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The latest w 




Robert J. Bliwise A.M. '88 
Sam Hull 

Kim Koster 
Dennis Meredith 
Scott Meisler '00 
Neeta Bidwai '01 
Jaime Ramirez '02 
M.ixmc MilN C Ticiphic Design 
Progress Printing 

Gwynne A. Youny 71, Incident; 
Ruth Wade Ross '68, president- 
elect; M. Laney Funderhurk Jr. 
'60, secreuay-treasurer. 

Arnetta E. Beverly M.Div. '92, 
Divinity School; Henry R. 
"Kelly" DerrB.S.E. 71, M.S.E. 

73, Sclwol of Engineering; 
James A. Spangler II M.E.M. 
'89, Nicholas School of the 
hnitri mmenl; Sunny Harvey 
Burrows M.B.A. '88, Fucjua 
NWihm/ m/ Miim?i,'.vs; Judith Ann 
Maness M.H.A. '83, Department 
of Health Administration; Pamela 
Orth Peters J.D. 78, School 

of Law; Robert L. Murrahjr. 
79, M.D. '83, School of 
Medicine: Elizabeth Whitmore 
Kelley B.S.N. 79, School of 
Nursing; Allen W. Wicken M.S. 

74, Graduate Program in 
rh:\>:>:dl 77kT,(j>y, K,iy Goodman 
Stern '46, Half-Century Club. 

Clay Felker '51, chairman; 
Frederick F. Andrews '60; 
Debra Blum '87; Sarah 
Hardesty Bray 72; Nancy L. 
Cardwell '69; Jerrold K. Footlick; 
Edward M. Gomez 79; Kerry 
E. Hannon '82; Stephen 
LabatonA.M. '86, J.D. '86; 
Elizabeth H. Locke '64, Ph.D. 
72; Thomas RLosee Jr. '63; 
Michael Milstein '88; Ann 
Pelham 74; Michael J. 
Schoenfeld '84; Susan Tifft 73; 
Jane Vessels 77; Robert J. 
Bliwise A.M. '88, secretary. 


$15 per year ($30 foreign) 

1 'hiL' \Lii[u:ine. 014 Chapel Dr., 
Durham, N.C. 27708-0570. 

FAX: (919) 681-1659 

Alumni Records, Box 90613, 
Durham, N.C. 27708-0613 
or e-mail bluedevil(a 


© 1999 Duke University 
Published bimonthly by the 
Office of Alumni Affairs. 


Cover: An abbreviated history of the 
printed word-from a fifteenth-century, 
hand-illuminated /><>n/< ,<\ Hours manuscript 
to a tum-of-the -century, William Morris- 
desigited and -written monograph to the 
tum-of-the-millennium, hand-held, digital 
e-book. Photo illustration by Maxine Mills 
Graphic Design. 

WHAT'S NEXT FOR TEXT? by Robert]. Bitwise 2 

As the age of consumerism meets the electronic era, bibliophiles and publishers may be 
confronting questions of content complicated by innovations in format 

EXERCISING THE STUDENT BODY by Robert ]. Bliwise; photos by Jim Wallace 10 

The new Wilson Recreation Center helps Duke confront a public-health challenge — 
to shift students away from sedentary lifestyles 

Two television anchors — rivals in the country's largest market- 
of reporting in a high-pressure, high-stakes environment 


-reflect on the burdens 

FIRST WEEK, FIRST YEAR by Kim Koster 41 

The first days of the freshman experience mark the beginning of the transition to 
adulthood, a transition that presents a "peculiar challenge" to the university community 


After the hoopla surrounding the 1999 Women's World Cup, will soccer score big in 
a country that until now has resisted its subtle charms? 


News of the Duke Alumni Association, including the 1998-1999 Annual Report; 
mini-profiles; class notes 


A naming gift for engineering, a Center for Jewish Life, a celebration of seventy-five years, 
a portrait of Reynolds Price 


ENAIC and the computer revolution, Terry Sanford and a political legacy 


Eastern Europe prepares for a second post-Communist decade, students prepare for 
the millennium 



As the age of 


meets the 

electronic era, 

bibliophiles and 


may be 


questions of 



by innovations 

in format. 



utumn in New York produced some curiously conflicting statements 

about the state of civilization. At the Museum of Modern Art, an 

exhibition devoted to "Fame After Photography" documented a 

culture consumed with fame. Among the ephemera were a newsreel of Joe Powers sitting on a flagpole for 
sixteen days in 1928; nine baseball cards showing Pete Rose in different baseball poses over a twenty-five- 
year period; a 1998 issue of The Star, featuring the double-hit of Princess Di's death ("Car was Sabotaged — 
French Cops") and Monica ("Shocking Sex Secrets Clinton Doesn't Dare Tell Hillary"); a clock with Elvis' 
face on its face; a series of color prints showing Donald Trump with the likes of Liberace, Kenny G, Malcolm 
Forbes, the Reagans, Muhammed Ali, and Sylvester Stallone; and political buttons with such devotional 


messages as "Ollie for President, All-American Hero." 
The exhibition preserved the words of a fame- 
obsessed Andy Warhol. "The real news, the big 
thing... is the Now," declared Warhol in speaking 
about the famous who become the forgotten. "And 
as soon as their Now gets summed up, we move imme- 
diately onto another person. . .and another Now." 

Just blocks away, the venerable Grolier Club was 
displaying "A Century for the Century: Fine Printed 
Books, 1900-1999," a hundred books from distin- 
guished private and commercial presses of Europe and 
the United States. That particular exhibition was 
meant to celebrate "beauty and excellence in book 
production," including typography, illustration, layout, 
paper, binding, and press work. The twentieth-centu- 
ry fine-press movement goes back to the Kelmscott 
Press, founded in 1891 by the English designer and 
craftsman William Morris. As the show's catalogue 
puts it, "an insistence on quality, the devotion to ex- 
cellence in every component of printing — typogra- 
phy, paper, ink, press work — were the elements of his 

Artistic excellence was not a concept conspicuous 
in the thinking of Warhol — or in our post- Warhol 
culture. But back in the 1930s, the Nonesuch Press 
of another British printer and designer of books, 
Francis Meynell, conceived a seven-volume works 

of Shakespeare. Much Adoe About Nothing was part 
of the Grolier 's celebration. Meynell's publishing for- 
mula involved "significance of subject, beauty of for- 
mat, and moderation of price." Every well-designed 
book"is the begetter of others," he said. "And good 
printing is one of the graces of life even when life 
is ingracious." 

But if Howard Clark is holding the future in his J 
hands — and he may very well be — will the "graces of 
life" be reduced to electrons? Clark, a professor emeri- 
tus in Duke's biomedical engineering department, is 
an early convert to the electronic book. "I'm the least 
computer- smart fellow in my department, and I took 
satisfaction in being the first to have an e-book," he 
says. "My colleagues were astounded." 

A year ago, Clark was a new-product tester for 
NuvoMedia's Rocket eBook. He tried it for a month, 
liked the experience, and made a purchase — at that 
time, for about $500 — as soon as the technology 
became commercially available. Because of cataracts, 
he found reading printed books a strain. He was also 
confronting a space crisis: An avid reader, particularly 
of mystery stories, he was running out of shelf space at 
home; at the insistence of his wife, he got rid of a cou- 
ple of hundred books last spring. 

In his office at the Pratt School of Engineering, 
Clark produces his e-book and brings to the screen 


• •••■. „•• 

v ^ 

In a battle 



ordering, college 

stores insist 

that claims 

about online 

discounts are 


"Don't take 

the bait," warn 

their ads. 

Joseph Ellis' American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas 
Jefferson. Owners of the Rocket eBook log on to a 
Barnes &. Noble website, provide their user I.D. and 
password, and select a title. The book is downloaded 
in about three minutes to the personal computer's 
hard drive. From there, the book is transferred from 
the PC to the e-book device, which has been sitting in 
a "cradle" attached to the PC. 

Linda Martinez, coordinator for the engineering 
and science libraries at Duke, notes that e-book read- 
ers are just purchasing "access rights." Thanks to 
encryption technology, the transfer from the book- 
seller's website works only for the owner's e-book 
device. So the reader can't lend the content to a 
friend the way he would a printed book; all he can do, 
a bit warily, is to have the friend borrow the rather 
expensive device, complete with the loaded content. 
At the same time, the e-book may be a boon to pub- 
lishers, Martinez says, since it should enhance their 
production and distribution efficiencies. In 1996, it 
cost between $2.00 and $2.50 to distribute a hardcover 
book and between $1.00 and $1.50 for a softcover 
book. The return rate of unsold books from book- 
sellers was between 30 and 50 percent. (Unsold books 
are fully returnable to publishers.) More books pro- 
duced and distributed digitally should mean less paper 
printing, lower shipping costs, no time delays for ful- 
filling orders, less out-of-print material, and fewer 
overstocked books to be returned. 

Martinez, another Rocket eBook tester, does worry 
about the impact of inevitable changes in technology, 
the sort of changes that the printed book has with- 
stood for hundreds of centuries. "How do I know that 
the format of the e-book I buy today will be tomor- 
row's format?" she asks. "Remember those five-by-five 
floppy disks?" 

For his part, Clark observes that the Rocket eBook 
was released into an unsettled environment; the 
major competitor, SoftBook, has a different mecha- 
nism for transmitting the book to the reading device. 
So the e-book revolution may produce a variation on 
the unhappy battle of videocassette recorders waged 
by VHS and Betamax formats. He also wonders about 
pressure — which he hopes the manufacturers will 
resist — to add to the e-book such non-bookish fea- 
tures as cell phones and personal organizers. 

The Barnes 6k Noble site is limited to about 2,000 
selections, many of them self-help books and titles, 
like Dracula, on which the copyright has expired. 
(Still, for Frank McCourt's Tis, 'tisn't true that a criti- 
cal flop is a technological flop, and the book made its 
way speedily as an e-book offering.) Clark says it's like- 
ly that booksellers underestimated the complexity of 
formatting e-book-friendly text. They may also have 
underestimated the financial expectations of publishers. 
When he orders a title, he finds the cost cheaper than 
a hardback book, but "not as cheap is it ought to be." 

Limitations aside, Clark is a fan of his Rocket eBook. 
"I'm disappointed in the content, but that's irrelevant 
to the concept," he says. The device is portable, about 
the size of a paperback; it weighs just one pound and 
four ounces. The reader can control contrast and 
adjust type size. With a stylus, he can underline text, 
"bookmark" sections to which he wants to return, 

make his own notes, call up a dictionary definition 
of an obscure word, search for key phrases, and 
arrange the book on the screen in a horizontal or — 
following traditional book fashion — vertical format. 
Pages don't "turn," of course; the reader scrolls onto 
the next "page" with the push of a button. (In an e- 
book world, fastidious footnoters will have to adopt 
a new convention, like citing a reference " 15 percent 
through the document" rather than on "page 45," 
he notes.) New iterations of the e-book scroll automa- 
tically, at a pace set by the reader. They also are 
less device-dependent. Microsoft, for example, is 
offering a high-resolution e-book through its Windows 

The Rocket eBook stores text equivalent to the 
contents of ten paperback books and will run 
twenty hours on a single battery charge. Clark c 
imagine the hand-held device accommodating the full 
set of textbooks that engineering undergraduates use 
over their four years — bulky books like the Elements of 
Materials Science and Engineering that he has on his 
office shelf. It's already accompanied him on 
European trip. "The future is here," he says. "This is an 
awfully clever system. I just wish I had thought of it, < 
bought stock in it." 

as he contemplates the intersection of books 
and technology, Clark probably wishes he 
had bought stock in, the on- 
line book seller that has evolved into an 
electronic superstore for books, music, and video. The 
new academic year brought aggressive pitches by 
online stores that gear themselves specifically to col- 
lege students. Student Monitor, a firm that researches 
the student market, estimates that as many as 40 per- 
cent of students will purchase their textbooks online 
this year, up from just 5 percent last year. As a New 
York Times article puts it, "The stores are falling over 
themselves to get students' attention." 

There are differences among the services, not only 
in pricing and shipping schedules, but also in whether 
they offer course-specific reading lists and whether 
they allow students to sell books back. Where the sites 
lack reading lists, students will have to come armed 
either with the authors and titles they need or with 
each book's unique ISBN number. That means de- 
pending on their professors to serve up a roster of 
readings well before the start of classes— or at least 
well before the first assignment is due. But even if they 
are prepared for advance ordering, students may con- 
front the reality that book popularity has a price. One 
Duke student who probed the sites this fall found that 
some widely-used textbooks were out of stock., one of the largest textbook sellers, 
ran a $10-million advertising campaign this fall with 
the slogan "Get out of line." The campaign, reports 
The Times, included television advertisements featur- 
ing penguins in single file scooting along the ice. 
Ecampus. com, an online bookshop that opened last 
summer, embarked on its own $10-million promotion 
campaign, including advertisements on television, 
in Rolling Stone magazine, and on 8,100 movie screens 
around the country. Its main appeal is free shipping. 
Varsitybooks. com recruits students as campus repre- 



Except for gunpowder, no invention has 
shaped our world more than printing 
from movable type. Every aspect of our 
lives in some way depends upon it. 

Historians tell us that it all began in the 
early 1400s in the German city of Mainz 
when Johannes Gutenberg, "a stone -polisher 
and manufacturer of spectacles," began 
experimenting with ink, type, and paper. 
And so we like to say that Gutenberg invent- 
ed the printing press. But that's not quite 
true. A version of his press had been used for 
a couple of hundred years by the Dutch and 
the Italians to print religious pictures and 
playing cards. This rather common piece of 
equipment had been used for pressing every- 
thing from grapes to linen. 

As for printing, at least five hundred years 
earlier the Chinese had discovered that by 
spreading ink on a cut stone or a piece of 
wood, an impression could be transferred to 
cloth or paper. By the year 100 A.D., the 
Chinese had already discovered how to 
make paper from the bark of the mulberry 
tree; by the 1400s, the Europeans had 
learned how to make plenty of it from linen 

So Gutenberg's invention was not the 
press, nor the paper, nor even the process. 
Rather, he figured out how to make metal 
type easily and efficiently so that the letters 
could be used again and again, and when 
broken or worn, melted down and recast. To 
cast the type he needed a metal that would 
melt at a sufficiently low temperature so 
that, when cooled, it would be hard enough 
to withstand the wear that comes with con- 
tinuous re-impressions. He experimented 
with a number of mixtures before he hit 
upon the right combination of lead, tin, and 

There remained, however, the problem of 
casting the various letter shapes. He needed 
a form that could be varied to accommodate 
the different sizes. For example, the letter 
"m" is three times as wide as the letter "i." 
He resolved that problem by making a small 
hand-held form that could be varied in width 
to accommodate the different letter sizes 
when he poured in the melted lead. Simply 
that, and not the press, changed the entire 
process. Multiples of the same letter could be 
made quickly, and the same form could be 
used for letters as different as the wide "m" 
and the long "j." 

Gutenberg's invention was a distinctly 
mechanical achievement. His invention was 
not the printing press; it was the form for 
casting the various letter shapes. 

By means of the form, he gave us movable 
type — the first example of completely stan- 
dardized and interchangeable parts. And 
with the movable type, he gave us the print- 
ed sheet — the first completely standardized 
product, manufactured in series. And that 
made it truly a revolutionary invention in 
every way, for Gutenberg created the model 
for all future instruments of reproduction. 

— John L. Sharpe III B.D. '65, Ph.D. '69 

Sharpe, the Duke library's longtime curator of 
rare hooks and later academic librarian for 
research affairs, writes about and lectures inter- 
nationally on the history of the hook. This essay 
is adapted from one of his contributed commen- 
taries to WUNC Radio. 

sentatives, and guarantees savings of up to 40 
percent on new textbooks and delivery in one 
to three business days. It also advertises the 
chance to "win free stuff," ranging from a digi- 
tal camera to a home theater sound system, to 
those who sample its site. — 
owned by Barnes & Noble — pitches itself to 
professors as well as students; in a Chronicle of 
Higher Education ad, the company declares 
that "apart from offering the largest selection 
of textbooks, we also have the only search en- 
gine tailored specifically for educators." 

The rise of the electronic upstarts "didn't 
surprise me at all," says Jim Wilkerson, director 

of the Duke Stores — which, in terms of vol- 
ume, is the seventh-largest college store oper- 
ation in the country. "I've been tracking this 
now for two or three years, and it has been a 
subject of significant conversation in our 
industry." Wilkerson compares the electronic 
challenge to the threat posed when a large 
competitor opens across the street. "That's 
been the norm in the retail business for 
decades. But it's new for many in the college- 
store industry. Many are very fearful of it, very 
frustrated by it, because college stores have 
operated in a type of cocoon. But you can't 
ever take business for granted; you can't ever 
take the customer for granted." He says some 
college-store operators have tried to deny the 
online companies access to their students, a 
gesture he thinks is counterproductive. 

According to The Chronicle of Higher Edu- 
cation, the National Association of College 
Stores (NACS) created a series of anti-online 
ads for its 3,000-plus member stores to place 
in local and campus newspapers. The ads 
warn "Don't take the bait" and "Don't be 

duped by 'discounters'"; they declare that 
claims about online discounts are overblown 
and that some online services sell the wrong 
editions of textbooks. And late in the fall, 
NACS filed a lawsuit against Varsitybooks. 
com, accusing the online competitor of false 
and misleading claims. 

"The bottom line, I think, is that customers 
want the best price and the best service and 
what is most convenient," Wilkerson says. 
"For textbook stores to survive and potential- 
ly prosper well into the future, they are going 
to have to be service-oriented. Operationally 
and financially, they are going to have to be 
lean and mean and very efficient." 

For the past three years, the Duke textbook 
store has played to the convenience theme 
with its "Blue Devil Delivery." Over the sum- 
mer, freshmen receive course-specific book 
lists from the store; they can pre-order their 
books, and the store will then assemble the 
orders, pack them in boxes with the students' 
names, and distribute them during the orien- 
tation period on East Campus. Some 800 
freshmen took advantage of the service for 
the fall semester, thereby avoiding the un- 
wieldy, and unwelcome, early-semester lines 
for book purchases. "It's actually much more 
costly for us to provide that type of service," 
Wilkerson says. "But I do think it provides us 
with some additional goodwill on the part of 
our customers. Hopefully, goodwill turns into 
more business." 

The Duke textbook store's revenues in- 
creased this fall over the previous fall, even in 
the face of the online competition, Wilkerson 
says. The same can't be said of online mer- 
chandising, and he won't be surprised if there's 
a considerable shakeout in electronic com- 
merce: "Few of these companies have yet to 
produce a single dime of profit; most of their 
efforts today are centered on garnering a larg- 
er market share. We can't operate our stores 
at a loss. We have to break even or produce a 
profit. At some point in the future, I presume 
these companies will have to do the same. If 
you don't have to break even, if you don't 
have to operate at a profit, you can sell at the 
lowest prices in the world." You can't do that 
forever, he suggests. 

Something like 98 percent of the Duke 
faculty place their orders through Duke's text- 
book store. But the store is feeling the elec- 
tronic pressure and, by next fall, plans to pro- 
vide its own online ordering arrangement. It 
"would provide people with access to our data- 
base and to the course books required for them 
specifically, and we would sell the books at a 
competitive price," says Wilkerson. "Then we 
could ship the order to them or have it wait- 
ing for them here. It's a relatively simple pro- 
cess." There's also a possibility that the store 
will enter into some kind of partnership with 
one of the online companies. 

November- Decemlv: I*k> 

In 1991, the 
year after the 
first super-book- 
stores emerged, 
accounted for 
32.5 percent of 
book sales. 
Within six years, 
their market 
share had 
dipped to 17 

OT^independent bookstores, the pressure is coming 
from two directions — not just the online or- 
dering services, but also superstores like Barnes & 
Noble. The chains have a hold on publishers that 
allows them to insist on favorable financial arrange- 
ments. The independents have no such clout, mean- 
ing that cost recovery is far from certain. Since the 
early 1990s, the independents have experienced a 
steady loss of market share; reports of the closing of 
independents across the country have become com- 
monplace. A year ago, Publishers Weekly listed promi- 
nent stores that had shut their doors, including three 
branches of twenty-seven-year-old Oxford Books in 
Atlanta, the nine branches of twenty-five-year-old 
Taylors Bookstores in Dallas, eighteen-year-old Ode- 
gard Books in St. Paul, and twenty-year-old Books &. 
Co. in New York City. In 1991, the year after the first 
superstores emerged, independents accounted for 
32.5 percent of book sales. Between 1991 and 1997, 
the independents' market share dipped from 24-9 per- 
cent to 17 percent. 

Four years ago, a Barnes &. Noble superstore opened 
just between Durham and Chapel Hill. Beyond author 
readings and signings, it plays host to reading groups 
devoted to African-American literature, "great books 
of the century," Shakespeare, and the philosophy of 
science. The local Barnes &. Noble has been market- 
ing its ties with StoryLines Southeast, a locally-pro- 
duced radio show — co-funded by Barnes & Noble — 
that explores the literature of the South. Charleston- 
based Josephine Humphreys '67 was scheduled to 
make a late-fall appearance to talk about her Rich in 
Love, one of Storylines' featured books. 

Tom Campbell '70, co-owner of The Regulator Book- 
shop in Durham, says the nearby superstore had an 
impact on his customers that wasn't long-lasting. "I 
think there may be an initial enthusiasm when a store 
like that opens up near you. But I also think that folks 
miss our personality after a while, and they're drawn 
back in." Since it opened in 1977, The Regulator has 
added staff and expanded its business hours; a year 
ago, it enlarged its space significantly. The store now 
includes the Java Cafe, a franchised food service that 
tempts patrons with coffee concoctions, pastries, and 
quick lunches. It also added more seating areas, where 
those patrons can comfortably take in reading fare; 
especially on the weekends, Campbell says, the store 
becomes "a community living room." Parents grab their 
children, grab some books, and engage in a reading 
exercise — and purchases, of course, often follow. 

With authors reading their own work, The Regu- 
lator's social space becomes book-appreciation space. 
This fall's authors have ranged from Fred Chappell '61, 
A.M. '64, whose Look Back All the Green Valley com- 
pletes a series about a Southern family, to Erik Larson, 
with his best-selling Isaac's Storm, an account of 
America's deadliest hurricane. "We have been able to 
get a lot of major authors to come here," Campbell 
says. "It's taken a lot of work to get us to that point. 
Part of that work was letting people in New York know 
that there is a very good audience for authors in this 
area. This area has the largest per capita of Ph.D.s of 
any metropolitan area in the country. Now, that in 
and of itself does not necessarily mean that those folks 

are reading books. But it indicates a very well-educat- 
ed population. And when major writers are coming, 
we get a lot of beyond-the-street publicity; I think it 
gives the store a certain cachet." 

To keep that cachet, a store like The Regulator now 
needs to be responsive electronically. Perhaps a bit para- 
doxically, independent stores across the country are 
grouping together into "Book Sense." Book Sense's 
biggest project, launched this fall, allows independents 
to offer sophisticated Internet ordering and fulfillment 
services. According to the American Booksellers Asso- 
ciation, by the beginning of August, the initiative had 
drawn in 1,000 members. The website offers a search- 
able database of every book in print, reviews, secure 
credit- card ordering, and shipping. Or customers can 
check electronically whether the book they want is on 
hand, have it reserved for them, and depart the virtual 
world for a visit to the physical store. 

Book Sense is friendlier than the corporate sites, 
Campbell writes in a newsletter for his customers. "It 
will of course feature our own readings schedule, staff 
favorites, and bestsellers. But it will also feature books 
that have been selected by the recommendations of 
independent booksellers nationwide (rather than fea- 
turing books that have been selected solely by the 

availability of marketing dollars from publishers) 

We won't be holding any auctions or selling electron- 
ics, sporting goods, CDs, dog treats, hemorrhoid 

creams Everything on our site, both what we put 

there and what we bring in from the Book Sense net- 
work, will be about books, good books, and nothing 
but books. Becoming the Wal-Mart of the Internet is 
not a goal of ours, nor of Book Sense." 

The independents will find their niche, as Campbell 
describes it, through a combination of "clicks and 
bricks," with an Internet presence and a real-world 
presence. "The Internet stores are fine if you really 
know what you want. But it's very difficult to browse 
on the Internet. There is just no substitute for being 
able to pick up the book and thumb through it and be 
exposed immediately to the author's words." It's also 
difficult to find social rewards in an electronic-order- 
ing routine. "People still like to — need to — interact 
with other people, to do things other than sit in front 
of the computer screen. People are social creatures. 
Coming here, coming to Ninth Street, is a pleasant, 
social thing to do." 

And just as readers seek out social connections, 
they don't want to be steered toward books whose best 
aspect is the associated marketing campaign, he says. 
"What ends up on our shelf is a synthesis of our ideas 
of what we think is interesting, what we hope other 
people are going to think is interesting, and feedback 
that we get from people who walk in the door telling 
us what they think is interesting. And we take that 
every bit as seriously as a review in The New York 
Times, sometimes more seriously." 

.^technology is affecting not just bookstores 
^T and book purchasers but also authors. After 
f s publishing fifteen novels with commercial 
£/ presses, Julie Tetel '72 founded her own 
small press in 1996. Tetel, an associate professor of 
English at Duke and a scholar of linguistics, writes 


romance novels; two of them, Swept Away 
and The Blue Hour, are studio-published. On 
her website, she solicits "talented writers to 
join us in our studio"; she aims for "discerning 
readers who are looking for fresh stories from 
new voices, who demand great writing, and 
who appreciate excellent editing and copy- 
editing along with top-notch design and 
materials." She says she is responding to those 
"who are looking for books that take creative 
risks commercial publishers can no longer 
afford." Her imprint for works of fiction is 
Madeira Books, named for an island territory 
of Portugal off the coast of Africa; her nonfic- 
tion imprint is Generation Books, geared to 
women's life experiences. 

Tetel was inspired in part, she says, by the 
analysis of Robert Frank of Cornell and Duke 
public policy professor Philip Cook in their 
1995 book The Winner-Take-All Society. The 
two scholars define today's publishing scene 
as "a lottery of the purest sort, with a handful 
of best- selling authors receiving more than 
$10 million per book while armies of equally 
talented writers earn next to nothing." Pub- 
lishers have learned that "the surest way to 
achieve large early sales is to promote books 
by authors who have already written several 
bestsellers." Financial incentives "strongly fa- 
vor sensational, lurid, and formulaic offerings; 
these incentives could not have been con- 
sciously designed to be more hostile to inno- 
vative, quirky, or offbeat works, whose charms 
generally take longer to communicate." Un- 
der such circumstances, publishers, and their 
writers, become driven by marketing concerns. 
And entrepreneurs respond by generating a 
"boutique movement," whereby specialty sup- 
pliers steal market share from traditional mass 

Through technology, in Tetel's view, writers 
can control the production of their work for 
the first time since Gutenberg. "I knew that 
typesetters were a thing of the past, since I 
had been sending my manuscripts on spell- 
checked disks to my publisher for several 
years. I figured I could just as easily send my 
disks straight to a book manufacturer." The 
new economic game, as Tetel puts it, is "disin- 
termediation," or the elimination of the mid- 
dleman. "In publishing today, everybody in 
the middle can be disintermediated. The only 
groups who can't be disintermediated are the 
authors and the readers, precisely because 
neither of them is in the middle. I have come 
to understand the publisher as the biggest 
and most wasteful book manufacturing and 
distributional middleman of them all." 

With press runs of around 2,000, Tetel is 
trying to limit the complexities of distribution 
and finances. So she's pitching the Madeira 
imprint's Miracle on 1-40, which she describes 
as "a Christmas-gift novella," to truck stops — 
Cracker Barrel, Flying J, and others — located 

along, appropriately enough, Interstate 40. 
She has a different strategy for Generation 
Books' Real Birth: Women Share Their Stories; 
for that title, she's marketing to organizations 
like the National Association of Child Birth- 
ing Centers and publications like Lamaze To- 


WE arc herein the im.i,: o< 1 population busied 
about a craft which m.iv be eni!cj the ;no![ .111::. 
cnt in the world, a craft which I look upon with 
ihe -rc.itciit lntcicil. .1:, I well miy, sinec, ciiccpt 
perhaps the noble craft of'heLi:.ehu:i. liii-. u 1., se 
cond to none other. And in the midst of this in. 
dustnous population, en one eel in ni.ikinj eooc's 

n.1-1 :.;:.: in..-,'.: 

111.1 to ,1 School ofArt. one ofthe bodies that were 
founded all over the country at atone when it was 
I ell theic was soiiietlim: men; .1; between the 

I hope nothing 1 ni.ivi.iyto merit will make you 
think that I undcr-valuc the importance of these 
places of instruction ; on the contrary, I believe 
them to be necessary to us, unless we are prepared 
to give up all attempt to unitcthesctwo elements 

Now. though no man can be more impressed 
with the importance ofthe art of potter', I 
am, and though I have not, I hope, neglected the 
study of it ftom the artistic or historico -artistic 
side, I do not think myself bound to follow up the 
subject of your especial art ; not so much because 

day. "Commercial publishers can put a lot of 
books out on the marketplace, can get a lot of 
books in Barnes & Noble and the checkouts 
at grocery stores. But they can't get their 
books in all of the birthing centers in the 
country; it's too expensive. For me, it's too 
expensive to ship thousands and thousands of 
books into this big distribution center, 50 per- 
cent of which will come back. I can't afford to 
do that. I don't even want to do that. But I 
can do a very targeted mailing to the birthing 
centers, and they all have libraries." 

niterary agent Virginia Barber 
A.M. '60, Ph.D. '69 agrees that 
publishers are feeling more and 
more financial pressure, and that 
it takes greater effort to ensure that books of 
literary merit won't be crowded out. "For- 
merly you could find an editor who saw what 
you saw in the book and championed that 
book within the house, and you got a modest 
contract and you built up an author," she says. 
"Now it's much more publication by commit- 
tee, which is a bad idea, because art of any 
kind doesn't survive a committee. Unless the 
editor has the power to champion a book — 
particularly a book that has anything quirky, 
troublesome, out of line, new, fresh, or not 
recognizable — it's more difficult. But it's not 
impossible. The editor has to have the forti- 
tude, the cleverness, and the power to get it 
through a much trickier path than he used to 
have." She says the lines are increasingly blur- 

ring between the editing and business sides of 
publishing. Securing an author's contract 
now involves long delays, a tedious process of 
"going from desk to desk to desk; each level 
of management has to sign off on it." 

Sitting next to a wooden coffee table in the 
shape of two stacked books, Barber muses on 
the enduring peculiarities of publishing. Among 
the hundred or so authors she represents are 
Peter Mayle (A Year in Provence), Andrew 
Delbanco (The Death of Satan: How Ameri- 
cans Have Lost the Sense of Evil), Anne Rivers 
Siddons (Peachtree Road) , and Alice Munro 
(The Love of a Good Woman.) "It's always been 
a mystery to me, and a wonderful, wonderful 
one, that there is a business in which you can 
sell a million copies of an item and 5,000 
copies of another item, and that 5,000-copies 
item comes from an author who one day is a 
National Book Award winner," she says. "If I 
were just out of Harvard Business School and 
I looked at the figures, I would say, what in 
the world are you doing publishing these little 
books at 5,000 copies? The 5,000-copies pro- 
ject is not really profitable, not in any major 
sense, and certainly not juxtaposed with the 
million-copies sale — though, of course, the 
million-copies author is going to have a very, 
very high advance the next time. 

"The other problem is that the first book 
sells 5,000 copies, and then the author's sec- 
ond book sells 6,000 copies. That's not good 
enough, and the author is in real danger of 
getting dropped. The publisher who will stay 
with a small author, who will commit himself 
to that author, is a rare thing now. So you 
have to pray for movie rights or an Oprah or 
some phenomenon from the outside to help 
you sell faster." (The entertainer energetically 
recommends books on her talk show and aug- 
ments those suggestions on her website.) 

"I'm fascinated with the phenomenon of 
Oprah, because it is so difficult to get the 
word out to people about books," she says. 
"The old ways of telling people about books 
aren't having the same effects. For instance, 
we used to talk about a review-driven book; a 
lot of our books were review-driven books. 
That meant you wanted to go to publishers 
who garnered a lot of review attention for 
their lists. Those reviews still matter, but they 
don't count for what they used to count for. 
They are not driving the book in the same 
way. Nor is the full-page ad in The New York 
Times Book Review, the traditional way of 
publicizing books." The Oprah effect "indi- 
cates to me that people are looking for an 
authority that they can trust, that they feel 
sees the world somewhat as they see the 
world," she says. Anita Shreve's The Pilot's 
Wife — an "Oprah's Book Club" selection last 
spring — has sold more than 2 million copies 
in this country and Canada, she says. (Shreve 
is represented by Barber.) "That is absolutely 

NntomkT-Decemher |W 

breathtaking for a trade paperback." She says she 
wishes, though, that there were additional voices of 
literary authority who could stir public passions 
around reading. 


"I had been 

sending my 

manuscripts on 

spell- checked 

disks to my 

publisher for 

several years. 

I figured I 

could just as 

easily send my 

disks straight 

to a book 


ne steady presence in the midst of publishing flux, 
and one of Barber's models of that rare editor who 
can effectively advocate for an author, is Robert 

1 ^ 

I independence and Jefferson's 
I paradoxical stance on slavery. 
H But it was not until I began 
B research for a book on John 
I Adams that I probed beneath the 
I surface of the Jefferson 
/fHl correspondence. It was an odd 
frn^^m way for a Virginian to come 
//nj^B home again, arriving at 
IJr^H Monticello by way of Quincy, but 
I that is how it happened. 

■ \ A^H Adams had a truly special 
\jf ^H relationship with Jefferson that 
^J^H developed out of their common 
■ cause against English imperial 
I rule and their different roots in 
I the regional cultures of New 
I England and Virginia. As a 
I result, Adams admired, even 

Loomis '49, senior editor and vice president of Ran- 
dom House. Beginning a conversation in late Septem- 
ber, he shows a visitor a mocked-up cover of Sophie's 
Choice by William Styron '47, one of his authors. The 
book is about to be reissued in a twentieth-anniversary 
edition as the focus of a reading campaign. Complete 
with posters, printed reminders on utility bills, read- 
ings over the radio, reading guides and reading groups, 
and a showing of the movie version with lead actor 
Meryl Streep in attendance, the campaign is being 
organized by Virginia's public-library association. 

Loomis was concerned that he might be running 
late that morning because he wanted to stay at home 
to catch another of his authors on The Today Show. 
That author is Edmund Morris, whose Dutch: A 
Memoir of Ronald Reagan, was creating a sensation 
even before anyone had taken a thoughtful plunge 
into its 874 pages. The book is a result of a fourteen- 
year effort, unparalleled access to the former presi- 
dent, and, reportedly, an advance of $3 million. Its 
reception, though, hinged not on the author's conclu- 
sions about Reagan's presumed absence of intellectual 
curiosity, difficulty in making human connections, or 
success at spurring America into an age of self-confi- 
dence. The issue with the book was that Morris had 
created a fictional "Edmund Morris" character, born 
three decades before the birth of the real memoirist; 

that narrative approach allowed him to be a lifelong 
observer and recorder of Reagan. After all, Reagan 
had lived his life as an actor, particularly on the politi- 
cal stage, and he was always playing to spectators. 

Loomis — like Morris in subsequent interviews — 
compares the narrator in the book to the projector on 
which a documentary movie unreels. After a while, 
the reader sits back, becomes absorbed by the narrative, 
and forgets about the narrator. Reagan and the fictional 
Morris don't interact. But the narrative technique gives 
Morris "a very immediate voice, a voice through which 
he can comment," Loomis says. "It's more human." 

In early October, The New York Times put Loomis 
on the front page. In an article headlined "Editor of the 
Reagan Book Overcame Qualms," The Times noted 
that Loomis "has wide latitude to shepherd his writ- 
ers." The paper quoted Ann Godoff, the president and 
editor-in-chief of Random House, as saying, "I would 
not question Bob Loomis because he has over forty 
years of experience editing some of the most impor- 
tant pieces of literature in the late twentieth century." 

Loomis' Random House is itself a reinvented entity: 
In 1998, the company was acquired by the German 
company Bertelsmann, possibly the world's biggest 
publisher. The fifteen largest publishing deals in 1998 
totaled more than $11 billion, and "further consolidated 
all aspects of the industry," Publishers Weekly reported. 

That same year, Barnes 6k Noble announced that it 
would acquire the nation's largest book wholesaler, 
Ingram. The Federal Trade Commission said it would 
oppose the acquisition because such a merger would 
slow delivery of books to independents. In what was 
called the greatest example ever of bookseller 
activism, 125,000 customer signatures were collected 
in a petition drive. Barnes 6k Noble let the deal die. 
Although it dropped plans to begin its own U.S. online 
operation, Bertelsmann went on to grab a 50 percent 
stake in Barnes 6k Noble's online subsidiary. Such 
steps have prompted lots of industry speculation about 
a new trend toward "vertical integration," or pieces of 
one publishing empire feeding into other pieces. 

Distribution has long been a problem for publisher 
efficiency. But Loomis says that even a giant like Ran- 
dom House is showing new nimbleness in areas like 
printing on demand — committing books to a digital 
program that allows near-instant printing. He talks 
about an order for thirty copies of an out-of-stock paper- 
back needed to accompany an artist's show in Prince- 
ton. "We're able to reprint almost one book at a time 
now and at a reasonable price. That not only allows us 
to keep things in print and fulfill orders, but the imme- 
diacy of it is a boon. It used to take weeks to reprint a 
small edition of a book, then put it in the warehouse, 
then get it shipped. These things can be done actually 
overnight." Eventually, he says, the customer may be 
able to walk into a bookstore, order a book, and have 
the book produced for him in a couple of minutes. 

While he laments what he calls a "People magazine 
syndrome" in publishing, or a skewing toward person- 
ality-driven titles, he points to some pleasing publish- 
ing facts. More books are being published than ever 
before. More books are being bought. And there are 
more outlets to learn about books. It's no harder today 
than in the past to advocate for the unknown author, 


he says; after all, almost 3,000 novels were 
published last year. "That's an amazing thing 
to me. The problem is, of course, that most 
people don't know that two-thirds of them 
ever existed." If an acquiring editor is enthu- 
siastic, and succeeds at conveying that enthu- 
siasm in editorial meetings, a manuscript might 
see its way through publication. 

A publisher needs books that may not be 
blockbusters but that will sell reliably, Loomis 
says. "A solid backlist of books that keep on 
selling feeds the reputations of a publishing 
house, and it helps you get new books." At 
the same time, a publisher "couldn't exist on 
the expectation of bestsellers. It's all a kind of 
gamble, and you wouldn't want to gamble 
everything on bestsellers." Every day, he says, 
publishers make deals with authors for hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars. And a lot of those 
investments turn out to be less than profit- 
able. The model he favors is cultivating authors 
who seem promising but who may be relatively 
unknown. William Styron's first book with 
Random House, Ue Down in Darkness, sold only 
modestly; it was only later, with The Confessions 
of Nat Turner, Sophie's Choice, and Darkness 
Visible, that he achieved best-selling status. 

But even with editorial enthusiasm, it's not 
easy these days for publishers to buy and pro- 
mote new books. Publishers increasingly find 

themselves in bidding wars for "name" writ- 
ers. And to recover their costs, they need to 
find more imaginative ways to create a "buzz" 
around a title — not just through the usual 
"schlepping around the country" by authors, 
as Loomis puts it, but through an Oprah 
endorsement or interview shows like Today. 
"Edmund Morris is a good example. The book 
is so controversial now, and he's so good that 
you could put him anywhere." The television 
producer is unlikely to schedule the unknown 
writer or the unglamorous book subject. So 
publishers seek synergy through new, and 
sometimes expensive, arrangements. "We used 
to be able to get bookstores to do pretty much 
what we wanted. Now it's almost reversed, 
and they're telling us what they will do, and 
asking us to pay for it as well. You may think 
the store picked a book for window display 
because they liked it. They put it there be- 
cause the publisher paid them to do it." 

Is a book on display more a commodity 
than a treasure? Whether our culture is com- 
modity-driven or treasure-enamored, it is still 
a reading culture. Online sellers, in fact, prob- 
ably have generated interest in books in gen- 
eral. The New York Times reported that in 
1998 the sales of adult hard-cover and trade 
paperback books — the top money-makers for 
trade publishers — rose more than 4 percent 

from a year earlier, to 497 million copies. 
Children's books also made gains. In a culture 
that produces so many ephemeral artifacts 
and that shows a fixation on the famous, the 
enduring book may not be a throwback; it 
may be what it always has been — an escape. 

Loomis says that people never voluntarily 
throw out their books. Books have a certain 
standing — if not a sanctity — as physical ob- 
jects. They are constant reminders of the his- 
tory of ideas, and of the reader's own history. 
"Paper books possess a permanent thereness; 
they need not be switched on to exist," wrote 
The Times' Richard Eder in a tribute to this 
fall's "New York Is Book Country" book fair. 
"When a page is turned, the preceding pages 
do not vanish; they are simply obscured, as 
one tree obscures another on a woods walk." 

Some years ago, Algonquin Books, a liter- 
ary publisher in Chapel Hill, ran an essay 
about books and cultural taste. The newsletter 
mentioned a celebrated comment made by 
the Duke of Gloucester when Edward Gibbon 
presented him with one more volume of his 
ongoing Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: 
"Another damn'd, thick, square book! Always 
scribble scribble scribble! Eh? Mr. Gibbon?" 
Whether or not it's the thick, square book that 
endures, our culture needs scribblers and 
readers and the books that link them. 

Mm You Live Th #S ST is How You Live 


Listen to the crickets serenade you on 
your own balcony. Catch a pop-fly at a 
world-famous Durham Bulls game. 
Take a class at one of the three 

Continuing Care 
Retirement Community 
2701 Pickett Road' 
Durham, NC 27705 

universities that make up the Research 
Triangle region. No matter what you 
choose to do, you'll find life gets 
better at The Forest at Duke. 



November IWinlvi l 0, »> 

The new $20-million, 99,000-square-foot 

Wilson Recreation Center helps 

Duke confront a public-health challenge — 

to shift students away from sedentary lifestyles. 


For those whose undergraduate days 
hardly straddled the millennium, "rec- 
reation" meant brisk walks between 
classroom buildings, tanning time on campus 
quadrangles, and flailing with a tennis racket. 
But fitness is in, at least on the college cam- 
pus. And it's a good thing. A couple of years 
ago, a Time cover story speculated that "rather 
than getting healthy in the health-conscious 

Eighties, Americans actually plumped out." 
The story mentioned a Centers for Disease 
Control and Prevention study showing that 
the number of Americans who are seriously 
overweight, after holding steady for twenty 
years at about a quarter of the population, 
jumped to one-third. The story also pointed to 
findings in the Journal of the American Medical 
Association (JAMA) that some 58 million peo- 




pie in the U.S. weigh at least 20 percent more 
than their ideal body weight. 

Time found "alarming signs" that "the next 
generation may be in even worse shape by the 
time it comes of age." Thanks in large part to 
junk-food addiction, the percentage of teens 
who are overweight, which held steady at 
about 15 percent through the Seventies, rose 
to 21 percent by the beginning of this decade. 

In its most recent report, the President's 
Council on Physical Fitness says workers in- 
creasingly are leashed to their computers; 
money-strapped schools are devoting fewer 
resources to physical education; and young 
people are habituating themselves into watch- 
ing TV or playing video games. "Clearly, one of 
the most important public-health challenges 
is moving our society from a sedentary one to 
a more physically active one," in the words of 
the report. And this fall, surveys published in 
the JAMA found that obesity has surged in 
the past decade and is a major cause of mor- 
tality. Obesity now affects nearly one in five 
adults in the U.S., killing some 300,000 a year. 
As a social killer, it ranks just behind tobacco. 

From its start, Duke was committed to a 
physically active campus. The Angier Duke 
Gymnasium, later known as "The Ark," was 
built on East Campus in 1898; it was the scene 
of the first intercollegiate basketball game in 
the history of North Carolina. A West Cam- 
pus gymnasium, along with the rest of the 
West Campus core, opened in September 1930 
(the building became Card Gym two decades 
later) . The indoor stadium, now Cameron In- 
door Stadium, opened ten years later. At the 
dedication of the indoor stadium, Vice Presi- 
dent and Dean of the University William H. 
Wannamaker underscored a commitment to 
"the physical well-being of our students," from 
"the days when there was here only Trinity 
College." Wannamaker referred to longstand- 
ing efforts to "provide efficient and yet plea- 
surable means" for exercise of the student 
body. "In my opinion, this part of our under- 
graduate work has been of incalculable value, 
and the interest taken in it by our students 
has been commendable and encouraging." 

This October, building on that commend- 
able and encouraging trend, Duke officially 
unveiled the Wilson Center. Gary Wilson '62 
and his wife, Barbera Thornhill, donated $5 
million to begin construction of the $20-mil- 
lion, 99,000-square-foot facility. It nearly 
doubles the amount of recreational and fit- 

ness space for Duke students. (In 1996, the 
$5-million Brodie Recreational Center added 
50,000 square feet of recreational and fitness 
space to East Campus.) Wilson, co-chairman 
of Northwest Airlines Inc. and a Duke trustee, 
attended the university on an athletic schol- 
arship as a two-sport athlete — track and 
football — and played on Duke's 1961 Cotton 
Bowl championship team. 

Wilson Center director Bill Harvey says the 
center draws more than 1,000 students, facul- 
ty, and Duke employees on many days; the 
building is open 108 hours a week, with peak 
times between three and seven o'clock in the 
afternoon. The weight room has the strongest 
attraction — sometimes exceeding 300 visitors 
per day. The cardiovascular workout area, 
with stationary bicycles, treadmills, step ma- 
chines, and cross-trainers, is also popular, and 
the three full-court basketball courts and 
running track above the basketball courts 
stay constantly busy. Harvey says the building 
also gets big crowds from physical-education 
and noncredit classes in dance and aerobics. 
(The basketball courts, along with the wood- 
en floors of the dance and aerobics rooms, are 
cushioned to lessen the impact on bones and 
joints.) The building includes two racquetball 
courts, a judo/wrestling/martial arts area, 
and — in another gesture to the healthy 

November-December 1W 


lifestyle — a juice bar. All of the features de- 
signed into the building reflect the results from 
polling student groups over several years. 

The reinvention of recreation has become 
a collegiate theme. Vanderbilt, for example, 
opened its $ 14-million recreation center in 
the spring of 1990. "Student preferences are 
constantly evolving, and for at least the last 
ten years, fitness, sports, and vigorous recre- 
ation have been as much a social activity as 
parties, films, or performing arts," says Michael 
Schoenfeld '84, Vanderbilt's vice chancellor 
for media relations. "Many students come to 
college not only having experience with high- 
school facilities, but also private gyms and 
health clubs, or YMCAs, which have become 
affordable to a broad spectrum of people. So, 
they expect and demand facilities." The school's 
investment "has paid off in terms of student 
satisfaction and popularity," Schoenfeld says. 
"It is not only an exercise spot — it is a true 
'student union.' " 

Duke's director of undergraduate admis- 
sions, Christoph Guttentag, sees a recreation 
center less as a recruiting tool than a state- 
ment about student life. "I never heard about 
a student deciding to come, or not come, 
based on recreation facilities," he says. "But I 
think it does affect overall student satisfac- 
tion." And satisfied students contribute to 
making the case to prospective students. 

The Wilson Center is already habit-form- 

ing. Its users include Assistant Vice President 
for Student Affairs Sue Wasiolek 76, M.H.A. 
'78, LL.M. '93, probably one of the more fit- 
ness-minded administrators. "I think that most 
student-affairs professionals around the country 
would argue that state-of-the-art recreation 
facilities are necessary to assist students in 
creating balance in their lives," she says. 

Her colleague Jim Clack, director of Coun- 
seling and Psychological Services, adds: "Reg- 
ular exercise along with appropriate diet and 
sleep are important deterrents to depression 
and support positive mental health. Thus, 
any facility or activity that promotes regular 
exercise is an asset to the university." 

Clack sees a correlation between the self- 
discipline required for regular workouts and 
what's involved in maintaining good study 
habits. "One improves the body, the other the 
mind, and they are mutually supportive." This 
fall, a Duke Medical Center study of elderly 
patients built on the idea that being in good 
shape contributes to emotional well-being: 
According to the study, a brisk thirty-minute 
walk or jog around the track three times a 
week may be just as effective in relieving the 
symptoms of major depression as the standard 
treatment of anti-depressant medications. 
Clack says the popularity of exercise and diet 
regimens, along with the proliferation of health 
clubs and gyms around Durham — Duke's 
own Center for Living among them — point 


to increasing interest in a healthy lifestyle. 

With the new center, Joe Creech, a Duke 
junior, says he has more comprehensive work- 
outs than before. Stress relief and self-image 
are big reasons for his routine. "I think I will 
continue to work out after college," he says. 
"After all, in the real world, you never have a 
shortage of stress; and people will judge you 
by your appearance. In that sense, working 
out after college would not only be of person- 
al benefit, but it also might help my career." 

A different long-range view comes from 
senior Caitlin Krause, who says she uses the 
Wilson Center four days a week, for ninety 
minutes at a time. It's not just a facility to be 
indulged in habitually, she suggests, but also 
to be indulged in thoughtfully. "I could see an 
athletic facility fostering my health if I use it 
wisely. Truly, healthy life habits have to be 
formed by the individual and not by a gym. 
Having a nice new gym is certainly an incen- 
tive to go work out. But people should also gain 
the perspective to recognize how to structure 
that into their days and not let 'working out' 
became all-consuming. It's all about balance." 
— Robert]. Bliwise 




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November-December 1999 13 





Two television journalists — rivals in the country's 

largest market — discuss the burdens of reporting in 

a high-pressure, high- stakes environment. 

It's a blistering summer Friday evening in 
New York City, and Jim Rosenfield '81 is 
telling us everything we need to know. Ro- 
senfield, co-anchor of the noon and six p.m 
newscasts on network affiliate WCBS, runs 
down the top stories of the day — from budge 
cuts in the city's school system to the effects 
of the current heat wave — with a gently au 
thoritative on-air delivery reminiscent of To 
day host Matt Lauer. 

Meanwhile, five channel-clicks away on 
competing channel WABC, Diana Williams 
'80 is reporting on the same stories, working 
tonight as a guest anchor five hours before 
her regularly scheduled eleven p.m. show. 
With a warm yet forceful demeanor, she 
adroitly follows hard-crime headlines with 
lighter, more upbeat stories. 

You wouldn't know it from watching these 
studies in professionalism under pressure, but 
less than two decades ago both Rosenfield and 
Williams were wide-eyed interns at Durham 
television station WTVD. Today, they're pop- 
ular anchors in the nation's nunber-one mar- 
ket, with a viewership of nearly 9 million in 
New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut each 
day. How did two graduates of a university 

with no official journalism department rise in 
one of America's toughest fields to rank among 
New York's top town criers? They took two 
very different paths. 

"CBS was always part of our family growing 
up," says Rosenfield, a Scarsdale, New York, 
native whose father, also named Jim, was a 
sales executive at the network. "I remember 
as a young kid I came over here to watch 
Captain Kangaroo in one of the studios right 
around the corner from the newsroom. I have 
a vague memory of being on the Evening News 
set." He also remembers watching two of his 
current colleagues, veteran WCBS sportsman 
Warner Wolf and entertainment editor Den- 
nis Cunningham. "But," he's quick to add, "I 
don't tell them that." 

Because of changes in the Trinity College 
curriculum that took effect the summer be- 
fore he transferred to Duke from Hamilton 
College in New York, Rosenfield, an English 
major, was forced to stay in Durham for sum- 
mer school to fulfill his science requirement. 
On a whim, he took an internship at WTVD. 
"I began by writing voiceovers — not for air, 
but just for the producer to look at," he says. 
"Then, after a while, they would let me write 

voiceovers that did get on the air. That was a 
big thrill. I was hooked." 

During his senior year, WTVD offered Ro- 
senfield a slot as a weekend reporter; his big 
on-air debut was covering an overturned 
truck on Highway 15-501. "The anchor, who 
had taken me under her wing, said, 'If that 
truck is still out there, we need a live shot,' " 
he recalls. "She called the news director and 
said, 'Is it all right if Jim tries this?' He gave it 
the okay. We went over what I was going to 
say for hours. I guess I did all right, because 
they let me continue." 

He began at WTVD full-time after gradua- 
tion, but his career path soon took a short 
and unwanted detour. When the station's 
weatherman fell ill, Rosenfield was asked to 
fill in until a replacement was found. "I said, 
'Sure — a month, whatever it takes.' Six months 
later, I was still doing weather at noon, six, 
and eleven. That was one of the more frus- 
trating periods. I didn't want to be a weather- 
man; I wanted to be a reporter." 

At one point, Rosenfield considered going 
back to school for a master's degree in jour- 
nalism — but a quick conversation with CBS 
Evening News anchor Dan Rather changed 





<Bk 4B> 





his mind. "He said, 'I wouldn't go. You're going 
to learn by doing.' And he was right." Soon 
Rosenfield had landed a job with ABC affili- 
ate KTRK in Houston, where he met his wife, 
Dana, a TV news producer — and expanded his 
horizons. "Just getting to know the culture in 
Texas was a real kick," he says. "I covered the 
rodeo — things you'd never, ever think you 
would get a chance to learn about." After a 
few years, he picked up again and moved to 
Chicago, where he served as reporter and 
weekend anchor for ABC affiliate WLS. 

Rosenfield's nine-year stint in the Windy 
City provided his most memorable on-the-job 
experiences — not the least of which was a 
two -week trip to Tel Aviv, where he covered 
the Gulf War. Unfortunately, the timing of 
the attack in 1991 meant he had to fly out of 
Chicago when his first child was only three 
weeks old. "That was a hard decision," he 
says. "I knew it was the right thing to do, but I 
felt conflicted. My wife was a real trooper. 
She was in the business, so she understood." 

Once in Israel, he immediately felt the 
war's frightening effects. "You get off the 
plane and they give you a gas mask. And you 
don't really know how to use it. You don't 
know whether the SCUDs are going to hit or 
not, and they were missing their targets. One 
of the things I was impressed with was how 
calm the Israelis were and how they tried to 
go on with their routine. We got no sleep 
because of the time difference — we were fil- 
ing stuff early in the morning for the late 
news — and then we would go out and get 
stories during the day." 

His last night in Tel Aviv, he says, ended up 
being the most unforgettable, when a SCUD 
missile hit a nearby neighborhood. "It was 

just amazing to see the devastation. I inter- 
viewed a man who had survived the Holo- 
caust and had had his house bombed by 
Saddam Hussein." Upon leaving Israel, he 
says he had two thoughts: "I was glad that I 
did it; I was glad to come home." 

Rosenfield also flexed his sneaky-journalist 
muscles. When he covered the World Trade 
Center bombing in 1993, he surreptitiously 
gained access to the building with his camera- 
man. "We got in a side door that was un- 
locked, walked through the atrium, and-found 
a stairwell door. There was so much commo- 
tion that no one was paying attention. We got 
down into the stairwell and we heard voices, 
and up came some firefighters. I thought, 
'We're busted.' And they said, 'You wanna see 
something amazing? Follow us.' They brought 
us down two more levels into the sub-base- 
ment. There was this huge crater with cars in 
it and concrete that was all broken up and 
wires. It was incredible. At that point we 
knew this was a great 'get.' We shot as much 
as we could, got out of there quickly, called 
the station, and said, 'We have incredible 
stuff.' After that it was cordoned off; you 
couldn't get in the building." 

As his contract with WLS was reaching its 
conclusion, Rosenfield was ready for a new 
challenge. "While reporting can be fun and 
exciting and your adrenaline always gets 
going the minute you get out there, there 
were days when I felt, 'I've covered this three- 
alarm fire.' " He had his agent put out feelers 
in larger markets — though his most valuable 
power broker turned out to be his own father, 
who bumped into WCBS general manager 
Steve Friedman, a business acquaintance, on 
an airplane. "His father comes up to me and 

says, 'Why don't you hire my son? He's an 
anchorman in Chicago and he's really good,' " 
recalls Friedman. "And I say, 'Jim, I'm sure 
he's great. Have his agent send me a tape.' 
Assuming, of course, that the guy was no 
good. So I look at the tape, and I thought the 
guy was great." Friedman then summoned 
Rosenfield to a secret Baltimore audition with 
the rest of the WCBS news team and offered 
him a job hosting the noon and six o'clock 
weekday broadcasts in the summer of 1998; 
his first broadcast was the following October. 
"I believe in being a natural on the air," 
Friedman says. "I think New Yorkers want to 
see a real person. And he's that." 

In his current position, Rosenfield's work- 
day begins at 9:30 a.m., when he arrives at 
the office and familiarizes himself with the 
day's events by reading wire reports. He then 
peruses the script for the noon broadcast, 
rewriting any copy he doesn't like. After the 
noon show, he says, "I might go right out on a 
story, I might be doing a story in-house that 
we get off the feeds and put together here, or 
I might work on something for a future day. 
That part of my day is still unpredictable." As 
the six o'clock newscast approaches, the cycle 
begins again. 

Although he is officially an anchor, "I still 
think of myself as a reporter," he says. As such, 
he says, some of his proudest moments come 
from leaving the anchor's chair and reporting 
longer stories during the all-important "sweeps" 
periods, when viewership ratings are most 
closely evaluated. "They've given me pretty 
free rein to come up with ideas," says Rosen- 
field, who's investigated such issues as the use 
of anesthesia in private doctors' offices, which 
is unregulated in New York; "sky rage," or 



cases of unruly airline passengers; and post- 
polio syndrome. 

"I was very lucky," says Rosenfield, reflecting 
on his eighteen-year journey into broadcast- 
ing. "If I hadn't had to take those summer- 
school courses, who knows what would've 

For one thing, he wouldn't have crossed 
paths with Diana Williams, who was 
ending her stint as a WTVD intern 
when Rosenfield was beginning his. A Fort 
Lauderdale native who followed in her fa- 
ther's footsteps by attending Duke, Williams, 
an economics major, found herself at an im- 
passe halfway through her college career. "I'm 
thinking, 'business school or law school?'" 
she recalls. "That summer I worked doing 
legal research and hated it. So the beginning 
of my junior year, I'm like, 'What am I going 
to do?' " Through a friend, she became in- 
volved with Duke's campus radio station, 
WXDU. "I was initially going to be a DJ, and 
he said, 'I've got enough DJs — go do the 
news.' So I'd rip wires and read copy. Then I 
started interviewing people and doing more 
with it." 

In her spare time, Williams worked in Duke's 
University Relations office for then-director 
William L. Green Jr., who suggested she in- 
tern for WTVD. "He said, 'Look, I'll just call 
over there and tell them you're coming.' So I 
showed up on their doorstep and they put me 
to work." Soon, she says, "They couldn't get 
rid of me. I started writing a lot of copy for the 
weekend anchor because she didn't want to 
come in until late. So I would work all morn- 
ing and get everything ready for her. And if a 
story came along, she'd send me out with a 

photographer. By the last six months of my 
senior year, I was out reporting." 

Williams' auspicious beginning on the air, 
in typical North Carolina news fashion, was 
covering a snowstorm. "Nobody could get in- 
to the newsroom, and I was there. The news 
director's looking around an empty news- 
room, and there's no one there but me saying, 
'I'll go!' " That assignment, she says, helped 
her land her first post-graduation position, at 
WSOC in Charlotte, where her relative inex- 
perience made for a rocky start. "The first six 
months were brutal. Fortunately, I had a news 
director who just had faith in me." After a 
year and a half, she was plucked away by the 
number-one station in Charlotte, WBTV. 
There, she says, "I was anchoring and produc- 
ing. I did everything except run the tele- 

Her next stop was WHDH, the last-place 
station in Boston. "That was a station fum- 
bling to find itself," she says. "The news direc- 
tor was experimenting. On the five o'clock 
show, he had us walking around the newsroom 
while we were on camera. But it was Boston, 
the number-six market in the country." Soon 
after she gave birth to her second child, 
Williams says she felt the strong pull of her 
family responsibilities. "I thought, Am I going 
to be a mom, or am I going to work?' " She 
then ran by her agent the idea of a one-year 
sabbatical leave. "He said, 'Go ahead — you're 
good enough, you'll find something. Call me 
in six months if you want to start looking 
again,' " she recalls. "Well, parenting is truly 
the hardest job on the planet. So, six months 
later I'm on the phone saying, 'Find me a 
job!' " Her criterion: "I don't care where it is, 
but just make sure it's a number-one station." 


WCBS-TV anchor 

That station was WABC, the home of New 
York's longest-term newsman, Bill Beutel. 
Since joining the affiliate in 1991, Williams 
has covered such news events as President 
Clinton's inauguration, the Republican Na- 
tional Convention in San Diego, and Pope 
John Paul IPs recent trip to Mexico. She is 
most passionate, however, about social issues 
germane to New York, specifically the state of 
the city's homeless shelters. "I would talk to 
homeless people and they would say the shel- 
ters are really bad. Then I'd go to the city and 
they'd say, 'No, they're wonderful places. We 
take good care of our homeless people.' I 
finally said, let's find out. So, we went in with 
undercover cameras and we found out, lo and 
behold, the homeless people are right!" 

The result was the special Shelter of Shame; 
in 1991, the special earned her first-place hon- 
ors for best documentary program from the 
broadcasting division of the New York Asso- 
ciated Press. "We spent a lot of nights out 
until two or three in the morning. That's when 
you get the rats scurrying across the floor and 
the guy in the bathroom smoking crack, and 
all of the things the city says don't happen." 
Williams' main frustration is that the special 
failed to effect any real change. "The admin- 
istration then was not receptive to dealing 
with the problem, and the Giuliani adminis- 
tration has never been real receptive to deal- 
ing with the homeless situation either," she 
says in a matter-of-fact tone. "People care 
more about dogs than homeless people." 

Reflecting on the preponderance of 
random crime stories on local news- 
broadcasts in recent years, Williams 
says she believes it has had a strange psycho- 

November- Decenikr I 001 ' 




logical effect on the public. "People have be- 
come immune to 'Two people shot in Queens.' 
They don't care." Because it's such a pervasive 
theme, it no longer impinges on their think- 
ing, she says. 

For his part, Rosenfield says he's concerned 
about the violence-and-sensationalism fixa- 

tion of local news. That doesn't mean he's in- 
clined to ignore it, but rather to counterbalance 
it. "There is a lot of bad news that we have to 
report, and there are days when I think it's 
too much. And it's not what the viewer wants 
to know, necessarily. So, it's important to 
break it up, spread it out over the hour and a 

half. We're conscious of that, we talk about it. 
In Chicago, there was a period when I 
thought the emphasis on crime was way over- 
board and it was all we covered. I think the 
pendulum is swinging back a little bit. And I 
know that management here doesn't share 
the philosophy that if it bleeds, it leads." 

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WABC-TV anchor 

It's precisely that philosophy that has gov- 
erned local news in general for years, says 
Duke political science professor David L. Paletz, 
author of The Media and American Politics: 
Contents and Consequences. "But the tradition 
of sex and crime is waning," he says. "They've 
moved to a more benign kind of coverage." 

Indeed, says WCBS-TV's Steve Friedman, 
"I don't want to do empty warehouse fires and 
mindless crimes. If you do the crime story, 
you've got to get to know the people. If a 
teenage girl disappears on her way home from 
the roller-skating rink and winds up mur- 
dered, we try to do who she was, what the ef- 
fect is on the family, and how to protect your- 
self, as opposed to just another crime story." 

But media critic Alex Jones, a Pulitzer 
Prize-winning reporter formerly with The New 
York Times, isn't impressed with the shift away 
from "just another crime story." (Former U.S. 
News & World Report editor James Fallows, in 
his book Breaking the News, argues that the 
local broadcasts actually contribute to the un- 
dermining of reason in democratic society — 
scaring government officials into eliminating 
prisoner parole, for example, by focusing on 
the one parolee in thousands who commits a 
crime.) Local television is naturally conflict- 
driven, says Jones, "because TV is a medium 
of pictures and motion. Boring pictures of 
school-board meetings, with voiceover about 
what they voted on, are not 'good television.' 
And in a local ratings battle, no TV station is 
going to go for substance over pictures. A 
great car crash. A close-up of a distraught fam- 
ily member of a victim. Emotion. Drama. 
That's how you get on the local news, and 
national news, too, for that matter." 

"It's television! It's pictures! It's what it is," 

Williams responds. "We're driven by pictures, 
yes, but we don't put pictures of nothing hap- 
pening. We have to put pictures of something. 
And we make judgments as to whether that 
something is newsworthy or not." 

"If we get good pictures on a legitimate 
story, we're going to run it," says Rosenfield. 
"But to say that a great car crash is going to 
get on before an issue that might be visually 
less interesting? To some extent, that's a 
shortsighted view." 

Jones, who shares with his wife, Susan Tifft 
'73, the Patterson Chair in Communications 
and Journalism at Duke's Sanford Institute, is 
host and executive editor of National Public 
Radio's Media Matters. He points out that 
newspapers started as a medium of opinion 
and, later, news. "Television was always con- 
sidered an entertainment medium from the 
get-go. Until the 1960s, even the 1970s, the 
networks and local stations carried news 
mostly to satisfy the public-service require- 
ments that were then a part of securing and 
keeping a license." 

Those days are gone — now, news is seen as 
a cheap commodity to produce, compared to 
entertainment shows. And since news draws 
a respectable audience, advertisers can be at- 
tracted. "News, in corporate-TV speak, went 
from being a public service to a profit center," 
says Jones. "Until then, the suits at the top 
didn't really care what was on the news. It 
was mostly there for prestige and to impress 
the government. But if money was involved, 
look out. All of a sudden, there was a huge 
rush to more news and quasi-news program- 
ming, and it went from stepchild to the kid 
who was supposed to win the U.S. Open." 

The bad news about news-as-profit-center, 

as Jones sees it, was that the only real mea- 
surement that mattered was audience. The 
goal line has become, then, a ratings level. It's 
a short step, he says, to the notion that what 
draws a crowd should lead the news — even if 
it isn't particularly important. "And the val- 
ues became very strongly focused on 'good 
television,' which means lots of crime, fires, 
wrecks, inspiring features, weather, and sports. 
These things are also very easy to report, usu- 
ally. They aren't complicated. It's just-the- 
facts-ma'am stuff. As a result, ironically, local 
television news often comes up as the most 
credible news. That's because they seldom if 
ever step on anyone's toes and they are al- 
most always right, which isn't that hard when 
you are talking about who died in the wreck 
and what the score was of the ball game." 

Rosenfield sees a less bleak picture on his 
television screen, saying substantive issues do 
get a certain amount of coverage. He says 
viewers could "find examples here every week 
where we might tackle a visually challenging 
story but an important issue. We've covered 
[New York schools chancellor] Rudy Crew 
quite a bit, in terms of his battle with the 
mayor [Rudolph Giuliani], and those weren't 
exciting visual pictures." 

And whether or not they're redefining good- 
television stories, the New York stations are 
becoming more service-oriented. "We do a 
lot of campaigns, like 'Protect Your Children,' " 
says Williams. "I'm very involved in our 
breast-cancer campaign. We're trying to show 
people that we care about the community 
we're in." Establishing that kind of communi- 
ty connection, of course, isn't bad for ratings. 

Jones worries, though, that a strong service 
orientation is allowing for a growing and per- 

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nicious use of video press releases. "These are 
very highly produced news-ish press releases, 
ready to be put on the air, that are distributed 
by companies pushing products like some 
drug to help lower cholesterol. Stations, and 
even networks, are increasingly willing to 
build local stories around this stuff because 
it's 'good television,' which is inexpensive to 
produce. In other words, it's cheap and easy, 
which tend to be the watchwords at too many 
local television stations." 

But not so cheap and easy that stations fall 
for them every time. Rosenfield says research 
and caution are the watchwords when such 
p.r. department-generated pieces come in. 
"We're very careful about finding out, 'Okay, 
who's behind this? Is this a blatant form of 
self-promotion on the part of a drug compa- 
ny?' We've killed stories because of it. We're 
always getting that onslaught — and we try to 
be careful how we present it, i/we present it. 
We do ask those questions. We don't just 
throw it on the air, that's for sure." 

When local stations do accept such materi- 
al, it's in part because they're feeling pressure 
from the increasing popularity of twenty-four- 
hour cable-news stations like CNN and 
MSNBC. The cables have reached record 
viewership levels in the wake of such recent 
breaking-news events as the Monica Lewin- 
sky scandal and the death of John F. Kennedy 
Jr. "When I got into this business," says 
Williams, "I had a fifty share: Half the people 
watching TV were watching our local station. 
We're lucky to get a ten share now. They're all 
watching cable." 

Even as they're protective of their audi- 
ence shares, both Rosenfield and Williams 
say they often feel the effects of a certain 
celebrity culture that has grown around news 
anchors, even on the local level. Last sum- 
mer, Williams made an appearance at a New 
York Liberty women's basketball game, help- 
ing Gregory Hines orchestrate a fund-raising 
auction. And for a full month last spring, 
Rosenfield's face adorned the front of count- 
less New York City buses as part of a major 
WCBS news ad campaign. "That was pretty 
wild," he says. "It's weird to be walking home 
and see yourself coming back at you on the 
bus. I had a lot of people say, 'You almost ran 
me over!' " It will only get worse as the two 
begin to eye positions on national news pro- 
grams, a natural step after anchoring a New 
York broadcast for several years. 

Still, Rosenfield and Williams balk at call- 
ing themselves celebrities. "You know what?" 
says Rosenfield. "Here in New York, there are 
a lot bigger celebrities than the people who 
are on the local news." ■ 

Karger '95 is a staff writer at Entertainment 
Weekly magazine in New York. 





Four star athletes — in basketball, foot- 
ball, golf, and soccer — and the longtime 
director of athletics joined the ranks of 
the Duke Sports Hall of Fame. Mark Alarie 
'86, Clarkston Hines '89, Sarah Lebrun Ingram 
'88, Joe Ulrich '89, and Tom Butters were in- 
ducted at the annual banquet in September. 
Alarie ranks number five on Duke's all- 

time scoring list with 2,136 career points, 
averaging in double figures in all games dur- 
ing his four years on the basketball team. He 
ranks tenth in career field-goal percentage 
(55.0), eighth in career free-throw percent- 
age (79.7), and sixth in career minutes played 
(4,042). He was first team All-ACC as a 
sophomore and senior, and second team as a 
junior. He earned All-America honors his 
senior year and made the All-East Regional 
as well as All-Final Four teams for a Blue 
Devil squad that went 37-3 and played for 



V !! 1 

.l^ 3HM 



the national title. In 1986, he was a first- 
round NBA draft pick; he had a six-year pro 
career in Denver and Washington until suf- 
fering an injury. Alarie is an assistant basket- 
ball coach at the U.S. Naval Academy. 

Hines starred for the Blue Devil team from 
1986 to 1989 as one of the top wide receivers 
in ACC and college football history. He ranks 
as Duke's all-time leader in receptions (189), 
receiving yards (3,318), and touchdown catches 
(38), and is the only player in ACC history to 
record three 1,000-yard receiving campaigns. 


omecoming kicked off on Friday, Sep- 
tember 24, with a Duke Alumni Associ- 
ation-sponsored Young Alumni party in 
the C.I. More than 500 revelers from more 
recent graduating classes took advantage of free 
beer, snacks, and music provided by a d.j. 

Fireworks began at ten, followed by the second 
annual Homecoming Semiformal, held under 
a large tent on Main Quad, with music and 
dancing. More than a thousand attended. The 
semiformal was planned and organized by 
students and the Campus Social Board, working 
with the Homecoming Committee. 

Homecoming: Revelers 

gather in the C.I. 

before the fireworks 

over the Chapel 

November-December 1999 21 

1999-2000 MEN'S 


Dec. 4 


7:00 (ESPN) 

Dec. 11 

at Michigan 

4:00 (CBS) 

Dec. 19 

N.C. A&T 


Dec. 21 


8:00 (RJ) 

Jan. 2 



Jan. 5 

at Virginia 

9:00 (ESPN) 

Jan. 9 

at Maryland 

1:00 or 4:00 

Jan. 12 


7:00 (ESPN) 

Jan. 1 6 

at Florida State 

4:00 (RJ) 

Jan. 1 9 


7:00 (ESPN) 

Jan. 22 

at Wake Forest 

12:00 (CBS) 

Jan. 29 


4:00 (RJ) 

Feb. 3 

at North Carolina 


Feb. 5 


3:00 (ABC) 

Feb. 9 


9:00 (RJ) 

Feb. 12 

at Georgia Tech 


Feb. 16 


9:00 (ESPN) 

Feb. 19 

at N.C. State 

1:30 (ABC) 

Feb. 22 


8:00 (RJ) 

Feb. 26 


4:00 (CBS) 

March 1 

at Clemson 

7:00 (ESPN) 

March 4 



Greensboro, N.C. 

All times 

are Eastern Standard and subject 

to change. Check local listings on game 

day. RJ= 

Raycom/JP Sports 


Team Sports; FSS=Fox SportSouth; RSN= 

Regional Sports Network. 

1999-2000 WOMEN'S 


Dec. 2 



Dec. 5 



Dec. 8 

at Virginia Tech 


Dec. 11 

at Seton Hall 




Dec. 28 



Dec. 30 



Jan. 3 

at Maryland 


Jan. 9 

at Georgia Tech 


Jan. 13 



Jan. 16 




Jan. 20 

at N.C. State 


Jan. 24 

at Florida State 

7:30 (RSN) 

Jan. 27 


Jan. 30 

at Virginia 


Feb. 3 



Feb. 11 



Feb. 14 

at Wake Forest 

7:30 (RSN) 

Feb. 17 



Feb. 21 

at Clemson 


Feb. 24 



Feb. 27 

at North Carolina 

12:30 (RSN) 


Greensboro, N.C. 

Hines' best year was as a senior, when he 
caught sixty-one passes for 1,149 yards and 
seventeen scores. He was named ACC Player 
of the Year and helped Duke to a share of the 
ACC title and a trip to the All-American Bowl 
in 1989. That year, he won the McKevlin 
Award as the top athlete among all sports in 
the ACC. A three-time All-ACC player and 
consensus 1989 All-American in 1989, he 
played briefly in the NFL for the Buffalo Bills 
and now works in Denver, Colorado. 

Ingram, one of the top performers in the 
history of Duke women's golf, played from 
1985 to 1988, earning All-ACC honors as a 
freshman and All- America status her junior 
and senior years. During her career, she had 
twenty-three top-ten finishes. Her junior year, 
she won two tournaments; her 75.2 stroke 
average that year ranks as one of the best. She 
played on three NCAA tournament teams and 
finished the final two in the top ten. Her 
career in amateur golf was also exceptional: 
She played in eight U.S. Opens and was on 
the U.S.A. Curtis Cup teams in 1992, 1994, 
and 1996. In 1992 and 1994, she played on 
the World Amateur team; she won three U.S. 
Women's mid-amateur crowns (1991, 1993, 
1994) , and was the U.S. Women's Amateur run- 
ner-up in 1993, the same year she was named 
Golf World magazine's Amateur Female Golfer 
of the Year. She lives in Nashville, Tennessee, 
with her husband, Duke men's team golfer 
David Ingram '85, and their two sons. 

Ulrich, who transferred to Duke from 
junior college his junior year, helped the Blue 
Devils become household names in college 
soccer. Stationed in the heart of the defense 
as the sweeper, he earned first-team All- 
America honors in 1981 as Duke went 16-4 

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and made the NCAA tournament. He was 
catalyst in 1982 to one of Duke's best seasons, 
again named first-team All-American for a 
team that went 22-1-2; its lone loss came in a 
memorable eight-overtime NCAA champi- 
onship contest with Indiana. In 1982, he was 
awarded the Hermann Trophy, making him 
the first of Duke's five national soccer players 
of the year. He was a first-round selection in 
four soccer drafts and had a pro career with 
the Dallas Sidekicks of MISL. He now works 
in the computer industry in New York. 

Butters, a former professional baseball 
pitcher with the Pittsburgh Pirates, retired 
from Duke in 1998 after twenty years as direc- 
tor of athletics. He came to Duke in 1967 as 
director of special events, coached the base- 
ball team from 1968 to 1970, and later founded 
the Iron Dukes — the athletics department's 
fund-raising arm — before taking over in 1977. 
A champion fund raiser, he led in updating 
facilities that were originally built in the 1930s 
and 1940s. While serving on the NCAA Bas- 
ketball Committee, he was instrumental in 
negotiating its $l-billion deal with CBS. Un- 
der his leadership, Duke sports achieved the 
height of excellence, both on and off the play- 
ing fields. Men's soccer won its first national 
championship in 1986, while the 1991 and 
1992 men's basketball teams triumphed as best 
in the nation. Duke annually graduated more 
than 95 percent of its student athletes, and 
the football program earned the nation's most 
outstanding graduation rate nine times. 


