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These are practical shop books for all interested in accurate tool and die 
making, steel treatment, drop forging, die sinking, power presses and modern 
shop practice in the production of duplicate metal parts. 

Dies: Their Construction and Use for Modern Working of 
Sheet Metals. 

This is the only practical, authoritative book for the die maker and power 
press user. ._..--. Price $3.00. 

Hardening, Tempering, Annealing and Forging of Steel. 

The most up-to-date book on steel treatment for the practical steel worker 
and the user of tempered steel cutting tools. - - Price $2.50. 

American Toolmaking and Interchangeable Manufacturing. 

A 20th century shop reference book on the very latest toolmaking practice, 
interchangeable manufacturing and machining of duplicate metal parts. 

Price $4.00. 
Punches, Tools and Dies for Manufacturing in Presses. 

A cyclopedia of die making practice, sheet metal formation in presses, and 
use of punches and dies. - - - - - Price $4.00. 

Drop Forging, Die Sinking and Machine Forming of Steel. 

The only book published on these great branches of mechanical art and 
modern shop practice. A mine of practical information for the drop-forger, 
die sinker and steel parts manufacturer. ... Price $2.50. 

Power Presses: Their Feeds, Attachments and Safety Devices. 

If interested in this book, send us your name and we will send a descriptive 
circular of it, on publication. (In preparation.) 

of the above books sent prepaid on receipt of the price 

The Norman W. Henley Publishing Company 

132 Nassau Street NEW YORK 

Drop Forging, Die Sinking 
and Machine Forming of Steel 


A Practical Treatise on 

The Hot and Cold Machine-Forming of Steel and Iron into Finished 

Shapes: Together with Tools, Dies and Machinery Involved in the 

Manufacture of Duplicate Forgings and Interchangeable Hot and Cold 

Pressed Parts from Bar and Sheet Metal 


Die Sinking and Drop Forging Practice and Design for Modern Forging, 
Pressing and Stamping of Duplicate Parts . . . Die Sinking Methods, 
Processes, Machines and Tools . . . Drop Forging Dies: Their Design, 
Construction and Use in Drop Hammer and Forging Machine . . . Press 
Forming of Heavy Hot and Cold Stock in Dies . . . Drop Forging and 
Hardening Plants : Their Designs, Fundamental Conditions,and theEquip- 
ment Involved in Their Attainment . . . Steel and Iron: Their Treat- 
ment for Twisting, Reducing, Forging and Working in Drop Dies . . . 
Hot Pressed Steel and Iron Parts: Their Manufacture and Assembling 
into Finished Products . . . Drop Hammers: Their Development, Use, 
Weights, Foundations and Dies . . . Forging Machine, Steam Hammer, 
Bulldozer and Swaging Machine Methods and Processes . . . Machine 
Forging, with Examples of Modern Practice and Tools Involved. 


Author of " Dies: Their Construction and Use" etc. 







The hot and cold shaping, squeezing, forming, and bend- 
ing of duplicate metal parts and high-speed steel cutting 
tools by forging in drop-dies, drop-hammers, steam-ham- 
mers, hydraulic presses, and forging-machines, are becoming 
more appreciated by the most advanced manufacturers and 
mechanics; but, until the publication of this work, to the 
average mechanic familiarity with the advanced shop prac- 
tise, tools, and processes has been denied, because of the al- 
most total lack of descriptive practical literature, and also the 
conservatism of manufacturers and experts in publishing their 
shop-practise and knowledge evolution. Therefore, to make 
possible among mechanics a broad and comprehensive 
knowledge of these arts I present this book, hoping it will 
find a valuable and permanent place in its field. 


January, 1911. 


INTRODUCTORY Pages 7 to 10 



Drop-Forge Work Materials for, and Life of, Drop-Forging Dies 
Automobile Shop Drop-Forging Practise Making a Die 
Tools Employed in Making Dies The Lead Casting or Proof 
Staking Tools Used for Repairing Dies Examples of Drop- 
Forging Dies Trimming Dies Heating Furnaces Harden- 
ing Drop-Forging Dies Die Practise for Accurate Forging 
Method of Sinking a Drop-Forge Die Micrometrical Forgings 
Drop-Forging a Ratchet Drill Handle Vanadium Forging 
JDies Die-Sinking and Shop Practise in the Making of Cut- 
ting Tool-Holders for Machine Tools Drop-Forgings on the 
Pacific Coast Machining a Deep Forming Die Dies for 
Finishing Bossed Levers Sectional Dies Materials Used for 
Dies Principles of Drop-Forging and Stamping Large Parts 
Removal of Fin Produced in Drop-Forging Difference Be- 
tween Treatment of Steel and Wrought Iron Work with 
Holes Flanged Through It Methods of Applying Impact or 
Pressure on Dies Methods Used for Making Dies Marking 
and Working Out Dies Typing or Hubbing Process. 

Pages 11 to 61 



Making Forces for Embossed Work Properly Made Forces Dif- 
ferent Shaped Forces Steel Forces for Flat Work Copper and 
Brass Forces Cutting the Impression in Die-Sinking Riffles 
and Their Use Drilling Out the Stock Using the Breaking- 
Out Chisel The Champney Die-Sinking Process History 
and Evolution of the Process Modeling, Casting, and Drop- 
ping Driving Model Into the Die Heating and Hardening 
of the Dies Exactness of Size of Dies Final Development 
of Champney Process Die-Sinking Machines Closed and 
Open Dies for Forgings Value of Modern Machinery 
Prevision and Supervision Hob for Making Forging Dies. 

Pages 62 to 93 




Combination Drop-Dies Union Between Metal Parts Die-Blocks 
and Impression-Blocks Making Die to Resist Wear Keying 
Wide-Seat Dies First Principles in Holding-Dies Bolt- 
Heading Dies Forging-Press Dies for Making Hammers 
Saving Unnecessary Movements Making a Double-Faced 
Hammer The Finishing of the Dies Few Dies Needed for 
Forging-Press Set of Tools for Forging a Fulcrum Bracket 
Forging Dies for "Pin-Ends" Forging Dies for Round and 
Square Upsetting Drop-Forging Dies for Gun-Work Unusual 
Job of Drop-Forging Trimming Wrench Blanks in Dies 
Trimming Cheap Hardware A Slab-Truck for Forge-Shop 
The Possibilities of Planing-Tools for Finishing Forgings 
Work on Hand-Vise Forgings Forging Under Steam-Hammer 
Forging Large Pieces Drop-Hammer Forging -Drop-For- 
ging or Squeezing Setting the Dies Accurate Forgings 
Forging High-Grade Steels- Effects of Alloying Materials 
Hydraulic Press Gives Best Results Heating Too Suddenly. 

Pages 94 to 138 




The Drop-Forge and Hardening Plant Drop-Forge and Hardening" 
Departments Under One Roof Location of Die-Sinking De- 
partment Board, Steam, Helve, Trip, and Drop Hammers 
Plan of Modern Drop-Forge and Hardening Plant Layout of 
Hardening Department Advantages of Oil Fuel Refitted 
Coal-Forges and Furnaces for Fuel-Oil Arrangement of Pi- 
ping Finishing Department Oil-Burning Forges and Heaters 
Single and Double Opening Forge Furnaces Top-Slot and 
End-Heating Forges Installation of Forges Burners Brazing 
Furnaces Heaters Pages 139 to 162 




The Development of the Drop-Hammer Counterbalanced Treadle 
Compound Lever Device for Operating the Lifting or Head 
Mechanism Jointed Swinghead Construction Paper Pulleys 


Method of Fastening Board in Hammer Foundations 
Ratio of Base as Compared with Weight of Hammer Founda- 
tions for Drop-Hammers Drop-Hammer Effects The Ambler 
Drop-Hammer Securing Hammer-Heads Hammer-Dies 
Improved and Up-to-Date Drop-Hammer Capacity of Steam- 
Hammers and Size of Work Rules for Finding the Capacity 
of Steam-Hammers, and the Horse-Power Required for Opera- 
tion Development of Steam Drop-Hammers. 

Pages 163 to 185 




Action of Steel and Iron Under Different Degrees of Heat Ma- 
terials Used in Experiments Fuel Used in Tests Practical 
Results of Experiments Working Stock in Drop-Dies Facil- 
ities for Reproduction of Drop-Dies Spoiling Dies The Dies 
and the Drop Economy of Dies Practical Effect of Working 
Iron Effect of Drops on Stock Working in Drop and Bend- 
ing Machine Improved Anvil Block Pages 186 to 202 



Making a Wheelbarrow Wheel Operations on Wheel Making the 
Flanges Pressed-Steel Gears How Metal Wheels are Made 
Wheel Tire Making Steel Wheels Early History of Chain- 
Making A New Method of Making Weldless Chains Dies 
for Weldless Chains Modern Methods of Manufacturing 
Welded Chain Former Method of Making Chain Present 
Method of Making Welded Chain The Link-Winder The 
Link-Cutter The Welding Machine The Die The Process 
of Welding Pages 203 to 240 



Handy Bulldozer Appurtenances Tack and Tack-Dies Tack- 
Making Tools and Their Action A Rapid-Action Hydraulic 
Forging-Press Tremendous Pressure of the Hydraulic Press 
Operation of Process Pressure for Small Work Hot-Pressed 


Nut-Machine A Large Hydraulic Forging-Machine Making 
Elevator Buckets with the Steam-Hammer Locomotive For- 
gings made in Hydraulic Machine A Job for the Heavy Swa- 
ging-Machine Drop-Forging for the Ajax Forging-Machine 
A Rock-Drill Used as a Steam-Hammer Shear for Cutting 
Off Iron Pages 241 to 274 




Machine-Forging Manufacturing Connecting-Rods for Steam- 
Engines Die for Turning Eye-Bolts Forging with Dies in a 
Railroad Shop The Advantage of Special Tools in Forging 
Forging Without Special Tools Ten Thousand Ton Press at 
the Dusseldorf Exhibition Pages 275 to 292 



Hydraulic Forging Description of Hydraulic Press Examples 
of Production Proper Practise for Hydraulic Forgings 
Some Applications of Autogenous Welding Heating Metal 
Before Welding Fuel for Preheating W 7 elding Conclusions 
Built-Up or Welded-Up Die Work General Practise for 
Hardening Drop-Dies of Various Steels Pages 293 to 308 



What is Good Judgment High-Speed Steel and Tool-Holders 
Combination Tool-Holders and Their Use Economy in Use 
of Tool-Holders Forging the High-Speed Steel-Cutting Points 
The Drop-Press in Flat-Ware Operations Foundations for 
Flat- Ware Drop-Presses Holding Dies in Drop-Presses Dies 
for Making Flat-Ware Treatment and Use of Dies for Flat- 
Ware Correct and Reliable Method for Hardening Drop- 
Hammer Dies Without Loss More Losses in Winter-Time 
than in Summer Temperature of Cooling \Vater Have Plenty 
of Supply-Pipes for Water Hardening the Die Drawing the 
Temper Cool the Die Thoroughly Pages 309 to 329 


VERY little of value has been written on drop-forgings, 
die-sinking, the machine-forming of steel, and the shop prac- 
tise involved, as it actually exists in the modern drop-forging 
shop, Here and there, a solitary die or device has been pic- 
tured and described, or a few sketches made of dies that may 
have been entirely imaginary, so far as can be learned from 
any evidence offered, and which are of such simple and ele- 
mentary nature as to convey no adequate idea whatever of the 
magnitude and difficulty of the work to any one not familiar 
with it. This class of contributions covers the greater part of 
what has been published on a subject that has grown and 
developed from the hand-forging process of the hammer and 
anvil, to one of the most important branches of modern 
machine industry. 

Hundreds of parts that were formerly cast from malleable 
iron, or hand-forged from bar stock, are now drop-forged, 
the extra cost being more than made up by the uniformity, 
strength, and reliability of the product; and no one has been 
quicker to realize this than the really live, up-to-date automo- 
bile manufacturer, to whom the mechanical world is indebted 
for so many other valuable mechanical developments. 

The history of die-sinking and drop-forging goes back 
fifty years or more in New England. In the blacksmith-shops 
of the original "Yankee Toolmakers," a limited amount of 
work had been previously done in dies for as long a period, 
but only or chiefly in order to impart a "finish" to work 
which had been already hand-forged and nearly completed at 
the anvil. This practise was necessarily adopted in order to 
attain uniformity, in a number of similar forgings, econom- 
ically. Such uniformity could only be produced on the anvil 



with the common tools of the smith, at the sacrifice of much 
time and labor. Hence, long before the practise of producing 
forgings by drop-dies or machine forging, comparative inter- 
changeability was eventually attained in anvil-made forgings 
by means of dies used in the power-hammer. The dies, even 
then, were often in sectional form, as they remain to-day when 
heavy forgings are required. 

The making of drop-forging dies, together with the hard- 
ening process through which they are put and the methods of 
using them, is a trade by itself, though closely allied to tool 
and die making as understood in the big shops of to-day. 
Each branch of shop-work presents its individual problems, 
and a tool and die maker, though skilled in other lines, can- 
not go into a forging-shop and make dies without special 
instructions, training, and a knowledge of the practise in- 

In drop-forging die-work, as in other kinds of tool-work, 
there are various grades of accuracy and finish required. 
Some forgings must come from the hammer practically fin- 
ished to size, while others are made large enough to allow 
considerable machining. Where only a few pieces of rough 
nature are required, little skill is needed in making or main- 
tenance of the dies, but where small, accurate parts are to be 
made in large quantities, special tools for both hand and 
machine use are necessary, and trained, skilful diemakers are 
needed, as well as a careful selection of the steel used. 

The employment of drop-forging and the production of 
hot and cold pressed parts of the nature referred to in the fore- 
going, are increasing constantly and rapidly. A large number 
of firms are now equipped with machinery used exclusively 
for this class of work, and they supply enormous numbers of 
forgings to manufacturers of metal-working machinery, au- 
tomobiles, railroad-cars, car-parts, and innumerable users of 
metal parts. 

Drop-forgings and pressed metal parts bear the same rela- 
tion to the work of the blacksmith-shop that machine-molded 
castings bear to that of the foundry. In both cases, the skilled 


mechanic and his labor are dispensed with. In each instance 
the finished product has the advantage of much greater accu- 
racy and uniformity in shape and dimensions. The numbers 
turned from the dies, as from the molding machines, are often 
thirty to forty times as great as those which are produced by 
hand by skilled men. In both cases, too, the question of 
machining is often inseparable from that of the methods of 
production adopted, because accuracy of shape and uniformity 
of dimensions in forgings and castings alike are favorable to 
the most economical machining, since allowances which are 
either insufficient or excessive for the machines are equally 
undesirable and troublesome. Thq blacksmith working at 
the anvil, even with the help offered by templets and gages, 
is unable to produce two pieces to say nothing of twenty 
intricate and elaborate pieces absolutely alike, unless at an 
enormous expenditure of time. It is cheaper, therefore, and 
is the practise to leave plenty of surplus surface stock to insure 
that the work shall finish up all over when machined; other- 
wise the final finishing would occupy much time, even more 
than that required for the formative work of forging. But 
forgings which are dropped or machine finished that is drop- 
forged all come exactly alike from the dies; and interchange- 
ability to the desired degree is attained in the initial process, 
without extra care or time spent on the part of the workman. 
Moreover, since the allowance, or surplus stock left, is small 
in amount and regular, pickling can be more usefully prac- 
tised than when allowances are excessive. 

The accuracy of forgings machine and die produced 
however, is further advantageous in the fact that a consider- 
able amount of machining is often avoided altogether. The 
smooth, glossy, polished, and accurate surfaces left from the 
dies are often good enough for handles, levers, and numerous 
other parts. Or if they are required to be polished bright for 
good appearance, then a polished surface imparted by emery- 
wheel, buff, or tumbling barrel is sufficient, without any 
more machining in the lathe, shaper, or milling machine. 
Punched holes may be simply lapped, instead of being 


drilled and reamed, the locations of the holes being fixed with 
accuracy by the dies. 

The process of die-sinking relates to the engraving or 
sinking of the female or lower dies, such as are used for drop- 
forgings, hot and cold machine forging, swedging, and the 
press working of metals. The process of force-making relates 
to the engraving or raising of the male or upper dies used in 
producing the lower dies for the press-forming and machine- 
forging of duplicate parts of metal. 




Materials for, and Life of y Drop-Forging Dies 

STEEL, cast into blocks, is not suitable for drop-forging 
dies, as flaws or blow-holes are likely to develop where least 
expected or desired; so, as a general rule, forged blocks 
of open-hearth crucible steel are used. These blocks are 
either purchased ready forged, in various sizes, from the steel 
manufacturers, or are forged in the shop where they are used 
the former plan being the usual one. 

A rough estimate as to the average life of a drop-forging 
die, used for medium-sized work on Bessemer steel, is given 
by a foreman of long experience, as about four thousand 
pieces. Some dies might be broken immediately when put in 
operation, while others might stand for a hundred thousand 
pieces or more. 

Automobile Shop Drop-Forging Practise 

The Figs. 1 to 22 and the data relating to them were ob- 
tained in the factory of Thomas B. Jeffery & Co., Kenosha, 
Wis. This company's drop-forging plant is far ahead of 
anything outside of the big concerns that make a specialty of 
drop-forgings, and consists of a well-lighted, finely equipped 
tool-room, used only for drop-forge die-work, a thoroughly 
up-to-date hardening plant, and a big building full of steam- 
hammers, punch-presses, heating furnaces, and every appli- 
ance necessary for first-class work. 




The greater part of the drop-forgings made here are of 
Bessemer steel bar, though some of the more particular auto- 

FIG. 1. Planing a die-block on a shaper. 

mobile fittings are made of special grades of tool-steel. All 
of the drop-forging dies are of the highest class, calling for 

FIG. 2. A pair of typical drop-forging dies and their work. 



the best die-making skill, and necessitating a great deal of 
hand-work in addition to the most accurate machining. 

Making a Die 

In trie original outlining of a set of drop-forging dies, the 
measurements for the forking cavities may be taken from a 

FIG. 3. Profiling machine used in die-sinking. 

blue-print supplied by the drafting-room, or they may be 
taken from a piece already made- 5 possibly a forging or lead 
casting obtained from some former set of dies, or perhaps a 


piece made up for a model. Sometimes a sheet-metal templet 
is made to assist in obtaining the desired shape of the die 
cavities, while in other cases only the outline scribed on the 

FIG. 4. Finishing die, Fig. 2, on the profiling machine, Fig. 3. 

coppered surface, together with the necessary measurements, 
is needed. The size and outline of the forging to be made, 
as well as the accuracy required, govern the method of pro- 

The die-blocks, which, as already stated, are forged of 
open-hearth crucible steel, are first placed in a shaper and 



carefully surfaced off to the required dimensions, as shown in 
Fig. 1. These blocks are always made oversize, so that 
enough of the surface can be machined off to insure good, 
sound metal to work on. 

The outlines for the breaking down or roughing, the fin- 
ishing, and sometimes the bending forms are then laid off on 
the coppered surface, and the cavities roughed out on the 
drill press or lathe, as the case may require, or on the profiling 
machine, as shown in Fig. 3. The same set of dies shown in 

FIG. 5. Special "Ball Vise" used in sinking drop-forging dies. 

his figure is shown still further roughed out in Fig. 2. The 
hape of the forging to be made in this set of dies is shown 
it the top of Fig. 2, and it is a foot pedal for a clutch- 
ever. The channel for the fin, or " flash/' which is formed 
n the finishing operation, is plainly shown in the middle 

The letters CLUTCH, were first lightly stamped on 
he metal with special steel letters, to get the outline; then 
hey were chiseled out, and finally finished by driving in the 
teel letters to smooth up the roughness caused by chiseling. 

Fig. 4 shows the final cuts being taken on the breaking- 



down part of this die, the rest of the work consisting of 
scraping, gouging, and chiseling. 

Tools Employed in Making Dies 

For the hand-work, the die is held in a special "ball vise" 
which is shown in Fig. 5. A vise of this type is the handiest 
device imaginable for heavy die-work. This illustration also 
shows the breaking-down part a little more clearly than the 
previous examples. 

Fig. 6 shows a few of the tools, scrapers, and rifflers used 
in the finishing work. These are mostly made of old files, 

FIG. 6. Scrapers, files, rifflers, etc., used by die-sinkers. 

and are ground or bent to suit the needs of the particular 

In Fig. 7 are some of the milling tools that have been 
made especially for this work. Only twenty-four of them are 
shown, though several hundred of all shapes and sizes are in 
stock. Another set of special cutters is shown in Fig. 8. 
Two of these have a single inserted blade or "fly-cutter" held 
in place by a set screw, and are very useful tools for some 
kinds of work. 



FIG. 7. A few milling-tools used in die-sinking. 

The tools shown in Fig. 9 are known as " types," and are 
used in scraping out cylindrical cavities to size. These types 
are turned to the proper size, and when used are smeared with 

FIG. 8. Milling-tools used in die-sinking, with example 
of fly-cutters. 



red lead and rocked back and forth in the partly finished cav- 
ity. The metal is then scraped away wherever the lead'shows. 
For cylindrical work, these types are indispensable tools. 

The tools shown in Fig. 10 were made by one of the 
expert die-sinkers in the Jeffery shop. The tool shown at the 
right is used to scribe an outline from a forging. It consists 
of a hardened steel blade, with a point on one end, set into a 
flat steel block in such a way that it is free to move up and 


FlG. 9. "Typing" tools used by die-sinkers to form circular 


down to a limited extent. The rivet shown on the side is passed 
through a short slot in the blade. When in use, a flat spring 
on the top edge of the tool presses the point downward onto 
the coppered surface, causing a mark wherever moved. To 
use this tool, it is held on edge with the point down and the 
edge of the hardened blade in contact with the forging. The 
steel block keeps the blade perpendicular, and by keeping the 
edge of the blade in contact with the forging while scraping, 
a correct outline is obtained, which could not be done with an 
ordinary scriber on account of the working outline being con- 
siderably above the die face. 





FIG. 10. Vernier caliper-depth gage, inside micrometer 
and scribing-block. 

The middle tool shown in Fig. 10 is a one-inch inside 
micrometer, which was made by the die-sinker because he 
could not buy one small enough for the purpose. The other 


FIG. 11. Samples of lead-castings or proofs from drop-forging 
dies for testing accuracy of outline. 



tool is a regular stock caliper square, to which has been added 
a depth gage. The gage is made so that the rod projects the 
same distance that the caliper jaws are apart. The usefulness 
and convenience of this tool are at once apparent to a tool- 

The Lead Casting or Prooj 

After the mechanical work on a set of dies is done, a lead 
casting of the cavity is made and sent to the superintendent 

FIG. 12. Staking-tools used for repairing dies. 

to be passed upon. If it is correct, the dies are hardened and 
sent to the forging-shop, but if it is off size or shape, or for 
any reason not satisfactory, suitable changes are made, and 
another lead impression taken and passed upon as before. 
Fig. 1 1 shows a number of these lead castings, which are kept 
in the tool-room for reference, and they often save considera- 
ble trouble when duplicating dies. 

Staking-Tools Used for Repairing Dies 

After a set of dies has been in use for some time, the dies 
are likely to develop cracks or drawing seams which cause 


ridges and rough spots on the forgings. These cracks are 
closed up by hammering first on one side and then on the 
other with a hammer, and what are called "staking tools," 
which are simply special shaped, tempered steel punches made 
of chisel-steel stock. Some of these staking tools are shown 
in Fig. 12. 

Examples of Drop-Forging Dies 

One-half of a die set, showing the breaking-down and fin- 
ishing forms, is illustrated in Fig. 13. In this illustration 

FIG. 13. An example of drop-forging die, showing breaking- 
down die at the right. 

the method of leaving a ridge around the finishing form and 
cutting a channel for the fin is very plainly shown. This 
method is followed in all of the drop-dies made at the Jeffery 
shops. Fig. 14 shows a more complicated die. In this, both 
edging and flatting breaking-down die forms are shown. In 
using this die, the hot bar from which the forging is being 
made, is alternately swung from one to the other form, it 
being held edgewise in one and flat in the other, and given a 
blow or two until sufficiently reduced for the finishing form, 



FIG. 14. Drop-forging die, showing both edging and flatting 
breaking-down dies. 

after which it is cut off from the bar by a shear fastened to the 
hammer at one side of the die-block. 

In Fig. 15 the roughing or breaking-down die is shown, 
and also a bending form, the bar being roughed into shape, 

FIG. 15. Drop-forging die, showing bending-form in front. 


and then bent and finished. Of course, in these two last 
illustrations it is understood that the cuts show only one-half 

FIG. 16. Drop-forging die and bending-die for steering gear part. 

of the set, the other half corresponding in shape to the one 
shown in such a way as to produce the desired shape. To 

FIG. 17. Forging die to die in Fig. 16. 



better illustrate this for the benefit of those not familiar with 
the class of work, both halves of a set of dies are shown in 
Figs. 16 and 17. These show the complete forging and bend- 
ing parts for this particular piece. The end of the finishing 
form also shows a place where one of the types illustrated in 
Fig. 9 was used when first working out the cavity. 

Trimming Dies 

Some of the forgings are of such shape that the fin or flash 
produced is easily ground or machined off, while others are 

FIG. 18. Drop-forging die for wrench and trimming-die for same. 

put through a trimming-die. These trimming-dies are about 
the same as the trimming-dies used for other classes of work, 
and so need but little description. Fig. 1 8 shows a set of 
forging and trimming dies used for making automobile 
wrenches. The breaking-down form is very plainly shown, 
as is also the finishing cavity. The trimming-punch is at one 
side, while the trimming-die in the middle is shown made up 
of four separate parts. This is done because the die parts 
that shear out the wrench slots wear or break sooner than 
the rest of the die, and when made this way they are easily 


replaced without necessitating a wholly new die, which would 
be the case if made solid. 

FIG. 19. A few examples of drop-forging dies in storag 

Fig. 19 shows a number of dies on the storage shelves, 
only one-half of each being shown, the other half of each set 

FIG. 20. Oil-heating furnaces and drop-hammer. 


being back of the one visible. The trimming-dies which are 
in constant use are kept conveniently near the presses in the 
forge-room. Both trimming and forging dies are stored on 
heavy shelves close to where they are used, thus saving the 
unnecessary " toting" that is practised in so many shops. 

Heating Furnaces 

The heating furnaces in a forging-shop must be set near 
the hammers, and Fig. 20 shows how the oil furnaces are 

FIG. 21. Brown & Sharpe heating and annealing furnaces 

placed, so that little time is lost in getting the heated metal to 
the hammers. Fig. 21 is an illustration of two of the big 
Brown & Sharpe furnaces in the hardening-room. For small 
work several smaller furnaces are used, but those shown are 
used for large work, and are said to be the best obtainable. 

Hardening Drop-Forging Dies 

In hardening drop-dies only the face is hardened. The 
die is heated and placed face down in a tank of water on a sort 
of a spider support, and a stream of water pours upward onto 
it. Fig. 22 shows how this is done. In the illustration a 


round piercing die is being hardened, so that the water appears 
to be boiling up through the center, which would not be the 
case were it a solid block like a forging die. Large special 
shaped tongs make the handling of the heavy steel blocks of 
the drop-forge dies comparatively easy. 

Die Practise for Accurate Forging 

The tendency of late years to turn out a better class of 
forgings than formerly is becoming general, I am glad to say, 

FIG. 22. Hardening the face of a drop-forging die. 

and the adoption of machinery for this class of work is, I 
know, accountable more than anything else for the improve- 
ment; the desire to cut off work in the machine-shop being 
also a factor. Be that as it may, the dies for such nice and 
accurate work must first pass through the machine-shop. It 
is a pretty rough and scaly job that comes from dies that have 
not been properly fitted up to match accurately and with a 
smooth finish. 

In the production of good work, the metal of which the 
dies are made is of the first importance. While gray iron 
answers the purpose for a time, such dies soon batter and 



FIG. 23. Steel blank for die. 

crush, and the scale from hot iron wears into the surface and 
causes rough work, unless they are overhauled frequently. 
Basic steel would be an improvement if the blow-holes could 
be eliminated, but it seems that few perfect castings are pro- 
duced of this material. Tool-steel is very costly, but from 
my experience it fully pays for light dies where forgings are 
standard and got out in large numbers. 

The plan I have followed to save steel answers the purpose 
very nicely, and only takes about one-third stock as ordinarily 

used. Fig. 23 shows the 
blank steel for the die-face, 
shaped for the purpose under 
a steam-hammer. Fig. 24 is 
a cast-iron die-holder, fitting 
and keyed into the anvil- 
block as in ordinary practise. A ^s-inch steel pin is driven 
into the center deep enough to give it a good bearing about 
\y 2 inches deep with the top tapered 
and projecting about 1 inch to let into 
the steel face. This secures the steel face 
to its place and two keys driven, one from 
the back and the other from the front, 
complete the arrangement as shown in 
Fig. 25. The cast die-holder answers for 
all different shapes used, and does not 
have to be removed unless it is wanted in machining the dies. 
The shapes should be made A inch 
large and the recesses as smooth as pos- 
sible, and if sprayed with water when in 
use they give a nice finish to the for- 
gings if the fuel is clean and free from 

Oil is very largely used now for 
heating forgings, and it certainly does 
nice work, and leaves the iron with a 

surface without holes or scarred places, besides making the 
iron easier to work and heating the piece uniformly. From 

FIG. 24. Cast-iron 

FIG. 25. Die-holder 
and die assembled. 


my experience with oil for heating and with steel dies for the 
hammer, I can say that there is no reason why forgings cannot 
be made which will require practically no machine-work and 
very little grinding and file-work to make them fit their re- 
spective places. 

Method of Sinking a Drop-Forge Die 

To sink a pair of forging dies for the breech or butt of a 
gun involves a great deal of hand-work and a considerable 
amount of care, if one is to do a good job. There were several 
pairs of such dies to sink at one time, and the purpose here is 
to show my readers how a scheme was devised to make the 
machine help some on the job. 

The die-maker was too much of a Yankee to have a great 
desire for hard work, and if there was any ahead of him he 
was apt to work his gray matter overtime if necessary to get a 
scheme to avoid it. The one shown by the sketches in Fig. 
26 did not eliminate all the hand-work, but it did help a lot. 

A shows the piece which was to be forged the well- 
known butt plate of a military rifle. The dies were what are 
termed " match face," and are shown by b and c, b being the 
bottom and c the top die in the drop. 

The plate was to be redropped that is, forged, pickled 
to remove scale, and redropped at a heat so low that it would 
not scale, thus giving a surface which could be finished on the 
polishing wheel, and the edges only were machined. 

The entire bottom of the first pair was chipped and filed, 
and when samples were secured the military inspector put his 
micrometer on them just as cheerfully as he did on a piece of 
machined work, and insisted that they come within two thou- 
sandths of the drawing at the two thickest points, they being 
the only places where he could apply his caliper. All argu- 
ment was in vain; he must have some samples like the print, 
and to get them out of this pair of dies involved a lot of scra- 
ping and grinding on the tempered die, accompanied by lots 
of uncharitable remarks about the inspector. 

Visions of the pairs of dies to follow haunted the die- 



maker in the small hours of the night, and caused the making 
of the former plate d and cutter e, which solved the problem 

The line k on d was filed as near to shape as possible, 
secured on the die b by the pin-holes shown, and a cut made 

FIG. 26. Die-sinking for butt plate of a military rifle. 

with the cutter e ; x acting as a former-pin, a strip of lead was 
then placed in the cut and the dies squeezed together, giving, 
a form which could be measured with a micrometer, and by 
filing and cutting in this manner the die-maker was able 'to 
get a templet or former that corresponded exactly with the 
drawing. With this former and the cutter e the dies were 
quickly machined, as shown by the dotted lines on b y and an 


accmate outline secured at every point where the inspector 
could apply his gage. 

There were lots of chipping and filing left still, but the cut, 
exact as to form and depth, was a great help and gave assur- 
ance at the start that the die would be O. K. at the points 
where it could be measured, and a lot of time was saved on 
the job. 

The cut y in c was easily machined, and the cutter / was 
made to machine z in b, the spindle being stopped and the 
machine used as a slotter, which did the job much better than 
it could be done with chisel and file, and in a fraction of the 

The dies warped very little in tempering, and samples were 
secured which were quite satisfactory, though I doubt if the 
methods used to make them would prove profitable commer- 

Micrometrical Forgings 

It may surprise my readers to learn that work is sometimes 
inspected in the smith-shop with a micrometer, the limit al- 
lowed for variation being only .002 inch, which is ordinarily 
considered fairly close for machine-work. This is a matter 
of common practise in some places, however, and is not con- 
sidered anything out of the ordinary. 

In the sketch, Fig. 27, a is a fair sample of a piece of work 
of this class. It is a punch used by boiler-makers for riveting 
holes in sheets. The only finish required on these punches 
when they come from the hammer is on the ends, the body 
being simply polished. They are forged in the ordinary 
cushion hammer, and to make a pair of dies for the job it is 
necessary to make a cutter or "cherry," sketch b y and a back 
rest and follower screw, c. The shank of the cutter is very 
light, and under ordinary circumstances it would be impos- 
sible to sink it in the die, but with the use of a back rest it is 
supported so that it cannot crawl sideways, and the follower 
screw holds it up to the work and prevents springing the 
shank. In this way the shank has nothing to do but to turn 
the cutter; it is not subjected to any side or bending strain, 



and allows the use of a very delicate shank if care is used in 
feeding the cut. In tempering, care is taken to get a good 
temper the whole length of the shank, for if left soft it is very 
apt to twist off. As tempering is very apt to spring it, before 
it is used it is placed in the machine after drawing the temper 
and peened with a punch until it runs true. 

Inf is shown one-half of a pair of dies, which, of course, in 

FIG. 27. Micrometrical forgings and their making. 

this class of work are always duplicates, and which, as a gen- 
eral thing, have two impressions. The first operation is to run 
a light cut with a routing tool across the face at the point where 
the impression is to be made, using care to cut the same depth 
in each die. They are then clamped securely together, face to 
face, and drilled and reamed, making the half hole as shown, 
the light cuts previously taken serving to guide the drill 
straight and insuring an equal depth in each half. One-half 
of the die is now clamped securely to the slide of a die-sink- 
ing machine and the back rest c is placed as shown, the corner 


x being placed flush with the side of the half hole. An ordi- 
nary C-clamp is generally used to fasten the back rest. 

The ' 'cherry " is now placed in proper position in the 
machine, and it simply requires careful manipulation of the 
hand wheel of the machine and the follower screw to sink to 
half its diameter in the die. The shank of the -cutter serves 
as a stop, and the half hole prevents cutting too deep. 

As this is a roughing operation, the cutter is not forced 
entirely down at this time. This operation must of course be 
performed four times to make a pair of dies with two impres- 
sions. All of the impressions being roughed out, the dies are 
placed loosely on the platen of the machine and brought 
together on the "cherry," and an ordinary pattern-maker's 
clamp is used to force them together. At this time, if the 
cutter is very delicate, it is a good plan to turn the machine 
by hand, as it is apt to catch on the corners, and it is an easy 
matter to lose the cutter at this stage of the work. It is neces- 
sary to open the dies several times in this operation to free the 
cutter from the chips, as there is nQ place for them to work- 
out. Thick, soft card-board is often used between the dies 
to prevent closing up too fast under the pressure of the clamp. 

We now have a die as shown in g, the cuts y and z being 
made for stock clearance. The cuts z should be carried as 
close to the impression as the strength of the dies will permit, 
as the stock which is drawn down at this point must run out 
into a sprue, and thickness here means waste of material. 
The corners of the sides of the impressions are now well 
rounded off with chisel and file, as shown by dotted lines in g, 
the ends of the impression being left square. 

This done, the dies are ready to temper, and if badly 
warped in tempering they are frequently ground on a surface 
grinder, though it is not necessary to true up the entire sur- 
face. The dies are now clamped together and a lead cast is 
taken of the impression. If it measures too large, of course a 
little more may be ground off the faces, but if too small, a lead 
lap must be made and the impression ground out. We are 
now ready to place the dies in the hammer and begin forging. 



The hammer-man knows by experience how far to place 
his red hot bar of tool-steel in the die to give stock enough to 
fill it. Of course if he takes too much, the surplus will force 
out through the hole in the end. To get a forging that ex- 
actly corresponds to the dies, it is necessary to hold the bar 
in place until the dies come together fair, it is of course being 
turned all the time by the hammer-man. It is impossible to 
get one of these forgings too small, but if the work is done 
by the piece it is sometimes taken from the hammer before it 
is down to size, and we have frequently seen a hammer-man 
called to account because his work was over the .002 limit 
which he was allowed. This gives an illustration of a case 
where an inspector uses a micrometer in the blacksmith-shop 
to good advantage. 

Drop-Forging a Ratchet Drill Handle 

Fig. 28 of the accompanying drawing is a shell and handle 
for a ratchet drill, and Fig. 29 shows the piece of stock from 

which it was made. The width 
of the bar of stock to be used 
was determined by the length 
of the shell, and the thickness 
was a trifle more than twice 
the thickness of one side. The 
length was determined by ex- 
perimenting until the proper 


FIG. 28. Drop-forged shell and 

handle for ratchet drill. 

length was found. 

Fig. 30 shows the first operation, which was done on a 
cushion hammer with a pair of dies 
shown in Fig. 31. The operation 
required considerable skill in the 
operator, but made a nice job if the 
piece was properly handled. The 
stock for an entire order was cut to 

FIG. 29. Stock for for- 
ging Fig. 28. 

length and each piece put through the first operation. The 
second operation, shown by Fig. 32, requires another hand- 



FIG. 30. First 
operation on 
Fig. 28. 

The dies for this operation are shown in Fig. 33. They 
were of cast iron and contained two splitting chisels and an 
expanding mandrel, as shown. X, in Fig. 33, 
is a steel stripping-plate to draw the forging 
from the mandrel after the forging blow is 
struck. Two blows with this pair of dies were 
necessary. The first one with the splitting 
chisels formed the piece as shown in Fig. 32, 
and the second one expanded, as shown in Fig. 
34. The expanding mandrel was slightly 
larger than the forging was to finish, so that 
the mandrel used for the finishing operation 
would drop freely into place. 

In the second drop was a pair of steel fin- 
ishing dies that were duplicates, one of which 
is shown in Fig. 35. The amount of stock 
was calculated so nicely that very little fin was made and the 

piece was not trimmed hot 
at all. The flash is shown 
surrounding the piece of 

This job was designed by 
a boss blacksmith who has 
since joined the majority. 

He was a fine old gentleman and a No. 1 mechanic, and the 
greatest crime he knew was to waste stock 
in performing a forging operation. 

He came to grief one time, however, 
on this particular job, and wasted material 
for an entire lot. It was necessary that the 
iron should be first-class to stand the strain 
of splitting. Knowing this, he always made 
a few samples from each lot of iron to test 
it; but one time, for some unaccountable 
reason, he failed to take this, precaution, and of course this 
must be the particular time when the stock was poor. 

He cut off the entire lot and drew down the handles, and 

FIG. 31. Dies for Fig. 30. 

FIG. 32. Second 
operation on 
Fig. 28. 



i H 

i \ 


when he started the second operation nearly every one of them 

split at the end, and there was nothing to do but scrap the 

entire lot. 

This confirms the generally understood fact that, however 

capable and competent a man may be, he at some time or 

other relaxes his vigilance a 
little, and it seems as though 
this happened in most cases 
when he should have been 
more alert than ever. 

Vanadium Forging Dies 

The severity of the service 
on riveters and forging dies, 
boiler punches and other tools 
in similar cases, often makes 
the upkeep abnormally expen- 
sive, even when the best car- 
bon steel is used. It is in such 
trying situations that certain 
alloy steels have shown marked 
superiority a superiority .so 

great in fact as to be in some instances very noteworthy. 

For example, in a ship-building yard on certain severe work, 

pneumatic hammer riveting dies, made of 

the best carbon steel obtainable and treated 

in approved manner, lasted only about ten 

hours each. The vibrations crystallized 

the shanks of the dies, the result being 

breakage at the junction of the shank and 

the die proper. When these carbon steel 

riveting dies were replaced by vanadium 

steel dies, their life was greatly extended, 

fourteen months service being reported 

by one concern using this alloy for its 

pneumatic riveter dies. In my opinion Vanadium steel is the 

best all around die steel and cutting-tool steel to-day. 

FIG. 33. Dies for Fig. 32. 

FIG. 34. Expand- 
ing the shell. 



Die-Sinking and Shop Practise in the Making of Cutting Tool- 
Holders for Machine Tools 

In the manufacture of some drop-forged cutting-tool hold- 
ers for machine tools, and similar shaped articles, the parts are 
case-hardened by being packed in large boxes with raw bone 
and charcoal, and heated in furnaces in the usual way. The 
method of handling the iron boxes is not however as common 
as it might be. These boxes are made with grooves or cor- 
rugations on each side, extending the entire length of the 
box, and a large iron fork, the prongs of which just fit these 
grooves, and which is swung from one traveling tackle, is used 

FIG. 35. The steel finishing-dies. 

to put the boxes into the furnace and to remove them when 
they are sufficiently heated. When the boxes are removed 
the contents are dumped into the cooling tank, which is fitted 
with a screen to keep the parts off the bottom and insure more 
even and thorough cooling, all of which is necessary to insure 
a uniform condition. The screen just referred to can be 
easily removed to clean the burnt bone out of the bottom of 
the tank. 

The tool-holder set screws, which are made of tool-steel, 
are heated in special furnaces that heats only the points and 
drops them into the hardening bath as fast as the operator can 
feed them in. The burner of this type of furnace is the same 
as that used on a bicycle brazer, and, in fact, the furnace is 
principally made from the parts of an old brazing stand. 

Naturally, in a shop depending so much on drop-forgings, 
the die-making department is one of the most important in 


the works and is well equipped. This department is in 
charge of a man of long experience on this class of work. One of 
his remarks hits the drop-forging die problem squarely on the 
head, and it is that the great difficulty in drop-forge work is 
not so much in making the die, but in making the metal go 
into it, meaning, of course, that the breaking down, roughing 
or bending operations are really the most important and the 
most difficult to plan out properly. Almost any tool-maker 
can sink a finishing die from a model, but it takes brains and 

FIG. 36. View of drop-forgings as they appear when taken 
from dies. 

experience to plan and work out the other parts of the die so 
that it will work satisfactorily without unnecessary waste of 
time and material. In planning dies or die parts of especially 
difficult shapes, plaster-of-Paris models are often used in order 
to find the best shape or position for the part to lie in; this is 
especially important in so planning a die as to get that great 
desideratum of the drop-forge shop the finishing in one heat. 
Fig. 36 shows a number of drop-forgings, including tool- 
holders, wrenches, drifts, and a C-clamp, with the flash still in 
place. These forgings are just as they come from the steam- 
hammer. A trimmed-off flash is shown on top of the large C- 


clamp in the middle of the group. Fig. 37 shows a lot of 
lead proofs of dies for making various sizes of drop-forgings, 
from the smallest to the largest. The big C-clamp shown is 
18 inches long, and the sizes of the other parts can be judged 
from it. For very large forgings, such as the C-clamp men- 
tioned, cast-iron dies for roughing and forming are used. 
The piece is first broken down, bent, and rough-formed in 
these dks, and then reheated and refinished in the tool-steel 
finishing die. Fig. 38 shows a set of wooden patterns for a 

FIG.' 37. Lead proofs of various parts which are to be 

pair of cast-iron dies weighing 1,600 pounds, or 800 pounds 

Many small pieces are forged in "pony dies," which are 
made of a shoe of tool-steel two or three inches thick, which 
is keyed into a heavy cast-iron or cast-steel block. These 
pony dies are very economical, as one set of shanks can be 
made to do duty for a large number of shoes. The shoes can 
all be located by dowel pins and keyed in with a taper key, in 
the same way that the shanks are keyed into the steam-hammer 
anvil and head. 

For working out difficult dies on the profiler, the univer- 


sal angle-plate or profiling-block, familiar to users of universal 
milling machines, is used. These blocks are made so that the 
top may be swung around in a complete circle, while the body 
can be tilted two ways, about 45 degrees, and clamped at any 
point on the base. These adjustments give almost any angle 
required in die-sinking, that cannot be obtained in the regular 
profiler vise. 

The making of dies for the "Armstrong" boring tool, so 
that the metal would come out of the die, was quite a difficult 

FIG. 38. Wooden patterns for a pair of heavy cast-iron dies. 

problem. This was one of the few cases where getting the 
metal into the die was not the most important thing. It was 
easy enough to make a die that would forge up the shape 
required, but owing to the peculiar shape of the boring tool 
the metal would be wedged in too tight to be easily removed. 
This problem was worked out by using plaster of Paris in the 
way previously referred to, and the die, as it was finally suc- 
cessfully made, is shown in Fig. 39. One of the boring-tool 
holders is shown lying on top of the die. The truck shown 
in this illustration is very useful, as it is just the height of the 
work benches and a heavy die can be easily pushed from one 
to the other. 


Drop-Forcings on the Pacific Coast 

The Pacific coast offers a good field for a well-equipped 
die-sinking and drop-forging establishment. At the present 
time (1910) the only plant of its kind is in the construction 
department at the Mare Island navy yard. In this depart- 

FIG. 39. Dies in which a boring-tool shank is forged, 
and a convenient form of shop-truck. 

ment there is sufficient work to keep four die-sinkers and one 
drop-forger busy constantly. Their work has greatly reduced 
the manufacturing costs of forgings. The die and forge shops 
were put in operation in 190$. The die-room is located in 
the machine-shop, and the forge-room in an annex to the 

In the die-shop there are two die-sinking machines, two- 
lathes, two shapers, a drill-press, a die-slotting machine, a 
surface grinder, and the usual small tools and work benches. 


In the drop-forge room there are: One 1200-pound hammer, 
one 2400-pound hammer, two trimming presses, one forging 
furnace and one furnace for tempering dies. 

By standardizing ship-fittings and manufacturing them in 
quantities for stock to be used as needed, the cost of this class 
of work has been greatly reduced. Before the establishment 
of the drop-forge plant all such fittings were made as needed, 

FIG. 40. Drop-forged ship-fittings. 

a few at a time, by hand in the blacksmith-shop. The cost 
was necessarily high; especially so as wages on the Pacific 
coast were high. By standardizing such fittings and manu- 
facturing in quantities not only is the cost materially reduced, 
but also the delay of waiting is eliminated. In the case of 
urgent repairs to ships, delay in any part of the work is of 
great importance. The illustrations in Figs. 40 and 41 show 
the general class of fittings that are drop-forged. 

High class die-steel is not used, as it is found that for the 
kind of fittings manufactured the lower-priced material an- 
swers equally well. There is not only much less cost of 


material, but afso of labor, owing to greater ease of working 
the softer material. The die material is purchased in open- 
hearth billets, 10 feet long, of the proper sizes, and is cut to 
required lengths for dies. For dies that will receive hard 
wear, steel of 0. 60 per cent, carbon is used. For the general 
run of dies, steel 0'.40 per cent, carbon is used. These classes 
of material cost, delivered at the Mare Island yard, about 3 
cents per pound. This is less than half the cost of high-grade 
die-block steel. It is, of course, necessary to use cyanide in 
tempering these dies. The character of the dies used is shown 
in the illustrations, Fig. 41. 

Dies for very accurate work are made from high-grade steel, 

FIG. 41. Specimen drop-forge dies for ship-fittings. 

for the reason that this material stands up better under the 
hammer than does the open-hearth steel of 0.40 to 0.60 per 
cent, carbon content. For ordinary fittings, as shown in the 
illustrations Fig. 40, slight' sinking of the impression makes 
practically no difference; the fittings are of such a type that 
absolutely accurate dimensions within a few thousandths of 
an inch are not required. 

Careful observations were made of the dies after a thou- 
sand or more forgings had been made, and it was found that 
some of the impressions had sunk a maximum of 0.004 of an 
inch, but the majority showed no depression. 

Machining a Deep Forming Die 

The piece to be produced is shown in two views in Fig. 
42. The only material fit for it was a good steel -casting or a 
drop-forging, and the steel-casting people said, "Not less than 



FIG. 42. Forging to be made. 

ninety days, or four months after we receive the patterns," 

and the drop-forge people said, "A set of drop-dies for that 

will cost $$, and we are now four weeks behind in our die 

department. ' ' 

Almost if not quite by accident a lot of drop-forgings like 

Fig. 43 were located; these were circular if looked at the other 

way. One of these forgings was 
bent or flattened to about the re- 
quired shape by the blacksmith 
and compared with what was 
wanted, and as it nearly filled the 
bill it was decided to make a die 
and form them to shape, rather 
than wait for correct drop-for- 
gings. or steel-castings; and then 

it was up to the shop to produce the goods. 

At first it looked as though it would be a case of digging 

a cavity out of the solid steel, but the die-maker rebelled, as 

there was not much machine shaping of 

the die that could be done when made in 

the solid. Neither did he wish to make 

a " force" and heat up the die, put the 

two under the drop-hammer and hub the 

cavity to the proper shape. One reason 

being that their drop weighed only 190 

pounds with a two-foot drop; besides 

that, it would involve quite an expense to 

hold and apply the " force." It finally 

occurred to the die-man that by taking 

two pieces and putting the two top faces 

of them together, boring a cavity in the 

face of the two pieces to a depth equal to one-half of the width 

of the required opening, then placing the two pieces face to 

face the other way, he would have a cavity of practically the 

required shape. 

Before doing the act in steel, he took a piece of pine in 

the wood lathe and turned it out to a nominal diameter, depth, 

FIG. 43. Forging 
commenced with. 



and shape, sawed the piece in two along line A B, Fig. 44, 
placed the two faces C and D together, and so had an ocular 
demonstration that his mental picture was correct. 

He then got out the steel for the die and plunger, also a 
pattern for the holder, and had a casting made. After the die 

FIG. 44. Method of die-making. 

was bored out it almost looked like Fig. 44. The steel 
was next sawed in half at A B, Fig. 44, and in Fig. 45 as 
in the section, one-half only being shown. The two halves 
were next placed in the die-holder, centered up on the face- 

FIG. 45. Cross-section of Fig. 44. 

plate of the lathe, and the hole through the bottom was bored. 
This hole was the same shape and size as the outside of the 

The top face of the die was also concaved, as shown at a, 
Fig. 46, so that the forging would have a good seat, with the 
forging resting in the die and the upper former ready to do 



the forming. Fig. 46 is a cross-section 
on center line C D, Fig. 47. Fig. 49 
is a corresponding section of the top 
former. The forging came solid, like 
Fig. 43, and was drilled as in Fig. 42 
before being formed. The die-holder 
is strengthened by the two large bolts 
shown at Fig. 47. A positive knock- 
out, not shown, was used to clear the 

As will be seen, the machine work 
FIG. 46. Die showing on tne die was lathe and shaper work, 

concaved face. 

and that of the easiest kind. 

Dies for Finishing Bossed Levers. Sectional Dies. 

Dies of sectional form would include a boss only, on a 
lever, Figs. 50 and 51; the lever ends standing out beyond 

FIG. 47. Plan of die-face. 

the dies; or a die would be used to punch a hole, and correct 
a boss at the same time, Fig. 52. Lever ends, either forked 



FIG. 48. Section of complete die. 

or solid, are suitable ob- 
jects for finishing in this 

way. So are the ends of 

connecting-rods, Fig. 53, 

the eyes of tie-rods, and 

the bridles or loops of 

slide-valves. In the old 

practise, as to a large extent 

now, these were made of 

wrought iron, bent and welded. These operations were done 

at the anvil, and the correction and 
finish done at another heat in dies. 
These dies were and are made of cast 
iron from a pattern. Later, cast steel 
has often been used with a view either 
to increase the strength or to lessen 
the weight of the dies. 

Even on the anvil, in little shops 
where there was not as yet a steam- 
hammer, the sledge was utilized in 

finishing the heads of bolts in dies. And on the anvil little 

devices were rigged up for finishing bosses and punching 

FIG. 49. Section of 
upper former. 

FIGS. 50 and 51. Sectional dies for bossed levers 



FIG. 52. Correcting die. 

holes, a type of which is the spring 
swedge, Fig. 54, the jaws of which 
were fashioned independently of 
aid from the machine-shop, by a 
process of typing or hubbing from 
a dummy or duplicate forging. 
Very many simple forms can be 
made, and are made still in this 
way, as a legitimate and suitable 
method. Light swedges are used 
on the anvil, just as the heavier 
ones are operated under the steam 
or drop hammer. 

The sectional dies are used 
very extensively now in the black- 
smith-shop for the purpose of final 

FIG. 53. Finishing connecting-rod ends. 

FIG. 54. Spring wedge for forging. 



correction and finishing only. But along with the use of 
these, there has grown the practise of drop-forging only, either 

FIG. 55. Example of forging-die, forming center 
holes in the bosses of the work. 

as a sub-department of the shop or carried on in a distant 
shop. Generally, however, the merely finishing dies are used 
for the heavier forgings, and the 
regular dies for the smaller class of 
work, as shown in Figs. S5 to 59. 
To make the larger forgings en- 
tirely by forging operations would 
often require more heavier ham- 
mers and other appliances than 
most shops are equipped with, and 
the numbers wanted of the large 
forgings might not be sufficient to 
render heavier installation profit- 
able. But a heavy forging may be 
finished in dies when it would not 

FIG. 56. Dies for_a lever 
with hubs at both ends. 



FIG. 57. Dies for forging 
an eye-bolt. 

FIG. 58. Dies for finishing 
the eye-bolt. 

be practicable to produce it entirely from a rude lump. 
Among work of this kind may be instanced large tie-rod eyes, 

large bossed levers, Fig. 50, 
rings, pillars, and such like. 
Some of these are too long to be 
embraced in a single die. A 
long two or three bossed lever, 
for instance, is then finished only 
on its bosses, and for an inch or 
two away from them. A pillar 

for hand-railing would have its bossed portions finished sep- 
arately, and the body corrected by 
swaging at the anvil, or in other 


Materials Used for Dies 

The number of similar cast- 
ings required is often insufficient 
to justify a large outlay for cut- 
steel dies. But dies made in cast iron are not costly, and 
therefore they are frequently made when only half a dozen or a 
dozen of similar articles are required. 
They may, of course, be kept for fu- 
ture use, and should be, when a job is 
likely to be repeated; but, apart from 
that, a very small number of forgings 
will pay the cost of cast dies. 

The growth of the drop-forging 
and stamping art has been gradual and 
natural. The mere fact of having cast 
dies lying by from previous jobs has 
been the cause of their utilization for 
pieces of work which might not other- 
wise have been thought to justify the ex- 
pense of new dies. But being in stock, 

slight and unimportant changes in some dimensions in new 
jobs would often render the dies available. In this way the be- 

FIG. 59. Dies pro- 
vided with space for 
receiving the fin. 



FIG. 60. Dies with 
space for receiv- 
ing the fin. 

ginnings of standardization arose. For 
as the dies began to accumulate, one 
pair or set was made to do duty for 
work for which it was not originally in- 
tended. Thus, the difference of half a 
ton or a ton of crane power was not 
allowed to involve the making of mi- 
nute differences in the forged work for 
the cranes, but one standard set was 
used for both. So in the engine and 
pump work the same standard sets came 
into use for powers and sizes of mech- 
anisms that were not dissimilar, and 

when the difference of # inch, or so, in dimen- 
sions could make no possible difference in the 
proper operation or strength of the forged parts 
or details. 

Principles of Drop-Forging and Stamping 
Large Parts 

Comparatively few articles can be produced 
in one pair of dies, and those are chiefly circular 
forms, the diameters of which at different sections 
f ^ do not vary greatly. If they do vary, some pre- 
liminary operation or breaking down is necessary. 
And if a portion of the article 
takes the form of an eye, or a 
boss, three or four successive 
operations may be necessary to 
produce the forging, as in the 

eye-bolt produced in Figs. 57 and 58. The 

die-maker has then to settle how the work 

shall be done, whether in one or more pairs 

of dies, and whether under one hammer or 

two. As a rule, to which there are excep- 
tions, it is desirable to do all work at a 

single heat. Then, if several operations are 

FIG. 61.- 
in dies 
from a 

FIG. 62. Die 
for forming 
the end of a 
ball crank. 



required they must be done either in one set of dies, or in 
separate dies. For small forgings it is easy to get three or 
four recesses in one pair of dies, for roughing down, for for- 
mation, and for cutting off or nicking for breaking off. In 
larger pieces it is necessary to have two hammers adjacent, so 
that the stamper can use them both without walking away from 
either. But a few hammers are made double headed, with two 

FIG. 63. Stripping-die for removing fin and its work. 

anvils, and tubs to facilitate such work. When two heats are 
necessary, then it may be convenient to perform the earlier 
operations on a large number of similar pieces, and then change 
the dies for the subsequent operation. This, perhaps, is more 
often done in the regular machine-shops than in the drop- 
forging shops, in which the work is divided between two ad- 
jacent hammers. 

Though the smith working at the anvil endeavors to gage 
by a very rough metal estimation the amount of material which 
is required for a forging, in order to lessen the labor, the 



drop-hammer man may be comparatively indifferent to that 
consideration. He will not, of course, have much excess of 
metal if it can be avoided, yet he is much in the same position 
as the anvil smith who has a steam or drop hammer available 
adjacent to his anvil. The power-hammer is often resorted to 
for roughing down an odd lump quickly, in place of taking a 
smaller section, which would require the alternative of upset- 
ting, or of welding. The shapeless lump is simply roughed 
down rapidly in far less time than would be occupied in fuller- 
ing on the anvil, or in performing the alternative operations 
of upsetting or welding. In this way, too, very many odds 
and ends, cropped from iron and steel bars, are utilized, 
which would otherwise go to swell the scrap-heap. 

FIG. 64. FIG. 65 FIG. 66. 

Showing how fin on round work is forged into bar by rotating it. 

The case of hot stamping and drop-forging is analogous. 
Though forgings having considerable differences in cross-sec- 
tional areas, are, as a general rule, broken down in one or 
more operations, preliminary to finishing, yet a great deal of 
work is done without this step-by-step process. A cubical 
lump is taken and put into the dies and reduced. A large 
amount of the fin being squeezed out in the process, this is 
removed in an adjacent stripping-die, Fig. 61, and the for- 
ging put back and finished in the first, or in another, re- 
cess, followed sometimes by a final trimming. This heavy 
reduction is only possible in drop-dies, first, because the 
lump is raised to a high heat and the mechanical work done 
on it maintains the heat until the reduction is completed. 
At the anvil two or three heats would often be required to 
accomplish the same amount of work which is done in one 
heat in dies. 



Removal of Fin Produced in Drop-Forging 

The formation of fin, it will be noted, is peculiar to for- 
gings; it does not occur in anvil-work. Sometimes dies are 
cut like Figs. 59 and 60 to receive fins. In Fig. 60 a wide 
and shallow groove is cut all around the recess to receive the 
fin. In Fig. 59 the faces are sloped away with the same 
object. Work which is of cylindrical form does not neces- 
sarily involve the formation of permanent fin, because it can 
be rotated, as the reduction is going on, and such excess of 
metal which is squeezed out laterally is removed at once when 
a partial rotation is given to the piece, as in Figs. 64 and 65. 
In Fig. 64 the fin is shown squeezed out; in Fig. 65 it is 

FIG. 67. Dies for crane hook. 

being driven into the forging again. Such being the case, 
Fig. 66 is the shape given to the circular dies in cases where 
the circular form is not hampered by the proximity of shapes 
which would interfere with rotation. When the work can be 
rotated, the result is a fine smooth, polished surface, which in 
many classes of work renders any subsequent machining un- 
necessary, or, if finish is essential, a little grinding may suffice. 
In some forgings a portion only, a stem or shank, can be 
so treated, the remainder consisting of an eye, or a flattened 
portion, or a square shape. 

Difference Between Treatment of Steel and Wrought Iron 

In the blacksmith-shop, wrought iron is still used as ex- 
tensively as steel for small forgings. But many forms when 
made of wrought iron must not be forged from a solid lump, 



because of the loss of strength which occurs across the grain. 
Large thin rings and curves of light section should always be 
bent. But if these are made of steel, no such reason as this 
exists, because steel has practically no difference in strength 
with or across the direction of rolling. The partial substitu- 
tion of steel for wrought iron has therefore been favorable to 

FIG. 68. Bar from which Fig. 69 is made. 

the development of drop-forging. Many jobs are now forged 

from a solid bar, or lump of steel, which were formerly made 

from wrought iron by bending and welding. Hence, while 

wrought iron is still extensively used for anvil-made forgings, 

steel is employed much more for drop-forgings. The crane 

hook, Fig. 67, when made of 

wrought iron, is always bent from 

bar before being finished in the 

dies. Made from steel, it is forged 

from a solid lump. For the forged 

end, Fig. 68, if made of wrought 

iron, a bar is slit and opened out, 

then bent over a form, and finished 

in dies. When made from steel, 

it may be forged from one solid 

piece. The flange, Fig. 64, is forged in steel from a solid 

chunk, handled by a porter bar temporarily. 

