absence 
of a worker belonging to any 
particular trade. In fact, trade 
consciousness was reduced to 
such a level that, one year 
after the start of the experi¬ 
ment, fitters, welders, gas 
cutters and fetUen devoted 
only 40 per cent of their time 
in their particular trade and 
the rest of the time in other 

The experiment has been 
beneficial beyond expectation. 
Job boredoms was eliminated 
by iiitruducinic an element of 
variety In the work routine 
of the worker. A matrix orga¬ 
nisation was created baaed an 
composite roles played by the 
members and this made pos¬ 
sible a flexible deployment of 
the workers in the group. 

A self-managing work 
learn was developed which 
undertook collective responsi¬ 
bility for achievement of tar¬ 
gets. The supervisor’s role 
changed from that of a police¬ 
man to that of i participant 
and planner and his responsi¬ 
bility centred on ensuring 

adequate inputs to the group. 

Since the job became one 
of a “whole task" nature, the 
group began working as a team 
and the atmosphere became 
strain-free. Because members 
had an opportunity to work 
at other trades than their 
own, not only did India- 
pcnsability of any particular 
workcr disappear but also each 
worker now had the avenue 
to enhance his capabilities. Ilia 
trade did not become a dead 

Because the group now 
feels totally responsible for 
the final product, it has be¬ 
come quality-conscious. Stage 
inspection Is now done by the 
group members themselves 
and only final inspection by 
the Quality Control Depart¬ 
ment. Rectification work is 
now practically nil. 

The factory hat been a big 
gainer alto. The efficiency of 
the group rose from* 26.8 
per cent in May 1975 to 73 
per cent in February 1976. 
The productivity in terms of 
norm houn per month shot up 
from only 642 in May 1975 
to 2,867 in February 1976. 

Of course, the going had 
its rough patches in the begin¬ 
ning of the experiment. For 
example, members of the Task 
Force, who used to be work 
leaden before, began boning 

over the others in the group. 
This disappeared when the ro¬ 
tating system of Task Force 
membership was introduced 
and the members were bnefed 
that they were not being 
raised to a supervisory level 
bat only to guide the other 

The biggest problem came 
when workers in trades re¬ 
quiring supenor skills were re¬ 
luctant to perform low cate¬ 
gory jobs. It b only when they 
were convinced dust in the 
new system trade monopoly 
would be a tiling of the past 
and that everyone would be 
requited to do all sorts of 
jobs that they agreed to co¬ 
operate fully. 

It has also to be remem¬ 
bered that this is an experi¬ 
ment initiated by the manage¬ 
ment As such, it will be 
viewed with suspicion by the 
workers..They might feel that 
it ira ploy to get them put in 
more effort without commen¬ 
surate benefits to themselves. 
True, the improved work life 
b an incentive. But a suitable 
reward system whereby the 
group shares in the gain in 
productivity will be an addi¬ 
tional motivating factor. 

B1LEL, Hard wax, has now 
commenced the experiment in 
two more shops and the 
productivity sains are en¬ 
couraging. IIMT, Hyderabad, 



has recently reorganised its 
shop layout in preparation for 
starting on this concept. In* 
stead of the usual task orient* 
ed layout of machines (turn¬ 
ing, gear cutting, grinding, etc. 
lines) the machines have been 
formed into small mixed 
groups, each one of which can 
finish a set of similar compo¬ 

“In the previous system**, 
says Mr. Linganna, Use Chief 
Technical Manager, "we had 
a tough time tracing out com* 
ponents at various stages and 
seeing to it that the opera* 
turns on them were canted 
out according to priority. 
Now, all we have to do is give 
cacti group a phority list of 
the components they hare to 
make. Our progress work has 
been drastically reduced. Qua¬ 
lity has improved since now 
cadi group is fixed responsi¬ 
bility for the complete compo¬ 
nent it turns out". 

Interchange of trades has 
still not been tried out at this 
factory, but that is the next 
step. From then: to group 
planning and total group res¬ 
ponsibility will be tlie next 

This "whale task" group 
concept of work is not appli¬ 
cable only to the industrial 
field. It can be put into prac¬ 
tice in other spheres of icbvt* 
ty also. For example, the 

State Bank of India, in colla¬ 
boration with the National 
Labour Institute, has initiated 
a novel experiment at its Gur- 
gaon branch, near Delhi. 

Novel Experiment: Bank 
work, particularly at the lower 
levels of hierarchy, tends to be 
mechanistic, routine and frag¬ 
mented, with each employee 
tending to isolate himself 
within his particular opera¬ 
tion. Such s work culture has 
not tnen conducive to the 
development of commitment 
to work in the employee and 
adversely affects his motiva¬ 
tion. It has now been recog¬ 
nised in banking circles that 
the level of emoluments alone 
has a limited influence over 
motivation, particularly 
among the better educated 
employees, more of whom are 
now being inducted at the 
lower levels. 

The existing design of 
work is based on Uie assembly 
line principle with supervisors 
needed to iicrform the job of 
control co-ordination and 

In the State Bank of India 
experiment, a group of 8 em¬ 
ployees in the branch, includ¬ 
ing in officer ind a messen¬ 
ger, has been made responsible 
for an entire section of llte 
branch's business-that dealing 
with deposits and payments to 
individuals and some 

companies. Previously, It was 
the branch must uget or accoun¬ 
tant who would assign the jobs 
to these employees and plan 
their work schedule. Now the 
group lias constituted its own 
task force to plan the work. 
Included m this task force is 
the peon the first time this 
lowest category of employees 
is involved in work planning. 
The group has redesigned its 
work in such a way that the 
absence of any one of die 
members does not halt the 
flow of papers. 

Hie group is learning to 
tackle problems on its own, 
and even involving itself In the 
process of preparing the 
annual budget for the branch's 
personal banking wing-in 
exercise previously the sole 
domain of the branch manager 
or accountant. Such participa¬ 
tive work is expected to not 
only enhance the job satisfac¬ 
tion of the members of the 
group but also increase their 
commitment to work and im¬ 
prove customers service. 

A similar type of experi¬ 
ment is being conducted by 
the Indian Posts and Telegraph 
Department also. The impetus 
is die same—more and more 
educated people entering the 
system at lower levels. These 
educated persons are no lunger 
content to be fobbed off wit 
with soulless, repetitive tasks. 
Money is ir important 



criterion but not the tale one. 
For them, job satisfaction it ft* 
big a need. It it for tiu* chink¬ 
ing type of grassroots worker- 

in til fidds-that the assembly 
line systems is proving inade¬ 
quate. The “whole task" 
system of work offers ft way 

out and managements all over 
will have to adopt it inersas 

mi ino 


36. Was The Buddha 




fin firyan ? 

j V.S. Pramcr 

The Illustrated Weekly of India, 
May 16, 1976. 

; 2 , 166 . 


When one takes a panoramic look at 
Indian culture, one is struck by the juxta¬ 
position of two opposing streams of thought: 
one suhlime, the other arumist. On the one 
hand, we find sophisticated and abstract con¬ 
cepts Uke that of the Brahman, Dharma and 
Yoga; on the other, beliefs in the divinity of 
cows and makes, an elephant-heeded god and 
a goddess of disease, 

An educated observer instinctively 
aaugra the farmer to a supposedly ‘superior". 
Aryan heritage and relegates the latter to an 
"inferior" Indigenous tribal, or even Dr a vidian 
culture. And it is on account of these biased 
historical cliches that religions like Jainism 
and Buddhism are instinctively thought to be 
Aryan and Mahavira and Gautama to be Aryan 

Them historical distortions are, however, 
not a modem phenomenon: their origins go 

beck to ancient times. In order to understand 
this it is neoaaeary to explain how the word 
Aryan came to be universally accepted as 
equivalent to superior. 

Ary ana first entared India, they were in no way 
culturally superior to the indigenous popula¬ 
tion. If they did hare an upper hand, it was in 
their fighting prowess. This enabled them to 
conquer many of the militarily weaker local 
tribes, to ally themselves with thorn which 
were relatively powerful, and thus to gradually 
establish a superior status for their own 
culture, irrespective of its real worth. 

Am their political Influence grew, the 
Influence of the Sanskrit language also yew, 
and in due course the very word Arya was 
accepted by Aryans and aboriginals alike as 
a designation of nobility. In their desire to 
achieve equality of status, the aboriginal 



chit funs began to adopt Aryan customs and 
to disguise their own. It was not long before 
they were accepted as full-fledged Aryans. It 
must again be emphasised that the motive for 
imitating Aryan customs and titles was not 
due to any feeling of cultural inferiority but 
solely due to one of inferiority in status. 

This process of Ary anise tion has con¬ 
tinued into modern timet. Early British socio¬ 
logists have recorded numerous Instances of 
aboriginal chief tana of Orissa, Bihar and 
Central India who have managed to acquire the 
status of "Rajputs” or "Kahatriyss” and have 
subsequently intermarried with the beat of 
Aryan families. This transformation of identity 
from aboriginal to Aryan has caused much 
historical confusion since it has masked the 
real ethnic origins of large segments of our 
population. This is reflected In the distorted 
histories of Indian dynasties put forward from 
the earliest times. 

There is also ample evidence tc diow 
that a similar distortion of identity has also 
occurred in the case of the founder of 

Documented facts about the Buddha's 
origin say that ha belonged to the Sakya tribe 
which was settled in the Himalayan tarsi, with 
its capital city at Kapilarastu. Let us sea what 
vwious scholars have to say about them. 

T.W. Rhys-Davids, one of the greatest 
authorities on Buddhism, writing in 1896 
said: "This (region) was one of those portions 
oi the valley of the Ganges which had been the 
last to be brought under the Influence of the 
Brahmins. It was far to the aast of the Holy 
Land of the Brahmin tradition, and there can 
be but hrtit doubt that, at the time of which 
era speak, the inhabitants oi that district war* 
in many rejects more independent of the 

Brahmins that the countries further west. We 
have no evidence that than was any Luge 
number of Brahmins settled in the country, 
which was inhabited by a high-caste tribe, 
forming the Sakya dan*. Despite this des¬ 
cription, Rhys-Davids still considered the 
Buddha to be an Aryan. 

NON A R YAiS CUSTOMS: Radha Kumud 

Mookerji says in his Hindu Civilisation : "They 
(the Sakyans) followed some non-Aryan cus¬ 
toms—e.g., marrying within the seme gotra 
and prohibited depee of relationships. They 
ware on the outskirts of the Vedic civilisa¬ 
tion". And he quotas from The Life of the 
Buddha by EJ. Thomas who states that the 
Sakyans still ware basically either Koi or 

D.D. Koaambi, writing soma 70 yean 
aftar Rhys-Davids, says of the Sakyans : "There 
were no Brahmini or caste daaees within the 
tribe, nix have high Vedic observances ever 
been reported of the Sakyans”. Again : *The 
Koliyan neighbours of the Sakyans had also 
listened to the Buddha and claimed a share of 
hia ashes aftar his cremation. Nevertheless 
many of them were at the time in a mors 
primitive stage of tribal extatance, with the 
Kol (Zisyphus jujube) tree aa a tribal totem, 
soma fallowed personal rites of the bull totem. 
The Koliyans as a whole were therefore often 
counted among the aboriginals with the genenc 
label Nagas. The Buddha himself eras boro in s 
g rove of sal (Shorea robusta) trees, sacred to 
the mother goddess Lumhini. The nl was the 
Sakyan totem tree". 

Now, it is precisely from these aboriginal 
and totemktk Koliyans that the Buddha's 
mother, Maya came. Of these Koliyans Rhys- 
Davids says "that the Kohyans were a sort 
of subordinate subdivisions of the Sakya dan". 
The ward Kol has from ancient times bean 


f continued) 

used In India to dengnata tha abon^nala and 
thara li not tha slightest doubt that tha Koli- 
yaiM o i tha Buddha'■ dayi war* aboriginal. 

We thus have clear evidence of at laaet 
one thing, namely, that tha Sakyana inter- 
mimed with an aboriginal tribe which ruled in 
a neighbouring t err it ory. There ■ one other 
cunoue (act recorded that the Buddha's father 
mamed not only Maya but her hater as well. 
This custom of marrying two ns tan ia not a 
Vedic practice. The only other instance of its 
occurrence, as mentioned by Irswati Karve in 
bar kinship organisation in India, it among the 
inhabitant! of Kaahisand Videha, La, among 
the aaatarnen who were beyond the influence 
of orthodox Brahnuiusm. 

111! records about the birth of the Buddha 
are very revealing. His mother Maya bore tha 
chid in a mcred grove of sal trace called Lum 
him, which Koaambi holds to be dedicated to 
tha mother goddam. But even if this latter con- 
cluwon a rejected, the fact remains that tha 
whole region associated with the Buddha's 
life was dotted with such s a cr ed povea and it 
was in them that ha used to preach. Tha cus¬ 
toms of maintaining these groves ia typical 
among tha Mundas of Eastern India even to¬ 
day, and all important ceremonies revolve 
wound theee groves. 

It is not strange that tha Buddha's mother, 
a Koiiyan, retired to such a gov« to dedicate 
her child to the spirits of tha grove. This scene 
was apparently of such great cultural si^mfi- 
cuice that it has bean endlessly repeated in 
later Buddhwt an, and one sees Maya giving 
birth to the child in a standing poet whAe 
holding tha branches of a sal tree with her 

Both tha motifs shown point to tribal 
origins, and even today tha flowering 

of the ml tree play a prominent part In tha 
Munda fertility festival known aa Sarhul. 
Throughout Chou Hagpar no ayicultural acti¬ 
vity can commence until the Munda-Pahan 
priest has first celebrated the Sarhul with tha 
new blossoms of the Sal. Again, it is only 
among tribal woman that one finds tha wide¬ 
spread customs of avoiding the squatting posi¬ 
tion while urinating or giving birth. The origin 
of this has something to do with taboos man¬ 
dated with the earth. 

SARNATH FROM SARHA: it is interest¬ 
ing in this connection to note that the Muadari 
word for the sacred grove is same, and fc Is 
even more rivaling to find that the cp-ova 
where the Buddha preached his first sermon is 
called Samath. Tha eonchison seems inescapa¬ 
ble that Sannath is simply a Sanakrihaed 
version of the primitiv same! (Such Sanekri- 
bc distortions are vwy common. Thus the 
ori^nal name Mamallapuram in South India 
was corrupted to MahabaUpuram, and Chi tram 
balam was transformed into Chidambaram. By 
aich fabrications every indigenous tradition is 
sought to be given an Aryan facade). 

Turning to the funeral customs of tha 
Sakyana next, Rhys-Davids writes; "Tbs dis¬ 
posal of the dead was, in some respects very 
curious. (Those of distinction were cremated 
and buried under stupas). But tha dead bodies 
of ordinary people were diapoeeo of in s 
unique way. They ware put sway In a public 
place (dvathika or amaka-euaana). There, as a 
rule, tha bodies, or the remains of tha pyre, 
were not buried, but left to be destroyed by 
birds or beasts, or dianpatsd by tha prooaes of 
natural decay". Now, this kind of abandon¬ 
ment of the dead is a typical Mongol custom, 
for the intense cold of Mongolia and Tibet 
makes it imp osdble to dig the frown ground 
for the burial, while scarcity of fi r ewood makas 
cremation prohibited except in special oases. 



EJi. Brewster, in hii The Life of Gautam 
Buddhaj describes how once the Buddha waa 
asked by Anemia as to what should b« dona 
with a dead Tathagata. Ha anawarad that the 
remains should b« treated like that of a king— 
La., they should be placed in an iron vessel 
and burnt, and this should be put at a cross¬ 
roads and covered with a cairn of stones. This 
custom of erecting stone cairns far the dead is 
again a Mongol custom, and it is moat Likely 
that this is tha true origin of tha later Buddhist 

MONGOL MUNDARI: Reviewing all tha 
evidence presented above we are entitled to 
draw soma important conclusions. Concerning 
the Sakyane, we find that they wars beyond 
the area of Brahmanic/Vedic influences, they 
in ter-married freely with aboriginals, they wen 
totemistic, and their funeral customs were 
Mongolian. Settled on the borders of Nepal, 
wa may conclude that they were In fact of 
Mongolian extraction, like moat of the Napa* 
leas. As for the Koliyans, there is no doubt 
that they belonged to that great race of 
Mundaa who once upon a time ware tha rulers 
of large parts of eastern India. Gautama 
Buddha was the offspring of parents belonging 
to both these peat cultural strains, tha Mon¬ 
golian and the Mundari. This conclutinn 
should not really surprise us when wa consider 
that anthropologists have long ago established 
that a large portion of the population of Bengal 
is of wmilar Mongol/tribal mixed origin. 

The only reason why such a conclusion 
offends our suaosptihilitiai is that wa are accus¬ 
tomed to think of aboriginals as being ex¬ 
tremely primitive. A quotation hare from 
Rhys-Davids Is illuminating :Tt la a common 
error, vitiating all conclusions as to the early 
history of India, to suppoaa that tha tribea 
with whom the Aryana, in their gradual con¬ 
quest of India, came into contact ware savages. 

But there ware (among them) also aettled com¬ 
munities with highly developed social orgsnlaa- 
tions, wealthy enough to excite tha cupidity of 
the invaders. But they ware strong enough to 
retain, in some caaas, a qualified independence, 
and in others, to tmpoaa upon tha new nation 
that issued from the struggle, many of their 
own ideas, many of tha details of their own 

In other words, the India that e m erged 
after the Aryan conquest bora many train of 
aboriginal culture, and this could not have 
happened had tha latter not been equally 
ct v fl ieed. To posit therefore an aboriginal 
origin for the Buddha la not to denigrate him. 

If our eaumption of the Buddha's ethnic 
backpound is correct, It would serve to explain 
much of the la tar development of Buddhism. 
It would, for example, explain why the Buddha 
did not accept Veche practices. Aryan beliefs 
were alien to his people and hence It was 
natural far him to strike out along a complete¬ 
ly different path. It also becomes dear why 
Buddhism achieved its greatest suc ces s among 
precisely those communities which were ethni¬ 
cally and culturally tnoet related to the Buddha 
himself, i.e, eastern India and all thoae neigh¬ 
bouring territories inhabited by Mongol races 
(Tibet, Nepal, Mongolia). 

Buddhism has always been a religion main¬ 
ly of tha non-Aryan indigenous people of 
India. And this fact is sharply brought out in 
all surviving Buddhist art. The fanes and cos¬ 
tumes which appear on murals and reliefs, 
the dark-donned bare-breasted women, the fan¬ 
tastic haad-draaeaa, and above all the halos 
of make-heads around figures, all these pro¬ 
claim them to be none other than the people 
referred to in ancient texts as Nagaa. 

In conclusion it must be emphasised that 


f continued/ 

our concept of Indian cmloabcn has for too 
long been dominated by our blind reliance on 
the Sanskritk tradition. Thu haa given ua a 
distorted picture of an India originally debased 
and primitive, into which entered the vitalis¬ 
ing and fruitful energy of Aryan culture. This 
picture b completely false. One of the greatest 

tasks which lias before Indian scholar* is the 
unravelling of the various strands, Aryan and 
non-Aryan, which have gone into the making 
of Indian culture. It may then be discovered 
that many of our national heroes, besides the 
Buddha, baiong to the hitherto despised 
aboriginal strata. 



37 - 1 'Potfution czAnd iP'u.L'L c ^dfzaftfi 

“We know that water anc a it which were 
Mid to be fret at one time are no loafer free,* 
Prime Minuter Indira Gandhi remarked recent¬ 
ly. “Somebody hat to pay the price-either you 
pay in ynur cotta or pay the cost in the wor- 
tening of health and peaceful living.* 

'When water supply fails, people rake a 
hoe and cry. But not many are coo earned 
where the waste water goes.' 

'Unless we are armed with proper Legisla¬ 
tion .... we public health engineers will re¬ 
main by-survdtn.’ 

In India, as in any country the effects of 
inadequate and unwholesome water supplies 
and of insanitary collection and disposal of 
human wastes contribute to a high incidence of 
disease. In addi t io n , the problems of industrial 
wastes and air pollution that accompany urban 
growth demand solution to ensure the maxi¬ 
mum benefits of industrialisation. 

A recent ri-#« *f ;***« editorial summed 
up the situation aptly :“While rich countries 
poison their lakes end riven with wastes 
from chemical and other factories and the air 

AUTHOR : P. R. Uupta. 
SOL7tC£ Span. January |97|. 

UttADCXHIVT . 2200. 

in their clues with exhaust gnat, poor nattooa 
do it by dumping sewage into their riven 
and by allowing people to cook over open fires. 
In India, some degree of pollution takes place 
in both ways." 

The scientific disposal of domestic sewage 
is perhaps the weakest link in India's public 
health chain, according to Prof. SJ. Aroei- 
vela, Director of the Central Public Health 
Engineering Research Institute (CPHERI) in 
Nagpur. But he is tedding the problem with 
crusading seal. His thesis is that sewage disposal 
end treatment need not be a burden on the 
community, but sen be made a self-paying pro¬ 
position. Sewage treatment, he says, am yield 
irrigation water that con Is me aO the essential 
nutnenta (nitrogen, phosphorus end potash) to 
make it e fertilizer by itaaif. In addition, fish 
farms can be developed and algae, a rich source 
of proteins, harvested. 

Sewage disposal, like the weather, is one 
subject about which everyone talks, but little 
is dooe. Fortunately Prof. Areeivela is in e posi¬ 
tion to do somsthing. As CPHERI’■ Director, 
be has launched a full scale campaign. In this 
venture, CPHERI'« eight social centres ore 



contributing significantly in transforming labo¬ 
ratory results into prosen field practices. Their 
•ffecuranesa is enhanced by their planned dis¬ 
persal in Ahmedabad, Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, 
Jaipur, Kanpur and Madras. 

Prof. Arcehrala, however, faces a formi¬ 
dable task ahead. He knows that with many 
competing demands on the limited financial 
resources of a community, a system of under¬ 
ground drainage and sewage treatment gets a 
my low-if not the loweet priority. "It is 
a case of out of eight, out of mind,” ha ays. 

‘ la cities when water supply (ails, people raise 
a hue and cry. But not many are concerned 
where the water goes.” 

Out of some 2,540 dties and towns in 
India, only about 1,200 have a modern water 
supply. Of these, leas than 200 have under- 
•yound drainage, and of the 20 most popu¬ 
lous cities only two have complete sewage 
treatment plants. 

“Sewage is the other aide of the piped 
water-cup ply com." says Pro I. Arcefrela. When 
water is piped and brought into a community 
without a sewer system, it is an invitation to 
disease. People dependent on walls or streams 
for water-true of moat villages and towns, 
consume on an average only 20 litres per head 
every day. But the moment a community has 
a piped water supply, the water consumption 
twuaDy jumps to 120 btrea, and 80 per oenl of 
this quantity runs out as waste. Without pro¬ 
per drainage or sewage treatment this waste 
water bee am as a breeding ground for disea—, 
pollutes nearby wells and underground water 
or streams which are sources of drinking water. 

'But merely constructing more modern 
tewaga treatment pints is also not the 
answer,* Prof. Arcehrala points out. "For one 

thing, they we expensive. And their inchmeal 
complexity causa maintenance problem*. 
What is needed h the development of simpler 
methods of treatment.” 

CPHERI scientists have concentrated their 
efforts on working out such processes that are 
inexpensive and unconventional. The capital 
costs have been aiaahsd by as much as BO par 
cent and running cows by 90 per cent com¬ 
pared with those Incurred in conventional 
plants. Already store than 50 such plants have 
bean built in the past rix yean and are operat¬ 
ing successfully in such widely scattered places 
as Bhilai, Vijayawada and Lucknow. 

These naw methods taka advantage of 
warm climate and plentiful sunshine, while 
their mechanical simplicity brings them with¬ 
in the technical competence and financial reach 
of the majority of municipal bodies. Take, for 
example, the treatment of waste in oxidation 
ponds. For its effective working, all that is 
needed is a large, shallow pond into which 
domestic and industrial wastes are stored for 
s few days. In tba pretence of sunlight and or¬ 
ganic nutrients m the mcoming wastes, a 
healthy bloom of algae nourishes together with 
colonies of bacteria. Through the natural pro¬ 
cess of self -purification, bacteria speedily digest 
the organic waste and make it harmless enough 
to be released into water or on land without 
any danger of pollution. As no foul smeO 
comes from the pond, it dote not become a 
nuisance to the locality where it » construct¬ 
ed. In tropical countries like India, the process 
works at high efficiency because "bugs multi¬ 
ply faster in a warm climate". 

Prof. Arcehrala emphasises:" Low cost 
treatmsnt does not mean a km quality of treat¬ 
ment. There m no compromise with efficiency. 
In feet, its performance is better. Dr. N.U. Rso 



and his colleagues 1c the Microbiology Division 
have shown that pathogenic bacteria response 
bl« for typhoid, cholera and other intestinal 
diseases are completely eliminated in oxida¬ 
tion pond effluents. This is not achieved even 
in modern conventional plants’*. 

Until ten yean ago, if a sewage treatment 
plant was to be built in India, there was no 
alternative to the highly expansive, multi¬ 
stage plants, using such devices ss trickling 
fil ton, clan flora and digesters. But today the 
picture has changed as s result of CPHER1 re¬ 

With the setting up of CPKERJ, systematic 
investigations have been undertaken on a natio¬ 
nal scale for solving problems of water supply 
and treatment of sewage collection, treatment 
and disposal. of control and treatment of in¬ 
dustrial wastes, and of air pollution. ‘Hie rapid 
growth of the Institute within ten years of its 
establishment in 1959 is due in part to the half- 
rmllion dollar assistance given by the UH. 
Special Fund. 

A CPHERI survey of a number of river 
basins revealed that they are being progret- 
lively ruined by the indiscriminate flow of 
wastes from municipal sewers and industrial 
units. One spectacular example that Prof. 
Arceivala often cues to his visitors is the 
Jamuna River. "Agra may well be drinking 
Delhi's sewage," be ays. While that may net 
be literally true, an analysis of the river water 
between Delhi end Agra has shown increasing 
deterioration in its quality. 

The problem of water pollution in Delhi 
was dramatized in 1956 when thousands of 
people suffered in the hepatitis, epidemic, 
following the mixing of the Najafgrah nullah 
sewage discharge with the Jamuna water near 
the Qszirabad water plant. Another instance of 

water pollution occurred in March 1968 when 
the Gangs River literally caught fire near 
Monghyr in Bihar. Investigations revealed that 
petroleum wastes from a neighbouring oil 
refinery had polluted the river water. As a 
result, Monghyr citizens had to go without 
water for one week. 

"Merely asking factorise and municipal 
bodies to treat their wastes will at best lead to 
a marginal solution of the problems," says 
Prof. Arceivala. "Unless we are armed with 
proper legislation and are in a position to wield 
the big stick, we public health engineers will 
remain by-slanders, only apologizing far our 
inability to do anything useful In the matter." 
Many countries have passed comprehensive 
laws to curb and control pollution. In India, 
Maharashtra State took the lead by enacting 
the Water Pollution Control Act last year. Tlie 
new types of industries-fertilizer factories, 
petrochemical complexes, oil refineries and 
synthetic-material plants far dru<p, fibres, 
rubber and plastic-are multiplying rapidly and 
causing some of the most critical pollution 

For the public-sector synthetic dru^ 
factory in Hyderabad, Dr. G J. Mohanarao and 
hie taam of scientists after two yean of re¬ 
search worked out a design for the waste treat¬ 
ment plant. Constructed at a cost of Ra. 27 
Lakhs, it has been in operation since 1967. 
The problem was to stabilize the factory 
wastes. Although small in volume they con¬ 
tain some 70 chemicals u well as a rich mix¬ 
ture of adds so concentrated that fingers could 
burn if dipped into it. U these effluents were 
released untreated, there was danger of their 
seeping into the city’s fresh-water lake, e 
source of drinking water. A biological treat¬ 
ment method that urns "bup" to feed on the 
Unde matter wa found to be economic and 
effective. A dm liar method wee also worked 


f confirmed i 

out far the Hindustan Photo Film Plant in 
Ootacamund, and its R*. 10 lakh treatment has 
been operating since 1966. Many other facto¬ 
ries, including those producing pulp and paper, 
fertilizers and chemicals, have been so assisted. 

Prof. Arceivala is quick to point out that 
every problem relating to industrial waste 
treatment is not s raesrch problem. In 90 per 
cent of the cases it la merely judicious appli¬ 
cation of available knowledge that is required. 
To my mind, the bat method is not to go In 
foe turn-key jobs from contractors of specia¬ 
lized equipment. Such contractors are not 
likely to take into account reduction in waste 
by good housa-keeping within a factory, or the 
possibility of using unconventional method of 
treatment involving little or no equipment. 
Every city or town requires guidance. What is 
needed b the setting up of special design and 
testing cells in each slate government and large 
municipal corporations, with experts preparing 
tailor-made designs. Specialised agenda like 
CPHERi or past-paduate department of edu¬ 
cational institutions can also assist in this 

While polluted water b a serious public 
health problem in India, another area of in¬ 
creasing concern b air pollution. Air b one of 
the three basic needs of man-the other two 
being food end water-and it constitutes 80 
per oent of the weight of his intake. While 
the bad food and contaminated water can be 
avoided, no one can avoid breathing. The 
problem is aggravated in India becauee, accord¬ 
ing to Prof. Arceivala, "a person hare needs 
one-and-a-half limes more air and twice a 
much water than in the Wat" 

The Smoke Nuisance Act spplies only to 
the coal-fired boilers and aims to minimise 
sooty, black smoke. But today's modem in¬ 
dustries like fertilizers and petrochemicals 

emit nearly invisible chemical fumes of sul¬ 
phur, nitrogen and other toxic compounds. 

“In this field of air pollution,* notes 
Prof. Arceivala, “we are passing through a 
period of measure and mourn. Before any con¬ 
trol can be effectively organized, it b essential 
to measure the type and extant of air pollu¬ 
tion. Without these basic data, we can't talk 
and point a finger at any culprit. So in 1969 
we started e network of nations for sampling 
sir quality in our eight zonal centra and here 
In Nagpur.” 

A short but intenave survey in Bombay, 
Calcutta and Delhi revealed the high concentra¬ 
tion of dust in the Atmosphere- two to five 
timet greater than that prevailing in the Wot- 
ern countries. The dust particles act as 
"carriers* for pollutants such ss sulphur di¬ 
oxide and hydrocarbons, which people inhsle. 
Scientists consider the presence of ailphur 
dioxide and dust particle a the bat indicator 
of the general level of air pollution. 

Baida industry and domestic cookers, a 
major source of mi pollution b the auto¬ 
mobile." It b true that the volume of vehicular 
traffic in our cities b not so high compared to 
that in moat Western cities," says scientist 
J.M. Dave, who b CPHERI's Deputy Director 
and heeds its Air Pollution snd Industrial 
Hygiene Divbion. “But that b made up by the 
older ege and poorer engine performance of 
most of our can. Exhaust gases of some of 
them have been found to contain carbon mon¬ 
oxide at rata a high a 5.5 to 10 per oent. 
In the United State* the legal limit of carbon 
monoxide in Auto exhausts of new cars has 
been fixed at 1.5 per cent. The intensity of 
pollution caused by can in Calcutta b compzr 
able with that in New York, Chicago, London 
and Washington, where vehicular traffic b far 
heavier. By adjusting carburettors snd air-fuel 



ratio* of new petro-engine can in India, the 
carbon monoxide content can be reduced by 
25 per cent. Further reduction would need 
major engine modifications," 

He explained that diesel vehicles behave 
differently. Although they produce smoke and 
odour nuisance and so attract more public 
attention, they have no carbon monoxide in 
their exhaust. Diesel combustion takas p l ac e 
under an excess of air. But diesel smoke does 
need to be controlled. 

The Bombay Municipal Corporation has 
asked CP HER I to conduct at Ra. 1.86 lakh 
three-year study to monitor air over the city 
and identify the sources of pollution and re¬ 
commend control measures. For a global 
survey of air pollution, the World Health 
Organisation has recognized CPHER1 u one 
of the three regional centres, the other two 

being Moscow and Tokyo. The network in¬ 
cludes two international centres, London and 
Washington, and 20 laboratories around the 

With technical expertise and facilities to 
counsel on a wide range of public health en¬ 
gineering problems CIPHER 1 has emerged as 
not only a leading institution for better health 
and sanitation in India but also In other de¬ 
veloping countries of the region. 

The Nagpur Institute has attracted eome 
200 scientists, many of whom have studied and 
trained abroad. Prof. Arceivala himself went 
to Harvard in the United States in 1954 on a 
UJ5. Government fellowship for post graduate 
specialisation in public health engineering 
known there as sanitary engineering. The first 
poet-graduate course in this field was intro¬ 
duced at Harvard in 1926. 