Charles A. Dukes '29, who was director 
of Alumni Affairs from 1944 to 1963, 
was honored for his invaluable service 
to the university by the Duke Alumni Asso- 
ciation in 1983 with an annual award estab- 
lished in his name. The Charles A. Dukes 
Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service 
honor other alumni who reflect his dedication 
to Duke. Recipients are selected by the DAA's 
Awards and Recognition Committee and the 
Annual Fund's executive committee. This year, 
six alumni are being recognized: 

Catherine A. Angell '73 was attendance 
co-chair and a member of the Twenty-fifth 
Reunion Planning Committee. In addition to 
making phone calls and writing notes to near- 
ly all of the women in her class, she brought 
a community- service component to the 
weekend gathering. With co-chair Holly 
Shaw Chambers, the class sponsored a re- 
union raffle to benefit the Duke Children's 
Hospital. She lobbied local retail businesses 
and several Duke departments for raffle prizes; 


the raffle raised several thousand dollars. 

This was Angell's third time working on 
reunion planning for her class. She lives in 
Durham, where she is on a leave of absence 
from her job as exceptional- children's facilita- 
tor for the Durham Public Schools. 

"The hard work and effort put forth as a 
volunteer are minimal compared to the re- 
ward I felt from the positive feedback I re- 
ceived regarding the events," she says. "I'm 
proud that not only did we almost set a record 
for attendance to the twenty-fifth, but our 
class gift exceeded any amount in the history 
of the university. That makes volunteering 

Susan Fleming Kistler B.S.N. '84, M.S.N. 
'94 chaired the Fifteenth Reunion Planning 
Committee. Initially, her committee had no 
leadership in place, so she took charge, de- 
spite her busy personal and professional 
schedule. The result: a university record in 
attendance for a fifteenth reunion. 

Kistler has been president of the Class of 
1984 for the past five years. She chaired the 
event-planning committee for her class' tenth 
reunion. From 1989 to 1991, she served on 
the School of Nursing's executive council. 

In 1997-98, she was clinical preceptor for 
Duke nurse-practitioner graduate students at 
the VA. Medical Center, where she is a nursing 
supervisor and geriatric nurse practitioner. 
"When I volunteer for the School of Nursing," 
says the Durham resident, "I get to express 
my pride in a program I received both an un- 
dergraduate and graduate degree from. I'm a 
double alum with double pride in Duke." 

Bruce J. Ruzinsky '80, J.D. '83 has chaired 
the Houston, Texas, Alumni Admissions Ad- 
visory Committee since 1994- Overseeing and 
conducting interviews of prospective Duke 
students, he is regularly praised by the admis- 
sions staff, local alumni, other committee 
members, and student applicants for his en- 
thusiasm, organizational skills, and knowl- 
edge of the university. He organizes training 
workshops for his committee when Duke 
admissions officers are in town, oversees the 
logistics of Duke representation at college 
fairs, and communicates with all high-school 
counselors in his area. He gives attention and 
encouragement to competitive high-school 
juniors and seniors through personal letters 
and helps coordinate an all-state matriculant 
party every summer. 

"It means a lot to me to be able to assist 
highly qualified, Houston-area, high-school 
students in their efforts to attend Duke," he 
says. "I would like to see as many of them as 
possible have the same opportunity that I 
had, that is, to attend the finest university 

Ruzinsky, a partner in the Texas law firm 

Jackson Walker, has served on the Duke Club 
of Houston's executive committee since 1996. 

Michele Miller Sales 78, J.D 81 has 

been president of the Duke Club of Puget 
Sound since 1994 and a member of Duke's 
regional Alumni Admissions Advisory Com- 
mittee since 1986. From 1983 to 1989, she 
served on the law school's Alumni Advisory 

In the last five years as club president, she 
has expanded the number and variety of club 
activities, resulting in increased participation 
by local alumni. Besides numerous events fea- 
turing Duke faculty and administrators as 
speakers, the club sponsored a private showing 
of the Leonardo da Vinci exhibit, with 700 
attending, and four tours of a nuclear subma- 
rine, each with thirty attending. 

"I volunteer for Duke to stay in touch with 
the university and to bring it out to Seattle," 
she says. "Duke's continuing high standard in 
academics and sports makes me proud to be 
an alumna. I'm happy to do what I can to 
assist and promote the university." 

Sales, who lives in Issaquah, Washington, 
is a principal in the Seattle law firm Steele 
6k Sales. She is a member of the DAA's board 
of directors and serves on its executive com- 

Mohamed "Monty" O. SarhanJ D 99 

chaired the law school's Class of 1999 Gift 
Committee, raising more than $12,000 in 
pledges and matching gifts from his class- 
mates and increasing the participation level 
to 34 percent, an all-time high for any class. 

"Giving back to Duke through my time, 
energy, and devotion is not only personally 
rewarding but enriching and gratifying as 
well," he says. "Making a lifelong commitment 
to volunteerism and service is my way of 
repaying, thanking, and showing my love for 

Sarhan is an associate with the New York 
law firm White 6k Case. 

Stephen A. Windham '93 chaired the 

Class of 1993 's Fifth Reunion Planning Com- 
mittee. He was involved in every aspect of 
the planning process, from recruiting volun- 
teers and planning events to designing the 
class gift and hosting reunion parties. His 
team approach drew in many members of the 
class, resulting in the second largest atten- 
dance at a fifth reunion. 

"As an alumnus who is privileged to still 
live near the university," he says, "I encourage 
all local alumni to take special advantage of 
the opportunities we have to remain involved 
and to support Duke." 

Windham is director of operations for 
Chapel Hill Brokers. 












The Duke Alumni Association's search- 
able online e-mail directory is up and 
running. Now you can find your Duke 
friends on the World Wide Web. Just 
access the DAA website (www. Duke, where you can look up 
the e-mail addresses of your classmates. 
And don't forget to register yourself in 
the directory by e-mailing your name and 
class year to AlumEmail@alumni. THIS IS A FREE SERVICE. 


Another free service we're offering is your 
own permanent Duke e-mail address, one 
you can keep for the rest of your life. 
Select your own alias, as long as it is a 
form of your name (for example, jane.doe 
(a Just e-mail your 
name, class year, and alias request to 
AlumEmail(5 Your 
alias will be verified with an e-mail mes- 
sage. This forwarding service does not 
replace your existing Internet Service 
Provider (ISP), and you'll need to update 
us whenever you change ISPs. 

November- December 1W> 

3b Sukc 

in gmtr 


Traditionally, bequests have been 

a significant source of Duke's 

financial support. Your bequest to 

Duke will help to ensure Duke's 

continued strength and 

academic excellence. 

High federal estate tax rates 

significantly lower the cost of 

making a bequest to Duke. 

Join more than 2,100 other Duke 
alumni and friends as a member 
of the Heritage Society, an honor- 
ary circle of University alumni and 
friends who have planned an 
estate gift to Duke. 

To learn more about the 

Heritage Society and how to 

make a bequest gift to Duke, 

please contact: 

Duke University 

Office of Planned Giving 

Box 90606 

2127 Campus Drive 

Durham, NC 27708-0606 

919-681-0464 (Phone) 
919-684-9731 (Fax) (Email) (Web) 


WRITE: Class Notes Editor, Duke Magazine, 
614 Chapel Dr., Durham, N.C. 27708-0570 

FAX: (919) 681-1659 (typed only, please) 


Include your full name, address, and 

class year when you e-mail us. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Alumni Records, 
614 Chapel Dr. Annex, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. 
Please include mailing label. Or e-mail address 
changes to: 

NOTICE: Because of the volume of class 
note material we receive and the long 
lead time required for typesetting, design, 
and printing, your submission may not 
appear for two to three issues. Alumni 
are urged to i 
in marriage ; 
We do not record engagements. 

Jr. '50, J.D. '53 was honored as 
a life member by the Virginia Bar Association in July. 
He lives in Virginia Beach, Va. 

Fred Charles Pace LL.B. '50 was awarded a 
lifetime achievement award in March by the Schuylkil 
County Bar Association in Pottsville, Pa. 

>in W. Snyder B.D. '50 represented Duke in 
September at the inauguration of the president of Elon 
College, where he is a professor. 

William T. Downing '52 represented Duke in 
September at the inauguration of the president of 
Millikin University in Decatur, 111. 

George C. Megill M.Div. '52 recently revisited 
Brazil, where he and his wife served for 28 years . 
as United Methodist missionaries. He lives in Raleigh, 

Thomas Earl Blackburn '56 retired after 26 
years as Worcester Academy's athletics director and 
basketball/baseball coach. He and his wife, Peg, have 
retired to Harwichport on Cape Cod, Mass. 

William Painter '53, M.D '57 received the William 
H. Barney Award for his service to the Lynchburg 
Academy of Medicine. He lives in Lynchburg, Va. 

Kenneth B. Orr '54 is a senior associate in the 
Atlanta-based finn Jon McRae & Associates. He 
and his wife, Janice, and their three sons live in 
Montreat, N.C. 

Paul Wyman Cherry '56, professor of music at 
the University of South Dakota, has been given the 
Belbas-Larson Award for Excellence in Teaching. He 
lives in Vermillion, S.D. 

A. Horner '57, A.M. *63, Ph.D. '65 is an 
professor in the history department at the 
University of Western Ontario in Canada. 

Philip B. Secor A.M. '58, Ph.D. '59 is the author 
of Richard Hooker: Prophet of Anglicanism, published 
this summer. He is a past president of Cornell College 
and former dean of faculty at Muhlenberg College. He 
lives in Hellertown, Pa. 

Harold J. Schultz Ph.D. '59 received an award 
for excellence in fund raising from the Council on 
Philanthropy in May in Kansas City. He is the 
executive director at Saint Luke's Hospital Foundation 
in Kansas. 

John H. Obrion Jr. '61 is a partner at the law 
firm Mays & Valentine in Richmond, Va., where he 
practices litigation and is a certified mediator in 
dispute resolution. 

Creighton B. Wright '61, M.D. '65 was awarded 
the Samuel B. Kaplan Visionary Award by the American 
Heart Association. He is medical director of Cardio- 
vascular and Thoracic Surgeons in Cincinnati. 

Norma Anne Mitchell A.M. '62, Ph.D. '67 writes 
that she is retiring from the faculty of Troy State 
University to devote more time to her research and 
writing. She lives in Troy, Ala. 

William Oliver Walker Jr. Ph.D. '62 is stepping 
down as dean of the humanities and arts at Trinity 
University in San Antonio, Texas, to teach full-time in 
the department of religion. 

Philip E. Mancha A.M. '64, Ph.D. '71 is academic 

dean at Columbia Green Community College in 
Hudson, N.Y. 

Gary R. Nelson '64 is vice chairman of SRA 
International, Inc., in Fairfax, Va. 

Kenneth M. Stallings '64 retired in December 
1997 from Sprint as director of information systems 
planning after 33 years. He and his wife, Teresa, live in 
Wake Forest, N.C. 

Richard L. Mikesell LL.B. '65 won the national 
Best Spam Recipe Contest in April for his c 
"Spamigo." He lives in Van Nuys, Calif., and w 
that he suspects that he has "found his metier.' 

LL.B. '66 was chosen president- 
elect of the N.C. Bar Association in June. He and his 
wife, Elizabeth, live in Durham. 

LL.B. "67 chairs 
the executive council of the Arkansas Bar Association. 
He practices real estate and municipal finance law 
at Mitchell Williams. He and his wife, Nan, live in 
Little Rock. 

Craven III J.D. '67, M.Div. '81 was made 
a life member of the American Law Institute. He prac- 
tices law with his son in Durham. "Otherwise," he writes, 
he "can be found at the Durham Bulls Athletic Park." 

John F. Hansen A.M. '67, Ph.D. '69 represented 
Duke in October at the inauguration of the president 
of Illinois State University, where he is a chemistry 
professor. He lives in Normal, 111. 

hi Mink '67, MAT. '68, Ed.D. '71 is 
dean of the human and organizational development 
doctoral program of the Fielding Institute in Santa 
Barbara, Calif. 

Philip W. "Kip" Small '67 works with the Lawrence 
Appraisal Group, Hawaii, specializing in residential 
and commercial real estate, in Hilo, Hawaii. 

Roy F. Gratz '68, Ph.D. '70 was named a distin- 
guished professor of chemistry at Mary Washington 
College. He lives in Fredericksburg, Va. 

Gordon S. Rather Jr. J.D. '68 was inducted as a 
fellow into the International Academy of Trial Lawyers. 
He is a partner in the Little Rock firm Wright Lindsey 
& Jennings. He and his wife, Hayden, and their three 
children live in Little Rock, Ark. 
Kathleen Ashley '69, Ph.D. '73, a professor of 
English at the University of Southern Maine, is the 
co-author of the book Writing Faith: Text, Sign, and 



clcs i>l Sarnie Fcrv. She 


Sally Schauman 
*59 is an associate 
professor in an 
odd pair of departments 
— landscape architec- 
ture and women's 
studies. When Schau- 
man went up for a full 
professorship at the 
University of Washing- 
ton last year, she had to 
compile a record of her 
professional career. The 
collection of various 
papers passed on to the 
tenure committee — 
records, scholarly re- 
ports, correspondence, 
student evaluations — 
filled up two boxes. 
Such is academic life. 
The boxes are pref- 
aced by an overview of 
Schauman' s scholarly 
development, itself a 
stack of papers about 
an inch thick. In recent 
years, she has shifted 
her focus slightly from 
the practical to the the- 
oretical — from simply 
designing an environ- 
ment to contemplating 
its larger significance in 
everyday life. That shift 
throws light on how a 
woman who began her 
career designing island 
resorts in the Carolinas 
eventually found 
herself working to 
rehabilitate damaged 
watersheds and now 
presides over a class 
called "Gender and the 

After graduating with 
an advanced degree in 
landscape architecture 
from the school of 
design at N.C. State— 
the first woman in the 
school's history to do 
so — Schauman joined 
Lewis Clarke Land- 
scape in 1967. She and 
a team worked on de- 
signing island resorts: 
where to place condo- 
miniums, parking lots, 
roads, and golf courses. 
At the time, environ- 
mental concerns played 
little part in the pro- 
cess, mainly because 
scientists still lacked a 
complex understanding 
of how human devel- 
opment affected the 

"We probably did a 
whole lot of environ- 

mental damage because 
we didn't know any 
better," Schauman says 
of those developments. 
"So I'm not super- 
proud of that time of 
my life. On the other 
hand, I'm not ashamed 
of it, because we did 
the best we could, and 
ecology was not a very 
evolved science at that 

She later joined the 
USDA's Soil Conser- 
vation Service, work- 
ing to ensure that the 
agency was in compli- 
ance with recently 
passed environmental 
laws. Science's under- 
standing of ecology had 
advanced by this point, 
and Schauman met a 
number of people who 
were passionate about 
healing or maintaining 
their local natural 

Soon she found her 
own understandings 
and ethics evolving 
with the exposure. "It 
was one of those evolu- 
tions which you find 
yourself gradually 
shifting toward, then 
you're over here on 
the other side." 

"The other side" for 
Schauman consisted of 
a desire to heal and 
nurture the land rather 
than build carelessly 
over it. It was an in- 
stinct born out of desires 
she would later come 
to dub "feminist." 

In 1980, with orders 
to build a graduate pro- 
gram for the depart- 
ment, Schauman was 
tapped by the Univer- 

sity of Washington to 
chair its department of 
landscape architecture 
— the first woman to 
hold a chair in her 
field. Washington, she 
says, was an especially 
inviting place for her 
because of its strong 
scientific resources. 
She began forming 
cross-disciplinary links 
with other departments 
so that students could 
learn the roles biology, 
ecology, and engineering 
had on landscape de- 
sign. The new scientific 
ties helped her and 
classes work on new 
ways to deal with dam- 
aged areas like wet- 
lands or urban water- 

She also began ex- 
ploring the nature of 
the human connections 
individuals make to 
their surroundings. It's 
this area that she's cur- 
rendy examining most 
intently. "You have an 
attitude, whether you've 
explored it or not, 
about how you feel 
about the landscape," 
she says. "Part of that's 
intellectual, part of it is 
not; part of it is emo- 
tional and spiritual and 

She helps students 
explore these attitudes 
in one of her current 
pet projects, the class 
on gender and the 
landscape. That class 
uses a wide variety of 
theories — social, liter- 
ary, and others — to 
help students analyze 
their personal feelings 
about the outdoors. 

For Schauman, the 
subject of gender comes 
to the fore when exam- 
ining, for example, the 
different ethics people 
develop on how the 
Earth should be treated. 
She argues that males 
tend to reach their 
ethics through logical 
reasoning — "if you 
know this about the 
landscape and about 
biology, then you cer- 
tainly won't do this." 
Females, in contrast, 
come to their conclu- 
sions because they feel 
an emotional attach- 
ment to their environ- 
ment. "That is more of 
a nurturing notion, and 
that's thought of by 
many as more of a fem- 
inist viewpoint," she 

The goal of the class 
is not to indoctrinate 
the students to a partic- 
ular theory or way of 
thinking, but to cause 
them to analyze their 
own connection to the 
environment and to 
understand how other 
people might be con- 
necting. "People will 
always appreciate wild, 
pristine places, but on 
the other hand we can't 
all go to a wild and pris- 
tine place," she says. 

That's when a land- 
scape architect's 
understanding of 
human needs becomes 
important. "You have 
to somehow find eco- 
logical and spiritual 
value for the places 
that are close at hand 
and easy to touch." 

—Adam Winer '99 

Histoi-y in the Mil 
Gorham, Maine. 

Mary Wyatt Choate '69 is the program director 
for the Central Carolina Community Foundation in 
Columbia, S.C.. She has been appointed to a one-year 
term on the Leadership South Carolina Board of 

Suzanne Hall Johnson B.S.N. '69 received the 
1999 Pioneering Spirit award from the American 
Association of Critical-Care Nurses. She lives in 
Lakewood, Colo. 

Eleanor D. Kinney '69, J.D. 73 is Samuel R. Rosen 
professor of law at the Indiana University Law School 
and co-directs its Center for Law and Health. She lives 

m Indianapolis. 

James A. Nunley II '69 was re-elected to the 
American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society's 
hoard of directors. He is a professor in the division of 
orthopedic surgery at Duke Medical Center. 

James Van Pelt '69, regional technology adviser 
for the public school districts in central Connecticut, is 
pursuing his master's degree at the Yale Divinity 
School. He and his wife, Jane, live in Hamden, Conn. 

MARRIAGES: Kenneth M. Stallings '64 to 

Teresa Barnhill in January 1998. Residence: Wake 
Forest, N.C....W. Christopher Barrier J.D. '67 to 

Nan Selz on Oct. 3. Residence: Little Rock, Ark. 

Frank O. Brady Ph.D. '70 is dean of the School of 
Health Related Professions at SUNY-Buffalo. 

'70 has joined the Atlanta office 
of the law firm Schnader Harrison Segal & Lewis as an 
associate in the business department. 

Suzanne Reid Williams A.M. '70, Ph.D. '73 has 
been named interim president at St. Cloud State 
University. She lives in Macomb, 111. 

David P. Badger '71 , a journalism professor at Middle 
Tennessee State University, is co-author of Snakes. He 
lives in Franklin, Tenn. 

John M. Bowers '71, who chairs the English 
department at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas, 
received the Nevada Regents' Teaching Award. 

Ward M. Cates '71, D.Ed. 79 of Center Valley, Pa., 
represented Duke in October at the inauguration of the 
president of Allentown College of Saint Francis de Sales. 

William J. Mallon 73, M.D. '84 is the author of 

the biography Ernest Anion Codman: The End Result 
of a life in Medicine, published by W.B. Saunders Co. 
He is an orthopedic surgeon with Triangle Orthopedic 
Associates in Durham. 

Carol Jean Hill Bennetts 74 completed her 
master's in education at the University of Houston- 
Victoria. She and her husband, Kimberly R.W. 

Bennetts M.S. 74, and their two children live in 
Fulshear, Texas. 

Luther Clifton Copeland Jr. 74 represented 
Duke in September at the inauguration of the 
president of the College of the Albemarle. He lives 
in Edenton, N.C. 

Kenneth W. McAllister J.D. 74 was elected a 
fellow of the American Bar Foundation. He is senior 
executive vice ptesident and general counsel of 
Wachovia Corp. in Winston-Salem, N.C. 

Robert M. Fields 75 is a shareholder in the New 
York office of the Miami-based law firm Greenberg 
Traurig, where he specializes in executive compensation 

November-December 1999 25 

and employee benefits. He and his wife, Robyn, and 
their three children live in South Salem, NY. 

Betty Jean Seymour Ph.D. 75 received the 
Samuel Nelson Gray Distinguished Professor Award at 
Randolph-Macon College. She lives in Richmond, Va. 

75 released a new CD of 

Amitvrsjn'cs. He lues in Austin, 

Jeffrey D 

original music, Sec 

Gail Coleman 76 is vice president and treasurer 
of Big Flower, an advertising and marketing company. 
She lives in Manhattan. 

Georgann Eubanks 76 is one of three recipients 
of the Sam Ragan Award, created in 1981 to honor the 
state's first secretary of cultural resources to recognize 
sustained contributions to the fine arts and community 
service in North Carolina. She is assistant director of 
Duke's Office of Continuing Education and Summer 
Session, and, for the past three years, has chaired the 
N.C. Humanities Council, a state-based program of the 
National Endowment for the Hu 

George St. A. Ferguson Sr. 76 was appointed a 
commissioner of the Prince George's County Human 
Relations Commission. He and his wife, Pauline, live in 
Upper Marlboro, Md. 

Bruce I. Howell D.Ed. 76 is president of Wake 
Technical Community College. He and his wife, 
Mabel, have two children and live in Raleigh, N.C. 

Laura Fogwell Majovski 76 is the acting vice 
president of student life at Pacific Lutheran University 
in Tacoma, Wash. She and her husband, Larry, and 
their two children live in Gig Harbor, Wash. 

Edward V. O'Connor Jr. 76 received the James 
Keith Public Service Award from the Fairfax Bar 
Association. He is secretary-treasurer of the board of 
directors of Legal Services of Northern Virginia. He 
lives in Herndon, Va. 

Susan Zachary Swan 77 is an assistant professor 
in the speech communications department at Hanover 
College. She and her daughter live in Hanover, Ind. 

William G. Cance 78, M.D. '82 was elected to the 
executive council of the Society of Surgical Oncology 
in March. He is an associate professor of surgery and 
chief of Surgical Oncology at the UNC-Chapel Hill 
medical school. 

Mary Boney Denison 78 was the U.S. private 
sector representative at the February meeting of the 
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Intellectual 
Property Conference in Fukuoka, Japan. She is chair 
of the International Trademark Association's APEC 
subcommittee and practices trademark, copyright, and 
Internet law at Farkas & Manelli in Washington, D.C. 

Laurence O. Nettles M.B.A. 78 is director of 
sales for Frontier Communications in Chicago. He and 
his wife, Natalie, live in Hinsdale, 111. 

Jay Arthur Blundon 79 was awarded tenure and 
promoted to associate professor at Rhodes College, 
where he teaches neuroscience and physiology in the 
biology department. He and his wife, Leticia, and their 
two sons live in Memphis, Tenn. 

Alfred Luis Faustino J.D. 79, an Army colonel, 

is general counsel for Army and Air Force exchange 
service in Dallas, Texas. 

Leslie S. Parran B.S.N. 79 received an ONS 
Foundation Josh Gottheil Memorial Bone Marrow 
Transplant Career Development Award. She and her 
husband, Richard, and their four children live in 

MARRIAGES: Salvatore V. Pizzo Ph.D. 72, M.D. 
73 to Sherry Reynolds on March 20. Residence: 


As president, 
chairman, and 
CEO of Nor- 
folk Southern, David 
Goode '62 has a history 
of working on the rail- 
road — and of expand- 
ing the railroad. 

In the rail industry, 
where new routes are 
virtually impossible to 
build, a corporation 
generally increases its 
coverage of the coun- 
try by buying its com- 
petitors. Norfolk 
Southern is a conglom- 
eration of hundreds of 
railroads that have 
been swallowed over 
the past century-and- 
a-half. Most recently, 
Norfolk Southern and 
CSX acquired and split 
up Conrail, which had 
sole control over a 
huge chunk of the 
Northeast, from New 
York and New Jersey 
through New England 
and into much of 

All the freight lines 
crisscrossing that area 
were originally going to 
be incorporated into 
CSX. But after an ini- 
tial deal between CSX 
and Conrail had been 
agreed upon, Norfolk 
Southern thrust itself 
into the proceedings, 
set off a bidding war, 
and walked away with 
58 percent of a compa- 
ny that was expected to 
be consumed entirely 
by its competitor. 

The man in many 
ways responsible for 
that coup was Goode. 
But the Conrail lines 
were not a weapon he 
hoped to use against 
CSX; they were pri- 
marily sought after as a 
weapon to use against 
the trucking industry, 
which provides much 
of the hauling competi- 
tion facing both rails. 
While trucks can trans- 
port cargo anywhere 
an interstate highway 
leads, railroad compa- 
nies can only ship to 
areas where they con- 
trol track. The Conrail 
deal gave Norfolk 
Southern lines in the 
Northeast to comple- 
ment their extensive 

presence in the South- 
east and Midwest. 

The merger "puts all 
of the pieces of the puz- 
zle together. It's a map 
that really is a dream of 
a rail transportation 
system," says Goode. 
"Our bet with this ac- 
quisition is that we can 
develop the alternative 
to moving trucks on 
the highway." 

Goode maintains 
that while the Conrail 
lines have immediately 
increased Norfolk 
Southern's revenue by 
almost 50 percent, the 
real prize lies in the 
company's new pros- 
pects. He talks about 
winning long-haul traf- 
fic from the truckers 
and increasing the use 
of distribution centers 
— places where the 
pavement meets the 
rail and trucks can 
gather unloaded freight 
for local delivery. For 
now, at least, his sights 
aren't set on new 
acquisitions but on 
integrating and opti- 
mizing the lines 
Norfolk Southern has 
just acquired. 

The Conrail deal is 
probably what Goode 
will be most remem- 
bered for after he 
retires from Norfolk 
Southern. He joined 
the company in 1965 
— when it was known 
as Norfolk and Wes- 
tern Railway Com- 
pany — because of 
an interest in the 
plans then under con- 
sideration. "It looked 
like a rather exciting 
business," he says, 
"and they offered me 
a job for the same 
salary I was going to 
make on Wall Street 
In Roanoke, Virginia, 
that looked like a good 
thing to try for a couple 
of years." 

Fresh from Harvard 
Law, he began as a tax 
attorney — a seemingly 
odd job for a future 
chief executive, but 
one that taught him all 
areas of the company. 
Twenty-five years 
and five promotions 

later, Goode was trans- 
ferred from Roanoke 
to the company's head- 
quarters in Norfolk, 
where he shifted from 
finance to administra- 
tion and was named an 
executive vice presi- 
dent with oversight of 
information technolo- 
gy, labor relations, and 
human resources. A 
year later, he was 
named president — a 
year after that, chair- 
man and CEO. 

About five years into 
his tenure as president, 
in 1996, he received a 
phone call one morn- 
ing from his counter- 
part at CSX informing 
him that CSX would 
buy Conrail, a railroad 
Norfolk Southern had 
tried to acquire multi- 
ple times in the past 
"There had been dis- 
cussions [between both 
Norfolk Southern and 
Conrail and CSX and 
Conrail] over a period 
of time," says Goode. 
"You never expect the 
other guy to make a 

The other guy had 
made a deal, and 
Goode immediately 
called his staff together 
to draft a counter-offer. 

Because of the slow 
nature of rail dealing — 
due in part to govern- 
ment oversight — 
Norfolk Southern 
didn't take operational 
control of its share of 
Conrail until June 1 of 
this year. 

"There hasn't been 
anything easy about 
this," Goode says, not 
only of the acquisition 
but about his entire 
tenure with the compa- 
ny. "This has been hard 
work: blocking and 
tackling. I went to 
Duke in the Sixties 
when Bill Murray was 
coaching, and Duke's 
football philosophy was 
to make sure that you 
executed blocking and 
tackling. They used to 
accuse Murray of three 
yards and a cloud of 
dust, but he won at it, 
and that's been the 
progression of my 
career — systematically 
learning the business, 
working hard at it, and 
hopefully having some 
vision for the growth 
and development of 
the corporation." 


John Robert Donovan Jr. '80 is president and 
CEO of Aramark's campus services division. He lives in 
Exton, Pa. 

William Craig Rossello '80 is a partner in the 
accounting and consulting firm KPMG United States. 
He and his wife, Margaret, live in Alexandria, Va. 

Karen Blumenthal '81 is bureau chief for The 
Wall Street Journal in Dallas. Her husband, Scott 
McCartney '82, is deputy bureau chief and the 
author of three books. 

I P. Ehrlich '81 was a runner-up for the Gold- 
Headed Cane Award from the University of California- 
San Francisco School of Medicine. She plans to do a 
residency in internal medicine-primary care in Boston. 

i Bradford Anwyll J.D. '82 joined the 
Washington office of the law firm Dewey Ballantine, 
where he will focus on tax litigation. He lives in 
McLean, Va. 

Eric C. Shoaf '82, who earned his M.P.A. from the 
University of Rhode Island, directs the preservation 
program at the Brown University Library. He earned 
his M.L.S. at N.C. Central University in 1989. He and 
his wife, Susan, and their two children live in 
Providence, R.I. 

John S. Welfare '82, M.E.M. '84 is a partner at 
Deloitte & Touche, where he specializes in information 
technology consulting. He and his wife, Sandy, and 
their two daughters live in Charlotte, N.C. 

Michael Scott Womack '82 became a board cer- 
tified pediatric cardiologist after completing his fellow- 
ship at Duke Medical Center. He works at the Oregon 

Health Sciences University in Portland. He and two 
other colleagues recently performed the first pediatric 
interventional cardiac catheterizations in Nicaragua. 

Brent Overton Edgar Clinkscale '83, J.D. '86 is 
a member of the Greenville, S.C, office of Womble 
Carlyle Sandridge & Rice. 

Gardner F. Davis J.D. '84 was elected a fellow of 
the American Bar Foundation. He is a member of the 
law firm Foley & Lardner in Jacksonville, Fla. 

Frank Helm Myers '84 works for the Secretary of 
Defense in the Command, Control, and Communica- 
tions Directorate on international military satellite 
communication cooperation issues. He is a lieutenant 
commander in the Naval Reserves. He and his wife, 
Kelly, and their daughter live in Arlington, Va. 

Mark Wade Scroggs M.D. '84 joined the 
ophthalmology department at Durham Clinic. He 
lives in Chapel Hill, N.C. 

Marian Brown Sprague '84 is a freelance writer 
in San Jose, Calif, where she and her husband, Ted, 
and their daughter live. 

Mark Kendall Williams J.D. 84 is president of 
McCampbell & Young. He lives in Knoxville, Tenn. 

T. Preston Burton '85 is a partner in the law firm 
Plato Cacheris in Washington, D.C. He writes that he 
represented Monica S. Lewinsky in her criminal investi- 
gation and at the congressional impeachment hearings. 

Lindalyn Parkerson Carpenter 85 earned her 
Ph.D. in psychology at the University of North Carolina 
at Greensboro in May. 

Craig H. Gelband '85 is an assistant professor in 
the physiology and pharmacology departments at the 
University of Florida College of Medicine. He was 
awarded the 1999 Goldblatt Award in cardiovascular 

research by the American Heart Association and the 
American Physiological Society's 1999 Young 
Investigator Award. He lives in Gainesville, Fla. 

Robert M. McDowell '85 is vice president and 

general counsel to the Competitive Telecom- 
Association in Washington, D.C. He and 
his wife, Jennifer, and their son live in Vienna, Va. 

David Michaels '85, M.B.A. '90 is beginning 
medical school at the Eastern Virginia Medical School 
in Norfolk, Va. 

M. Lloyd Barnhardt III '86 is a senior financial 
consultant with Merrill Lynch. He and his wife, Gina, 
and their twin daughters live in Winston-Salem, N.C. 

Lawrence Keith Gates Jr. M.D. '86 was 
promoted to associate professor of internal medicine 
in the division of digestive diseases and nutrition at 
the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. He 
lives in Lexington, Ky. 

Timothy N. Thoelecke Jr. '86, owner, founder, 
and president of Garden Concepts, Inc., is celebrating 
the tenth anniversary ol his business. He lives in 
Glenview, 111. 

Carl-David Birman J.D. '87 is a fund-raising 
associate for a not-for-profit community services 
organization in Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Erik Norman Johnson '87, a Navy lieutenant 
commander, reported for duty with Fleet Air Reconnais- 
sance Squadron Three at Tinker Air Force Base, Okla. 

is an assistant profes- 
sor at the University of Arizona College of Law. Her 
article, "Citizen No Duty Rules: Rape Victims and 
Comparative Fault," was published by the Columbia 
Law Review in October. She and her husband, David, 
and their two sons live in Tucson, Ariz. 

November-December 1*19 27 

Gordon Anthony Coletta '88, who earned his 
M.B.A. at the University of Virginia's Darden School 
of Business in May, works at Wheat First Union in 
Richmond, Va. 

Spence Kramer, Jr. '88 is director of advertising and 
program marketing for ESPN. He lives in New York City. 

Gary Michael Lisker J.D. '88 is senior regional 
attorney with NASD Regulation. He lives in Atlanta. 

J. Longfield Ph.D. '88 is dean of the 
University of Dubuque Theological Seminary in 
Dubuque, Iowa. 

Marshall Silverman '88 has joined the internal 
medicine group of University Medical Associates in 
Charlotte, N.C. 

Juan Pablo Cappello '89 is the general counsel 
and senior vice president of business and legal affairs 
for Sky Latin America. He and his wife, Ana Maria, 
and their daughter live in Miami, Fla. 

Donna McMillan A.M. '89, Ph.D. '93 was one 

of two teachers to earn the Walter D. Mink Award 
for outstanding teachers of undergraduate psychology. 
She is a faculty member at St. Olaf College in 
Northfield, Minn. 

Richard F. NeJame B.S.E. '89 joined Lazard Freres 
& Co. as a vice president in the firm's restructuring 
advisory group. He lives in New York City. 

Leslie Berkowitz Robinson '89, who earned her 
M.D. at UNC-Chapel Hill in May 1995 and completed 
a family practice residency at Wake Forest University 
in June 1998, is working in a group practice in King, 
N.C. Her husband, Stephen E. Robinson '89, 
who earned his M.D. at Wake Forest University in 
May, is a resident in internal medicine at Wake Forest 
University Baptist Medical Center. The couple and 
their daughter live in Winston-Salem, N.C. 

Kevin Paul Stack '89 is attending law school at 
George Washington University. He and his wife, Jean 
:k '91, live in Fairfax, Va. 

i based in Antwerp, 

Dirk P.N. Van Belle LL.M. 
law firm Dauginet 6k Co-Advoc 

Becky Youman '89 and her husband, Bryan Estep, 
spent the last four years living in Chile and working as 
freelance journalists. They are the authors of Criile 
Guide from Open Road Publishers. They live in Arroyo 
Grande, Calif. 

MARRIAGES: Clare Marie Donohue M.B.A. 
'86 to Michael Patrick Coyne on July 31. Residence: 
New York City... Julie Lynn Soderberg '88 to 

Douglas D. Reynolds on Feb. 21, 1998. Residence: 
London, England. 

BIRTHS: First child and daughter to Jo 
'82 and Katherine "Kitty" Harmon '82 on July 
31. Named Avery Haydock Fulford.. .Second child and 
first son to Corinne Zimmermann '82 and Paul 
Worthington on July 25. Named Arthur Alsop 
Worthington... Second child to Catherine Gray 
Clark '84 and Shelton Clark on Oct. 12, 1998. Named 
Duncan Gray.. .First child and daughter to Frank H. 
Myers '84 and Kelly L. Pulsifer on June 1. Named 
Delaney... First child and daughter to Marian Brown 
Sprague '84 and Ted Sprague on Dec. 7, 1997. 
Named Caroline Amanda.. .Second son to Joan 
Taback Frankle '85 and Andy Frankle on July 17. 
Named Matthew Isaac. .First child and son to Robert 
Malcolm McDowell '85 and Jennifer Griffin 
McDowell on July 25. Named Griffin Malcolm.. .First 
child and daughter to Carol Barnhill Templeton 
'85 and Franklin Scott Templeton on June 28. Named 
Sarah McDaniel... Second child and first daughter to 
James Andrew Winter '85 and Francine 


When they 
began plan- 
ning for the 
2000 Summer Olympic 
Games, the Sydney 
Organising Committee 
for the Olympic Games 
employees. By the time 
the torch reaches the 
Sydney Olympic Park 
on September 15, 
SOCOG will have 
grown to the size of a 
Fortune 500 company, 
with a hundred opera- 
tional venues, 3,000 
paid employees, and 
50,000 volunteers. 

Before then, they 
will need to acquire — 
among many other 
things — 2,500 cars, 
6,000 cell phones, 
75,000 liters of milk, 
162,000 polo shirts, 
350,000 rolls of toilet 
paper, and 1.1 million 
pieces of sporting 
equipment to make it 
all happen. 

Behind all the ath- 
letes' Olympic dreams 
is a nightmare of logis- 
tics. And it is Katha- 
rine McLennan's job to 
help sort it all out. 

McLennan '89, a for- 
mer varsity swimmer 
for Duke, is SOCOG's 
program manager for 
operational integration. 
Shortly after graduat- 
ing, she went to the 
University of New 
South Wales in Sydney 
to get her master's in 
political science. 

"During my studies, 
I decided that Sydney 
was an awesome place 
to live and that I need- 
ed to figure out a way 
to stay," she says. Now, 
nine years after first 
entering the country, 
she has an Australian 
passport, an Australian 
husband, and one of 
the primary positions 
overseeing the Aus- 
tralian Olympic 

McLennan joined 
SOCOG in 1996 and, 
come September 2000, 
she will be one of seven 
people in the organiza- 
tion's Main Operations 
Center, a sort of Olym- 
pic ground zero. In 
addition to a slew of 

television monitors, the 
room will come equip- 
ped with radios, tele- 
phones, fax machines, 
and white boards to 
help the staff deal with 
anything from frequent 
shuttle-bus break- 
downs to phoned-in 
bomb threats. 

In case of emergen- 
cies, the room will fea- 
ture what McLennan 
refers to as "red bat- 
phones" that link di- 
recdy to the local fire 
and police stations. But 
all of that is still months 
away. For now, McLen- 

raise revenue, how to 
acquire property. In my 
first five months, I 
wondered when every- 
one was going to focus 
on what actually hap- 
pens in 2000." 

On her own initia- 
tive, McLennan began 
holding "brainstorm- 
ing" sessions to figure 
out how the different 
Olympic venues would 
function once the stadi- 
ums filled with people. 
"I realized that there 
was a real need to get 
functional areas talking 
to one another," she 

bought tickets to sever- 
al swimming events, 
her responsibilities in 
the Main Operation 
Center might well 
mean she'll have to 
catch the 200-meter 
butterfly on the cen- 
ter's television bank. 
"The awe I have 
always felt for the 
Olympics through my 
swimming career does 
have something to do 
with my attraction to it, 
but even more impor- 
tant is my attraction to 
the sheer logistics and 
organizing require- 

]ling bgistics in Sydney 

nan is working on refin- 
ing operating plans for 
all the various venues 
and analyzing the 
results of practice 
events SOCOG began 
in September. 

When McLennan 
first came to SOCOG, 
she was working in an 
entirely different area. 
She was hired as a busi- 
ness planner to work 
with the CEO on prop- 
erty acquisitions and 
the organization's 
40,000-line-item budget 
(totaling 2.5 billion 
Australian dollars, or 
about $2 billion Ameri- 
can). "In 1996,"she 
says, "SOCOG was real- 
ly not focusing too 
much on what was to 
happen in 2000; its 
focus was more on how 
to establish itself as a 
corporation, how to 

says. "It simply was not 

Before the first cheers 
erupt at the opening 
ceremony, McLennan 
will have spent three 
years working with 
about fifty different 
Olympic groups — 
including security, 
catering, language ser- 
vices, and broadcast- 
ing — to unify all the 
Olympic operations, 
creating generic plans 
for how every event 
will be handled and 
every support opera- 
tion run. This stan- 
dardization will ensure 
that all deliveries will 
be handled in the same 
manner, food will cost 
the same amount, and 
each field of competi- 
tion will be presented 

Although she's 

ments of this event," 
she says. The Main 
Operation Center "will 
be the most exciting 
place for me to be." 

McLennan says she 
hopes to find similar 
strategic planning pro- 
jects after her stint with 
SOCOG comes to its 
inevitable conclusion. 
Although she's been 
invited back to her job 
as a management con- 
sultant at Booz Allen & 
Hamilton, her future is 
uncertain. "There's 
only one sure thing," 
McLennan says, "and 
that is I'm out of a job 
in November of 2000." 


Duke Alumni Association 

Distinguished Alumni Award 

The Distinguished Alumni Award is the highest award presented by the Duke Alumni Association. It is awarded with great care to 
alumni who have distinguished themselves by contributions that they have made in their own particular fields of work, or in service to 
Duke University, or in the betterment of humanity. Nominators should be aware that previous recipients of this award have exhibited 
interest and commitment in all of these areas. All living alumni, other than current Duke employees, are eligible for consideration. 

All nominations should be addressed to the Awards and Recognition Committee, Alumni House, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 27708. 
Facsimile materials will not be accepted. Nominations received by August 31 will be considered by the Committee. All background 
information on the candidates must be compiled by the individual submitting the nomination. The nominator must provide all materials 
pertinent to the nomination. The Awards and Recognition Committee will not do further research on behalf of any nominee. 


Name Class 







Telephone (day & evening numbers) 


On separate sheets, please summarize the more significant accomplishments of the nominee in all three areas: work, service to 
Duke, and the betterment of humanity. These accomplishments should be the direct result of the nominee's individual interests 
and efforts. Evidence of personal involvement and commitment should be provided. Specific dates and tenure of activity or service 
should be included. 

Supporting Documentation 

Please attach letters of recommendation, citations, and newspaper or magazine clippings that document the nominee's contributions. A 
current curriculum vitae or resume should be submitted. It is the quality of the testimonial letters that impresses the committee, not 
simply the quantity. 

For additional information contact 
Barbara Pattishall, Associate Director, Alumni House, Duke University (1-800-367-3853 or 1-919-684-5114). 

^^^^^^^W ''' X<>" looking for an unfor- 
^^^^^r gettable vacation or a weekend 
refresher, among people with similar inter- 
ests? Then come along for one or several 
of the many special excursions and alumni 
colleges that Duke Alumni Education and 
Travel has planned for 2000. 
There are holidays for all budgets and 
tastes and all arrangements are taken 
care of so you can experience a familiar 
or a new place without the worry often 
associated with travel planning. 
For more information just check on the 
request form which trips you would like 
to receive a brochure about and either 
send or fax it to us. We'll be happy to 
send the appropriate information as 
soon as it is available. 

You Are What You Eat A Guide 
to Diets, Herbs & Supplements 

Duke faculty and local experts will pro- 
vide guidance based on the latest evi- 
dence as we discuss a broad variety of 
diets, lifestyle and nutritional interven- 
tions, which are all components of an 
integrative approach to health. 


Summer Youth Camps 

June ■ August 

Residential and day programs 
for students in middle school 
and high school. 

nSBSBSnasSBSBBa Alumni College in Greece 

The Panama Canal & the Treasures 
of Costa Rica 


January 13-21 
FROM $3,495 

Explore the unspoiled 
world of Costa Rica's 
mountain rainforests, 
fragile orchids and abun- 
dant wildlife. Make full tran- 
sit of the Panama Canal, one of the 
world's great engineering feats. 

Among the Great Whales: 
Baja California & the Sea of Cortez 

Aboard the 70-passenger Sea Lion, expe- 
rience the age-old migration patterns of 
whales amidst exceptional marine and 
bird life in one of the most exciting and 
unspoiled parts of our world, led by 

Exploring North Carolina's Outer Banks Duke manne biologist Andy 


Orrin Pilkey will lead you on a jour- 
ney of the Outer Banks starting at 
Nag's Head and ending on 
Ocracoke Island. You'll meet local 
experts and scholars and learn the 
perils of the coastal erosion 
process to beaches and buildings as 
well as some possible solutions. 

Summer Academy 

June ■ August 

$695 per person 

trinity center. salter path, nc 

Session I: July 2-6 

21st Annual Duke Writers' Workshop 
Small study groups in Short Fiction, 
Novel, Poetry, and Children's Writing 

Session II: July 69 

Specialty workshops: Publishing, Screen- 
writing, Memoir and Beginning Fiction 

Summer Session for Duke Alumni 

For the first time, Duke alumni may take 
regular Summer Session undergraduate 
courses for HALF the regular tuition. 

Village Life in the Italian Countryside 

Your base for this visit will be an authen- 
tic palazzo in Fiuggi, just 45 minutes 
from Rome. From there some of the 
places you'll visit include the Tivoli 
gardens, Hadrian's Villa, and Fumone, 
a pedestrian-only medieval town. 

Alumni College in Provence 


$2,395 PER PERSON 

This popular learning adventure takes 
you to the heart of Provence, a land of 
spectacular Roman monuments, architec- 
tural treasures and the beautiful scenery 
immortalized by Cezanne and Van Gogh. 

Village Life in Ireland 

Spend days filled with an invigorating 
mix of mental and physical activity sur- 
rounded by awe-inspiring vistas and 
Celtic history. You'll spend four nights in 
the historic town of Killarney and three 
in Dublin, the cultural capital of Ireland. 

Mary 24-June 2 SOLD OUT 
JUNE 14-23 

$2,295 PER PERSON 

Immerse yourself in the uniqueness of 
Greek life and culture on the island of 
Poros, an Aegean jewel located among 
the spectacular Saronic Gulf islands. 
You'll be less than an hour from 
Athens and close to several of the 
major historical sites on the mainland. 

Exploring the Art & Culture of Belgium 

Hans Van Miegrot of Duke's art histo- 
ry department will lead this special 
program for those who enjoy a wide 
range of cultural encounters. 
Based in the historic city 
of Ghent, you'll take 
day trips to places 
such as Leiden, 
Bruges, Brussels, 
Melchelen and lL<'i . 

Antwerp, hear talks by ^ 
leading scholars, and 
visit private collections. 

The Romantic River Route 

While you're on the exclusively char- 
tered M. S. Switzerland II, discover 
the beauty of the Danube, Main and 
Rhine rivers. Visit medieval towns 
along the way, from Regensburg, 
Germany to the Swiss Alps. Venture 
into the Black Forest and explore 
Strasbourg, before completing your 
cruise in Basel, Switzerland. 

Kenya Safari 

Embark on a great adven- 
ture that stretches from 
the vast plains of the 
Maasai Mara to the 
rugged terrain of 
Samburu. You'll see 
animals as they are 
meant to be seen, in the 
wild and roaming free. 
Explore Kenya's vast wildlife 
reserves and enjoy some of the finest 
accommodations in East Africa. 




Historic Montreal & Quebec City Treasures of the Seine 

Sailing the Great Lakes 

On this remarkable voyage sail past pristine 
wilderness and visit quintessential water- 
front towns in the U.S. and Canada, on the 
new five-star LeLevant. Relive the colorful 
times of traders, surveyors and adventurers. 
Visit all five Great Lakes, and reconnect 
with the historic past, guided by Alex 
Roland from the Department of History. 

Discovering Eastern Germany: 
The New Berlin, Dresden & Weimar 

A deluxe tour that opens up the extra- 
ordinary riches of the former German 
Democratic Republic. Reunification has 
brought an astonishing resurgence to 
East Germany and it is rapidly becoming 
one of Europe's most fascinating destina- 
tions. Accommodations are in beautifully 
restored buildings and palaces. 

Village Life in Wales 

From first class Hotel Metropole in Lland- 
rindod Wells in mid- Wales you'll discover a 
country of unparalleled scenery, steeped in 
history and filled with lyrical voices. Day 
trips to Snowdonia, Bodnant Gardens, 
Caernarfon, Caerphilly and Powys castles 
will complement talks by Michael Moses 
of Duke's English Department. 

Join us for a taste of Europe 
without crossing the Atlantic as 
you explore Old World Quebec 
and cosmopolitan Montreal. Participants 
will have the rare opportunity for a private 
viewing of From Renoir to Picasso, a collec- 
tion of 8 1 masterpieces from Paris. ; 
ing only in Montreal and Fort Worth. 

The Hidden Treasures 
of Northern Italy's Po River 

You'll begin with three days in Florence, 
amongst the treasures of the Italian 
Renaissance, followed by a cruise on 
Italy's scenic Po River, stopping in towns 
rich in history and culture. Finally, two 
days in remarkable Venice. 

The Oxford Experience 

September 9-23 

approx. $3,175 per person 

This two-week program 
is designed to immerse you 
in centuries-old traditions of 
learning and community. In 
small groups lead by Oxford faculty, 
you'll learn, explore the English country- 
side and visit fascinating landmarks. 

China & the Yangtse River 

On this exclusive Duke tour, experience 
some of China's most beautiful cities and 
towns, cruise down the lovely Yangtse 
River, and appreciate China's past and 
present through immersion in her unique 
culture. This will be a trip to remember! 

After exploring London, journey across 
the Channel for a cruise along the 
world's most romantic river, stopping to 
explore impressionistic villages and 
ancient architecture, including 
Honfleur. Caudebec and Rouen. Your 
last two nights will be in Paris. 

Alumni College in Sorrento 

This new Alumni College will 
take you to southern Italy's IBB 

province of Campania, full of %Hl 
scenic delights and pathways to ^H 
antiquity. From your base in the gar- 
den town of Sorrento, you'll venture to 
Naples, the Amalfi Coast and the Isle 
of Capri, marveling at the natural won- 
ders of this region. 

Egyptian Odyssey to the Upper Nile 

As you travel across the sands of 
time you'll enjoy vintage palace 
hotels in Cairo, Luxor, and Aswan, 
and then board the M. S. Kasr Ibrim for 
glorious days among 
the monuments of 
the Upper Nile. A 
cruise of Lake 
Nasser will provide 
access to rarely 
seen Nubian sites 
before you return to 
Cairo for the final 
days of this adventure. 

Visit us on the web at: www.dukealumni.toni 

Eazmamzszn g 

For detailed brochures, please mail or fax this form to: Duke Educational Adventures, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 27708, Fax: 919-684-6022 


□ You Are What You Eat: A Guide to 
Diets, Herbs & Supplements 

□ Exploring NC's Outer Banks 

□ Summer Academy 
□ Summer Session 

□ Summer Youth Camps 

□ The Panama Canal & the Treasures 
of Costa Rica 

□ Among the Great Whales 

□ Village Life in the Italian 

□ Alumni College in Provence 

□ Village Life in Ireland 

□ Alumni College in Greece 

□ Exploring the Art & Culture of 

□ The Romantic River Route 

□ Kenya Safari 

□ Sailing the Great Lakes 

□ Discovering Eastern Germany 

□ Village Life in Wales 

□ Historic Montreal & Quebec City 

□ The Hidden Treasures of Northern 
Italy's Po River 

□ The Oxford Experience 

□ China & the Yangtse River 

□ Treasures of the Seine 

□ Village Life in Sorrento 

□ Egyptian Odyssey to the Upper Nile 

) on May 8. Named Margaux 
Rachel Elizabeth.. .Third child and second son to 
Caren Copeland York '85 and Greg V. York '85 
on March 4. Named Charles Copeland.. .Twin daughters 
to M. Lloyd Barnhardt '86 and Gina M. Barnhardt 
on Feb. 4. Named Cameron Louise and Maggie Leigh... 
Second child and first son to Julie Heitzenrater 
Duval '86 and Derek Scott Duval on July 21. Named 
Kyle Benjamin.. .Second child to Amy Ward Kirsch- 
baum '86 and Charles Kirschbaum on May 23. Named 
Anne Spaulding...A son to John L. Winkler '86 
and Anneth Winkler on Feb. 16. Named John Martin... 
Second child and first daughter to Francine Dono- 
van Winter '86 and James Andrew Winter '85 
on May 8. Named Margaux Rachel Elizabeth... Third 
child and first son to Susan Lehman Carmichael 
'87 and Trent Andrew Carmichael '88 on March 
3. Named Ryan Trent... Second child and son to 
Caroline Aiken Koster '87 and James Koster on 
July 11. Named Culton Locke.. .Second child and first 
daughter to Elizabeth Haber Lacy '87 and John 
Andre Lacy on May 16. Named Julia Elizabeth- 
Second son to Ellen Michelle Bublick '88 and 
David Jacobs on March 12. Named Daniel Samuel 
Jacobs.. .Second daughter to Staige Davis Hodges 
'88 and Eric Hodges on July 26. Named Larsen Anne- 
First child and daughter to Leslie Berkowitz 
Robinson '89 and Stephen Eric Robinson '89 
on Jan. 10. Named Heather Fay. 

; S. Gill '90 is an associate in the law firm 
Fowler, White, Gillen, Boggs, Villareal, &. Banker in 
Tampa, Fla. 

Michael Franklin Kleine '90, J.D. '93, a foreign 

service officer with the U.S. Department of State, 
began a two-year tour in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 
in September. 

ler '90, who earned her M.B.A. at George- 
town University in May, is the senior vice president of 
a start-up online trading company in San Francisco. 

J.D/LL.M. '90, a partner 
at Whiteman Osterman & Hanna, was named to the 
Committee on Internet and Technology Law of the 
N.Y. State Bar Association's business law section. He 
lives in Glenmont, N.Y. 

Chalin Alicia Smith B.S.E. '90, who earned her 
J.D. at George Mason University in 1996, is an associate 
at the law firm Shanks and Herbert, where she specializes 
in intellectual property and biotechnology. She and 
her husband, Jeff Carlson, live in Riverdale, Md. 

Adam T. Bernstein J.D. '91 is the chief patent 
counsel for Bell Atlantic. He lives in Port Washington, 

Mark G. Claypool J.D. '91 is an associate with the 
law firm Knox McLaughlin Gornall 6k Sennett. He and 
his family live in North East, Pa. 

David W. Dawson '91, who earned his M.D. and 
Ph.D. at Northwestern University, is a pathology resident 
at the University of California, Los Angeles. 

David Leo Hackett '91 joined the labor and 
employment law department in the Philadelphia office 
of Saul Ewing. 

Geoffrey Richard Heintzelman '91 is a medicinal 
chemist at the R.W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research 
Institute. He and his wife, Susan, and their son live in 
Annandale, N.J. 

Sidney Horton III '91, who earned his 
Ph.D. in cognitive psychology at the University of 

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Chicago, is a postdoctoral research fellow in the 
psychology department at SUNY-Stony Brook in 
New York. 

Ronald J. Krotoszynski Jr J.D/LL.M. '91 is the 
Paul Beam Fellow at Indiana University Law School. 
He lives in Indianapolis. 

'91 , who completed his residency 
at the Neurological Institute, Columbia-Presbyterian 
Medical Center, in New York City, began a fellowship 
in epilepsy there in July. 

J. Pak '91, who earned her M.D. in May 
at Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson 
University, in Philadelphia, began a residency in 
surgery at Union Memorial Hospital in Baltimore. 

Shabbir S. Wakhariya LL.M. '91 joined the law 

firm Kelley Drye &. Warren, where he focuses on 
Indian laws. He lives in New York City. 

Timothy Shea Errera '92, who completed his 
residency in pediatrics at Harbor-UCLA Medical 
Center in Torrance, Calif., joined a group practice in 
Northridge, Calif. 

John D. Gardiner J.D. '92 is the vice president ol 
business development and general counsel for AOL 
Latin America. He lives in Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. 

eg '92 represented Duke in 
October at the inauguration of the president of Knox 
College in Galesburg, 111. She lives in Peoria, 111. 

Christopher John Heekin '92, who earned 
his M.B.A. at the University of Virginia's Darden 
School of Business in May, works for Arthur Andersen 
in Atlanta. 

A. Kenn J.D. '92 is general counsel and 
secretary for Mercedes-Ben: U.S. International, Inc. 
He lives in Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

ier LL.M. '92 earned his doctorate in 
juridicial science at the University of Toronto Faculty 
of Law this past March. He lives in New Zealand and 
teaches at the University of Auckland Faculty of Law. 

Nancy Carolyn Turner '92, who earned her 

M.B.A. at the University of Virginia's Darden School 
of Business in May, works for Houlihan Lokey Howard 
& Zukin in New York City. 

Esther Yee-Ching Atwell '93 is the community 
liaison officer at the U.S. Consulate General in Chiang 
Mai, Thailand, where she lives with her husband, 
John, and their two daughters. 

Jacqulynn Michelle Broughton J.D. '93 is an 
associate at the Cherry Hill, N.J., office of Schnader 
Harrison Segal & Lewis. 

William Harrison Carter '93, who earned his 
M.B.A. at the University of Virginia's Darden School 
of Business in May, works for Ernst & Young in New 
York City. 

Ids '93 is in her second year of 
medical school at the University of Maryland at 
Baltimore. She and her husband, Michael Jay 
i M.D. '98, Ph.D. '98, live in Baltimore. 

Mina D. Jackson B.S.E. '93, a Navy lieutenant, 
graduated in July from the Uniformed Services 
University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Md. 

' Willis Ritter '93, who earned his M.B.A. 
at the University of Virginia's Darden School of 
Business in May, works for Pathnet in Washington, DC. 

Benjamin M. Bernstein '94, who earned his 
M.D. at West Virginia University's medical school, is a 
resident at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York City. 

Nedra Denise Campbell '94 joined the law firm 
Charfoos Reiter Peterson Holmquist & Pilchak, where 


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she focuses on labor issues. She lives in SoutMeld, Mich. 

Carolyn Ann Cutney '94, who earned her M.D. 
in May at Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson 
University, in Philadelphia, began a residency in 
ophthalmology at Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia 
after completing a fellowship at St Lukes' Hospital in 
Denver, Colo. 

Gregory Scott Davidson '94 is business 
development manager of Digital Motorworks, Inc. 
He and his wife, Stacy Wellborn, live in Austin, Texas. 

Cristina Elizabeth Davis '94, who completed 
her Ph.D. in biomedical engineering at the University 
of Virginia, is a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins 
University in Baltimore. 

Jill Ewing Flynn '94 teaches English and coaches 
the girls' basketball team at Morristown-Beard School 
in Morristown, N.J. She and her husband, John, live in 
Millburn, N.J. 

Dara Anika Green '94, who earned her M.D. at 
Wake Forest University in May, is an intern at Emory 
University School of Medicine in Atlanta. 

Aleicia C. Holt '94 is an assistant vice president at 
First Citizens Bank in Raleigh, N.C. 

Kiang '94 is a resident in general surgery 
at the Marshfield Clinic/St. Joseph's Hospital in 
Marshfleld, Wis. 

Anne Marie Elizabeth Puckhaber '94, who 
earned her M.D. at Wake Forest University in May, is 
a resident in pediatrics at the Medical University of 
South Carolina in Charleston. 

Christian John Streck Jr. '94, who earned his 
M.D. at Wake Forest University in May, is a surgery 
resident at the University of Tennessee College of 
Medicine in Memphis. 

Christopher Sean Wilson '94 is an associate 

at the law firm Bond Schoeneck & King, where he 
focuses on business law. He lives in Syracuse, N.Y. 

Eric Jay Bergson '95, who earned his M.D. in 
May at Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jeffejson 
University, in Philadelphia, began a residency in 
otolaryngology-head and neck surgery at the Albert 
Einstein College of Medicine in New York. 

Deanna Rose Brasile '95 was awarded the doctor 
of osteopathic medicine degree from Philadelphia 
College of Osteopathic Medicine in June. 

Jeremy Seth Grayson '95, who earned his M.D. 
in May at Jefferson Medical College at Thomas 
Jefferson University, in Philadelphia, began a residency 
in radiology at the Albert Einstein Medical Center in 

Christina Mary Hanna '95, who earned her 
M.D. at Wake Forest University in May, is a resident 
in pediatrics at the Indiana University School of 
Medicine in Indianapolis. 

Grant T. Hollett IV B.S.E. '95 has left active duty 
in the Navy and is working with GE Power Systems. 
He and his wife, Courtney, and their son live in 
Schenectady, N.Y. 

Sherman Christopher Lee '95, who earned his 
M.D. at Wake Forest University in May, is an intern at 
the Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland. 

Caroline Belle Marshall '95, who earned her 
M.D. at Baylor College of Medicine, is a resident in 
internal medicine at Baylor. 

Kevin McLoughlin B.S.E. '95 completed his com- 
mitment as a Navy lieutenant in the Civil Engineer 
Corps in July. He earned his M.B.A. at Webster 
University in December and works for Landmark 
Organization. His wife, I 

McLoughlin '95, is pursuing her M.B.A at the 
University of Texas. The couple live in Austin, Texas. 

irr Nelson '95 graduated summa 
cum laude in May from the University of Maryland 
School of Medicine and received the J. Edmund 
Bradley Award for Excellence in Pediatrics. She began 
a three-year residency at the Children's Hospital of 

Jennifer Kristin Pocalyko '95, who earned her 
M.B.A. at the University of Virginia's Darden School 
of Business in May, works for Robinson-Humphrey Co. 
in Atlanta. 

Emily E. Spilseth '95, who earned her M.D. at 
Mayo Medical School in May, is training in emergency 
medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. 

David R. Brownstone '96 received the 
International Academy of Trial Lawyers Award from 
Washington University School of Law in May for 
proficiency in advocacy and litigation skills. 

Thomas A. Donaldson '96 received the 
American Bar Association Section of Urban, State, 
and Local Government law prize from Washington 
University School of Law in May. 

Emily Coleman Kangas '96 is assistant to the 
director at the Office of Historic Alexandria. She and 
her husband, Paul, live in Alexandria, Va. 

LL.M. '96 returned to Japan and 
resumed practice at Tanaka &. Takahashi. He and his 
wife, Yuko, and their son live in Yokohama. 

Alison M. Andrews '97 is a banking officer and 
financial analyst tor Wachovia Bank in Raleigh, N.C. 

Hosea '97 is entering her third 
year at the George Washington University Law School. 
She lives in Washington, D.C. 

Paul W. Kim '97, a Navy ensign, has been deployed 
to the Western Pacific aboard the USS Gary, based in 
San Diego. 

Olivia Wendy Leembruggen '97 spent a year in 
Washington, D.C, working for the National Coalition 
for Cancer Survivorship. She is in her second year of 
medical school at the University of South Carolina in 

Laura Ann Miller '97 was a winning contestant 
on the game show jeopardy in July. She is a writer and 
literary assistant in Los Angeles, Calif. 

■ L. Yelton J.D./LL.M. '97 is an associate 
at the law firm McKool Smith in Dallas, Texas. 

Michael Jay Fields M.D./Ph.D. '98 is a resident in 

pediatrics at Johns Hopkins Hospital. He and his wife, 
'93, live in Baltimore. 

MARRIAGES: Chalin Alicia Smith B.S.E. '90 to 
Jeffrey David Carlson on May 22. Residence: 
Washington, DC. ..Thomas Clifton Butler 

M.B.A. '91 to Patricia Marie Maloney on July 31. 
Residence: New York City... Jeremy Raphael 
Jacobs '92 to Suzette Rene Roth on Aug. 15. 
Residence: Pittsburgh, Pa.. ..Eve Ariel Samuels '93 
to Michael Jay Fields M.D./Ph.D. '98 on Aug. 7. 
Residence: Baltimore. ..Gregory Scott Davidson 
'94 to Stacy Wellborn on Jan. 16. Residence: Austin, 
Texas... Jill Ewing Flynn '94 to John Ftancis Xavier 
Flynn on July 9. Residence: Millburn, N.J... .Jeffrey 
Eric Pierce '94 to Melissa Dawn Campbell on June 
12. Residence: Clarion, Pa.Erika Holz '95 to Kyle 
Kirkpatrick Pond '95 on June 19. Residence: 
Durham.. .Kristen Nicole Piper '95 to Jon Hesby 
on Aug. 7. Residence: Evanston, 111.. ..Emily 
Coleman '96 to Paul Kangas in June. Residence: 
Alexandria, Va....JMI Anne Boese M.PE '97 to 
Trent Ryan Stamp M.PP '97 on July 10. 


Residence: Glenview, 111. ...Deborah Anne Laszlo 

M.B.A. '97 to Gregory Michael Erdman on Sept. 11. 
Residence: Winston-Salem, N.C.... Michael Jay 
Fields M.D./Ph.D. '98 to Eve Ariel Samuels '93 

on Aug. 7. Residence: Baltimore. 

BIRTHS: A son to Jule Leon Sigall '90 and Beth 

Torlone Sigall '90 on July 12. Named Anthony 
Torlone Sigall. ..First child and son to Mark G. Clay- 
pool J.D.'91 and Kristin Claypool on Sept. 17, 1998. 
Named Benjamin Donald. ..First child and son to 
Geoffrey R. Heintzelman '91 and Susan Heint- 
zelman on Oct. 2, 1998. Named Daniel Jacob... Second 
son to James Andrew Wylie M.B.A. '91 and 
Brooksley Spence Wylie '86 on Feb. 15. Named 
Austin Robert.. .A daughter to Silvia Jansen 
Hansell '93 and Jordan Hansell '93 on Dec. 26, 
1998. Named Emery Armand... First child and son to 
Grant T. Hollett IV B.S.E. '95 and Courtney 
Hollett on May 12. Named Justin Arthur... First child 
and son to Todd Richard Tippets M.B.A. '95 and 
Connie Ann Thorup on Aug. 12. Named Alexander 
Richard Tippets.. .A son to Naoki Watanabe LL.M. 
'96 and Yuko Watanabe on Feb. 4- Named Jun. 


Samuel B. Hayes Jr. A.M. '28 of Clinton, S.C., 
on Feb. 18. 

Marion T. Plyler Jr. '30, M.D. '34 of Raleigh, 
N.C., on March 10. He is survived by a daughter, five 
grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren. 

Hugh L. Noland '31 of Upper Crabtree, N.C., on 
Feb. 16. He is survived by two daughters and three 


Donald A. Kuykendall '33 of Edina, Minn., on 
March 3. He is survived by his wife, Luverne; a son; 
and three grandchildren. 

Howard McLamb '33, B.D. '35 of Raleigh, N.C., on 
Feb. 24. A United Methodist minister, he was a district 
superintendent for Goldsboro in 1954 and Greenville 
district superintendent in 1970. He is survived by his 
wife, Azile; a son; and a grandson. 

John Egbert McNairy LL.B. '33 of Glens Falls, 
N.Y., on March 24- He worked for 33 years at Glens 
Falls Insurance Co. and Continental Insurance. He is 
survived by his wife, Elizabeth; a son; three daughters; 
and six grandchildren. 

Bruce S. Roxby '33 of Media, Pa., on Feb. 17. A 
physician, he was a clinical associate professor of 
medicine at Temple University, where he organized 
and directed the student health service until retiring in 
1984. He received the Ruth E. Boyton Award for 
service from the American College Health 
Association. He is survived by his wife, Marguerite. 

Temesia L. Bowling '35 of Key Largo, Fla., on 
March 25. 

John C. Cottingham '35 of Dillon, S.C., on 
March 14- He was a retired farmer, teacher, and 
businessman in Dillon. He was a founding member of 
the local Lions Club and a former officer in the Pee 
Dee chapter of the S.C. Genealogical Society. He was a 
trustee of the Main Street United Methodist Church. 
He is survived by his wife, Anita; three sons; two 
daughters; and eight grandchildren. 

Mary L. Riddick Griffith '35 of Durham, on Feb. 

6. She is survived by a brother, Floyd M. Riddick 

'32, Ph.D. '35, Hon. '82; two nieces; and a nephew. 

Norman B. Livengood '35 of Marietta, Ga., on 
Feb. 26. He is survived by a son, four grandchildren, 
and two great-granddaughters. 

I M.D. '35 of Chicago, 111., on 

March 20. He was a lieutenant colonel in the Army 
Medical Corps during World War II. A pediatrician, he 
served on numerous local and state committees and 
helped to draft the Child Abuse Law. He was a founding 
member of the Duke Pediatric Society, and served on 
the Chicago-area's alumni admissions committee for 
Duke's medical school. He is survived by his wife, Vivian; 
two children; and three grandchildren. 

; Storm Jr. '35 of Jacksonville, Fla., 
on Jan. 3. He is survived by his wife, Margaret, and a 
nephew, Ritchie Carr Shoemaker '73, M.D. '77. 

Walter G. Gellert Jr. B.S.C.E. '37 of Sarasota, 
Fla., on Jan 2. He was co-owner of the Adelphia Pearl 
Button Manufacturing Co. until its sale in 1950. 
During World War II, he served as a Navy officer in 
charge of air transport in the South Pacific. He is sur- 
vived by two sons, a daughter, and six grandchildren. 

Linwood E. Blackburn '38, B.D. '41 of Wilson, 
N.C., on March 10. He was a retired United Methodist 
minister and missionary. He is survived by two daughters, 
two sons, two sisters, and six grandchildren. 

Harry C. Rickard M.Div. '38 of Strasburg, Va., on 
March 22. 

Allen C. Budd '39 of Langsdowne, Pa., in 1998. 

Stephen Kidd '39 of Whiting, N.J., on Jan. 23, 
1998. He was assistant director of the Office of 
Research Administration at Princeton University. He 
is survived by his wife, Geraldine; and five children. 

Carlin O. Walker '39 of Westport, N.Y., on 
Nov. 21. He is survived by his wife, Ruth Manville 
Walker 39 

Jake George Hagaman M.Ed. '40 of Naples, Fla., 
on April 7, 1998. 

■ L. Horger '40, M.D. '43 of Deerfield 
Beach, Fla., on April 10. During the Korean War, he 
was an Air Force captain and chief of medicine at the 
USAF Hospital at Westover Air Force Base, Mass. 
A specialist in internal medicine in New York City, he 
was affiliated with the New York Hospital and was an 
assistant professor of clinical medicine at Cornell 
Medical School. He moved to Florida in 1970 to 
become managing physician for IBM Corp. in Boca 
Raton, retiring in 1981. He was a clinical voluntary 
associate professor of medicine at the University of 
Miami Medical School. He was a past secretary, 
treasurer, vice president, and president of the Fla. 
Occupational Medical Association. He was a member 
of Duke's Davison Club. An avid tennis player, he 
was a member of the "Over the Net Gang"; its annual 
tennis tournament was named in his honor posthu- 
mously. He is survived by his wife, Susannah; three 
daughters; three sons; and eight grandchildren. 

Annajane Boyd Watson '40 of Valley Forge, Pa., 
on Jan. 30. 

irian Dickinson '41 of Barboursville, Wyo., on 
Oct. 1, 1998. 

H. Worrill LL.B. '41 of Athens, Greece. 

&. Wulfman M.D. '42 of Richmond, Va., 
on Nov. 1. 

Paul Edwin Ahalt M.Ed. '43 of Pearisburg, Va., on 
Nov. 16, 1998. He is survived by his wife, Marguerite; a 
daughter; and four grandchildren. 

Maury D. Baker Jr. A.M. '43, Ph.D. '47 of 
Richmond, Va., on Dec. 2, of heart failure. He is 
survived by his wife, Mary. 

Thomas Franklin Huckabee '44 of Jacksonville, 
Fla., on Feb. 17. 

Helton McAndrew Ph.D. '46 of Cheyenne, Wyo., 

A Charitable 

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November- December 1999 35 


Our Duke Directory 2000 project 
is nearing completion and your 
order will be shipped soon. This 
comprehensive new volume is a compilation 
of the most current data available on more 
than 102,000 Duke alumni. Information 
was obtained from questionnaire mailings, 
telephone verification, and alumni records. 
Now the distribution of this impressive 
edition will begin. 

Directories are scheduled to be released 
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on Jan. 15. A psychologist, she was awarded the status 
of diplomate by the American Board of Professional 
Psychologists. She was clinical psychologist for Social 
Services of North Carolina for 33 years. She is survived 
by two sisters. 

Carl Dowe '47 of Virginia Beach, Va., on March 9. 
He is survived by his wife, Madge; a daughter; a son; 
and two grandchildren. 

Eleanor "Lyn" Messenkopf McKee '47 of 

Lafayette, Calif., on March 24. She was co-author of 
two books used in the field of sexuality and disability, 
and led a successful crusade to broaden the local 
school district's teaching of sex education in the cur- 
riculum. She is survived by her husband, William 
McKee B.S.M.E. '46; two sons; a daughter; and six 

Frances Kioder Quaritius '47 of Orange Park, 
Fla., on March 4- She was a crusader for the improve- 
ment of education and health services for children 
and families in Northeast Florida. She served on many 
public and private panels supporting her cause, including 
Florida's Fourth District Health and Human Services 
Board. She is survived by her husband, Jack H. 
Quaritius '48; two sons, including Jeffrey H. 

77; a daughter; and three grandchildren. 

ivid Taylor A.M. '47 of Black Mountain, 
N.C., on Dec. 17. 

Lew L. McMasters Jr. '50 of St. Petersburg, Fla., 
on May 21, after a long illness. He was a retired real 
estate executive. At Duke, he was a member of 
NROTC, captain of the varsity tennis team, and a 
member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon. During the Korean 
War, he served as a gunnery officer aboard the USS 
Hobson and the USS Frank Knox. In 1953, he joined his 
father in the family business, McMasters' Real Estate 
and Mortgage Loan Co., which closed in 1989. He was 
a past president of the Lakewood Country Club and 
the St. Petersburg Tennis Club. He is survived by his 
wife, Natalie; a daughter; a son; three grandchildren; 
and a sister, Ellen McMasters Jordan '53. 

Ben F. Stormes J.D. '50 of Grosse Pointe, Mich., 

on Aug. 13, 1998. He is survived by his wife, Rita; 

two daughters, including Nita L . Stormes ID '79; 

a son-in-law, Edward Patrick Swann Jr. J.D. '79; 

two sons; and seven grandchildren. 

Richard L. Lanning B.S.M.E. '51 of Newtown, Pa., 

on Jan. 8. 

Ronald Vickers Jr. B.S.E. '51 of Fort Worth, Texas., 

on March 7. He had served in the Navy as a lieutenant 

j.g. He is survived by two children and a sister. 

Alphonse Charles Gomez M.D. '52 of El Paso, 
Texas, on Feb. 18. He is survived by his wife, Barbara. 

Lindstrom '52 of Palm City, 
Fla., on Feb. 12. He is survived by his wife, Lolita; a 
son, David Scott Lindstrom '85; and a daughter, 
Mary Frances Lager Lindstrom '85. 

Lydia Steele Renn '52 of Durham, on Feb. 23. A 
worker at the Southeastern Baptist Theological 
Seminary, she was author of the book The Reverend 
Luckey Steele. She is survived by two daughters; five 
grandchildren; a nephew, Hal Stewart Pope '82; 
and 10 great-grandchildren. 

Charles Burns Nesbitt M.Div. '56 of Richmond, 

Va., on March 20. He was an Air Force chaplain for 20 
years, reaching the rank of colonel. He was awarded 
the Bronze Star and the Legion of Merit. He was a 
member of the United Methodist Church. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Mary Summers Nesbitt M.A.T 
'55; two sons, including Charles Phillip Nesbitt 
'82; and a daughter. 

Sarah Louise Bowen M.A.T. '57 of Newman, 
Ga., on Feb. 18. 


i Harrison '57 of Wayne, W.Va., 
on March 25, 1998. He is survived by his wife, Pilar. 
Austin J. Simpson M.Ed. '59 of Cary, N.C., on 
March 23. A lifelong educator, he was principal of 
three junior high schools and headmaster of a private 
school. He also served as a consultant to the N.C. 
Department of Public Instruction. He is survived by his 
wife, Lena; two daughrers; and two grandchildren. 

R. Bruce Masterton Ph.D. '63 of Tallahassee, Fla., 
on March 18. A professor of psychology, psychobiology, 
and neuroscience at Florida State University, he was 
recognized internationally for his work in biopsychology. 
He is survived by his wife, Pauline; three sons; and six 

Arthur D. McCutchan M.D'64 of Florence, S.C., 
on Sept. 2, 1998. He is survived by his wife, Olivia; 
two sons; a grandson; and two brothers. 

Bruno Rudolf Newman '65 of East Northport, 
N.Y., on June 28, 1998. He was a social worker for 30 
years, working in all aspects of mental health. 

Donald N. Baglien 70 of Edgewood, Ky., on Feb. 
15. A former school principal, he was a teacher and an 
assistant football coach at Newport Central Catholic 
High School. He is survived by his wife, Barbara 
Stewart Baglien '69; two daughters; and his mother. 

Larry Young M.H.A. 71 of Cary, N.C, on March 25. 

Helen Whiting 74 of Durham, on March 17. She was 
one of a trio of Duke graduates who purchased the Reg- 
ulator Bookshop on Ninth Street, helping to transform 
it into one of the area's most recognizable locales. She 
is survived by her parents, two sisters, and a brother. 

Charles Keith Coleman '83 of Allentown, Pa., 
on Feb. 19, 1998. He is survived by his wife, Lisa; a son; 
a daughter; a brother; and a sister. 
Karolyn Edwards Berkey M.Div. '88 of West 
Lafayette, Ind., on Feb. 19. She was an ordained 
United Methodist minister at Oxford United 
Methodist Church. She earned a journalism degree 
from Indiana University. She is survived by her 
husband, Ken; a son; and her mother. 