Work with Holes Flanged Through It 

The old method of punching holes is that shown in Fig. 
52, in which the punch is guided by a plate doweled on the 
body of the die. This is suitable for large holes. Frequently, 
for small holes, the punch is separate and is driven through a 

FIG. 69. Fork lever. 



hole in the upper die, as in Fig. 70; in Fig. 71, a hole with- 
out its punch is shown. But punches are also often included 
solidly in the die, as in Fig. 74, half in top and half 


FIG. 70. Punching small hole through work in dies. 

bottom, and not quite meeting at the center. In a shallow 
boss the punch may be in one half of the die only, as for a 
forging like Fig. 72. The. metal becomes squeezed into the 
boss and becomes improved through consolidation. Often, 

when holes are left to be 
drilled, the centers are 
stamped by small conical pro- 
jections in the dies which 
serve as accurate guides to the 

driller. Sometimes holes are 
punched only through a por- 
tion of the metal, Fig. 73, 
when the central part has to 

FIG. 71. Punching holes 
through bosses. 

be bored out subsequently, as indicated by the dotted lines. 


Methods of Applying Impact or Pressure on Dies 

Formerly all die work was done with hammer blows, 
the demand grew for an extension of 
the system to heavier forgings, and 

to articles involving the bending of 

, , , , , , PIG. 72. Holes punched 

plates and sheets, the steam and drop by punches integra i 

hammers were not able to deal well with die. 



with these. The demand was met by the forging machines, 
which are actuated by hydraulic power or by gears, cranks, 
and toggle levers. These will easily deal with dies and articles 
several feet in length, many of which are too intricate to be 

FIG. 73. Semi-punching holes. 

dealt with by hammers, even if their diameters did not set a 
limit to such treatment. They are practicable on the hydraulic 
presses, because two rams can be utilized, one acting in the 
vertical, the other in the horizontal position, so working at 
right angles with each other. This is utilized for bending, 

FIG. 74. Construction of die for forging a hole through a boss 

welding, and punching, for closing up joints, for dealing with 
undercut designs, and with hollow spaces formed by bending 
and welding or by forging. Typical of much work of this 
class is the die and punch used for forging the rings for up- 
takes of vertical boilers, Fig. 75, from a plain piece of steel 
plate. Fig. 76 shows the die for forging a crank by pressure. 



A large amount of work of this kind is done in the railway-car 

Stamped forgings, or drop-forgings, thus diverge into two 
great groups, according as they are produced by hammer or 
by gradual pressure. Broadly, the first group includes articles 
of small and medium dimensions, the latter of a massive char- 
acter, and all large work done in plates. This is now a gen- 
erally accepted division, and one which harmonizes with the 

FIG. 75. Die for forging and flanging man-hole seatings. 

difference in hammer-blows delivered on comparatively small 
masses, and of pressure on thicker bodies. When mass is the 
condition present, slow pressure is more penetrating than 
impact, just as it is in large shafts and forgings. Moreover, 
the blows delivered from a very heavy hammer are destructive 
to dies, and if they are made massive enough to withstand 
these blows, then they are too heavy for convenient handling. 
Massive dies are, of course, required to resist pressure, but that 
is not nearly so destructive as the violent jarring action of the 



Methods Used for Making Dies 

The forces and dies used are as varied in their details and 
cost as the forgings themselves are. A great advantage of the 
forging machine dies is, that like machine molding, they are 
as readily adaptable to the 
demands for a very few identi- 
cal articles, say ten or a dozen, 
as to hundreds or thousands. 
But the amount of work put 
into the dies, and the patterns 
and materials used for them 
have to bear a definite relation 


to the number of pieces re- 
quired. Hence, we have at 
extremes, dies of cast iron 
made cheaply, and those of FIG. 76. Die for forging-crank. 
mild steel cut out with care 

and hardened. Except in name and function, the examples 
at each extreme have little in common. They are not made 
in the same way, and the periods of their service are much 
less in the first than in the second case. 

The cast dies are molded from suitable patterns. They 
may have to be cleaned up a little by the machinist, but no 
great amount of skill is required for this. As they are liable 
to fracture unless made massive, they are fre- 
quently encircled with bands of wrought iron, 
shrunk on, as in Fig. 52. They are, when 
small, lifted with circular tongs, Fig. 78, or by 
the hands, but larger dies have handles cast in 
for lifting them, Fig. 75. Or, alternatively, 
holes are cast for the insertion of rods for the 
same purpose. Some cast dies will endure 
long service, others fracture soon. Dies of 
P jj cast steel are stronger, but are more liable to 

Cutters for inaccuracy, because frequently they are not 
nicking stock, uniform in structure. 


Marking and Working Out Dies 

Dies of forged steel are marked out on their faces, and 
recessed by various machine tools, and by hand work. All 
the aids offered by machine and tools are utilized, as boring, 
slotting, milling, and shaping. But often very much of the 
work is left for the chisel and file to complete. There are 
several special machines designed wholly or chiefly for the use 
of die-sinkers, but much can be done by the ordinary tools in 
the shops. Templets are used to gage the progress of the work, 
including those of sheet metal for back sections, and those 
which represent the actual forgings, which have to be forged. 
These are made of lead, or tin, or a first sample forging is 
prepared. Contact is insured by the transference of red lead 
from the templet to the recesses which are being cut. 

Typing or Hubbing Process 

Reference has been made to the typing or hubbing process. 
It bears an essential resemblance to the operation of stamping 

FIG. 78. Tongs for holding dies. 

medals and coins by a hard blow; only the operation is re- 
versed, the die itself being produced by stamping it, while 
white hot, from a cold forging. It has the advantage of being 
cheaper than cutting dies, and in circular outlines is accurate 
enough, but it is not well suited for intricate shapes. The 
spring swedges are frequently made in this way. In obtaining 
circular shapes thus, the hub or type is rotated between each 
successive blow, so correcting any inaccuracies that might 
form. The edges are of necessity produced with a slight 
convexity, Fig. 66. But this is an advantage in producing 
circular forgings which are rotated in the dies. It is not 


necessary to have complete circles in such a case, because metal 
squeezed out laterally, and what would soon form a fin, be- 
comes obliterated by the next blow when the rotation into a 
new position takes place. 

In one of the illustrations, Fig. 51, dowels are shown, 
which are inserted to serve as guides to secure the alignment 
of top and bottom dies. These are only used when the dies 
are not attached in any way to the anvil below and the ham- 
mer above, as is often the practise in heavy dies. But gener- 
ally the dies are secured by dovetails and keys, as in Fig. 53. 
In some cases locating screws are used on the anvil for dies 
cut at the corners, like Fig. 67, and the dovetail is only on 
the top. The locating screws permit of making slight ad- 

Forgings are often included wholly in their dies, especially 
in hydraulic forging-dies, and are knocked out by a knock-out 
device, or are pried out, or pushed out. Often a porter bar is 
used, generally the plain length of the bar from which the 
forgings are being made, as in Figs. 55 and 57. Then the 
forging is easily nicked by reducing the eye at the neck, as 
shown in Figs. 55 and 61; or a pair of cutters is fitted at the 
end of the dies, as in Fig. 77. 

The contents of this chapter outline the methods of drop- 
forging in use, from which it is seen that the practise is divi- 
sible into three great groups: that done under hammers, and 
that in presses, and a further subdivision between the methods 
of the general shop and the drop-forgers who work for the 



Making Forces for Embossed Work 

THE process of die-sinking relates to the engraving or 
'sinking of the female or lower dies, such as are used in the 
press-working of metal? for jewelry, silverware, novelties, and 
forgings, and for producing raised lettering and ornamentation 
upon name-plates, tin boxes, pails, and similar work. The 
process of force-making relates to the making of the male or 
upper die to be used in connection with the lower die in 
stamping the metal. 

With the exception of large shops where much embossed 
work is produced, there are few manufacturing concerns which 
employ die-sinkers, consequently embossing dies are usually 
sent out to a regular die-sinker, who engraves or sinks the 
lower die and returns it after hardening, his part being done. 

Next, the force has to be made, and this cannot be done 
by the die-sinker in his little shop for two good reasons. First, 
in most cases he has no drop-press suitable to strike-up the 
force, and secondly, the force properly made should be struck 
up in the press in which the dies are to be worked. Conse- 
quently this work falls short of the die-sinker, and comes to 
the machinist or tool-maker in the shop using the die. 

Properly Made Forces 

Forces may properly be divided into two classes, those 
made of steel, and those made of copper. The easiest type of 
steel force to make is that which is termed a flat force, which 
should be used in cases where a flat back is wanted on the 



embossed piece, or where extreme lightness is not desired. 
In such instances, a stronger piece is produced, but thicker 
stock must be used to make the work than it would be neces- 
sary to use where the regular style of force which follows the 
design of the die is used. 

In cases where the design is fairly regular and not long 
and narrow in outline, the flat force is made by taking a piece 
of round tool-steel of about the same size of the largest dimen- 
sions of the outline of the design and about one-half longer. 
For example a fla force for a design whose longest dimen- 
sion is 2 inches, would require a piece of 2-inch round steel, 
3 inches long. This piece of steel should be held in the chuck 
of a lathe and turned, egg shape or oval, on each end, and one 
end should be finished so that it is free from tool marks. 
Most of the drop-presses are fitted with a jack or "pick-up" 
die, such as is shown in Fig. 87, by means of which all except 
large forces are held. A flat block of hardened steel should 
be lined up central with this "pick-up" and firmly held there 
by means of the poppet screws on the press. The blank for 
the force should now be heated to a bright red and placed upon 
its finished end upon the lower die and then struck as hard 
as possible with the press; this will cause the force to embed 
itself in the "pick-up," and it should now be rapidly struck 
enough times to spread it to the required size, then pried from 
the "pick-up," hardened, and the temper drawn to a light 
straw color. 

Different Shaped Forces 

If a force is wanted which will carry the metal into the die 
and thus produce a thin light stamping, the same methods 
should be followed, except that in place of the block of hard- 
ened steel held on the bed of the press by the poppet screws, 
the lower die should be substituted, lined up and held as 
before. In making this style of force, care should be used to 
keep all scale from getting on the face of the die and spoiling 
the force. If the design of the die is deep, it may be neces- 
sary to use two or more heats, in which case the force should 


be removed from the "pick-up* ' and reheated, then fitted 
into the lower die as rapidly as possible and at once struck. 
If done properly, it will lift with the pick-up and should 
now be struck until every detail of the die appears on the 

When the shape of the outline is long and narrow, the 
steel blank should be of the diameter of the greatest width of 
the design, and about 1 inch longer than its length. The 
whole length of the piece should be finished smooth, as this 
piece, after heating, must be laid sideways on the die when 
striking it. 

The reason for always leaving the most stock in the center 
of the force blank is that the center of the design is always the 
hardest to make "come up" sharp, consequently we leave the 
stock thickest there so as to help it all possible. Also a piece 
of this shape is easily "picked up," which would be almost 
impossible with a flat piece of steel. 

Steel Forces for Flat Work 

Steel forces for flat work, such as nameplates, tin-can work, 
etc., require very careful work, and while they can be made 
by the method already described, it is not the very best way, 
for the reason that the steel being struck into the die while 
hot shrinks upon cooling, and results in a force which will not 
fit the die as it should. This Shrinkage is noticeable on all 
hot-struck forces, but matters little where there is any depth 
to the die. One method of overcoming this trouble is to 
strike the force in the die, after it has been brought up 
enough, every few minutes until the force has entirely cooled, 
but where the impressions in the die are so very shallow, like 
the letters on a name-plate, the corresponding letters on the 
force are very apt to be obliterated during this process, and so 
make the force useless. 

By far the best way to make such forces is to start with a 
plain piece of steel whose face is the exact shape of the outline 
of the name-plate, and this should be beveled off toward the 
back of the piece about 10 degrees. The thickness of this 



FIG. 79. Embossed Police-shield 
before and after trimming. 

piece should be from 1 to 10 inches, according to the size of 

the name-plate. 

This piece should now be given a thin coat of solder on 

its face, and then it should be carefully placed face down upon 

the die it is to fit, taking care that the outline of the force 

matches up with the design 

of the die. After placing 

both die and force under 

the drop-hammer it should 

be struck one solid blow, 

and only one. In doing 

this part of the work it is 

not necessary to fasten the 

force to the hammer of 

the press, but the die 

should be fastened to the 

press bed in the ordinary 

way. This being done, the 

force should be taken from 

the die, and it will be observed that the imprint of every letter 

of the die shows clearly upon the solder coating of the force, 

which must now be held in the vise while the solder and steel 

around the letters should be removed with small chisels until 

only the letters are left stand- 
ing. The force should now 
be fitted into the die and 
struck again, after which the 
solder on the tops of the 
letters may be filed off, leav- 
ing still a good impression 
on the steel force. The 

T-, OA T, , chipping process should be 

fie 80. Embossed badge before 

and after trimming. repeated and then struck 

again, until the background 

has been sufficiently taken away. The back of the force may 
now be dovetailed so as to be keyed into the press, as the 
pick-up cannot be used with this method of force-making. In 



some shops, forces are held to the head of the press by means 
of screws, but this is not good practise, as the constant shock 
and vibration of the press in operation tends to loosen them 
or snap them in two. 

The chipping out of the forces can be greatly helped by 
using punches of various shapes; especially are these useful in 

driving down stock in the 
centers of the letters and other 
places hard to chip out. 

Copper and Brass Forces 

Copper forces do not re- 
quire nearly as much care to 
make as steel forces, as they 
are always struck in the press. 
While it is often necessary to 
strike copper forces hot, they 

can many times be made cold, which way is to be preferred, 
as the copper is much harder when struck cold, consequently 
the force lasts longer when in use. The stock for a copper 
force does not need to be round as it "comes up" when struck 
very easily. Copper forces are always held in the pick-up, 
and have the advantage that they may be struck into the die 
at any time while in use, and 
thus sharpen up the details 
of the design as they become 

In the absence of copper, 
brass is sometimes used for 
small forces, but it cannot 

FIG. 81. Embossed number 

be struck hot like copper, FIG. 82. Emblem and blank, 
and it splits easily if struck 

too hard, and for these reasons is undesirable, though it can 
be used in an emergency. 

In the illustrations of embossed work, Figs. 79 to 86, 
some have been trimmed and some not. Figs. 79 and 80 
illustrate german silver stampings for badges; Fig. 81 shows 



a thin copper label struck up with a copper force; Fig. 82 
is a copper ornament struck with a flat force, as will be seen 
in the reverse side illustration; Figs. 83 and 84 show examples 

FIG. 83. Embossed belt buckle in sheet-metal. 

of stamped belt buckles; Fig. 85 is a name-plate of brass, made 
with a force which was made by the chipping process, as 
described, and Fig. 86 shows a heavy aluminum label made 
with a copper force. In the illustrations two cuts of each 
piece are shown, face and 
reverse views. Fig. 87 
shows one style of pick- 
up die. 

FIG. 84. Embossed buckle. 

Cutting the Impression in 

In the shop, employers 
judge of men's work by the 
amount they see, and, when 

all there is in sight to show what the die-sinker has been 
doing for several hours is a dotted line on a steel block, the 
employer is apt to have misgiving. Let him remember that 
"work well begun is half done." An old mover of houses 
once said: "When I've got a building well loaded on my 
rollers I allow that I've got the biggest part of the job done." 
When the profile of an impression is marked on the block of 
steel a good beginning has been made. The lines show 



what stock on the surface is to be removed; they do not 
show the depth to which they are to be cut away, nor the 
shape of the bottom. These are sometimes gaged, as the 
work progresses directly from the model; a better way is to 

FIG. 85. Embossed stamping. 

mark off a side view on the side of the die, as it is very 
convenient to have it there in setting the drills to the right 

To illustrate the fundamental principles, these dies are 
supposed to be sunk with very simple tools, but not altogether 

with the simplest. It is fairly to 

be supposed that any place that 
requires dies has so simple a 
machine as a drill-press, at least. 

The simplest tools are those 
which a Frenchman proposed to 
use in 1861, when die-sinkers 
were in demand. He was an ex- 
pert steel-stamp cutter whose ex- 
perience had been exclusively on hand-work. In applying 
for work at sinking dies he claimed, as a special inducement 
to give him employment, that he did not require any tools ex- 
cept a cold chisel and hammer. It was suggested to him 
that this accomplishment cut no figure when drill-presses 

FIG. 86. Embossed 


were abundantly provided and could displace stock more 

"No! no!" he exclaimed, giving his arm a swing as if to 
strike the blow of a Hercules. "I am strong. I cut a little 
place deep enough, then I set my chisel back just as much as 
I can cut, and I cut that chip to the bottom of the hole; then 
I take another chip; I am not lazy; then I take another all 
just so deep by and by, after a little while, I have the stock 
all cutout." 

The Frenchman's theory was correct, perhaps, although 
our mechanics would probably cut channels through with a 

FIG. 87. Force-holder. 

cape chisel, and get rid of half the stock by breaking between 
the caping, provided they had to "knock a hole into that ere 
block with a chisel." He made a first-class die-sinker, but he 
got bravely over his partiality for manual labor after experi- 
menting with and experiencing the benefits of machinery. 

Although most of the stock is to be drilled out, it will be 
necessary to do some chipping. A few stout bull chisels may 
be required for heavy cutting. A dozen or more chisels 
should be provided of various sizes and shapes. After becom- 
ing accustomed to them it will be found that it is very handy 
to use finishing chisels made of about -Mi-inch octagon steel, 7 
or 8 inches long, tapered from about 2^ to /^-inch for the 
size of the head, and from about an inch from that place ta- 
pered down to within half an inch of the point where it should 



be little less than the size of the cut to which it widens at that 
point. They are conveniently kept in a tin can on the bench, 
points up. Some folks are so inherently mathematical that 
the rule of three dominates all their logic. They insist that 
if an inch chisel should be 8 inches long, then a quarter-inch 
chisel should be one-quarter as long 4 into 8 two times 
hence a quarter-inch chisel should be two inches long. File 
cutters' chisels are short, but in die-sinking more free-hand 
work is advisable. If Fig. 90 is not a very good representa- 
tion of the chisel described, do not lay all the blame upon the 

"Breaking-through chisels" for bursting out the honey- 
comb left by the drill are stronger. They may be made of ^6- 


FIG. 88. 

FIG. "89. 
Die Sinkers' chisels. 

FIG. 90. 

inch octagon steel thinned down back from the point from an 
inch and a half to two inches, to a little less than the size of 
the drill which they are to follow. A very good shape is 
shown in Figs. 88 and 89. The use of these chisels in plow- 
ing furrows through the stalactic remains after drilling is 

Before proceeding any farther it may be advisable to make 
trial templets, 1,2,3,4,5, shown in Fig. 91. Templets for 
trial are sometimes preferred made without the overhanging 
ends which are here shown, and are designed to rest on the 
surface of the block, to indicate the proper depth. When they 
are made without these ends the depth is indicated by a mark 
drawn across, or notches filed in the edges of the templets. 



Adjustable depth-gages are also indispensable in die-sinking; 
they are made in a variety of forms, according to the taste or 
notion of the workman. 

Riffles and Their Use 

Some die-sinkers provide themselves with peculiar shaped 
pieces to fit into the places in the dies which they want to 
smooth up. On those they 
cut teeth, and as they are 
provided with shanks for 
handles they can be used 
for smoothing, like files. 
These tools are called 

FIG. 91. Trial templets. 

"riffles," and to-day may 
be purchased all ready finished in a variety of shapes and sizes, 
both smooth and coarse cut. Other die-sinkers do this class 
of work with scrapers. To get a purchase to brace against in 
scraping, they use a rod which they support with the left 
hand. They thus avoid injufy which the bracing of the 
scraper might inflict upon the edges of the die. The edges 

are sometimes protected for this 

purpose by interposition of a strip 
of copper or zinc. 

The stock which is to be re- 
moved from the impression to cor- 
respond with the depth templet (1) 
Fig. 91, is semi-circular. It could 

be bored out either on a drill-press or in a lathe. In this 
case that is not the best way. It is better to drill it out, as 
shown by Figs. 92 and 93. We therefore lay out a central line 
lengthwise through this part of the die, and draw two series 
of lines across it in an angle of 60 degrees, which intersect 
each other and the central line at distances which are a little 
greater than the size of drill which we decide to use. 

The points of the intersection are then punched, for they 
are all the centers of the holes which are to be drilled. The 
drill is set as near as may be to the proper depth marked on 

Sonet/ combed 

FIGS. 92 and 93. 
Drilling die. 


the side of the die, and a stop on the drill-press is adjusted to 
gage it. The lost motion should be taken up out of the drill- 
spindle. Ordinary care must be exercised not to drill too 
deep and to keep within limits, sideways, as any excess in any 
direction will necessitate planing off the dies. 

Drilling Out the Stock 

The form "of the impression at the end of the large part, 
gaged by templet (2) suggests that if the die was strapped on 
the face-plate of a lathe in the proper position, the impression 
might easily be formed with a turning tool, or that it might 
be readily made on the drill-press with a boring tool like a 
counterbore or end milling cutter; and the half round shape of 
the other and smaller end of the impression suggests that the 
same means might be adopted to sink that also, and there 
being so much of this kind of work to do on the dies, it would 
be economical to make a lathe job of it, and so they might be 
sent to the lathe. The proposition is very tempting, and 
under favorable circumstances' might be accepted, but really it 
is not any more difficult to make these parts of the die by 
drilling and chipping than it would be if their form were not 
so well adapted to be made by boring or turning, and the 
trouble of making arrangements for doing it in the lathe or 
special tools for boring it in the drill press might not be com- 
pensated for by increased facility or perfection. We will 
therefore lay it out and drill it as we did the first part. We 
will lay out and drill at this time all of the die which is to be 
sunk to a uniform depth. Afterward we will lay out a row of 
holes at the proper distance from the edge of the rounded part 
of the die which is to be sunk to templet (3). This rounded 
part starts in at A and runs to the dotted line shown through 
the templet, and setting the drill to the depth near A it can be 
kept at that depth at an equal distance from the profile line 
around to the dotted line, and then a new series of holes of a 
different depth from these, but uniform with each other, can be 
drilled on a parallel line with these, and so on until this section, 
which has a bottom of unequal depth, has been duly drilled. 


- Using the Breaking-Out Chisel % 

The work of the breaking out chisel is now in order, and 
the labor of five minutes at this stage of the proceedings makes 
a better show than at any other time. The honeycomb is 
quickly knocked out and a ragged-looking hole appears. 
Giving the edges a skelp all around reduces the profile to 
smoothness and prepares the way for the really good work on 
the die to commence. This consists in cutting the upper part 
exactly to the profile, as delineated on the surface; in following 
down from the surface outline at the exact angle which has 
been determined upon for the draft in getting the bottom of 
the proper shape, and in getting the corners, where the sides 
meet the bottom, into true and regular form. These things are 
all really difficult to do with a chisel, while with a cutting tool 
a revolving cutter they are done with but little trouble, as 
they are largely governed by the shape of the tools employed. 

If the chisel is not properly used an excessive amount of 
time will be required to finish up with the scraper. It is 
astonishing how fast a mechanic improves in close chipping 
by practise, but it need not be, when we reflect that a good 
deal of ornamental designs and engraving is done by foreign 
workmen, mostly with tools which they impel with light 

Good sharp chisels can only be kept sharp by having them 
made of the best material, so they will stand to be left hard 
enough not to lose their edge by battening. To do close 
chipping requires an edge that is keen, and that will remain 
so one that will not slink away from its grip, but will carry 
the chip clear through. 

In finishing up the lower corners, some die-sinkers make 
use of sets, which are shaped so that one side of the working 
end rests on the flat bottom of the die, and the other rises up 
at the proper angle to give the right inclination to the side. 
These tools should not be used to such an extent as to cause 
unequal tension in the die by driving stock down with aught 
to have been cut away. 


"Roughing tools* ' are useful in bottoming; they are made 
on a matrix which is simply a mass of square points. By dri- 
ving the hot roughing tool down on this the end is formed, as 
though it was a dozen chisel edges crossed with another dozen 
chisel edges. It is afterward hardened. By driving it down 
and moving it about it stamps fine checks, and these are easily 
rubbed away with file or scraper, leaving a smooth surface. 

When the dies are nearly completed, ready for the final 
finishing, arrangements are made by which a lead cast be taken 
when the dies are clamped together, as they are to go. If the 
edges as shown by the lead cast do not correspond they must 
be altered in the dies until they perfectly match. 

The Champney Die-Sinking Process 

Many of us know what die-sinking is and what it costs; we 
are all familiar with the clean, light shop, with its planers and 
shapers and drilling machines and its rows of die-sinking 
machines, all beautiful tools; and its row of clean, bright, 
intelligent workmen sitting in a north light, industriously and 
with concentrated attention slowly sinking the shape of some 
piece of work down into the solid metal of a steel block, with 
their queer shaped files and delicate chisels; most of us have 
looked at a finished job of die-sinking an absolutely perfect 
fit for the irregular surfaces of the piece which it is to make, 
and have secretly wondered at the skill of the workman who 
could do such a job. Some of us have seen a marvelously 
constructed pantagraph tracing its thousands of cuts in a coin- 
die, guided by a large model which its mechanism reproduces 
in reversed miniature in the block of steel to be used in the 
coining press, and we have also admired and wondered at this 
beautifully exact piece of high grade mechanism, and of course 
we know a lot about die-sinking; we know what machines 
must be used, what class of workmen really artists the good 
die-sinkers must be what grades of steel, and above all what 
days and weeks of patient labor must be used to make a fin- 
ished die. We know it to-day, just as we knew it twenty years 
ago; die-sinking by the old-established methods can be seen 


in almost every good establishment in the metal manufactur- 
ing trade; the use of the drop-hammer and the power press, 
mechanical or hydraulic, in metal manufacturing, the old, 
slow, skilful, well-established methods; and yet George F. 
Champney, engineer, found out thirty-five years ago how he 
could make any die for any purpose, from the heaviest forging 
die to be used under the most ponderous drop, to the finest 
medallion or coining die, in one instant in the very briefest 
fraction of a second, with the simple, almost rude tools shown 
in these engravings; and not only found out how to sink dies 
perfect in shape and surface, but far superior in quality and 
endurance to any dies made by any other method. 

History and Evolution of the Process 

Fifteen years ago a gentleman, knowing that another was 
as one of the Athenians, who held that day lost in which they 
learn no new thing said: " There is a man in Bridgeport, 
Conn., who has a hammer with a 50-feet drop; he takes a cast- 
iron force any shape he wants, and fastens it on the bottom 
of this 50-feet fall hammer, and he puts a block of red hot 
steel on the anvil of that hammer with the force on the ham- 
mer, and just drops the hammer with the force on the bottom 
of it right down into the steel at one spat, and it makes a per- 
fect die in the steel and don't hurt the cast-iron force at all 
doesn't even mark it you could not tell by the looks of the 
cast-iron force that it ever had been near a piece of steel, much 
less been driven bodily into the solid metal, so as to produce 
its exact and perfect reverse in the block, and make a perfect 
block in which to produce its own shape. " 

The other man said to this gentleman that it did not seem 
possible such things could be; that he should think the cast- 
iron image or force would be crushed to atoms, and the hot 
steel block on the anvil would spread out, so that the result of 
the 50-foot drop of the hammer would be a couple of ruins 
a ruined force and a ruined die-block, instead of an instanta- 
neously made, absolutely perfect die, and an uninjured force. 

To this his informant replied that he himself would have 


thought the same thing, but that what did result was a perfect 
die, exactly reproducing in reverse every detail of the piece 
put on the bottom of the hammer. 

The seeker after new things went to Bridgeport and asked 
at E. P. Bullard's machine tool works if there was a man in 
Bridgeport who was making a drop-die by dropping a big 
hammer 50 feet, with the force on the bottom of the hammer, 
into a block of hot steel, and making a perfect die at one blow. 
This question was met with a smile and the reply, "Not that 
we ever heard of." I said: "You would be likely to know if 
such a thing was being done?" 

"Very likely indeed," was the reply. A search in the 
directory disclosed the name of "The Patent Die Co.," 88 
Cannon Street, and at 88 Cannon Street Mr. Champney was 
found, and with a drop of 52 feet, and a lot of die-sinkers, 
and a vast number of the most beautiful specimens of the dies 
conceivable, and an order-book full of orders from' such firms 
as the Gorham Company. 

Thirty-five years ago the idea struck Mr. Champney that 
at a suitable velocity a cast-iron medal, or even a gold or silver 
coin, could be driven bodily into a block of hot steel, so as to 
produce a perfect die in which its own shape could be dupli- 
cated by use of the coining press. Experiments convinced 
him of the truth of his theory. He went to Europe with this 
invention, and remained abroad for ten or twelve years, in 
close connection, for a part of the time, with the Russian 
Mint, where he made dies which gage from 30 to 70,000 
impressions, as against 6,200 impressions for the life of any 
die there made by the ordinary methods for the same piece, 
and was decorated by the Emperor with the order of Stan- 
islaus for his invention. After these years in Europe, Mr. 
Champney returned to America, and proceeded to perfect his 
methods so as to make them applicable to dies of all sizes; his 
previous work had been for coining purposes and medals only. 
He started to work in Bridgeport, where he made many dies 
for leading firms of silversmiths and metal workers all over 
the United States. 


His original idea was simplicity itself given a model for 
a piece of work to be produced in dies, the simplest method 
possible is, of course, to drive that model into a block of steel, 
so as to leave its perfect image in the soft block; then take the 
model out of the die and harden the die, and there it is. As 
is usual, between the happy thought and its happy realization, 
lay a waste of dreary desert years, the story of which Mr. 
Champney will not have printed. The old story, no doubt, 
of shining moments of success, buried in speedily following 
failures; partial gains which could not be made entire and 
complete, and total disasters which could not conquer Champ- 
ney's faith in his theories; finally, in Bridgeport there came to 
be a small establishment doing good work, patronized by the 
best manufacturers in the country, and possibly the nucleus of 
a large and prosperous business for the closing years of Mr. 
Champney's life. 

Modeling, Casting, and Dropping 

The method practised at the Bridgeport shops in the begin- 
ning, which was fifteen years ago, in producing a hardened 
steel die from model, was this: The model, a bit of wax 
shaped to the designer's fancy, and mounted on a block of 
wood, a medal, a coin, a plaster cast of any object, a natural 
leaf from a tree, anything in short from which a plaster cast 
could be taken, could have a die made from it which was not 
an approximate reversed copy, but was absolutely perfect in its 
reproduction; every line, every elevation, and every depression 
of the model were made in thousands of duplications from the 
dies, which were mechanically copied from the models by 
Champney's processes. 

First, if the article was not suitable for use as a pattern to 
be molded in sand, a plaster cast for use as a pattern was taken 
from it, and in this plaster cast, as a mold, a second plaster 
cast was made which was a duplicate in form of the article to 
be reproduced. Next, this last cast was molded in fine Troy 
foundry sand, the same as any piece of fine iron casting. This 
sand mold was faced by smoking and printing the pattern 



back in the mold until the surface of the finely divided carbon 
facing, deposited by the smoking process, gave. an absolutely 
perfect mold of the model. Then this mold was poured with 
Barnum & Richardson's car- wheel iron just a good, strong 
foundry iron, nothing secret or special about it. Mr. Champ- 
ney made the molds himself, and he also poured them, melt- 
ing his iron in plumbago crucibles, and with a coke fire in the 
furnace shown in Fig. 94. New crucibles are to be seen 
standing on top of the brickwork of the furnace, and one 

FIG. 94. Forge where dies were heated. 

which has been used is standing on the floor by its side. The 
furnace was a plain, iron-banded, brick-work affair, with an 
ordinary grate of square bars, loose fire-brick doors, and an ash- 
pit, all of the most common construction. At the beginning 
of this Mr. Champney was neither a die-sinker, nor an iron 
molder, nor a steel temperer. But he became all three, and 
his iron molding came very near perfection. He showed at 
that time a cast in gray iron of a large medallion which was 
absolutely perfect, and appeared to have been carefully and 
beautifully finished all over, but had really never been touched 
since leaving the sand; another, a "waster," not good enough 


for Mr. Champney's requirement, is reproduced in Fig. 97. 
A steel die had been made from it, but it did not bear any- 
where the smallest mark of service. The quality of Champ- 
ney's good founding may be guessed from the appearance of 
the surface of Fig. 97, photographed from the "waster" men- 
tioned. The force, or cast-iron reproduction of the model 
was made with an added base, about -jV of an inch thick, as 
shown in Fig. 97, which is full size; this base is faced on the 
bottom so as to lie flat and firm against the bottom of the 

FIG. 95. Drop-hammer for sinking-dies. 

hammer where it is secured, but by means not shown, while 
the hammer was lifted and fell to make the impression in the 
die, or was driven at the Bridgeport Patent Steel Die Com- 
pany's shops. 

Driving Model into the Die 

The block of steel into which the model was to be driven 
was not hollowed out or shaped in anyway so as to partially 
conform to the general outline of the "force." On the con- 
trary, the face of the die-block was roughly crowned both ways 
in the shaper, so as to have a clean metal surface, without scale 


or cinder; the crowning varied with the size of the block. It 
was quite high, perhaps X i ncn m a block about 6 inches long 
by 3 y 2 inches wide. The dies were made about the common 
practise for thickness. After the force or model had been 
"driven" into the hot steel, the metal of the dies was raised "up 
in a high border all around the base of the force, just as it 
would be if the force had been dropped into a mass of very 
wet clay, and this raised edge lay up tight against the edge of 
the base of force. The extreme lift of the hammer, 52 feet, 

FIG. 96. The die-sinkers. 

was used only for the largest work; various drops of the ham- 
mer were used, according to the size of the die. The largest 
die made at that time by Mr. Champney, of which he could 
find a record, measured 12 inches by 10 inches for the top 
opening of the die, and was 8 inches deep from the finished 
surface of the die to the bottom, and the finished die weighed 
212 pounds. 

The hammer used by Mr. Champney weighed 1,500 
pounds, and had an extension which could be keyed to its top, 
which weighed 1,000 pounds, thus making the greatest ham- 
mer weight available 2, 500 pounds. With 50 feet of drop the 



final velocity of the hammer would be considerably over 50 
feet per second. This was reduced somewhat by the V-up- 
rights which guided the hammer in its fall, so that the ex- 
treme velocity attainable was estimated at 50 feet per second. 
The hammer was lifted by a power-driven winch shown in 
Fig. 95; a portion of the hammer is also shown. The dimen- 
sions of the hammer-room did not permit placing the camera 
so as to take a single picture including all of both. The lift- 

, FIG. 97. Specimen of work done. 

ing chain was attached to the top of the hammer, and was 
released by the hand-line, seen coiled on the left upright of 
the hammer-guides. 

These uprights are of wood, having cast-iron V-guides 
bolted to their inner faces. The bottom of the hammer had 
the usual dovetail and key for holding dies. 

It was, of course, essential that the die-block should be 
perfectly confined sideways. 

The steel used was "die steel/' made by Farist, in Bridge- 
port. Any suitable steel might have been used, as there was 
nothing special about the steel. 


Mr. Champney said the die-blocks were heated to " white" 
heat before being placed on the anvil for a "drive. " The 
actual degrees of heat was not given. The heating was done 
in the furnace shown, as was also the heating for tempering. 

After the driven block was cold it was planed in an ordi- 
nary shaper (the only machine tool in the place) and planed 
flat on the top down to the proper height, and was then passed 
to. the die-sinkers, Fig. 96, who did what was needed in the 
way of finishing and "matting" to the working surfaces of the 
dies. If the force was absolutely perfect then the die need not 
have been touched by the die-sinkers, and was not. 

A head of Rubens, from celluloid impression made in a 
Champney die, the surface of which was never touched by a 
hand tool, was of an absolutely perfect finish, as were a medal- 
lion head of Ariadne in copper, and a smaller medallion, also 
in copper. Both the head of Rubens, which was driven from 
a casting made from a plaster cast of a Brussels medallion, and 
the copper medals mentioned were of the most perfect surface 
conceivable, and all were struck in dies which had never been 
touched by a hand tool. But very many dies were made in 
the Bridgeport shops from models in wax, which were by no 
means perfect in detail; the petals of the flowers represented 
wanted sharpening at the edges, matted surfaces were left 
plain, and delicate lines were omitted entirely, to be put in by 
hand after the die was driven. As might be guessed, the very 
smallest and faintest marks on the original were reproduced 
with absolute fidelity in the Champney dies, and a die struck 
from a $5 gold piece, with "Champney" in sunk letters, was 
absolutely faultless in every detail under the microscope, and 
the die of the "Head of Rubens" had a perfect polish in every 

Heating and Hardening of the Dies 

The heating and driving of the dies under the hammer, 
and the hardening and tempering were all done by Mr. 
Champney himself. The heating for all purposes was done 
in the natural draught Lehigh coal furnace shown in Fig. 94, 
just as it appeared after a large die had been taken from it to 



go to the hardening tub shown in Fig. 98. This tub was 
simply a barrel cut down to make the ends of a die holding 
grating at the sides, and notched still lower at the right for an 

Two barrels on an overhead platform were rilled with water 
from the small vertical sup- 
ply pipe, and a much larger 
stream was piped from these 
barrels down to the harden- 
ing tub (cut down from a 
larger barrel) below. This 
large pipe had an upward 
bent open in the tub, some- 
thing like 2 inches or 3 
inches below a grating made 
of small wires crossing two 
bent round rods hooked 
over the sides of the bar- 
rel, all as shown in Fig. 
21. The supply stream was 
small, and the barrels over- 
head were ample reser- 

Pure water only was 
used. The round wire rods 
were perhaps an inch or two 
below the water-line estab- 
lished by the overflow at the 
right. The flow in the 
large delivery pipe was reg- 
ulated by the hand valve. 

In heating the die the face was not allowed to come in 
direct contact with the fire; bent pieces of sheet-iron were 
wired on the die so as to cover the sides, and an iron tray, 
considerably larger than the face of the die, was provided and 
filled with powdered charcoal or bone charcoal, as may be 
thought best. This tray was then put in the fire, and then the 

FIG. 98. Hardening appliances. 


die, having its sides and edges clothed with sheet-iron as 
described, was laid face down on the tray of charcoal; coal was 
added around the die, and the furnace door closed until the 
die was hot; then the die and tray were taken out, turned 
right side up, and the tray was then, and not until then, 
removed from the face of the die, thus keeping the die at all 
times full of the red hot charcoal or bone-dust. The die was 
put bottom down on the grating in the hardening tub; the 
stream was turned on against the bottom of the die until it was 
cooled about half way up, the hot charcoal still filling the 
cavity of the die, and perfectly protecting it from the air; the 
die was turned face down on the grating and the full stream 
of water turned on so as to rush up into the inside of the die 
and cool it as quickly as possible; the die was returned to the 
furnace immediately and drawn rapidly, after hardening; both 
heating and cooling were done as rapidly as possible. As an 
illustration of the value of a large stream of water delivered 
close to the face of the die, Mr. Champney said, that a die 
was brought to him from the Russell & Erwin Factory, New 
Britain, for half of a metal door-knob, an expensive piece of 
die-sinkit.g, which they had tried three times to harden, and 
believed would not harden at all; this die Mr. Champney 
hardened so that no file in his place would touch it, at the first 
attempt, by the methods described. The Russell & Erwin 
shops had a tempering tub piped with an up-stream, but the 
nozzle was 18 inches or so below the grating which the die 
laid on, and hence the hardening stream was too much dif- 
fused, in Mr. Champney's opinion, to be effective. 

Exactness of Size of Dies 

The exactness of size of dies made by the Bridgeport shops 
was wonderful. One set made for exhibition from half of a 
common ball peen machinist's hammer cut in two in the mid- 
dle lengthwise, was as perfect in everything as can be imag- 
ined. But Mr. Champney believed he could make dies con- 
siderably larger or smaller than the force, and could also make 
the die-disk crown more than the mode; thus he said he could 


make the die driven from a gold piece -gV or so larger or 
smaller in diameter than the model which drove the die, and 
could also raise or lower the center of the die at will, so as to 
increase or diminish the weight of the coin struck in the dies. 
He did not explain the means by which he could do this, but 
said the result was certain and as he wished, invariable, and 
he added that he had never lost or cracked a die in hardening. 

Final Development of Champney Process 

The full details of the Champney process have been 
secured since the foregoing was written, and were for a long 
time kept secret, and even to those who had a general idea 
of it the entire process was not very clear. However, I pub- 
lish here the final development of the die-sinking practise: 

If, for example, a die for striking up a deep hollow-ware 
bowl was to be made, Mr. Champney's plan was to first make 
a model of plaster of Paris. From this model a casting was 
made of the finest and closest grained iron obtainable, with a 
large amount of metal left behind the model for strength. 
The sand was then cleaned from the casting without removing 
the hard scale, which is an important feature of this process, 
and it was then keyed to the hammer of the high drop. This 
high drop was rightly named, for although it was of the usual 
drop-press design, the ways are eighty feet high, the lower 
parts of iron and the upper of wood, faced the whole length 
with steel. The hammer itself is of cast iron and weighs 
3,200 pounds. It is about two feet square and three feet long, 
and is raised by a windlass operated by hand. A pull on the 
rope attached to the release-lever allows the huge weight to 
drop, and on the way a latch is fitted to catch the hammer on 
the rebound, for a double blow is fatal to the die. 

To the base of this great drop-press, which was necessarily 
very heavy, is fitted a cast-iron ring, which is 3 feet in diam- 
eter and 10 inches thick. The opening in the center of this 
ring is square and large enough to take any ordinary size of 
die-blank. After keying the cast-iron hub (or type) into the 
hammer of the drop and raising it to a height judged by the 


operator to be sufficient, the die-blank S, which has been 
heated to a bright red, is placed within the square opening in 
the ring at the base of the press, and shims S placed around 
it so as to completely fill the space between the blank and the 
inside edge of the ring. The heavy hammer is then released, 
driving the hub with its facing of hard scale into the red-hot 
die-blank. As the displaced steel could not go sideways on 
account of the shims, it had to go upward and helped to bring 
the resulting impression up to shape. After being struck, the 
die was annealed and the scale removed by pickling; then 
enough was planed from the face to leave the die the proper 
depth, and by means of scrapers and rifflers the impression was 
smoothed and finished as in the ordinary methods of die-sink- 
ing. Next the die was "shanked" to the press in which it 
was to be used, and after hardening and polishing it was ready 
for use. 

Die-Sinking Machines 

One of the essential elements of a machine for sinking dies 
by cutting the stock out from the impression seems to be a 
slide-bed with two lateral movements at right angles to each 
other, and another is a revolving spindle perpendicular to the 
bed, with facilities for graduating the distance between the two. 
Other movements of nearly equal importance are sometimes 
incorporated with the machine. All are modified and adjusted 
for the purpose proposed, and every adjustment provided 
which will conduce to their proper employment. The gratify- 
ing result of the whole combination is a machine which is not 
duly appreciated, but which is constantly developing unlooked- 
for possibilities and capabilities. It is like a trade of which 
those who have worked at it the longest, and learned it the 
best, will say: "We are always finding out some new thing 
about it." 

Die-sinking machines, as now made, are intended to be 
used, whenever occasion requires, as copying machines. They 
are so arranged that a model die may be fixed on the bed 
which carries the die to be formed, and hence these two dies 
will be moved in concert, holding at all times the same position 


relative to each other. A place is provided in the head which 
carries the spindle for the insertion of a "guide-pin" which will 
hold a like relative position of the spindle, and thus if the 
"guide-pin" is kept In contact with the model die and made to 
follow all its depressions and outlines, a cutter fixed within the 
spindle and corresponding in shape and size to the guide-pin 
will remove from the other die whatever material is brought in 
its way, and produce on it an impression which will correspond 
to the model in every way and point touched by the guide-pin. 
The correspondence of the pin and cutter in shape and size is 
important, so that the shape shall be proper for the work. If 
there is any variation in their size, there will be a uniform but 
not a proportional difference of size in the impressions of the 
model and the made die. 

As the arrangement of motions in this machine is such 
that it can present an object to the grubbing of a rotating 
cutter in every direction, horizontally as well as downways, 
and as the cutter will mill away and remove any stock so pre- 
sented, it is evident that with properly constructed cutters it 
can produce work of any shape or contour, or of any sharpness 
of angle, except such inside angles as are consequent upon its 
horizontal motions. The acuteness of these, if produced by 
rotating cutter, is limited by the radius of the circle of the cut- 
ter, but if it is necessary or becomes expedient to cut such 
angles with the machine rather than to dress them out by the 
hand, a chisel may be substituted for the mill, and the stock 
from any corner may be removed with a light planing or splin- 
ing cut, which does not strain the screws more than their ordi- 
nary employment. This application was especially provided 
for on the original "Index" of the universal milling-machine; 
the spindle and ball and socket connecting with a stout lever 
by which endwise motion could be obtained. 

The quality of work which the die-sinking machine is 
intended to do requires that it should be made with such 
accuracy that will fashion work with undeviating precision. 
It is in fact so well made that with well-ground cutters the 
bottoming cut leaves a surface as smooth as though it had been 


stoned. Parties have fitted the three actuating screws with 
micrometrical indices by which its actuating motions in any 
direction may be gaged and stated very minutely, and have so 
balanced its movable parts as to render it delicately sensitive 
to the touch. With these nice appointments, determinations, 
and susceptibilities, it is competent to as fine preformance as 
the copying machine, noted in London almost one hundred 
and twenty years ago for its work in copying medallions, 
which must have had similar capacity of motion, and have 
substituted a fixed graver for a revolving cutter to have secured 
its finest effects. 

These remarks about the die-sinking machines are not 
intended for those who know of it, but for those who know it 
not. It is a prompting of business instinct to seize upon the 
advantages to be derived from the employment of machinery 
as soon as they are shown to exist, with the same avidity and 
for the same reason that specks of gold are picked up when- 
ever they can be found. So was the world's mass of gold 
gathered, and so individual wealth is accumulated. 

Closed and Open Dies for Forgings 

In most shops where drop-forging dies are used it will pay 
to use closed dies on some forgings, even when with good 
contrivance most of the work can be done with open dies. 
The difference between a closed die and an open die is this: 
In a closed die the stock cannot escape, but the overplus, or 
whatever is taken into the dies more than enough to fill them, 
is thrown out as a fin, and is removed afterward by trimming 
in a punch-press or with a chisel, or by grinding, but in open 
dies the stock is worked sideways successively until it is 
brought to the proper size and shape, and the overplus stock, 
if any, is worked out at the ends, and simply requires to be 
cut or broken off. It will be observed then that the open 
dies only require to have bottoms of the impressions made to 
the right profile because these only impress the form upon the 
stock, but in closed dies the impression must be correct on all 
sides, because the stock fills the die and the shape of all sides 


is impressed upon it. As there is very little strain upon open 
dies they can be made of cast iron often with great advantage, 
and take the proper form from the mold, but closed dies have 
to sustain an enormous strain and therefore have to be worked 
out from solid metal. 

It is advisable in many cases, and especially when unskilled 
labor is employed at the drop-hammer, to use closed dies 
when the extra cost of dies, the cost of trimming, and the 
expense of extra waste of stock does not make the full cost of 
the forgings greater than it would be if made with open 

For some work which can be dropped or forged either 
way, it may be made with one or two blows with closed dies, 
while it would require more than twice as many to make it 
with open dies, and yet it may be cheaper to use the open dies 
on account of saving of stock, for being struck repeatedly first 
on this side and then on the edge, the extra stock is forced 
out at the end and being left on the bar goes into the next 
piece instead of being trimmed off as a fin, which would be 
necessary if it had been made in a closed die. The cost of 
trimming is also saved by the use of the open die. The cost 
of forging is to be reckoned from the bar to the piece deliv- 
ered as a complete forging, and as it includes everything 
expended to produce it, the cost of all dies, trimming as 
well as forging, must enter into the account. 

Value of Modern Machinery 

In the majority of shops where drops are employed it 
would pay to have a die-sinking machine, not only that the 
cost of the dies is cheapened by its use, but also because dies 
can be made with it which could not very well be produced 
without it by mechanics not skilled in the specialty of cutting 
out accurate impressions in steel. This increased facility of 
making trimming as well -as drop dies induces a greater use of 
the drop and utilization of the advantages it affords of produ- 
cing uniformity. Pieces so perfected are cheaper than hand- 
forgings, and not only in first cost, but also in saving much of 


the labor which would have to be spent on them if they were 
so shaped. 

Some men seem to judge of the value of a machine 
according to the amount of time they can keep it running. 
They don't want to buy a tool they cannot keep constantly 
employed. That is not the criterion to go by. Tools 
are not to be valued in proportion to the amount of time 
which they must be employed to do the work, but to the 
amount of time which they can remain unemployed and stii/ 
do the work. A manufacturer would hardly think it wise to 
put a large portion of his working capital into a machine that 
would be only used two weeks out of fifty-two in a year, and 
yet thousands of small capitalists have invested millions of 
dollars with ample profits in just such machines. Where are 
the machines? Standing outdoors in the fence corners all 
over the world. Agriculture machines? Yes; farmers find 
that it pays them to have tools to do their work when the field 
is ripe for the harvest, and to do it quick, and then let the 
tool remain idle until it can show its worth again, and manu- 
facturers can learn the same lesson. 

It may be observed that the die-sinking machine is not of 
the kind which is improved by standing outdoors in the fence 
corners; the best care is none too good for it, nor are the 
most intelligent and careful men too good to have charge of 

Circumstances are of frequent occurrence which illustrate 
the benefits which may result from the ability to make uni- 
form forgings. One instance of many like it was where a 
large number of machines had been manufactured and sent out 
by reputable parties. It was an old standard machine, but 
they had made some slight improvement in it, and as is often 
the way with slight improvements, this one was found to have 
spoiled the machine, for the "slight" alteration in one part had 
caused a great alteration in another part. Various plans were 
devised to remedy the defect, but all involved too much trou- 
ble, until at last it was discovered that a single forging, if 
made of a peculiar shape, would answer the purpose, but the 


shape was so intricate and difficult to make by hand that it 
would not have been thought feasible to make it if it had not 
been pointed out that drop-dies could be cut with which the 
pieces could be made with uniformity at a moderate expense. 
This plan being adapted and the pieces sent out the defect was 
remedied, and the expense of returning the machines for 
repairs was avoided. This is simply the old story of the 
advantage of interchangeable parts ; this version of it is only to 
show that the benefits of the system were obtained because the 
means were right at hand to secure them at once. 

Prevision and Supervision 

This suggests an illustration of that old story, the value of 
prevision and supervision. It may seem exaggerated, but it 
is a cold fact. Some men were once grouped together in a 
manufacturing company who had struck a business bonanza 
a mine of wealth. The golden sands had run so freely that it 
hadn't been necessary for them to know anything about the 
real economies of manufacturing, and, of course, when they 
felt inspired to practise something of the kind in the name of 
"business," they saved at the spigot and slopped over at the 
open head of the barrel. Without bothering their heads much 
about the matter they carelessly classed the cost of supervision 
and of tool-making together, and both as unprofitable ex- 
penditure, or as one of them put it: "As a standing expense; 
like the brick walls of the shop." 

One day it happened that a man came along whose eyes 
set so far back in his head that whatever he saw affected his 
brain. He looked a little into the way those men did busi- 
ness, and finally told them that they were not paying out 
enough for tools and superintendence, and he could prove it. 
They took an uncanny faith in this man, told him to go 
ahead, paid him the fee of a trust lawyer to manage the 
mechanical department of their business, and he permeated 
the whole establishment with his presence, as the sunlight 
floods the entire planetary system. He put thousands of 
dollars worth of tools into the tool-room, and set to work six 



times the number of tool-makers they had employed before. 
In short, he modernized to the last extremity. The latest and 
best tools and methods he would have, and he did have. 

What was the result of this headlong expenditure? It is 
that the average cost of the product of the establishment is 
reduced to about a third of what it was when he assumed con- 
trol; the demand for the machines they make has kept up 
with his improvements; the output has increased in proper- 

FIG. 99. Forging and dies. 

tion; more men are employed; the average of their wages 
is higher than ever; every one is satisfied, and prosperity 


Hob for Forging Dies 

In Fig. 99, a forging, of which a great number were to be 
made, is shown at A. As dies, for making this forging, it 
being produced in great quantities, had to be renewed quite 
frequently, the making of the forging dies in the usual man- 
ner became quite expensive. In the shop where these pieces 
were manufactured, however, the expense of making new dies 
was greatly reduced by making a hob, such as shown at B in 
the cut. This hob was made of tool-steel and hardened, and 
had a projection of exactly the same shape as the piece to be 
forged. Die and punch are shown at B. 

The block for the forging die, in which the shape of the 
piece to be made was to be formed, was placed, together with 


the hob, in correct relationship in a hydraulic press, and the 
hob forced into the die-block the required depth by hydraulic 
pressure. By forcing the hob into the die-block, the metal 
displaced was thrown up around the side of the hob. This 
surplus metal was removed, and the die hardened. By ma- 
king the dies irr this manner, it was possible to renew the dies 
at a fraction of the cost of the dies made in the ordinary way. 
For irregular shaped forgings it would sometimes be necessary 
to make two hobs one for the top and one for the bottom die 



Combination Drop-Dies 

WHEN a drop-die is fastened into place where it is to be 
used, it becomes a part of the piece into which it is fastened. 
The more firmly it is bedded, the more solid it will become, 
and hence the better it will fulfil its duties. The union of 
several pieces is intended to make substantially one sole, solid 
piece. If it is a lower die fixed in the drop-bed, it becomes a 
portion of the anvil, and if it is a top die fixed in the hammer- 
head, it becomes a portion of the hammer. 

It is exceedingly difficult to unite two pieces of iron 
together, without welding, so that they will be, as to the effect 
of impact, as solid as one piece. 

If you take the blacksmith's hammer in your right hand, 
and let it fall on the anvil, it will rebound; if, to prevent this, 
you stiffen your muscles, and exert your will, and bring it 
down with all your force, straining against a rebound, you will 
only induce a stronger reaction. If now you take the flatter 
in your left hand and let it rest on the peen of the hammer 
while you let the hammer fall, the hammer will strike flat and 
dead, without rising at all from the anvil. The flatter and 
hammer, together, are not as heavy as the sledge, but if you 
let the sledge fall, face down, upon the anvil it will rebound. 
You take the hammer again in your right hand, and place 
your left hand on the peen, where you held the flatter, and 
now let it fall. Do you stop all the rebound? No, it rises 
slightly from the anvil, and the tingling of your palm tells 
what occurred at the union of the hammer and the hand. You 



are familiar with the facts; every one who has worked in the 
shop has made the experiments. I mention them only to 
direct attention to the absolute necessity of making union 
between two pieces of metal as compact and unyielding as 
possible, in order to secure the full effect at the impact of the 
force due to the blow. Much of it may be dissipated in open 

Union Between Metal Parts 

These phenomena convey the suggestion that a falling 
compound weight, made up of two components, one above 
the other, in contact, but not connected, strikes first with the 
momentum of the lower part, and, second, with the momen- 
tum of the upper part, subject to a deduction for interference 
of the reaction of the first from the place of impact, which the 
momentum of the upper part must meet and overcome before 
it can be delivered at the same place. When the two parts are 
connected this interference will be proportionately less as the 
connections are more firm and compact. No union, short of 
welding, can be much more intimate than that of a flatter rest- 
ing on the ball peen of a hammer, and yet we know that the 
break in the continuity of the substance, which occurs so 
slightly between these two pieces, makes a break in the con- 
tinuity of the momentum of the flatter and the rebound of 
the hammer otherwise this combination would rebound at 
one time like the sledge. 

When a die is set in a hammer it transmits as much of the 
momentum of the hammer to the object which is struck, as 
overcomes the interfering reaction of the die, and if the die is 
small, in proportion to the weight of the hammer, there will 
be less of this interference to overcome than if large. 

If it be desired to strike a blow with a drop-hammer that 
shall not rebound, it is only necessary to arrange a loose 
weight on and above the hammer, or to have the hammer in 
two disunited parts, of which two parts in the lower one alone 
has connection with the uptake and upholds. The greatest 
effect of impact, in proportion to the power required for lift- 


ing the combined weight, will be given when the weight of 
the upper part exceeds that of the lower. 

Considerable disappointment is sometimes experienced 
when it is found that adding to the weight of the dies does 
not proportionately add to the effect of the blow. The remedy 
is in adding to the weight of the hammer, but relief may some- 
times be obtained by getting the dovetailing of the tenon to 
perfectly match that of the die-seat and fit the keys, so that 
they will draw the die up, as tight as possible, against the 

But whatever the facts of the case may be in regard to the 
best method of fastening dies, for the purpose of getting the 
fullest and best possible results of the blow, it is well to 
remember that all things in drop-work have to give way before 
expediency. If it is expedient to fasten dies in a drop-ham- 
mer in a certain way, for any special reason, whether by that 
means the full effect of the blow is secured or not, that is the 
way to fasten them; and if, when thus fastened, the effect of 
the blow of a certain sized hammer is not sufficient to accom- 
plish the desired object, then a larger hammer may be used. 
The principle of drop-forging is not persuasion, it is compul- 
sion; it requires the furnishing of power, potent enough to 
overcome every interference and drive the reluctant stock into 
the dies, where it forces it to assume the form of the impres- 

Die- Blocks and Impression- Blocks 

It is not always necessary to use a piece of steel for a die 
which is large enough to make a die-block with a tenon of 
the size which the bed of the drop requires. The die proper, 
or the steel-block into which the impression is cut, may 
often be economically made of a much smaller pattern and 
held in a die-block, as well as have it all solid in one piece. 
The impression-block can be let into a wrought-iron or steel 
die-block by drilling and chiseling out a recess in the block, 
or by planing out enough to receive it, or it may have a block 
of cast iron around it. 


When the steel is used as an impression-block, it is thus 
employed because its wearing qualities are demanded, and 
the requisite strength is partially supplied by the material of 
the block on which it is set. 

There has always been a claim in regard to railroad-rails 
that they have two general functions: one to support strain, 
and one to endure wear; and as it seemed useless to be 
obliged to renew the whole rail whose cost augmented with 
its weight simply because it failed, in its less massive 
function, by wearing out, efforts have continually been made 
to separate these functions, and as the growing tendency of 
rails is to increase in weight, this consideration has the same 
tendency to increase in weight. 

In some of these efforts, the scheme has been to make 
separate parts, to be permanently laid, for upbearing strength, 
while other parts, intended for wear, were made as light as was 
consistent with the purpose, and could be easily removed and 
replaced with similar parts. Other plans crossed the problem, 
and had the rail made double-headed, so that either side could 
be used for wear, while the opposite side always contributed 
its quota of strength. 

Making Die to Resist Wear 

Ingenuity in different branches suggests similar expedi- 
ents; the replacing of the worn part of a rail is parallel to the 
making of the impression part of a drop-forging die of steel, 
to resist wear only, and hence making it no longer than will 
suffice for this purpose, leaving it to derive support to resist 
stress from the bed in which it sets. The double-headed rail 
finds its counterpart in a mode of making flat-faced dies which 
have a square cross-section, so as to use each of the four flat 
faces to sink impressions in. After the impression which has 
been cut in one side is worn out, another impression can be 
cut on either of the other sides, each side serving in turn for 
a face. If the drop has a dovetailed die-seat in the hammer 
or bed, packing is made of the necessary form, or the keys are 
modified to suit. Dies with straight sides cannot be drawn 


up against the seat with keys, nor is there anything but fric- 
tion to hold them firm in the seat. The time when dies shift 
in the drop, whether they are dovetailed or straight, is at that 
instant succeeding the impact, when the reaction takes place 
between the die and its bedding, the reaction which tingles 
the palm of the hand on the peen of the hammer. 

The same objection lies against these four- faced dies that 
is raised against double-headed rails, which is, that while one 
side is used for a bed, and the other for a face, the bed-side 
gets so bruised that it is not fit for a face, and the face gets so 
cut and worn that it is not fit for a bed. If the impression be 
deep, however, it is much less trouble to redress the bruised 
sides than to plane away the whole worn impression to obtain, 
on that one side, a new face. 

This plan works better on hammers which are wide be- 
tween the uprights than on those which are narrow, as the 
strength of the cheeks which they much need to resist the 
excessive strain of keying is not so much impaired by remov- 
ing the stock to get the extra width of the die-seat. 

Keying Wide-Seat Dies 

In the wide die-seats it is often very convenient to key in 
an open blocking-die alongside the finishing-die. These dies 
are only as wide as the stock is likely to spread in them when 
worked, and are often the scant profile of the finished forging 
as their use is for shaping the stock sideways so that it will 
drop into the finish imprint. Their durability is not the same 
as that of the finishing-dies, and therefore it is an advantage to 
have them separate therefrom, in order that the wearing-out, 
or failure of one, may not necessitate the renewal of both. It 
is the general rule that a pair of blocking-dies will outlast 
several pairs of finishing-dies. 

It is very convenient to have keyed into the die-seat, along 
with the dies, some kind of cutting-off tool, to cut off pieces 
which are made from the bar, after all the work has been done 
on them which it is desirable to do before they are detached. 
These tools are liable to accident and require frequent sharp- 


en ing or renewal, and simple arrangements are easily made for 
doing it readily. 