I Indian 
Mm I Airlines 


to cbongo without nottc#) 
Effective 1st Ap« il, 1977 

1 b2 




P. C Vaiilyiu 
Science Today, 
November 1969. 


It was in June 1969 that Professor J. Weber 
of the University of Maryland, USA, announ¬ 
ced to the world that this “delicate" antenna 
consisting of a 1.5 tons (about 1,127 kilo¬ 
grams) aluminium cylinder suspended in a 
vacuum chamber had detected the gravita¬ 
tional waves incident upon it from the depths 
of the cosmos. Though the oxistence of gra¬ 
vitational waves was predicted as early aa 1916 
by Einstein from his general theory of relati¬ 
vity, they were never observed all these yean, 
a number of highly reputable physicists had, in 
fact, expressed doubts about their possible 
existence. Therefore, this experiment of Weber 
and his colleagues at the University of Mary¬ 
land assumed considerable importance. Again, 
since gravitation it an all-pervading natural 
force, the establishment of the fact tliat 
energy can be propagated by means of gravi¬ 
tational waves opens out immense paaiito¬ 
ll ties for solving several unsolved riddles of 
Use universe. 

Before we describe Weber's cxiicriinent 
(the planning of which started way back in 
1957) we shall first try to understand what 
gravitational waves are. 


We know that sound and light are propa¬ 
gated as waves. We are also familiar with radio 
waves. Tile transmitting radio station scuds out 
electromagnetic waves which we picked up 
by our radio receivers and converted into 
sound waves. Tlw electromagnetic waves were 
first generated and detected tn the laboratory 
by llerts in 1887. But long before that. Max¬ 
well had predicted their existence mathemati¬ 
cally from the field theory of electromagnet- 
ism. History is now repeating itself. In 1916 
Einstein predicted the existence of gravita¬ 
tional waves and m 1969 Weber has verified 
this prediction by detecting them. 

It ail started with Einstein’s renewed 



emphasis on the criterion for testing a banc 
natural law, known as the principle of relati¬ 
vity. This principle states that two observers 
moving relative to each other must daserbe 
any natural phenomenon in identical terms. 
When Einstein subjected Newton's law of gra¬ 
vitation to the criterion of relativity, he found 
that the law had to be reformulated if it were 
to satisfy the principle of relativity. In lus re¬ 
formulation, gravitation is described as • “field 
phenomenon”. According to him, the Sun, for 
example, is surrounded by Its gravitational 
Geld (its “sphere of influence*)and it is this 
Geld which keeps the planets bound to the 

Einstein was led to the conclusion that the 
space-time measurements carried out in a re¬ 
gion traversed by a gravitational Geld follow a 
kind of geometry different from the familiar 
Euclidean one. In Einstein's theory, gravita¬ 
tion is described by field equations which are 
also the equations describing the geometrical 
relations of the space-time measurements 
carried out in the Geld. 

To describe the gravitational field of the 
Sun, Einstein deduced from his Geld equations 
the geometry to be used in this gravitational 
field and calculated the orbits of planets and 
paths of light rays in this geometry. He found 
that, according to his theory, a ray of stellar 
right grazing the Sun's disc would be deflected 
from its anight path by an angle of about 
1.75 seconds. It was in fact found to be so. 
The total predicted deflection was measured by 
observing the stars in the region of the sky near 
the Sun at the time of the solar eclipse of 29 
March, 1919. This verification of the non- 
Newtonian deduction of Einstein's theory es¬ 
tablished not only its superiority over New¬ 
ton's theory but alto that this Geld theory of 
gravitation has many potentialities, one of 
which is to predict the existence of gravita¬ 

tional waves. 


In 1916, Einstein suhjectrd his field equa¬ 
tions of gravitation to a “Wcak-Field Approxi¬ 
mation”-he simplified his highly complicated 
equations on the assumption that the gravi¬ 
tational Geld under consideration u weak. In 
this approximate treatment he found that the 
equations reduced to the same type as the 
equation governing the propagation of electro¬ 
magnetic waves. From this Einstein concluded 
that gravitational influence is transmitted from 
one point to another by means of waves. He 
calculated the speed of gravitation waves and 
found that it was the same as the speed of 

Physically, a gravitational wave can be 
thought of as a propagating gravitational field. 
Whereas an electromagnetic wave will exert 
farces on objects which carry electric charges, 
gravitational waves would exert forces on 
objects with mass, whether they are charged 
or not. But. in general, gravitational waves are 
much weaker in intensity. Einstein, in 1916. 
worked out a solution of his gravitational wave 
equation in tlie can of waves emitted by a rod 
which spins about one of its axes. 

If M to the mass of the rod, I its length and 
w the angular speed with which it spins round 
its axis, then the radiated power was found by 
Einstein to be given by p« 1.44x10-60 
(M l ^) w^. Even when the rod to spun at such 
a high speed that it to on the point of breaking 

in the middle, it would perhaps radiate 10-30 
ergs per second, which to very small indeed. 

The appearance of the (actor M12(mass into 
the square of the length) describes a peculiar 
characteristic of gravitational waves. In the 
mathematical expression for the power 



radiated, the factor Ml will occur in the first 
term and the factor Ml* in the aocamL But be* 
cause of Newton's Third Law of Motion (Ac* 
tlon and Reaction air equal and opposite), the 
first term containing Ml always vanishes in a 
gravitational wave. But this docs not happen in 
an electromagnetic ware. This difference is 
technically expressed by saying that the lowest 
mode in electromagnetic radiation la dipole 
radiation, but the lowest mode in gravitational 
radiation is quadruple radiation. 

Tliin "quailmpole radiation” can be further 
understood by considering the effect of a gra¬ 
vitational wave on a particle. When a wave 
passes over a single particle, the particle is dis¬ 
placed, but this displacement is not observable 
because any observer located near the particle 
is also displaced by an equal amount 
If there are two neighbouring particles, the 
ware, in general, will pass over two panicles 
in different phases and so there will be relative 
displacement But if the two particles are 
aligned in the direction of propagation of the 
wave, the two panicles will be displaced by the 
same amount and so again the relative displace¬ 
ment it zero. However, the relative displace¬ 
ment can be observed if we take the two parte 
det transverse to the direction of motion. 

Now let us consider two pain of transverse 
particles. Suppose the four particles are 
arranged in a place perpendicular to the direc¬ 
tion of wave propagation. Here an observer 
will find the peculiarity of gravitational radia¬ 
tion as a quadrupole radiation. Two of these 
particles will be moving span, while the other 
pair of particles will be approaching each other. 

As Einstein showed in 1916, the gravita¬ 
tional waves obtained from any terrestrial 
source will be very weak indeed. But there are 
large scale astronomical motions of matter that 
lead to fluctuating gravitational fields and serve 
as sources of gravitational radiation. The most 

obvious case is that of double stars, (specially 
when both of them are heavy dwarf stare. 
These stare rotate with respect to each other at 
fantastic speeds and thus may serve as sources 
of gravitational waves. 

Again, if the universe was created with a 
“big bang”, there might have been a lot of gra¬ 
vitational radiation generated in Uk beginning. 
Now gravitational waves have very long wave¬ 
lengths and are not easily absorbed by atomic 
or molecular particles. If such waves were gene¬ 
rated at the time of creation and if the universe 
is really finite and closed, there b reason to 
believe that those waves would still be with us. 
There is some justification for searching for the 
gravitational waves of cosmological origin. 

Lastly, a number of rapidly pulsating radio 
sources, colled pulsars, have recently been ob¬ 
served. These sources emit radio waves at 
regular intervals of one second. Their unusually 
great regularity suggests that in a pulsar either a 
very dense star is rotating like a beacon or it is 
pulsating. Either process might result in the re¬ 
lease of an appreciable amount of gravitational 
energy which will be radiated out as gravita¬ 
tional waves. However, such waves may not be 
easily detectable. On die other hand, Use 
sudden collapse of a star into a small dense ob¬ 
ject would lead to a sudden pulse of gravita¬ 
tional radiation which might be more readily 

Thus there was enough motivation for the 
search for gravitational radiation of astronomi¬ 
cal origin. Again, between 1916 and I9S7 
enough theoretical progress was made in the 
field of relativistic theory of gravitation to in¬ 
crease our confidence in the existence of 
gravitational waves. It was against this back¬ 
ground that the englnecnphysicist J. Weber 
planned an experiment to detect gravitational 




Let us quote *eber train a lecture he deli¬ 
vered at i seminar in 1961 : “What tort of ex¬ 
periments would we tike to do in the field of 
gravitational radiation? The classic example of 
radiation experiments was that of Hertz, lie 
was able to generate and detect electro-magne¬ 
tic waves in the sane laboratory. These are 
experiments tint we should very much bite to 
do with gravitational waves. 

"Another type of experiment involves the 
detection of natural gravitational radiation. 

.b there any way that we could detect 

Die existence of gravitational waves incident on 
Lartii from some cosmic source?" 

Weber, Zipoy and Forward started to build 
a gravitational wave detector at Maryland in 
I960. The detector, as mentioned earlier, con¬ 
sists of a 1.5 ton aluminium cylinder suspen¬ 
ded m a large vacuum chamber, 304.7 cm long 
and 213.3cm in diameter. The cylinder is 
suspended by a wire wrapped around it at the 
centre. The wire b Isold by a crossbar which, 
in turn, is mpported by a sequence of acoustic 
fit ten. 

The principle an which the detector works 
b the following : The arrival of a gravitational 
wave seta the suspended cylinder into ride osci¬ 
llations These mechanical oscillations are con¬ 
verted into electrical signals by using a set of 
piezoelectric crystals bounded to the surface of 
the cylinder. A sophisticated and sensitive elec¬ 
tronics system is used to amplify, filter and re¬ 
cord these signals on a chan recorder. 

The sophistication of the detecting system 
is indicated by the fact that it can detect even 
the snail sized charges, of the order of 
10*14 cm, due to thermal fluctuations. 

In the experiment In which definite signals 
have been recorded, the detectors arc designed 
to look for gravitational radiation at a frequen¬ 
cy of 1660 cycles per second .the collapse of a 
massive stellar object is expected to produce 
radiation at this frequency. 

At this stage we shall quote again from 
Weber'a lecture, referred to above : "I should 
not dwell too much on the instrumentation ex¬ 
cept to note that it is highly influenced by 
DayhofTs thereon that a simple experiment 
cannot be done without several racks full of 
electronic apparatus. And what could be 
simpler than a cylinder suspended In vacuum?" 

An issue that was raised early in the investi¬ 
gation was how to eliminate the effect of ex¬ 
traneous background disturbances generated, 
for example, by pemang trucks, or students 
marching around the campus. For tlua purpose, 
a mount with acoustical filters was designed 
by npoy. These acoustical filters worked quite 
successfully and live required isolation was 
achieved. The isolation was ao good that one 
had to strike the vacuum chamber to excite 
the natural vibrations. 

Now, one feature that distinguishes a cos¬ 
mic al phenomenon from a local phenomenon is 
that the former has no preferences for any par- 
ocular location on Lartlx. Thus, in order to 
delect waves of coamical origin one must make 
arrangements to receive them at two different 
places, and waves of coemical on gin will strike 
these two different places almost simultaneous¬ 
ly. Accordingly, one array of detector* was 
installed at Maryland and another at Aigonne 
National Laboratory near Chicago, the di st anc e 
between the two being about I JO00 km. Whoa 
the output of the radio receivers of the two de¬ 
tec ton crossed the desired value within a time 
interval of 0.44 second (abnoet ahnultaneoue- 
ly), the two detecton were raid to rccand « 


( continued 

coincidence. Forty such coincidence* wen ob¬ 
served between 30 December 19t>8 end 21 
Man.ii 1969. 

Thu*, gravitation-radiation detect on at the 
end* of 1000 km baseline have shown coinci¬ 
dence* with overwhelming statistical confi¬ 
dence, indicating a common origin. Again pre¬ 
cautions were taken to rule out effects of 
seismic ongm, as also of electromagnetic exci¬ 
tation. Weber remarks m his paper of June 
1969 .-We must therefore conclude that all 
the coincidence* were neither accidental nor 
due to seismic or electromagnetic effects. This 
■ good evidence that gravitational radiation ha* 
been discovered." 

The experiment has given positive mults. 
Hut funher experimentation is needed to 
characterise die source of this gravitational 
radiation. Abo as Weber pula it: "We must be 
abb lo generate and detect gravitational waves 
in the laboratory.” 

Weber ha* augpsted that instead ot using a 
suspended aluminium cylinder as the delect nr, 
one can use natural suspended object* like the 
hartli or the Moon. The Vtoan will be an Ideal 
detector because there are no winds on the 
Moon and recent observations thow that 
Lucre is not much seismic activity. Wc shall 
again quote Weber: 

"If the Moon ■ actually a quiet place, it 
should be an excellent detector for gravita¬ 
tional waves. Wt have been calculating what 
limit* are imposes by Earth and Sun motion* 
on the use of the Moon as a detector for gra¬ 
vitational waves. In order to use the Moon in 
this way, we envisage instrumenting a lalelht* 
surface and telemetering beck information an 
the motions of the lunar surface!" 

Wc *re indeed living through exciting times. 
And how many mors excitement* are in store 
for us? 



39 1 < i <=rfnd &fandhiji 

AUTHOR : J.U. KnpaUni 

SOURCi . The Illustrated Weekly of 

India, August IS, 1976. 

UX>RL) COUNT : 2.430. 


Recently, then has been a great deal of controversy about Satys- 
graha, the direct non-violent method of resistance to retires political 
wrontp, Injustice and tyranny. One section holds that this method which 
was used by us before Independence against foreign rule, has no place now 
in a democracy ae it amounts to the destruction of the Government and 
the state. A section of the Sarvodaya leaders and workers and the public 
however believe that this method if not destructive of the state ea is 
mi s re p res e nted by some. It can be practised even against a democratic 
government if the latter violates its spirit. They feel that every issue or 
problem in the country does not come before the electorate at election 
time. Problems arise even during the lifetime of a legislature. They further 
point out that Gandhiji has said that Satyagraha can be practised In the 
family, the village, the province or the state. He offered Satyagraha against 
the members of hie Ashram, when they went wrong. 


How has this difference of opinion arisen* 1 feel that when self- 
interest is not involved, it is due to semantic difficulty created by tne use 
of different words for the same or similar phenomenon. This non-violent 
action against political authority has been called by various names, like 
civil disobedience, pasaive resistance, non-cooperation, the breaking of the 
laws. Satyapaha, etc. Gandhiji always preferred the word “Satyagraha" 
which has the root meaning, Sat 3 truth, and Agraha 3 to hold fast. 
Gandhiji used this term as it applied to the removal of political, ocooocnic, 


f continues 1 

•octal and moral wrongr Ha was ■ practical reformer. As aoon as tha solu¬ 
tion to a problem came to his mind, ha put it into practice. Ha rarely 
rhaniasr tha theory behind tha solution he had found and suggested. 

Sometimes the theory behind the solution was briefly brought out 
only by way of solving a particular difficulty. For instance, ha did not, aa 
an economist would, work out tha theory behind decentralised industry, 
represented by tha spinning wheel, khadi and other village industries. 
Ha was in such a hurry to work out a reform that ha had lit da time to 
theorise. Ha was, far instance, as good a socialist as any, but ha did not 
work out, as tha Wastern sorialim did, tha theory underlying his brand 
of socialism' If therefore wt have to search for a theoretical or philosophi¬ 
cal explanation of non-violent action, Satyagraha against tyranny and 
injustice, wa dull have to search far it else where. 

There is no dearth of examples in history where individuals and 
troupe disobeyed authority, considered to be unjust and cruel, non- 
violentiy and paid tha penalty for such disobedience even with their 
lives. There ere the examples of many eminent reformers who became 
mertyra to the truth end faith they held, whether in religion, politics, 
social reform or scientific advancement. 

There is the example of die youth Prahlada who disobeyed the 
king, his father. There ii Mirabel who disobeyed her husband and in-lews 
and went her way, Paging in public the praises of Bhagavan Krishna. 
1 have mentioned here well-known Indian examples. In Christianity, 
there is the supreme example of Jesus Christ and many Christian saints 
who laid down their Uvea for their faith. In Islam too, many martyrs 
suffered for the beliefs they held. There are also a samples of scientists 
who suffered for the spread of knowledge. These had nothing to do with 
politics, tha stats end tha laws. They did not work out a theory of raria 
tancs to authority which they oomineted unjust. 

There is oos example of resistance to Lawful authority which 
appears to me quite appropriate far the dieciurion of the problem as it 
wee directly conoernad with the citizen, the state and the lews. It can fully 
explain the philosophy underlying Satyagraha. This is tha example of the 
Greek philoeopber, Socrates. He was a citizen of the so-caiied democracy 
of Athena. Power during hii time wee concentrated in the Couaci of 
Thirty, Ye< no citizen oould be condemned without a public trial 
Socrates was tried for what waa cooaidared a criminal offence. 


(continued * 

The trials is ancient Greek a ties were held is public forums, 
before ell the citizen*. The main char?* against Socrates was that hi, by 
his teaching and by its method, through questions and answers, wss 
corrupting th* morals of the youth of Athens. He was found guilty and 
condemned to death by drinking a cup of hemlock. 1 shall confine myself 
here to relating what happened In jell while he waa awaiting th* carrying 
out of the death sentence. 

During the Interval, the friends of Socrates made a plan far him to 
•acsp* from prison and go and lire in some other Greek city or in another 
country. Whet he told his friends while declining their well meant offer Is 
of th* utmoet importance. He told his friends .'"Look at it In this way. 
Suppose that while we were preparing to run away from here .... th* 
Lewi end Constitution of Athens were to oorne and confront us and aak 
this question. 'Now, Socrates, whet are you proposing to do 9 Can you 
deny that by this act which you are contemplating, you intend, n far u 
you have the power, to destroy us, the Lews and the whole state as well? 
Do you imagine that a city can continue to exist and not be turned upside 
down, if the legal judgements which are pronounced in it have no force 
but are nullified and destroyed by private persons? 

"Shall we say, 'Yes, I do intend to destroy th* laws, because, the 
state wronged me by passing a faulty judgement st my trial' .... Then 
what supposing the Lewi say .'Was there provision for this In th* agree¬ 
ment between you end us, Socrates, or did you undertake to abide by 
whatever judgements th* state pronounced?' If we expressed surprise at 
euch language, the Laws will say, 'Socrates, but answer our questions.... 
Coma now, what charge do you bring against us and the state, that you 
are trying to destroy us? Did ws not pv* you lift? Was it sot through us 
that your father married your mother and begot you? Tell ua, have you 
any complaint against those of our Laws that deal with marriage*’ 'No, 
none,' 1 should aay. 'Well, have you any against the Laws which deal witn 
children's upbringing and education, such as you had younelf? Are you 
not vyateful to those of our Laws which were instituted for this end, for 
requiring your father to give you s cultural and physical education?' 
'Yes,' ] should aay. 


"Very good. Than rtnee you have baa born and brought up and 
educated, can you deny that you were our child and servant, bath you 


front it toed > 

and your ancestors? And if this ■ so, are you so wist as to have forgottan 
that compared with your mother and fsthar and all tha rest of your 
ancestors, your country ■ something far more precious, more venerable, 
more nored and held in yaatar honour, both among Gods and amoog all 
reasonable man? Do you not realise that you are even more bound to 
respect and placate the anger of your country than your father's anger, 
that if you cannot persuade your country, you must do whatever it 
orders and patiently submit to any punishment that it imposes, whether 
it be flogging or imprisonment? And if it leads you out to war to be 
wounded or killed, you must comply, and it is right that you should do 
so, you must not ghr* way or retreat or abandon your position. Both in 
war and in law courts and everywhere alas you must do whatever your 
city and your country commands or alas persuade it in accordance with 
universal Justice, but rial—re ie s sin even against your parents, and U is 
a far greater em against your country.' What shall we say to this ...? 

"The Laws would say.. . .'Incidentally you will confirm tha 
opinion of tha jurors who triad you that they gavs a correct verdict, a 
destroyer of Laws might very well be supposed to have a destructive 
influence upon young and foolish human beings ... 

" 'As it is, you will leave this place (by death) whec you do, as a 
victim of a wrong dona not by ua, the Laws, but by yow fellow mm.' 
That, my deer friend, I do aeeure you, ie what I seam to hear them saying, 
just as a mystic s ea ms to hear the strains of mutic; and tha sound of 
their arguments rings so loudly in my heed that 1 cannot hear the othar 
side. I warn you that as my opinion stands at present, it wfll be uselsss to 
urge a different view .. 


The quotation brtngi out dearly tha philosophy underlying Satya- 
greha. It ie that Satyagraha is not tha destroysr either of the ttata at of 
the laws. Socrates had a very exalted conception of the stats and the Laws, 
and what they do or ought to do far tha citiaen. He make* no distinction 
between the state and tha laws. They are tha two tides of the same coin. 
One cannot think of the stats without its laws. One cannot think of the 
laws without the State. Here what is to be observed is that while Socrates 
d i sobeyed the order of the judges who were administering the laws for the 
time being, be did not identify them with the laws and the Rate. He 
would not break the or (ter that cooctemned him to death. Hist, he held, 


( continued j 

would be doing an injury to the laws and the itata. 

It la naccaury to understand that a parson who rtfuaaa to obty the 
order of the court to daiat from doing what he considered hia right and 
duty, of guiding the youth of Athena, would not violate the verdict of the 
court, though by >o doing he would have saved hia Ufa! Socrates ghee us 
an illuminating discourse an the utility, the necessity and the authority, 
both of the state and the Laws. The question is how are the two sur¬ 
prisingly contradictory positions to bs reconciled? Evidently, Socrates saw 
no contradiction in this. 

What is Law’ Roughly speaking, it is a commandment to do or to 
refrain from doing a certain act. But can any authority, however powerful, 
oblige a free individual to do or not to do something against hie wdl? 
Because the human will is held to be free, a person is considered reason¬ 
able for his positive end negative actions. If he were not considered free 
and master of himself, be could not be held responsible Only in freedom 
can there be responsibility. If there is no freedom, the question of respon¬ 
sibility does not arise. The child and the madman are not held responsible 
in law. They art not masters of themselves at their actions. 

To take a simple example : the lew may order me to bend my arm. 
But if 1 don't want to bend my arm, and am determined not to do it, no 
power on earth, however, strong, can make me bend my arm. I may 
consent to bend it to avoid the pain if a powerful person to bend U. 
But the deacon is mine. 

It is therefore said that man is the master of his own desuny. The 
state cannot go on breaking arms and necks. Realising this limitation to 
its power, it gives the citizens die choice of either to break or not to break 
the law, that is, obey its commandment, or, in the alternative, to undergo 
the punishment provided for its disobedience. If any person accepts any 
of the two alternative* provided by the law, he is not violating the law but 
fulfilling its obligation. In the alternative provided by the law itself. 

Supposing I have to repay a debt. My creditor tails me to pay it 
either in cash or in kind. If I do not have the cash or am unwilling to 
part with it and pay him in land or any other equivalent commodity, I 
am fulfilling my obligation. In contrast to this, a debtor may refuse to 
pay me the debt in cash or kind. It is only then that it can be said that he 
is a defaulter and has broken the epeement. A person accepting willingly 


( continued ) 

tho alternative of punishment or any equivalent thereof provided by the 
law is in reality t»ot disobeying the law but is fulfilling its requirement in 
the alternative provided by the law itself. Hie disobedience n only in the 
language used. If any criminal were given the opportunity to escape from 
prison as Socrates was given, he would eagerly avail himself of 1 L He 
would not have engaged himself In a long discourse on the sanctity of the 
state and the laws and the obligation laid on him as a citizen to obey 
them. This means, he refuses to accept one of the alternatives. 

There is yet another aspect of Satyagraha which is implied in 
So era tee' analysis which is claerly brought out in the two statements made 
by Gandhiji, one of the courts st Champaran and the other at Sabannati. 
That is the seeming contradiction between the individual citizen and the 
state, as represented by the authorities in power for the time being, 
whether democratic or dictatorial. It is the conflict, as Gandhiji put it, 
between the awakened conscience of a free citizen and the state authori¬ 
ties. The Satyagrahi resolves this contradiction by willingly undergoing 
the penalty awarded by the court. The authorities cannot permit the 
violation of their orders. Otherwise, there will be confusion as Socrates 
points out. On the other hand, if the citizen suppresses his awakened 
conscience, be ceases to be a free man. The Satyapahi by willingly accept¬ 
ing the punishment awarded to him by the authorities, does no injury to 
the state end the laws and also proclaims himself to be a free man. 

Gandhiji in his trial at Champaran (Bihar) told the court trying him: 
“As a law abiding citizen, my first instinct would be to obey the order 
aerved on me. Bat, I could not do eo without doing violence to my ranee 
of duty to those for whom I have come. I feel that I could just now earn 
them only by remaining in their midst (he. in disobeying the order). . . 
It is my firm belief that ki the complex constitution under which we ere 
living, the only safe and honourable course for e self-respecting man h, 
in the circumstances such as face me, to do what I have decided to do. 
that k, to submit without protest to the penalty of disobedience. 


”1 venture to make this statement not in any way in extenuation of 
the penalty to be awarded igrins! me, but to show that I have dnregarded 
the order served upon me not for want of respect for lawful authority, 
but in obedience to the highest law of our bring, the voice of conscience* 
(italics mine). 



Again at his trial in Sabarmati jail in 1922, he plea dad guilty and 
wan tad the judge to award turn the two alternatives that the law provides. 
Ha therefore did not disobey the law. Oandhiji’i exposition of Satyagraha, 
though adequate, ia not as clear aa that of Socrates. Yet, it brings out the 
fact that real disobedience is not in avoiding or escaping from the punish¬ 
ment provided by the law. Would Gandhiji have eecaped from jail, if safe 
means had been provided for him to do eo? Certainly not, far that would 
here amounted to real defiance of the law. In that case, the alternative 
provided by the law would have been violated. 

“i’ULFILS 77/E LAW 9 

Also, from another point of view, whan one obeys a higher law, 
one fulfils the requirements of the lower law and docs not destroy it. it 
is, therefore, that Christ said that he had come * nut to break tha law 
of (Moees) but to fulfil it”. The law of Moses, "an eye far an eye and a 
tooth for a tooth* was not abrogated but more than fulfilled in u much 
as its conception was extended and deepened in the new law of Jesus 
"love thy enemies and do good to them that spitefully use tnee”. 

Socrates’ exposition is quits clear when one willingly carries out 
one of the alternatives of tha law, he is not destroying tha law or the 
state, nay, he k obeying them. It is therefore that Gandhiji always held 
that hk Satyagraha for the Independence of India was not only meant for 
tha good of the people of India but also for the benefit of the Britkh 
people, if the foreign authorities would properly understand it. Some 
Englishmen like C.F. Andrews understood It to be eo. 

When Gandhiji offered Satyapaha against tha erring members of 
the Ashram, ha was not trying to destroy hk institution but to reform it. 
Again, when he said that Satyatpaha could be offared in the family, the 
village and the country, he did not intend to destroy them. That would 
be absurd. He wanted to reform them to be able to perform their proper 

Gandhiji often said that willing acceptance of tha penalty imposed 
by the law was not breaking the law. Hi therefore said that he could find 
no better word than Satya^aha, holding fast to truth, for hk activities, 
seemingly against the lew. All other words like 'passive resfcttnce", 
“non violent resistance". etc, are negative in their conception, while 
“Satyapaha has s positive content. It reconciles the two seemingly 



contradictory terms . obedience and no n-o be dunce. 

Such Satyapaha can by its very nature and conception be non- 
violent. If the law, as declared by the court, is carried out, the question 
of violence does not arise When the order is disobeyed but the pumah- 
ment is willingly and cheerfully accepted by the Satya^ahi, the question 
of violence does not arise again. This point of non-violence a also 
emphasised by Socrates when he says that his escape would mean 
"violence done to the state and the laws". 


Gandniji called Satyagnha a "matchless weapon*. Why? Became 
while violence can be put down by sharper and more destructive weapons 
of violence used, Satyagrahi cannot be put down by yeatar Satyagraha. 
If a satyagrahi diaobeyx a law, his opponent in order to retaliate or defeat 
him or put him down, cannot disobey more laws! 

Satyagraha therefore cannot be conceived of as an anti-social 
activity. It recognises the social utility and necessity of the Slat a and 
the laws and yet allows the individual to enjoy his liberty as a human 
being. The Satya^ahi even in chains is a free man. He can call his soul 
his own. He is not afraid at his opponents. Enemies he has none. His 
opponents are afraid of him and not he of them. He can even stand alons, 
while the violent rosistor must have others to join or follow him. Thus, 
Satyagraha is true both to earth and heaven. 




AUTHOR : V. S. Nandi. 

SOURCE : Spar, Much 1970. 

WORD COUNT: 2556. 

From a email beginning in 1863, Indian Railways have grown 
into the country's targett nationalised undertaking. During the 
past few yeare they have become largely independent of imports 
for their needs of locomotives t wagons and components. Their 
contribution to economic growth has been invaluable and •they 
have been a powerful instrument of eooial change. Row in the 
throee of further expansion and modernisation t the railways § are 
expeoted to play an even more useful role in national develop¬ 

Indian Railway expertise and equipment are in demand in 
several other oountrtee, notably those of the Middle East. 

A gratifying feature of post-independence development is 
the provision of greater amenitiee for third-class travellers 
who form the bulk of passenger traffia on Indian Railways. 

A foreigner on his first tour of India with the pre-conceived notion that the country U 
still in the bullock cart or the bicycle age, must be agreeably surprised as he settles himself com¬ 
fortably in the Taj Express. If he remains in India for even a few weeks, he will surely be imp reared 
by the extent and increasing efficiency of India's railway system. 

( rrn crossing the country with a network which comprises a route length of more than 
59,000 kilometres, railways can take the traveller to the moat remote parti of India. Tlie greater 
urban and industrial centres, the port towns, the picturesque country side and hillside, and the 
many sites of historical, architectural or cultural interest are all easily accessible by nul. And the 
crowds at railway stations are a colourful croea-scction of India's many millions In all their diversity 
of speech, dress and demeanour. 

The slow-moving, steam-driven trains-which remind Westerners of a bygone era ui locomo¬ 
tion -are being rapidly replaced in India by modem express trains hauled by diesel or eke trie 
locomotives. On the main trunk routes, the popular 'de luxe* trains have sleeping coaches and 
slumberett seats for third data passengers. They provide speedy, comfortable transport between 
the metropolitan cities of Delhi. Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. The Rajdham Express, introduced 
last year, is the country’s fastest train and may well be a forerunner of India's future, modernized 
rail service. Travelling at 120 kilometres per hour. It coven the distance between Delhi aud Calcutta 
in 17 houn. It Is comfortably furnished, fully air-conditioned, dust-proof and noise-free. Meals 
are served to passengers on the train with the cost included in the fare, following standard airline 

Two examples of efficient, short-distance train service are the Deccan Queen running between 


( continued) 

Bombay and Poona ami the Taj Express, cape daily convenient for tourists who wish to make a 
quick trip to Agra from Delhi. The bulk of Bombay's metropolitan traffic ia carried by its 
electnc railway, with local trains running every three to five minutes during the hours of peak 
traffic to transport thousands of office and factory workers between their homes in the suburbs 
and the city. 

While passenger traffic I us increased considerably it is freight, or goods traffic which account 
mainly for the phenomenal growth of Indian railwayi. Rapid industrialization has meant heavy 
demands on the railways for transport of such commodities as coal, iron and steel, cement, 
fertilizers, petroleum products, and finished goods of all kinds. During 1969 the railways canted 
about 550,000 tons of freight every day over an average haulage distance of more than 600 kilo¬ 

To handle tills colossal traffic, some 380,000 wagons, or freight cars, arc in use. Besides 
the conventional two-axlc wagons, the railways are now using four-axle wagons capable of carrying 
55 to 65 Iona. Wagons are manufactured mostly by workshops in llic private sector which have 
achieved a capacity of about 40,000 units a year. This output is not only adequate for the country's 
needs but leaves a margin for export. The railways also maintain a large fleet of tankwagona to 
transport petroleum products in bulk from port towns and refineries to Use interior. Diesel or 
electric traction is now used for certain types of goods traffic and for express goods trains on 
some of the main routes. This has reduced transit time and resulted in economies through haulage 
of heavier loads and quicker wagon tumround. 

An innovation for India is the container service, widely offered by railways in the United 
States. Introduced on Indian railways four yean ago, it has considerably expanded and now covers 
Tour major cities. There are two types of containers of 4.S and 5 tons capacity suitable for trans¬ 
port on botli the brood gauge and metre gauge systems. The container service in winch road trans¬ 
porters are collaborating with the railways, is expanding and proving useful to the trading com¬ 

Modernization of the country's railway system lias also included renewal and strengthening 
of track and increasing use of mccliamcxl or automatic devices for signalling and traffic control. 

Train speeds, frequency of train re prices, and the loads passing over the track have all increased 
in recent yean. In the interests of lafety, track construction standards have been reviewed and 
nused in areas of high traffic destiny. The Wanehoo Committee, ret up by Government some tunc 
ago, lias recommended the use of licavier and long welded rails, strengthening of the track sub¬ 
structure including ballast, and use of an improved type of sleeper with better fastenings. Some 
15 lakh of pre-stressed concrete deepen are at present on order and will replace old-type wooden 
or steel sleepers during the next few yean. 