M.B.A. '96 of Raleigh, 
N.C, on March 23. 

Sociologist Back 

Kurt W. Back, James B. Duke emeritus professor of 
sociology and former chair ot the sociology department, 
died August 13 in Durham of heart failure and pneu- 
monia. He was 79. 

The Vienna, Austria, native came to Duke in 1959 
as an assistant professor of sociology and psychiatry and 
was named a full professor in 1962. He chaired the 
sociology department from 1976 to 1981. He retired in 

He was the author or co-author of eight books, 
including Beyond Words: The Story of Sensitivity Training 
and the Encounter Movement, published in 1972, with a 
second edition in 1987. He was recognized in 1989 with 
the Southern Sociological Roll of Honor Tribute. 

He is survived by his wife, Mary Louise; a son; and a 

Margaret Ball, former dean of the Woman's College 
and a renowned scholar in international politics, died 
in Durham on September 14. She was 90. 

Ball earned her master's and her doctorate from 
Stanford and a law degree from the University of 
Cologne in Germany. She worked for the United Na- 
tions and the State Department during the 1940s. 
Before coming to Duke in 1963, she taught at Wellesley 
College for twenty-five years. She was dean at the 
Woman's College for six years before moving to the 
political science department. She later became director 
of international studies, and retired in 1975. 



Twelve Wedgwood Etruria Duke c 
dinner plates, mulberry. $1,200 plus shipping. 
Mint condition. Mary Geyer Carleton '45, 
(219) 288-0967. 


Lake Lure Area 

THREE CREEKS.. .an unparalleled community. 

Only eighteen three-acre homesites are being 

developed, none contiguous with another, 

within 270 acres of conserved land. This 

surrounding nature preserve is deeded to the 

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November -December 1999 37 


The mission 
of the Duke 
Alumni As- 
sociation, as stated 
in its bylaws, is to "advance the interests of Duke University 
and to create opportunities for alumni to participate fully in 
the life and vitality of the global university community." 

All graduates of Duke, as well as those who attended the 
university for at least two semesters, are members of the Duke 
Alumni Association. Through their volunteer service, their 
financial support, and their pride in Duke, alumni play an 
essential role in every aspect of university life. 

Alumni are encouraged to support their association by be- 
coming dues-paying members. This past fiscal year, 22,204 of 
an alumni body of 102,000 paid annual dues, garnering $714,806 
to support alumni events, activities, and programming. Lifetime 
alumni association memberships rose to 2,335. 


Three major awards, administered by the DAA's Awards and 
Recognition Committee, are supported by membership dues. 
These awards honor faculty, alumni, and outstanding volunteers. 

Alumni Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching Award 
Established in 1970, this honor recognized economics professor 
David W. Johnson. Fifty-two student-generated nominations were 
received, representing thirty-three individual faculty members. 

Distinguished Alumni Award 

Established in 1983, the award recognized Robert M. Price Jr. 
'52, a business executive, community- service leader, and a 
"team teacher" at the Fuqua School of Business. Forty nomina- 
tions were received. 

Charles A. Dukes Awards for Outstanding 
Volunteer Service 

This award was established in 1983 to honor Dukes '29, director 
of Alumni Affairs from 1944 to 1963. Last fiscal year, there were 
seven recipients: Adrienne Lawler Baroff '87; Anne Tyrrell 
Elmore '78; Suma Ramaiah Jones '87, A.M. '95; Grace"Happy" 
Parker Lowden '52; Margo Drakou Rorer M.A.T. '65 and David 
Cooke Rorer Ph.D. '64; and W. Earl Sasser Jr. '65, Ph.D. '69. 


Alumni Admissions Advisory Committees interview and 
champion prospective Duke students from around the world. 
Alumni volunteers — 3,428 strong — serve on 221 domestic 
and thirty committees in foreign countries. 

Advocacy for Alumni Children 

Throughout the application process, the alumni admissions 
program acts as an advocate for children of alumni who are in 
the undergraduate applicant pool. Of the children applying to 
the Class of 2003, 55 percent were admitted. 

Alumni Admissions Forum 

The biennial event is held for alumni with high- school-age 
children. The all-day conference gives parents and students 
information on the process of college selection and admissions. 
The next forum is June 23, 2000. 

Alumni Endowed Undergraduate Scholarships 
Awarded annually since 1979, this scholarship program 
recognizes the academic and personal achievements of 
children of alumni. Three $8,000 merit-based awards are 
presented to first-year students, and are renewable annually. 
All children who apply to Duke and have demonstrated 
financial need are considered. Recipients were Rachel Baden, 
Cara Weber, and Mark Freeman. 


Duke alumni used their membership cards to take advantage of 
a number of benefits, both on campus and off (some fees apply): 

• use of campus athletics facilities, Perkins Library and its 
branches, and the Career Development Center (cdc.stuaff. 

• membership in the Duke University Federal Credit Union, 
Duke University Golf Club 

• 10 percent discount at the Gothic Bookshop and 20 
percent discount on products with alumni logos sold at Duke 
University Stores (no phone orders) 

• Alumni Locator 

• SkillSearch and ProNet (national resume referral databanks) 

• DukeSource (career-advice network of 5,000 alumni) 

• Alumni health and life insurance 


• Car-rental discounts 

• Duke vanity license plates (through North Carolina and 
Virginia DMVs) 

• Duke VISA card (more than 17,000 users, which helps 
support the DAA) 


Led by 531 club officers and directors, eighty-five alumni clubs, 
including fifteen international clubs or contacts, provide a vital 
Duke connection around the country and abroad. Club activities 
— receptions, luncheons, and dinners with Duke speakers; 
tickets for cultural or sporting events; gatherings to watch Duke 
athletic contests; and community- service projects — brought 
together more than 21 ,000 alumni and friends on 483 occasions 
this past fiscal year. (A complete list of club websites, contacts, 
and a calendar of events can be accessed at www.Duke Alumni, 

There were 156 mailings of newsletters, event notices, and 
invitations to alumni in the field, which represented 251,303 
individual contacts within the Duke community. The size of 
the average mailing was 1,610, offering a recurring source for 
Duke spirit and university information. 

COMMUNITY ON THE WEB, the DAAs new and enhanced website, is 
the portal to the Duke alumni community. It provides members 
an interactive environment for information about reunions, 
homecoming, job postings, career services, clubs calendars, 
and campus news and events, and offers links to Duke sports, 
campus publications, and Duke Magazine. 

Through the site's developer,, and its Community 
Publishing System, alumni worldwide connect by creating 
online newsletters, marking alumni reunion dates and gathering 
times on calendars, discussions with classmates in private chat 
rooms, posting photos, and e-mailing other alumni or campus 
groups. Also, individuals may create their own sites for affinity 
groups, for residence halls, or for other interest-based groups. 
Currently, there are thirty-nine Duke club sites, twenty-nine 
graduating-class sites, fifty-two affinity sites, and thirty-five 
personal homepages. 

The site provides access to the Alumni E-mail Directory, a 
free, searchable, online listing of 5,785 alumni-provided e-mail 

addresses. To be included, alumni need only e-mail their names 
and class years to, or choose the link 
on the website. 

Another onsite offering is a Lifetime E-mail Address, a 
forwarding service that gives alumni a permanent Internet 
address. To enroll, alumni can e-mail their names, class years, 
and alias requests to AlumEmail(§, or choose the link 
on the website. To date, 5,044 alumni are taking advantage of 
this service. 


The university's alumni publication, twice named Magazine of 
the Year by Newsweek and the Council for Advancement and 
Support of Education (CASE) , is mailed bimonthly to approxi- 
mately 75,000 alumni and friends. The Chronicle of Higher 
Education selected the magazine twice for a Grand Gold Award 
for "excellence in reporting on issues of higher education." 

The magazine covers campus life, faculty research, and 
alumni newsmakers, and offers thoughtful perspectives on 
issues of the day. The "Alumni Register" section, the core of 
the magazine, contains alumni association news, alumni profiles, 
a "Forum" for letters to the editors, and approximately 2,500 
class notes per year. 

DAA dues-paying members, life members, new graduates for 
the first two years, alumni with scheduled reunions, and those 
who contribute to the Annual Fund and other areas receive 
the magazine for free. The November-December 1998 special 
Campaign for Duke issue was sent to the full file of approxi- 
mately 104,000 alumni and friends. "Voluntary" subscriptions 
from alumni, parents, and friends totaled $73,239, and revenue 
from advertising garnered $76,528. Selected articles and 
departments are featured on the magazine's website: 


The program's mission is to plan, organize, and direct 
opportunities for the educational benefit and enjoyment of 
alumni and friends that will renew and reinforce ties between 
the university, the alumni association, and the Duke 
community. A four-color booklet, "Duke Alumni Educational 
Adventures," which listed the ten alumni colleges and fifteen 
Duke Travel trips offered, was mailed to 25,500 in the fall of 

November- December 1999 39 


1998. Two domestic and eight alumni colleges abroad drew 515 
participants, while Duke Travel drew 284. 

The first Campaign Educational Seminar, a joint effort of 
Alumni Lifelong Learning, the Duke Clubs program, and the 
Major Gifts division of the development office, was held in the 
Los Angeles Museum of Art in February. A reception and 
private viewing of the Van Gogh show and a lecture by Duke 
professor Hans Van Miegroet attracted 850. Additional semi- 
nars are planned over the next three years in twenty-five cities. 

Duke Directions, the educational component of the 
Reunions program, had 245 participants in eight sessions in fall 
1998; under the new format of one major spring reunion in 
April 1999, it drew more than 800 people to its three sessions. 

The expanding partnership with the Office of Continuing 
Education drew more than 100 participants to "Summer 
Academy," a series of four workshops held at Emerald Isle, a 
North Carolina beach area. 

In all, approximately 2,800 alumni and friends took part in 
Alumni Lifelong Learning and Duke Travel programs in 1998-99. 


Having alumni reconnect with the university is the prime 
mission of the reunions program. Aside from seeing old friends 
and classmates of Duke past, alumni get a chance to learn 
about the Duke of today. 

This fiscal year, the reunions staff met the challenge of 
doubling its duties: fall 1998 reunions over three separate 
weekends for the classes of 1993, 1988, 1983, 1978, 1973, 1968, 
1963, 1958, 1953, 1948, the Half-Century 
Club (class members before 1948), and 
Young Alumni (class members after 1993) , 
as well as a mega-reunion over one week- 
end in April 1999 for classes with years end- 
ing in 4 and 9. (Young Alumni, those who 
have yet to celebrate a fifth reunion, will 
continue to be a part of the Homecoming 
celebration each fall.) 

Attendance at Reunions '98 set a new 
record of 3,421, a 13.2 percent increase 
over reunions in 1997. The following is a 
breakdown of attendance: Half-Century 
Club, 132; Class of 1948, 210; Class of 1953, 

162; Class of 1958, 142; Class of 1963, 150; Class of 1968, 164; 
Class of 1973, 384; Class of 1978, 347 (setting a record for 
twentieth reunions); Class of 1983, 259 (setting a record for fif- 
teenth reunions); Class of 1988, 562; Class of 1993, 407; and 
Young Alumni (pre -1993), 500. 

Overall attendance for the single-weekend-in-spring format 
for Reunions '99 in April was 3,334, with individual class 
attendance breaking several existing records. Here's a break- 
down by class: Half-Century Club, 196; Class of 1949, 255 (the 
second largest fiftieth reunion ever); Class of 1954, 152; Class 
of 1959, 225; Class of 1964, 174 (a new record for thirty-fifth 
reunions) ; Class of 1969, 218 (a new record for thirtieth 
reunions); Class of 1974, 303; Class of 1979, 442 (the largest 
twentieth reunion ever, and triple the attendance for 1979s 
reunion five years before); Class of 1984, 340 (a new record for 
fifteenth reunions); Class of 1989, 567 (the second largest 
tenth reunion) ; and the Class of 1994, 462 (the second largest 
fifth reunion) . 


With a variety of planned activities, the Office of Alumni Affairs 
stays in close touch with current students, whom it considers 
"alumni in residence." In August 1998, the DAA sponsored its 
annual picnic for first-year students on East Campus during 
orientation. More than 2,000 Class of 2002 directories, a 
pictorial and informative "yearbook," were published and 
presented as gifts to first-year students, as well as Residential 
Advisers (RAs) and Duke administrators. To welcome new 
students into the graduate and professional 
schools, the association hosted its annual picnic 
on the lawn of Alumni House, following the 
opening convocation; approximately 800 attended. 

For graduating seniors, the lawn was again 
the site of a celebration. In May, more than a 
thousand members of the Class of 1998 attended 
the DAA-sponsored picnic on their last day of 
class, and before final exams. On the evening 
before graduation, the class and its family 
members were feted at the annual Commence- 
ment party, held under a large tent, with free 
food, beverages, music, and dancing; approxi- 
mately 6,000 attended. 





Studious crew-cut heads bent 
over entrance exams. Sleek, 
long-hooded, rumble-seated 
coupes pulled up in front 
of the Chapel. Dressed-up 
youngsters thronging along 
the Durham train platform. 
A young man asleep at his 
desk, typewriter as his pillow. Dinks. 

These were among the images university 
archivist William E. King '61, A.M. '63, Ph.D. 
70 flashed on the screen of the Griffith Film 
Theater to an audience of entering freshmen 
and their parents on the first day of New Stu- 
dent Orientation. Outside, the late-August 
day was miserable, rain pouring down without 
end, stone walks splashed with puddles, um- 
brellas bumping along the Bryan Center 
walkway. Inside, King's slide show introduced 
the Class of '03 to the history and traditions 
of their new home. 













The extinction of placement tests and the 
freshman beanie — the dink — aren't the only 
change from days chronicled in black-and- 
white photographs. For starters, today's stu- 
dents are lounging in the theater chairs in T- 
shirts and shorts, and the odds are good that 
no one arrived via Amtrak. The monochro- 
matic student body of old has given way to a 
diverse mix; today, instead of the Woman's 
College, it's the entire freshman class that 
claims East Campus. 

More precisely, the students attending 
King's presentation are only half of the new 
freshman class. They are the lucky half, the 
half not moving into Alspaugh and Epworth 
and Giles and four other rain-soaked dormi- 
tories in the downpour, who will spend the 
wet morning tucked away in the Bryan 
Center, listening to King's lecture, picking up 
class registration packets, sorting through the 
bags full of freebies from local merchants. 

November- Decemhe 

This half will run the University Stores com- 
pletely out of umbrellas as they anticipate 
a sodden afternoon. 

As Sara Beth Myers '03, huddled under an 
umbrella with her mother that morning, can 
tell them, they are even luckier than they 
know. That afternoon, as Mike Mitchell '03 
lifts a mesh bag full of athletic shoes from the 
trunk of his mother's car, the rain has stopped 
and the sun has come out. Granted, the hu- 
midity has skyrocketed, but as long as they're 
not hauling mini-fridges and computer parts 
through a thundershower, nobody is com- 
plaining. Mitchell is from Oklahoma, and he 
and his mother have driven across the coun- 
try together. "Man, I am just so excited to be 
here," he says, a huge smile on his face as he 
hands his ironing board to his mom. It turns 
out both Mitchell and his roommate brought 
ironing boards — and a lot of other things — 
but in their Pegram room they're figuring out 
space-sharing issues without much difficulty. 

Over in Blackwell, however, Andrew Schultz 
'03 of Tampa, Florida, tells a different tale. The 
door to his room is shut, with bumps and thuds 
of furniture audible through it. The door opens, 
his mother slips out, and the bumping begins 
anew. The door opens again and his father 
says, "You can come back in now." She goes 
back in, leaving the door open; the three of 
them stand looking at Andrew's small single 
in frustration. They are striving for the op- 
timal arrangement of desk, dresser, and bed, 
but no matter which way they try to put the 
pieces in place, something sticks out into the 
middle of the room. At one point, Schultz's 
mother leaves the room and comes back a few 
minutes later. "Andrew, go look what the girl 
down the hall has done. She's gotten it all in." 
Schultz, skeptical, goes to see and reports 
back. His hallmate's room looks to be about 
two feet longer, and so her puzzle pieces fit. 
His dad decides to go look at lofts being sold 
from the back of a truck in the parking lot. 

Reema Lamba '03 is standing in the middle 
of her Brown double surrounded by open suit- 
cases, crates, and family — as well as her room- 
mate's suitcases, crates, and family. The room is 
so jumbled that Lamba has to pick her way 
out into the hall to talk. Back in Pegram, the 
halls themselves are getting full, particularly 
outside the room of Jason Liebel '03. While 

he, his roommate, and their parents study the 
logistics of moving in, their things are being 
stacked outside: television, stereo boxes, and 
enough bottled water to last through at least 
two hurricanes. Liebel is nonchalant, but clearly 

glad to be here. "I'm going to as many things 
as I can," he says of the orientation schedule. 

That schedule — four days of meetings both 
official and fun — has been carefully formu- 
lated for almost a year in the Office of Stu- 
dent Development, and it goes far beyond 
moving in. There are hall meetings, house 
socials, organization receptions and picnics, 
student health programs and plays. Convo- 
cation brings the Class of 2003 to Duke 
Chapel Thursday morning. The Student Ac- 
tivities Fair brings them to the East Campus 
quad on Saturday. 

"We try to work on building relationships 
on the floor, then the house, then East Cam- 
pus, then we open it up to all of campus," says 
Barbara Baker, dean of student development. 
"A lot of the focus is designed to look at stu- 
dents as emerging adults. We do have a fairly 
broad spectrum of different experiences 
[among the students], and we're trying to 
provide some kind of experience here that's 
going to meet their different needs." 

Those needs, as outlined by Pete Mather, 
then assistant dean of student development and 
now at East Carolina University, range from 
making students feel welcome, giving them 
time to get to know one another and find their 
niche, to helping them adjust to new freedoms 
and responsibilities. "We recognize that this is a 
time of exploration. At times, this exploration 
is played out through engaging in behaviors 
that are unhealthy or unsafe. We attempt to 
address these issues in a variety of ways," pri- 

marily through education, he says. Resident 
advisers and other peer mentors are trained to 
"be sensitive to unsafe behaviors and to ad- 
dress them appropriately." These educational 
programs, sponsored by such departments as 
Student Health and the Women's Center, begin 
at orientation and run throughout the year. 

It is Thursday night, the end of the 
second day of orientation. On the 
bill is one of those educational pro- 
grams — DukeTalk, billed as "an 
interactive talk show." Six peer 
mentors from Duke Student Health 
sit on the stage in Baldwin Audi- 
torium, ready to take questions 
from the freshmen. Both DukeTalk sessions 
are packed and, after an initial hush, the 
freshmen don't hesitate to participate. There 
are a variety of questions: "What is one thing 
you'd recommend to all freshmen to do at 
Duke in their four years here?" (Answers: 
"tent out, definitely," "get involved," and "en- 
joy it, because it's going to go by real fast"); 
"What's the hardest thing to adjust to be- 
tween high school and here?" (balancing 
activities, meeting new people, academics); 
"What's the dating scene like?" One honest 
panelist responds to that question: "People 
complain there's no dating at Duke. I've had 
a lot of relationships. Some lasted, like, ten 
minutes, some as long as five months." 

That honesty — although later the audience 
learns that these peer mentors are role-playing 
— is most startling when the questions turn 
to other social matters. Alcohol is a big part of 
many answers, and not in a way calculated to 
discourage the freshmen from drinking. House 
parties are discussed, the fine points of deco- 
rating a beer tree for Christmas are touched 
upon, and even after the role-playing ends, 
one mentor admits with a complete lack of 
defensiveness to being "an excessive drinker." 
At the end of the program, a more cautious, 
non-drinking note is briefly sounded, but it 
seems a bit quiet when compared to the robust, 
"hell yes, I drink" role play that preceded it. 

"You've been here a couple of days, and 
many of you have had experiences with alco- 
hol already," student health administrator 
Ray Rodriguez tells the students. "You can 
make the choice to drink, in moderation or to 



excess. We're not here to be your parents. But 
here are a couple of things you should know." 
Rodriguez cites statistics showing that most 
campus crimes are alcohol-related, and that 
50 percent or more of students don't drink or 
do so in moderation. "Think about what your 
choice is going to be, what you'd say if you 
were up here answering questions." 


This is an aspect of "looking at students as 
emerging adults" that has long been problem- 
atic. The transition from high school to college, 
from home to Duke, from being parented to 
being responsible, presents "a peculiar chal- 
lenge for us," says William H. Willimon, dean 
of the Chapel and longtime observer of stu- 
dent life. Duke students, particularly first- 
year students, he says, are "people whose par- 
ents have been fairly successful in supervising 
them. There are certain students [whose] 
behavior befits more the rebellious high- 
school junior than the college freshman. 

"I think it is developmentally odd for col- 
leges to say things like, 'Well, we trust them 
to be adults.' I say, well, let's trust them to be 
nineteen-year-olds who've had very few 
experiences on their own who suddenly are 
totally on their own." 

"It's like some of these kids have never been 
anywhere before, and now it's like a play- 
ground!" says Alspaugh resident Sara Beth 
Myers of St. Joseph, Missouri. Myers is viva- 
cious and energetic, involved in classes and 
activities from the FOCUS program (through 
which first-semester freshmen take courses 
structured around a particular interdisciplin- 
ary theme) to Chapel Choir. Helping the stu- 
dents see Duke less as social playground and 
more as world of opportunity is one reason for 
the many layers of mentoring, from RAs to 

the Healthy Devil at Student Health. 

Certainly not all students show up at Duke 
primed to party. But many do, and freshmen 
themselves admit to feeling the pressure. 
"Neither I nor my roommate are really into 
the whole drinking scene; it totally shocked 
me when I got here, and it disturbed me in a 
way," says Jason Liebel. "I mean, Tuesday 
nights, [freshmen] will go out and get totally 
drunk. And I don't think that would be a 
great way to start off my college career, to get 
drunk on weekday nights. So far I've found a 

vironment that's surrounding the freshmen of 
'You're going to be living on West Campus, 
it's time to get with the program.' " 

Mather acknowledges the difficulties of 


few friends who don't feel pressured to go get 
drunk every evening, and we just hang out." 

"I am going to have to say that I have been 
pressured to drink," says Mike Mitchell, who, 
as a walk-on for Duke wrestling, has been 
more concerned with trying to get ready for 
wrestling season and getting his classes under 
his belt. But Mitchell, a genuinely popular, 
friendly student, says he doesn't let the pres- 
sure get to him. "I came from a high school 
where heavy drinking was common. I've made 
friends here who drink and friends who don't." 

At least at the beginning of the year, there 
appear to be a large number of students who 
don't. In fact, Baker says, when Epworth was 
presented this year as a substance-free dorm 
— at the initiative of students — there were 
nearly ten requests for space for every room 
available. But Baker says she thinks the non- 
drinking numbers decline throughout the 
year, a perception enforced by the first-hand 
observation of Al Blackwelder, a sophomore 
and resident adviser in Bassett. "There's a 
huge population of freshmen who don't drink 
when school starts," he says. "The numbers 
get to be less and less as the year goes by, only 
because of peer pressure. Especially second 
semester, when rush begins. You have this en- 

balancing the issue. "There are certain pressures 
here that we all recognize. There is very much 
a majority culture here, a party culture, and for 
people who are not into some of those things, 
a first-year campus like this can be pretty 
challenging." He says the student develop- 
ment office counts on RAs as their first line of 
defense, helping students build good relation- 
ships with mentors and authority figures. "We 
talk to our RAs about the importance of really 
being there, to play a very active role." 

It's a role Blackwelder works hard to play. 
"A freshman RA has the job of being both a 
good friend and taking a leadership role," he 
says, stressing that the first step is getting to 
know every student. As a freshman, he says, 
he spent the first few weeks of school concen- 
trating on learning the names of everyone in 
his dorm, making connections that lasted 
throughout the year. It's a strategy he follows 
as an RA. Particularly when discipline is in- 
volved, "not knowing their names isn't cool. 
If you know them pretty well, and you tell 
them, 'This is the deal, this is what you did 
wrong, and this is what I have to do,' then it 
goes better. Imagine writing them up and not 
knowing them. If you don't know them, you 
have that much less ground to stand on." 

Both Blackwelder and fellow Bassett RA 
Holly Chang, a senior, talk about the need for 
residential life to help support those students 
who choose not to drink, yet without con- 
demning those who do, thus depriving them 
of someone to turn to in need. "Your personal 
conduct goes a long way toward establishing 

November-DecemK . I 000 


trust," Chang says. "If I have a lot of work to 
do on a weekend, some weekends I won't go 
out, and there won't be anything wrong with 
that. So then there are certain people, by the 
time the frat parties get old, who won't feel 
like they want to go out every weekend, and 
they'll feel comfortable with that." Black- 
welder agrees: "The most important thing is 
to lead by example. I've been to parties on 
West Campus where I haven't been drinking, 
and seen freshmen, and they've seen me not 
drinking. That's huge for doing what I need to 
be doing." 

mean, I had a friend who had his parents call 

him to tell him to change the sheets on his bed! " 

For Andrew Schultz, the experience was 

In addition to setting an example, Black- 
welder stresses the need for alcohol-free alter- 
natives. "As RAs, we have tried to make it a 
point to have something else to do Friday and 
Saturday night, because that's important as 
well, to have that alternative. It's our mission 
— and our challenge — to make it as interest- 
ing as parties on West, however difficult that 
might seem." 

By Friday of orientation, most 
parents have gone home, 
leaving their children to be- 
gin taking on the sometimes 
difficult task of growing 
up. It can be a tough part of 
the transition, both for par- 
ent and child. 
"We held up pretty well until breakfast," 
says Sara Beth Myers. "I went to eat breakfast 
with them at the hotel, to say goodbye Friday 
morning, and my dad — he just broke down 
right there at the table. Everybody in the res- 
taurant is turning to look. And then my mom 
starts crying — and then I start crying." Myers 
laughs. "It was kind of embarrassing, but at that 
point, none of us really cared." Now, she says, 
her parents send e-mail every day. 

For Brown resident Reema Lamba, the 
telephone rings a lot. "My mom has called 
every single day," she says one day after the 
first week of classes. "And after a while, each 
day isn't much different from the other, so 
you kind of run out of things to say." 

Mike Mitchell describes another kind of 
parent-child relationship with his mom. "I 
talked to her at the beginning of the week, but 
not every day. She's an independent person, and 
she raised me to be an independent person. I 


quite different. "I think I was more bothered 
than they were," he says of his parents' reac- 
tion. "I felt kind of abandoned. It's actually 
kind of tough that first week, with a single, 
because you don't have a roommate to go 
around with." 

All of these varying responses are familiar 
to Barbara Baker in the student development 
office, who cites the parent-child relationship 
as one reason she considers "orientation" al- 
most a year-long event. She sees fall break 
and Parents' Weekend in October as an inte- 
gral part of the process, allowing parents and 
students to reconnect as well as recognize 
changes in their relationships. "Once students 
have been here, they've got their connections 
and sense of place, and it's an opportunity 
then to introduce parents to their world." 

Willimon sees another area of concern: in- 
troducing students to authority figures who 
don't replace parents but nonetheless provide 
assistance and guidance. He cites one senior 
who, as a freshman, "latched on" to him in 
what Willimon perceived as a need for a pa- 

rental figure. The student saw it differently. 
"He said, 'I need a coach,' " Willimon recounts. 
"And I said, 'What a beautiful way of putting 
it. You weren't asking me to be a daddy or an 
older brother — you wanted a coach.' " Some 
of those coaches can and should be found 
among the ranks of Duke's faculty and staff, 

he says. "The whole essence of undergraduate 
education is you get one generation in close 
proximity and involved in a wide array of 
activity with another generation. I like Duke's 
encouragement of that interaction, and I dis- 
like it when Duke acts like another big uni- 
versity where these souls are just thrown out 
there to sink or swim." 

Duke does encourage that interaction, offi- 
cially and unofficially, and nowhere is it more 
obvious than in the faculty-in-residence pro- 
gram. Dalene Stangl, a statistics professor who 
has been a "fac-in-res" in Bassett for three 
years, sees the program as an integral part of 
helping first-year students feel like a part of a 
larger Duke community. "There's not much 
structured daily role here," she says, as she 
sips tea in her surprisingly spacious apartment 
in the dorm. "We probably have five or six 
kids knock on our door every day, needing 
this or that, having a question. And we try 
and keep our door open at least two or three 
nights a week so they can walk in, and we 
have the big TV so they'll feel comfortable to 
sit and watch a program or something. It's just 
a matter of being as visible as we can be, and 
being there when they need something." 

Stangl says she resists being pulled into a 
parenting role, only allowing it if a student is 
really in trouble. But as a mentor, she and her 
husband, Rick Richardson, a computer con- 
sultant who participates in dorm life as much 
as she does, have earned high praise: Both 
Baker and Mather hold her tenure in Bassett 
as a standard to aspire to. She and Richardson 
have developed a dorm website, serve as hosts 
for parents' brunches and student picnics, do 
special programming with other faculty, have 
regular dinners with the students, and have 
even held a Valentine's Day bake-off. 

It's part of the university's recognition that 
first-year life needed a special emphasis, and 
Willimon for one sees a vast improvement. "I 
think what's happened at East Campus shows 
Duke's understanding of the radical chal- 


lenges of freshman year," he says. "We're a 
very different place than the university that, 
just a short time ago, would throw a [fresh- 
man] kid into West Campus." 

Events slow down over that 
first weekend, becoming 
more organization-specific. 
Student government has a 
session on student leader- 
ship at Duke. Campus cul- 
tural organizations hold a 
picnic. The new Freeman 
Center for Jewish Life has an open house. But 
the activities fair on Saturday afternoon 
draws out hundreds of students, despite the 
heat, which spurs the organizations to such 
creative crowd-drawing ploys as free bottled 
water, setting up fans, and even, in the case of 
a cappella group Sapphire, handing out freezer 
pops. Signing every sheet in sight is a time- 
honored freshman tradition; it's their first 
opportunity to plunge into extracurricular life 
on a large scale, and they're making the most 
of it, shuffling and jostling from group to 

By noon on Saturday, not much remains 
between the students and their first classes on 
Monday morning. The wait becomes weary- 
ing for a few, including Jason Liebel. "The first 
two days were busy, but it was sort of a positive 
busy," the Pegram resident says. "In the last 
couple of days, you started getting ready to 
get into things." He says he and his roommate 
"both wished that classes could get started so 
we could establish some kind of routine, maybe 
start seeing some faces over and over again." 

Sara Beth Myers, joking about still feeling 
"disoriented" without a campus map, also 

mentions "dead space," saying it was hardest 
for students who were having trouble with 
the transition already. "You have a lot of peo- 
ple who have never been away from home, 
and then we're all sitting there with nothing 
to do, talking about home, and there's no- 
where to go, so we're just kind of getting home- 
sick. After classes started, it was so much bet- 
ter — everybody had somewhere to be." 

Reema Lamba says she also felt a little bit 
odd. "It's weird. Right now I still feel like I'm 
at summer camp or something, like I'm going 
to leave all these people in a few weeks." 

For wrestler Mike Mitchell, however, all of 

orientation was flat-out "excellent." "Every 
event had a purpose, whether it was to get ac- 
quainted with people, teach you about alco- 
holism or sexual violence, or to just show what 
having fun at Duke is all about. It helped." 

Some of that is a natural by-product of 
what Baker calls the "concentric circle" pro- 
cess, where students are moved from hall to 
house to East Campus to West. But, she adds, 
the Office of Student Development evaluates 
and re-evaluates the orientation process along 
the way. "The large group sessions, while they 
have good content, don't necessarily capture 
student interest as well as smaller group activ- 
ities," she says. "And students, I think because 
they're products of such a highly media- 
focused society, really crave the kind of pre- 
sentations that are more fully engaging, inter- 
active kinds of things. I think we've also 
learned to try to be sensitive to what it is, in 
the beginning at least, that's most urgent in 
the students' minds, and perhaps delay the 
introduction of some other information to a 
point where the need is greater." 

Within a month, the freshmen have been 

sucked into the routines that will begin to 
define their time at Duke. Early in Septem- 
ber, Jason Liebel sits at a table at Wellspring 
Grocery's Eno Cafe and talks about adjusting 
to college. He has found a piano to practice 
on and club hockey is about to start. His 
classes, while big, are going fairly well. "I defi- 

nitely am pretty happy. I've been totally im- 
pressed by the academics here so far. All my 
professors are great, and the work has been 
really interesting. So, I guess two weeks in 
isn't very long, but so far I really feel like I've 
come to the right place." 

Sara Beth Myers sends an e-mail not long 
before her FOCUS group travels to Russia 
over fall break: "I really love Chapel Choir 
and last Sunday was my first time singing in 
the choir. The sound in the Chapel is incredi- 
ble. We are already practicing for the 
Christmas performance of Handel's Messiah. 
I'm also doing the Duke Democrats and the 
Sailing Club. It's great! There is too much to 
do here!" 

After fall break, Mike Mitchell gets in 
touch. "I am great. I feel like I have already 
found my place. My place is not only with the 
wrestling team but with my dorm. I get along 
well with all of my dormmates and I feel like 
I've known them for quite a while. The most 
difficult thing for me to adjust to has been the 
large amount of reading. I have read more in 
these past months than in my whole life. 

"My attitude, for the most part, is still the 
same. Although, I am worried about whether 
or not I have what it takes to be successful at 
Duke. I guess I won't be sure until after my 
first year." 

Andrew Schultz is thoughtful, coming to 
grips with the very issues of transition and 
growing up that motivate much of Duke's ori- 
entation and first-year programming. "Slowly 
I am adjusting to college life," he says via e- 
mail. "Actually, this fall break has enabled me 
to sit back and relax and see that my first two 
months here were not that bad. So far, the 
hardest thing to adjust to is the fact that there 
is no one... telling me how to or not to 
behave/study /work/go to class. There are 
some brilliant and interesting people here and 
I am fighting to keep up. I have realized I am 
not here at Duke because I know every- 
thing — I am here because I don't." 

November-Decemlvi I t|0 ° 





quick trivia quiz: 
When and in what 
sport did Duke win 
its first NCAA na- 
tional championship? 
If you ask members 
of the Duke commu- 
nity at random, you're 
likely to get a few stares. Men's basketball is 
the popular answer, of course, but that's not 
right. You'll get a few obscure guesses, like 
water polo or volleyball. "Tennis," respondents 
offer tentatively. "Golf?" "Field hockey?" 

All wrong. In 1986, the Duke men's soccer 
team defeated Akron, 1-0, to claim the school's 
first national title in any sport. The world's 
most popular sport has been played well in 
Durham for some time. The men's team has 
compiled a record of 306-103-26 during the 
twenty-year tenure of head coach John Ren- 
nie, including this fall's undefeated regular 
season. Bill Hempen has led the women's pro- 
gram, founded in 1988, to seven NCAA tour- 







nament berths. Both teams boast excellent 
players with national reputations and the tal- 
ent to compete with the country's best. 

Despite its strong history as a collegiate 
sport at Duke and elsewhere, soccer in the 
United States is at a crossroads. On the heels 
of an astoundingly successful run to the 1999 
Women's World Cup title by what must be the 
most popular female sports team ever, and 
with the recent emergence of Major League 

Soccer (MLS) , yet another professional league 
for men, sports fans and cultural observers 
must wonder: Can soccer make it in the 
United States, a nation that has proven most 
resistant to its subtle charms? 

It is often argued that soccer just won't 
take hold in the United States, with a host of 
wearying explanations offered as proof. It's 
too slow, perhaps. There's not enough obvious 
action or scoring for Americans, with their 
short attention spans. Or, most frustrating, 
"it's not our game" — as if nations should only 
contest games they invent. If soccer can final- 
ly refute those arguments and earn the per- 
manent interest of the American sports fan, 
that success will be due in no small part to the 
talents and efforts of a number of Duke grad- 
uates and coaches. They work both in their 
game and for it, as missionaries to a sports 
culture that has shunned them, that has 
forced them to market and sell themselves 
and their game as much as participate in it. 

The great sports story of 1999 may turn out 


to be the discovery of a heretofore unknown 
interest in watching American women kick a 
ball. Television ratings for the Women's World 
Cup final surpassed those of the NBA finals. 
Stadiums were packed with cacophonous, 
patriotic American fans who knew the game 
and the players. The image of a woman rip- 
ping off her shirt in triumph, as Brandi Chastain 
did upon scoring the deciding penalty-kick 
goal in the final game, promises to persist in 
the cultural subconscious for years. Mia Hamm 
is as omnipresent in advertising various wares 
as her Nike and Gatorade colleague Michael 
Jordan. In short, soccer was and is a hit in this 
country, at least for the moment. But why? 

Something like this happened before, when 
the U.S. hosted the men's 1994 World Cup. 
John Koskinen '61, a long-time soccer fan, 
amateur coach, and soccer team owner who 
recently endowed a new tennis center and 
soccer field at Duke, headed the group that 
worked to bring the Cup to this country that 
year. (Koskinen, a former chair of Duke's board 
of trustees, now heads President Clinton's 
Y2K project — involving him in defensive 
strategies even more creative than those on 
the soccer field.) Those efforts paid off. Ameri- 
cans filled the arenas alongside a sizable num- 
ber of foreign fans, shouting support, even for 
matches as obscure as Saudi Arabia vs. Bel- 
gium. It was intimated at the time that we 
were finally hooked on soccer, a vibrant, mul- 
ticultural game for the multicultural 1990s. 

But there is one obvious difference between 

the two tournaments. While the U.S. women 
won the 1999 World Cup, our 1994 men's 
team found itself out in the second round, 
which it had barely reached, when eventual 
Cup winner Brazil danced its way to a dis- 
hearteningly easy 1-0 win. This reinforced the 
impression that soccer was not for Ameri- 
cans, an impression made even more evident 
in the 1998 men's World Cup, when a talented 
American team nonetheless managed to lose 
all three of its matches. 

The women, by contrast, are excellent. They 
like to attack, and there are plenty of com- 
pelling stories for marketing types to repack- 
age: Michelle Akers' struggle with chronic 
fatigue syndrome; Brandi Chastain's flair for 
the revelatory gesture (long before her post- 
final gesture, she had posed for an ad clad only 
in cleats and soccer balls); and Carla Over- 
beck's dual life as a mother of two and team 
captain. Overbeck, who is an assistant wom- 
en's coach at Duke when not playing with the 
national team, attributes this summer's suc- 
cess to a combination of factors, including 
Title IX, which mandated equal athletic 
opportunities for female college students. 

"The reason that it was such a success was 
the marketing by the organizing committee," 
says Overbeck. "They were determined to fill 
those stadiums and they deserve most of the 
credit." Credit also goes to the players for 
spending countless hours selling the World 
Cup, and soccer in general, by signing auto- 
graphs and doing interviews. Overbeck un- 

derstands well the need for soccer players to 
sell their sport. "You're a player," she says, "but 
at the same time you're trying to promote 
your sport, by playing well, signing auto- 
graphs, taking pictures. It's all about trying to 
get these kids excited about soccer so that 
they will play in the future." 

It's also about trying to create a lasting fan 
base for soccer in the United States. Judging 
by television ratings and fan support during 
the Women's World Cup, that is beginning to 
materialize. Success is a powerful marketing 
force, and the U.S. women had a major ad- 
vantage over the men, says Duke's John Ren- 
nie. "The U.S. role in women's soccer is very 
different from the U.S. role in men's soccer. 
We were kind of the founders of women's soc- 
cer. No one played it until the U.S. started to 
play it, so the U.S. had an advantage. We 
started in a different social environment: If a 
little girl wants to play a sport, there isn't as 
much of a social negative [here] as there is 
anywhere else in the world. The result is sim- 
ply that the U.S. women's national team was 
successful on the world level almost immedi- 
ately, which means you want to go watch it." 

The most important question facing women's 
soccer in the United States now is whether all 
of this summer's interest can translate into a 
permanent professional league. There is no 
shortage of interest from the players, obvious- 
ly, and several of the largest investors in Ma- 
jor League Soccer are said to be studying the 
feasibility of the idea. The most likely scenario 

November- December 1 L W} 

is to begin play in six or eight cities sometime 
after the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, 
Australia, perhaps in the spring of 2001. 

Overbeck, who has helped coach soccer at 
Duke since 1992, says a league is imperative if 
the U.S. is to maintain its world supremacy. 
"For so long, [the players] have had a hard 
time staying in top form," she says. "There is 
no environment after college to play competi- 
tively." And internationally, "We're competing 
with teams that have players playing year- 
round. We have a great need for a league." 

Another Duke assistant, volunteer coach 
Samantha Baggett '98, is hopeful a women's 
league can be formed. Baggett, who is taking 
graduate courses in sports administration, 
says a professional league "is pretty realistic, 
especially after this summer. Whether or not 
it will be a success and continue for years is 
one thing. But now there will be a chance to 
give it a test run." Baggett spent five months 
training with the women's national team last 
spring before being cut from the World Cup 
team. That experience has left her hungry for 
more and, she says, she "would like to see if 
there's a future with the national team pro- 
gram, and I would be interested in participating 
in the pro league." 

As a collegiate sport, women's soccer is 
firmly established — a point made dramatically 
this fall by the NCAA's surprise decision to 
expand the women's tournament to forty- 
eight teams while keeping the men's at just 
thirty-two. Indeed, after the 1999 World Cup, 
the women's game is seen by many as the path 
to success for soccer in this country. 

On the men's side, where soccer has long 
struggled to impress Americans, a professional 
league is already in place. Major League Soc- 
cer followed the excitement generated by the 
1994 World Cup matches played around the 
country. It started play in the spring of 1996 
with ten teams and has since expanded to 
twelve, with further expansions tentatively 
planned for 2001 and 2003. The league has 
managed a number of notable successes: 
averaging more than 15,000 fans per game 
over its four seasons; nearly matching the 
National Hockey League in national televi- 
sion ratings; building a formidable and di- 
verse pool of talented American players; and, 
perhaps most important, winning interna- 
tional respect and attention through the ex- 
ploits of (Washington) D.C. United, which 
defeated two Mexican clubs and another from 
Brazil last year to be recognized as the best 
soccer team in the Western Hemisphere. 

To be sure, soccer doesn't come close to 
matching the established sports — basketball, 
football, and baseball — in popularity. This is 
not because of some innate American aver- 
sion to what most of the rest of the world 
thinks of as "the beautiful game," but rather 
because Americans generally refuse to toler- 

ate mediocrity or ineptitude in their teams. 
And notable among MLS's many problems 
is the record of the New York-New Jersey 
MetroStars, who were expected to be a pillar 
of strength for the league but have been just 
the opposite — horrendous on the field and 
nearly forgotten in the largest sports market 
in the country. Added to those growing pains 
in this fourth year of the league is terrible 
organizational turmoil, with both deputy 
commissioner Sunil Gulati and commissioner 
Doug Logan forced out by league investors. 
This combination of perceived incompetence 
with a certain amount of organizational chaos 
has led to a widespread perception that the 
league, estimated to have lost more than $60 







million since its inception in 1996, might not 
last much longer. 

Despite the problems, Rennie believes the 
league can survive: "It is established, it is sta- 
ble, and will be able to operate. The league is 
capable of staying where it is for several more 
years. For the league to grow and get better, 
that's the question. 

"The biggest problem is facilities, stadiums. 
Most are borrowed football stadiums or mu- 
nicipal stadiums, with too many seats. The 
biggest single need we have in the pro game is 
to do more of what happened in Columbus, 
where you have a stadium built for your sport. 
Football went through this — when the NFL 
came through, they were playing in baseball 
stadiums, in Yankee Stadium and the Polo 
Grounds. That was a big problem for football 
establishing itself, and it didn't really become 
the NFL until that transition was made. If 
you go to Europe or anywhere soccer is the 
major sport, the stadiums are all built for soc- 
cer — well, it's just an incredible environment 
to be in. It makes a huge difference to every- 
one, the players and the fans." 

One of the stars of Duke's 1986 national 
championship team was forward John Kerr 
'87, who later became the first American to 
play in England's top division and is now in 
his first year as head men's coach at Harvard. 
Kerr is equally optimistic about the prospects 
for MLS, in which he played for two seasons. 
"I think there are too many people in this 
country who want to see soccer played at a 
high level for MLS to slip through the cracks 
and die like the NASL," he says, referring to 
the American pro league of the 1970s and 
1980s that boasted Pele and other world super- 
stars. "I think it will survive no matter what. 

"People don't realize it's only been three or 
four years, and it's come a long way since the 
first year when I played. Popularity-wise, it's 
made its mark in the American mainstream. 
It's not in the top four [sports] , but it's in the 
newspapers. USA Today covers it. In Boston, 
where I live, it's in two major newspapers 
every single day. It's getting there in terms of 
public awareness. There is a long way to go, 
but the future's bright." 

The best news for MLS and U.S. soccer is 
that the league has done wonders for the 
men's national team, whose excellent 1999 
record boasts two victories against European 
champion Germany and another over two- 
time world champion Argentina. Most of the 
credit for the team's improved skill, greater 
depth, and increased mental and tactical 
savvy has gone to MLS, since the vast majori- 
ty of national team players ply their trade in 
the new league. Among the crop of exciting 
young Americans developing in MLS who 
have recently played with the men's national 
team are Jason Kreis '95 and Jay Heaps '98. 
Evan Whitfield '98, Garth Lagerwey '95, 
Mark Dodd '88, and Brian Kelly '97 are also 
with MLS teams, which gives Duke the fifth- 
highest total of graduates in the league. 

Kreis, a forward/midfielder for the Dallas 
Burn, was the leading scorer in MLS during 
the regular season this year, taking his team 
to the conference finals. An All-American 
in college, Kreis recently expressed his confi- 
dence in the latest attempt at pro soccer 
in America by signing a long-term contract 
extension with MLS instead of pursuing offers 
to play in Europe. But Kreis, a new father, 
admits to mixed feelings about the decision. 
"It's been a longtime dream [to play in 
Europe], to be enveloped in the lifestyle geared 
toward soccer above other sports. I was anx- 
ious to be surrounded by that. It was a very 
difficult decision, but I think I made the right 
decision for my family." 

The Dallas star scored his first goal for the 
U.S. national team in a draw with Jamaica in 
September, where he was joined by Heaps, 
called up to the national team for the first 
time just six months after leaving Duke. 
Heaps may best be known to Blue Devil 


sports fans as a walk-on with the basketball 
team, but he is a considerable soccer talent, 
often mentioned as the favorite tor MLS's 
Rookie of the Year award this season. The 
Miami defender says successful results from 
the national team and by individual MLS 
teams are crucial to building a fan base. "It 
seems [MLS] will be around," he says. "There 
have to be changes, obviously, but the owners 
seem committed. The fans are there, but it's a 
matter of getting a winning team into the 
right areas and it will catch on like wildfire." 

Lagerwey, goalkeeper on Heaps' Miami 
Fusion team, has had a harder time finding 
success in the professional ranks. He is start- 
ing regularly this season for the first time in 
his career. Before gaining the starting posi- 
tion, he was accepted into law school at 
Georgetown. He is now considering whether 
to leave soccer next fall in search of less itin- 
erant employment. The key for soccer's find- 
ing long-term success, he says, "is creating 
heroes for the kids and having them come to 
the games. We have to turn them into sup- 
porters of the game rather than [merely] par- 
ticipants. We're still in a situation where 
many parents don't understand soccer. They 
take their kids to it because it's a social envi- 
ronment. If you can seize the kids' imagina- 
tion, then you've got something. I saw my first 
game, the Chicago Sting [a NASL team] at 
Wrigley Field when I was eight, and I fell in 
love with it. If you take kids who are good 
athletes and show them how good the sport 
can be, then that can really be inspirational." 

From a demographic perspective, the pros- 
pects for MLS and soccer in general are posi- 
tive. MLS says 50 percent of its adult fans are 
under thirty-four, and more than 60 percent 
of all fans are current or past participants in 
organized soccer. To survive, those in the soc- 
cer business must continue to transform the 
vast legions of soccer-playing children into 
soccer spectators. These new fans — and siz- 
able, soccer-loving Latino populations in such 
cities as Los Angeles, Washington, Dallas, and 
Miami, which the league says provide at least 
a third of MLS's fan base — provide hope. 

This may be soccer's last best chance to 
colonize the United States. With one profes- 
sional league in its infancy and another just 
being discussed, it's now or never. "It was 
always said that soccer is the sport of the next 
decade, the sport of the Eighties, the sport of 
the Nineties," says Rennie. "Until there's a 
pro league, it will never happen. Over a rela- 
tively short period of time — let's say after 
another five or ten years — soccer has a chance 
to graduate from being a participant sport to 
being a spectator sport, on TV, with financial 
incentives for players. 

"If there were no NBA, there would be no 
Michael Jordan. He would have been a very 
good college player. Where would he have 

played? Would basketball be a prominent sport 
in the American scene? No. It would be a sport 
a lot of American kids loved to play and then, 
after college, there'd be no follow-up. A sport 
can't make it without a professional league." 

And yet that league must be a showcase for 
its talent. When the game is played at a high 
level, as it was in both World Cups played in 
this country and as it is every time the U.S. 
women's team takes the field, that showcase is 
certain. Everyone from long-time fans to soccer 
neophytes, youth leaguers to media analysts, 
is swept up by the energy and excitement of 
soccer played well. Conversely, even the most 
ignorant viewer can tell that when two MLS 

teams get together, that excitement just isn't 
there. Yet. 

But it more players have seasons like the 
league-leading one Jason Kreis just had for 
the Dallas Burn, for instance, more viewers 
will pay attention. And if MLS teams and the 
U.S. men's national team can take important 
matches as often as their World Cup-winning 
female counterparts, support will grow along 
with the winning record. Ultimately, that is why 
there is so much pressure on players like Kreis 
and Heaps — their failures and successes are 
likely to be those of their sport as well. ■ 

Ketner'96 is a freelance writer living in Durham. 

November-December 1°° L > 



To commemorate the 
seventy-fifth anniver- 
sary of the creation 
of Duke University, two 
members of the Duke fami- 
ly — physician James H. Se- 
rvians and trustee emeritus 
Anthony Drexel Duke — 
received honorary degrees 
during Founders' Day Con- 
vocation in Duke Chapel. 

Semans, a professor emeritus in Duke's de- 
partment of surgery who served on the Duke 
faculty for twenty-eight years, has devoted 
much of his life to the arts, cultural and health- 
care organizations, and other charitable work. 
He chairs the Mary Duke Biddle Foundation, 
established in the 1950s by his mother-in-law 
to help fund charitable activities at Duke, in 
North Carolina, and in New York. With his 
wife, Mary D.B.T. Semans '39, he helped es- 
tablish the North Carolina School of the Arts 
in Winston-Salem in the 1960s; he served as 
chair of the school's board of trustees from 
1964 to 1981, and is still actively involved 
with the school. 

Anthony Duke, a grandson of Benjamin N. 
Duke, is founder and president of Harbor for 
Boys and Girls in New York City. The insti- 
tute, which he started in the 1930s when he was 
eighteen years old, has helped tens of thou- 
sands of inner-city youngsters through after- 
school programs and a summer camp. He was 
a university trustee from 1976 to 1989. 

The principal speaker at the September 
convocation was Mary D.B.T. Semans, the 
granddaughter of Benjamin N. Duke and 
chair of The Duke Endowment. At the con- 
vocation, Semans said, "Through the years, 
the Duke family members have felt close to 
the university; and history plus Duke's mag- 
netism have pulled them toward it." 

This year, the University ScholarATeacher 
Award, the university's highest teaching 
award, went to physician John R. Perfect of 
the department of medicine. The award was 
created in 1981 by the United Methodist 
Church's board of higher education and the 
ministry to recognize outstanding faculty for 
their dedication to and contributions in both 

teaching and research. 

The winners this year of Trinity College 
teaching awards, which recognize outstand- 
ing teachers in the humanities, social sci- 
ences, and natural sciences, were John Clum 
of the English department, who received the 
David and Janet Brooks Award; Gillian 
Einstein, formerly of the neurobiology depart- 
ment, the Alumni Distinguished Under- 
graduate Teaching Award; Guven Guzeldere 

of the philosophy department, the Richard 
Lublin Award; Michael Littman of the com- 
puter science department, the Robert B. Cox 
Award; and Frederic Mayer of public policy 
studies, the Howard D. Johnson Award. 

Other public activities taking place during 
Founders' Day weekend included the unveil- 
ing of a bronze statue of Benjamin N. Duke, a 
Remembrance of University Founders Ser- 
vice and Founders' Day Service of Worship, 
and a panel discussion of the legacy of The 
Duke Endowment. 


Edmund T Pratt Jr. B.S.E.E. '47, retired 
chair and chief executive officer of Pfi- 
zer Inc., has given $35 million to en- 
dow Duke's School of Engineering, which has 
been named in his honor. The gift is the sec- 
ond largest in the university's history, sur- 
passed only by the original gift by James B. 
Duke that transformed Trinity College into 
the school that now bears his family's name. 

Engineering studies date back to 1888 at 
Trinity College, with an engineering school for- 
mally organized at Duke in 1939. Today, the 
Edmund T. Pratt Jr. School of Engineering has 
108 faculty, 935 undergraduate students, and 
289 graduate students. The school offers under- 
graduate and graduate programs in four de- 
partments — biomedical engineering, civil and 
environmental engineering, electrical and com- 
puter engineering, and mechanical engineer- 
ing and materials sciences. The school also 
offers a master's degree in engineering manage- 
ment and houses numerous research centers, 
including the Engineering Research Center for 
Cardiovascular Technology, the Center for 
Cellular and Biosurface Engineering, the Cen- 
ter for Advanced Computing and Communi- 
cations, the Design Automation Technology 
Center, the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics 
and Complex Systems, and the Orthopedic Bio- 
mechanics and Tissue Engineering Center. 

Pratt's gift is the largest in the $1.5-billion 
Campaign for Duke. "This magnificent gift 
will provide the resources needed for our stra- 
tegic plan to take Duke into the elite schools 
of engineering," says Kristina Johnson, dean 
of engineering. "This plan emphasizes invest- 


ing in graduate and undergraduate research 
at the interdisciplinary frontiers of medicine, 
business, natural and environmental sciences, 
all aimed at solving major global problems fac- 
ing our health and environment." 

Johnson says the Pratt endowment will be 
used to attract faculty, fund graduate fellow- 
ships, and provide a stronger financial base 
for undergraduate financial aid. It will allow 
the school to improve the student-faculty ratio, 
expand undergraduate research opportunities, 
and augment the international honors pro- 
gram that enables engineering students to 
study abroad. The new funds will enhance re- 
search in the school's departments, as well as 
such interdisciplinary areas as the biomedical 
engineering research centers, and will enable 
the school to launch educational and research 
initiatives, such as the international master's 
degree program in telecommunications. 

Pratt graduated magna cum laude with a 
bachelor of science in electrical engineering, 
and entered the University of Pennsylvania's 
Wharton School of Business, receiving his 
M.B.A. with honors in 1949. He began his ca- 
reer at IBM Corp. and became controller of 
the IBM World Trade Corp. In 1962, he joined 
the Kennedy administration as assistant sec- 
retary of the Army for financial management. 
He left government in 1964 to join Pfizer as 
corporate controller, rising through the ranks 
to become president in 1971 and chair and 
CEO in 1972. During his twenty years in that 
position, before retiring in 1992, Pratt saw 
Pfizer's annual revenue increase sevenfold, 
from $1 billion to nearly $7 billion. He also 
significantly increased Pfizer's global reach to 
include operations in 140 countries. He was 
so active in business, civic, and charitable af- 
fairs that then-New York Governor Mario 
Cuomo called him "a walking definition of 
civic responsibility." 

Among Pratt's many honors was the 1986 
Gantt Award from the American Management 
Association and the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers for his "distinguished ac- 
hievement in management as a service to the 
community." He has been a leader in the United 
Way, the Boys Clubs of America, the Hugh 
O'Brien Youth Foundation, and the Girl Scouts. 

An active contributor to higher education, 
he served as a Duke trustee from 1977 to 1988 
and was on the board of the Fuqua School of 
Business, the Engineering Development Com- 
mittee, the Capital Gifts Committee, and the 
Leadership Gift Committee. When he retired 
from Pfizer, the company established in his 
honor at Duke the Pfizer Inc. -Edmund T 
Pratt Jr. University Professorship. In 1997, the 
university named the Pratt Commons of the 
Levine Science Research Center after him, 
following a $l-million gift to the center. 

Pratt and his wife of forty-eight years, 
Jeannette, have two sons, Keith and Randolf. 


urricane Fran passed 
directly through Dur- 
ham three years ago, 
causing wind and water damage 
at Duke and wreaking havoc 
throughout the area ("Gazette," 
September-October 1996). 
At the time, many thought 
they'd seen the worst that 
nature could do. 

This fall, however, hurricanes 
Dennis, Floyd, and Irene hit 
North Carolina in a period of 
mere weeks. Floyd' 
impact was exacerbated by 
Dennis' torrential rains a 
before, and floodwaters had 
hardly receded in Floyd's wake 
when Irene's arrival sent the 
Neuse and Tar rivers rising out 
of their banks again. Even be- 
fore Irene, the flooding caused 
by the one-two punch of 
Dennis and Floyd did billions of 
dollars in damage and was 
labeled the worst natural disas- 
ter in state history. 

The Duke Marine Lab was 
evacuated before each storm, 
and Duke's campus and Dur- 
ham escaped the hurricanes' 
worst with only mild wind dam- 
age and a few waterlogged city 
streets. Witnessing the devasta- 
tion in eastern Carolina, the 

university community recog- 
nized its good fortune — and 
relief efforts began immediately. 
Canned goods earned donors 
free admission to the Duke- 
Vanderbilt football game. 
Students gave up food points for 

various schools competed in a 
Chronicle-sponsored food drive, 
won by the Nicholas School of 
the Environment, to collect 
canned goods and water. Or- 
ganizations from every area of 
campus scheduled trips into the 
afflicted counties to help with 
cleanup efforts. And one week 
after Floyd, Duke ; 


Two alumni from Oklahoma City have 
donated $5.5 million to support im- 
provements to undergraduate residence 
halls, financial aid for students, the Duke An- 
nual Fund, and the Fuqua School of Business. 
The gifts are the receipts of two trusts estab- 
lished in 1997 by Aubrey K. McClendon '81 
and his wife, Kathleen Byrns McClendon '80. 
Aubrey McClendon has served as chair 
and chief executive officer of the Chesapeake 
Energy Corporation of Oklahoma City since 
its inception in 1989. The McClendons are 
members of several Duke governing boards; 
Aubrey McClendon helps direct the Cam- 
paign for Duke's fund-raising effort as a mem- 
ber of its steering committee. 

The largest portion of the gift — expected 
to be more than $3.5 million — will help fund 
an ambitious expansion and modernization of 
student residence halls. Residential-life plan- 
ning is still under way, but a final proposal is 
expected to be presented to Duke's trustees in 
December, with construction to begin next sum- 
mer on West Campus. The preliminary plan is 

tors announced a year-long 
campaign to coordinate student 
and community volunteerism 
for hurricane relief. 

In October, The Chronicle 
reported, Duke's relief cam- 
paign gained both strength and 
focus when the Durham City 
Council passed a resolution to 
link Durham with Edgecombe 
County. Edgecombe includes 
the hard-hit towns of Rocky 
Mount, Tarboro, and Prince- 
ville, and the resolution made 
the county Durham's "relief 
sister city." One of the difficul- 
ties faced by the storm-struck 
communities is a shortage of 
local workers and a lack of 
strategy for handling an influx 
of volunteers. Duke's efforts for 
large-scale relief will focus on 
organizing a spring-break group 
to continue the cleanup. Mean- 
while, small-scale relief contin- 
ues, with United Way donations 
and university-provided took 
and transportation for on-site 
repair work. 

For continued updates on Duke 
hurricane relief efforts, visit the 
university's Community Service 
Center website at http://csc.stuaff. 

to construct a new 350-bed dormitory in the 
first phase to be completed by 2003, with the 
second phase concentrating on renovation of 
existing West Campus residence halls. 

The balance of the gift will be used to cre- 
ate the McClendon Family Scholarship Fund 
to support Duke's Annual Fund and the Fu- 
qua School of Business. Aubrey McClendon 
is a member of Fuqua's board of visitors. 

The McClendons have supported a num- 
ber of programs during Duke's fund-raising 
effort, including the arts and sciences endow- 
ment and Annual Fund leadership giving. 
Their gifts also helped to build the Brodie 
Recreation Center on East Campus, which 
opened in 1996, and West Campus' Wilson 
Recreation Center, which opened in August. 


ew uses for the Internet crop up 
every day. You can buy books, send 
flowers, donate to charities, trace 
genealogy, trade stocks — the list is nearly 
endless. One of the newer features of Internet 
life on campus, however, has some professors 

November- December 1 0< W 


up in arms. Online class note services have 
raised hackles at colleges around the country, 
and faculty whose class lectures are being put 
online without their permission have begun 
questioning the practice. 

One of those faculty members is Duke's 
David Paletz, professor of political science. In 
a recent letter to the Academic Council (re- 
printed in Duke's monthly Faculty Forum), 
Paletz raises concerns about online class notes 
providers — particularly with, a 
site providing notes from twenty-two differ- 
ent Duke classes, from Biological Anthro- 
pology and Anatomy 093 to Statistics HOE. 
(The site features a disclaimer stating that 
"notes contained within are a 
notetakers' [sic] interpretation of what was 
presented in the lecture.") 

"No one from or connected to 
has ever asked me for permission or even con- 
sulted me about putting 'an interpretation' of 
my lectures on the World Wide Web," Paletz 
writes. He then outlines problems he sees 

with online class notes providers, among 
them: disruption of the professor-student re- 
lationship, both by the note-taker's intrusion 
into it and by giving students the impression 
that class can be missed without conse- 
quences; distortion or misunderstanding of 
remarks requiring class context; inept note- 
taking; verbatim note-taking that is "in no 
way a 'notetakers interpretation' "; advertis- 
ing on the site, "exploiting the professor's 
work for profit and commercial purposes"; 
the cheapening of the value of a Duke educa- 
tion by making Duke class notes available to 
anyone on the Web; and violation of intellec- 
tual property rights, including's 
claim of copyright for the notes. 

Paletz is also greatly disturbed by the idea 
that "the notes are presented as from 'Duke 
University: Political Sciences [sic] 91D.' The 
name of the person supplying them is never 
given. ... Connected to the notes, the professor 
is responsible for their inadequacies, blamed 
for their contents, and can be attacked for 

their assertions by anyone (no matter how 
crazy) anywhere in the world." 

Paletz is not the only Duke professor with 
such concerns. In an October article, The Chron- 
icle at Duke reported that the Office of Uni- 
versity Counsel has been contacted about the 
possibility of litigation over the notes, quoting 
sociology professor Linda George, Ph.D. 75: 
"You cannot read any textbook and get the 
spin that I put on a topic. I don't think any 
corporation has the right to take that by pay- 
ing people to record my intellectual property." 

Late in October, Duke president Nannerl 
O. Keohane took the question to a presidents' 
meeting of the Association of American 
Universities, recommending that the group's 
intellectual property committee examine the 
issue. As reported in a November issue of the 
The Chronicle, Keohane said faculty members 
fear "the possibly chilling effects of having 
spontaneous, Socratic ventures in teaching 
recorded on the Web, or premature release of 
research results that a faculty member might 


Reynolds Price '55 has been a mainstay 
of intellectual life at Duke for many 
years, garnering honors and attention 
for his literary output and for challenging the 
university to live up to its potential. His most 
recent honor came during Founders' Week- 
end, when a formal portrait was unveiled at a 
gathering of friends at Perkins Library. 

Portrait of Reynolds Price is the work of San 
Francisco artist Will Wilson, who came to Dur- 
ham and spent hours with Price, observing 
and participating in the author's life before 
starting the portrait sessions. The sittings 
yielded three paintings, including one that 
serves as the cover of the paperback edition 
of Price's Collected Poems. The portrait pur- 
chased by Duke is rich in color and detail, 
depecting the author and professor surround- 
ed by books, religious icons, and other totems 
of his life. It hangs in The Perk, the coffee 
shop on the second floor of Perkins Library, 
where it greets patrons as they step up 
through the stone arch at the top of the stairs. 
Wilson spoke with Duke Magazine from his 
San Francisco studio. 

Hoiv did you decide on Reynolds Price as a 
subject for a portrait? 

Three years ago, Reynolds was in San Fran- 
cisco and he stopped into the John Pence 
Gallery and met John. I don't know exactly 
what artist he was interested in, but he did 
purchase one of my paintings at that time. 
And then he developed a friendship with 
John Pence. 



like to discuss in class but is not yet ready to 
share in publication." An AAU public affairs 
officer said the committee would take up the 
matter by early next year. 

In their defense, the online class notes pro- 
viders claim the note-takers they hire must 
sign contracts agreeing not to take down the 
lecture verbatim or copy handouts or writings 
from the board. Indeed, one company claims 
the students taking the notes own the copy- 
right on their "interpretation" of the lecture. 
And at least one professor is less upset by 
the service than others. In an interview in 
The Chronicle, Lori Leachman, visiting associ- 
ate professor of economics, says she saw the 
service as an "accessory" to learning. "Ideally, 
this sort of system liberates students from 
notetaking. . .and frees you up in class to just 
listen and understand the lecture." And yet 
she agrees with some of Paletz's concerns 
about accuracy and professor-student inter- 
action, saying, "I don't think it will ever take 
the place of a dynamic classroom." 

What university professors are worried 
about for now, however, is that the conduct 
and content of online class notes websites will 
disrupt the learning environment and violate 
long-held rights to intellectual property. Such 
questions are reaching well beyond Duke to 
many other universities. Paletz, for one, wants 
the word to spread. "I am hoping to alert my 
Duke colleagues across the campus about this 
threat to the integrity of their teaching. As 
significant an asset as the Internet can be to 
our teaching and research, it can also pose a 
threat to our professional work that we must 
resist through collaborative action." 


| he late Charles E. Putman, the univer- 
sity's senior vice president for research 
administration and policy, is being hon- 

ored by a university professorship created in 
his name. Putman died of a heart attack in 
May at the age of fifty- seven. He was James B. 
Duke Professor of Radiology, board certified 
in internal medicine, and a noted teacher. Al- 
though an academic administrator, he con- 
tinued to see patients while leading Duke's 
$335-million research enterprise. 

The university professorship program is 
designed to attract to Duke a small number of 
highly distinguished faculty whose interests 
cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. Three 
quarters of the $2-million endowment re- 
quired to support the professorship already 
has been raised, with $375,000 commitments 
each from the budgets of university president 
Nannerl O. Keohane and Ralph Snyderman, 
chancellor for health affairs, $100,000 from 
president emeritus H. Keith H. Brodie and his 
wife, Brenda, and $635,000 from Duke's board 
of trustees. 

The holder of the professorship will have a 
primary appointment in Duke Medical Cen- 

John was just so impressed by Reynolds, he 
literally credits Reynolds for reigniting his love 
of literature. And then, I think it was a year 
or six months later, because of their friend- 
ship, John said he thought that Reynolds 
should be the subject of a grand painting. We 
met and got along just great, and that day or 
the next day it was decided I would come to 
Duke and do the painting, anything I wanted 
to do. 

What was it like to spend that much time 
with Price, coming to know him well 
enough to paint him? 

I was so flattered that someone as busy as 
he is would take the time. He was in between 
books, between projects. The second trip I 
took down, it was the first day of school. I sat 
on the stage with him the first day of his 
Milton class. It was fun for me to see how he 
taught. I wanted to be around him as much as 
possible. I've never met anyone with more 
complex facial expressions in my life. 

Five hours a day he was sitting for me. 
Hearing all these great stories, hanging out 
with him — it was just such a treat. It was 
very stimulating to spend that time with him. 
And then he's so disarming as well. He put 
me so much at ease. I mean, I was right in his 
bedroom, right in the area where he is living, 
right in his space. 

The first sitting, I got there around four 
o'clock and started grinding my paints, and 
by six o'clock we'd started the small one. 

You painted three portraits? 

Right. The final portrait is almost a hybrid 
of the two others — I wanted him to be look- 
ing at the viewer. He had one leg lifted over 

the other. When he was teaching, he was in 
that position, and I thought, oh, that's neat. I 
remembered that. 

So, some of what we see in the portrait was 
actually right there, represented as it was in 
the sitting, and some of it is from things that 
you observed while you were with him? Like 
the things that surround him? 

Most of those are objects that are in his 
house. The painting behind him is kind of an 
amalgamation of different icons he has. The 
Christ figure with the disciples connotes him 
as a teacher, and the scene of Lazarus being 
raised from the dead felt like A Whole New 
Life, the notion of rebirth, and I had read that 
just before going there. Then I liked the idea 
that the computer was in it. . . . 

Which is interesting, because it is such a 
contemporary item, and yet the painting as a 
whole has the light and richness of a more 
classical style. 

Because that's my background, that's how I 
paint, in that classical style. 

The chair also stands out, though it doesn't 
jump out. 

I love the fact that he crossed his leg, and 
the composition of the painting allowed him 
to be framed that way, and the chair was just 
showing. It's not the first thing you see but 
you discover it. 

At the unveiling, you explained a few things 
in the painting, but you said you wouldn't go 
into what the marble represented, the round 
yellow one resting under the torso. 

Well, he has tons of them, he just likes 

them. It was just a design thing. I just grabbed 
it — they were everywhere. 

What U'as Price's reaction to the work? 

He was diligent in looking at what I did 
after each sitting, which was twenty to thirty 
minutes at a time. He'd say there are hun- 
dreds of paintings, that each one was differ- 
ent — he would see each bit of work as a new 
painting. A lot of times people, especially lay 
people, will look at the painting and say, "Oh, 
it's done." They don't always understand 
where I'm going with it. It was really interest- 
ing with Reynolds, though. He understood. 
You know, he wanted to be a painter, an 
artist. He'd say, "You're doing what I always 
wanted to do." 

He understood because he understands the 
artist's creative process, both as a writer and 
as someone who had wanted to paint? 

Exactly. He's always been creating his own 
work, but as a child [painting] was his ambi- 
tion. I think it was because of that that I was 
completely at ease. 

What did you think when you heard that 
Duke ivanted to purchase the painting? 

I think people at Duke were aware it was 
being done. Then, when the painting was 
done, it was out here in San Francisco in my 
art show, and then Duke asked to have it 
shipped to them to check it out. 

It's a funny thing how things happen. 
Someone of his stature — it could have been 
any one of twenty major portrait artists — and 
I got to do it. It was really just amazing. 

November- nccemk'i !*"■> 

ter and will be someone who will have an 
impact across the university. "The Putman 
Chair will symbolize the interdisciplinary ex- 
cellence that we are seeing more and more of 
at Duke and at the medical center," says Sny- 
derman. "It is particularly fitting that the pro- 
fessor to hold the chair will teach at our med- 
ical center, where Charles made such a last- 
ing mark." 

Putman came to Duke in 1977 from Yale's 
School of Medicine to chair radiology. He was 
named James B. Duke Professor of Radiology 
and professor of medicine in 1983. In 1985, he 
became vice chancellor for health affairs and 
vice provost, and in 1986 was named dean of 

the school of medicine and vice provost for 
research and development. He relinquished 
his post as dean in 1987 to devote more time 
to enhance the university's research pro- 
grams, and became vice president for re- 
search administration and policy in 1989. He 
was executive vice president for administra- 
tion from 1990 to 1995. 

Putman held several leadership positions in 
North Carolina's Research Triangle. He chaired 
the board of MCNC, a nonprofit Research 
Triangle Park corporation that develops elec- 
tronic technologies, and was a director and 
former vice chair of the North Carolina Bio- 
technology Center. He also was a trustee of 

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Duke's Fuqua School of Business is 
establishing a European campus in 
Frankfurt. The Fuqua School of 
Business Europe will be headquarters for the 
Duke M.BA.-Cross Continent, a new degree 
program combining instruction with Inter- 
net-based learning for young professionals 
living and working primarily in Europe and 
North America. The inaugural class of 110 
students will enroll in August 2000, with half 
the class completing its residency requirements 
primarily in Durham and the other half in 

Thomas F. Keller '53 will be dean of the 
Fuqua School of Business Europe. Keller, the 
R.J. Reynolds Professor of Business Admin- 
istration at Duke, was Fuqua's dean from 1974 
to 1996. He says the university selected 
Frankfurt because of the city's standing as a 
center of business and finance. Among other 
things, it is home to the European Central 
Bank, the German Stock Exchange, and the 
German Central Bank. 

The Duke M.B.A.-Cross Continent pro- 
gram is aimed at managers in the United 
States and Europe with two to eight years of 
professional experience who wish to remain 
on the job and enhance their careers with a 
graduate business education. It will be taught 
with both Internet and traditional classroom 
methodologies, as pioneered in Fuqua's Duke 
MBA-Global Executive (GEMBA) program. 
Students can live and work anywhere in the 
world while completing the program, but 
must attend a total of nine weeks of residen- 
tial learning sessions. 

During the twenty-month program, each 
of the eight academic terms will begin with 
a one-week residential learning session 
taught concurrently at Fuqua campuses in 
Durham and Frankfurt. These residencies 
will be followed by a six-week period of 
Internet-based distance learning involving 
students all over the world working together 


in global virtual teams. A transfer require- 
ment built into the program means both 
Europe-based and North America-based stu- 
dents will experience at least one mandatory 
residential session in a location other than 
their home continent. Depending on their 
choice of electives, the students may com- 
plete up to two additional residencies on the 
other continent. 

Along with a partnership between Fuqua 
and Pensare Inc., the Fuqua School of Busi- 
ness Europe will be supported and guided by 
a kuratorium (board of directors) composed 
of executives from leading multinational 
firms. Besides Rolf-E. Breuer, chief executive 
officer of Deutsche Bank, who will serve as 
chairman, and Fuqua's dean Rex D.Adams 
'62, the school has appointed three other 
individuals to its kuratorium to date: Sir 
Richard Sykes, chairman of Glaxo Wellcome 
pic; Werner G. Seifert, chief executive officer 
of Deutsche Borse (the German Stock Ex- 
change) ; and Dieter Feddersen, a partner in 
the Frankfurt law firm Feddersen Laule 
Scherzberg & Ohle Hansen Ewerwahn. 


The new Freeman Center for Jewish Life 
was dedicated during Parents' Weekend 
in October. The $3-million, 17,000- 
square-foot facility provides Jewish students, 
faculty, and staff at Duke with a place to wor- 
ship, study, eat, and gather. It is also available 
to all of Duke's students and members of the 
Durham community. 

During the dedication ceremony, several of 
the founding benefactors were honored, in- 

•Brian and Harriet Freeman of Short Hills, 
New Jersey, whose three children, Danyelle, 
Amanda, and Heath, either attended or are 
now enrolled at Duke. The Freemans made 
the primary private contribution toward the 
construction of the building. Brian Freeman is 
vice chair, a distance-educa- 
tion business he co-founded in 1997. Pre- 
viously, he was president of Brian M. Freeman 
Enterprises Inc., an investment banking firm 
he founded in 1985. He is a member of the 
Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy's 
board of visitors; Harriet Freeman is a mem- 
ber of the Center for Jewish Life's board of 

•Samuel and Veronica Heyman of New 
York City, whose son Larry graduated from 
Duke in 1994 and whose daughter Elizabeth 
is currently a Duke student. The Heymans' 
gift will endow the center's directorship. 

•Bernice Levenson Lerner '53 of Salisbury, 
North Carolina, and her late husband Mor- 

ton, whose three children graduated from 
Duke. The Levenson-Lerner Sanctuary in 
the center is named in honor of the Lerner 

• Philip and Susan Oppenheimer Sassower 
of New York City, whose son Edward received 
his undergraduate and law degrees from 
Duke. The center's library and adjoining ter- 
race are named in the family's honor. 

•Gilbert D. Scharf '70 and Ruth Calvin 
Scharf B.S.N. '80 of New York City, who 
initiated the process that led to the construc- 
tion of the center. The center's multi-purpose 
area is named Scharf Commons in their 


'v Richard White, who retired as dean of 
Trinity College two years ago and now heads 
the Sarah P. Duke Gardens, was named uni- 
versity marshal. He will continue as gardens 
head and remain on the botany faculty; he is 
also director of undergraduate studies in biol- 
ogy. As university marshal, White succeeds 
PelhamWilder, who retired after twenty-two 
years. Unlike Wilder, however, White will not 
be in charge of the planning and organization 
of opening convocations for Duke's under- 
graduate and graduate schools, Founders' 

Seconds from Duke University, 
Minutes from Research Triangle Park. 

and Light Years Away from the Ordinary 

Nestled among tall North Carolina pines and 
hardwoods, next to prestigious Duke University and near 
the heart of the world-renowned Research Triangle Park, 
the Washington Duke Inn & Golf Club is the destination- 
of-choice for countless business travelers, high-level 
conferences and leisure guests from all points of the 

Another asset of Duke University - 
and only blocks away from its world 
famous medical center, the Inn is the 
only Four-Star, Four-Diamond hotel in 
eastern North Carolina. 

Located midway between New York 
and Atlanta, the Washington Duke Inn's 
300acre site is only 15 minutes from 
Raleigh-Durham International Airport 
and eosy to get to. 