Places which have been blocked out and are detached from 
the bar, as they do not require the impression to go clear 
across the dies, may be dropped in steel impression blocks, or 
comparatively small dies which for support are placed in die- 
blocks of ample strength to resist breaking-strain. The 
wrought-iron or steel die-block, used for this purpose, has a 
recess cut into it which is of the shape and size of the die- 
patterns it is to receive. In order that this die-pattern or 
impression-block may derive any substantial and trustworthy 
support from the die-block in which it is embedded, it must 
fit it with absolutely perfect grip on all sides which are 
liable to be stressed. If it is not so encompassed it is liable 
to yield to the pressure, which forces it open beyond the limits 
of its elastic recovery and then cracks will soon make their 
appearance. Frequently the latitude, commonly described as 
loose-fit, will suffice to permit the die to spread beneath the 
force of the blow enough to crack it. The recess in which 
the die is held should take it in nearly to its full depth. 
The die-block should be of sufficient mass to absorb in itself 
the slight rebound of the die, and it should have no com- 
promise with skill and economy in the matter of its being 
well-fitted and drawn by a dovetailed tenon to its solid bed. 

First Principles in Holding-Dies 

In the matter of holding-dies, it is a good thing once in a 
while to get back to first principles. Some of the old trip- 
hammer men around Worcester, Milbury, Sutton, and other 
places in the New England States, in the early part of the last 
century, used to make, instead of a slot or groove, a mortise or 
recess in their hammer-heads in which to hold the upper dies. 
These mortises were perhaps an inch deep, a quarter of an inch 
smaller at the bottom than at the top, and the dies were made 
to fit them loosely, and wedged in as tight as the hammer 
struck upon them. They were removed by striking them, first 
on one end, and then on the other; a very few blows sufficed 


to loosen them. As long as a man runs his own hammer 
exclusively he could keep his small stock of dies in pretty 
decent fitting, but when the hammer was of general use, the 
dies soon became of no use, and would drop out, sometimes, 
when the hammer was running; so for such hammers, grooves 
were cut and keys used in Lowell, Waltham, and Saco, where 
trip-hammers were employed at making cotton-mill spindles 
and other machinery, work which is hard on dies, and requires 
that they shall accurately match and restrain their position. 
They soon came into universal use in scythe and gun shops, 
which were the principal places where the trip-hammers were 
used. Small trip-hammer heads are liable to split in driving 
keys, and when gains or slots were first used they were cut 
shallow, the tenons of the dies were short, and the keys narrow. 
The mortise is stronger than a slot, for it holds like a band on 
all sides. It appears to be the best way to fasten impression 
dies into the die-blocks. 

Bolt Heading Dies 

Whenever wrought iron, mild steel, or tool-steel is used in 
quantities as special or standard forgings, there the designer 
and fitter of forge-dies and formers finds employment, and 
usually at increased wages over those of the ordinarv machin- 
ist and tool-maker. 

It sometimes happens that the simplest looking piece is 
really the hardest to get a perfect-working former for, as many 
have found to their vexation. Bolt-heading dies are perhaps 
the simplest and best understood, but, as with everything else, 
there are certain things which if overlooked in preparing them 
in the machine-shop, often hinder their proper working. The 
common mistake with these dies is in planing the dies separ- 
ately. They should be clamped on the planer or shaper, 
and planed in pairs and the halves numbered. With the two 
dies planed at the one time, even if the dies do come out of 
the chuck a little out of square, both dies will be nearer alike 
and fit better than if machined separately. What has to be 
looked for in either case, however^ is that the end be square 


with the sides. The two dies, if planed together, do not have 
to be perfectly true on the sides or bearing surfaces. They 
will come together, as they should, but of course the ends 
should meet squarely, or shimming will be required, and this 
should be avoided if at all possible. 

When the dies have been planed on their four outside sur- 
faces, the working surfaces are ready for attention. The pieces 
should be clamped end to end, so that the cut is taken length- 
wise, and after the surfaces are finished and before removal 
from the chuck a V-channel Should be cut for the guide for 
the center of the drill in the middle of the two faces. After 
the dies are taken from the chuck, if the ends do not come 
square and even, make them so, and they are then ready to be 
clamped together and drilled. The clamps should have two 
holes drilled for compression-bolts, just far enough apart to 
give J/Q inch clearance for the dies to enter easily. The dies 
should be mated on a surface plate, and the two ends that 
match the best brought together. A -f^-mch piece of sheet- 
iron should be placed between the dies. This makes the hole 
slightly oblong and compresses the iron when the dies come 
together for heading the bolt. Otherwise the iron would 
slip through the dies when they operate. The drills should 
be the same size as the iron; but for neat, accurate work, a 
reamer should be used for finishing, as a twist drill sometimes 
makes a very rough hole. When reamed to the proper size, 
and before removing from the clamps, the piece should 
be marked 1 and 2 on one end and 3 and 4 on the other 
end for the guidance of the machine operator. To keep 
the dies steady when drilling, a cross clamp also should be 
provided to bolt the dies to the drill table. If left free to 
move with the drill the hole is apt to run crooked. The dies 
are then ready to have all the sharp edges removed with a 
coarse file. The quality of the work and also the amount 
produced depends a great deal on how the dies are finished. 
If they pinch the iron on the corners of the dies more than at 
the middle of each semicircle they will not do one-third of the 
work. To get this bearing the corners should be filed round- 



ing. The sharp wire edges should be removed also from the 
ends and made slightly countersunk. The dies should be 
made of tool-steel, and in hardening heat to a low cherry-red 
and cool in oil. The temper need not be drawn. 

The heating-blocks are the next to receive attention. 
After all the surfaces are planed true, and to size as near that 
of the gripping dies as possible, they are ready to be hardened. 
They should be heated to a cherry-red and dipped in water 
and not drawn, as they should have very hard working sur- 

The headers give more trouble than either the dies or the 
blocks, for they are hard to hold in the lathe and the working 

surface on them has to be 
finished, as any rough sur- 
faces make a bad job on 
the head of the bolt, and 
the working-life of the 
header is cut down. 

The header generally 
used is 1^x2x12 inches. 
The rule for the heading 

end of these headers is one and one-half times the diameter, 
with iV inch added for the thickness, and of course 2y 2 
inches wide or wider if wanted. For illustration we will take 
a 1-inch bolt; this would give a header as per Fig. 100, both 
ends alike. The rule for recessing the ends is: J/& inch less 
than the width of the header for the inside circle, ^ inch 
more than the distance across the corners for the outside cir- 
cle, and one-quarter the diameter of the iron for depth of 
recess. For 1-inch bolts the dimensions of the header would 
_be 1-ft- inches for inside circle, and J^ inch for depth. 

For finishing the recess a couple of flat files, shaped on the 
end' to the profile of the recess and used to scrape the rough 
surface after turning, will be found very handy; they should 
be ground true to size and made very hard. They can be 
made to clamp in the tool-post, but they are more handy and 
quicker used as hand tools. After the headers are scraped out 

FIG. 100. Header for 1-inch bolt. 


clean, finish them with a piece of fine emery cloth, so that the 
surface shows no tool marks of any kind. They are then 
ready to have the wire edges filed off and especially across the 
center, as the inside circle does not take out all the stock from 
the sides. File this surplus off even with the base of the cir- 
cle and polish smooth. It is then ready to harden and should 
be given an oil dip at a low heat. Let me impress on the 
reader how that the rougher and harder the headers 
are made the less work they will do and the more 
they will crack in use; so don't let some "smart 
Aleck" bolt-maker talk you into making them like 
flint. FIG. 101. 

Countersunk head bolts are practically the same Head 
as square head, except that the head is made in the 
gripping dies and no header-blocks are required. The header 
is of the same dimensions as that previously described, with 
one end flat. The rule for countersunk heads is: Half the 
diameter of the iron for depth of head, and one and a half 
times for the large diameter of the head. Taking, for ex- 
ample, a >^-inch counter-sunk head bolt, the dimensions 
would be as per Fig. 101. 

This same rule applies to button-head bolts. Cone-head 
bolts and rivets are made the reverse way from countersunk 
head bolts; that is, the head is formed in the 
header instead of in the blocks. The rule is: 
The diameter of the iron for the small circle, one 
and a half times this for the large circle, half the 
size of the iron with j/6 inch added for the 
Cone head depth as per Fig. 102. Rivet dies for structural, 
bolt. boiler, and car work need more care than any 
other class of dies, for the reason that mild steel 
is now used to a great extent in this class of work, and the 
dies and headers have to stand great strains. Both dies next 
the head should be slightly countersunk and rounded nicely 
with a fine file. 

Care should be taken to have plenty of stock on the sides 
of the headers, as they are under great strain in doing the 


work. If the header is not wide enough to have *^-inch stock 
outside the recess JMi-inch would be better have the header 
upset. The rivet produced is shown by Fig. 103. This gives 
practically the same rule for these heads as for the cone heads, 
except that the depth is iV inch less than the diameter of 
the iron. 

It is a very common mistake for a machinist to drill both 
ends of a pair of dies the same and make both ends of a header 
the same, but this should never be done, unless you want four 
pairs of dies and four headers for the same 
size of bolts. Where both ends are made the 
same, they can't be repaired when worn out 
until both ends are gone, and that hangs them 
up and puts the machine out on that size 

until they can be fixed up: but if you have, say 
Rivet head. / , , / i , 

y 2 inch on one end and y% inch on the other, 

and two pairs of each, when a pair needs repairing you still 
have a pair in reserve, and the headers the same. 

Forging-Press Dies for Making Hammers 

The advantage of forging hammers and similar tools so as 
to preserve uniform shapes and density of metal was recognized 
before the advent of the forging-press, but this has helped 
matters a great deal, and its good points have been utilized by 
many firms. It is rapid and can handle a large variety of 
work, the cost of the work depending largely on the dies used, 
as they directly affect the time taken for a man to handle the 
different pieces. 

I will endeavor to show their proper construction in as sim- 
ple a way as possible, and begin on the simpler forms first. 

Saving Unnecessary Movements 

The main object in the dies should be to do as much as 
possible and concentrate them in rotation, so that each opera- 
tion will follow the other without the workman having to lose 
time by doing unnecessary traveling from end to end of the 
press. This takes time and the steel gets cold, making it 



harder on the dies and press, and very often hard on a man's 

First comes the shear blades which are of peculiar shape, 
as they are designed for nothing but hot shearing, and must 
cut the bar as square as possible, other- 
wise the steel buckles in squaring the face 
of the hammer, and requires extra work. 

In Fig. 104, B shows the bottom blade 
with the guide to keep the top blade from 
overlapping, but still giving a tight contact 
for good work. A shows the top blade 
and on its sharpness and proper set depends 
the squareness of the cut and length of the 
piece, for when dull it "slides" the piece 
in shearing and causes variations in weight, 
and as every piece should be of the same 
size, an extra J4j inch will count up to quite 
a large amount in a day's run. The punch, punch-block 
and stripper come next, and the adjustable gages on the 
punch-block for locating the eye of different size hammers. 

O B O 

FIG. 104.- 
Bottom blade. 

D E G I 

\\ 7 \ 7 !\ 7 Y\ 7 


- 0- 



FIG. 105. Complete outfit. 

In Fig. 10$, C shows the gages attached to block. The front 
and back is practically the same. The stripper is shown over 
it, and the punch-holder with the punch used. Where more 
than one press is in the shop the punch-holders should all be 



made the same, so both punches and holders are interchange- 
able for any machine. 

Making a Double-Faced Hammer 

Suppose we want to make a double-faced hammer, like TV, 
Fig. 9. This requires top and bottom drift dies E and F, 
Fig. 105, smoothing dies G and H, both top and bottom 
being the same in this case, and be sure that the working sur- 
faces be rounded nicely to avoid cutting the hot steel. 

The breaking-down dies, / and /, are the same as dies G 
and H 9 except having J^ inch more space between them for 


FIG. 106. FIG. 107. FIG. 108. 

Making a double-faced hammer. 

the edges of the hammer. The surfacing-die is merely a 
broad flat top used to keep the hammers of one length before 
punching, and should be made short enough to take in the 
largest hammer made. The difference in size and length of 
hammers is made up by different thicknesses of iron-plates 
laid on the bottom die-table. 

These dies will make from six to ten sizes of hammers, by 
making them for the largest size first and putting j/8 inch 
liners under the dies for each smaller size hammer made. All 
dies shown are in place on the press for each operation in Fig. 


The Finishing of the Dies 

Great care is required that the dies should be finished as 
smooth and true as possible, as any tool-marks will work into 



FIG. 109. Breaking-down dies. 

the hot steel, and if not true 

they will not only leave high 

and low places on the work, 

but get the tool out of 

square. These marks some- 
times cause hammers to 

crack in hardening. All 

working faces of dies should 

be hardened. 

In making a cross or 

straight peen hammer the 

dies M M leave the peen 

in the shape shown at L, 

Fig. 107, and the surplus is 

nipped off by the hot shears 

first shown. 

For economy and saving 

of machine-work, a great many of these dies can be made 

with a cast-iron base, saving two-thirds cost of die in both 

steel and machinists' work, after the first set is made. But 

great care must be taken 
to have the casting of 
the toughest possible 
mixture, otherwise it is 
liable to crush and get 
out of true. The sides 
are also liable to frac- 
ture where the gib of 
the steel face is keyed 
on. I think on the 
whole it is better to 
make these founda- 
tion-blocks of low- 
grade steel. They 
should be put together 
with keys and dove- 
FIG. 110. Formers for eye. tails, using large fillits 



to strengthen the sides. The 
steel faces should be at least 
one-third the height of the fin- 
ished die. When made too 
thin, they soon get soft, wear 
out of shape, and buckle, for 
they are constantly subjected 
to great heat and strains while 
in use. 

Few Dies Needed for For- 

It would seem at first 
glance that the variety of 
work on a forging-machine 

press would require a very large number of dies, but such is 
not the case. For with the addition of subblocks a great 
many dies can be used for different purposes, and even with- 
out them it must be remembered that a latitude of 1 V 2 inches 

FIG. 111. Swaging dies. 

FIG. 112. Arrangement of dies. 



is possible. In tool-work we seldom forge a piece over 3 
inches square, and one set of dies will answer for from 10 to 
1 $ different size articles, as iV inch taken off or put on the 
hammer makes quite a difference in the weight, and often 
the only variation will be in the length, which makes sev- 
eral pounds difference in the weight. 

We will take for example a single and double-faced spall- 

\< 6H- H *-2H^ 

-PEE3- -E3S 

FIG. 113. Forging-machine jobs. 

ing-hammer and an ordinary stone sledge. One set of dies 
will make all of these tools, the only difference being in the 
bevels and the pinching-dies for the cutting ends. The 
straight sides are all the same, for no upsetting-dies are used 
on these hammers, as the beveling-dies to break down the 
edges on the stone sledges take their place. A certain amount 
of stock must be added to both hammers, as they kick back 



unless pinched down, so as to leave about ^ inch to be 
sheared off. The shear-blades should be sharp for this, as 
when they are dull they drag, and this fin must be ground off. 

Most of the dies for this job 
are similar to those shown in 
Fig. 105. 

Set of Tools for Forging a 
Fulcrum Bracket . 

During recent years much 
progress has been made in for- 
ging and in smith-work gen- 
erally. The old and more 
tedious methods are dying out, 
as forging-machines and appli- 
ances are adapted to the work. 
Among these the swaging-ma- 
chine deserves particular at- 
tention, and on straight work 
it is really a labor-saving device 
in every sense of the word. I 
wish to illustrate a set of tools used in the machine for making 
a fulcrum-bracket in connection with railway-brake gear. 
These tools, however, are not confined to this particular job. 
As will be seen, the job is admirably suited for the swaging- 
machine; to drop-forge it would be a 
waste of time and material. Fig. 109 
shows a set of breaking-down dies, 
Fig. 110 a set of formers for shaping 
the eye, Fig. Ill an ordinary set of 
fa, 1, and I fa inch swaging-dies, 
Fig. 115 a set of cutters the construc- 
tion of which will be readily under- 
stood from the sketches. Fig. 112 

shows the arrangement of these dies in the machine and the 
method of securing in place. The stroke of the upper rams 
is y inch, and they make 600 working-strokes per minute. 

FIG. 114. Machine dies. 

FIG. 115. Pin-end. 



FIG. 116.- 
Squeezed iron. 

All the lower rams are adjustable and can be instantly raised 
or lowered at the will of the operator. At the side of the ma- 
chine is a hot circular saw. 

The blank shown at b is cut off at the shears to the re- 
quired length, very little being al- 
lowed for scrap. It is then brought 
to a working-heat in a suitable fur- 
nace, which should hold at least six 
pieces and is fed into cutters D 
where, by means of the gage shown, 
first one side of the collar is formed 
and then the other, as seen in Fig. 
111. In the same heat the short end is rapidly broken down 
between the dies A and swaged to the required diameter by 
first passing it through the Ij^-inch swage and the 1-inch in 
Fig. 111. The operation is finished by trimming the end 
to length in the hot saw, and all others are treated in like 


For the second opera- 
tion, the other end is 
properly heated and rap- 
idly broken down under 
dies, Fig. 109, and ap- 
pears more or less like d, 
Fig. 113; the enlargement 
for the eye is then formed 
by passing it through the 
dies, Fig. Ill, and the flat 
of dies, Fig. 109, several 
times. The swaging-dies, 
Fig. Ill, are then opened 
to receive the round part 
between the eye and col- 
lar, and this is neatly finished off there until the eye is correct 
in distance from the collar, when it is again released and the 
bit formed on the end sawn off. 

It should be understood that these operations must be 


Back View 




Top View 



FIG. 117. Pin-end die. 



rapidly performed, two heats being required to finish the 
piece. It will be noticed that dies, Figs. 109, 110, and 114, 
are so set as to produce the finished size without any adjust- 

The piece at ^, Fig. 113, is another forging produced on 
_. this machine at such a price and with 

such a finish as to give perfect satisfac- 
tion all around. 



FIG. 118. 
The header. 

Forging Dies for * ' Pin-Ends ' ' 

One of the jobs set down as impos- 
sible to be done on the forging-machine 
was the forking of "pin-ends" for switch 
work, but it was found by a little experimenting that they 
could be made very nicely and rapidly, so that what formerly 
cost 18 cents each could be made for 2 cents each by the new 
process. The pin-end is shown at A y Fig. 115, and the dies 
at Fig. 117. Fig. 116 shows the iron as it comes from the 
squeezer, enlarged the small way of the iron and bent to a 
sharp angle, so that the header will force it into the dies. The 
bending is done by the operator as the dies squeeze the iron, 
he forcing his end up to form the bend. The squeezing and 
bending is the first operation, and the piece is reheated for the 



I* v. 

1 1 


\ Squeezei; 

Stationary Die 

FIG. 119. Squeezing die. 

finishing upset, and should be very hot to do a good job. 
The moving-die in the pin-recess should be given plenty of 
taper and should be very smooth, so that the iron will slide 
into the recess without any trouble when the header strikes it. 
Any sharp corners should be carefully filed off, or they cut the 



Moving J,_ n 






1 - 


iron and the job looks bad 
when finished. The header 
should be tool-steel. The 
inside corner which comes 
next the bar should be given 
a ^s -inch rounding to form 
a fillit. It should be given 
an oil-dip at a low heat. 

It is sometimes necessary 
that a job requires so much 
extra stock that to upset it 
would require going over 
it many times, and would 
make the job so expensive 
that it would be cheaper to do it by hand. Such an ob- 
stacle was encountered in making a pair of dies for "head- 
rods" on switch-work. We tried upsetting the stock, but 
found that the outer end would waste away before we could 
get the desired amount of stock, as we had to heat them four 
times, and the job, when completed, was very unsatisfactory. 
We decided to weld on a piece to gain the desired stock, and 
so cut the heats down and at the same time the expense also. 
The bar. being ^ x2^ inches, we took a piece 1^x2^ x 5 


1 Squeezer 




U*- Upset 

FIG. 120. The die construction. 

Stationary Die 

) Grip 


3 J 


FIG. 121. The die construction. 





inches and laid it on the bar, heated it to a fair welding heat 
and upset in the machine, the dies being so arranged as 
to round the back of the "dab" next the operator. The 
construction of the dies, header, and punch is given in 
Figs. 120 to 123. 

In this operation there need be no heat at the 
portion next to the operator, as this part is 
punched out, but the part next the plunger 
should be a nice soft "snowball," as they express 
it. B y Fig. 123, showing the position of the 
iron as the plunger upsets it, will make the 
meaning clear and also show the "dab" as it 
comes from the furnace. The operation consists 
in placing the "dab," or piece, about l / 2 inch far- 
ther back than its final position, then placing it 
carefully in the furnace (should be an oil-fur- 
nace), and when a good soft heat is reached the 
"dab" will be stuck and the bar can be handled 
easily. Get it into the upper portion of the 
dies and let the machine squeeze it; then drop to 
the lower recess and upset it. This leaves the 
end ready for punching. 

The arrangement of dies for punching the slot is practically 
the same as previously shown. Of course the finish of the 
dies, the clearance, the grips, and the matching of them plays 

FIG. 122. 
The die 



FIG. 123. The die construction. 

an important part. If the workmanship of the little details be 

neglected by the machinist, an expensive failure is apt to result. 

I have one more die to show which is entirely out of the 

ordinary line of work done on these machines, and does a very 



Moving /' / 

P\ \ Stationary 

neat and quick job. This is an eye-forming die for roun'd, 
square, or flat iron. The one shown here at Fig. 125 is for 1 
inch round, as shown at A, Fig. 126. There is no header 
required, as it has no work to do in this case. It is necessary 
to have a liV inch pin made 
to squeeze the eye over on 
the final operation, and there 
has to be a plug screwed in 
the moving die marked X, 
as this is a bender, and pro- 
jects into the stationary die. 
When they are closed the 
blank is bent like B, Fig. 
126, this* being the first op- 
eration. The eye is closed 
down just enough to hold 
the Iff -inch steel-pin, and 

placed at an angle in the top FlG 124. The die. 

recess of the die, so that the 

end of the iron is slightly above the top of the moving die. It 
is then ready to be squeezed to place, and if it doesn't form the 
eye as it should and the end is not tucked to place, it should 
be squeezed a couple of times more and each time held 
straighter until it comes right, when the pin is knocked out 
and the eye finished. The pin should be tapered at both ends 

Top Vl 


Die x 

) ( 

FIG. 125. Eye-forming die. 

and be about 3}4 inches long. There should be several of 
these, as one gets hot and has to be cooled off. All channels 
and recesses in these dies should have lots of clearance, or they 
will give trouble. They should be scraped as smooth as it is 



possible to get them. Care should be taken also that they are 
just slightly larger than the finished eye. If too big the eye 
will not be good, and if too small they reduce the sides of the 
iron, and this is really worse than being too large. A good 
plan is to use an eye just the right size, made by a blacksmith, 
and fit the dies to this pattern, having them so that the eye 

works in the dies loose. No grip 

is used, as the bender on the first 

A. operation prevents the iron from 


FIG. 126. 
One-inch eye rod. 

Forging Dies for Round and 
Square Upsetting 

Working-dies of this type for 
forging-machines should generally be made of cast basic steel, 
as this material is easily worked and can be depended upon to 
last. I prefer it to tool-steel, as the latter often cracks and 
peels off with little use. The tool-steel also often has hard 
vSpots almost impossible to machine. Cast iron is used quite 
extensively for these dies, and to illustrate the difference be- 

FIG. 127. Upsetting die. 

tween the two metals for this purpose, one pair of cast-iron 
dies for truss-rods lasted about three days and then had to be 
worked over, while the basic steel on the same work ran six 
months and was still in good condition. 

Perhaps the simplest dies for these machines are the truss- 
rod dies mentioned above. They should be planed in pairs 



and perfectly square. The dimensions of course vary, but 8 
x 8 x 12 inches is very good and will generally meet all require- 
ments, except in very long upsets, and in this case the dies 
should be as long as the machine will take. A hole should 
be cored through the center to pass a rod through to handle 
them with. The sketch, Fig. 128, gives the general dimen- 
sions for 1^-inch rods upset to 1)4 inches, as used in bridge 


FIG. 128. Upset rod 

and car work, the upset being 6 inches long. A ^to guide 
the drill should be planed in the center of each face before 
removal from the planer to serve as a guide for the point. In 
boring these dies sheet-iron strips, ^ inch thick, are placed 
in the joint before the 1^-inch hole is bored; this provides 
for the grip of the iron. The strips should be removed before 
counterboring for the upset, as, if this is overlooked, the upset 

FIG. 129. Upsetting die. 

will be oblong and shy of stock on two sides, and full on the 
top and bottom. It will be noticed that there is a l}4-inch 
counterbore 3 inches deep below the grip in the back portion 
of the die. This practically doubles the working capacity, or 
life, of the dies. The plunger, in upsetting the iron, wears the 
outer portion of the dies quite rapidly and the end of the rod 
is left too large. This causes trouble when the work goes to 


the threader, as the end won't enter the threading dies. The 
counterbore is to work this enlarged end down to the right 
size and answers the purpose nicely. It should be put in 
every pair of dies. 

Drop-Forging Dies for Gun-Work 

I had at one time a number of duplicate sets of drop-for- 
ging dies to sink by the piece, and when the men on the job 
learned the price I took them for, they smiled and said that I 
would not make day pay. There was not only day pay, but 
the limit of piece-work pay reached, and some time to loaf to 
make things balance. 

The piece to be forged was part of a rifle which figured 
extensively in our settlement with Spain. It consisted of 

magazine plate, trigger-strap, and 
lower tang combined in one piece, 
and was like Fig. 131, at A, as 
near as I can remember it. The 



UPSETTING ROUND TO SQUARE. first operation was to make the 

p IG i3Q usual zinc templet, first drawing 

the finish-lines and then adding 

finish and draft, as will be understood by all die-sinkers. 
Next a piece of tool steel was got out, l /% inch thick, and the 
size of the face of the finishing-dies, which I believe was about 
8 x 12. The blocking-dies, which in this case were steel also, 
were about 12x12, but by working from one side and end 
the difference in size did not matter. After squaring the 
plate nicely, four holes were drilled in the earners, as shown, 
care being taken to see that they went through square, so that 
the plate would reverse without being out of square on the 

The zinc templet was then clamped on the plate in the 
required position and marked around, and the plate was drilled 
and filed out to the form of the templet, as shown in B. Two 
small templets, C and D, were then made the shape of the 
inside of the trigger-strap, with projections, as shown, to fit in 
the large templet, and with the locating marks put on. These 



pieces were held in position with solder and were taken out 
or changed as desired. The templets were then heated, the 
edges were rubbed with cyanide and dipped in oil, giving 
them temper enough to resist the stem of the cutter, whatever 
pressure might be put on it. 

I had now a nice profiling former, and after making some 
cutters like E, Fig. 131, of %-inch drill-rod, I was ready for 
business. The templet finished, it was carefully set to one 
side and end of a die and clamped, and the four corner holes 

FIG. 131. Magazine plate and die. 

were drilled and reamed to a depth sufficient to hold a pin 
securely, and then reversed on the mate-die and the holes 
drilled and reamed, always working from edges, which would 
coincide when the dies were face to face, and always reversing 
the templet. Pins were next fitted to the holes, the outline 
was scratched on the dies through the templet and traced with 
tracing chisels, and the impression was roughed out with the 
usual two-lipped cutter. The templet was then put on, the 
end cutter E was put in, and the last trip around was made 
with the hole full of oil and the fastest speed of the machine. 



The lines O were put on for stop-marks and the shank y of the 
cutter served as a former pin on the templet. As the impres- 
sion was of different depths, cutters had to be made with a 
length of taper corresponding to each depth. The only chip- 
ping was at the circle x and from q to R, the trigger-strap 
being wider than the tang. The cutter worked so nicely that 
it was only necessary to file where there was chipping. After 
cutting out for stock clearance and putting in the sprue cut, 

FIG. 132. The axle in three stages, 

the dies were "flashed" and a cast was taken to prove the 
chipping only, the match being perfect every time. 

I will say here that there were six pairs of finishing-dies 
and six blocking-dies, making twenty-four impressions, and 
the balance on the first of the month was very satisfactory. 

Unusual Job of Drop-Forging 

The forging in question is that of an automobile axle, 
which from its length makes it an unusually difficult piece to 


forge; so much so that automobile manufacturers have pre- 
ferred to use bronze castings or welded axles, rather than 
attempt the task of forging the axle out of a solid bar. Special 
interest is also attached to this job, as there have been many 
attempts to forge these axles, experiments having been con- 
ducted by some of the leading manufacturers of the country, 
which have resulted in costly failures. The job is all the 
more remarkable in that the axles are being made in a small 
shop, with the tools available. 

In Fig. 132, to the left, is shown the completed axle, 
drilled and reamed and fitted ready to be assembled. In the 


.---^-4^. w - J-- .^ 



FIG. 133. Forging dimensions. 

center is shown a finished forging, before it receives the final 
bending. The axle leaves the forge-shop in this condition, 
owing to the fact that for different -automobiles, different 
bends are required, the axles being otherwise identical. Fig. 
133 gives the general dimensions of the forging. 

The forging is made of "Clipper" steel and is of stock 
2^2 inches square and cut to length, each piece weighing 
about 44 pounds. The heating is done in a coke fire, great 
care being exercised to secure a uniform heat. 

The breaking-down dies are shown in Fig. 134, and present 
no unusual features. The stock is struck into the die at the 
left until the two balls have appeared, when it is struck in 



the dies at the right, to form the pad at Jf, Fig. 133. These 
dies are cast iron, used just as they came from the sand, with- 
out even being touched with a file. 

The breaking down is done under a 4,000-pound steam- 
hammer of the usual type. As a part of this breaking-down, 
the forging is taken to a 1,000-pound drop-hammer near by, 
and at the same heat the middle part of the axle, just inside 
the pad, is broken down and roughed to size. There are no 
gages or stops of any kind on the breaking-down dies for 
locating this pad, this being done entirely by the judgment 
of the operator. 

The broken-down axle is shown at the left in Fig. 132, 
the breaking-down operation being of course the same for each 

FIG. 134. The breaking-down and finishing dies. 

end. The bend at the ends is done by a helper and sledge, as 
the axle lies on the anvil of the drop-hammer after the break- 
ing-down is complete. This operation is also left to the judg- 
ment of the operator, and while it is a crude way to describe, 
is really very quickly done and also very accurately done. 

The finishing-dies, Fig. 134 at the right, are of steel, and 
present nothing unusual. The iron band shown shrunk in 
place is to hold in position an addition to the die that was 
found desirable, as it proved more satisfactory to make these 
dies take in as much of the axle as possible. In this operation 
the pad is inserted in the lower die, and if necessary the sledge 
is used to bring the extreme end over the die in its proper 
place. Great care must be used when heating the stock during 
this operation, the heating requiring more time than the work 
of forging. 



The first stroke of the hammer, when the forging is in the 
finishing-dies, is a light one, and is more for the purpose of 
settling the forging into place. After both ends have been 
finished the axle is drawn to size in the center, the distance 
between the ends being gaged. It is possible to maintain a 
limit of error of iV inch in the forging, as shown in the 
center of Fig. 133. The bending at the factory is done in a 
screw-press with cast-iron dies, stops being provided to catch 
the pads at the ends. 

FIG. 135. French trimming die. 

Throughout this job the personal equation enters in very 
largely, without which it would be impossible to do the job at 
all. The operator was a colored man who worked with one 
helper. The dies have been excellently designed, there being 
but about 8 pounds of scrap left during the operations, the 
finished forgings weighing about 36 pounds. The flow of the 
metal is almost perfect, and the axles are knocked out very 
rapidly. The entire operation is a most happy combination 
of drop-forging, drawing, and hand-work. 

The axles were the only forged axles shown at the auto- 



mobile show in Chicago, in 1907, and attracted considerable 
attention. They are being forged by the Bates Forge Com- 
pany, of Indianapolis. 

Trimming Wrench Blanks in Dies 

Having several thousand wrench-hammers to round up 
and straighten on the back, it was found necessary to find 
some method speedier and cheaper than milling. The ham- 
mers, being forged, had the usual fin, and this had to be gotten 
off. The arrangement shown is what was used. Fig. 135 
shows a section of bed and cutters, and an elevation of the 





FIG. 136. Plan of die. 

punch or slide. The bed has the inclined grooves to receive 
the cutters A A, which are held in place by the clamps B B. 
Adjustment is obtained with the wedges C C. The punch D 
has the hardened steel-piece E secured by cap screws. Spring 
ciips, F Fy held by one of the screws on each side, hold the 
work when it is placed in position. Fig. 135, at upper left 
and right, shows sections and plans of the cutters. The 
serrated cutters are used to take a roughing cut, after which the 
work is passed through three times with the plain cutters, the 
last cut being set to take not more than .0015 inch, at a cut- 
ting speed of 11.66 feet per minute. This speed seems slow 
in face of the fact that the corrugating was done at a speed of 
29.16 feet per minute. 



I can see no reason why this should be 
so. I know, as a matter of fact, that we 
could get satisfactory results at what would 
seem only a moderate cutting speed. 

The cutters require clearance of 2>^ de- 
grees. It is not absolutely necessary to set 
the cutters at an angle as shown, but it makes 
them easier to grind and keep in order. The 
best results were obtained with a very slight 
top rake on the cutters, not more than the 
concavity that a four-inch wheel would grind. 
Too much rake is worse than none. 

We used several grades of steel for cut- 
ters and found very little difference when 
properly hardened. I got the best results 
by heating in gas and hard- 
ening in water at 78 to 80 
degrees F. and finishing 
the cooling in vaseline, 
without drawing, using 
plenty of cyanide. Do not 
depend upon the cyanide 

FIG. 138. 

Wrench after 


FIG. 137. 

Wrench before 


to do the hardening, but heat your steel 
as hot as the quality of steel will stand with- 
out damage. 

I trust the reader will pardon me if I 
digress and ride a pet hobby a lap or two, 
but the subject of hardening and temper- 
ing this class of tools is one which should 
receive more attention. I find that the av- 
erage blacksmith does not appreciate what 
is required of a tool of this sort. He always 
knows just what you want, and usually 
does just what you don't want. He will 
concoct solutions, with all the gravity and 
mystery of a "voodoo" doctor, when pure 
water will do better. Solutions without 



proper heating of the steel are deceiving; they only case- 
harden. A tool for heavy duty must be hardened through. 
If the right degree of hardness can be obtained without draw- 
ing, so much the better. This is not so hard to do as it seems. 
Clean water at the right temperature, a good heat in charcoal 

FIG. 139. Belt punch. 

or gas, time enough in the water to secure sufficient hardness, 
then a quick transfer to a heavy bodied oil to finish cooling. 
To get back to the wrench job: lubrication is a feature 
that must not be overlooked. I used a heavy solution of 
vegetable-oil, soft soap and water 5 pounds of soap to the 
gallon of water. This did better work than -the oil, the sup- 
ply being at about 15 pounds pressure, through ^6-inch noz- 
zles attached to a supply pipe. 

Trimming Cheap Hardware 

In the manufacture of the cheaper grades of hardware, 
malleable-iron is largely used instead of steel-castings or 

FIG. 140. Plan of die for trimming A, Fig. 139. 

forgings. The low price at which the articles are sold will 
not allow any expensive work, such as milling, to be done on 
them. They are usually just drilled and put together. In the 
better grades of this class of hardware, such as belt-punches, 
etc., making the joint at A> Fig. 139, is the principal expense, 



and the die shown in Figs. 140 and 141 was designed to trim 
the joint, which can thus be done neatly and cheaply. 

In making the belt-punch, the rivet-hole is first drilled 
and then counterbored a little more than half-way through. 
The part to be trimmed is then put on B, the stem of the die, 
Fig. 141, which just fits the counterbored joint. It is then 
swung under the head of the strippers E, which also act as 




1 1 1 









FIG. 141. Die for trimming A, Fig. 139. 

stops. The part to be trimmed must be counterbored to such 
a depth that it will rest upon the stem B and also upon dies 
D. Fig. 140 shows the top of the die, and C f shows the posi- 
tion of the punch when the dies are set up. In making the 
die, the parts, D ', which are the cutting parts of the die, are 
doweled and screwed to the base G, meeting at the center to 
allow the hole to be bored the size of the stem B. They are 
then cut away. to the required shape. 
The punch, Fig. 142, of which 
F is the holder and H the stem 
which fits the press, is made the 
same way as the die. The ribs R 
are put on the die-base and punch- 
holder to prevent the die spring- 
ing away from the work. The 

FIG. 142. Trimming 

hole in the die should be tapered slightly larger toward the 

back thus allowing it to strip easily. 


A Slab- Truck for Forge-Shop 

The cut, Fig. 143, herewith illustrates a slab-truck that is 
made to handle both the hot and cold billets around a forge- 
shop. It is made up entirely of iron, hence there is no danger 





of destruction when handling billets at a white- heat. The 
height has been designed to conform to that of the furnace- 
door and to top of the bottom die on the steam-hammers in 
use. A heavy hot slab may be pulled from the furnace and 
wheeled over to the anvil of the steam-hammer with greatest 
ease. The construction is very simple and inexpensive. The 
axle is made of 3 x 3-inch wrought iron, and the two wheels are 
24 inches in diameter, 3 ^2 -inch thread, and made of cast iron. 
The slab rest A is made of 3 x ^-inch wrought iron, sup- 
ported by the 3 x ^-inch braces B, with a piece of 1 inch 
wrought-iron pipe C acting as a strut. The whole is bolted 
down through the axle by a ^-inch bolt passing through the 
pipe, and each end riveted over. The support D is of $ x 2- 
inch wrought iron made in [/-shapes, and is very rigid. The 

FIG. 144. Hand-vise handle before and after closing." 

handle is of Ij^-mch round wrought iron, welded to a ^ x 3- 
inch yoke. The hand bar is 1 inch in diameter by 24 inches 
long for the accommodation of two men. The truck, as a 
whole, has been found very useful and substantial, and since 
its trial many others have been constructed. 

The Possibilities of Planing- Tools for Finishing Forgings 

We have had occasion a number of times in manufacturing 
to do work with special shaving or planing tools. This has 
proven a much more accurate and a cheaper method than the 
usual way of milling. We ask ourselves, has the milling cut- 
ter so much advantage over the planing-tool in removing stock 
and machining a true surface? We all know that a cutter, to 
work free, must have sufficient rake to allow the chips to be 
removed without too much breaking up, and there must be 


enough metal backing up the cutting edge to withstand the 
strain of the cut. This is the case with all cutting-tools, 
whether a drill, a milling-cutter, or a planer-tool. The planer- 
tool has the big advantage, in that it can have ample rake for 
free cutting, and at the same time have plenty of backing to 
support the cutting-edge. 

Now, why not give the planing-tool more cutting edges? 
Give it a wider cut, and make it in series, to first break up the 
surface with serrated tools and then follow with tools to re- 
move the stock and make the finishing-cut. The question 
that presents itself is: what is the limit of size of cut that can 
be taken? Given a machine of sufficient strength and proper 

FIG. 145. Hand-vise forgings "before" and "after," with 

tools, may not a surface be machined in one stroke that in the 
old ways takes hundreds? 

Work on Hand-Vise Forgings 

With a profiling fixture, the hand-vise jaws shown kept a 
man comfortably busy to turn out 150 in ten hours. With 
the set of dies illustrated, a boy easily finished, in three opera- 
tions, 400 in 9> hours. With a stroke of sufficient length, 
and by building the die in series, this could as well be in- 
creased to 1,200 pieces in the same time. The length of the 
cut around the vise is about nine inches, and it was made 
at about 15 feet per minute. If a 9-inch cut is possible and 
practicable, why not 18-inch or 36-inch? 

Another example is the checkering and F-grooving on the 


face of the jaw. These operations were both done on a 14- 
inch Hendey shaper. The checkering was done at the rate of 
1,000 per day, and we did not think the most exacting would 
find fault with 300 in the same time on the milling-machine. 
The grooving went easily at 1,500 per day. The work will, 
we think, compare favorably with the average milling-work. 
We find that with proper rake on the tools there is less ten- 
dency to spring the work than in milling. In some instances 
we have found it possible to use as much as 20 to 30 degrees 
of rake. 

Another point in favor of this form of tool is that it does 
not need relieving on the return-stroke, as the work can be 

FIG. 146. Punches and dies for trimming hand-vise forgings. 

removed before that occurs. Should the cutter return over 
the work, only the last cutting-edge would touch. This is 
not a serious fault where the tool is strong and heavy and the 
material soft. This practise allows the cutter to be fastened 
solidly to the ram of the machine, making it less liable to 
spring or chatter. 

In the photograph, Fig. 145, are shown' some of the for- 
gings in different stages. At the left are the rough forgings, 
showing the slot or gutter in the handle before it was closed. 
It was necessary to forge the slot with considerable draft to 
the sides, as at <z, Fig. 144, which is an enlarged section across 
the middle of the straight part in order to get the required 


depth. They were put through a drawing or closing-die to 
bring the sides parallel, as at b y before putting them through 
the shaving-dies. At the center of the picture is a forging 
after it has been through the roughing-die, showing the serra- 
tions, where the cut was heaviest. At the right are shown 
some of the forgings after the finishing operations. The dies 
shown in Fig. 146 were made the reverse from the usual 
way. The punch was fitted to a die-block on the bolster-plate, 
and the dies to a holder in the ram. This arrangement made 
it easy to place and to hold the forgings in position, by cen- 

FIG. 147. Tools for "checkering" and grooving vise jaws. 

tering the slot on the projection on the punch. The work 
was flooded by pumping oil through a tube connected with 
the die-holder, shown at the right in Fig. 146. The dies 
were 1 % inches thick, made straight on the inside and with a 
30 degree rake on the cutting-edge. The cut was taken by 
roughing-dies and varied from .005 to .040 inch, being 
heaviest around the boss where the die was serrated. The 
second die was enough smaller than the first to clean up the 
serrations. The third, or finishing-die, had a uniform cut of 
about .002 inch. 

The tool for doing the checkering on the face of the jaw 
is about 2 }4 inches wide and was made to fasten direct to the 
clapper-block. The cutting-part of the tool projected back of 
the center of the clapper-block, under the ram. The cutting- 
edges of the tool were made by a series of steps of about .005 


inch, and were given a rake of about 1 5 degrees. This was 
found sufficient to give a free cutting-edge. The object of 
putting the cutting-edges back of the center of the clapper- 
block was to prevent the cutter from "hogging." With the 
cutter in this position the tendency is to spring away from the 
work under a heavy cut. The cutter for making the grooves 
was similar to the one doing the checkering. Fig. 147 
shows the cutters and the work. 

Forging Under Steam- Hammer 

For pieces of considerable size and bulk the steam-hammer 
is substituted for the hard forging-process. In this method of 
forging, the hammer should be of a size to suit the size of the 
work. The hammer-man must exercise a good deal of skill 
and judgment as to the power and speed of the blows de- 
livered to the piece, as a too powerful blow will crush it, and 
in the case of high percentage of nickel, fissures and cracks 
are liable to develop which it will be difficult to get out, 
and which may show in the finished product. 

This is especially true if the piece is allowed to fall below 
the forging temperature, or if the blows are not distributed 
evenly. If the blows are from a light trip-hammer, delivered 
at high speed, only the surface of the metal will be bruised 
and the core not affected, thus causing the core to be coarse- 
grained without the proper cohesion to insure the necessary 

A heavy hammer descending on work which is held at the 
proper temperature, at a slow speed, will penetrate the mass 
to the center and allow the particles of metal to flow to their 
proper position and insure a fine grain of even texture and be 
uniform throughout its entire size. 

Forging Large Pieces 

The keeping of the heat to a good forging temperature is 
more difficult than in the hand-forging process, owing chiefly 
to the difference in the size of the piece forged, as the hand- 
forged piece is usually small enough for the smith to put in 


the fire and reheat it the minute the temperature falls below 
the best forging-heat. But the hammer-forged piece is many 
times large enough to be handled with a crane, and is there- 
fore liable to be kept under the hammer as long as a blow will 
have any effect on it. 

This results in a very uneven structure, as when 'the metal 
is hot the blows will penetrate to the center, and as it cools 
they have less and less penetration, until only the skin is 
affected, and the annealing, which is resorted to afterward, can- 
not bring it back to the proper homogeneity, as some parts 
will have a denser grain than others and therefore be stronger. 

Drop-Hammer Forging 

When enough pieces of one shape are wanted to wear out 
a set of dies, the cheapest and best way of producing these in 
the high-grade alloy steels, is by the drop-forging process. 
They can then be made in one piece without welds, except in 
pieces which are many times longer than a section through 
them, and these are so difficult to keep at the proper tempera- 
ture that they are usually forged in two or more pieces and 
then electrically welded together. The oxygen-acetylene 
blowpipe has been brought into use for welds of this charac- 
ter, as well as all other forms of welding, and as good results 
are being obtained with this as with electric welding. 

A good illustration of this is the front axle of an automo- 
bile, which is usually forged" in /-beam sections, 4 inches from 
the top to the bottom of the I, 2% inches across the flange, 
with the web ^ of an inch thick, and a length of from 48 to 
54 inches. These are generally forged in two halves and 
electrically welded in the center, but a few of them are forged 
in one piece, although the first cost of the dies and the liabil- 
ity of their breaking, owing to the axle cooling before the for- 
ging operation is completed, has made this method very 


Drop-Forging or Squeezing 

In the drop-forging process two methods are employed, 
one being the ordinary drop-forging process, which hammers 


the metal into shape, and the other is the hydraulic press, 
which squeezes it into shape. With both of these methods 
dies are necessary, and these are usually made of a 60-point 
carbon-steel and in two halves, an upper and a lower one, they 
being generally parted in the center, but the shape of the piece 
controls the location of the parting-line. 

The dies are always given from 5 to 7 degrees draft, so the 
forging will fall out easily, and they are left open on the part- 
ing-line from y& to% inch, according to the amount of metal 
in the forging. The amount of stock is always greater than 
in the finished forging, so it will completely fill the dial and 
the surplus is squeezed out at the opening on the parting-line. 
This fin is afterward trimmed off. 

Setting the Dies 

One of the first and most important points in die-forging 
is the setting of the dies, as the upper-half, which is fastened 
to the ram, and the lower-half, which is fastened to the anvil- 
block, must come exactly in line to produce a perfect forging. 

The lower half of the die should have a current of air 
blowing in it that is strong enough to remove all of the scale 
which works off the piece being forged. The air-blast should 
be directed so it will not cool the hot metal being forged. 
Steel-wire brushes can be used for this purpose, but the air is 
quicker, and if well adjusted will be positive. The upper 
half of the die should be kept well oiled, so the scale will not 
stick to that. This can be done by rubbing a swab, well 
soaked in oil, through the die every time it is raised off the 

Accurate Forgings 

With the dies properly set and the press adjusted so the 
two dies will come together on the parting-line, the work can 
be turned out to one thirty-second of an inch of the finished 
size, thus making much less machine-work than by the hand- 
forging process, and when grinding is to be used in finishing, 
the work can be brought to within one-hundredth of an inch. 

After forging, the pieces should be pickled in a pickling- 


bath, of a diluted solution of sulfuric acid, to dissolve the 
oxide or scale, after which they can be submitted to a sand- 
blast, if a still better surface is desired. 

The cost of drop-forgings depends on the number needed 
and the number that can be turned out at one setting of the 
dies, as well as on the quality of the steel used. 

Forging High- Grade Steels 

Thanks to the electric and autogeneous welding-process, in 
combination with die-forging with either the drop-hammer or 
the hydraulic-press, all of the highest grades of alloyed steel 
can be turned into forgings successfully and their strength and 
elongation retained; but this is almost impossible by the hand 
or hammer-forging process, especially if welds are made neces- 
sary by the shape of the piece. One of the alloy steels that is 
being manufactured into die-forgings has the following chem- 
ical composition: Chromium, 1.50 percent.; nickel, 3.50 per 
cent.; carbon, 0.25 per cent.; manganese, 0.40 per cent.; 
silicon, 0.25 per cent; phosphorus, 0.025 per cent.; sulfur, 
0.03 per cent. 

In the annealed state this shows the following physical 
characteristics: Tensile strength, 120,000 pounds per square 
inch; elastic limit, 105,000 pounds per square inch; elonga- 
tion in 2 inches, 20 per cent.; reduction of area, 58 per cent. 

When properly heat-treated, that is quenched in oil and 
drawn, these characteristics become: Tensile strength, 202,- 
000 pounds per square inch; elastic limit, 180,000 pounds per 
square inch; elongation in 2 inches, 12 percent.; reduction of 
area, 34 per cent. 

Effects of Alloying Materials 

Chromium produces a mineral hardness in steel, and steels 
containing this alloy are difficult to forge, but if the tempera- 
ture is kept above 2,200 degrees R, or a bright yellow, and 
never allowed to fall below this it can be forged success- 

This would require frequent reheating, as the melting-point 


is 2, $00 degrees F., and it cannot reach this temperature. With 
this steel it is best to make the dies with shorter steps between 
the different pairs than for ordinary carbon-steels. 

Steels containing nickel are more easily forged, but they 
must be handled carefully, owing to its tendency to produce 

The vanadium steels are more easily forged than either of 
these, and if due care is taken to increase the heat gradually at 
first that is, this steel should not be plunged into the heat all 
at once no trouble will be experienced afterward. 

Silicon in small percentages does not affect the forgeability 
of steel, but in large amount it gives steel a fibrous grain, and 
is therefore used principally for springs. But in the last few 
years this steel has been forged into gear blanks to quite an 
extent. In this case the blanks should be made in the form 
of forged rolls, and not cut from bars, in order to avoid the 
fibrous structure. 

The aluminum, tungsten, titanium, manganese and other 
alloyed steels are not used to any extent for forgings, as those 
before mentioned show superior qualities, and some of the last 
named are much higher in price. 

Hydraulic Press Gives Best Results 

The inferior quality of many die-forgings is undoubtedly 
due to the drop-hammer process, as this has a tendency to 
produce only a bruising effect, owing to the top die descending 
at a high rate of speed and delivering a light blow which has 
no penetration. The hydraulic press, on the other hand, pro- 
duces forgings of a far superior quality, because it slowly 
squeezes the metal into the shape of the dies, thus allowing it 
more time to flow into place and assume its new shape, and 
therefore making it more uniform in quality with a great deal 
lower degree of internal strains. To remove the internal 
strains caused by working the metal, all forgings, no matter 
how they are made, should be annealed before using, as the 
shocks to which the forging may be submitted will concentrate 
at the point where these internal strains are the strongest, 


causing it to break at that point. The results are very similar 
to the machinist notching a bar in order to break it off. 

Heating Too Suddenly 

Many poor forgings are also turned out by raising the 
temperature of the metal too suddenly. Certain molecular 
changes take place in the heating of all steels, and of the alloy 
steels in particular, which are liable to cause fissures in the core 
of the metal, and these may not show in the finished product, 
as they do not always break through the skin or outer shell 
of the forging. Thus, by heating suddenly, the outer shell 
becomes red before the core has had an opportunity to absorb 
any heat and the outer shell expands, causing great strains on 
the core of the piec*e. 

In the case of a high percentage of nickel these fissures 
become more pronounced than with the other alloys. 

At a temperature of about 600 degrees F., or a bright blue, 
most steels lose their ductility and are not fitted to resist 
strains imposed upon them by the differential expansion of an 
unevenly heated metal. Therefore the rise in temperature 
from the normal to 600 degrees should be a gradual one, but 
after this it may be brought up to the forging heat as quickly 
as is desired. 



The Drop-Forge and Hardening Plant 

THE design and equipment of the drop-forge shop and the 
hardening plant, are subjects frequently entirely neglected in 
the first design, and almost always slighted in the erection of the 
modern manufacturing plant. This neglect is largely due to 
conservatism, but at the same time it cannot be denied that in 
few places will careful design or a small outlay of money show 
greater satisfactory results in finished metal parts, or quicker 
returns from the amount of money paid out. To install a 
finely and expensively equipped tool and die department, and 
then a hardening department consisting only of a few coal and 
gas fires and tubs of fresh water, shows lack of proper thought 
and is inconsistent. In this chapter the object is to illustrate 
and describe types of each department, showing what consti- 
tutes the best modern practise, together with much detail 
matter bearing on such departments in general. 

Drop-Forge and Hardening Departments Under One Roof 

These two departments, being of the same general type, 
should preferably be combined under one roof. In a building 
for this purpose, ventilation is of greater importance than 
light. A good form of building is from 60 to 70 feet high 
under the trusses, with roof pitched not less than 30 degrees, 
and a ventilating-monitor of at least 1 5 feet wide extending 
the entire length of the building. Windows throughout 
should be of the American type, with sliding-sashes. 

In the hardening-room, all windows should be protected 



from excessive light by slant shutters, the slats being set at 4 5 
degrees and about 3 inches apart, adjustable for about 1 foot 
at the top. This arrangement gives a subdued light, allowing 
the hardener to distinguish his colors with a greater degree of 
accuracy. The slight adjustment at the top is sufficient to 
keep the interior bright and evenly lighted, regardless of the 
outside conditions. One 16-candle-power light, hung 7 feet 
from the floor, should be provided for every 150 square feet of 
floor-space in this department. 

The engraving, Fig. 148, shows the plan of such a building 
as primarily laid out as part of a large manufacturing plant. 
The equipment shown in Fig. 148 is laid out on the basis of 
minimum clearance desirable in the forge-shop. 

Location of Die-Sinking Department 

The die-sinking and inspecting departments are set at the 
end of the building, both to insure better light, and to be far- 
ther away from the jar of the larger drop-hammers. The jar 
in a department so located is sufficient to materially affect the 
quality of the work, provided the partitions are of brick and 
extend well below the floor-line. The rough stock for dies 
is to be brought in at the door near the end of the build- 
ing, planed up dovetailed to fit the die-blocks in ten-foot 
lengths, and then rough-sawed to size desired in a power- 
hack saw. The finished dies are to be stored in the fireproof 
vault assigned to them, on racks with shelves 6 inches 
wide. Thirty-inch passage ways, being sufficiently wide to 
admit trucks, are allowed between the racks. 

Board, Steam, Helve, Trip, and Drop Hammers 

In the modern-sized shop, at least, it is best policy to install 
comparatively large drop-hammers, on account of their broader 
range of utility. The general practise is to install board-ham- 
mers no size smaller than 400 pounds, and to install steam- 
drops where the work requires sizes larger than 1,000 pounds. 
The steam-drops in large sizes have the advantage of being 
able to break down their own work, but on small parts the 




experience has been that many forgings are spoiled by catch- 
ing in the quick stroke. 

In the illustration, the larger board-drops have been set in 
conjunction with a helve-hammer, so arranged that it may 
break down for two of them. This result may be obtained 
equally well by setting the helve-hammer between two drops 
and faced the same way, but with the anvil-block set about 3 
feet in front of the base-line of the drop-hammers, thus per- 
mitting the blacksmith to swing his stock directly from one 
to the other. 

The largest hammers are set nearest the main crossing or 
passageways, to make possible less travel for the larger stock 
and the finished product. The forgings are, of course, hot 
trimmed in the trimming presses and by sprue cutters set 
in conjunction with each hammer, but before going to the 
machine-shop they are accurately trimmed to the size required 
for their reception into their various jigs and fixtures, in the 
presses of the cold trimming department. 

The two trip-hammers are used in conjunction with tool- 
dressing and general work. The two blacksmith-forges near 
the die-sinking department are used for general work during 
the day, and for night and overtime work when the main shop 
is not running. They are blown from an overhead blower, 
motor-driven, and are hung from the trusses, their exhausts 
being taken out through the roof. With the exception of 
these two fires the use of fuel-oil is universal throughout the 
entire shop. This subject will be further discussed later. 
Both the forge and hardening departments should be in gen- 
eral charge of one man whose office is centrally located between 
them, but each should have a separate subforeman. 

Layout of Hardening Department 

The general layout of the hardening department is self- 
explanatory, but the details may require explanation. In front 
of the small open fires, lead pots, etc., with 43 inches clear 
space, is set a row of brine and whale-oil tanks, alternating, 
one of each kind being sufficient for two fires. 



These regular brine-tanks are built of 2 J^ -inch Southern 
pine, and elliptical in shape, being 30 inches wide, 4 feet 
long, and 30 inches deep, with a capacity of 120 gallons. The 
brine is circulated through these tanks, entering at the bottom 
through a 1^-inch brass pipe controlled by a gate- valve, and 
overflowing at the top through a 4-inch cast-iron 'soil-pipe. 
The required rate of circulation for each tank, to keep the 
brine sufficiently cool for the best results in hardening, is 50 
gallons per minute. 

Centrally located in front of the No. 2 case-hardening 
furnace is a brine-tank of the same size as described above, a 

FIG. 149. Brine-tank. 

vertical section of which tank is shown in Fig. 149. Brine is 
admitted through the 4-inch brass pipe in the center of the 
tank. This pipe extends within 6 inches of the brine-level, 
and is readily removable by hand, being loosely screwed into 
the coupling at the bottom. The brine entering through this 
pipe under pressure, forms a dome above the main level, 
which dome is used for the purpose of dipping the face of the 
drop-hammer dies, after which the dies are reheated slightly 
and plunged all over. By using this method of dipping the 
face, every corner and crevice of the die is struck at once, 
thereby preventing unequal cooling and cracking. As the 



inlet pipe is readily removable, the utility of the tank as 
applied to general hardening is in no way limited. One hun- 
dred and fifty gallons per minute should be temporarily avail- 
able for this tank. A S-inch cast-iron soil-pipe takes care of 
the overflow. 

A 4-foot diameter whale-oil tank, one regular brine-tank, 
and a portable fresh-water tank complete the equipment re- 
quired for the case-hardening furnaces. These tanks are 
served by a crane. The portable fresh-water tank is 30 inches 
diameter by 30 inches deep, and when not elsewhere in use is 
set in a concreted depression in the floor, 4 feet diameter by 

6 inches deep, and this depres- 
sion is drained through a screen 
through a 4-inch tile drain. 
The chief use of this tank is 
for water-marking screws and 
other small parts. The tank 
is drained at the bottom 
through a 2-inch spigot. A 
large part of the black bone 
used is caught by the screen in 
the depression, from which it 
may be readily shoveled out. 
Even with this precaution, 
however, it is desirable that the drain run with as steep a pitch 
as possible direct to the catch-basin, both to prevent stoppage 
and to make easy the cleaning out, should stoppage occur. 
The drain will surely give trouble if laid with many turns. 
On opposite sides of this tank are lugs and hooks to re- 
ceive poles by which two men carry the tank about the job, 
wherever its use is required. 

In front of the open fires is a special brine-tank used for 
hardening cutters, reamers, etc. A section of this special tank 
is shown in Fig. 150. The brine is admitted at the bottom 
through a 2-inch brass inlet-pipe, and spouts through a large 
number of ^-inch holes drilled in the 12-inch cast-iron inner 
tank. The combined areas of these holes is designed to be 



FIG. 150. Special brine-tank. 



about 20 per cent, in excess of the area of the inlet-pipe. A 
4-inch cast-iron soil-pipe takes care of the overflow. The 
advantage claimed for this tank is that the brine, spurting 
through the small holes on all sides, strikes all the teeth or 
flutes of the cutter or reamer at the same time, thus tending to 
prevent cracking. 

A 5-inch by 4-inch centrifugal circulating pump, set in the 
pit in the corner of the building and driven by a 15-horse- 
power motor, supplies the brine system. The required 
pressure which must be kept on this system to secure good 



FIG. 151. Refitted blast-forge for oil fuel. 

efficiency is 15 pounds per square inch. The pump is set 
sufficiently low to be always primed from the storage-tank 
built in the ground outside the building. That brine may 
be kept sufficiently cool in the summer months, this storage- 
tank must have a capacity equal to a fifteen-minute supply for 
the entire system when all tanks are in operation at full 
capacity. The brine overflow from all serve-tanks is returned 
by gravity to the storage-tank through the open drain shown 
clearly in Fig. 148. 

The regular oil-tanks are 20 inches diameter by 2 f ,et deep 
inside, but the shell is made 30 inches high to bring their 
tops at the same level as the brine-tanks. The cooling appar- 



atus consists of a coil of )^-inch brass-pipe through which 
a part of the factory service water is circulated. The large 
4-foot oil-tank is of the same depth and is cooled through a 
1-inch brass coil. It is not necessary to keep the oil as cool 
as the brine. A 2-inch by 3-inch belt-driven centrifugal 
pump supplies the circulating water. Certain concerns cool 
their oil by circulating it through a series of trombone coils 
placed in the monitor of the hardening-room, but the practise 
has never appealed to the best experts. The expense neces- 
sary is comparatively great, the oil makes hard work for the 



FIG. 152. Refitted lead-pot furnace for oil fuel. 

pump, and then the main heat from the building must pass 
out around these coils if so placed. 