Signalling, wagon shunting and traffic control operations are also being modernized. 

Improved mechanical or automatic signal devices are now in general use and the route relay inter¬ 
locking system has been introduced at important junction stations. Utg wagon marshalling yards 
such as that of Mughalsanu, which handies re many re 6,000 wagons a day, have been equipped 


(continued jl 

with clcctro-pncumatic retrcaden. 

A notable development a the introduction of centralized traffic control-the most efficient 
method of controlling railway traffic yet deviled-on two metre-gauge sections in north-eastern 
India. This sophisticated control system enables a angle operator to watch the position of all trains 
in the section on an Illuminated track diagram and to guide their movements. Economical to work, 
it increases safety by making train collisions virtually single-line track. The 180 kilometres of 
Conkhpur-Chupra line-one of the two sections on which the system is in operation-can lurndlc 
approximately 40 trains per day in both directions. 

The foreign exchange coats of the centralised traffic control project were met by a dollar loan 
from the United States Government, and some technical assistance was provided by the U.S. Agency 
for International Development. Foreign assistance continues to play a vital role in tha implementation 
of the Indian railways’ plans far development. Under an agreement signed at the end of last year, 
the International Development Association (IDA)-un affiliate of the World Bank, to which the 
United States is the leading contributor-hat given Lidia a credit of Sh. 55 million. The greater 
part of this loan is intended to cover the unport of components and materials required for indigenous 
manufacture of diesel and electric locomotives and other rolling work. Including the present 
credit, the total loan assistance given by Uie World Bank and IDA to Indian railways so far totals 
Sh. 630 million. 

With the increased emphasis on indigenous manufacture of various components, the ratio 
of the railways’ foreign exchange expenditure to total outlay has substantially decreased . for the 
Fourth Five-Year Plan it u only 11.8 per cent of the total. Technical know-how is being steadily 
developed by the Indian Railways, Research Design and Standards Organization in Lucknow. Indian 
specialists have undertaken assignments in other Asian countries and given advice on planning and 
construction or railways. The most recent request for Indian expertise came from Iraq and a team 
of Indian railway officials is uow in that country conducting a leanbUity-cum-cost study for pro¬ 
jected railway line which will link Baghdad with the Syrian border. Such technical miaioiis also 
have a trade potential since llie country concerned might decide to purchase Indian-made railway 
equipment-freight cars, si gnallin g devices and other items available for export. 

Although with the growth or air and road services the use or railwayi for long-distance travel 
lias considerably diminished in developed countries, in India they will probably carry Lie bulk of 
both passenger and goods traffic for many yean Apart from Lin, railways provide the moat econo¬ 
mical and efficient transport for moving large masses of people from Lie suburbs lo metropolitan 
cities. Suburban rail system*-surface, subway or elevated track-arc expected to develop in the 
metropolitan areas of Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and other big Indian cities. 

The first railway train in India took passengers for a 32-kilomclre ride from Bori Bunder 
(Bombay) to Tliana, on April 16, 1853. Since that lustoric date Indian railways have played a rapidly 
expandina role in Lie country's economy. Today Uwy arc Lie nation’s biggest undertaking in the 
public sector, with assets of more than Ks. 3,600 crorea and daily revenue receipts of about Rs.2.6 
crorea. They have some 14 lakh men and women on their payrolls. 



The advent of independence and partition of India in 1947 found the railway system badly 
organised with aa many as 42 separate administrations. Owing to difficulties of replacement and 
renewals during the year of the Second Work! War, workshop plant and rolling stock had deterio¬ 
rated. At the some tune the railways were called upon to cany an increasingly large volume of 
traffic resulting from mass migration of people, movement of foodgraim from one part of the 
country to another, and accelerated Industrial production. A change tn the transport pattern-which 
before independence was designed to meet the country's needs us mainly an exporter of raw mate¬ 
rials and importer of finished products - also became necessary. India began to produce material 
and machinery which had to be carried from manufacturing centres to markets throughout the 

Indian railways have adequately met the challenge posed by these changed conditions. The 
widely scattered administrative units have been reorganized into nine viable zones. Renewal and 
development programmes have progressed satisfactorily .the Fourth Five-Year Plan provides for 
an expenditure of 1,525 crorei on railway development. With a view to cutting down imports and 
achieving self-sufficiency , several projects have been set up for manufacture of rolling stock and 
railway equipment within the country. 

The more important State-owned projects are the Chlttaranjan Locomotive Works near 
Calcutta, the Diesel Locomotive Works at Varanasi, and the Integral Coach Factory it Pcrambut, 

LsUbhshed in 1950, the factory ot Chittaranjan lias produced about 2.400 steam locomo¬ 
tives betides some clcctnc locomotives. At Varanasi a Rs. 20 crore plant was set up in 1961 with 
the technical co-operation of Alco Products Incorporated, an American firm, and loan assistance 
from the U.S. Export-Import Bank to cover foreign exchange requirements. The Factory has so 
far turned out nearly 300 broad gauge diesel locomotives in addition to some for the metre-gauge 
track. It is a tribute to the progress of Indian know-how and skilful exploitation of local resources 
that tlie indigenous content in the manufacture of Hi esc locomotives has increased from 20 to 
nearly 80 per cent and is expected to rise further to 90 per cent by the end of this year. This means 
a saving in foreign exchange of Sh. 200,000 per locomotive or Sh. 30 million annually when the 
plant reaches its full production capacity of 150 locomotive a year. 

Together with the locomotive plants, the Integral Coach Factory has played a major role in 
the Indian railways* programme of expansion and modernization. Since 1955 it has built some 
8,000 passenger coaches. 

Production has been expanded and diversified in recent years to include fully-equipped two- 
tier and three-tier sleeping coaches for third class passengers, air-conditioned coaches and diesel 

Hie production units at Chittaranjan, Varanasi and Pcrambur employ the latest manufactur¬ 
ing techniques. Computers have been installed in all the three unita, os also In the Railway Board’s 
office in New Delhi. The feasibility of using computers for passenger train reservations Is at present 



under study. 

In an cHart to make nul travel comfortable for everyone, the railway's development plans 
have provided for greater amenities for third-class passengers who farm the bulk of passenger 
traffic. Third-class waiting rooms tiave been Improved, passenger hopes are now equipped with 
fans, sleeping accommodation can be reserved in advance, and third -clam passengers may even 
travel tn air-conditioned coaches on payment of an additional charge. The number of dawn has 
also been cut down and there is no racial or similar discrimination in the allotment of train accom 
mod ut ion. 

To say that Indian railways are the nation's lifeline may be a cliche, but it is a cliche which 
will bear repetition. It Is not difficult to visualize how the nation’s economy would witlier away 
without these vital arteries of transport. Discussing the role of Indian railways, Mr. G.D. Khandcl- 
wal, until lately Chairman of the Railway Hoard, says. ‘It is unimaginable to conceive of a Une 
of supply as dependable and economical as the railways far myriad items of daily use. And it is 
far more difficult to imagine the growth of internal commerce and international trade without the 
active association of the railways”. 

Apart from tiicir importance to industry as transporters, Indian railways make a major con¬ 
tribution to (lie economy in other ways. They purchase diverse goods of the value of about a crore 
of rupees every day. They are also the biggest angle employer in the country. Besides the 14 lakh 
of people of their payrolls, large number of workers such as porters at railway stations and contmc 
tors' labour depends on the railwayi for their livelihood. 


The railways, like any other big organization, of course, hove their problems. To mention 
only two there is the overcrowding in trains which, in spite of the considerable expansion of ser¬ 
vices, is still acute especially on die main routes. There a also the habit of hcketlen travel, result¬ 
ing in sizeable leases in passenger revenue. These and other problems are being vigorously tackled 
and do not detract from the railways' performance. As Mr. Khanddwal points out. Indian rail¬ 
ways have accelerated social change and have been In the vanguard of industrial development. With 
the present emphasis on efficiency and modernization, they seem well fitted to contribute even 
more effectively in the future to the country's social progress and continued economic growth. 



42. microwave Technology 



V. P. Kodak 
Science Today, 
October, 1969. 

In recent yean, every sizeable country has been spending huge amounts of money on micro* 
wave equipment. The estimated need of our country over a 10-year period (1965-75) has been set 
at about Ra. 275 crora. Roughly, this figure represents about one per cent of the expenditure 
incurred by the United State* of America every year on microwave equipment! 


The reasons for such increasing attention to microwaves are not far to seek. They play a vital 
role In radar and communication Helds. They have also come to have many research and industrial 
applications. In research, the characteristic absorption of microwave energy in gases, liquids and 
solids is providing a means to study their atomic and molecular structures and the related pheno¬ 
mena. An atomic dock In which the frequency of a particular absorption line of ammonia gas 
serve* as the standard provides a highly accurate time and frequency standard of one part in ten 
million. The microwave technology has made It possible to develop linear accelerators for producing 
high energy, highly bunched electron beams. These beams are useful for a variety of purposes like 
studies on the structure of a nucleus, treatment of cancer and food sterilisation. During the past 
five years, microwaves have also found their way into the kitchen Microwave onrens are now 
commercially available. They enable very fast and clean cooking. These ovens have several oilier 
industrial applications. 

Although microwaves have found many applications in laboratory, home and industry, 
these are still only marginal compared to their use in radar and communications. 

Microwave technology originated from the wartime needs during the Second World War. Out 
its usefulness survived the war to hring rich benefits to the present-day world. The basic objectives 
surrounding its applications have not changed very muck Its two principal uses, detection and 
identification of faraway objects (by radar) and facilitating communication over long distances and 
with remote place*, have remained unchanged. Only the motivation from which these objectives 
arise lias assumed new dimensions. 

Thus, while surveillance of the sides and tracking distant objects remains s necessary part of 
any national defence set-up, essentially a similar exercise b needed at all civil rirporta to assure a 
safe Landing or take-off for every aircraft These functions are carried out by electronic systems 
operating at microwave frequencies. 



This article gives a synopsis of the techniques of electromagnetic energy generation and trans* 
mission used at various frequencies and the principal applications associated wills each band of 
frequencies. It also deals with another important application for microwaves—in the telecommuni¬ 
cation networks. Apart from the wartime needs of a reliable and fast means of communication, 
microwave communication links also ptovule a convenient and economical means of communica¬ 
tion with remote and far-off places during peace time. A combination of these two types of 
applications plays a vital role in the exploration of outer space. 

In this article we shall discuss the practical applications of microwaves, the contemporary 
trends in microwave system design and the projected needs of our country in relation to what ts 
happening in other parts of the world. 


The term radar is a shortened version of ‘Radio Detection and Ranging’. This expression 
describes unply Use functions of a radar. 

The radar’s transmission circuits generate and send out a very high energy microwave signal. 
The electromagnetic energy, thus transmitted, propagates in space and is reflet ted by faraway 
objects. The reflected signal b then picked up by the receive circuits of the radar and processed to 
yield information regarding the position and nature of the object. Various radar systems ore 
operated at microwave frequencies because of such considerations as a reasonably minimum level of 
natural atmospheric and other artificial Interferences In this frequency spectrum and the ease with 
which the transmitted electromagnetic energy, can be focussed into a sharp beam to yield a high 
degree of resolution. Almost all the present-day radar installations operate at microwave 

The range of a radar (sensitivity of the radar system) may be increased by using what are 
known as transponders. In this type of radar, a transponder beacon is located m the moving target, 
whose trajectory b to be tracked. The transponder functions as follows. The signal transmitted by 
• tracking radar b received by the interrogator system of the transponder. The transponder beacon 
responds only if the frequency of the transmitted signs! corresponds lo a prr-assigned frequency. 
When the beacon responds, the moving target transmits a signal at a fixed frequency. Thb signal is 
then received by the receiving circuits of the tracking radar and analysed to ykld the required infor¬ 

A transponder mode, however, b often used forpuipuacs other than mere increase in the 
system sensitivity. Such applications include the tracking of a missile or • satellite, the information 
regarding whose trajectory b required to be maintained secret. It b apparent that tramponden 
cannot be used for tracking the enemy aircraft. 

A radar which docs not depend an the um of transponder beacons for its operation relies on 
the tarpst surface itself for reflecting back the transmitted signal. The received signal, consisting of 
the electromagnetic energy thus reflected, b then pro ces sed by the receiver circuits of the radar 



system. Operation of this type is known as *ikin mode* tracking. Skin mode tracking is uaed for all 
general surreiilance purposes. 

One of the most practical problems in radars is the identification of signals reflected by the 
target from those originating due to reflections from its immediate surroundings such as clouds and 
iny other objects. Hera, the only basis on which s distinction can be made Is the motion of the 
target itself. Radars which use this principle are called the Doppler navigational systems 

The principle of their operation if based on tlie Doppler frequency shift. It states llut on 
electromagnetic ware reflected by a moving object gives rise to a signal tin received in the neigh* 
bourhood of the stationary transmitter) which diffen slightly in frequency from the outgoing 
wave. The actual shift in frequency is dependent on the frequency of the transmitted signal and the 
radial velocity of the moving object ftarget) with respect to the location of the radar transmitter/ 

Radars, based on Doppler frequency shift principle, prnvi 1e a wide range of information in 
the monitoring of any moving object. Tltc degree of sophisticati jii in the instrumentation and data 
processing equipment determines the attainable accuracy in the monitored data 

We shall now proceed to review the role of microwaves in establishing telecommunication 


The utilisation of microwaves for communication purposes has became increasingly popular 
during the pail 10* 15 yean. Prior to the advent of microwave technology, the radio waves were 
widely used fur point-to-point communication over long distances. Even today, a large number of 
telecommunication networks operate at radio frequency band. However, compared to radio fre¬ 
quencies, the microwave band has several advantages. These include ail the advantages that have 
been found to favour the use of microwave frequencies for radars. In addition, each microwave 
frequency earner is capable of accommodating a larger number of communication channels per 

At microwave frequencies, it * possible to use the atmospheric propagation of electromag¬ 
netic energy to establish communication between two stations. Alternately, one can uae a physi¬ 
cal transmission line to connect the two stations. 

At microwave frequencies, coaxial lines and waveguides arc used as transmission lines. The 
usual coastal line consists of a cylindrical hollow serving as one conductor, with a second con¬ 
ductor placed inside it The waveguide generally consists of a hollow tube, either rectangular or 
circular In cross section. These transmission lines are fabricated from brass, copper or aluminium. 
The choice between the atmospheric propagation and a transmission kmc is made an the boats of 
relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of complexity of the terminal equipment. ID 
allowable attenuation and distortion suffered by the signal. Also important are the distances 



involved and the practical ease of Laying a transmission line, as well as such factors at the economics 
of install*tier and maintenance and reliability of transmission. 

In a line-of-eight type communication link, the transmitting and receiving antennae are 
located in such a way that they are visible to each other from the viewpoint of microwave sign ah. 
The permissible distance between a pair of tniumittinR and recetving terminal* depends on the 
available transmitter power, attenuation of the signal during transmission and receiver sensitivity. 

In a long-haul communication link, the use of one or more repeater stations between the 
transmitter and receive* terminals becomes necessary. Their purpose is to aadat in enhancing the 
signal power si each stage. Repealer stations are also used in the line-of*«ght communication links 
to surmount geographical bamen like hills wtuch physically obstruct the direct linc-of-aght 
between two paints. 

A repeater station usually consists of equipment needed (or receiving a microwave signal 
coming from a given direction, enhancing its strength (when this is neceanry) and retransmitting 
it in any required direction. At the repeater terminal, tine microwave signal need not be brought 
down to the base band level. However, they may be brought down to an intermediate frequency 
level, amplified and retransmitted at a microwave frequency. The frequency at which a repeater 
retransmits Is also slightly different from that at which it receives. This Is to minimise any unwanted 
interference effects. 


Although the basic principles related to the use of microwave frequencies in radar and com¬ 
munication systems were established over SO yean ago, the intensive research and developmental 
activity of Die past two decades has brought about a phenomenal transformation in microwave 
technology. Thu transformation has manifested itself in the furm of highly advanced microwave 
systems with capabilities well beyond what was believed powihle in those days. Indeed, what was 
perhaps science fiction till the thirties is today a web-established technology. 

In defence electronics, very sophisticated radar systems and radomes now keep a constant 
vigil of the skies in different countries to serve as early warning systems in case of a sudden enemy 
attack. A istlome is a special type of homing, designed to provide protection and streamline the 
tracking system of a radar. In order to facilitate a rapid scanning in all directions, novel systems 
have been developed in recent yean with a capability of carrying out this function electronically. 
Somewhat less complex systems than those employed in defence exercises are now used at many of 
the large cavil airports to assisi in the handling of air traffic. 

At the time of initial developments In radar and communication technologies, the use of 
solid state devices at these frequencies was completely unknown. The principle of these devices is 
based on utilising Use properties of certain materials known as semiconductors. Present-day micro¬ 
wave systems use sophisticated techniques resulting from the research and developmental effortson 
semiconductor devices and circuits during the past IS years to cany out a wide variety of functions 


( continued) 

like micro wire signal generation, control, detection end amplification. The main advintagw of thia 
approach have been a Munificent reduction In the sire and complexity of the equipment and 
increased reliability and versatility of the system. Integ/jted circuit techniques liave enabled a 
microminiaturisation of the components and sub-systems. As a result, apart from a reduction in 
the size and weight of the equipment, considerable reduction tn the cost of initial fabrication of 
the system as well as Its long term maintenance can be effected 

Solid state techniques hare been more fully utilised in fabricating communication links than 
in the construction of radars, live reason for thia is that a radar is usually a high-power sy stem, 
whereas moat of the communication Unka are low-power systems. The microwave integrated circuit 
components have the basic liaiitatiun of being able to handle only low power levels. The power 
output of a solid state microwave communication links with a capability of accommodating up to 
1,800 telephone channels are being commercially produced. However, here though considerable 
development has already taken place, much is yet to be achieved. 

Cine of the recent advances in the field of communication has bean towards establishing 
world-wide communication networks using satellites. The repeater station in this case is housed in 
an orbiting satellite and the transmit and receive stations are located on Use ground. It is necessary 
to have direct lines of sight between the transmitter and satellite on Uw one hand and the satellite 
and receiver on (lie other hand. The transmitter and the receiver are connected to the ground- 
baaed telecommunication services in the respective regions. Thus, s typical global communication 
link oe labial led between two subscribers located several thousands of kilometres apart will consul 
of different stages. 

Communication satellites provide a reliable and economical means of estoblialung large scale 
worldwide communication networks. A particular and interesting case of satellite relaying now 
widely used is the 24-hour fixed satellite relay station. The satellite is placed at an altitude of 
35,880 kilometres where it appears fixed in space above some point on the equator. With satellite 
re pesters in s synchronous stationary orbit at 35.880 kilometres, three or four satellites will cover 
the Earth's surface except for the polar regions. However, in s permanent system, an additional 
three or four satellites may be required as spares to insure reliability. 


Where does our country figure in this picture? The extent to which any country can commit 
itself to a new technology depends on Its immediate and long-term needs and policies. The micro¬ 
wave technology has a dual role- in defence and civil spheres, and the two aspects are duady 
related. Since it is unlikely that any country will share its key developments in microwave techno¬ 
logy with another unless the two countries art militarily associated, or that a specific equipment 
has become obsolete from its own standpoint, it is necessary to consider this question from the 
viewpoint of policies, apart from considerations booed on need and availability of finances. In turn, 
this argument requires that a strong design and development oriented bate be established in the 
country in these fields if it is planning to adopt an independent policy. 



With minor exceptions, the microwave technology tuned receiving attention in India less 
than 10 yean ago. There were tome microwave equipment in existence in this country prior to that 
date. But the general know-how and the usefulness of the then exuung equipment waa mftmtea- 
mally tmalL The specific needs of this country were surveyed for the Ant time by the Bhabha Com¬ 
mittee on Electronics. Its report published in 1966 lias put the requirement at Ri. 276.45 crura an 
several types of microwave equip man i over a period of ton yean. This figure includes an amount 
of Rs. 119.67 crora against ground-base dVship borne equipment, Ra. 107.16 crona for an bo me 
equipment and Rs. 49.62 crores for various types of telecommunication equipment Today, these 
figures will have to be retrod to account for inflation, rising coats of production and the effects of 

An idea as to what the above figures mean may be luuJ by curaidcTtng the coat of a single 
microwave system. When produced fan substantially large numbers, the coat of a single radar system 
(medium level of sophistication), or a single microwave communication link with the associated 
terminal equipment a about Ra. 10 to 15 lakhs. The coat of initial design, development and proto¬ 
type fabrication for any item will be wvesal orders of magnitude iughcr than the coat of a single 
unit which is manufactured on a production line. 

Certain types of telecommunication links have been uukgnnuualy developed and are being 
manufactured to meet a port of the country's need. A tainted number of radar systems, worth 
about Ra. S crores per year, are also presently manufactured under licence from various agencies 
located abroad. Rut while a collaboration and *buying the know-how* from other countries may be 
necessary for such reasons as meeting the immediate needs and avoiding expenditure on rediscover¬ 
ing an established technology, these factors cannot and, in fact, do not relieve ui from the strong 
need to establish s design and developmental base foe microwave activity in this country. 

It is equally important to advance new designs to a level at which they can be manufactured 
in substantial quantities on a production line basis by relatively unskilled Of attm-tklilcd personnel. 
There is often a vast gulf between a single model produced in the laboratory and a unit coming out 
on a regular production line in a factory. The penod required to effect this modification is 
dependent on a variety of factors Uke the complexity and sophistication of equipment, the ability 
cm tne part of tne team concerned to surmount practical problems and larprty on the intensity of 
effort This can take several years. 


We liave described the role of microwaves in the present-day set up of (lie world. What has 
contributed to the growth of microwave technology in other countries is basically the need to 
benefit from its practical applications, in the near future, the rate of microwaves is itself not liaaly 
to undergo any major tram formation The technology will undoubtedly process and change with 
time. The question as to wliat shape microwave technology will take, say in about fifty or a 
hundred years from now, and whether any of the hitherto unforeseen developments will drive 
today's wonderful world of microwaves into a stale of obsolescence n perhaps a question for the 
'prophets in science* to answer. 



1AH1NC THi: XIASr -XTACi sworn 

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OPS*-* I Hit tf. nil TOUMtftxc. 
i * neti • tv iLxn>*JMkfiT .n ixi in /n 
Dint ici * ^mc rwj uu<v> *v aiazu 
vw> uax nr, if, utfori JC'pri rtvc at 
Lxn.lUlM(Ji TV HINT SMCS- U* H- 
ml'l-L TVCMtVOLOCr TO pntLOP- 

| tvr: vinoKf. rum nortsriAi jxmACT 

Among the many "space spin-of fa for the 
1970a" are three projects described in the 
following article: an experiment in India in 
instruction*] television; in Brazil and Mexico 
in remote surveying by aalellile; and an 
exploration of how to use NASA's transfer 
experience to bring space-developed techno¬ 
logy to developing nation*. Their potential 
impact on education and cultures, on national 
economies, and on institutional growth are 
almost beyond Imagination. 

Dr. Barnes is the Director of Cc-operatbe 
Project! in NASA's Office of In tarnations] 
Affairs, where Mr. Suttir.aier is a Public Admi¬ 
nistration Intern. 

The end of the I960* marked the end of 
two specially designated “decades". One was 
man's first decade In space. The other eras the 
commitment of the international commu¬ 
nity to a "decade oi development". Now that 
the 1970* are with us, it is appropriate to 
review the past relationship of space acti¬ 
vities and international development and to 
exam ins selected space-related projects for the 
1970 b which will have a direct bearing on 

The National Aeronautics and Space 

AUTHOR ; Richard J.H. Bamos. 

Richard P. Suttmeir. 

SOURCE i The American Renew, 

April 1971. 

WORD COUNT i >090. 

ON EDUCATIVE AffV cvnvnxs, ON 
ftATtOKAl Mltvnu/fts 4VO ON WSTf- 

n/noMt cnouni Ait ilwojt 


Oi, MANX.I It ttfRHCTU* Of CD- 
n/*.<M77»T PMOJBCTl IS N U4'iOfffUI 
Of If, 1 1 i.\ A TldS* l UTAH J. KH/LJf 

xiK itTnmmM u a nam. aowr m- 
itXAnav ivtxjlv.* 

Administration, which has aa its mission the 
conduct of res e ar ch and development to 
sustain US. space efforts, b not in the inter 
national development businaai. But certain of 
its international programmes have been and 
will be germane to developing areas. 

During the 1960s, for instanos, meteoro¬ 
logical satellites brought hurricane advisories 
and other weather information to areas all over 
the world, which had never before had the 
advantage of early-warning systems or effective 
forecasting Trice s . Simple and Inexpensive 
equipment allow* any interred country to 
receive weather information in the form of 
cloud over picture* for the immediate region 
twice a day from U.S. satellites, using the 
Automatic Picture Transmission system. Inter¬ 
national development and space interests have 
also c chi verged an programmes Involving com¬ 
munications. The 73 memuer nations of 
Intelsat, for instance, enjoy the benefit* of 
greatly improved worldwide communication! 
made possible by satellite*. In addition, techni¬ 
cal training ha* been made available to local 
personnel in areas where NASA tracking 
stations are located. 

In spite of the contributions of the past, 
however, the continually widening gap between 

*U«a Um Slununw fo* Af|T 



the rich and technologically advanced nations 
and the poor nations again raises the question 
for the 1970s.'*How might space activities 
and the advanced technology generated by 
these activities be brought to bear mors in tana 
eiy on problems of development?” 

Although * development* remains an 
exceedingly complex problem, it is often a pro¬ 
cess where options are reduced and develop¬ 
ment objective*-increased economic producti¬ 
vity through industrialization, increased 
Literacy and mass media consumption, 
increased lift spans—are achieved only at 
terribly high non -economic costs. Tksee costs 
are the familiar problems of developing areaa- 
cultural homogenization, uncontrolled urbani¬ 
sation, overpopulation, relatively modernized 
urban sectors juxtaposed against primitive 
hinterlands and modernized technical elites 
inzul a tad from the non-modem mamas. 

The promise of advanced technology far 
development may be in the opportunities that 
it offas far new paths to development, paths 
which would make it possible to leapfrog 
interna technological measures, and at the 
same time to sidestep those aspects of develop¬ 
ment that actually degrade the quality of 
life in developing areas in the name of pro- 
grew. Three NASA international programmes 
for the 1970s are relevant to the questions. 


Recently NASA and the parent agency far 
space affairs in India, the Department of 
Atomic Energy, signed an epeement In which 
NASA will make available to India an a co¬ 
operative basis an Applications Technology 
Satellite (ATS) far an experiment In Instruc¬ 
tional Television (ITV) to reach soma 5,000 

Indian villages. This experiment, if succea- 
ful, would mark the first time in which tele¬ 
vision signals would be beamed directly from 
satellite to receivers an the pound without the 
need for ground relay stations Individual 
pound receivers wiD be augmented by a small 
parabolic receiving antenna and a preampli¬ 
fier FM to AM converter. 

The technical objectives of NASA, which is 
responsible for the w>* ct segment for the 
experiment, are to test the feasibility of plac¬ 
ing the satellite in a synchronous equatorial 
orbit (travelling st such a rate that it remains 
stationed over s given paint an the earth), 
and of erecting a large 30-foot antenna struc¬ 
ture in space and pointing the antenna 
accurately to r'**or -<•*»• 0.1 degree. Both 
the deployable satellite antenna and the high- 
point accuracy, as wall as the increase of on¬ 
board power necessary to perform the mlaion, 
represent steps forward in the technical state 
of the art. 

The satellite will carry a UHF-FM trans¬ 
mitter which can be uaed to transmit one 
video and two audio channels. The transmitter 
will be operating at approximately 80 watts 
power. The two audio channels of the sate¬ 
llite's FM transmitter will make it poasibie to 
transmit simultaneous audio transmission in 
different languages, the number being multi¬ 
plied by a tiine-ahanng arrangement. 

The responsibility for the pound segment 
of the experiment rests with the Government 
of India. It involves choosing the 5,000 villages 
for participation in the experiment, supplying 
and maintaining conventional and, specially 
supnented receivers, programming, providing a 
limited number of small television relay 
stations and operating upward-transmitting 
pound stations at Ahmedahad and elsewhere. 



Inaia nopat true the instruction will con¬ 
tribute to progrea in family planning, 
Improved ayicultural practices and national 
inlays bon. In agriculture, for instance, tele 
vision programming would be used to support 
the Intensive Agricultural District Programme, 
to familiarize farmers with high yield seeds, 
with the use of fertilizers and pesticides, with 
water management techniques and with the 
benefit of farm co-operatives and, in addition, 
would provide forecasts relating to weather 
and pact conditions. 

Hie Government of India has tested and 
demonstrated the benefit of instructional tele¬ 
vision in Indian villages in pilot projects 
using a conventional television system in the 
Delhi area. The Delhi project was conducted 
m a carefully controlled experiment. The re¬ 
sults, which wore systematically evaluated, 
showed that Instructional taleviaion in rural 
villages significantly advanced developmental 
objectives. An additional study indicated a 
national television network employing a sate¬ 
llite link would require one-third to one-half 
the investment needed for a similar system 
using conventional transmission techniques. 

If the feasibility of direct broadcasting 
from satellites can be demonstrated, new 
economies of scale arc introduced, the use of 
instructional television In isolated rural villages 
becomes economically possible, and an opti¬ 
mum national television system can be 
planned. In such e system remote villages 
would use augmented receivers far receiving 
television signals directly from the satellite. 
In areas of high village density, on the other 
hand, it may be more economical to have one 
central receiving station with a capability to 
rediffuae signals to conventional receivers. 

The Delhi experiment has shown the 
effectiveness of instructional television in 

making a positive contribution to village life. 
Using direct broadcasting from satellites, such 
benefits need not be limited to villages that are 
geographically does to large cities. It should be 
pomble to have Instructional Inputs into more 
villages which up to now have been denied the 
kind of information necessary for moderniza¬ 

Should the experiment be successful, it 
would represent a first step toward ovarcamtng 
urban-rural, agricultural-industrial disparities. 
Additional benefits oan be envisioned. The 
design, manufacture, installation and mainte¬ 
nance of the hardware needed for the ground 
segment of the experiment will stimulate 
Indian industrial activity. The project will 
require competent scientists and engineers who 
will have an opportunity to work on space-age 
projects, in India, that are technically sophis¬ 
ticated as well as relevant to public needs. 


A second of NASA‘s pr ogr am mes which 
has strong potential for contributions to 
development obje cti v es during the second 
decade In space it baaed on remote surveying 
of the earth’s terrain by satellite. Remote 
sensing offers important new date-gathering 
and monitoring possibilities in such diverse 
fields as apiculture, geology, meteorology, 
oceanography and hydrology. 

The remote sensing of earth resources is 
baaed on the fact that natural and cultural 
features of the earth's surface absorb, reflect 
and emit electromagnetic energy at specific 
wave-lengths. Characteristic electromagnetic 
"signatures” identify different surface features. 
Thus, wheat should eventually be distinguish¬ 
able from oats and healthy crops from 



Ths main objectives of NASA’s Earth 
Resources Sumy (ERS) programme ia to 
develop sophisticated sensors that can be 
flown on satellites and to develop methods far 
managing, analyzing and interpreting the 
data that will be acquired. The lint Earth 
Raeouroea Technology Satellite (ERTSA) to 
scheduled for flight about 1972. An inter¬ 
mediate step, however, and one which is both 
a prerequisite for ERTSA and an intrinsi¬ 
cally valuable programme, is the present 
work being done on remote sensing from 

Earth raeouroea surrey* from aircraft are 
necessary for the development of suitable 
sensing devices and techniques. The experience 
with airborne sensors will constitute a major 
input for sensing experiments based on sate¬ 
llites. In addition, the aircraft phase to siaen- 
tial for establishing "ground truth*-the corre¬ 
lation of remote imagery or electromagnetic 
"signatures" with known features on the 

Experience with aircraft-based sensing has 
pointed to some of the practical benefits that 
may be expected from the satellite programme. 
In apiculture, sew approaches to aerial photo¬ 
graphy, using colour and near infra-red tech¬ 
niques have shown that crop Infestation can 
be detected at very early stages, making it 
poeribls to isolate and treat rltoesaed plants 
much earlier than by using conventional 
techniques. In Oceanography, experiments are 
being conducted to locate schools of fish 
by remote sensing techniques. 

Because of the importance of the aircraft 
experiments as a test-bed for the later sate¬ 
llite programme, and because of the Intrinsic 
value of the aircraft programme itself, NASA 
has joined Brazil and Mexico in two co-opera¬ 
tive projects with Important implications for 

development. NASA agreements with Brasilian 
Space Agency (Comm two Nacional de Ativi- 
dadea Expaciais) and with the Mexican Com- 
mtotonn (Nedanal del Espado Exterior) 
provide for co-operative four-phase pro¬ 
grammes for stimulating the growth of remote 
sensing capabilities. 