1 The Inn's superb meeting and catering facilities easily 
accommodate groups from 20 to 400. 

' Each of the 171 newly-renovated and elegantly- 
appointed guest rooms and suites has complimentary 
Internet access at Ethernet® speed. 

• Recreational amenities include an 18-hole, 
Robert Trent Jones-designed championship golf 
course, home of the 2001 NCAA men's 
championship, along with a 3^ mile long 
jogging trail, swimming pool, Duke Center 
MMf for Living privileges. 

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Day, baccalaureate services, and graduation 
ceremonies; that responsibility will fall princi- 
pally to University Secretary Allison Haltom 
72 and her staff. White has accepted a five- 
year term as marshal. 

* Norman L. Christensen Jr., founding 
dean of the Nicholas School of the Environ- 
ment, plans to step down from that post at 
the end of his second five-year term in June 
2001 and return to teaching and research. He 
has served as dean since July 1991, when, 
under his leadership, it was formed to unite 
and expand upon existing programs at Duke's 

School of Forestry and Environmental Studies 
on the university's main campus and the 
Duke Marine Laboratory in coastal Beaufort. 
Christensen came to Duke in 1973 as an as- 
sistant professor in the botany department 
after receiving his Ph.D. in biology from the 
University of California at Santa Barbara. Be- 
fore becoming dean, he was professor and 
chair of the botany department. He has chaired 
a National Academy of Sciences committee 
on environmental issues in forest manage- 
ment in the Pacific Northwest and, in 1997, 
was appointed by President Clinton to the 
U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. 

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Duke Hospital. Ten minutes to RTP, 15 minutes to RDU Airport. (=J 

* Nan Nixon, who for nearly twenty years 
headed Harvard University's federal relations 
office in Washington, is assistant vice presi- 
dent and director of federal relations at Duke, 
effective in November. She succeeds Paul 
Vick '66, director of government relations at 
Duke since 1984. Vick moved to a new posi- 
tion in July as head of the medical center and 
health system's recently established govern- 
ment-relations office. Nixon's responsibilities 
are in promoting Duke's interests with Con- 
gress, administrative agencies, educational 
associations, professional societies, and pub- 
lic-policy organizations. Her job will include 
monitoring and analyzing the impact of federal 
legislation and program development, espe- 
cially higher education and research policies 
and initiatives, and coordinating the com- 
munication of the university's position on leg- 
islation, administrative regulations, and other 
federal policy initiatives. She is a member of 
the board of directors of the National Asso- 
ciation of Independent Colleges and Univer- 
sities and of the Charitable Accord. A 1968 
graduate of Stetson University, she received 
her law degree in 1977 from the Columbus 
School of Law at Catholic University. 

V Edward W Holmes, dean of the medical 
school and vice chancellor for academic 
affairs, and Catherine M. Wilfert, emeritus 
professor of pediatrics and microbiology, have 
been elected to the Institute of Medicine 
(IOM), a branch of the National Academy of 
Sciences in Washington, D.C. Election to the 
institute is based on major contributions to 
the field of medicine and is considered both 
an honor and an obligation to further pro- 
gress on health-policy issues. They are two of 
fifty-five new members to its board, joining 
nine other IOM members who are faculty at 
Duke and its medical center. Holmes spent 
twenty-one of his thirty years as a researcher 
at Duke before leaving for administrative 
posts at Stanford and the University of Penn- 
sylvania. He returned to Duke last year to 
become dean of the medical school, a newly 
redefined position that carries responsibility 
for all research and education conducted in 
the school. Wilfert is known for her research 
into the natural history and treatment of 
AIDS in children, and her involvement in 
clinical trials testing the effectiveness of new 
anti-HIV medications. She came to Duke in 
1969 as an assistant professor of pediatrics 
and, by 1980, held full professorships in both 
pediatrics and microbiology, and was appoint- 
ed chief of pediatric infectious diseases. In 
1998, she became professor emeritus. Cur- 
rently, she is the scientific director of the 
Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation 
in Santa Monica, California, a private philan- 
thropic organization whose goals include rais- 
ing awareness and funding for i 



ENIAC: The Triumphs and 
Tragedies of the World's First 

Efy Scott McCartney '82. Walker and Company, 
1999. 262 pages. $23. 

Is scientific progress made only with 
pitfalls, personal losses, and twists 
of fate? Galileo was persecuted for 
truths about the solar system. Ein- 
stein flunked eighth-grade math. 
The first phone call was made by 
Bell in an emergency. And such 
was the birth of the computer in- 
dustry, full of quirks and contradictions still 
haunting it today. One of the ironies is that 
few know the story — a deficiency that Scott 
McCartney strives to remedy with ENIAC: 
The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World's 
First Computer. Despite the technical subject, 
McCartney tells a human tale, almost a mys- 
tery, with insights into personal motivation 
and modern culture that will be a good read 
for just about anyone. 

McCartney eases the reader into the story 
with the largest possible context: the role of 
computers and the history of pre-computer 
gadgets. As the story focuses in on ENIAC 
(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Com- 
puter), it lights on two young men, John 
Mauchly and Presper Eckert. They come from 
different places, different cultures, different 
times. Each struggles as a whiz kid with the 
weight of promise yet unfulfilled. By the time 
McCartney tells of their chance meeting, the 
reader is anticipating greatness yet to come. 

Developed during World War II, ENIAC 
was meant for use as a weapon, intended to 
quickly compute artillery trajectories. The race 
to construct the computer is the heart of the 
story — the luck of wartime funding, the fast 
idle of minds scrawling on napkins over lunch, 
the chance memory from childhood that be- 
comes a key idea. McCartney describes the 
hectic, even chaotic physical and intellectual 
pace of the builders' lives as they tried to take 
technology from purely mechanical gadgetry 
to "thinking" electronics: They "ate, slept, 
and lived with the machine, devoting their 
lives to a project that, according to the ex- 
perts of the day, had little chance of success. 
They faced technical hurdles like how to wire 
rings of vacuum tubes to 'count' numbers 
without making errors or simply burning out. 

How would the circuit know when to stop? 
How would it transmit the answer? They 
faced logical issues like how to get those rings 
to carry digits if a sum exceeded 10, and how 
to wire up the process of taking a square root. 
How, they wondered, could you 'program' the 
machine? Many said what they were attempt- 
ing to do was technically impossible; few 
understood what the new machine might be 
capable of doing." 

And yet, ENIAC was entirely capable. It 
actually worked — and by making it work, 
Mauchly and Eckert created an extraordinary 
new science. In addition, they understood 
that this was precisely what they'd done. 
They could see uses for ENIAC for business 
and government as well as national defense. 
They could see a day when their room-sized 
computers would shrink to the size of a desk, 
and then to the size of a desktop, and then be 
available to everyone. 

What they could not see, unfortunately, 
was that their own role would be forgotten. 
For the creation of ENIAC is just the be- 
ginning. Once the machine is designed, built, 
used, and even retired, the book is only half 
over. What remains is an examination of how 
history can be created, and created in error. It 
begins with a seemingly innocent omission, a 
draft of a report on Mauchly and Eckert 's cre- 
ation that happens to be written by John Von 
Neumann, largely credited with inventing the 
computer. This parlays into a historical error 
that computer scientists are taught and con- 
tinue to teach about the core ideas behind all 
modern computers: The current computer 
architecture is named "Von Neumann archi- 

tecture," while McCartney argues it was actu- 
ally developed by Mauchly and Eckert. 

Can this have been intentional deception? 
Picking through this tangled history, the 
reader will come to understand McCartney's 
fastidious attention for references — not only 
who said what, but who said they said it, and 
when. Dubious accounts and personal egos 
balloon into wrangling for intellectual proper- 
ty. Ownership and marketing claims, some 
just on a whim, determine the next machine, 
and the next, and eventually determine the 
life or death of the companies that build 
them, the fledgling computer giants. 

The courts are drawn in, and they go first 
one way, then another. The dream of making 
easy millions shrivels. The legal system thrashes 
with this new and bizarre technological sub- 
ject. Antitrust law prohibits collaboration, 
when in fact collaboration can help open a 
design to competition by setting standards so 
that existing machines can accept new prod- 
ucts from new companies. Patents last for 
seventeen years and can be tied up even 
longer in court, but in the computer world, 
the actual inventions are obsolete in as many 
months. Given such a tangle, the reader 
begins to wonder how there can be any effec- 
tive controls at all on the computer industry. 

Although McCartney exposes the injustice 
done to Mauchly and Eckert, he acknowledges 
that their sacrifice probably worked out best 
for consumers and the industry as a whole. 
He does not, however, wrap up the book with 
a simple conclusion. It's hard to know what's 
right in a field where, arguably, the most sig- 
nificant plans of the century were passed over 
as worthless. Hindsight shows us the right 
guesses, but what is the next right guess in 
such a crazy business? 

It's unfortunate that Mauchly and Eckert 's 
roles in history could not have been under- 
stood sooner. But ENIAC's story has only 
grown in relevance as computers have evolved 
— that first machine helped shape a revolu- 
tion in technology, and so helped form a tech- 
nology-dependent culture. Scott McCartney's 
book reveals the full dimensions and impor- 
tance of the world's first computer. 

— Barrett E.Koster 

Koster M.S. '90 is an assistant professor of com- 
puter science and director of computer studies at 
Meredith College in Raleigh, North Carolina. 

November-December 1999 


Terry Sanford: Politics, Progress, 
and Outrageous Ambitions 

By Howard E. Covington ]r. arvd Marion A. Ellis. 
Duke University Press, 1999. 559 pages. $34-95. 

Terry Sanford always 
seemed so comfortable 
with himself, so sure of 
his charm and likahility, 
so willing to take on a 
new, untested situation 
because he expected a 
positive outcome. How- 
ard E. Covington Jr. and Marion A. Ellis offer 
clues about how Sanford came by that confi- 
dence in Terry Sanford: Politics, Progress, and 
Outrageous Ambitions, their new carefully re- 
searched, detailed biography of the former 
North Carolina governor, Duke president, 
and U.S. senator. 

But clues, though insightful and sometimes 
even entertaining, are just what we get from 
these biographers — no answers or even spec- 
ulation about the inner James Terry Sanford. 
We would never expect the sort of psycho- 
analysis and unspoken inner dialogue that 
Bob Woodward has tried to legitimize in his 
writings about powerful politicians. After all, 
this biography was more than seven years in 
the works, with cooperation from Sanford 
and financial support from a host of founda- 

tions and individuals. The footnotes reveal a 
cautious scholarship, based on extensive re- 
search. Covington and Ellis are both veteran 
journalists (and Pulitzer Prize winners) from 
The Charlotte Observer who shifted to book 
writing a decade or so ago; not surprisingly, 
they take a reporter's approach to their story. 
They don't judge. 

And Sanford, who gave the authors exten- 
sive interviews and ready access to all his 
papers, apparently didn't help. In the closest 
thing to criticism Covington and Ellis offer in 
the 540-plus pages, they note of Sanford in 
their introduction: "He was most guarded in 
talking about life-shaping events — his expe- 
riences in combat, his grief over the death of 
a president, and personal disappointments — 
though he never simply refused to comment. 
But revealing personal fears and emotions 
was something he just did not do." 

So the reader is left to consider what moti- 
vated and moved Sanford as he composed 
the varied and fascinating life that won him 
the governorship in 1960, where he emerged 
as an innovative educator and social progres- 
sive; the presidency of Duke from 1969 to 
1986, where his leadership helped put the 
university among the top ranks nationally; 
and a seat in the U.S. Senate from 1986 to 
1992, where his friends point to his work on 
Central America and his critics say he never 





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found his way. The ups and downs are all 
here, as we learn about every chapter of his 
life, starting with his youth in Laurinburg and 
ending with a moving account of his stately 
funeral in Duke Chapel in April 1998. 

The rhythm of the telling is a little uneven. 
At times the viewfinder zooms in tightly, giving 
us a level of detail about events and people 
that aren't central to this story. In a chapter on 
the administration of Governor Luther Hodges, 
for example, there are pages and pages on the 
politics of school desegregation in the mid- 
1950s with nary a mention of Santord. On the 
other hand, the years at Duke are crammed 
mostly into one chapter, "A Tar Heel Blue 
Devil." The authors are political reporters; 
they write most comfortably about campaigns 
and coalitions, about the governor's mansion 
and the Senate floor. The story of Terry San- 
ford at Duke is yet to be written. 

For the patient reader, though, this is a book 
rich with drama. Covington and Ellis craft 
scenes and offer context that show, time and 
again, how Sanford was willing to take risks 
and tackle chaotic situations head on. The 
man who picked up a bullhorn and walked 
comfortably among angry, volatile students 
during the Vigil at Duke in 1969 had also not 
hesitated to walk onto the porch of the North 
Carolina governor's mansion in 1963 and face 
a lawn filled with civil rights demonstrators. 
(The headline in The News & Observer article 
was "Negroes Boo Gov. at Mansion"; Coving- 
ton and Ellis write that the crowd "tossed epi- 
thets his way.") 

Sanford kept that encounter on his terms, 
as was his habit. He was an improviser, able to 
think on his feet and willing to try new ap- 
proaches if his assessment told him the old 
methods would fail. As governor, he wanted 
to improve education in North Carolina and, 
in an incredible coup, managed to get a food 
tax passed to help fund those improvements. 
But he knew he could only push the state leg- 
islature so far. To fund anti-poverty programs, 
for example, he turned to the Ford Founda- 
tion and others to finance the North Carolina 
Fund; the Fund's pre-school training pro- 
grams were a model for HeadStart. 

Covington and Ellis are at their best de- 
scribing these and other accomplishments of 
Sanford's years as governor, as well as the long 
road in state politics that led to his election. 
Their accounts of the civil rights challenges 
he faced are particularly compelling, with 
examples of the many small steps Sanford 
took to keep North Carolina moving away 
from segregation. 

They also offer insights about Sanford's 
close relationships with many of the state's 
key figures, including Albert Coates, a law 
professor who started and ran the Institute of 
Government in Chapel Hill, and W. Kerr Scott, 
the crusty governor and U.S. senator (whose 


Senate campaign Sanford managed) . These 
deep roots helped Sanford "break in line," as 
Covington and Ellis say, and run for governor 
as a forty- two -year- old backed by a new coali- 
tion of men his own age. He was also a born 
marketer whose index cards with information 
about each supporter were a precursor of the 
modern database-backed campaign machines. 
Sanford was a master at networking before 
the word was even invented. 

And he loved meeting people, so campaign- 
ing was second nature. "He demonstrated a rare 
ability to focus intently on each person as he 
moved from one friendly hand to the next," 
write Covington and Ellis. "This zest for the 
nitty-gritty of political life was as much a part 
of him as keen intellect and roaming mind. 
He was simply at home on the campaign trail." 

Sanford was also at home with himself. He 
gets credit for his creativity, his sense of citizen- 
ship, his courage. But what also colored his 
eight decades was partly innate, a born-with 
upbeat attitude that kept him looking at the 
world as a glass half full. Sanford's casual en- 
trance into law school came in a different era, 
but was an example of this optimism; it con- 
sisted of a quick conversation in September 
with "Miss Lucy," the dean's secretary who knew 
everyone, but was probably particularly fond 
of Terry Sanford. He was used to having peo- 
ple say yes, and she did. 

Sanford found fun in life, as this biography 
makes clear again and again. When he was 
just thirteen, he paid a dollar for a Model T 
that he and his buddies then fixed up with 
junkyard parts and used to explore the far 
reaches of the Scotland County countryside. 
As governor, he joined his colleagues for a 
convention in Hawaii and made news back 
home when his flip-flops kept him out of a 
dancing establishment that required shoes. 
(Sanford wasn't fazed; he just promised not to 
dance and got in the door.) When he was 
running for Senate and his opponent suggest- 
ed he was soft on defense spending, Sanford 
donned an old leather bomber jacket, put his 
paratrooper ring on his finger, and made sure 
voters knew he had been a World War II 
paratrooper (and a decorated one, at that). 

He was also proud of his state and enjoyed 
sharing its wares; one of those given a $30- 
North Carolina-made, straight-backed wooden 
rocking chair was President John F. Kennedy. 
It became a favorite of Kennedy's, who said it 
made his bad back feel better. And Sanford 
always enjoyed his time off with his wife, Mar- 
garet Rose, and their children, Terry and 
Betsy, joining them at the beach and later in 
the mountains, at Hound Ears, where they 
had a home. 

Sanford's life was not without setbacks. 
After college, he wanted to work for his 
beloved Boy Scouts (he was an Eagle Scout) 
but was not hired. The camp he and a friend 

ran successfully for a year in the North Carolina 
mountains was wrecked when floods from a 
hurricane burst a dam. He learned to fly but 
was rejected by the Army Air Corps because 
of myopia. His best shot at financial security, a 
real estate deal, was used to finance his Senate 
campaign. The law firm he founded in 1993 
with former South Carolina governor Robert 
McNair broke up. And of course he failed in 
his many attempts to run for president of the 
United States, and was defeated in his Senate 
re-election campaign as his health began to 
fail him. His incredible self-confidence was 
not always his best guide in decision-making. 
Covington and Ellis help us understand 

Terry Sanford in many ways. And while the 
authors don't explain what really motivated 
him, or how he avoided arrogance and self- 
ishness despite his "outrageous ambition," 
readers of this biography will gain new in- 
sights into the history of the South in the 
mid-twentieth century and into the life of an 
important figure in that history. 

—Ann Pelham 

Pelham '74 is publisher of Legal Times, a weekly 
newspaper on law and lobbying, published from 
Washington, D.C. She is also a member of Duke 
Magazine's Editorial Advisory Board. 

This biography chronicles the incredible Life of one of the most 
important public figures of the postwar South. As North Carolina's 
governor, as president of Duke University, and as a U.S. Senator, Terry 
Sanford demonstrated a dynamic style of progressive leadership 
marked by compassion and creativity. 

"Terry Sanford was a creative and visionary leader who knew how to 
hammer dreams into results. Covington and Ellis brilliantly explain 
this remarkable man's ambition."— Charlie Rose 

600 pages, 87 b&w photos, cloth $34.95 

November- December 1000 


We asked ten students: 

What are your plans for 

celebrating the countdown to 

Our enterprising revelers appear 
to be either home for the holiday 
or somewhere around the world. 
Junior John Lindgren will be in 
Seattle; sophomore Nimmi Roche 
in frosty Minnesota, where she 
laments, "Why can't New Year's 
be in the summer?"; and junior 
Jasmin French in sunny Pasadena, 
California, at the Rose Bowl 
Parade with family and friends. 

"My parents want me to stay at 
home because they are concerned 
about Y2K," says junior Unzila Ali. 
"I, on the other hand, plan on 
being in South Beach." Liz Prada, 
a sophomore, has two possibilities: 
"I'll either be at a Phish concert in 
the Everglades or I'll be in Mon- 
treal with friends." Junior Jennifer 
Grad plans to be "on a beach, in 
Nassau, with a very strong drink 
in one hand." 

New Year's Eve for senior 
Ayisha Karim will be more reflec- 
tive than celebratory, since it falls 
during the month of Ramadan, a 
Muslim religious holiday. "I'll be 
observing the sacred month and 
will most likely be engaged in spir- 
itual conversation with other 

Mihir Gandhi, a junior, will be 
on the other side of the planet — 
literally. "I'm going to India for win- 
ter break and will be traveling by 
train from Agra to Delhi on Jan- 
uary 1, 2000. This would probably 
worry some people; I am one of 
them. But I figure that most of the 
train equipment was made before 
anything remotely associated with 
the Y2K problem was created." 

In one case, the occasion is a 
non-event. "I really haven't 
thought about it yet," says Alicia 
Falken, a sophomore in engineer- 
ing. "It's kind of over- hyped." 

— compiled by Neeta Bidwai '01 


"Integrative medicine is not just 
about new tools. It's about restor- 
ing a healing ambition in medi- 
cine so the patients are more than 
physical bodies. It embodies a 
preventive orientation." 

"Clinton has a mixed record on 
constitutional issues. He is not, for 
example, a particularly strong 
advocate of the First Amendment, 
both in terms of the press and 
other regulation of speech. His 
strongest constitutional achieve- 
ment has been that the Constitu- 
tion hasn't been amended during 
his presidency." 

—Duke law professor Waller 

Dellinger, former acting solicitor 

general and head of the Office of 

Legal Counsel during the Clinton 

administration, speaking at the law 

school conference "The Constitution 

Under Clinton: A Critical Assessment" 

"Wherever you go, you find your- 
self answering questions not so 
much about guns in the classroom 
or China in the World Trade 
Organization, but money in the 
bank and ads on the airwaves." 

"College was a time when I 
learned to ask questions. It's like 
all these little seeds were planted 
in college, and I've been able to 
water some of them." 

Ask the Expert 

Ten years after the fall of 
the Berlin Wall, is there any 

Soviet-bloc countries might 
be returning to Communist 
Party politics? 

The situation of the former Com- 
munist bloc countries in Eastern 
Europe can be compared to that of 
a woman trapped in a disappoint- 
ing second marriage. Her first 
marriage was a nightmare with a 
brutal husband who ruined her 
financial assets, beat her when she 
got out of line, and overall made 
her life simply miserable. Now, 
remarried for a decade, life is still 
unsatisfactory. The brutality is 
gone, and she is free to speak her 
mind without fear of retribution, 
but her quality of life is still poor 
and her new spouse is inept, 
untrustworthy, and simply not on 
top of problems. 

When the Communist bloc 
came apart a decade ago, there 
were exuberant hopes that the 
countries of Eastern Europe, freed 
from the harsh domination of 
Soviet-installed regimes, would 
now be able to reach their full po- 
tential as functioning democracies 
chosen by their own people. How- 

ever, once the initial euphoria of 
the end of Soviet- imposed Com- 
munism waned, very real problems 
emerged in its stead. 

Such traumas as the Soviet 
military actions that suppressed 
reform in Prague, Budapest, and 
East Berlin, and the martial law 
imposed in Poland, are in no dan- 
ger of recurring. But in such coun- 
tries as Slovakia, Belarus, and 
Ukraine, the new regimes seem 
almost as undemocratic as their 
predecessors, and they have been 
unable to improve the quality of 
life of their populations. Indeed, 
given unstable currencies, poor 
productivity, and the growth of 
unemployment, it can be argued 
that life has been worse. Even in 
the "better off" countries, like the 
Czech Republic, Hungary, and 
Poland, much of the population 
perceives their lot as worse or no 
better than it had been under 

The unhappy wife now tends to 
forget the beatings she endured 
from her first husband. She now 
remembers that he brought home 
a paycheck every week, and that 
there was always enough to eat. 
Maybe she was hasty in leaving 
him. Will she marry yet again? 

While there will probably be no 
return to Communist regimes in 
Eastern Europe, former Commu- 
nists have emerged as electoral 
victors in these "democracies" — 
the president of Poland, for in- 
stance, is a former Communist 
who defeated Lech Walesa, the 
hero of the anti-Communist upris- 
ing. Examples like this suggest 
that too many people in Eastern 
Europe are unhappy — that in 
return for freedom, they lost the 
safety net that Communism pre- | 
sumably provided. 

and author of A History of Socialism 
and Communism in Modern Times: 
Theorists, Activists, and Humanists 






SPRING forward into the new century — 
return "home" to celebrate 

Yes, that's right, Duke (undergraduate) Reunions 
are now being held in the spring on one huge, 
stellar weekend! The Classes of 1950, 1955, 
1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 
and the Half Century Club will celebrate their 
reunions April 14-16, 2000. 
In the coming weeks and months you'll be receiving 
lots of reunion information in the mail AND you'll 
also be able to get the latest scoop on all the plans 
for Reunions 2000 by visiting the Duke Reunions 
website at: 
So save the date, and plan to be part of 
an unforgettable weekend! 
(Questions? E-mail us at 









Wtf HERE. . . 

miss the weekend your Reunion Planning 
Committee is conjuring! Duke Reunions offer 
something for everyone. Catch up and reminisce 

m/ith t rianrlc at hnth ran ia| and gala eVentS. Get 

lay by participating in 

^ >>,ini-college held 
i some of the i 



ore about the course 
ing at A Conversation with 
President Keohane. 
hotos from Reunions 1999, 
ip-to-the-minute information 
Reunions 2000, and keep in touch 
s by visiting 







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Now you can be a part of the team! 
By contributing as little as $100, 
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you have helped Blue Devil student- 
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athletic tradition. Take the next step 
by requesting information from the 
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Funderhurk Jr. '60 
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Over thousands of years, the "impossible prayers" of political philosophers have been 
answered through visions of Utopia 


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Over thousands of years, the "impossible prayers" of political philosophers 
have been answered through visions of Utopia. 

In a book about his Mediterranean wan- 
derings, British travel writer Eric Newby 
writes about entering a once -forbidden 
zone. As his tourist bus lumbers into a "stern 
and wild" Albania, he offers this reflection: 
"It was an eerie place, as almost all places 
close to frontiers seem to be, perhaps by asso- 
ciation of ideas. " 

With his own book, Four Island Utopias, 
Duke classical studies professor Diskin Clay 
has been traveling on the geographical and 
intellectual frontiers — and has landed on 
some eerie places indeed. The book, co-au- 
thored by Andrea Purvis Ph.D. '98, grew from 
Clay's course on "Utopias: Ancient and Mod- 
ern. " (It is due out early this year from FOCUS 
Publishers of Newburyport, Massachusetts.) 
Islands, from the Latin insula, are ambiguous 
places: They are both open and closed to the 
outside world. Utopian islands are even more 
ambiguous, being both exemplary worlds and 
worlds apart. 

These days, the term "utopia" has become 
so commonplace as to lose some of its original 
edge and even its original meaning. A new 
collection of Utopian writers includes Marx's 
Communist Manifesto; and in his new book, Re- 
flections on a Ravaged Century, historian Ro- 
bert Conquest argues that the plague of the 


twentieth century was the belief that the world 
could be remade according to some Utopian 
design. Conquest considers Marx a Utopian 
thinker, with his belief that the state would 
wither away in favor of a worker's paradise. 
This was among the twentieth-century move- 
ments that "claimed to transcend all problems, 
but were defective or delusive, devastated 
minds and movements and whole countries, 
and looked like plausible contenders for world 
supremacy," he writes. In fact, Marx was driv- 
en more by a sense of historic inevitability 
than by Utopian visions of creating a "Heaven 
on Earth. " 

And it may be that our consumer culture 
has a working model of Utopia in something 
that has stood the test of time a bit better 
than Marxist societies — Walt Disney World. 

In a 1993 essay for the South Atlantic Quar- 
terly, Duke literature professor Susan Willis 
writes: "What most distinguishes Disney World 
from any other amusement park is the way its 
spatial organization, defined by autonomous 
'worlds' and wholly themed environments, 
combines with the homogeneity of its visitors 
(predominantly white, middle-class families) 
to produce a sense of community. " Walt Dis- 
ney World responds to "an underlying Utopi- 
an impulse" articulated in small-town values. 
With the perceived loss of community ties, 
and of the control over individual lives that 
comes from those ties, the past may seem bet- 
ter than the future. 

Thomas More invented the word "utopia" 
for his 15 16 work of the same name. In literal 
terms, Clay and Purvis point out, "utopia" is 
Greek. The elements of that invented place- 
name are ou, the Greek negative, and topia, 
from topos, place. In combination, the terms 
mean "nowhere. " But utopia has Greek origins 
in a larger sense. Thomas More may have pro- 
vided the title that endures, but Plato provid- 
ed the idea in his Republic and Laws. (Clay's 
course begins with More's Utopia, moves on 
to Homer and works from classical Greece, 
and ends with Swift's Gulliver's Travels and 
Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.) As Plato's pupil Aris- 





January- February 2000 

totle would put it, those Utopian schemes are 
answers to the political philosopher's impossi- 
ble prayers. 

By some definitions, Utopian visions predate 
Plato by centuries. One of the renowned poets 
of antiquity, Hesiod, writing in the eighth cen- 
tury B.C., conceived what Clay and Purvis call 
a "retrospective" Utopia. Hesiod's Works and 
Days sketches a cultural devolution. A long- 
ago race of men "lived like gods, with carefree 
heart, remote from toil and misery. Wretched 
old age did not affect them either, but with 
hands and feet ever unchanged they enjoyed 
themselves in feasting, beyond all ills, and 
they died as if overcome by sleep. All good 
things were theirs, and the grain-giving soil 
bore its fruits of its own accord in unstinted 
plenty, while they at their leisure harvested 
their fields in contentment amid abundance. " 

It was quite a time to be alive. That Golden 
Age — the first "Heaven on Earth" portrayed 
in Greek mythology — was supplanted by in- 
ferior races, and by war and suffering; Hesiod 
saw a present "Iron Age" of "toil and misery," 
"constant distress," and divine mischief-mak- 
ing. Such an indictment of the present day 
expresses a quality that, according to Clay and 
Purvis, is characteristic of Utopian literature 
— a "critical gaze" on the writer's own society. 

Utopias are inaccessible, whether chrono- 
logically or geographically. Islands, of course, 
represent strong barriers; and even the Greek 
islands of the current day tend to be conser- 
vative places and not places subject to flux, 
Clay observes. "One function of barriers to 
Utopias is to mark off their inhabitants as dis- 
tinct from ordinary humans," he and Purvis 
write. "Barriers symbolize the essential dis- 
tance and differences of Utopians from others: 
They are frequently blessed or rewarded with 
fertile soil, abundance of food, longevity, and 
painless death. " 

Such idyllic circumstances illustrate an an- 
cient Greek balancing between man-made law 
or custom and nature. "Utopian cultures, 
through their self-restraint in practicing jus- 
tice and piety (nomos), implicitly or explicitly 
receive the reward of control over nature 
(physis), equivalent to divine favor manifest- 
ing itself in a pleasant climate, fertility, long 
life, and freedom from pain. " In these places 
of splendid isolation, good behavior and a 
fruitful bounty go hand in hand. 

Plato's Republic is a "utopia of foundation," 
as Clay and Purvis describe it; it's a perfectly 
ordered city that mirrors the perfectly ordered 
soul, with every part performing its appropriate 
function. This perfect city, of course, hinges 
on the perfection of the ruling philosophers 
possessed of the virtue of wisdom, along with 
a class of guardians possessed of the virtue of 
courage. A class of workers shows the virtue 
of temperance, or control over physical desires. 
So the state, like the soul, accommodates and 

directs mind, will, and animal impulse. That 
would have been, for Plato, a prescription for 

Yet all around him, Plato would have seen 
corruption, decay, and injustice — all ripe sub- 
jects for a Utopian vision and a critical gaze. 
He was born in 428 or 427 B.C. As he was 
growing up, Athens was losing its empire. It 
was also losing a war against a Spartan alli- 
ance: The Peloponnesian War lasted twenty- 
seven years, from 431 to 404- In 416, Athens 
began a campaign in Sicily; the campaign 
ended in 413, with the massacre of most of 
the retreating Athenians, after the siege of 
Syracuse had failed. Thucydides, the ancient 
chronicler of the Peloponnesian War, said the 
Athenians "were beaten at all points and al- 

together; all that they suffered was great; they 
were destroyed, as the saying is, with a total 
destruction, they fell, their army — everything 
was destroyed, and few out of many returned 
home. " Plato's just world, then, wasn't evident 
in Plato's real world. 

With an island orientation, Clay and Purvis 
have a different Platonic interest in their 
book — Plato's Atlantis. Our sole source for 
the history of the island of Atlantis is Plato, in 
his Timaeus and unfinished Critias dialogues. 

Both Atlantis and prehistoric Athens, as 
Plato's story has it in what he calls his "extra- 
ordinary tale," vanished into the historical void 
following "cataclysmic destruction by deluge. " 
The Athens of Atlantis' time — quite in con- 
trast to the Athens of Plato's time — is "pre- 


he nineteenth-century 
English poet Matthew 
Arnold once criticized the 
American people for having "no 
ancient monuments of man's 
industry and devotion; no his- 
torical past to inspire reverence 
and kindle imagination." As if 
in response to Arnold, nine- 
teenth-century American elites 
decided to commemorate 
Columbus' discovery of 
America with a year-long cele- 
bration. They took $25 million 
and transformed 700 acres of 
Chicago marshlands into a New 
Jerusalem. In viewing the glis- 
tening fairgrounds, a contempo- 
rary observer mused, "Who is 
the greater, a man like More 
who dreams of a Utopia, or one 
who brings his imagination 
within the bounds of reason and 
creates one?" 

For many Americans — the 
twelve million who visited the 
fairgrounds and the millions 
more who read about the event 
in their newspapers — the 
World's Columbian Exposition 
of 1893 demonstrated man's 
industry and offered a Utopian 
vision of the future. Though it 
was a temporary city — de- 
signed and built only for this 
event and destined for salvage 
and destruction after the close 
of the fair — it left its mark 
on the planners, exhibitors, 
visitors, and workers. The expo- 
sition, particularly its ethno- 
graphic exhibits, introduced 
Americans to a hierarchical 
arrangement of African, Asian, 
and European cultures. 

During the dedication, T.W. 
Palmer, president of the fair, 
told the Chicago press: "I think 
it will astound every one who 
visits it, both on account of its 

magnitude and what they 
will consider its artistic merits. 
It would be fairylike if it were 
not so colossal. It is a vision 
snatched from dreams whose 
lines have been brought out and 

where each building evoked the 
Italian Renaissance. This majes- 
tic landscape featured clean 
streets and buildings manufac- 
tured of a brilliant white faux 
marble; it stood in stark con- 






well defined by the iodine of 
art. As an educational force 
and inspiration, I believe, the 
buildings, their grouping, and 
laying out of the grounds will in 
themselves do more good in a 
general way than the exhibits 
themselves, by the exaltation 
that it will inspire in every man, 
woman, and child...who may 
come to view it" 

The words "big," "colossal," 
and "stupendous" constantly 
recur in the writings of fairgo- 
ers. As they approached the site 
on the South Shore of Lake 
Michigan, visitors entered the 
Court of Honor — a collection 
of buildings exhibiting achieve- 
ments in agriculture, electricity, 
manufacturing, mining, and 

trast to the filthy streets and 
blackened buildings of 
America's urban centers. 

The planners of the Columbian 
Exposition viewed die American 
nation as a successor to die 
ancient republics and empires. 
Chicago's New Jerusalem was a 
New Greece or a New Rome. For 
scholars today, the exposition rep- 
resents the cultural tensions of fin 
de sie'cle America. The White City 
celebrated High Culture, while 
the Midway Plaisance, with its 
prominent Ferris Wheel, promot- 
ed pleasure through technology 
and the emerging ethos of con- 

The Court of Honor lay at 
the heart of the White City — 
city devoid of residents, a city 

— TrudiAbel 

Abel, a visiting assistant professor 
of history, spoke in Perkins 
Library's "New Worlds 1 


eminent in warfare and in all respects it was 
governed better than all other cities. " It is, in 
fact, "the fairest of all cities under the sun. " 
Its guardians exist in idyllic circumstances: 
They live in communal dwellings, have "a sup- 
ply of all that was needed," frown upon accu- 
mulating gold or silver, and grow old gracefully. 
Their society exists in heroic isolation: "She 
was a leader of all Greek states, but of neces- 
sity she was left to stand alone when other na- 
tions had abandoned her cause. " Prehistoric 
Athens, then, resembles the historic Athens 
that defeated the Persians on the plain of 
Marathon in 490 B.C. Athens was then aban- 
doned by the states of northern Greece, and 
the Spartans — allies at the time in rebuffing 
the Persian encroachment — arrived too late, 
on the day after the decisive land battle. 

Plato's prehistoric Athens found a competi- 
tor in Atlantis, an island compared in size to 
two of the three massive divisions of the known 
world — "Asia" and "Libya" — and located near 
the "Pillars of Heracles," or the Straits of Gi- 
braltar. The island is self-supporting; it is well- 
endowed with mines for recovering metals, 
trees for creating building materials, abun- 
dant animal life, and domesticated grains. 
"All of these did that sacred island once bear 
in that age under a fostering sun — products 
lovely, marvelous, and of abundant bounty. " 

Athens and Atlantis "seem situated at an- 
tipodes to east and west," write Clay and Pur- 
vis. At first, only the oppositions between the 
two states are apparent. Atlantis is a power 
intent on enslaving the peoples of the Medi- 
terranean; Athens is the leader of the free 
world and the liberator of the Mediterranean. 
Atlantis is a sea power and its god is Poseidon; 
Athens is a land power whose goddess, Athe- 
na, planted the olive in the soil of Attica. 

But other details project onto Atlantis the 
image of Plato's imperial Athens. Like the 
Athenians, the Atlanteans were autochthones, 
or people who had sprung from the land itself. 
Both states are organized into ten groups — 
Atlantis into the domains ruled by the de- 
scendants of its ten original kings, Athens 
into ten tribes established by a reformer-ruler. 
Nine of the kings of Atlantis are called ar- 
chontes, the term for the nine chief magis- 
trates of Athens, and the description of At- 
lantis' bustling harbor could substitute for the 
port of imperial Athens, the Peiraeus. 

Plato's character Critias (an Athenian ty- 
rant in real life) begins his history of the war 
between prehistoric Athens and Atlantis by 
assuring his audience that his account is 
"strange but absolutely true. " Clay and Pur- 
vis, though, call it a "philosophical fiction" — 
"the reflection in a distant mirror of imperial 
Athens at the end of the fifth century. " That 
notion hasn't stood in the way of the true 
believers. Just a year ago, Jim Allen, identified 
as a "British excartographic draftsman and 

aerial intelligence interpreter," wrote a book 
called Atlantis: The Andes Solution. According 
to his argument, a section of the Andean 
plateau in Bolivia is the location of the origi- 
nal Atlantis. And during the recent holiday 
season, full-page newspaper advertisements 
promoted Clive Cussler's Atlantis Found: "Of 
all the legends that have flourished through- 
out the centuries, the one that has provoked 
the most mystery and intrigue is that of the 
lost continent and civilization of Atlantis. " 
Clay has in a file drawer an "Atlantis Found" 
tabloid story; the accompanying photo was 
identified by his Duke colleague Lawrence 
Richardson as showing a classical temple in 
Paestum, which was a Greek outcropping in 
southern Italy. 

skills and desires. Decision-making is collec- 
tive, reproduction is through parthenogene- 
sis, and child welfare is paramount. " Herself a 
social reformer, Oilman trained her own criti- 
cal gaze on a present society that wouldn't 
pass the Nineteenth Amendment, which per- 
mitted women's suffrage, until 1920. 

Utopian writers aren't just critical of their 
home societies; they're also responding to an 
age of exploration, of encounters with the 
exotic, as they envision what Clay and Purvis 
call "utopias of the inaccessible present. " Back 
in the fourth century B.C., philosopher 
Euhemeros of Messene traveled as far as the 
Indian Ocean, where he situated his imag- 
ined civilization. 

A later writer, Iamboulos, conceives of 


bacon's paean to scientific progress 

Clay and Purvis consider other Greek 
Utopian variations. The society of Amazons, 
or female fighters, occurs as early as Homer's 
Iliad. A society in which men are subordinate 
to women or non-existent was an "impossible 
society" analogous to More's Utopia. It was the 
kind of society that Charlotte Perkins Gilman 
would invent for her 1915 work Herland. 
Gilman describes an all-female country estab- 
lished after men's destructiveness has wiped 
out civilization. The story begins two thou- 
sand years after the cataclysm. According to 
an interpretation by Women's Studies refer- 
ence archivist Elizabeth Dunn, the three 
male explorers who discover Herland "are 
treated to an edifying tour of this beautiful, 
unpolluted country where women, dressed in 
comfortable unisex clothing, pursue every 
needed occupation, each according to her 


Islands of the Sun, an archipelago of seven 
perfectly round islands of exactly the same 
size. The inhabitants, "creatures of great 
beauty," enjoy a perfectly temperate climate, 
abundant resources, and communal relation- 
ships rather than marriage. There are other 
unconventional relationships. Infants are put 
on the backs of a particular species of big 
birds; as the birds take flight, "those of the 
babes who can endure this flight through the 
air they raise, but those who become nau- 
seous and terrified they dispose of, reckoning 
that they will not live long and are not worth 
raising because of the weakness of their char- 
acter. " At the end of a life span fixed by law, 
an islander seeks out "a unique species of 
plant. " As a person lies down upon the plant, 
"he imperceptibly falls in a peaceful slumber 
and dies in his sleep. " 

January-February 2000 

Utopian literature always combines a re- 
vulsion toward present reality and a desire for 
a better world; it commonly appears, then, in 
periods of abrupt transition. As the scholar 
Frederic R. White observed in his classic 
Famous Utopias of the Renaissance, the Re- 
naissance was fertile ground for Utopian writ- 
ing because it was, above all, an age of great 
change. It was also a time of social crisis: 
Thomas More, in his Utopia, confronted his 
readers with questions about a regimen of 
severe punishment for criminals, British im- 
perial ambitions, and landowner privileges. "I 
am persuaded that till property is taken 
away," he writes, "there can be no equitable 
or just distribution of things, nor can the 
world be happily governed; for as long as that 
is maintained, the greatest and the far best 
part of mankind will be still oppressed with a 
load of cares and anxieties. " 

The name of Utopia's European discoverer 
is Hythlodaeus, which in Greek means Knower 
of Nonsense. More isn't so much mocking his 
islanders as he's mocking the unsympathetic 
attitudes that he ascribes to his British readers, 
Clay says. He compares More's literary inten- 
tion to Shakespeare's Tempest, when the ship- 
wrecked Gonzalo imagines himself as king of 
the seemingly deserted island on which they 
find themselves. King Alonso's reaction to 








Gonzalo — "Prithee, no more: Thou dost talk 
nothing to me" — is the reaction More expected 
to his Utopia. In anticipating a hostile reac- 
tion to Hythlodaeus' account of Utopian so- 
ciety, More is attacking the insularity of Eng- 
lish society. England doesn't come out well in 
this war of ideas between islands. As best as 
Utopia can be mapped, it seems it would be 
on the same latitude as England. Communal 
in spirit and dismissive of any privileged class, 
if also regimented and seemingly devoid of 
creative expression, Utopia is the counterim- 
age of England. "As Hythlodaeus says explic- 

itly," Clay points out,"the discovery of a new 
world is greeted with contempt by the old. " 

Though separated by about a century, More 
and another Utopian writer of the period, 
Francis Bacon, led somewhat parallel lives. 
Both came from distinguished families. Both 
studied and practiced law. Both entered public 
life at a comparatively early age and became 
Lord Chancellor. Both ran into problems with 
their sovereign and were condemned and 
imprisoned in the Tower of London. More, 
who refused to sanction Henry VIII's mar- 
riage outside the Catholic faith, died as a 
religious devotee. Bacon, so the story goes, 
met his death through devotion to experi- 
mental science: While testing the preserva- 
tive powers of snow, he contracted a chill 
and died. 

For Bacon, Plato's tale of the destruction of 
the island empire of Atlantis was to be taken 
seriously as natural history. His New Atlantis 
was published the year after his death in 1627. 
Clay and Purvis call this a "utopia of discov- 
ery. " Bacon moved the project of Plato's At- 
lantis 180 degrees around the globe, all the 
way to the South Sea (or Pacific) and the 
island of Ben Salem. The remote island civi- 
lization discovered there by English sailors 
bases its activities in Solomon's House, a sort 
of scientific study center "dedicated to the 


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study of the Works and Creatures of God. " 

Duke history professor Seymour Mauskopf, 
a historian of science, says New Atlantis was 
"apparently something of a model for the or- 
ganization of the Royal Society of London. " 
Bacon may have written the work as a "white 
paper," he says, to get King James I to invest 
funds for the kind of research projects Bacon 
envisioned. "New Atlantis is taken as an early 
model of scientific research, although one 
has to very careful not to be too 'presentist' 
about this — that is, to make Bacon out to 
know what kind of scientific research was 
going to develop over the next three or four 
centuries. " 

On Bacon's Ben Salem, the scientific guild 
plunges into deep caves to produce "new 
artificial metals" and for "curing of some dis- 
eases"; builds high towers for "the view of 
divers meteors" and special glasses "to see small 
and minute bodies perfectly and distinctly"; 
sets up devices for wind- and waterpower; 
cross-breeds plants and animals; crafts musi- 
cal instruments that produce sweet sounds; 
produces deadly gunpowder; has "some de- 
grees of flying in the air" along with "ships 
and boats for going under water"; and even 
boasts an early version of a Disney theme 
park, "houses of deceits of the senses" that 
represent "all manner of feats of juggling, false 
apparitions, impostures, and illusions. " The 
chief scientist, as it were, tells his visitors that 
"The End of our Foundation is the knowledge 
of Causes, and secret motions of things; and 
the enlarging of the bounds of Human Em- 
pire, to the effecting of all things possible. " 

New Atlantis is an optimist's view of Utopia; 
it looks to a prospective age of enlighten- 
ment. Linking as it did scientific progress and 
human progress, it gave rise to works like the 
behaviorist fantasy of B.F. Skinner's Walden 
Two. Perkins Library's fall exhibit on "New 
Worlds Imagined" celebrated the science - 
driven Utopian dreams captured in world's 
fairs. The New York World's Fair of 1939 — 
on the eve of a wrenching breakdown of the 
international order — showcased a promising 
"world of tomorrow. " That tomorrow would 
be a comfort zone of television, radio, plastics, 
highways, nuclear energy, videophones, ro- 
bots, and dishwashers. 

Such fantasy futures have shaped the vision 
of thinkers like the Dutch architect Constant 
Nieuwenhuys (who streamlined his name to 
Constant). Constant's models of the 1960s for 
a futurist city, New Babylon — which seem to 
cast a critical gaze back to the bland building 
types of commercial culture — are being shown 
in New York this winter. New Babylon would 
be a place given over to the pleasure princi- 
ple. But Constant realized that the pleasure- 
principle city could be as constricting as Ba- 
con's rationalist city. So, as a New York Times 
assessment of the current show puts it, "in a 

final series of drawings, he sketches an apoca- 
lypse in black and red: madness, slavery, 
dehumanization, the dystopian consequences 
of unquenchable desire. " 

One lesson of Utopian literature is that 
these perfect places — often meant to reflect 
on the imperfections of other human crea- 
tions — aren't necessarily livable places. Even 
as Disney World devotes itselt to the pleasure 
principle, Duke's Susan Willis refers to its 
"absolute domination of program over spon- 
taneity. " Every ride in this Utopian theme 
park "runs to computerized schedules," she 
writes. "There is no possibility of an awful 
thrill, like being stuck at the top of a Ferris 

wheel. " Even queues for the rides "zigzag 
dutifully on a prescribed path. " 

Can a place free of striving and setback be 
a place of pure contentment? Diskin Clay says 
there isn't much of a role for the arts in the 
well-ordered society; they're simply not needed. 
Paradoxically, Utopias are expressions of polit- 
ical philosophy, but they can't accommodate 
political philosophy, because "society has to 
be disordered for philosophy to be necessary. " 
And they don't place much of a premium on 
individual accomplishment. Observing that 
even their founding members don't command 
much adulation, he says that in these imag- 
ined Utopias, "Perfection is anonymous. " ■ 

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January-February 2000 

"In 1985, 1 am the youngest 
member of the foreign press 
corps but have more 
experience in China 
than any other 
American journalist. 
I make the most of 
this advantage, 
obsessively docu- 
menting what is arguably the most 
dramatic transformation of a 
society in human history. " 

'jr$y m 





GanbeiV ("Bottoms up!") Crystal shot 
glasses clink, and I toss back the 
clear, 90-proof Chinese firewater 
spiked with snake venom. I am sitting at a 
banquet table in a private room at Beijing's 
exclusive Capital Club. The cast of characters 
surrounding me could come straight out of 
a 1930s Chinese gangster movie, except this 
is real-life, dawn-of-the-twenty-first-century 

In the seat of honor is a local kingpin I af- 
fectionately refer to as the Cadillac Man, for 
the collection of vintage Sedan de Villes in 
which he tools around Beijing. To his left is a 
Minister of Propaganda, a rotund, soft-hand- 
ed man with thick glasses and his zipper half 
undone. To my right, in a black leather jack- 
et, barking orders into a cell phone and dic- 

tating notes to his lithe young "assistant," is 
the acting editor of the Communist Party's 
official newspaper, the People's Daily. 

The feast arrayed before us is a smorgas- 
bord of endangered species: platters of crispy 
mamba snake, rock lobster sashimi, braised 
Himalayan bear paw, baked Yangtze tortoise, 
and shark's fin soup. A stream of silk cheong- 
sam-clad waitresses constantly replenish cups 
of steaming green tea. We are consecrating an 
exclusive Internet and print publishing agree- 
ment between my offshore shell publishing 
company and a consortium of these "Red 
Princes" — the influence peddlers of China's 
new ruling class. All those around the table 
expect the deal to add significantly to their 
already well-padded overseas bank accounts. 
I have the additional incentive of being a 
writer living a story that the most imaginative 


^ i ■«■■:■ i 4$M apple 


chair |£ 


novelist would be hard-pressed to invent. 

Welcome to the world of easy money, con- 
venient alliances, and shady deals that is to- 
day's "Communist" China. There is nothing 
that money can't buy, and the underground 
economy is so well-entrenched that it is rou- 
tinely calculated as part of the official GNR 
Indeed, if not for all the graft, money launder- 
ing, and under-the-table wheel-greasing deals, 
the world's fastest-growing economy (project- 
ed to surpass the United States in size in the 
first half of this new century) would grind to a 
halt. When the Communists came to power 
fifty years ago, they were going to eradicate 
corruption, prostitution, drug addiction, ab- 
ject poverty, and dramatic income disparity — 
problems that are omnipresent today and 
seem certain to result in the system's collaps- 
ing on its own rotten core. But I have been 

saying that continuously for my fifteen years 
as a foreign correspondent here. 


Like many "China Hands," my first encounter 
with the Middle Kingdom is completely fortu- 
itous — but, of course, traditional Chinese 
philosophy sees fate as nothing more than the 
confluence of character and circumstance. 
That outlook on fate accurately sums up how 
my first love, mountaineering, leads to my 
life's work, China. 

After leading Duke's Outward Bound-affil- 
iated backpacking/rock-climbing freshman 
orientation in the mountains of North Caro- 
lina, I return to campus to choose courses for 
my sophomore year. A bulletin-board flier 
catches my attention: "Study Abroad in Chi- 
na. " I visit history professor Arif Dirlik, who 

gives a persuasive pitch for the new Duke 
Study in China program he is leading to the 
People's Republic the following year. Duke is 
the first American university to establish a 
student exchange with China following the 
normalization of relations between Wash- 
ington and Beijing after more than three 
decades of Cold War hostility. The program 
requires a full year of intensive Mandarin 
study, every morning at eight o'clock. Fresh 
from grappling with the intimidating crags of 
the Appalachian mountains, I feel equal to 
the challenge. 

Besides rigorous Mandarin training, pro- 
gram participants are required to complete 
Dirlik's year-long "History of the Chinese 
Revolution" course. Enhancing the appeal of 
this fresh field of study are daily headline 
news of China's dramatic reforms and the 

January-February 2000 

note-for-note accuracy and singing in a high 
clear soprano: 

Blackbird singing in the dead of night 
Take these broken wings and learn to fly 
All your life 

You were only waiting for this moment 
to arrive... 

When the final sweet note fades, I applaud 
with amazed appreciation and ask his name. 

knowledge that I'll be experiencing these 
changes firsthand in eight short months. I 
approach the workload with enthusiasm, and 
contemplate a possible career course in aca- 
demic study of China or another, as-yet-un- 
discovered, field. 


My first night in China. After dinner, in the 
fading light and lifting breeze of a spring 
evening, I stroll across the Beijing University 


campus with my guitar slung over my shoul- 
der. Shadows lengthen in the twilight, and 
the setting sun casts an orange glow. Grand- 
parents laugh and play with toddlers. Young 
couples stroll side by side, hands occasionally 
brushing (holding hands is deemed an im- 
modest public display of affection). Students 
kick soccer balls and head in groups toward 
showers (there's only one hour of hot water a 
day) . I sit down on a patch of grass under a 
large sycamore tree and begin plucking a slow 
blues tune on my guitar. 

A young Chinese guy strolling down the 
dirt path comes over. He listens intently for 
a minute before asking in hesitant English, 
"Where are you from?" 

"Meiguo," I answer in carefully enunciated 
Mandarin, meaning "beautiful country," or 

He informs me that I am the first American 
he has ever met. I ask if he plays the guitar 
and he says no. So I continue strumming. Af- 
ter a few more minutes, I set the guitar aside 
to wipe sweat from my forehead. He asks if he 
can check out the guitar. I nod and, before I 
know it, he is picking out a Beatles song with 

"John, after John Lennon," my new Chinese 
friend replies. 

John and I immediately become insepara- 
ble. Every free moment, he shows me around 
his beloved Beijing. I, of course, am a bottom- 
less well of information on everything Western: 
Bob Dylan, the Beatles, how to make pizza. 

John is a typical member of China's "lost 
generation," the pawns in the perpetual polit- 
ical campaigns of Mao's Cultural Revolution 
from 1966 to 1976. His earliest memories are 
of attending "struggle" sessions of his teach- 
ers, rather than school, and witnessing public 
executions at Beijing stadiums. Then the 
campaign cruelly turned on John's family. His 
father was a Beijing University professor, and 
his family was told that he "died while under 
interrogation. " His sister suffered brain dam- 
age in a fall, trying to escape solitary confine- 
ment in a classroom building. 

I spend every day with John, eventually 
moving out of my student dormitory into the 
small apartment he shares with his mother 
and invalid sister. It is the most profound ex- 
perience of my teenage life. Though from 
opposite sides of the globe, with starkly con- 

trasting socioeconomic circumstances (why 
would a family need more than one TV? he 
ingenuously wonders), we bond like brothers. 
I seriously consider staying on in China after 
the program ends. But I promise my family to 
return to Duke, to get my degree, and then 
see if Beijing still exerts its pull. On the day of 
my departure, I present John with the gift of 
my cherished guitar. Wiping tears from his eyes, 
he says with characteristic humor, "I'll take 
good care of it. I know you'll be back for it. " 


Two semesters in China have irrevocably al- 
tered my worldview and life plans. Duke feels 
painfully privileged, isolated from the dire dif- 
ficulties of the one -fifth of humanity I have 
just been living and traveling among. Despite 
the hopes of my father (Herbert S. Savitt '52, 
J.D '57) for a new law partner, I remain com- 
mitted to returning to China after gradua- 
tion. I never seriously reconsider. 


Diploma in hand, I return to China immedi- 
ately. I've secured a coveted foot in the door 
in my chosen field of journalism, an intern- 
ship in the Los Angeles Times' Beijing bureau. 
I am determined to make the most of the 
opportunity; after three diligent months, I am 
promoted to staff reporter. 

The period of the mid- to late 1980s is 
regarded as the golden era of China's reforms. 
Deng Xiaoping's market-oriented policies 
dramatically raise living standards, and peo- 
ple hope China is finally on the path to pros- 
perity. In addition to economic progress, the 
relatively liberal post-Mao political atmo- 


sphere spurs a cultural revival. Avant-garde 
Chinese cinema takes the international film 
world by storm. Beijing gives rise to a gritty 
rock-and-roll underground, with its own anti- 
establishment anthems. Provocative and 
strikingly original modern art attracts the 
attention of cultural connoisseurs worldwide. 
It would be the story of a lifetime for any 
foreign correspondent, not to mention a cub 
reporter fresh out of college on his first assign- 
ment. The irony of China's brand-new open- 

fighting. Despite anodyne assurances by the 
state-run media and their government spokes- 
people about the "unified Party Center," it is 
an open secret that hard-line Maoists and 
reformers are waging a fierce, behind-the- 
scenes battle for power, in which not only 
careers but lives are at stake. 


I have just transferred from the Los Angeles 
Times to a more senior position as assistant 


ing to the West, and Duke's early student 
exchange, is that I am the youngest member 
of the foreign press corps but have more expe- 
rience in China than any other American 
journalist. I make the most of this advantage, 
obsessively documenting what is arguably the 
most dramatic transformation of a society in 
human history. 

The benefit of working for a foreign news 
bureau is that your beat is the whole country. 
I cover pro-Dalai Lama demonstrations in 
Tibet, handover talks in Hong Kong, the re- 
vival of stock trading in Shanghai, and ethnic 
independence efforts in Mongolia. I am one 
of the first foreigners to travel over the "Sky 
Highway" from Sichuan province to the Ti- 
betan capital of Lhasa, where I join an Ameri- 
can mountaineering expedition to Mount 
Everest. In many places I visit in the previ- 
ously off-limits Chinese hinterland, the locals 
have never seen a foreigner before. 

Though Mao has been dead for a decade, 
the fundamental conflict between a Marxist- 
Leninist dictatorship and a market economy's 
need for checks and balances and rule of law 
intensifies Beijing's notorious political in- 

Beijing bureau chief for United Press Inter- 
national. My quiet morning ritual of reading 
news copy from the office telex machine is 
interrupted by an urgent news flash from the 
State press agency that recently purged Com- 
munist Party General Secretary Hu Yaobang 
has died. The popular progressive was hound- 
ed out of power by hard-line rivals and, 
though his death is officially attributed to a 
heart attack, his untimely passing will surely 
become a symbol of martyrdom. 

The telephone rings. The somber voice of a 
student friend (who does not identify himself 
on my bugged office telephone) informs me 
that Beijing University students are marching 
to Tiananmen Square to commemorate the 
reformist leader's death. My China experience 
has sufficiently hardened me — my immediate 
response is "meiyou hao xiachang": "This will 
end in tragedy. " 

The next six weeks of million-protester 
marches, martial law, and the final tragic mas- 
sacre encompass both the most hopeful and 
ultimately heartbreaking series of events I 
ever expect to experience. My intimate know- 
ledge of Beijing proves crucial in covering the 

demonstrations. Racing from end to end of 
the sprawling capital on a motorcycle (a car 
could never get through the huge crowds), I 
call in hourly updates on a mobile phone. 
When the protesters occupy the square full 
time, I camp out with them. Despite govern- 
ment threats of imminent violence, a festive 
mood prevails. The students play guitars, sing, 
and dance. I witness a wedding and a birth. 
The atmosphere provides a brief glimpse of 
what this society might be like with the 
weight of fear and willful ignorance lifted. 

Though the Western media use simple 
soundbites to portray the students as strug- 
gling for "freedom" and "democracy," savvy 
Chinese see a much more convoluted shadow 
play unfolding. Small initial protests are 
quickly co-opted for politicians' personal 
ends. Inertia plays into the hands of hard-lin- 
ers, who use the inevitably increasing crowds 
to justify a crackdown. The students ulti- 
mately become unwitting pawns in a party 
coup. Once the military is mobilized, those 
familiar with the blood-stained background 
of the old men in charge of China know vio- 
lence is inevitable. 

JUNE 4, 1989, 4 A.M. 

I am sitting on the steps of the Monument to 
Revolutionary Martyrs in the center of Tian- 
anmen Square. Surrounding me are several 
dozen students, all that remain of the millions 
who demonstrated here against Communist 
rule during the past six weeks. My clothes and 
hands are soaked with blood from carrying 
assault-rifle victims to hospitals throughout 
the night's violence. I have just bicycled the 
ten-mile length of the Avenue of Eternal 
Peace, watching thousands of soldiers and 
hundreds of battle tanks mow down unarmed 
civilians blocking the army's approach to the 

There is an ominous calm in this hour be- 
fore dawn. The troops and tanks have fanned 
out to surround the ten-acre expanse of Tian- 
anmen and are standing at attention under 
floodlights, awaiting orders to complete their 
mission. The gravity of the situation gives rise 
to gallows humor among my companions. A 
student from Beijing University quips, "I just 
got into medical school; this is a very incon- 
venient time to die!" Nervous laughter is of 
momentary solace, but it quickly fades and a 
pall of terror returns. 

After watching these soldiers fire burst af- 
ter burst of automatic gunfire into crowds at 
short range, I am understandably apprehen- 
sive that they will punctuate the carnage with 
a massacre of the last defiant students. The 
unbidden thought that seizes my attention is: 
"Am I willing to die here and now?" And my 
life in China, during and after my time at 
Duke, passes before my eyes. 

January-February 2000 


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JUNE 4, 1989, 5 A.M. 

A student leader negotiates a compromise with 
the military commander, and the students and 
remaining few journalists are permitted to 
leave out the back of the square. Many are si- 
lent, or crying quietly, knowing what a tragedy 
this outcome represents for their country and 
that the Communist Party is certain to "qiu 
hou suan zhang," or "settle accounts after the 
harvest. " Their college careers, their youth, in- 
deed their lives as they know them, are over. 
As we walk out of the square, battle tanks 
begin rumbling in and a rapid cacophony of 
machine guns begins firing at the speaker sys- 
tem the students have rigged to the monu- 
ment. Ironically, the music they silence is the 
proletariat anthem The Internationale ("you 
have nothing to lose but your chains... ") . 

SUMMER 1989 

I spend the next days and months shell- 
shocked and working non-stop. It is more hu- 
man-rights reporting than journalism, docu- 
menting a numbing continuum of executions, 
arrests, and exile. I do as much work for Am- 
nesty International and Human Rights Watch 
as I do for my UPI bureau in Washington. A 
twisted fact of the media frenzy is that jour- 
nalists benefit from this atrocity. Many of my 
press-corps colleagues go on leave to write in- 
stant books. My byline appears on headlines 
across the world, I am featured regularly on 
National Public Radio, and the highlight of my 
fifteen minutes of fame is an appearance with 
Ted Koppel on ABC's Nightline. 

A couple of months after the massacre, I 
find myself unable to sleep. I lie awake all 
night staring at the ceiling, the nightmare 
images repeating themselves like a loop feed- 
back horror show. Tanks, fire, guns, blood. 
Only dawn makes the nightmare recede. 

AUTUMN 1990 

After more than a year documenting the 
machinery of state power, which is grinding 
all who dare oppose it in its bloodthirsty 
gears, I start to break down. I know I need 
some distance to preserve my physical and 
mental health, and I accept a job with Fortune 
magazine covering business and finance in 
Hong Kong. The weather is warm, the pay is 
good, and, for at least a while, the nightmar- 
ish images fade. 


Reporting on initial public offerings and insider 
trading engages my interest for a while, but 
ultimately the story in Hong Kong is reduced 
to the transfer of money from one pocket to 
another. How can that compare to the drama 
of more than one billion souls wrestling with 
and redefining their national identity? 

Meanwhile, China is slowly but surely 

recovering from the Tiananmen trauma. Im- 
mediately following the massacre, foreign in- 
vestment plummets, and critics make dire 
predictions of the death of China's reforms. 
But sustained economic prosperity in the 
West fuels record flows of foreign investment 
into China again. 

I return to Beijing as the bureau chief for 
Asiaweek magazine and find that time away 
has given me valuable perspective. The first 
obvious fact is that the Western media are 
much more preoccupied with Tiananmen 
than the Chinese themselves. No one has for- 
gotten the tragedy, and most are convinced it 
will ultimately be vindicated as an important 
patriotic movement. But people are pragmat- 
ic, focused on building better lives for them- 
selves and their children. 

The Communist Party, its reputation in tat- 
ters following Tiananmen, now derives its sole 
legitimacy from its economic performance. 
That necessitates reducing the inefficient 
state ownership of industry, and increasing 
economic autonomy for individuals. The tacit 










agreement between the Party and the People 
is that, except for direct challenges to Com- 
munist rule, individuals will be free to pursue 
life, liberty, and the almighty dollar. It is a 
pragmatic policy, but one with huge hidden 
costs. China's stressed environment is deteri- 
orating as short-term economic growth is 
emphasized over sustainable development. 
Official corruption is at an all-time high as 
rapidly expanding investment and aid in- 
crease the opportunities for graft. Crime rates 
soar and the social order disintegrates as 
increasingly large populations migrate in pur- 
suit of economic opportunity. The age-old 
scourges of prostitution, drug addiction, and 
social diseases naturally follow. 

All of this plays out with an alarming ab- 
sence of public debate, since the state main- 
tains its iron grip on the media. Television, 
newspapers, magazines, and radio continue to 
spout a mind-numbingly uniform Party line. 
Yet, in this information vacuum, I see an op- 
portunity to promote change. 

China has challenged my hallowed journal- 
istic "objectivity" before. During Tiananmen, 


large number of 

buildings . 

I laid aside my notepad and camera to help 
carry gunshot victims to hospitals. Now, re- 
ducing this story to cliches like "human rights" 
and "democracy" for a Western readership ac- 
customed to a spoon-fed view of reality seems 
a dishonest distortion. And the most sophis- 
ticated, concerned, potential audience for news 
on China — local readers — remains neglected. 
My simple but incendiary idea is to establish 
an independent newspaper in Beijing. 


The very audacity of my idea is perhaps its 
greatest hope for success. Any Chinese attempt- 
ing this would be arrested immediately. But the 
Communist Party is unlikely to want an Ameri- 
can prisoner of conscience; I figure the worst 
that can happen is my getting deported. 

I produce the first issue of Beijing Scene on a 
Macintosh computer in my living room. It is a 
twelve-page, black-and-white, tabloid-sized 
newspaper with a feature article on the Peking 
Opera, translations from the Chinese press, a 
restaurant review, a question-and-answer col- 
umn written in the voice of a busybody Chi- 
nese auntie (taking on matters of the heart, 
hearth, and home in vastly foreign China), a 
column on humorous aspects of foreigners 
trying to master Mandarin, a cultural- events 
calendar, and classified advertisements. I en- 
counter no difficulty getting it printed at 
a local press, and friends and I distribute 
10,000 copies to hotels, bars, and restaurants 
around Beijing. 

The critical response is overwhelmingly 
positive. The authorities don't seem to deem it 
a threat. What becomes apparent is that, in 
this artificial void, the paper will not only pub- 
licize cultural and community activities but 
also help create and promote them. Suddenly 

there is a proliferation of new art exhibitions, 
film screenings, dance performances, experi- 
mental plays, classical music recitals, and rock- 
and-roll concerts, all publicized in the Scene. 
Advertisers quickly respond, and the paper 
pays for itself after only a few issues. I don't 
agonize long over the decision to quit my jour- 
nalism job to produce the paper full-time. 

Perhaps one protection for Beijing Scene is a 
perception that its English-language content 
is read exclusively by foreigners. But reader 
response — eventually confirmed by an inde- 
pendent reader survey — indicates that more 
than half of its audience is local Chinese. This 
stands to reason: While there are more than 
100,000 foreign residents of Beijing, the Eng- 
lish-reading Chinese population is many 
times larger. English is the language of career 
advancement, and young people eagerly con- 
sume anything written in native English. 
Now, every week, they have a free publication 
featuring stories on local culture not covered 
in the official press — as well as job listings, a 
calendar, and advertisements for new bars, 
restaurants, and dance clubs. 

Eventually the authorities do come knock- 
ing. In lieu of a publishing license, or any pro- 
cedure for obtaining one (all media remain 
exclusively state-owned, so individuals need 
not apply), I am at their mercy, and I pay 
"protection" fees on a regular basis. We are 
prevented from distributing in some govern- 
ment-run guesthouses, and, on several occa- 
sions, bureaucrats come and help themselves 
to computer equipment (one time even having 
the nerve to try to resell them through our 
classified pages). But all of these exchanges are 
non-threatening, even surrealistic. The indi- 
viduals carrying them out unanimously ex- 
press support for the idea of a "free press" and 

just claim to be following orders. I treat the 
losses as an irritating surtax and vow to carry 
on this interesting experiment in civil disobe- 


Back at the Capital Club, I look around at the 
Cadillac Man, Minister of Propaganda, and 
People's Daily editor and toast the future of 
our cooperation. China's recent accession to 
the World Trade Organization finally renders 
Beijing Scene legal. It is now licensed as a joint- 
venture Internet content provider, with the 
print publication a free promotion for the 
website. Beijing Scene has just marked its fifth 
year of publishing. It is now a full-color, bilin- 
gual (English-Chinese), twenty-four-page week- 
ly with a readership of more than 100,000 and 
a website ( averaging 
half a million page views per month. Adver- 
tising revenue is healthy, and investors are 
expressing interest in funding expansion. 

Had I known the emotional rollercoaster I 
would be riding, I'm not sure I would have 
embarked on this particular publishing path. 
But its mere survival qualifies Beijing Scene as 
a successful startup business, and the fact that 
Beijing boasts more cultural diversity than at 
any time since Tiananmen testifies to its so- 
cial impact. 

As I raise my glass and toss back another 
shot of snake venom, I can't keep an ironic 
smile from crossing my lips. Marx said capi- 
talism would produce the rope to hang itself. 
Perhaps "socialism with Chinese characteris- 
tics" will do the same to the Communist 
Party. ■ 

Savitt '85 ( is the editor and 
publisher of Beijing Scene. 

January-February 2000 







A new building that bridges traditions and history encourages 
Jewish students to become more visible and to enrich the campus culture. 

It is a crisp December evening, a 
Tuesday, and the parking lot at the 
Freeman Center for Jewish Life is 
full. On the information desk just 
inside the door, six candles burn in 
a small menorah. The clink of 
forks on plates can be heard from 
the kosher dining room, and sev- 
eral students are sunk deep into chairs and 
couches in the lounge, studying. As pews fill 
in the sanctuary, a small, neat woman sits 
alone in the front row — Holocaust survivor 
Faye Schulman, waiting patiently to begin her 
scheduled talk on escaping a Nazi massacre 
to join a partisan brigade in Russia. 

Schulman's talk is based on her book, A 
Partisan's Memoir: Woman of the Holocaust 
(Second Story Press, 1995) . Using old family 
photographs and photographs she took her- 
self, she tells of life in Lenin, the small town 
on the border of Poland and Russia where she 
grew up. Then she tells of the Nazi occupa- 
tion of that town, and its subsequent removal 
from the face of the Earth: Lenin's Jews were 
shot in three trenches, and its Christians were 
herded into barracks and burned alive. Schul- 
man lived only because, as a photographer, 
she was selected by a Nazi officer to work for 
the Germans, and she was able to escape to a 


partisan brigade in the Belorussian forests. 
For nearly four years, she lived with this bri- 
gade, fighting the Germans, hiding her Jewish 
identity, and photographing at every opportu- 
nity. It is a moving and powerful story. 

Another story is being told this evening — 
by the audience, the event, and the evening 
itself. They illustrate the success of the young 
Freeman Center in reaching out to a diverse 
community, Jews and non-Jews, Duke and 
non-Duke, to provide education, religion, and 
comfort. In doing so, the center itself helps to 
tell the story of Jewish life at Duke today. 

When the 17,000-square-foot Freeman Cen- 
ter for Jewish Life officially opened its doors 

in August, director Roger Kaplan welcomed a 
large group of students and community mem- 
bers gathered for the facility's first Shabbat 
services. But the FCJL had its genesis in 1986, 
when founding donor Gilbert D. Scharf 70 
went to then-president Keith Brodie with a 
proposal. "He had a vision for Jewish life at 
Duke — simply to enhance Jewish life at Duke 
and to do so by having a facility that would be 
worthy of the ever-growing Jewish presence 
on the campus," says Judith Ruderman, uni- 
versity vice provost and a member of the 
FCJL board of directors involved with the 
project from its inception. 

Scharf's vision took time to realize. A site 
was chosen, architectural plans drawn up, 
and fund raising begun. But then, Ruderman 
says, difficulties arose on several levels. The 
land was difficult to build on, eventually ne- 
cessitating a change of site and a change of 
architects. Initial fund-raising efforts didn't 
meet expectations. And most problematically, 
philosophical differences arose among those 
involved in the project. 

The first was what Ruderman calls "the 
great miqvah debate" — impassioned feelings 
on all sides about including a ritual bath in 
the building design, a feature that would be 
used primarily by more traditional Jews for 


cleansing rites, including immersion after men- 
struation. "I was interested in the idea of having 
a miqvah because the notion was to be more 
inclusive rather than less," Ruderman says. "It's 
an ancient, ancient ritual to go to the miq- 
vah — it's the predecessor of baptism. But for 
some modern feminists, or less observant Jews, 
it often has the offensive connotation that 
women are dirty. " In the book Living Judaism 
(Harper SanFrancisco, 1995), Rabbi Wayne 
Dosick notes that the interpretation of the 
miqvah is not that the bather is unclean, but 
that he or she is undergoing a symbolic re- 
birth after some kind of loss. Yet the idea was 
fraught with enough symbolism and emotion 
that it might have imperiled the project. "It 
was an interesting time," Ruderman says. 
Eventually the debate subsided and the miq- 
vah was included. "Even those who were 
against it have made their peace with it. " 

A second, equally contentious discussion 
ensued over whether the new center would 
be affiliated with Hillel, the traditional Jewish 
campus organization. For most of the building 
process, the board of Duke Hillel, a chapter of 
International Hillel, existed alongside the 
center board. "We had these two parallel or- 
ganizations, which was confusing and in some 
ways counterproductive," Ruderman says. 

But by now Nannerl O. Keohane was Duke's 
president, and Ruderman gives her credit for 
helping to broker a compromise. "She basically 
said, you have to have both. You have to have 
an independent center that is also connected 
to Hillel. Somehow, you work it out. This 
took two years to work out, but eventually, 
the Hillel camp and the CJL camp wanted it 
to work so badly that they just persisted, and 
kept working, and kept hammering out com- 
promises. " In the end, the Freeman Center 
for Jewish Life is not itself a Hillel center, but 
is officially "an affiliate of Hillel. " 

As each problem moved toward resolution, 
fund raising picked up, with several major do- 
nors and hundreds of others joining in. By the 
end of 1997, the center was under construc- 
tion and a search for the director was under 
way. That search yielded Roger Kaplan, a pro- 
fessor of Hebrew who had taught at Duke 
from 1989 to 1992 and who had extensive 
experience in Israel. 

"As one of my colleagues said to me, 'Not 
too bad — you go abroad and they build you a 
building and you come back to it,' " Kaplan 
says. "And in some ways, this is old news al- 
ready. The building's open. What I want to 
start focusing on is what we're doing with the 
building. " 


Kaplan is articulate and energetic, clearly 
focused on his mission. "The biggest thing I 
always go back to is that it's a center. . .for. . . 
Jewish. . .life," he says, pausing between words 
for emphasis. "The name was not taken to be 
a center for Orthodox Judaism, it wasn't sup- 
posed to be a Jewish student center, or any- 
thing like that. It's supposed to represent 
Jewish life. And Jewish life is very positive. It's 
living. It encompasses everything. " 

"Everything" means religious life and secu- 
lar life, social events and cultural events, Duke 
and Durham. Program coordinator Helena 
Lawrence, who compiles the event calendar, 
reels off only a partial list of FCJL offerings: 
"We have religious, which would be Shabbat, 
the high holidays. We'll have social, which is 
the Matzoh Ball or a Greek mixer. We'll have 
cultural, which could be a Shabbat program 
where they learn how to make challah, make 
candles, or a Havdalah program to end Shab- 
bat, making spice boxes and candles. There's 
educational, which could be Holocaust speak- 
ers, classes in Bible study, Talmud study, Jewish 
ethics. " 

January -February 2000 15 

"Our philosophy here is very certainly that 
we don't want to tell Jews or students how to be 
Jewish, what is the correct way to be Jewish, 
but rather to give them the tools and resources 
to express their Judaism," Kaplan says, adding, 
"I say that always with the footnote that as 
long as it's nothing that is too radical, too fas- 
cist, or harmful to other people. " Whether 
this means helping an Orthodox or other ob- 
servant student negotiate the tricky balance 
between religious and academic obligations, 
providing kosher food in the cafeteria, or sim- 
ply hosting events for groups from the breadth 


n its 1999 student guide to Jewish life on 
college campuses, the International Hil- 
lel Foundation describes Jewish life at 
Duke as "undergoing a renaissance" with 
the building of the Freeman Center. But as 
Judaic Studies professor and Freeman Cen- 
ter for Jewish Life board member Eric Meyers 
points out, "Before there was a center, there 
was an active Jewish life here. Jewish life 
transcends the center. " 

James B. Duke was instrumental in estab- 
lishing a solid Jewish presence in Durham 
in the late nineteenth century, bringing a 
large group down from New York to work in 
his tobacco concern. From that time on, the 
Jewish community has been a part of the 
Durham community, including Trinity Col- 
lege. University archives show that Louis 
Jaffe '11 was among the first Jewish students 
at Trinity. Jaffe was editor of The Chronicle 
and went on to a distinguished career in 
journalism, culminating in a 1929 Pulitzer 
Prize for anti-lynching editorials in the Nor- 
folk Virginian-Pibt. Biographical research has 
shown that Jaffe was Jewish, but until 1944 
his Who's Who entries give his religion as 
Episcopalian, and subsequent editions list 
no religion at all. 