Advantages of Oil Fuel 

Having in a general way described the equipment of each 
department, let us return to the question of fuel. The first 
considerations controlling the efficiency of such departments 
are of course the case of regulation and heating capacity of 
their fires. It is in this regard, even more than in the reduc- 
tion of fuel costs, that the greatest reduction and economy is 
attained by the use of fuel-oil. The reasons are at once clear. 
The blacksmith's time may be entirely given to his work in 
hand, since once the valves are properly adjusted they require 



little or no attention, and an even heat is positively assured. 
No labor is required to bring coal or take ashes away from the 
forge, and when no work is being done no fuel is required. 
If the flame is run a little on the yellow there is absolutely no 
scale. The cleanliness of the fire renders it especially adapted 
to such work as welding, etc. For the departments under dis- 
cussion, the best practise is a air-pressure system to those using 
steam, the preference being due chiefly to the fact that these 
departments are generally somewhat isolated from the source 
of steam-supply. Of the air-pressure systems, those using the 

1 AIR 

FIG. 153. Refitted lead-pot furnace for oil fuel. 

lowest pressure consistent with the best efficiency are evidently 
the most desirable. Excellent systems are now on the market, 
using from 8 to 10 ounces pressure. These systems require, 
however, furnaces of rather special design, the most efficient 
having ample combustion of mixing chambers in which the 
oil-spray is combined with a primary air-supply and volatilized 
before being admitted to the main chamber, where the stock 
is to be heated. In a plant where the installation is to be 
entirely of new forges, a carefully selected system of this type 
is ideal. In many cases, however, it may not be thought 
desirable to entirely discard such equipment of coal-burning 
forges as may be on hand. Where such is the case but small 
outlay is required to make the necessary alterations to permit 



them being used in conjunction with a moderately low-pres- 
sure system. By this I mean a pressure of about 2 pounds 
per square inch, which can, of course, be readily discharged 
by the ordinary "high-pressure blower," without requiring the 
installation of any air-compressor, as is of course necessary 
with a system using from IS to 18 pounds pressure. 

Refitted Coal- Forges and Furnaces for Fuel-Oil 

In fitting coal-forges and furnaces to use fuel-oil, it is 
desirable, as far as possible, to give the spray a whirling motion 

^V*~T--" ; ;^^ 

FIG. 154. Refitted Brown & Sharpe case-hardening furnace for 

oil fuel. 

which tends to more completely vaporize the oil, and also 
makes a much less noisy flame than is the case where the oil 
strikes against flat surfaces. In the latter case, where the oil 
strikes flat against the white hot tile, it causes what appears to 
be a series of rapid explosions, sufficiently loud in a large shop 
to be a source of annoyance. 

Fig. 151 illustrates a method of refitting a common blast- 
forge. Common arched firebrick and skewbacks are used, and 
a few special tiles which may be readily ground to form on the 



common grindstone. Common red brick may be used as 
backing. A special casting is required, the end of which 
may be made to bolt onto the original side-castings. In very 
large sizes it is sometimes advisable to install a burner at each 
end of the forge, which arrangement is very satisfactory, and 
gives an intense heat at the center of the fire-box. 

Figs. 152 and 153 show horizontal and vertical sections of 
the common form of lead-pot furnace refitted. Either wedge 
or cupola brick may be used. Two courses from the bottom 
tile, and forming the top of the mixing chamber, is 'a tile 

FIG. 155. Refitted Brown & Sharpe case-hardening furnace for 

oil fuel. 

through which are drilled, at an angle, six 1 J/2-inch holes. For 
this operation a common star-drill may, with care, be used. 
In the top two [courses, four bricks each are omitted at 45 
degrees for vents. As before, the firebrick is backed up with 
common red brick. 

Figs. 154 and 155 show cross-sections and longitudinal 
sections of a refitted No. 2 Brown & Sharpe case-hardening 
furnace. In this case the coal-gages are left in place and 
simply paved with fire-brick laid on their sides. A 3-inch fire 


tile, ground to form shown, is centrally located in the firebox 
to act as a baffle. If the furnace is to be set up new for use as 
fuel-oil, it is desirable that the bridge-wall be sloped as shown, 
to leave an opening at the back of 2 inches over the wall, and 
4 inches at the front. The reason for the construction is to 
counteract the tendency of the heat to drive to the back of the 
oven. This tendency exists, but it is not marked, that in cases 
where the furnace is already set up it hardly pays to rebuild 
the bridge-wall. A special fire-door casting, designed to take 
the burner, must take the place of the former vertical sliding- 
door. These few examples will give the reader a general idea 
of the changes necessary to remodel an installation of coal 

Arrangement of Piping 

In the two departments under discussion, the oil is sup- 
plied to all furnaces through a 1^-inch wrought-iron pipe- 
main, making a complete closed loop around each department 
in order to keep the pressure even. A 1-inch steam-pipe 
must be laid with it to keep the oil from congealing in cold 
weather. These two pipes should be laid preferably in the 
ground itself and not in a trench, and should never be laid 
above the floor, the reason being that the gases from all petro- 
leum distillates are heavier than air, and will run to the low 
parts of the floor or the trench. These gases, though not 
themselves explosive, may become so if combined with a 
larger proportion of air. 

The air-piping should be suspended overhead with outlets 
looking down into the risers from the oil-mains. The speed 
of the air in these pipes should not exceed 1 5 feet per second 
in the first installation, which will permit of about 30 per 
cent, increase, due to growth, without the speed becoming 
excessive. A rule-of-thumb measurement sometimes used is 
that the area of the air-pipe shall equal six times the area of 
the jet, but the foregoing method is much safer for the com- 
putation. To facilitate calculations, the following notes will 
prove of interest. 

At 2 pounds pressure there will be required at the blower 


roughly about 1,000 cubic feet of air per minute per gallon of 

Blast furnaces burn per day of ten hours approximately 
0. 1 5 gallon of oil per square inch of horizontal area of fire- 

Open fires for hardening, as above, 0.02S gallon. 

Lead pots, oil-tempering, case-hardening and annealing 
furnaces, 0.0$ gallon. 

FIG. 156. Single opening forge for end heating. 

About 10 horse-power is required to transmit 1,000 cubic 
feet of free air against a 2 pounds pressure. 

From the foregoing, a close estimate of the size of the 
required blower and the horse-power needed to drive it may 
be obtained. Included in this estimate must be a figure on 
the amount of air required to blow the drop-hammer dies. 
The blow-pipes required are one i^-inch pipe with flattened 
nozzle for each small drop and trip-hammer, and two of the 
same size for the larger drop-hammers. As the use of these 
blow-pipes is rather intermittent, this figure is generally in the 



nature of an off-hand estimate, based on the judgment of the 

Finishing Department 

In the finishing department the following recommenda- 
tions should be followed, in order that the best results both 
as to economic and efficient production and safety and content- 
ment of the help may attain. 

Emery dust should be exhausted fully from the grinding 
department, as such dust is detrimental to health and effi- 

FIG. 157. Double opening forge for center heating. 

ciency, the floors of the shops and similar departments should 
be covered with iron plates, which promote cleanliness, both 
for men and machinery. In a properly equipped and operated 
forge-shop, individual chimneys for each fire and usual facil- 
ties of ventilation by windows and by overhead fan lights, 
clean, fresh air should be drawn in from a point high above 
the roof by powerful fans and distributed through each forge- 
building until it descends over each man's head, through a 
flexible pipe under his control, thus assuring an abundance of 




Front Elevation 

FIG. 158. Double opening forge. 

FIG. 160. Double opening 

i t 

Side Elevation 

FIG. 159. Double opening 

Plan of Brickwork, 
around Vent. 


Opening bricked up 
to lult Work 

OD Ede 

FIG. 161. Double opening 



cool, pure air. In one forge, say where there are over thirty 
furnaces, running under forced blast, it will be found, if the 
above is carried out, that even in hot weather the cooling 
system will cause the men to work steadily, the output will be 
kept up, and the shop will not be compelled to shut down on 
extremely warm days, as is usually the case. This system will 
please both the men and the owners. 

While the above conditions outlined are essential to any 
first-class drop-forge shop, they are as nothing compared with 

FIG. 162. Adjustable top-slot oil-forge furnace. 

the fact of just and fair treatment of help. Wages should be 
advanced voluntarily, and not when a general demand is made 
for advanced pay. Never make a general reduction of pay. 
Those who know factory conditions from the ground up will 
agree that the piece-work rates should never be cut until com- 
petition makes it absolutely necessary. 

Oil-Burning Forges and Heaters 

In the steady advance in the improvement of machinery 
and apparatus that has been going on for years, the old coal 



or coke fired blacksmith's forge with its accompanying dirt, 
smoke, gases, and foul odors, and its handworked bellows, has 
given way to furnace forges that are practically as clean as the 
machines in the machine-shop. 

In making the much-needed improvements the fuel has 
been changed, and the coal, with its dirt, smoke, etc., has been 
abolished by substituting gases of different kinds and oil in its 

FIG. 163. End-heating forge furnace. 

place. As well as making the forges clean and pleasant to 
operate, the change has made a considerable reduction in the 
fuel bills. Fuel-oil, which is the product used in the forges 
herein described, has proved itself to be one of the cheapest 
fuels, and has thus supplanted the coal-fired forge in many 

These styles of forges and furnaces have another advantage 
over the coal-fired forge, which is that they can be heated to 



any desired temperature, and that temperature maintained per- 
manently by setting the valves which admit the oil and air to 
the burner. This is a very desirable feature of the oil or gas 
fired forges, and one that could not be accomplished with the 
old forge. 

Single and Double Opening Forge Furnaces 

In Figs. 156 and 157 are shown two styles of the most 
common type of forge-furnaces, one of which has the opening 
on one side only, and is used for heating small pieces, or the 
ends of larger ones. The other has an opening on both sides, 
opposite each other, so that long bars can be shoved in through 

FIG. 164. Method of installing apparatus. 

and heated in the middle. This opening is left 5 inches high 
on this size of furnace and it can then be bricked up to make 
the opening small enough to suit the work. Burners are 
located on each end of th'ese forges, so that the chamber will 
have a uniform heat its entire length. 

A double steel-plate is located above the opening to protect 
the operator from the heat of the furnace, and in conjunction 
with this an air-blast is sent through the pipe and comes up 
through the floor and runs along the entire front of the furnace 
immediately below the opening. This air-blast drives the heat 
which might come through the opening up the back of the 
steel-plate, so that the operator can work in comfort. 

The details of the construction of the double-opening 
forge are shown in Figs. 158 to 161. The single-opening 


forge is practically of the same construction, with the exception 
that the one opening is closed up with fire-brick and forms 
the back of the furnace, while the sheet-metal heat-protector 
and air-blast are removed from that side of the furnace. 

Top-Slot and End-Heating Forges 

For work which cannot be readily handled in the above 
forges an adjustable top-slot furnace, like the one shown in 
Fig. 162, is manufactured. An adjustable clamp for holding 

FIG. 165,, Tool-dressing forge-furnace. 

the brick which covers the opening is furnished with this 
forge, and the opening can be made any size suitable for the 
work. As will be seen, these forges are simple in construc- 
tion, easy of control, taking practically none of the operator's 
time for that part of the work, and are made so that nearly any 
kind, size, or shape of piece may be handled. 

In Fig. 163 is shown an end-heating furnace fitted with a 
door which can be raised or lowered to open or close the furnace. 


Installation of Forges 

In Fig. 164 is shown the methods of installing these fur- 
naces with their apparatus for oil and air. As will be seen, the 
two pipes are laid under the floor, one to deliver the oil and 
the other the air-blast, and the furnaces connected up to these. 

FIG. 166. Wire-brazing furnace. 

While this is the best method, when conditions are such as to 
make it desirable, these pipes should be carried to the ceiling 
instead of under the floor. Gages, such as natural-gas, coal- 
gas, water-gas, producer-gas, etc., can be used in these same 
forges as readily as oil by changing the burners to those that 
are suitable. 

The most important thing is to see that they are properly 
installed, so that the air and fuel pressures be steady, uniform 



and voluminous enough to give the forges their proper tem- 
perature and maintain it at the desired point. This, of course, 
varies with the kinds of material to be heated. 

Where accurate temperature control is not necessary, and 
pressure under 14 ounces will suffice, the steel fan or positive 
blower, that will give the proper volume, will maintain a uni- 
form pressure. Where the pressures from 2 to $ pounds are 

FIG. 167. Tube-brazing furnace. 

required, the positive blower is used, and when an air-pres- 
sure above this is necessary the compressed-air plant will be 
needed. In some cases good dry steam will give better results 
and effect a saving in fuel. The quantity of fuel required 
varies with the temperature, material treated, and speed at 
which it is handled, but the fuel-pressure must always be 
uniform. For the oil 5 pounds pressure is sufficient. 




The burner to be used is an important factor in the eco- 
nomical production of work with these forges, and therefore 
it is not practicable to have one burner that will do all kinds of 
work. Whether high or low pressure air or steam is to be 
used for the blast, makes a difference in the kind of burner 

FIG. 168. Gas-fired ladle-heater. 

that should be used to get the greatest efficiency with the 
minimum of fuel consumption, as well as the temperature that 
it is necessary to maintain in the forge, and the nature of the 
work that is to be done. 

By Fig. 165 is shown a tool-dressing forge-furnace that has 
been designed especially for shaping up lathe or planer tools 
or pieces of a like character and size, whether they be made of 
high speed or carbon steels. 



Brazing Furnaces 

A fine line of brazing furnaces is of the type shown in 
Figs. 166 and 167. Fig. 166 shows the wire-brazing fur- 
nace and the crank to the right operates a clamp that holds 
one wire. A clamp is also located on the opposite side of 
the furnace, so that the two wires can be held in perfect 
alignment if desired, or the other wire can be held by the 


FIG. 169. Details of gas-fired ladle-heater. 

operator. A trolley-wire can be brazed every three minutes 
with this style of furnace, the necessary heat coming out 
through a hole in the top of the furnace. 

The tube-brazing furnace shown in Fig. 167 is designed 
for brazing brass, copper, or steel tubes. The burner dis- 
charges a ribbon of clear hot flame from the top, down upon 
the tube, with an inclination toward the rear; the place to be 
brazed being near the front in full view of the operator. The 


bottom of the chamber may be raised or lowered to accom- 
modate different sized tubes by the small wheels and screw 
underneath the furnace. Valves for controlling the tempera- 
ture are located within easy reach. Thus the operator can 
regulate the fire to suit his work and draw the tubes forward 
without changing his position. The escaping gases pass out 
at the rear end and warm up the incoming tubes, as well as 
making it comfortable for the operator by conducting them 
away from the front. 


In Figs. 168 and 169 is illustrated a ladle-heater that is 
simple in design, does not take up much room, and yet does 
the work perfectly. It can be used with either city or natural 
gas. Fig. 169 is a line cut showing details of construction of 
the same. 




The Development of the Drop-Hammer 

FROM 1847 to 1862, among the green hills of the State of 
Vermont, there was located one of the best equipped plants 
for the manufacture of machine-tools in this country. It was 
there, in the years 1854 and 1855, that most of the machin- 
ery was built for the manufacture of the then celebrated En- 
field rifle for the English Government, on the interchangeable 
system. Previous to that time they made their fire-arms on 
the "cut and try" plan, or by what we would term in this 
country hand-work. The parts were made in different shops; 
for instance, one manufacturer was skilled in making the 
barrel; another, the stock; another, part of the lock, and so 
on through the list. The various parts were assembled at the 
Tower of London, and it was there that the "cut and try" 
plan commenced, filing a little here, clipping off a little there, 
with several trials before the parts would go together satis- 

On the introduction of American machinery all this was 
changed, for it was found possible to machine the pieces of 
the arms so that the same kind would be exact duplicates of 
each other; consequently the cost of production was reduced 
and the quantities in a given time increased over the old 

To America is due the credit of introducing the inter- 
changeable system in the manufacture of firearms, sewing- 
machines, watches, etc. 

It was necessary to have uniform forgings, so that they 
could be handled in special fixtures adapted to the different 



parts. The art of forging in dies at that date was the weak 
point. Drop-hammers had not come into use, and all the 
forgings were made by the old hand swedging processes, repre- 
sented by Fig. 1. A base of cast iron, with suitable opening 
in the top for keying the guide-stock and lower die was set 
up, the upper die being made to work freely up and down in 
the guide-stock. In the faces of the two dies were cut the 
forms of the parts to be forged. The power used was ham- 
mer and sledge, wielded by the smith and helper. 

So far as can be learned, drop-hammers were first used by 
Colonel Samuel Colt, about the year 1853, in the manufacture 
of the celebrated revolving firearm that bears his name. 

The hammer of the Colt drop was raised by a vertical 
revolving screw. In the first year of the Civil War, Golding 
& Cheney obtained a United States patent on a drop-hammer, 
the principal feature of which was raising the hammer by a 
leather belt between friction-rolls. These friction-rolls are in 
use to-day on what are considered the best hammers for drop- 
forging. In other respects there have been great improve- 
ments. Some of the latest of these improvements are ex- 
plained in the following. 

Counterbalanced Treadle 

This treadle is made from one piece of steel-forging. 
The advantage of this construction is that it does not become 
"shackly" from wear, and when the pressure is put on one 
side the opposite side acts simultaneously, and the mechanism 
on either side of the machine does its work as it was designed 
to do. Instead of springs to hold the treadle in a raised posi- 
tion, counterbalance is provided which runs across the back 
of base and is attached at either end to levers whose fulcrums 
are pine-driven into the sides of the base, the short ends of 
the levers having projecting points extending underneath the 
sides of the treadle and holding it in the raised position 

The improvements claimed for the counterbalancing 
treadle are that the pressure required is the same at the start as 


at the finish of the movement of the treadle, and that the con- 
struction is such that repairs are not frequently needed, as in 
the cases where the springs or pulleys and chains are used, 

Compound Lever Device for Operating the Lifting or Head 


This device was designed with a view to lessen the shock 
of the blow given to the friction-bar by the hammer when in 
operation. It consists of a clamp on the friction-bar, having a 
projection on the inner side, which acts as the fulcrum of the 
lever, whose short end is a fork which engages with pins pro- 
jecting from the left hand upright, and whose long end is 
actuated by a pin in the hammer, which pin is placed as near 
the right hand side of the hammer as is practicable, in order to 
enable the long arm of the lever to be made as great a length 
as possible, thereby reducing the speed of the movement 
given to the friction-bar, and incidentally the shock of the 

All this tends to obviate the necessity of repairs, as it re- 
duces the tendency of the friction-bar to become crystallized, 
and it imparts to all the friction mechanism a moderate, easy 
movement, which is conducive to the durability of that part 
of the machine. 

Another feature of this device is the ease with which it is 
adjusted for the different heights from which the hammer falls. 
There is only one nut to turn, and when this is loosened the 
clamp is perfectly free upon the bar and will drop from its 
own weight, or can be raised with one hand. This one nut is 
sufficient to hold the clamp in place, as the latter is not sub- 
jected to the sharp blow as in the old method. 

Jointed Swinghead Construction 

The main idea of this construction is to lessen the expense 
of repairs. The two sides of the head are connected by a 
heavy web at the bottom edges, through which there is a 
rectangular hole to accommodate the board. The upper 
halves of the two sides are fastened to the main head-casting 



by a hinge-joint at the rear, and are primarily held in place by 
the small swivel bolts, the same as used on a lathe center-rest, 
and incidentally by two of the head-bolts which pass through 
the upper and lower parts as well of the head and through 
the top of the uprights. 

On both sides of the machine, running horizontally 
through the upper part of the uprights, through the web of 
the lower part of the head and into the rectangular hole in the 
latter, good stout bolts are used which hold the upper part of 
the machine rigidly together, and relieve the head-bolts proper 

FIG. 170. The first "interchangeable" blacksmith. 

from all shearing strain and also obviate the elongation by 
wear of the holes in the uprights. The eccentrics are made 
of steel-castings, which are stronger and more durable than 
bronze or gun metal. These are chambered and babbitt-lined, 
this lining being easily replaced when worn out. The sliding 
rear boxes for adjusting the friction are operated in the usual 

Paper Pulleys 

Experience has shown that iron pulleys are not reliable 
for drop-hammers. They become crystallized and break, and 
some one is likely to get hurt. Wood pulleys with iron hubs 


FIGS. 171 and 172. Sectional views of drop-hammer. 



are very good, but the compressed paper pulleys give the best 
results and satisfaction. They are light as compared with 
their strength, are elastic, and give excellent belt surface. 

Method of Fastening Board In Hammer 

An oblong cavity, from 4 to 8 inches long and about 5 
inches deep by 1 ^ inches wide, is machined in the top of 

FIG. 173. Board fastening. 

the hammer. That side of the cavity which is toward the back 
of the hammer has a bevel of about 1 5 degrees, the cavity 
being smaller at the top than at the bottom. The front side 
of the cavity being straight, the rear side of the lifting-board 
has a bevel corresponding to that in the rear side of the cavity, 
a steel-plate placed against the front side of board, and two or 
three steel wedges lightly driven with a hand-hammer between 
the board and the front side of the cavity. At every blow of 



the hammer, when the machine is working, these wedges be- 
come tighter and the board more firmly held. 

Foundations: Ratio of Base as Compared with height of 


There seems to be a variance of opinion in regard to the 
proper foundations for a drop-hammer. Several articles have 
appeared in the technical journals in regard to same. Several 
favor a rigid, rocklike foundation, and others favor an elastic 
construction. It seems to me that the weight of the base of 
the machine, as compared to the weight 
of the blow given by the hammer, should 
have more or less consideration in deter- 
mining the construction of the founda- 
tion. It is apparent that if a man tried 
to do some hand-forging with an ordinary 
flat iron held bottom up between his 
knees for an anvil, the result would not 
be altogether satisfactory, but if it were 
possible for him to hold a piece of iron 
weighing, say, 400 pounds on his knees, 
he would do more execution with his 
hammer and in addition could stand some 
pretty strong blows from his helper's 
sledge. From this illustration I argue 
that if the base of a drop-hammer could 
be made heavy enough, no foundation 
whatever would be required. The inertia of the mass of 
metal would be sufficient to absorb the effects of the shock 
imparted by the blow of the hammer. 

The cost and difficulties of handling, however, make such 
an arrangement out of the question. Within the past years an 
increase in the weight of the bases of drop-hammers has been 
a move in the right direction. In deciding this point, a cer- 
tain ratio between the weight of the hammer proper and the 
base is considered. In former years the ratio of 6 to 1 was 
considered sufficient. This was increased by some machine- 

FIG. 174. Board 



builders to 10 to 1, and now the most modern practise advo- 
cates a ratio of 15 to 1. 

To return to the subject of foundations, I would not ven- 
ture to say which construction will give the best results, owing 
in a measure to the variations of conditions, particularly the 
foundations of the earth where the machine is to be located. 

FIG. 175. Drop-hammer foundations. 

In fairly hard ground, such as clay, or where "hard pan" can 
be reached within fifteen feet of the surface, the following con- 
struction will give satisfaction : At the bottom of the excava- 
tion put in two or three feet of broken stone and Portland 
cement; on top of this place chestnut timbers on end. These 
timbers to be sawed on four sides and bolted together, the 
section of the block to be of sufficient size to accommodate the 



base of the machine, and to have about 4 inches margin. It is 
preferable to have the upper end of the timbers several inches 
below the surface of the ground, as there will then be less 
liability to decay. 

With a base of right proportion and a properly constructed 
foundation, the old method of fastening down the base by an- 



f ' ' 



I < 


^ 33^-1- 

Concrete i 

; ,6150 Lbs., 

^^ Leather 

! I ^ 

FIG. 176. Drop-hammer foundations. 

chor bolts is unnecessary. Angle irons at the corners of the base, 
fastened down to the foundation with lag screws, will- answer 
the purpose. 

Foundations for Drop-Hammers 

One of the perplexing problems of the mechanical engineer 
is this very securing of satisfactory foundations for large ham- 



mers, whether steam-hammers or drop-hammers. Numerous 
experiments have been tried with both elastic or yielding 
foundations and with those in which every precaution has been 
taken to make them as solid as possible. The builders of the 
drop-hammers quite naturally have experimented and accu- 
mulated experience of their own in this line, and must be 
assumed to know most of what is attainable on the subject. 

Plane off top 
Cast iron cap 
1 Thick all over set 
2 pipe into masonry 

to receive bolts and 
fill in space around 
them with cement 
when base lias been 
set in place 

FIG. 177. Drop-hammer foundations. 

I present herewith (Figs. 176, 177) a standard drawing of 
a drop-hammer foundation of the Pratt & Whitney Company. 
They say: "We do not advocate much woodwork under these 
hammers, but would advise building a foundation of concrete 
or square block of stone or cast iron, bedded down to hard 


FIG. 178. Front view of Ambler 

FIG. 179. Side view of 
Ambler drop-hammer. 



bottom. This is quite a departure from the usual way of 
setting a hammer, but it has been found to be much better, 

more effective, and less liable to break- 
age than with a wood foundation. All 
the cushion necessary with this foun- 
dation is but one layer of leather un- 
der the bed-piece. Too much atten- 
tion cannot be paid to the foundations 
of drop-hammers. In all cases exca- 
vate to hard bottom, or, better still, 
to rock. This information therefore 
seems to be of little use where neither 
hard bottom nor rock is to be found. 

The drawing shows a foundation 
built up of hard brick. Of course 
large stone-masonry is much better, 
but a cast-iron box, set into the ground 
and rilled with Portland cement, is 
best. Solid stone-masonry is used by 
the Gorham Silver Plate Company, 
Providence, R. I. They have drop- 
hammers of 3,000 pounds weight of 
ram working on these foundations. 

Drop-Hammer Effects 

The Miner & Peck Manufactur- 
ing Company, of New Haven, Conn., 
have determined the relative effects 
produced by hammers of drops falling 
from different heights. They show 
the economy of using heavier hammers 
with short lifts. This is illustrated 
in the following way: "If you are op- 
erating a hammer of, say, 100 pounds, 
at the same height you will obtain a result four times as great 
with an expenditure of four times the horse-power; while if 
you raise your 100-pound hammer four times as high you 

FIG. 180. The drop- 


FIGS. 181 and 182. Details of construction. 



will expend four times the horse-power in doing so." The 
table shows the time consumed, the velocity, and the dynamic 
effect (expressed in pounds of static pressure) produced by a 
solid body weighing one pound falling 
freely from rest by the force of gravity. 

The Ambler Drop-Hammer 

The endurance of drop-hammer 
dies and the quality of the work turned 
out by them depend very much of 
course upon the hammer with which 
the work is done. We illustrate here- 
with a hammer designed by A. A. 
Ambler, who for many years made a 
specialty of drop-hammer work in 
connection with various manufacturing 
concerns, and is now superintendent 
of the Foos Manufacturing Company, 
of Springfield, Ohio, builders of the 
hammer. The cuts show one of the 
hammers as used in the smith-shop 
of the company. The views in Figs. 
178 and 179 are made from drawings. 
It will here be seen that the method of 
fastening the housings to the anvil- 
block is unusual, two bolts passing 
through each at an angle as shown, 
these tending not only to keep the 

housings firmly seated within the recess in the block, but also 
firmly against the adjusting screws by means of which the 
guides are adjusted to proper position. It will be noticed 
that there are locks for these screws that prevent them being 
disturbed by the shock. This is shown more fully at Figs. 
181 and 182. At the top the housings are attached to the 
crosspiece by through bolts, and are seated to what really 
constitutes a dovetail; locking all together very firmly, the 
surfaces are about 18 inches \vide and the bolts have elastic 

FIG. 183. Construc- 
tion details. 



washers under the nut and heads. This is also shown in 
Figs. 181 and 182. 

The drop-rod C (shown separately in Fig. 180) is jointed 
and operates the eccentric positively, as it is always kept ver- 
tical. D is the automatic trip-rod with a steel latch E keyed 
to it and tripping dog F, adjusting collar G and torsional 
spring //, by which it is seen that when the hammer-head 
drops the wedge-shaped portion / engages with the dog F, 
turning the trip-rod and latch sufficiently to release the drop- 
rod so it can fall. By means of the torsional spring H the 
trip-rod D is made very flexible and sensitive at the top, and 
by means of the vernier spacing of the holes in the adjusting 

FIG. 184. Construction details. 

collar G, almost any flexure of the trip-rod R is obtained. 
The tripping dog F is adjustable vertically on the trip to be 
made at the most advantageous points, whether the dies in use 
are high or low. 

There is also an improved cushion-bumper for the drop- 
rod which has proven by extensive tests to give a positive but 
easy action to the rod, entirely avoiding levers and similar 
complications. This construction requires no more attention 
in changing from a high to a low stroke than if the bumper 
were made of solid steel-block. 

It is recognized that in all friction roll-hammers, perfect 
control of the action of the hammer can be obtained through 
the lifting board, only when it is entirely free from foreign 



substances, especially oil. In recognition of this fact the 
hammer under consideration is provided with a special device 
for avoiding trouble from this source. The bearings all have 
chambers holding the oil in check until required for lubrica- 
tion, and in case any of it should escape it is forced to the 
end of the roll and, by the centrifugal force to the cavity 
packed with wool or other absorbent material and there re- 
tained, thus preventing it from ever reaching the working 
surface of the roll or getting on to the board. A portion of 
the trouble with the hammer-boards is found to result from 
the fact that they are subjected to an excess of heat upon one 

side, this heat coming from 
the furnace. In this ham- 
mer the board is so keyed 
into the hammer proper that 
it can be reversed, side by 
side and end for end, thus 
equalizing all conditions and 

These hammers are all 
designed upon a general ra- 
tio of 1 5 to 1 with reference 
to the weight of anvil and 
hammer-head. In service the requirements demanded of 
these hammers have been especially severe and exacting. 
For instance, in the Springfield works of the International 
Harvester Company, where hammers are used placed within 
art inch of the natural bed-rock, they have retained their 
adjustments satisfactorily. 

Securing Hammer-Heads 

Fig. 185 illustrates a method for securing hammer-heads 
to piston-rods. A small space left below the bottom of the 
rod allows the taper portion (^ inch to 1 foot length of taper 
equal to twice the diameter of rod) to drive into the ram good 
and solid. The pin is for the purpose of raising the ram dur- 
ing the first stroke or two of the hammer. When the piston- 

FIG. 185. Method of securing 



rod is first placed into the ram, the pin is made to rest against 
the lower end of the notch planed in the rod, giving the pin 
about one inch play above it, for driving the rod. There is 
also a space in the ram around the straight part of the body, 
as it is thought to be a difficult matter to obtain a perfect fit 
around the straight, and also the tapered part of the rod. I 
have known hammer-heads fitted up in this style (taper posi- 
tion a good ground fit) where it was necessary to bore the rod 
out of the ram after it had snapped off. This tight fit was 
caused simply by driving the rod into the ram, working the 
hammer under ordinary conditions; no shrinking of ram to 
rod or anything of that kind being necessary. In one case 
where the piston had been fitted into the ram, as here shown, 

FIG. 186. Fastening hammer-dies. 

the ram was heated to expand, which generally answers the 
purpose of loosening the rod, but was "no go." I have heard 
some suggest that there was danger of splitting the ram with 
this arrangement, but I never knew this to be the case, and 
have seen many hammers built. However, care should be 
taken to set the anvil l l / 2 inches or 2 inches higher than the 
working level, to allow for the natural settling of the founda- 
tion, and also for the probable % inch drive of the piston 
into the rod. 


The following pertains to file-forging dies. There were 
fifteen hammers, mostly Bradley cushion, but a few of them 
were plain trip-hammers. They had a lot of trouble with the 
dies from the shanks breaking off, as at a, Figs. 186, 187. I 
suggested for an experiment to make them as at b y which gave 



FIG. 187. Drop-hammer for heavy work. 


good satisfaction and service, besides saving a lot of time and 
work in making the dies. 

As our work was steel, we used on the larger sizes of work 
a small blast to blow the scale off the dies, instead of using 
water. On the small sizes we did not use anything, as gener- 
ally the scale did not give much trouble. These dies were 
made of blocks that we got about the right sizes from the 
steel-makers. There were about twenty different sizes. The 
dies had to be dressed over about once a month, and making 
new ones and keeping the old ones in repair was about as 
much as one man wanted to do. 

Improved and Up-to-Date Drop- Hammer 

Modern manufacturing demands heavier work in all de- 
partments, and the forging-plant has in many cases outgrown 
the lighter hammer of a few years ago. To meet new condi- 
tions, and as a result of experience in its own plant, the 
Billings & Spencer Company, of Hartford, Conn., now 
build a new drop-hammer known as model C, and shown in 
Fig. 187. 

An improved board-clamp catch-up is employed, which 
does away with the latch and connection at the side for hold- 
ing up the ram. The board clamp is of an entirely new 
design, and is located at the extreme top of the machine above 
the friction-rolls or lifting device. This makes it impossible 
for oil to get between the clamps and board, which has here- 
tofore been the cause of much inconvenience where the board- 
clamps have been used. Positive action is assured in the 
clamps by the operation of cams or eccentrics controlled by a 
foot lever attached to the base of the machine. 

Another feature is a novel adjustment of the rear friction- 
roll by means of an eccentric, a duplicate of that used in 
engaging the front friction-roll, the two rolls, with their 
eccentrics being interchangeable. By this means of adjust- 
ment a true alignment between the lifting-board and rolls is 
always preserved. 


A new form of bronze bushing is introduced on the eccen- 
tric bearings, which is easily and quickly removed and re- 
placed. The same eccentric adjustment is also employed on 
the rear board-clamp. These adjustments of the rear friction 
roll and rear board-clamp are made by means of bars attached 
to the eccentrics and running down parallel to the upright to 
within easy reach of the operator on the floor. An improved 
method is also employed in attaching the head to the up- 

The uprights used on the new model are especially de- 
signed to reduce the liability of breakage, the distribution of 
metal being such as to afford J:he maximum strength. The 
cross-section of the uprights is that of a letter V, the apex 
forming the guide for the ram with a longitudinal rib running 
its entire length to add strength. An important feature in 
the construction of this machine lies in the fact that the up- 
rights remain solid throughout their lengths, no weakening 
perforations being necessary in the placing of attachments. 
An improved adjustment for the uprights is employed at the 
junction of the base and uprights. 

The releasing lever attached to the outside of the left- 
hand upright has an improved adjustment. This adjustment 
is in the form of a modified rack, intervals of 1 ^ inches 
allowing the ram to be released at any desired height. 

Capacity of Steam-Hammers and Size of Work 

For making an occasional forging of a given size, a 
smaller hammer may be used than if we were manufactur- 
ing this same piece in large quantities. If we have a six-inch 
piece to forge, such as a pinion or a short shaft, a hammer of 
about 1,100 pounds capacity would answer very nicely. But 
should the general work be as large as this, it would be very 
much better to use a 1,500-pound hammer. If, on the other 
hand, we wish to forge six-inch axles economically, it would 
be necessary to use a 7,000 or 8,000 pound hammer. The fol- 
lowing table will be found convenient for reference for the 


proper size of hammer to be used on different classes of gen- 
eral blacksmith-work, although it will be understood that it 
is necessary to modify these to suit conditions, as has already 
been indicated. 

Diameter of Stock. Size of Hammer. 

3}^ inches 250 to 350 pounds 

4 inches 350 to 600 pounds 

4!^ inches 600 to 800 pounds 

5 inches 800 to 1,000 pounds 

6 inches 1,100 to 1,500 pounds 

Steam-hammers are usually operated at pressures varying 
from 75 to 100 pounds of steam per square inch, and may 
also be operated by compressed air at about the same pres- 
sures. It is cheaper, however, in the case of compressed air, 
to use pressures from 60 to 80 pounds instead of going 

In figuring on the boiler capacity for steam-hammers, 
there are several things to be considered, and it depends upon 
the number of hammers in use and the service required. It 
will vary from one boiler horse-power for each 100 pounds of 
falling weight up to three horse-power for the same weight, 
according to the service expected. In a shop where a num- 
ber of steam-hammers are being used, it is usually safe to 
count on the lower boiler capacity given, as it is practically 
safe to say that all of the hammers are never in use at the 
same time. In a shop with a single hammer, on the other 
hand, and especially where hard service is expected, it is 
necessary to allow the larger boiler capacity, as there is no 
reserve to be drawn on, due to part of the hammers being 
idle, as in the other case. 

Steam-hammers are always rated by the weight of the ram, 
and the attached parts, which include the piston and rod, 
nothing being added on account of the steam-pressure behind 
the piston. This makes it a little difficult to compare them 
with plain drop or tilting hammers, which are also rated in 
the same way. 


Rules for Finding the Capacity of Steam-Hammers, and the 
Horse-Power Required for Operation 

\ call attention to some simple rules regarding steam-ham- 
mer practise, which may be of value to some of my readers. 
The first of these rules gives the horse-power required to run 
a hammer of any size, and may be expressed as follows: 
Divide the rated capacity of the hammer ; in pounds ; by 100, and 
the quotient will be the horse-power required to run the hammer 

This rule is also applicable in cases where the hammer is 
not run constantly, by estimating the amount of time the 
hammer is idle each hour and making allowance therefor. 
But it will be noted that in case the hammer is not run con- 
stantly, or nearly so, and the horse-power is correspondingly 
reduced, sufficient steam-storage space must be provided in 
the boiler to prevent the steam-pressure being drawn down 
much faster than it is made during the working period. 

The second rule deals with the estimate of the proper size 
of hammer to be used in working iron and steel of any de- 
sired cross-sectional area. The rule is as follows: 

Multiply the greatest cross-section desired to be worked in the 
hammer by 80, if of steel, or, 60, if of iron, and the product will 
be the rated value of the hammer required in pounds. 

This rule will give a hammer for safely working material 
of the size specified, at one heat. No doubt many of my 
readers are doing what we frequently do, that is, work billets 
which exceed in size that which would be allowable if the rule 
was always followed. 

Development of Steam Dr op-Hammers 

Without raising the question of who was the pioneer in 
steam drop-hammers, Mr. F. B. Miles, who later became a 
member of the firm of Bement, Miles & Co., designed in 
1872 what seems to be the first steam drop-hammer made by 
his company, and which was sold to the Baldwin Locomotive 


Works. Since that time this class of machinery has grown to 
be a large factor in the product of Bement, Miles & Co., now 
the Niles-Bement-Pond Company. 

Since the first hammers were made by Mr. Miles, there 
has been little change in the important points of construction, 
such modifications as have been made being simply augmenta- 
tion, with the vital or working parts as he conceived them. 
As a proof of the good design Mr. Miles produced, I have to 
point out that most, if not all, steam-hammers manufactured 
in this country to-day are constructed on the same lines, and 
the illustrations of them point very strongly to direct copies 
of what has become known throughout the trade as "Bement 
hammers," which shows a growth of the same mechanism pro- 
duced over thirty years ago by practically the same company, 
and with no radical differences in principles. 




Action of Steel and Iron Under Different Degrees of Heat 

A FEW years ago some ornamental forgings were being 
made by students in the blacksmith-shop of the Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute. The designs included some pieces of 
^ inch square, which were to be twisted, and the students 
were having difficulty in getting a uniform pitch to the twist. 
The iron would be heated for several inches, clamped in a 
vise, and twisted with a pair of tongs. As would naturally 
occur, the piece of iron was clamped in the vise and clasped 
by the tongs near the ends of the hot part where the heat 
merged from red to black. In almost every case when the 
twist would be made it would appear greater at the ends near 
the vise and tongs. 

The first conclusion was that the fastenings must exert 
some influence to produce the effect. A piece was tried with 
the fastenings attached directly to the bright parts. In this 
case the twist came out very uniform. A long piece was then 
heated in the middle and clamped at the ends where the irons 
were cold. On making the twist the same effect was observed 
as at first, the greater twist occurring in the dark-red heat. 

Samples of ^2 -inch round iron were then tried to see if the 
form of cross-section had any influence. So far as could be ob- 
served, the effect was the same as the square iron. The forge 
in which the specimens were heated was thoroughly cleaned 
and samples of >^-inch round iron were then tried to see if 
the form of cross-section had any influence. So far as could 
be observed, the effect was the same as the square iron. The 
forge in which the specimens were heated was thoroughly 



cleaned and a fresh fire built with the good, clean blacksmith 
coal, samples of which were analyzed in the Chemical Labora- 
tory and shown to be very low in sulfur and phosphorus. 
The results were the same as before. 

Finally, two students Messrs. J. S. Black and M. F. 
Kahm took up the investigation as a subject for this work, 
spending a good deal of time and obtaining the following 
results. The work, while not exhaustive, covered a good 
deal of ground and was carefully done. The results are inter- 
esting if they establish, as the writer believes they do, that 
wrought iron is stronger when at a white heat than when at a 
red heat. 

Careful search was made through the literature available, 
but only one reference was found alluding to similar observa- 
tions. This was in the American Machinist of November 11, 
1897, in an article by Mr. B. F. Spaulding. He says: "There 
is a peculiarity about some iron which I have often observed 
with curiosity, but which I do not remember to have seen 
mentioned. If a bar of this iron is heated for some distance 
in the length of it to a uniform white heat, it appears to be 
stiffer in that portion than it is at the lower temperature, the 
red-hot part, which intervenes between the cold ends and the 
white hot part. 

"This peculiarity of being less readily bent where it is the 
hottest is shown when an attempt is made to bend it by letting 
the middle rest against something, as, for instance, the horn 
of the anvil, while each end is pressed in a direction to bend 
the bar. The bar will then have a greater bend at the places 
where it is red than along the part where it is white." 

Materials Used in Experiments 

The inference from reading this article is that Mr. Spauld- 
ing only attributed this property to certain kinds of iron, or to 
iron under certain conditions, but the experiments seemed to 
show that all wrought irons are similarly affected. The mate- 
rial for these experiments consisted of the following stock, all 
^ inch square and ordered from a jobbing house: Jessop tool 



steel, a medium grade of American tool-steel, machinery 
steel, Norway iron, charcoal iron, and common or stone-coal 

The forge for heating the specimens was fixed with fire- 
brick to limit the length of the heat on each specimen and 
also to insure a uniform length for all. Special care was taken 
to keep the fire clean and in good condition. A good grade 
of blacksmith-coal was used. The apparatus for twisting con- 
sisted of a lathe fitted with a vise and an extra spindle with a 
large socket in one end and a crank fitted on the other. After 
the specimen had been heated, one end was put in the socket 

FIG. 188. Samples of Jessop steel. 

and the other end fastened in the vise in line with the spindle. 
A few turns on the crank would do the work. 

A small testing machine was used for making the tension 
tests. After a little practise the boys were able to put the 
specimen in the clamps and pull it out to breaking before any 
marked change of the color due to cooling could be observed. 
No effort was made to measure the pull exerted by the machine. 

For the bending tests, a sliding-block, operated by a lever, 
was made to press on one end, the other end being supported 
by a fixed block. The specimens for this test had the ends 
made hemispherical. 

In another test a small hammer-head was fitted with a 
punch ground to an angle of 60 degrees and attached to a long 


handle pivoted at the end. Arrangements were made to fix 
the distance through which the hammer was allowed to drop. 
The specimen was heated, as in the other tests; laid on the 
anvil under the .punch, and the latter raised and dropped 
rapidly as the specimen was moved along, making the marks 
about half an inch apart. 

The specimens were cut from the bar and were made of 
convenient length for the different tests. For the twisting 
tests they were about 12 inches long and three pieces of each 
kind of metal were tried. The illustrations show the results 
very clearly (Figs. 188 to 195). The high carbon steel shows 

FIG. 189. Samples of ordinary American tool-steel. 

the greatest twist at the point of highest temperature. The 
machinery-steel gave indefinite results. One specimen seemed 
weaker in the hottest part, another twist most at the red heat, 
and the third seemed to have two or three weak points. 

The specimens of wrought iron gave unmistakable evi- 
dence of being weaker at the red heat, and the purer the iron 
the more marked the effect. The Norway iron seemed to 
twist all at one place in the dark-red heat, the part at the 
white heat showing very little twist. The charcoal and com- 
mon irons showed less difference in strength between the 
two temperatures, though the differences are still very evi- 

The tension specimens show similar but, if possible, more 



uniform results. The high carbon steels show the reduced 
cross-section at the point of the highest temperature, while the 
machinery, tool, and the different grades of iron have the points 
of reduced cross-section, one on each side of the white-hot part. 
A number of these specimens pulled apart with very much less 
reduction of area than the material would have shown if tested 
in the ordinary way and at the usual temperature. 

The bending tests were very inconclusive. Sometimes the 
bend would occur at the white-hot part and sometimes in one 
of the red parts, but never in a way to give definite informa- 
tion, either to corroborate or contradict that obtained from the 

FIG. 190. Samples of machinery steel. 

preceding tests. The specimens shown in the illustration were 
bent with tongs over the horn of an anvil in the manner sug- 
gested by Mr. Spaulding in the article previously referred to. 
The punching tests could be seen by the eye to corroborate 
the twisting and tension-tests, but the marks were too small 
to show in photograph, and were unsatisfactory to measure 
for tabulation. 

Fuel Used in Tests 

A careful analysis of the coal used in these tests showed 
less than one-half of one per cent, of sulfur. Care was taken 
to keep the fire clean and a sufficient thickness of bed was 
carried to insure that the metal would not be struck by cur- 


rents of cool air. The bars were heated just to the point of 
sparking in the middle, and the total length of the heated 
part was about 6 inches. While the specimens shown in the 
illustrations were all made in one series of tests, yet these 
results have been duplicated many times before and since these 
tests were made, taking iron from different lots and coal from 
other places. If these results are due to impurities in the fuel, 
it would seem that the tool-steel would be more affected than 
the iron, as it is considered more susceptible to injury from 
such causes. But one of the Jessop steel specimens was 
twisted more than twenty revolutions without breaking, show- 

FIG. 191. Samples of good charcoal iron. 

ing it was in a pretty fair condition. Then we used the same 
fuel for tempering taps, dies, reamers, and milling-cutters, and 
they stand up to the work as well as any we can buy. 

If this peculiar effect is due to some molecular action in 
the metal, it would be interesting to know what this action is 
and what causes it. It seems from the foregoing tests that a 
small amount of carbon will reduce the effect and that a larger 
amount will entirely eliminate it and cause the molecules at 
the highest temperature to be most easily moved. The writer 
has desired to pursue the investigation of this subject further, 
but time has not permitted him to do so. The illustrations 
show the results of the experiments in these. 



Practical Results of Experiments 

Fig. 188 represents three samples of Jessop steel. The 
middle one was twisted more than twenty revolutions and did 
not break. 

Fig. 189 represents ordinary American tool-steel. 

Fig. 190 represents samples of machinery steel. One 
seemed to twist most in the hottest part, one most in the cool- 
est parts, and the third or middle specimen twisted very 

FIG. 192. Samples of stone-coal iron. 

Fig. 191 represents samples of a good grade of charcoal 
iron. It will be noted that two of these broke off at the dark- 
red part of the heat. 

Fig. 192 represents specimens of common or stone-coal 
iron. Two of these are fractured, but not entirely broken off 
in the dark-red part of the heat. 

Fig. 193 represents specimens of Norway iron. These were 
the first specimens tried, and there was a slight irregularity in 
the length of the heated part. Also one of the specimens 
cooled down to a red heat before being twisted, and it shows a 
very uniform pitch. 

Fig. 194 represents the results of the tension-tests. Be- 
ginning at the left there is Jessop steel, American tool- 
steel, machinery steel, charcoal iron, and Norway iron. The 


machinery steel in all the tension-tests showed the same char- 
acteristic as the wrought iron. 

Fig. 195 represents two samples of wrought iron and one 
of the machinery steel. These were bent over the horn of an 
anvil with tongs. The machinery steel in this case fails to 
show the characteristics referred to under Fig. 194. 

Working Stock in Drop-Dies 

A considerable part of the expense incurred in the pro- 
duction of drop-forgings is the cost of the dies in which the 
work is shaped. The proportion which this expense bears to 


FIG. 193. Samples of Norway iron. 

the cost of a certain number of forgings depends upon the 
durability of the dies. When the making of the forgings is a 
permanent business and they are in constant demand in such 
numbers as to require the renewal of the dies from time to 
time the proportionate cost of maintenance of the dies in good 
condition is sometimes insignificant and sometimes important. 
There are circumstances under which the cost of dies must 
be noticed. It is often expedient to make drop-forgings in 
order to obtain the advantage of the uniformity which the dies 
give them, although the number of forgings required may be 
so small that the dies need not be much worn when the entire 
amount of forgings has been made, but in this instance, as in 
every other, it is for obvious reasons very desirable to have 



the dies retain their original perfections so far as possible. In 
such cases the cost of the dies is a large factor in the cost of 
the work. It is best to keep them, for there is always a pos- 
sibility that they may be needed again. 

Facilities for Reproduction of Drop-Dies 

When it becomes evident that a large number of pieces have 
to be made, and that the tools for making them will require 

FIG. 194. Results of tension tests. 

frequent renewal, it becomes a matter of economy to provide 
reasonable facilities for the reproduction of these tools, and also 
to fix the methods which should be adapted for the use of the 
tools so as to insure their utmost effectiveness and durability, 
and restrict within the narrowest limits the expenses of profit- 
less manufacture. On drop-work, for instance, it is to be 
determined what sized drop shall be used, and how many 
blows shall be struck at each operation. Drop-dies therefore 
come well within the scope of the rule. They are quite ex- 
pensive in both material and workmanship, and are often sub- 



jected to the handling of piece workmen who are naturally a 
good deal more interested in getting all they can out of them, 
in the shortest possible time, than they are in their preser- 

It is true that drop-hammer men soon become shrewd 
enough, as a general thing, to know that the better care they 
take of their dies, the easier and more freely they will work, 
but as they stand with a piece of work in the die, which is not 

FIG. 195. Samples of wrought iron and machinery steel. 

quite rilled out with the blows already struck upon it, there is 
but an instant afforded them in which to decide whether it is 
best to give the cooling-piece one blow more without reheat- 
ing, and in that critical moment they are liable to be overcome 
by a surge of self-interest, and decide to hit it again and risk 
the die. 

Spoiling Dies 

A hot piece of iron might lie loosely in the impression of 
a die until it is cooled. It could become cold without heating 
the corners around the impression enough to seriously affect 


their temper; but it is quite a different thing when the hot 
iron has already been struck with such force as to bring it into 
more intimate contact with the steel of the die than its own 
grains have with each other, for the steel has the heat abso- 
lutely forced into it when an additional blow is given. If this 
will not draw the temper, nothing will, and if the corner of the 
impression is already almost red-hot, then the additional blow, 
driving down on almost cold fin, will drive down the corner, 
and make it overhang and hug the work so that it will be hard 
to disengage if from the die. Then the good hammer-man, 
if he is not unmindful of the future, will have the die fixed 
before it gets any worse; but if his temper rises with that of 
the die until his work sticks so bad that, in removing it, it 
gets out of shape so much as to damage it, then he will have 
the die repaired. 

A drop man says it is more exasperating to have the work 
stick in the upper die than in the lower one, especially if the 
drop is working on a high stroke. His work is pulled off his 
grasp in spite of his most energetic efforts to .retain it. He 
relates that he was amused a short time ago to hear a fellow, 
who was thus bothered, vent his feelings by exclaiming to his 
bewitched work as it went upward, "Oh, you're going to be 
an angel, ain't ye?" Sticking in the upper die is so trouble- 
some that it is generally relieved as soon as possible. 

The Dies and the Drop 

As a general rule it is better for the dies to have the blow 
of the drop struck on the hot material with force enough to 
fill them at the first stroke without allowing it to remain in 
them for a repetition of the blow. This would often require 
a heavier drop-hammer than is available. There are some 
objections in using heavy drops, among which the very 
palpable one of first cost is generally effectual. 

There is another which demands consideration, and that is 
the effect which the sudden application of power to raise a 
heavy weight has upon the shafting and carries back in some 
measure toward the prime motor, diffusing itself and being 


absorbed, partly, among the revolving pulleys and shafts and 
running belts until its last vibration is taken up by the fly- 

There are some other objections also, and it therefore be- 
comes a question whether it is better, when all things are taken 
into consideration, to drop heavy enough to make the piece 
at one blow, or strike it two or more. 

In this consideration the fact must not be neglected that 
whether a heavy drop is lifted one foot to strike a light blow, 
or five feet to strike a heavy blow, the application of power, 
required to give it its first impulse upward, is as great in one 
case as in the other, and therefore the effect of shock upon the 
motive power and its appliances is less when light blows are 
struck with light drops than when light blows are struck with 
heavy drops. 

Economy of Dies 

Leaving out of the question, however, everything but the 
especial economy of the dies, it is better to finish at one blow 
all the work the dies have to perform at each insertion of the 
hot piece. The dies will last longer when thus treated, and 
the corners of the impressions will retain their original form 
longer than when the pieces are submitted to more blows 
before removing them from the dies. 

The effect upon the work of striking one blow or more is 
a different question from that relating to the' effect upon 
the dies, and to this question it must be replied that in a 
majority of instances the stock is better by being struck more 
than one blow. Action and reaction are equal, however much 
the attacked may retire before the advance. The falling die 
delivers its force, and the stock is driven into every recess 
open to it, but there is reaction enough to stop the blow, 
and resiliency still in the struck mass, even if it has 
been strained beyond the bounds of complete recovery, and 
instantly before the weight is lifted the particles have re- 
covered to some extent their lost positions, or have moved 
back toward them and this repulsion leaves them with an 


open grain, and it is only by striking them, blow after blow, 
that the particles can be pressed into a close union which they 
will retain, each blow leaving them nearer until the stock is 
got into that condition when the force of the blow no longer 
strains them beyond the limit of elastic recovery. 

Practical Effect of Working Iron 

This is the practical effect of "working" iron, and its 
benefits are more or less displayed on drop-forging in propor- 
tion to the number of blows which are affected up to the 
point of full efficiency. A greater blow than one that is 
efficient produces no more useful effect than one which is 
simply sufficient. A number of disturbances, from which the 
forgings recover in different degrees, is necessary to produce 
close texture and the greatest amount of cohesion; in short, 
the best material. 

Effect of Drops on Stock 

Practically little regard is paid, as things go in shops where 
drops are used, to the effect which the working of the drops 
has upon the stock. In the olden time, when the black- 
smith's soul was in his work, the art of working upon the anvil 
was not gaged by the amount of work thrown upon the floor, 
but somewhat, also, by the qualities which the manner in 
working the material conferred upon it. This is little con- 
sidered now, for the reason that, as it is ordinarily worked, 
the material is abundantly good for all purposes for which it 
is used. If upon trial one brand of stock is found to be 
defective when worked in a certain manner, the working 
practise is not changed, but another brand of stock is secured 
which will yield good results when worked in the manner 

Working in Drop and Bending- Machine 

The increasing employment of bending-machines has ex- 
tended and rendered more imperative the necessity of secur- 
ing stock which will stand the peculiar usage to which it is 


subjected in forming. A blacksmith can humor the peculiar- 
ities of any kind of iron or steel by his manner of working it 
upon the anvil, but a man who runs a machine which makes 
600 or 900 strokes an hour, and is called upon to bend a piece 
of iron into a certain form at every stroke, has not time to fool 
away in humoring the proclivities of any die-stock. He may 
favor it within reasonable limits by his manner of heating it, 
but when it is submitted to the action of the machine, the 
quality of mercy is strained to the breaking-point, and the 
stock must be of such a nature that it will take, without 
serious injury, the impression of the dies. One of the con- 
spicuous results of these conditions is, frequently, the sub- 
stitution of soft steel for pieces which might otherwise be 
made of iron. 

There is a distinction between the classes of work which 
are usually done under the drop, or in the bending-machine. 
In the drop-dies, the particles of stock are generally pressed 
together very closely, while the operation of the bending tends 
to strain apart those on the outside of the bend. Most any 
kind of stock can be jammed into a hole in a drop-die, but the 
bar bent on a bending-machine must have some degree of 
tenacity, to bend without cracking. 

Even cold shuts will close so completely in a drop-die that 
they are undiscoverable until the piece is put to some stress 
which will disclose them. Due caution must therefore be 
exercised in devising drop processes, to adopt such as will 
insure sound forging. Too much reliance much not be 
placed upon fair outsides. 

Whenever it becomes necessary to place dependence upon 
uniting stock by welding in drop-dies, it is the safest way to 
have the welding done at the first blow. The parts which are 
forced forward to be united at the second blow are liable to 
be dry, filmed over, and unwelded. 

If the two, or more, blows are to be struck on a piece at 
the same heat, in the same dies, it is a great relief to the dies 
to at least loosen the piece in the dies the instant they separate. 
This proceeding breaks that intimate contact between the hot 


piece and the die, which affords the bridge for the quick 
passage of the heat to the edges of the impression, which it 
softens and makes susceptible to injury. It does not require 
a wide separation to greatly weaken the conducting capacity 
of actual contact. 

When it is found that the drop-forgings do not have the 
strength which they were calculated to possess, some revision 
should be made of the processes, and such corrections applied 
as may have a favorable effect. If the dies are properly devised 
and the work is carefully manipulated, the material in the 
drop-forging can be brought to the highest degree of excel- 
lence which such stock is capable of possessing. The stock 
can be wrought in the drop-dies to its greatest perfection with- 
out much injury to the dies. Stock allowed to cool from a 
welding heat, with no work done upon it below that heat, is 
very far from being in the best condition. 

Improved Anvil Block 

There is nothing which makes a forge-room so untidy in 
its appearance as anvils carelessly placed on the wooden blocks. 
Even those secured firmly to the blocks by means of straps of 
iron, bolts or staples, in time work loose, shift about, and 
frequently fail altogether. To hold the anvil firmly, to have 
it look neat, and at the same time to make it as noiseless as 
possible when in use, is a problem demanding much thought 
and experience. 

As it is desired to use wrought-iron anvils in preference 
to cast-iron, several experiments have been made. The result 
is that two blocks are now in use in the forge-room: one is 
mounted with a Trenton and one with a Hey & Badden anvil, 
both being wrought-iron anvils. These are satisfactory in 
every respect, and the difficulty in holding the anvil secure 
is solved. All noise and vibration when the anvil is struck 
are stopped, and its general appearance is very neat. The 
anvil is made fast to a mass of concrete (Fig. 196) of broken 
stone and cement encased in a rectangular shaped box 18 
inches high, made of cast iron fg inch thick, with a base 14 



x 18 inches tapering up to 8 x 10 inches at the top, being 
1 inch larger, inside measurement, than the base of the anvil. 
The anvil, as stated, rests upon the concrete 2 inches below 
the top of the casting. On each side (front and back) of the 
anvil, embedded in the concrete to the depth of about 3 inches, 
is a bolt and nut, the nut projecting up to nearly the top of 
the casting, and about 1 inch above the concrete. On the top 
of this concrete melted lead is poured (filling up this space 

FIG. 196. Improved anvil block. 

between the base of the anvil and the top of the casting about 
2 inches) which flows all round the anvil, the nut of the bolt, 
and into the corners of the casting. The taper of the casting, 
together with the nut, holds the lead to the cement, and this, 
it is evident, holds the anvil firmly. 

Several methods have been thought of, such as having the 
anvil rest on a box of sand, mounted on wooden and concrete 
blocks by means of bands of iron, hook-bolts, staples, etc. 


All these devices failed to give the result desired. It was 
found that by placing 1 inch or more of the base of the anvil 
in a tub of water, it lost its ringing sound, the vibrations 
ceased all together and the sound, when struck with a hammer, 
was dead, so to speak, as much as the so-called noiseless anvils 
made of cast iron. The base of the anvil rests on the con- 
crete, and is gripped by the lead. This arrangement stopped 
completely, just as the water did, all vibrations. The cost of 
this method of mounting anvils should exceed but little the 
cost of the anvils mounted in the usual way on the wooden 
blocks with straps of iron, etc. 



Making a Wheelbarrow Wheel 

WHEN a new piece is to be produced in quantities, and the 
job has been worked through carefully, and decisions have 
been made on all the operations, tools, and fixtures needful, 
then it is sometimes a good thing to forget that there are such 
tools as drillers, lathes, planers, millers, and screw-machines, 
and remember squeezing tools alone. 

Some things cannot be made by pressing and punching, 
hot or cold; but really, when we look the field over carefully, 
it will be seen that almost everything can be made of sheet or 
bar stock, in some forms of rolls or presses. 

For a big thing, a wooden freight-car doesn't look at first 
like a press job, and for a little thing a wooden wheelbarrow 
wheel doesn't seem exactly fit for production from metal, with 
not a cut made on it. 

It is not so very long ago since the pressed-steel freight- 
car became an established production. Metal wheels have 
been made for many years, but plenty of wooden wheels are 
still used, because it takes a long, long time to change exist- 
ing practise, even when the new thing is not only best and 
cheapest in the long run, but is the lowest in first cost and by 
far the most durable of the two. 

The expert machine designer should not let habit and 
custom hinder him from seeing more than one way to produce 
what he wants, yet he often does take the handy and costly way, 
because it is the way he knows best, and because others have 
gone the same way for a similar output. It is easier to do 
what has been done, than to do the best that can be done, and, 




if one follows the old way, he escapes the stigma of experi- 
ment, and stands on the safe ground of established practise 
and conservative engineering. " Conservative practise" is a 
fine term, fine to capitalists, and to routine followers, and when 
some rule-breaking experimenter finds new and better ways 
of doing things, then conservative practise becomes dear in 
the other sense of the word. Sad to say though, some- 
times the experimenter does not come out right, and then 

FIG. 197. Parts of wheel ready for assembling. 

the old-way advocates can be happy and say ; 
so" with complacent joy. 