The first phase entailed a six-month train¬ 
ing propamine for Brasilian and Mexican per¬ 
sonnel in the United States. Among these 
personnel were scientists and engineers who are 
concerned with the sensor and (light techno¬ 
logy segment of the programmes and personnel 
reprraenting the 'user agencies'-thaea agri¬ 
culturists, geologists, hydrologists, oceano¬ 
graphers who will analyze, interpret and use 
the data returnad from sensing missions. 

The shortage of manpower trained in 
phuto-intarpreting, photoanalysa, complex 
data handling and sensor technology to one of 
the moet significant constraints on suocere- 
ful earth resources survey programmes, not 
only in developing countries, but also in the 
United States. Hie exerting skills in such analy¬ 
sts are good but are not yet a sufficient basis 
far the more complex Interpretation of 
imagery to be obtained by satellite. The ini¬ 
tial phase of the co-operative programmes was 
calculated to begin to overcome theee con¬ 

The second phase of the project wu con¬ 
cerned with programme development. Ground 
test sitae representing a variety of earth 
features ware developed in Mexico and Brazil 
by personnel from the user agencies in those 
countries. During this phase Mexico and 
Brazil began the proceaa of procuring aircraft 
suitably Instrumented for their needs. In addi¬ 
tion, data processing and reduction centres 
and data banks were established. 



During 1969 the third phase of the pro- 
yjunmei began with NASA aircraft overflying 
Brazilian and Mexican test sites. The data made 
available from these flights will aid in deter¬ 
mining what should be the moat desirable 
configuration of the Brazilian and Mexican 
•eneor-aircraft. In addition, the data acquired 
will be analysed and interpreted by personnel 
from the user agendaa. 

Once the Brazilian and Mexican aircraft 
are readied and confidence in remote tensing 
procedures has been established, the fourth 
phase-involving operational flights by Brazi¬ 
lian and Mexican aircraft-will begin. United 
States’ involvement during this fourth phase 
will continue with participation in data proces¬ 
sing and analysis activities, although primary 
responsibility for analysis of data rests with 
that country over whose territory it was 
acquired. 'Hie formal agreements between the 
oountries involved stipulate that all data 
acquired be freely available to the countries 


The third NASA international programme 
with relevance to problems of development is 
an exploratory study of utilizing NASA's 
accumulated data from the first decade in 
space for practical benefits. The approach is 
to utilize NASA's experience in domestic 
“technology transfers" in an international 
setting. For a number of yean NASA has been 
m a kin g the results of Its research and develop¬ 
ment available to American industry through 
regular NASA publication!; six NASA- 
initiated, university -based regional dissemina¬ 
tion centers, and a mechanized information 
retrieval system. 

In 1967, NASA emerged into e contract 
with Arthur D. little. lnc„ to explore the 

prospect of applying space-developed techno¬ 
logy end NASA'a transfer experience to the 
technology needs of developing nations. That 
study focussed on the technology needs of 
Brasil. Its approach was to identify and specify 
definite needs and to evaluate the needs in 
light of political, economic and social factors. 

Working with the NASA regional dissemi¬ 
nation centers and utilizing NASA's mecha¬ 
nised data retrieval system, Arthur D. little 
searched for space-generated technology in the 
NASA collection which could be relevant to 
Ikazilian needs. The needs were then matched 
with documented technology from the NASA 
system. More than 40 plausible matches were 

One identified need, for instance, was for 
lightweight dura his pipe to be used for irriga¬ 
tion projects and drainage systems. The search 
for available space-generated technologies indi¬ 
cated that large diameter-solid propellant 
rocket engines have required fiberglass cases, 
which were manufactured by Impregnating 
long glass filaments with a resin ee the fila¬ 
ments are wrapped around a core. 

This wee a new technology developed in 
response to the requirements of the space pro¬ 
gramme, and it could be applied for the manu¬ 
facturing of fiberglass pipe for Irrigation Such 
pipes could be made into 20-foot sections, thus 
reducing joints and the possibility of leaks. The 
pipes are not brittle and are not subject to 
corrosion. Production costs are roughly the 
same as those of cement, asbestos, or ceramic 

The final step In the A.D. Little study wu 
to examine ways in which actual transfer of 
technology could be accomplished. This step 
included the identification of mechanism* 
which seemed to have the greatest chance of 


f continued) 

success in Brazil and in developing nations 
generally. The fact that soma 40 match ra¬ 
in eluding the on* described abort-appeared 
feasible on paper, led little to conclude that 
“ off-the-shelf," space-generated technology 
wai indeed relevant to the needs of developing 
nations. NASA ii now in the process of plan¬ 
ning pilot projects to test what appears feasible 
on paper in actual development situations. 

This experiment to test the feasibility of 
space -generated technology transfers to deve¬ 
loping areas again points to the option-creating 
environment which the use of advanced tech¬ 
nology offers for development. Specifically, it 
offers developing countries the chance to avoid 
the syndrome of "re-inventing the whsoT- 
a syndrome which effectivelly guarantees that 
the gap between technologically advanced 
nations and technologically under-developed 
nations will continue to widen. 

Although the kinds of programmes des¬ 
cribed offer developing countries exciting pros¬ 
pects, a word of caution is in order. The 
success or NASA during the first decade in 
4>ecB can be attributed in part to tha fact that 
many smell steps were taken carefully and 
many small projects were done well before 
more visible achievements could be realized. 
New schemes ware tested as experiments 
before being incorporated into larger opera 
tkmal systems. 

This experimental one-step-at-a-time 
approach can be expected to continue. The 
three international programmes described 
above have in common the fact that they are 
all in tha experimental phase. Both the India 

ITV programme and the earth resources survey 
programme involve new technology, the 
effoctfrenen of which must be provan before 
heavy investments in operational systems 
become desirable. 

Another important factor that contributed 
to the success of the first decade in space is 
particularly germane to the problems of develop¬ 
ment. Tha development of new technologies 
and the exploration of space is inconceivable 
without an affective institutional framework. 

Both the prondM and problems of the 
three experimental programmes discuaeed turn 
on the question of institutional settings. The 
greatest danger to the success of those pro¬ 
grammes lies Is the temptation to regard them 
as "technological fixes". Tha ground segment 
of the Indie ITV experiment, for instance, 
requires the co-operative efforts of six Indian 
Government agencies. Similarly, a successful 
earth resources programme requires dose 
working relationships between user agendas 
(who often have conflicting technical demands) 
end national space agencies. Finally, workable 
international technology transfers require insti¬ 
tutional mechanisms, the details of which are 
still being worked out. 

The involvement of developing countries in 
space activities, however, may force the kind of 
institutional growth which could be a mare 
lasting and significant input for development 
than any particular technology. Such growth 
would produce flexible Institutions employ¬ 
ing new management procedural capable of 
carrying out the complex tasks which are the 
very stuff of modernisation. 



44 . The Futurl/t/-€xplorer/ Of Tomorrow'/ World 

A UTHOR Edward S. Conriah. 

SOURCE : Span. November 1971. 
WORD COUNT i 3437. 



(1) With mankind apparently heading fatter ind faster towinh both Utopia and catastrophe, 
it b not kut rising that there ta i moveme nt by aacntiati. bun nesamen. tovcmnicnt official*. and 
othcra to forecast the kinil> of things that may happen to us in the future. 

(2) The growing interest in the future arfaca from deep practi cal conce rn*. Man'i growing 
technological capabilities am being used to transform th e enti re earth, but the lotm-rangc conse¬ 
quences of what k done arc Ui,i I> unknown. 

On the poaitivc nde, technology hai allowed the industrially-developed countries to produce 
an ovcrflowtrig abundance of all kind* of goods. (3) Increasing numlnn of people are escaping from 
poverty and are living in a atyle that, in time* gone by, a n emperor might have envie d. Tliere ia at 

kast a hope that all mankind can tome day have adequate food, clothing and perhaps even a tele¬ 
vision xt 

( 4) But ttic new technology baa also creat ed fruitf ul spectres- thermon uclear war, exhaus- 
tion of tire earth's irrvplaceabk natural resources, overpopulation, and pollution. And to the dream 
of approaching Utopia ia clouded by the nightmare of a vaat and final global disaster. 

People interested In loo kina actiotialy at future possibilities era increasingly known m 
futurists, but their field fa to new that it atfll ha* no generally accepted name. Some futurists call 


I continued J 

what they do "futures research "-with future pluralixadto ctnphaaUr that what U being studied 
b not ■ angle fixed future but a whole i pee t rum of possibilities. Other tenn» currently used or 
proposed include "futuratics", "futurology," "prognostic!," mid "fuslory"-a cont ractio n of 
"future history." 

The diffenng terms reflect varying news of the Held itself. Some futurists strongly oppose 
the term "futurology* because it implies a science, and one cannot have a science (at least in Ute 
tense of a body of knowledge) about what does not c ant ‘Futures research" suggests a scholarly 
enterprise, but much that is happening in the futures field u occurring in busmen or government. 
The ima ginative proposal! of science- fic tion writers and Uto pian thinker* quite property belong in 
the field, as do. perhap s, tome social experim ent!, such as n ew tchooliand experimental comm unes. 

Perhaps the most neutral and inclusive term is "futuristic*," and there arc tonic indications 
tiiat this ter m is becoming increasingly p op ular, at least in the United States. 

Unlike the mystics who try to divine the future by interpreting tea leaves or reading palms, 
futurist! exp l icitly rrcogmie tha t they cannot k now the future and cannot even study the future 
itself. Whal they can and do study arc ideas about what might happen in the future. In their jargon, 
these an: called "alternative futures" or "futurtblos* . 

A futurible is not a pred iction. It b sun ply a stateme nt o f wuat might possibly happen. A 
futurible is one of a s p ectrum of possibilities, Whether a particular futurible actu all ) becomes 
a reality depends on whether people dec ide to make It ha ppen. 

( 3) Futurists generally are leae confid ent tlian non-futurists in believing that they know what 
will actually happen in the future. The typical non- futurot tacitly assumes that things will continue 
much m they have in the pas t. The futurist knows that powerful forces for change have been let 
loose, and the world will nev e r again be what it has been in the past { 6Vromorrow^ 
be revolutionised by sweeping technological, social, and natural trends that we have hanlly begun to 
perceive, much lew understand or control 

Futurists also point out tint if it were passible to know what the future will be like, fuluns* 
tics would be a useless academic amusement. A knowledge of future is a predetermined one, and if 



the future « predetermined, min can do nothing to change it. (7) The value of studying possible 
_futugj_j| that we can ^^tomgfliga^not^ybel^ . Characteristically, futurists talk about *invent - 
ing the future"-a phrase popularized by the British physicist Dennis Gabor, who wrote a book with 

flat litic. 

The task of the futurist is to imagine a va r iety of possib le futures, and to study and evaluate 
them. (8) Thus he pl ays three distinct roles ; he it artist, scientist, and cost- benefit analyst. As an 
artist, he must CTcatc out of his imagination what did not exist—an image of a possible future. As 
» scientist, he must analyse his creation, determining the likelihood and possible consequences. As 
a cost-benefit analyst, lie mutt evaluate tlic pos si ble future in terms of the value system of the 
oqpMMUon or government that employs him. 

Though til of us may he classed as f uturists if we take s serious interest in what lies ahead, a 
dots of professional or full-time futurists is developing. These people, who are paid to think about 
the future, are now found most frequently in urban and regional planning bureaus, in corporation 
offices dealing with marketing and long-range planning, in social science departments of uni*ens¬ 
ues. and in research institutes (especially policy research institutes like the Hudson Institute, whose 
director is Herman Kahn, author of such books as The Year 2000* and tire The Lmcrgmg Japancac 
Superstate*, and the ^Insti tu te for the Future i n Middletown. Connecticut*). Increasingly, however, 
interest in the future is spreading to physicians, clergymen, chemists, engineers, students, house¬ 
wives and many others. 

The World Future Society, the largest futurist association, was founded in Washm^ton, D.C. 
in 1966. It now has about 10,000 mem ben in SO countries. The Society publishes a journal, the 
Futurist, winch reports the forecasts that s cientists and others are making for the coming decades, 
and has established chapters in a growing number of cities so that futur i sts can hold face-to-face 
meeting s and compare notes. The Society's First General Assembly, lie Id in Washington earlier thu 
year, drew more than a thousand people for a wide-ranging, freewheeling senes of debates on 
what might happen in the future. Prominent Americans at the Assembly included Glenn T. Seaberg. 
former Chairman of the U.S. Atomic En erg y Commission (and a director of the Society) -Orville L. 
Freeman, President of Business International Corporation and former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture 
(also a director of the Society) .psychologist B.F. Skinner, and author critic Maiya Mannes. _ 


f continued) 

A glance th r ough recent iauw of Uk Futumt reve a ls the many co nc ern! that futurists have. 

COUitt arUd e ej^tom thc^vuAW* uropQM la Uut ^a.bccu made for main uUnit treater harmon* 
nations . Another iftidc expires Uic future of the family, one ol the meat battered mililu- 
lioni in the western world. Noting that there is a growing trend towards a mama^e-Uivofce-re¬ 
in am a^c pattern (ofte n called “ semi monog am y"), the article discusses such po s sibilities as 
contract marriage* hiv i ng a stated time dura nor (with option to re n ew), polygamy, and gr oup 
inam a yc. 

The recent develop men t of means for people to experience elation by means of drop or 
elec trie aJ stimulati on of the bnun ( ESB) 11 another issue tha t concerns tut umts. (1Q1 iinw will men 
manage their afflin iltt** aw made comUntly harpy by meam of dr tjg? Some futurists UUnk 
tint moves for soda! reform might go around on the shore s of chemical bias. 

Serious exploration of the future now Is underway an ma n) o rganizations. U.S. Treasury 
econ o mists use a mathematical model of the American economy to explore the posable impacts of 
proposed policy chang es before the chang es are actually made . An econometric m odel, consisting 
of more tlian 100 e quations, is fed into a comp ut er along with fi gure! re presenting the nation’s 
current economic situation. As economists can they vary certain factors that Uic ^tmment can 
control tax and interest rates, foe ins tun cc-to see what lupous. 

Suppose the income tax wer e increa sed b y one per cent The comp u ter looks to see if there it 
any improvement in terms of such government goals as full employment, maximum output, a high 
growth rate, constant prices, and equilibrium in Use balan ce of payments. A computer can make 20 
simulations of the economy in 10 minutes. 

Another method o f ex ploring the futu re is the so-called Delphi techniqu e, devel oped at the 
Rand Co rpo ration In Santa Monica, California. Tlic goal here is to arrive at a consensus of expert 
opinions concer ning a pos si ble future devel op ment. But inste ad o f calling the experts together, a 
Delphi practitioner interviews them individually (perhaps by mail or by a computerized system 
operating over telephone lines), t h ereby avoiding tlic un desirabl e effects of group interaction. No 
prestigious (o r loud ) panel member unduly i nfl uences the results. 

Whenever a p articipant offers a fo recast tlmt differ s markedly tram the forecast of other 



participant, he is asked to pve hit re ason s, an J these reasons arc passed or to tlie other partici¬ 
pants who may then revis e tlicir own view s. Teats indicate that pulls taken with t he Del phi tech¬ 
nique ilo indeed result in more accura te f orecasts than arc produced when the experts arc asacmblod 

or when the opinions of experts are empty averaged. 

Still anotlkcr method u sed by futurists is the writing of ‘‘scenarios". A scen ari o is an attempt 
t o describe, by means of a lo gical seque nce of events, how a certain mention might develop. Tli e 
scenario techniq ue generally focuses on cer tain cruc ial decisions or turnug. points f or alternative 
actions. A futurist concerned with maintaining peace might imagine the creatio n of an international 
peace-keeping force, and then develop a scrie s of scenarios to explore how his imaginary force might 
snuff out future con flict s before tliey explode into world wan. 

Spurring the intensifying interest in the future is i cr owi ng realization that tlie pace of social 
change is increasingly rapi d. A century or two ago, a man could live his whole life in a community 
that rem ain ed s u bstantially the same . To d ay a co mmunity may chan ge al most totally in the space 
of 10 or 20 year*: There arc new people, new ac ti vities, new mores, and new surroundings. 

We arc experiencing a kind of time compression, Wliat used to take a century now is done in 
s few yean. Symbolic of tlie tune compression is the ever- - tliortcmng interval between a scientific 
discovery and its practical application. Photography, based o n an 18th c entury discovery required 
112 yean before it was used to make pictur e s. The telephone, based oil a 19th century advance, 
rrquiird only 56 yean. In tlie 20th century, television leaped from dis c overy to application in only 
12 yean, the atomic bomb tn five, and live transistor In three. 

(II) technological clun pe brings social change, thou gh tlie effec ts arc delat ed. Tlie steam 
engines had little impact on the con temp wanes of Newcomen and Watt, but it revolmioniacd life in 
the 19th century. The automobile has had so much impact on human life that a mere Li sting of 
them wo ul d probably fill volumes. For example, it created the modem suburbs, because peop le in 
outlying areas no longer needed to live within walking distance of a railroad sta tion. Before the 
automobile appeared, the countryside around cities was dotted with towns, each separated by an 
exp anse of farms and forests . The automobi le made accessible every part of the countrysid e where 
a road could be built and so the areas between tlie towns were filled in with the sprawling suburbs 
Uiat no w surround most big cities in the western world. 



The full impact of i ne w te chnology is often tlow to be felt, bocausc it takes time few* the 
technology to be diffUacd Uuough the world, and social institu tion! do not im mediately respond. A 
television set appears fint as a n amusement, then politicia ns discover Its power, and the character 
of politic al campaigns ch anges. A new type of candidate may be a ought -one who is photoge nic and 
perhaps wealthy (to pay for the coat of broadca sting). Then the poli tica l system may begin to 
redress the balance, by limiting cam paign expenditures. A long chain of action producing reactio n 
and further action runs through the society . 

(12) What ia happening ia that social change touched off by technological changes made 
yean ago is now racing through our society. What once was unthinkable becomes an everyday 
reality. The equalitation of opportunities for blacks in the United States has occu r red with great 
rapidity, though not as fast as many would like; prejudice aga inst bl acka (as indicated hy public 
opinion polls) ha s dropped ra pidly, and already it is possible to fnr esee a not distant day when the 
United States will have true racial equality. Accomplishing this required a major aphcavcl in atti¬ 
tudes and in stit utions, yet it is only one of many that now are occurring. 

Some social scientists estimate that the changes in soci et y dunng Uic n ea t IQ yean will 
amount to throe or fou r times as many as in the p ast 10. Tim me am tha t the wor ld of the 1980s 
could be as different fro m the 1970s * wortd as our presen t worl d is from the world of the 1930s. 

(13) We are In an historic transition, though we do not know what the nature of this transi¬ 
tion really ia. It may result in » change in human life that will be even greater than the change from 
savagery to civiliiation. 

In Ids best-se lling book ‘Future Sno ck* Ahin Toffler notea some of t he characteristics of this 
revolutionary period. One is transience— the tempo rarines s of everything. ^14) Wc ilve in a throw 
away wor ld where objects are made to be used for only a tew times, and then junked. Peo ple c hange 

their residence with increasing frequency, each y ear one out of five Americans changes his 
residence, so that a person finds it difficult to retain the same circle of friends even if he stays 

throughout Ids life in tltc same place. During his lifetime, most of his friends will have moved away. 

In addition to transience, the mo dem world is characterized by novelty . Wc arc constantly 
confronted with things that wc never experienced be fare -new styles of architecture, new wards. 



and new electr o nic systems. At the tame tune there is ■ growing diver sity of the thing* that we 
experience. (15) Where once we worried about uniformity, now we worry about the lack of 
uniformity. We live in » world where more and more thi ngs come in different models, a world in 
which we cons tantly confront people with different life styles, clothing, mus ic and occupations. 

Rapid «oaai change may r esult i n what Tofficr calls "future sh ock*. Anthropologists have 
long spoken o f culture shock-the diso rientati on that a person cxpcncnccs when he is set down in 
a cultu re tha t Is very different from ha own : a Californ ia dent ist in a Punjabi village, or a Nepalese 
peasa nt in a Fans cafe. (16) Today l person does not have to move from one country to another to 
experience culture shock, because lias own culture ia changing so fast. During a few decades, Uie life 
of his communi ty may change completely . Today peo ple bom when there were no aut omobil es are 
having to adjust psychically to spacecraft, satellite*, moon landings. 

Very little is known about the effects that this rapid cha n ge it havin g on people. (17) But 
there is some evidence tliat change docs have a very real psychic impact. Researchers a t the Univer¬ 
sity of Washing ton found that people who have experience d a great deal of change in t heir pe rsonal 
lives (d eath of a tpouac, move to a ne w home, etc.) were much more like ly to b ecome physically ill 
thin t hose who have not. 

If this is true, society may wis h t o become mu re selectiv e about the chanucs it institutes. 
Already there b a growing "teclmology assessme nt" movement. (18) The idea is that a new tech¬ 
nology should be critically tt udied and Its probable impacts assessed be tore it is applied. Too often, 
advocates My, a new technolo g y has been applied whenever a businessman thought it m ight help 
make a profit or whenever a gov ernment t hought it might help win a wa r. A bill to establish an 
Office of Technology Assessment is now b efore the U.S. Congress and may come up for action in 
1972 . 

There is also a growing "people's te chnology aascssmcnl"-a periodic exit bunt of public 
wrath at the introduction of technolo gy t hat is considered to be oppoaed to the public int e rest This 
type of assessment resulted in Congressional rejection in 1971 of further g overnment expenditure 
for the supersonic trim port (SST) plane. 

(19) Most people have only a vague notion of the broad trends that are shaping the wortd of 



the future, became the trench rarely make "news*. A two per cent Increase in population each year 
may teem insignific an t, but it meant a d ou bling in 31 yean. A city that double* in tire inevitably 
becomes very different in character. Imagine a Tokyo or a New York or a Calcutt a with twice as 
many people as it presently has. 

The extremely rapid growth of world population , which will double in the next 32 yean at 
the present rate of i ncre ase, is one of the crucial problems tiial futurists are concerned about. 
Another extremely important trend, which tt even less well understood, is the enormous increase in 
the world's indu st rial plant. Between 1959 and 1969, ind u strial pr o duction went up by 144 per 
cent, according to the United Nations Statis tical Yearbook. 

120) Qur Tint impulse j> to icioicc that there now arc mure factories makinn more k»hk 1» to 
wgrid’s people, but some scientists fear that the increase m industrialisation is so pollut¬ 
ing the atmosphere Quit the air ail over the world may some day become deadly poisonous or that 
the dust from combustion may blanket U>c earth so tlut not cnoudi sunludit reaches it. and Ihe 
woriU miy enter another ice age. 

An Italian economist and bm inc fcman, Autdio. Pcccei, ViceX-liainnan of the Board of 
Olivetti ami a member of the boar d of Fist, became so alarmed at tlxrse mounting world problems 
that in 1968 he f ounded a unique o r ganization known as the Club of Rome to try to head ofT global 

The Club found funds for an unusual research project at Uic Massachusetts Institute o f 
Technolog y (MIT). This effo rt, known u the Project on Use Predicament of Mankind, fa directed 


by Professor Dennis L Meadows and uses the system dynamics method developed by Professor Jay 
W. Forrester which was previously applied to understa nding the dynam ics o f business organizations 
and cities, 

The MIT group has c re ated s s enes of mo dels of th e world sys tem. These model* each b 
actually a scries of mathematical formulae -describe the interaction of population, industrial is ation, 
natural resources, pollution, and so forth. To create the model, the researchers rely on the findings 
of other scientists concerning how one variable r elates to an other. I or ex a mple, an increase in the 
amount of fuel consumed increases in moat cases the amount of po llutl on entering ti»c atmosphere. 



After th e complex mathematical world model is entered into i comp uter, the researchers can 
itudy what happens 11 those interact ions continue throu gh time. The interactions arc so co mplica¬ 
ted that the human mind simply cannot cope with them. 

Using this procedure, the MIT researchers have made a variety of p roject ions of what ma> 
happen between now ami the year 2100. It should be emphasized t hat these are projcc liuns -not 
forecasts of what actu ally w i ll happen. In each ease, the rc searc li crs arc interested In trying to find 
out what may happen IF—IF the wo r ld’s natural resources continue to he used up at the present 
rate, IF p o pulation continues to grow at the present rata, IF pol lution continues to increase aa fast 
as it is doing now. 

Based on the work to far, Meadows reports that there seems to be no possibility of sufficient 
technological and cultural progress occurring in the neat 100 years t o sustain as many as 14 
thousand million people oo our g:uh c. This me ans that s ome time within the next 60 years the 
world's population will undergo a profound deceleration, he says. i>ecctcfation of popula tion 
growth might be accomplished U irough a decrease in births (contrac ep tion o r a bortion) or by an 
increase in deaths (starvation, pollution, war, etc.). 

The ma m task f or the world, os Meadows sees it, is to institute a set of policies that will 
permit the world to negotiate an orderly transition to equ ilibriu m. Already many futurists are 
speculating about the nature of a "steady state* society, and how to attain 1L 

Despite the very sobering projections of the MIT group, futu r ists generally remain optimistic 
about the future. It may be that one has to be somewhat optimistic about oncoming tunes if he is 
interested in studying them, but it may also be tliat serious study of the future tends to tncrctac a 
person's optimism. Plough there are an enormous number of cataclysms and disasters that can be 
discerned un the horuon, there are oho many enticing dreams. (21) Most futurists are hopeful that 
man can rtalue Utopia rattier than disaateT-especially if lie devotes more attention to looking 
towards what lies ahead. 



^iandfii ~rfnd 


C kafcal 
Span. October 1970 
3600 . 


An Ur*eli writer pasring through Dalai tails this story about his recant visit to America. 
Staying with friends in San Francisco, he noticed that their vary bright young daughter was reed¬ 
ing Erik Erikson's new biography of Gandhi. To test her, he said, 'What are you doing with this? 
Thirty yean ago. when i was your age, he was a hero to us, but now .... today 7 ' The fifteen-year- 
old explained. “I used to be a radical socialist," she said, "but I believe now that the only way Is 
non-violence. ! feel that Gandhi really had the answer.” 

No one knows, of course, the exact extent of Gandhi's influence on young America-on 
the "flower children”, the Peace Corps workers, ths hundreds of thousands of graduates who pour 
out of colleges each year. The important thing is that it is there ever 22 yean after his death. 

There are many links between Gandhi and America, some of which have been extensively 
explored his impact on the aril rights movements under Martin Luther King, his relationship with 
Thoreau, and his correspondence with President Roosevelt. 

But tite overall preoccupation with Gandhis philosophy and political importance has tended 
to over-shadow the more human aspects of his association with America. On a dose look this is 
found to be wider and deeper than is generally realised. 

One day before Gandhi died on January 30, 1948, the American photoyapher Margaret 
Bourke-White had had a long Interview with him. Minutes after the aaassinauon, she was at the 
scene of his death, as was New York Times corresponocnt Robert TrumoulL On the previous two 
days author Vincent Shecan had spent several hours talking with the Mahatma. 14a and writer 
Edgar Snow were at 3iria House when Gandhi was killed. According to Sheean, it was a young 
American from the Embassy in New Delhi who actually captured the assassin and held him for the 


I coni 


police. The Rev. E. Stanley Jones, a friend of 30 years, would have been at the fateful prayer meet¬ 
ing-but for the fact that his train was delayed. 

From all this it would seem that Gandhi was surrounded by Americans near the time of his 
death. But not too much should be made of what is after all a mere coincidence. Their presence, 
however, does point to the degree of American interest in him and to the fact that he did have a 
large number of American friends. In fact he had so many-Louis Fischer, Bishop end Mrs. Frede¬ 
rick B. Fisher, John Haynes Holmes, and Vincent Sheean, to name only a few-that It is difficult to 
decide with whom to start 

Perhaps the first should be John Haynes Holmes, the one man who did more than anyone 
else to make Gandhi understood In America. Minister of the Community Cnurch of Hew York, 
Holmes describes in his book My Gandhi the day in 1918 when he first came across a reference to 
the Mahatma In the New York Public Library. Three yean later, he writes, a l climbed tremulously 
Into my pulpit one Sunday morning to preach on the subject 'Who la the Greatest Man in the 
World?' and to answer my question-M.K. Gandhi of India". Holmes made tills assertion then, and 
many times later, without any reservations whatsoever. Over the years he corresponded frequently 
with Gandhi, and his writings on the Mahatma were widely read throughout America. Gandhi's 
autobioiyaphy, for example, was first published in the U.S. in Unity, a magazine edited by Rev. 

In 1931 the American minister had several meetings with Gandhi in England. He waa at the 
Folkstone pier on that cold, wet day when Gandhi arrived, met him later at Kingsley Hall, and once 
in St. James Palace. Seventeen yean later, during the horror-filled days of the partition riots, 
Holmes met Gandhi in Delhi-he had come to India on a lecture tour. Shortly after his return to 
America, Gandhi was assassinated. When he heard the news, Holmes recalls," I stood aa though in ■ 

daze, unable even to think. I seemed paralysed.I thought of my wife. I ran to her in an agony 

of spirit. Then, when I saw her and heard her speak, a strange thing happened. 1 began to cry and 
found, to my amazement and alarm, that I could not stop.* 

If Holmes wrote this way, it was because his bond with Gandhi was intense, emotional, 
bordering an veneration Time and again he esys such things as, * But it is Jeeus, be it said in all 
reverence, who offers truest comparison with Gandhi*. And in tne final chapter of his book. 
Holmes delivers his verdict :** It must be obvious by now that Gandhi was primarily a taint". 

Somewhat the same mixture of awe and reverence characterized Vipcent Sheean‘s attitude 
to Gandhi. After months of patient study and preparation, he arrived in India to sit at the feet of 
the Mahatma. In Lead, Kindly Light Sheean describes his reaction at the moment Gandhi was snot. 
Ha writes: 

■ Inside my own head there occurred a wave-like disturbance which 1 can only compare to a 
storm at sea - wind and wave surging tremendously hack and forth ... Tnen 1 was aware of two 
things at once, a burning and stinging in the fingers of my right hand and a similar burning and 
stinging in my eyes .... In the wildness and confusion of that moment, a young Indian came to 


(continued I 

where I was doubled up ayalnat the wall and laid, 'U he dud 9 Is he deed? 1 .'1 don't know,' 

1 said, taking my fingers out of my mouth to do so. Then I looked at my finger*. On the third and 
fourth finger* of my right hand blisters had appeared .... They had not been there before I heard 
the shots*. When it was all over Sheeaa turned to Ed gw Snow and add. * I've lost my only guru. 111 
never learn anything now*. 

A very different relationship existed between Gandhi and Louis Fischer. A hard-boiled news¬ 
paperman and a specialist on Ruarian affairs, Fischer had been draw n Into Gandhi's vortex and- 
like all the others-had succumbed to his inexorable power and charm. He spent a week at the Seva- 
gram Ashram in 1942 and again visited Gandhi in Delhi in 1946. The talks between the two men 
were free, honest and marked always by that easy banter that Gandhi so loved. 

There was deep respect on Fischer's side. He once said, "1 have met Lenin, Churchill, 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, Stalin, Litvinov, Attlee, Einstein, Lloyd Gorge, Eleanor Roosevelt and many 
other famous people. I have never met a more remarkable person than Gandhi*. But there was also 
warmth and affection, and two men could laugh together-and at each other. And this is why 
Fischer’s biography of Gandhi-perhaps the best ever written-provides us with to many valuable 
personal glimpses of the Mahatma. 

Relerring to Gandhis - compulsion to economise,” Fischer notes; “Gan dal was famous for 
his poet cards. Whenever the size and tne nature ot the communication permitted, he put it on a 
poet card instead of into a letter. Any odd piece of paper became an Ash ram-made envelope ... For 
a brief note he once wrote me to New York he had obviously taken a larger bit of stationery than 
necessary and carefully turn off the exoes.* 

On another occasion. speaking of Gandhi as *an incurable ana irresistible fund raiser, 4 
Fischer writes “An American friend had asked me to get him the Mahatma's photograph with a 
personal inscription. I found a photograph in the Ashram, exp lai ne d the request and «k*d him to 
sign. 'If you give me Rs. 25 far the Harijan Fund,’ Gandiu said with a smile. ‘I’ll give you ten.’ 
He autographed it. Later when I told Devdaa, he said, 'Bapu would have done it for five'.'’ 

It ii a pity that this kind of personal anecdote is missing from Bishop Fischer’s book an 
Gandhi, That Strange Little Brown Man. The pity is compounded because the two were obviously 
close, with a friendship going back to tha early 1920'i. It was Fischer's unoerstanding of the 
Mahatma's personality that once led him to remark, ‘Anyone who ■ not prepared to capitulate to 
Gandhi had better stay away from him.* But in his book, the Bishop's primary concern apparently 
was to explain India and Gandhi (he was a whole chapter on the spinning-wheal) to America-and 
in 1932, when the book was published, these were very necessary tasks. 