The first Jewish faculty appointments 
came in the 1920s in the medical school, as 
Duke sought to establish itself by raiding 
Johns Hopkins' faculty. Another influx came 
in the 1930s, when Duke provided sanctu- 
ary to a distinguished group of emigres from 
Germany. As noted in the book If Gargoyles 
Could Talk, by University Archivist William 
E. King '61, A.M. '63, Ph.D. '70, those pro- 
fessors included William Stern, the psychol- 
ogist who developed the IQ test, and Walter 
Kempner, whose research into controlling 
disease through diet led to the Rice Diet. To 
this list, historian Len Rogoff adds the name 
of Raphael Lemkin, a law professor from the 
University of Warsaw wounded in the Polish 
resistance, who coined the word "genocide" 

of the political spectrum, Kaplan and his staff 
are committed to outreach and education. 

The Freeman Center also gives Duke's Jewish 
students the opportunity to change their cul- 
ture, to become more visible and to partici- 
pate more. Before the center opened, Kaplan 
says, "students didn't have a lot of resources 











and went on after World War II to write the 
United Nations' genocide convention. 

The numbers of Jewish students were low 
and remained so for decades. When Bernice 
Levenson Lemer '53 entered the Woman's Col- 
lege, she was one of only seven Jewish women 
in her class. "There were two Jewish girls 
from North Carolina," she recalls, "and I was 
one. We had one Jewish sorority, AEPhi, and 
that was the only sorority that would take 
Jewish girls. There were only ten or maybe 
twelve of us at the most. I didn't really care 
about sororities, but I felt compelled to join. It 
was a responsibility to join. " 

Lerner, who grew up in Salisbury, North 
Carolina, was used to the demands of being in 
a very small minority, and the conditions of 
Jewish life at Duke did not seem to faze her. 
"We had Hillel, from Chapel Hill, so we had 
the services of a rabbi once every month," she 
says. "There was a girl from New York, and 
she was amazing, because she knew Hebrew. " 
So she would conduct services the rest of the 
time — services held "in the basement of the 
Divinity School, and we turned the cross 
sideways. " 

University archivists released a statement 
saying they "have found no evidence of an 
admissions quota system here based on reli- 
gion or ethnicity. In keeping with James B. 
Duke's expressed desire to build a university 
in and for the South, however, preference 
seems to have been given to students from 
the South in general, and North and South 
Carolina in particular. The number of Jewish 
students admitted here probably reflects the 

available to them. They didn't have a lot of 
space. They didn't have a place that they could 
call home, that they could hang out in. " 

Until this year, Hillel had an office in the 
Chapel basement and a small mill house on 
Alexander Drive. Senior Victoria Wigodzky 
was on the Hillel board and held a work-study 
job at the Hillel office. "It was just kind of 
weird. It didn't seem like a Jewish place," she 
says. "We'd get prospective students that would 
come with their parents, and they would be 
sent down there, and they'd be like, 'What is 
this?' " And, she says, the physical circum- 

South's small Jewish population as a whole. " 

It is not an explanation that satisfies every- 
one ("written shmitten" is one reaction to the 
denial of a quota) , but whatever the reason 
for the low percentage of Jewish students, 
most people agree that Terry Sanford's presi- 
dency was a time of great change and growth 
in Duke's Jewish community. "I loved Terry 
Sanford. He opened up the world of North 
Carolina to fresh air," says Lemer. Judith Ru- 
derman, university vice provost and FCJL 
board member, adds, "When Terry Sanford 
was president, I think we first started to feel a 
more open-armed embrace of diverse people. 
Sanford is the one who began to make Duke 
more inclusive. " 

"Terry was the major innovator in that 
regard," says Eric Meyers. Meyers says univer- 
sity benefactors Mary D.B.T Semans '39 and 
Jim Semans "were always here, they have al- 
ways been visible, and they were no less influ- 
ential and welcoming. " 

Steve Schewel '73 was at Duke during the 
first years of Sanford's presidency. "What I re- 
member, basically, is there were just a few of us. 
When I went to Duke, it was not a great na- 
tional university. It was a great regional uni- j 
versity. And a lot of Jewish kids from the North ' 
didn't want to come South. There was still the ] 
throes of some of the important years of the > 
civil-rights movement, Easy Rider had come ^ 
out — so there was a lot of fear. I think maybe 
if you were a liberal Jewish family in the North, j 
you didn't want your kid to come South. " 

Not only that, but he says the atmosphere 1 
at Duke was "still very much a few Jews in a J 
Christian environment. " The light-hearted 1 
example was the common nickname for Wal- j 
lace Wade Stadium — "Methodist Flats. " But ' 
there were stronger issues as well. "For a Jew j 
to go to a school that's built in the shape of a J 
cross — for those of us in the South, we were! 
used to it, it was easy for us to negotiate that 1 
territory. But it took a lot of change for people | 
that came from the North. " 

The hiring of Eric Meyers in 1969 "was a 1 
big moment," Schewel says. "To have a distin-I 
guished Jewish professor who was teaching, to M 
have someone teaching the Bible from a Jewish f 
perspective, that was important. " 


stances made programming more difficult in 
terms of both logistics and participation. "It 
was just extra work, because you have to look 
for a place to have it, and get permission. 
And getting people involved when they don't 
really see anything — it was hard. " 

While some students have fond memories 
of the closeness that their 
tiny facilities engendered, 
most were looking forward 
to using the FCJL as a 
place to gather for all 
kinds of activities. Sarah 

"The department was all 
Christian," Meyers says, 
"and dominated by the old 
rubrics of the Divinity 
School — very old- fash- 
ioned, really, as a depart- 
ment of religion. We were 
just at the cusp. Things 
were changing, and I 
wouldn't have come if I 
didn't think things were 
changing. " Meyers, who 
established the Duke in 
Israel program in 1970 
and worked with colleague Kalman Bland to 
found a program in Judaic Studies in 1974, 
has gone on to make significant archaeologi- 
cal discoveries in Israel with his wife, Duke 
religion professor Carol Meyers. 

The university archives statement about 
the lack of evidence of a quota goes on to say 
that as Duke began to draw from a larger na- 
tional applicant pool, the numbers of Jewish 
students increased. Three of those students in 
the late 1970s and early 1980s were the chil- 
dren of Bernice and Mort Lemer: Richard I. 
Lerner '79; Mark H. Lerner '82, M.D. '87; and 
Dena R Lerner '85. Their experience, Bernice 
Lerner says, was vastly different from hers, 
both growing up in Salisbury and while atten- 
ding Duke. "They had B'nai B'rith youth 
groups. We had Sunday school every week. 
We had services every week in our little tem- 
ple. By that time, they could join any fraterni- 
ty. " The irony was that, while Lerner had felt 
a responsibility to support the few Jews at 
Duke from 1949 to 1953 by joining her sorori- 
ty, her children were part of a much stronger 
Jewish community and didn't feel the need to 
be "as involved in Jewish life as much as I 
was. " 

Daniel Cohen '86, now a rabbi at a New 
Jersey synagogue, says he wasn't concerned 
with being involved either. "When I was 
looking at college, Jewish life at college was 
not a selling point. I was not looking for a 
Jewish experience at all. " But he had been to 
Israel several times before coming to Duke, 
and when the Duke-Israel Political Education 
Committee was being founded, "I very quick- 

Bell, a junior who was recently elected presi- 
dent of the FCJL student board, has been ac- 
tive with Hillel during her Duke career. She 
says, "It's symbolic. We're no longer in the last 
room in the back of the Chapel basement. Now 
we're in our own building, finally somewhere 
where everyone can come and be together. " 

ly found myself getting involved," he says. 
Until then, "it really felt like Jewish life at 
Duke was an afterthought. But I discovered 
as I got involved that there was a rich Jewish 
life here. If you expressed interest, it was easy 
to get very involved very quickly. " 

This involvement led Cohen to intensive 
study with Eric and Carol Meyers, a year-and- 
a-half in Israel, and the eventual realization 
that he wanted to become a rabbi. At the same 
time, he was a Kappa Alpha, and while the two 
worlds never conflicted, he says, they clearly 
were not the same. "I found myself leading a 
split life almost. I was spending a lot of time 
with my fraternity brothers and a lot of time in 
Jewish studies, but they were separate for me. " 

Cohen has a place in the history of Jewish 
life at Duke as the student who helped bring 
about an alternative class ring. "A couple of 
us started getting uncomfortable with the fact 
of all the Christian symbolism. It makes sense, 
of course, with Duke's Methodist background, 
to have the cross in the crest. But when I buy 
a T-shirt, I don't have to buy a T-shirt with 
that crest. I can buy one that just says 'Duke.' 
So it was reasonable to ask that there be an 
option that doesn't change the history of the 
school, the symbolism of the school, but would 
give an option for a student like me who is a 
proud Jew and also proud to be at Duke. " 

The episode led to the only recollection 
Cohen has of overt anti-Semitism in his 
college days, a letter "that basically said if 
'Cohen doesn't like the Christian symbolism 
of the school, he should get the hell out of 
here.' Luckily, sane heads prevailed and indi- 

"My freshman year, at Passover, I volunteered 
to go and help. There were three of us trying 
to get this meal together — we had one oven, 
a couple of pots," recalls Michelle Pinsky, a 
senior. "The past three years, we had high 
holiday services at Gross Chem. At Yom Kip- 
pur, we had services in a room where I'd had a 
calculus class. Having an actual 
sanctuary is just wonderful. In 
Gross Chem, you would look at 
the Periodic Table. But in the san- 
ctuary, you look at the Ark and 
the Torah. " 

vidual idiocy didn't and people 
understood what the goal was. 
And the goal was to create 
options so that everybody 
could be proud. " Cohen 
wears the ring today. 

After Sanford's presidency, 
says Judith Ruderman, Keith 
Brodie continued to open doors. 
"He made Duke even more in- 
clusive. It was in Keith Brodie's 
.era when you could really see 
Ithe complexion of the student 
body changing, literally and 
figuratively. " 

It was also in Brodie's era that Gilbert D. 
Scharf '70 had the idea for a Center for 
Jewish life — an idea that evolved during 
the tenure of Nannerl O. Keohane. "She's 
been very much in the vanguard of multi- 
culturalism and welcoming greater num- 
bers of Jews here," says Eric Meyers. 

Ruderman agrees, even anticipating the 
potential tone of Keohane's remarks at the 
October dedication of the Freeman Center. 
"I'm sure what she will say is that the Cen- 
ter for Jewish Life is one evidence of the 
fact that Duke is a more hospitable place, a 
diverse population, not out of any do-good- 
er kind of thing, but because we recognize 
that's what it means to be fully educated. It 
means to learn from people with back- 
grounds that are different, and to live in 
the modern global society. " 

"It's a signal to outsiders that Duke is 
committed to becoming a national and 
international place where people of all sorts 
are welcome," says Eric Meyers. "It sends a 
message that we've arrived, and we're no 
longer a regional university with a tiny 
Jewish population. " 

That message is beginning to be heard 
throughout the community. In fact, when 
Keohane began her remarks at the dedica- 
tion, she looked at the throngs of people in 
attendance and delighted her audience with 
a simple Yiddish word: "I'm kvelUng" or filled 
with joyous pride, "to see you all here. " ■ 

— Kim Koster 

January-February 2000 

As a college generation comes through and 
the FCJL becomes a common part of the Duke 
experience, however, Kaplan expects a major 
change in the student culture. "When I was 
here nine, ten years ago, I don't even know if 
there was much in terms of, say, a community 
Passover seder. Services were very small, and I 
used to welcome students into my home 
because they didn't feel like they had any- 
where to go. Last year, Duke Hillel had 200 
people at its seder. This year I anticipate if we 
did this right, we could have four or five hun- 
dred. We had 400 people for Rosh Hashanah, 
500 for Yom Kippur. Clearly there is now a 
community, and the Freeman Center is inher- 
iting a legacy of providing for the needs of the 
students. " 

Programming, whether student- or staff- 
generated, will play a large part in providing 
for those needs. And as programs are plan- 
ned, says political science graduate student 
Renan Levine, a balance must be maintained. 
"The students have to organize things. They 
have to feel responsible for their events. 
Rather than having the professional staff say, 
'This is what we think should happen, this is 
what should be going on,' simply asking, 
'What would you like?' And providing that. 
It's the consumer model; if a consumer wants 
to watch Dawson's Creek in the lounge, or 
make challah in the dorm, they should. " 

Kaplan agrees that student participation in 
planning is a key challenge. "That's been a big 
factor. We're learning how we can initiate pro- 
grams and yet provide student ownership. We 
have to do programs they're motivated about, 
so that they feel, 'This is our program.' " 

The line between providing programming 
and helping students initiate it is not the only 
one the center must walk to succeed. Levine, 
whose perspective on the center comes from 
growing up with a father who was a Hillel 
rabbi, argues that the balancing act will 
extend to different kinds of programs appreci- 
ated by various parts of the Jewish communi- 
ty. "If you want to be able to meet everyone's 
needs, it often means the least common de- 
nominator, which may not satisfy everyone," 
he says. "The best example is high holiday 
services. A lot of people come in with high 
expectations and are dissatisfied, because it's 
not home. You have to take a lot of people's 
different homes and mush them together into 
one religious environment. The best you can 
do is try to have a balance, something for 
everyone. " 

Aiming at empowerment and inclusion, 
Kaplan has outlined certain goals for the cen- 
ter, including a parliamentary board that 
moves away from the current undergraduate 
model. "I would like to see student organiza- 
tions that represent different interests," he 
explains. "One might be an Israeli interest, 
one might be a community- service interest, 

one might be a religious interest, one might 
be social programming, one might be musical; 
these are all independent groups, and they 
then select representatives to serve on a gov- 
ernment. And that government is more a 
coalition of those various things. " Such a 
coalition would include representatives of the 
graduate students and professional students 
as well. "The idea is that we as a Jewish popu- 
lation on campus would be united and we 
would all talk about any resources we have, 
sharing them all. Just like with GPSC [the 









Director, Freeman Center for Jewish Life 

Graduate and Professional Student Council] , 
there's somebody to say, 'We have a program 
that we need to do and we'd like to submit 
this for funding.' " 

This is not Kaplan's only hope for the 
FCJL. "My five-year goal is that we will be a 
well-known facility here in the community 
and on campus; that people will understand 
our identity, what we are, who we are, that we 
are part of Duke but yet we serve the commu- 
nity," he says. "This was built to serve the stu- 
dents of Duke's campus. But, having said 
that, there is no reason it can't serve the com- 
munity in many ways. If we can provide pro- 
gramming space, we can provide a lecture 
because we have the money or we happen to 
have the staff to put it together — there's no 
reason we can't do that. And all our programs 
are open to everybody. " 

That openness extends not only to the 
non-Duke Jewish community, but to the non- 
Jewish Duke community. Sarah Bell has been 
working on programming to bring other cul- 

tural and religious groups together. A black- 
Jewish forum she helped coordinate in early 
December drew around fifty participants, she 
says, helping to show that the FCJLs doors are 
open. "We're just trying to bring people into 
the building and really broaden the scope of 
not just us as Jews, but us as part of the Duke 
community — and that includes the blacks 
and the Asians and all of the other minority 
groups. People self-segregate, and there's real- 
ly no reason for that. You start off with per- 
son-to-person contact, and it perpetuates 
itself from there." 

This is the kind of initiative and leadership 
that Kaplan wants the FCJL to inspire and 
foster. "A responsibility of any director of any 
Jewish center on any campus — and I think 
this is part of what Duke's mission is, too — is 
to prepare our students to be future leaders. 
Just as much as we're giving them business 
degrees and law degrees and pre-med degrees 
so they can go out there and become the 
great scientists and the great lawyers, my 
hope is that they will also discern a commit- 
ment and a responsibility to the Jewish com- 
munity and become leaders in their Jewish 
communities. That even if they live in a small 
community or a big community, they have 
something to give, something to do. " 

"Small community" has been a concern for 
Duke's Jews. While Jewish enrollment runs 
between 15 and 20 percent — not an unsiz- 
able population — the feeling of a Jewish 
presence on campus has not always been pro- 
portionate with the numbers. While junior 
Elana Erdstein plans to go on to rabbinical 
school, she came to Duke from a strong Jewish 
community in Detroit precisely because she 
"didn't want to be in a place that was too 
Jewish. " Of Duke's Jewish population, she 
says, she "expected that a good number of 
those would be very secular students, which is 
true. I knew that would pose a kind of chal- 
lenge that I hadn't had growing up, and that 
appealed to me, to have a contrast to what I 
was used to. " 

"Religion — for anyone — isn't playing a 
huge part on campus," says Michelle Pinsky. 
"People here aren't activists. " Pinsky grew up 
in an active Jewish community in Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, "and everyone I knew was Jewish. 
It was a big part of their life. Coming here, a 
lot of people are from big Jewish areas, but 
you could really not tell that they were 
Jewish. " 

Victoria Wigodzky says she was in search of 
a smaller Jewish community when she came 
to Duke from Marietta, Georgia, where she 
had been the only Jewish student in her high 
school. "Duke just felt right. I never looked 
for a Jewish community that was already es- 
tablished, I looked for something that I could 
feel comfortable in. I've felt like I've been able 
to help shape Jewish life here. " 



Chapel Hill architect 
Richard Gurlitz, who 
designed the Freeman 
Center for Jewish Life, brought 
both local experience and a 
strong sense of Jewish custom 
to the work. After the center 
opened, he discussed in a public 
presentation the evolution of 
the project From the beginning, 
he said he knew both history 
and current use would have to 
play a role in the design. 

"We're putting together some 
of the ideas that are central to 
Judaism," he says, showing a 
slide of a sketch of the First 
Tabernacle. "Really, the very 
first thought of a building, any- 
thing that was other than a tent, 
in Judaism, was a tabernacle. 
This is probably the roots of any 
kind of Jewish architecture — 
and the root of that Jewish 
architecture really had a lot to 
do with community." 

Gurlitz explains that the 
tabernacle was used not only as 
a religious site, but also as a 
gathering point for its communi- 
ty for secular purposes. "There 
was a constant relationship 
between community and reli- 
gion, religion and community — 
it was very strong. So that is 
something we tried to think of 
as a starting point. We're going 
to have this community building 
on Duke's campus — what are 
some of the first thoughts that 
we have about this? Clearly, that 
it is a means for community 

The needs of community and 
religion dictated both form and 
function. "A building that is 
going to be used like this has 
some meaning inherent just in 
the way it looks," he says. "So 
we started the discussion and we 
just went through what looked 
Jewish — what had all the func- 
tions and forms and shapes." 

To begin with, he designed 
the building along a north-south 

axis, "so there is a division of 
east to west The idea of eastern 
being religious and western 
being secular is certainly some- 
thing in our culture today that 
is a very common observation. 
Religion seems to emanate from 
the East, and that separates the 
building, draws a spine." 

East of that spine are the 
"spaces which need to face east 
for ritual meaning," including 
the sanctuary, a multipurpose 
room that would also be used 
for services, the library, and a 
balcony to be used for the 
sukkah (a temporary outdoor 
structure built for Sukkot, the 
harvest festival). "Everything on 
the western side is all intended 
for secular use," he says, indi- 
cating offices, classrooms, and 
kitchen. The center space is 
meant to be open community 
space, including the student 
lounge and a large dining area. 

Those functions had been 
largely dictated by the center's 
planners, Gurlitz says. Once the 
functions had been determined, 
however, "this turned into giv- 
ing us the freedom to do what 
we wanted to do." That free- 
dom was translated into the aes- 
thetics of the design. 

"A big part of the Jewish 
experience is the Egyptian 
experience. These are the three 
pyramids of Giza, which you 
can see very clearly in these 
plans of the administration area 
and sanctuary," he says, turning 
to a slide of an exterior drawing 
and pointing out the rooftop 
peaks. Such pyramids "are a 
strong image throughout Ju- 
daism and throughout the cen- 

Gurlitz describes the incorpo- 
ration of other symbolic elements 
throughout the design. In the 
multipurpose room, twelve 
small square windows run along 
the eastern wall in reference to 
the gathering of the twelve 

tribes. In the library, five win- 
dows honor the five books of 
Moses. Two windows in the 
area of the miqvah, or ritual 
bath, are "very detailed, yin and 
yang, to show the duality that 
the miqvah represents." 

Even such simple elements as 
stairs and ceilings echo impor- 
tant aspects of Jewish history. 
Massive stairs leading to the 
entrance of Solomon's temple 
were the inspiration for the 
steps leading to the building 
from Campus Drive. An out- 
door balcony is taken from an 
old engraving of David's porch, 
and the sanctuary ceiling is 
painted a rich blue that signifies 
twilight, the time when reli- 
gious observations begin. Even 
a minor detail, a wall along the 
front of the building, is an arbor, 
"meant to have grapes growing 
on it," he says. "The idea is that 
the fruit of the vine is really 
another very potent image — the 
Sabbath, the glass of wine." 

As Gurlitz shows the last of 
the sketches depicting the vari- 
ous areas of the center, he turns 
back to his audience. "That 
takes care of the many sides of 
Judaism," he says. "They're not 
all spiritual." But the very 
recognition of that fact rein- 
forces his agenda for the build- 
ing's design — that in its inclu- 
sion of every aspect of Jewish 
community life, the Freeman 
Center would indeed be a gath- 
ering place for Duke's various 

"I cannot tell you how much 
I love this building," says Judith 
Ruderman, assistant vice pro- 
vost and FCJL board member. 
"When I go into that building, 
and I look out of every window, 
there's a vista. It's beautifully 
sited, it's functional, I find it 
warm yet elegant, people like to 
be in there. I think it's some of 
the best space on campus." 

The fairly low visibility of Duke's Jewish 
population, these students say, might have 
contributed to an ignorance of Jewish cus- 
tom. "I have met people here who, before 
meeting me, had never met a Jew before," 
says Elana Erdstein, echoing a tale common 
to several other students. "That surprised me, 
because before meeting them, I had never 
met someone who had never met a Jew be- 
fore. " Says Pinsky, "There are cultural differ- 
ences, cultural confusion. Like Dining Services, 
at Rosh Hashanah, would put out matzoh. 
And of course we only have that at Passover. " 
No matter which Jewish holiday, she laughs, 
"matzoh, all the time. " 

Historically, that lack of knowledge has been 
largely seen in such small, daily matters as 
questions about kosher food or not under- 
standing religious observances. University- 
sponsored programs have been scheduled on 
Jewish holy days, for instance. But there have 
been larger misunderstandings as well. In 
1991, The Chronicle accepted a full-page ad- 
vertisement denying the reality of the Holo- 
caust, igniting passions and distress throughout 
the Triangle Jewish community. And last year, 
Jewish faculty protested the gift of Bibles at 
the baccalaureate service; that gesture, they 
argued, worked against Duke's stated goals of 
diversity and inclusion by focusing on the 
Protestant tradition to the exclusion of stu- 
dents of any other belief. While the Bibles are 
given out now before the service rather than 
as part of it, the issue is still being discussed 
among faculty and administrators. 

While misunderstandings, large and small, 
do occur, Kaplan says anti-Semitism is not a 
part of life at Duke. "We often, as Jews, forget 
that there's a big difference between anti- 
Semitism and ignorance. A big difference. Anti- 
Semitism is swastikas. Anti-Semitism is Jews 
should not be on campus, or Jews are all rich 
and they shouldn't be getting financial aid. 
When parents call and ask me, 'I'm sending my 
nice Jewish student from a well-known, es- 
tablished, significantly Jewish population,' 
whether it be St. Louis or Chicago or New 
York, 'to a small town, to North Carolina, to a 
Methodist university,' I say to them in all 
honesty, I believe we have more homophobia 
on this campus than anti-Semitism. Is there 
anti-Semitism on this campus. 7 How can you 
say that when this building has been built?" 
The building's very existence, he notes, shows 
an attitude on the part of the university that 
Jews will be both welcome and safe here. 

Now that building can contribute to an 
atmosphere of education and engagement. 
Together with the Judaic Studies program, 
with its undergraduate and doctoral tracks, 
endowed chairs, and the longstanding Duke 
in Israel summer program, both Jewish stu- 
dents and their non-Jewish classmates will 
Continued on page 48 

January-February 2000 19 





I recently published an insider's guide 
to universities and how they work, 
Gone for Good: Tales of University 
Life after the Golden Age. Gone for 
Good is a chatty, unvarnished por- 
trait of universities written primarily 
for tuition-paying parents — past, 
present, and future — and is based 
mostly on my first seven years as a professor at 
Duke. I am a scientist, a true-blue, nerdy scien- 
tist and, by all conventional and unconven- 
tional wisdom, I should never have written 
something like Gone for Good. As one of its 
reviewers said, "A scientist who writes about a 
university is about as rare as a duck in a tree. " 
Gone for Good strongly argues for universi- 
ties to curb their excesses and demand more 
from students. With no sex scenes, fad diets, 
courtroom drama, or engrossing tales of pov- 
erty while growing up in Ireland, it isn't a 
bestseller. But it has generated a fair amount 
of discussion on some college campuses, not 
the least being Duke. How did I, a duck in a 
tree, come to write it? 

Let me first say that my skills as a non- 
technical writer aren't quite as suspect as one 
might expect of a scientist. As a teenager, I 
wrote a bit — a bad novella and several short 
stories — and remember writing down a per- 
sonal challenge to publish my first novel by 
the time I was twenty-two. My novel never 
happened. I went on to graduate school in the 
sciences and didn't look back. For the next 
ten years, throughout graduate school and 
a stint in a federal research lab, I was im- 
mersed in work and family. But my move to 
Duke was a turning point. I was living and 
working in a part of the country that was 
completely foreign to me. My job was reward- 
ing, but I had to work harder than I had ever 
worked in my entire life. I had to learn to jug- 
gle more things at once — research, teaching, 
papers, grant proposals, committee meetings, 
family and friends — than I thought was 
humanly possible. 

All that time, I was looking around me, al- 
most clinically observing students, parents, 
faculty, and administrators. After receiving 
tenure, I looked back at what I had accom- 

plished and, surprisingly, wasn't pleased. Iron- 
ically, much of my success had come at the 
expense of the quality of my instruction and 
research. After several years of mediocre stu- 
dent reviews and declining class enrollments, 
despite working hard on my teaching, I had 
found a disheartening key to success: Once I 
expected much less from students and gave 
nearly everyone As and B's, the reviews of my 
classes dramatically improved. 

I had spent about a fourth of my time dur- 
ing my first seven years chasing after research 
money. The effort was rewarding financially to 
me, providing a salary for my summers, and to 
the university, which taxed my research money 
at a rate of roughly 33 percent. But by pursuing 
fundable research, I found myself working on 
the kind of safe projects that achieve largely 
predictable results. I could not afford to de- 
vote my energies to the type of cutting- edge 
work that might produce breakthroughs. 

It seemed to me that I was spending a good 
deal of my time keeping students comfortable 
and happy and giving them a false sense of 
achievement. Through writing grant propos- 
als and managing the money stream associat- 
ed with successful grants, I spent even more 
of my time helping the university stay finan- 
cially solvent. To get tenure and be respected 
at my university, I had been required to aban- 
don my ideals, lower my standards in the 
classroom, and lower my own expectations of 
intellectual achievement. I looked at my col- 
leagues at Duke and elsewhere, and almost all 
of them were doing the same. I was dismayed. 

I started to talk about Duke's successes and 
failures — and most of the good, bad, and ugly 
at Duke is contained in universities across the 
country. I started to talk about how universi- 
ties needed to change. I was strictly talking, 
however, and had no intention of writing any- 
thing down. Then I had lunch with a senior 
administrator at Duke and made a sarcastic 
remark about how we charge so much for tui- 
tion, yet largely ignore our undergraduates. 
He looked at me like I had wounded him. 
"You know, people like you write books," he 
said. "They do?" I asked. "Yes," he answered, 
"they write books criticizing universities. " 

I asked him to recommend a book critical 
of universities, and he mentioned The Closing 
of the American Mind by Allan Bloom. After 
lunch, I stopped by Perkins Library to pick up 
a copy. I slogged through it. Bloom's book is a 

whiny diatribe on the loss of classical educa- 
tion and the toxic influence of popular cul- 
ture in the university and beyond. Spurred on 
by my lunch conversation and Bloom's turgid 
screed, I began to work at night writing my 
own book on universities. 

At first, my goal was very modest. I started 
to write a tongue-in-cheek piece centered on 
the topic of how to get tenure. I quickly aban- 
doned that effort. Then I had a chance con- 
versation with a friend. She had just sent her 
oldest son to Northwestern University, a school 
in many ways similar to Duke. "I just sent a 
check to Northwestern for $30,000," she said. 
"Tell me, what is it that goes on there?" Right 
then and there, I knew that I would write an 
inside book on universities for tuition-paying 
parents. I would write for parents because 
their checks were a vital source of revenue. 
They had clout. If parents read my book and, 
as a result, demanded an end to lax standards 
in the college classroom, they could effect 
positive change. 

My tuition-paying friend had a strong ink- 
ling that undergraduate education and uni- 
versity life are quite different now compared 
to twenty-five years ago, when she was a stu- 
dent. But she didn't know exactly how. She 
didn't know that universities are now under 
tremendous financial pressure. When she was 
a student, the federal government was pump- 
ing nearly exponentially increasing levels of 
money into university research and student 
financial aid. She was a beneficiary of the tail 
end of an unprecedented growth spiral in 
higher education that began at the beginning 
of the Cold War. By the end of the Cold War, 
the era of federal largesse — the "Golden Age 
of American higher education" — had come 
to a close. 

Universities today can no longer count on 
dramatic increases in federal support, but they 
had, over a forty-year period, grown to such a 
degree that their financial obligations from 
building maintenance to salaries were and are 
tremendous. Presidents, deans, and faculty 
members are spending so much time in their 
search for money that intellectual discovery 
in teaching and research is being shoved into 
the back seat. Students can still get an excellent 
education at Duke and elsewhere, but because 
our standards are so low, they must be highly 
self-motivated. Undergraduate education has 
Continued on page 55 




^fl^ wynne A. Young 71, president of the 
^T^H Duke Alumni Association for 1999- 
^^^^ 2000 and a Tampa attorney, was des- 
tined for Duke from a very early age. Her 
father played football for Wallace Wade dur- 
ing his undergraduate days here before World 
War II and later received a degree from the 
medical school. Her mother was a Duke em- 
ployee. The family dachshunds were named 
Blue Devil One and Blue Devil Two. Young 
was born at Duke Hospital, and as early as the 
first grade, she says, "I told everyone that I 
was going to Duke. " 

Sure enough, after being accepted early 
decision, she matriculated as a member of the 
Class of 1971. Right away, she was an unwit- 
ting pioneer. "My experience was an interes- 
ting one, because they had had a higher yield 
than expected out of the number of women 
accepted to the Woman's College that year, 
and they didn't have enough dorm space for 
all of us. Therefore, there were forty-four 
freshman women who lived on the third floor 

service component and maximizing the use of 
technology in building and maintaining alumni 
relationships. Those relationships are critical, 
she says, not only for the DAA but for Duke 
as a whole: "Involvement of alumni is impor- 
tant for any university because that's your 
lifeblood. " And she doesn't just mean mone- 
tary donations, saying alumni are always 
needed in several different capacities and 
that involvement can't start too soon after 
graduation. "We try to offer a lot of things that 
people can do, and ways they can help the 
university without giving a lot of money. " 

Setting all these wheels in motion is an 
ambitious agenda for a one -year term. But 
Young is positive and determined. At the end 
of her term, she says, "I would hope that people 
will say we have come up with some construc- 
tive ways to improve our service to alumni 
and to improve our participation within the 
university. As I've said, we've done a good job 
so far. But we'd like to do better. " 


of the men's graduate center — which is now 
Trent. So I was one of the first undergradu- 
ates to live in Trent, and I think we felt prob- 
ably as isolated then as they do now. " 

But that isolation led to close friendships, 
with classmates and with the FACs (student 
members of the Freshman Advisory Council) 
who were imported from the women's dorms 
on East Campus to guide this small group of 
isolated freshman women. Young gives one 
FAC, Louise Dunlap '68, particular credit for 
a learning experience. "I've always felt she 
had as much influence on my life as anybody 
because she was one of these people who, 
when she decided she wanted to do some- 
thing, she did it. And she instilled that 'if 
you want to do it then it can be done' attitude 
in me. " 

There is much that Young wants to do dur- 
ing her term as DAA president, and she has 
little doubt that it can be done. Her experience 
with the DAA began "almost immediately" 
after she graduated from the University of 
Florida's law school in 1974- She joined the 
local Duke club, volunteered on the Alumni 

DAA president Young: looking to long-range planning 

Admissions Advisory Committee, organized 
events, and worked with the Annual Fund. All 
of these experiences come into play when she 
talks about the future of the alumni associa- 

"The one thing I've felt we needed to do 
during my year is some sort of self-examina- 
tion of the organization and how we relate to 
our various constituencies," she says. Toward 
that end, the External Relations Committee 
ias been established to look at the functions 
of the alumni association, the alumni office, 
and the alumni board and to find ways to 
improve service and the relationship of alum- 
ni to the university at large. "We know we do 
a lot of good things," she says. "But could we 
do these things better? Are there issues that 
we need to deal with?" 

Young says she hopes such questions will 
ead to a long-range planning process, starting 
with an alumni survey and going on to formu- 
ate a five-year plan. Among her concerns for 
such a strategy are including a community- 

■^t resident Nannerl O. Keohane made a 
H^P fall foray into Ohio for Duke club 
events and then to Canada for alumni 
living above the border. In the spring, she plans 
to talk in two towns in Tennessee before going 
abroad for an alumni reception in Paris. 

On October 19, Keohane was featured at a 
luncheon in Columbus at the Columbus Mu- 
seum of Art and at a dinner reception in Cleve- 
land at the Great Lakes Science Center. Daniel 
R. Rupp '66 is president of the Duke Club of 
Columbus and Joyce Nahigan '86 is the Duke 
Club of Cleveland's president. 

In late October, Keohane helped launch a 
newly forming Duke club for alumni in On- 
tario. An evening reception in Toronto at the 
Hotel Intercontinental on October 27 attrac- 
ted nearly 100 Blue Devils living in Canada. 

Keohane will be the guest of honor in April 
at evening receptions and dinners in Tennessee. 
On April 10, she will speak at the University 
Club to the Duke Club of Memphis, whose 
president is Michael S. Reeves M.B.A. '95. On 
April 11, she'll greet Duke Club of Nashville 

January -February 2000 










scriptorium. lib. 

alumni at the Hermitage Hotel; Stacy Stan- 
sell Klein '91 is the club's president. 

Still in the planning stages is a presidential 
visit to Paris in the spring. All alumni living in 
Europe will be invited to a reception organized 
by Duke Club of Paris co-presidents Elizabeth 
Buckley '83 and James Smallhoover 75. 


The Reverend Judith L. Weidman M.Div. 
'66, who recently retired as general 
secretary of United Methodist Com- 
munications, is the Duke Divinity School's 
Distinguished Alumna for 1999. The ordained 
United Methodist minister has worked in 
church communications and journalism for 
thirty-four years. Since 1994, she has directed 
public-relations efforts for the 9-million-mem- 
ber United Methodist Church, the second 
largest Protestant denomination in the United 

A native of Savanna, Illinois, Weidman 
began her journalism career in 1966 as an as- 
sistant editor for the United Methodist Pub- 
lishing House's adult curriculum department. 
She was a special-assignment reporter for the 
Kokomo Tribune from 1968 to 1971, before 

being named associate editor of the United 
Methodist Reporter, an independent national 
newspaper based in Dallas. In 1975, she was 
appointed general secretary for interpretation 
for the United Methodist Board of Higher 
Education and Ministry. 

Weidman became executive editor of Re- 
ligion News Service in 1984- She helped steer 
the agency from virtual bankruptcy to finan- 
cial solvency and New York Times syndication 
during the ensuing decade, attracting more 
than $1 million in foundation grants and 
funding research on religion reporting and 
readership. Named Communicator of the 
Year in 1987 by the United Methodist Asso- 
ciation of Communicators, she serves on 
the advisory board of the Center for Religion 
and the News Media, a joint program of 
the Medill School of Journalism at North- 
western University and Garrett-Evangelical 
Theological Seminary. She is the editor of 
two books, Women in Ministry and Christian 
Fellowship, and has been a media consultant 
in Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and 

The Distinguished Alumni Award was 
established in 1973 by the Duke Divinity 
School Alumni Association to recognize Di- 
vinity School graduates for remarkable and 
exemplary service to God, the church, and 
the human community. 


Summer Youth Programs 

Constructing Your College Experience 

• One one-week session • Residential participants only 

• For students currently in grades 10-11 

Duke Creative Writers' Workshop 

• One two-week session • Residential participants only 

• For students currently in grades 10-11 

Duke Drama Workshop 

• One two-week session • Residential participants only 

• For students currently in grades 9-11 

Duke Young Writers' Camp 

• Three two-week sessions* Residential and day campers 

• For students currently in grades 6-11 

Duke Action Science Camp for Young Women 

• One two-week session • Residential and day campers 

• For young women currently in grades 5-8 

Expressions! A Duke Fine Arts Day Camp 

• One two-week session • Day campers only 

• For students currently in grades 5-8 

Call 919-684-6259 or visit our web site at 



WRITE: Class Notes Editor, Duke Magazine, 
614 Chapel Dr., Durham, N.C. 27708-0570 

FAX: (919) 681-1659 (typed only, please) 


Include your full name, address, and 

class year when you e-mail us. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Alumni Records, 
614 Chapel Dr. Annex, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. 
Please include mailing label. Or e-mail address 
changes to: bluedevil(S' 

NOTICE: Because of the volume of class 
note material we receive and the long 
lead time required for typesetting, design, 
and printing, your submission may not 
appear for two to three issues. Alumni 
are urged to include spouses' names 

40s, 50s & 60s 

Lester Luborsky A.M. '43, Ph.D. '45 received the 
1999 Gold Medal for Life Achievement in the Applica- 
tion of Psychology Award, presented by the American 
Psychological Foundation. He lives in Philadelphia. 

Anne Ratcliffe Webb A.M. '43 is chaplain for the 
Barrett chapter of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution and coordinator of Human Rights/Status 
of Women Committee of the Soroptimist International 
of Alexandria. She is also a member of the Daughters 
of 1812 and the League of Women Voters. She lives in 
Alexandria, Va. 

i P. Lowdermilk M.Div. '58 was recognized 
by the United Methodist Retirement Homes, Inc., 
with the naming of the chapel at Quail Haven Village 
in his honor. He lives in Pinehurst, N.C. 

: H. Frey B.S.E.E. '60 is president of TASC 
Inc., a subsidiary of Litton Industries in Chantilly, Va. 
He and his wife, Jacqueline Fair Frey '64, live in 
McLean, Va. 

Gerald M. McGee '61 was inducted into the N.C. 
High School Athletic Association Hall of Fame in 
October. The former Duke football player was defensive 
coordinator for the Blue Devils from 1971 to 1975. 
He coached high school football before serving as 
director of athletics and physical education for the 
Elizabeth City- Pasquotank Public Schools from 1981 
to 1997. He is now executive director of the N.C. 
Athletics Directors Association. 

Robert P. Parker '61, chief statistician of the U.S. 
Commerce Department's Bureau of Economic 
Analysis, received the 1999 Julius Shiskin Award for 
Economic Statistics by the Washington, D.C., 
Statistical Society and the National Association for 
Business Economics. He lives in Bethesda, Md. 

Lois Eby '62 had a one-person show of her paintings 
and works on paper at the Flynn Theatre Gallery in 
Burlington, Vt., this summer and at Tribes Gallery 
in New York City in October. She is an occasional com- 
mentator for Vermont Public Radio. She and her hus- 
band, writer David Budbill, live in Wolcott, Vt. 

Michael D. Richards A.M. '64, Ph.D. '69, the 
Samford Professor of History at Sweet Briar College, 
is the co-author of Tu'entieth-Cenmrv Europe: A Brief 
History, published by Harlan-Davidson, Inc. 

Margaret Waisman '64 is the president of the 
Noah Worcester Dermatological Society, a national 

dermatological association. She lives in Houston, Texas. 

Ronald L. Ludwig '65 retired in September from 
Ludwig Goldberg & Krenzel, the San Francisco law 
firm he co-founded in 1977. He is now managing 
partner of Ludwig Investment Partners, a private equity 
investment company in San Francisco. 

O. Randolph Rollins '65, J.D '68 is president and 
CEO of Tultex Corp., a manufacturer of activewear in 
Martinsville, Va. He has been its executive vice president 
and general counsel since 1994. He and his wife, 
Martha Franck Rollins '65, M.A.T '68, and their 
three children live in Richmond. 

Barry Cooper A.M. '67, Ph.D. '69 is the author 

of Eric Voegelin arid the Eoiindatunis of Modem Political 
Science, published by the University of Missouri Press. 
He is a political science professor at the University 
of Calgary in Canada. 

Michael C. Balog '69 is senior vice preside 
and general counsel of Aegis Mortgage Corp. ii 
Houston, Texas. 

has been elected president 
of the Western Missouri/ Eastern Kansas chapter of 
the American Board of Trial Advocates. He is also the 
senior partner at the law firm Foland & Wickens in 
Kansas City, Mo. 

MARRIAGES: Betty Ruth . 

'65 to Michael Joseph Copeland on March 27, 1999. 

Residence: Raleigh... Quinn G. Hollomon Jr. '69 

to Judith H. Houston on June 26. Residence: 
Alexandria, Va. 

D. Fair Ph.D. '70 is the author ofUusdetou 
USA: Bob Hoffman and the Manly Culture of York 
Barbell, published by Penn State University Press. 

Suzanne Clark Johnson MAT '71 is the 

executive director of Action Alliance for Virginia's 
Children and Youth. She lives in Richmond. 

L. Marshall Jr. '71 was appointed and 
sworn in as a Superior Court judge for the State of 
New Jersey in July. He and his wife, Bonnie, and their 
three children live in Glassboro, N.J. 

Uhde '71 was appointed i 
dean for research and graduate programs for Wayne 
State University's medical school in Detroit. He 
continues to chair the department of psychiatry and 
behavioral neurosciences. He earned his M.D. at the 
University of Louisville in 1975. 

Gary Wein '71 is one of the owners of Brightleaf 905, 
which was named by Esquire magazine as one of the 
nation's "best new restaurants of 1999. " He and his 
partners in the Durham restaurant, including Maggie 
Radzwiller '77, received the magazine's honors in 
New York City in November. 

Jeffrey R. Boswell '73 represented Duke in 
October at the inauguration of the president of 
Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pa. 

Wayne T. Caldwell Ph.D. '73 won first prize in the 
1999 Carolina Alumni Revieie fiction contest for his 
short story "The Pact. " He and his wife, Mary, live in 
Candler, N.C. 

'73 published her second 
book, Vvbmens's Mental Health in Primary Care. She holds 
the Jack Aron Chair in Psychiatric Education and Wom- 
en's Mental Health at the Menninger Clinic in Topeka, 

in flour 

Traditionally, bequests have been 

a significant source of Duke's 

financial support. Your bequest to 

Duke will help to ensure Duke's 

continued strength and 

academic excellence. 

High federal estate tax rates 

significantly lower the cost of 

making a bequest to Duke. 

Join more than 2,100 other Duke 
alumni and friends as a member 
of the Heritage Society, an honor- 
ary circle of University alumni and 
friends who have planned an 
estate gift to Duke. 

To learn more about the 

Heritage Society and how to 

make a bequest gift to Duke, 

please contact: 

Duke University 

Office of Planned Giving 

Box 90606 

2127 Campus Drive 

Durham, NC 27708-0606 

919-681-0464 (Phone) 
919-684-9731 (Fax) (Email) (Web) 

January-February 2000 23 

Kan. She is also a supervising and training analyst there. 

Phyllis Leppert M.D. 74 was appointed by the 
National Institute of Child Health and Human 
Development as chief of its reproductive sciences 
branch in the Center for Population Research. She is 
listed in Best Doctors in America and is senior editor of 
the medical textbook Primary Care for Women. She 
lives in Chevy Chase, Md. 

I L. Asti 75, A.M. 76, general counsel and 
director of development for the Maryland Stadium 
Authority, is president of the Maryland Bar Foundation 
and president of the American Bar Association's 
Metropolitan Bar Caucus. She and her two children 
live in Pasadena, Md. 

Jane T. Costlow 76 was promoted to full professor 
of Russian at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine. Her 
essay, "The Gallop, the Wolf, the Caress: Eros and 
Nature in The Tragic Menagerie," won the 1997 Heldt 
Prize for best essay, chosen by the Association of 
Women in SI, imc Studies. 

Joseph T. Lamb III 77 is an associate in the 
Kitty Hawk, N.C., office of Vandeventer Black. He 
will concentrate on commercial real estate, real estate 
development, and commercial law and litigation. 

Guy V. Mercer 77 represented Duke in October 
at the inauguration of the president of Case Western 
Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Maggie Radzwiller 77 is one of the owners of 
Durham's Brightleaf 905, which was named by Esquire 
magazine as one of the nation's "best new restaurants 
of 1999. " She and her partners in the restaurant, 
including Gary Wein 71, received the magazine's 
honors in New York City in November. 

Pattie Bland White 77 is the director of training 
for ACS, computer software for church management. 
She and her husband, David, and their three daughters 
live in Darlington, S.C. 

BIRTHS: Second child and daughter to Robert E. 
Ellett Jr. 77 and Margaret A. Ellett on Sept. 22, 
1998. Named Katherine Connery. . .First child and 
daughter to Johanna Elizabeth Surla B.S.N. 77 
and Richard Arnold on Dec. 26, 1998. Named Liliana 
Elizabeth. . .Third child and daughter to Pattie 
Bland White 77 and David White of Dec. 31, 1998. 
Named Sonora Bland. . .Second child and daughter to 
Mark R. High J.D. 79 and Janette High on May 20. 
Named Marie Claire. . .Second daughter, born June 6, 
adopted by Karen Ann Hudson B.S.E. 79 and 
Harley Gee on June 28. Named Ellen Xiaochun Gee. . . 
First child and daughter to Lorraine Potter Kalal 
79 and Rick George Kalal on July 21, 1998. Named 
Chart. >tte Carolyn Grace. 

Mark Calvert '80, J.D. '83 is an attorney in the 
Office of General Counsel of the Tennessee Valley 
Authority. He and his wife, Rosemary Antonucci 
Calvert '81, A.M. '83, a freelance artist, and their 
four children live in Knoxville, Tenn. 

Richard L. Prager '81 has joined General Re 
Financial Securities in London as director of marketing 
and structure for Europe. He and his wife, Tina, and 
their three children live in London. 

Tom Foard '82, M.B.A. '84 is chief Hnancial officer of 
Maryland Baseball, the operating body of the Baltimore 
Orioles' minor league affiliates Bowie Baysox, Frederick 
Keys, and Delmarva Shorebirds. He and his wife, Lynne, 
and their two children live in Severna Park, Md. 

Carolyn Anise Rahn Harris '82, M.S. '84 is a 
senior toxicologist at R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. in 

Winston-Salem, N.C She and her husband, Mike, and 
their son live in Durham. 

B. Gould '83 is senior vice president and 
general counsel of EnerTech Environmental, Inc., a 
high-tech, waste-to-energy company in Atlanta. He 
and his wife, Colleen O'Neill, and their two sons live in 
Alpharetta, Ga. 

David Strickland B.S.E. '83 is a business develop- 
ment manager with ProBusiness in Atlanta. He and his 
wife, Beth, and their two sons live in Duluth, Ga. 



hen you're 
a biologist, 
you have 
to go where your re- 
search takes you. When 
you're a marine biolo- 
gist, that usually means 
the sea — in the case of 
James Marsh '63, the 
coral reefs of Guam. It 
was 1970 when Marsh 
originally arrived at the 
University of Guam, 
having taken a job as a 
researcher in its marine 
biology lab. 

"I went on a two-year 
contract because it was 
a big unknown," he 
says. "I sort of figured, 
well, you can take any- 
thing for two years." 
He stayed for twenty- 

In the early Seventies, 
coral reef research was 
just beginning to come 
into its own in the 
international scientific 
community, and the 
University of Guam's 
proximity to a lush 
reef made its marine 
lab the biggest feather 
in the university's cap. 

The lab bad about six 
faculty members and 
money was usually tight 
But, as Marsh recalls, it 
was still a heady time. 
"We had a group of us, 
all of us young, really 
enthusiastic. We were 
really working to build 
up the marine lab. So 
we were there trying to 
do research projects. 
We were fighting the 
good fight in committee 
meetings; we were 
fighting for budgets; 
we were writing pro- 
posals to get money; 
we were teaching class- 
es. Occasionally we 
tried to fix a boat en- 
gine. We even had 
Happy Labor Days to 
landscape the place. 
I mean, we were 

doing everything, and 
everybody was focused 
on the good of the 
marine lab." 

Then, like now, being 

rewards all its own. 
"Our laboratory sat 
right on the edge of the 
shoreline," Marsh says. 
"You could look out 
your window when 
you were sitting in 
your office working on 
committee reports, 
wrestling with the tele- 
phone, or doing all 
these bureaucratic 
things. You could 
always look out at the 
reef and say: Yeah, 
there it is. At the end 
of the day, you could 
grab your mask and 
snorkel and go out for 
a while on the reef and 
renew your sense of 
wonder, remember 
why it was you became 

Time passed, marine 
biology as a science 
flourished, and Marsh 
was named director of 
the marine lab in 1976. 

to establish its name 
in the scientific com- 
munity at that point, 
but had suffered a 
setback — a large 
typhoon hit the island. 
Marsh's three-year 
term as director 
became dedicated to 
rebuilding the facilities 
while simultaneously 
pushing the staff to 
increase the sophistica- 
tion of what was still a 
maturing field of study. 
"In the early days, it 
was a lot of exploratory 
and descriptive stuff," 
surveying Guam's reefs 
and charting what 
organisms thrived 
where. The next step 
was to try to grasp 
"how systems and pop- 

Laura Dex Wallace '83, M.B.A. '87 is a product 
manager in international marketing at MCI WorldCom 
in Arlington, Va. She and her husband, Michael, 
relocated from Fairfax, Va., to Westfreld, N.J. 

Frank H. Willard '83 is lead engineer for RB. 
Farradyne. He and his wife, Kathleen, and their two 
children live in Gaithersburg, Md. 

Howard M. Bear '84 is a neuroradiologist at Sharp 
Memorial Hospital. He and his wife, Juli, and their 
daughter live in San Diego. 


pens in universities, 
Marsh amassed as 
many administrative 

Former dean Marsh: leading Guam's growth in 
science and research 

that the nastiest sharks 
are the two-legged 
variety whose natural 
habitat is committees; 
it would be frowned 
upon if you cut out 
their jaws and nailed 
them to the wall." 

In 1988, with a wall 
devoid of jawbones, 
Marsh took early 
retirement from the 
university to focus on 
other interests, espe- 
cially travel. He has 
since moved away 
from Guam, relocating 
to the equally oceanic 
Hawaii. "Part of the 
retirement thing was 
I thought, 'Well, yeah, 
I've done my bit for 
the University of 
Guam,' " he says. "If 
I were dean for another 
five years, I don't 
expect I'd necessarily 
see the kind of progress 
I thought we'd made 
in the previous five. 
It was time in the 
relay race to hand 
the baton off to some- 
body else." 

—Adam Winer '99 

ones, eventually be- 
coming dean of graduate 
studies and research 
for all the school's pro- 
grams. "By the time I 
was forty or so, I real- 
ized I was never going 
to win a Nobel Prize as 
a research scientist," 
he says, "so this was 
a way to branch out 
without really leaving 

Through all the ups 
and downs of those 
times, he has kept his 
sense of humor about 
academia. "Henry 
Kissinger's observation 
about life as a Harvard 
academic still applies: 
The reason that aca- 
demic infighting is so 
fierce is that the stakes 
are so small. People 
occasionally asked if I 
ever encountered 
sharks in the water. 
My usual answer was 


Jon Peter Ely '84 is a songwriter and producer. His 
wife, Katherine Hensel Ely '84, is an independent 
contractor in Web development and marketing. The 
couple and their son live in Nashville, Tenn. 

Brian Frederick Rockermann B.S.E. '84 is manager 
of hardware engineering at 3Com's cable modem division. 
He and his wife, Catherine Thompson Rocker- 
mann '84, and their two sons live in San Jose, Calif. 

Jane E. Baluss J.D. '85 is a partner at Buc & 
Beardsley in Washington, D.C. 



nan Addy B.S.E. 
. '86, executive 
vice president of 
Focal Communications 
Corporation and En- 
gineering, has a telling 
story from his child- 
hood. It's about him, his 
older brother, and then- 
neighbor Robert Taylor, 
now Focal's CEO. 

"We ran a wire be- 
tween [our] houses and 
bought a little tap tele- 
graph device from Radio 
Shack," Addy says, re- 
calling the days when 
he would try to jump 
onto the line when his 
older brother would let 
him. "We would send 
messages back and 
forth at nighttime." 
The three were, as he 
says, "pioneers in data 
transmission" — at least 
for grade schoolers. 

Eventually, Addy 
and Taylor went on to 
study engineering. Less 
than four years ago, 
they joined with two 
partners to found 
Focal, an upstart local 
communication pro- 
vider. Although long- 
distance phone service 
has been a competitive 
industry since the 
break-up of AT&T, it 
wasn't until Congress 
passed the Telecommu- 
nications Act of 1996 
that local phone ser- 
vice could follow a sim- 
ilar course. Addy and 
his partners were some 
of the first to jump into 
the newly opened 
arena, challenging 
established local pro- 
viders for their business. 

Beginning in the 
Chicago area, Focal 
purchased its own tele- 
phone switch — basically 
a multi-million-dollar 
machine capable of 

'85, who earned her 
Ph.D. in clinical psychology in 1996 at the New School 
for Social Research, is a licensed clinical psychologist 
with a private practice in Brooklyn. She and her husband, 
Stephen, and their three children live in Brooklyn. 

Jeffrey Henry Baer '86 is managing director at 
Deutsche Bank. He and his wite, Denise, and two sons 
live in Westport, Conn. 

'86, M.B.A. '91 is 
senior marketing manager at Book-of-the-Month Club, 

Inc. Her husband, Philip M. Gillespie '87, is vice 
president, finance, at The Equitable Life Assurance 
Society. The couple and their daughter live in 
Scarsdale, N.Y. 

Kenneth A. Murphy '86, J.D. '89 has been nomi- 
nated to the board of Northwest Victims Services. He 
lives in Philadelphia. 


leased and later bought 
fiber optic lines through- 
out the city. With its 
new set-up, the compa- 
ny could offer large 
companies better and 
sometimes less expen- 
sive service than they 
were receiving from 
their incumbent 
provider, Ameritech. 

As Addy explains it, 
the infrastructure of 
the Baby Bells was 
designed on the as- 
sumption that most of 
the burden on phone 
lines would represent 
the average length of a 
business call — three to 
four minutes. Since not 
all phones are used at 
the same time, systems 
were designed to fun- 
nel individual lines into 
a set number of con- 
nections to the outside 
world. But the Internet 
has caused that para- 
digm to shift, elevating 
the typical line use to 
something closer to 
one to four hours. For 
big companies and 
Internet service pro- 
viders, this new use 
pattern can result in 
system overloads. By 
focusing Focal on fix- 
ing this and other such 
problems, Addy and his 
partners found a prof- 
itable niche. 

"In layman's terms," 
he says, "when you pick 
up the phone, sometimes 
you get a fast busy. 
That's because the net- 
work's busy. Our net- 
work doesn't get busy. 
So we won't give you 
fast busies. And for the 

It's also a big money 
maker, and a big chal- 
lenge. "At 50,000 feet, 
this is a very easy, won- 
derful, unbelievable 
business; it's a cash 
cow," says Addy. "At 
street level, it's a very 
difficult business that 
requires a tremendous 
amount of knowledge 
of the local networks 
and the service models 


He credits much of 
Focal's success — profits 
have soared, they've 
branched into thirteen 
new markets, and 
they've yet to lose a 
client — to the fact that 
all four founders are 
engineers with experi- 
ence in telecommuni- 
cations. For his part, 
Addy went to work for 
the telecommunica- 
tions company Centel 
and eventually wound 
up as the general man- 
ager of a cellular-phone 
start-up company, later 
acquired by Sprint. He 
left the phone business 
altogether to join a 
start-up real-estate firm. 

With local phone in- 
dustry deregulation in 
1996, the time seemed 

ripe for another start-up 
venture. The Telecom 
Act was passed that 
February; Addy be- 
came Focal's first offi- 
cial employee in April. 
Soon Taylor and the 
other partners, all for- 
mer colleagues, were 
on board. Rather than 
assuming a specific role 
in the company, Addy 
became a roving execu- 
tive vice president, 
working in areas with 
the most need, whether 
that was sales or devel- 
opment or construction 

Addy says. "I'm kind 
of a generalist." 

Soon the four had 
created a viable phone 
company and were 
bashing heads with the 
likes of Ameritech. 
"You never had vendor 
diversity before in the 
local network; you al- 
ways had to buy from 
the incumbent, and you 
were at their mercy 
when it came to price 
and service," Addy says. 
"You now have leverage 
to demand better pricing 
and better service, 
which ultimately is 
better for everybody." 
—Adam Winer '99 

very < 

phisticated user who is 
on the phone and needs 
that service all the 
time, that's a big deal." 

Addy: his focus on 

Focal made waves in 


is a pediatric ophthali 
private practice in Louisville, Ky., where she and her 
husband, Joseph Dellorto, and their daughter live. 

Sara Sumner Davidson '87 is a senior legal assis- 
tant at Enron Corp. in Houston. She and her husband, 
Greg, and their two sons live in Spring, Texas. 

Philip M. Gillespie '87 is vice president, finance, 
at The Equitable Life Assurance Society. His wife, 
Elizabeth Aldrich Gillespie '86, MBA. '91, is 
marketing manager at Book-of-the-Month Club, Inc. 
The couple and their daughter live in Scarsdale, N.Y. 

Timothy LaCroix M.B.A. '87 is chief strategy 
officer for the Duke Clinical Research Institute, 
where he heads both strategic relations and business 
development. He and his wife, Karol, and their son 
live in Cary, N.C 

Leslie Marden Ragsdale '87 is an in-house 
litigation attorney for PricewaterhouseCoopers in 
San Francisco. She and her husband, Mark, and their 
children live in Burlingame, Calif. 

Felicia Lynn Silber '87 is senior director of legal 
affairs for Hughes Network Systems in Germantown, 
Md. She and her husband, Gregory Faragasso, and 
their son live in Vienna, Va. 

Gregory Charles Siuciak B.S.E. '87 is a partner 
with KPMG Consulting in Radnor, Pa. He and his wife, 
Ann, and their daughter live in Emmaus, Pa. 

Kristin Raybon Kanner '88 is a prosecutor in Ft. 
Lauderdale. She and her husband, Dan, and their son 
live in Hollywood, Fla. 

Peggy Needle Krawcheck '88 is director of sales 
and marketing at the Vendue Inn in Charleston, S.C 
She and her husband, Eric, live in Mt. Pleasant. 

J. David Lucke '88 is an investment banker at 
Prudential Securities. His wife, Katherine Schulze 

M.B.A. '94, is an institutional salesperson at Salomon 
Smith Barney. They live in Houston. 

Sally Gaines Moorhead '88 is chief of staff to Con- 
gressman Alan B. Mollohan, Democrat from West Vir- 
ginia. She and her husband, David, live in McLean, Va. 

Lee A. Fox '89 is an interventional radiologist at 
the Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute. He and his 
wife, Shari, live in Coral Gables, Fla. 

Laura Bolton Smith '89 is a vice president at 
Goldman, Sachs, 6k Co. She and her husband, Jim, and 
their sons live in Middletown, N.J. 

Anne M. Spence '89 is the owner of Access Mar- 
keting, Inc., specializing in marketing, research, and grant 
writing for nonprofit organizations. She and her husband, 
Robert All, and their daughter live in Greenville, S.C. 

MARRIAGES: Daniel Asher Cohen A.M. '80 to 
Elizabeth Bussiere. Residence: Westborough, Mass.... 
Laura L. Dex '83, M.B.A. '87 to Michael J. Wallace 
Jr. on Aug. 22, 1998. Residence: Westfield, N.J.... 
Stuart Jeffrey Levin '83 to Sondra Cheryl Panico 
on Aug. 29. Residence: Raleigh... Sally A. Gaines 
'88 to David Charles Moorhead on July 4- Residence: 
McLean, Va. . . Michael Harman B.S.E. '88 to Mary 
Palmer M.B.A. '96 on Nov. 6. Residence: Norwalk, 
Conn... J. David Lucke '88 to Katherine 
Schulze M.B.A. '94 on June 26. Residence: Houston. . . 
Peggy Marie Needle '88 to Eric L. Krawcheck on 
May 30. Residence: Mt. Pleasant, S.C. 

January- February 2000 25 

A Life Income 

Making Your 
Reunion Count 

More than 350 alumni 

receive a life income from 

their gifts to Duke. 

As your reunion rapidly 

approaches, please reflect 

upon the role a Duke 

education has 

played in your life. 

A life income gift is a 

wonderful way to 

commemorate your 

upcoming reunion, and 

it can be included 

as part of your class 

reunion gift. 

Please allow us 

to provide you with 

additional information: 

Duke University 

Office of Planned Giving 

Box 90606 

2127 Campus Drive 

Durham, NC 27708-0606 

919-681-0464 (Phone) 
919-684-9731 (Fax) (Email) (Web) 

Ann Thompson '88 to Timothy A. Malone on Oct 
24, 1998. Residence: Raleigh. 

BIRTHS: Fourth child and second son to Mark 
Calvert '80, J.D. '83 and Rosem; 
Calvert '81, A.M. '83 on Oct. 11. Named Sar 
Elijah. . .First child and daughter to ( 
Slocum '81 and Jordan Steven Gruher on July 15. 
Named Diana Elizabeth Gruher. . .First child and son to 
Carolyn Anise Rahn Harris '82, M.S. '84 and 
Mike Harris on May 12. Named Christopher Ian. . . 
Third child and first daughter to Robert T. Lucas 
III '82 and Perry Lucas on July 5. Named Jane Perry. . . 
Second son to Clifford B. Gould '83 and Colleen 
O'Neill on May 11 . Named Harry Niall. . .Third child 
and first son to Scot Wood Krieger '83 and Erin ' 
Schultz Krieger on July 29. Named Preston Wood. . . 
Second son to Dave Strickland B.S.E. '83 and 
Beth Strickland on April 17, 1998. Named Eric 
Maxwell... Second child and daughter to Frank H. 
Willard '83 and Kathleen Willard on May 6, 1998. 
Named Caitlin Marie. . .First child and daughter to 
Howard M. Bear '84 and Juli A. Bear on July 21. 
Named Rachel Alexis. . .Third child and second son to 
Sandra Pettit Durgin B.S.N. '84 and Chuck 
Durgin. Named Peter Nevius. . .Son to Katherine 
Hensel Ely '84 and Jon Peter Ely '84 on July 22, 
1998. Named Jackson David. . .Twins, second daughter 
and first son to Page Ives Lemel B.S.E. '84 and 
Mark Lemel on Nov. 23. Named Hannah Cecile and 
Samuel Ives. ..Third child and son to June Shapiro 
Goldbaum '85 and Stephen Goldbaum on May 2, 
1998. Named Rexford Jazper "Jaz" Scott. . .First child 
and son to Constance Panos Karides '85 on 
Feb. 20, 1999. Named Antonio Peter. . .Daughter to 
Elizabeth Aldrich Gillespie '86, MBA. '91 and 
Philip M. Gillespie '87 on Sept. 10. Named Claire 
Miller. . . Second child and first son to Murry Kauf- 
man Pierce B.S.E. '86 and Matthew Pierce on July 
28. Named Liam Matthew. . .First child and daughter 
to Lisa C. Verderber '86 and Joseph Dellorto on 
July 9. Named Grace Nicole Dellorto... A daughter to 
Karen Woods Woodward '86 and Jeff D. Wood- 
ward on March 5, 1999. Named Kaylin Elise... Second 
child and first son to Hilary Whitman Allinson 
'87 and Brad Allinson on Feb. 25, 1999. Named-Justin 
Whitman... Son to Chris Brice '87, A.M. '92 and 
Sarah Brice on Aug. 3. Named Wilder... Daughter to 
Sarah "Sally" Burks '87 and Jeff Schmalz on Aug. 
28. Named Grace Davis. . .Second child and son to 
Sara Sumner Davidson '87 and Gregory M. 
Davidson on March 26, 1998. Named Peter Walker. . . 
Daughter to Philip M. Gillespie '87 and Eliza- 
beth Aldrich Gillespie '86, MBA. '91 on Sept. 
10. Named Claire Miller. . .Second daughter to John 
Spencer Gray B.S.E. '87 and Carrie Gray on June 
17. Named Sarah Hopkins. . .First child and son to 
Timothy LaCroix M.B.A. '87 and Karol LaCroix on 
April 28. Named Samuel. . .Second child and daughter 
to Leslie Marden Ragsdale '87 and Mark 
Ragsdale on June 3. Named Lindsay Carol... First child 
and son to Felicia Lynn Silber '87 and Gregory 
Faragasso on Aug. 19. Named Peter Gregory Faragasso. . . 
First child and son to Gregory Charles Siuciak 
B.S.E. '87 and Ann Siuciak on May 13. Named Cooper 
Randolph. . .First child and daughter to Heather 
Howe Black '88 and Christopher Black on March 
8. Named Emily Grace. . .First child and son to 
Rebecca Ruth Batchelor Board B.S.E. '88, 
M.S.E. '90 and John Arnold Board Jr. B.S.E. 
'82, M.S.E. '82. Named Anthony Woodrum. . .First 
child and son to Kristin Raybon Kanner '88 and 
Dan Kanner on May 16. Named Alexander Eric. . . 
Second child and first son to David John Kapper 
'88 and Ilene Kapper on May 3. Named Garrett 
Lee... Second child and first son to Mitch Adam 
Neuhauser '88 and Stacey Neuhauser on June 23. 
Named Joseph Gordon. . .First child and daughter to 

Lisa Discher Rosmanitz '88 and Jack Rosmanitz 
on April 6. Named Rachel Caroline. . .First child and 
son to Jeffrey Kyle Sands '88 and April Sands 
on Aug. 27. Named Ethan Jeffrey. . .Twin sons to 
Gregory T. Walker '88 and Colleen Walker on 
Aug. 20. Named Matthew Joseph and Kevin Turner. . . 
First child and daughter to Shellene Wellnitz 
Walker '88, M.B.A. '89 and Simon Walker on 
Aug. 5. Named Bryn Erin. . .Third child and first son 
to Cynthia Regal Balchunas '89 and George 
Balchunas on Aug. 4. Named George Arthur Regal. . . 
Second child and first son to Sally MacCowatt 
Black '89 and Josiah Milton Black '91 on 
July 28. Named William Timanus... First child and 
daughter to Carol Lynn Calomiris '89 and G. 
William Edmunds Jr. on July 22. Named Penelope 
Edmunds. . .A son to Daniel M. Berger '89 and 
Kathleen Sullivan Berger '89 on March 6, 
1999. Named Gabriel Paul. . .First child and son to 
Brenley Locke Elias '89, J.D./A.M. '93 and 
Marc E. Elias J.D./A.M. '93 on May 16. Named 
Grayson Locke. . .Second daughter to Patrick 
Joseph Laverty A.M. '89, Ph.D. '92 and Mary 
Ann Laverty on July 30. Named Meredith Caitlin. . . 
First child and son to Julie Reeves Macke '89 
and Michael Spencer Reeves M.B.A. '95 on 
Nov. 1. Named Spencer Joseph McNaughton...Twin 
sons to Laura Bolton Smith '89 and Jim Smith on 
May 10. Named Jordan Alfred and Logan James... A 
daughter to Anne M. Spence '89 and Robert All 
on May 22. Named Katherine Elizabeth All. 

Lisa B. Kuller '90 works for Arthur Andersen 
Business Consulting, where she is a manager with the 
Integrated Customer Solutions Team. She and her 
husband, David B. Holtzman, live in New York City. 

Tammy Lipman Burgunder '90 is a fourth- 
year medical student at the University of Maryland's 
medical school. She and her husband, Tripp, and their 
son live in downtown Baltimore, "near the Orioles at 
Camden Yard," she writes. 

Kier Meisner B.S.E. '90, who earned his M.B.A. 
at Cornell University's Johnson School of Management 
in May, is an assistant product director for McNeil 
Consumer Healthcare. He and his wife, Kym 
Hirschman Meisner '90, and their two children 
live in North Wales, Pa. 

Mark R. Rigby '90, who is completing his pediatric 
residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital, will begin a 
fellowship in pediatric critical care there this year. He 
and his wife, Sarah Haas Rigby '91, a pediatric 
dietician, and their son live in Catonsville, Md. 

Laine Triplett Wagenseller '90 joined the Los 
Angeles office of Crosby Heafy Roach & May, where 
he will focus on civil litigation. He lives in Pacific 
Palisades, Calif. 

Zebulon D. Anderson '91 is an attorney at Smith, 
Anderson, Blount, Dorsett, Mitchell ckjernigan, 
where he and his wife, Deanna, are litigation associates. 
They live in Raleigh. 

Josiah Milton Black '91 is an associate with the 
Boston office of Mintz Levin. He and his wife, Sally 
MacCowatt Black '89, and their two children live 
in Wellesley, Mass. 

Beau Dure '91 is a community content developer at in Arlington, Va. He and his wife, 
Jennifer, live in Fairfax, Va. 

Jeffrey J. Eberting '91 separated from the Navy 
with an honorable discharge, having received the 
Surface Warfare Dental Officer pin and a Navy 



I actually thought 
I would spend my 
career working in 
nonprofits," says Cathy 
Corbitt '92. As it hap- 
pens, she's not spend- 
ing her career "actu- 
ally" doing anything at 
all — instead, she's 
working on virtual- 
reality applications. 

Corbitt's career 
path runs a winding 
trajectory, from a 
political science major 
to graduate studies at 
Harvard's John F. 
Kennedy School of 
Government to a U.S. 
government job at the 
Education Develop- 
ment Center in New- 
ton, Massachusetts, 
to Grandma Ollie's 
Morphabet Soup, a 
virtual-reality intensive 
CD-ROM that helps 
teach young children 
to read. 

"I grew up with 
media," says Corbitt, 
whose father is a film 
director and computer 
animator. "The first 
real graphics computer 
was in my basement 
when I was a child. 
There were four of 
them in the world. 
Three of them were at 
ABC and one of them 
was in my basement. I 
guess it was kind of 
logical.... It's all I've 
known since I was 

And not only did 
Grandma Ollie's let her 
do the same kind of 
work as her father; it 
let her work with him. 
The Morphabet Soup 
game was produced by 
Corbitt Design, a small 
company that consisted 
of several employees, 
including Corbitt's sis- 
ter and father. (The 
game is based on how 
her grandmother, a 
school teacher, taught 
reading.) The chance 
to join her family again 
was a prime factor in 
Corbitt's decision to 
switch careers. 

Most recently, that 
switch has led into a 
whole new realm: fire 
investigation. She has 
spent the past two years 
working on Interfire 

! H Commendation Medal. He is chief resident in the 

orthodontics program at Temple University'. He and his 
wife, Alyson Amonette Eberting '93, live in 
Trenton, N.J. 

Suzanne E. Franks Ph.D. '91 will head a new 
program at Kansas State University intended to focus 
on the recruitment, academic enhancement, and 
retention of women in engineering and science. 

Corbitt: her CD-ROM project fired up investigators 

VR, a CD-ROM de- 
signed to teach fire 
investigators how to 
analyze fire scenes. 
The project was com- 
missioned by a consor- 
tium, including 
American Re-Insur- 
ance Company, the 
Bureau of Alcohol, 
Tobacco, and Firearms, 
and the National Fire 
Protection Association, 
to address the lack of 
official training for the 
nation's fire investiga- 
tors. Many of those 
investigators can't 
attend fire investiga- 
tion training programs. 

The CD-ROM picks 
up where real infernos 
leave off— and where a 
fire investigator's job 
begins. There are more 
than 600 reference files 
and a tutorial that 
takes its users step-by- 
step through the pro- 
cess of investigating a 
fire, from documenting 
the scene and inter- 
viewing witnesses to 
reading insurance files. 
It's topped by an inter- 
active fire-investigation 
scenario, which can be 
entered by the user and 
followed in a number 
of directions, depend- 
ing on what evidence 
the investigator is able 
to uncover. 

To set the stage for 
that latter feature, Cor- 
bitt Design set fire to a 
house in Massachusetts 
last May and, with a 
microphone down the 
chimney and cameras 
hidden throughout, 
filmed the outcome. 

After the fire was ex- 
tinguished, a VR pho- 
tography unit took pic- 
tures from twenty- 
eight different points in 
and around the house. 
In the final CD-ROM, 
these pictures act as 
the portals into the 
simulation and allow 
the users to stand in a 
fixed location and view 
everything in front, 
beside, and behind 
them. Users are then 
able to act upon or take 
a closer look at the 
objects they see. "So if 
I'm standing in the 
middle of the living 
room, and I click on 
the couch, it then takes 
me to an interface that 
has pictures of all the 
different views of the 
couch," Corbitt ex- 
plains. Users can also 
collect certain items as 
evidence or take pho- 
tographs to refer to 
later in the investiga- 
tion. In all, there are 
about 400 items that 
can be acted upon in 
the CD-ROM. 

The task of design- 
ing such a massive pro- 
ject — from compiling 
the files in the refer- 
ence section, to writing 
the tutorial, to plan- 
ning and writing the 
simulation — fell mostly 
to Corbitt, who spent 
about two years on the 
effort. "People always 
ask me, 'How did you 
ever do this?' And I 
don't know the answer 
to that But I don't know 
how we would have 
done it differently," she 

says. "There are so 
many things going on 
[in the simulation] and 
they all affect each 
other, so that one per- 
son really needs to 
understand everything. 
Somebody has to hold 
in their head — or on a 
piece of paper — every- 
thing related to a prod- 
uct. Otherwise it won't 
match up. It won't be 

With Inter/ire VR 
now mosdy behind 
them, Corbitt and 
Corbitt Design will 
begin spending their 
time on new projects. 
On the basis of Interfire 
VR, the company 
was hired to design 
similar programs for 
electronic crime 
enforcement and post- 
blast investigation. 
The company is even 
doing film work, some 
of which will be seen in 
the feature Britannic — 
a story about the sink- 
ing of Titanic's sister 
ship during World War 
I — set to air on the 
FOX Family Channel. 
The variety and inten- 
sity of the work keep 
Corbitt more than 
occupied. "I've worked 
at a couple of different 
places, and I always 
had a day where I 
woke up and didn't 
want to go to work. I 
don't have that any- 
more. I never think to 
myself that I want to 
stay in bed today." 

i '91, who completed 
medical school and a pediatrics residency at The Johns 
Hopkins Medical Institutions, is a fellow in neonatology 
at Johns Hopkins Hospital. He and his wife, Sherita, 
and their son live in Owings Mills, Md. 

Sarah Haas Rigby '91. who earned her R.D. and 
M.S. in nutrition at Johns Hopkins University, is a 
pediattic dietician at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Het 
husband, Mark R. Rigby '90, a pediatric resident, 

and their son live in Catniisville, Md. 

i III M.B.A. '91 is 
: vice president and chief operating officer 
of the investment management subsidiary, Lowe 
Enterprises Investment Management, Inc., of Lowe 
Enterprises, Inc. He and his wife, Merne Mac, and 
their three children live in Pacific Palisades, Calif. 

Sharon Croom Amaya '92 completed het emer- 
gency medicine residency at the Medical Center of 
Delaware in June. She and her husband Greg, also a 
physician, practice emergency medicine in Atlanta. 

Dean E. Grabelle '92, who earned his J.D. at the 
University of Pennsylvania Law School, is an associate 
at the law firm Drinker Biddle & Reath in its Princeton, 
N.J., office. He and his wife, Lisa, an attorney, live in 

Jeffrey Matthew Marks '92 is working in mar- 
keting for Getz Brothers in Tokyo, Japan. 

Jason "Jake" Earl Meyers '92 is a manager 
at the North Highland Co., where he specializes in 
business process reengineering, marketing, and project 
management. He and his wife, Jennitet, live in 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Bethann Jean Beck '93 is deputy chief of staff to 
the CEO of PricewaterhouseCoopers. She lives in 
Bethesda, Md., and New York City. 

Alyson Amonette Eberting '93, a lieutenant 
in the U.S. Navy Judge Advocate General Corps, is 
branch director of the branch legal services office at 
Earle Naval Weapons Station. She and her husband, 
Jeffrey J. Eberting '91, live in Trenton, N.J. 

Amy Ruth Gillespie J.D. '93, who was named a 
Supreme Court Fellow by the National Association of 
Attorneys General, spent the fall of 1999 observing 
and writing briefs for the U.S. Supreme Court. 

Jason Staff Wood '93 is completing his law degree 
at the University of Virginia's law school. He and his 
wife, Julie, live in Charlottesville. 

Dawn Tracy Rosenblum '94 is a pathology 
tesident at the Medical College of Virginia. She and 
het husband, Pierre Pavot, a neurologist, live in Glen 
Allen, Va. 

Katherine Schulze M.B.A. '94 is an institutional 
salesperson at Salomon Smith Barney, and her husband, 
J. David Lucke '88, is an investment banker at 
Prudential Securities. They live in Houston. 