'I told you 

Operations on Wheel 

The parts of the eight-spoke metal wheelbarrow wheel are 
shown in Fig. 197, and consist of the cored cast-iron hub, two 
hot-pressed steel flanges, four bent spoke parts, two spokes 
each, eight rivets and the welded wheel rim. 

The cast-iron hub calls for five or more operations 
making the core, molding, pouring, tumbling, and spruing on 
the emery-wheel. The coring length and outside diameters 


are all close to uniformity, and the hub and side flanges and 
spokes make a firmly united structure after they are assembled 
in the press, before riveting (as shown in Figs. 208 and 209), 
as the eyes of the hub-flanges are forced down hard on the 
outside of the hub. 

For the tire, seven operations are required to cut it off 
from the bar, straighten, punch with a hole for each spoke 
end, six or eight as may be, and two rivet-holes for the weld- 

FIG. 198. Small rim-bending rolls. 

rivet, which insures the correct tire diameter; insert the weld- 
rivet, heat and weld, and finally form and trim on a round 
iron-block. None of the operations on the wheelbarrow tire 
are shown, as larger wheel tires were in work the day the 
pictures were taken. 

The tires are cut off in the press, and all the holes are 
punched at once square holes for the spoke ends, and a 
round end for the welding-rivet. Fig. 198 shows the little 
Moline tire-bender, three rolls open at the right hand, one 
adjustable. The larger tires are bent in a larger Moline 
machine, Fig. 199, having the adjustable roll carried on a 



rectangular gibbed slide at the left. The company make 
wheels up to 54 inches diameter, with rims 6 inches wide, and 
fit them with two sets of /^-section spokes, spread at the base, 
and extremely substantial in construction, to carry as much as 
3,000 pounds load per wheel an entirely different affair from 
this simple and cheap wheelbarrow wheel. 

The rims are heated for welding in the natural-gas fire, 
shown in Fig. 200. This is a fire-brick pit, not very wide, 

FIG. 199. Larger rim-bending rolls. 

having two loose fire-brick sliding covers, raised up on bricks 
2 or 3 inches above the hearth surface. The natural-gas pipe 
is at the left, globe valve regulation, and the tin air-pipe takes 
the gas at the top bend, above the flat air-regulating slide, 
fixed in position with the thin wooden wedge lying on top of 
the slide. The flame was shut off for the camera exposure, 
but the pit was yet red hot. The two fire-brick covers are 
made each of two bricks, pierced together with clamp-plates 


and bolts, all as clearly shown. When the tires are to be put 
in the top bricks are shoved along endwise, and shoved back 
again to cover the tops of the heating-ends, and the fire is ex- 
tremely rapid in action. 

The superintendent was very loath to permit a picture of 
this simple, cheap, convenient, and most effective hearth to go 
out, because it was not more elaborated. Like everything else 
in this shop, this fire was working all day every day all right, 

FIG. 200. Natural gas fire for welding tire. 

costing next to nothing in fuel, extremely good in every way, 
which did not at all hinder the superintendent from wishing 
it not to be shown. I, on the other hand, regarded the fire 
as a model construction, very difficult to cheapen or improve. 
The rims are welded on horn-frame " Justice" spring-ham- 
mer, as shown in Fig. 201. The top spring and cranks are 
covered by a large sheet-metal case, as the hammer works fast. 
The hammer works only a few seconds on each weld, and the 


tire is then taken by the helper, who trims the weld a very 
little with a hand-hammer, which completes the welding. 

Welding makes the rim ready for the spokes. The spokes 
are made two in one piece, of oval steel rod, cut to length, and 
slabbed on the sides to form a square tenon on each end to fit 
the square hole punches in the tire, and then formed V- 
shaped in the press, as shown in Fig. 202. There are four 
operations on the spoke V y only one, that of bending, being 
illustrated. First the spoke-blank is cut to length, then 

FIG. 201. Welding wagon-wheel rims on Justice hammer. 

slabbed on one end at a time for the square tenon, then formed 
by being laid on top of the V-horn of the press in the gages, 
which are of the same thickness, slotted so that the forming 
tool in the press-slide can bend both ends down into the com- 
pleted form shown in Fig. 197. 

The spokes are riveted into the tire by a rapid pneumatic 
riveter, the piston being crank-driven, and the tool being a 
reproduction of the flat hand-hammer peen, turning round a 
little between blows. The spoke tenons are inserted in the 


rim by hand, being taken one at a time from the rod on which 
they hang at the workman's left, and then one spoke is 
grabbed in the press fixture vise and held hard by a long cam 
lever, all as clearly shown in Fig. 203, while riveting is done. 
The hammer is very fast, and the spoke slides down an inch 
or so while the riveting is done, which makes no difference as 
the atmospheric hammer follows it down all right. Riveting 
completes the rim and spokes, ready for assembling the entire 
wheel by adding the hub and side at the center of the bent 

FIG. 202. Spoke-forming press and tools. 

spokes which are seen in the row of wheels on the floor at the 
left in Fig. 203, and also in the pile of larger diameter wheels 
in Fig. 204, in which the wheelbarrow wheels are shown 
stacked up at the right. 

Making the Flanges 

The flanges call for eight operations, for each one of the 
pair, blanking and piercing with a small central hole, then 
heating, then forming and cutting the central hole to finished 


diameter, and finally piercing the flange for the eight rivets. 
It will be noted in Fig. 197 that the cast-iron hubs have a 
small triangular boss on one side. This touches both flanges 
and serves to locate the flanges and spokes midway of the hub 
length. This short boss might have taken the form of a 
circular flange, but this would increase the weight to no 

The flange-blanks are heated to dark-red in a muffle hav- 
ing a bottom of broken fire-brick, kept red hot by a natural 

FIG. 203. Riveting spokes in wheels. Air-power hammer. 

gas and air-pressure fire, same general arrangement as the 
welding fire, all as clearly shown in Fig. 20 S, attended by a 
youth wearing London smoke goggles, who places the blanks 
on the muffle bottom and pulls them out with a long, slender, 
steel-rod hooked at the working-end, always keeping one 
blank heated red hot on the sill of the muffle-door at the left, 
ready to be taken with tongs by the pressman, who sits at the 
right of the press on a cushioned seat shown in Fig. 206, 
which shows the relative locations of the forming-press and 
the heating-muffle. 


The flange-forming tools are shown in Fig. 207. The 
central plunger is spring-supported, and has three diameters at 
the top end, and, I think must have a first size for the two to 
fit the blank hole, next below that the cutting punch coacting 
with a die in the press slide, and finally a straight part of the 
plunger, the diameter of the inside of the flange-hub. The 
hub blank, red hot, is placed on top of the spring plunger, the 
spring being stiff enough to cause the cupping of the hub 
before the plunger can be forced down; next in the press slides 

FIG. 204. Wheels ready for hubs and flanges. 

downward travel, the ribbed die closes on the blank, shaping 
the flange as shown in Fig. 207. Flange-piercing follows, to 
fit the hub and spokes, and finally cutting the central flange 
hole to finished diameter the last thing, the ring chip formed 
by this last operation going up through the press-slide for 
escape. I am not sure about this operation, but it seems the 
only way, as the hole is enlarged and all the forming is done 
at one operation. 

The last operation on the flange is piercing with an eight- 


punch gang die, as shown in Fig. 208. This brings the job 
to the assembler, who uses a press, as shown in Fig. 209, first 
slipping a flange on an end of one of the hubs seen in the box 
at the left of Fig. 209, and then standing the hub upright in 
the bolster-die, and next laying the wheel-spoke inside ends 
in the flanges hard on the hub, everything being adjusted so 
that the descent of the press-slide forces the flanges hard on 
the hub and closes them hard on the spokes, ready for rivet- 

FIG. 205. Heating flanges in muffle, using natural gas. 

ing, as shown in Fig. 210, taken from the pile of work at the 
right-hand of the assembling-press. 

I do not recall the placing of the eight flange rivets, but 
think they are all headed down at one squeeze of the press, as 
the rivets are not very big. 

The work is all very close and good, the fits are excellent, 
and the press-work gaging is very exact, as is shown by the 
symmetry of the spoke V in Fig. 197, and by the accurate 


centering of the wheel-spokes in Figs. 203 and 204. Fig. 
210 also bears witness to the excellent fitting of the rough 
parts, and Fig. 204 shows exactly flush with the tire outside 
the spoke tenon rivet. The completed wheel is very strong 
and very durable, and is really a miracle of construction 
when one stops to consider the number of operations the plant 
employed and the price per pound the work is sold for. 

Supposing that steel-bars and gray iron-castings cost the 
Wheel Company 1^ cents a pound, then the stock in an 

FIG. 206. Wheel-flange, muffle and forming-press. 

8 X -pound wheel would stand for pretty nearly 15 cents, leav- 
ing 12 cents out of the 27 cents selling price to cover all 
expenses of performing the 29 principal operations required 
to produce the wheel, maintain the plant, and market the 

I think I could easily make the plant of the Wheel Com- 
pany's main floor cost $1,000 more than it cost at first, with 
the sanction of the majority of toolmakers educated in New 



England. I don't think I could cheapen the cost of the 
wheelbarrow wheels by increasing the cost of the plant. If I 
could not, I should certainly throw away whatever I put into 
the plant " betterment, " which would not be a betterment at 
all, but worse than a dead waste, because the earnings must 
pay interest on it forever. 

FIG. 207. Flange-forming tools. 

There are plenty of chances to think about things in the 
27-cent wheelbarrow wheel job. 

Pressed Steel Gears 

An improvement in the manufacture of steel gears has been 
devised by Messrs. Ulrich and Fred L. Eberhardt, of Newark, 
N. J. The gears are primarily designed for street-car serv- 
ices, being made in halves for ready and easy clamping upon 
the axle or removal and renewal when necessary. Steel-cast- 



ings have been widely used for this purpose, but not with per- 
fect success, and it can scarcely be doubted that the present 
gears will prove to be superior. 

The blank for each half-gear consists of a weldless steel- 
ring, Figs. 211 to 213. Each ring is shaped by pressure in 
suitable dies, being flattened down upon one side, the hub 

FIG. 208. Punching eight rivet-holes in flanges. 

being shaped at the same time, until the perfect shape for the 
half-gear is secured. 

How Metal Wheels are Made 

When we think of machinery it pictures itself in shining 
surfaces, as though a large proportion of the machines in the 
world were of high finish, like watches and some marine 
engines. It is not correct. The greater portion of the work 
which is done in the world by machinery is done by rough 
machines. Much of this class of machinery is portable, goes 
on wheels, on the ground. Not much comment does it get 



in the journals which are the vehicles of mechanical intelli- 
gence; but its progress merits occasional notice. 

A change has taken place in the past fifteen years in the 
material of which many wheels are made. It was wood; it is 
now steel. As the utility and availability of metal wheels 
became more widely known the demand for them increased. 
Large manufactories, equipped with the most advanced tools 
and methods, have been established in the West, and annually 

FIG. 209. Assembling flanges and hub with spokes and rim. 

consume for their product thousands of tons of steel. The 
strength, durability, and cheapness of metal wheels have made 
the manufacture of some machines profitable which would not 
have been on the market if these wheels had not been availa- 
ble. The wheels are made in commercial quantities for a 
great variety of machines: baling presses, binder master wheels, 
binder grain wheels, corn and other planting machines, corn 
shellers, cultivators, farm trucks, grain-drills, hay-rakes, ted- 



ders and loaders, horse-powers, plows, portable engines, road 
graders, threshers, separators, and wheelbarrows. A drawback 
to the profitableness of manufacture would appear to be this 
great variety; for every different kind of wheel is a separate 
article of manufacture. Every variety also requires a change 
of some kind in the manufacturing, and every change takes 
time and costs money. 

The dimensions of the tire vary all the way from 1 5 inches 
in width to 1 J^ . inches, with thickness from ^ inch to $ 

FIG. 210. Ready to go to the riveting-press. 

inch, each width with any thickness, and each thickness with 
any width. The tires are not all flat; some variations of form 
have names, such as half-oval, channeled, ribbed, concave, 
and some shapes are nameless. The possibilities of cutting 
any tire to any length extends the variety. And the variations 
are not so much in the tire as in the size, shape, length, and 
number of the spokes, and the manner in which they are 


fastened, and also in the different forms, sizes, and complica- 
tions of the design in the hub, which, formerly satisfied with 
two parts, the spoke-shell and the spindle-box, are now more 
involved since roller bearings have come into use. 

From hub to tire the wheel is the prey of innovation. It 
is always liable to have some new thing put on it anywhere, 
even outside of the tire. The motor wheel of an agricultural 
machine must turn around, for if it slides on the ground the 
mechanism is inactive. Therefore these wheels are provided 
with spurs which settle into the ground and prevent sliding. 
These spurs are attached to the tire, are of many forms and 

FIG. 211. Pressed-steel gear. 

attached in many different ways. In a single metal-wheel 
manufactory there are made no less than 1,500 different styles 
of wheels. 

Wheel Tire Making 

The principal form of corn-planter wheel tire was for some 
time that shown in Fig. 214. It was 5 inches wide and from 
I /Q inch to % inch thick. The concave was $6 inch deep. 
Not more than twenty years ago I took a day on purpose to 
see them welded under a trip-hammer. These were heated 
by a hard-coal furnace under the narrow cap which projected 
over the slotted top, through which the flames were driven on 



to the tire. It was a good arrangement for the time, but the 
tires are welded ten times as fast now by the use of electricity 
and other later improvements. 

A binder master-wheel tire had a cross section like Fig. 
216. It was 9 inches wide after bending the flanges down 1 fo 
inches, and was ^ inch thick. Another binder main-wheel 
tire is shown in Fig. 217. It is 9 inches wide, fV inch 
thick in the middle, and the sides are T V inch thick. The 
wheel is about 3 X f eet m diameter. A favorite form of culti- 
vator tire is half oval, as in Fig. 215, 1^ and & inch thick 
in the center. When they were made by hand it was more 
convenient for welding to have them of flat cross-section, but 
when they are welded in dies the shape of the cross-section is 

FIG. 212. Pressed-steel gear sections. 

of little consequence, as the dies can be made to weld one 
form as well as another. 

Many corn-planter wheels are now made with double tires 
and open centers. Fig. 219 shows the cross-section of the two 
tires riveted to the spoke. They are 2 inches x % inch, and 
some 800 is a day's work at welding them into flat tires 30 
inches in diameter. They must be well united, for when they 
are cold they are put in the dies of a hydraulic tire shrinker 
and the six jaws close around them with a forty bear-power 
hug, and in some fraction of a minute one edge of the tire has 
been contracted so that one side of the tire is an inch and a half 
less in diameter than the other. That side of the bar has been 
contracted nearly five inches. 



One would suppose such an expenditure of force would 
produce quite sensible heat, but when it is felt for with the 
bare hand there is found so little heat that it requires faith to 
perceive that there is any. Nor is any heat developed in the 
machine, although the operation is repeated every two min- 
utes, as it compresses 300 a day. This is not a case for com- 
parison between machine work and that done by hand, and no 
comparison can be instituted. If machinery was not available 
these wheels would not be made. These tires, which have to 
be compressed after welding, are now punched as the first 

operation upon them. 

The multiple punch 
displays its advantages by 
punching all the holes in 
some tires at one stroke. 
There are eight holes in 
a cultivator tire, and it 
punches 1,200 tires a day. 
The tire shown in Fig. 
214 has twenty holes, 
there being two rolls of 
spokes with ten spokes in 
each row. These holes 
are punched on a com- 
mon punch-press, the dies of which, however, are so made 
that they punch four holes at a stroke and with this arrange- 
ment upward of ISO tires are punched daily. 

When one machine does a lot of work a lot of work stops 
when it stops. For instance: Once there was a multiple 
punch, punching five holes % inch diameter through steel % 
inch thick. Now, it is easy to vary the length of the 
punches a little, so that the whole strain may not come at once, 
but it was not thought that the punch needed humoring, al- 
though the shear strain was about equal to punching a hole 3 
inches diameter. There had been foul work on the punch 
before, and there was known to be a slight crack in one of the 
uprights. This time came a bar which was as hard as though 

FIG. 213. Pressed-steel gear. 



it had been hardened. It was the first time to decide the 
question whether the machine would stall or break, and the 
balance-wheel did not stop to give the question any consider- 
ation. There was quite a loud report; no very great disorder. 





FIGS. 214 to 221. Details of metal wheels. 

The upright simply let go and the upper part raised up 
enough to permit the revolution of the eccentric, and the 
machine was thoughtfully thrown out of gear. The balance- 
wheel came to rest after a while, and when the new upright 
came and was set up, no one would know anything had ever 


happened, except for the pile of work that was behind hand to 
prove that a machine that can do such work can stay working. 

Perhaps nothing could give a better idea of the amount of 
time that is void of visible product than the output of some 
machine which makes regular strokes, and makes a piece at 
every stroke if the work is fed to it. Of this kind are the 
bolt machines, used for making the collar-head end of the 
spoke which is to be riveted in the tire. They can head a 
spoke at every stroke and run 36,000 strokes a day, and 17,- 
000 spokes a day is the very best day's work that has been 
done on one, although when everything is in good running 
order every stroke is easily caught. The fuel is gas, the fire 
constant and uniform, and a pair of well-hardened dies of good 
steel will last half a day without changing. Open hearth steel 
is used for spokes exclusively, after years of experiment, as 
its uniformity can be depended on. 

One successful process of making metal wheels is the prep- 
aration of the tire by punching the spoke-holes and bending 
the malleable-iron hubs hot, with a machine that throws out 
a collar outside of the hub at the same time that it rams up a 
head in a recess on the inside. These machines head several 
thousand spokes in the hubs in a day, from six to twenty 
spokes in a hub. The rims or tires are then put on, and the 
spokes are riveted in them cold, by riveting-machines. They 
can pass into the adjuster's hands, who takes the kinks out of 
them so that the lap of the tire fits for the welder. They are 
heated on a gas furnace for welding. It has three fires attached 
to a central standard, around which they are revolved as 
wanted. When a tire is at a welding heat, the fire is holding 
it where it can be conveniently lifted out and dropped on the 
die of the welding-hammer. The spark shield is instantly in 
place, and the quick running-hammer makes the weld, while 
the operator moves the tire to receive the blows to the best 
advantage. The wheel is then handed to the trimmer while 
the welder places another tire in the furnace and swings it 
away, bringing the tire that is hot into its place. Some of the 
light tires are welded at the rate of two in a minute, and some 


on wheels that weigh 375 pounds each require as much as five 
minutes to a weld. The trimmer trims off any fins that may 
have raised, and trues up around the weld. The spindle-boxes 
are very forcibly set in the hubs after the tires are welded. 
The hubs thus being reinforced are prevented from being 
cracked by the strain. A general inspection and truing up 
follows and completes the process. 

The spurs are sometimes pieces of malleable iron which 
are put on the outside of the tire, from one spoke to another, 
diagonally across on a double-spoked binder-wheel. The ends 
of the spokes pass through and rivet the spurs on with the 
tire. Setting them anew is supposed to prevent the wheel 
from sliding sidewise on a side-hill. Some malleables are 
made that form a rib around the center and spurs on each side. 
Some tires have the rib rolled on, as shown in Fig. 218. It is 
4 inches wide and ^2 inch thick. On narrow wheels a form 
of spur is used, shown in Fig. 220. The shoulder is about 1 y 2 
inches square, and the spur an inch high. The split shank is 
easily riveted into holes punched for the purpose between 
spokes and spaced about 5 inches apart. A 30-inch wheel 
with tier 3*^ x fV had lugs punched free on three sides and 
bent up, as shown in Fig. 221. 

Three traction engines recently sent to Cuba had driving- 
wheels built of steel-plate by the manufacturers of the engines. 
They weighed 3 y* tons each, or the pair to each engine weighed 
7 tons. They were 8 feet in diameter and 2 feet face. Each had 
36 lugs, 4 inches wide, 1^ inches thick, riveted diagonally on 
the tire and extending the full width of the wheel. Contrary 
to general practise, the spaces occupied by the lugs were greater 
than the spaces between them, which would indicate that they 
were designed as much to protect the 1^-inch steel tire as to 
improve the traction. The front wheels also were built up of 
steel-plate. They were five feet in diameter and 1 $ inches face. 
The weight of each engine was 25 tons. They were to be used 
for transporting sugar-cane. The wheels on the wagons they 
were to draw on public roads were 6 feet diameter, 13 inches 
face; hub, 12 inches long; double row of spokes cast into 



hub and bolted to tire; spokes, 3 x Y^ inch steel. A few of 
these traction engines rolling along the paths of industrial 
progress would have a weighty influence in settling that 
commotional isle. 

Steel Wheels 

Steel wheels for use under various agricultural implements, 
engines, etc., have within the past few years almost entirely 

FIG. 222. Punching holes for the spokes. 

superseded the wood wheels both those with wood and those 
with iron hubs. This has been due to the demand for a wheel 
that would withstand the heat of the sun as well as that of a 
steam-boiler. The immense number of such wheels used has 
made it necessary to provide improved machinery and to 
adopt systematic methods for their manufacture. Any factory 
using such wheels can well afford to do this, if not less than 



three or four hundred are wanted per year. The manufacture 
of such wheels may not be in the line of machine-work, but 
the construction of the necessary tools and appliances and the 
manner of using them may be useful and interesting to some 
of my readers. 

Fig. 226 shows the elements of a wheel of which a large 
number have been used, yet one which is not satisfactory. 

FIG. 223. Rim and spokes of wheel as they come from machine. 

The spokes, having no collar on the inside of the rim, and 
being fastened to the hub by nuts, as shown, are continually 
working loose. This wheel is also very expensive. 

Fig. 222 shows the outlines of a riveting and punching 
machine used in this work. Fig. 223 represents the rim and 
spokes of a wheel as they come from this machine. 

Fig. 224 shows an enlarged section of the rim with the 



spokes in place, one of which is riveted and the other to be 

Commencing at the beginning of the various operations, 
we will follow the wheel through to a finish. 

The tire, or rim, as we shall call it, is first cut to length, 
bent and welded in the usual way, after which the various 
improved methods and tools come into use. No attention is 
paid in the first operation to having the rim exact as to diam- 
eter. It is placed in a hydraulic tire-setting machine (bought 
and used primarily for setting tires on wooden wheels), where 
it is forced to size and made practically a 
true circle. This operation is completed in 
less than five minutes. 

The next operation consists in punching 
the holes for the spokes, which is done in 
the machine shown in Fig. 222. It will be 
noticed by Fig. 224 that the holes are ta- 
pered. The taper is obtained by using a die 
with a hole of the same diameter as the large 
end of the hole, the punch being the same 
as the small end of the hole; or, perhaps, to 
make my meaning clearer, we use a die as 
much larger than the punch as the taper 
desired plus the clearance usually used with 
punches and dies. 

The rim is first placed in the machine, as 
shown by dotted lines x x, and as the holes are staggered, the 
spacer (not shown) is set for one-half of the total number of 
holes required, and, to complete the operation, the rim is 
turned over to punch the other half. The spokes are cut 
the proper length, allowance being made for material to form 
the collar shown. This is done in an ordinary bolt-header, the 
other end being flattened by a blow from a small trip-hammer. 
The spokes and rim are now ready to go to the riveter. 
This machine is supplied with a stand C, on which is mounted 
a casting Z), which is slotted, as shown at B. This slot re- 
ceives the spoke and holds it in proper position for riveting. 

FIG. 224. En- 
larged section 
of rim. 



A wheel rim is shown in place, with spoke A riveted and B in 
position. The ram of the machine is supplied with a flat 
end punch of considerably larger diameter than the hole in the 
rim. A heating furnace is placed convenient to the operator. 
Suspended over the center of the rim is an air-lift. The die 
for receiving the spoke is split and connected, as shown at 
Fig. 225 by a steel spring (not shown on Fig. 222). This 
spring is used to enable the operator to handle the die easily 
and to open it automatically, when the rim with the riveted 
spoke is lifted to be turned round to secure another spoke. 
After every alternate spoke is thus riveted, the rim is turned 
over and the operation is finished. The 
die has a cavity for receiving the collar on 
the spoke, keeping it in good shape while 
the end is forced to fill the taper-hole. 

This method of connecting the rim 
and spoke is, I think, the best that can be 
devised. The rim and spokes thus put 
together are shown by Fig. 223, as they 
appear when ready to receive the hub. 

In the operation of riveting the spokes 
into the rim, the workman takes a spoke 
from the furnace with his left hand, hold- 
ing the die in his right. Closing it over the spoke, he 
places the other end of the spoke in the slot of the false hub, 
at the same time placing the die in position. After releasing 
it, he adjusts the rim in position, so that the spoke will enter 
the hole, holding the spoke firmly in the slot of the false hub 
with the left hand and operating the valve with his right. 
The valve and lever are not shown. The piston may be oper- 
ated with steam or compressed air. In this case air was used. 

Early History of Chain-Making 

Just when chains were first made is uncertain, because the 
word has meant almost any kind of connection. Thousands 
of years ago rings of metal were made and fastened to cloth, 
thus making chain armor. Later, rings were joined together 

FIG. 225. Spring 

clamp for 




by other metal rings, and this was the first metal chain. Ap- 
parently chains were used more as ornaments than anything 
else up to about one hundred and twenty-five years ago, al- 
though occasional patents have been issued during the past 
two hundred and seventy-five years. The first patent the 
author has knowledge of was issued in England in 1634 and 
described as follows: 

"A Way for the Mearing of Shipps with Iron Chaynes by 
finding out the True Heating, Ppaeing and Temping of 
lyron for that Ppose, and that he hath nowe attayned to the 
True Use of the said Chaynes and that the same wilbe for the 

great saveing of cordage and 
Safety of Shipps, and will re- 
dound to the Good of our 
Common Wealth." 

A New Method of Making 

J o 

Weldless Chains 

The weldless chain, in 
the form of the common 
plunger's or "safety" chain, 
is a familiar article. It is said 
to have been devised origi- 
nally by the inventor of the 
first watchman's time detector 
as the means of fastening the 
various keys used in the system, scattered at different points 
about the premises. A chain of this sort can only be "un- 
raveled" from one end, and if that end is sealed with the 
image and superscription of the owner, the task of deception 
is a difficult one. 

Iron chains of large sizes have been made on the same 
principle, but more for reason of strength and ease of making 
than for safety. It is a point gained when the weld of the 
ordinary chain-link is avoided, since its strength can never be 
prophesied beforehand, and the whole chain, in the words of 
the common proverb, is "no stronger than its weakest link." 

FIG. 226. Complete detail 
of construction. 



As such chains have hitherto been made, however, it has 
always been necessary to make the opening in the outer link 
long enough to admit the next link to be added to the chain. 
While this elongated link does very well on sheet-metal plum- 
ber's chain, it is a source of weakness in chains of wrought 
iron or steel, of large sizes, intended to support large loads. 
When such a chain passes over a sheave or around a sprocket, 
the bending stresses set up in the long links quickly deform 
them and spoil the chain. The object of the invention of a 
Hungarian Stefan Kiss v. Ecseghy, by name is to make 

FIG. 227. Details of new short stiff-link chain. 

it possible to produce chains of this kind with very short, 
stiff links. 

The shape of the chain is shown in Fig. 227. As will be 
seen, each link is double, being formed of two loops being 
split. The method of forming the chain is shown in Fig. 
228. The secret of the process is shown in the first operation. 
Fig, 227, at Z), shows a complete link, and A the blank from 
which a new link is to be formed. As will be seen, this is 
made of stock somewhat larger than the size of the chain, re- 
duced in its central portion to that size. These blanks may be 
made by drop-forging rolling or any other commercially suit- 
able method. One of them is heated in the forge and inserted 
in the end of the already completed portion of the chain, as 
shown. The ends are then struck up under dies to the shape 



shown in operation 2, where E is the end of the finished chain, 
and B the new link being formed. It will be seen that the 
hole in the old link is but slightly larger than the diameter of 
the stock composing the new one, while the new half links in 
the end are of considerably greater size. It would evidently 
be impossible to insert them if they were formed before inser- 
tion, hence the process of inserting the blank first and form- 

FIG. 228. Dies for forming chain, Fig. 227. 

ing it afterward. This is the vital principle of the patent. 
As shown in the third operation, the ends are next bent 
around to form the new complete link, which is thus made 
ready for the insertion of the next blank. 

Dies for Weldkss Chain 

Fig, 229 shows the dies used for doing this work. The 
press shown is of a type common in Europe, though seldom, 
if ever, seen in this country. The two friction-wheels on the 



horizontal driving-shaft may either of them be shifted to 
engage the rim of the heavy balance-wheel attached to 
the vertical screw. The screw raises and lowers the ram of 
the press. The operator controls the friction-wheels by the 

FIG. 229. Screw-press with friction fly-wheel used in 

handle shown, or by the treadle at the base of the machine. 
A stop on the ram automatically throws out the disk control- 
ling the elevating motion, and stops the ram at the upper 

The dies used in this press are shown in Fig. 228. With 


this arrangement, three operations are necessary for the form- 
ing of the completed link, these operations corresponding to 
those shown in Fig. 227, The complete portion of the chain is 
suspended over a pulley from the ceiling with the free end in 
the easy reach of the operator of the machine. A heated bank 
of the link shown in Fig. 227, operation 1, is taken from the 
forge, inserted through the link, and placed in dies C C on 
the bed of the press. Ram Z), shown best in the small detail 
at the lower left-hand corner, is then brought down on the 
link, flattening out the ends and curving the central portion. 
The plunger is raised again, the link is moved forward to dies 
E E, and the plunger is again brought down. The die at E is 
compound, and punch F above it, descending on the work, 
forms the rounded half links on the end of the blank, punches 
the hole, and trims off the periphery of the work. 

The ram of the press is raised for a third time, and the 
now completely formed (but still open) link is moved to the 
bending-dies at G G. When the ram of the press is brought 
down on the work at this point, after smoothing the work 
under the pressing action of punch H, pins //are pushed in 
by the operator, entering holes in links R R, which are then 
in position to receive them. Of the two parts, G, the one at 
the left in the left-hand view, is fastened to the holder integral 
with ring K, while the other one is supported in a similar 
manner from ring L. These two rings are free to rock about 
each other and about the pivot M, formed in the bracket 
casting TV, attached to the bed of the machine. A tie-bar O, 
keyed on the base P, serves to support the overhanging pivot 
M of bracket N. A support not shown in the cut extends 
out over the finished portion of the chain through which the 
new link passes, and supports it against the upward -pressure 
of the bending operation which now takes place. When the 
ram of the press is started upward, links R attached to it, draw 
after them die-holders Q Q, which rock as described about the 
axis of pivot M. By this means the link is bent finally into 
its complete form, as shown in operation D of Fig. 227. 

The half-tone, Fig. 229, shows three operators. This is 


not necessary, however, as one of the men shown is there 
probably, merely for the sake of having his picture taken. 
A boy to tend the fire, and a smith to work the press, is all 
that is required. The machine is started and stopped by the 
treadle. The man at the extreme end is the inventor. 

The writer has had the opportunity of seeing this process 
in operation. The tools used were somewhat different from 
these shown, and more operations were required, although the 
basic principle involved in the invention was identical. The 
new link of the chain, which was of half-inch size, was bent in 
the die C, as described, but in the die E the ends were merely 
rounded, and the central hole formed nearly through, without 
being actually punched. The new link was then closed up in 
a third operation as before. These operations took place in a 
press of the same type as shown in Fig. 229. The unfinished 
shed link was next taken to a small crank-press standing beside 
the larger machine, where first the central hole was punched 
through, after which, for a completing operation, the link was 
pushed through a trimming-die to have the fin shaved off. 
This resulted in an exceedingly neat and clean-looking link, 
with the joint tightly closed and smoothly finished. The oper- 
ation of forming the link for a half-inch chain takes 25 seconds. 

Besides the obvious rapidity of making chains by this meth- 
od, there is the more important advantage of greatly increased 
strength. The British Government requirements for chains 
insist on a factor of safety of 5, owing to the unknown quan- 
tity of the strength of the weld. A good welded half-inch 
chain fails at about 13,000 pounds. Samples of this improved 
weldless type were tested at about 16,000 pounds when made of 
wrought iron, and they run with remarkable uniformity at 
about this load, showing that a higher factor of safety could eas- 
ily be used. Furthermore, the use of steel is made possible 
by the fact that a welding heat is not required. A heat intense 
enough to weld steel will decarbonize it, so that it has not the 
strength that it previously possessed. Steel is especially use- 
ful in crane service, where durability is fully as important as 
strength. A wrought-iron chain will wear and stretch until it 


will not fit the sprockets, long before it breaks. Steel chains 
made by this new process test at about 21,000 pounds for y 2 - 
inch side. Fractured samples seen by the writer failed at the 
sides of the links, and not, as might be expected, at the point 
where the two parts of the same link come together. An inter- 
esting point is the fact that the two halves of the split link 
begin to separate a little while before the final rupture takes 
place, thus serving as a sort of safety indicator to apprise the 
user of the fact that he is near the danger limit. 

This invention is controlled by the Internationale Han- 
delsgesellschaft, Kleineberg & Co., and is for sale in this 
country by the International Import and Export Company, of 
No. 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

Modern Methods of Manufacturing Welded Chain 

It is not perhaps generally known that the United States is 
not only the largest producer, but also the largest consumer of 
welded chain in the world, and that its annual production 
reached, in the year just ended, the 60,000-ton mark. This 
industry is probably one of the best examples of large growth 
made possible by the introduction of the latest types of labor- 
saving machinery. The increasing demand for this product, 
which was greatly in excess of the production in 1901-2, re- 
sulted in many plants being started in the following year, 
and 1904 found the production slightly in excess of the con- 
sumption. The present era of prosperity and the general 
resumption of all manufacturing business finds the production 
of welded chain greater than ever before, and the prospects 
for a most satisfactory year are of the brightest. 

This industry is what one might call a transplanted indus- 
try, as in former years England supplied us with all our chain, 
but our consumption reached such proportions that it was 
found necessary for us to enter this field as manufacturers. As 
an accompaniment of the transplanting, the processes and the 
product have been corrected, improved, and developed until 
to-day American chain is recognized as a standard. 

The manufacture of chain requires essentially skilled labor 


and the most modern machinery, as on these depend not only 
quality of the finished product but also the low cost of the 
production. The illustrations given herewith show three of 
the latest and most important examples of labor-saving ma- 
chinery, devised and adapted to meet the demand for greater 
production and better quality. 

In order that the value of these three machines in modern 
chain manufacture may be more clearly seen, the old method 
of manufacture, as it is still carried on in some parts of 
Europe, will first be described. 

Former Method of Making Chain 

Taking, for example, the way in which ^-inch common 
chain was formerly made, we found that the smith placed in 
his fire several pieces of ^6-inch straight, round iron which 
has been previously cut to the required length. As one of 
these reached the proper heat, about a cherry-red, it was with- 
drawn, one end placed in a hole in the anvil, the bar ham- 
mered with a hand-hammer into a rough U shape, and then 
placed back in the fire for another heat, and in the meantime 
another piece which had been heated was bent into the U 
shape, and so oh. 

The first U-shaped link, having reached almost a white 
heat, was taken from the fire, its open end hooked through 
the link last welded, laid flat on the anvil, and one end of the 
U link drawn with the hand-hammer to a taper of about 60 
degrees with the diameter of the bar. This was called scrafing 
the link, and when one end was thus scrafed the link was 
turned over and the other end scrafed in a like manner, so 
that both ends were drawn to a taper, but on opposite sides. 
The link was then placed on the horn of the anvil and the 
ends bent toward each other, so that the scrafed ends lapped, 
after which it was laid flat on the anvil, and these scrafed ends 
hammered closely together. This process completed the oval 
shape of the link, and it was placed back in the fire for the 
final and welding heat. When this was reached, the link was 
withdrawn from the fire and the scrafed ends were welded as 


the link was turned over and back, so that every portion of 
the part of the link being welded should receive the proper 
working that was necessary to secure a perfect weld. By this 
process the smith could not weld over 250 pounds of J^-inch 
common chain per day, this being equivalent to 31 feet, or 156 
links as a day's work, and while the quality of the chain pro- 
duced in this manner was of the best, it was found that by 
performing part of the labor by machinery the production 
^ould be quadrupled and the quality bettered. 

Present Method of Making Welded Chain 

Under the present process of manufacture, we find that the 
long bar is now wound into a spiral of links on a link-wind- 
ing machine, and then cut up into links on the link-cutting 
machine, the cutting process forming the scrafs on the ends of 
the links, and doing away with two heatings of the iron that 
were necessary under the former process, as the winding and 
cutting are done with the iron cold. 

The Link-Winder 

The link-winding machine, Fig. 230, consists of a hori- 
zontal shaft about 4 feet long, which is operated by a belt and 
pulley geared to one end, while on the other end is attached 
the winding mandrel or link-former. This mandrel can be 
changed according to the links that are to be wound, and has 
outside dimensions conforming to the inside dimensions of 
the required link. One end of the bar of iron is fastened 
over this mandrel by a movable attachment, and a grooved 
guide-wheel is lowered to meet the bar and press it firmly on 
the mandrel by means of a powerful spring. As the machine 
is started, the shaft slowly revolves and the iron is wound 
tightly around the mandrel in the form of a spiral of tight 
spring, the pressure of the grooved guide-wheel forcing the 
iron to conform exactly to the desired shape. When the bar 
has been entirely wound up the result is a spiral link about 
6 feet long, ready to be cut into links. By means of this 



machine 9,000 pounds of bar iron can be wound into spirals in 
one day, equal to about 5,000 links. In some rolling mills 
which supply chain manufacturers with rods, they have link- 
winding machines placed so that the bar of iron can be wound 

hot into spirals as it comes from the rolls, as by so doing the 
link-winder can be run at a higher rate of speed, resulting in 
greater daily production and with less waste than by cold 


The Link-Cutter 

The link-cutting machine consists of one fixed lower cut- 
ting-blade and one sliding upper cutting-blade, which slides 
in a groove and is operated by belt and pulley gears. The 
spirals are fed into the cutting-blades from the left side of the 
cutter and held in such a manner that the iron is cut at an 
angle of 60 degrees with the diameter of the rod, each cut 
releasing one link, wound and scrafed ready for welding, and 
at the rate of one cut every second, or 36,000 links per day. 

The Welding Machine 

The power-hammer on which the chain is now welded is 
shown in Fig. 231 and represents the results of years of experi- 
ence and trial. When the idea of welding the links of a chain 
by means of dies instead of by blows of hand-hammers was 
first conceived, a foot-power hammer was attached to the anvil, 
the hammer being hinged on the opposite side of the anvil 
from the smith and so arranged that by kicks on a foot-treadle 
the smith could swing the hammer-arm down to meet the face 
of the anvil. In the lower face of the hammer-arm was at- 
tached the upper die, and on the face of the anvil. In the 
lower face of the hammer-arm was attached the upper die, and 
on the face of the anvil was attached the lower die, the result 
being a smooth finish superior to that of a hammer-welded 
link. This was a big step in the right direction, but it was 
soon found that on large sizes of chain the labor of operating 
the hammer-arm by foot-power was too great and the present 
well-known type of power-operated hammer was devised to 
obviate this difficulty. The power for operating this type is 
conveyed to a pulley on the hammer-base by means of a belt 
from the shafting of the shop, arranged to give the hammer a 
speed of about 120 strokes per minute. The weight of the 
hammer-arm is in its head, and the force of its blow is due 
both to gravity and to the pulling-power exerted by a power- 
ful spring. The machine is so arranged that when not in use 
the arm is raised about a foot from the face of the anvil and held 



there by a catch, so that when this catch is removed by a pres- 
sure on the foot-treadle, the hammer will fall heavily on the 
face of the anvil. The pulley on the hammer-base operates a 
short shaft carrying an elliptical cam, and is so arranged that 
when the hammer-arm is caught and held up from the face of 
the anvil the cam will not meet the base of the arm, but when 
the arm has been released and descends on the anvil the base 

FIG. 231. The welding-hammer. 

of the arm is brought within reach of the rotating cam, which 
strikes the base of the arm and raises the arm about a foot 
from the anvil, when further rotation of the cam releases the 
arm and permits it to fall again. This operation continues 
until the link has been welded, when, by releasing the foot- 
treadle the arm is caught and held up until another link 
is ready to weld. By means of this hammer 1,000 pounds 


of ^j-inch chain can be welded in one day, equivalent to 
124 feet, or 626 links, being four times the daily produc- 
tion under the old hand process. 

The Die 

In regard to the dies used, the lower die consists of a block 
of steel cut away until a small rounded projection is left which 
will just fit inside the end of the link, while the upper die is a 
block of steel hollowed out so that it will just fit over the out- 
side of the end of the link, the space between the two dies be- 
ing just the size of the end of the link which is to be welded. 

These dies are fitted in spaces left in the face of the ham- 
mer-head, and the face of the anvil, so that different size dies 
can be used on the same power-hammer, according to the size 
chain that is to be welded. 

The Process of Welding 

The smith selects from the several links in the glowing 
bed of coke in the furnace one that has reached the welding- 
heat, and hooking it through the link last welded, places 
the open end of the link over the lower die. Pressure on 
the foot-treadle releases the hammer-arm and the impact of the 
blow forces the scrafed ends closely together and welds the 
link, the dies reducing the body of the weld to the same size 
as the rest of the link and giving the weld a smooth, finished 
appearance, superior to a hammer-welded chain. About ten 
blows of the hammer-arm are required to make and finish the 
weld, the interval between the blows of the arm being utilized 
by the smith to turn the link over and back on the lower die 
and to lightly tap the weld with his hand-hammer, thus giving 
the proper working necessary to secure a perfect weld. 

The use of these three important machines has completely 
revolutionized the process of chain manufacture, the result not 
only being increased production, but also a much better grade 
of chain at a greatly reduced cost. 



Handy Bulldozer Appurtenances 

THE bulldozer, or bending-machine, is at present found in 
almost every car, railroad, bridge, and agricultural shop in the 
country, and as a time-saver and all-around tool for wrought- 
iron work it stands preeminent. Long experience with this 
machine and with the varied methods used in different shops 
have given opportunity to judge of the easiest and best meth- 
ods for doing work on it. 

A back plate (Fig. 1, of whole Fig. 232) is dispensed 
with in many shops using this machine, but why, unless it is 
ignorance of its utility, is unknown, as it is indispensable. 
Having introduced it in several shops, it has always been 
retained, and the wonder has been how they got along without 
it before. It keeps the work straight, saves a great deal of 
gray iron, and it is much easier to fasten the forms to than 
the bed of the machine. 

By making a divided apron, or flat part, as in Fig. 2, and 
casting a lug on the bottom, see Fig. 3, its usefulness is in- 
creased and the plate is lightened for easier handling. The 
plate should be made plenty wide enough to take in the 
longest work done on the machine and the face and apron 
should be planed perfectly true. A depressed fillet at A, 
Fig. 2, allows a former to always go snug against the back. 
Two bolt slots in the back are better than having to drill new 
holes to fasten the forms. The holes in the forms can be 
cored to suit, or drilled as desired. 

The plate on the ram head is shown in Fig. 4. It should 
have tongues cast to fit the crosshead firmly, so that there will 




" - 




be no side movement. It should be about 12 inches shorter 
than the back plate. The bolt slots should be for fa-inch 
bolts, allowing them to slide easily. This applies to the back- 
plate as well. 

A V-block, Fig. 5, serves for a great variety of formers if 
properly made, as an angle to 45 degrees can be bent, and 
most of the work can be done cold. The block should be 
made of tool-steel, hardened. A cast block gives good results, 
but of course wears much faster. The block should be of the 
dimensions given in Fig. 5 and as wide as may be required 
for work done in the shop; the small Vs at back are for lip- 
ping and turning gibs. The block is fastened on the back- 
plate by two 1^-inch studs screwed into the plate on each 
side of the block, with a 1^-inch strap for a compression-bar. 
Fig. 6 shows the arrangements. Holes for the block should 
be provided also on the operating side of the machine, about 
12 inches from the end of the plate, so that long work can be 
done. Otherwise the head would catch the iron when the 
plunger was in action. Figs. 7, 8, and 9 show samples of 
work done cold with this simple device. 

The plunger and socket are the next consideration. The 
socket is shown in Fig. 10, with the strap for it. The long 
slots are provided for raising or lowering the plunger, as this 
part needs a variable adjustment. The back should be ma- 
chined, so that it will be lined up at perfect right angles with 
the crosshead. 

The plunger can be simply a piece of 2-inch square iron 
with a piece of tool-steel welded into the working end for a 
nose; wide enough to accommodate the widest end to be bent, 
and trued on a shaper to a 4 5 -degree angle on each side. The 
point should be blunt and hardened, the end in the socket 
being trued so that it sets perfectly snug when the socket is 
pulled up right. Fig. 11 shows the finished tool. 

This assortment gives a simple and inexpensive provision 
for doing a wide range of work, especially in shops which 
have but few pieces to bend at a time; but of course it is good 
for any number after being set, and so easily changed for any 


other angle or size of iron by backing off or running the back- 
plate up, that it answers for rounds as well as for flats. 

A simple device for U-bolts, links, staples, and hangers is 
shown in detail in Figs. 12, the arms; 13, rollers; 14 studs, 
and 1 5, the plunger for U-bolts. The sockets shown in Fig. 
10 is used with this device also, and comes in exferemely handy 
for other forms as well, and, like a few dollars in one's pocket, 
is a handy thing to have. 

Flats can be bent as well as rounds by making rollers with- 
out concaves. The adjustment for different sizes is made by 
the eye-bolts on which the rollers turn. Figs. 16 and 17 show 
the idea. Of course a plunger has to be made for each shape, 
and it can be made of gray or wrought iron, unless constantly 
in use. Then the working points should be made of steel if 
used on cold bending. 

Roller arms for the crosshead are the next essential for this 
machine. There are many shapes bent where the work is 
done by what are termed "wing" forms, with much better 
results than from plunger forms. The piece shown in Fig. 
18 would tear the iron and reduce the sides so with a plunger 
form that it would be impracticable, but by substituting the 
wings the work is done perfectly. Fig. 19 shows a roller-arm 
for the crosshead. It is made right and left. The same flat 
rollers, eye-bolts, and threaded rod for adjustment can be used 
as before. These arms should be forgings, and made quite 
heavy, as they have sometimes to stand a very heavy strain. 
At least two #j-inch bolts should be used to fasten them to 
the crosshead. 

With this outfit on hand a great many cast forms are dis- 
pensed with. In some shops these become a positive nuisance, 
being so numerous, and representing quite a value in useless 

Tack and Tack-Dies 

Although produced by what looks to be the crudest of 
dies, and which are made and kept in order by the use of the 
grindstone or emery-wheel alone, the manufacture of tacks is 
attended with the least waste of material, and the smallest 



percentage of bad work, of any business in the sheet-metal line 
that I know of. 

Some years ago I was interested, mechanically, in the 


FIG. 233. Tack-making tools and their action. 

making of both tacks and tack-machinery, and while thus en- 
gaged I accumulated a lot of information on the subject that 
may interest my readers. 



Tacks were first (I was going to say invented, but I hardly 
think I could back that claim up) made in the seventeenth 
century, and in 177$ one Jeremiah Wilkinson, of Cumberland, 
R. L, started the manufacture of tacks cut from sheet-iron 
with hand shears and headed with a hand-hammer in a bench 
vise. In 1786, Ezekiel Reed, of Bridgewater, Mass., invented 
a machine that would partially make a tack, and in 1798 he 
took out a patent on a machine for cutting off and heading 
them in one operation. This machine was fed by hand; but 
with that exception it was practically the same as the Reed 
nail machine in use to-day. In 1727, Thomas Blanchard, of 

FIG. 234, Complete set of tack-making tools. 

Abington, Mass., invented a machine intended especially for 
tacks. This machine is what is known to this day as the 
Blanchard tack-machine, and is the only successful machine 
in use for cutting tacks from sheet-metal that I am acquainted 
with. As first made, it was a hand-fed machine, whereas now 
it is automatic; but with that exception the machine was pre- 
cisely the same as built to-day. The tack is cut off by the 
contact of the two upper knives (see Figs. 233 and 234) and 
the bed knife below. In the action of cutting, the two upper 
knives work as one; and as soon as the blank for the tack is cut 
off, and the left-hand knife, known as the ' 'loggy," stops, and 
the right hand one, called the "leader," holding the blank by 


the aid of a bent finger of steel, called the "carrier," carries it 
down into the gripping-dies, which close and hold it while the 
heading-tool comes, up, upsetting the stock which has been 
left projecting out from the dies for the head; and, as the dies 
open, a knock-out attachment clears the tack from them, and 
it falls into the pan below. These operations, five in number 
on each tack, are performed at the rate of 275 tacks per min- 
ute, and for nearly 600 minutes in a day. One tacker and a 
good boy will grind, keep the dies in order, and operate eight 
to twelve machines. 

The die-making outfit consists of a single machine, a dou- 
ble ended emery-grinder one end carrying a large, coarse 
wheel for roughing out the dies, and on the other, two or 
more thin wheels for "scoring in" the gripping dies and ma- 
king the counter-sink seen under the head of the tack. Very 
little forging is done on the dies. The heading-die is drawn 
down to about Y% of an inch square, so that it will not strike 
the "leader" knife, and the "loggy" is drawn down thin so 
as to avoid the gripping-dies. 

There is one thing about the machine I think remarkable, 
and that is, the test of time the invention has stood; it has 
been in use over one hundred and eighty years, with little 
or no improvement, except on the feed motion. As originally 
made, it could be built with a very few tools, no planer work 
being necessary and very little lathe work, the shaft being of 
cast iron with the cams cast on; and I never listen to the music 
of their running (for it is music for me) without a feeling of 
admiration for the man who invented the machine so far in 
advance of the age in which he lived. 

A Rapid Action Hydraulic Forging Press 

As most well-informed machinists are aware, there has 
taken place in the past ten or fifteen years a radical change in 
the methods employed in forging heavy work. This change 
has been, briefly, the substitution of the press for the hammer. 
With the increase in the size of forgings and in the hardness 
of the material of which they are made, there has come in- 


creasing difficulty in obtaining satisfactory results with the 
steam-hammer. With the most powerful of these machines 
in use fifteen years ago, it was well nigh impossible to deliver 
a blow to such intensity that its effects would reach to the 
center of an ingot of the large size required for the heaviest 
marine and ordnance of the period. A blow of ordinary in- 
tensity would merely deform the surface of the work; flaws in 
the center of the material might even be enlarged rather than 
obliterated. The increasing size of hammer necessary to pro- 
duce the desired effect in forging reached its culmination in 
the great 125-ton machine, of which a model was exhibited by 
the Bethlehem Steel Company, at the Chicago Exhibition. 
This great instrument, however, had scarcely commenced what 
was expected to be a long life of usefulness before the process 
of hydraulic forging was found to be so far superior to ham- 
mering that the giant machine was relegated to an inglorious 

Tremendous Pressure of the Hydraulic Press 

The hydraulic forging-press was first applied only to ex- 
tremely heavy work. On billets and forgings of large diam- 
eter, the steady and tremendous pressure obtained from it is 
distributed through the whole mass of metal clear to the 
center, bulging out the side of the work instead of merely 
making an impression on the surface which can come in contact 
with the dies. This action works the metal throughout its 
entire volume, closes up all the flaws, and gives to every fiber 
the toughening effect produced by judicious working. But 
the slowness of action of the regular hydraulic press limited its 
use to large work in which considerable time was of necessity 
consumed in handling the parts being operated on and bring- 
ing it into position for a new stroke. 

To obtain, on medium-sized work, the benefits of pressure- 
working as distinguished from impact-working, a number of 
arrangements have been devised for giving a high speed to 
the ram in raising it from the work and lowering it again, with 
provision exerting the desired heavy pressure as soon as the 



parts are in contact with the forging. Of these various ar- 
rangements one of the most interesting is that employed by 
Davy Bros., of Sheffield, England. Applications of the idea to 
two forms of forging-presses are shown in Figs. 235 and 236. 
The various parts are seen in Fig. 235, and the line drawing of 
the same press in Fig. 236. The upper die A, is attached to a 
crosshead B, which has bearings on the four vertical tie-rods. 
The hydraulic pressure is applied to cylinder C. D and D 

FIG. 235. Rapid action hydraulic forging press. 

are two steam-lifting cylinders for raising the ram. F is a 
combined air and water vessel, adapted to store the water used 
in the hydraulic operations and furnish it to the ram as 
desired for the quick movements, this being done by displace- 
ment due to a moderate air-pressure. These operations are 
controlled by an automatic valve at E. G is the hydraulic 
cylinder of the steam intensifier, whose steam-cylinder is seen 
at H in Fig. 235, the main part of it being below the floor. 



Operation of Process 

The operation of the mechanism can perhaps best be de- 
scribed by following the movements of the operator in making 
a single working-stroke on a forging, starting with the ram in 
the position shown in Fig. 235, with the dies together. The 
movements of the press are controlled by lever L. The oper- 
ator first desires to raise the ram B for the purpose of inserting 
the work. Handle L is pulled over toward the right, this opens 

FIG. 236. Rapid action hydraulic forging press. 

valve R, first allowing the stem to enter under the pistons 
in lifting the cylinders D. Ram B is thus raised, forcing 
the water contained in cylinder C back through pipe / into 
the water end of the intensifier at G. When the intensifier 
ram has been forced downward and the space above it has 
been completely filled with the returning water, the upward 
movement of ram B would have to cease, did not the operator 
continue to pull lever L farther toward the right. This 
action operates a relay valve at M, which, admitting steam 


under an auxiliary piston N, opens valve E, thus allowing the 
water in pipe / to escape into the water-space of reservoir P. 
This reservoir has a lower compartment containing air under 
moderate pressure, but the steam in the cylinder furnishes suffi- 
cient force to return the water to the reservoir against the air- 
pressure contained in it. The ram being thus raised for the 
insertion of the work, the operator returns lever L to its 
central position, when all valves are closed and the parts are 
in equilibrium. 

The work being properly presented to the dies, the oper- 
ator pushes the controlling lever toward the left. This move- 
ment first shifts piston valve R and connects cylinder D with 
the exhaust. The weight of the ram and die is thus left un- 
supported, and they descend at the rate of about 2 feet per 
second, being helped along by the water under pressure in 
reservoir F y entering through valve E, which is arranged as a 
check-valve and freely permits movement in this direction. 
As the die reaches the work, a further movement of handle -L 
to the right, through the connecting mechanism shown, opens 
the balanced poppet valve S S, admitting steam to the under 
side of the piston in the steam-cylinder H of the intensifies 
The upward movement of the ram resulting from this forces 
the water under tremendous pressure into cylinder C of the 
press, giving the movement and pressure required for the 
working of the metal. 

This movement is under strict control, the length of the 
stroke of the intensifier piston being limited by the amount by 
which lever L has been pushed over toward the left. This 
governing action is obtained through a floating lever mechan- 
ism, similar to that used for water-wheel governors, steering 
engines, etc. A bar, K> set on an angle is engaged by a roller 
P attached to the intensifier piston-rod. The pushing of lever 
L to the left moves bar K toward the roll. As the roll travels 
up K it pushes it back again, and the pushing back of this bar 
is transmitted through the floating lever to inlet valve S and 
exhaust valve O, operating them in such a fashion as to stop 
the movement of the intensifier at the desired point. 


Provision is made for short rapid strokes under full pres- 
sure, for such work as rounding, swageing, cogging down, 
etc. By means of a lever shown in Fig. 235 at the operator's 
left hand, the connection between lever L and valve R may be 
severed. This condition is shown in Fig. 235 by the dotted 
lines, showing the link attached to the bell cranks raised. 
Weight <2, under these conditions, drops valve R, keeping the 
lifting cylinders in constant communication with the steam- 
pressure. Now the handle L, being worked back and forth 
from left hand to the central position, steam is alternately 
forcing the ram down and allowing the steam-pressure at D 
to bring it back. Under these circumstances, the water under 
pressure in reservoir F is not used at all, since handle L is 
not moved to the right far enough to separate relay valve M. 
This rapid action brings the press into the same class with the 
steam-hammer for operations of the kind referred to. 

Pressure for Small Work 

For smaller work, that requiring a pressure of from 150 to 
300 tons, the single column type of machine, illustrated in 
Fig. 237, is used. In this the whole mechanism is self-con- 
tained, as shown, the intensifier being mounted at the rear of 
the frame, which is hollow and serves as a reservoir for the 
water-supply under pressure. The method of operation and 
the principle of the mechanism are, however, identical with 
that of the larger presses. The 150 and 200 ton machines 
will work 6 and 8 inch diameter ingots successfully. For the 
large sizes, with the ordinary steam-pressure of 150 pounds 
per square inch, and water-pressure of 2 Y?, tons per square inch, 
the size of ingots which can be worked varies from 10 inches 
for the 300-ton size and 36 inches for the 1,500-ton size, to 
72 inches for the 4,000-ton size. The smallest of these 
machines, working on short stroke, will make 80 strokes per 
minute with the reservoir F cut out and steam-pressure on 
the raising cylinders as described; and with a machine as 
large as 1,200 tons, as many as 60 effective strokes per 
minute may be obtained. This great rapidity of action 


FIG. 237. Multicy Under hydraulic forging machine. 


brings the hydraulic-press well within the field of the small 
and medium sized steam-hammer. Such presses are some- 
what more expensive than hammers of equivalent power, but 
the additional cost of the foundations for the latter approxi- 
mately counterbalance this condition, so that the first cost is 
really about equal. Only about half the steam is required 
for the press, and it is much less liable to waste through 
wear and neglect. It has also the great advantages that the 
breakage of the working parts is very small, and the tools can 
be made lighter and cheaper, and last longer. 

Hot-Pressed Nut-Machine 

The line engravings, Fig. 238, herewith illustrate the 
Burdict hot-pressed nut-machine built by the Howard Iron 
Works, of Buffalo, N. Y. This machine is of heavy design, 
as indicated in the illustration, and will form from the bar hex- 
agon or square nuts of any size from ^ to 1 ^ inches. 

Referring to Fig. 238, which gives a clear idea of the con- 
struction and operation of the machine, it will be seen that the 
slide A A ', which carries the cut-off for severing the stock, is 
actuated by a cam B, which is mounted on the driving-shaft, 
together with four eccentrics C and two fly-wheels; the con- 
nection between the two portions of the cut-off slide are 
adjustable for wear by means of jam nuts, so that backlash is 
avoided and smooth running assured. The cut-off D is held 
in a holder E by a set screw E ', and the holder is turned 
bolted to the side that it can be adjusted to a limited extent. 

The four eccentrics are in two pairs for operating the slides 
F and G, which carry, respectively, the crowner and piercer; 
the slides and eccentrics being connected by eight rods //, four 
on each side of the machine. The piercer is held in its slide 
by a very strong friction-clamp /, and is readily removed. 
The piercer slide connections are rigid, the wear being taken 
up on the eccentric straps. 

The crowner /is held in its slide by clamp bolts, and the 
connections, on this slide are so arranged that when the nut is 
being pressed into shape the pressure comes on a very heavy 



abutment K, and does not strain the eccentrics and operate the 
slide. The four rods connecting the eccentrics and the slide 
pass freely through the trunnion connections Z>, and each of 
the rods is provided with a spring M, which is confined, as 
shown, between the end of the connection L and the collar 
clamped to the rod. When the slide reaches the abutment, 

FIG. 238. Hot-pressed nut machine. 

the rods slide on a certain distance, leaving the stationary long 
enough for the nut to be pressed or crowned, the springs M 
on the rods taking up the slack on the return stroke without 
noise or shock. 

In operating this machine, the heated stock is fed in front 
of the forming-dies N against a back gage O (and also against 
a back gage which does not show), and the cut-off advancing 


cuts off and forces the stock for the nut into* the dies, bringing 
it up to the crowner (which is stationary for the time being) 
and pressing it into shape. While the partly finished nut is 
held rigidly between the crowner and cut-off, the piercer ad- 
vances and completes the nut. As soon as the hole is pierced, 
the cut-off, which is held stationary during the piercing opera- 
tion, moves back and the crowner follows it up, but at a slower 
pace, so that when the cut-off arrives at the end of its stroke 
and the wade or scrap is ejected by means of the stationary rod 
P the nut is shoved outside of the forming-dies by the crowner 
and drops under the machine. Should the nut have any ten- 
dency to stick, it is removed by a knock-off Q, which is oper- 
ated by a cam on the main shaft; thus it is impossible for two 
nuts to get into the forming-dies at the same time under any 

This machine can be changed from one size of nut to an- 
other very quickly, as only the tools require changing, the 
movement of the various members of the machine being the 
same for the different sizes of nuts. 

The speed of the machine depends somewhat on the ex- 
pertness of the operator, a speed of about 80 turns per minute 
usually giving good results. The makers state that the output 
is from 15,000 to 28,000 nuts per day of ten hours. 

The machine is very rigid, and weighs, when ready for 
work, 9,000 pounds. It has fly-wheels 48 x 7 and 60 x 7 
inches, and may be belted direct from a clutch on the line-shaft. 