One of the few human touches m the book is Gandhi's delightful exp la n ation for his day of 
silence. He is supposed to have said, * Fred Fisher came over to see me early one Monday morning 
and startea talking. He kept it going all day and I could not get a ward in edgewise. It seemed such • 
pleasant experience not to have to talk at all for a wholt day that 1 suddenly decided to adopt it u 
a habit*. 



*1 qkm mj ,iM cu vjonaAi i aoMut American friends, But there were many othcn. There woe 
the labour lawyer, Richard B. Gregg, who spent seven months in Gandhi's Ashram and later wrote 
The Power of Non-Violence. There was the sculptor, Jo Davidson, who made a bust at Gandhi when 
he visited England. And there was the Rev. E. Stanley Jones, who alto published his personal inter¬ 
pretation of the Mahatma and to whom Gandhi once wrote: “I have not seen the American people, 
but give them my love.* 

With his vast circle of American friends, the question that naturally arises is: why is it that 
Gandhi never visited America 7 Certainly it was not for lack of invitations, these had come in 
steadily since the early twenties. 

Writing in his journal Young India in September 1925. Gendhi refers to “a warm invitation 
to visit that continent* and regrets that “I am unable to respond.* In 1926, two American women, 
Mrs. Kelly and Mrs. Langeloth-representing the Fellowship of Faith, the League of Neighbours, and 
the Union of East and West-specially went to Sabarmati to ask the Mahatma to visit America. 

To them, as to all the others, he would say ;“My reason is simple. 1 have not enough self 
confidence to warrant my going to America.... I cannot give an ocular demonstration of the 
efficacy of non-violence. Till then, I feel I must continue to preach from the narrower Indian plat¬ 

Though the invitations had been trickling in over the years, they attained the proportions of 
a flood in late 1931 when Gandhi went to England to attend the Round Table Conference. Then, of 
course, it would have been simply a matter of oroeung the Atlantic. At this time a curious tug-of- 
war seems to have developed between Bishop Fisher and the Rev. John Hayness Holmes, the one 
begging Gandhi to come to America, the other saying the time was not yet ripe. 

From the letters that flew back and forth during this period, one gets for the first time the 
imprcHion that Gendhi was wavering-that he was in feet toying with the idea of visiting the U.S. 
He appears, however, to have left the entire dodaion to Holmes who says In his letter of October 6, 
1931 : ‘I have now heard from all your friends whom I questioned about your coming to America 
at this time, and their opinion is unanimous against it.... When you come to America, you should 
come not in response to any single invitation from any individual or group, but should come on 
your own initiative and as your own master." 

A few days later, on November 11, Gandhi replied to a letter from Bishop Fiiher. *1 have 
told him (Holmes)," he wrote, "that I would be guided entirely by him in connection with the 
pressing invitation that I have received from America.* On the same day he also wrote to Holmes 
saying, " Having made up my mind to trust your judgement, was 1 not right in telling all and sundry 
that you were the keeper of my conscience in this matter?" From all this does it mean, as it seems 
to, that if Holmes had consented Gandhi would have made the trip to America 7 

While tiie debate went on, there was an interesting development. Bishop Fisher apparently 
decided to reinforce his written appeals with a telephone call. So from America be telephoned the 



Mahatma in London. The incident ■ described by Agatha Harrison, an English friend. “Mr. Gandhi 
Insisted on taking the cell himself,” she recalls, “though C.F. Andrews and I stood by in case ha 
could not hear, sa ha so rarely um the telephone. The press waited outside eager to catch what was 
aid. But Mr. Gandhi soon ended this expensive conversation, for again his mind was worried about 
the cost and what the money meant in terms of starving people." 

After the telephone call Gandhi is reported to have asked the operator how much it cost. 
$ 120, he was told. * A bishop," the Mahatma observed, "should have better sense than to drop so 
much good money into the Atlantic Ocean." 

The whole controversy was finally laid to rest on November 17 when Gandhi sent this 
message to Fisher : "My friends in India, members of the Working Committee of the Confess, 
have cabled me to return to India ...” And ha ends with what lounds like a feint note of reipvt: 
"Perhaps God thinks that though I would like to visit friends, I have no reason to go to America.” 

One of the main reasons for Holme's objections was his fear that tha visit would be “a vast 
explosion of vulgar curiosity and ribal d jesting." He was thinking no doubt about Gandhi’s dhoti, 
and in s sense his fears were not unfounded. There was in Amsiics, indsad throughout the West, 
an inordinate interest in Gandhi's clothing-as is very evident from newspaper dippings of die Luna. 

Where Gandhi’s well-wishers erred was in assessing his ability to rias above these circumstan¬ 
ces. After all, he had handled such situations before-with great aplomb. Every ana knows his retort 
to s London journalist-" You people wear plus fours, mine are minus fours." And his reply to tha 
man Who wondered if he had been adequately clad for his meeting wish King George-” The King 
had enough on for both of us." 

Gandhi, one feels sure, had no real fears on this score;he probably dismissed it rightly as a 
superficial thing. With his unerring instinct about people, he knew that he oouki reach down into 
the heart of America, as he could touch the hearts of men everywhere. 

There were other reasons for Gandhi's confidence. Over the years he had corresponded with 
hundreds of Americans-ordinary men, women and children. There had been Innumerable letters 
of sympathy, donations of money, expressions of support. And so he knew that there was in 
America s vast fund of goodwill for him and his cause. 

The reasons for this are not at all clear. But it is likely that deep in America’s Puritan 
consciousness Gandhi evoked tha respect usually accorded to a man of God. And there was admira¬ 
tion for his courage in a fight that stir red memories of America's own independence struggle. 

It is doubtful whether the American public in general had any real appreciation of his poli¬ 
tical power or any serious understanding of his philosophy. Sifting through the man of letters from 
his American admirers, in fact, it is obvious that in some quartan he was regarded variously as saint, 
mystic and miracle worker. 


f continued) 

In May 1923, he hid a letter from Mia Barbara Bauer of Big Spring, Texas, in which she 
aid: “My request to you k this—tc resurrect my dear mother who recently passed away .... I 
know you can do it in a Master's way .... 1 know that you are endowed with these Divine Powers." 
Another letter from a blind man in Waterloo, New York, asked Gandhi to restore his eye sight to 
him. To these and aO others in like vein, Gandhi would reply :"I can only tell you that I am an ordi* 
nary mortal .... and that I possess no extraordinary powers .... I do not perform any miracles, 
nor do I believe in miracles.” 

On occasion Gandhi could be quite frank with his letter-writers. In 1933, from the Yeravada 
Central Prison, he wrote to an American woman ."You want me to give you an In cun name. Then 
was a meaning in Menbehn (his Enghah disciple, Mia Slade) asking for an Indian name, having 
physically cast her lot with Indiana. But what is the meaning of your wanting an Indian name?" 

Then were all kinds of lettars-sending Gandhi books, asking for his photograph, and one 
from a boy in Kansas City wanting the Mahatma to Gnd him a pen friend. One of the nicest came 
from a member of Acton Equity in 1930. * I am an actor." he wrote, "or at least trying hard to be 
an actor by profession; but I would like to have you know that I admire and respect you 
tremendously and that now, while you an in prison, 1 just wish to send you this letter uf cheer." 

Gandhi maintained a continuing dialogue with America, not only through his lettan to indivi¬ 
duals but also In a number of messages and appeals to the American people. Perhaps the best 
remembered of these was his live broadcast from London. Describing the occasion, Louis Fiechar 
says: "With what is regarded as typical American enterprise, the Columbia Broad c as t i ng System 
arranged for e radio address to the United States the day after Gandhi's arrival in England ... In 
the studio, he eyed the microphone and said, 'Do I have to speak into that?' He was already on the 

In the course of the broadcast, Gandhi said, ”The world is sick unto death of Mood-spilling .. 
. . 1 flatter myself that perhaps It will bs the privilege of the indent land of India to show the way 
out to a hungering world.” When the time was up, according to Fischer, “The CBS produoer 
signalled to him to stop. 'Wail, that's over,' Gandhi said. He was still on the air and the reception 
was perfect." 

One of Gandhi's favourite channels of communication was the press, and he often used it to 
convey messages Landing in Bombay from England in Deoember 1931, Gandhi asked a U.S. news¬ 
paperman to "tell America, as the exponent of that liberty we hunger far, not to forget our sad 
people in her prayers." In an interview with press correspondents published in Young India, Gandhi 
aid; ■ 1 would like to register my appeal to the people of the great American Republic .... From 
curioeity .... America has p rogreeeed to tangible help in the way of sympathy. Ana I can say on 
behalf of the Congrecs and myself that wa are all truly grateful for that sympathy." 

Gandhi used the columns of Indian Opinion, Young India and Hirijan freely, not only to 
send meauges but also to comment on a wide variety of subjects. From time to time, America came 
under the purview of his pen-the San Francisco earthquake, and "Prohibition in America.” And his 
pen-portraits of famous man included many Americana. 



Sketching the life of Abraham lincoln in Indian Opinion of August 1905, Gandhi eaid 
“Lincoln'» .... greatness coni is ted not in his talent or his wealth, but in his innate goodness. A 
nation that has such good qualities as Lincoln's is bound to nee." Ha ends his column on George 
Washington with :"May India too produce such heroes.* One of the longest life stories-written as 
early as 190S-is on Hooker T. Washington. Gandhi was apparently greatly impressed by ths Negro 
educator, and it is likely that he saw a parallel between Booker T. Washington’s efforts to uplift 
his people and his own. 

With American Negroes, Gandhi had a special relationship which may be traced back to his 
early days in South Africa. At the age of 24, wandering around Pretoria unable to find hotel accom¬ 
modation. Gandhi had whst was probably his first encounter with an American Negro, who be¬ 
friended him and took him to a nearby inn. In India Gandhi was visited by a large number of Negro 
leaders including Dr. Channing Tobias, director of the Phelps-Stokas Fund, Dr. Benjamin Mays, 
president of Morehouse College .Professor Stuart Nalson of Howard University,and the well known 
minister Dr. Howard Thurman, to whom Gandhi said, “It may be through the Negroes that the 
unadulterated message of non-violence will be delivered to the world." Gandhi's relationship with 
American Negroes wss to flower many years after his death-with the emergence of 
Dr. Martin Luther King end such events as the successful Montgomery bus boycott in 1955. But all 
this is recent history, perhaps too well covered to bear repetition. 

Another aspect of Gandhi's contact with America which has been investigated in great detail 
is the degree of hit indebtedness to Thoreau. Though Gandhi did in fact express admiration of 
Thoreau several times, perhaps he said the last word on the subject in his 1935 letter to P. Kodanda 
Rao of the Servants of India Society. He wrote :“Ths Statement that 1 derived my ideas of Civil 
Disobedience from the writing of Thoreau is wrong. The resistance to civil authority in South 
Africa was wall advanced before I got the essay .... But the movement was then known as passive 
resistance. As it wss incomplete l coined the ward satyagraha for the Gujarati readers. When I saw 
the title of Thoreeu's greet essay, 1 began to use his phrase to explain our struggle. 

Gandhi made a statement yean ago which sounds almost prophetic in that it heralded the 
U-S. aid programme and hinted at the kind of relationship that exist* between India and America 
today. He said, “When Americans come and ask me what service they can render I tell them: If 
you dangle your millions bo fore ua, you will make beggars of ua and demoralise us. Hut in one thing 
1 do not mind being a beggar. I would beg of you your Kientific talent You can ak your engineers 
and acpicultural experts to place these series at our d i s p osal. They must come to us not as lards and 
masters but as voluntary workers.* 



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THt (NO 

47. Wanted: A Revolution In Education* 

AUTHOR : R. G- 1C- 

SOURCE : The Illustrated 

Weekly of Indie, 
February II, 1973. 

kX)RD COUNT ; 3821. 

The problem of education in India is no less staggering in its 
dimensions than that of poverty. And the two are interconnected. Our 
very low standard of living is matched by our very high rate of illiteracy. 
And even our (iterates art in no sense "educated* in terms relevant to 
their own or the country's needs. The cry "Ganhi lUtao" is meaningless 
unless accompanied by a campaign for "Ajnan llatao" or 
Phailao*. niia cannot be done without scrapping our 200-year-old 
colonial system of education List hat stunted our national growth. The 
Kothari Commission of 1966 said in ib reportwhat it needed b 
a revolution in education which in turn will set m motion the much 
desired social, economic and cultural revolution." Do we have the 
resources, human and material, to bring about Litis revolution? Do we 
have the will? 

SLVliNTY PfcR CUNT of the world’s illiterates are in India. This 
statistics mocks at all the progress we claim to have made since indepen¬ 
dence. In fact our biggest failure as a free nation has been in education 
And It is a failure that has retarded our growth in ail other fields. We 
cannot expect a country of .190 million illiterates to join the race for 
modernity. Such a people cannot provide the leadership needed at various 
levels to make a success of our schemes for social and national advance¬ 
ment. Unless we mobilise our entire resources to eradicate illiteracy and 
overhaul the structure of our education, socialism will remain a remote 
goal. Read what the kotluui Commission says ."The social distance bet¬ 
ween the rich anti the poor, the educated and the uneducated u large 
and ia tending to widen. . . Education iteeif is landing to increase social 
segregation and widen class distinctions. What b worse, this segregation 
is tending to widen the gulf between the classes and the raanca. 

The 1971 Census Report reveals that the number of illiterates 
increased by 53 million during the previous ten years. The Union Ministry 
of Education has fixed a target of teaching the three R‘s to 100 million 

*Um In* AtCBirrkUx lor MnJmi 



adults during the seventies, But will not the addition of new literates be 
cancelled out by the Increase in population? Without necessarily subscrib¬ 
ing to the Communist ideology we can follow the example of Russia and 
China In conducting a vigorous literacy drive. Cunnar Mynlal quotes a 
useful suggestion made by W.S. Wuytinsky, author of India, the Awaken¬ 
ing Ciiant :" We heard complaints about mass unemployment among young 
graduates of the universities, but we could get no answer to the question : 
Why cannot a million of them be mohilued for rural leaching?” 

According to a Constitutional threeUve the goal at free and com¬ 
pulsory education for all children between the ages of 6 and 14 was to be 
achieved by I960. Thirteen yean have passed after Uie deadline and, 
according to the Kotlian C onmussiun, their is no likelihood of our attain¬ 
ing the goal before A.l>. 2000. However, Dr. Nurul tlasun. Umon Minister 
for Education, said in May last year that the ‘solemn pledge* given to the 
people will be fulfilled- 4 *that free and universal education in the 
age-group of 6 to II will be provided by 1975-76 and that in the age- 
group of 6 to 14 by 1980-81”. 

Ra. 4,300 CRORES A YEAR 

If our growth of population remains uncurbed, providing free 
education for all children will be a stupendous task. Expenditure on 
elementary education dunng the past 25 years has increased twelvefold, 
from Rs. 2$ crores to Kv. 300 crorex. How much would it cost to educate 
our 120 million children of school going age, from the first to the twelfth 
standard? Siddhartha Shankar Ray, former Union Minister for Education, 
has calculated that at the rate of one rupee a day per pupil the expenses 
would be Ka. 4,300 crores a year. 

There are today 400,000 Primary Schools in India with a strength 
of 68.6 million puptls,in 1946-47 there were only 14 million pupils. The 
increase in enrolment year by year hat been satisfactory. Uut a disturbing 
factor about primary education is the large number of drop-outs (30 per 
cent in 1970-71) m the rural areas. The percentage ai failures is also high 
among this section. Out of the 14,190 pupils who appeared far (lie final 
primary examination in one such area in 1971, and 9,400 passed. Many 
parents in villages arc not even aware of the facility of free education for 
tlicir children. Also there is no machinery to enforce enrolment. 

A significant inference from the above facts is that free and 


( continued l 

compulsory education has benefit ted the middle and upper strata more 
than the lower classes. This is in keeping with many of our socialist 
measures which have helped the rich more than the poor. We may be 
meeting the ends of social justice and, more important, relieving the strain 
on our financial resources if the right of free education is denied to the 
children of parents who can afford to pay school fees. 

The neglect of primary’ education is also evident from the com¬ 
parative figures for 1930*51 und 1965*66 given by the Kulliart 
Commission. There was actually a decrease from 31.9 per cent to 20.3 
per cent with regard to the expenditure on lower primary schools. 


And what kind of primary and secondary schools do we have? 
Most of them are poorly houacd and equipped , they have no teaching 
aids; they are not even staffed by trained teachers. Forty percent of our 
primary schools, says a report, arc looked after by a tingle teacher, 

One is dismayed and depressed by the massiveness and complexity 
of the problem of education. How to give purposeful education to tlic 
millions of our pupils? How to find trained teachers? And the biggest of 
all tasks-how to raise the necessary funds? Actually these problems ue 
not insurmountable. Wluit is lacking Is the will to solve them. There is no 
dearth of oxpert advice on education reform. Tlie kothart Commission's 
report is a classic-it is the most comprehensive survey of education in 
India. Seven years have passed unce it made its recommendations. 
Unfortunately, tire Union and State Governments have given no serious 
thought to education. They have yet to rvalue that a revolution in educa¬ 
tion is more important than the green revolution, that education is the 
starting point of nation*building, education Is not even regarded as an 
important portfolio. There is a scramble for Home and Finance -not for a 
challenging subject like Education. The result: the portfolio is down¬ 
graded and lire Minister in charge is overshadowed by hb "senior* 
colleagues—he hat neither the powers nor the confidence to initiate bold 

More important than the expansion of schools is improvement of 
the teaching imparted. We have yet to evolve basic ideas of education 
suited to our national character. We blame the British for foisting upon us 
a system based an Macaulay's Minute on Education—a system guaranteed 



to supply the tubus needed for the while-dominated bureaucracy. Hut 
Macaulay's intentions were not ignoble u we may note from hi* speech 
before the House of Commons ; "Having become instructed in European 
languaga, they (Indians) may, in some future age, demand European 
institution*. Whenever it conics, it will be the proudest day in English 
history*. We are angry with Macaulay for describing all Oriental literature 
as worthless. Dut we forget that Raja Rirnmohun Roy. who is regarded by 
some as the ‘father of the Indian Renaissance*, condemned Sanskrit 
learning and demanded English education. 

English education admittedly opened up a new world of ideas for 
us. Il liberated our minds-il also enslaved them. Its overall effect was one 
or destroying our intellectual initiative and transplanting us in an inhos¬ 
pitable mental climate. Politically we are free, but mentally and cultirally 
we are still colonial. The damage dune to the Indian psyche during the 
lost two centuries of education has been incalculable. Isn't it time for us 
to free ourselves? How long are we going to tcadi our children * Hickory. 
Dvckory. Dock*? How long should we keep saying that "Kalidasa is the 
Shakespeare of India"? 

No historian or sociologist has as yet assessed the Impact of ISO 
years of English education on our people. If it a claimed that English 
has introduced la to modem scientific knowledge, it may with equal justi¬ 
fication be contended that it has impeded the advance of science in India. 
How? Just remember the hours our students devote to learning this 
foreign language to the exclusion of other subjects. Think of the torturci 
inflicted on young minds in trying to master its spelling, grammar and 
syntax. Think of the time wasted by our boys and girls during the past 
one and half centuries in learning a language merely to do clerking for the 
British master. If the same time had been spent in learning subjects more 
relevant to us, our country would not have remained backward. 


The absurdities of our old educational system still penis! 
Mr. Kothari has referred to one of them-the teaching of British history in 
our schools, there is nothing wrong about learning British history-we 
must try to learn even the history of Iceland and Malagtay. Hie point is 
it should not be at ttte expense of other uaeful studios. Even after twenty- 
five yean of independence we have not bean shla to erase the British 
bias from our curriculum. 



The importance attached to Engl oh literature haa given in a lop¬ 
sided literary acme. Our students are still made to study minor English 
authors in great detail. We have consigned Valmiki and Vyasa (or kamban 
and Tulsidas and Glialib) to the oblivion and take great pains to memorise 
stanzas from poets like Southey. Moreover, we have shut ourselves from 
other great foreign literatures such as French. German and Russian. We 
still think tliat Daniel Defoe and liazlitt are the only authon worthy of 
being taught in school and college. (Our boys and girts however do nol 
read them. They think Erie Stanley Gardner and Harold Robbins are the 
greatest writers in the wo rid X 

All this should nol be taken as an attack on English but as an 
attack on the English education imposed on us by our former rulers. 
Indeed we must retain the English language to communicate with the rest 
of the world, hut its study in schools and colleges must be subsidiary to 
everything else. Fortunately, the mother tongue aa Uic medium of instruc¬ 
tion has received official sanction, but it has not resulted in the logical 
next step-the production of textbooks in the regional languages. Nece¬ 
ssarily the teatiling of science in Indian languages will present problems. 
But we must take a long-term view of the nutter. 

The moat dim cult decision we have to make is with regard to 
link language—may be we shall not be deciding it for an indefinite penod. 
There is a great deal of anger in the South over Hindi being "thrust” on 
its people. But the term "South” need not mean the entire area in which 
DravidUn languages ore spoken. One feels there is not so much opposition 
to Hindi in Andhra, Mysore and keraD as In Tamil Nadu. There is also 
reason to hope that in the next fifty yean Hindi will be accepted unoffi¬ 
cially in the South. At any rate we cannot push Hindi aa a common 
language—we must let it evolve as one. 

It is suggested that we have already a link language in English. 
Whatever unity Uiere exists in India, it Is claimed, a due to that language. 
If we rely on a foreign tongue for the preservation of our unity, then that 
unity a not worth having. In fact it is no unity at all, but a pathetic 
admtsaion of Use fears and suspicions prevailing between one part of 
India and anotlicr. 


Once we have settled the question of the medium of instruction, 


f continued) 

the next step is to reconsider our system of valuation, of examination. 
The wholly unsatisfactory diameter of our method of testing students lias 
been underlined by many authorities. Gunnai Myrdal writes of the system 
uihcritcd by us: "Importance was placed on pasting examinations and 
acquiring status, while practical training for life and work was ignored." 
The Indian Secondary Education Commission. Myrdal says, noted that 
our educational system was “examination-ridden* and that "the dead 
weight of the examination tended to curb the teachers' initiative, to 
stereotype curriculum, to promote mechanical and lifeless methods of 
tcadiiug, to discourage all spirit of experimentation and to place the 
stress on wrong or unimportant things in education.'' 

One painful effect of all thii is that we have become a nation of 
memorisers and crammers. Our students just "throw up" ill digested 
information that has been stuffed into their minds. The system lias 
become so ridiculous that, on the eve of an examination, pupils are made 
to memorise ready made answers to a dozen questions out of wludu the 
teacher assures, four or frre will figure In the public examination-answer* 
ing these four or five is enough to secure them a pass. And a pass is all 
that our young men and women need. The piece of paper which proclaims 
tlsix pass a degree or a diploma or whatever it ia-b tlicir most prized 
possession, so prized that they frame it and hang it on the wall. 

It is this piece of paper, for which they have laboured 14 to 16 
yean, the only equipment for tlicir life. And how does it help them? We 
have B.Scs and M.Scs working as tellers in banks, M.As working as rail¬ 
way booking clerks and PliDs working as secretariat assistants. Our girts, 
who pas their M.A. or M.Sc. with "distinction*, arc married off and 
all they do-if they are not made clcrks-ts bear children and gossip with 
their neighbours. All tlic chemistry and sociology they learn they forget 
They become more useless than ‘uneducated" women in dial they 
don't even know how to took a meal. The saddest flung in India it the 
colossal wastage in education. Tills occur* mostly in college education 
among the middle and upper classes. And it is wastage we can ill afford, 
especially when primary and secondary education is being denied to the 
poorer classes. 

Various alternatives, or modifications, have been suggested to the 
examination system. One is that of subjecting s student tn periodic teits 
and evaluating his overall performance. Another is to frame the questions 
tn such t way that the need for cramming is eliminated. Written teats 


(continued / 

must be supplemented by orals, The aim must be to judge the pupil’s 
intelligence, capacity for reasoning, power of observation and practical 

How to reorganise education to as to quicken our national regenera¬ 
tion'’ Here are a few points for consideration. 

1) As suggested earlier, use Uic mother tongue as the medium of 
instruction. This is essential to free our thought processes from the burden 
of alien associations and make them more spontaneous. Our very creati¬ 
vity has been inhibited by prolonged use or a foreign language. We can 
recover our native genius only by employing native instruments-and 
language is Lite moat powerful Instrument. 

2) Reform the examination system. Dispense with it altogether if a 
more reliable method of assessing students can be evolved. 

3) Throw away the colonial residue in our system. Introduce new 
curricula and syllabi dial have a meaning for our people, improve the 
content of our education. 

4) Reform primary and secondary education and make it more 
intensive and extensive. 

5) Make education job-oriented. 

6) Severely rest net admissions to colleges to avoid wastage. 

7) Our universities are only glorified secondary sdioula. Make them 
centres of research and advanced learning. They must supply the ideas for 
our economic and cultural development. 

8) The home is the basic educational “institution*. Parents must 
take greater interest in their children than they do now. 

V) We must educate our mulcts. We cannot hare better teaching 
without better teachers. 

10) Education must be removed from the Concurrent List of the 
Constitution and made an ex elusive Union subject 



Some of these points need to be elaborated. We shall consider the 
last point fint. We need an all-India policy on education. Such a policy 
can be evolved in consultation with the Slates, but its Implementation 
must be in accordance with the directives or the Centre. The present chaos 
can be settled only if we resort to such a step. Education, it must be 
realised, is nationally as vital as defence and communications—if not more. 
Most States will oppose encroachment into their preserve, but with strong 
Central leadership such opposition can be surmounted. All we need is a 
certain degree of momentum in building up a national frame-work for 
education. Once this is accomplished education can be put back in the 
Concurrent List 


All schools and colleges must be taken over by the Government to 
further the objective of a uniform policy. Private institutions, especially 
Christian, have admittedly played a pioneering role in education. But 
today a majority of private colleges, whether Hindu, Christian or Muslim, 
arc mismanaged, with tlicir staff exploited. Some are run purely on 
commercial lines. In cities like Bombay you have to pay a ‘donation* 
ranging from Ks. 500 to Ks. 1,000 to secure a child's admission to first- 
year K.G. 

Taking over of education by the Centre and nationalisation, it will 
be argued, will contribute tn rigidity and deprive us of private initiative 
which has helped to fill the gap In our school and college facilities, iiut 
rigidity is preferable to cliaos and lack of direction and we must put up 
with it in tlic formative yean of the mtion. Once education attains the 
“luke-ofr* stage, we can enlarge its scope by bringing in private interests. 

Reform primary and secondary education and make il more inten¬ 
sive and extensive. The primary anil secondary stages are the most difEV- 
cult to deal with in our schooling system. The aim must be to male them 
productive to the maximum degree. Textbook knowledge must be supple¬ 
mented by the teaching o( crafts. 

It is a pity that we discarded the system of basic education formula¬ 
ted by Gandhi# (the only original educationist we have produced in 
modem times) without giving it a fair trial. It did not receive official 
hacking even during the time Dr. Zakir Hussain (he was the man who 
helped to give it shape) was Praidcnt of India. Gandhjjft idea of 


f continued) 

vocational training tun greater relevance today than at any other time. 

Candliiji lied a better insight into our economy than many of our 
experts. One aspect of this economy ii the Urge section of sclf-ciuployed 
people m the villages, people with hereditary skills. What is the point in 
sending the children of peasants, carpenters, smiths, weavers and other 
artisans if they arc deprived of the skills they learn at home and are taught 
only the three R’s? Unfortunately this b exactly what is happening In our 
country-and it gives rise to further unemployment. 

So the first thin* every school in India must have is a workshop. We 
do not need fancy buildings to house our schools. Let us be satisfied with 
no more than thatched sheds in the villages, and with the money so saved 
build workshops where useful crafts can he taught. This training should 
nut be confined to children ol artisans, the children of brahmins and 
other “ higher castes" should also be included. In rural schools farming 
must be a compulsory subject. 

The interest of children in mathematics and science must be 
arouKd -it is killed now. They must be taken on picnica to the country¬ 
side and instructed in animal and plant life. The habit of observing nature, 
if cultivated early, will help to make scientist* of our young men and 
women. There must be large maps of the countries of the world in every 
school, also a display of photographs of our flora and fauna, of our art 
and sculpture. Drawing and music must be compulsory far both boys and 
girls. In addition to encouraging them to take part in sports and games, 
they may be instructed in practising a few simple yogic asanas. The teach¬ 
ing of hygiene, nutrition and civics should liave high priority. 

The primary and secondary stages should together run into 12 
yean during which basic instruction a given in all important subjects, 
together with vocational training. The student who passes out must be fit 
to look for self-employ ment. No more than a secondary school leaving 
certificate should be demanded of candidate* seeking job* that need no 
expert knowledge-clerical work In commercial firms, secretariats, etc. 

Those qualifying for the S.S.C. should be graded into two catego¬ 
ries : the first, forming the larger group, will be sent to technical schools 
for specialised training. The second, to whom rigorous standards should be 
applied, will be eligible to go to college. 



The question naturally arises ; “What wiU happen to the products 
of thes technical institutes' 1 * Industrial and educational planning must be 
co-ordinated. The new technicians can be found employment if we start 
a network of small-scale industries in the districts. This will also contn- 
butc to better dispersal of prosperity resulting from industrial expansion. 
Our slogan for the next twenty yean should be: "Open new technical 
institutes instead of new colleges.* 

Severely restricting college admissions is obviously the only answer 
to the problem of overcrowding in higher education and the resultant 
wastage. * Higher education" can then really be made higher education. 
Theres will be three sectors in this field : professional training (law, 
engineering, medicine, commerce, arclntectuie): pure science; the 
"humanities* including the study of languages and literature, history, 
sociology, economics and political science. These sectors already exist hut 
the training students receive in them is most perfunctory. Under the new 
scheme they will be really experts in their respective fields. They will 
not wast their knowledge in jobs that have no relevance to the training 
they have received. 


Finally, no educational reform will succeed without improving the 
quality of our teachers. Except for a minority with a missionary zeal, it 
is only the “rejects* from other professions who are now found in teach¬ 
ing. Wc must somehow raise the resources to make tlic teacher’s job 
economically more attractive. In a country where teacher? are tradi¬ 
tionally regarded as godmen, it is sad to think that they occupy the lowest 
rungs of the social order. (Guru Brahma, Guru Vishnuh, Guru Uevo 
Nfaheswarah—Guru is Brahma, Guru is Vishnu, Guru is Siva, etc.). There 
is greater need now than at any other time in our history to restore to the 
guru his godhood. All the inspiration for our future must come from him 
he alone can open our eyes and show the path of salvation in this world. 

Motivate teachers to motivate students. Do wc have a super-teacher 
to do this? We look to the Government, to those who arc in charge of 
planning, to act the part of maha-acharya. But people must try to teach 
themselves, to be their own guru-in that way salvation is more easily 

48. Brain Drain Or Overflow 


George E. Baldwin. 
The American Review. 




Despite the amount of attention devoted to the M brain drain" in recent years, no 
firm consensus has emerged as to whether or not one exists. Today we know much more 
about the international migration of professional manpower than we did five, four or 
even three years ago. But the "more" we know is mainly facts, and not all that many. 
Men still have difficulty saying what the facts mean and deciding whether or not the 
brain drain constitutes a problem of “disturbing dimensions"-as the Pearson Com¬ 
mission called it. 

Instead of mass movements of relatively unskilled and untutored peoples into the 
world's empty spaces, international migration has increasingly become the movement of 
people with education seeking opportunities in more developed countries to use skills 
that education has given them. 

The dramatic increases in foreign study since World War 11, the explosion of 
international communications and the decline in the cost of travel have combined to 
internationalise the market for educated manpower to a degree previously unknown. 



inis widening oi tne market, combined with full employment in the West, has greatly 
increased competition for professional manpower and especially for men of exceptional 
talent. For some employers, this international competition has brought trouble ; for 
many individuals it has brought opportunity. 

There can be no quarrel with the statement in a 1968 United Nations Report that 
■‘highly trained personnel from many developed countries are emigrating to a few major 
developed countries, that the size of this flow is large and that it is increasing at a rapid 
rate”. But there is great question whether this migration is seriously hurting the 
countries that are the net exporters of trained manpower. 

The surprising fact is that in most developing countries the number of profes¬ 
sionally trained people who are becoming available for home employment is rising, not 
falling. In country after country the numbers are rising faster than their economics can 
absorb them. One certainly cannot make this statement about all countries, or even 
all underdeveloped countries. But if we begin with the Big picture about professional 
migration from the less-developed countries, it appears to be not a drain but an over¬ 
flow. These countries are not being stripped of manpower they badly need;more often 
than not they are being relieved of manpower they cannot use. 