Bret Rudy Busby '95, who graduated from UNC's 
dental school in May, began a residency in orthodon- 
tics at UNC last fall. His wife, Sarah Pickens 

Busby '95, is development coordinator for Women's 
Health at Duke Medical Center. The couple lives in 
Chapel Hill. 

Adeline Chew Lake B.S.E. '95 is an engineer for 

January- February 2000 

^^^^^^^W re you looking for an unfor- 
^^^^^^ gettable vacation or a weekend 
refresher, among people with similar inter- 
ests? Then come along for one or several of 
the many special excursions and alumni 
colleges that Duke Alumni Education and 
Travel has planned for 2000. 

There are holidays for all budgets and 
tastes and all arrangements are taken 
care of so you can experience a familiar 
or a new place without the worry often 
associated with travel planning. 
For more information just check on the 
request form which trips you would like 
to receive a brochure about and either 
send or fax it to us. We'll be happy to 
send the appropriate information as soon 
as it is available. 

You Are What You Eat A Guide 

to Diets, Herbs & Supplements 

Duke faculty and local experts will pro- 
vide guidance based on the latest evi- 
dence as we discuss a broad variety of 
diets, lifestyle and nutritional interven- 
tions, which are all components of an 
integrative approach to health. 

Exploring North Carolina's Outer Banks 

Orrin Pilkey will lead you on a jour- 
ney of the Outer Banks starting at 
Nag's Head and ending on 
Ocracoke Island. You'll meet local 
experts and scholars and learn the 
perils of the coastal erosion process 
to beaches and buildings as well as 
some possible solutions. 


Summer Academy 

June - august 

$695 per person 

Trinity Center, Salter Path. NC 

Session I: July 2-6 

21st Annual Duke Writers' Workshop 
Small study groups in Short Fiction, 
Novel, Poetry, and Children's Writing 

Session II: July 6-9 

Specialty workshops: Publishing, Screen- 
writing, Memoir and Beginning Fiction 

Summer Session for Duke Alumni 

For the first time, Duke alumni may take 
regular Summer Session undergraduate 
courses for HALF the regular tuition. 

Summer Youth Camps 

June - August 

Residential and day programs 
for students in middle school 
and high school. 



The Panama Canal & the Treasures of 


Costa Rica 

January 13-21 
From $3,495 
per person 

Explore the unspoiled 
world of Costa Rica's 
mountain rainforests, 
fragile orchids and abun- 
dant wildlife. Make full tran- 
sit of the Panama Canal, one of the 
world's great engineering feats. 

Among the Great Whales: 
Baja California & the Sea of Cortez 

Aboard the 70-passenger Sea Lion, expe- 
rience the age-old migration patterns of 
whales amidst exceptional marine and 
bird life in one of the most exciting and 
unspoiled parts of our world, led by Duke 
marine biologist Andy Read. 

Village Life in the Italian Countryside 

Your base for this visit will be an authen- 
tic palazzo in Fiuggi, just 45 minutes 
from Rome. From there some of the 
places you'll visit include the Tivoli 
gardens, Hadrian's Villa, and Fumone, 
a pedestrian-only medieval town. 

Alumni College in Provence 

November 6-14 
$2,395 PER PERSON 

This popular learning adventure takes you 
to the heart of Provence, a land of spec- 
tacular Roman monuments, architectural 
treasures and the beautiful scenery 
immortalized by Cezanne and Van Gogh. 

Village Life in Ireland 

Spend days filled with an invigorating 
mix of mental and physical activity sur- 
rounded by awe-inspiring vistas and 
Celtic history. You'll spend four nights in 
the historic town of Kjllarney and three 
in Dublin, the cultural capital of Ireland. 

Alumni College in Greece 

JUNE 14-23 
$2,295 PER PERSON 

Immerse yourself in the uniqueness of 
Greek life and culture on the island of 
Poros, an Aegean jewel located among 
the spectacular Saronic Gulf islands. 
You'll be less than an hour from 
Athens and close to several of the 
major historical sites on the mainland. 

Exploring the Art & Culture of Belgium 

Hans Van Miegrot of Duke's art histo- 
ry department will lead this special pro- 
gram for those who enjoy a wide range 
of cultural encounters. Based 
in the historic city of 
Ghent, you'll take day 
trips to places such as 
Leiden, Bruges, 
Brussels, Melchelen 
and Antwerp, hear 
talks by leading schol- ^HBH< ' 
ars, and visit private col- 

The Romantic River Route 

While you're on the exclusively char- 
tered M.S. Switzerland II, discover 
the beauty of the Danube, Main and 
Rhine rivers. Visit medieval towns 
along the way, from Regensburg, 
Germany to the Swiss Alps. Venture 
into the Black Forest and explore 
Strasbourg, before completing your 
cruise in Basel, Switzerland. 

Kenya Safari 

Embark on a great adven- 
ture that stretches from 
the vast plains of the 
Maasai Mara to the 
rugged terrain of 
Samburu. You'll see 
animals as they are 
meant to be seen, in the 
wild and roaming free. 
Explore Kenya's vast wildlife 
reserves and enjoy some of the finest 
accommodations in East Africa. 

■ ? 



Historic Montreal & Quebec City Treasures of the Seine 

Sailing the Great Lakes 

On this remarkable voyage sail past pristine 
wilderness and visit quintessential water- 
front towns in the U.S. and Canada, on the 
new five-star LeLevant. Relive the colorful 
times of traders, surveyors and adventurers. 
Visit all five Great Lakes, and reconnect 
with the historic past, guided by Alex 
Roland from the Department of History. 

Discovering Eastern Germany: 
The New Berlin, Dresden & Weimar 

A deluxe tour that opens up the extra- 
ordinary riches of the former German 
Democratic Republic. Reunification has 
brought an astonishing resurgence to East 
Germany and it is rapidly becoming one 
of Europe's most fascinating destinations. 
Accommodations are in beautifully 
restored buildings and palaces. 

Village Life in Wales 

From first class Hotel Metropole in Lland- 
rindod Wells in mid-Wales you'll discover a 
country of unparalleled scenery, steeped in 
history and filled with lyrical voices. Day 
trips to Snowdonia, Bodnant Gardens, 
Caernarfon, Caerphilly and Powys castles 
will complement talks by Michael Moses 
of Duke's English Department. 

Join us for a taste of Europe with- 
out crossing the Atlantic as you 
explore Old World Quebec and 
cosmopolitan Montreal. Participants will 
have the rare opportunity for a private view- 
ing of From Renoir to Picasso, a collection 
of 81 masterpieces from Paris, appearing 
only in Montreal and Fort Worth. 

The Hidden Treasures 
of Northern Italy's Po River 

You'll begin with three days in Florence, 
amongst the treasures of the Italian 
Renaissance, followed by a cruise on 
Italy's scenic Po River, stopping in towns 
rich in history and culture. Finally, two 
days in remarkable Venice. 

The Oxford Experience 

This two-week program 
is designed to immerse you 
in centuries-old traditions of 
learning and community. In 
small groups lead by Oxford faculty, 
you'll learn, explore the English country- 
side and visit fascinating landmarks. 

China & the Yangtse River 

On this exclusive Duke tour, experience 
some of China's most beautiful cities and 
towns, cruise down the lovely Yangtse 
River, and appreciate China's past and 
present through immersion in her unique 
culture. This will be a trip to remember! 

After exploring London, journey across 
the Channel for a cruise along the 
world's most romantic river, stopping to 
explore impressionistic villages and 
ancient architecture, including 
Honfleur, Caudebec and Rouen. Your 
last two nights will be in Paris. 

Alumni College in Sorrento 

This new Alumni College will 
take you to southern Italy's V'-A/ . 

province of Campania, full of ^SP^ 

scenic delights and pathways to ^^B 

antiquity. From your base in the gar- 
den town of Sorrento, you'll venture to 
Naples, the Amalfi Coast and the Isle of 
Capri, marveling at the natural wonders 
of this region. 

Egyptian Odyssey to the Upper Nile 

November 2-16 

approx. $5,395 per person 

As you travel across the sands of 
time you'll enjoy vintage palace 
hotels in Cairo, Luxor, and Aswan, and 
then board the M. S. Kasr Ibrim for glo- 
rious days among the 
monuments of the 
Upper Nile. A 
cruise of Lake 
Nasser will provide 
access to rarely 
seen Nubian sites 
before you return to 
Cairo for the final 
days of this adventure 

Visit us on the web at: 



For detailed brochures, please mail or fax this form to: Duke Educational Adventures, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 27708, Fax: 919-684-6022 

□ Alumni College in Greece 

□ Exploring the Art & Culture of 

□ The Romantic River Route 

□ Kenya Safari 

□ Sailing the Great Lakes 

□ Discovering Eastern Germany 

□ Village Life in Wales 

□ Historic Montreal & Quebec City 

□ The Hidden Treasures of Northern 
Italy's Po River 

□ The Oxford Experience 

□ China & the Yangtse River 

□ Treasures of the Seine 

□ Village Life in Sorrento 

□ Egyptian Odyssey to the Upper Nile 

□ You Are What You Eat: A Guide to 
Diets, Herbs & Supplements 

□ Exploring NC's Outer Banks 

□ Summer Academy 
□ Summer Session 

□ Summer Youth Camps 

□ The Panama Canal & the Treasures 
of Costa Rica 

□ Among the Great Whales 

□ Village Life in the Italian 

□ Alumni College in Provence 

□ Village Life in Ireland 

Arris Interactive in Suwanee, Ga. She and her hus- 
band, Taz Lake '95, live in Atlanta. 

Sharad K. Sharma '95, J.D. '98 is a member of 
the advance staff tor Sen. Bill Bradley's presidential 

David Legrande Sweet '95 had an article and 
graphics on fractals published as a cover story in the 
May 27 issue of Nature magazine. He is pursuing his 
Ph.D. at the University of Maryland. 

Witlin '95 received her master's 
of physical therapy degree from East Carolina 
University in August. She and her husband, Matthew, 
live in Reston, Va. 

'97, a Navy lieutenant j.g., 
earned his wings as a flight officer and is serving in the 
Pacific aboard the aircraft carrier USSJohn C. Stenrus. 

Misty Dawn Allen '98 is a teacher at Nanjing 
University of Economics in Nanjing, China. 

I A. FUSCO '98, a Marine second lieu- 
tenant, completed the logistics officer course at Camp 
Lejeune and is stationed at Twenty-nine Palms, Calif, 
as the motor transport officer for First Tank Battalion. 

Michael A. LaMantia '98 is a chemistry teacher at 
The Hill School, a co-educational boarding school in 
Pottstown, Pa. 

Keatley Stolz '99, who joined the Peace 
Corps, will work as a health educator in Mali. 

MARRIAGES: Lisa B. Kuller '90 to David B. 
Holtzman on July 3 1 . Residence: New York City. . . 
Ashley Brooke Power '90 to Lawrence J. 
O'Connor on May 1. Residence: Alexandria, Va.... 
Zebulon D. Anderson '91 to Deanna Davis on 
Sept. 11. Residence: Raleigh... Beau Dure '91 to 
Jennifer Ahari on July 31. Residence: Fairfax, Va.... 

Date fellow graduates and 

faculty of Duke, The Ivies, 

Seven Sisters, MIT, Stanford, 

Accredited Medical Schools, 

and a few others. 



'9 1 to Jonathan Haas. . . 
Anne George '92 to Duane Sidney Pinto on May 
29. Residence: Newton, Mass. ...Dean E. Grabelle 
'92 to Lisa A. Nass on July 18. Residence: Philadelphia. . . 
Jeffrey Alan Hamburg '92 to Jaimy Michelle 
Levine on Aug. 8. Residence: Chicago. . . Katherine 
Anna Olejar '92 to Mark Ronald Reitz on June 5. 
Residence: Oak Hill, Va.... Suze Begnoche '93 to 
Pavan Reddy in September. Residence: Raleigh... 
Edward G. Lilly III M.D '93 to Lillian C. Montgomery 
on Oct. 23. Residence: Boston. . .Paul S. Teller '93 
to Maxine R. Pressler on July 24. Residence: Washing- 
ton, D.C.... Jason Staff Wood '93 to Julie Ann 
Scholten on Aug. 14. Residence: Charlottesville, Va. . .. 
Joseph Michael Bollinger Jr. BSE. '94 to 
Michelle Totina on July 10. Residence: New York City. . . 
Jessica Gwin Few '94 to Alan Lee Whitehurst 
B.S.E. '94, M.S.E. '97 on Aug. 14 in Duke Chapel. 
Residence: Arlington, Va.... Nancy Krolikowski '94 
to Benjamin Borden McDaniel '96 on Sept. 19, 
1998. Residence: Durham... Dawn Tracy Rosen- 
blum '94 to Pierre V Pavot on May 30. Residence: 
Glen Allen, Va. . . .Katherine Schulze M.B.A. '94 
to J. David Lucke '88 on June 26. Residence: 
Houston. . . Adeline Chew B.S.E. '95 to Taz Lake 
'95. Residence: Atlanta... Jeanne Ann Collins 
'95 to Matthew Vincent Valenti '95 on June 5. 
Residence: New Haven, Conn. . ..Sarah Wakefield 
Pickens '95 to Bret Rudy Busby '95 on June 26. 
Residence: Chapel Hill... Robin Lynn Schretter 
'95 to Matthew Brian Witlin on Sept. 5. Residence: 
Reston, \ Christopher Scott Smith '95 to 
Keira Elizabeth McGovern '97 on May 29. 
Residence: Alexandria, Va.... Benjamin Borden 
McDaniel '96 to Nancy Krolikowski '94 on 
Sept. 19, 1998. Residence: Durham... Monica 
Kirstin Moore '96 to Tomislav Zigo Jr. on May 22. 
Residence: St. Louis... Mary Palmer M.B.A. '96 to 
Michael Harman B.S.E. '88 on Nov. 6. Residence: 
Norwalk, Conn ... .Robert P. Bethea '97 to 
Jennifer Shea West '97 on June 12. Residence: 
Richmond, Va.... Jennifer Leigh Jozwiak '97 to 
Heath Jordan Mills '97 on July 3 1 in Duke 
Chapel. Residence: Tucker, Ga.... Keira Elizabeth 
McGovem '97 to Christopher Scott Smith '95 
on May 29. Residence: Alexandria, Va....Gray Allan 
Coulton MBA. '98 to S. Elizabeth Orso M.B.A. 
'98 on July 4. Residence: Arnold, Md.... Peggy J. 
Galbraith '98 to Robert W. Kaufman '98 on 
June 20. Residence: Durham. 

BIRTHS: A daughter to Kristen Eastwood 
Bowers '90 and John J. Bowers J.D. '92, M.B.A. 
'92 on May 21 . Named Caitlin Eastwood . . . First child 
and daughter to Marshall Stronach Burcham 
'90 and David W. Burcham on Oct. 2. Named Eleanor 
Clark. . .First child and son to Tammy Lipman 
Burgunder '90 and Tripp Burgunder on Aug. 13. 
Named Benjamin Henry. . .Second child and first son 
to Kristyn Elliot J D 90 and Paul Dietrich J.D. 
'90 on June 11 . Named Benjamin Paul. . .Second child 
and first daughter to Todd F. Griffith '90 and 
Andrea Fraser Griffith '92 on June 23. Named 
Caroline Susan. . .Second son to Anthony C. Leung 
B.S.E. '90 and Christina M. Wagner '92 on March 
8, 1999. Named Max Evan Leung-Wagner. . . Second 
child and first daughter to Kym Hirschman 
Meisner '90 and Keir Meisner B.S.E. '90 on Sept. 
16, 1998. Named Lauten Hayley...Twin sons to Jona- 
than Seth Meyer '90 and Georgina Twiselton 
Meyer on May 27. Named David Reuben and Nicholas 
Alexander... First child and son to Mark R. Rigby 
'90 and Sarah Haas Rigby '91 on May 20. Named 
William Washburne. . . Second child and first son to 
Josiah Milton Black '91 and Sally MacCowatt 
'89 on July 28. Named William Timanus. . .First child 
and daughter to Tanya Bayles Clawson '91 and 
Mike Clawson on June 23. Named Savannah Diane. . . 

First child and daughter to Jeffrey J. Eberting '91 
and Alyson Amonette Eberting '93 on Oct. 4. 
Named Jaclyn Leigh. . .First child and son to William 
Christopher Golden '91 and Sherita Hill Golden 
on Sept. 27. Named Andrew Christopher... First 
child and son to Eric Robert Harnish '91 and 
Jennifer Dyer Harnish '91 on July 12. Named 
Owen Tyler. . .First child and son to Stacy Stansell 
Klein B.S.E. '91 and Garrett Klein on May 9. Named 
Bennett Detby. . .First child and son to Sarah Haas 
Rigby '91 and Mark R. Rigby '90 on May 20. 
Named William Washburne. . .First child and son to 
Emily Lopez Christ '92 and Russell Christ on Aug. 
18. Named Alexander Manuel. . . First child and son to 
Kenneth C. Sands '92 and Natasha Sands on Aug. 
25, 1998. Named Mason Pierce... Second son to 
Christina M. Wagner '92 and Anthony C. 
Leung B.S.E. '90 on March 8, 1999. Named Max 
Evan Leung- Wagner. . .First child and son to Marc E. 
Elias J.D/A.M. '93 and Brenley Locke Elias '89, 
J.D./A.M. '93 on May 16. Named Grayson Locke... 
First child and son to Randall Eugene McGeorge 
'94 and Kimherley Hillegass McGeorge on March 15, 
1999. Named Cameron Eugene. First child and son to 
Michael Spencer Reeves M.B.A. '95 and Julie 
Macke Reeves '89 on Nov. 1. Named Spencer 
Joseph McNaughton. 


Bessie Rooker Hicks '25, A.M. '29 of Norlina, 
N.C., on Nov. 18, 1998. 

James E. Coltrane '26, A.M. '28 of Greensboro, 
N.C., on Oct. 8, 1998. 

Nancy Crews Headen '27 of Winston-Salem, 
N.C., on Sept. 18, 1998. She had taught school in 
Siler City, Walkertown, and Winston-Salem and was 
treasurer of WA. Headen Adjustment Co., founded 
by her late husband. She is survived by eight nieces 
and nephews. 

Blanche Baldwin Midgett '27 of Greensboro, 
N.C., in January 1999. 

Norman Lunsford Yearby '27 of Durham, on July 3. 
He retired from the American Tobacco Co. in 1966. He 
is survived by a daughter, a son, and four grandchildren. 

Robert G. Tuttle '28, M.Div. '34 of Asheville, N.C., 
on April 12. He is survived by his wife, Lillian Allen 
Tuttle '33; two daughters, including Betty Tuttle 
Newman 57; and a son, Robert G. Tuttle Jr. 63. 

Carla Albright Camp '30 of Pittsboro, N.C., on 
April 27. She was a community volunteer and a former 
deacon of the Presbyterian Church. She is survived by 
a son and two grandsons. 

Marjorie Peoples Rhinesmith '30 of Oxford, 
Ohio, on Nov. 3, 1998, of a stroke. She was a museum 
docent, an actress in community theater, and a quilter. 
She is survived by a daughter and two grandchildren. 


Helen Anders Freeman '32 of Gastonia, N.C., 
on Feb. 20. She received the Jaycees Senior Citizens 
Award in 1998. She is survived by two grandsons. 

Lindell L. Leathers '32 of Salem, Va., on March 
11. He is survived by his wife, El 
Leathers '31. 

'32 on March 22. She is 
survived by her husband, John; a daughter, Jane McClel- 
land Davis B.S.E. '85; and two nieces, Araminta 
Purefoy Coolidge '57 and Sally Pierce Hall '61. 

L. Ralph Alligood '33 of Washington, N.C. 

Richard Lane Brown Jr. '33 on Feb. 25, 1998. 


Klare '33 of Williamsburg, Va., on May 3. 

Gilbert Miller '33 of Statesville, N.C., on March 5. 
He is survived by his wife, Dorothy, and a son. 

Richard J. Starling '33, B.D. '36 of Monroe, N.C., 
on July 12. He is survived by his wife, Letha 
Osborne Starling '33. 

Laura Wood White '33 of Raleigh, N.C., on April 
30. She was an administrator with the Selective 
Service for the State of North Carolina. She is survived 
by a brother. 

John L. Eastlake '34 of Concord, N.H., on April 
12, of complications from Alzheimer's disease. He was 
a Realtor and served as a captain in the Army during 
World War II. He is survived by a daughter, a son, and 
two grandchildren. 

Owen L. Goolsby A.M. '34 of Lynchburg, Va., on 

April 7. 

Karl Z. Morgan Ph.D. '34 of Oak Ridge, Tenn., on 
June 8, of an aneurysm. He was a pioneering health 
physicist who helped set international standards for 
radiation exposure and an outspoken critic of the mis- 
use of atomic energy. He is survived by his wife, Helen; 
two daughters; and two sons. 

Margaret Hines Mueller R.N. '34, B.S.N. '40 of 
Leansville, N.C., on Sept. 13, 1998. 

Charlotte Umstead Sledge '34 of Durham, on 
July 5. She is survived by twin daughters and three sis- 

in Uhde '34, M.D '36 of Louisville, Ky, 
on Aug. 27. He was chairman and professor of otorhi- 
nolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat surgery) in the 
department of surgery at the University of Louisville for 
30 years. He is survived by his wife, Maurine 
Whitley Uhde R.N. '34; three children, including 
Thomas Uhde '71; and eight grandchildren. 

J. Harper Cox '35 of Wilmington, N.C., on Nov. 13, 
1998. An Air Force veteran of World War II, he was a 
retired superintendent of Swift & Co. and a charter 
member of the Iron Dukes. He is survived by his wife, 
Louise; two sons, including Joseph H. Cox Jr. 
B.S.M.E. '65; a daughter; and 10 grandchildren. 

C. Clements Gouldman '35 of Charlottesville, 
Va., on Aug. 29, 1998. He is survived by a son, 
William Clyde Gouldman '63, and a grandson, 
Carl Clements Gouldman '90. 

A. Benjamin Narbeth '35 of Catonsville, Md., on 
March 7, 1999. 

Clifton Godfrey Stoneburner B.S.C.E. '35 of 
Arlington County, Va., on July 20, of a stroke. An engi- 
neer for 37 years, he was the county's first transporta- 
tion director. He is survived by his wife, Dorothy; two 
sons; and four grandchildren. 

I G. Vick '35 of Kinston, N.C, on A P nl 25. He 
was a retired stockbroker. He is survived by a daughter, 
a son, four grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren. 

Carroll O. Dailey '36 of Baton Rouge, La., on June 1. 
He was a retired businessman, a World War II veteran, 
and a member of the U.S. Naval Reserve. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Betty; a daughter; a son; a sister; and 
a brother. 

Francis B. Remmey '36 of Blue Bell, Pa., on Sept. 19. 

Robert H. Rushmer B.S.E.E. '36 of Frederick, 
Md., on July 17. 

bb '36, Ph.D. '54 of Sewanee, 
Term., on April 29. He served in World War II under 
Gen. Patton. He was a past dean of the college at the 
University of the South and the Francis S. Hougteling 
Professor of History. He is survived by his wife, Ellen 
'36; a son; and a step-granddaughter. 

George H. Henry '37 of Alamo, Calif., on Jan. 4, 
1999. He is survived by his wife, Ruth. 

37 of Hawkinsville, Ga., 

on Dec. 19, 1998. 

Richard H. Owen III '37 of Belleair Bluffs, Fla., on 
May 19. He was an assistant general manager for Ameri- 
can Tobacco Co. in Richmond, Va., and on the board 
of directors of the American Tobacco Co. of the Orient 
before moving to Florida. A Navy veteran of World 
War II, he had been awarded a Bronze Star, a Purple 
Heart, and the Asian Pacific Medal with two stars. He 
is survived by his wife, Mary Clark Owen '40; a 
son; two grandchildren; and four great-grandchildren. 

Swan '37 of Melbourne, Fla., on Jan. 9, 

'37 of Clarksville, 
Md., on April 22. She worked on Wall Street before 
marrying and moving to Maryland. She was a member 
of the board ot Montgomery General Hospital and a 
volunteer at the Therapeutic and Recreational Riding 
Center in Glenwood. She is survived by two daughters, 
two sons, a brother, and nine grandchildren. 

Charles Ross Duncan M.D. '38 of Winston- 
Salem, N.C, on Sept. 9. He was a Navy physician in 
World War II before returning to Radtord, Va., to prac- 
tice general surgery until retiring. He is survived by his 
wife, Margaret; five children; 11 grandchildren; and a 

Andrew John Hickey B.S.C.E. '38 on March 4, 

1999. He is survived by his wife, Lee. 

I A.M. '38 of Elon College, 
N.C, on Aug. 17. She was a high school biology teach- 
er for many years before joining the Carolina Biological 
Supply Co. in 1944. In 1947, she became its corporate 
secretary. She is listed in Who's Who aj American 
Women. She is survived by five nieces and six nephews. 

Marguerite Neel Williams '38 of Thomasville, 

Ga., on May 11. 

James S. Bethel M.F '39, D.F. '47 of Mercer 
Island, Wash., on May 18, of pneumonia. As dean of 
the University ot Washington's College of Forest 
Resources from 1964 to 1981, he is attributed with 
guiding the college to rank among the nation's top-five 
forestry institutions. He earned his bachelor's degree at 
U.W and served as a captain in the Army Air Forces 
during World War II. Working as a plywood-plant man- 
ager, he was invited by the Yugoslavian government to 
help tebuild their plywood industry. He later taught 
forestry and was acting dean at N.C. State's graduate 
school. In 1962, he became a forestry professor and 
associate dean of the U.W. graduate school and, within 
two years, was named forestry dean. He is survived by 
two sons and four grandchildren. 

A. Gordon Fischer '39 of Baltimore, on June 2, 
of cancer. He served the Episcopal Church as deacon, 
assistant to the tector, and rector before he retired. 
He was then a volunteer priest in his retitement com- 
munity for six years. 

Charles C. Reese Jr. '39 of Wil 

Oct. 18, 1998. 

, Del, on 

Slatkin '39 of Leonia, N.J., on Nov. 3, 
1998, of heart failure. He is survived by his wife, 
Helen; a daughter; and two gtandchildren. 

Robert Bruce Wyman '39 of Sierra Vista, Ariz., 
on Dec. 17, 1998. 

Sallie White Brandt '40 of Durham, on May 20. 
While at Duke, she was a member of Kappa Alpha 
Theta sorority. She was a member of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution. She is survived by a son. 

Harry S. Etter M.D. '40 of Chevy Chase, Md., on 
Aug. 1, of cancer. A retired Navy rear admiral, he had 

A Charitable 

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That Pays 

In exchange for a gift of 
$10,000 or more, Duke can 
offer you (or you and another 
named beneficiary) a fixed 
annual income for life. 

Your ages, your financial 
needs, and current interest 
rates determine the annuity 
rate Duke can offer. 

Some Sample Rates 

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change. Once your gift is made, 
the annuity rate remains fixed. 

Please allow us to send you 
a proposal by contacting: 

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2127 Campus Drive 

Durham, NC 27708-0606 

919-681-0464 (Phone) 
919-684-9731 (Fax) (Email) (Web) 

January-February 2000 

been a commanding officer of Bethesda Naval Hospital 
and a former head of the planning division for the 
Navy Medical Department. He is survived by his wife, 
Barbara; five daughters; two sons; 17 grandchildren; 
and two great-grandchildren. 

Eugene L. Horger '40, M.D. '43 of Deerfield Beach, 
Fla., on April 10, after a brief illness. He was an Air 
Force captain during the Korean War. He specialized 
in internal medicine in the New York City area before 
retiring. He is survived by his wife, Susannah; three 
daughters; three sons; and eight grandchildren. 

William H. Owens A.M. '40 of Jackson, Mo„ on 
May 30. He was the retired executive director of the 
United Way in Jackson. His hobby was amateur 
radio and he was involved with Civil Defense and 
other agencies in emergency communications during 
tornadoes and hurricanes. He is survived by his wife, 
Mary; two daughters; a son; and six grandchildren. 

Richard Joseph Parker Jr. '40 on May 14. He 

was a member of the boards of directors or Andean 
Rural Health Care and the Mouzoh United Methodist 
Church. He is survived by his wife, Ludie Bothwell 
Parker '39, and a granddaughter, Betsy Jordan '99. 

Edward Flud Burrows A.M. '41 of Greensboro, 
N.C., on Dec. 17, 1998. He had retired as a professor at 
Guilford College. 

Charles Jenkins Henderson 41, JD. '42 of 

Charlotte, N.C., on March 27. During World War II, 
he served in the Navy as a lieutenant j.g. on the USS 
Azameck. He then practiced law with his father and 
brother. He is survived by his wife, Juanita; two 
daughters; two sons, Robert E. Henderson '76, 
J.D. '79 and James Herschel Henderson '83; 
two brothers, including David H. Henderson '35, 
J.D. '37; and a sister. 

Jesse Carl Clamp Jr. '42 of Lexington, S.C., 
on April 21. He was an Air Force veteran of World 
War II. He taught economics at Duke in 1948. He 
was a past member of the board of directors for the 
Duke Center for Living. He is survived by his wife, 
Gwynne; two daughters; two sons; five step-children; 
and eight grandchildren and step-grandchildren. 

Sarah Booe Enfield '42 of Winston-Salem, N.C., 
on May 5. At Duke, she was a member of Alpha Delta 
Pi and the Chapel Choir. She is survived by a daughter, 
Lucy Enfield Lockwood '68; a son, Samuel 
Enfield III 75; a sister, Esther Booe 
'62; and a niece Natalie S. Bimel '70. 
John Mellichamp Fearing M.D. '42 of Leesburg, 
Va., on March 12. He had attended the Army School 
of Neuropsychiatry and had retired as a Washington 
area psychiatrist. He is survived by two sons and nine 

Doris L. Goddard '42 of Dennis, Mass., on June 11. 
Irma Shufflebarger Odom M.Ed. '42 of Dayton 
Va., on Sept. 9, 1998, of cardiac arrest. 
Allan Clifford Smith '42 of Akron, Ohio, on April 
30. He was a lieutenant commander in the Naval Air 
Corps and served in World War II and Korea. He 
joined Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. and retired as 
president of Firestone Steel Products. He is survived 
by his wife, Marjorie Hodgson Smith '42; a son; 
two daughters; and six grandchildren. 

Henry Lewis Valk M.D. '42 of Advance, N.C., 
on March 22. He was a physician with the Bowman 
Gray School of Medicine at Wake Forest University for 
42 years. In 1990, he retired as emeritus professor of 
medicine. He is survived by a daughter; a son, Henry 
Lewis Valk Jr. '74; two grandchildren; and a sister. 
Donna Rehkopf Allen '43 of Washington, D.C., 
in August. She earned her master's in economics at 
the University of Chicago in 1953, and her Ph.D. in 

history in 197 1 at Howard University She taught 
grievance procedures and labor economics and history 
at Cornell University. She was the author of Fringe 
Benefits and co-author of Communications at the 
Crossroads: The Gender Gup Connection. In 1972, she 
founded the Women's Institute for Freedom of the 
Press and was publisher of the newsletter Media Report 
for Women until 1987. She was a founder of Women 
Strike for Peace, which opposed nuclear weapons 
and the Vietnam War, and was the Washington 
representative for the National Committee to Abolish 
the House Un-American Activities Committee. She is 
survived by four children and three grandchildren. 

Jeanne Jackson Altman '43 of Silver Spring, 
Md., on Sept. 5, 1998. 

S. Vanderpool Jr. '43, J.D. '48 of Boone, 
N.C., on March 20, 1999. He served in the Navy during 
World War II and later taught speech and theater at 
Iowa's Grinnell College for 20 years. He is survived by 
his wife, Virginia; a daughter; two sons; and three 

Nannie Marguerite Hainge M.D. '44 of 
Tarrytown, N.Y., on May 27, 1998, of complications 
from Alzheimer's disease. She was an obstetrician and 
gynecologist until retiring in 1985. She is survived by 
her husband, Foo Chu. 

James J. Crosson Jr. '45 of New Brunswick, N.J. 

Harold L. Landesberg '45 on April 21 in 
Philadelphia. He recruited Duke scholars and tennis 
and basketball players from the 1950s through the 
1970s. He later founded Israel Tennis Centers near Tel 
Aviv. He is survived by his wife, Marcy, and two sons, 
including David H. Landesberg '84. 

George Lewis Sands '45, LL.B. '51 of Miami, on 
Nov. 11, 1998. He was a trial attorney and a veteran of 
World War II. He is survived by his wife, Muriel; two 
daughters; a son; and eight grandchildren. 

Velma J. Ritchey Cohen '46 of Covington, La., on 
Jan. 21, 1999. At Duke, she was a member of the Women's 
Glee Club and the Chapel Choir, where she was the piano 
accompanist. She is survived by her husband, Albert. 

Naldi Poe Klein '46 of Annapolis, Md., on July 4. 
At Duke, she was a member of the Chapel Choir. She is 
survived by her husband, Michael. 

Irene "Corky" Rose '46 of Brewster, Mass., 
on Aug. 13. At Duke, she was president of the Women's 
Athletic Association. She established the Meridian 
Club's synchronized swimming shows and the Sunday 
Night Sings on East Campus. She worked for Nelson 
Productions in New York as a director's assistant in the 
early days of television. She is survived by a niece. 

Corwin Warnecki '46 of Great Falls, Va., 
on April 1, of cancer. She studied law at George Wash- 
ington University, worked as caseworker for the American 
Red Cross, and as a personnel executive at a department 
store. She accompanied her husband on his interna- 
tional assignments as a foreign service officer. They 
moved to the Washington area in 1975. She is survived 
by her husband, Aloysius; a son; and a granddaughter. 

Harold E. Young M.F. '46, Ph.D. '48 of Orono, 
Maine, on July 25, 1998. 

Augustus E. Evans M.F. '47 of Kingsport, Tenn., 
on Jan. 28, 1999. 

Allen H. Gwyn '47, J.D. '50 of Reidsville, N.C., on 
June 10. A Navy lieutenant during World War II, he 
was a former Democratic party chairman and a member 
of the N.C. Bar Association's board of governors. He is 
survived by his wife, Evelyn; two daughters, Jane 
Gwyn Ward '76 and M. Leslie Gwyn '77; and a 
brother, Julius Gwyn '50, L.L.B. '53.. 

C. Hofmeister '47 of Baton Rouge, La., 

on April 4. A Navy veteran of World War II, he was an 
executive vice president for Delta Southern Corp., Inc. 
He is survived by his wife, Virginia; a daughter; two 
sons; and three grandchildren. 

Ophelia Strum Faulkner '48 of Tampa, Fla., in 
February 1999. She taught swimming from 1957 to 1987 
and owned a children's clothing shop for 25 years. She 
is survived by a daughter, two sons, and five grandsons. 

Charles Odell Kennedy Jr. J.D. '48 of Gaines- 
ville, Fla., on Aug. 17, 1998. He was a Marine Corps 
veteran of World War II and an FBI agent for 25 years 
before retiring in 1973. He then taught criminal justice 
at North Georgia College. He is survived by his wife, 
Carolyn; three daughters; a son; a brother; and a sister. 

Myer Kessler Ph.D. '48 of Belmont, Mass. 
Isobel Autry Klingenhagen '48 of Falls Church, 
Va., on June 25. During the Vietnam War, she was an 
American Red Cross Grey Ladies volunteer during her 
husband's military assignment. She also taught art. She 
is survived by her husband, John; three children; and 
four grandchildren. 

Henry C. Alexander Jr. M.D. '49 on June 1 of Par- 
kinson's disease. He was a Korean War veteran of the 
Army Medical Corps. He was chief of staff at the VA. 
Hospital at Fort Howard, Md., and retired in 1973. He 
is survived by a daughter, three grandchildren, and a 
sister, Margaret "Betty" Alexander Cardo '44. 

Lucy "Sis" Watson Darby '49 on May 9, of cancer. 
At Duke, she was a member of White Duchy and Kappa 
Alpha Theta sorority. She is survived by a daughter. 
Robert P. Hall B.S.C.E. '49 of New Smyrna Beach, 
Fla., in December 1998. 

Isaac M. Copeland Jr. '50, B.D.'53 of Chesapeake, 
Va., on July 4. He was an Air Force colonel and a 
chaplain before retiring in 1984. He received the Legion 
of Merit with two oak leaf clusters, the Meritorious 
Service Medal with three oak leaf clusters, and the Air 
Force Commendation Medal with one oak leaf cluster. 
He is survived by his wife, Florence; a daughter; a son; 
a sister; and two grandchildren. 

R. Merriman B.D. '50 of Sante Fe, Kan., 
on Jan. 7. He was an Army Air Force veteran of World 
War II and a United Methodist minister for 30 years. 
His is survived by his wife, Neva; four children; and six 

Elbert R. Nuttle Jr. B.S.M.E. '50 of Towson, Md., 
on May 22, of cardiac arrest. He traveled world-wide as 
a manager for Ellicott Machine Corp., a manufacturer 
of dredging equipment. He retired in 1994 after 27 
years. He is survived by his wife, Jayne; a son; two 
daughters; three brothers; and six grandchildren. 

Lawrence Nathaniel Thompson Jr. M.F. '50 
of Milledgeville, Ga., on March 19. 

Roy Augusta Agner Jr. M.D. '51 of Salisbury, N.C, 
on April 18. A veteran of World War II, he practiced 
medicine for 41 years. He is survived by his wife, Martha; 
two sons, including Roy Christopher Agner M.D. 
'75; five daughters; and 20 grandchildren, including 

M. Agner '99 and Matthew Agner 02. 

Ben H. Hackney Jr. '51 of Charlotte, N.C, on 
May 14, of cardiac arrest. He was a founding faculty 
member of the education department at Charlotte 
College, now UNC-Charlotte. He is survived by his 
wife, Helen, and two daughters. 

Grace Cunningham Horton PT Cert. '51 of 
Durham on March 29. An emeritus professor of physical 
therapy at Duke, she had been a physical therapist for 
40 years. She is survived by a daughter and two sisters. 
Charles Warren Jennings Ph.D. '51 of 
Albuquerque, N.M., on Feb. 19, of complications from 
Parkinson's disease. He was a Navy lieutenant during 


World War II and a research chemist at Sandia 
National Laboratories from 1957 until retiring in 1988. 
He received the President's Award from the Inter- 
national Printed Circuit Society. He is survived by his 
wife, Donna; a son; and two daughters. 

William M. Rickman LL.B. '51 on Dec. 18, 1998. A 
veteran of World War II, he later worked for the Justice 
Department. In 1993, he was commended by President 
Clinton on his nomination for the President's Volunteer 
Action Award. He is survived by his wife, Ruth. 

Robert John Wolmering B.S.E.E. '51 of Sanford, 
N.C. A Navy veteran, he served on the L/SS Rush 
during World War II. After working for Westinghouse 
for 32 years in Buffalo, N.Y., he retired to Carolina 
Trace in Sanford. He is survived by his wife, Henrietta; 
three children; and six grandchildren. 

Marion Brown Blew '52 of Melbourne Beach, 
Fla., on March 29. She is survived by her husband, 
William; a daughter; a son; and two grandchildren. 

Dixon A. Lackey Jr. '53, M.D. '57 of Decatur, Ga. 
William E. Sanders '53 of Rockville, Md., on May 
14. In 1950, he began his career at the National Heart, 
Lung, and Blood Institute, retiring in 1989 as senior 
writer and information officer. He is survived by his 
wife, Charlotte; two children; a sister; and a brother. 
James Richard Tice '53 of Charlotte, N.C, on 
May 13. The owner of an insurance consulting firm, he 
was a member of the Charlotte Chamber of Commerce. 
He is survived by his wife, Tillie, and two daughters. 

Philip Torrence Cook '54 of Beaver, WVa., on 
June 7, by suicide. An Air Force veteran of World War 
II, he was a life-long civil servant and rehabilitation 
counselor. He is survived by his wife, Jacqueline; a 
daughter; his mother; and a sister. 

Mary Duke McKelvre '54 of Jacksonville, Fla., on 
April 19. 

Carolyn B. Washburn '54 on Nov. 24, 1998. 

Jerry F. McKenzie III '55 of Rock Hill, S.C., on 
June 2. 

Davis J. Odell '55 of Mount Airy, N.C, on Jan. 17, 
1998. At Duke, he was a member of Phi Delta Theta. 
He is survived by his wife, Mary; two daughters; two 
sons; his mother; and six grandchildren. 

Wesley T. "Andy" Andrews Jr. '56 on March 
30. He worked in public accounting before earning his 
Ph.D. in 1976. He was a professor of accounting at St. 
Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Carol Grady Andrews '56; a 
daughter; four sons; and eight grandchildren. 

vis Cranford M.D. '56 of Lexington, 
N.C, on April 15. He was an Army Air Corps veteran 
of World War II. He practiced ophthalmology for 35 
years. He is survived by his wife, Gloria, and a son. 

George Bailey Autry '58, J.D. '61 of Chapel Hill 
on April 25, 1999. For 32 years, he was president of 
MDC, Inc., a nonprofit research firm for improving 
North Carolina's economy through expanding 
educational opportunities. In 1999, Duke awarded 
him a posthumous honorary doctor of laws degree. 
He is survived by his wife, Bess Powell Autry '61 ; 
a daughter; a son; and a grandson. 
John C. 
Dec. 26, 1 

Jr. '59 of Jonesboro, La., on 

R. LaBone '60 of Halifax, Pa., on March 
31. He is survived by his wife, Barbara. 
Robert Horger Moorer Sr. M.A.T '61 of Bow- 
man, S.C., on May 13, 1998. A Navy veteran of World 
War II, he taught and coached football and basketball 
at Harleyville-Ridgeville High School. From 1963 until 
retiring, he was a claims representative for State Farm 

Mutual Insurance Co. He is survived by his wife, 
Evelyn; a son; a daughter; and three grandchildren. 

Leland L. Lengel A.M. '62 of McPherson, Kan., 
on Oct. 28, 1998, of cardiac arrest. He was a history 
professor at McPherson College for 36 years, where he 
also served as acting dean of the college and as associ- 
ate dean of academic affairs. 

M. Barkat A.M. '63, Ph.D. '65 on April 14, 
of cardiac arrest, in Lahore, Pakistan. A native of 
Pakistan, he served briefly as a field staff member of the 
University Christian Movement and taught political 
science at West Virginia Wesleyan University. He 
returned to Pakistan to teach, and was later principal 
(president) of Foreman Christian College in Lahore 
and a member of the Central Committee of the World 
Council of Churches. He left Pakistan to direct the 
World Council's Programme to Combat Racism and 
served as the council's representative to the United 
Nations in New York. In the early 1990s, he returned 
to Pakistan to teach political science at the University 
of Lahore. He is survived by his wife, Usha; two sons; 
and a daughter. 

Ward B. Stevenson Jr. '63, J.D. '65 of New York 
City, on March 3. He was senior vice president and 
general counsel of the Episcopal Church's church pension 
group. He is survived by his wife, Margot; a daughter; 
and two sons, including Peter Marshall Steven- 
son '85 and Scott Woodard Stevenson J.D. '92. 

Gretchen Snavely Doherty RT Cert. '65 of 
Cairo, Ga., on June 3, of cancer. She is survived by her 
husband, Bill. 

W. R. MacDonald M.A.T. '65 of Alexan- 
dria, Va., on Jan. 23, of complications from Parkinson's 
disease. He is survived by his wife, Elizabeth. 
Mary D. Allen '68 of Chicago, on July 27, of cancer. 
She was the vice president, general counsel, and 
secretary of Brunswick Corp. and served on the board 
of directors of Family Matters, a nonprofit organization. 
She is survived by her husband, Richard; a son; a 
stepdaughter; a stepson; and two step-grandchildren. 

Duke Miles '68 of Atlanta, on June 17, as a result 
of a massive stroke. An former actuary with several 
Atlanta firms, he was a vice president of Towers-Perrin. 
He is survived by his wife, Melinda; a son; a daughter; 
his mother; and a brother. 

Craig R. Morin '70 of Columbia, S.C., on April 30. 
He was a psychiatrist at Dorn VA. Hospital. He is 
survived by his wife, Martha, and a daughter. 

C. Gaither '71 of Wildwood Dunes Trail, 
S.C, on Sept. 20. A retired Air Force lieutenant colonel, 
he was a real estate broker in Myrtle Beach. He was a 
past president of the Sons of the American Revolution. 
He is survived by a son and three grandchildren. 

Claud Roland Johnson M.Div. '72 of Richmond, 
Va. He is survived by his wife, Suzanne Clark Johnson 
M.A.T 71. 

Ph.D. '73 of Arlington, Va., 
on July 19, of cancer. He was a chemist and former 
program manager at the Environmental Protection 
Agency. After 20 years at the EPA, he retired in 1997 
and co-founded and was executive director of the 
Green Chemistry Institute, a nonprofit organization. 
He is survived by two sisters and a brother. 

Willie Lee Middlebrooks Jr. M.Div. '78 of 
High Point, N.C, on June 4, 1998. He was an ordained 
deacon in the United Methodist Church and later co- 
hosted Gospel Expo, a television ministry, for 29 years. 

Rita Short Moahan M.S.N. '80 of La Grande, Ore., 
on July 14, of cancer. She was an associate professor at 
Oregon Health Sciences University's nursing school at 
Eastern Oregon University. She received numerous 
teaching awards and published extensively in the fields 

of gerontological nursing and chronu illnesses. She is 
survived by her husband, Gregory, and rwo children. 

Alexander Stefan von Renner Nelius '80 of 

Durham, on June 22, by suicide. He did graduate work 
at the University of Perugia in Italy before beginning 
five years of world-wide backpack travel. He worked 
for several months in an Israeli kibbutz and taught 
English to Buddhist monks in Thailand. He later 
wotked in Washington as a political aide and in San 
Francisco for Genentech, Inc., before returning to 
Durham to work for Cato Research. He is survived by 
his parents, Sigrid and Albert Nelius. 

William B. "Bill" Scarborough, Jr. Ph.D. '84 of 
Chapel Hill, N.C, on July 31. He was a former Glade 
Valley High School principal and was in private prac- 
tice in psychology until last year. He is survived by his 
wife, Kimberly, and two sons. 

Chimin Chien Ph.D. '90 of Taipei, Taiwan, in an 
airplane accident on Feb. 16, 1998. He was chief of 
the economic research department of the Central 
Bank of Taiwan. He is survived by his wife, Min Lu, 
and two children. 

April 15. 

M.Div. '92 of Eden, N.C, on 

Ann Holland A.H.C. '92 of Denton, 
Texas, on April 9. A graduate of Stephen F. Austin 
University, she earned her mastet's degtee at the 
University of Texas at Tyler. She spent two and a half 
years in Kenya working in reforestation in association 
with the Episcopal Church. She then attended Virginia 
Theological Seminary and was ordained an Episcopal 
priest. She is survived by her mother, a brother, and 
two nephews. 

Church Historian Baker 

An internationally renowned authority on Methodism 
founder John Wesley, Divinity School professor 
emeritus Frank Baker died in his sleep October 11 in 
Durham. He was 89. 

Born in Kingston-upon-Hull, England, he earned 
his bachelor of arts degree at the University of London 
in 1931, his bachelor of divinity degree at Manchester 
University in 1934, and his Ph.D. at the University of 
Nottingham in 1952. 

Baker, who was ordained a Methodist minister in 
1937, served pastorates throughout central and northern 
England until 1959. He joined Duke's Divinity School 
faculty in 1960 and taught in the religion department. 
He retired in 1980 as professor emeritus of English 
church history. 

His thirty books and more than 200 articles ranged 
from scholarly volumes, such as John Wesley and the 
Church of England and From Wesley to Ashury: Studies in 
Early American Methodism, to an original collection of 
children's stories. During his career at Duke and after 
retiring, he was editor of the definitive edition of 
Wesley's writing, the thirty-six volume Bicentennial 
Edition of the Works of John Wesley, which is being pub- 
lished by Abingdon Press. 

Baker's collection of books and writings on Methodism, 
begun in the mid- 1930s, grew in excess of 15,000 items 
and fout tons before he began donating it over a period 
of two decades to the Perkins and Divinity School 
libraries. The collection remains the second largest 
number of Wesley publications in the world, with more 
than fifty titles representing the only known copies. 

A recipient of the St. Geotge's Gold Medal for dis- 
tinguished service to the United Methodist Church, he 
was presented the Distinguished Service Award in 
1994 by the General Commission on Archives and 
History of the United Methodist Chutch. In September 
1999, the Ftank and Nellie Baker Methodist Research 
Center was established at the Divinity School for 
future Wesley scholarship. 

Baker is survived by his wife, Nellie; two daughters; 
a son, Peter Baker '73; and six grandchildren. 

January -February 2000 33 



I was inspired by a recent article in your 
magazine, about Duke electronic food-pur- 
chasing cards and the like ["Velocity," July- 
August 1999] , to write with this observation: 
When I first arrived at Duke, the old "Dope 
Shops," the ones that really looked like Fifties 
"malt shops," were still intact. The post offices 
had beautiful old brass hardware. The school 
paper was laid out and pasted up with razor 
blades and hot wax adhesive. And the com- 
puters batch-processed punch cards. 

By the end of my freshman year, the Bryan 
Center had opened and the Dope Shops were 
formica. The post offices were aluminum (or 
whatever they are). The first IBM PC's ar- 
rived. We saw the rise in importance of Cen- 
tral Campus, the introduction of the Duke 
Card, and the birth of the Duke in New York 
internship program. 

We saw a lot of changes; most were im- 
provements. But I think the Class of 1985 
might be the last one to have a sense of both 
the "Old Duke" and the school it is today. 

Joseph Francis '85 
Los Angeles, California 



I am disgusted and distressed by the letter 
from Fred Dennerline ["Forum," September- 
October 1999] complaining about Duke's af- 
firmative action policy and claiming that 
affirmative action has been "thoroughly dis- 
credited. " Unfortunately, his arguments display 
a (perhaps) unconscious form of racism that 
is, sadly, very prevalent today. The flaw with 
Mr. Dennerline's argument is that the com- 
parison among candidates for a professorship 
(or, I suppose, for any other job) is never a 
clear-cut choice, but depends upon many in- 
tangible factors that cannot be reduced to a 
simple numerical formula. Thus, intuition and 
extrapolation are essential in any hiring deci- 

To give an example: Let's say candidate 

A had a degree from a prestigious university, 
say Harvard or Duke, while candidate B was 
a graduate of a lesser university, perhaps a 
predominantly black college such as North 
Carolina A&T. Simplistic reasoning would 
indicate that candidate A was more highly 
qualified, and that hiring candidate B, in Mr. 
Dennerline's words, "...damages students by 
creating the possibility that they might not be 
studying with the best professors available. " 
What affirmative action attempts to do is to 
take into account that differences in canoni- 
cal background criteria might be due to lack 
of opportunity due to ethnic factors, and to 
provide a more holistic evaluation of each 
individual's worth. 

It might be difficult to convince Mr. Den- 
nerline that he is mistaken. I attended Duke 
(1949-53) about the same time as Mr. Denner- 
line, and I still recall the active segregation and 
discrimination practiced at the time. The sim- 
plistic thinking of the proponents of racial 
segregation then is in many ways similar to 
the simplistic thinking of the opponents of 
affirmative action today. 

Paul EZweifel Ph.D. '54 

Blacksburg, Virginia 


I am not sure what "general reading" Fred 
Dennerline has been doing that has led him 
to believe that affirmative action programs 
"have been thoroughly discredited. " How- 
ever, I would like to respond to his apparent 
belief that there will necessarily be a single 
"best-qualified candidate" for any position, 
since qualifications can include many differ- 
ent things. 

Having been on a number of departmental 
search committees, and having chaired two, I 
know how hard it is for a committee to com- 
pare the sometimes very different strengths of 
the dozens of applicants for any position we 
advertise. What usually happens is that we 
wind up interviewing candidates we like for a 
variety of reasons. Among those reasons can 
be the fact that a particular candidate would, 
because of his or her ethnicity, bring a wel- 
come diversity to what has been a fairly ho- 
mogeneous faculty. Admittedly, this may be 
more of an issue in a public institution such as 
the one where I work, because we serve a re- 
gion with a diverse population, and our public 
expects to see that diversity reflected in our 

faculty and staff. But I see nothing wrong with 
Duke having as a goal increasing the diversity 
of the faculty. 

Dennerline is right to imply that issues of 
race and gender should not outweigh matters 
of scholarship and teaching, but he is wrong 
to suggest that diversity issues should play no 
part at all in hiring decisions. 

Robert Zeller '73 

Cape Girardeau, Missouri 




I noted with interest the "spin" that Duke 
Medical Center used in describing the suspen- 
sion of federally supported clinical research as 
described in the story "Managing a Medical 
Makeover" [September-October 1999]. As per 
the story, on May 10, the federal Office for Pro- 
tection from Research Risk (OPRR) directed 
the medical center to suspend enrollment of 
new subjects in federally supported clinical 
trials because of "administrative deficiencies" 
with Duke's Institutional Review Board (IRB). 

The article states that IRBs examine and 
approve research proposals that involve hu- 
man participants. This is a correct statement, 
but doesn't do justice to the critical role of 
IRBs: safeguarding the rights and welfare of 
human research subjects. They do this by 
carefully reviewing the study protocol and 
consent forms prior to the initiation of any 
study, reviewing changes to these documents 
as the study proceeds, evaluating serious ad- 
verse events that occur during the study, and 
annually reviewing the progress of the study. 
According to the story, Duke Medical Center 
conducted as many as 2,200 projects involv- 
ing human subjects at any one time with a 
single IRB that met once a month and had a 
support staff of two. There is no way that IRB 
members, no matter how conscientious, could 
possibly review adequately that many studies 
under those conditions. 

Moreover, I think the statement in the 
story that "there is going to be a significant cost 
factor" in implementing changes in Duke's IRB 
is unwarranted. Clinical trials are one of the 
dwindling sources of income to university medi- 
cal centers in today's health-care environment. 


Duke receives tens of millions of dollars an- 
nually for federally and privately supported 
clinical research. The cost of an IRB and its 
support staff is a very small part of the income 
generated by these research dollars. 

Finally, the sidebar about Single Project 
Assurances is irrelevant in this setting. Duke 
and most major U.S. medical institutions have 
received Multiple Project Assurances (MPA) 
from OPRR, an Assurance that applies during 
fixed and renewable periods to a broad spec- 
trum of unrelated research activities. Fed- 
erally supported research at institutions with 
an MPA-type Assurance may be reviewed by 
the approved IRB at the MPA site without 
further involvement of OPRR. This is all the 
more reason that such MPA-approved IRBs 
must have the time, training, resources, and 
staff to perform their duties adequately. 

I am glad that Duke has modified its IRB 
procedures, and I hope that my alma mater 
will become a leader in promoting quality 
human subject research, including research 
on how to perform clinical studies under the 
highest ethical standards. 

Linda L. Rosendorf '69 
Rockville, Maryland 


Robert J. Bliwise's story describing Duke's 
subject protection revisions was excellent! It 
was clear, concise, and complete. I have been 
monitoring clinical trials for nine years and 
have visited a number of investigator sites. A 
successful clinical trial requires excellent ethics, 
high quality communications, and complete and 
accurate data. AH team members are important. 

Thanks for the insight offered in this article. 

Sally Peterson Snyder '66 
Hopkinton, Massachusetts 



I was surprised at the "unscientific" tone of 
"Evidence of Evolution" ["Update"] in the 
September- October 1999 issue of Duke Mag- 
azine. The article employed the same con- 
cept as raising your voice in an oral argument 
when you don't have the facts on your side. 

Calling the theory of evolution a fact is 
unscientific in itself. Comparing evolution with 
gravity, which can be readily observed, leads 
to the notion that scientific "facts" are estab- 
lished by observation. Belief in the theory of 
evolution requires faith. Could it be that this 
belief stems from philosophical rather than 
scientific presuppositions that tend to ignore 
or minimize evidence to the contrary? 

It takes far more faith to believe in the evo- 

lution of man from other species than it does 
to believe in an intelligent Creator. The intri- 
cacies of the human body, the constancy of 
days and seasons, and the variety of species all 
stand as overwhelming evidence of a Creator. 

James M. Robinson 75 
Norcross, I 


In response to "Evidence of Evolution," I am 
somewhat dismayed by its biased slant. While it 
presents interesting information about recent 
fossil finds that the article's writer obviously 
believes support the belief that evolution is 
more than a theory, the article never defines 
what it means by the term "evolution. " The 
question is begged — presuming that everyone 
knows what evolution is. Evolution has be- 
come a general term that confuses everyone. 

I presume from "Evidence of Evolution" that 
evolution is the progressive change occurring 
in natural species over many years and origi- 
nating in "accidental" mutations that have per- 
petuated themselves through so-called natural 
selection. Perhaps the story also implies that 
animals and plants evolved through "choice" 
of their own — that they have somehow had 
and now have the power to progressively 
change themselves without any assistance from 
a higher intelligence, or mind. If this were true, 
it seems to me that birds would have devel- 
oped along with wings the mental capacity of 
humans, and humans would have grown 
wings so they could enjoy flying like the birds 
without the hazards of commercial aviation. 

Reference is made in your story to the Au- 
gust 1999 Kansas state school board decision 
to remove evolution as a requirement of the 
state curriculum, and with all due respect for 
Duke primatologist [Elwyn] Simons, I think 
those who believe in creation by a Supreme 
Mind or Being are justified in considering some 
views of evolution as "only a theory," and are 
not "ridiculous." Belief in the law of cause 
and effect requires many people to believe 
that a Supreme Being, Mind, or God caused 
the natural world to be designed and made as 
it is. The common sense of everyday life tells 
us that behind every design with a purpose 
there is a designer. Whether it be wings of a 
bird, the snapping of the jaws of a Venus fly- 
trap around a hapless insect, or the amazing 
structures of eyes and teeth, there is ample 
evidence in the world of purpose and design 
that points to a Supreme Intelligence. 

No reasonable person would want to take 
science out of education, and doesn't everyone 
agree with Professor Simons that "Science is 
why we have medicine, this telephone, air- 
planes... " I think that the scientific fossil re- 
cords do show that living things of the natural 
world have changed over periods of time, and 
one can call this process evolution; but this 

does not justify the teaching of some presen- 
tations of the theory of evolution that pre- 
clude the reasonable point of view that there 
is a Supreme Mind called God who designed, 
brought, and is bringing the changing natural 
world into being. 

Professor Simons said in your story that 
evolution is "a fact as much as gravity is. Who 
has seen gravity?" I ask Professor Simons: 
"Who has seen God?" But there is plenty of 
physical evidence recorded in the Holy Bible 
that God exists. Of course, belief in that phys- 
ical evidence requires an element of faith that 
may seem too unscientific for many present- 
day evolutionists. 

Lee James Best Jr. '52 
Dunn, North Carolina 




In the September-October 1999 "Forum," 
David Henderson '68 was concerned about 
the emphasis placed on an exhibition of cov- 
ers from "romance novels" mounted by the 
Duke University Museum of Art. He hoped 
that if Duke is "going to be the best university 
in the world then we have to get the best uni- 
versity art museum in the world," and it is 
agreed that with the gift of Raymond Nasher, 
such a museum may be realized. 

However, if Duke is to remain true to its 
students and alumni, past and present, in- 
cluding the Durham community, it is hoped 
that the director of the evolving new museum 
will correct a glaring absence in the permanent 
collection by starting the acquisition of repre- 
sentative examples of the works of African- 
American artists. It is my understanding that 
the museum does have an ever- expanding col- 
lection of Russian and South American art, 
but almost nothing representing the many 
artists with recognized reputations, such as 
Jacob Lawrence, Romare Bearden, David Dris- 
kell, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, 
and many others who have worked hard in 
the present and past to achieve national and 
international reputations, producing works 
that many academic institutions utilize as 
teaching support for the undergraduate and 
graduate art history students. 

Initiating and expanding such a collection 
would certainly have the support of the Dur- 
ham community, students, and alumni, and 
very possibly draw the financial support of 
many business leaders throughout the coun- 
try as well as eventual participation of the 
many African-American alumni of Duke. 

Joseph S. Cooper '50 
Pittsboro, North Carolina 

January- February 2000 35 



The faculty selected some excellent books 
for first-year students to read [Quad Quotes, 
"Reading List," September-October 1999] , but 
I am disappointed that not one faculty mem- 
ber selected any book written before World 
War II. Do our faculty think all great thoughts 
began in 1945? What happened to the idea 
that students should read great classics? The 
students will not understand the important 
ideas of the earlier centuries. 

Jim Horton 77 
Charlotte, North Carolina 



I was recently purging a small stack of Duke 
Magazines I have collected over the past few 
years and was reminded what a welcome gift 
it is each issue to be pulled back into the uni- 
versity community. It has been nearly seven 
years since I stepped on campus and, other 
than the high profile of our athletics on tele- 
vision, it is easy to lose the anchor Duke has 
always provided as I have moved from Min- 
neapolis to New Orleans to Seattle. 

That said, I would encourage the editors to 
include a regular update on the city of Durham 
as a further gesture to connect us back to a 
place we all once called home, whether it was 
1929 or 1999. Though Duke has been criti- 
cized for turning an elitist shoulder to the 
local community, most of us who ventured 
outside the East Campus walls are as likely to 
be moved by the progress of the living com- 
munity around Duke as by the expanding re- 
sources on campus. An honest look at Duke's 
role in civic initiatives, public celebrations, 
cooperation, and conflict would open a fuller 
picture of the wide life the magazine other- 
wise describes. 

Since so many of our faculty and alumni 
have deep connections to Durham, through 
the public schools, political and community 
organizations, or through research on the cul- 
tural history of the area, I am sure a profile of 
local people, places, and challenges would be 
a welcome addition to Duke Magazine. For 
those of us many thousands of miles away, it 
would remind us of how long it has been since 
we've been home. 

Greg Carter '89 
Seattle, Washington 



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Bob Taber's long odyssey of 
pain began with a single 
step. "I will never forget 
it," he recalls. "It was in 
1981, and I was getting on 
a Hertz rental bus at the 
San Francisco airport. I 
stepped up on the step, and 
this unbearable pain shot through my leg, ab- 
solutely out of the blue. " 

The pain slowly subsided over a few weeks, 
but for the next decade, the hard-charging Ta- 
ber, now Duke's vice chancellor for science and 
technology development, would suffer peri- 
odic spikes of often vicious pain in his left hip. 
"I stopped running; I stopped playing squash. 
When the pain came, I had to take twenty 
aspirin at a time," he says. He was finally diag- 
nosed with avascular necrosis; his hip bone 
was dying, starved of blood supply, perhaps 
because of long-term steroid therapy for child- 




hood lupus. Gradually, the spikes melded into a 
constant, haunting pain that slowed him to a 
hobble, and he was able to walk only about 
500 yards before the pain forced him to rest. 

Fortunately for Taber, in 1992 Duke offered 
him both a new job heading the university's 
technology transfer effort and the chance to 
get a hip replacement at a medical center 
nationally ranked for its expertise in the oper- 
ation. He jumped at both opportunities and 
immediately placed himself in the hands of 
Chief of Orthopedic Surgery James Urbaniak 
M.D. '62. "We talked about which implant I 
could get, and Jim said I could have the latest 
or the most old-fashioned, which he rated on 
a one-to-ten scale," says Taber. "I said I wanted 
a seven, and he said, 'I've got one right here 
in my pocket,' and he actually reached into 
his coat and pulled out a hip joint to show 
me. " Urbaniak was just as prepared to perform 
the surgery, which Taber, by then relying on 
crutches, had in January 1993. "By the second 
or third day after surgery, my hip is swollen, 
I've got drains hanging out of it, I've got this 
big incision all packed and oozing. . .and I felt 

January-February 2000 37 

better than I have ever felt. I was off pain- 
killers, and I could raise my leg. The transition 
from pain to pain-free was like a miracle. " 

Taber's case is quite common, as hip replace- 
ment surgery now enjoys a success rate of some 
90 percent, lasting as long as two decades. 
Thanks to extensive research and clinical ex- 
perience, the huge majority of the million- 
plus hip implant recipients can expect 
to walk and even play some rec- 
reational sports pain-free for decades. 

Nevertheless, Duke's orthopedic 
surgeons — including Urbaniak, 
Thomas Parker Vail B.S.E. '81, and 
Sean Scully, who together performed 
some 600 hip replacements last year 
— remain unsatisfied. "It is a mature 
operation in terms of technology," 
Vail says, "but we are still looking for 
every incremental improvement. We 
want to keep adding years of use un- 
til we reach the point where we never 
have to anticipate redoing a hip re- 
placement. Our goal is to put a pa- 
tient back together the way they were 
before they had the problem. " So the 
three physicians commute between 
operating room and a laboratory 
sponsored by the National Institutes 
of Health, continually testing new 
devices and new techniques to im- 
prove their patients' outcomes. 

Among the startling advances in hip res- 
toration techniques pioneered in this quest 
for perfection is the "free vascularized fibular 
graft," developed by Urbaniak and his col- 
leagues to rejuvenate hip joint bone in younger 
patients. The highly successful treatment in- 
volves first removing dead bone from the hip. 
Then, surgeons excise a segment of the small 
fibula bone in the lower leg and insert it up 
inside the diseased hip joint. Once the sur- 
geon deftly links the implanted bone to a 
blood supply, the healthy bone proceeds to 
rejuvenate the head of the joint. 

As if such surgical achievements weren't 
futuristic enough, the laboratories of Scully 
and bioengineer Farshid Guilak aim to create 
artificial living bone and cartilage for restor- 
ing joints. Scully and his colleagues explore 
the chemical signals that control cartilage cell 
growth. Guilak's exotic experiments include 
"persuading" fat cells to transmogrify into 
cartilage cells and squishing cartilage cells 
through pipettes a hundredth the diameter of 
a hair. By early in the next century, such 
research, largely sponsored by the National 
Institutes of Health, could yield living im- 
plants that incorporate themselves benignly 
into patients' bodies and last a lifetime. 

To Guilak, director of orthopedic research 
at Duke Medical Center, it's a physiological 
wonder the hip manages to last as long as it 
does. "In normal activity, you put forces of 

between three and five times your body weight 
on your lower joints, a stress of several thou- 
sand pounds per square inch," he says. "And 
in strenuous activities such as sports, up to 
ten times your body weight passes through 
those joints. That means somebody who weighs 
200 pounds can put over a ton of force through 
their hips when they exercise. " 




It's not just the crushing weight of such 
incredible forces that will cause hip replace- 
ment surgeries to soar in the next decades, 
even above the approximately 120,000 im- 
planted annually today. The aging of hard- 
playing baby boomers, who abused their 
joints on playing fields, ski slopes, and jogging 
tracks, will contribute heavily to the demand. 
So will the inevitable osteoarthritis that 
plagues around 75 percent of the elderly as 
they reach their seventies. 

Ironically, medical advances in other areas 
are also increasing the need for hip replace- 
ments. Drug treatments for cancer, asthma, 
and transplant rejection — chemotherapy 
drugs, steroids, and immune suppressants — 
can cause bone loss and resulting joint dam- 
age. Even the new safety features in automo- 
biles will increase demand for hip replace- 
ments, as more people survive crashes only to 
need restoration of hips damaged in crashes. 
Finally, Vail says, the very advances in joint 
replacement that gave Taber such relief will 
spark even greater demand for the surgery. 
"As our success rate and longevity continue 
to improve, it makes sense for a larger segment 
of the population to consider the surgery where 
it is appropriate. " 

In fact, the American Association of Ortho- 
pedic Surgeons ( estimates 
that hundreds of millions of people worldwide 
will suffer bone and joint problems in coming 

years, at a cost of $215 billion in this country 
alone. This massive medical problem — which 
the association labels the most common cause 
of severe long-term pain and disability — has 
led the group to ask governments worldwide 
to designate the years between 2000 and 
2010 as the Bone and Joint Decade, to 
advance understanding and treatment of 
bone and joint disease. 

Each time Duke's surgeons enter 
the operating room to perform a hip 
replacement, they do their part to 
relieve such trauma. In a precisely 
choreographed operation usually 
lasting a little more than an hour, 
the surgeons begin by removing the 
entire diseased ball joint and in- 
stalling a new one, a cementless im- 
plant consisting of a metal ball and 
stem. The surgeon hollows out the 
top of the femur and cements the 
implant into place using polymethyl- 
methacrylate, the same tough plastic 
used in motorcycle windshields, hot 
tubs, and optical fibers. The surgeon 
| also installs a polyethylene-coated 
| cup in the pelvic socket — but not 
| just any polyethylene. This particu- 
| lar plastic has been toughened by 
| exposing it to gamma radiation, 
I which also sterilizes it. 
- As mechanical as a hip replace- 
ment operation sounds, Vail says it's more 
complicated than installing, say, a new trans- 
mission in a car. "In deciding how to operate, 
we've started by looking at each individual's 
lifestyle — whether they do recreational ath- 
letics like walking or bike riding. We also look 
at their bone quality and structure, because a 
person with considerable osteoporosis might 
need a cemented stem rather than a cement- 
less stem that is bulkier and stiffer. Our newer 
modular implants give us the ability to easily 
pick from an array of shapes and sizes that 
take into account the diameter of the hip 
bone, the length of the neck, the size of the 
socket. " What's more, he says, installing the 
implant must be done carefully to adjust the 
load on the hip joint so that the healing bone 
will carry the patient's weight evenly. 

Besides experienced surgeons, Duke offers 
its patients specialized nurses, physical thera- 
pists, and social workers who focus on joint 
replacement. Major centers for hip surgery 
are also constantly exploring improvements, 
says Vail. The Duke surgeons may provide 
some patients with advanced cementless im- 
plants, with a porous stem that allows bone to 
grow into it naturally, securing it in place. 
Although such implants require a longer sur- 
gical recovery, they eliminate the cement that 
could create particles that might interfere 
with the hip. Similarly, says Vail, the surgeons 
are studying metal- on-metal and ceramic-on- 


ceramic implants that eliminate the polyethy- 
lene bearing surface. 

"Every time a patient with a polyethylene 
joint takes a step, they shed about 300,000 plas- 
tic particles into the joint," explains Scully. 
"The body absorbs those particles, which can 
lead to an inflammatory reaction that could 
loosen the implant, which is why total replace- 
ment joints may fail at about twenty years or 
so. " The wear rate for such new joints is about 
a thousandth that of polyethylene joints, ac- 
cording to Scully, and the continuing tighter 
fit will eliminate wobbling that could loosen 
the stem and eventually cause failure. 

Since bone is not completely rigid, the 
Duke surgeons are laboratory-testing im- 
plants made of carbon-fiber polymer compos- 
ites, whose flexibility more closely matches 
that of bone. "We're exploring whether these 
implants produce a more natural loading of 
bone, since bone needs to be loaded to main- 
tain its strength and structural integrity," says 
Vail. "If an implant causes uneven stress dis- 
tribution, since bone is living, it will adapt 
and remodel itself, becoming structurally 
weaker. " Finally, the surgeons are laboratory- 
testing the strain patterns produced by differ- 
ently shaped stems inserted into the femur. In 
one study, they are testing a slotted clothes- 
pin-shaped end to reduce stress concentra- 
tions that might cause pain. Using laboratory 
instruments, Vail and his colleagues can mea- 
sure the strain differences between a femur in 
a normal hip and one with an implant, to cre- 
ate an implant with a strain pattern as close 
to the natural hip as possible. 

The Duke surgeons are also using laborato- 
ry models of hips to explore whether drilling, 
grafting, or compaction creates the most pre- 
cise cavity in which to insert the stem. They've 
even explored the most benign incision route 
through hip tissue to reach the joint. As a 
medical student, John D. Hewitt M.D. '99 did 
"a very careful study of the mechanical prop- 
erties of the ligaments that hold the hip sock- 
et, allowing us to refine our surgical approach 
to respect that anatomy," says Vail. "Now we 
make an incision that approaches the joint 
from higher on the ball of the hip and angles 
down the back, so we can avoid cutting some 
of the ligaments that we have discovered are 
mechanically more important. " 

While hip implants that last two decades 
are serviceable for older patients, younger pa- 
tients would have to undergo the ordeal of re- 
peated surgeries, especially to accommodate 
continually growing bones. To avoid second 
replacements in young patients, orthopedics 
chief Urbaniak and his colleagues have devel- 
oped a procedure called "free vascularized 
fibular graft," which rejuvenates hips dam- 
aged by drugs or disease. "Until we developed 
the technique in 1979, the only other option 
was to fuse the hip, making it stiff," says 

Urbaniak. "However, later in life, these 
patients developed often severe back and 
knee pain, because the hip was rigid. " 

To perform the graft, Urbaniak first re- 
moves the blood-starved dead bone from the 
hip, and then inserts into the hip bone a sec- 
tion of the fibula — the small bone in the 
lower leg whose removal does not affect walk- 



ing. Once Urbaniak hooks up this healthy im- 
planted bone to nearby blood vessels, it grows 
to bring the hip ball back to life. The results 
of more than 1,400 operations have been 
remarkable, he says. "If we catch joint deteri- 
oration early enough, we can save 90 percent 
of these young people's hips, restoring normal 
function. Our success rate drops to 70 per- 
cent if we catch them later, which is why we 
emphasize that patients should come to us as 
early as possible. " 

The wealth of data from past patients has 
steadily improved Urbaniak's ability to diag- 
nose accurately whether the operation will 
help a patient. In fact, he considers such data 
so important, he has even been known to hire 
a private detective to track down patients to 
determine their outcomes. Like his colleagues, 
however, he remains unsatisfied even with a 
90 percent success rate. He and his colleagues 
are still seeking to improve the operation by 
treating patients with natural substances 
called growth factors that encourage the 
spread of new blood vessels to better nourish 
the regenerating bone. And the surgeons see 
prevention of bone disease as the ideal answer 

to joint degeneration. "We don't really know 
why alcohol, steroids, or blood coagulation 
disorders cause bone disease," Urbaniak says. 
"We do know that some factors prevent blood 
from getting to the bone. If research does 
reveal the causes, we can envision someday 
developing medications, or even gene thera- 
py, that could prevent bone disease or treat it 
by increasing blood flow to a fractured or dis- 
eased hip to prevent bone death. " The re- 
searchers already have the first hints that 
could lead them toward such drugs. "We did 
find in a study of our patients with bone dis- 
orders that 70 percent of them clot more than 
normal patients. " 

Besides surgical advances, the Duke re- 
searchers say the future will bring progress in 
building artificial living joints. They predict 
that the early decades of this century will see 
installation of joints sculpted from laboratory- 
grown bone and cartilage. In particular, Guilak 
says, the task of growing artificial cartilage 
will require a sophisticated understanding of 
this complex material. Cartilage consists of 
cells called chondrocytes that produce a gel- 
like matrix made primarily of the tough, 
fibrous protein collagen. Cartilage possesses 
an incredible ability to sustain a lifetime of 
massive pounding. "The matrix is predomi- 
g nantly water, and when cartilage is loaded, 
I the tissue actually pressurizes," says Guilak. 
"So whenever you step on your joints, you are 
actually walking on water. " Unfortunately for 
people with cartilage damage, he adds, chon- 
drocytes only support normal tissue turnover 
rather than forming new cartilage, so a dam- 
aged joint is highly unlikely to manage any 
significant repair. And chondrocytes do pro- 
liferate abnormally in the case of osteoarthri- 
tis, producing inflammation and deformed 

Researchers have discovered that the chon- 
drocytes respond to both chemical and me- 
chanical pressure signals transmitted from the 
surrounding matrix, which trigger the cells to 
produce more matrix. So they want to learn 
the secret combination of these signals to per- 
suade chondrocytes to spring to life and form 
new cartilage. This combination may be ex- 
traordinarily complex, says Scully, whose lab- 
oratory seeks to understand the chemical sig- 
nals that govern chondrocytes. "It's a huge 
multi- dimensional control system, with a 
chronological sequence, and insoluble and 
soluble mediators, and biomechanical influ- 
ences. " In the past, researchers have not 
appreciated this complexity and were over- 
confident about their ability to trigger new 
cartilage growth. "About a decade ago, when 
research identified many protein growth fac- 
tors that made chondrocytes proliferate and 
differentiate, we hoped that we could just shoot 
some of these growth factors into the joint, 
and cure defects," Scully says. "It never really 

January-February 2000 39 

worked, and in retrospect it was really overly 
simplistic. Now we know that we must really 
understand the entire regulation of the cell. 
Perhaps then we can learn to stimulate a repair 
process, and in the most grandiose scheme, 
obviate the need for joint replacement. " 

Thus Scully and his colleagues are exploring 
the "biochemical alphabet" of chemical signals 
to which the chondrocytes respond. They have 
found that somehow the collagen matrix sur- 
rounding chondrocytes influences how the 
cells respond to a chemical signal, called TGF- 
beta. The finding represents another piece of 
the puzzle of the intricate communication 
with chondrocytes, says Scully. In other work, 
he and his colleagues explore the mystery 
behind the spread of a rare, malignant form of 
cartilage, called chondrosarcoma. While some 
chondrosarcomas remain ensconced within 
the cancerous joint, others spread their cells 
to the lung, with deadly consequences. Last 
year, Scully's laboratory reported that the 
spreading form of the cancer produced more 
of an enzyme called metalloproteinase-1, 
compared to its corresponding inhibitor. The 
discovery could help identify and treat the 
more aggressive form of the cancer. 