A smaller machine is built on similar lines for ^ to ^ 
inch nuts. This runs at 110 to 125 turns per minute, has 
fly-wheels 30 x 6 and 36x6 inches, and weighs 4, 100 pounds. 

A Large Hydraulic Forging Machine 

In order to reduce the cost of certain smith-shop work 
done by the Pennsylvania Railroad, the multicylinder hy- 
draulic forging and upsetting machine, shown in Fig. 237, was 
designed and built. 

The machine has been in operation over a year and has 
more than met the expectations of those responsible for its 


installation, as the average price paid for 32 operations now 
being done by it is only 21 per cent, of what these same oper- 
ations cost when they were performed by hand, and the work 
is of course more uniform. This saving of 79 per cent, in 
cost of labor seems almost incredible. 

The work for which dies have so far been prepared is the 
usual run of locomotive forgings. A few of these are shown 
at Figs. 239 and 240, and beneath each cut is the percentage 
of saving over hand methods. The dies are very simple and 
low-priced, and the cuts of the work are shown more to call 
attention to the saving in cost than to show anything ex- 
traordinary about the shapes produced. 

The press consists of a bed-plate and housings supporting 
five cylinders; two^side rams, principally used for holding the 
dies and gripping the work when upsetting; a horizontal ram 
for upsetting and forming; a vertical ram for punching and 
shearing, also for forming parts that are more easily handled 
in' a horizontal position. Underneath the bed, in a line with 
the vertical cylinder, is a stripping ram. 

The capacity of the vertical and horizontal rams, each, is 
200 tons; the two side rams 150 tons each, and the stripping 
ram 50 tons. All cylinders are steel-castings. 

The bed-plate is in three sections, the housings in four. 
They are held together by steel rods, shrunk in place. The 
cylinders are all made -separate from the bed and housings, to 
allow for their easy removal. 

The machine is controlled by one man, from a platform, 
where a full view can be had of any operation. The water- 
pressure used is 1,500 pounds per square inch. 

A special overhead traveling crane serves the press, taking 
the iron out of the furnace, placing it in position, and remov- 
ing the finished pieces. 

Making Elevator Buckets with the Steam- Hammer 

Some years ago I had occasion to make about fifty elevator 
buckets for a dredge. The buckets, which resemble Fig. 241, 
had formerly been hammered to shape by hand in a cast-iron 



former, with mallets. This was a tedious and expensive pro- 
cess, requiring a number of heatings for each bucket, and as 
more of them would probably be needed for future dredges we 
decided to make a pair of cast-iron dies and form the buckets 
in a single operation with the 3,500 pound steam-hammer. 

We had on hand a sample bucket of ^ -inch steel, and as 
the small reductions in size by shrinkage of the die-castings 
were not objectionable, I used the sample bucket as a pattern 
from which to mold the curved portion of the two dies. A 
cheap wooden frame A, Fig. 242, was nailed up for a pattern 
for the body of the female die, the sample bucket B was set in 
it and fastened with wood screws, S S, and his wood and iron 
pattern was blocked up in the drag. Sand was then rammed 


FIG. 239. Locomotive forgings made in hydraulic machine. 



in the drag around the side and inside of the pattern. The 
dovetail strips, Q, were then set, the parting made and the cope 
rammed up, the mold now appearing in section like Fig. 240. 
It was then rolled over, the blocks removed, the bucket B 
unscrewed and lifted out of the frame. Parting sand was then 
put on the curved surface left by the bracket, and the drag 
was rammed up against this sand pattern. The drag was lifted 
and turned, the wood and sand pattern removed from the cope, 
and the mold closed, appearing in section like Fig. 243. The 
male die was molded in a similar manner, and as shown in 
Figs. 244 and 245. 

The molding was done with care, and the resulting casting 
was excellent. The male-die was planed to fit the hammer- 

94* 97* I****! 98* 

FIG. 240. Locomotive forgings made in hydraulic machine. 


head, and the female to fit the anvil-block. Two 1-inch guide- 
pins, with their outer ends well tapered, were driven tightly 
into the lower surface of the male die. The plates for the 
buckets were cut to very nearly the correct shape, and two 
holes, E y Fig. 241, were punched for the guide-pins. After 
heating in the furnace, the plate was held up on the guide- 
pins while the hammer was brought carefully down, not stri- 
king any blow until the plate was forced nearly to shape. This 
gave the helpers time to take their tongs away after the plate 
touched the upper edge of the lower die. One or two blows 
then took out any wrinkles and formed the buckets nicely. 
The entire lot of buckets were formed easily in one afternoon, 

J8 '- ^ { J2 : 

FIG. 241. Design of elevator bucket. 

their shape was more uniform than that of the hand-made 
buckets, and the labor saved on this one lot more than paid 
for the dies. 

A Job for the Heavy Swaging-Machine 

The finished forging, Fig. 246, shows what can be done on 
a heavy swaging-machine similar to the Armstrong- Whitvvorth 
type, and a description of how it is done and the swages used 
may be of interest. 

This machine has four rams, making about 600 blows of 1 = 
inch stroke per minute. It has also four lower rams which are 
adjustable to suit the particular job, and they can also be 
moved when required while operating in forging. The diam- 
eter and length required are determined by trial. It is easier 
to make two heads than one at the same time, as all the forces 
are balanced, and hence there is no jerking of the forgings as 
would happen when making one; for this reason, as well as the 



manufacturing one, the stock is cut off long enough to make 
two complete forgings. The stock is heated, preferably in a 
gas or an oil furnace, and rotated along the cutters, dividing 
it into two equal lengths, as seen in Fig. 2, when it is trans- 
ferred to the heading swages, Fig. 3. The groove formed by 
the cutters is run on the sharp edge of the lower swage and 
then is rotated along from right to left until it comes out at 



'/Y'i "- ^..^^^^i'-^^S'^:^^^ 

'.'.V .:: ' .-".:=> ^.;MfV>^ x'.;..'.-.^- /:,-> v'-PC/ 

>-->*. ^';>^j ;:".;.: 



FIGS. 242 to 245. Molding elevator bucket dies. 

the other end, producing two well-formed heads, as shown in 
Fig. 4. 

The 1 %-inch diameter stock gives about the right amount 
of material which the swages can take in to form the ball. To 
use a larger diameter of stock is to have a poorly formed head, 
which will be anything but spherical and will take a longer 
time to swage. 

The end of the stock is next drawn out in the reducing 
swages, Fig. 5, then flattened down to the required breadth 



and width on the other end of the same swages by alternately 
passing it through first one way and then the other, as can 
readily be seen. All of these operations are rapidly per- 
formed, the forgings being then separated, and this finishes 
the first heat. 

The second heat consists in forming the V-shaped part, 
Fig. 6, intended to fit over an inch-square bar, and in making 

r i 


^- -*l E 

FIG. 246. Forging in the heavy swaging machine. 

the quarter twist, both as seen in the finished forging, Fig. 1. 
The forming swages illustrate how the V is set in, the swages 
being shown in the open position. The forgings are located 
between the strips, and the lower ram is moved up quickly 
while the blow from the upper ram bends the forging into 
the shape shown, the strips, which are of the same thickness 
as the forgings, acting as stops. 

The quarter twist is made by a fixture which consists of 



two main parts, the holder, and the key, the construction of 
both being chiefly shown. The face on the forging is brought 
up to the face of the holder; the key is moved along the pin 
on which it rests, as shown in the elevation and which also 
keeps it central with the socket in the holder. 

FIG. 247. Passenger-car truck swing hanger. 

The lever which operates the gripping plate by means 
of an eccentric pin is then raised, after which the key is 
rotated until the handle strikes the stop, twisting the forging 
with it to the required angle. The forging is removed by 
slipping the key back on to the pin and then pushing the 
lever back to the open position. 

In a fixture which is likely to become hot by contact with 



the material operated upon and where scale gathers, gripping 
screws are objectionable owing to the difficulty of retaining 
the gripping plate such as F in place and also on account of 
lubrication. The reason for using the eccentric pin, which is 
quick in its action and self-locking, is mainly to overcome this 
trouble, and it is a good construction. In order to get rid of 

FIG. 248. Bolster for postal and baggage cars. 

the scale which will naturally gather in the holder socket, a slot 
is cut into which all the scale will drop, keeping the socket 
clean for the key to operate in. 

These tools are forged from steel, except the quarter-twist 
fixture, the holder being a gray-iron casting. All are carefully 
made, the swages requiring special care in machining, as will 
be apparent. The swages are arranged in the rams, so that the 



operator passes from one to the other consecutively; first, to 
the cutters, second, the heading swages, third, the reducing 
and flattening swages, and fourth, the V-forming swages, the 
quarter-twist fixture being conveniently located at the end of 
the machine. Adjustable gages are also fixed to the machine 
and locate all the positions while forging that are necessary. 

This forging furnished a 
good example of some of the 
many operations which can be 
performed on a heavy swa- 
ging-machine. The operator 
of such a machine need not 
be a smith, in fact my prac- 
tise is not to have a smith, but 
a good smith's helper, who 
can be more readily taught, 
and such work is also a step 
in the right direction for him. 
This machine takes care of a 
class of work which is often 
done on the drop-stamp and 
produces a forging which is 
accurate, next has no fin, and 
hence leads to little loss in 
scrap at a price ranging from 
YZ to 1 cent per pound. 

Drop-Forging for the Ajax 

In a shop where there are 
orders for a large quantity of 
car and locomotive forgings 
coming in daily, the first thing that enters the foreman's 
mind is how to get the work done quickly, and I find by ex- 
perience the best way is by the use of the forging-machine 
and bulldozer. 

The large number of forgings that can be turned out by 

FIG. 249. Crowbar for 
locomotive boilers. 



these machines daily is surprising, and no well-equipped shop 
should be without them. 

In our 4-inch forging-machine we are turning out the 
following, as per Figs. 247, 248, and 249: Swing hangers for 
passenger-car trucks, bolsters for all baggage and postal cars, 
crown bars for locomotive boilers, drawbar straps for baggage 
and freight cars, connecting rods for S. L. switch-stands, slide 
plate switches, and other forgings too numerous to mention, 
some of which are shown in Figs. 250 and 252. 

In designing the dies for the work to be done on these 
machines, the first thing to do is to figure out the necessary 

FIG. 250. Work of the forming-machine and bulldozer. 

amount of stock to make the piece required which will give 
the length of die to be used. Fig. 252 shows a swing hanger 
for passenger-car trucks, with the dies and headers for making 
it. For stock we lay the parts together, put them in a small 
oil-fired furnace, and in a very short time we have a welding 
heat about ten inches long on them. They are then placed in 
the lower space of the dies and the lever is operated. The 
dies close and the header enters them, the back-stop on the 
machine holding the stock from slipping back, and in an 



instant the two pieces are welded together and the head is 
formed. The stock is then turned end for end and placed in 
the upper space of the die, and on operating the lever again 
the dies close and the taper mandrel enters the die, splits the 
two pieces of stock apart, and forcing them into the die, com- 
pletes the hanger, as shown in the lower right hand view of 
Fig. 252 and also in Fig. 250. We made from fifty to sixty 

FIG. 251. Work of the forging-machine and bulldozer. 

of these hangers per day, and it does not take long for a ma- 
chine of this kind to pay for itself. 

Care must be taken in setting dies in the machine, and all 
bolts must be well tightened before starting. Fig. 252 gives 
all dimensions of the work, the die and the headers. The 
die seat is 21 inches long when the dies are closed, and the 
header block is at the end of its stroke. The space between 
the header block and dies is 4> inches. When shorter dies 
are used, the punch or header must be increased in length in 
the same proportion. As the length of dies is decreased when 
headers, punches, or mandrels enter the dies, the distance they 
go into the dies must also be increased. 





In making the bolsters for the tea and silk cars recently 
built in the Sacramento shops, we take our 1 x 5 x 12-inch 
bars, cut them off 2 inches longer than the length on the end 
which allows one inch on each end of the bar for upsetting 
and welding get a nice white heat on the end of the bar, place 
it in the machine, and press the lever down. The dies close, 
the header comes up, hits the end of the bar, welds and presses 

w~- " 



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FIG. 253. Forging machine dies. 

it into shape, and we have one end of the bolster completed. 
Reversing the piece and going through the same operations, 
we have a bolster completed in quicker time than it takes to ex- 
plain it. I find by testing this class of work by the steam- 
hammer process, that it will stand a better test than similar 
work done by hand. These ends are put on at the rate of 
twenty to twenty-five per day. 

Crown bars for locomotive boilers are made in a similar 
manner, by laying a piece of I I /Q x 3 x 9-inch stock between 



two pieces of ^ x 5 -inch bars of any length required, the 

whole being welded and pressed into shape by one operation. 

We have a great many target connecting-rods for S. P. 

switch-stands to make in the Sacramento shops, and this is a 

Overhead Timbers 

FIG. 254. An emergency steam-hammer. 

simple job for this machine. We take our bar of 1^-inch 
round iron on the required length, get a white heat on about 
11 or 12 inches of it at one end, place it in the lower portion 


of the die, and press the lever. The plunger comes up and 
upsets an end on the bar 2^x2x4^ inches long. We then 
take it out of the lower portion of the die, place it in the 
upper portion in a vertical position, when the die closes and 
the punch completes the jaw. We then take the rod to a 3- 
inch forging-machine that we have close by and upset the 
other end. This takes but a very short time, and we have a 
target connecting-rod completed without a weld. The idea in 
taking these rods from one machine to the other is to save 
time in changing and setting dies. 

The bulldozer, as well as the forging-machine, is a machine 
that should be in every blacksmith-shop where there is a large 
quantity of bending and forming to be done, such as draw-bar 
straps for passenger or freight cars, arch-bars for freight or 
tender trucks, side sill steps, uncoupling levers, carry irons, 
corner irons, links and a large quantity of other wrought-iron 
work that is used on cars and locomotives. 

The face of the machine, which is constantly in use in the 
Sacramento blacksmith-shop, is 14 inches high, 5 feet 4 inches 
wide, and has two grooves running the width of the face, cut 
out the same as the grooves in the bed of a planer. 

We have two rollers, simply constructed, that we fasten to 
the face of the machine with the bolts slipped in the grooves. 
Consequently we can shift these rollers, to bend straps, from 
j inch width of opening up to $ feet. When any material 
has to be bent at right angles, we slip one of the rollers on. 
The plates on the back-stop of the machine is constructed 
similarly to the face-plate, and we fasten all dies, formers, and 
mandrels for this. The material is held in the formers or 
mandrels, before bending, by a hinged clamp made for the 
purpose. The bulldozer used is a No. 7, and is large enough 
for all railroad purposes. 

A Rock-Drill Used as a Steam-Hammer 

The drill, minus the tripod, was fastened to a vertical 
support about as shown in the sketch, Fig. 254, which was 
drawn from memory, no attempt being made to show an 



exact picture, but merely enough to convey an idea of the 
arrangement. An ordinary anvil was fixed in a position 
under the ram, and the necessary air connections, not shown, 
were made with the cylinder. When a blacksmith has some 
heavy hammering to do, he has some one, as usual, to manage 
this contrivance, while the smith takes care to have the blows 
struck in the proper places as with a steam-hammer, except 
that the blows are not as heavy, but still more numerous for 

FIG. 255. Shear for cutting off iron. 

a given space of time. At the time I saw this improvised 
steam (?) hammer in operation, the smith was working down 
a piece of steel or wrought iron, about 3 inches wide at its 
widest part, 1 inch thick at its thickest part, 2^2 feet long, 
tapering in both width and thickness, and the hammer ap- 
peared to be doing excellent service. It appeared to me as 
being a very simple, effective, and quite inexpensive appa- 
ratus, and that if at any time it be thought convenient to 
discontinue the use of this rig as a "steam" hammer, it could 



be very easily resolved into the original parts and their former 
duties resumed, since neither drill nor anvil suffers any from 
this somewhat unusual use. 

Shear for Cutting Off Iron 

The sketches (Figs. 255, 256) shown. here, are of a shear to 
be used on a steam-hammer. In a shop where there are no 
shears this will be found to be a very valuable tool for cutting 

FIG. 256. Shear for cutting off iron 

off iron cold. This sketch represents one of the shears I am 
using for cutting off iron from y 2 to I fa inches round. I 
also have one for cutting off two inches round and one for flat 
iron. I have an 800-pound hammer with which I can cut 
two-inch round or four by one-inch flat iron with two or three 

The upper view in Fig. 256 shows the tool as put to- 
gether. The lower view shows the details. I have given no 
sizes, for the reason that it will have to be made to conform 
with the size of the hammer on which it can be used. A is 


the base that fits loosely on the bottom-die of the hammer, 
A being a right side view of the piece. It is a steel casting. 
B is the bottom knife, which fits in the base and is held in 
place with two ^-inch tap bolts marked F. C is the top knife, 
which works loosely between bottom-knife and side of base, 
and is held in place by a spring on each side, a hole being drilled 
in the bottom of the knife and in the bottom of base, as per 
sketch, large enough to receive the bent ends of spring loosely. 
The knives are made of shear steel. The springs, E, are 
made of ^-inch round spring steel. The guide-plates for 
springs on end of base marked D are made of A or X mcn 
tank steel, and are held in place by four y 2 -inch tap bolts, as 
shown. Narrow slots cut in these two plates allow the spring 
to work up and down. The cutting edges of the knives 
should be filed back a trifle for clearance to make them cut 




THE progress in machine-forging, or in the use of machin- 
ery for forging operations, has^ been very great in the last 
thirty years. The greater part of the work for car and loco- 
motive construction now done by machines, such as bolt- 
headers, bulldozers, steam-hammers and others, was before 
that done by hand. Those tools that have come into use are 
the greatest factors in producing forgings for cars. One for- 
ging-machine and a good man to run it can produce more for- 
gings than ten fires can turn out in the same time with only 
one hand at work, and at the same time the work will be more 

You must get up the dies yourself to suit the foj-gings you 
wish to produce, as the machine is not of much use without 
them. It is the same way with a steam-hammer you can do 
almost anything if you have the dies and formers to do the 
job with. In a large shop it will take almost the entire time 
of a foreman in studying up dies and formers to do certain 
jobs that come to hand ' every day. Not only that, but the 
tools for doing the work one year will be out of date the next, 
and as time progresses, the engines built one year are not the 
same as they will be the next; and more so with the cars. They 
used to be 25,000 pounds capacity, now they are 100,000 
pounds capacity. It is the same with engines. You take an 
engine built twenty years ago and put it beside one that was 
built to-day and see the difference; and so with all the work- 
manship done on them, and the tools to produce their heavy 
forgings. If you have no up-to-date tools, you cannot build 




cars or locomotives in a railroad-shop and compete with the 

For instance, if all cars had to have Janney couplers on a 
certain date and your company had a great many cars to equip, 
and were netting about 2,000 draw-bar stems per month, and 
you had no bolt-header large enough to make 
them. To weld a collar on them by hand 
is out of the question, as with one fire the 
best you can do is thirty-five or forty per 
day. You decide to work them under the 
steam-hammer. To handle the bottom head- 
ing tool put up a post by the hammer; the 
top header, forming the head, a piece of 
round machine-steel about 4-^ inches in di- 
ameter and 5 inches long, with the shape of 
the head carved in the center of it. After 
you drop your stem, with welding heat, in 
the bottom tool, you put the top header on 
the iron (your bottom header will keep the 
top in the center of the stem), you hit it two 
blows with the steam-hammer, then turn it 
over and drive it out the same way, making 
a perfect head in center of stem. By put- 
ting four or five apprentice boys heating 
them in hollow fires, you can head up 700 
stems per day and punch them in the same 

Insert the punch in the top die, and, the 
motion being so quick, you can punch 4,000 
or 5,000 stems before you need to dress your 

After getting all these tools up, a change is made in car- 
building: to use nothing but yokes. Then study again the 
same as before. The yokes are made out of ^ x 4 inch or 1 x 
4 inch, with lips double over the end, for a shoulder, like the 
sketch. You simply take a round coupling link, weld a han- 
dle on one end, put a sharp fuller in place where you want to 

FIG. 257. En- 
gine connect- 



make the bend for the hook, and press down with the top 
die, which will bend it over half-way, then take your link 
away and hit one blow, which will complete the hook. To 
bend it on the other end, cast a pocket on your top die, on 
the front of it; make the bottom out of wrought iron as wide 
as you want the yoke and as high, and i 
drill in your bottom die and bolt on so 
as to meet the pocket in top die and lay 
the yoke. When straight across the bot- 
tom former, let the top die come down, 
which will bend your yoke the required 
shape. In this manner you can make 
about 300 yokes a day. This is a good 
tool, if you have no bulldozer. 

Manufacturing Connecting-Rods for 

The connecting-rod is one of the 
most expensive parts of an engine the 
part that is subject to more wear and 
which requires more repairs than any 
other. Therefore it should be of the 
best material and workmanship. The 
connecting-rods and boxes for the en- 
gine under consideration were bought 
from outside parties, who claimed to 
manufacture nothing else, and who there- 
fore could sell to engine builders at less 
cost than they themselves could make 
them. The rod and boxes complete 
for a 10 x 12 inch engine cost $13.50, 
delivered at the engine works in lots of twenty-five or more. 

The body of these rods was rectangular, being about 2> 
by l l /% inches at the crank end. They were nicely milled all 
over and both ends had straps, gib, and key. The boxes were 
brass, of rather an inferior quality. The workmanship was 
fairly good, perhaps fully as good as on rods used generally on 

FIG. 258. Forging 
dies for connect- 






i r 












FIG. 259. Milling the 
sides of rods. 

agricultural engines. The quality as well as the cost not 
being satisfactory, it was determined to manufacture the rods 

at home, and, if possible, to reduce 
the cost and improve the quality. 

Fig. 257 shows the design adopt- 
ed. The body of the rod was smooth- 
forged, and left unfinished. The 
boxes were of good grade of brass. 
The take-up was accomplished by the 
wedge as shown. In detail the man- 
ufacture of the rod was as follows: 

The body of the rod was forged 
from a bar-steel 3^ by 2^ inches 
under a steam-hammer, and in order 
to quickly bring the piece to a 
smooth finish and to uniform size, dies were made as shown 
by Fig. 258, the sunken die being keyed and bolted to the 
anvil-block, and the male half to the head of a drop-ham- 
mer. The bar of steel being of the proper size for the crank 
end of the piece without forging that end of the dies was 
made large enough to receive the bar 
when hot. The body of the rod and the 
cross head end was forged slightly smaller 
than the die the wide way, and slightly 
larger the other way. After forging, the 
piece was brought to a bright red heat and 
placed in the die and the hammer dropped 
on it, forcing the surplus thickness of 
metal to fill the die, thus making a smooth 
piece of work and any surplus being forced 
out at the bar end. The work was done 
before cutting off from the original bar, 
thus avoiding all waste. This piece of 
forging weighed 32 pounds; the material 

at that time cost l#j cents per pound, 
i i - ^A A 11 i -u FIG. 260. Mill- 

thus making 60 cents. A blacksmith and j ng the ends of 

helper together receiving $4. 50 per day connecting-rods. 




forged 20 rods, about 22 l /2 cents per rod. Adding to this 25 
per cent, for fuel and repairs, we have a cost of $1.03 each for 
this price. 

The straps were made of 2^ by 1^ inch steel weighing 
28 pounds and costing $2 cents. These were cut from the 
bar in proper lengths, heated in a heating furnace and bent to 

FIG. 261. Bending the straps. 

shape in a bulldozer. When evenly heated they were placed 
in the die, as shown in Fig. 259, one end resting against 
the stop D. Fig. 259 shows the die and plunger, a section, 
F F 9 being a guard extending over the plunger to prevent 
the piece which was being operated upon from getting out 
of place. One revolution of the machine forced the plunger 
forward and back again to the starting-point, each revolu- 
tion bending a strap into shape. Two men using a shear 
and this machine could cut off, heat, and bend 400 straps 



per day of ten hours, costing a little over one cent each in 
labor. Adding to this an allowance for fuel and dies 
and the cost of material, we have the two straps completed at 
a total cost of 61 cents. The method used in bending these 
straps was to cut off sufficient blanks of various sizes to keep 
the machine working a day of two at a time. In two days, 
including changing of dies, sufficient straps could be bent to 
keep the works supplied for several months. 

No doubt there are many readers who never saw or 

heard of a bulldozer. This 
machine is now extensively 
used by builders of agricul- 
tural machinery for form- 
ing all varieties of shapes. 
It would not probably pay 
engine builders to put in 
this machine unless requir- 
ing many forms of bent 
work, as such a machine 
would bend from eight to 
twelve thousand straps per 
month, if working on them 

We now have the for- 
gings complete for a 10 by 

FIG. 262. Planing the ends 
of rods. 

12 inch connecting-rod at a 
cost of $1.64. The ends of 
the rods were finished on 
all four sides in a milling 
machine, six at one time. 
These could be milled com- 
plete in two hours at a cost of 40 cents. Adding to this a 
percentage for keeping up the cutters, etc., we have a cost 
of 8 ^2 cents per rod. 

The next operation was finishing the ends of the rods. 
This was done in a heavy draw-cut shaper. A chuck (see 
Fig. 262) being bolted against the head of the shaper and 



holding six rods, they could be planed on both ends in 1^ 
hours, costing in all 30 cents, or 5 cents each. The complete 
machining of the rod, therefore, cost 13 cents. 

The straps were milled on edges, sides, and ends. In 
order to mill the edges, they were placed in a chuck, the open 
ends being kept from crushing by a small jack-screw in each 
strap. In order to mill the sides, they were placed as shown 
(see Fig. 253), the milled edge being held against the angle 
plate by bolts A A. To mill the ends, two angle plates were 
used, one of them having slotted holes, as shown in Fig. 254. 
After all the outside surfaces 
were milled they were taken 
to the shaper where the in- 
side surfaces were finished. 
The shaper used in this work 
was a heavy drawcut machine 
that is, one in which the 
cutting is done while the 
ram is moving inward. The 
cross-rail had an up-and- 
down feed. A chuck (Fig. 
257) was placed on top of 
the sliding-head with surface 
E E resting against the hous- 
ing of the machine. Cutter- 
bar B was attached to the ram, the roughing cutter W cutting 
at both ends, the lip removing part of the stock at the end of 
the strap. The finishing cut was made with a double-end 
cutter of exactly the width required, which also cut away the 
remaining stock at the end. The milling and shaper work 
was done with a liberal supply of oil. Six sets of straps were 
milled on all the outside surfaces in six hours. The shaper 
work required three hours. The total cost in labor was $1.80, 
about 30 cents per set. 

The adjusting wedges were made from a bar of cold rolled 
steel of the proper size. This was placed in a jig and milled 
off on one side to the proper angle and cut to length with a 






FIG. 263. Machining inside 
surface of rods. 


slitting saw. These were made in large lots at a labor cost 
of 3 cents each. 

The brass boxes for each end were cast in one piece. The 
weight of these per set was 8 pounds. Brass casting at that 
time cost 15 cents per pound, making the cost per set $1.20. 
They were bored and faced in a turret lathe, then placed in a 
jig in a double spindle milling-machine, and milled on all 
four sides to fit the straps. They were afterward cut in two 
with a sliding saw. These boxes were machined in lots of 
from 50 to 100, the labor cost being 20 cents per set. 

Each connecting-rod required four bolts for bolting the 
straps to the body of the rod, and two bolts for the adjusting 
wedges. These were made in a turret-machine from hexagon 
stock, costing in labor 25 cents and in material 17 cents. Jigs 
were made for drilling the straps, the body of the rod and the 
adjusting wedges. Drilling these cost 30 cents. 

The assembling of the various parts was done by the piece, 
for which 75 cents per rod was paid. This work included 
smoothing up the sharp corners, tapping the holes in the 
wedges, and fitting the boxes to the straps. The various items 
of cost were: 

Forgings, including material for the adjusting wedges. .$1.69 

Machining rod body 13 

Machining straps 30 

Machining wedges 03 

Brass boxes 1.20 

Machining boxes 20 

Material for bolts 25 

Making bolts 17 

Drilling 30 

Assembling .75 


Adding 25 per cent, for the shop expense we have total 
cost $6.27-. 

In this chapter I have described the tools and methods 
used in the manufacture of some parts of a 10 by 12 inch 



engine, by means of which the plant was brought up from a 
non-paying condition to a very profitable one. 

The smaller parts, of which there has been no mention 
inade, were all machined in the usual way, the work on them 
being done by the piece. 

Die for Turning Eye- Bolts 

The accompanying sketches (Figs. 265, 266) show an eye- 
bolt bender for the bulldozer or header. We found ourselves 
in a position where we had to bend about 9,000 
eyes of ^ inch stock per season, 
and the dies shown does the work 
with an increased output of about 
300 per cent. 

At a is the body of the die, 
and at b and c are projections 
from its face, their inner edges 
and tops being planed, as was the 
space between them. A plate d 
bridges over b and c, and a tool- 
steel slide c, shaped on one end to 
fit one side of the eye and on the 
other left straight, except the bev- 
eling of one corner as shown, 
fits the space between b, c, and 

d. At f and g are two additional projections, and at h is a 
jaw fitted with a hardened steel face held down with two %- 
inch cap-screws and fitted with two adjusting screws, as shown. 
The pin /, around which the eye is formed, is arranged to be 
withdrawn during the back-stroke of the bulldozer. It is 
made of tool-steel .and is hardened, as is the bushing in the 
plate d. To turn different sizes of eyes suitable slides, pins, 
and bushings are made. 

The stock is entered at right of the pin / to the gage, and 
the ram/ enters between the jaw h and slide e and, of course, 
forces the latter toward the pin and partly forms the eye, leav- 
ing the surplus stock sticking out in a horizontal position, 

FIG. 264. Machining in- 
side surface of rods. 



when the tool-steel ram k completes the turning by engaging 
with the incline on piece /. 

About 4,000 1-inch eyes of A-inch stock are bent cold 
per day of nine hours. 

Forging with Dies in a Railroad Shop 

While in the repair shops of the Lehigh Valley Railroad 
Company, at South Easton, some interesting methods and 

tools were observed, which, as time- 
savers, deserve to be noticed here. 

In a blacksmith-shop a 200- 
pound Bradly hammer was kept in 
constant use, dies of different forms 
being employed on a variety of 
work. These dies were not of ex- 
pensive drop-die order steel, profiled 
to shape and hardened but were 
plain cast-iron blocks, with the de- 
sired shape cast in their faces. 

One pair of dies were doing 
some very creditable work forging 
straight peen-hammers, of which 
several hundred per year are used 
around the shops and on the en- 
gines of this road. The stock for 
these were an inch and a quarter, and 
cut long enough for two hammers, 
which were roughed out, and the 
eye formed at the rate of ten or 
twelve per hour. Figs. 261 to 263 
show the dies and successive op- 
erations under the hammer. The 
punch P for the eye is of hardened 
steel, and is screwed into the upper die, as shown in Fig. 
261. The corners of the stock are first broken down in 
recess 1, leaving the piece as shown at b y Fig. 263, then 
the peen is formed in recess 2, the pieces being turned over 


e I 


FIG. 265. Bending eye- 
bolts in bulldozer. 



during the operation, after which the eye is formed by hold- 
ing in 265 and punching one-half way through from each 
side; in this way c, Fig. 265, is produced. 

A second heat is now taken, and the other end worked up 
in like manner. After separating, .it is necessary to drift out 
the eyes and dress up the ends; very little work, however, is 
required, as a man can finish up four or five of these forgings 

FIG. 266. Bending eye-bolts in bulldozer. 

in an hour. It occurred to me that a blacksmith's chisel could 
be cheaply formed in the same dies. 

A die for working tapers of any angle in flat-iron or steel 
has recently been brought into use, and gives very good results 
as far as we tried. The device is very simple. It consists of a 
lower and upper die with a loose semicircular piece A, Figs. 
270 and 271, which is free to slide in the recess cast in the 
lower die-block. This sliding block is of hardened steel and 
forms the working-face of the lower die. The upper die is a 



plain flat surface. As long as the two faces are parallel the 
work will be parallel, but if one end of the work be lowered 
the loose block will be on its seat, thus producing the angle 
with the upper face, as shown in Fig. 270 where a piece of 
work is being drawn taper.- As this angle is under the control 
of the workman, it will be seen that the varying angles, and 


f_J^3 /*\ 



^ V 


Sectiun cm A 





FIGS. 267 to 271. Forging straight peen-hammers. 

thus varying tapers, can be produced at will without separate 
dies. The loose block cannot be forced out of it, as the metal 
in front of the block in lower die acts as a stop when the 
work is held too low. 

The writer was shown a pair of brakes which had been 
forged with these dies, the two ends being drawn out to a dif- 
ferent taper, as shown in Fig. 270, and they were most satisfac- 
tory the surface being smooth and free from hammer-marks. 



The Advantage of Special Tools in Forging 

The sketches in whole Fig. 272, numbered Figs. 1 to 9, 
illustrate how, with special tools, work can be done in the 
forge by so-called unskilled labor, and also how skilled labor, 

FIG. 2 j FIG. 9 3< 

FIG. 272. Forging with special tools and unskilled labor. 

without special tools, even although the work produced will 
only occupy the same time, cannot compete in cost with the 
combination of tools and unskilled labor. 

Fig. 4 is a tie-rod which is a part of the Westinghouse 
air-brake gear, as supplied to the New Zealand railways. 
This part was formerly made in the old way. The ends or 
eyes were forged and then welded to a ^j-inch rod to the re- 



quired length. This involved two separate forgings and two 
welds, and the smith had hard work to make this job pay at 
6^ pence, or 13 cents a piece. Later on, another firm took 
up this class of work and it was then run through in the 
following manner: 

A set of cup-dies, to fit a bolt-heading machine, was made 
and fitted as shown in Fig. 1, as familiar to most of us. The 
block a is in two parts, and these are 3 inches apart when the 
machine is at rest. The heated ron is inserted against the face 
of fixed block b and up against a stop, not shown, which deter- 
mines the length required to form 
the head. The cam is engaged, 
the die-block closes on the rod au- 
tomatically, holding it tight, and 
the moving head comes forward 
and presses the rod into the die j, 
forming a complete ball. These 
dies are made of tool-steel and 
hardened, the gripping surfaces be- 
ing rough. When the furnace was 
properly going, the fuel used being 
oil, 60 heads per hour, or 30 rods 
could be figured on. The rods 
were heated for about six inches 
along the end, and the operator, 
who was a smith's helper, assisted 
by a boy, made them to a length gage, the greatest allowable 
error of which was T V inch either way, the length of the rods 
used being carefully determined beforehand by experiment. 

These headed rods were next handled by the 300-pound 
drop-stamp, and Fig. 2 shows the dies for stamping the eye, 
and also how the lower half die is held on the hammer-base. 
The corners of the gray-iron holder are cut away at an angle 
of 60 degrees, so as to permit of a slight rotative adjustment, 
the sides also have a. slope upward so that the holder is held 
against its seat by the adjusting screws. This is very conve- 
nient for the operator in adjusting his dies, and helps to lessen 

Order issued March-20-04 

Material req'd soft Steel Ji'dia. 100^'loag 

issued from stores in 300 lota. 

Heading die B.I. 31 

^Si{ DIES D2.34 


Shipped Aprl! 7, '04 


"28 .. 
May IB .. 


Juno 2 


.. 20 


July 5 - 


.. 19 .. 



15 " 

301 , 

- 29 " 

Sept. 17 




Average Weight 1CV$ 


ToUl ' 5623i 

Heading .yt pec 103 ) 

Stamping 7/6 per 100 \ ~ 

FIG. 273. Time-card for 
the forging-shop. 

MARCH 14, - 05 

ORDER No. F.W.168 

Name of piece Tie-rod 


the weight. The dies were made from tool-steel and carefully 
hardened so as to avoid leaving a curved surface. A groove, 
TV inch deep and ^ inch broad, was milled all around the 
edges of the dies and y% inch from it, as indicated at d. This 
was done to make sure the dies would come close together and 
also to provide a space for the " flash " or fin to flow into. 
These heads were brought to a welding heat in an oil furnace 
and stamped to a length gage. 

Fig. 3 shows the trimming-die which sheared off the flash. 
This was made of tool-steel and given a taper of 3 degrees. 
It could not be fitted to the ordinary trimming-press owing to 
the length of the rod, so 
the trimming was done in 
the following manner. 
When the eye was stamped 
the operator's assistant 
placed the trimming-die, 
w 7 hich was comparatively 
light to handle, on top of 

the lower half of the stamp- 

j. j . , FIG. 274. Time-card for the 

ing-die and to one side. forging-shop. 

The eye was then placed 

in position by the operator, and with a slight blow from the 
top the flash was sheared. With the eye still inside the die 
he pushed the trimming-die off the stamping-block, then, 
quickly turning the rod which he held in his hands, the trim- 
ming-die dropped off on to a plate placed to receive it, so that 
the eye passed completely through and came out at the bottom 
side of the die. 

Great trouble was experienced in getting the centers of the 
tie-rods correct. Even with a rigid gage attached to the base 
of a drop-stamp which held one eye while the other was being 
stamped, the error would sometimes be as much as ^V inch, 
and as the holes in the eyes were drilled at the same time to 
exact distance they appeared to be out of center with the eye. 
To overcome this the stamping-dies which were plain were 
discarded, and a new set was made with a centering dowel, as 

Used on air brake for 4 wheel MOck 



FIG. 275. Ten-thousand-ton hydraulic press. 


shown at e, Fig. 2, which did away with the drilling jig 
and as the drill followed the stamped hole, as indicated at 
f, Fig. 4, the error, if any, appeared in the center to cen- 
ter distance and not in the eye. Owing to the saving of 
material by this method, the heading-dies were reduced from 
1 Y to l'$ inches, and the rods were cut 1 ^ inches shorter, 
which on a large quantity meant a considerable saving. 

Forging Without Special Tools 

The tools shown in Figs. 6, 7, and 8 and also the numbered 
operations illustrate the very best method of making a similar 
tie-rod of short length under a steam-hammer by a skilled 
smith. The rod is made in one heat. The material is heated 
in the bar form and cut off; then, by means of swages, Fig. 
6, it is roughed out as shown in operation 1. Next, one eye is 
formed, and then the other, by the repeated application of 
swages, Fig. 7, and the hammer itself. Then the finishing 
swages, Fig. 8, are used to bring the rod to correct length, the 
tai Is gg being cut off at an anvil. I have watched the piece 
made in this manner many times, and have seen a forging laid 
down complete before the color had left it. I have also 
watched this piece being made by the former method as de- 
scribed and the results were a reduction of 80 per cent, on the 
cost of production by the latter method. There were no 
special tools in the latter case, as the swages used are in every- 
day use for general work in the forge. 

The skill of the smith has thus been replaced by means of 
tools which eliminate all inaccuracy, the necessary handling 
being done by the operators who are boys and smith's helpers. 

Figs. 273 and 274 illustrate a time-card' for the forging- 

Ten Thousand Ton Press at the Dusseldorf Exhibition 

The illustration (Fig. 275) shows a steam and hydraulic 
press, a model of which is exhibited in Dusseldorf, and the 
original of which exerts the trifling pressure of 10,000,000 
kilograms, or 22,-000,000 pounds. These presses, which are 


made by the Kalker. Werkzeugmaschinenfabrik, are princi- 
pally for forging and bending armor plates. There are three 
separate compressors and three separate ram-cylinders; and 
they are so connected that all three compressors act on all 
three press-cylinders, or any one or two thereof on all three 
cylinders. This enables the employment of the entire pressure 
of 10,000 tons, or of two-thirds or of one-third thereof, 
according to the need. The stroke is also widely adjustable 
at will. To give a slight idea of the dimensions of these 
presses (two such are at work in European shops) it may be 
said that the rear columns, which are each 17 meters in 
length, weighs 150 gross tons, and the three hydraulic- 
cylinders, that together with the steel-plate between them 
make up the upper platen, as much more. The lower platen, 
which is built up, weighs about 400 gross tons. The pla- 
tens are held to the columns by sixteen nuts, each of 1,200 
mm. (47 inches) diameter, and whose united weight is about 
50 gross tons. 



Hydraulic Forging 

ONE of the great helps in making the modern automobile 
a commercial success was the advent of drop-forging. Imag- 
ine the thousands of automobiles built every year, fitted with 
hand-forgings the very idea looms up before us as prepos- 
terous. Little perception is required to see that this branch 
of forging has attained a high position among the mechanical 
arts, and has prospects of further development and a wider 
range of usefulness in the future. 

The essential features of drop-forging are a top and bottom 
die; each die containing half an impression of the forging 
desired, and means of raising and dropping the top die so that 
the heated bar held between them can be hammered into 
shape. This latter is accomplished with the drop-hammer. 

The action produced on the heated metal by the blows 
delivered by the top die is peculiar to all hammers, whether 
they be small ones in the hands of a man or a large steam- 
hammer. This action consists principally in stretching the 
surface of the heated bar more than the interior, hence the 
metal has a tendency to flatten under the strain and action of 
the dies. At times it is with difficulty, and after the repeti- 
tion of many blows, that the heated bar is made to perfectly 
fill the impression in the dies. Herein lies the cause which 
restricts this useful art of forging to certain shapes, and, there- 
fore, sometimes limits its scope. 

There is, however, another branch of forging that at pres- 
ent is not as highly developed as drop-forging, but promises 





soon to be as important. I refer to that branch known as 
hydraulic-forging where, with the aid of dies, a piece of heated 
steel or iron is pressed or made to flow into the desired shape. 

Description of Hydraulic Press 

For the benefit of those who are not familiar with a for- 
ging-machine or press, a description of one will be given here. 
We will describe a large press. Most forgings made by pres- 
sing in shaped dies can be produced on a small press. The 

smaller the press used for accomplish- 
ing your work the greater the econ- 

Embodied in the press-proper is 
an operating plunger. This is pulled 
back after performing its stroke by a 
plunger. A platen is made movable 
to facilitate the handling of heavy 
dies. The dies are secured to the 
plunger and platen by means of bolts 
in tee slots. The press is usually op- 
erated by 500 pounds water-pressure. 
When greater pressure is required an 
intensifier on the left of the press is 

It differs from the drop-forging method in that the force is 
comparatively slowly and steadily applied. One stroke visually 
suffices, while in the drop-forging method bars often receive 
dozens of blows and frequently are reheated several times. 
The action or motion of the heated steel in the dies is the 
secret of better metal in the forgings. In Fig. 277 is shown a 
heated piece of round bar between two dies. As the top 
piece is forced downward the metal flows, as shown by the 
dotted lines. The reason it assumes this shape, instead of 
that of a perfect cylinder, is on account of the friction between 
the faces of the dies and the metal, which sometimes restricts 
the flow of the metal next to the faces of the dies. 

By making an impression in the dies, as shown in Fig. 

FIG. 276. Forging 


278, we get a different result. The ends increase in diameter 
on account of the impression in the dies, and thus the flow is 
entirely confined to the center. As the die continues to de- 
scend the central portion increases in diameter but decreases 
in thickness, and is gradually formed into a flange, as shown 
by the dotted lines. 

Next let us deepen the impression in the bottom die and 
use a plain cylindrical top die, as shown in Fig. 279. As the 
top die descends, the metal has a tendency to flow in the same 
manner as in the preceding examples, but is restricted by the 
side walls of the bottom die. It is compelled, therefore,^ to 


277 278 279 

FIGS. 277 to 279. Hydraulic forging practise. 

flow through the open space around the top die and makes a 
cup-shaped forging. 

By shaping the bottom die, and pointing the top die or 
punch, as shown in Fig. 280, you have the shape used for 
making projectiles. The top punch must not necessarily be 
circular in form, but may be square, triangular, or any odd 
shape that does not weaken it or destroy its strength. 

A good example of this is found in a patented projectile. 
Instead of the cavity being smooth it is ribbed, as shown in 
the cross-section in Fig. 281, the idea being, that on account 
of these internal ribs the shell will be broken into a larger 
number of small pieces, and thus increase its efficiency as an 
offensive weapon. These ribs are obtained by simply cor- 
rugating the punch, which, of course, leaves corresponding 
impressions in the metal. 

In Fig. 282 is another example of simple forging. Hun- 


dreds of shafts with 1-inch collars are needed. Instead 
of machining all that metal or drawing it out under a ham- 
mer, you simply heat one end of the bar where the collar is 
wanted, and with one stroke of the press squeeze it out, as 
shown by the dotted lines. 

Examples of Production 

These simple illustrations are merely suggestions showing 
the usefulness of this art in the commercial world. By a com- 
bination of different dies and several operations, difficult for- 
gings of the most intricate shape can be economically pro- 
duced, and with such accuracy and smoothness that only those 
parts in contact with their working parts need machining. 


FIGS. 280 to 282. Hydraulic forging practise. 

The shapes shown in Fig. 283 are a few of the forgings 
that can be produced by this method. The only limit to the 
size of the forging is the capacity of the press used and the 
facilities for handling them. 

From the sketches you will notice that the dies for form- 
ing the various shapes are not expensive, as they generally 
consist of shapes that can be produced by either a lathe or 
some other machine-tool. Hand-work seldom enters into 
their construction. For practically all shapes the bottom die 
can be made of a good grade of iron cast approximately to 
size, finishing only the base and the impression. 

Dies of the kind shown in Figs. 279 and 280 must have a 
slight taper to facilitate the removal of the forging. This, 
however, needs to be very small, as the steel immediately com- 


mences to cool, and in so doing it contracts and loosens itself. 
The castings used for this purpose must be solid and free from 
all blow-holes, however small, as the great pressure put upon 
the steel will force it into minute holes and prevent the 
forging from being withdrawn. 

The top die, when it has no piercing or punching to do, 
may also be made of cast iron, otherwise it is made of steel. 


FIG. 283. Shapes produced by hydraulic forging. 

A good grade of forged steel is then required, one containing 
between 0.60 and 0.70 percent, of carbon has been demon- 
strated to give excellent results. If lower in carbon they 
bend and distort too readily from the great pressure. If 
higher in carbon they usually crack from the alternate heating 



and cooling of the punch, as water is turned into the dies after 
each operation to keep them below a destructive temperature. 

Proper Practise for Hydraulic Forgings 

Engineers who design forgings for production by this 
method will be wise to carefully note the following: 

Make your punches practically straight, with a nice round- 
ing at the bottom, as shown in Fig. 284. At first glance the 
punch in Fig. 285 would seem to require less pressure, and 
hence for a given pressure would give the metal a deeper 


FIGS. 284 and 285. Shaping of forging punches. 

punch. The reverse, however, is the case, and the reason is 
this: When punch No. 10 enters the metal it displaces a cer- 
tain amount and this must flow upward along the side of the 
punch. As the punch continues to descend, the area of the 
opening at the top of the die is gradually growing smaller, 
due to the taper, hence the metal must flow upward faster than 
the punch descends to compensate for the difference between 
the area of the opening and the metal displaced. This would 
make little difference with a perfect liquid, but creates tremen- 
dous friction with steel and greatly reduces the penetrating 
power of a given force. 

Again, assuming that the pressure applied to the punch is 
downward, laying out a parallelogram of forces, we find that 


the resultant is divided into two forces, one acting along the 
face of the punch, and the other at right angles to it. The 
one at right angles to the face of the punch is of no value in 
displacing the metal, as its power is expended in jamming the 
metal against the sides, tending to tear the die apart. No 
such conditions exist with a punch similar to Fig. 284. Here 
the area of the opening around the punch remains the same 
during the pressing, and the metal flows at a uniform rate of 
speed as the punch descends. The force tending to tear the 
die apart is small compared to a greatly tapered punch. 

In this class of forging it is not absolutely necessary that 
the dies be of one solid piece. Many forgings require them 
to be split, and there are cases where five and six parts were 
required to complete one diameter. In such instances the 
dies are supported by an outer casing. 

The variety of metals that can be forged by this method 
is practically the same as for drop-forging or hand-forging. 
Wrought iron or steel low in carbon, say, from 0.10 to 0.20 
per cent., is forged with the greatest facility. The grade of 
steel commonly known as machinery steel, ranging from 0.30 
to 0.40 per cent, carbon, is readily shaped, while steels rang- 
ing from 0.70 to 0.90 per cent, carbon are forged daily in the 
manufacture of projectiles. Alloy steels containing either 
nickel, chrome, or vanadium, or all three, are also forged in 
the manufacture of armor-piercing projectiles, automobile 
parts, cutting tools, etc. The higher the grade of steel used 
the closer the attention required in the heating prior to for- 
ging. Steels high in carbon and chrome cannot be made to 
flow quite so readily and require great pressure. 

Some Applications of Autogenous Welding 

The oxy-acetylene autogenous welding process found a 
large field in a number of manufacturing establishments. It 
is most commercial in shops where there is a large variety of 
work. It cannot compete with multiple machine riveting or 
with expensive coke and gas welding installations. 

The objection to a coke-welding installation is the high 



first cost, and the injurious oxidizing effect, due to the long 
exposure of the hot metal to the atmosphere. 

On the other side, a gas-welding installation is only suita- 
ble for very large shops, due to the high cost of the gas 
generators, gas-holder, power-hammers, and presses. 

The problem in all welding operations is to work the hot 
metals rapidly, or to heat only a small section at one time. 


286 287 288 

FlGS. 286 to 288. Applications of autogenous welding. 

The oxy-acetylene process will furnish the right temperature 
for fusing the metals, without oxidizing the joint. 

Heating Metal Before Welding 

The trouble that might arise, in this welding process, is 
that the metal is too rapidly chilled, which would tend to 
weaken the joint. 

This difficulty can be overcome by heating the metal be- 
fore welding; in which case we gain both better efficiency of 
the joint, and higher speed in welding. It is advisable to 
cover the heated metal as much as possible, to prevent exces- 
sive radiation, and to protect the welder from the high tem- 

In some cases, where a high efficiency of the joint is 
expected, it is advisable to anneal the welded piece in a slow- 
cooling furnace for several hours. 

It is well known, that in all rapid welding, such as elec- 


trie, and to some extent autogenous welding, the joint is 
stronger than the section next to the joint on either side. 

This can be explained by the fact that a molecular distor- 
tion takes place between the hot and cold parts, and these 
molecules have no time to readjust themselves before the 
metal commences to chill. By the preheating and annealing 
process the distorted molecules will 
find their proper place again, and each 
will take its share of strain exerted by 
an external load. Experiments prove 
that with the same ultimate strength, 
the annealed piece will show a better 
elastic limit, and also a better ductility 
in the welded joint. 

tube and flange. 

Fuel for Preheating 

The preheating can be accomplished 
by natural gas or oil, or if power is 

cheap, by means of a resistance type electric furnace. The 
latter method is the most convenient, since it interferes least 
with the welding operation. 

Fig. 286 shows the method of welding two angles together. 

Fig. 287 shows a more com- 
plicated section, welding in a par- 
tition in a tank. 

Fig. 288 shows the method of 
welding shafts, or any cylindrical 

Fig. 289 shows butt welding 
of large tubes, at the end of which 
a flange is welded on. 
Fig. 290 shows welding of a top in a cylinder for light 

Fig. 291 shows two plates ready for welding, with scarfed 
edges necessary from y% inch up. 

Fig. 292 shows a cylinder with a welded cast-steel nozzle, 
and a forged flange welded at the end. 

FIG. 290. Welding top 
of cylinder. 



Fig. 293 shows welding a dome in a cylinder, a flange at 
the bottom, and an outlet at the side; all for high pressures. 

Welding Conclusions 

The process of autogenous welding is well adaptable in 
any metal work-shop, and will pay good returns for the small 
first cost, and operating expenses. 

The welding operation is not difficult, but requires several 
months of practise, to turn out reliable work for high pressure. 

The process does not require any expensive machinery, 
such as power-hammers and presses. 

Over 1,000 installations are in daily use in Europe, and 
bring good returns on the investment. 

We believe that in the next few years a new field will be 


292 293 

FIGS. 291 to 293. Welding cast-iron nozzle and flange on cylinder. 

open for the autogenous welding process, in boiler shops, 
automobile works, tank and plate works. 

Built-up or Welded-up Die Work 

A question that is often asked me by those about to make 
a lot of sheet metal working dies is this: " Shall we make 
them of solid steel; and, if so, what kind, and how can we get 
them forged so as to save stock and labor?" 

My experience has been this: If you have got a smith who 
knows his business and can do a good job, weld them up; but 
I have never yet found more than one or two shops that could 
do this trick and be sure how it was coming out. I am well 


aware that there are two or three firms in the business who can 
take, say a 12-inch round die, and weld up the steel ring, and 
weld the same on to a wrought-iron plate, and be sure of good 
results, before it leaves the smith's hands, and they can do this 
every day in the week. If I had a man like that, I would never 
make another built-up die like Fig. 294; but one doesn't find 
such a man on the corner waiting for a job; he has one already. 

At one time I had a lot of dies, six, I think, to make, all 
square ones; and, failing to get good results from the smith, I 
ordered six blocks from the mill. They were 12x14x2 inches 
thick, one-half steel and one-half iron. They came in course 
of time (about sixty days, I believe), and they looked nice. I 
started three of them; cut out the dies and hardened two of 
them all right; but the third one parted in the weld, so it was 
useless. Well, I fitted the punches to the other two and 
started them to work. By the way, did you ever think it was 
a great deal better to make a die for your own use than for 
somebody else to use? It seems to work better, and a com- 
plaint from the boss of the press-room doesn't sound so big as 
one that comes in a letter especially if it is a typewritten one. 

Well, the dies worked very well until they were worn 
down to % inch of steel, then one of them began to "peel," 
as the press-boy called it. The vibrations caused by the 
punches started the weld at one end of the die, and it kept 
" peeling" until it was two-thirds of the way across and then 
we had to scrap it. The rest of the blanks I had planed up 
and let the boys have them for bench-blocks. They were a 
little expensive, but they were good ones. 

There was one fault with these dies that is common to all 
welded dies, except round ones; that is, the impossibility of 
making a perfectly square blank, and the enlarging of the 
blank caused by the clearance given the die. To overcome 
this, we finally made a die like Fig. 294, the sides and ends 
of separate pieces, and the corner dovetailed in. All the 
pieces were got out on the shaper, drilled and tapered for the 
holding-down bolts (not shown), then hardened and ground 
to an exact fit, then set in the cast-iron bed, and held in place 


by the set screws shown. The cost of the die was about the 
same as for a solid die, and as I could use cheaper labor for 
most of the work, but as it did about double the amount of 
work done by a solid one, and the work was far better, I 
called it a cheap die, and we made the rest in the same 

Now, I take this view of the matter: If I had a smith that 
could weld up a 12 or 24 inch ring on a wrought-iron plate, 
and be sure of his work I think it would be cheaper and better 
to do so, but rather than take chances of a second-class man, 
I build them of steel rings set in cast-iron blocks. Of course, 
in some cases, the cost of steel should be taken into account; 

FIG. 294. Built-up die. 

but when the work in the smithy costs eighty cents per hour, 
and the steel seventeen cents per pound, it doesn't seem to me 
that the cost of the steel cuts much ice anyway. 

All the punches were made solid and left soft, which I 
think is the best way for thin stock. 

General Practise for Hardening Drop-Dies of Various Steels 

It was formerly considered necessary to make all forging 
dies requiring to be hardened from crucible tool-steel, but ex- 
perience has proved that for certain classes of work a good 
grade of open-hearth steel of the proper carbon gives results 
which justify its use. In some shops this steel is used alto- 
gether, but the results are not very satisfactory for dies with 
small projections or for shapes that weaken the die. 


There are various makes and grades of both open-hearth 
and crucible steel, and a make which gives satisfaction in one 
shop may not do so in another. 

When heating for hardening, some hardeners place the die 
in the furnace, face down, on a layer of powdered charcoal; 
this is supposing that we are using a furnace where the die 
does not come in contact with the fuel. I know a hardener 
who gets excellent results heating in charcoal in an open fire, 
built specially for the purpose. I have had best results, how- 
ever, when heating in furnace a case-hardening furnace 
works nicely the die being placed in a box having an inch or 
so of wood charcoal or charred leather, preferably the latter, 
in the bottom. The box should be shallow, so as not to 
come up on the side of the die more than 2 or 3 inches when 
it is resting on its bed of charcoal or leather. 

The heat should be applied strong enough to heat the die 
as rapidly as possible consistent with uniform heating, and 
no faster, or some portions will become overheated, and this 
will cause strains which may cause the steel to crack when 

As there is a tendency to heat the beveled edges of the 
tang more rapidly, and to a higher heat than the rest of the 
block, it is good practise to fill in the corner with fire-clay 
mixed with water, allowing it to dry before placing in the 

When the die is uniformly heated to the proper heat, 
remove the box from the furnace, then remove the fire-clay 
from the corners of the tang. In order to keep the tang from 
humping when the die is hardened, it is best to stiffen the 
tang before hardening the face. This is done by placing the 
die on the wires in the bath tang down, so that the water is 
projected against it. While this portion is cooling, the 
corners of the die may be slapped with a wet cloth to cool 
them somewhat before hardening the face. Any very delicate 
projections that are liable to cause trouble may be oiled or 
rubbed with soap, to prevent the water acting too quickly on 


When the tang has cooled so that no red can be seen, the 
die should be inverted, and the water allowed to play on the 
face. At the same time water should be poured on the tank 
until the red has disappeared from the face, when we should 
cease cooling the tang, and allow the heat in the center of the 
die to run out through this portion. 

The overflow in the tank should be so regulated that the 
water will only come up on the face of the die about an inch. 
Of course, it will be forced up the sides of the die by the flow 
of the water in the supply pipe. 

The pipe delivering the water to the die should distribute 
it directly against the whole face, rather than in a solid 
stream, striking all in one place. Make the top of the pipe 


m? vj o ; 

295 296 

FIGS. 295 and 296. Piping for drop-die hardening. 

in the form shown in Fig. 295; or a perforated top to the 
supply pipe, as shown in Fig. 296, is excellent. 

In winter some means should be provided for removing 
the chill. This can be done by entering a steam-pipe into 
the supply, when any desired degree of heat may be obtained. 

To eliminate, so far as possible, the tendency of the steel to 
crack from internal strains set up by the process of cooling, 
the die should be so heated as to promote this result. Some 
hardeners think it advisable to do this by drawing the temper. 
This seems to work all right if the heating is done slowly 
enough for the heat to penetrate to the center of the block; 
but if the heating is rapid, this result is not accomplished, the 
strains are still in the steel, and may manifest themselves at 
any time. The die may crack after being placed on the shelf, 
or it may not until some time after. 

Knowing the tendency of large pieces of hardened steel to 


crack from the cause mentioned, it is best to take every pre- 
caution to prevent this. A very inexpensive method consists 
in placing the hardened die in a water-tank which has a steam- 
pipe connected with it. Steam is let in and the water is 
gradually heated to the boiling-point, and kept there for sev- 
eral hours, when the die may be removed and the temper 
drawn. If it is not thought advisable to use this method, 
place the die where, to insure uniformity of heating, it will 
heat slowly, and continue the heat until, when touched with 
a moistened ringer, a snapping sound is heard. In order to 
effectively avoid the tendency to crack from internal strains, 
the heating must be slow enough to insure the penetration of 
the heat to the piece. 

It is often desirable to draw the temper immediately after 
the hardening; when this is the case the greatest, possible care 
should be exercised. A die having slender projections or 
light, irregular portions, if heated faster than the steel can 
absorb the heat uniformly, will of course become hottest at the 
lighter portions, and these expanding faster than the solid 
portions adjacent, will tear themselves away. Where there 
are such light projecting portions, it is often advisable to fill 
the surrounding depressions with oil; this will prevent a too 
rapid heating of the parts and stop their "snipping off." 

Sometimes, and for certain work, it is not necessary to 
harden the dies, but it is still often advisable to stiffen the 
steel somewhat under such conditions. The die may be 
heated and then cooled in oil. A bath of generous propor- 
tions should be used having a jet of oil coming up from the 
bottom, this striking the face materially aids in producing the 
desired effect. 

When open-hearth steel which contains a sufficient amount 
of carbon works well on many dies, its use is not advocated 
for dies that must be very strong or that should retain their 
sizes, as cold-drop dies. A good grade of crucible die-steel, 
containing a higher percentage of carbon can be used which 
will harden much deeper and harder than the open-hearth of 
lower carbon. 


The crucible steel, being lower in percentage of harmful 
impurities, can safely have a much higher percentage of 
carbon and yet be less liable to crack than the open-hearth 

After all, the real essential for successfully doing work of 
this kind is brains; it is necessary to discriminate between the 
dies of different sizes and shapes, also to judge correctly of 
other conditions, and then act accordingly. 



What is Good Judgment 

A GREAT deal is heard of good judgment, and the man 
who possesses this quality commands a high salary. Often a 
machine-tool establishment which has secured such a man, de- 
pends almost entirely on his "good judgment" for better re- 
sults, and it is often considered that with this he can overcome 
the lack of organization, cost system, or even of plant equip- 

A manager with good judgment is extremely valuable, 
but he must have the tools with which to work. If he does 
not obtain them a man of less ability, with better organ- 
ization and with better equipment, will outdistance him. 
The same applies to the man in the shop the mechanic. 
A good mechanic, to produce the best work quickly, must 
have good tools with which to work. If he is not given 
these, a less efficient man with better tools can produce better 

Good judgment, as I see it, is the application of knowl- 
edge gained by experience. This is derived partly by direct 
observation, familiarity with the accomplishments of others, 
and partly from statistics compiled by others, which have been 
digested and the valuable points retained. If the manager is 
really a man of "good judgment" he will provide himself 
with the organization and the system which will furnish him 
with correct information. If the manager's works superin- 
tendent is a man of "good judgment" he. will insist upon an 



equipment of machines and tools which will allow of his me- 
chanics producing good work rapidly. 