However, the loss of highly educated manpower is not a phenomenon that affects 
only the world’s less-developed countries. Britain has perhaps shown the greatest anxiety 
about the problem as a result of the large numbers of scientists, engineers and physi¬ 
cians who have migrated to the United States. Britain’s vulnerability is mainly a matter 
of language. 

Norway and Switzerland are two other European countries that have lost quite 
substantial proportions of their annual output of professional manpower to North 
America. Canada's relation to the United States is much like Britain's; it loses large 
numbers to U.S. employers but gains large numbers from commonwealth countries and 
from several European countries as well 


Students of the brain drain know that the statistics on international manpower 
flows are of limited help in telling us how serious the problem is. This is partly because 
the statistics themselves are not very good; they are reasonably good in the United 
States, Britain and Canada; far less satisfactory in France, West Germany and most other 
European countries; and unsatisfactory to hopeless in most developing countries. Even 
good statistics are of little use unless one knows what one is trying to measure. And in 
the brain drain debate there is much ambiguity as to who is a “brain" and what is a 



One thing numbers can tell us is that scientists, engineers and doctors (* profes¬ 
sional manpower') do not constitute a large proportion of total immigration into the 
main brain-gaining country. The United States currently absorbs about 400.000 immi¬ 
grants annually. Of this number some 60 per cent are dependents, people u without 
occupation" who do not enter the UJS. labour market. 

Of the approximately 160,000 who do seek employment, between 15 and 20 
thousand are classified as scientists, engineers or physicians. Thus only about 4 per 
cent of ail immigrants, or 10 to 15 per cent of those seeking work possess high-We' 
professional skills. These proportions are not very significant, however. They tell us 
nothing, for example, about how important these 15 to 20 thousand professional immi¬ 
grants are in augmenting the output of professional manpower from the U.S. educa¬ 
tional system, or how many of them were likely to have found useful and satisfying 
employment had they remained at home. 

The statistics also show that the trend of professional immicpation over the past 
two decades has indeed oeen "up" but not as steadily or dramatically as they might be 
thought. In the United States figures that separate professional unmigrants from others 
began in 1949; there was a fairly steady rise from the 1,269 of that year to a peak of 
6,046 in 1957. But then the figure declined for four years and did not exceed the 1957 
figure until 1966. Substantially the same picture holds for doctors with the figure 
staying close to 2,000 per year until it began to climb significantly in 1966. 

A strengthening of the trend during the past three yean has caused considerable 
public concern. Immigration of scientists and engineers has shot up from the 6,000 
level of 1963-65 to 7,205 in 1966, 12,523 and 12,128 in the year ending June 30,1968. 
Thus the last years of the 1960's have seen a 100 per cent increase in the numbers of 
scientists and engineers entering the United States and about a 50 per cent increase in 
the number ot doctors, as compared with the late 1950's and early 1960's. 


These increases are the direct result of changes in the U.S. immigration Law 
which permitted people from countries with waiting lists to the use quotas not fully 
taken up by other countries. Since July 1, 1968, immigration into the United States 
has no longer been tied to nationality but has been on a first-come, first-served basis 
depending on a person's skills. (Admissions on the long-standing humanitarian grounds 
of family relationships political asylum, etc., were largely unaffected.) Hie immediate 
result of this historic change has been (a) to hold down somewhat the number of profes¬ 
sionals admitted from Europe, and (b) suddenly to open the doors to much Large 



numbers of professionals from Asia. 

As a result of this shift in U.S. immigration policy the number of Asian scientists 
and engineers immigrating to this country increased over tenfold between 1965 and 
1967, from 360 to 4,160 exceeding for the first time those from Europe, traditionally 
the largest source. Most of these Asian immigrants 'SO per cent) were students already in 
the United States who were suddenly permitted by the new Law to change their status 
from " temporary viators" to “permanent residents" (immigrants). 

Immigration by foreign students who adjust their status is not something that 
occurs only in the United States. Australia has estimated that perhaps 20 per cent of the 
12,000 Asian students studying there do not return home at the end of their studies. 
Canada is believed to show roughly similar experience with its foreign students and in 
the absence of figures for other developed countries, we can perhaps assume losses on 
the same order of magnitude. 

However, these "lass* percentages are not nearly as significant as the absolute 
number of students who return home: this number has been rising rapidly as a result of 
the huge increase in the total number of overseas students. 

Somewhat surprisingly, it appears that during the past two decades the number of 
foreign students who have been lost to their countries, and the number who have been 
returned have both been increasing at a compound rate of 20 per cent a year. In abso¬ 
lute terms this means that the numbers of science, engineering and medical graduates 
returning home-just from the five countries with the largest number of foreign students 
(U.S., U.K., West Germany, France, Australia)-has increased from 1,600 per year in 
1950 to more than 20,000 per year today. And this taxes no account of the increase 
in graduates produced Locally. 


If there were a general shortage of university graduates in professional fields in 
developing countries, almost arty loss by emigration would hurt. There are countries 
where professional graduates are desperately short-notably in some African countries 
south of the Sahara. But for every developing country with an overall shortage of pro¬ 
fessional manpower today there are probably two with surpluses, present of impending. 

The reason is simple: in country after country there is irresistible pressure to 
expand university education. So many countries have found it possible to do this that 
the number of college graduates (including professional graduates) has been rising 



faster than their economies can absorb them. 

The last statement is important. If one looks at the pure 14 need * of an under 
developed country for doctors and engineers and lawyers and agricultural extension 
agents and plant geneticists and economists and science teachers for secondary schools, 
etc., then it is easy to see shortages. But it you look at the number of unfilled jo ha, or 
the number of university graduates who have difficulty finding what they consider 
acceptable employment, then surpluses often appear. 

So part of the argument over whether or not a brain drain exists depends on 
whether one looks at a society’s “human needs" or an economy's effective demand". 
Clearly the latter is the more relevant and realistic test to apply. The real question is 
how rapidly “effective demand" for high level manpower can be made to grow. To ask 
this is to ask the riddle of development. 

All this is not to say that development is not being hurt by the migration of key 
individuals. Gifted, educated, experienced leaders are scarce almost everywhere, includ¬ 
ing the United States. These are the brains that really count, because they have such 
high levegrage. They are not to be defined in terms of genius or Nobel-laureate quality ; 
but their number is only a small fraction (5*10 percent) of all professional migrants. 
They arc the outstanding individuals who are unlikely to be satisfactorily replaced even 
if a country has dozens of men with the same educational qualifications waiting to apply 
for their posts if they leave. Much of Europe's concern about the brain drain focuses on 
its loss to the United States of this small class of “ key men”. 

Loss of the key man does not show up in miration statistics. The only way to get 
at it satisfactorily is to make qualitative studies of important institutions, field by 
field and country by country, at a basis for judging whether or not those institutions 
have been seriously hurt by such losses or by inability to repatriate key men from 
abroad. No one has made such studies on more than a casual basis and it seems very 
improbable that anyone will. 

So all we can do is to fall back on the assumption that migration of the critical 
elite would be roughly proportional to the total number of professional migrants. This 
would mean that losses of key men have risen as total migration has risen. Tnese losses 
are considerably offset, however, by the rapidly growing supply of key men (albeit 
younger and less experienced) being generated by expanding education both at home 
and abroad. 




Another person who does not show up in Immigration statistics in many countries 
is the returnee-immigrants by occupation and country of origin. But if a man subse¬ 
quently decides to return home, this is not recorded. 

It is known, however, that substantial numbers of professional people do in fact 
return to their countries of origin after working abroad for varying periods (often in 
the country of foreign education). Such returnees not only reduce the gross outflows 
reported m official statistics but often their qualitative importance is great. Such indivi¬ 
duals return not only with foreign education but with experience, outlooks and access 
to foreign influences which they could not have acquired at home. 

These return flows appear to be fairly sensitive to fluctuations in economic and 
political conditions and to the development of well-designed “recapture" programmes. 
This means identifying key nationals working abroad, offering them specific job oppor¬ 
tunities, and providing expenses of return travel. Thus a not insignificant amount of 
emigration appears to be temporary; and From this "bank* of human resources over¬ 
seas (perhaps initially unusable at home) withdrawals may automatically occur if home 
conditions change for the better. 


Study of high-level migration from seven Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, 
Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand) shows three of them to 
be “losers'* and four not to be. During the past decade, emigration has been rising, quite 
significantly, in South Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines. But there is little evidence 
that these losses have had any significant effect on economic growth; indeed, Taiwan 
and South Korea have boon noted for their high growth rates. 

The underlying explanation of the immigration appears the same in all three 
countries; a growth in university graduates greater than their economies can absorb. In 
all three countries (and in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand also) the situation is ex¬ 
pected to become worse, not better, because of insistent pressure for educational expan¬ 
sion. At bottom, therefore, the Asian brain drain is an overflow, not a drain. 

Government officials of these affected countries acknowledge the emigration but 
have not considered it much of a “problem". To the extent governments do voice con¬ 
cern it is frequently more political than substantive-a reflection of frustration with the 
slow pace of development and a convenient issue with which to embarrass the United 



Manpower losses have not yet affected Malaysia, Singapore or Thailand in any 
significant degree and government leaders are not yet concerned that the problem may 
anse. This unconcern is partly because their stocks of high-level manpower and their 
education systems are somewhat smaller than in the three losing" countries, so that 
up to now their expanding economies have keen able to absorb the rising supply of 
graduates. The low-level of emigration from these three countries supports the view that, 
at least in Asia, emigration is primarily an overflow, not a drain. 

Japan has no brain-drain problem of its own nor does it create one for its regional 
neighbours: it neither drains other Asians into its booming economy nor does it lose 
any significant numbers to the West. In this neutral experience, Japan illustrates perhaps 
better than any other country m the world the strength of cultural and linguistic barriers 
to international migration. 


Perhaps 5-10 per cent of India's high-level manpower has been permanently or 
temporarily diverted abroad. The order of magnitude represents the proportion of 
gross emigration of university-trained Indians with degrees comparable to European or 
reasonably good American degrees. 

There is no telling how many of the estimated 30,000 Indians abroad (mostly in 
the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada) may eventually return to India. The 
best estimate is that something like 15 per cent of India's annual output of high-level 
man-power goes abroad soon after graduation in pursuit of work or further study, and 
that something like 40 per cent of these fail to return. The proportions vary consi¬ 
derably by field of study and by level of degree, the higher the level of study, the greater 
the loss (e.g., perhaps 10-20 per cent of Indians with post-graduate degrees are today 
living and working abroad). 

The proportion of the new output of engineers who go abroad is today around 
25 per cent: of doctors, perhaps 30 per cent. But these high figures represent little less 
in view of the widespread unemployment among engineers and doctors in India. Over 
the next few years unemployment among educated Indians, including those in science, 
technology and medicine, is expected to rise, not fall. 

Consequently any brain drain that may be said to exist concerns only the normal 
shortage of exceptional people that exists in almost all countries. When specific Indian 
institutions (e.g., the Indian Institute of Technology at Kanpur) have developed careful 
arrangements to identify and to invite home outstanding individuals needed for specific 



critical openings, they have often been able to repatriate them even at India's much 
lower salaries. 

There is practically no one, in India or outside, who feels that India's economic 
growth is being held back because the country has lost educated manpower. Indeed, 
government officials have more than once said they hoped that educated Indians in large 
numbers would not return, since the country has no way of putting them to work. 


In Tanzania and Kenya, prior to independence, almost all high-level public and 
private poets were filled either by Europeans or by members of those countries' large 
Asian minorities. It was only after independence in the early 1960's that large numbers 
of Africans began to go abroad for hiyher education and the countries' own systems of 
secondary and higher education began their rapid expansions. 

A study of experience in retaining professional manpower in these two countries 
was made in 1967. It found practically no losses of African high-level manpower but 
substantial losses among Europeans and Asians, for political and social reasons internal 
to the host country. Thus East Africa (in which Uganda should also be included) is a 
region in which emigration has been fairly serious but has very little to do with the 
“creaming" of the country’s educated manpower by the international labour market. 
The process of Africanisation was not being held back by any serious reluctance of East 
Africans to return from foreign study or to remain after taking up employment at home. 


In the Middle East, Iran and Turkey are probably the two most interesting 
countries from the point of view of talent migration. Both have had large numbers of 
students abroad (most of them self-financed) and rapidly expanding university systems. 
Both countries also display a phenomenon found in country after country, ie., the 
piling up of professional manpower in the one or two largest cities, with consequent 
underemployment of some skills (notably medicine) and chronic difficulty in getting 
educated people to live and work in the provinces. 

Thus, Turkey and Iran, like many countries in Latin America, suffer from an 
internal brain drain which is larger and more serious than the external drain that has 
received all the attention. Finally, both Turkey and Iran provide excellent but isolated 
examples of well-designed, well administered and largely successful programmes to 
recapture nationals abroad for service in “modernised" domestic institutions, especially 
universities and hospitals. 



Both Egypt and Israel have experienced relatively heavy numerical losses of 
educated manpower, but in neither country does this seem to have been an important 
drag on growth. Until very recently, Egypt firmly discouraged its professional manpower 
from leaving; but in the first half of 1969 it adopted a policy of openly encouraging 
educated people to emigrate. The brain drain seems neutral with respect to the develop¬ 
ment of both countries. 


The migration of highly educated, technical manpower will undoubtedly continue 
to worry governments and to threaten or injure employers throughout the world. But 
already concern for the problem is on the ebb-in Washington, in other capitals, even in 
the United Nations, where an emotional debate in 1964 launched the Secretary- 
General's study of the subject. 

The main conclusion of the best book on the subject { umi tret* edited by 
Walter Adams) is that if both the developed and developing countries concentrate on 
economic growth the brain drain will largely take care of itself. The outlook, therefore, 
is that little or nothing will be done by governments or by the United Nations to deal 
directly with the problem. Thus, half a decade of concern about the brain drain seems to 
be ending not with the a aeries of proposals for reform but with a "decision by default" 
to enter the 1970's with the ground rules on migration left essentially unchanged in 
both gaining and losing countries. 

One of the more interesting proposals that has been heard among a few econo¬ 
mists is that brain-gaining countries should compensate losing countries for the costs 
involved in producing this "export''. Is it not grossly unfair that Egypt or India should 
invest the equivalent of 20,000-40,000 in producing a doctor, engineer of physicist only 
to have him emigrate before he repays his country, in the form of services rendered for 
the costs of his expensive education? While a good case can be made for this view on 
grounds of equity and logic, no one has made any specific proposals. I doubt that such 
a scheme could be made administratively feasible or that it could overcome the fatal 
appearance of requiring immigrants to buy their freedom. 


A two-year study by Education and World Affairs (EWA) concluded that it would 
be a mistake to try to reduce international immigration by tightening up controls on 
immigration or emigration, or by slowing down production in the educational systems 
of developing countries the two main categories for brain-drain proposals. Instead, the 



EWA study emphasaes that the brain-losing countries' top-priority task is to improve 
the conditions under which the "critical elite 1 * are expected to work. 

Political, administrative and institutional leaders in developing countries must 
realise that professional men normally have dual loyalties, divided between their country 
and their intellectual and professional careers. Losses of key professional leaders will 
continue unless the conditions of work in their countries can satisfy such elemental 
needs as minimum salary requirements to permit full-time employment, recognition of 
individual talent and creativity, adequate progression through career channels, increased 
labour mobility and opportunities to maintain and cultivate contacts with professional 
counterparts abroad. 

The EWA viewpoint amounts to saying that professional men the world over have 
much the same requirements for job satisfaction and, unless the traditional cultures and 
pay scales of many brain-losing countries (developed and less-developed alike) can 
adapt to these requirements, then, in Kenneth Boulding's phrase, high-level manpower 
with “get-up-and-go will get up and go”. 

A major lesson of recent research is an increased respect for the strength of non¬ 
salary consideration underlying migration, particularly those related to the working 
conditions of professionals in iheir home countries. Tne more important of these factors 
are weak budgetary support foe research; traditionally hierarchic status systems in 
academic and governmental institutions which deny satisfying opportunities to able 
younger men; the poverty of intellectual stimulation (poor libraries, weak professional 
associations, inability to secure foreign journals, rare opportunities for foreign travel) 
which creative minds require; career insecurity resulting from political intrusions at the 
personal and institutional levels;and unemployment and underemployment. 

These domestic forces would be operative even if there were no salary differen¬ 
tials to throw into the balance. One of the most important conclusions to come out of 
the EWA research is that countries can withstand quite considerable salary differentials 
if theese other factors are favourable. 

The central problem in helping developing countries retain their high level man¬ 
power is to combine respect for individual freedom with the need to minimise the 
emigration of key people. There is growing awareness that an indirect approach, one 
focussed on causes instead of symptoms, can be effective. Poor countries can compete— 
because most men have strong ties to their own countries. But many countries need 
help-and nudging-before they will be in a position to profit from the basic loyalty of 
their professionals. 


( continued) 

Among the problems needing attention if brain-losing countries are to compete 
more effectively for professional manpower are the following : improving counselling 
services for foreign students before and after arrival in their country of study, assist¬ 
ing in the establishment of more effective "recapture* mechanisms for institutions and 
countries interested in repatriating nationals studying or working abroad; greatly 
increasing the U.S. output of medical personnel ;experimenting with new health-delivery 
systems in poor countries to reduce the largely futile dependence on overtrained phy¬ 
sicians who, quite understandably will not live out where most of the people are assist¬ 
ing—as we have been doing for years but with more variety and money-the building up 
of foreign institutions that can offer satisfying careers to the key individuals who count 
so heavily. 

These reforms-not reforms in migration controls—are the kinds of things to focus 
on if we wish to put the brain drain in perspective. In short, we can afford to be rela¬ 
tively relaxed about migration but not to be complacent about its causes. 



*\ y. uu n h i 

lb HYPflOTISm? 




Pradeep Paul. 
Science Today, 
November 1969. 

In the language of Greece, hypnosis means sleep. For the rest of the world it has 
come to mean something else—a thrilling sideshow in a magician's repertoire. Elegant 
gestures, like flashing hand passes, bright lights, revolving discs or just a pair of deep 
penetrating eyes, words spoken repeatedly on and on like litany-and the subject on the 
stage is soon transformed into a human robot—doing exactly as the hypnotist com¬ 
mands. A magic show indeed! But few ever realise that hypnosis can be brought on 
without any of the elaborate theatricality. It all depends on the susceptibility and 
suggestibility of a particular individual. Hypnosis can be induced in a man because the 
mind is made that way. This would make hypnotism a fact of science. But the reader is 
warned: to most men of science, particularly psychologists, hypnotism is yet a charla¬ 
tan’s creed. 

It was Dr. James Braid who coined the term ‘hypnosis’ in the 19th century. , 
Though he himself later realised that the hypnotic state could not strictly be equated to 
sleep, he failed to change the term : today it has become a part of our language, 'llie 
modem concept of hypnosis is about 200 years old, but it is believed hypnotism in some 
form or other has been practised from time immemorial. When stone tablets (known as 
votive tablets) dating to the 4th century BC were unearthed in Greece, it was found 
the tablets contained descriptions of cures which definitely indicated the practice of 
hypnosis. In the succeeding centuries, descriptions of behaviour suggestive of hypnosis 
(though attributed to supernatural factors) about in the early history and folklore of 
people of almost all conceivable cultures. 

The modem period began with an Austrian doctor, Anton Mesmer (1733-1815). 
Mesmcr was a mystical man who preached the existence of animal magnetism, of univer¬ 
sal fluids and their distribution in the healthy body and of the ability of inanimate 
objects to be magnetised and to produce cures. While he preached, Mesmcr also went 
ahead to effect some startling cures in incurable patients. He would hypnotise the 
patients into as crisis’, where the attendant convulsive muscular twitchings and trance 


( continued) 

occurred. After this was over, the patient would feel limp but the disease would have 
passed, Much later, Mesmer accidentally came upon the passive slccp-like state of 
hypnosis as we know it today. 

M earner's fame had reached such liigh peaks that Louis XVI ordered a special 
committee to investigate Mesmer's claims. The Committee reported that many patients 
who had been cured after touching a “magnetised* object had in fact touched the wrong 
object. Thus the cures were due to tire working of the patient s imagination. Hence, 
they concluded, animal magnetism does not exist. The committee's report was so 
injurious to Mesmer’s reputation that he had to give up his practice. But what the 
committee did not realise was that it had in truth defined hypnotism on its most scien¬ 
tific basis ; that the hypnotic slate is a result of suggestions and that somnambulistic 
trance can be induced, without the aid of external agents. 

If Mesmer brought hypnotism to public notice, it was James Braid who gave it a 
more rationalised foundation. Besides coining the term hypnosis, he rejected the idea ot 
animal magnetism and later went on to empliasise the power of suggestion. (Braid had 
earlier stated that hypnosis was induced due to fatigue of the eyes, brought on by 
starting fixed at an object for a length of tune. He gave this argument up after he was 
able to hypnotise a blind person.) 

The grandmasters of hypnotism worked mostly in the 19th century—Braid, blliot- 
son, Charcot, even Freud in his early days. These men were no fair-ground performers. 
Each tried, within the limits of liis, own specialisation in a particular technique, to 
understand why hypnotism worked. It cannot be said they had found the answer ;even 
today the answer is far from complete. 


The clinician would try to answer the question this way; Hypnosis is a slccp-like 
state that can be induced by various methods ranging from spectacular artefacts of light 
and sound to a simple spoken suggestion from the hypnotist ;in this hypnotic state, the 
subject will believe and act upon suggestions (not all, not the immoral ones, as we shall 
see later) though the conditions that would evoke similar action from a normal man 
(like extreme chill or heat) are absent 

Suggestions, nothing but suggestions! and here lies a fundamental principle of 
the working of the human mind. The individuality of a human being or what is called 
the VilT in popular usage, is a product of consciousness, wliicli acts like a protective 
shelL The conscious state is also the wakeful state ;as long as a man is awake, he decides 



for himself,decides between once choice and another and resists any outside pressure 
towards subjugation of his freedom of choice of action. Behind this conscious outer 
layer, lies the sub-conscious-the dark vulnerable storehouse of all memories, all impres¬ 
sions that are being registered and stored minute by minute, day by day, everyday from 
the day of birth. No conscious man would act on a suggestion without first debating 
its pros and cons. What the hypnotist does is to bypass the conscious and directly tap 
the subconscious. The conscious is kept awake or rather fed by the senses;once the 
subconscious begins to operate, the senses cease functioning and the body goes into 
what is called a cataleptic trance-a slccp-iike state, that is not sleep. 

If consciousness is bypassed, docs it mean the subject ceases to be aware of 
everything he does or feels under the hypnotic state? No, says the hypnotist, lie does 
not, unless there is a case of multiple personality, or unless amnesia is also induced 
under deep hypnosis, 

This brings us to the next question about hypnosis : How deep is a hypnotic 
trance? There are several degrees of hypnotic trance; they may vary from a passive wake¬ 
ful state or Light hypnosis (also called hyponoidal sleep) to a deep coma. Usually three 
categories are recognised : 

1 ) LIGHT H\TNOSIS, in which the patient remains conscious of everything 

that happens and on being awakened, remembers everything. 

2) DEEP HYPNOSIS, in which the patient is not aware of what happens, but 

may remember it if he is rehypnotised a second time. 

3) HYPNOTIC COMA, a state of very deep sleep, in which nothing can be 
remembered nor can memory be revived. 

These are very broad classifications and may include several sub-catcgones. 
Cha cot, the famous French neurologist, had described three more extensions of hyp¬ 
nosis :CataJepsy, lethargy and somnambulism. 

Catalepsy signifies a rigidity of the muscles ; die subject becomes statue-like. 
Catalepsy can be non-hypnotic; it is then a psychosomatic disturbance in which the 
patient loses all abilities of voluntary movement. This is bound usually amongst epilep¬ 
tics and hysterics. There is also a non-hypnotic cataleptic sleep, in which the patient 
appears to be asleep, but is rarely unconscious. The breathing is often imperceptible. 
Certain cataleptic sleeps are induced by violent emotional reactions, may be shocking 
bums, lightning strike* or similar accidents. The sleep often lasts several hours. Hypnotic 


( continued) 

catalepsy differs from the medical catalepsy in that it is induced artificially. Unc familiar 
feature of stage shows is to place the hypnotised subject on two chairs supported only 
at the ncce and the ankles. This is done by cataleptic hypnosis. In hypnotic catalepsy, 
it is easy to induce hallucinations, paralysis, anaesthesia or dumbness. 

Lethargy gives the impression of death. Breathing and palpitation are almost 
imperceptible. The eyes arc dosed- All senses are abolished. The patient remains inert 
and does not react even to sudden noises or violent contacts. This is a very common 
feature in neurotic hysteria. This state can be induced by hypnosis also. If the subject 
is highly susceptible, mere suggestion may induce this state. 

It lias been found by certain experimenters that a subject can be made to pass 
from catalepsy to lethargy' by merely closing his eyes or placing him in darkness. It is 
also possible to reverse the process :the subject may be made to pass from lethargy to 
catalepsy if his eyes are suddenly opened to bright light. The limbs stiffen and para* 
lysis seems to set in. 

Somnambulism, on the other hand, is a state in which the subject can react as if 
he were awake. Somnambulists, or sleep walkers as they are popularly known, can act 
with remarkable ability. They can move about, walk long distances or even drive cars. 
When the crisis is over, they come back to bed and sleep calmly. Generally, they 
remember nothing, except perhaps to say that such and such a thing happened in their 
‘dreams’. When somnambulism is induced by hypnosis, the eyes are usually closed. 
But at times, the eyes may be half-open or open but dilated. If the eyes are closed, it 
looks like lethargy. But the muscles do not remain flaccid. The subject may reply 
when spoken to and obey any. order instantaneously. 

In this state, the sight, hearing and smell become extremely sharp. Memory 
becomes remarkably precise. Subjects have been known to recite entire passages they 
had read in the distant past. Uvcn incidents from childhood days may be mentioned 
with remarkable clarity. A practising hypnotist told us that even though a man cannot 
remember back beyond the age of three or four, a hypnotised subject may ‘remember’ 
things that happened immediately after birth. The subconscious, he explained, starts 
storing memory even when the child is inside the mother’s womb. Of course, in such 
recollections, he said, the descriptions may usually be rather vague. 

It is interesting to note that even if a somnambulist on waking fails to remember 
what he has done in sleep, his memory can be revived if he is hypnotised. There is 
another interesting point :natural somnambulists are the easiest subjects to hypnotise. 




• We have already given the answer—by suggestion. But suggestion cannot affect 
the conscious mind—conscience, will or decision. It affects the sub-conscious. That is 
why suggestion, for normal people, acts belter in moments ol weakness, like fatigue or 
emotional disturbance. It was fatigue on which Dr. James braid had based his earlier 
technique of hypnosis and he adopted llu> simplest of all hypnotic techniques—to make 
tiie eyes very tired. He would place something brilliant before the eyes of the subject, 
like a candle flame or a glass in a crystal ball. The subject was asked to fix his eyes on 
the object. For many people, the effort of concentration was sufficient by itself. Others 
needed further suggestion to enter hypnosis. Braid achieved so much success that he 
went on to perform a few surgical operations alter hypnotising the patient. 

Why does fatigue of the eye induce fatigue of the senses’* Simply because concen¬ 
tration-cither visual or auditory fthc same words repeated again and again, mono¬ 
tonously, wipes out all other sound distractions)-stimulates only that part of the brain 
interested in the object of concentration. the remainder of the brain goes to sleep. 
The part kept awake maintains the link between the hypnotist and the subject. The 
part of consciousness kept awake is sufficient to receive suggestions, but not sufficient 
to debate and resist them. A simple illustration would be of a small boy concentrating 
on his studies. A part of his mind is concentrated on the problem in the book; the 
other part sleeps. This causes a more rapid tiring of the stimulated nerve centres. This 
is why the boy may suddenly fall sound sleep. 


There can be no clear cut answer to this question. Normally, anybody can be 
hypnotised; only the degree of hypnosis will vary from person to person. As we have 
mentioned earlier, hypnotists assert that somnambulists make the cast subjects. Also 
people with weaker personalities, like hysterics. Then one person may successfully 
resist all attempts by a hypnotist to hypnotise him ; but another hypnotist comes along 
and within minutes the person has entered a deep coma. What matters most, especially 
in hypnotherapy or in the experiments with voluntary’ subjects, is a trust in the hypno¬ 
tist-this trust is the first step towards weanng down the conscious mind's resistances. 
The same phenomenon works in a stage show . a subject goes up the stage, smiling, 
putting on a brave show of defiance, but all the while he is expecting himself to by 
hypnotised—his curiosity makes liim open to suggestions. 

It is believed by some that children cannot be hypnotised. Nothing can be farther 
from the trutlL It is easier to hypnotise children as their conscious resistance has not 



yet matured to the rigidity of an adult’s. There are thousands of instances of bed¬ 
wetting that have been cured by hypnotic cure. But the hypnotist who works on a child 
has to be extremely careful because he is handling a volatile sensitivity. 


What special powers must the hypnotist have? None, except a thorough training 
and practice in his art and an inner calm that will excite, if not trust, at least acceptance 
in the subject No steely, deep, and penetrating eyes? No gesturing hands flicking magne¬ 
tic rays at the subject? Ask a hypnotist, one who is sincere, and he will tell you that 
when he hypnotises, he merely helps the subject hypnotise himself. No hypnotist can 
hypnotise a subject, unless the latter’s subconscious mind is prepared to accept the 
suggestions that have been made, with or without theatrical embcllislunents. Docs this 
mean suggestion is really a very strong motivating force? A telling answer is the 
existence of a whole range of advertising agencies and their ubiquitous copies which 
stare and command attention from us all the time. 

A suggestion implants an idea in the mind which becomes a pari of the sub¬ 
conscious. This idea then brings on an uncontrolled reflex. We had watched a practis¬ 
ing hypnotist in Bombay at a session of hypnotherapy. The patient was an executive lh 
a local manufacturing firm who suffered from a deep-rooted inferiority complex. As 
the session began, the hypnotists started describing the patient’s problems. While the 
conversation was going on, the patient, who was lying on a couch, appeared to be in 
deep sleep. He had hypnotised himself. The hypnotist had taught him in the earlier 
sessions to hypnotise himself whenever he felt the onset of a crisis, i.e., an intense feel¬ 
ing of inferiority. The patient could do this anywhere any time anil could wake him¬ 
self as he desired. Now the hypnotist spoke to the patient. A soft but firm voice told 
him that he had nothing to fear in life, that when he woke up he would feel a deep sense 
of pndc and inner strength, that his feeling of inferiority would pass away in due time. 
After this, we saw a demonstration of what suggestion can do. The hypnotist told the 
patient, as he counted from one to five, the patient would feel extremely cold, he would 
shiver and shake. Before the count was actually over, the patient began sluvcring, 
violently as in epilepsy; his arms and feet were rigid and shaking in a peculiar rhythm. 
Then another suggestion and the fits of chilliness passed. 

This raises another question. If one hypnotist can hypnotise a subject, what is to 
prevent another hypnotist doing the same with him? Nothing! If can be done. And here 
we come to another phenomenon, that of “post-hypnotic” suggestion. In the case cited 
above, the hypnotist hand implanted a suggestion in the patient's mind while he was 
in a state of hypnosis. This was : he would not be hypnotised by another hypnotist at 



any time. The patient wc saw was also being hypnotised over the telephone; ail he 
needed to go into a state was the sound of the hypnotist’s voice which triggered the 
post-hypnotic suggestions already implanted. 

Post-hypnotic suggestions may be so effective that the subject will perform an 
act in his wakeful state without realising that die idea had been implanted in his mind 
under hypnosis. This also eases the hypnotist’s task, especially in cases where several 
sessions are required for therapeutic reasons; the patient will enter a state of 
hypnosis at a given signal from the hypnotist without any of the elaborate induction 
procedures. Suppose, for instance, a dentist wishes to extract a tooth from a patient 
without the use of anaesthesia. The hypnotist, at a session sometime earlier, may suggest 
to the subject that on a particular day, at a particular hour, he would enter a hypnotic 
state, and on the day of the operation, hypnosis will be induced automatically without 
the hypnotist being present. The dentist, who has no expertise in this field, carries on 
with the operation without the use of of anaesthetics. 

If post-hypnotic suggestions are really that effective, is it possible for a hypnotist 
to induce a subject to commit a crime? There are tales of people who have killed 
because a hypnotist had suggested the act to them. Are all the tales true or false. There 
arc nut yet any clear indications about this but experiments have shown that, gene¬ 
rally, it is impossible to make a man do something under hypnosis that he would never 
do in a normal, wakeful state. A man, who is essentially moral in outlook, has a sub¬ 
conscious which too is conditioned by the same morality and would be as inhibited 
towards crime as a staunch vegetarian is towards any form of meat. In some experi¬ 
ments, when a subject was asked to commit a crime, he immediately left the hypnotic 
state. Other hypnotists, however, argue that if violence and aggressiveness are imbedded 

in the human subconscious, then committing criminal acts under hypnosis should not 
come as a shock to anyone. Somnambulists have been known to have committed crimes 
without remembering the deeds afterwards. And a natural somnambulist acts out his 
subconscious the same way a hypnotised person does. 