Bioengineer Guilak and his colleagues in 
their experiments are precisely prodding, pok- 
ing, and otherwise tweaking chondrocytes to 
understand how mechanical stress triggers 

the cells to activity. "With such studies, we're 
trying to determine how loading can cause 
degenerative joint disease such as osteoarth- 
ritis, so we can prevent it early," he explains. 
"And, we are developing ways to trigger carti- 
lage and other living tissues to grow on artifi- 
cial matrices in an incubator, so that we can 
reimplant them in the body to function just as 
the original tissue. " 

In one marvelous transformation, the Duke 
researchers and collaborators at a local bio- 
tech company, Zen-Bio (, 
are coaxing fat cells to transform into bone, 
cartilage, and other tissue cells. The fat "stem 
cells" they use are precursor cells that, given 
the right signals, can be triggered to mature 
into many different kinds of cells. "We know, 
for example, that if you compress stem cells, 
they tend to become like cartilage," says 
Guilak. "But if you put tension on them, they 
may tend to become tendon or ligament or 
bone. With mechanical loading experiments, 
we are trying to understand that very compli- 
cated process. " The scientists envision using 
donor stem cells, or even those from a pa- 
tient's own body, to grow artificial joints. "In 
our first experiments, we have made bone, 
and we are now beginning studies on using it 
to heal fractures. " 

In experiments to understand how loading 
might trigger joint disease, the scientists place 





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living cartilage samples in a quarter- sized 
chamber attached to an air pump that squeezes 
the tissue against a wall in precisely computer- 
controlled stress patterns. "We can test what- 
ever frequency, magnitude, and duration of 
loading we need to compare how different 
regimens of loading affect the health of the 
tissue," Guilak says. Working with rheumatol- 
ogists David Pisetsky and Brice Weinberg, the 
bioengineers also use the "tissue torture" cham- 
ber to test how combined mechanical stress 
and inflammation can combine to cause arthri- 
tis. "Once cartilage starts to break down, it 
produces inflammatory factors such as nitric 
oxide, and we're looking at how such sub- 
stances can cause the progression of degen- 
erative joint disease," says Guilak. 

In other experiments that allow them to 
study individual chondrocytes' response to 
mechanical stress, the scientists first insert a 
new gene into the cells, which causes them to 
fluoresce when they change biochemically. 
These scientists then draw a cell up into a 
super-thin glass pipette, squeezing it like a 
microscopic balloon. Using a sophisticated 
laser- scanning microscope to detect the cell's 
fluorescence, the scientists can then witness 
a single cell's response to compression or ten- 

Building artificial joints will also mean 
somehow enmeshing the cartilage cells in an 
artificial scaffolding on which they can grow 
matrix, and finally sculpting such artificial 
cartilage into a shape to fit the patient. 
Guilak and his colleagues are working on 
both capabilities. To develop the scaffolding 
for artificial connective tissue, they are col- 
laborating with a Research Triangle startup 
company called 3TEX (, whose 
engineers are perfecting a method of weaving 
microscopic three-dimensional patterns of 
fibers. To develop computer- sculpting meth- 
ods for such joints, the scientists are working 
with Duke's Center for In Vivo Microscopy 
to create 3D computer models of cartilage 
joints using MRI scans of living joints. Those 
computer models not only give the engineers 
a pattern for making artificial joints, but also 
allow them to model how changes in the 
geometry of artificial implants would affect 
the complex stress patterns within the joints. 

Such research advances, the Duke scien- 
tists say, could result in even more of their 
patients ending up like Taber— who, on a 
sunny fall morning six years after his hip re- 
placement, lounges comfortably in a confer- 
ence room, feet on the table, as he recalls the 
ultimate sign of his recovery. "A year after I 
had the surgery, I climbed a mountain I had 
never climbed before," he declares, grinning 
with soul-deep satisfaction. "It's just an in- 
credible operation. " ■ 




I'm always looking for simple artifacts 
that can lead to musings on engine- 
ering," says Henry Petroski, Alesandar 
S. Vesic Professor of Civil Engine- 
ering at Duke. In his newest book, 
he concentrates on an artifact that 
he found right in front of his face 
one evening about two years ago as 
he sat in his study wondering what he might 
write about next — his own bookshelf, an object 
so familiar to him, and so seemingly simple, 
that he had previously taken it for granted. 

"My eyes focused on the bookshelf, as op- 
posed to the books on the bookshelf," he says, 
recalling that moment of inspiration. "I saw it 
as a structure not unlike a bridge, with the 
books occupying a position like cars or people 
on a bridge, and I thought this would be an 
interesting research project. " 







The bridge analogy is appropriate, since Pe- 
troski wrote about bridges in one of his eight 
previous books, Engineers of Dreams: Great 
Bridge Builders and the Spanning of America 
(Alfred A. Knopf, 1995). Among his other 
books are a 448-page history of the pencil and 
The Evolution of Useful Things (Knopf, 1992) , 
in which he considered the invention, design, 
and development of such objects as the fork, 
the zipper, the paper clip, the can opener, 
transparent tape, and sticky notes. 

The Book on the Bookshelf was published in 
September by Knopf, and at the end of that 
month Petroski took a few days away to make 
promotional appearances on behalf of the book. 
His work attracts a surprisingly wide reader- 
ship. He has written scores of articles in a 
variety of specialized journals and general- 
interest publications ranging from American 

January-February 2000 41 

Scientist and Technology Review to The New 
York Times and The Washington Post. Seven of 
his previously published books have gone 
through multiple editions and are still in print, 
and most of them have also appeared in several 
foreign-language translations — impressive 
statistics for any author, but especially for one 
whose subject is engineering. What makes 
him unusual in his field is his consistent abil- 
ity to render engineering concepts accessible 
and even fascinating to a more general audi- 

Noting that he has never taken a writing 
course, Petroski says he thinks of writing as 
merely another form of engineering. "To me, 
a piece of writing is a design problem. They're 
both basically trying to synthesize something. 
The act of writing is itself a means of discov- 
ery. " He suggests his knack for addressing the 
non- specialist might be related to his interest 
in failure. "Failure is not a bad thing to me," 
he explains, "so it has never raised my hackles 
when editors have criticized me. I always saw 
it as an opportunity to get feedback from a 
fresh reader and make the writing better. I've 
learned a lot by working with good editors. I'll 
never forget one editor at The New York Times 
telling me that what I wrote for them had to 
be readable to a guy riding on the New York 
subway while he's hanging onto the strap and 
being jostled around. " 

To Engineer is Human (St. Martin's Press, 
1985), Petroski's first book, is subtitled The 
Role of Failure in Successful Design, and it uses 
historical case studies to make the basic point 
that failure is central to engineering design. 
In The Evolution of Useful Things, he emphasizes 
the importance of failure in order to challenge 
architect Louis Sullivan's oft-cited design prin- 
ciple: "Form ever follows function. " According 
to Petroski, "What form does follow is the real 
and perceived failure of things as they are used 
to do what they are supposed to do. " Elabora- 
ting on this same idea in Design Paradigms: 
Case Histories of Error and judgment in Engine- 
ering (Cambridge University Press, 1995), he 
wrote, "When we understand both the nega- 
tive and positive aspects of failure in the 
design process, the process itself can be made 
to be more understandable, reliable, and pro- 
ductive. " 

While engineers have been good at learn- 
ing from past failures and mistakes, Petroski 
points out that they haven't generally been 
good about documenting that process. "Some 
scholars speculate that what engineers are in- 
terested in is the physical artifact alone. That 
is the document; it documents itself. It's dif- 
ferent with science, where the artifact is not a 
physical thing but is the theory that the scien- 
tist is espousing, usually through written doc- 
umentation. Scientists are more accustomed 
to leaving a paper trail than are engineers. " 

Few other engineers have devoted so much 

effort to making up for that lack of adequate 
documentation. In the case of The Book on 
the Bookshelf, Petroski traveled around the 
world to do his research, visiting libraries in 
Australia, in England, and across the United 
States to examine books and the way they're 
currently shelved, and to study the evolution 
of these book-shelving systems most of us 
now take for granted. "Today it looks like books 

IN THE 1890S, 








should be shelved in a vertical position with 
their spines out, and that's all there is to it," he 
says. "But that had to be invented. A book in 
a bookshelf is a technological system, like 
the engine of a car. There are no unique solu- 
tions to engineering problems. There's not a 
single way to build a bridge or to bend a wire 
into a paper clip, or to put a book on a book- 

In tracing the development of the book- 
shelf as we know it, he also looks at the evolu- 
tion of the book itself, beginning with its early 
manifestation, the scroll — the predominant 
means of maintaining written records in an- 
cient Greece and Rome. These documents 
were generally stored either in boxes or in 
pigeonhole -divided wall shelves that were 
early precursors of today's bookshelves. Noting 
that an excess of scrolls in a single pigeonhole 
could cause the bottom scrolls to be crushed, 
he speculates that this problem must have 
been particularly acute for those in charge of 
shelving the hundreds of thousands of scrolls 
in the library at Alexandria, Egypt; the library 
was founded around 300 B.C. to hold copies 
of all the books in the world. 

The next major development in the evolu- 
tion of the book was the advent of the codex, 

a bound manuscript of folded papyrus or parch- 
ment sheets sewn together through the folds, 
which began to displace the scroll in the early 
centuries of the Christian era. Its chief advan- 
tages were that it made for easier access to any 
portion of a given text and lent itself to in- 
scription on both sides of the leaf. During the 
transitional period when book collections 
included both scrolls and codices, Petroski 
suggests, the closed cabinet {armarium) prob- 
ably came into wide use as a means of storing 

In the monasteries that played a key role in 
the production and preservation of manu- 
scripts during the Middle Ages, books that 
weren't in use were often locked away in ar- 
maria or in chests resembling footlockers. 
Otherwise, these precious volumes were like- 
ly to be in the hands of individual monks who 
often sequestered themselves in private cubi- 
cles, or carrels, in order to concentrate on their 
scholarly pursuits. The latter custom, according 
to Petroski, arose as an indirect result of the 
medieval cloister's unique architectural fea- 
tures. The availability of natural light and the 
frequent presence of built-in benches in the 
spaces between these buildings' interior col- 
umns and below their windows made them 
highly desirable places for reading; their adap- 
tation for this purpose eventually led to their 
enclosure behind wainscoting and glazed win- 
dows. Citing the carrel as "an excellent example 
of how technology evolves within available 
means, and changes to deal with problems as 
they are encountered," he points to the con- 
tinued existence of such private study cubi- 
cles in libraries around the world, including 
Duke's Perkins Library. ("I wrote a lot of my 
books in a carrel in Perkins Library," he notes. 
"I don't tell anybody where it is because the 
idea is to go there and be undisturbed. ") 

The growth of book collections in monas- 
teries and other institutions resulted in the 
designation of special rooms to house and to 
display more openly these collections, which 
nonetheless still required a high level of secu- 
rity due to their relative rarity. This develop- 
ment led to the removal of doors from armaria 
and the side -by- side arrangement of certain 
books on the sloping surfaces of long, wide, 
desk-like lecterns. To ensure that they remained 
in place, these books were attached to their 
lecterns by means of chains, each ending in a 
ring strung on a long rod that extended above 
or below the lectern. To accommodate addi- 
tional volumes and allow the lecterns to be 
used for writing as well as reading, horizontal 
shelves were eventually added above or below 
them. This modification, which Petroski iden- 
tifies as "the first step in the evolution of the 
bookcase as we know it and use it," allowed 
books that weren't in use or on display to be 
handily stored while remaining fastened to 
their rod-bound chains. 


As libraries grew to become filled with rows 
of lecterns, they were further modified to create 
what has come to be known as the "stall sys- 
tem. " This arrangement consisted of a double- 
width case of bookshelves between and above 
each back-to-back pair of lectern desks — an 
innovation that probably dates to the late six- 
teenth century. Before this development, 
according to Petroski, books were typically 
shelved in a horizontal position and stacked 
— sometimes precariously — one atop the 
other. With the acquisition of ever-increasing 
quantities of books and the overcrowded shelf 
conditions that resulted, they began to be 
shelved vertically to conserve space and pro- 
vide easier access. Contrary to the present cus- 
tom, though, they were shelved with their 
spines turned inward, because the practice of 
labeling a book's spine hadn't yet been adopted, 
and because the chains that were still stan- 
dard library equipment were generally attached 
to the fore-edges of books. 

The custom of shelving books vertically 
with fore-edges facing out continued to be 
followed in private libraries and studies for 
many years — even after the advent of print- 
ing led to a sharp decrease in the value of 
individual books and thus eliminated the 
need to keep them fastened to their shelves. 
The liberation of institutionally collected 
books from their chains also did away with 
the need for a library's desks and bookshelves 
to be part of a single unit, but such bookstalls 
remained standard for some time to come. "It 
is such habit that shapes much of our artifactu- 
al world," Petroski points out, "and it changes 
in time not because its form is antiquated but 
because it becomes inadequate. " 

The bookstall form of bookshelving would 
have become outmoded much sooner had it 
not been for the Protestant Reformation's de- 
vastating impact on libraries throughout Eu- 
rope. Because of their association with the 
Roman Catholic clergy, hundreds of libraries 
and thousands of books were destroyed dur- 
ing that upheaval. Nearly a century passed 
before mass book production caught up with 
and surpassed the availability of space on the 
empty bookshelves that the Reformation left 
in its wake. 

Petroski uses this historical disruption in 
the history of books and bookshelves as an 
opportunity to turn his attention to home 
studies, private libraries, and their owners. He 
cites the examples of certain obsessive En- 
glish bibliophiles: Richard de Bury, a Bene- 
dictine monk of the fourteenth century, who 
amassed so many books that he had to clam- 
ber over them to reach his bed; seventeenth- 
century diarist Samuel Pepys, who shelved his 
collection of 3,000 books according to size in 
specially designed book "presses," replicas of 
which can still be purchased today; and Tho- 
mas Rawlinson, who, during the eighteenth 

century, filled the inn rooms he occupied with 
such a vast book collection that he had to 
sleep in the hallway. 

An alternative to the stall system of book- 
shelving began to be adopted in European li- 
braries during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Because it involved placing book- 
cases parallel to and against the wall, it be- 
came known as the wall system, and it was 

eventually adopted as the standard in institu- 
tional libraries and private book collections. 
Nonetheless, it was initially resisted in Eng- 
land, where the stall system remained in gen- 
eral favor until the eighteenth century. The 
notable exception to the latter rule was Ox- 
ford University's Bodleian Library, which 
Petroski describes as "a museum of book- 
shelves. " Its earliest section, built around 1480, 
was organized according to the stall system, 
but when Sir Thomas Bodley restored and 
expanded it at the outset of the seventeenth 
century, its new wings were fitted with wall 
shelves that were probably the first to be 
installed in an English library. 

The next major development in the evolu- 
tion of library storage systems was the advent 
of the bookstack — an area within a library 
where books that aren't frequently consulted 
can be efficiently stored out of patrons' sight. 
This innovation originated in Italy and Ger- 
many in the early nineteenth century and was 
later adopted by libraries in France, England, 
and the United States. The multi-level, glass- 
roofed bookstacks that originally surrounded 
the high-domed British Museum Reading 
Room — a "hallowed space" for bibliophiles, 
opened in 1857 — were designed to hold 1.5 

million books. An 1876 expansion of Har- 
vard's old Gore Hall library contained what 
was at one time considered the prototype of 
the modern bookstack. Petroski notes that 
when its walls were taken down as the first 
stage of demolishing it to make way for the 
Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library (com- 
pleted in 1915), its gridwork of independently 
supported bookstacks remained standing as if 
they were "a giant jungle gym. " 

In the 1890s, civil engineer Bernard R. 
Green met the challenge of designing the 
bookstacks for the Library of Congress — 
forty-three miles of shelves with a capacity of 
two million books — by devising a system of 
gridded or slotted metal shelves that were rel- 
atively lightweight, well-ventilated, and sup- 
ported by glass or marble floors that afforded 
a maximum amount of natural light. Petroski 
uses Green's plan as an object lesson in the 
interrelationship of engineering's structural 
and functional aspects. The stacks of the 
New York Public Library, completed in 1910, 
were designed to incorporate more than 
sixty-three miles of shelving capable of hold- 
ing more than three million books, and they 
double as supports for the large reading room 
directly above them — an arrangement later 
adapted for the design of other libraries. The 
newest section of Oxford's Bodleian Library, a 
steel-framed, neoclassical building completed 
during World War II, consists of three subter- 
ranean and eight above-ground concrete 
floors, the uppermost of which comprise a 
seventy-eight-foot-tall bookstack core that is 
set back from the lower-level exterior so that 
it's invisible from the sidewalk. 

Bookstack storage is only one of the tem- 
porary solutions that libraries have developed 
to accommodate constant increases in their 
inventories. This ongoing problem, which af- 
fects individual book collectors as well as 
libraries, has been the single most important 
driving force in the development of bookshelf 
technology, so it's no wonder that it plays a 
dominant role in Petroski's history of that 
technology. Among the more dramatic exam- 
ples he cites in discussing ways that book- 
collecting institutions have addressed this 
perpetual dilemma is the very recent replace- 
ment of the British Museum Reading Room 
by the new British Library. The latter facility 
is designed to hold twelve million volumes — 
eight times the capacity of the older institu- 
tion, which is being renovated to house a 
reference collection. Its surrounding stacks 
will be replaced by a glass-enclosed public 

The Library of Congress, which long ago 
outgrew the bookstacks designed for it by 
Bernard Green, has been enlarged twice in 
the twentieth century, most recently in 1980 
with the completion of the James Madison 
Memorial Building, known as the largest 

January-February 2000 

library in the world. The three buildings that 
now house the Library of Congress encom- 
pass seventy-one acres and hold a collection 
of roughly twenty million volumes. 

Short of constructing larger and ever more 
expensive new buildings, a more common stop- 
gap response is the capture of adjacent spaces 
not originally designed for book storage. 
Petroski cites Duke's old Engineering Library 
as an example. Gradually, since the engine- 
ering building's completion in the late 1940s, 
the library has expanded outward from its cen- 
tral second-floor location by annexing a series 
of contiguous and, in some cases, remote spaces, 

"so that to find a book one had to wend one's 
way through rooms as if in a railroad flat. " 

Another increasingly common means by 
which libraries have dealt with the perennial 
storage -space problem has been to store por- 
tions of their inventories in warehouse -like 
buildings away from the site of the libraries 
themselves. Here again, Petroski uses Duke's 
own library facilities as an example, describing 
a visit to the university's off-site storage facility 
in a metal building near the railroad tracks 
about a mile from Perkins Library. "The books 
were crowded into the shelves like the pre- 
Christmas inventory in a toy store," he writes, 

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"not a situation that is reader- or browser- 
friendly. " 

In this same context, Petroski discusses the 
computer-controlled storage and retrieval 
systems that have recently been developed to 
deal with particularly large book inventories. 
He cites the high expectations that originally 
greeted the development of microfilm during 
the years between the World Wars. Contrary 
to predictions that it would replace the book 
as the principal means of storing printed mat- 
ter, microfilm failed to gain widespread appeal. 
He sees a parallel between microfilm and com- 
puters in terms of relative advantages and dis- 
advantages when it comes to storing texts and 
images. While he credits computers with re- 
placing or at least halting the growth of library 
card catalogues, he points out that computers 
have presented new problems for libraries, in 
which — like books and bookshelves — they 
occupy a steadily growing amount of floor 

The very concept of the library may be 
challenged by the electronic book — a por- 
table device onto which reader-friendly text 
is downloaded. If the concept of the electron- 
ic book catches on, Petroski suggests, some 
libraries might convert their inventories to 
compact disc format and discard their books, 
copies of which could thus eventually become 
treasured rarities. If, on the other hand, it 
becomes increasingly common to download 
books from the Internet, the digital network 
could conceivably become overloaded due to 
computer- memory and speed limitations 
combined with electronic gridlock resulting 
from a proliferation of e-mail and increasingly 
extensive use of the World Wide Web. Such a 
situation could ultimately spark a revival of 
old-fashioned ink-on-paper book production. 

He also raises the possibility that the 
electronic inventories in central libraries of 
the future might be destroyed by "some elec- 
tromagnetic catastrophe or mad computer 
hacker. " The only way to avert such a disaster 
would be to resurrect any remaining copies of 
old-style books and have them re-scanned 
into the library systems. 

But to safeguard against another massive 
loss of electronic memory, librarians would 
probably want to retain these books in their 
stacks and wire them for computer-terminal 
use — in effect, electronically chaining them 
to their stack sections. In this clever confla- 
tion of the future and the past, Petroski spec- 
ulates about a situation in which "at least 
some of the infrastructure associated with the 
information superhighway might begin to 
resemble that of a medieval library located in 
the tower of a monastery at the top of a nar- 
row mountain road. " ■ 

Patterson is a freelance writer living in Winston- 
Salem, North Carolina. 



Kristina Johnson, a youth- 
ful-looking electrical 
engineering researcher 
and teacher, could not 
have picked a better 
place than Duke to 
become one of the 
nation's few female en- 
gineering deans. After years of growth fos- 
tered by former dean Earl Dowell, the School 
of Engineering was already bursting its seams 
when Johnson vacated her former Colorado 
home base. And Johnson — whose interests in- 
clude communicating with light waves, new 
display technology, interdisciplinary scholar- 
ship, and moving ideas from lab to market- 
place — was still moving into the dean's office 
last September when word began to circulate 
that the school had a major benefactor whose 
stunning gift could launch it into hyperdrive. 
The principal fuel for Duke's new era of 
engineering was announced in October — a 
$35-million gift from Edmund Pratt Jr. B.S.E. 
'47, who earned his degree in electrical engi- 
neering only eight years after the school was 
formally organized. Pratt's career eventually 
led him to the pharmaceutical firm Pfizer 
Inc., where he was chairman and chief execu- 
tive officer for two decades. Now retired, with 
fond memories of his time in Durham, Pratt 
decided to make a gift that Duke's leaders say 
will transfigure the school. His generosity, 
surpassed only by James B. Duke's original 
university-creating $40 million, prompted 
university trustees to name the school the 
Edmund T. Pratt Jr. School of Engineering. 

In December, the newly renamed school 
convened a celebratory symposium on "The 
New Engineer" to address the critical question 
facing the reinvigorated school: How must 
engineering education adapt to the rapidly 
changing "post-industrial manufacturing era"? 
Using the bold language of a venture capitalist, 
symposium panelist Joseph Bordogna, deputy 
director of the National Science Foundation 
(NSF), offered one answer. "A normal, healthy 
economy is not one in equilibrium, but one 
that is constantly disrupted by technological 
innovations," he said. "Unless we embrace it 
in some way, it will run over us. " 

Johnson later took up Bordogna's chal- 
lenge in her own remarks of appreciation for 
Pratt's gift, saying, "It will allow us to cause a 
disruptive event in engineering. " She remarked 







that several studies of engineering education, 
including one co-organized by Dowell, also 
call for bold changes. The Pratt School, she 
said, had already adapted some key goals of 
these studies — for example, the school assumes 
its new trajectory with a very high ranking in 
biomedical engineering, which is expected to 
be an especially powerful and pervasive tech- 
nology in the twenty-first century. Johnson 
says the Pratt School enjoys a culture sup- 
porting interdisciplinary research, a strong 
commitment to innovative teaching, and en- 
couragement to study engineering as part of a 

broad-based liberal arts education. And fol- 
lowing the new philosophy of twenty-first- 
century engineering, the school is developing 
plans to emphasize entrepreneurship, com- 
munications research, ethics, and student 

When Johnson became Duke's engineering 
dean last June at the age of forty-two, then- 
provost John Strohbehn said, "Her expertise, 
energy, and leadership skills will enable the 
school of engineering to build upon its many 
existing strengths and achievements to be- 
come a world-class school of engineering. " 
Before leaving office that same month, Stroh- 
behn published a frank assessment citing dif- 
ficult challenges the engineering school could 
face attempting to be nearer to the top rank 
than twenty-fourth — its standing in the most 
recent U.S. News & World Report rankings. 

"Duke has a respectable engineering school 
but, except in biomedical engineering, it is not 
a major player," wrote Strohbehn, himself a 
biomedical engineer. Duke could "aspire to be 
in the league with Stanford," a leading en- 
gineering school it already competes with for 
students, grants, and prestige, but such an ad- 
vance would require dramatic increases in 
faculty, graduate students, and volume of spon- 
sored research, plus "extensive and expensive 
new facilities. " Strohbehn concluded that a 
more realistic option for the school would be 
to "reposition its directions" in a way that takes 
advantage of the strong departments, espe- 
cially biomedical engineering, while redefining 
or strengthening others. 

In early November, Johnson sits in an office 
she is still organizing, as she reaches the end 
of another appointment- crammed day meet- 
ing faculty and department heads. Her imme- 
diate goal is to develop a mission plan that 
will guide the school's future in a much more 
ambitious way than merely repositioning it. 
"For example, one thing I discovered is that 
Duke's school of engineering has the smallest 
space of any of the top fifty engineering 
schools in the country," says Johnson. She es- 
timates that to be competitive with the na- 
tion's best programs, the Pratt School will need 
to more than double the space that engineer- 
ing faculty and students now occupy in the 
Hudson Engineering Center, Teer Engineering 
Library, and a small part of the Levine Science 
Research Center. Such additional space would 
be needed to accommodate the school's sev- 

January- February 2000 45 

enty-one existing tenured or tenure -track 
faculty, plus approximately twenty more fac- 
ulty she plans to hire in the next five to seven 
years as a direct result of the Pratt gift. 

The current and future space would work 
out to about 2,500 square feet per professor 
— "pretty much the national average," she 
says. Rice University, a school of similar size 
ranked in U.S. News' top twenty engineering 
schools, has seventy-three tenured or tenure- 
track engineering faculty, Johnson notes — 
only two more than Duke's current number. 
But as a point of comparison, Rice's engineer- 
ing school already has about 78,000 more 
square feet than Duke and plans further ex- 
pansion for its biomedical engineering depart- 

In a letter to the engineering school's faculty 
and staff, Johnson noted that during Dowell's 
sixteen years as dean, her predecessor recruit- 
ed thirty faculty who "propelled Duke into 
the top twenty-five U.S. schools of engineer- 
ing in research productivity." During the 
same period, she said, the school increased its 
endowment from less than $1 million to more 
than $50 million. The $35-million Pratt gift, 
plus more money flowing into the Campaign 
for Duke, will raise the ante. 

But Johnson recognizes the work is still just 
beginning. "In a venture capitalist's lingo, we've 
been very good at the seed and the first 
round. What we're looking at is using the 
Pratt gift for mezzanine funding to take the 
school to the next level of development. " 

Her immediate need is more money targeted 
for bricks and mortar — a problem that engi- 
neering alumnus Jeffrey Vinik B.S.C.E. '81 
and his wife, Penny, began to address in De- 
cember, when they announced a gift of $5 
million to expand and improve the school's 
facilities. Vinik is the former manager of the 
Fidelity Magellan Fund and founder and man- 
ager of Vinik Asset Management. His gift, 
combined with Pratt's, moved the school be- 
yond an original goal of $50 million in its cur- 
rent fund drive. Even so, Johnson says, "it 
doesn't necessarily mean we'll have enough 
to create new interdisciplinary programs, in- 
teresting new classrooms, or international ini- 
tiatives that we don't have here yet. " 

Other ideas now bubbling up in strategic 
planning are a new Center for Entrepreneur- 
ship, which Johnson would like to establish as 
an extension of the already oversubscribed 
Master's in Engineering program, and an un- 
dergraduate research institute. She wants 
Duke engineering students "to have the skills 
to spin off new companies and ventures," and 
she thinks they should be interested in other 
subjects besides engineering, something she 
has heard industry wants. Company recruiters 
have told her they visit Duke "because its 
budding engineers are well-rounded leaders 
that grasp concepts quickly," she says. She 

says she believes it is important for students 
to learn to work in and to lead teams, to write 
business plans as well as research grant appli- 
cations, to know how to make persuasive pre- 
sentations to boards of directors and venture 
capitalists, and to "operate in a business with 
ethics and principles. " Finally, she adds, they 
should have the time and opportunity to 
study abroad. 

Johnson brings her personal experi- 
ences to this manifesto. She grew 
up in a tradition of business -based 
engineering: Her grandfather was 
the engineering assistant to George 
Westinghouse Jr., founder of Wes- 
tinghouse, and her father spent his 
career at Westinghouse as an electri- 
cal engineer. She and several of her 
six siblings grew up in Denver, where 
she developed a strong interest in science. As 
a high-school student, she was already collab- 
orating with local college professors, one of 
whom suggested she use holography — an 
imaging technique that can produce the kind 
of ethereal 3-D images seen on many credit 
cards — to study the growth rate of a particu- 
lar fungus. That project, one of the first appli- 
cations of holography in a biological setting, 
ended up winning a state and an internation- 
al science fair. And it began an interest in 
optics that spawned her research career. 

Johnson received her bachelor's, master's, 
and Ph.D. degrees at another "hot" school — 
Stanford, whose engineering school was reach- 
ing the top of national rankings. She majored 
in electrical engineering, with a strong em- 
phasis on harnessing light for use in imaging 
and communications. Her doctoral research 
added a medical emphasis: creating holo- 
graphic images of computerized tomography 
(CT) X-ray scans. At Stanford she also rekin- 
dled a passion for athletics, joining the varsity 
field hockey team as a walk-on and playing 
lacrosse. Aspiring to the U.S. national field 
hockey team, she made it her lofty goal to get 
a master's degree in electrical engineering at 
Palo Alto while training a grueling four-plus 
hours a day. 

Then, ominously, she noticed a drop in 
training performance and, after that, a lump 
on her neck. Her physician diagnosed Hodg- 
kin's disease, a cancer considered at that time 
incurable and quickly fatal. Fortunately, Stan- 
ford medical researchers were pioneering the 
use of linear accelerator radiation, combined 
with surgery, as a treatment. By 1979, when 
she underwent both surgery and radiation 
treatment, the technique had been perfected 
to produce a cure, and in the twenty years 
since, her cancer has not returned. By the 
spring following her therapy, she was playing 
lacrosse again. She went on to compete in the 
nationals in lacrosse that year, but her dreams 

of major honors were over. "To be honest, I 
just didn't want to hurt like that anymore," 
she says. "And I didn't have the talent. It was 
kind of unrealistic to pick up a game at nine- 
teen and expect to be on the U.S. team at 
twenty-one, though I didn't appreciate that at 
the time. " After her illness, "I just really fig- 
ured I would use my brains. " 

After a post-doctoral stint at Trinity Col- 
lege in Dublin, Johnson joined the faculty at 
the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1985. 
She became a program manager at the NSF- 
funded Engineering Research Center for Op- 
toelectronic Computing Systems, established 
at Colorado to promote joint industry-univer- 
sity optical research and student training. Her 
research there involved extracting "minute 
features" from streams of image data; for 
example, she sought to automate the task of 
locating pre-cancerous cells in pap smears. 
"That work was very interdisciplinary," she 
says. "We had medical doctors, several small 
companies, and chemists and physicists work- 
ing with engineers and computer scientists. " 
She advanced to become the center's director 
between 1993 and 1997. During her tenure at 
the University of Colorado, she applied for 
and administered about $40 million worth of 
research contracts and grants. She holds 
about thirty patents. 

In 1993, she received the International 
Denis Gabor Medal for outstanding achieve- 
ments in modern optics. By 1994, at the age 
of thirty- six, she had become a full professor. 
In 1995, the National Academy of Engine- 
ering listed her among the top 100 engineers 
under forty. Meanwhile, her group's work 
prompted her to co-found a spin-off company 
called ColorLink Inc., which makes and mar- 
kets electronic liquid-crystal color filters for 
electronic display systems. During her last 
year-and-a-half at Boulder, she took a leave of 
absence to work full time at the company, 
where she was founding chief executive offi- 
cer and later chief technical officer. It was an 
entrepreneurial stint that gave her experi- 
ence in taking an idea from lab to production 
line to market, an experience she says she 
wants to share with Duke students. Besides 
being well-versed in engineering and re- 
search, students should also learn to consider 
cost, reliability, and manufacturability, she 
says. "Our first products were not reliable, not 
cost-effective, and couldn't be manufactured 
— but boy, could they perform. As a result, 
we almost went out of business. " 

With the Pratt School's current round 
of self- evaluation nudging her thinking on- 
ward, Johnson envisions new interdisciplinary 
focuses in research and teaching that would 
build on the school's strengths in biomedical 
engineering, signal processing, computation 
and information technology, and materials 
science. Another good model to emulate 


might be Duke's Center for Emerging Cardio- 
vascular Technologies (CECT), where re- 
searchers, companies, and students collabo- 
rate on innovative methods to combat heart 
disease — indeed, she says, in keeping with 
the prominence of Duke Medical Center, 
each focus may have a distinctly medical fla- 
vor. For instance, both signal processing and 
information technology innovators may use 
the medical center as a test bed, perhaps by 
studying better ways to collect, transmit, 
store, and analyze information gathered in 
medical research or in patient treatment. 
New materials-science initiatives may con- 
centrate in an area where she says Duke is 
already a world leader — the "soft, wet" mate- 
rials integral to biological structures. 

Meanwhile, Duke's biomedical engineering 
department — founded by the late Theo Pil- 
kington M.S.E. '60, Ph.D. '63, who started the 
CECT as a prestigious NSF-funded center like 
Johnson's in Boulder — is already consistently 
rated among the nation's top bioengineering 
programs by U.S. News & World Report and by 
the National Research Council. Johnson would 
like to encourage more work in computational 
mechanics — mathematical modeling of the 
dynamic performance of structures from au- 
tomobiles and aircraft to bones. And as con- 
cerns grow about pollution worldwide, she 
foresees an increasing interest in environ- 
mental engineering. "Looking at improving 
the human condition and the environment is 
really the engineering of the future," she says. 

As December's engi- 
neering symposium 
showed, Johnson's 
goals for the Pratt 
School mesh with 
current visions of 
engineering among 
engineering educators, government funding 
agencies, and industry executives. "We need 
to train new engineers to think strategically 
and holistically," said the NSF's Bordogna. 
"We need to educate young people beyond 
their technical expertise to prepare them for 
what is to come, not what is. " Larry Burns, 
vice president for research at the General 
Motors Corporation, added, "Engineers are 
going to have to be taught to think boldly. 
And they are going to have to be taught to 
think big. They'll be working as a team. They'll 
be working in a globally diverse world. They're 
going to have to be able to communicate. I 
think it's a totally different world today. " 

Other features of future engineering will 
include team-oriented cross-collaborations, 






said panelist Nino Masnari, dean of North 
Carolina State University's College of En- 
gineering. "Such collaborations are going to 
be the signatures of successful engineering 
programs in the future. " The study "En- 
gineering Education for a Changing World," 
co-directed by former dean Dowell for the 
American Society for Engineering Educators, 
says engineering colleges must do more than 
provide graduates with "intellectual develop- 
ment" and "superb technical capabilities. " 
They should also "educate their students to 
work as part of teams, communicate well, and 
understand the economic, social, environ- 
mental, and international context of their 
professional activities. " Educators must "stress 
the importance of including partnerships with 
industry and government in reformulating 
engineering education," the report says. 
Course work should feature "multidisci- 
plinary, collaborative, active learning. " And 
administrators and faculty "must help stu- 
dents realize that throughout their lives they 
will encounter ethical issues [that] they will 
need to recognize and deal with rationally. " 
"The Changing Nature of Engineering," an 

essay by National Academy of Engineering 
President William Wulf, predicts dramatic 
changes in engineering practices during the 
next two decades. Among the underlying fac- 
tors are "the availability of a vast array of new 
engineered materials and processes, including 
biological ones," the "pervasive use of infor- 
mation technology in both the products and 
processes of engineering," the "expanded role 
of the engineer as part of a product team," 
and "the broad business knowledge required 
to fill that role. " 

Riding that wave, Johnson told the Pratt 
School celebration that she would "build 
upon a successful school of engineering and 
create a world-class Pratt School of Engine- 
ering. " That ambition begs the question: How 
high should the Pratt School set its sights? 

Should Johnson dare to model its future on 
her alma mater Stanford, a university found- 
ed, like Duke and Rice, by an ambitious busi- 
nessman with a mandate to excel? Stanford 
propelled its engineering school to the top in 
part by forging strong ties to the burgeoning 
high-tech industries in nearby Silicon Valley. 
The dividends have been dramatic. For in- 
stance, David Packard, who attended Stanford 
before founding the Hewlett-Packard Corpor- 
ation, returned the favor by donating $75 
million toward a new $120-million building 
project known as the Science and Engineering 
Quad. And Jim Clark, who taught engineering 
at Stanford before founding Silicon Graphics 
and Netscape, announced in November he 
will donate an eye -popping $ 150 million toward 
a new cross-disciplinary biomedical engineer- 
ing and sciences project and building. 

Mindful of former provost Strohbehn's cold 
shower of realistic caution, Johnson faces the 
flip side of the question: Perhaps the new 
Pratt School of Engineering should entertain 
more modest growth plans, say, on the order 
of Rice, whose George R. Brown School of 
Engineering encompasses an array of innova- 
tive interdisciplinary centers exploring fields 
ranging from energy and environmental sys- 
tems to computational biology. 

Johnson says she sees enormous potential 
here; Duke may be in the same position as the 
Stanford of fifteen or twenty years ago. "Stan- 
ford is a great model. It's a great liberal-arts 
university with good weather and an industri- 
al park, or valley, in its backyard. If you look 
at Duke, it's a great liberal-arts university with 
a good climate and Research Triangle Park in 
its backyard. It has the potential to seed an 
industrial park with even more spin-offs. " 

Or perhaps, Duke engineering should plow 
new intellectual ground, she muses, remarking 
that her vision is still very much evolving. 
"There is an entirely new engineering model 
where Duke is a leader," she says, "one that is 
only visible today as glimpses at other univer- 
sities. " 

January-February 2000 47 


Continued from page 1 9 

have a resource for building a stronger Duke 
community. By being integrated into the uni- 
versity, Kaplan says, "we integrate Jewish life, 
we educate people about Jewish life, we edu- 
cate them about the importance of the reli- 
gion and the culture and the history. " 

After just one semester, that integration is 
already taking place "We are now averaging 
in the thirties every night in people for din- 
ner," he says. "If you look at our programming 
calendar, it's full. Our classes are full. The 
university is turning out for events. We had a 
U.N. program sponsored by International 
House. The gay and lesbian center did a lec- 
ture on anti-Semitism and homophobia. We 
have a sorority dance, we've had University 
Development here, we've had the admissions 
office here, we had the Campus Club here. 
We've had President Keohane here for lunch, 
we've had Jewish Federation talks, we've had 
a fund-raiser for hunger. We're constantly 
growing and changing. " 

As doors open at the Freeman Center, they 
also open for the university as a whole. 
"When I was here before," Kaplan says of his 
1989-92 tenure, "I remember a parent asking 
me, 'Would you send your child to this cam- 
pus?' And I said to her, Til give you an honest 
answer. If you want a place where your 
daughter is going to get one of the best educa- 

tions you can get, yes, I would. If you want 
your daughter to be in a thriving, growing, 
enriching Jewish community, where she's 
going to be really part of the Jewish commu- 
nity, no. No.' 

"Now, that was nine years ago. Today, I 
won't say that. I say to them, 'I can't offer you 
what Cornell offers,' " he says, citing that Ivy 
as one of several schools known for a strong 
Jewish population. "But what I can offer you 
is a growing opportunity, a place where we're 
ready for new leadership. When you go to 
Brandeis, you might be one of a hundred peo- 
ple showing up for a club, and you're a fresh- 
man. Do you have a chance for leadership? 
No. Here? Absolutely. You show up and you 
say, 'I want to organize a Jewish ritual explo- 
ration,' or a Jewish feminist group, and we 
give you the resources. We help you do it. At 
Cornell, you'll be a spoke in the wheel. Here, 
you can build the wheel. You can leave Duke 
in four years, and instead of saying, 'Look 
what I participated in,' you can say, 'Look 
what I created.'" 

In one sense, the Freeman Center has al- 
ready been created, as its brick and stone 
walls went up to house the many aspects of 
Jewish life. But in another sense, it will always 
be under construction, as students and com- 
munity members continually come together 
to define their needs and then work to meet 
them. That ongoing growth is part of Kaplan's 
vision for the FCJLs future. 

"I'm hoping you will be able to come into 
this building virtually every evening and 
find a flurry of activity. Whether it be class- 
es or lectures or discussions or just people 
eating, that you would be able to come in 
here and find something happening," he 
says. "I hope that includes community peo- 
ple in Durham and the student community, 
Jewish and non-Jewish. I hope this is a 
place where on any given night, you might 
see Students for Change in the Middle East 
having a discussion along with a fraternity 
having a meeting; that our cafeteria will be 
serving fifty to eighty students, at least, at 
dinner; that there will be a real sense of a 
community center, like the Bryan Center — 
maybe not the numbers and the traffic, but 
the sense that there is always something 
going on in here. That people might even 
stop by just to see what is happening. " 

On that fifth night of Hanukkah, after 
Faye Schulman's presentation on her life 
with the Russian partisans, people linger in 
the lobby to chat. One student hurries down 
the hallway toward a computer cluster where 
a friend is working; a few more amble down 
toward the lounge to see who's around. The 
dinner crowd has cleared out. The candles 
in the menorah have nearly burned down 
to the brass. But their light still shines, just 
illuminating the face of the work-study stu- 
dent at the reception desk, and things at 
the FCJL are happening indeed. ■ 

I All che advantages of a day/boarding 
school come together in St Catherine's. 
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Day in and day out. boarding here 
& is an enriching experience. 




Duke senior Julian Harris has managed 
a hat trick of scholarships. He is an 
A.B. Duke Scholar; last year earned a 
Truman Scholarship to pursue graduate stud- 
ies in public service; and then, in December, 

cient and Modern Ethical Theory," "Philos- 
ophy of Medical Ethics," and "Human Rights 
in Theory and Practice," and research in for- 
eign countries. He worked at a hospital in 
Tanzania to develop a curriculum in clinical 
ethics for foreign and Tanzanian physicians. 

During his two years at Oxford, Harris says he 
plans to build on these interests, taking courses 
in economics, politics, and philosophy. After 


won one of thirty-two Rhodes Scholarships. 

Harris, from Warner Robins, Georgia, is 
Duke's twenty-ninth Rhodes Scholar, win- 
ning from a pool of 935 applicants from 323 
schools. "It's extremely humbling," Harris says. 
"It deepens my sense of responsibility. My 
family has always emphasized the importance 
of remembering that 'to whom much is given, 
much is expected.'" 

Harris' academic work has concentrated on 
the intersection of health policy and medical 
ethics, and he is completing a self-designed 
degree program focusing on those fields. He 
was drawn to these areas of study at a young 
age, motivated in part by learning about the 
infamous Tuskegee syphilis project in which, 
in the name of research, treatment was with- 
held from black men fighting that disease. His 
curriculum has included such courses as "An- 

the Rhodes, he plans to earn a law degree, 
master's in public health, or M.B.A., followed 
by a medical degree. 

Harris has served as chair of the Honor 
Council and as a member of the board of the 
Center for Academic Integrity, a national or- 
ganization based at Duke, and was one of two 
student members of the ad hoc Curriculum 
2000 committee. He is a professionally trained 
bass vocalist and a runner, and while in Tan- 
zania climbed Mt. Kilimanjaro. 

Elizabeth Kiss, director of the Kenan Ethics 
Program and associate professor of the prac- 
tice of political science and philosophy (and a 
former Rhodes Scholar), has taught and worked 
with Harris. "He has a combination of quali- 
ties that is extremely rare," she says. "He has a 
formidable intelligence, a great heart, charis- 
ma, the ability to listen to others and under- 

stand them even when they are being diffi- 
cult, and remarkable cultural sensitivity. I 
have absolutely no doubt that he will make a 
significant contribution to the world. " 


Former presidential candidate Elizabeth 
Hanford Dole '58, the first woman to 
head two federal cabinet agencies, will 
deliver Duke's 2000 commencement address 
on May 14- 

A native of Salisbury, North Carolina, Dole 
was a member of Delta Delta Delta and was 
elected both May Queen and president of the 
women's student government. She has served 
as an officer of the alumni association, on the 
university board of trustees, and on the board 
of visitors of the Fuqua School of Business. 
She received the Distinguished Alumni Award 
in 1985. From Duke she went on to Harvard, 
where she received a law degree and a mas- 
ter's degree in education and government. 

Dole was a member of the Nixon Admin- 
istration, and became secretary of transportation 
in the Reagan administration and secretary of 
labor in the Bush administration. She later 
served as president of the American Red Cross. 
Last fall, she withdrew from the race for the 
Republican presidential nomination. 

Dole had been invited to deliver the 1997 
commencement address but was forced to 
withdraw because of a scheduling conflict; 
she spoke to the senior class in April instead. 
Her honors include the 1991 North Carolina 
Award for outstanding accomplishments and 
contributions in public service, along with the 
North Carolina Press Association's first award 
for "North Carolinian of the Year. " 


Longtime Duke law professor Katherine 
T Bartlett has been named the new 
dean of the Duke University School of 
Law, succeeding Pamela Gann J.D. 73. 

"The combination of Professor Bartlett's fine 
legal scholarship and her strong law school and 

January-February 2000 49 


he twentieth century 
ended not with a Y2K 
bang, but a compliant 
whimper as fears of computer 
crashes caused by a date-pro- 
gramming glitch failed to 

As outlined in "Bugged by the 
Millennium" (Duke Magazine, 
September-October 1998), the 
potential for problems was real. 
A shortcut in creating computer 
coding — using two places for a 
date instead of four — had raised 
the possibility that computers 
might read "00" as 1900 rather 
than 2000. Billions of dollars 
were spent around the world to 
bring computers and equipment 
up to date, but the hype didn't 
stop as the clock ticked down to 
midnight, January 1, 2000. 

John A. Koskinen '61, head 
of the President's Council on 
Millennium Conversion, told 
reporters he was "pleasantly 
surprised" by the relatively glitch- 
free date rollover. Even in de- 
veloping countries where serious 
problems had been expected, 
utilities stayed in service and 
large computer systems did not 
crash. As early as the first week 
in January, Koskinen announced 
that Y2K monitoring efforts 

would be scaled back — though, 
he added in a January 3 press 
briefing, "we are likely to see 
glitches pop up here and there 
in the coming days and weeks." 
However, those small glitches 
should "be localized and transi- 
tory and will not pose a threat 
to the nation's economy." 

There were no Y2K-related 
problems at Duke, where pre- 
paration for the Y2K turnover 
had begun as much as a decade 
before. Duke Medical Center, 
whose information systems 
office had begun the conversion 
process in 1989, had backup 
power, and its critical medical 

equipment had been tested and 
upgraded or replaced as needed. 
The university itself prepared 
extensively as well with long- 
term maintenance and such 
short-term preparations as 
stockpiling a three-week supply 
of food products, arranging 
delivery of emergency fuel if 
needed, and printing backup 
payroll checks. 

Duke News Service reported 
that the cost to the university 
and health system for direct 
Y2K fixes was $19 million, with 
another $75 million spent on 
advanced administrative systems 
that were needed anyway, but 
that also dealt with the Y2K 
threat. Nationally, $100 billion 
was spent by governments, busi- 
nesses, and individuals. 

In a Reuters interview, Kos- 
kinen defended the trouble- 
shooting efforts, saying "we 
should not underestimate the 
nature of the problem that was 
originally there." One unnamed 
state ran a test, allowing three 
computers known to have Y2K 
problems to continue running. 
Koskinen said all three crashed 
completely in "an interesting 
example of what happens with 
systems that have failures." 

university experience highly recommended her 
for the dean's position," says Provost Peter Lange. 

Bartlett, the A. Kenneth Pye Professor of 
Law, has taught at Duke since 1979, and was 
named University Scholar/Teacher of the Year 
in 1994- She writes and lectures extensively on 
such family law topics as child custody, joint 
custody, surrogate parenting, and the role of 
fault in divorce law. She is also an expert in 
the law as it relates to women and has pub- 
lished articles on gender theory, employment 
law, theories of social change, and legal edu- 
cation. Her 1990 Hanurd Law Review article on 
feminist legal methods is one of the most often 
cited law review articles of the last decade. 

Bartlett says her goals for the law school in- 
clude building strengths in international and 
comparative law, intellectual property, inter- 
disciplinary studies, environmental law, and 
science and technology issues. She says she 
would also like to see the law school play a 
leading role in improving standards of legal 
professionalism, public perception of lawyers, 
and public awareness of the importance of 
law in society. 

Bartlett is a graduate of Wheaton College 
with a master's degree from Harvard Uni- 
versity and a law degree from the University 
of California at Berkeley. Before coming to 

Duke, she was a law clerk on the California 
Supreme Court, and a legal-services attorney 
in Oakland. She has been a visiting professor 
at UCLA and at Boston University, and a fel- 
low at the National Humanities Center in 
Research Triangle Park. She serves on the 
boards of directors of the Urban Ministries 
Center of Durham and of the Durham Coun- 
ty Department of Social Services, and is mar- 
ried to Duke law professor Chris Schroeder. 


Duke Divinity School will help congre- 
gations rethink the way they recruit 
and sustain pastoral leaders through 
a three-year, $3.5-million program funded by 
Lilly Endowment Inc. The project will draw 
together theologians, historians, social scien- 
tists, researchers, and church leaders to identify 
excellent ministry, to develop ways to encour- 
age it, and to find strategies for supporting it. 
"There is evidence that ordained ministry, 
despite many strong exceptions, is in some 
respects a troubled profession," says Jackson 
W. Carroll, director of the school's J.M. Or- 

mond Center for Research, Development, and 
Planning, who will oversee the Lilly Pastoral 
Leadership Project. "Low morale is not un- 
common among the clergy, and an apparently 
growing number of clergy are dropping out. " 

"If seminary faculties, regardless of denomi- 
nation, accept the work of the program and 
give it standing by incorporating it into their 
curricula, and clergy and their congregations 
are helped to understand and respond adap- 
tively to the challenges before them, then we 
will know our work has been useful for min- 
istry," he says. 

Project participants will represent Roman 
Catholic and Protestant denominations. The 
Lilly Endowment is a private foundation that 
supports community development, education, 
and religion. 



Two recent studies overseen by Duke 
Medical Center researchers point the 
way to new treatments for heart at- 
tacks — one by drug therapy, and one by 
backing away from an invasive procedure. 
Two other studies examine the effects of age 
and of obesity on cardiac health and care. 

The drug therapy, dubbed "facilitated an- 
gioplasty," involves giving patients a quick 
cocktail of drugs that dissolves clots and stops 
them from reforming, and an hour later, per- 
forming an angioplasty to clear plaque from 
heart arteries that are now open. According 
to Duke cardiologist E. Magnus Ohman, the 
strategy appears to offer a better outcome 
than thrombolytic treatment ("clot-busting" 
drugs) or angioplasty alone, or even medical 
therapy followed by angioplasty within sever- 
al days. 

Another study shows a more select use of 
artery tubes called stents could save up to 
$162 million each year. The cost analysis, per- 
formed by Duke Medical Center cardiolo- 
gists, showed the financial savings could be 
achieved without compromising the quality 
of patient care. As the popularity of stenting 
has grown, many cardiologists now automati- 
cally implant a stent, even when an excellent 
result is achieved with the balloon alone. 
Stents are used in more than 500,000 proce- 
dures in the United States every year. "We 
have shown that there is a group of patients 
whose arteries are very unlikely to renarrow 
after angioplasty and who get stent-like re- 
sults without needing the stent," says cardiol- 
ogist Warren Cantor, who led the analysis. 
"The amount of potential health-care savings 
ranges from $114 million to $162 million. " 

Finding the optimal methods for such 
aggressive therapies becomes even more im- 




An ocean away from her 
Barcelona base, Tabea 
Linhard found herself 
teaching German in the cozy but 
cold confines of the State Uni- 
versity of New York at Bingham- 
ton. "I was twenty-two," she 
recalls, "and the students weren't 
much younger than me. I was 
so serious the first day I taught, 
they all thought I was really 
mean." With the help of a faculty 
adviser familiar with Duke, 
Linhard explored the possibility 
of shifting from a program that 
focused on translation and 
coming instead to a campus that 
would allow her to pursue ad- 
vanced research. 

Five years after those early 
years of teaching German and 
Latin American studies, she is 
on track for her Ph.D. in Duke's 
Department of Romance 
Studies. Linhard is preparing for 
her second consecutive semester j 
teaching her own seminar, "A 
las Barricadas: Civil War, Cul- 
tural Production, and Gender in 
Spain." The content of the course 
mirrors her preparation for her 
dissertation. She did research last 
spring in Madrid and the follow- 
ing summer in Mexico. "The re- 
search went very, very well — it 
was a lot of fun." But, she admits, 
"the writing is the hard part." 

Her project focuses on the role 
of women in two of this centu- 
ry's most glorified conflicts: the 
Spanish Civil War (1936-39), a 
conflict that served as a military 
and ideological precursor to 
World War II, and the Mexican 
Revolution (1910-17), which 
made figures like Pancho Villa 
legends in both Mexico and the 
United States. Linhard says she 
was aiming at a comprehensive 
approach, "not just literature, 
but also newspapers and poems 
written by people who were not 
famous poets; they were just 
people who participate in the 
war somehow, some way. I col- 
lected some interviews, I looked 
at artwork — things from across 
the board." 

The inspiration was there 
before her stint at Binghamton. 
"I read an article before I start- 
ed grad school about thirteen 
women who were killed at the 
end of the Spanish Civil War." 
Known as the Trece Rosas (Thir- 
teen Roses), these women were 
members of Socialist and Com- 
munist parties and were con- 
demned to death because of 
their political affiliations, though 
their executioners trumped up 
charges of treason and murder 

against them. What struck Lin- 
hard, though, "was that one of 
the women wrote letters to her 
mother from prison. The letters 
were published, and you can see 
that it was really hard for her. 
She was just a little girl, sixteen 
years old, and she writes these 
kinds of things to her mother. 
Her last words were, 'Don't 
allow my name to be forgotten 
in history,' which it is, because 
almost nobody knows about it 

Current academic trends, Lin- 
hard says, foster academic in- 
vestigations, like hers, based 
in research on the techniques 
of several disciplines. "People 
used to have to do what was 
called an 'area-based approach,' 
where you study Spain or Latin 
America," she explains. "But 
that has changed. People are 
now much more concerned 
about certain questions and spe- 
cific problems. Then you com- 
bine those issues with interests 
that you may have." 

Linhard recognizes that Duke's 
Curriculum 2000, which imposes 
a stronger language requirement 
on undergraduates, will place 
pressures on Romance Studies, 
and on Spanish particularly. "All 
the grad students in the depart- 
ment are here because they have 
an interest in literary and cul- 
tural studies." It's less than ideal, 
she says, when they are limited 
to teaching language instruction 
courses. "We are a literary pro- 
gram. Language is a fundamen- 
tal part of what we do, but it's 

not the only thing we do." 

Her background has helped 
her understand the problems 
inherent in encouraging second- 
language acquisition. Born to 
German parents, she was raised 
in Barcelona, the capital of 
Spain's Catalonia autonomy, 
where Catalan — not Spanish — 
is the dominant language. "Lan- 
guage is something so sensitive. 
You can be very, very subde with 
language, but it's also some- 
thing that might hurt somebody 
more than anything else." 

The difficult part, she says, is 
that language, beyond serving 
as a means of communication, 
confers identity upon the indi- 
vidual. When you don't speak 
the language, she says, "it's not 
only that you don't understand 
everything, but people see you 
in a different light. They see you 
as being more shy than you nor- 
mally are, more innocent than 
you normally are, and maybe 
even less competent than you 
really are." 

Committed as she is to a pro- 
fession that sometimes empha- 
sizes research as an opportunity 
and teaching as a burden, she is 
secure in her passion for teach- 
ing. "It doesn't make sense for 
me to be in this profession and 
not want to teach," she says 
confidently. "It would be so 
lonely, so terrible. And it makes 
it so much more fun when you 
teach — that's when it all makes 

sense to me." 

-Scott Meisler '00 

portant in light of a third Duke study. Re- 
searchers have found that, contrary to what 
most physicians may expect, even very elderly 
people with heart blockages have better long- 
term outcomes if treated with such methods 
as heart bypass surgery or angioplasty. 

Investigators found that patients seventy- 
five years and older who were given angioplasty 
or bypass surgery to treat multiple blocked ar- 
teries lived significantly longer than those who 
were treated conservatively with medicines 
only. Cardiologists say the study, the largest of 
its kind reported, has the potential for chang- 
ing the way aged heart patients are treated, 
after the findings have been confirmed with 
future randomized treatment comparisons. 

Finally, it appears that pounds of prevention 
are worth ounces of cure. The fourth Duke 
study shows that the more overweight a per- 
son is, the younger he will be when heart dis- 
ease strikes, which will result in more years of 
illness and fewer years to live compared to 
leaner patients. 

Moreover, in this study, the heavier the pa- 
tient, the more statistically likely that he or 
she had high blood pressure, diabetes, high 
blood levels ot cholesterol, and a family history 
of heart disease. These patients also had heart 
disease longer than normal-weight patients. 
Treating obese patients cost an additional 
$10,000 in the twelve years after their initial 
cardiac event, compared to normal-weight 


Kimberly Jenkins 76, M.Ed 77, Ph.D. 
'80, a leading advocate for innovative 
uses of technology in education, is 
giving Duke $2 million to establish a profes- 
sorship that will examine the effect of tech- 
nology, particularly the Internet, on society. The 
Kimberly J. Jenkins University Professorship 
of New Technologies and Society will encour- 
age an interdisciplinary approach to examining 
the impact of technological innovations on 
society and culture, with initial emphasis on 
the Internet's transforming impact. 

"With computers in more than 40 percent 
of American households, and over a quarter 
of those households regularly going online, 
there's no question that the Internet is trans- 
forming daily life in this country," Jenkins 
says. "Our schools, our city, state, and federal 
governments, our churches and synagogues 
— in fact, all of the institutions that affect our 
communities — are adjusting to the dawn of 
the Information Age. I hope that, by studying 
the transformative impact ot the Internet and 
technology in an interdisciplinary fashion, 
whoever fills this new position will be able to 

January-February 2000 51 

offer unique insights that will guide our de- 
velopment as a society. " 

Duke president Nannerl O. Keohane says the 
new professorship addresses two of the univer- 
sity's highest priorities — attracting and retain- 
ing top faculty, and expanding interdisciplinary 
approaches to critical social issues. The Univer- 
sity Professorships are a select group of endowed 
chairs awarded to distinguished scholars whose 
work transcends disciplinary boundaries. 

Jenkins began her high-tech career in 1983 
at Microsoft as a software developer, where she 
is credited with convincing Bill Gates of the 
importance of the use of personal computers 
in education. After four years, she moved to 
Steve Jobs' NeXT as director of market devel- 
opment. She is now president of the Internet 
Policy Institute, a Washington-based research 
and educational group of corporate, academ- 
ic, and other nonprofit leaders that focuses 
on issues affecting and affected by the global 
development and use of the Internet. She is 
past chair of Highway 1 , a nonprofit, Wash- 
ington-based organization that Jenkins estab- 
lished in 1995 to improve communications 
between the U.S. government and the public 
via high-technology communications. 

Jenkins serves on the university's Washing- 
ton Regional Campaign Council, the Trinity 
College Board of Visitors, and the Advisory 
Committee on the Future of Information 
Technology in Teaching and Research. She is 
a past member of the university's Council on 
Women's Studies. 



Six uprights and four baby grands have 
been placed on West Campus and at 
Duke Medical Center as part of a new 
initiative administered by Duke's Office of 
University Life. The pianos, on loan from the 
Piano Shoppe of Cary, are for students and 
faculty who wish to practice or play for friends 
and passers-by, says Sue Coon, dean of uni- 
versity life and organizer of the project. 

"Music is a different dimension of the 
human experience," Coon says. "We hope 
that's what we're providing by bringing these 
pianos to the university. " The instruments, 
manufactured by Kawai, have been placed at 
the Mary Lou Williams Center, the Crowell 
Building coffeehouse, Mitchell House (the 
arts residence hall) , Teer House, the Center 
for Jewish Life, the Wilson Recreation Cen- 
ter, Trent Drive Residence Hall, and three 
sites in the medical center. 

Jane Hawkins, associate professor of the 
practice of music, says the program came in 
response to student requests for more prac- 
tice areas on West Campus. She learned of a 

Tenting out for tickets to Duke basketball 
games has become a cherished tradition, 
with students giving up warm beds and in- 
door plumbing for the chance at some of the 1 ,300 
or so student seats in Cameron Indoor Stadium. 
But this year, K-ville is getting an upgrade. 

As part of a $40-million renovation of athletics 
facilities and grounds, six new lampposts were 
installed at K-ville's traditional location — each 
with four Internet jacks at the base, which will be 
activated before each "tenting" game. Students will 
have twenty-four-hour access. "I'd like them to be 
productive as students while they're in line," execu- 
tive vice-president Tallman Trask told The Chron- 
icle of Higher Education. Hard-wiring the lampposts 
was Trask's brainstorm, and he says "the students 
are telling me it was a cool idea." 


program whereby Kawai, through its local 
merchants, works with colleges and universi- 
ties to place pianos on their campuses. The 
instruments are tested and tuned, then later 
sold and replaced with new pianos. With her 
research in hand, Hawkins went to Coon and 
together they began to explore a partnership 
with Kawai and the Piano Shoppe. The sale 
of the pianos on loan to Duke will be held on 
campus in April. 


uch like archaeologists who 
search the fossil record looking for 
clues about the past, Duke Medi- 
cal Center researchers have done their own 
genetic sifting and have found a striking simi- 
larity between viral genetic material that has 

always existed in humans and HIV, a relative- 
ly new virus to infect humans. 

The data show surprising evidence for an 
evolutionary link between HIV-1, the virus 
that causes AIDS, and a group of retroviruses 
that first entered the human genome up to 30 
million years ago, the researchers report in a 
recent issue of the Proceedings of the National 
Academy of Sciences. Retroviruses are those 
that use RNA as their basic genetic template, 
rather than DNA as in most organisms. 

The genetic makeup, or genome, of every 
human being contains genes that were first 
introduced through infections by retroviruses, 
which, like HIV, inject their genetic material 
into the target cell, where, converted to DNA, 
it becomes a permanent part of the cell's DNA. 
If the infected cell happens to be the precur- 
sor of a germ cell, like sperm, the largely be- 
nign viral genetic material has the potential 
to be passed from generation to generation. 

Although lead researcher Bryan Cullen 
doesn't see any immediate applications of this 
understanding to the treatment of AIDS, he 
does think that these findings could help 
in the future development of vectors, or viral 
"shuttles," to carry gene therapy to target 
cells. "It appears that all the infections that 
led to the viral genes being in our genome 
occurred before we became 'human' a few 
hundred thousand years ago," Cullen says. As 
a comparison, he adds, it is estimated that 
HIV-1 emerged from chimpanzees about a 
hundred years ago. 


A Duke cultural anthropologist in 
Japan studying the Pokemon phe- 
nomenon says the children's game 
that has exploded into a mass merchandising 
success is viewed differently in Japan than it is 
in the United States. 

"I've seen almost no reporting [in Japan] of 
the hysteria and worry over trading cards and 
their potential for promoting gambling or a 
New York stock exchange mentality that you 
have seen in the U.S.," Anne Allison says. 
"Rather, the general view is that Pokemon is 
innocuous or even positive. [People say] it 
encourages intellectual skills in learning how 
to distinguish all the Pokemon, that it helps 
kids in forming friendships. Mothers say that 
it fosters communication at home. " 

Allison, an associate professor of cultural 
anthropology, is a specialist on mass culture 
in contemporary urban Japan. In Japan on 
Fulbright and Social Science Research Coun- 
cil senior fellowships, she is researching popu- 
lar Japanese heroes and super heroes that get 
circulated through comics and television pro- 


grams, are mass marketed through toys and 
other merchandising, and are exported around 
the world as global commodities. She has now 
turned her attention to Pokemon. 

Pokemon began as a game and has explod- 
ed into a mass merchandising opportunity, 
she says. The game was picked up as a serial- 
ized comic, or manga. Next came an animat- 
ed television show, a movie, trading cards, 
and associated merchandise — everything 
from Pokemon toys to Pokemon curry. Rather 
than regard Pokemon with suspicion, Allison 
says the Japanese embrace the fad. 

She calls the marketing of Pokemon bril- 
liant, a campaign that crosses media and pro- 
ducts to create an interdependency. Children 
watch the TV program to get hints on how to 
play the game, for example. "One form of 
Pokemon bleeds into another so kids are sur- 
rounded by Pokemon in their everyday lives. " 


* Bruce W. Jentleson is the new director of 
the Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy. 
Formerly director of the University of Cali- 
fornia-Davis' Washington Center, and a for- 
eign policy adviser to the Clinton administra- 
tion, Jentleson will also hold the position of 
professor of public policy studies and political 
science. He is a senior fellow at the United 
States Institute of Peace in Washington. A 
political scientist specializing in international 
relations, he has substantial experience in 
government, including work on the foreign 
policy staff of then-US. Senator Al Gore and 
on the State Department Policy Planning 
Staff. He is the author and editor of seven 
books. He earned his master's degree from 
the London School of Economics and Politi- 
cal Science, and his Ph.D. in political science 
from Cornell in 1983. He assumed his new 
post January 1. 

* Bill C. Malone is the first Lehman Brady 
Chair Professor in American Studies and 
Documentary Studies, a joint professorship 
established by Duke and UNC-Chapel Hill. 
Malone, known for his groundbreaking cul- 
tural studies of Southern folk and country 
music and retired professor emeritus in the 
history department at Tulane University, will 
hold a joint visiting faculty appointment in 
the Center for Documentary Studies and 
UNC's American Studies program for the 
spring 2000 semester. He is the recipient of a 
John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship for the 
study of country music and the Southern 
working class, and has published widely, 
including several books, numerous journal 
and encyclopedia articles, and the production 
and annotation of the Smithsonian Collection 
of Classic Country Music. The Lehman Brady 

Chair is supported by two endowment funds, 
one established at the Center for Documen- 
tary Studies by the Lyndhurst Foundation and 
the other established at Duke by the bequest 
of Durham attorney Lehman Brady '27. 

* Sara Schroth, a specialist in seventeenth- 
century Spanish art, was appointed the first full 
curator at the Duke University Museum of Art. 
Since 1995, Schroth has been the museum's 
assistant curator and deputy director of the 
DUMA/Museo del Prado exchange program. 
She is working to organize a loan exhibition 
of Spanish, Flemish, and Italian masterpieces 
for the opening of the new art museum. 

* Ella Fountain Pratt, who directed Duke's 
Office of Cultural Affairs for more than a 
quarter of a century, was honored by the Dur- 
ham Arts Council and First Presbyterian 
Church with a weekend celebration of her 
life, work, and accomplishments. The January 
weekend included Durham Arts Council and 
Mary Duke Biddle Foundation's publication 
of I Am Ella Fountain Keesler Pratt: An Oral 
History, edited by Alicia Rouverol with a fore- 
word by Reynolds Price '55, and the premiere 
of the musical composition A Fanfare for Ella 
Fountain, by North Carolina composer Scott 
Tilley. Pratt has been involved in the arts in 
Durham for more than forty years. 

January-February 2000 53 


Look Back All the Green Valley 

By Fred Chappell '61, A.M. '64. Picador/St. 
Martins, 1999. 278 pages. $24. 

Donald Hall once re- 
ferred to William 
Stafford as "a poet of 
ordinary life. " In his 
short stories and nov- 
els, Fred Chappell 
meets that description 
as he tells of daily life 
in the North Carolina mountains. He notices 
the everyday, celebrates it, and writes about it 
clearly without patronizing stereotypes. 

Few North Carolinians are as talented in a 
single field as Chappell is in a whole handful 
relating to the literary arts. Once a Duke un- 
dergraduate studying poetry with William 
Blackburn, Chappell is now North Carolina's 
Poet Laureate. A recently published regional 
poetry anthology, Word and Witness (Carolina 
Academic Press, 1999), for which Chappell 
contributed the afterword, listed the winners 
of the state's seven major literary awards; 
Chappell has already won four of the awards 
(some more than once, for a grand total of 
ten). A member of the English faculty at 
the University of North Carolina at Greens- 
boro, he recently won the O. Max Gardner 
Award for distinguished teaching. He is a lit- 
erary cheerleader, blurbmeister, and promoter 
of local talent — he was, for instance, the first 
to tout in print a "small-press," "regional" 
opus, Charles Frazier's Cold Mountain, which 
went on to win the National Book Award. 
Chappell's networking skills and selfless will- 
ingness to share center stage with his students 
compare only to Lee Smith and Clyde Ed- 

Never away too long from his beloved Latin, 
French, or Shakespeare, Chappell loves the 
life of a scholar. But he's just too good to rest 
with his dusty tomes, and split his literary per- 
sonality we must! For I love Fred Chappell for 
his storytelling — and we get back to it in his 
latest treasure, Look Back All the Green Valley. 
This fourth and final book in Chappell's 
cycle of novels concludes Jess Kirkman's edu- 
cation, travels, and loves. Kirkman returns to 
his boyhood hometown in the North Caro- 
lina mountains. Chappell weaves in mystery, 
teasing the reader with coy hints of sex and 
infidelity. Kirkman's father looms huge in the 

work. We are driven all over the map, even 
into outer space, to find more meaning of his 
father's life and passing. 

As Kirkman seeks a family burial plot, he 
tours his father's old, often secret, stomping 
grounds. This allows Chappell the wonderful 
opportunity to tell tales of each small town, 
holler, and mountain vista that Kirkman vis- 
its. My favorite sections are the weaving of 
stories within the story. We hear the inside 
scoop on mountain folk who lack electricity 
but hold on to sharp memories of events fifty 
years gone by. Later in the novel, Chappell 
detours into outer space. This is a tangent, a 
side turn best left marked "no exit," but I sup- 
pose the reader must allow the author one 
stab at science fiction. 

Chappell has said that Look Back All the 
Green Valley represents the end of a twenty- 
eight-year project that included four books of 
poetry and four novels, noting that both quar- 
tets use the four classic elements of air, earth, 
fire, and water for context. An ambitious plan, 
no doubt, but each book must also stand on its 
own. Look Back All the Green Valley succeeds 
because the yearnings for truth, validity of 
experience, and youth are so heartfelt. 

And I, the reader, want more. More stories, 
more novels, more Fred. This is no idle plea. 
Chappell seems to be summing up his literary 
life way too soon. His most recent poetry col- 
lection ends with these lines from the epi- 
logue: "Goodbye, my friends. The sun has set. 
Now I lay me down to sleep. " And take a glance 
at some of descriptive words in the titles of his 
last few books and poems: "farewell," "noc- 
turne," "leave," "look back. " There's a wistful, 

even melancholy air to some of his asides. 

Quartets finished, Chappell does deserve a 
brief rest. Perhaps, though, there's hint of pro- 
mise of more to come at the end of the book. 
Quoting Twelfth Night's Sir Toby, Chappell 
calls, "Thou art a scholar; let us therefore eat 
and drink. Marian, I say! a stoup of wine. " 
Indeed, let the party continue. 

— John Valentine 

Valentine '71, M.Ed. 76, co-owner of the Regulator 
Bookshop, lives in Hillsborough, North Carolina. 

The Terrible Hours: The Man 
Behind the Greatest Submarine 
Rescue in History 

B} Peter Moos '50. HarperCollins, 1999. 240 
pages. $25. 

Back in the boom-boom 
Eighties, when I was at 
Duke and Ronald Reagan 
was commander-in-chief, 
I spent three long, indistin- 
guishable days and nights 
as a Navy ROTC midship- 
man aboard a nuclear sub- 
marine out of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Even though Tom Clancy's obscure breakout 
novel, The Hwnt for Red October, had yet 
to catch on with the civilian public (it was 
originally published in 1984 by the U.S. Naval 
Institute Press), by 1985 the Navy's nuclear 
program was attracting the cream of the re- 
cruiting crop. 

Smart-as-heck high-school graduates with 
no college experience were signing up for good 
money to learn physics, wear snappy blue jump- 
suits and turtlenecks, and stalk pesky Soviets 
along the ocean floor. As far as naval duty went, 
subs had become the good life. The work was 
intellectually stimulating, the vessels were air- 
conditioned, relatively roomy, and fast, and 
the food was great. Midshipmen who sought 
slots as nuke -power officers used our training 
voyage to suck up to anyone with shiny brass 

I would never have survived life as a sub- 
mariner in the 1930s. In reality, few in the Navy 
did, for those were the days without sonar 
and before the atomic bomb unleashed nu- 
clear power, when submarines were actually 
battery-powered surface ships that occasion- 
ally dipped beneath the surface. In fact, in the 


ten years before 1939, 700 men were lost in 
twenty submarines, leading sailors to dub sub- 
marine duty the "coffin service. " As Peter 



Maas writes in his latest book, The Terrible 
Hours: The Man Behind the Greatest Submarine 
Rescue in History, if a submarine failed in those 
days, "every man on board was doomed. It was 
accepted that there would be no deliverance. " 

A prize-winning literary journalist, Maas 
has spent decades writing creative nonfiction 
prose that illuminates the heroics, treache- 
ries, and moral quandaries of people outside 
the scope of ordinary American life, particu- 
larly in the world of organized crime. Often 
compared to such nonfiction chroniclers of 
the shadow-side of human nature as Joseph 
Wambaugh (The Onion Field) and Truman 
Capote (In Cold Blood), Maas combines keen 
observation with a sense of character and 
narrative, and the alliance has made many of 
his books enormously popular. 

Now he has returned to his earliest days as 
an author to explore one of the most virtuous, 
albeit two-dimensional, archetypes of hero- 
ism — the real-life action figure who, through 
brains and grit, saves innocents from near- 
certain death. The Terrible Hours is a revised 
version of his first book, The Rescuer, written 
in the mid-1960s. "It sold about 300 copies," 
he said recently. "At that time, nobody was in- 
terested in a submarine that went down in 

The book recounts the story of an Anna- 
polis grad named Charles "Swede" Momsen, 
who spearheads a harrowing effort to rescue 
crew members of the Squalus, a U.S. Navy sub- 
marine that sank in 240 feet of water off the 
coast of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1939. 
Momsen, a marine researcher and submariner, 
was famous for inventing the "Momsen Lung," 

a piece of scuba-diving equipment that re- 
duced the risk of decompression sickness, or 
"the bends. " Before Momsen came along, it 
was standard procedure to treat downed subs 
as irretrievable. 

The book often reads like a real-life Tom 
Clancy effort, which is a mixed blessing for any 
writer seeking to attain bestseller status while 
maintaining cachet as a serious journalist. 
The details are slathered on thick — "the aroma 
inside the hull, a combination of diesel fumes, 
sweat, dirty socks, and unwashed clothes, was 
something you never really got used to. " The 
plot is filled with suspenseful twists, from 
flooding engine rooms and deadly chlorine gas 
to bad weather, snagged life-lines, and divers 
struggling to remain conscious while stretching 
the limits of 1930s deep-sea technology. The 
tale is well-paced and, thanks to its verisimili- 
tude, maintains interest all the more. 

Unlike past Maas works, however, the 
fleshing out of the pivotal characters occa- 
sionally achieves melodrama, as in this "high 
noon" account of Momsen facing the fearful 
possibility that the Squalus is beyond hope, 
and facing the impact the potential loss might 
have on his career: "For most people, the worth 
of their lives is a blend of shaded grays. But 
for Swede Momsen, that judgment would 
now come swiftly. And in black and white. 
There would be no in-between. " 

Most of Maas' real-life protagonists display 
brains and courage, though not always in the 
service of virtue. In The Valachi Papers (1968), 
he introduced readers to a government infor- 
mant who played a catalytic role in confimiing 
the existence of the Mafia, or Cosa Nostra, in 
post-war America. The U.S. Justice Depart- 
ment tried to sue Maas, claiming his book 
would be "injurious to law enforcement. " De- 
spite the government's seal of disapproval, 
twenty-four publishers turned the book down 
at first, telling him the Mafia "didn't sell. " In 
fact, he helped create a new genre in the book 
industry (Mario Puzo's Tlie Godfather was pub- 
lished a year later). The Valachi book became a 
bestseller and was made into what Maas cal- 
led "one of the worst movies I've ever seen. " 

As the author of Serpico (1973), Maas told 
the true story of an undercover narcotics cop 
who dares to expose corruption within the New 
York police department. Returning to his crime 
roots, Maas wrote the 1997 bestseller Under- 
boss, chronicling the life of Sammy "The Bull" 
Gravano, the Gambino crime family's second- 
in-command, whose testimony put his boss, 
John Gotti, behind bars for life. 