High-Speed Steel and Tool-Holders 

An important item in machine-shop organization and man- 
agement is the speed of cutting tools and the use of cutting 
tool-holders. The speed of the tool is limited by the fric- 
tional heating of the tool, and its consequent softening by 
drawing its temper, so that for wrought-iron and mild steel 
the limits were from 10 to 30 feet per minute. Some increase 
was made on the introduction of a self-hardening steel in which 
higher speeds were attained. But these tools were rapidly 
broken down in wear or were abraided out of shape. Within 
the past ten years there have been introduced various brands 
of high-speed steel, cutting three, four, and in some cases even 
six times faster than the best tool-steels of the recent past, and 
also possessing a remarkable durability. In some cases the 
tools are heated to a dull red in the operation of cutting, while 
the chips are nearly as hot. This steel will stand long, severe, 
and continuous usage without regrinding, and this, together 
with the increased strength, effects a great saving in time and 
labor, otherwise wasted in removing, grinding, and. replacing 
the tool. Deeper and wider cuts can also be taken with this 
steel, and this, together with the high-speed results in remov- 
ing a far greater weight of metal per minute with a consequent 
considerable cheapening in the cost of production. 

Speeds of from 75 to 100 feet per minute upon medium 
hard-steel have been attained in ordinary work, while rough- 
ing cuts have been made at the rate of 140 feet per minute on 
cast iron with l /% inch feed and % inch deep. 

Though the cost of high-speed steel is considerably greater 
than that of common tool-steels, the difference in cost is more 
than covered by its labor-saving qualities and reliability. The 
best steel I know of for high-speed cutting costs about seven- 
ty-five cents per pound, and for machine-cutting tool pur- 
poses at least is not forged into solid tools, as in the old- 
fashioned way, but the cutting portions are forged and ground, 


FIG. 297. Shanking dies with high-speed cutting tool. 


then inserted in a tool-holder and held by a simple plunger 
and locking stud, as illustrated and described farther on in 
this chapter. 

Combination Tool-Holders and Their Use 

The high cost per pound of the high-speed steels and the 
large waste of this valuable material by individual users and 
forgers of bar stock, where cutting-tools are forged from the 
bar, has brought about a truly wonderful demand for an effi- 
cient substitute for expensive forged tools a substitute which 
shall possess all the best qualities of the bar-forged tools with- 
out their waste, uncertain heat treatment methods, and pro- 
hibitive expense. This substitute I believe after careful per- 
sonal investigation and use of various tool-holders is secured 
in the combination tool-holder manufactured by the O. K. 
Tool Holder Company, of Shelton, Conn., as it is the only 
one I have ever seen and used which compares in efficiency 
and strength with the best high-speed tools forged complete 
from bar stock. 

Though experiments have been conducted by almost all 
users of high-speed steel to determine the best shop-practise for 
treating it, the results of these experiments as a whole seem 
to have given us a general shop rule for treating a high-speed 
steel-tool: "Heat it to a white heat and quench it. " But this, 
in my opinion, has its shortcomings, because a variation of 50 
degrees Fahrenheit cannot be determined by the eye, but such 
variation is very important, especially in the tempering of 
these steels. 

The results of poorly treated tools are: A decrease in shop 
production for the manufacturer, who allows it inside his es- 
tablishment; dissatisfaction and poor work on the part of the 
machinist who uses it; an increase in the bill to the buyer of 
the shop's products, and the entire result a waste of energy 
and capital. 

Therefore, I argue, the fact that perfectly finished, uni- 
formly treated, and gauranteed efficient high-speed cutting- 
tools can be purchased direct from specialist makers, makes 

FIG. 298. Finishing cuts on heading die with high-speed cutting too]. 



this waste of energy and capital on the part of users of such 
tools inexcusable. 

Economy in Use of Tool-Holders 

On many operations of die-work a tool capable of remov- 
ing stock at high-speed with corresponding heavy cuts is very 

FIG. 299. Complete set of high-speed cutting tools and their 


desirable. Formerly solid-forged tools were necessary, but 
modern practise demands the more economical tool-holder. 
A very efficient type is shown in Figs. 297 and 298. As will 
be seen, this holder is a radical departure from the old style 


holder. The holder itself is made from a tough grade of steel 
designed to stand the shock anil strains of heavy cuts. The 
cutting-points are hydraulic and drop-forged from high-speed 
steel, and are made exact duplicates of the solid-forged tool- 
cutting ends, having a large body of metal to soak up the fric- 
tlonal heat generated by the chip. 

Each tool is provided with a round shank fitting the re- 
ceiving-end of the holder and is prevented from turning by 
contact of the plunger at the flat back of the tool, which in 
turn is forced ahead by the tapered face of the locking-stud. 
This method of locking gives practically solid backing to the 

FIG. 300. Plan of trimming die showing utility of high-speed steel 

cutting points. 

tool, there being no possible chance of the point slipping 
away from the work. 

One commendable feature of this holder is the entire ab- 
sence of set screws, the lock, consisting as it does of a loose 
plunger, stud, and nut, can be instantly removed if occasion 
requires. Fig. 297 shows the method of shanking die-blocks 
with this tool. The head of the planer is first set over to the 
required angle on the side of the shank, and with the cross- 
head feed successive cuts are taken downward to the re- 
quired depth, thus leaving no angular corner to remove with 
short light cuts. At the right is shown the tool used to 
undercut the side and base of shank. By this method very 


close estimates on time may be made by ascertaining the 
number of pounds of stock to be removed, as the number of 
cuts may be figured to a certainty half an inch in width being 
the average cut. 

In Fig. 298 is shown a tool used for finishing side and 
base cuts on a block for a heading-die, this block being 
entirely finished with a standard shaper set of these tool 

Fig. 299 shows a trimming-die, and well illustrates the 
utility of some of these shapes, the No. 27 tool being suitable 
for finishing the entire face, both right and left. For rough- 

FIG. 301. Set of O. K. tools and holder. 

ing work the Nos. 9, 12, 5, 6, 11R, 11L, 104, and 10L are 
suitable. All have been found excellent for their particular 
purpose or operation. It is to be noted that there are no side 
projections to this holder, which makes it especially good for 
trimming die-work. In Fig. 301 is shown an assortment of 
tools and holders made in several sizes. With an assortment of 
these standard shapes the machinist, die-maker, or tool-maker 
is enabled to do his work rapidly and accurately. In visiting 
one large die-sinking establishment recently, nearly 100 of 
these holders were seen in use on various parts of die-work 
and in maintaining tools for such work, having made a place 
for themselves by their great adaptability to all conditions and 


their durability. Four of our leading machine-tool-builders 
send sets of these tools as part of the regular equipment of 
their new machines. 

Forging the High-Speed Steel- Cutting Points 

The most distinctive feature about these cutting-tools is 
.that, instead of being forged complete from bar stock used as 
it comes from the mill, each cutting-point is forged to shape 
between dies in a hydraulic press, the most desirable condi- 
tions being attained in the finished product. 

When we consider the most essential conditions necessary 
to high-speed steel-cutting efficiency,, we find that the pro- 
cesses involved in the production of these cutting-tools are 
such as to insure the accomplishment of these most essential 

The first is rigidity. In order to obtain the best results 
there should be absolutely no spring in the tool away from the 
work. Too much importance cannot be attached to this fea- 
ture, as it is a principal that is very important in obtaining the 
maximum results at the minimum of expense and labor from 
machine tools. Cutting-tools of the solid forged type were 
heretofore considered necessary to accomplish this rigidity, as 
all machine-tool builders aim to build their machine more 
powerful than the cutting-tools used in it. 

Secondly: there must be sufficient body of metal forged 
in the cutting-points to rapidly soak up the heat generated by 
the friction of the chip against the cutting-edge. This fric- 
tion on cast-iron work fuses the metal to the top of the cut- 
ting-point. On steel, however, where the chips have more of 
a sliding action, the top face of the tool becomes worn away, 
in some cases to a depth of ^ inch, as shown in Fig. 303, 
but this wear takes place well back from the cutting-edge. 
This condition seems peculiar, but is explained by the fact 
that at the angle of shear, the stock is crumpled and crushed 
and adheres to the tool, thus protecting the edge, and the 
sliding action that curls the chip starts at a point back of 



the shear, or where the leverage is sufficient to start bending 
the chip. 

Third: the tool must have the correct angles of clearance 
and top rake. The top rake must be such as will separate the 
chip from the body of metal in a manner to generate the least 
possible heat in proportion to the metal removed. 

Lastly: the tool must be forged, hardened, and tempered in 
the best possible manner, a thing which only long experience 
and continuous specialization in perfecting this product can 

The forging process used in making the tool-holder and 
points described and illustrated here is the result of long and 

FIG. 302. Hydraulic forging-die for first operation. 

patient experimentation, and also wide experience in the hand- 
ling of high-speed steels; and the applications and details of 
this process .interested me very much when I visited the 
O. K. plant late last year. 

I will digress here to state that these people have special- 
ized so much in the cutting-tool business that they maintain 
an experimental department for the sole purpose of being in 
a position to know at all times the best grades of high speed 
steel obtainable. The result is that they are obtaining a grade, 
of steel from Sheffield, England, which their experiments lead 
them to believe is the best there is, and which they are recom- 


mending and guaranteeing to their customers, for use in mill- 
ing cutters and other uses where high speed steel is required, 
on the results obtained by them in their experimental depart- 
ment in fair and square tests with other steels. 

Starting with the commercial bar of high-speed steel the 
pieces are cut off in a press, great care being taken to have 
each piece of uniform weight instead of size. To secure this 
an accurate balance is placed on the bench behind the operator, 
a standard forging being in the pan for a weight. The first 
piece from each new bar is tested; and should the weight vary, 
owing to a slight difference in the size of the bar, the stop in 
the cutting press is adjusted until the weight is absolutely 
correct. This not only saves stock, which is quite an 

FIG. 303. A worm-cutter and its chip. 

item with high-speed steel, but also insures a uniformity in 
the texture of the forging, as the same pressure is exerted in 
each case. 

After the cutting-off, which is done hot, the pieces go to 
the forging furnace. The square piece of steel is then heated 
in a special furnace of their own manufacture to the proper 
forging-heat and dropped into a hardened steel retaining-die, 
upon a hardened steel punch that fits the profile of the die, 
both of which are shown in Fig. 302. 

The top punch is then entered into the die, and under a 
50-ton pressure the square billet is blanked, squeezed, and 
forged to the shape of the pieces shown on the left-hand side 
of the die in Fig. 302. The top punch is then withdrawn 



and the blank raised by the bottom punch to a proper position 
on the top of the retaining-die, where it may be grabbed by 
the tongs and removed to the furnace to be reheated. 

The forged blank is next passed to another press and 
dropped edgewise into another retaining-die having the profile 
of the finished forging, and the operation of reforging is per- 
formed under 75-ton pressure. Fig. 304 shows the second 
retaining-die in its cast-iron plate with the blank and finished 
forging lying on it. At the left is the top punch and holder, 

FIG. 304. Hydraulic forging-dies for last operation. 

the same type of holder being used on both blanking and fin- 
ishing operations. 

This method of forging cannot help but improve the grain 
of the steel. In all cutting-points the steel is used with the 
cutting-edge on the end of the grain. While this seems a 
small matter, it has been made the subject of careful study and 
has proved an advantage of great importance. 

Another commendable feature of this forging-system is the 
high pressure exerted on the metal when forming the tool from 
the square to the finished shape in two blows, while the metal 
is confined within the walls of the retaining-dies. This com- 
presses the grain of the steel and is admitted, by manufactu- 
rers of high-speed steel and the most advanced steel experts, 
to be an ideal method of forging cutting-points for steel and 


The Drop-Press in Flat-Ware Operations 

The drop-press is a very important factor in the manufac- 
ture of German silver flat-ware. Many kinds are used by the 
various manufacturers of tableware. Some are still using the 
old style hand and foot drops, but they are fast being discarded 
for the improved lifters. 

In using the hand or foot drop, it is necessary for the op- 
erator to pull the drop with a belt over a running-pulley, help- 
ing to lift the hammer for the blow required. But it is hard 
on the operator, as usually the work is placed under the 
hammer in the die with one hand while using the other to 
pull the hammer. Another bad feature of the hand-drop is the 
non-uniformity of blows on the work, as it requires a very ex- 
perienced workman to lift the hammer exactly the same height 
and let it fall with the same speed on every piece of work put 
under the hammer. The economy of such drop-hammers can 
be considered only when small lots of each pattern are made, 
or when sometimes successive and varied blows are required. 

Experience with several styles of drop-presses for work of 
the nature mentioned above has led to the conclusion that the 
best and most economical drop-press in use is an automatic 
drop-lifter. This conclusion has been reached by a thorough 
study and a varied experience in the past. One company is 
now running an automatic drop-lifter which has been in use 
eighteen years, and in all that time costing only three dollars 
for repairs. The hammer on this lifter weighs 1,000 pounds; 
altogether this whole machine to-day is nearly as good as new. 

Three important features are necessary in drop-lifters. First, 
economy in repairs, etc. ; second, the speed at which work can 
be produced, and third, the quality of the work. The drop- 
press which meets all these requirements is the only one to 

Foundations for Flat-Ware Drop-Presses 

The successful operation of any drop-press is, to a large ex- 
tent, due to the manner in which the foundation is put under 


the base. Many methods have been tried with varied success. 
The old method of placing a large log of wood endwise under 
the base of the drop and grouting around it, to hold it firmly, 
answers the purpose for a short time, but in most soils the 
wood soon decays and the log becomes useless; where this 
method is continued it becomes unsatisfactory, annoying, and 
expensive. The writer has tried several methods of setting 
drop foundations, and has come to the belief that to* economy, 
stability, and good results, our present method is the best for 
flat-ware drops. Our method consists of excavating down from 
level about eight feet, and wide and long enough to give good, 
solid grout foundation, using small cobblestones and Portland 
cement. This we build up in the bottom of the excavation 
about four feet, then we put on about two feet of crushed 
stone, mixed thoroughly with Portland cement. We then pro- 
cure a large stone about two feet thick and at least six inches 
larger than the base of the drop at all points. This stone 
we place on top of the crushed stone, then fill all around this 
foundation-stone with a crushed-stone grouting nearly to top 
of the foundation. After the cement work has become har- 
dened, cut out the top of this foundation about one-half inch 
in depth and the same shape as the base of the drop, being 
sure that the cutting-out is perfectly level and true. We 
usually cut this receiving space about one-half inch larger at 
all points to allow for leading around the base. Now place 
the iron base in the cavity, being sure it is level and true, and 
proceed to lead the same. When the hot lead is poured into 
the space around the base, it makes all secure without danger 
of moving from position as long as the foundation stands firm. 
Such a foundation, if properly made, insures the best possible 
resistance to the blows of the hammer and gives best reeults 
in bringing up either plain or figured patterns in the dies. 

Holding Dies in Drop-Presses 

Several methods for holding the dies in drop-presses are 
used, and all may have some good features, but we find this to 
be the most practical one for spoon dies. It consists of what 


we call a die-bed keyed into the top of the drop-anvil. This 
die-bed has a cavity long enough and wide enough and of 
proper depth to receive the die. In the center of the depth 
of the receiving-space we place six screws, two on each side 
of the length of space, and one each on the back and front of 
the same. These screws are of suitable diameter and length 
to hold the die firmly in place. With the six screws above 
mentioned we can adjust the die sidewise and endwise to align 
properly with its mate, which is held in the hammer by means 
of a key. We find this method of holding the dies for the 
striking up of flat-ware the surest, safest, and most practical of 
any so far devised. The dies used for striking flat-ware are of 
varied shapes. Flat, curved, half-curved, etc., to best suit the 
work desired. 

Dies for Making Flat-Ware 

The dies for making flat-ware are expensive. Therefore, 
quite an item to be figured in the cost of producing the goods. 
They must be made of the best steel suitable for the purpose 
that will stand the hard usage required of them. Whole pages 
might be written of experiments which have been with 
different steels manufactured to find a make or brand entirely 
satisfactory in every way. If the cost of the steel only was 
considered we might all be satisfied, but the expense of cut- 
ting a pair of figured spoon or fork dies is another proposi- 
tion, and many times greater than the cost of the steel. 

Treatment and Use of Dies for Flat-Ware 

The treatment of steel in the annealing and hardening pro- 
cess has a great deal to do with the wearing quality of the dies. 
The writer has^seen some costly dies entirely ruined through 
neglect of simple principles in the handling, and long ago 
concluded that something more than water and fire was neces- 
sary to harden spoon or fork dies to get the best service from 
them. In the striking up of flat-ware we have many difficul- 
ties to overcome. First, we must be sure our dies are set 
correctly in the hammer and die-bed, and they must be exactly 
mitered one with the other, or our pattern on back and front of 


the blank when struck will not be true to each other, and be 
thus made unfit for the finished piece of work. Second, the 
operator must keep the dies clean, as if any foreign substance 
adheres to the dies or blank it prevents the figures from coming 
up full and clear, and also shows bad places in the article. To 
show how careful the operator must be to have his work per- 
fect when struck up, as an illustration we will take the finest 
human hair and place it on some plain part of the die and then 
place our blank to be struck over the hair and let the hammer 
fall. We find when we look at our blank that we have a cav- 
ity or indentation many times larger than the diameter of the 
hair, though practically the same shape. The requirements 
of a good drop-press operator are activity, good judgment, 
good eyesight, and positive watchfulness and carefulness to 
detect irregularities in die or blank. 

Correct and Reliable Method for Hardening Drop- Hammer 
Dies Without Loss 

Twenty years at hardening dies, employment in fifteen 
States at the same trade should give a mechanic an expert 
knowledge of his craft. This is the experience of the fellow 
mechanic from whom the methods and processes given in these 
last pages of this book was secured by the author. During 
this man's travels he was determined to find a way that dies 
could be hardened with perfect safety, and he found it. Re- 
ferring to his record of one year and six months work, I found 
he had hardened 2,186 drop-hammer dies without the loss of 
one die. These dies were all subject to inspection by the fore- 
man of the blacksmiths and die-departments as well as the man 
who used them. But not a die returned to be rehardened, and 
during this time not a die left the hardening-shop that could 
be touched with a file. This shop believed that its dies did 
best when drawn just to a light straw color. 

These dies ranged in size from 16 to 500 pounds, and were 
just such dies as would be seen in any up-to-date forge-shop. 
They had their breakdown and finishing portions all in the 
same die, where it was possible to do so. So it can be seen they 


were just as complicated and as hard to handle as any drop- 
forge die in ordinary use. While some were plain, others 
were very complicated, some of them being 26 inches long 
with the entire face hard. 

While our die-hardener was on the road he was also look- 
ing for a way that he could keep his die straight on all sides. 
This he finally accomplished, but the loss was so great that he 
had to drop that system, giving up this idea altogether as it 
would be working against the nature of steel. 

His next step was to get the bulge on the bottom, that is, 
to be able to get it there every time. When he had finally 
gotten this, he was confronted with the proposition of getting 
it on the sides. Thus it brought him to the point where he 
could contract the die perfectly. After accomplishing this, he 
was up against hardening dies in lots of 30 to 40 per day. 
This called for lots of swift work and he could give but little 
time to each die. So he began to note results. 

More Losses in Winter-Time Than in Summer 

It seems that everybody was trying to get their dies just so 
hot when they were dipped, regardless as to whether the water 
was at the freezing-point or moderately warm. He compared 
his record of the summer with that of the winter, and he saw 
at once that the winter months carried nearly three times the 
greater percentage of loss than the summer. So he at once 
concluded it was either due to the dark days of winter or the 
extremely cold water. 

Winter being over he could not test his heats to find the 
weak point, so he concluded to place a steam-pipe in the sup- 
ply tank, never allowing the water to get below 80 degrees 
Fahrenheit. The results have been that winter and summer 
having come and gone, he has hardened 2,186 dies without a 
single loss. The full details for his hardening process for a 
drop-die follows: 

To handle it with absolute safety, there must be a furnace 
that will heat so evenly that a 250-pound die and one weigh- 
ing 16 pounds, can be heated side by side, both coming to the 


hardening-heat at the same time. As to the proper hardening- 
heat I would prefer to leave that to the hardener, but for fear 
of being told that I did not name the heat I will say that if 
you have steel that runs in carbon from 60 to 75 points, heat 
to a dull cherry-red; but if you have steel that runs from 75 
to 90 points, then heat to a little more than somber red. 
Allow the dies about 2 ^ hours to heat. 

Temperature of Cooling Water 

After you have the fire so you can heat the dies as de- 
scribed, the next step to get right on is the temperature of the 
water to be used in the cooling. There are many ways of do- 
ing this and much depends on the amount of the pressure of 
both the water and steam as to where the steam should be ap- 
plied. Should the steam-pressure exceed the water-pressure, 
place the steam ahead of the water-valves on the hardening- 
tank. This will give complete control of the temperature of 
the water, and in fact be better than having it go directly to the 
supply-tank. The next move is to have the water in the cool- 
ing-tank so that it is absolutely under control, or so you can 
have your die in ^ inch or 2 inches of water, just as the 
shape of the die will call for. This can be accomplished in 
several different ways. The best tank ever built was one 
with a 4-inch waste-pipe directly in the bottom of the tank, 
with a valve below and outside of the tank, under the ground 
line, with an extension-handle or wheel, where it could be 
reached while handling the die, thus regulating the depth of 
the water for cooling by the valve of the 4-inch waste-pipe. 
Where water would do damage in case of the tank overflowing, 
there should also be an overflow waste-pipe, thus confining the 
water entirely to the tank. 

Have Plenty of Supply-Pipes for Water 

Where three or four 400-pound dies are to be hardened 
daily, there should be several supply-pipes with not less than 
30 pounds pressure from a ^-inch pipe, entering the tank at a 
place on the side or end where it can run to the bottom and 


center of the tank, then up and directly under and within 6 
inches of where the face of the die will rest when hardening. 
In some cases it will require more than one stream of water 
on a die, this of course depending on the outline of the face 
of the die. There are other things to consider, even before 
the die is heated. 

Should the die have a hole for a plug or pin, these holes 
should be closed with iron pins turned to fit the hole, allowing 
always for shrinkage, which should not be less than ^ inch 
where the hole is large, being sure to have them so they can- 
not drop out. Riveting is best where possible. Then thread 
one end of the plug, and put a nut on and tighten the same 
as. a bolt. I know some will say, use fire-clay or putty. Fire- 
clay is not safe; putty is calcium carbonate, and when the work 
is heated with putty in the holes the calcium carbonate becomes 
just like any lime, ready to heat the moment water strikes it, 
consequently it is not safe. 

Hardening the Die 

After it is heated ready to harden, take, say, the 16-pound 
die from the fire, and place in from one to two inches of water 
face up. Let it stay until the back gets moderately black or 
cooled just enough, so that when the die is turned the back 
can be cooled as quickly as the face. Before turning it on the 
face over the stream of water to harden, take a piece of coarse 
cloth, wrapped firmly on a handle, so as to make a swab. 
Have this in water at all times. Take the swab or wipe-stick 
from the water, wipe the face and high points of the die so as 
to drive any excessive heat from them, being sure not to use 
it so freely as to prevent hardening. Then place the die over 
the stream face down, cool the back slowly by Jetting the water 
on and off the back, thus allowing the heat to be driven out 
the back* rather than the face or sides. 

The depth the face of the die should be in the water de- v 
pends on the outline of the working-face, but not more than 
% inch on a die that has a moderately straight face. When 
the die becomes black on all sides, shut off the water and re- 


move to a place in the tank where it can be placed in the water 
face down and just sufficient water to cover the impressions, 
providing they are one inch deep. The die should sit in at 
least one inch of water, regardless of the shallowness of its 
impression, after being taken from the stream, but do not 
continue the stream after the die is black. Leave it in the still 
water until thoroughly cool, then draw the temper. 

Drawing the Temper 

There are many ways of tempering them, but this should 
be done in a furnace constructed for that purpose, never placing 
the dies to be drawn in a fire with more than 215 degrees Cen- 
tigrade (420 Fahrenheit), allowing them to take the temper 
slowly. Then let cool. In the hardening of the 2 5 0-pound die, 
take it from the fire, keeping the face up, and place in the water 
within three or four inches of the face. Leave there until the 
back or shank gets moderately black. Take from the water, 
wipe the high places with the wet swab and turn the die over 
the stream of water to harden, being sure the temperature of 
the water is not below 80 degrees Fahrenheit. If there is more 
than one impression use more than one stream of water, so 
that the water will strike all parts of the die that are to be 
hardened. The die should not sit in more than ^ inch of 
water when hardening, unless the impressions go deeper than 
this. Even if they do and are on the inside and center of the 
face, the force of the water will be sufficient to harden that part. 
The idea is not to have the die in deep water while hardening, 
and by cooling the back slowly while hardening the face, the 
die can be held straight and hardened without any danger of 
losing it. 

After the die has become black on the sides and ends, then 
stop cooling the back, turn off a part of the water and let the 
die sit over the gently flowing stream until cool. This rule 
applies to all dies of 100 pounds or over, while the smaller 
dies can be placed to one side, away from the stream in one inch 
of water to finish cooling. Be careful not to take the dies of 
any size out of the water before they are thoroughly cool. A 


die weighing 250 pounds should not be cooled in less than 
1 X hours. 

Cool the Die Thoroughly 

In examining the die for heat, the back or shank of the die 
should be entirely dry. Place the palm of the hand, or better 
still the arm, on the die, to feel for the heat, and as long as 
there is any heat that can be felt with the arm, do not remove 
the die; let it stay in the water until the heat is entirely out. This 
is the most dangerous point, and if well guarded it can be passed 
without the loss of one; even should there be a flaw in the 
die, it will stand the hardening. 

The tempering of the die is also of great importance. The 
tempering fire should not be more than 215 degrees Centi- 
grade, as before stated. When the die is in place to be drawn, 
and where there is no way of telling just what the heat is, the 
safe way is to cover the face of the die with a cold piece of 
iron. This will prevent the heat striking the corners until 
the body begins to warm. After the water is driven entirely 
from the face by the heat under the iron on the face of the die, 
then the iron can be removed and the die allowed to come to 
the desired temper. After this the die should be allowed to 
cool in the open air. 


Accuracy of outline, testing with 
lead proofs, 19 

Accurate forgings, 135 

Advantages of oil fuel, 146 

Air-brake, Westinghouse, 287 

Air-power hammer, 209 

Ajax forging-machine, drop-forg- 
ing, 265 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 186 

Alloying materials, effects of, 136 

Aluminum in steel, 137 

Ambler drop-hammer description, 

Ambler drop-hammer, front view 

of, 173 
side view of, 173 

Ambler, Mr. A. A., 176 

American machinery, introduction 
of, 163 

American Machinist, article on iron 
strains, 187 

American tool -steel, samples worked 
upon, 189 

Annealing furnaces, Brown & 
Sharpe heating and, 26 

Anvil block, improved, 200 

Appliances, hardening, 83 

Armstrong boring-tool dies, 40 

Art, growth of drop-forging and 
stamping, 50 

Assembling flanges and spokes with 
hubs, 216 

Assembling wheelbarrow wheel, 204 

Author, visiting O. K. Tool Holder 
Plant, 318 

Autogenous welding, 136 
applications of, 299 
conclusions on, 302 

Automobile shop drop-forging prac- 
tise, 11 

Axle in three stages, forged, 120 

Badge, embossed, 65 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, first 
steam hammer in, 184 

Ball-vise, special, used in die-sink- 
ing, 15 

Barnum & Richardson car-wheel 
iron, 78 

Bates Forge Company, 124 

Bell-crank, die for forming the end 
of, 51 

Belt punch, 126 

Bement, Miles & Co. steam-ham- 
mers, 184 

Bending-die for steering-gear part, 

Bending-dies for connecting-rod 
straps, 279 

Bending eye-bolts in bulldozer, 284, 

Bending-form in front, drop-forging 
die showing, 22 

Bending-machine, working in drop 
and, 198 

Bethlehem Steel Company, 248 

Billings & Spencer Company, Hart- 
ford, Conn., 181 

Black and M. F. Kahm, Messrs. J. 
S., 187 

Blacksmith, first "interchange- 
able," 166 

Blanchard, Thomas, in 1727, 247 

Blanks, trimming wrench, 124 

Blast-forge refitted for oil-fuel, 145 

Block, improved anvil, 200, 201 

Board fastening of hammer, 169 

Board in hammer, method of fast- 
ening, 168 

Board, steam, helve, trip, and drop 
hammers, 140 

Bolster for postal and baggage cars, 

Bolt-heading dies, 100 

Bossed levers, dies for finishing, 46 

Bradley hammer, 284 

Bradly cushion hammers, 179 

Brazing furnaces, 161 

Breaking-down die, example of, 21 

Breaking-down and finishing-dies, 

Breaking-down dies, edging and 
flattening, 22 

Breaking-out, using the chisel, 73 

Breaking- through chisels, 70 

Bridgeport, Conn., Geo. F. Champ - 
ney, 75 

Bridgeport Patent Die Company, 79 




Brine tank, 143 
special, 144 

Brown & Sharpe case-hardening 
furnace for fuel oil, 148, 149 
Brown & Sharpe furnaces, 26 
Brown & Sharpe heating and an- 
nealing furnaces, 26 
Bucket, design of elevator, 260 
Bucket dies, molding elevator, 261 
Buckets, making elevator with 

steam-hammer, 257 
Built-up die, 304 

Built-up or welded-up die work, 302 
Bullard, E. P., of Bridgeport, 76 
Bulldozer appurtenances, 241, 242 
Bulldozer, bending eye-bolts in, 

284, 285 
work of the forming-machine 

and, 266, 267 
Burdict hot-pressed nut-machine, 

Burners, for oil fuel, 160 

Cars, bolster for postal and baggage, 

Casting, and dropping drop-dies, 

modeling, 77 
Cast-iron die-holder, 28 
Cast-iron dies, wooden patterns for 

pair of heavy, 40 
Cavities, typing tools used to form, 

18 " 
Chain, details of new short stiff 

link, 229 

dies for forming, 230 
former method of making, 235 
methods of manufacturing 

welded, 234 
present method of making 

welded, 236 

Chain-making, die for, 240 
process of welding in, 240 
screw-press for, 231 
the link-cutter, 238 
the link-winder in, 236, 237 
welding hammer in, 239 
welding machine in, 238 
Chains, dies for welding, 230 
early history of, 227 
new method of making weld- 
less, 228 

Champney die-sinking process, 74 
Champney, George F., 75 
Champney in Europe, 76 
Champney process, final develop- 
ment of, 85 
Champney shop, die-sinkers in, 80 

specimen of work done in, 81 
Charcoal iron, samples of good, 191 

Checkering and grooving vise jaws, 
tools for, 132 

Chisel, using the breaking-out, 73 

Chisels, breaking through, 70 

Chromium in steel, 136 

Clipper steel, 121 
die of, 121 

Closed and open dies for forgings, 

Coal -forges and furnaces for fuel 
oil, refitted, 148 

Colt, Colonel Samuel, 164 

Combination dies, 94 

Combination tool-holders and their 
use, 312 

Compound lever device for head 
lifting, 165 

Conclusions on welding, 302 

Connecticut, The O. K. Tool Holder 
Company, Shelton, 312 

Connecting-rod straps, bending dies 
for, 279 

Connecting-rods, forging dies for, 


machining inside surface of, 281 
planing ends of, 280 

Construction details of drop-ham- 
mer, 176, 177 

Construction, jointed swinghead, 

of drop-hammer, 167 

Cost of forgings, 282 

Counterbalanced treadle, 164 

Crane hook, die for, 54 

Crank, die for forging, 59 

Crowbar for locomotive boilers, 265 

Cutters for nicking stock, 59 

Cutting the impression in die-sink- 
ing, 67 

Cylinder, welding top of, 301 

Davy Brothers, Sheffield, England, 


Deep-forming die, machining a, 43 
Department, layout of hardening, 


location of die-sinking, 140 
Development of the drop-hammer, 


Die assembled, die-holder and, 28 
Die-block, planing a, 12 
Die-blocks and impression-blocks, 

Die, built up, 304 

cool the, thoroughly, 329 
drawing the temper in drop, 328 
driving model into the, 79 
example of breaking-down, 21 
finishing on profiling machine, 



Die, finished with high-speed cutting 

tool, 313 

for chain-making, 240 
for forging-crank, 59 
for forming end of bell-crank, 

for forging hole through a boss, 

construction of, 57 
for second operation on ratchet 

drill handle, 36 
for turning eye -bolts, 283 
Die-hardening, piping for drop, 306 
supply pipes for drop, 326 
temperature of water in drop, 


Die, hardening the drop, 327 
Die-holder and die assembled, 23 
Die-holder, cast-iron, 28 
Die, holes punched by punches in- 
tegral with, 56 

machining a deep forming, 43 
Die-making, method of, 45 
Die, method of making drop-forg- 
ing, 29 
Die-practise for accurate forginr, 


Die, setting the, 135 
Die-sinkers in the Charhpney shop, 

Die-sinking, a few milling tools 

used in, 17 

cutting the impression in, 67 
fly-cutters used in, 17 
profiling machine used in, 13 
typing tools used in, 18 
Die-sinking and embossing practise, 


Die-sinking and shop -practise in 

cutting tool -holder forging, 37 

Die-sinking department, location 

of, 140 

Die-sinking for butt-plate of mili- 
tary rifle, 30 
Die-sinking history, 7 
Die-sinking machines, 86 
Die-sinking methods, processes, and 

machines, 62 
process of, 9 
Die-sinking process, the Champney, 


Die, steel blank for, 28 
Die-steel, high class not used, 42 
made by Farist in Bridgeport, 

Conn., 81 

Die to resist wear, making, 97 
Die-work, built-up or welded-up, 


Dies and header for forging swing- 
hanger, 268 
Dies and the drop, the, 196 

Dies, bolt-heading, 100 

breaking-down and finishing, 

combination, 94 

drop- forging, 94 

drop-forgings as they appear 
from, 38 

economy of drop-forging dies, 

exactness of size of, 84 

examples of drop-forging, 21 

facilities for reproduction of 
drop, 194 

finishing the hammer dies, 106 

first principles in holding, 99 

for Armstrong boring-tools, 40 

for connecting-rod straps, bend- 
ing, 279 

for crane hook, 54 

for finishing bossed levers, 46 

for finishing eye-bolt, 50 

for first operation on ratchet 
drill handle, 36 

for forging an eye-bolt, 50 

for forming chain, 230 

for lever with hubs on both 
ends, 49 

for making flat-ware, 323 

for pin-ends, forging, 112 
or trimming hand-vise forg- 
ings, punches and, 131 

for welding chains, 230 

forge where heated, 78 

forging machine, 269 

forging-press for making ham- 
mers, 104 

hardening drop-dies, losses in, 

hardening drop-forging, 26 

heating and hardening of, 82 

in drop -presses, holding, 322 

keying wide-seat, 98 

making and working out, 60 

materials used for, 50 

method of applying pressure or 
impact in, 56 

method of fastening hammer, 

methods used for making, 59 

molding eleyator bucket, 261 

needed for forging-press, few, 

pony, 39 

provided with space for receiv- 
ing fin, 50, 51 

punching small holes through 
work in, 56 

sectional, 46 

sectional drop-forge, 48 

spoiling, 195 



Dies, staking tools used for repair- 
ing, 20 
tack-making, and their action, 


tack and tack, 244 
tongs for holding, 60 
tools employed in making drop, 


trimming, 24 

use of, in drop-hammer, 94 
use of, in drop-press, 94 
use of, in forging-machine, 94 
without loss, hardening drop, 


working stock in drop, 193 
Drill handle, drop-forging a ratchet, 


expanding the shell of, 36 
Drilling out the stock, 72 
Driving modelinto the die, 79 
Drop and bending-machine, working 

in, 198 

Drop and hydraulic forged cutting- 
tools, 309 

Drop, the dies and the, 196 
Drop-die, drawing the temper, 328 
hardening, cool the die thor- 
oughly, 329 

hardening, losses in, 325 
hardening the, 327 
piping for, 306 
supply pipes for, 326 
temperature of cooling water, 

Drop-dies, combination, 94 

facilities for reproducing, 194 
hardening of various steels, 304 
working stock in, 193 
Drop-forge and hardening plant, 


plan of modern, 141 

under one roof, 139 

Drop-forge die, making a, 13 

method of sinking a, 29 
Drop-forge dies for ship-fittings, 43 
Drop -forge work, 11 
Drop-forged, lead-proofs of various 

parts to be, 39 
Drop-forged shell and handle for 

ratchet drill, 34 
Drop-forged ship-fittings, 42 
Drop-forging, example of breaking- 
down die in, 21 

analogous, hot stamping and, 53 
and stamping art, growth of, 50 
and stamping large parts, prin- 
ciples of, 51 

a ratchet drill handle, 34 
die and bending die for steer- 
ing gear part, 23 

Drop- forging, die for wrench and 
trimming-die for same, 24 

die, hardening the face of, 27 

die, showing bending form in 
front, 22 

die, with edging and breaking- 
down dies, 22 

die work, 8 

for the Ajax forging-machine, 

on the Pacific Coast, 41 

or squeezing, 134 

practise, automobile shop, 11 

removal of fin produced in, 54 

unusual job of, 120 
Drop -forging dies, 21, 94 

examples of, 25 

for gun work, 118 

hardening, 26 

materials for, and life of, 11 

samples of lead proofs, 19 

special ball-vise used in sink- 
ing, 15 

Drop -forging dies and work, 12 
Drop-forgings, as they appear from 
dies, 38 

cost of, 136 

making of, 7 

Drop-hammer, at International Har- 
vester Company, 178 

construction, 167 

details of construction, 175 

development of, 163 

effects, 174 

effects, Miner & Peck Mfg. Co., 

first United States patent of, 1C4 

forgings, 134 

for heavy work, 180 

for sinking-dies, 79 

foundations, 170 

foundations, Portland cement 
for, 170 

Golding & Cheney patent of, 164 

improved and up-to-date, 181 

Pratt & Whitney Co., 170 

sectional view of, 167 

use of dies in, 94 

Drop hammers, board, steam, helve, 
trip, and, 140 

of Billings & Spencer Company, 

oil -heating furnaces and, 25 
Drop-press, for flat-ware operations, 

use of dies in, 94 
Drop -presses holding dies in, 322 
Drop-rod, 174 
Drop -work, flash in, 35 

location of fin in, 54 



Dropping drop-dies, modeling, cast- 
ing and, 77 

Drops on stock, effect of, 198 
Ductility lost at 600 degrees F., 138 
Dusseldorf Exposition, ten thousand- 
ton hydraulic press at, 291 

Eberhardt, Messrs. Ulrich and Fred. 

L., 214 

Economy in use, tool -welding, 314 
Edging and flattening breaking-down 

dies, 22 

Effects of alloying materials, 136 
Electric welding, 136 
Elevator bucket, design of, 260 
Elevator buckets with steam-ham- 
mer, making, 257 
Embossed badge, 65 
Embossed number plate, 66 
Embossed ornament in sheet-metal, 


Embossed police-shield, 65 
Embossed stamping, 68 
Embossed work, making forces for, 


End-heating forge furnace, 155 
Enfield rifle for English Govern- 
ment, 163 

Engine connecting-rod forging, 276 
England in 1634, chain patents in, 

English Government, Enfield rifle 

for, 163 

Essegy, Stefan Kiss v., 229 
Evolution of the process, history of 

Champney, 75 

Exactness of size of dies, 84 
Examples of drop -forging dies, 21 
Examples of hydraulic forging pro- 
duction, 296 
Expanding the shell of drill -handle, 

Experiments, materials used in steel 

and iron, 186 

practical results of twisting, 197 
Eye-bolt, dies for finishing, 50 

dies for forging, 50 
Eye-bolts, die for turning, 283 

Farist in Bridgeport, die-steel made 

by, 81 

Files, rifflers, etc., used by die- 
sinkers, 16 
Fin, dies provided with space for 

receiving, 50, 51 
location of, in drop -work, 54 
removal of, in drop -forging, 54 
stripping die for removing, 52 
Final development of Champney 
process, 85 

Flange forming tools, 214 
Flanges, heating, 212 
making the, 209 
punching eight rivet holes in r 


wheels ready for spokes and, 211 
Flanging holes in work, 55 
Flash in drop work, 35 
Flat-ware, dies for making, 323 
drop-press, foundations for, 321 
operations, drop -press for, 321 
treatment and use of dies in, 323 
Flat-work, steel forces for, 64- 
Fly-cutters used in die-sinking, 17 
Foos Manufacturing Co., Spring- 
field, Ohio, 176 
Force holder, 69 
Force -making, process of, 10 
Forces, different shaped, 63 

for embossed work, making, 62 
. properly made, 62 
steel for flat-work, 64 
Forge, for center-heating, double 

opening, 152, 153 
for end heating, single opening, 

furnace, adjustable top-slot oil, 


furnace, end heating, 155 
furnace, tool-dressing, 157 
furnaces, single and double 

opening, 156 

shop, slab-truck for, 127, 128 
where dies were heated, 78 
Forged axle in three stages, 120 
Forges and heaters, oil burning, 154 
Forges, installation of, 158 

top slot and end-heating, 157 
Forging, drop-hammer, 134 
engine connecting-rod, 276 
fin into the bar by rotating, 53 
high-grade steels, 136 
hydraulic, 293 

in dies from the bar stock, 51 
in the heavy swaging-machine, 


large pieces, 133 
machine, 275 
shapes produced 'by hydraulic, 


straight peen hammers, 286 
swing-hanger, dies for, 268 
the high-speed steel cutting 

points, 317 

under steam-hammer, 133 
unusual job of drop, 120 
with dies in a railroad shop, 284 
without special tools, 291 
with special tools and unskilled 
labor, 287 



Forging a fork -lever, 55 

Forging a fulcrum bracket, set of 

tools for, 110 

Forging and flanging man -hole seat- 
ings, die for, 58 
Forging die, for steering-gear part, 

forming center holes in bosses, 


hob for, 92 

practise for accurate, 26 
Forging dies, for connecting-rods, 


for pin ends, 112 
for round and square upsetting, 


vanadium, 36 
Forging-machine, drop-forging for, 


large hydraulic, 256 
multi -cylinder hydraulic, 253 
Forging-machine dies, 269 
Forging-machines, use of dies in, 

Forging practise, 294, 295 

examples of hydraulic, 296 
Forging-press, rapid-action, 247 

few dies needed for, 108 
Forging round work to destroy fin, 

Forging-shop, time-card for the, 

288, 289 

Forgings, accurate, 135 
accuracy of, 8 
and their making, micrometri- 

cal, 32 

closed and open dies for, 88 
cost of, 282 

inferior quality of, 137 
locomotive, made in hydraulic 

machine, 258, 259 
micrometrical, 31 
planing tools for, 129 
proper practise for hydraulic, 


wrought-iron for small, 54 
Forming-machine and bulldozer, 

work of, 266, 267 
Foundations, drop-hammer, 170, 

171, 172 

for flat-ware drop-presses, 321 
ratio of base compared with 

weight of hammer, 169 
Fuel, advantages of oil, 146 
Fuel for preheating, 301 

used in tests on steel, 190 
Fuel -oil refitted forges and furnaces 

for, 148 

Fulcrum bracket, set of tools for 
forging, 110 

Furnace, end-heating forge, 155 
refitted lead-pot for oil fuel, 146 
tool -dressing forge, 157 
tube -brazing, 159 
wire-brazing, 158 

Furnaces, brazing, 161 

for fuel -oil, refitted forges and, 

heating, 26 

Gas-fired ladle heater, 160, 161 

Gas-heating flanges in muffle, using 
natural, 212 

Gears, pressed steel, 214 

Golding & Cheney patent of drop- 
hammer, 164 

Grooving vise jaws, tools for check- 
ering and, 132 

Gun-work drop-forging dies, 118 

Hammer, air power, 209 
board fastening, 169 
Bradley, 284 
emergency steam, 270 
for heavy work, drop, 180 
making a double-faced, 106 
method of fastening board in, 

weight of base compared with 

foundations, 169 
Hammer-blows, die-work done with, 


Hammer-dies, 179 
finishing the, 106 
method of fastening, 179 
Hammer-heads, method of securing, 

Hammers, board, steam, helve, trip, 

and drop, 140 
Bradley cushion, 179 
forging-press dies for making, 


forging straight peen, 286 
steam, and capacity, 182 
Hand-vise forgings, punches, and 

dies for trimming, 131 
with shavings, 130 
work on, 130 
Hand-vise handle before and after 

closing, 129 
Hanger, passenger-car truck-swing, 


Hardening appliances, 83 
Hardening, cool the die thoroughly 

in, 329 

heating of dies and, 82 
piping for drop-die, 306 
Hardening department, layout of, 



Hardening drop-dies, of various 

steels, general practise, 304 
losses in, 325 
without loss, 324 
Hardening drop-forging dies, 26 
Hardening-plant, drop -forge and, 

plan of modern drop-forge and, 

under one roof, drop -forge and, 


Hardening the drop-die, 327 
Hardening the face of drop-forging 

die, 27 
Heads, method of securing hammer, 

Heaters, 162 

oil-burning forges and, 154 
Heating and annealing furnaces, 

Brown & Sharpe, 26 
Heating and hardening of dies, 


Heating, flanges, 212 
furnaces, 26 

metal before welding, 300 
too suddenly, 138 
Helve, board, steam, trip, and drop 

hammers, 140 

High-class die-steel not used, 42 
High-grade steels, forging, 136 
High-speed cutter and chip, 319 
High-speed cutting points, forging 

the, 317 
High-speed cutting tool, shanking 

die with, 311 

High-speed cutting tools and hold- 
ers, 314 

High-speed steel, 309 
and tool -holders, 310 
hydraulic forging cutter, 320 
History and evolution of the process, 

History, of chains, early, 227 

of die-sinking, 7 
Hob for forging dies, 92 
Holder, force, 69 
Holes punched by punches integral 

with die, 56 

Horse-power, steam-hammers, 184 
Hot-pressed nut-machine, 254 
Hot-stamping an'd drop-forging anal- 
ogous, 53 
Howard Iron Works, Buffalo, N. Y., 


Hubbing, typing or, process, 60 
Hubs and flanges, wheels ready for, 

Hydraulic forged cutting-tools, drop 

and, 309 
Hydraulic forging, 293 

Hydraulic forging-die, for first oper- 
ation, 318 
for high-speed, 320 
Hydraulic forging-dies, 61 
Hydraulic forging-machine, large, 


multi -cylinder, 253 
Hydraulic forging-press, rapid ac- 
tion, 247 

Hydraulic forging production, ex- 
amples of, 296 
Hydraulic forging, proper practise 

for, 298 

shapes produced by, 297 
Hydraulic forging-punches, shaping 

of, 298 
Hydraulic machine, locomotive 

forging, made in, 258, 259 
Hydraulic press, description of, 294 
gives best results, 137 
pressure for small work in, 252 
ten thousand-ton, 290 
tremendous pressure of, 248 

Impression-blocks, die-blocks and, 

Indianapolis, Bates Forge Co., of, 


Installation of forges, 158 
Interchangeable blacksmith, the 

first, 166 

International Harvester Co., ham- 
mers at, 178 
Internationale Handelsgesellschaft, 

Kleineberg& Co., 234 
Inventor, Mr. F. B. Miles, of a 

steam-hammer, .184 
Iron, practical effects of working, 

samples of coal -stone worked 

upon, 192 

samples of good charcoal, 191 
shear for cutting off, 272 
. under different degrees of heat, 

steel and, 186 

Jeffery shop, die-sinkers in, 18 
Jeff ery & Co. , Thomas B. , Kenosha, 

Wis., 11 
Jessops steel, samples worked upon, 


Jointed swinghead construction, 165 
Judgment, what is good, 309 
Justice-hammer, welding wagon 

wheel rims with, 208 

Kahm, Messrs. J. S. Black and M. 

F., 187 
Keying wide-seat dies, 98 



Ladle-heater, gas-fired, 160 
Layout of hardening department, 142 
Lead-casting as proof of die, 20 
Lead-castings, samples of proofs of 

dies, 19 
Lead-pot furnace refitted for oil 

fuel, 146 
Lead-proofs of various parts to be 

forged, 39 
Lehigh Valley Railroad Company, 


Link-cutter in chain-making, 238 
Link-winder in chain-making, 236, 

Location of die-sinking department, 


Locomotive boilers, crowbar for, 265 
Locomotive forging made in hy- 
draulic machine, 258, 259 
London, rifles assembled at Tower 
, of, 163 

Machine, hot-pressed nut, 254, 255 
job for the heavy, 260 

Machine-dies, forging, 269 

Machine -forging, 275 

Machinery, value of modern, 89 

Machinery-steel, samples worked 
upon, 190 

Machines, die-sinking, 86 

Machining inside surface of con- 
nect! ig-rods, 281 

Machinist, American, article on steel, 

Making a double-faced hammer, 106 

Making a drop-forging die, 13 

Malleable iron parts, 7 

Manganese in steel, 137 

Man-hole seatings, die for forging 
and flanging, 58 

Manufacturing connecting-rods for 
steam-engines, 277 

Mare Island navy yard, 41 

Materials, effects of alloying, 136 
used for dies, 50 

i used in steel and iron experi- 
ments, 186 

Metal parts, union between, 95 

Metal wheels, how made, 215 
details of, 221 

Method of installing apparatus for 
oil fuel, 156 

Micrometer, inside, 19 

Micrometrical forgings, 31 

Miles, first hammer made by Mr., 

Miles, Mr. F. B., a steam-hammer 
inventor, 184 

Military rifle, die-sinking for butt 
plate of, 30 

Milling-rod ends, 278 

Milling sides of rods, 278 

Milling-tools used in die-sinking, 

Miner & Peck Mfg. Co., drop-ham- 
mer effects, 174 

Modeling, casting, and dropping 
drop-dies, 77 

Models, plaster-of-Paris, 38 

Modern drop -forge and harden ing - 
plant, plan of, 141 

Modern machinery, value of, 89 

Molding elevator bucket dies, 260 

Moline tire-bender, 205 

Movements, saving unnecessary, 

Multicylinder hydraulic forging- 
ma chine, 253 

Natural gas tire-welding, 207 
Natural gas, using for heating, 212 
New England States, drop-hammer 

men in, 99 

New Zealand railways, 287 
Nickel in steel, 137 
Niles-Bement-Pond Co., 185 
Norway iron samples worked upon, 


Number plate, embossed, 66 
Nut-machine, hot-pressed, 254 

Oil -burning forges and heaters, 154 

Oil fuel, advantages of, 146 
burners for, 160 
refitted blast-forge for, 145 
refitted lead-pot furnace for, 146 

Oil-heating furnaces and drop-ham- 
mers, 25 

O. K. Steel made in Sheffield, Eng- 
land, the best, 318 

O. K. Tool Holder Company, Shel- 
ton, Conn., 312 

O. K. Tool-holder plant visited by 
author, 318 

O. K. tools and holder, set of, 316 

Open dies for forgings, closed and, 

Pacific Coast, drop -forging on the, 


Paper pulleys, 166 
Passenger-car truck swing-hanger, 


Patent Die Company, 76 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 256 
Pin ends, forging-dies for, 112 
Piping, arrangements of, 50 
Piping for drop-die hardening, 306 
Plan of modern drop -forge and 

hardening-plant, 141 



Plan of belt-punch die, 126 

Planing a die-block, 12 

Planing ends of connecting-rods, 

Planing tools for finishing forgings, 

Plant, drop-forge and hardening, 


plan of modern drop-forge and 
hardening, 141 

Plaster-of-Paris models, 38 

Police shield, embossed, 65 

Portland cement for drop-hammer 
foundations, 170 

Practise for hydraulic-forgings, 298 

Pratt & Whitney Company drop- 
hammer foundations, 179 

Preheating, fuel for, 301 

Press and tools, spoke-forming, 209 

Press, description of hydraulic, 294 
dies, forging for hammers, 104 
gives best results, hydraulic, 137 
pressure for small work in hy- 
draulic, 252 
rapid -action hydraulic forging, 

247, 249, 250 

ten thousand-ton hydraulic, 290 
tremendous pressure of hy- 
draulic, 248 

wheel -flange, muffle, and form- 
ing, 213 

Pressed steel gear blank, 218 

Pressed steel gears, 214 

Presses, foundations for flat-ware, 

Pressure for small work in hydrau- 
lic press, 252 

Pressure in dies, method of apply- 
ing impact or, 56 

Pressure of hydraulic forging-press, 
tremendous, 248 

Prevision and supervision, 91 

Principles in holding dies, first, 99 

Principles of drop-forging and 
stamping large parts, 51 

Process of welding in chain -mak- 
ing, 240 

Process, typing or hubbing, 60 

Profiler, working dies in the, 39 

Profiling machine, finishing-die on, 

Proof, the lead -casting as proof of 
die, 20 

Pulleys, paper, 166 

Punch, belt, 126 

Punches and dies for trimming 
hand-vise forgings, 131 

Punches, shaping of hydraulic, 298 

Punching eight rivet-holes in 
flanges, 215 

Punching holes, semi, 57 

through bosses, 56 
Punching small holes in work in 
dies, 56 

Railroad shop, forging with dies in, 

Ratchet drill-handle, drop-forging a, 


first operation on, 35 
second operation on, 36 
Reed, Ezekiel, 1786 and 1798, 247 
Refitted blast -forge for oil fuel, 

Refitted coal forges and furnaces 

for fuel-oil, 148 
Refitted lead -pot furnace for oil fuel, 

Repairing dies, staking dies used 

for, 20 

Riffles and their use, 71 
Rifflers, files, etc., used by die- 
sinkers, 16 

Rim and spokes as machined, 225 
Rim-bending rolls for wheels, 205 
Riveting-press, ready to go on the, 


Riveting-spokes in wheels, 210 
Rock drill used as a steam-hammer, 


Roughing tools, 74 
Round and square upsetting, forg- 

ing-dies for, 116 
Rubens, head of, 82 

Sacramento, California, railroad 
shops at, 270 

Scrapers, files, rifflers, etc., used by 
die-sinkers, 16 

Screw-press for chain-making, 231 

Section of wheel -rim, enlarged, 226 

Section view of drop-hammer, 167 

Sectional dies, 46 

Sectional drop -forge dies, 48 

Semi -punching holes, 57 

Setting the die, 135 

Shanking dies with high-speed cut- 
ting-tool, 311 

Shapes produced by hydraulic forg- 
ing, 297 

Shaping of forging-punches, hy- 
draulic, 298 

Shear for cutting off iron, 272 

Shelton, Conn., The O. K. Tool 
Holder Co. at, 312 

Sheffield, England, O. K. Steel best 
made in, 318 

Ship-fittings, drop-forge dies for, 43 
drop -forged, 42 

Silicon in steel, 137 



Single and double opening forge- 
furnaces, 156 

Sinking-dies, drop-hammer for, 79 
Slab truck for forge -shop, 127 
Smith-working at the anvil, 52 
Spaulding, Mr. B. F., 187 
Special brine-tank, 144 
Specimen of work done in Champ - 

ney shop, 81 
Spoiling dies, 195 

Spoke-forming press and tools, 209 
Spokes and rim, assembling flanges 

and hub with, 216 
Spokes, punching holes for wheel - 

spokes, 224 

Spring-clamp for wheel -spokes, 227 
Square upsetting, forging dies for 

round and, 116 

Squeezing, drop -forging or, 134 
Staking-tools used for repairing 

dies, 20 

Stamped forgings, 58 
Stamping art, growth of drop -forg- 
ing and, 50 

Stamping, embossed, 68 
Steam, helve, trip, and drop ham- 
mers, 140 

Steam-engines, manufacturing con- 
necting-rods for, 277 
Steam-hammer, 4,000-pound, 122 
and size of work, capacity of, 


Bement, Miles & Co., 184 
capacity of, 184 
emergency, 270 
forging under, 133 
in Baldwin Locomotive Works, 

first, 184 
making elevator buckets with, 


rock-drill use as, 271 
Steam-hammers, horse-power, 184 
Steel, aluminum in, 137 

and iron under different degrees 

of heat, 186 
and wrought iron, difference in 

treatment of, 54 
blank for die, 28 
chromium in, 136 
clipper, 121 

cutting points, forging the high- 
speed, 317 
die-holder, etc., 28 
fuel used in tests on, 190 
gear blanks, pressed, 218, 219, 


high-speed, 309 
manganese in, 137 
nickel in, 137 
tests, 195 

Steel, samples of American worked 

upon, 189 
samples of Jessops worked 

upon, 188 
samples of machinery worked 

upon, 190 
silicon in, 137 
titanium in, 137 
tungsten in, 137 
wheels, 224 
Steels, forging high-grade, 136 

hardening drop-dies of various, 


vanadium, 137 
Steering-gear part, drop-forging and 

bending-die for, 23 
Stock, drilling out the, 72 

for forging ratchet drill-handle, 

Stone coal -iron, samples worked 

upon, 190 
Stripping die for removing fin and 

its work, 52 
Supervision, value of prevision and, 

Swaging- machine, job for, 260 

Tack and tack-dies, 244 
Tack-dies, tack and, 244 
Tack-making tools, complete set of, 


and their action, 245 
Tank, brine, 143 

special brine, 144 
Temper, drawing the, in drop-dies, 


Tension test, results of, 194 
Ten -thousand -ton hydraulic press, 

290, 291 

Tests, on steel, fuel used in, 190 
results of tension, 194 
wrought-iron and machinery 

steel, 195 
Time-card for the forging-shop, 

288, 289 

Tire-bender, Moline, 205 
Titanium in steel, 137 
Tongs for holding dies, 60 
Tool -dressing forge furnace, 157 
Tool -holder making, drop-forging 

practise in, 37 

Tool -holders and their use, combi- 
nation, 312 
Tool -holders, high-speed steel and, 

Tool -steel, samples of American, 

worked upon, 189 
Tools, complete set of tack-making, 

employed in making drop-dies, 16 



Tools, flange forming, 214 

for checkering and grooving 

vise- jaws, 132 
for forging a fulcrum bracket, 

set of, 110 

forging without special, 291 
roughing, 74 
Tower of London, rifles assembled 

at, 163 

Treadle, counterbalanced, 164 
Treatment of steel and wrought - 

iron, difference in, 54 
Trimming, hand-vise forgings, 

punches, and dies for, 131 
wrench after, 125 
wrench before, 125 
wrench blanks, 124 
Trimming-die, finished with high- 
speed cutting-tools, 315 
for belt-punch, 126, 127 
Trimming-dies, 24 
Trip-hammers, board, steam, helve, 

and drop, 140 

Tube and flange, welding, 301 
Tube, brazing furnace, 159 
Tungsten in steel, 137 
Twisting experiments, practical re- 
sults of, 191 

Typing or hubbing process, 60 
Typing tools used in die-sinking, 18 

Ulrich and Fred L. Eberhardt, 
Messrs., 214 

Union between metal parts, 95 

United States patent of drop-ham- 
mer, first, 164 

Upsetting, forging-dies for round 

and square, 116 
round to square, 118 

Using the breaking-out chisel, 73 

Value of modern machinery, 89 
Vanadium forging-dies, 36 
Vanadium steels, 137 
Vermont, development of drop-ham- 
mers in State of, 163 
Vernier caliper depth-gage, 19 
Vise, before and after closing, hand, 


hand, with shavings, 130 
hand, work on, 130 
jaws, tools for checkering and 
grooving, 132 

Water, temperature of cooling in 

drop-dies hardening, 36 
Wear, making a die to resist, 97 
Welded chain, methods of manufac- 
turing, 234 
present method of making, 23 

Welding, applications of autoge- 
nous, 299 

autogenous and electric, 136 
cast-iron muzzle and flange on 

cylinder, 302 
chains, dies for, 230 
hammer in chain -making, 239 
heating metal before, 300 
in chain-making, process of, 


machine, in chain-making, 238 
tire, natural gas, 207 
top of cylinder, 301 
tube and flange, 301 
Weldless chains, new method of 

making, 228 

Westinghouse air-brake, 287 
Wheel construction, complete details 

of, 228 

Wheel, making a wheelbarrow, 203 
operations on wheelbarrow, 204 
rim and spokes as machined, 


rim, section enlarged, 226 
Wheel -spokes, punching holes for, 


spring- clamp for, 227 
Wheel tire-making, 218 
Wheelbarrow wheel, making a, 203 
operations on, 204 
parts ready for assembling, 204 
Wheel -flange, muffle and forming- 
press, 213 

Wheels, details of metal, 221 
how metal, are made, 215 
ready for hubs and flanges, 211 
ready to be riveted, 217 
rim-bending rolls for, 205-206 
riveting spokes in, 210 
steel, 224 
welding the rims on Justice 

hammer, 208 

Wide-seat dies, keying, 98 
Wilkinson, Jeremiah, 1775, 246 
Wire-brazing furnace, 158 
Wooden patterns for pair of heavy 

cast-iron dies, 40 
Worcester drop-hammer men, 99 
Worm-cutter and chip, high-speed 

steel, 319 

Wrench, after trimming, 125 
before trimming, 125 
blanks, trimming, 124 
drop-forging, etc., 24 
Wrought- iron and machinery steel 

tests, 195 

Wrought-iron, difference in treat- 
ment of steel and, 54 
for small forgings, 54 
tests, 195 

Do you know 

the comparative 

values of various fuels? Have you 

the most economical furnace equipment? 