If hypnotism has so much to do with the structure of the human mind, why is 
it that psychology and psychiatry have shunned this very potent tool till now? The 
answer is not far to seek. The father figure for many of our present-day psychologists 
is Sigmund Freud, and Freud had said a loud and clear NO to hypnotism. This is strange 
because in his early days, Freud had gone so far as to believe that the primitive men 
communicated by mental telepathy, until the brain evolved further and new methods 
of understanding became available which pushed the telepathic faculty into the 


( continued) 

background. In fact, Freud had clearly accepted hypnosis as a therapeutic agent. Why 
did he reject them? His reasons were: hypnotic cures are temporary and the induction 
procedure is laborious. There was another reason too. He had found, he said, the myste¬ 
rious element behind hypnosis—sex. In the days when Freud used hypnosis on his 
patients, once a young woman, on awakening from hypnosis, embraced him. Since 
Freud had 90 two minds about his personal charm, he attributed this incident to hyp¬ 
nosis. This was his goodby to hypnotism, though he later regretted missing the close 
relationship possible between the hypnotist and his subject, a relationship essential for 
successful psychoanalytic treatment. 

There is another point which Freudians insist upon ; hypnosis does not provide 
an insight into mental problems and covers up any inhibitory resistance that may be 
present. This may be true, but one cannot help suspecting that Freudians reject hyp¬ 
nosis not so much on the basis of reasoning as because Freud had said No, despite the 
fact that Freud’s ‘free-association’ technique had evolved from his work with hypnosis 
in trying to break down the amnesia found in it. 

Despite this resistance on the part of psychiatrists, hypnotherapy has already 
secured a foothold in the field of medicine. In the past few decades several serious 
experiments have been conducted to determine how far hypnosis can be effective as a 
therapeutic tooL The points that have emerged are ; 

Deep hypnosis is not always necessary for therapy. 

The mere induction of hypnosis without suggestion may produce improvement. 
When a patient feels that finally someone is interested in him and something can still 
be done (it is important to note that patients come for hypnotherapy only when other 
treatments have failed), it may bring in some beneficial self-suggestions during the ’pure' 

Under hypnosis, resistance is lessened, and thus data (necessary for psychothe¬ 
rapy) may become available, which would otherwise have taken a long time to elicit. 

The patient may be able to talk of intimate matters in hypnosis, something he 
may not agree to do in the non-hypnotised state. 

W'hile orthodox physicians condemn hypnotic suggestions as being deceitful, they 
do themselves employ suggestions indirectly in the form of pills, placebos or bedside 


( continued) 

It has been found that hypnosis may create hypcrmnesia,, i.e., superior re call of 
past incidents and regression to an earlier phase of development. Often, in cases of 
uncontrollable muscular twitches or in mental conditions like phobias, the patient is 
unable to recall the exact origin or cause of the conditions. Once the patient is able to 
regress back to those long-forgotten incidents in the past, cure can be quickly effected, 
often by mere suggestions only. 

Many psychiatrists have stated that even if they may want to use hypnosis as a 
therapeutic tool, they are prevented from using it due to the popular misconception 
about hypnotism. Often a patient will discontinue the therapy because his friends or 
neighbours have described ‘glaring’ instances of patients remaining ‘slaves’ to hyp¬ 
notists for the rest of their lives. 


Hypnotism may still be an intruder into the realm of psychiatry, but in the field 
of organic medicine it has already revealed itself to possess enormous possibilities. One 
of these potential uses is in the form of an anaesthetic. The term ‘potential’ is not 
intended to mean that hypnotic anaesthesia is just an unfounded hypnthesis. Towards 
the middle of the 19th century, some hundreds of major surgical operations had been 
done under hypnotic anaesthesia (Dr, Esdale alone did two hundred). Yet, strangely 
enough, this technique passed into oblivion after making headline news fora few years 
only. One of the main reasons for this was that at the time hypnotic anaesthesia (or 
hypnoanaesthesia) began to be used, more widely usable chemical anaesthetics had 
already become available and the medical practitioners felt hypnoanaesthesia was not 
‘real’, in the sense chemical agents were real. The second reason was that hypnosis has 
limited applicability when general medical uses are considered. Bach patient differs in 
his susceptibility to hypnotic suggestions. Again, while light hypnosis can be induced 
quite easily, deep cataleptic hypnosis necessary for major surgery is very difficult to 
achieve. There is also the danger of a patient awakening in the middle of an operation. 

However, in the last two decades, hypno-anaesthesia has again attracted some 
attention, especially as an effective adjuvant One important advantage that hypnoanacs- 
thesia lias over drug anaesthesia is that the former eliminates post-operative nausea, 
potentially harmful effects of the narcotic, and finally, patient anxiety. In children, 
especially, it may eliminate the painful aftermaths of an operation, like fear and night¬ 
mares. And then, there are people who cannot tolerate any form of chemical 

When used as an adjuvant, hypnosis comes to the aid of chemical anaesthesia. 



when it is used both before and after an operation. Here hypnosis is used to reduce the 
patient’s anxiety which may in turn reduce the amount of the drug to be administered. 
There is, however, a drawback. Pain, most doctors argue, also serves its purpose, espe¬ 
cially in the initial stages of the post-surgery period, where the presence of the pain may 
reflect certain conditions about which the doctor must know. Moreover, the absence of 
pain may create psychological complications—the patient may develop other symptoms. 


In its present state of development hypnosis as a substitute for drug anaesthesia 
in major surgeries has yet to come of its own. But two branches of medicine which are 
using it with considerable success, particularly in the USA, are dentistry and obstetrics. 
In dentistry, the technique is known as hypnodontics. One reason for the popularity 
of hypnodontics is that in dental operations, the danger of a patent awakening in the 
middle of an operation is not as overwhelming as in a major operation. Moreover, it 
may calm a fearful patient, remove the apprehension about hypodermic needles, 
eliminate the need of abstaining from food before a dental surgery, relax the facial 
muscles, control gagging and salination and reduce what is usually a dentist’s night¬ 
mare-excessive bleeding which makes his work a messy affair. 

In the Soviet Union, hypnosis as an aid to childbirth has found its widest appli¬ 
cation. Use of hypnosis in obstetrics is not a new thing-it had been reported in the 
1870‘s. The reason why hypnosis should be successful in childbirth is obvious. Sugges¬ 
tion plays a considerable part in the case of pregnant woman, especially the nervous 
ones. It has been seen time and again that tire mere reassuring presence of the obstetri¬ 
cian has reduced, or even eliminated the number of false labour pains a nervous woman 
may have. Hypnosis can relieve the anxiety, eliminate morning sickness and backaches, 
reduce vomiting, reduce labour tune by 2 to 4 hours and hence reduce the maternal 
exhaustion, and lessen the pain of childbirth itself. It has also been reported that labour 
itself has been induced by hypnosis. Hence, again, hypnosis lacks general applicability. 
One cannot just decide to use hypnosis a few hours before the labour starts. First, the 
woman must have complete faith in the method and must co-operate fully with the 
hypnotist-doctor, and training in hypnosis must begin some three or four months prioT 
to delivery. More likely, the husband may have to be trained to hypnotise the wife, or 
the woman must be trained to utilize 9clf-hypnosis (unless the expectant woman stays 
under the direct care of the clinician for the whole penod. 

Apart from the serious medical uses in surgery, childbirth and dentistry, hypnosis 
has also been used to cure symptoms, like inexplicable headaches, hiccups, nail biting, 
stammerings etc. While the effectiveness of the cure in these cases has been proved 


f continued) 

beyond doubt, an important question that arises is: Is it wise to cure symptoms alone' 1 
Psychiatrists believe that a symptom that has no apparent physical cause is an expres¬ 
sion of a deep-seated weakness in the mind. If the symptom is removed without remov¬ 
ing its cause, other symptoms may take its place, or else the repressed patient may be 
led to serious mental imbalance of even suicide. 

The academic world still refuses to grant hypnotism a place on its bookshelves. 
Standard text-books on psychology or medicine carry this word only in the index or in 
cursory references. What is needed now is serious scientific research in this seemingly 
potent field. Yet universities consider the subject taboo: some even ban it outright. 
This is a vicious circle that rolls on and on, like the stage magician’s shining crystal ball. 

Though hypnosis is yet to find an assured place in medicine, in the USA, the 
American Medical Association has given hypnotherapy a carte blanch in recent years. 
It is obvious that the acceptance of hypnotism as a curative method or even as an 
analgesic (pain reliever) depends on the attitude of society as a whole. Popular mis¬ 
conceptions need be removed, as also the show business hypnotism that continues to 
strike an image of awesome occultism. In fact, in some countries of the West, legisla¬ 
tion has already been enacted to limit the use of hypnotism for stage entertainment. . 



k ME 







Gcro^c D. Spa die. 
Paul C. Berg. 

The Art of 
Efficient Reading. 

Assuming we average eight hours sleep 

Living spend third waking hours at 

thousand hours. A large chunk 

think of terms 

factor sum total emotional experience, 

night, tiiuse 
JOt>5 — 
you life. 

day-to-day living, 

us must work 

total hundred 
? when 



mental health. 

best insurance wholesome satisfaction your daily work 

careful choice vocation suits your peculiar needs. Young 

men women entering business world arc fortunate vocational 

guidance is universally available. High schools colleges provide 

personnel specific purpose. Employment agencies equipped 

determine lines of work for applicants, industry, 

adopted efficient systems tasting aptitudes fitting 

individual to job. 


are tnings 

anything besides 

must challenge 

strain mathematical skill 

give out 

double entry book keeping- 
a little know-how figures. In 

make much use all 

Corps, if get chance 

you if get 

the work 

a job do for 

weekly pay check. First 

abilities. If whiz at aritlunetic, not much 

punch 65 cents cash register 

change. striking monthly balance 

is chore requires 

same way pumping gas 

motor magic learned Tank 

get under hood tinker 

you feel 

you're doing something. 


challenge is 

less tangible 





can fit 

size 42 customer 



style sense, knowledge 

doesn't realize as such) and 

don’t measure in dollars. 


you qave 

size 14 


meeting life 

from day to day is 
and giving 

away happy making 

practical psycnology (even if 
persuasive charm. These 

triumph achievement 

accomplishment in 

1 you had. job 

ne makes 

good account of yourself. 

not lie 








accompanied by 

your feeling 



is wccthwliile. 


could not 

youx daily stint helps 
exist if 


the arts— 



transporting factory 
trial genius 

the customer, 

writing, painting, 

creative product every 

drafting board 

sole contribution 
essential part ma! 

without mar 

market, well as 

salesmen involved in 
ever servo 

exist if particular job not 

creative work many people identified 

painting, sculpture, music, But 

every members of production 

board salesroom' had a share, 

mtribution tighten bolt A part B 

rt making sleek, 

man who drives tractor-trailer 

ves tractor-trailer 

innumerable clerks, , 

, fine product indus- 



the customer. Jobs provide services 

community -policemen, firemen, doctors, teachers, , barbers, 

•have obvious public value. many jobs seem 

remote society ultimately benefit. must learn 

see particular job relation whole productive process 

is a part. 



rot; i\ r ££D TO BELONG 

Just as 

cannot be happy 

First identify witJ 

struct!on crew, department 

must have feeling 

taking pride achievemen 




we belong 
work unless 
working unit, 
sales force 

working together 
group and sharing 

we feel 

cur family, 

we belong 


office staff. 

common goals 







a small business, 


belonging working group, 

to know are part larger organization, 

proud say work 

New York Central, Metropolitan 

loyalty more personal basis in 

finn highly regarded community. 

to another factor 


significant feeling 

emotional adjustment 
j importance. 

daily work, 




the course 

While chief concern 

>urse our work. 

emotional satisfactions derived 

our lives not 

must recognize 

in between 9 AJM. 

our job 

5 P M. 

leisure-time conversation, 

social contacts, 

our standing community. is natur 

should ail want kind of job gives us prestige- sets 

commands the respect follow workers our neighbours, 

is well remember standards values vary 

to another. job surrounded 

one town just routine another, 

circle important thing be salary pay3; 


should all want 


sets us apart 

one ^oup 



another will be education 

another may oe special talents 

training involves ,and 

abilities requires. 

can't all hold glamour jobs. Someone take responsibility 

doing routine that are necessary progress public welfare, 

own attitude toward job go long way shaping attitude your 

associates . If regard it essential part important public service 

will give it dignity its own, no matter unimportant may appear. 

significance such jobs our social scheme definitely recognized 

recent years various ways. 


with recent benefits come general provision, in industry 

, job security. security we need two areas- 

first, economic right to work, assurance retaining job 

provision for income illness oldage. basic 

requirement peace of mind breadwinner obtainable union con¬ 
tracts, seniority, tenure, sickness accident insurance, pension systems, 

second type relation job know what 

expected what expect from job. 

supervisor foreman do much establish security. em¬ 
ployee learn why wherefores work receive 

instruction satisfactory performance. He know will 

receive fair treatment not subject prejudices favouritism. He 

entitled recognition good work constructive criticism poor work. 

Your working conditions may fall short one 

tant respects. needn't worry , unless 

unhappy. situation involves various personalities, 

effort your part remedy unwholesome relationship 

more impor- 

defmltely making 

no amount 

may be¬ 

come necessary 


seek change. large 

transfer another department. If not feasible 





serious, look employment elsewhere. 

Before drastic action, , good idea have heart-to neart 

talk supervisor if fails, personnel manager. may discover 

alteration own attitudes work habits bring pleasanter 

relationship with 


fellow workers. 


Lake stock 




own actions 



others, you 


improve things than 



you try 


people act 


they do. 




worrying about 

sicek child 


must realize no such thing perfect job. Every job 

advantages and drawbacks. weigh one against other. If not getting 

satisfactions daily work , something do about it besides gripe. 

( griping all right , up to point. healthy sign 

aware something WTong. healthy, however, when leads 

constructive action.) 

When find vocation failing meet emotional needs, 

feel tied down dull routine yearn opportunity exercise 

real talents, time look for avocation, leisure-time 

activity affords fun doing what we think meant to do. 

man knows executive ability have no 

chance apply daily work, he can organize neighbourhood 

campaigns turn ability fine purpose, 

woman sits at machine dress factory find outlet 

creative ideas designing clothes family friends. Often avocation leads 

real business; successful custom cress maker started this way. 

Sometimes , stuck with jobs. remember 

we can choose hobbies. fascinating things leisure hours 



more than emotional gratification cenvo 

lasting interest will stay through 

satisfying activity fill lives when 

possmls have full-time daily job. 


day to day. They provide 
years, giving constructive, 

no longer necessary or 





BEEN DELETED. TRY YD READ THIS AS SOURCE : The Art of Efficient Reading. 

no magic formula 

without assist heaven, in a mage 

face fact— won't get out 


Perhaps you 

verge taking 


wondering if 

should. Alter all, 

normal way 

life. Every one 

right to home 



simple as that. 

separations, annulments, 


crowd courts, 


unhappy children 

broken homes testimony heartbreak caused 

failuie marriage. said truth many marital ventures 

doomed to failure from start-usually sole basis shallow roman¬ 
tic attachment. love first requirement but sometimes love blind 

fundamental differences that practicafly guaranteed wreck a 


Marriage not 

Think what involvcd-not only 

mate, but your lives 


What about ? Do you love person exclusion others'? 

Do want live him her rest your lite, helping 

undertaken without careful serious consideration, 

immediate happiness you your 

perhaps fifty years and entire lives 



other meet problems personal hardships arise during 

fifty' years? Is lie 


kind of father 



your childre? 

what about you? 

yuu want 

do share 



happy, useful 

men women? 


willing to make 








yes, then 

get married. 









in marriage. 



Bill's dream 

find out Bill object 

job, whether June willing go along 

raising baseball team, is before 

wedding not after. Fundamental attitudes expectations fully explored 

courtship. Otherwise adjustments prove difficult impossible. Failure 

amve understanding vital matters living expenses 





, can prove disastrous. couples today 

leam about each other before marriage, 

realistic taking advantage opportunity, recognizing 

without rose-colored glasses mannerisms, habits 

cause friction. sheer folly expect feature 



chosen spouse. 


marriage ceremony. 

groom who hopes 




Early adjustments expected mamage. Differences tastes 

interests, like dislikes ironed out, emotionally mature 

relatively easy. 

What emplied emotional maturity? great many things— 

self-confidence, even temper obey rules 


(coni umed) 

game cheerfully, consideration for others. These ingredients successful 

participation intimate relationships marriage. mature person 

considerate failings shortcomings husband wife 

tries make contribution his her development. The person rev 

P ccts rights personality other and is willing effect compromises 

necessary obtaining finer relationship. When problem arises, both 

contribute to successful solution though involve sacrifices. 

Neither party dominates neither submits, boLh submit 

common cause, , success in — marriage. 



make all 

other mem 

process adjusting mutual . Neither 

nglit expect other do all adjusting 

changes. Bill yields poing June another, 

happiness for both If only Bill Jane yields, 

resentment, bitterness. This lie beneath surface, 

life behaviour cause unhealthy mental state. effect 





is built 

in our society no couple lives In shell from 

world. bound to be interests activities oubride home. Business, social 

organizations, hobbies, sports, all play part life. Where business concerned, 

advantage family as whole meet its demands, although 

home family life regarded equally important. One must not 

sacrificed for other. 

In other activities outside 

home desirable common interests 


partner sacrifice 

give up playing poker 

not poker. As long 
Bill's part lead 

satisfying activity. Jane, 

Icagir with inends. 

pursued. may be necessary one 

personal interest to mutual interest Bill 

more time to bridge Jane plays bridge 

both enjoy bridge, worthwhile sacrifice 

pleasant hours companionship 

learn to bowl to Llic Bill .join 

not necessary, , 

either partner 

confine activities those they share. Divergent intc- 



interests not a problem if mutual respect consideration, 

only when independent pursuits interfere rights expectations 

trouble develops. 


important consideration partnership. role wife 

homemaker. respect for partner funda¬ 
mental need. respect for each other as persons respect 

for each other as persons respect each does. husband wishes 

wife respect his work, abilities accomplishments, 

lie should respect her as homemaker. include ner abili¬ 
ties cook, interior decorator, laundress, seamstress, general expert 

duties involved running home. He should express appreciation 

admiration for accomplishments. Homes do not grow 

themselves-they made. much work tedious mono¬ 
tonous. Homcmaking fills vital place economic social order 

more honour prestige given it. 

husbands can do 
feeling satisfaction froms 

Share and nghtly take pride derive 



Much made 

marriage certainly 

not stand alone, 
oilier speheres. 

necessary good sexual adjustment happy 

important element. Sexual difficulties. 

frequently caused by difficulties 

sexual maladjustment frequently 





personality maladjustincnI found that emotionally 

ordinarily capable making good adjustment 

found sexually maladjusted emotionally 

mature penon realistic approach sexual matters sees 

fundamental important part but not total 


f con fin tied ) 

immature person approaches sexual matters conflicts fears based 

upon personality structure not relevant situation. If sexual 

maladjustment continues long marriage— more than three months 

year- advice physician psychiatrist should be sought- 


Unless circumstances exceptional, will be contact with 

in-laws. You didn’t marry family. you did into iL 

mother-in-law children's grandmother your sisters brothers-in-law will 

be their aunts uncles. in most mamages it not 

problem. You create it yourself if take stones jokes literally 

let them affecl relationships . remember in¬ 
laws people husband wife help each other make nece¬ 
ssary adjustments. This mutual affairs, bach adjust to other's 

family neither partner expected to make all adjust¬ 
ments. If each recognizes his parents not always right and 

guided by respect consideration for partner, conflicts can 

be solved way acceptable with. 



deep satisfaction 
. i ou 

are a family. 

Your job guide bit of humanity that been placed 

your hands into happy, useful person, and doit together. , Mommy, 

carry heavier load, mothers more time with 

children. Daddy carrying share. Training child, his brothers 

sisters , be mutual responsibility. many times 

personal interests come second; welfare of child come fusL Rut 

shared sacrifices. 

baby, multiple problems of parenthood, brings 

source delight. source difficulties, source 

ultimate contribution of marriage La society 

suddenly become Mammy Daddy ;you 





(1) Read the passage entitled ‘‘THE AR.4BS* as fast as 
you can. Before you start reading the passage, note 
down the time and as soon as you finish reading note 
die tune again. Calculate the time you have taken to 
read the whole passage. 

(2) Read the passage only once. 

{3} Find out the reading speed with the help of Appendix 
No.Il and enter in Appendix No.IV - Work-Book. 

(4) Answer the questions in the Work-Book as fast as you 

(5) Do not look Into the text when you answer the ques¬ 

(6) Score your answers by checking them with the Answer 
Key (Appendix No.I - Work-Book) and convert tiie 
scores into percentages with the help of Conversion 
Table (Appendix No.Ill — Work-Book). 

(7J Make the entries in the column's In Appendix NoJV - 




“ pot'll clerk, became ike prealcel 

of mctdern Ar«b leaden. in iVJl, along witft 
Conaral iCohammail Negub, Nmir a 

C'OiCmel In I hr tpyptbm Army) lid Thi Ctftfp 
ogaln«t King fcrcmk. After ih* A rah -U/koC 
in IMT, He resigned, bwt 0i« popbLa/ jupport 
hi mjoyrd, detpxU the hymlUotun of Uie 
military aiaojtrr, kept him in office. 




The Illustrated Weekly of 
India, November 25,1973. 


The Arabs and the Jews claim common ancestry. The seed of Abraham gave birth to both, 
as die Arabs point out when the verse from the Genesis about the “Promised Land” is quoted. 
"1 give this country to your posterity, from the river of Egypt upto the great Euphrates", God 
said to Abraham, Ishrr.ael, son of Abraham by his wife Hagara, is the ancestor of the tribes which 
lived on the Arab peninsula. 

The origin of the word ‘Arab" is still a matter of dispute. Philologists link it to the Hebrew 
“Arabha" (meaning dark land) and “Erebn" (denoting that which is unorganised). Their reasoning 
is that this was an apt description for the nomadic Bedouin tribes. 

The main identifying paints of tne present Arab world are language and a common culture. 
This culture has been shaped by Islam. Arabic developed phenomenally with the spread of Islam. 
During the first 100 years of Muslim conquest Arabic encountered Uiree highly sophisticated lan¬ 
guages, each with a solid backbone of scholarship and long usage-Persian, Syriac and Greek (spoken 
in Persia, Iraq, Syria and Egypt). Arabic displaced them all. 

The Prophet Mohammad was born around 570 AD in Mecca in the aristocratic tribe of the 
Qurayxh, custodian of the shrine of Kaaba. At the age of 40 he began to receive “divine revela¬ 
tions". Mohammad spread tike “mussauu of God", brought to him by the fVngel Gabriel, among his 
tribe. He was ridiculed, and then, when his following began to grow (especially among the slaves 
and the poor, to whom the doctrines of brotherhood and virtue were very appealing), he and his 


( continued) 

followers were persecuted. 

In 622 AD, Mohammed fled to Medina , where ha was welcomed. Within ten years, through 
a combination of victorious battled and pacts (including treaties with the Jewish tribes of Magna, 
Adhrudh and Jar ha), Mohammad managed to unify the innumerable warring tribes of Arabia under 
the banner of Islam. The number of converts increased at a spectacular pace mainly duo to the 
humanism preached by the new religion. 

Within the next hundred yean the inspired Arab people demolished the Persian empire in 
the east and captured the prized possessions of the Byzantine empire m the west. The military 
campaigns of the early Muslims general, Kh&lid ibn-aJ-As, Walid Mohammad Bin Quasim and 
Umar ibn-al-As, stand out as among the most glorious in history. By 750 AD the Muslims had 
spread from Spain to the Indus. 

The Muslims empire flourished and the Arabs- 11 barbarians” before 600-now gave the world 
a great civilisation. Science, medicin e, lit eratur e, s cholarship- a ll rea c hed a peak. The Arabs tra ns¬ 
mit ted Greek learning to the Eu ropea ns and develope d mathematics at a time when the Univer sity 
of Oxford still though that taking a bath was unhealth. 

Philosophy, astronomy , phy sics, chemistry, hist o ry were studi ed and written. The Cali phs 
encoura ged learning. In t he ninth century a school f or translators with an offi ci al library w» 
established in Bag hdad. Poetry of the highest order wai written. 

The spectacular rise of the Arab empire was matched only by the speed of its decay. Islam 
during the time of Mohammad and the early Caliphs contained many dements of a class struggle ; 
by the eleventh century the leaden displayed all the characteristics of degenerate wealth. Power 
had been gradually slipping away from the centre of the empire (that is, the seat of the Caliphate). 
Internal rivalry and civil wan took their toll, In the eleventh century, the “barbarian" hordes— 
both from Central Asia and Europe-wrested chunks of the empire. Soon the Crusades were under 
way and now the Arabs produced one of their greatest heroes-Salaam. The centra of Muslim power 
shifted from Iran and Syria to Turkey and Egypt. 


In 151b Albuquerque occupied the island of Horme* in the Arabian gulf—and this date could 
be said to mark the beginning of Western expansionism in the Middle East. The European fleets 
slowly gained supremacy over the Muslims in the next three centuries. 

The Middle East was divided between the Ottoman and the Persian empires from the 16th to 
the beginning of the 20th century. In 1797 Napolean occupied Egypt for a short while. In 1830 
France captured Algeria. In 1882 Egypt went into British hands. 

The reawakening of Arab nationalism in the lata 19th century was inspired by two facton- 
the inability of the Turks to defend the Muslim world (as evidenced by the European occupation of 
Arab lands) and the impact of Western colonialism. The movement was strongest in Egypt. 



In 1897 European Jewry launched the Zionist movement with the express purpose of 
creating a Jewish state in Arab Palestine. The idea was not taken very seriously by the European 
powers. Theodor Herd, the father of Zionism, was even willing to settle for a homeland in Uganda. 
Even after the Balfour Declaration had been made in 1917, Lloyd George dismissed the notion as 

But British statesmen soon realised the benefits of a Jewish state backed by them in the Arab 
heartland. The Arabs saw in the existence of Israel an extension of Western colonialism. 

The Allies entered into numerous agreements with the Arabs during and after World War 1 
on the proposed Jewish state. AD of the premises were flouted. Arab trust was betrayed; Jewish 
immigration into Palestine encouraged. 

Arab unity found a focal point in the struggle against Zionism. The thrust of the reformist 
movement was finding political expression in the growth of parties like the Ba'athistx of Syria. It 
was inevitable that the clamour far "modernity” and "progress” would Lead to a reaction against 
the monarchs who had been installed by the Europeans when they left on the explicit understand¬ 
ing that their interests would be safe. 

In July 23, 1952, the Free Officers of Egypt led by Mohammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel 
Nasser overthrew the monarchy of King Farouk. Egypt became the fountain-head for the "pro¬ 
gressive” movements in the Arab world-lending arms, money and men. 

The 1960s saw the rise of another mercurial Arab leader: Colonel Muammar Gaddaffi. He 
came to power in Libya through the familiar process of a military coup. He is the voice of those 
Arabs who believe that an Arab renaissance is possible only through a strict adherence to the tenets 
which inspired the nse of Islam during its inception. Gaddaffi is as virulently anti-Communisl as he 
is anti-West. His greatest contribution has been on the oil front .spearheaded the demand for a 
larger share of oil revenues. 

Palestinian Arabs are paying the price for Jewish support to the Allies in World War I and 
fascist anti-Semitism. On April 9, 1948, reported Jacques de Reyrder, Chief Delegate of the Inter¬ 
national Rad Cross, "300 persons (of Deir Yassin, a village near Jerusalem).... were massacred 
,.. without any military reason for provocation of any kina, old men, women, children.” 

Thus began the Arab exodus from Palestine. Today the number of refugees is estimated at 
two million. Those Arabs who remained in Israel were dispossessed of their lands. The despair of 

the refugees has bred the war of terrorism under Leaders like Dr. George Ha bash (the Christian, 
Marxist author of the terrorist programme) and Yasser Arafat (head of the Ai-Fatah). The Palesti¬ 
nian guerillas have made the world accept that peace is impossible without justice towards them. 







NOTE: 0 - 

B - 
X - 
M - 

Perception & Reading Skills 

Gained through informal experience. 

The grade instruction should be introduced. 

Continued instruction required. 

Some mastery of skill necessary. 

Preschool Inter- Junior Senior 

& Kinder- Primary mediate High High College 

gar ten Grades Grades School School 

1. Experience background: 

Uses many kinds of experience to 

gain understanding of words. 







Preparatory experiences: 

Learns to look, to see likeness 
and differences in forms and 
words, to perceive words 




• a 

a a 

a • 

Learns to listen and discriminate 




• • 

a a 

• • 

Builds a listening and speaking 









Learns the letters. 



• • 

• a 

a • 

a • 

Looks at words and asks their 



• • 

# . 

a a 

a a 

Learns to listen and speak 
fluently in a group. 







Learns to tell a story to an 







Beginning reading : 

Associates the sound of the 
word and its meaning with 
the printed symbol. 







Identifies sounds and combina¬ 
tions of sounds in words. 








(continued / 

Perception & Reading Stalls 

k Kinder¬ 













Recognizes the same sound In 

different words. 





■ • 

• • 

Learns to read sentence® from 

left to right. 

• • 



■ • 

• • 

• e 

Builds a basic sight vocabulary 





■ • 

• • 

Uses newly learned words in 








and in writing 

e • 






Uses his experience to inter- 

pret what he reads. 

• s 






Grasps the meaning of simple 


• • 




• • 

e • 

Reads directions 

Finds the answers to specific 
questions in reference to 

• e 





• • 


Recounts in correct sequence 
the events in the plot of 

• e 

V • 





a story. 







Learns new words incidentally 

through wide reading. 

Learns key words and concepts 
as he studies each school 

• ■ 

• • 






Learns technical abbreviations 
symbols and formulas needed 

e e 

■ ■ 





in each field. 

• • 

• 9 





249 (continued) 


Perception & Reading Skills & Kinder¬ 














Consults the dictionary 
or glossary for exact mean¬ 
ings of words. 

• • 





Studies words in context syste¬ 






Makes a dictionary of new words, 
giving pronundation, derivation, 
definition, illustrative sentences 





Becomes interested in word ori¬ 
gins and the different 
meanings of the same word in 
different contexts 

i • 





Recognises the meaning of 
common words clearly and 





• » 


Uses dues in the context to get 
the meaning of unfamiliar words, 
selecting the moaning that 

best fits the context. .. BX X X M 

Divides words into syllables so 
that he can pronounce them; 
knows and applies common 

principles of syllabication .. .. BX X M 

Uses phonetic approach if 

syllabic approach fails. .. .. BX X M 

Knows and applies common pho¬ 
netic principles .notes initial, 
middle, and final sounds and 

letter blends. .. B X X M 



Preschool Primary Inter* Junior Senior College 

Perception & Reading Skills & Kinder- Grades mediate High High 

garten Graces School School 

Uses structural analysis 
of words whenever helpful, 
noting general configuration 
of words, identifying details 

and structural parts of words .. BX X X M 

Learns more about how prefixes 
and suffixes modify meaning of 

the roots .. .. .. BX M 

Uses the dictionary as a check 
after he has attempted to get 

the meaning from context. .. .. BX X X X 

Acquires a deeper understand¬ 
ing of the structure of the 

language .. .. .. .. BX X 

Studies overtones of words and 
semantic derivation from ori¬ 
ginal sense meaning .. .. .. .. BX X 


Reads Ln thought units. .. BX X X X M 

Comprehends sentences accu¬ 
rately .. BX X X M 

Gets main idea ot a paragraph .. B X X M 

Gets organizing idea of an 
article, or chapter and relates 

details to it. .. .. .. BX X M 

Writes in his own words a good 
outline or summary of the selec¬ 
tion read .. .. .. BX X X 

251 (continued) 


Perception & Reeding Skill* 4 Kinder¬ 














Gets author's pattern as though aa 
he reads. 

• • 

■ ■ 




Remembers in organized form as 
much as is important for fur¬ 
ther thinking. 

• • 

a ■ 




Loams to read critically. 






Distinguishes the essential from 
the non-essential. 






Examines the truth or correct¬ 
ness of statements and detects 

• • 

■ ■ 




Recognizes propaganda. 

• • 




Recognises differences between 
fact and opinion and among opi¬ 
nions of varying weight. . 4 

m « 





Brings own experiences to bear on 
the author's statement. 






Notes sequences of events or 
ideas and cuae-and-effect rela¬ 






Predicts outcomes on the basis of 
clues given by the author 






Draws accurate inferences and 






Thinks as he reads, notes com¬ 
mon elements and concepts, 
keeps them in mind and relates 

• • 

• e 

• • 






Perception & Reeding Skills & Kinder¬ 














Understands increasingly ad¬ 
vanced and complex material. 