The question of fuel is one which to-day demands careful 
attention, and can only be determined after careful con- 
sideration of the nature of the work, base cost of fuel and 
the money investment. We are prepared to furnish figures 
showing relative economy of all fuels, taking into consid- 
eration direct firing, preheating and regeneration. 

This table of comparative fuel values is copied from page 3 of our Cata- 
log F-2o: 

K-TND OF TA; Heat units Cu - feet to e< l ual 

GAS inicu.ft. i gallon of oil 

Natural Gas j 1000 140 

Coal Gas, 20 C.P 675 208 

Carburetted Water Gas .'. 646 216 

Gasoline Gas, 20 C.P 690 202 

Water Gas from Bituminous Coal . 377 376 

Water Gas from Anthracite Coal . . 313 447 

Producer Gas 150 935 

Producer Gas 90 1555 

i pound average oil equals 19,000 B. T. U. 

Rockwell Furnace Company 

is at your service 

Furnace building, Economical Furnace building, is our 
specialty. We can better your conditions. We employ a 
force of competent expert furnace engineers especially 
trained and are prepared to submit specifications and 
prices on complete furnace equipment, USING ANY 
FUEL, and guarantee the proper operation. 

Rockwell Furnace Company 

26 Cortlandt Street Fisher Building 

New York Chicago 

If you have anything in my line, 

put your time against mine and 

consult me; if I help you I charge 

a moderate fee. 

u TJ 


Shop Practice Pertaining to Sheet 
Metal Formation, The Press Work- 
ing of Metals, Patent Causes, Ma- 
chinery and Tools Involved: In 
Steel Treatment and Tempering, 
In Interchangeable Manufacturing 
of Machinery, In Drop Forging and 
Die Sinking, and in the Reduction 
of Shop and Labor Costs. 

tr TU 
Joseph V. Woodworth 

Mechanical Expert and Engineer 

Forty-Two South Eighth Street 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

All inquiries given my personal attention 




Practical Books 

Published and for sale by 1 

The Norman W, Henley Publishing Company 

Publishers of Scientific and Practical Books 


All books in this Catalogue sent prepaid on receipt or price. 



Manual Training 



.7 I ^ 20 

Marine Engines 



Mechanical Movements 


Metal Turning 

Boilers .... 

2 J-7 l6 

Milling Machines 





Cams .... 


Car Charts 




Change Gear 


Pattern Making 







Coal Mining 1 



Producer Gas 





4 5 

Receipt Book 





Rubber Stamps 



: 6 



6 18 

Sheet Metal Working 


Drop Forging 

. 6 

Shop Tools 


Shop Construction 




Shop Management 

. . i; 


... . i 


Smoke Prevention ... 

9, i: 


g 12 


Gas Manufacturing. . . . 

. . IO 

Steam Heating 




Steam Pipes 




.... .... 2 

Hot Water Heating" 

Superheated Steam .... . . 

.... I 

Horse- Power Chart 





Ice Making 





. . i 

Interchangeable Manufacturing 



1^, 15, 1 

. . . . .... ii 





Valve Gear 


Lighting (Electric) ... 


Valve Setting 



Walschaert Valve Gear 


Liquid Air 

. . . . .... 12 


, 2 

Locomotive Engineering 


Machinist's Book*-... 

...U, 15, 16 

Wireless Telephones 



Alexander, J. H 3 

Askinson, G. W 17 

Barr, Wm. M 9, 12 

Barrows, F. W 17 

Bauer, Dr. G 16 

Baxter, Wm 7, 8 

Benjamin. Park 16 

Blackall, k. H 12, 13 

Booth and Kershaw 9 

Booth, Wm. H 20 

Buchetti. J 19 

Byrom, T. H 17 

Byrom and Christopher 4 

Cockin, T. H 17 

Colvin, Fred H 12, 13 

Colvin-Cheney 15, 20 

Colvin-Stabel 16 

Crane, W. E 19 

Dalby, H. A 14 

Engstrom, D. Ag 10 


Erskine-Murray 9 

Fowler.Geo. L 3, 13 

Garbe, Robert 12 

Goddard, Dwight 19 

Grimshaw, Robert 13,16,18, 19 

Harrison, Newton 7 

Haslam, Arthur P 8 

Hiscox, G. D. .4, 10, n, 15, 17, 18, 19 

Hobart,J.F 3 

Homer, J. G 4, n, 14, 16 

Houghton, A. A 4, 5 

Johnson, J. P 17 

King, A. G 20 

Kleinhans, F. A 13 

Kraus, H.T. C 6 

Lewis, M. H 5 

Lummis-Paterson 8 

Markharn,E. R 20 

Mathot, R. E 10 

Parsell and Weed 10 


Perrigo, Oscar E 9, ii, i 

Pratt, H .... 

Putnam, Xeno W i 

Radcliffe and Gushing 


Rouillion, Louis n, i 

Royle, H.M i 

Saunier, Claudius 2 

Sloane, T. O'Conor...5, 7, 8, 12, i 

Starbuck, R. M i 

Sylvester and Oberg 

Usher, John T i 

Vandervoort, W. H i 

Walker, S. F 

Wallis-Taylor, A. J i 

Weed, A. J...., 

Wood, Wm.W i 

Woodworth, J. V 6, 14, 2 

Wright, J 


to Remit. Remit by Postal Money Order, Express Money Order, Bank Drai 
or Registered Letter* 




This book has been written with a view to assist those who desire to construct a model airship 
or flying machine. It contains five folding plates of working drawings, each sheet containing 
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A short account of the progress of aviation is included, which will render the book of greater 
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which will assist materially those interested in the problems of flight. 127 pages, 45 illustra- 
tions, 5 folding plates. Price $1.50 



The only book that shows you just how to handle any job of brazing or soldering that comes 
along; tells you what mixture to use, how to make a furnace if you need one. Full of kinks, 
fourth edition. . 25 cents 



A chart showing the anatomy of a box car, having every part of the car numbered and its 
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Chart I. Shows (in colors) the most modern Westinghouse High Speed and Signal Equip- 
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A chart whereby you can find the tractive power or drawbar pull of any locomotive, without 
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A Chart size 14 x 28 inches showing in isometric perspective the mechanisms belonging 
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This chart is really a dictionary of the boiler room the names of more than 200 parts being 
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Edited by JOSEPH G. HORNER, A.M.I., M.E. 

This set of five volumes contains about 2,500 pages with thousands of illustrations, including 
diagrammatic and sectional drawings with full explanatory details. This work covers the 
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A handbook for those engaged in Coke manufacture and the recovery of By-products. Fully 
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continued. VIII. Coke Ovens, continued. IX. Charging and Discharging of Coke Ovens, 
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ful Tables. Very fully illustrated. Price $3. 50 net 



This is the most complete book on the subject of Air that has even been issued, and its thirty- 
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The process for making ornamental concrete without molds, has long been held as a secret and 
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A. new automatic wall clamp is illustrated with working drawings. Other types of wall 
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The molds for molding squares, hexagonal and many other styles of mosaic floor and side- 
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The manufacture of all types of concrete slate and roof tile is fully treated. Valuable data 
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The proper proportions of cement and aggregates for various finishes, also the methods of 
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The molding of concrete monuments to imitate the most expensive cut stone is explained in 
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An indispensable work to all interested in electrical science. Suitable alike for the student 
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Complete, concise and convenient. 682 pages. 393 illustrations. Price $3.00 




A most useful book, and one which should be in the hands of all engaged in the press working 
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505 illustrations show dies, press fixtures and sheet metal working devices, the descriptions 
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This work is a companion volume to the author's elementary work entitled "Dies, Their 
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Price $4.00 


This is a practical treatise on Modern Shop Practice, Processes, Methods, Machines, Tools and 
Details, treating on The Hot and Cold Machine-Forming of Steel and Iron into Finished Shapes; 
Together with Tools, Dies, and Machinery involved in the manufacture of Duplicate Forgings 
and Interchangeable Hot and Cold Pressed Parts from Bar and Sheet Metal. Fully illustrated 
by 300 detailed illustrations. Price $2.50 



This work gives the theory and practice of linear perspective, as used in architectural, engi- 
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Shows just how to make all kinds of mechanical drawings in the only practical perspective 
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examples of various classes of work 50 cents 

By F. L. SYLVESTER, M.E., Draftsman, with additions by ERIK OBERG, associate 
editor of "Machinery." 

This is a practical treatise on Mechanical Drawing and Machine Design, comprising the first 
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A new specially ruled paper to enable y9u to make sketches or drawings in isometric perspective 
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what is wanted. Pads of 40 sheets, 6x9 inches, 25 cents. Pads of 40 sheets, 9 x 12 inches. 

50 cents 



A practical treatise on electrical calculations of all kinds reduced to a series of rules, all erf the 
simplest forms, and involving only ordinary arithmetic; each rule illustrated by one or more 
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braical formulas. 160 pages. Price $1.00 


The business end of any dynamo or motor of the direct current type is the commutator. This 
book goes into the designing, building, and maintenance of commutators, shows how to locate 
troubles and how to remedy them; everyone who fusses with dynamos needs this. 25 cents 

DYNAMO. By ARTHUR J. WEED, Member of N. Y. Electrical Society. 

This book is a practical treatise showing in detail the construction of a small dynamo or motor, 

the entire machine work of which can be done on a small foot lathe. 

Dimensioned working drawings are given for each piece of machine work and each operation 

is clearly described. 

This machine, when used as a dynamo, has an output of fifty watts; when used as a motor it 

will drive a small drill press or lathe. It can be used to drive a sewing machine on any and all 

ordinary work. 

The book is illustrated with^more than sixty original engravings showing the actual construction 

of the different parts. Price, paper, 50 cents. Cloth $1.00 


This is a book which will prove of interest to many classes of people; the manufacturer who 
desires to know what product can be manufactured successfully in the electric furnace, the 
chemist who wishes to post himself on the electro-chemistry, and the student of science who 
merely looks into the subject from curiosity. The book is not so scientific as to be of use 
pnly to the technologist, nor so unscientific as to suit only the tyro in electro-chemistry; it 
is a practical treatise of what has been done, and of what is being done, both experimentally 
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In important processes not only are the chemical equations given, but complete thermal data 
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The practical features of furnace building are given the space that the subject deserves. The 
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electrodes, and other important details are explained. 288 pages. New Revised Edition. 
Fully illustrated. Price $3.00 


This book puts in convenient form useful information regarding the apparatus which is likely 
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included and useful electrical laws and formulas are stated. 

One section is devoted to dynamos, motors, transformers and accessory apparatus; another 
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of various systems of distribution, a fifth section to a discussion of instruments, both for 
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In each section a large number of commercial types are described, frequent tables of dimen- 
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and the illustrations shown give a good idea of the general appearance of the apparatus under 
discussion. The book also contains much valuable information for the central station engi- 
neer. 438 pages. 300 engravings. Bound in leather pocket book form. Price . $3.00 


This work treats of the making at home of electrical toys, electrical apparatus, motors, dynamos 
and instruments in general, and is designed to bring within the reach of young and old the 
manufacture of genuine and useful electrical appliances. The work is especially designed for 
amateurs and young folks. 

Thousands of our young people are daily experimenting, and busily engaged in making electrical 
toys and apparatus of various kinds. The present work is just what is wanted to give the 
much needed information in a plain, practical manner, with illustrations to make easy the 
carrying out of the work. Price $1.0O 


This is the only complete work issued showing and telling you what you should know about 
direct and alternating current wiring. It is a ready reference. The work is free from advanced 
technicalities and mathematics, arithmetic being used throughout. It is in every respect a 
handy, well-written, instructive, comprehensive volume on wiring for the wireman, foreman, 
contractor or electrician. 272 pages; 105 illustrations. Price $1.50 



This work of 768 pages is intended for the practical electrician who has to make things go. 
The entire field of electricity is covered within its pages. Among some of the subjects treated 
are: The Theory of the Electric Current and Circuit, Electro-Chemistry, Primary Batteries, 
Storage Batteries, Generation and Utilization of Electric Powers, Alternating Current, Arma- 
ture Winding, Dynamos and Motors, Motor Generators, Operation of the Central Station 
Switchboards, Safety Appliances, Distribution of Electric Light and Power, Street Mains, 
Transformers, Arc and Incandescent Lighting, Electric Measurements, Photometry, Electric 
Railways, Telephony, Bell-Wiring, Electro-Plating, Electric Heating, Wireless Telegraphy, etc. 
It contains no useless theory; everything is to the point. It teaches you just what you want 
to know about electricity. It is the standard work published on the subject. Forty-one 
chapters, 610 engravings, handsomely bound in red leather with title and edges in gold. Price- 



A practical book for power producers and power users showing what a convenience the electric 
motor, in its various forms, has become to the modern manufacturer. It also deals with the 
conditions which determine the cost of electric driving, and compares this with other methods 
of producing and utilizing power. 

Among the chapters contained in the book are: The Direct Current Motor; The Alternating 
Current Motor; The Starting and Speed Regulation of Electric Motors; The Rating and 
Efficiency of Electric Motors; The Cost of Energy as Affected by Conditions of Working, The 
Question for the Small Power User; Independent Generating Plants; Oil and Gas Engine 
Plants; Steam Plants; Power Station Tariff s ; The Use of Electric Power in Textile Factories; 
Electric Power in Printing Works; The Use of Electric Power in Engineering Workshops 
Miscellaneous Application of Electric Power; The Installation of Electric Motors; The Lighting 
of Industrial Establishments. 312 pages. Very fully illustrated. Price 2.50 


Tke object of "Electricity Simplified" is to'make the subject as plain as possible and to show 
what the modern conception of electricity is; to show how two plates of different metals 
immersed in acid can send a message around the globe; to explain how a bundle of copper wire 
rotated by a steam engine can be the agent in lighting our streets, to tell what the volt, ohm 
and ampere are, and what high and low tension mean; and to answer the questions that 
perpetually arise in the mind in this age of electricity. 172 pages. Illustrated. Price $1.00 


Every young man who wishes to become a successful electrician should read this book. It tells 
in simple language the surest and easiest way to become a successful electrician. The studies 
to be followed, methods of work, field of operation and the requirements of the successful 
electrician are pointed out and fully explained. Every young engineer will find this an ex- 
cellent stepping-stone to more advanced works on electricity which he must master before 
success can be attained. Many young men become discouraged at the very outstart by 
attempting to read and study books that are far beyond their comprehension. This book 
serves as tfie connecting link between the rudiments taught in the public schools and the real 
study of electricity. It is interesting from cover to cover. Twelfth edition. 202 pages. 
Illustrated. Price $1.00 


A handbook of theory and practice. This work is arranged in three parts. The first part 
covers the elementary theory of the dynamo. The second part, the construction and action 
of the different classes of dynamos in common use are described; while the third part relates 
to such matters as affect the practical management and working of dynamos and motors. 
The following chapters are contained in the book: Electrical Units; Magnetic Principles; 
Theory of the Dynamo; Armature; Armature in Practice; Field Magnets; Field Magnets in 
Practice; Regulating Dynamos; Coupling Dynamos; Installation, Running, and Maintenance 
of Dynamos; Faults in Dynamos; Faults in Armatures; Motors. 292 pages. 117 illustra- 
tions. Price $3.50 


An indispensable work to all interested in electrical science. Suitable alike for the student 
and professional. A practical hand-book of reference containing definitions of about 5,000 
distinct words, terms and phrases. The definitions are terse and concise and include every 
term used in electrical science. Recently issued. An entirely new edition. Should be in the 
possession of all who desire to keep abreast with the progress of this branch of science. Com- 
plete, concise, and convenient. 682 pages. 393 illustrations. Price . . . . , $3.00 


This book appeals to every engineer and electrician who wants to know the practical side of 
things. It takes up all sorts and conditions of dynamos, connections and circuits and shows 
by diagram and illustration just how the switchboard should be connected. Includes direct 
and alternating current boards, also those for arc lighting, incandescent, and power circuits. 
Special treatment on high voltage boards for power transmission. 190 pages. Illustrated. 

Price . - i $1.50 






This book gives the principles of construction and operation of both the Bell and Independent 
instruments; approved methods of installing and wiring them; the means of protecting them 
from lightning and abnormal currents; their connection together for operation as series or 
bridging stations; and rules for their inspection and maintenance. Line wiring and the wir- 
ing and operation of special telephone systems are also treated. 

Intricate mathematics are avoided, and all apparatus, circuits and systems are thoroughly 
described. The appendix contains definitions of units and terms used in the text. Selected 
wiring tables, which are very helpful, are also included. 100 pages, 125 illustrations. $1.00 


Shows a house already built; tells just how to start about wiring it; where to begin; what 
wire to use; how to run it according to Insurance Rules; in fact just the information you need. 
Directions apply equally to a shop. Fourth edition 25 cents 


This work is free from elaborate details and aims at giving a clear survey of the way in which 
Wireless Telephones work. It is intended for amateur workers and for those whose knowledge 
of electricity is slight. Chapters contained: How We Hear; Historical; The Conversion of 
Sound into Electric Waves; Wireless Transmission; The Production of Alternating Currents 
of High Frequency; How the Electric Waves are Radiated and Received; The Receiving 
Instruments; Detectors; Achievements and Expectations; Glossary of Technical Work. 
Cloth. Price . : $1.00 




The only work published that describes the modern machine shop or manufacturing plant from 
the time the grass is growing on the site intended for it until the finished product is shipped. 
By a careful study of its thirty-two chapters the practical man may economically build, 
efficiently equip, and successfully manage the modern machine shop or manufacturing estab- 
lishment. Just the book needed by those contemplating the erection of modern shop buildings, 
the re-building and re-organization of old ones, or the introduction of modern shop methods, 
time and cost system. It is a book written and illustrated by a practical shop man for practical 
shop men who are too busy to read theories and want facts. It is the most complete all around 
book of its kind ever published. It is a practical book for practical men, from the apprentice 
in the shop to the president in the office. It minutely describes and illustrates the most simple 
and yet the most efficient time and cost system yet devised, Price $5.00 



This book has been prepared with special reference to the generation of heat by the combus- 
tion of the common fuels found in the United States, and deals particularly with the condi- 
tions necessary to the economic and smokeless combustion of bituminous coals in Stationary 
and Locomotive Steam Boilers. 

The presentation of this important subject is systematic and progressive. The arrangement 
of the bopk is in a series of practical questions to which are appended accurate answers, which 
describe in language, free from technicalities, the several processes involved in the furnace 
combustion of American fuels; it clearly states the essential requisites for perfect combustion, 
and points out the best methods of furnace construction for obtaining the greatest quantity 
of heat from any given quality of coal. Nearly 350 pages, fully illustrated. . . . $1.00 


A complete treatise for all interested in smoke prevention and combustion, being based on 
the German work of Ernst Schmatolla, but it is more than a mere translation of the German 
treatise, much being added. The authors show as briefly as possible the principles of fuel 
combustion, the methods which have been and are at present in use, as well as the proper 
scientific methods fpr obtaining all the energy in the coal and burning it without smolce. 
Considerable space is also given to the examination of the waste gases, and several of the 
representative English and American mechanical stoker and similar appliances are described. 
The losses carried away in the waste gases are thoroughly analyzed and discussed in the Ap- 
pendix, and abstracts axe also here given of various patents on combustion apparatus. Tije 
book is complete and contains much of value to all who have charge of large plants. 19-\ 
Illustrated. Price $2.50 




This book covers points likely to arise in the ordinary course of the duties of the engineer or 
manager of a gas works not large enough to necessitate the employment of a separate chemical 
staff. It treats of the testing of the raw materials employed in the manufacture of illuminat- 
ing coal gas, and of the gas produced The preparation of standard solutions is given as well 
as the chemical and physical examination of gas coal including among its contents Prepa- 
ratipns of Standard Solutions, Coal, Furnaces, Testing and Regulation. Products of Car- 
bonization. Analysis of Crude Coal Gas. Analysis of Lime. Ammonia. Analysis of Oxide 
of Iron. Naphthalene. Analysis of Fire-Bricks and Fire-Clay. Weldom and Spent Oxide. 
Photometry and Gas Testing. Carburetted Water Gas. Metropolis Gas. Miscellaneous 
Extracts. Useful Tables $4.50 


The gas engine within the past few years is being so much used on the farm to simplify work, 
that the publication of this practical treatise will prove of greatest value. The author takes 
up first, and treats in detail the working of the engine, then the transmission mediums are 
treated, as well as traction engines and their application. Price $1.50 


A practical treatise of 300 pages describing the theory and principles of the action of Gas 
Engines of various types and the design and construction of a half -horse power Gas Engine, with 
illustrations of the work in actual progress, together with the dimensioned working drawings 
giving clearly the sizes of the various details; for the student, the scientific investigator and the 
amateur mechanic. 

This book treats of the subject more from the standpoint of practice than that of theory. The 
principles of operation of Gas Engines are clearly and simply described and then the actual 
construction of a half-horse power engine is taken up, step by step, showing in detail the making 
of the Gas Engine. 300 pages. Price $2.50 


Just issued, 18th revised and enlarged edition. Every user of a gas engine needs this book. 
Simple, instructive, and right up-to-date. The only complete work on the subject. Tells 
all about the running and management of gas, gasoline and oil engines, as designed and manu- 
factured in the United States. Explosive motors for stationary, marine and vehicle power are 
fully treated, together with illustrations of their parts and tabulated sizes, also their care and 
running are included. Electric ignition by induction coil and jump spark are fully explained 
and illustrated, including valuable information on the testing for economy and power and the 
erection of power plants. 

The rules and regulations of the Board of Fire Underwriters in regard to the installation and 
management of gasoline motors is given in full, suggesting the safe installation of explosive 
motor power. A list of United States Patents issued on gas, gasoline, and oil engines and their 
adjuncts from 1875 to date is included. 484 pages. 410 engravings Price . . $2. 50 net 


A guide for the gas engine designer, user, and engineer in the construction, selection, purchase, 
installation, operation, and maintenance of gas engines. More than one book on gas engines 
has been written, but not one has thus far even encroached on the field covered by this book. 
Above all Mr. Mathot's work is a practical guide. Recognizing the need of a volume that 
would assist the gas engine user in understanding thoroughly the motor upon which he depends 
for power, the author has discussed his subject without the help of any mathematics and 
without elaborate theoretical explanations. Every part of the gas engine is described in detail, 
tersely, clearly, with a thorough understanding of the requirements of the mechanic. Helpful 
suggestions as to the purchase of an engine, its installation, care, and operation form a most 
valuable feature of the work. 320 pages. 175 detailed illustrations. Price . , . $2.50 



A book that will at once commend itself to mechanics and draftsmen. Does away with all 
the trigonometry and fancy figuring on bevel gears and makes it easy for anyone to lay them 
out or make them just right. There are 36 full-page tables that show every necessary dimen- 
sion for all sizes or combinations you're apt to need. No puzzling figuring or guessing. 
Gives placing distance, all the angles (including cutting angles), and the correct cutter to use. 
A copy of this prepares ;you for anything in the beyel gear line. 66 pages. . $1.00 




A practical book for every designer, draftsman, and mechanic interested in the invention and 
development of the devices for feed changes on the different machines requiring such mechan- 
ism. All the necessary information on this subject is taken up, analyzed, classified, sifted, 
and concentrated for the use of busy men who have not the time to go through the masses 
of irrelevant matter with which such a subject is usually encumbered and select such infor- 
mation as will be useful to them. 

It shows just what has been done, how it has been done, when it was done, and who did it.i 
It saves time in hunting up patent records and re-inventing old ideas. 88 pages. $1.00 


>us problem un 
ally any kind o: 


The laying out of cams is a serious problem unless you know how to go at it right. This puts 
you on the right road for practically any kind of cam you are likely to run up against. 25 cents 


A treatise on the properties, power, and resources of water for all purposes. Including the 
measurement of streams; the flow of water in pipes or conduits; the horse-power of falling 
water; turbine and impact water-wheels; wave-motors, centrifugal, reciprocating, and air- 
lift pumps. With 300 figures and diagrams and 36 practical tables. 

All who are interested in water-works development will find this book a useful one, because 
it is an entirely practical treatise upon a subject of present importance, and cannot fail in 
having a far-reaching influence, and for this reason should have a place in the working library 
of every engineer. 320 pages. Price $4.00 



This is one of the latest and most comprehensive reference books published on the subject of 
refrigeration and cold storage. It explains the properties and refrigerating effect of the different 
fluids in use, the management of refrigerating machinery and the construction and insulation 
of cold rooms with their required pipe surface for different degrees of cold; freezing mixtures 
and non-freezing brines, temperatures of cold rooms for all kinds of provisions, cold storage 
charges for all classes of goods, ice making and storage of ice, data and memoranda for constant 
reference by refrigerating engineers, with nearly one hundred tables containing valuable 
references to every fact and condition required in the installment and operation of a refrfeerat- 
ing plant. Price $1.50 



This is a book designed as a guide to inventors in perfecting their inventions, taking out their 
patents and disposing of them. It is not in any sense a Patent Solicitor's Circular, nor a 
Patent Broker's Advertisement. No advertisements of any description appear in the work. 
It is a book containing a quarter of a century's experience of a successful inventor, together 
with notes based upon the experience of many other inventors. Price ..... $1.00 



This is a new book from cover to cover, and the only complete American work on the subject 
written by a man who knows not only how work ought to be done but who also knows how to 
do it, and how to convey this knowledge to others. It is strictly up-to-date in its descriptions 
and illustrations, which represent the very latest practice in lathe and boring mill operations 
as well as the construction of and latest developments in the manufacture of these important 
classes of machine tools. 424 pages. 314 illustrations. Price $2.50 


This important and practical subject is treated in a full and exhaustive manner and nothing 
of importance is omitted. The principles and practice and all the different branches of Turn- 
ing are considered and well illustrated. All the different kinds of Chucks of usual forms, as 
well as some unusual kinds, are shown. A feature of the book is the important section de- 
voted to modern Turret practice; Boring is another subject which is treated fully; and the 
chapter on Tool Holders illustrates a large number of representative types. Thread Cutting 
is treated at reasonable length; and the last chapter contains a good deal of information 
relating to the High-Speed Steels and their work. The numerous tools used by machinists 
are illustrated, and also the adjuncts of the lathe. In fact, the entire subject is treated in 
such a thorough manner as to make this book the standard one on the subject. It is indis- 
pensable to the manager, engineer, and machinist as well as to the student, amateur, and 
experimental man who desires to keep up-to-date 400 pages, fully illustrated. Price $3.5O 




There are two ways to turn tapers; the right way and one other. This treatise has to do with 
the right way; it tells you how to start the work properly, how to set the lathe, what tools to 
use and how to use them, and forty and one other little things that you should know. Fourth 
edition. 25 cents 



This book gives the history of the theory, discovery, and manufacture of Liquid Air, and 

contains an illustrated description of all the experiments that have excited the wonder of 

audiences all over the country. It shows how liquid air, like water, is carried hundreds of 

miles and is handled in open buckets. It tells what may be expected from it in the near 


A book that renders simple one of the most perplexing chemical problems of the century. 

Startling developments illustrated by actual experiments. 

It is not only a work of scientific interest and authority, but is intended for the general reader, 

being written in a popular style easily understood by every one. Second edition. 365 

pages. Price , $2.00 



This book is a standard text book. It covers the Westinghouse Air-Brake Equipment, in- 
cluding the No. 5 and the No. 6 E. T Locomotive Brake Equipment; the K (Quick-Service) 
Triple Valve for Freight Service; and the Cross-Compound Pump. The operation of all parts 
of the apparatus is explained in detail, and a practical way of rinding their peculiarities and 
defects, with a proper remedy, is given. It contains 2,000 questions with their answers, 
which will enable any railroad man to pass any examination on the subject of Air Brakes. 
Endorsed and used by air-brake instructors and examiners on nearly every railroad in the 
United States. 23d Edition. 380 pages, fully illustrated with folding plates and dia- 
grams :. ". $s.oo 


The only book on compounds for the engineman or shopman that shows in a plain, practical 
way the various features of compound locomotives in use. Shows how they are made, what 
to do when they break down or balk. Contains sections as follows: A Bit of History. The- 
ory of Compounding Steam Cylinders. Baldwin Two-Cylinder Compound. Pittsburg Two- 
Cylinder Compound. Rhode Island Compound. Richmond Compound. Rogers Compound. 
Schenectady Two-Cylinder Compound. Vauclain Compound. Tandem Compounds. Bald- 
win Tandem. The Colvin-Wightman Tandem. Schenectady Tandem. Balanced Loco- 
motives. Baldwin Balanced Compound. Plans for Balancing. Locating Blows. Break- 
downs. Reducing Valves. Drifting. Valve Motion. Disconnecting. Power of Compound 
Locomotives. Practical Notes. 

Fully illustrated and containing ten special "Duotone" inserts on heavy Plate Paper, show- 
ing different types of Compounds. 142 pages. Price $1.00 


A practical book. Contains special chapters on Generation of Highly Superheated Steam; 
Superheated Steam and the Two-Cylinder Simple Engine; Compounding and Superheating; 
Designs of Locomotive Superheaters; Constructive Details of Locomotives using Highly 
Superheated Steam; Experimental and Working Results. Illustrated with folding plates 
and tables. Price $2.50 


This book has been prepared with special reference to the generation of heat by the combus- 
tion of the common fuels found in the United States, and deals particularly with the condi- 
tions necessary to the economic and smokeless combustion of bituminous coals in Stationary 
and Locomotive Steam Boilers. 

The presentation of this important subject is systematic and progressive. The arrangement 
of the book is in a series of practical questions to which are appended accurate answers, which 
describe in language, free from technicalities, the several processes involved in the furnace 
combustion of American fuels; it clearly states the essential requisites for perfect combustion, 
and points out the best methods of furnace construction for obtaining the greatest quantity 
of hep.t fron- Any given quality of coal. Nearly 350 pages, fully illustrated. . . . $1.00 



Editor of "American Machinist." 

A handy book for the engineer or machinist that clears up the mysteries of valve setting. 
Shows the different valve gears in use, how they work, and why. Piston and slide valves 
of different types are illustrated and explained. A book that every railroad man in the mo- 
tive power department ought to have. Contains chapters on Locomotive Link Motion, 
Valve Movements, Setting Slide Valves, Analysis by Diagrams, Modern Practice, Slip of 
Block, Slide Valves, Piston Valves, Setting Piston Valves, Joy-Allen Valve Gear, Walschaert 
Valve Gear, Gooch Valve Gear, Alfree-Hubbell Valve Gear, etc., etc. Fully illustrated. 
Price 50 cents 


The construction of boilers in general are treated, and following this, the locomotive boiler 
is taken up in the order in which its various parts go through the sh9p. Shows all types of 
boilers used; gives details of construction; practical facts, such as life of riveting, punches 
and dies; work done per day, allowance for bending and flanging sheets, and other data. 
Locomotive boilers present more difficulty in laying out and building than any other type, 
and for this reason the author uses them as examples. Anyone who can handle them can 
tackle anything. 

Contains chapters on Laying Out Work; Flanging and Forging; Punching; Shearing; Plate 
Planing; General Tables; Finishing Parts; Bending; Machinery Parts; Riveting; Boiler 
Details; Smoke Box Details; Assembling and Calking; Boiler Shop Machinery, etc., etc. 
There isn't a man who has anything to do with boiler work, either new or repair work, who 
doesn't need this book. The manufacturer, superintendent, foreman, and boiler worker 
all need it. No matter what the type of boiler, you'll find a mint of information that you 
wouldn't be without. Over 400 pages, five large folding plates. Price $3.00 

Revised by WM. W. WOOD, Air-Brake Instructor. Just issued. Revised pocket 

It is out of the question to try and tell you about every subject that is covered in this pocket 
edition of Locomotive Breakdowns. Just imagine all the common troubles that an engineer 
may expect to happen some time, and then add all of the unexpected ones, troubles that could 
occur, but that you had never thought about, and you will find that they are all treated with 
the very best methods of repair. Walschaert Locomotive Valve Gear Troubles, Electric 
Headlight Troubles, as well as Questions and Answers on the Air Brake are all included. 294 
pages. Fully illustrated. ; . . . $1.00 


The revised edition of "Locomotive Catechism," toy Robert Grimshaw, is a New Book from 
Cover to Cover. It contains twice as many pages and double the number of illustrations 
of previous editipns. Includes the greatest amount of practical information ever published 
on the construction and management of modern locomotives. Specially Prepared Chapters 
on the Walschaert Locomotive Valve Gear, the Air Brake Equipment and the Electric Head 
Light are given. 

It commends itself at once to every Engineer and Fireman, and to all who are going in for 
examination or promotion. In plain language, with full complete answers, not only all the 
questions asked by the examining engineer are given, but those which the young and less 
experienced would ask the veteran, and which old hands ask as "stickers." It is a veritable 
Encyclopedia of the Locomotive, is entirely free from mathematics, easily understood and 
thoroughly up-to-date. Contains over 4,000 Examination Questions with their Answers. 
825 pages, 437 illustrations and three folding plates $8.50 


This is a complete treatise on the New York Air-Brake and Air-Signalling Apparatus, giving 
a detailed description of all the parts, their operation, troubles, and the methods of locating 
and remedying the same. 200 pages, fully illustrated $1.00 

Associate Editor "American Machinist. 

The Railroad Pocket Book is of value to every man on the road, as it contains valuable Rail- 
road Data, Master Car Builders' Standards, Tests, Proportions of Locomotives and Boilers 
and various other Rules and Tables. 

As a record of recent practice in all sections of railway work it stands alone, giving facts and 
figures from actual experience on such matters as Acetylene Lighting, Air Brakes, Axles, 
Bearings, Boilers, Cars, Costs of repairs and other items, Counterbalancing, Curves, Driving 
Wheels, Equalizers, Flues, Grades, Grates, Heating surfaces, Injectors, Locomotives, Main- 
tenance of way, Oils, Power of Locomotives, Rails, Rods, Shops, Speed, Tires, Turntables, 
Valve Motions, Water, etc., etc. Second Edition. Price $1.00 




Every railroad man, no matter what department he's in, needs a copy of this book. It gives 
the standard rules for both single and double track, shows all the signals, with colors wher- 
ever necessary, and has a list of towns where time changes, with a map showing the whole 
country. The rules are explained wherever there is any doubt about their meaning or where 
they are modified by different railroads. It's the only practical book on train rules in print. 
Over 220 pages. Leather cover. Price $1.50 


If you would thoroughly understand the Walschaert Valve Gear you should possess a copy 
of this book, as the author takes the plainest form of a steam engine a stationary engine in 
the rough, that will only turn its crank in one direction and from it builds up with the 
reader's help a modern locomotive equipped with the Walschaert Valve Gear, complete. 
The points discussed are clearly illustrated: two large folding plates that show the positions 
of the valves of both inside or outside admission type, as well as the links and 9ther parts of 
the gear when the crank is at nine different points in its revolution, are especially valuable 
in making the movement clear. These employ sliding cardboard models which are contained 
Vi a pocket in the coyer. 

The book is divided into four general divisions, as follows: I. Analysis of the gear. II. De- 
signing and erecting the gear. III. Advantages of the gear. IV. Questions and answers 
relating to the Walschaert Valve Gear. 

This last division contains sixty pertinent questions with full answers on all the features of 
this type of valve gear, whicfr will be especially valuable to firemen and engineers in prepar- 
ing for an examination for promotion. Nearly 200 pages. Price $1.50 

WM. W. WOOD, Air-Brake Instructor. 

Here is a book for the railroad man, and the man who aims to be one. It is without doubt 
the only complete work published on the Westinghouse E-T Locomotive Brake Equipment. 
Written by an Air Brake Instructor who knows just what is needed. It covers the subject 
thoroughly. Everything about -the New Westinghouse Engine and Tender Brake Equip- 
ment, including the Standard No. 5 and the Perfected No. 6 Style of brake, is treated in de- 
tail. Written in plain English and profusely illustrated with Colored Plates, which enable 
one to trace the flow of pressures throughout the entire equipment. The best book ever 
published on the Air Brake. Equally good for the beginner and the advanced engineer. 
Will pass any one through any examination. It informs and enlightens you on every point. 
Indispensable to every engineman and trainman. 

Contains examination questions and answers on the E-T equipment. Covering what the 
E-T Brake is. How it should be operated. What to do when defective. Not a questipn can 
be asked of the engineman up for promotion on either the No. 5 or the No. 6 E-T equipment 
that is not asked and answered in the book. If you want to thoroughly understand the E-T 
equipment get a copy of this book. It covers every detail. Makes Air Brake troubles and 
examinations easy. Price $1.50 




A "shoppy" book, containing no theorizing, no problematical or experimental devices, there 
are no badly proportioned and impossible diagrams, no catalogue cuts, but a valuable collection 
of drawings and descriptions of devices, the rich fruits of the author's own experience. In its 
500-odd pages the one subject only, Tool Making, and whatever relates thereto, is dealt with. 
The work stands without a rival. It is a complete practical treatise on the art of American 
Tool Making and system of interchangeable manufacturing as carried on to-day in the United 
States. In it are described and illustrated all of the different types and classes of small tools, 
fixtures, devices, and special appliances which are in general use in all machine manufacturing 
and metal working establishments where economy, capacity and interchangeability in the 
production of machined metal parts are imperative. .The science of jig making is exhaustively 
discussed, and particular attention is paid to drill jigs, boring, profiling and milling fixtures 
and other devices in which the parts to be machined are located and fastened within the 
contrivances. All of the tools, fixtures, and devices illustrated and described have been or 
are used for the actual production of work, such as parts of drill presses, lathes, patented 
machinery, typewriters, electrical apparatus, mechanical appliances, brass goods, composition 
parts, mould products, sheet metal asticles, drop forgings', jewelry, watches , medals, coins, 
etc. 531 pages. Price $4.00 

Edited by JOSEPH G. HORNER, A. M. I., M. E. 

This set of five volumes contains about 2,500 pages with thousands of illustrations, including 
diagrammatic and sectional drawings with full explanatory details. This work covers the 
erfure practice of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. The best known experts in all branches 
of engineering have contributed to these volumes. The Cyclopedia is admirably well adapted 
to the needs of the beginner and the self-taught practical man, as well as the mechanical en- 
gineer, designer, draftsman, shop superintendent, foreman, and machinist. The work will be 
found a means of advancement to any progressive man. It is encyclopedic in scope, thorough 
and practical in its treatment of technical subjects, simple and clear in its descriptive matter, 



and without unnecessary technicalities or formulae. The articles are as brief as may be and 
yet give a reasonably clear and explicit statement of the subject, and are written by men who 
have had ample practical v experience in the matters of which they write. It tells you all you 
want to know about engineering and tells it so simply, so clearly, so concisely, that one cannot 
help but understand. As a work of reference it is without a peer. $6.00 per single volume. 
For complete set of five volumes. Price $25.00 


This is an arithmetic of the things you have to do with daily. It tells you plainly about: how 
to find areas of figures; how to find surface or volume of balls or spheres; handy ways for 
calculating; about compound gearing; cutting screw threads on any lathe; drilling for taps; 
speeds of drills, taps, emery wheels, grindstones, milling cutters, etc.; all about the Metric 
system with conversion tables; properties of metals; strength of bolts and nuts; decimal 
equivalent of an inch. All sorts of machine shop figuring and 1,001 other things, any one of 
which ought to be worth more than the price of this book to you, and it saves you the trouble 
of bothering the boss. 131 pages. Price 50 cents 


This is a collection of 1,890 engravings of different mechanical motions and appliances, accom- 
panied by appropriate text, making it a book of great value to the inventor, the draftsman, 
and to all readers with mechanical tastes. The book is divided into eighteen sections or 
chapters in which the subject matter is classified under the following heads: Mechanical Powers ; 
Transmission of Power; Measurement of Power, Steam Power; Air Power Appliances ; Electric 
Power and Construction, Navigation and Roads; Gearing; Motion and Devices; Controlling 
Motion; Horological; Mining; Mill and Factory Appliances; Construction and Devices; 
Drafting Devices ; Miscellaneous Devices, etc. llth edition. 400 octavo pages. Price $2.50 


This is a supplementary volume to the oi?e upon mechanical movements. Unlike the first 
volume, which is more elementary in character, this volume contains illustrations and descrip- 
tions of many combinations of motions and of mechanical devices and appliances found in 
different lines of machinery. Each device being shown by a line drawing with a description 
showing its working parts and the method of operation. From the multitude of devices de- 
scribed, and illustrated, might be mentioned, in passing, such items as conveyors and elevators, 
Prony brakes, thermometers, various types of boilers, solar engines, oil-fuel burners, condensers, 
evaporators, Corliss and other value gears, governors, gas engines, water motors of various 
descriptions, air ships, motors and dynamos, automobile and motor bicycles, railway block 
signals, car coupes, link and gear motions, ball bearings, breech block mechanism for heavy 
guns, and a large accumulation of others of equal importance. 1,000 specially made engrav- 
ings. 396 octavo pages. Price $2.50 


The only work published that describes the Modern Machine Shop or Manufacturing Plant from 
the time the grass is growing on the site intended for it until the finished product is shipped 
Just the book needed by those contemplating the erection of modern shop buildings, the re- 
building and reorganization of old ones, or the introduction of Modern Shop Methods, time and 
cost systems. It is a book written and illustrated by a practical shop man for practical shop 
men who are too busy to read theories and want facts. It is the most complete all-around 
book of its kind ever published. 400 large quarto pages. 225 original and specially-made 
illustrations. Price $5.00 


A work of 555 pages^and 673 illustrations, describing in every detail the construction, operation, 
and manipulation of both hand and machine topis. Includes chapters on filing, fitting, and 
scraping surfaces ; on drills, reamers, taps, and dies; the lathe and its tools; planers, shapers, 
and their tools; milling machines and cutters ; gear cutters and gear cutting; drilling machines 
and drill work; grinding machines and their work; hardening and tempering; gearing, belting 
and transmission machinery; useful data and tables. 5th edition. Price .... $3.00 


This is a book showing, by plain description and 1 by profuse engravings, made expressly for 
the work, all that is best, most advanced, and of the highest efficiency in modern machine 
shop practice, tools, and implements, showing the way by which and through which, as Mr. 
Maxim says, "American machinists have become and are the finest mechanics in the world." 
Indicating as it does, in every line, the familiarity of the author with every detail of daily 
experience in the shop, it cannot fail to be of service to any man practically connected with 
the shaping or finishing of metals. 

There is nothing experimental or visionary about the book, all devices being in actual use 
and giving good results. It might be called a compendium of shop methods, shewing a vari- 
ety of special tools and appliances which will give new ideas to many mechanics, from the 
superintendent down to the man at the bench. It will be found a valuable addition to any 
machinist's library, and should be consulted whenever a new or difficult job is to be done, 
whether it is boring, milling, turning, or planing, as they are all treated in a practical manner. 
Fifth Edition. 320 pages. 250 illustrations. Price $2.50 



This book describes and villustrates the Milling Machine and its work in such a plain, clear, 
and forceful manner, and illustrates the subject so clearly and completely, that the up-to-date 
machinist, student, or mechanical engineer cannot afford to do without the valuable infor- 
mation which it contains. It describes not only the early machines of this class, but notes 
their gradual development into the splendid machines of the present day, giving the design 
and construction of the various types, forms, and special features produced by prominent 
manufacturers, American and foreign. 

Milling cutters in all their development and modernized forms are illustrated and described, 
and the operations they are capable of producing upon different classes of work are carefully 
described in detail, and the speeds and feeds necessary are discussed, and valuable and useful 
data given for determining these usually perplexing problems. The book is the most compre- 
hensive work published on the subject. 304 pages. 300 illustrations. Price . . $4.00 


A practical treatise on machines, motors and the transmission of power, being a complete 
work and a supplementary volume to Appleton's Cyclopedia of Applied Mechanics. Deals 
solely with the principal and most useful advances of the past few years. 959 pages contain- 
ing over 1,000 illustrations; bound in half morocco $4.00 


A book of 400 pages and 222 illustrations, being entirely different from any other book on 
machine shop practice. Departing from conventional style, the author avoids universal or 
common shop usage and limits his work to showing special ways of doing things better, more 
cheaply and more rapidly than usual. As a result the advanced methods of representative 
establishments of the world are placed at the disposal of the reader. This book shows the 
proprietor where large savings are possible, and now products may be improved. To the 
employee it holds out suggestipns that, properly applied, will hasten his advancement. No 
shop can afford to be without it. It bristles with valuable wrinkles and helpful suggestions. 
It will benefit all, from apprentice to proprietor. Every machinist, at any age, should study 
its pages. Fifth Edition. Price , . $2.50 


This clears up many of the mysteries of thread-cutting, such as double and triple threads, 
internal threads, catching threads, use of hobs, etc. Contains a lot of useful hints and several 
tables. Price .25 cents 


The principles upon which cutting tools for wood, metal, and other substances are made are 
identical, whether used by the machinist, the carpenter, or by any other skilled mechanic in 
their daily work, and the object of this book is to give a correct and practical description of 
these tools as they are commonly designed, constructed, and used. 340 pages, fully illustrated. 
Price $3.50 



The only book published that gives just the information needed by all interested in Manual 
Training, regarding Buildings, Equipment, and Supplies. Shows exactly what is needed for 
ail grades of the work from the Kindergarten to the High and Normal School. Gives item- 
ized lists of everything used in Manual Training Work and tells just what it ought to cost. 
Also shows where to buy supplies, etc. Contains L 174 pages, and is fully illustrated. 
Price $1.50 



In the words of Dr. Bauer, the present work owes its origin to an oft felt want of a Condensed 
Treatise, embodying the Theoretical and Practical Rules used in Designing Marine Engines 
and Boilers. The need for such a work has been felt by most engineers engaged in the con- 
struction and working of Marine Engines, not only by the younger men, but also by those of 
greater experience. The fact that the original German work was written by the chief engineer 
of the famous Vulcan Works, Stettin, is in itself a guarantee that this book is in all respects 
thoroughly up-to-date, and that it embodies all the information which is necessary for the 
design and construction of the highest types of marine engines and boilers. It may be said, 
that the motive power which Dr. Bauer has placed in the fast German liners that have been 
turned out of late years from the Stettin Works, represent the very best practice in marine 
engineering of the present day. 

This work is clearly written, thoroughly systematic, theoretically sound; while the character 
of its plans, drawings, tables, and statistics is without reproach. The illustrations are care- 
ful reproductions from actual working drawings, with some well-executed photographic views 
of completed engines and boilers. 722 pages. 550 illustrations. . . . $9.00 not 






This book gives a condensed account of the ore-deposits at present known in South Africa. 
It is also intended as a guide to the prospector. Only an elementary knowledge of geology 
and some mining experience are necessary in order to understand this work. With these 
qualifications, it will materially assist one in his search for metalliferous mineral occurrences 
and, so far as simple ores are concerned, should enable one to form some idea of the possi- 
bilities of any they may find. 

Among the chapters given are: Titaniferous and Chromiferous Iron Oxides Nickel Cop- 
per Cobalt Tin Molybdenum Tungsten Lead Mercury Antimony Iron Hints to 
Prospectors . . ' $2.00 


An important work, containing 428 pages and 213 illustrations, complete with practical de- 
tails, which will intuitively impart to the reader, not only a general knowledge of the princi- 
ples of coal mining, but also considerable insight into allied subjects. The treatise is posi- 
tively up to date in every instance, and should be in the hands of every C9lliery engineer, 
geologist, mine operator, superintendent, foreman, and all others who are interested in or 
connected with the industry ... $2.5O 


A practical work for the use of all preparing for examinations in mining or qualifying for 
colliery managers' certificates. The aim of the author in this excellent book is to place clearly 
before the reader useful and authoritative data which will render him valuable assistance in 
his studies. The only work of its kind published. The information inc9rporated in it will 
prove of the greatest practical utility to students, mining engineers, colliery managers, and 
all others who are specially interested in the present-day treatment of mining problems. 
Among its contents are chapters on: The Atmosphere; Laws Relating to the Behavior of 
Gases; The Diffusion of Gases; Composition of the Atmosphere: Sundry Constituents of the 
Atmosphere; Water; Carbon; Fire-Damp; Combustion; Coal Dust and Its Action; Ex- 
plosives; Composition of Various Coals and Fuels; Methods of Analysis of Coal; Strata Ad- 
joining the Coal Measures; Magnetism and Electricity; Appendix; Useful Tables, etc.; 
Miscellaneous Questions. 160 pages. Illustrated . $2.00 



This is a very complete and entirely practical treatise on the subject of pattern making, illus 
t rating pattern work in wood and metal. From its pages you are taught just what you shoult 
know about pattern making. It contains a detailed description of the materials used bj 
pattern makers, also the tools, both those for hand use, and the more interesting machine tools; 
having complete chapters on the band saw, The Buzz Saw, and the Lathe. Individual patterns 
of many different kinds are fully illustrated and described, and the mounting of metal patterns 
on plates for molding machines is included. Price $2.00 



Edited by G. D. Hiscox. 

The most valuable Technq-chemical Receipt Book published. Contains over 10,000 practical 
receipts, many of which' will prove of special value to the perfumer, a mine of information, up- 
to-date in every respect. Price, Cloth, $3.00: half morocco $4.0O 


A comprehensive treatise, in which there has been nothing omitted that could be of value 
to the Perfumer. Complete directions for making handkerchief perfumes, smelling-salts, 
sachets, fumigating pastilles; preparations for the care of the skin, the mouth, the hair, cos- 
metics, hair dyes and other toilet articles are given, also a detailed description of aromatic 
substances; their nature, tests of purity, and wholesale manufacture. A book of general, 
as well as professional interest, meeting the wants not only of the druggist and perfume man- 
ufacturer, out also of the general public. Third edition. 312 pages. Illustrated. . $3.00 





A concise, comprehensive and practical treatise on the subject of mechanical drawing in its 
various modern applications to the work of all who are in any way connected with the 
plumbing trade. Nothing will so help the plumber in estimating and in explaining work to 
customers and workmen as a knowledge of drawing, and to the workman it is of inestimable 
value if he is to rise above his position to positions of greater responsibility. 150 illustra- 
tions. Price $1.50 


This book represents the highest standard of plumbing work. It has been adopted and used as a 
reference book by the United States Government, in its sanitary work in Cuba, Porto Rico, and 
the Philippines, and by the principal Boards of Health of the United States and Canada. 
It gives connections, sizes and working data for all fixtures and groups of fixtures. It is 
helpful to the master plumber in demonstrating to his customers and in figuring work. It 
gives the mechanic and student quick and easy access to the best modern plumbing practice. 
Suggestions for estimating plumbing construction are contained in its pages. This book 
represents, in a word, the latest and best up-to-date practice, and should be in the hands of 
every architect, sanitary engineer and plumber who wishes to keep himself up to the minute 
on this important feature of construction. 400 octavo pages, fully illustrated by 55 full-page 
engravings. Price $4.00 


A complete practical treatise of 450 pages covering the subject of Modern Plumbing in all its 
Branches, a large amount of space being devoted to a very complete and practical treatment of 
the subject of Hot Water Supply and Circulation and Range Boiler Work. Its thirty chapters 
include about every phase of the subject, one can think of, making it an indispensable work 
to the master plumber, the journeyman plumber, and the apprentice plumber. Fully illus- 
trated by 347 engravings. Price . $3.00 



Edited by GARDNER D. Hiscox. 

The most valuable Techno-chemical Receipt Book published, including over 10,000 selected 
scientific, chemical, technological, and practical receipts and processes. 

This is the most complete Book of Receipts ever published, giving thousands of receipts for 
the manufacture of valuable articles for everyday use. Hints, Helps, Practical Ideas, and 
Secret Processes are revealed within its pages. It covers every branch of the useful arts and 
tells thousands of ways of making money and is just the book everyone should have at his 
command. 800 pages. Price $3.00 



This book gives full details on all points, treating in a concise and simple manner the elements 
of nearly everything it is necessary to understand for a commencement in any branch of the 
India Rubber Manufacture. The making of all kinds of Rubber Hand Stamps, Small Articles 
of India Rubber, U. S. Government Composition, Dating Hand Stamps, the Manipulation 
of Sheet Rubber, Toy Balloons, India Rubber Solutions, Cements, Blackings, Renovating 
Varnish, and Treatment for India Rubber Shoes, etc.; the Hektograph Stamp Inks, and 
Miscellaneous Notes, with a Short Account 9f the Discovery, Collection, and Manufacture of 
India Rubber are set forth in a manner designed to be readily understood, the explanations 
being plain and simple. Second edition. 144 pages. Illustrated. ...... $1.00 



A practical hand book on filing, gumming, swaging, hammering, and the brazing of band saws, 
the speed, work, and power to run circular saws, etc. A handy book for those who have charge 
of saws, or for those mechanics who do their own filing, as it deals with the proper shape and 
pitches of saw teeth of all kinds and gives many useful hints and rules for gumming, setting, 
and filing, and is a practical aid to those who use saws for any purpose. New edition, revised 
and enlarged Illsutrated, Price ... , $1.00 





; This book begins at the boiler room and takes in the whole power plant. A plain talk om 
every-day work about engines, boilers, and their accessories. It is not intended to be scien- 
tific or mathematical. All formulas are in simple form so that any one understanding plain 
arithmetic can readily understand any of them. The author has made this the most prac- 
tical book in print; has given the results of his years of experience, and has included about 
all that has to do with an engine room or a power plant. You are not left to guess at a single 
point. You are shown clearly what to expect under the various conditions; how to secure 
the-best results; ways of preventing "shut downs" and repairs; in short, all that goes to 
make up the requirements of a good engineer, capable of taking charge of a plant. It's plain 
enough for practical men and yet of value to those high in the profession. Has a complete 
examination for a license $2.00 


Everyone who appreciates the effect of such great inventions as the Steam Engine, Steamboat, 
Locomotive, Sewing Machine, Steel Working, and other fundamental discoveries, is interested 
in knowing a little about the men who made them and their achievements. 
Mr. Goddard has selected thirty-two of the world's engineers who have contributed most 
largely to the advancement of our civilization by mechanical means, giving only such facts as 
are of general interest and in a way which appeals to all, whether mechanics or not. 280 
pages. 35 illustrations. Price $1.50 


A practical treatise for the stationary engineer, telling how to erect, adjust and run the prin- 
cipal steam engines in use in the United States. Describing the principal features of various 
special and well-known makes of engines: Temper Cut-off, Shipping and Receiving Founda- 
tions, Erecting and Starting, Valve Setting, Care and Use, Emergencies, Erecting and Ad- 
justing Special Engines. 

The questions asked throughout the catechism are plain and to the point ^and the answers 
are given in such simple language as to be readily understood by anyone. All the instructions 
given are complete and up-to-date; and they are written in a popular style, without any 
technicalities or mathematical formulae. The work is of a handy size for the pocket, clearly 
and well printed, nicely bound, and profusely illustrated. To young engineers this catechism 
will be of great value, especially to those who may be preparing to go forward to be examined 
for certificates of competency; and to engineers generally it will be of no little service, as they 
will find in this volume more really practical and useful information than is to be found any- 
where else within a like compass. 387 pages. Seventh edition. Price $2.00 


This work fully describes and illustrates the method of testing the power of steam engines, 
turbines and explosive motors. The properties of steam and the evaporative power of fuels. 
Combustion of fuel and chimney draft; with formulas explained or practically computed. 
255 pages, 179 illustrations $3.00 


Shows the horse power of any stationary engine without calculation. No matter what the 
cylinder diameter of stroke; the steam pressure or cut-off; the revolutions, or whether con- 
densing or non-condensing, it's all there. Easy to use, accurate, and saves time and calcu- 
lations. Especially useful to engineers and designers 50 cents 


This is a complete and practical work issued for Stationary Engineers and firemen dealing with 
the care and management of boilers, engines, pumps, superheated steam, refrigerating machin- 
ery, dynamos, motors, elevators, air compressors, and all other branches with which the modern 
engineer must be familiar. Nearly 200 questions with their answers on steam and electrical 
engineering, likely to be asked by the Examining Board, are included. 487 pages. 405 en- 
gravings. Price $3.00 


This unique volume of 413 pages is not only a catechism on the question and answer princi- 
ple; but it contains formulas and worked -out answers for all the Steam problems that apper- 
tain to the operation and management of the Steam Engine. Illustrations of various valves 
and valve gear with their principles of operation are given. Thirty-four Tables that are 
indispensable to every engineer and fireman that wishes to be progressive and is ambitious to 
become master of his calling are within its pages. It is a most valuable instructor in the 
service of Steam Engineering. Leading engineers have recommended it as a valuable educa- 
tor for the beginner as well as a reference book for the engineer. It is thoroughly indexed 
for every detail. Every essential question on the Steam Engine with its answer is contained 
in this valuable work. Sixteenth edition. Price $2.0O 



A practical pocket book for the steam engineer. Shows how to work the problems of the 
engine room and shows "why." Tells how to figure horse-power of engines and boilers; area 
of boilers ; has tables of areas and circumferences ; steam tables ; has a dictionary of engineering 
terms Puts you on to all all of the little kinks in figuring whatever there is to figure around 
a power plant Tells you about the heat unit; absolute zero; adiabatic expansion; duty of 
engines; factor of safety; and 1,001 other things; and everything is plain and simple not 
the hardest way to figure, but the easiest 50 cents 



This book is the standard and latest work published on the subject and has been prepared for 
the use of all engaged in the business of steam, hot water heating, and ventilation. It is an 
original and exhaustive work. Tells how to get heating contracts, how to install heating and 
ventilating apparatus, the best business methods to be used, with "Tricks of the Trade" for 
shop use. Rules and data for estimating radiation and cost and such tables and information 
as make it an indispensable work for everyone interested in steam, hot water heating, and venti- 
lation. It describes all the principal systems of steam, hot water, vacuum, vapor, and vacuum- 
vapor heating, together with the new accelerated systems of hot water circulation, including 
chapters on up-to-date methods of ventilation and the fan or blower system of heating and 
ventilation. 367 pages. 300 detailed engravings. Price $3.0O 



This book fills in a deep gap in scientific literature, as there has been very little written on 
the practical side of steam pipe construction. Steam piping to-day is such a costly item, 
and the successful operation of a large plant depends so much upon it, that the problem of 
minimum cost and maximum efficiency becomes very important. The work is well illus- 
trated in regard to pipe joints, expansion pffsets, flexible joints, and self-contained sliding 
joints for taking up the expansion of long pipes. In fact, the chapters on the flow of steam 
and expansion of pipes are most valuable to all steam fitters and users. The pressure strength 
of pipes and method of hanging them is well treated and illustrated. Valves and by-passes 
are fully illustrated and described, as are also flange joints and their proper proportions, ex- 
haust heads and separators. One of the most valuable chapters is that on superheated steam 
and the saving of steam by insulation with the various kinds of felting and other materials 
with comparison tables of the loss of heat in thermal units from naked and felted steam pipes. 
Contains 187 pages. Price . . ; . . $2.00 



This book tells how to select, and how to work, temper, harden, and anneal steel for everything 
on earth. It doesn't tell how to temper one class of tools and then leave the treatment of 
another kind of tool to your imagination and judgment, but it gives careful instructions for 
every detail of every tool, whether it be a tap, a reamer or just a screw-driver. It tells about 
the tempering of small watch springs, the hardening of cutlery; and the annealing of dies. In 
fact there isn't a thing that a steel worker would want to know that isn't included. Price 



A new work treating in a clear, concise manner all modern processes for the heating, annealing, 
forging, welding, hardening, and tempering of steel, making it a book of great practical value 
to the metal-working mechanic in general, with special directions for the successful hardening 
and tempering of all steel tools used in the arts, including milling cutters, taps, thread dies, 
reamers, both solid and shell, hollow mills, punches and dies, and all kinds of sheet metal 
working tools, shear blades, saws, fine cutlery, and metal cutting tools of all description, an 
well as for all implements of steel both large and small. In this work the simplest and most 
satisfactory hardening and tempering processes are given. 

The uses to which the leading brands of steel may be adapted are concisely presented, and their 
treatment for working under different conditions explained, also the special methods for the 
hardening and tempering of special brands. 

A chapter devoted to the different processes for Case-hardening is also included, and special 
reference made to the adoption of machinery steel for tools of various kinds. Price . $2.50 



This famous work has now reached its seventh edition and there is no work issued that can 
compare to it for clearness and completeness. It contains 498 pages and is intended as a 
workshop companion for those engaged in Watch-making and allied Mechanical Arts. Nearly 
250 engravings and fourteen plates are included. Price , $6.00 



*,' v f.