• • 

■ e 




Connects ideas in news ways, 
reading between and beyond the 

• • 

• • 

• • 



Recognizes attitudes in himself 
that might distort his compre¬ 

• a 

e • 

• • 



Pauses to reflect on serious 

• • 

• • 

e • 



Suspends judgement until all 
available evidence has been 

• • 

• • 




Integrates and organizes infor¬ 
mation gained from reading. 

• • 






Interprets characters' Intent and 
behaviour from author’s clues. 






Finds reasons for events and 






Recognizes perruanva wards and 
is aware of their influence on the 

• • 





Reads aloud well enough to give 
and get enjoyment. 

• ■ 





Participates in the aesthetic and 
emotional experiences presented 
by the author. 








Preschool Primary Inlet- Junior Senior College 

Perception & Reading Skills & Kinder- Grades mediate High High 

garten Grades School School 

Compares different styles of 
writing ,. 

t • 

« e 





Laughs or smiles to himself as he 
reads a humorous book. 






Voluntarily resumes reading a 
bock he ha3 chosen as soon as 
his other work is completed. 






Uses school and public library for 
recreational and study reading. 






Reads many worthwhile books. 






Shows sensitivity to various Levels 
of interpretations. 

• • 

• • 




Enjoys author's style in prose and 
poetry-picture-forming words, 
rhythm or cadence. 






Increase his awareness of and 
finds personal value in reading. 






Appraises quality of book, maga¬ 
zine, television show, movie. 






Uses reading more in daily life 
outside of school. 

• • 





Reads as a favourite leisure-time 
activity which continues through 

• • 





Continues trend towards in¬ 
creased voluntary reading. 

• • 

• • 






Preschool Primary Inter- Junior Senior College 

Perception & Reading Skills & Kinder- Grades mediate High High 

garten Grades School School 

Improves the quality of him 

reading .. .. BX X X X 

Widens the scops of his read¬ 
ing. .... BX X X X 

Develops one or more inten¬ 
sive reading interests. .. .. .. .. BX X 

Enjoys discussion of books. .. BX X M 

Shows decreased interest in read¬ 
ing the comics. .. .. BX M 

Resists forces such as television 
and auto reading that usurp 

reading time. .. .. BX X M 

Finds more motivation to read. ., .. .. BX X X 

Uses television and other media of 
communication as part of a wall- 
balanced program, recognizing the 
unique value of each medium and 
its special value in helping him 

to build an oral vocabulary and to 
supply on experience background 

for reading. .. . . BX X X X 

Reads to learn more about worth 

while hobbies. .. .. BX X X X 


Sits still long enough to attend 

to reading. O OB X M 

Skims skillfully for different 

255 i 'continued) 

Preach ool 

Perception & Heading Skills Sc Kinder 


to find a certain fact; 
to get a general impression; 
to get the main ideas; 
to find out what questions 
the passage will answer, 
to get clues to organization or 

Learns to read maps, graphs, 
charts, diagrams, formulas. 

Learns to read out-of-achool 
material-road maps, menus, 
signs, timetables. O 

Learns to locate and select 
pertinent information on a topic 
and to use it in a report. 

Becomes familiar with a wider 
variety of sources. 

Learns to take notes. 

Acquires skill in the Survey Q3R 
method and uses it whenever 

Reads more rapidly with ade¬ 
quate comprehension. 

Develops speed and fluency by 
reading easy material in each 

Applies ideas gained from read¬ 
ing, as for example, in making 
pictorial, graphic and tabular 

Primary Inter- Junior Senior College 

Grades mediate High High 

Grades School School 






B X M 








Perception & Reading Skills &- Kinder¬ 














Uses ideas gained from reading 

to solve problems, prove a point, 
develop an interest, or entertain 









Forms good study habits, bud¬ 
gets best time of day for study 
and creation. 

• • 




• • 

Creates die best conditions pos- 

able for efficient study. 

• - 




• ■ 

Gets to work promptly. 




• • 

■ ■ 

Applies psychological principles 
to remembering what is impor¬ 

• ■ 




Uses his own judgement when it 

has a sound basis. 

* • 

• • 

• • 





Sets specific objectives before 

beginning to read. 





• « 

Varies approach? rate and reading 
methods accordinq to the nature 
of the material-different fields 
and different kinds of writinq ; 
they gain fluency and ©fficioncy 
througn adaptability and flexibi¬ 
lity and purposeful reading. 

• a 





Reads with intent to organize, 

remember and use ideas. 

• • 





Reaos to solve problems, answer 
questions, understand develop¬ 
ments and events outside his 
immediate environment (9). 







f continued) 

Preschool Primary inter- Junior Senior College 

Perception & Reading Skills St Kinder- Grades mediate High High 

garten Grades School School 

Relates reading to his own life ; 
shares ideas gained in reading. 

Gains understanding of himself 
and others through reading. 

Concentrates better. 

Experiences a growing pleasure 
in precision-shows unwilling¬ 
ness to half understand a passage. .. 


Selects readinq material that 
meets a personal need or widens 
his experience. 

Reads to solve personal problems ; 
relates ideas gained from reading 
to his personal living-to each of 
the developmental tasks appro¬ 
priate to his age. 

Uses information from his read¬ 
ing in group projects, dramatiza¬ 
tions, class discussions, commi¬ 
ttee work, club activities. 

Gains understanding of himself 
and others from reading auto¬ 
biographies, biographies and 
true-to-life fiction. 

Gams understanding of the 
world of nature and the world 
of men 



O 3X X M 


0 BX X X X 






(continued ) 





Senior College 

Perception & Reading Skills 

& Kinder- 





gar ten 




Behaves differently as a result of 
reading as, for example, towards 
parents after reading, The Year¬ 
ling, towards Negroes after reading 
Amos Fortune, towards driving a 

car after reading Hot Rod. .. O BX X X X 

Uses reading in building a philo¬ 
sophy of life and sound convic¬ 
tions. .. 0 0 BX X X 

Improves emotional conditio ns - 
worry, anger, fear, insecurity - 
Lhat block effective study and 
reading by learning to accept 
his feelings and to channel them 
into safe pathways .gets help 
through counselling or psycho¬ 
therapy, if necessary. .. 0 O BX X X 

TMt (NO 




For each of the following statements, check | J J under Hover, Rarely, Sometimes, Usually, or 
Always. Do not omit any of the items. Be truthful and utterly realistic. Represent your reading 
habits as they actually are. 











When 1 pick up a page of print, 1 
notice the paragraphs specifi¬ 


1 read as 1 drive, with varying 
rates of speed, depending upon 
varying reading conditions. 




While reading, 1 find it easy to 
keep my mind on the material 
before me. 


After I nave been reading lor a 
while, I stop reading for a few 
moments and rest my eyes by 
looking at some distant objccL 


1 am alert to the rule which 
punctuation plays in aiding me 
to get the meaning, 




When l pick up a piece of read¬ 
ing matter for the fust time, l 
look for certain specific items 
which will aid me in reading the 
piece more efficiently. 


1 read groups of words at one 


1 notice a distinctive style, or 
flavor, of the author. 


I enjoy reading 


1 can read for long periods of 
time without a feeling of eye 
fatigue or tiredness. 




11. After 1 read a paragraph, if re¬ 
quired to do 80, I could sum up 
the main idea clearly and briefly 
in my own words. 

12. I make a practice of skimming 
articles frequently. 

In reading a paragraph I usually 
try to see the organization of 
its thought content : 1 look for 
the main idea, and the details, 
which support. 








1 have little difficulty m remem¬ 
bering what 1 read. 


When I read, especially for any 
length of time, 1 make sure that 
the page before me is adequately 

20. When 1 rend, I am reading for 
some definite purpose, and 1 
try to keep that purpose clearly 
in mind a91 read. 




21.1 read the preface of & book. 

La reading more difficult mate¬ 
rial, after reading a paragraph or 
a section, 1 pause to summarize 
in a momentary flashback the 
material 1 have just covered. 

23. While reading, 1 am aware of 
questions which arise in my own 
thinking about the material being 

24, While reading, I hold the page 
15 to 20 inches from my eyes. 

25. 1 am aware that with practice a 
person can improve his reading 
skills, and I make a conscious 
effort generally towards that 


Rarely sc me times Usually Always 

Count the checks in each 
column to obtain ; (A) 

Multiply by : (B) 

To obtain : (Cl 

Now add the figures in row C for your final score : 





— 1. Limited meaning vocaoulary. 

— 2. Inability to read by thought units. 

— 3. Insutficiem sentence sense. 

— 4. Lack of the sense of paragraph orga¬ 


— 5. Failure to appreciate the authors 



— 1. Failure to use context and other 

moaning dues. 

— 2. Ineffective visual analysis of words. 

— 3. Limited knowledge of visual, struc¬ 

tural and phonetic dements, 

— 4. Lack of ability in auditory blending 

or visual synthesis. 

— 5, Over-analytical. 

— (a) Analyzing known words 

— (b) Breaking words into too 

many parts 

— (c) Using letter by letter or 

spelling attack 

— 6. Insufficient sight vocabulary. 

— 7. Excessive locational errors. 

— (a) Initial errors 

— (b) Middle errors 

— (c) Ending errors 


1. Orientational, confiuaons with words. 

2. Transpositions among words. 

— 3. Faulty eye movements. 




— 1. Inappropriate eye-voice span. 

— 2. Lack of phrasing ability. 

— 3. Unfortunate rate and timing. 

— 4. Emotionally tense oral reader, 


— 1. Inability to isolate and retain factual 


— 2. Poor reading to organize. 

— 3. Ineffective reading to evaluate. 

— 4. Insufficient ability in reading to inter¬ 


— 5. Limited proficiency in reading to 



— I. Inability to use aids in locating 

materials to be read. 

— 2. Lack of efficiency in using basic 

reference materiaL 

— 3. Inadequacies in using maps, graphs, 

tables and other visual materials. 

— 4. Limitations in techniques of orga¬ 

nizing material read. 


— 1. Inappropriate application of compre¬ 

hension abilities. 

— 2. Limited knowledge of specialized 


— 3. Insufficient concept development. 

— 4. Poor knowledge of symbols and 


— 5. Insufficient ability in the use of 

pictorial and tabular materials. 

— 6. Difficulties with organization. 

— 7. Inability to adjust rate to suit the 

purposes and the difficulty of mate¬ 






Inability to adjust rate. 



Insufficient sight vocabulary. 



Insufficient vocabulary knowledge 





Ineffectiveness in word recognition. 



Being an overanalytical reader. 



Insufficient use of context clues. 



Lack of phrasing. 



Using crutches. 



Unnecessary vocalization. 



Inappropriate purposes. 

THl *N0 



AJ A (7/7/OR 'S PURPOSE . 

1. To inform 

— 2. To persuade 

— 3. To entertain 

— 4. To interpret 

5. To incite to action 


— 1. Cynical 

— 2. Satirical 

— 3. Sarcastic 

— 4. Humorous 

— 5. Critical 

— 6. Sentimental 

— 7. Solemn 

— 8. Ironic 


— 1. Repetition 

— 2. Question-answer 

— 3. Conclusion-proof 

— 4. Op inion-reason 

— 5. Problem-solution 
*— 6. Fusion of details 

— 7. Comparison and contrast 

— 8. Events in time sequence 

— 9. Positive statements 

— 10. Rhetorical questions 

— 11. Dramatic 

— 12. Various thought relationships 

— 13. Analogy 


— 1. Increased scope of learning 

— 2. Well bounded discussion 

— 3. Definite position supported 


(continued ) 

— 4. Useful to society 

— 5. Relevant 

— 6. Clarifies complex ideas 

— 7. Complete analysis 

— 6. Scientific slant 

— 9. Moral 

— 10. Utilitarian 

— 11. Draws inferences 
- 12. Makes predictions 


— 1. 
— 2 . 

— 3. 

— 4. 

— 5. 

— 6 . 

— 7. 

— 8 . 

— 9. 

— 10. 
— 11 . 
— 12 . 

— 13. 

— 14. 

— 15. 

— 16. 

— 17. 

— 18. 

— 19. 

— 20 . 
— 21 . 
— 22 . 

— 23. 

— 24. 

— 25. 

— 26. 

— 27. 

— 28. 

— 29. 

— 30. 

— 31. 

— 32. 


Statement out of context 
Appeal to emotion 
Personal attack 
irrelevant evidence 
Overaim plificati on 
Ignoring of evidence 
Arguing in a circle 
Straw-man technique 
False analogy 
Confused wording 

“Oldness is goodness" (and vice-veroa) 

Inadequate sampling 


Card stacking 

Either—or distinctions 

Appeal to authority 


Appeal to ego 

"Big lie" 

"Everybody’s doinq it" 

Because it's good for me, it's good for you 

Appeal to sex, status, wealth, fame 



Technical or obscure Language, jargon 
Appeal to the hopeless 



— 33. Long-established belief is fact 

— 34. Plain folks 

— 35. Transfer 

— 36. Pretty words 

— 37. Ugly words 

— 38. Repetition 

— 39. “Loud and long" 

— 40. Partial analysis 

— 41. Rationalization 

— 42. Band wagon appeals 

— 43. Distractors 

— 44. Extravagant expression 

— 45. Logical fallacies 

— 46. Inconsequential statements (non-sequitus) 

-47. Meaningless jargon (cjobbledygook) 

— 48. Tabloid thinking 


— I. Reputable source 

— 2. Recent date of publication 

— 3. Reputation of writer 

— 4. Acknowledges lack of information 

— 5. Select sources of fact 

— 6. "Measures up" to reality in terms man's knowledge 

— 7. Tact 

— 8. Opinion 

— 9. Interpretation 


— 1. Basic literacy 

— 2. Average adult 

— 3. Advanced 


— 1. Graphic 

— 2. Maps 

— 3. Charts 

— 4. Underlining 

— 5. Italics 

— 6. Varied type face 

— 7. Summary 

— 8. Preface 

— 9. Outline 

— 10. Indentation 





Learning Objectives Learning Activities to Accomplish 

Learning Objectives 

1 . To increase knowledge and undemanding Lecture, readings, discussions, 
of what reading is an extension of an indi¬ 
vidual’s verbal or Language facility. 

2. To develop an understanding of the read- Lecture, readmes, discussions, 
ing skills needed to become a flexible 


3. To develop effective rates of reading. Discussion, selected timed reading 

exercises, use of mechanical aids, 

(a) Educational Developmental 
Laboratories Controlled reader. 

(b) Science Research Associates 
Reading Accelerator. 

Learn by doing. Trainees will work 
with selected reading exercises from 
two sources: The Art of Effi¬ 
cient Reading and Skimming and 

5. In the development of flexibility, the Discussions and selected reading 

trainee will learn effective methods of exercises. 

pro-reading, including: 

(a) Selection of purpose. 

(b} Previewing techniques 

(c) Overview skimming 

6. To develop an awareness and interest Discussion, selected readings and 

in effective methods of enlarging one's selected exercises from texts, 

7. To leam to react critically to written Discussion, selected readings from 

materials; learn some of the techniques texts. 

commonly used to influence opinion, 
both in writing and speaking. 

4 . To leam to read flexibly, including 
effective selection of purpose, level of 
comprehension needed, and rate for a 
given reading. 


THI tNt> 



The Learning Objectives and Learning Activities outlined for the "Efficient Reading Pro¬ 
gramme’ will be a part of the Programme for Teacher-training. The Teacher-training Programme 
will amplify in both depth and breadth the several learning objectives of the Efficient Reading 
Programme, giving background from learning theory, educational psychology, etc. 

Further, the Teacher-training programme will study a variety of materials and methods for 
improving reading ability that will not be a part of. the 'Efficient Reading Programme". The 
purpose of this is to give die teacher-trainees an opportunity to plan a variety of programmes in 
reading based on the several needs and adiievements of the trainees whom they in turn will lat«r be 

Learning Activities to Accomplish 

Learning Object.** Learning Objecuve. 

1. To increase uncerstanding regarding the 
importance of higher level reading skills 

2. To increase knowledge and understanding 
of what reading is-how reading is an ex¬ 
tension of an individual’s verbal or language 

Discussion, lecture, visuals. 

Discussion of vision and perception 
as related to reading. 

Discussion of effect of various 
backgrounds of experience on read¬ 
ing ability. 

Discussion of the effect of a bilin¬ 
gual background on facility in 
reading in English. 

3. To study some of the correlates of read¬ 
ing : Sensory, psychological, physiological. 

4. To increase knowledge of the learning 
process as it relates to reading. 

5. Develop an understanding of the stalls 
needed to become an efficient reader. 

Lecture, discussion, reading assign¬ 

Lecture, discussion, reading assign¬ 

Lecture, discussion, selected read¬ 
ings and study exercises from a 
variety of books and materials, 
including several sets of audio- 


f continued i 

Learning Objectives 

6. Learn to use effectively the various skills 
of reading in the achievement of flexi¬ 
bility and maturity in reading. 

7. To develop an understanding of study 
skills more appropriate to the student- 
reader, including emphasis on vocabulary 
development, study formula, etc. 

6. To develop plans for programmes in effi¬ 
cient reading relative to each trainee's 
projected teaching situation. 

9. Learn to use as equipment and mate¬ 
rials effectively in individual or group 

10. Learn to judge the difficulty levels of 
written material; that is, whether a writing 
is written in an easy, average, or difficult 

11. Learn to evaluate reading skills of adults 
using both standardized and informal 

12. Learn to listen more effectively, using 
many of the same tocuniques for listen¬ 
ing that have been [or are being) developed 
in reading efficiency. For example, clues to 
the speaker's main idea are much the same 
in listening as in reading; critical evalua¬ 
tion is the same generally for listening as 

Learning Activities to Accomplish 
Learning Objectives 

Practice and work in the 'Effi¬ 
cient Reading Programme", de¬ 
signed as a part of the Teacher- 
Training ltogramme. 

Lecture, discussion, listening tapes, 

Each trainee will write one or more 
set of plans under the guidance of 
the instructor. 

Small group work sessions. 

Using formula to make judgement. 

Study and administer a standard¬ 
ized test of reading, Prepare an in¬ 
formal test to measure reading 

Use of auditory tapes, readings; 

THt (NO 






1 To train the participant! in the art of Efficient Reading, viz. Skimming, Scanning, Rapid 
Reading and Critical Reading. 

2. To train the participants in applying the Efficient Reading skills in their day to day 

reading ossignments/acuvities. 

3. To increase the overall reading speed of the participants without loss of comprehension. 

4. To make the participants flexible readers. 



The following topics will be covered in the discussion lectures. They are selected from a 
wide range of topics since they are relevant to the course and are functional in nature. 

1. Nature of reading and the reading process. 

2. Reading in language and education. 

3. Factors affecting reading efficiency, barriers to speed reading. 

4. Reading Techniques . (a) Slumming (b) Scanning ; (c) Rapid Reading; (d) Critical 

Reading ;(e) Creative Reading. 

5. Reading Comprehension : Rates and types relation between reading speed and compre¬ 


6. Reading Efficient : Flexibility in reading. 

7. Increasing concentration powers. 


1. Improve your reading ; 

2. Your communication skills - reading ; 

3. Reading improvement - Vocabulary skills , 

4. Reading improvement - Comprehension skills; 

5. Reading improvement - Effective speeds ; 

6. Effective listening ; 

7. Learn Devanagari ; 

8.1 low to read eaaaya ; 

9. How to read stories ; 

10. How to read plays ; 

11. Learning discrimination skills , 

12. How to sav what you mean. 

(1 IVi hours) 

Directed Reading practice forma a major part of the Course. Specially selected materials 
for the development of reading skills such as Stumming, Scanning, Rapid Reading and Critical 
Reading will be used. 

•NOTE - CIIL lualjoCMtgnvd i dz-M«kTMchar Tnls>»; Progrtnuna laETOcwnt lUuua^ 




(1W houn) 

Reading Accelerator and Controlled Reader are deviced for the improvement of reading 
rat*. They are also helpful in reducing fixations and regression, producing bettor attention and 
concentration, more rapid thinking and improved organization of what is read. 

V. INDEPENDENT STUDY - (3fc hourt) 

Independent Study sessions will provide opportunities foe the participants to practice their 
own (area/subject) reading material by the application of the skills acquired during the Course. 

VI. PRE - AND POST-TEST - (4 hours) 

Pre-Testing and Post-Testing form an integral part of the Course. Hiey will enable us to 
assess the effectiveness of the programme. 


The Course will be of two-week'a duration, Le. 12 working days. The morning sessions will 
be between 10.00 AM. and 12.00noon and the afternoon sessions between 2.00 P.M. and 4.00 PJd 



10.00 AM to 10.30 AM 
10.30 Aid to 12.00 noon 
2.00 PM to 3.00 PM 

3.00 PM to 4.00 PM 

Introduction and briefing session. 

Prs-Teit(a) Reading speed and comprehension test. 

Discussion Lecture No. I : (a) What is Reading 7 (b) The nature and 
process of Reading. 

A. - Introducing Reading Gadgets: (a) Reading Accelerator, (b) Con¬ 
trolled Reader, and (c) Skimmer. 

R. — Film Shows — Session-I : (a) Improve your Reading (11 

mis.), (b) Your communication skills - Reading (11 mts.), and 
(c) Discussion on the Films. 


10.00 Aid to 11.00 AM 
11.00 Aid to 12.00 noon 

2.00 PM to 3.30 PM 
3 20 PM to 4.00 PM 


A. - Discusrion of the Pre-Test performance. 

B. - Discussion Lecture No. 11 ; Reading in Language and Education. 
A. — Discussion Lecture No. Ill : Techniques of Efficient Reading — 

Session-I. (a) General Introduction, (b) What is Skimming?, 
(c) Practice in Skimming Technique! (3 articles) (DRS-I). 
Reading Accelerator Session-1 : Reading practice with the help of 
Accelerates (about 25 pages). 

Film Show — Sescnn—11 : (a) Keaning Improvement - Vocabulary 
skdls (11 mts.) ; (b) Reading Improvement - Comprehension skills 
(11 mts.) And (c) Discussion on the Films, 

10.00 AM to 11.00 AM Discussion Lecture No.IV : Techniques of Efficient Reading - oes- 

non II : Scanning and Rapid Reading. 

11.00 AM to 12 00 noon Directed Reading Lession-ll : (a) Practice in the Art of Skimming 

continued (5 articles) ; (bj Practice in tnc Art of Scanning (2 articles; 

2.00 PM to 3.30 PM Reading Accelerator Session-II : (a) Reading Practice (about 45 pages) 

(b) Discussion 



3.3U PM to 4.00 PM 


10.00 AMtc 11.00 AM 

11.00 AM to 12.00 noon 
2.00 PM to 3.00 PM 

3.00 PM to 4.00 PM 


10.00 AM to 11.00 AM 

11.00 AM to 12.00 noon 

2.00 PM to 3.00 PM 

3.00 PM to 4.00 PM 

lu.oo AM to 11.00 

11.00 AM to 12.00 noon 

2.00 PM to 3.00 PM 

3.00 PM to 4.00 PM 

10.00 AM to 11.00 AM 

11.00 AM to 12.00 noon 
2.00 PM to 3.30 PM 

3.30 PM to 4.00 PM 

Film Shorn - be sh on-II : (a) Reading improvement - Effective 
speedi (11 mts.) , (b) Effective Listening {14 rats.) ; (c) Discussion. 

Discussion Lecture No.V: Technique* of Efficient Reading - Ses¬ 
sion-HI ; [a) Critical Reading, (b) Creative Reading. 

Controlled Reader Session—[ : (a] Reading Practice (2 films) (b) Dis¬ 

Directed Reading Session-Ill : (a) Practice in Scanning Techniques 
continued (5 arnrles) ; (b) Practice in Rapid Reading Techniques (2 

Reading Accelerator Session-Ill : (a) Reading Practice (about 35 
pages); (b) Discussion. 

Discussion Lecture No.Vl : (a) Reading Efficiency - Flexibility in 
Reading ; (b) Factors affecting Reading Efficiency. 

Reading Accelerator Session IV : (a) Reading Practice (a bouts 40 

pages) ;(b) Discussion. 

Directed Reading Sosaon-TV : (a) Practice in Rapid Reading conti¬ 
nued (4 articles) ; (b) Practice in Skimming Techniques Revision (4 

Controlled Reader Session-11 : (a) Reading Practice (3 Filins) (b) Dis¬ 

Discussion Lecture No.V [I . Reading Com prehension - (a) Rates ana 
Types , (b) Relationship between comprehension and speed. 

Controlled Reader Session-Ill : (a) Reading Practice (3 Films), 

(b) Discussion. 

Directed Reading Session-V : (a) Practice in Rapid Reading continueu 
(5 articles) f ^b) Practice in Scanning - Revision (2 articles). 

Reading Accelerator Session—V : (a) Reading Practice (about 45 pages) 
(b) Discussion. 

Discussion Lecture No.VIII : (a) Lamars to Spaed Reading; (b) Increa¬ 
sing Concentration Power. 

Reading Accelerator Session-VI : (a) Reading Practice about 45 pages) 

(b) Di»cuMian. 

Directed Reading Session VI . (a) Practice in Rapic Reading conti¬ 
nued (5 article*). (b) Introducing Critical Reading Technique ; 

(c) Practice in Critical Reading Technique {2 articles). 

Independent Study Session-I : Participants bring their own (subject/ 

interest) material and read tnem applying the techniques learned 
during the course. 


( continued) 


10.00 AM to 11.00 AM 
11.00 AM to 12.00 noon 

2.00 PM to 3.00 PM 

3.00 PM lo 4.00 PM 

10.00 AM to 11.00 AM 

11.00 AM to 12.00 noon 
2.00 PM to 3.00 PM 

3.00 PM to 4.00PM 

10.00 AM to 11.00 AM 

11.00 AM to 12.00 noon 
2.00 PM to 3.00 PM 

3.00 PM to 4.00 PM 


10.00 AM to 11.00 AM 

11.00 AM to 12.00 noon 
2.00 PM to 3.00 PM 

3.00 PM to 4.00 PM 
10.00 AM to 12.0C noon 

2.00 PM to 3.30 PM 

3.30 PM to 4.00 PM 

Reading Accelerator Session-VII : (a) Reading Practice (about 50 
pages) ; (b) Discussion. 

Directed Reading Session-VII : (a) Practice in Rapid Reading conti¬ 
nued (6 articles) (b) Practice in Critical Reading continued (1 

Controilec Reader Sassnn-IV (a) Reading Practice (3 Films); 
(b) Discussion. 

FUm Show Session-IV (a) Learn Devonagvi; (b) Discussion. 

Directed Reading 3ession-VIII : (a) Practice in Rapid Reading conti¬ 
nued (3 articles) (b) Practice in Critical Reading continued (2 

Discussion Lecture No.IX. 

Reading Accelerator Season-VIII : (a) Reading Practice (about 55 
pages); (b) Discussion. 

Film Show Session-V (a) How to read essays; (b) How to read 
■tones; (c) Discussion. 

Reading Accelerator Session -LX ; (a) Pleading Practice (about 60 

pagee); (b) Discussion. 

independent Study Session-II. 

Controlled Reader Session -V ; (a) Reading Practice (4 Films) ;(b)Dis- 

Film Show Session—VI : (a) Learning discriminatory skills (11 mts.); 
(b) How to read plays (11 mts.); (c) How to say what you mean (11 

Reading Accelerator Sesaion-X : (a) Reading Practice (about 65 

pages) , (b) Disacuaaion. 

independent Study Session-III. 

Direected Reading Session - IX : (a) Practice in Rapid Reading conti¬ 
nued (2 articles) ; (b) Practice in Critical Reading continued (1 

Independent Study Session-FV. 

Post-Test j- (a) Reading Speed and Comprehension Teat; (b) Achieve¬ 
ment Test (o) Course Evaluation Questionnaire. 

Directed Riding Sesaion-X : (a) Practice In Skimming - Revision (2 
articles) . (b) Practice in Scanning - Revision (2 articles) ; (c) Prac¬ 
tice in Rapid Reading - Revision (2 articles) ; (d) Practice in Critical 
Reading - Revision (1 article). 

General Discussion Sessions : (a) Discussion on the Poet-Test perfor¬ 

mance ; (b) Strategics for follow-up. 




3 used on 200-Word Sample 









































































































































NOTE: Th« numbers in the above Reading Ease Index Table also indicate the number of 

years of schooling needed to understand writing at various levels. Government 
writing should generally be aimed at a Reading Ease Index of 12. 


1* Choose a sample of 200 words. The sample should be free from quotes from other 


200 words equal: 17 6-inch typed lines 

20 5-inch typed linay 

25 4-inch typed lines 

2. Count the number of sentences in the sample. 

3. Count the number of word* of three or more syllables in the sample. Do not count 
words that are capitalized or quoted. 

4. Find the sentence count in the Left column of the table. 

Find the long-word count in the proper vertical column. 

Where the two columns meet you will find the Reading Ease Index. 


THi 040 

Appendix -IX 



i. Reoding Accolorolor 

Cclibvo^d ip»»id icel« 
SNuHe* ioe»ri canirol dial 

'V ndaw ibrcugh whkh 
'^at*nol I* r^ad 

5hvUer-«*Uim rb W fr b «noa 

5 hulf*r 

The Rtaduip. .IcctUimUn is a “leadings accelerating or pacing 
device’ to help Lite reader improve his reading speed without any loss 
in comprehension. 

In particular, the Reading A*erUrmtor in essence, consul of a 
Reading frame and a shutter (sec Fig. 1 for a detailed description of the 
parts) which moves umlormly and smoothly down the reading material 
at a speed which can be controlled and kept constant depending on tlic 
ability ol the reader at different stages and on the difficulty of the 
material, the shutter may be adjusted for different speeds with the 
shutter-speed control dial. As the shutter moves, covering successive 
lines, it goads the reader to keep ahead. Such a reading situation 
encourages effective eye movements, good pluasing and increased span 
of perception. It helps the reader do away with his habit ot, 
unnecessary eye movement, regression and word-by-word reading. 

The Reading 4rreleitdot helps the reader read in thought units. The 
reader is trained to read with fewer fixations per line when the shut¬ 
ter is adjusted for a speed slightly faster than his normal reading rale , 
his eyca take in phrases or group* of words at a glance rather than 
smgle word or syllables. Furthermore, since the shutter coven the 
preceding lines it discourages a poor reading habit viz., that of looking 

Fhe reading improvement that Is caused by such a training can be 
& significant step m the reoding growth of any individual - be a student 
research worker, engineer, businessman, administrator or a politician. 




(1) When you want to practise reading with tiic help of the Read¬ 

ing Accelerator for the first tune it is suggested that you 
make a detailed study of the hand-book '"How to Use the 
SRA Reading Accelerator* by Elizabeth A. Simpson, which 
is normally supplied along with the Reading Accelerator. 

( 2) In the present book we have suggested that some passages be 

read with the help of the Reading Accelerator if it is acces¬ 
sible. otherwise read with Rapid Reading Technique. 




One or tlic greatest hurdles 
to overcome in mastering selective 
reading in breaking a ways front 
habits of inclusion reading, during 
which one reads all or most of the 
content One of the beat ways of 
doing this Is through practise 
under timed conditions at rates 
above the usual ceiling of accele¬ 
rated reading. The Skimming 
designed to provide individual 
practise of this type. 

The Slammer has two timing 
means : 

(a) One is ■ moving bead of light 
that travels down a pages (down 
the center folds or between the 

: Paul C. Berg &. Others. 

. Skimming And Scanning 
(Teacher's Guide bock). 

columns of print or nght or left 
side of the printed material ;not 
over the print) at a constant rate 
of thirty seconds per sweep down 
the page. In the Slamming and 
Scanning Textbook (os also in the 
present book “Read Faster Under- 
stand Better■* VoLl - Compilers) 
and in many other books this 
represents a rate of 800 words per 

The moving light exercises no 
actual control ewer the reading act 
nor b it intended to direct the 
eyes down the page in any specific 
manner. Its purpose is to provide 
a peripheral reminder of elapsed 
time. Using the bead of light as a 




guide helps the student to avoid 
slipping back into inclusive read¬ 
ing. Toi he is constantly striving to 
fimsh the page beture the light 
reaches the bottom, and m doing 
so, he remains well with the 
skimming range. Using die bead 
of light as a gauge, he also avoids 
“overdoing'* the rates - passing 
over the material so rapidly that 
comprehension is considerably re¬ 

(b) The second timing means is a 
dial, calibrated in seconds (30 
seconds per revolution), which 
provides a convenient measure¬ 
ment of completion time aud may 
be used for various Skimming, 
Scanning and inclusive* Reading 


(1) When you want to 
practise reading with the help of 
Skimmer for die first time it is 
suggested tJiut you make a de¬ 
tailed study of the Teachers 
Guides Book ‘SKIMMING AND 
SCANNING" by Paul C Berg 
et al, which is normally supplied 
with the skimming equipment 

(2) In this book ‘ Read 
Faster Understand Better", we 
luivc suggested dial sume passages 
be read with the help of the 
Skimmer. If you have a Sknntncr 
read with it, otherwise read with 
Skimming or Scanning Techniques 
as suggested in Appendix No.IV - 
Volume 11 (Work-Book).