After graduating from Duke, Maas moved 
to Paris, where he wangled his way into a brief 
stint at what is now the International Herald 
Tribune. After being drafted into the U.S. Navy 
during the Korean War, he spent the next fif- 
teen years leading up to The Valachi Papers 
working as a journalist, primarily for magazines 

such as Collier's, Look, and The Saturday Eve- 
ning Post. During the 1960s, he evolved into 
an investigative reporter and adopted the cre- 
ative techniques of the "New Journalism," 
with its emphasis on literary detail, plot, and 
characterization. Eventually he joined fellow 
genre -bending reporters Tom Wolfe and Gay 
Talese as founding writers of New York maga- 

In The Terrible Hours, Maas is true to those 
reporting roots, displaying a admirable pen- 
chant for in-depth research. Ultimately, his 
book is a taut tale that entertains, despite oc- 
casional lapses into action-movie mode. With 
the current revival of interest in World War II 
and America's "greatest generation," don't be 
surprised to see a glossier take on the Squalus 
incident on HBO or at the local cineplex 
sometime in the near future. 

— Kirk Kicklighter 

Kicklighter '86 is a freelance writer and former 
U.S. Marine Corps captain. He lives in Carrboro, 
North Carolina, and at kickligh(<t 


Continued from page 20 

devolved into a self-service operation. A fac- 
ulty member can still pursue cutting-edge re- 
search, but often such faculty members operate 
against the grain of what is expected. 

I've traveled around the country a bit and 
have done signings, readings, and talk radio 
shows. By far, the most enjoyable encounters 
have been with parents. They want to know 
what college life is about today and are very 
concerned about the quality of undergradu- 
ate education. 

The most frequent question I hear, however, 
has nothing to do with undergraduates. People 
invariably ask me, "What do people at Duke 
think about this book?" It's a fair question. 
Gone for Good shows universities warts and 
all, and, since many of my examples are from 
Duke, it's usually assumed by my audience that 
I must be receiving nasty e-mail messages from 
the Duke community and tight-lipped greet- 
ings on the campus quadrangle. In fact, very 
little of this has happened. A former dean ran 
into me on a staircase and smiled. "You know, 
Stuart, if I had the time, I would have written 
a book much like yours," he said. 

I'm pleased that Gone for Good is being 
read at Duke and elsewhere. I think that it re- 
flects well upon my university that this book 
— which is fairly critical of universities, and 
Duke in particular — can be accepted for what 
it is: an effort that ultimately seeks to make 
universities serve students and society better. 
I hope that it will succeed in this goal. ■ 

Rojstaczer, an associate professor of hydrology, is 
director of Duke's Center for Hydrologic Science. 

January-February 2000 55 


The perhaps over-analyzed re- 
sponse to the popularity question 
lies at the core of the American 
Dream: our definition of success. 
For the Dream in our time has 
made synonyms out of "success" 
and "money. " Taking this a step 
further, we ourselves most often 
define who we are as individuals 
in terms of money. In the intro- 
duction to his volume Rise of 
Industrial America, Page Smith 
captures this idea: "Americans, in 
the absence of any traditional 
ways of authenticating themselves 
and finding their places in the sys- 
tem — castle, clan, or 'order' — 
had to depend primarily upon 
money; making money became 
the validation of personal worth 
very early in our history. " 

There are individual exceptions, 
of course, but this is very much a 
description of the American 
Dream in our time. For indeed, 
money is all too often not a status 
symbol, but status itself. Sadly, to 
paraphrase Meghan Daum in a 
recent New Yorker article, at best 
we use this money to make a life 
for ourselves; at worst, we try to 
purchase a life for ourselves. 

The popularity of the game 
shows occurs also because they 
connect with two other strains 
deeply ingrained in American his- 
tory and thought. Though seem- 
ingly contradictory, throughout our 
history these strains have worked 
together as a team. The first is our 
puritan belief in the virtue of work. 
Note the use of "The Multi-Million 
Dollar Challenge. " The operative 
word is "challenge," for it changes 

a vice into a virtue. Challenge 
means work, earning something 
by force of intellect, the ability to 
memorize, or — and here is the 
second and seemingly contradic- 
tory element — luck. 

As a nation, we believe that we 
have risen to where we are be- 
cause of this combination of hard 
work and luck — "deserved" luck 
since our nation is special and pre- 
sents an "exception" to the usual 
historical processes. We then indi- 
vidualize the national and, in the 
process, we come to view luck on 
the personal level as an "entitle- 
ment. " Thus, what happens to 
contestants on the game shows is 
viewed as the result of a combina- 
tion of hard work and luck. We 
believe that this could (and 
should) happen to each of us. For 
after all, we are special! So we 
keep on hoping and keep on 
watching the game shows. 

— Gerald L. Wilson '61, A.M. 
'68, history professor and senio 
ioIT - 

We asked ourselves, the ed 

What books are we looking 

forward to attacking early in 

Editor Robert J. Bliwise is first 
drifting into Fortune Is a River: Leo- 
nardo da Vinci and Niccolo Machia- 
velli's Magnificent Dream to Change 
the Course of Florentine History. 
What those two thinkers charted, 
according to author Roger D. 
Masters, was an audacious plan to 
protect Florence. Bliwise is also 

attracted to Galileo's Daughter: A 
Historical Memoir of Science, Faith, 
and Love. It's a story of the father of 
modern science and of the father's 
daughter, who, writes author Dava 
Sobel, mirrored Galileo's brilliance. 
Shifting in time, he's eager to look 
in on The Elgin Affair: The Abduc- 
tion of Antiquity's Greatest Treasures 
and the Passions It Aroused, by 
Theodore Vrettos. Any book that 
embraces "greed, deceit, cunning, 
thievery, obsession, and astonishing 
cultural arrogance" provides a 
perfect device for looking back- 
ward and looking ahead. 

In addition to completing the 
voluminous A Man in Full by Duke 
parent Tom Wolfe and A Widow 
for One Year by John Irving, associ- 
ate editor Sam Hull anticipates 
reading The Hours by Michael 
Cunningham. The Pulitzer Prize- 
winner layers scenes of Virginia 
Woolf s life in the 1920s with con- 
temporary lives of Laura, a house- 
wife in California in the 1940s, 
and Clarissa, a book editor in 
Greenwich Village in the 1990s, 
whose poet husband is dying. For 
something completely different, 
Hull will investigate Wicked: The 
Life and Times of the Wicked Witch 
of the West, by Gregory Maguire. 

The stack awaiting features 
editor Kim Koster includes several 
books on the arts. The Work of 
Charles and Ray Eames: A Legacy 
of Invention gathers essays from 
several authors, who examine the 
sensibilities and philosophies of 
the husband-and-wife design team 
and reveal much about the creative 
play that went into their many 
projects, from architecture to film- 
making to office bulletin boards. 
Propaganda and Dreams: Photo- 
graphing the 1 930s in the U.S.S.R. 
and the U.S. is a stunning collec- 
tion of photographs taken by state 
agencies in the two countries. 
From Farm Service Administration 
photos of migrant workers to Soviet 
press photos of factory workers, 
the book examines the ways that 

photography can be both true art 
and false reality. Finally, oral histo- 
rian Studs Terkel's latest collec- 
tion, The Spectator, compiles 
decades' worth of transcripts of his 
radio interviews with artists of 
every medium. 

■■ IJ - liJ ' li - IIIJ - lj - LI - 1 "" 

"Artistic creation is a personal 
search. Try not to force yourself to 
think about timelessness, but 
[about] the relevant things in 
your time period. Know what 
comes before you, but do not be 
fixated by it. Always ask youself 
why you are doing it. " 

"There are all sorts of patterns in 
nature that are randomly gene- 
rated. But then we get conscious- 
ness, and consciousness treats 
patterns in certain ways. We tell 
stories about them. We refuse to 
believe that the pattern could just 
be random. " 

issing evolution 

"We now spend our lives fending 
off aging and death with all sorts of 
strange things. It is a full-time 
activity and industry. We live as if 
we are preparing ourselves to be 
eternal. " 

— Manuel Castells, sociologist 
and author ol the trilogy The fnfer- 

fashioned their remarks around the § 
theme of time. § 





A p R'L 14-16 


SPRING forward into the new century- 
return "home" to celebrate 

Yes, thafs right, Duke (undergraduate) Reunions 
are now being held in the spring on one huge, 
stellar weekend! The Classes of 1950, 1955, 
1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 
and the Half Century Club will celebrate their 
reunions April 14-16, 2000. 
Get the latest scoop on all the plans for Reunions 
2000 by visiting the Duke Reunions website at: 
The "everything-you-ever-wanted-to-know-about- 
reunions" registration brochure will be mailed to 
you in February. Plan to be part of an unforget- 
table weekend! 
(Questions? E-mail us at 









HERE. . . 

Whether it's been five years or 50 

years since graduation, you won't want to 

miss the weekend your Reunion Planning 

e is conjuring! Duke Reunions offer 

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Cover: The urge to merge leads the 
economy in uncertain directions, and 
has an impact on everyone in its path. 
Illustration by Walter Stanford 


As the rate of mergers and acquisitions accelerates, companies and consumers alike 
might do well to ask: Is bigger always better? 


A culinary dream team takes on a thoroughly daunting, if occasionally tasty, assignment — 
sampling campus food, and discovering that it's not just tuna noodle casserole anymore 

A DANGEROUS ALIENATION by Kirk Kicklighter 14 

A political science professor surveys the armed forces and the American public, 
discovering a gaping chasm between civilian and military perceptions of society 


An Alaskan expedition turns up intriguing evidence about dinosaurs — raising a whole 
new set of questions while bringing the lost creatures vividly to life 


Using DNA molecules, scientists are creating biomolecular structures to find solutions 
that elude the most powerful conventional computers 


A brief Grecian idyll spurs the imagination of a group of freshman scholars, who learn 
to appreciate the present in terms of a classical past 



A teacher's enduring example 



News of the Duke Alumni Association, mini-profiles, class notes 


Quandaries over drinking, transformations in the community, paintings for the museum 


Signs and scions of the Times, plus books in brief 



Revisiting the WTO, confronting the Confederate flag 







The rate of mergers and acquisitions has accelerated throughout the past decade, 

yielding bigger and bigger firms. But companies and consumers alike might 

do well to ask: Is bigger always better? 

It has become a staple of science -fiction 
writers who create futuristic, dystopic so- 
cieties. It grows inexorably over time, as 
businesses merge and create new firms that 
merge and create others, the companies grow- 
ing bigger as the business pool grows smaller, 
until finally there is one huge conglomerate 
controlling everything and everyone: The 

While "The Corporation" exists only in fu- 
turistic imaginations, a look at some of the 
mergers — mega-mergers — of the past few 
years explains why the mega-company con- 
tinues to be such a popular literary device. In 
1998, NationsBank acquired Bank of America 
for $60 billion, AT&T acquired cable giant 
TCI for $69.9 billion, Bell Atlantic acquired 
GTE for $71.3 billion, Traveler;, acquired Citi- 
corp for $72.6 billion, and Exxon acquired 
Mobil for $86.4 billion. In 1999, Viacom ac- 
quired CBS for $37.3 billion, Qwest Commu- 
nications acquired US West for $48.5 billion, 
and AT&T acquired MediaOne for $63. 1 bil- 

Already this year, Glaxo Wellcome has an- 
nounced plans to merge with SmithKline 
Beecham in a $70-billion deal, Pfizer has won 
a months-long battle to acquire occasional 

partner Warner-Lambert for around $92 bil- 
lion, and in the largest merger ever an- 
nounced, AOL and Time Warner will join in a 
deal valued somewhere between $150 billion 
and $180 billion (numbers for unconsummat- 
ed mergers tend to vary, because of their ties 
to company stock values). 

Michael Bradley, a business professor at 
Duke's Fuqua School of Business and a law 
professor, specializes in mergers and acquisi- 
tions. His research shows that both the num- 
ber and dollar value of merger and acquisition 
transactions in the United States hit an all- 
time high in 1998, with a particularly dramat- 
ic growth in value. In 1994, the value of all 
M&A transactions was less than $300 billion; 
in 1998, it was more than $1 trillion. 

The numbers are staggering, both in terms 
of companies that are coming together and in 
terms of prices paid. But what lies beneath 
those numbers? Why so many mergers, and 
how are the corporations and their customers 
affected? Is what's good for AOL Time Warner 
good for America? 

This fall, the magazine The Economist 
weighed in with an editorial opinion: "Recent 
big mergers in industries from banking to oil 
have been driven partly by an outbreak of 

me-tooism and a frothy and surprisingly un- 
critical stock market." And certainly the 
merger and acquisition numbers mirror the 
economy as a whole, sometimes tying into it, 
as in the case of such stock-based mergers as 
the AOL-Time Warner deal. 

"If you look at the macro data, we see that 
when merger and acquisition activity has 
really taken off, employment is very high and 
consumer prices are very low," says Bradley, 
correlating the figures to the general econom- 
ic expansion of the 1990s. "If you look at the 
wave of mergers just recently here, the macro 
data belie the notion that mergers and acqui- 
sitions cause lower employment and higher 
consumer prices. Look what's happened to 
the Consumer Price Index, and what's hap- 
pened to employment — the highest merger 
and acquisition activity on record, the lowest 
unemployment, and lowest rate of inflation 
on record. " 

But the correlation does not necessarily 
reassure Alex Keyssar, a Duke professor of 
history and public policy who focuses on labor 
issues. He is as concerned about the econom- 
ic expansion itself as he is about the role of 
mergers and acquisitions within the economy. 
"Whatever it is that is really responsible for 



the great economic boom of the 1990s, and 
we don't know for sure what that is, two 
things are certain," he says. "One is that it 
will end, and it will probably end quite dra- 
matically. The other thing is that there has 
been an extraordinary ideological accompani- 
ment to it, which seems to be fun- 
damental to what Clintonism has 
been, which is a sophisticated re- 
turn to 'what is good for Wall 
Street is good for America.' Above 
all, what is important is to main- 
tain the confidence of Wall Street 
and bondholders." 

This idea, which Keyssar labels 
"a powerful orthodoxy," has con- 
tributed to the climate in which 
mergers flourish, he says, allowing 
bigger and bigger companies to be 
created that corner ever-increasing 
market shares, generally without 
triggering monopoly alarm bells. 
"The notion is that significant an- 
ti-trust enforcement, or new ap- 
proaches to any kind of regulation, 
would hurt the confidence of the 
business community and jeopar- 
dize the prosperity," he says. "And 
at the moment, that is such a 
hegemonic view that I don't see it 
being overcome until the economy 

Nevertheless, it is the view that 
dominates. Very few mergers have 
been set aside, and those that have 
have occasioned scathing analysis 
of the regulators. In the case of a 
proposed $33-billion petroleum 
merger between BP-Amoco and 
ARCO, the Federal Trade Com- 
mission ruled that because the new 
company would have a monopoly 
on oil from the Alaska North Slope and thus 
could set prices on the West Coast, the merg- 
er could not proceed. The companies are 
fighting the decision, and financial columnists 
have chalked the ruling up either to bad tim- 
ing, following the $86-billion merger of 
Exxon and Mobil, or to an arbitrary determi- 
nation of markets. All of this made it into the 
non-financial news, largely because, as 
Keyssar says, "anti-trust law has been enforced 
erratically throughout much of the twentieth 
century, but certainly in the late twentieth 
century, enforcement seems to be the excep- 
tion. The presumption now is that almost 
anything will get approved." 

"There was a famous Supreme Court jus- 
tice in the 1930s and 1940s, Judge Learned 
Hand," says Bradley, "and he said, 'Seventy- 
five percent is a monopoly; seventy-four per- 
cent is not.' The one thing you get out of that 
is the arbitrariness of what the cutoff is." 
Bradley says he and his colleagues have testi- 

fied before the FTC and the Department of 
Justice in several merger cases, and in each 
case what was being determined was not the 
size of the company being formed but the size 
of the market it would control. Microsoft, for 
instance, is the target of anti-trust investiga- 

tions because of its market share and prac- 
tices. When the Glaxo SmithKline merger is 
finalized, however, despite forming the world's 
largest pharmaceutical firm, the new company 
will still control only 7 to 8 percent of the 
global market. 

Pharmaceutical companies have seen a great 
deal of merger activity in the past few years: 
Glaxo and Burroughs Wellcome in 1995, Ciba- 
Geigy and Sandoz forming Novartis, Phar- 
macia 6k Upjohn joining and then recently 
acquiring Monsanto, AstraZeneca. While none 
of these companies controls a majority of 
their market, Keyssar expresses concerns about 
what happens when a small number of com- 
panies control more and more of an industry. 
"The fundamental tenet of anti-trust law was 
that if you have a very large amount of market 
share concentrated in a very small number of 
firms, it reduces competition, which will pro- 
duce a rise in consumer prices and will also 
harm potential new entrants into the indus- 

try, as well as other kinds of small partici- 
pants, whether retail drugstores or shippers. " 
Bradley says the decade of growth in merg- 
ers and acquisitions does not automatically 
translate into a shrinking business pool. His 
research, some conducted with fellow Fuqua 
professor S. "Vish" Viswanathan, 
shows that just as some mergers 
result in larger, more solid compa- 
nies, other mergers end up with 
companies being spun off, or "de- 
merged. " "A significant feature of 
the restructuring transactions of 
the 1980s and 1990s has been the 
reversal of conglomerate diversifi- 
cation," he tells his "Corporate Re- 
structuring" class. "While con- 
glomerate mergers were extremely 
popular in the 1960s and 1970s, the 
1980s brought about the so-called 
'bust-up' takeover, where large con- 
glomerates were purchased and 
'busted up' into their constituent 
parts and sold off piecemeal." 

De -merging can occur for several 
reasons. Bradley points to the case 
of Eastman Kodak, which, in a fit of 
diversification in the 1980s, bought 
Sterling Drug — a company that 
bore no relation to Kodak's tradi- 
tional strengths. The merger 
drained Kodak, which later decided 
to refocus on photography and sold 
Sterling to SmithKline Beecham. 
But then there is Lucent Tech- 
nologies, once a division of AT&T 
As Bradley tells it, Lucent became 
successful but, as a part of AT&T, 
wasn't living up to its potential; 
competitors like Sprint, which might 
I use Lucent's hardware, were suspi- 
cious of entering into any kind of a 
technology deal with an AT&T division. 
Finally, AT&T realized that it would benefit 
more from spinning Lucent off entirely, and 
now independent Lucent is the world's largest 
telecommunications equipment maker. 

While some individual cases throw off the 
curve, Bradley says the trend of his research 
shows that horizontal mergers, or "mergers of 
equals," in which the companies have com- 
plementary goals and efficiencies, have the 
greatest rate of success because they can cre- 
ate market power, economies of scale, and 
economies of scope. One example he uses in 
his course is the 1998 Travelers-Citicorp mer- 
ger, which created the world's largest finan- 
cial services company, allowed each firm to 
cross-promote the other's offerings, and pro- 
vided one -stop financial shopping. 

The Glaxo SmithKline merger is being billed 
by both companies as another example of 
such synergy. "Both Glaxo and SmithKline 
are strong, world-class companies with com- 


plementary technologies and scientific exper- 
tise," says Mary Anne Rhyne, a spokesperson 
at Glaxo's Research Triangle Park facility. 
Bringing the two companies together, both 
with a strength in genetics-related research, 
yields a combined development pipeline that 
includes thirty new chemical entities and 
nineteen potential new vaccines, and includes 
Duke Medical Center studies being conducted 
on such diseases as osteoarthritis and asthma. 
The research and development budget for 
Glaxo SmithKline would be $4 billion, which 
Rhyne says would enable the company to 
compete more effectively. "It takes us twelve 
to fifteen years and about $500 million to take 
a drug from the lab to the pharmacy shelves 
— one in only every 5,000 to 10,000 com- 
pounds screened becomes a drug. " 

That one drug, however, can provide a 
handsome payoff. One of the very latest mer- 
gers, between Pfizer and Warner-Lambert, 
brings the cholesterol-inhibiting drug Lipitor 
wholly into the Pfizer fold. (It had been a 
shared project between the two companies.) 
In the short time since its introduction, Lipi- 
tor has racked up $5 billion in worldwide 
sales. When combined with Pfizer's other 
highly profitable pharmaceuticals (the depres- 
sion drug Zoloft, the high-powered antibiotic 
Zithromax, and Viagra), the $1.8 billion being 
paid to American Home Products to abandon 
its bid for Warner-Lambert and allow Pfizer to 
complete its takeover could end up looking 
like relatively small change. 

Less certain to succeed are mergers of di- 
verse interests, like Bradley's Kodak-Sterling 
Drug example. It can be much more difficult 
to overcome any inefficiencies that might be 
hindering one of the companies involved, be- 
cause streamlining by combining workforces 
or infrastructure is not an option. And it can 
cost more to merge to begin with. For in- 
stance, Kodak outbid another company by $9 
per share to ensure it would obtain Sterling. 

All of the financial calculations involved in 
a merger can seem overwhelming, but dollars 
and shares are not the only costs. Labor histo- 
rian Keyssar says history shows that even the 
best mergers can have a downside. "The 
overriding historical lesson is that this does 
result in increased prices, it does result in 
harms for various potential competitors and 
intermediaries — and people do lose their 
jobs, which is an important human cost. 

"Now, it's also reasonable for proponents of 
mergers and such to say that there are ques- 
tions of efficiencies and economies of change. 
To my mind, that's not an unreasonable point 
of view. But the issue becomes, what are the 
provisions for these people [who are displaced 
by mergers] ? You're not going to guarantee 
lifetime employment. Then what provisions 
are there? The fact is that private provisions 
tend to be very inadequate, and in the United 

States there are no social provisions, so we are 
talking about very significant human costs." 

It's one of the paradoxes of economics, akin 
to a company's stock prices rising when it 
announces layoffs. Bradley says it is a case of 
"the specific versus the general. In a specific 
instance, the government could intervene 
and save some of those jobs. But then there 
are several questions: Is this firm being part of 
a merger because they're being inefficiently 
run and labor is being inefficiently employed? 
And if that's the case, do you want to step in 
and maintain that inefficiency?" 

"So in a particular merger — say, Glaxo — 
there will be a reduction, perhaps, in employ- 

you can have a similar kind of job, the pay's 
only slightly lower, but it means working from 
midnight to seven a.m. and on weekends, 
they might say, i don't want to do that.' But 
it's all right for these other people. " 

In addition to concerns about market effi- 
ciencies or employment costs, some mergers 
bring yet another set of concerns to bear. Susan 
Tifft '73, Eugene Patterson Professor at the 
Sanford Institute of Public Policy, is teaching 
a seminar called "Who Owns the Press: News 
in an Age of Media Consolidation." She says 
the AOL-Time Warner merger should sound 
public alarm bells about news content. "One 
of the things I'm concerned about, and that I 








ment," he says. "But the larger picture is that 
those people are going to come out and get 
another job and enhance the economy. " (Glaxo 
officials have not released specific numbers of 
job cuts in its Research Triangle Park facility or 
elsewhere, but have said employment losses 
will not be significant.) 

"That may happen for some of them," 
Keyssar says of the notion that employees 
who lose their jobs to efficiencies will simply 
get new jobs. "Some may even end up in bet- 
ter jobs. But a lot of them are going to go 
through a period where they're going to have 
to move, they're going to have to change 
industries, depending on what their job is and 
what their skills are. And this is going to vary 
by firm and it's going to vary by industry, but 
often blue-collar workers do end up getting 
very badly hurt," in terms of job seniority, 
benefits, working conditions, and working 

"If you said to a prominent executive, look, 

think consumers should be concerned about, 
is that the standards for journalistic content 
are different in these two different companies. 
You look on the Time magazine website or the 
Fortune magazine website now, it's pretty clear 
where the ads are. They're banner ads, usual- 
ly, at the top. If you look on the AOL site, 
they pop up all over the place, sometimes they 
go scooting across the screen. 

"I think there's going to be a lot of cross- 
promotion, where AOL is going to be promot- 
ing Time Warner's products and Time Warner 
magazines and CNN and so on are going to 
be promoting AOL products. So one of the 
concerns is to be a very, very canny and skep- 
tical consumer of the news that you're get- 
ting, and actually to be quite aware of what's 
advertising and what's news, because there's 
a real danger that it's going to be blended. " 

Another concern of media mergers, which 
also include 1995's Disney-Capital Cities/ABC 
merger and the 1999 CBS-Viacom deal, is 

March -April 2000 


self-censorship on the part of the news half of 
the organization. Tifft says there is a "danger 
that because you're covering yourself — and 
it's hard to avoid covering yourself — that 
you're going to pull your punches." There are 
financial pressures inherent in any company, 
questions of debt or profit, and "it's hard to 
stand apart from those pressures." 

Tifft, who was working at Time when Time 
Inc. and Warner Bros, merged in 1989, says 
credibility is an enormous asset for a news or- 
ganization, and merger-day remarks by Time 
Warner's Gerald Levin and AOLs Steve Case 
have shown the new company values that 
credibility. In the first issue of Time after the 
merger was announced, a letter to the readers 
promised to continue "the separation of church 
and state," as the divide between news and 
advertising is known in journalism, and to 
continue to practice high-quality, indepen- 
dent journalism. 

"They had all the buzzwords in there," says 
Tifft. "So now I think the thing for consumers 
to do is say, 'We're going to hold you to that. 
You made this pledge in public, you put it in 
writing, and we're tacking it up on our bul- 
letin boards and we're going to see whether or 
not that's the case.' " 

In fact, in the following weeks, both CNN 
and Time provided in-depth coverage of an 
$8-billion class-action lawsuit filed against 

AOL by computer users alleging that its new 
version 5.0 causes serious problems with com- 
puter hard drives. And Tifft says there is an 
argument to be made that a larger company 
will help a news organization, making it possi- 
ble to "take some risks, insulate our news 
operations, and let them do the best journal- 
ism they possibly can. And if they don't make 
a profit in any one year, so be it, because a 
news operation is different from a widget fac- 
tory. You're serving a very different purpose. 
You're serving the public, and you can't al- 
ways be thinking about what's profitable or 
you won't do good journalism." 

The question of profit and the public inter- 
est is one Tifft has posed to her class, quoting 
the First Amendment and its guarantee of 
free speech, and quoting an author saying 
that a capitalist press can never be truly free. 
"I said, how do you reconcile these two? On 
the one hand, you're guaranteed freedom of 
speech. On the other hand, there is no free 
speech, because of the profit motive. And 
that, to me, is the critical tension. " 

It is a tension that exists in terms of the free 
market and its regulations as well, making the 
questions of what to do about mega-mergers 
— if anything — more difficult to answer. 
"Anti-trust has always been an ideologically 
contradictory stance," says Alex Keyssar. 
"You're saying the government has to regulate 

in the interest of having a free and competi- 
tive economy, and that's got built-in contra- 
dictions. On the other side, we've got free 
competition. I emerge as the winner of that 
competition — so I'm Microsoft, and I'm the 
big boy on the block, and now you say I'm 
uncompetitive because I have an 80-percent 
market share, but I say I won it in free compe- 
tition. During the early twentieth century, 
people spent a lot of time trying to distinguish 
between 'good' and 'bad' trusts. " 

Bradley reiterates the notion of specific 
versus general, seeing a greater good in the 
economic cycle even as he admits certain 
shortcomings. In the airlines, for instance, he 
says, "it's pretty apparent. You don't have to 
be a Ph.D. in economics to know that when 
two airlines combine and there's only one 
provision [of services] , then prices go up. On 
a case-by-case basis, you could maybe argue 
that employment is being compromised and 
prices are being raised." 

But on the whole, Bradley says the bigger 
picture is positive. "If you were the social dic- 
tator in the sky, if you were the one who was 
saying how the game should be played and 
your goal was to maximize the value of the 
country, then you would say, yes, let's keep 
mergers and acquisitions. They do very well 
in reallocating resources. " ■ 



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Are today's catered-to students a spoiled generation of eaters? Or is it true 
instead that, as a French chef would never say, the more tuna noodle casserole 
changes, the more tuna noodle casserole remains the same? 

ollege food. It's a lot like high-school 
algebra — something that is to be ab- 
sorbed but not to be enjoyed. 
In her book Bright College Years, Anne Mat- 
thews observes that in the years around 1800, 
Harvard students "endured weevily bread the 
texture of wet wool, rancid meat, and sour 
college cider fortified with raw whiskey. When 
moldy butter joined the menu, they rioted for 
days, ignoring the elderly alumni (John Adams 
included) who wanted them flogged. At 1840s 
Princeton, hungry boys speared suppertime 
chops to the underside of the dinner table for 
breakfast retrieval. " By the 1940s and 1950s, 
food offerings had improved — if that's the 
right term — to "breaded veal, shepherd's pie, 
or tuna noodle casserole slopped onto thick 
china plates, the only garnish cold canned 
peas and white bread lumpy with margarine, 
the only beverages milk and water. " 

Then came the Sixties and revolutions of 
all varieties — as tastefully documented in 
the Duke Dining Services' website, which 
treats university dining as "a story of popula- 
tion growth and technological progress.. . . Now 
that potatoes could be purchased pre-peeled, 
pre-cut, and frozen, and dishes could be 
washed by machines, universities' kitchens 
began to be able to offer students greater vari- 
ety and flexibility than ever before. " In late 
1967, Duke's student government passed a 
resolution demanding that campus eateries 
carry junk-food favorites. The student-body 
president was authorized to negotiate with 
university officials "to obtain by any means 
necessary that epitome of student-activist 


concern, ice-cream cones and french fries." 

With the Seventies came "new technology, 
such as tunnel ovens with conveyer belts for 
making pizzas" — along with computerized 
card systems, meaning that all those pizzas 
could be consumed through declining-bal- 
ance accounts rather than contract board 
plans. And that gave rise to the era of con- 
sumer choice. Students can have it their way; 
they now choose "what they will eat, when 
they will eat, and how much they will eat." 

Having accumulated all this food for 
thought, I became hungry for some raw, or 
well-cooked, material. As a mid-Seventies un- 
dergraduate, I had no acquaintance with pizza- 
spewing conveyer belts, though perhaps I had 
a modest acquaintance with tuna noodle cas- 
serole. The student handbook from my fresh- 
man year explained that the faithful following 
of "regulations" would make the main dining 
room "an attractive, comfortable, and pleasant 
eating area." "As the lines proceed," we were 
told, "students should secure trays for such 
menu items as they may select while moving 
through the lines. " Curiously, there was no 
reference to the food. In fact, eating seemed 
to have all the spontaneity and joy of the sci- 
ence requirement, which, for me, also didn't 
go down very well. 

Today, casual eating patterns have made an 
impact on campus. They've even made an 
impact, of sorts, on the curriculum. English 
professor Thomas J. Ferraro includes in his 
course syllabus "a caution for Duke, Inc., 
confused, at the millennium, in the era of pri- 
vatization. " He advises his students: "Please 

do not bring food into the classroom unless it 
is for everyone. The issue here is not simply 
about courtesy, which most of us regard 
(wrongly) as a fussy holdover from Queen 
Victoria. At immediate stake is the sensori- 
um — the aroma of food is able to incorporate 
only when the table is open. At larger risk is 
what Italians call amicizia: To break bread 
together is to bond blood, while to withhold 
bread from others is to deny relation." Eating 
has long served up useful lessons in language, 
etiquette, and corporate behavior. 

In or out of the sensorium, are today's ca- 
tered-to students a spoiled generation of eaters? 
Or perhaps the more tuna noodle casserole 
changes, the more tuna noodle casserole re- 
mains the same, as a French chef would never 
say. An investigation was in order. And so I 
assembled a culinary dream team: the maga- 
zine's Clay Felker Fellow, Scott Meisler, a 
Duke dining-savvy senior whose taste buds 
had been stimulated by a semester's stint in 
Spain; and two local alumni of note, Maggie 
Radzwiller 77 and Gary Wein '71. 

Radzwiller and Wein are co-owners of Dur- 
ham's Brightleaf 905, named by Esquire as one 
of the nation's "best new restaurants of 1999." 
Wein has been a food force in the local catering 
scene for years, and as the December Esquire 
put it, "What Maggie Radzwiller doesn't know 
about running a restaurant isn't worth know- 













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March -April 2000 9 

ing. Her lineage includes stints at Union 
Square Cafe and the Rainbow Room in New 
York City and Coco Pazzo in Chicago, and 
she's poured all her considerable energies into 
proving that Durham. . .can soon be as good a 
restaurant town as any in the South, maybe 
even Charleston. " 

We set out on a Thursday evening during a 
balmy stretch in February. Hours before, I had 
consumed a painfully light lunch — a cup of 
nonfat yogurt with a feel-good label that says 
something about "a healthy planet." So I'm 
ready for some healthy eating. I'm ready, that 
is, after I "Flex it," in the campus vernacular. 




That means I have to install a declining-bal- 
ance flexible -spending account on my Duke 
identification card to absorb all these food 
purchases. In the words of the Flex brochure, 
"Whatever your campus needs may be, the 
Flex Account can help you fulfill them." I 
consider all my unmet needs, and also the 
brochure's somewhat ominous advisory that 
"Flex is accepted by Parking Services." 

As we drive over to West Campus, Maggie 
says she's curious to see how Duke dining op- 
erations have changed. Scott tells us of his job 
at an upscale Italian restaurant in his home- 
town of Boca Raton, Florida. Maggie, who 


efore Ted Minah's arrival 
at Duke, students were 
' organizing disruptive 
food fights to protest the low 
level of service. "Prior to the 
war," he recalled in a published 
interview, "I was told there had 
been riots at Duke because of 
the food. My job was to change 
the food program completely on 
both campuses." 

Minah inherited a program in 
disarray. But in his twenty-eight 
years as director of Duke Dining 
Halls (1946-1974), he tried to 
transform Duke's lagging food 
service operation from its 
embarrassing post-war state to 
that of a cutting-edge industry 

That he did. Minah estab- 
lished cafeterias and a cash- 
based meal system on West 
Campus, and transformed the 
East Campus system from waited 
tables to cafeteria-style dining, 
thus offering a freedom of choice 
rarely seen in the university din- 
ing halls of the day. Minah's plan 
to issue paper meal tickets on a 
monthly basis (billed to the stu- 
dents' parents) is the forerunner 
of the current card-based, 
declining-balance food account. 

He also revolutionized the 
way in which employees were 
hired and trained. He brought 
in a consultant from the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee to teach 
classes for the employees. The 
best were chosen in part from 
their performance on an exam. 
The Oak Room, which today 
bears his name, was created 
from space formerly used to 
house student G.I.'s and was 
intended to serve not just as a 
high-quality dining facility, but 
also as a source of student 
employment opportunities. 

Minah's role, however, was 
never strictly limited to food 
service. One of his legacies was 

the hiring of "Big" 
special functions 
Jones, who had worked with 
Minah at Brown University, 
became one of the most popular 
and well-respected employees 
on campus. Students who had 
no financial need for employ- 
ment would apply for a job with 
dining services just to work with 

Jones was African American, 
and his hiring certainly raised 
some eyebrows, especially when 
he sat as the only non-white 
staff member at meetings. But 
Minah, a Unitarian from New 
England, refused to let the 
explicit if tacit segregation of 
the South interfere with his 
operation. University Archivist 
William E. King '61, A.M. '63, 
Ph.D. '70 says that Minah even 
issued an internal directive to 
his employees that they feed 
customers of any color, because 
"anyone was welcome in his 
dining halls." 

His reign also saw the rise of 
student and employee activism. 
When dining service employees 
went on strike in support of 
unionization in 1968, Minah, 
though he supported their 
cause, enlisted the help of 250 
student volunteers to keep the 

dining halls open. During the 
lettuce boycott of 1972, he put 
aside his concerns about student 
health and reluctantly yielded to 
student protests, agreeing to 
abide by the United Farm 
Workers request for a boycott of 
all non-UFW lettuce. 

As a consultant to more than 
a hundred colleges and universi- 
ties, and as founder and presi- 
dent of the National Association 
of College and University Food 
Services, Minah exerted an 
enormous influence on the way 
Duke and universities nation- 
wide manage dining operations. 
He proved himself an amiable, 
savvy, and adaptable leader, one 
who, even seven years after 
retirement, foresaw the trends 
that would engulf the dining 
system he had helped to create. 
"We're coming to the end of this 
period. Board systems will lose 
their appeal; students will 
become more independent 
again and will want to spend 
their money where they like." 

-Scott Meisler '00 

worked in the dining halls for two years as a 
student, observes that in restaurant settings, 
people are at their most insistent. Both agree 
that experience in the food business would be 
good for everyone. 

Walking to the Great Hall, we pass students 
carrying styrofoam food containers. Appar- 
ently they've ordered take-out from the Oak 
Room, and I wonder about the irony of taking 
out food from Duke's only wait-service res- 
taurant. At the Great Hall, we pass into its 
food-court core, with a salad bar, grill works, 
hot-entrees station, and Mongolian wok. Af- 
ter waiting a while for my chicken-based wok 
creation, I join my already-seated compatri- 
ots. "Do you want my first comment?" asks 
Maggie, who had already noted that a food 
preparer couldn't describe the ingredients of a 
calzone offering. "Fifty percent of what's in 
there is frozen or is out of a can. The salad 
bar, the veggies — there's very little that's fresh 
in there. You can tell just by looking at it; you 
don't even have to eat it. " Giving her pepper- 
oni pizza a forlorn look, she adds, "Somebody 
here did not make this pizza. " 

Gary is sampling corn chowder, prime rib 
with couscous, and a spicy chicken wrap. He 
says he remembers the Duke fare as "being a 
little bit more Southern — fried chicken, Swiss 
steak. The food was much heavier — old-timey 
cooking. " He revels for a bit in the college 
memories of weekly clam chowder, with old- 
timey qualities that presumably surpassed this 
evening's corn chowder. 

"They were trying to make fewer people 
happy then," Maggie says. Twenty-three years 
ago, she was helping prepare stir-fry meals on 
East Campus, chopping fresh vegetables and 
cooking rice. That personal history suggests 
to her that institutional food can be wholesome 
food. "Diversity is now considered to be the 
most important goal, rather than the quality 
of the ingredients," responds Gary. "Diversity 
is a factor you judge a restaurant by." 

Maggie: "The question is, what do students 
want? Do they want better and more flavorful 
food, or is variety more important?" 

Gary: "Diversity appeals to more people. I 
see that in the catering business. There are a 
lot more vegetarians out there who make their 
presence known. People feel they have the 
right to be taken care of. " 

Maggie: "That's how kids end up anorexic; 
they eat stuff that's not good for them. We've 
got to inspire early habits. We teach them like 
adults. Why don't we feed them like adults? 
We're perpetuating a seventh- and eighth- 
grade diet. I don't think that's what it's all 
about. " She says it's better to serve up two or 
three fresh vegetables than "offering twelve 
vegetables out of a can. " 

Gary: "And that way you'd get a lot more 
complaints. It's as much psychological as any- 
thing. Diversity is the theme not just here but 


everywhere; I read about it in food magazines. 
It's perceived value. We've been desensitized 
into thinking that choice is everything. That's 
the nature of fast food." 

Maggie observes that students around us 
are leaving a lot on their plates. What's hap- 
pened to their money consciousness? "It's 
the psychology of food points," Scott says. 
"Students don't think of it as money." "These 
people know what they're doing," says Gary, 
presumably referring not to the food-wasting 
students but to the food managers. 

"It's very hard to do many things well," 
notes Maggie, as we leave the Great Hall's 
food melange. Next door is the slightly more 
restrained Cambridge Inn, where we sample 
Chick-fil-A sandwiches (a franchise opera- 
tion) and Cosmic Cantina burritos (owned by 
Cosmos Lyles B.S.E. '96, who has a contract 
with dining services to provide burritos daily 
from his restaurant just off-campus, which is 
hugely popular With students) . Maggie retrieves 
a wrapped chicken burrito. The label advertises 
it as boneless, skinless, free-range chicken 
breast. Maggie is impressed by the fat-free rice, 
but she's troubled that the label carries no 
printed date. "I don't know how many times 
it's been reheated. Anything cooked to order 
is going to taste better." 

Chick-fil-A advertises itself with the sign, 
"We didn't invent the chicken, just the chicken 

sandwich. " It's hard to figure out the validity 
— or the significance — of that chicken claim. 
Collectively, we go for the smallest possible 
package of chicken nuggets. Gary calls them 
"nasty nuggets. " They go largely uneaten. 

Perhaps to deflect attention from the looming 
nuggets, Gary turns the conversation to student 
tastes. For students, "after all, it's just a meal," 
he says. "Kids don't have as much exposure to 
good eating as older people. Eating is just nec- 
essary, like sleep; it's not basic to their quality 
of life." Scott says students will spend real 
money on a good meal off-campus, but that it's 
considered a pretty extraordinary undertaking. 

Maggie isn't a fan of the Cambridge Inn at- 
mosphere. "Why is there a TV on here?" she 
asks. "If they're using it as wallpaper, as back- 
ground, it's too bad. This is the only oppor- 
tunity these kids have to get together during 
the day. " 

In search of a change of atmosphere, we walk 
the few steps to Han's, a Chinese eatery. Han's 
earns immediate validation: We spot Julian 
Harris, Duke's latest Rhodes Scholar, loading 
up on shrimp stir-fry with Chinese noodles. 
Then we see Jeremy Huff, the student govern- 
ment's vice president for community interac- 
tion; he's interacting with a multiple-course 
Chinese meal. Huff is a newly-named Luce 
Scholar, an honor that will send him to Asia 
next year. Does eating Chinese make you smar- 

ter? In celebration of the Chinese New Year, 
the cashier gives me a small red envelope 
decorated with a gold dragon. When I open it 
later on, a genuine 1999 U.S. penny falls out. 

We pack our shared plate with tofu, rice 
noodles, broccoli, and fried dumpling. "Well, 
this looks interesting," says a suddenly wary 
Gary. But Maggie turns into a food enthusiast. 
"This is fresh broccoli. It crunches. Look," 
she says, waving the broccoli precariously on 
her fork. "It doesn't fly off the fork at Gary. 
This is the healthiest thing we've seen." 
Chinese, she says in an admiring aside, "is a 
very labor-intensive method of cooking." 

"I don't think it's brilliant, but it's better," 
Maggie concludes. "This could be a vegetari- 
an's delight. " She says the food is "arranged 
very nicely on the plate" by the cafeteria-line 
workers. "I'd eat here," declares Gary. 

In this conversation-friendly environment, 
Maggie recalls her own routine in the dining 
halls — mornings that sometimes started at 
4:30, assignments that ranged from checking 
student cards to preparing meals. "All of that 
led to my being in the restaurant business," 
she says. Even before attending Duke, she 
waited tables and washed dishes in restau- 
rants in her hometown of Morris Plains, New 
Jersey. Her mother wrote for Gourmet maga- 
zine and started her own magazine, Farm and 
Garden, which Maggie describes as "an early 

March -April 2000 


Martha Stewart Living. " At age two, she was 
the cover subject, posed out in the herb gar- 
den. Every year, her family would play host for 
a foreign-exchange student. "I would never 
describe my hometown as cosmopolitan; we 
didn't get our first traffic light until I was 
twenty years old. But even as a first-grader, I 
had a Japanese student living with me, and I 
felt I saw what people were eating everywhere 
in the world. " Her father died when she was 
young, and the food work was a way to pay 
her college bills. 

We leave the West Union Building — 
through a narrow exit that Maggie considers 
unsafe — for the Bryan Center. Gary talks about 
his own path to food. As a student, he liked to 
entertain and, in an interesting role reversal, 
often cooked for professors. Once he cooked 
dinner for then-president Terry Sanford. 
Public policy professor Joel Fleishman, a close 
Sanford colleague, suggested to Gary that he 
should stay in the area and open a catering 
business. Gary dismissed that idea and went 
off to graduate school in psychology. After a 
frustrating month and a half at Princeton, he 
took up Fleishman's suggestion. Since then, 
he's become what Maggie describes as the 
culinary "backbone of what's happened in 
this town," a food experimenter "who is never 
looking to do what anyone else has done." 

We linger briefly at the Bryan Center's 
newest food attraction — a McDonald's fran- 
chise. That very day, The Chronicle had re- 
ported that McDonald's saw a 104 percent 
increase in customers and a 123 percent in- 
crease in dollar sales over Burger King's opening 
month (now supplanted by this McDonald's, 
Burger King had made its Bryan Center debut 
in the fall of 1993). Meanwhile, Chick-fil-A 
sales were reportedly down. We weren't sure 
whether to celebrate or lament those trends. 

"I like my quarter-pounders now and again," 
Maggie admits, revealing a passion for char- 
coal-grilled burgers with fries. Would Esquire 
be able to forgive her? Scott points out the 
"Duke-ish" touches to this particular McDon- 
ald's — including a floor, complete with cen- 
ter-court "D," that was cut out of Cameron 
Indoor Stadium. Maggie labels the mixed 
McDonald's-and-Duke decor "kind of convo- 
luted," but says "they don't need decor to get 
people into the door. I'm sure it's profitable." 
Scott remarks on the lunchtime pattern that 
draws students into McDonald's like so many 
squeezed-in french fries. "McDonald's is the 
most heavily advertised franchise in the world," 
Gary says. "Loyalty is already established." 
"This is how it all begins," says Maggie, eyeing 
a line of student consumers. "Eating fast food 
in college. " Well, it doesn't quite start there, 
she adds. "We no longer have kids who sit 
down and eat a family meal." 

"That's one of the cardinal problems," says 


Jim Wulforst has a responsi- 
bility that keeps him, and 
his associates, not just by 
the food warmer but in the hot 
seat. As I start an Oak Room 
lunch with Wulforst, Duke's din- 
ing services director, I recognize 

sandwiches, pizza, and other 
items. About a dozen merchants 
take part. Wulforst says deliver- 
ies are restricted to seven o'clock 
at night or later; he's not, then, 
competing with his own campus 
eateries. He says Duke's peak- 

our student waiter, whom I teach use period for electricity comes 
in a seminar on magazine jour- around one o'clock in the morn- 
nalism. The student tries to 
explain his class absence 
the previous day. Perhaps 
in an even more awkward 
moment, he returns to 
apologize for being tem- 
porarily out of french fries. 

Over our chicken sand- 
wiches (Southwestern for 
him, generic for me), 
Wulforst sounds like a 
salesman. That he is — and 
a very good one, it seems. 
He talks about providing 
"exciting, interesting cam- 
pus venues," "good ser- 
vice," and "reasonable 
prices" for the Duke com- 
munity. And he wants the 
community to "feel good 
about the experience" of 
campus eating, which 
means that "the most 
important value" to him is 
"the need to treat everyone 
as a customer." Otherwise, 
with Duke's flexible meal 
plans, students and others 
will take their dining busi- 
ness off-campus. 

Wulforst, who gets ideas 
from a committee of stu- 
dents and who eats at every one 
of his campus establishments at 
least once a week, is also an 
entrepreneur. Part of the change 
he's brought to dining services 
has been greater privatization. As just over three years ago. During 
he puts it, "If there are guys out that period, dining services has 

"Part of the growing process 
should be to learn to eat right 
But I don't think many kids 
come here thinking about eating 
healthy. That's only a small 
minority. When the son or 
daughter is home from college, 
what do they want to eat? 
Probably fast food. And when 
students tell us they 
want healthy alterna- 
tives, what do you think 
happens to the alterna- 
tives? I can tell you that 
the broccoli just sits 
there; that's not what 
they're loading up on. 
But if we don't have the 
french fries, you can bet 
that students will be 
screaming about it." 

Wulforst is sensitive to 
the drawbacks of the 
eat-on-the-run college 
culture; he says he tries 
to fight it in small ways, 
like removing TV sets 

But he suggests it*! 


ing — "and I don't want to be in 
the food service at that particular 

He seems to have found a win- 
ning formula. He came to Duke 

there doing the job better than 
we perhaps could, why should 
we try to duplicate what some- 
body is already successful at 
doing?" So, for example, he's 
imported Alpine's "wildly suc- 
cessful" concept to Duke — 
bagels, salads, and sandwiches — 
from Vanderbilt; introduced 
"authentic" Chinese food 
through Han's, which is owned 
by a local family; brought the 
national brand Chick-fil-A to the 
Cambridge Inn; and turned over 
the food service for the sprawling 
Levine Science Research Center 
to George's Garage, a "gourmet" 
eating spot off-campus. "People 
in the retail business survive 
through a spirit of entrepreneur- 
ship," he says. 

Another of Wulforst's innova- 
tions is expansion of Duke's so- 
called merchants-on-points plan. 
Through the plan, students can 
apply their flexible "food points" 
to pay for campus deliveries of 

admission, he observes, 
since his moving to 
Duke was prompted by a 
yearning to escape a 
frenzied style of living. 
Freshmen complain 
about a strict board 
plan that embraces 
breakfast — a meal mat 
many of them avoid, 
despite its obvious nutri- 
tional and community-building 

"I'd love to spend hours in (he 
Great Hall soliciting ideas from 
students. But it's hard to do that 
when somebody wants to be up 
and out in twenty minutes. 
Today's student is likely to grab 
a Chick-fil-A sandwich and a 
burrito for lunch, and he'll prob- 
ably finish eating the burrito as 
he's waiting at the West Campus 
bus stop. It's not good, but it's 
the culture. Students simply 
aren't looking for social dining." 
During our lunch at the Oak 
Room, there are few students, 

grown in revenues from $12 mil- 
lion to $20 million annually. 

Wulforst had spent eight years 
with TimeWarner in New York 
City. He oversaw the contractors 
who ran eight food venues, from 
the executive dining room to the 
employee cafeteria. Before that, 
he headed the nutrition depart- 
ment for St Vincent's Hospital 
in New York (whose 900 patients he notes, 
didn't particularly want to be eat- As he projects the future of 
ing there or having anything to 
do with a hospital stay, he notes). 
He also had a stint managing his 
own restaurants. At James 
Madison University in Virginia, 
he earned a degree in health sci- 
ence. He supported himself in 
college as a food-services worker. 
"I vividly remember a kitchen 
full of steam kettles. It wasn't my 
mother's cooking, that's for sure." 

A lot of today's mothers and 
fathers would hope to see 
healthy dining habits among col- 
lege students. Wulforst says, 

food, Wulforst t 
about concepts like cooking with 
fresher ingredients and with 
greater flair. Among the trends 
he perceives is what he calls 
"getting students into the kit- 
chen" — having them pick out 
the raw material for their meal 
and then observe the cooking. 
Of course, having what they 
want and having it prepared 
their way may not dissuade 
students from a french-fries 

—Robert J. Bitwise 


Maggie: "So why should a university per- 
petuate that behavior?" 

Gary: "A university is not in the business of 
changing behavior. A university is in the busi- 
ness of giving you options." 

As we decide against indulging in the 
familiar sensation of McDonald's fare, Gary 
comments, "That's the difference between 
Duke and Harvard. Duke has McDonald's 

Maggie says. "This is a civilized experience for 
the fast-food and TV generation, even as it's 
inherently catering to that." Reluctantly 
coming around to Gary's view, she says uni- 
versities probably can't do much in teaching 
culinary values. 

Sampling some enchilada, Gary comes to a 
pleasing verdict: "As Mexican food goes, it's 
good." Maggie pronounces her beef chalupa 

and a winning basketball team. " Scott, who 
sampled Harvard as a summer student, says 
the quality of Harvard food is hit-or-miss. His 
later research reveals that there are five 
McDonald's within two miles of Harvard. 

Just beyond McDonald's is the Armadillo 
Grill, a Tex-Mex eatery that opened this past 
fall. We like the Armadillo's "self-order form," 
with its iconic cactus, and we order pretty 
widely — chicken chalupa, beef chalupa, and 
a cheese enchilada plate. Gary fixates for a 
few minutes on the tortilla-making machine. 
He calls it "a wonderful machine." "This is 
better than watching TV for him," says Mag- 
gie. "This is unfortunately our idea of a good 
time — watching this machine." 

Our group is intrigued by the Armadillo 
environment. The TVs run muted — though 
Scott finds himself distracted by the sports 
scores. The walls are done in purple with a few 
other vibrant colors, some vaguely South- 
western paintings are mounted here and there, 
and the seating is on different levels, making 
this an in-depth experience in dining. Bob 
Marley is playing in the background, and 
"kids will like to listen and older people will 
not be offended," as Maggie puts it. 

"This is fresh, this is good," says Gary, com- 
paring it favorably to what he calls the "pre- 
historic" look of the Great Hall. "If I were a 
student here, this is where I would be," 

placed a lot of emphasis on atmosphere; and, 
she points out, Brightleaf 905 's quiet noise 
level is unusual among local restaurants. She 
fashioned the dining room with "enormous 
space between tables, great lighting, and food 
from around the world that changes every 
month. " This is not "fusion" food, which she 
considers "sloppy and undisciplined," but 
"world food," she explains, a combining of 

more flavorful than the evening's earlier, un- 
dated burrito. "I could survive eating here and 
at Han's, as long as I could find fresh fruit." 

In the Armadillo's intermediate -level seating 
tier, Maggie and Gary talk about the nurturing 
of Brightleaf 905. In her first phase beyond 
graduation, Maggie was a newspaper photog- 
rapher and a graphics designer. But she was 
always cooking, waiting tables, or bartending 
on the side. She spent a stint as a chef. In Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, she worked 
in restaurant management, getting places built, 
hiring and training staff, organizing finances, 
testing recipes, and running the operations 
until the staffs were set to take over. 

After a stint in California, Maggie founded 
Pop's, an Italian restaurant in Durham; after a 
couple of Durham years, she went back to 
California to manage eight restaurants. On a 
visit, Gary asked if she was ready for a Dur- 
ham return. She was, in fact, homesick. Later 
Gary told her that Fowler's, a large retailer of 
wines and fine foods, was moving out of its 
space in Brightleaf Square, a renovated to- 
bacco warehouse. That opportunity provided 
the needed spark, and the restaurant opened 
in late February 1998. 

"I love Durham," Maggie says. "If you 
know what you're doing, this is the easiest 
place to have success; you can be a star in this 
town if you know what you're doing. " She 


ingredients from a region within a single dish. 
"We're not out to reinvent Indian food, we're 
out to represent Indian food." 

"We want our customers to be demanding," 
she says. "We do our best with customers who 
demand more from us." The rotating menu 
means a management challenge in ordering 
just the right quantity of ingredients before a 
new food theme kicks in. But having steeped 
herself in managing almost nothing but 
Italian restaurants while in California, she 
"didn't want to look at another bowl of pas- 
ta." So she brought a simple test to Brightleaf 
905: "I wanted to be able to eat in the restau- 
rant. " 

The conversation drifts to New Orleans. 
Gary is drawn to the cuisine scene there; he 
says "they prepare everything from scratch, 
they believe in having a good time over a 
meal, and they talk about food all the time. A 
great experience is just as important as the 
food." Scott mentions having been ejected 
from Antoine's in New Orleans for not wear- 
ing a jacket. Maggie proceeds to talk about 
Duke students calling to make Brightleaf 905 
reservations and then showing up late or not 
showing up at all. She rides the theme of stu- 
dent carelessness for a while. Then we move 
Continued on page 53 

March -April 2000 


A political science professor surveys the armed forces and the 

American public and discovers a gaping chasm between civilian and 

military perceptions of society. Can the distance can be closed? 







One Wednesday afternoon last fall, a 
group of students in Peter Feaver's 
political science seminar on "Ameri- 
can Civil-Military Relations" crowds around 
a large oak table in Perkins Library to role- 
play the lacerating debates fought by "the 
best and the brightest" during the Vietnam 
War. It is no easy task. In the students' minds, 
the war is ancient history. The eldest in the 
group was born in 1978, three full years after 
the fall of Saigon and five years after Ameri- 
can troops left Vietnam. 

"You weren't trying to win the war, you 
were trying not to lose!" argues the military 

"Don't forget that you lied to us. You lied 
about casualties, about progress. You lost our 
trust," counters the White House. 

"Why should any of us go to a country we 
know nothing about and die in a meaningless 
war?" plead the students on the Left. 

Feaver uses the debate to illustrate the birth 
of a growing conflict in America: The military 
and the civilian culture it serves are becom- 
ing estranged. "If there is a problem in civil- 
ian-military relations today, then Vietnam is a 
good place to start looking at it," says the 
associate professor of political science. "The 
students who protested the war became the 
tenured faculty and civilian government lead- 
ers of today — they are highly skeptical of the 
military. The junior officers who fought be- 
came the military leadership we have now — 
they've vowed never again to let the military 
go through what happened in the late Sixties 
and Seventies. " 

Feaver and his students are part of a major 
research project that has raised the antennae 
of the media and of government officials. Ti- 
tled the Project on the Gap Between the Mil- 
itary and Civilian Society, the $500,000 study 
was funded by the Smith Richardson Foun- 
dation and organized by the Triangle Institute 
for Security Studies (TISS) , a consortium of 

social scientists at Duke, the University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and North 
Carolina State University interested in na- 
tional security and defense. Feaver and co- 
investigator Richard Kohn of UNC-Chapel 
Hill conducted survey research and historical 
analysis in order to better understand the na- 
ture and causes of the "civ-mil" gap, as well as 
its implications for future military effective- 
ness and civilian-military cooperation. The 
results were taken from nearly four thousand 
interviews conducted with military officers, 
enlisted personnel, and civilians (separated 
into "elite" and "non-elite" categories) during 

The bottom line: "There is definitely no 
crisis yet," says Feaver. "I don't know how many 
times I have to say this, but we're not worried 
about a military 'coup' or anything like that. 
However, there are real problems, both long 
and short term. " The good news is that senior 
military leadership continues to show a deep 
and wide support for civilian control of the 
armed forces. And civilians, in general, pro- 
fess great confidence in the military — they 
recognize the military as an important for- 
eign-policy tool, and they're not demanding 
drastic cuts. Also, both sides are moving 
toward consensus on key issues that were 
divisive during the Cold War, such as the 
importance of gender integration in the ranks 
and inreased efforts at arms control. 

The bad news: The surface aura of goodwill 
between both sides may be a fragile veneer, 
masking an underlying alienation that could 
do great harm to both culture and govern- 
ment in decades to come. That finding comes 
from a paper written for the project by Paul 
Gronke, assistant professor of political science, 
and Feaver. For example, military personnel 
say they are annoyed by what they see as a 
breakdown in virtues like honesty and sacri- 
fice within civilian institutions. "Today's elite 
military officers characterize civilian society 
very negatively," says Feaver. "They believe 
civilians are in the midst of a moral crisis." 
And 77 percent of officers believe the adoption 
of such military values as honor, account- 

March -April 2000 15 




ability, and teamwork could help civilian soci- 
ety reform itself. Other statistics back this up. 
A 1995 survey of Marine officers at Quantico, 
Virginia, the Corps' large officer training base, 
found that 81 percent of newly commissioned 
lieutenants feel the military's values are closer 
to the values of the Founding Fathers than 
are the values of civilian society. 

Many civilian elites, on the other hand, are 
horrified by the suggestion the military is a 
social role model. They point to recent inci- 
dents like the Army's sexual abuse scandal at 
Aberdeen Proving Ground, the Navy's Tail- 
hook scandal, and the military's policy on 
gays and lesbians as evidence that the military 
falls far short in its claims to moral superiority. 
And 68 percent of general civilians in the 
TISS study believe that, at least some of the 
time, the military also seeks ways to avoid 
carrying out civilian orders with which it dis- 

The fact is, Feaver's research shows most 
civilians see the military as a foreign culture. 
After twenty- seven years of the all- volunteer 
force, the majority of such elite civilians as 
government leaders, university professors, and 
corporate CEOs have never served in the 
armed forces, and many don't personally know 
someone in the military. At Duke, for exam- 
ple, the majority of students and faculty today 
haven't had a relative or a friend in the active - 
duty military. For some students in Feaver's 
seminar class, a year-end party screening of 
Saving Private Ryan was the closest they'd ever 
come to understanding military experience in 
combat. In this case, at least, lack of familiari- 
ty has bred misunderstanding, if not outright 
contempt. In the TISS study, 21 percent of 
the civilian non-veteran elites nationwide said 
they would be disappointed if one of their 
children joined the armed forces. Only 7 per- 
cent of military officers felt that way. 

"In political science courses, we talk a lot 
about war and international conflict," says 
Carrie Anne Hayes, a junior, "but we don't 
know anyone who's been in a war. Or who 
might go to war, for that matter." 

The idea of a civilian-military gap is not new. 
American policymakers have struggled to re- 
concile the distinctive culture and mission of 
the amied forces with democratic ideals even 
before the country was born. In the eigh- 
teenth century, colonial leaders feared peace- 
time armies could serve as a means to coerce 
the population or install tyranny by force. 

"Soldiers are apt to consider themselves as a 
Body distinct from the rest of the Citizens," 
Samuel Adams wrote in 1776. "Their rules 
and their discipline is severe. They soon 
become attached to their officers and dis- 
posed to yield implicit obedience to their 
commands. . .such a Power should be watched 
with a jealous Eye." In his 1957 book The 
Soldier and the State, Samuel Huntington wrote 
that the military has always had "the outlook 
of an estranged minority." 

So until the 1970s, the U.S. relied as much 
as possible upon draftees and short-term vol- 
unteers, people who served in uniform and 
then returned to civilian life. That policy kept 
the civilian-military gap to a minimum. Get- 
ting good help for Uncle Sam wasn't a prob- 
lem; before 1965, many young men viewed 
military service as a rite of passage, and nei- 
ther the powerful nor the famous were ex- 
empt. During World War II, movie stars left 
Hollywood and baseball's star players hung up 
their spikes to serve in uniform. Future presi- 
dents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Nixon, Ford, 
Carter, and Bush all served. Future Washington 
Post editor Ben Bradlee wrote that he couldn't 
wait to escape Harvard to go fight overseas. 

Vietnam turned everything inside out. Mil- 
itary service no longer earned a rubber stamp 
of approval in American society. Where Elvis 
grinned through the buzz created by his first 
G.I. haircut in 1958, only a decade later Mu- 
hammad Ali relinquished his boxing crown 
and his freedom rather than enlist in the 
"white man's war." The educated began to 
evade the draft or look for refuge in universi- 
ties and stateside National Guard units, ratio- 
nalizing their choices as moral and service as 
stupid or wrong. Meanwhile, those without 
education or connections, or those who felt 
an obligation, went off to Vietnam. 

By 1973, when the all- volunteer force was 
implemented, many in the civilian elite re- 
garded U.S. involvement in Vietnam as a 
near-criminal fiasco, and not serving was 
considered a moral course of action for any- 
one with a healthy conscience. The 1970s 
were the low point of the modern military. 
Morale plummeted, while drug abuse, il- 
literacy, and racial tension reached new 
highs. Forty percent of Army recruits in 
the Seventies were high school dropouts. The 
Marine Corps reported nearly 1,100 racial 
incidents. The military became an olive- 
green warehouse for the underclass — the 

safety net for people without options. 

The military was steering a course for disas- 
ter until Ronald Reagan's presidential elec- 
tion in 1980 turned the ship around. Reagan 
pumped mega- dollars and confidence into 
the Pentagon as part of his aggressive Cold 
War campaign against what he termed the 
"evil empire" of the Soviet Union. The ser- 
vices changed their advertising campaigns to 
sell themselves as a place to earn money for 
college while traveling a road to adventure. 
The ranks of ROTC programs at major uni- 
versities swelled thanks to ample scholarship 
money (enrollment in ROTC units at Duke 
in 1983 was nearly triple what it is today). 

Hollywood switched gears to reflect the cul- 
ture shift, as movies like The Deer Hunter and 
Apocalypse Now gave way to An Officer and a 
Gentleman and Top Gun. Recruiting standards 
got tougher as services required a high school 
diploma or a GED equivalent. The military is 
now better educated than the general popula- 
tion: Ninety-six percent of recruits earned 
high school diplomas in 1995 compared to 79 
percent of civilians; 40 percent of all officers 
hold postgraduate degrees. The Gulf War 
capped the military's return to the mountain- 
top. Whatever its merit as a war, Desert Storm 
was a brilliant public-relations effort, giving 
Americans a new John Wayne archetype in 
"Stormin' Norman" Schwarzkopf and a poster 
child for the meritocracy in Colin Powell. 

Now, in the aftermath of the Cold War, most 
experts consider the American military the 
best- trained institution of its kind in the world. 
And to its credit, the military has successfully 
tackled problems — most notably race rela- 
tions — that continue to bedevil society at 
large. From their first day of training, for ex- 
ample, Marine Corps recruits are told point- 
blank: "Your job is to undo eighteen years of 
MEism.... Forget about black, white, or red 
— you're all green to us." As Northwestern 
University sociologist and military- culture 
expert Charles Moskos points out, "The mili- 
tary is still the only place in America where 
blacks routinely boss whites around. " 

But according to TISS adviser Andrew Ba- 
cevich, a historian at Boston University, the 
military's long journey back has come with 
scars and resentments. "The military today 
has a deep-seated suspicion of civilian society. 
It's part of the Vietnam hangover — 'You guys 
betrayed us once, and you could do it again.' " 

That suspicion isn't going away anytime 



soon, and it's being translated into political 
terms. The advent of the all-volunteer force 
and the legacy of the Reagan years may ex- 
plain one of the most striking findings of the 
TISS project, which comes from the work of 
project participant Ole Holsti, George V. Al- 
len Professor Emeritus of Political Science: 
The military is overwhelmingly Republican. 
While ordinary Americans divide themselves 
about evenly between Democrats and Repub- 
licans, the study found that 64 percent of to- 
day's elite military officers call themselves 
Republicans. Only 8 percent said they were 
Democrats. Comparable data from 1976 found 
that only 33 percent of military officers claimed 
Republican status. True, the military has al- 
ways been generally more conservative than 
civilian society, but never have military offi- 
cers been so openly aligned with one political 
party, and the shift has come about even as 
more women and minorities enter the ranks. 
Before Vietnam, most military officers de- 
clared themselves to be non-partisan or in- 
dependent, and for much of the twentieth 
century, part of the military's ethos was to re- 
main strictly apolitical. Sixty years ago, Gen- 
eral George C. Marshall, who went on to 
become a prominent political leader as Secre- 
tary of State, refused even to vote in elections 
in order to preserve his neutral, apolitical sta- 
tus while serving as a fighting man. "A politi- 

cal military is worrisome if it just becomes 
another interest group," says Ole Holsti. Adds 
Feaver, "Democrats in Congress might be less 
willing to listen to warnings or recommenda- 
tions from a military establishment they per- 
ceive as overwhelmingly Republican, and vice 
versa. " 

Despite the military's increasing political 
polarization, fewer and fewer politicians have 
actually served in the armed forces. For the 
first time in U.S. history, veterans are under- 
represented in Congress compared to the pop- 
ulation as a whole: Only about one-fourth of 
today's members of Congress are veterans; in 
1971, three-quarters had served. The poten- 
tial impact of this decline may surprise those 
civilians who assume veterans-tumed-politi- 
cians are a hawkish clan. 

According to a paper written for the pro- 
ject by Christopher Gelpi, assistant professor 
of political science, since at least 1816, the 
greater the number of veterans serving in po- 
litical office, the less likely the U.S. has been 
to initiate the use of force in the international 
arena. And Feaver predicts that the predilec- 
tion for use offeree will increase as fewer vet- 
erans hold policymaking positions. Repub- 
lician representative Heather Wilson of New 
Mexico, who served in the Air Force for eight 
years and is the first female veteran ever to 
serve in Congress, says that veterans bring a 

useful sense of caution to debates over mili- 
tary deployments. "We understand the mili- 
tary is not a toy," says Wilson. "It's made up of 
real men and women. We understand the 
limitations on the use of force and we don't 
take [using the military] lightly. " 

Military elites and civilian elites also hold 
different views on the proper use offeree, re- 
sulting in policymaking friction already ob- 
served in debates over the Gulf War, Somalia, 
and Kosovo. Though they solidly support ci- 
vilian control, elite military officers now be- 
lieve it is their role to insist and advocate 
rather than merely advise on such key use-of- 
feree decisions as developing an exit strategy 
and setting the rules of engagement in a con- 
flict situation. "Now the military feels obliged 
to 'rescue' civilians from making dumb mis- 
takes," says Feaver. 

Another TISS finding challenges the con- 
ventional military argument that civilians are 
more averse to suffering battlefield casualties. 
Researchers found that today's senior military 
officers tend to be the most reluctant about 
taking casualties, up to four times more averse 
than civilians (mass or elite). Feaver says this 
reluctance may have something to do with a 
growing zero-defect mentality in the ranks. 
"Casualties have become a sign of failure," he 
says, "something senior officers don't want 
happening on their watch. " 

March -April 2000 




Most experts, including Feaver and TISS 
investigator Richard Kohn, agree that a mili- 
tary is crucial to a democracy but cannot itself 
be democratic. They don't advocate a society 
made in the military's image, nor do they rec- 
ommend a "civilianized" militia-style military. 
In the end, Feaver sees the civilian-military gap 
as a communication problem that may be over- 
come through what he calls "academic cross- 
pollination." For example, up-and-coming of- 
ficers could be required to attend civilian in- 
stitutions for postgraduate education. Civilian 
leaders could spend more time in workshops 
or year-long fellowships at places like West 
Point and Annapolis. Colleges could require 
undergraduates to complete a course in mili- 
tary history and culture, a reasonable request 
given war's persistence as a thorn in the flesh 
of human evolution. Academic history depart- 
ments could give military historians a more 
prominent role within their field. 

"It's a very small area of inquiry now," says 
Kohn, himself a military historian and chair 
of the Curriculum on Peace, War, and De- 
fense at UNC-Chapel Hill. "To be perfectly 
candid, at the most prominent universities, 
faculty are often anti-military. " 

Feaver believes elite universities should 
restore ROTC on campus, in order to provide 
more access to the military for bright students 
and to better educate civilian students about 
military affairs. "Students at these schools 
can, at least potentially, go their entire lives 
without seeing or interacting with a military 
person," he says. Though Duke continues to 
maintain one of the most extensive ROTC 
programs among top universities, including 
all major branches of the armed forces, other 
schools such as Yale, Princeton, and Harvard 
threw ROTC off-campus in the aftermath of 
Vietnam. According to U.S. Department of 
Navy statistics, of approximately 13,000 stu- 
dents who graduated from Ivy League institu- 
tions last year, fewer than thirty entered the 
Navy or the Marine Corps. 

"Duke is a small campus, and you notice 
the faces of the students who wear the uni- 
forms," says Duke junior and seminar partici- 
pant Eugene Hsu. "And then you notice them 
again when they're in civilian clothes. There 
are some class differences, sure. Some people 
here look down on ROTC students as has 
having sold their bodies to the government 
for financial aid. But others, including me, 
respect what they're doing.... If we interact, 

we're less likely to be alienated from them. " 

Finally, some experts claim the answer to 
closing the gap isn't more military service — 
it's service, period. In their minds, the real 
danger in America is the civilian ethos of 
serving self above all else. AmeriCorps has 
become a popular cause within the Clinton 
Administration, but only a tiny proportion of 
college graduates go into the Peace Corps or 
Teach for America. Thomas Ricks, whose 
book Making the Corps (1997) provided the 
impetus for Feaver and Kohn to launch the 
TISS project, believes a type of national ser- 
vice lottery could work. "Along the lines of 
some of the European countries and Israel, 
youths could be given the choice of serving 
eighteen months in the military or two years 
in a community- service organization. " 

For his part, Feaver is training his students 
rigorously to become experts on the gap. He 
demands graduate -level performance from his 
juniors and seniors in the seminar, sometimes 
to the point of inciting near-panic. "This is 
the hardest course I've taken at Duke," reads 
one of the student comments on a final course 
evaluation. Another wrote, "My God. Give me 
my Duke diploma now. I've earned it!" 

The students were challenged to work with 
the TISS project research data and contri- 
bute original ideas. They developed a project 
website (, under- 
went crash- course training in statistical re- 
gression analysis, and completed massive group 
projects. "They definitely seemed overwhelmed 
at times," says Krista Wiegand, a political sci- 
ence graduate student and teaching assistant 
for the course, "but Professor Feaver did a 
good job of making the course fun, too." 

Feaver told his students he wanted them to 
produce papers that he could cite in the TISS 
study. "He said, 'I know you guys are going to 
hate it, but that's how the real world works,' " 
says Eugene Hsu. "He knew that trying to 
coordinate with each other on this huge one- 
hundred-page project would heighten our 
sense of how difficult it must be for civilian 
and military officials to work together. " 

Feaver, who favors bow ties and resembles a 
young Harry Truman in his round glasses, 
grew up in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and at- 
tended Lehigh University. He almost joined 
the U.S. Navy out of school, and is now an 
officer in the Naval Reserves. "I asked the 
successful father of the woman I was dating 
what he thought I should do to be a success. 

He said I should become a Navy officer. I think 
he just wanted me away from his daughter. " 

Instead of going to sea, Feaver accepted a 
graduate scholarship to Harvard University, 
where he earned his Ph.D. in government in 
1990, concentrating on nuclear weapons com- 
mand and control. He came to Duke in 1991, 
and in 1993 spent a year in Washington work- 
ing for the National Security Council. He 
remembers the Clinton White House as no- 
torious for performing poorly in relationships 
with the military during his time at the NSC. 
"I was there when General [Colin] Powell 
retired as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs," re- 
calls Feaver. "President Clinton wanted his 
staff to come up with some funny and thought- 
ful gifts for the retirement ceremony. So I 
spent two weeks of my life as the White House 
rep on gag gifts." 

One of the gifts was a personalized license 
plate for Powell's Volvo. The plates had to be 
special ordered from Lorton Prison in Vir- 
ginia, a process that normally took weeks. "I 
called Lorton and told them President Clin- 
ton needed these plates ASAP!" says Feaver. 
"They didn't care, so what. . ..Then I said the 
plates were for General Powell, and they were 
like, 'Oh yeah? No problem — why didn't you 
tell us that to begin with!' " 

Feaver says he scrambled around the D.C. 
area seeking the best gifts for the Powell re- 
tirement bash, while on the other side of the 
world armored tanks were rolling into Mos- 
cow in a volatile parliamentary coup. Given 
his expertise on nuclear command and control, 
Feaver says he assumed he would be called in 
to brief the president — his first official shot 
at "POTUS (President of the U.S.) Face 
Time. " "I did get to brief the president — about 
the gag gifts. The good news was he loved 
them and the retirement ceremony went off 
great. It was my moment in the sun, a shining 
example for civil-military relations in the Clin- 
ton era. " About his time at the NSC, Feaver 
recalls, "It was a great experience — and a 
great education in the difference between 
theory and practice. " 

To integrate theory and practice for his 
students, Feaver insists on having students 
accompany him each time he travels to Wash- 
ington for discussions and symposia on the 
TISS research. Whether briefing think-tank 
scholars or Pentagon officials, each trip was 
an opportunity to bring the classroom read- 
ings and lectures to life. 


Junior Jennifer Bassler and senior Jamie 
Satnick joined Feaver on one such day trip to 
brief the Commandant of the Marine Corps. 
"It was pretty cool to tell my Duke friends, 
'Yeah, I'm going up to the Pentagon tomor- 
row to brief the Marines,' " says Satnick. For 
her, growing up as she did in a Jewish family 
in the New Jersey suburbs, the military was a 
completely foreign entity. "No one in my fam- 
ily has ever been in the military, though my 
grandfather did try to enlist in World War II. " 
Asked how she would describe the armed 
forces before taking Feaver's course, she says 
"very insensitive," "not educated," and "big- 
oted. " "I guess my stereotype of the military 
was a Christian, Southern, white male, some- 
one very rigid. I think now I understand bet- 
ter how military personnel have to be, though 
I still don't totally relate to them. " Asked to 
describe the Marines in one word, she doesn't 
even blink: "Hard-core." 

In contrast to Satnick, Bassler joined Duke's 
Air Force ROTC program her sophomore 
year, and intends to serve as an active-duty 
officer after graduation. She came to Duke 
from a non-military family living on the afflu- 
ent North Shore of Chicago, with no inten- 
tion of serving Uncle Sam. "I finally joined 
because I liked the idea of doing something 
above myself," she says. "I didn't like the su- 
perficiality and materialism of modern life, 

and I wanted to learn leadership. " 

Some of her friends and family, Bassler says, 
still don't understand why she would join. 
"They think I'm just going to take orders and 
not use my education. To me, it's not that way 
at all. You have to think if you're going to 
make it as an officer — robots will not suc- 
ceed. " Bassler says those in the military grap- 
ple with moral dilemmas many civilians can 
skirt easily, like "When should you put your 
life on the line for others?" 

How was their trip to the Pentagon? They 
saw the polished hallways that stretched on 
forever, the security checkpoints, the por- 
traits of former defense secretaries and Medal 
of Honor winners lining the walls, the door- 
plates for the "undersecretary" of this and the 
"deputy assistant" of that. Satnick and Bas- 
sler, in their chic dark suits, stuck out amid 
the harried majors and colonels — mostly male 
and shuttling files and coffee mugs from office 
to office. They witnessed a pep rally for the 
annual Army-Navy football game worthy of 
the Cameron Crazies. They assisted Feaver 
while he briefed General Terrence Dake, the 
assistant commandant of the Marine Corps, 
trying to avoid staring at the gleaming four 
stars on the general's collar or at his perfectly 
cropped hair the color of snow. They also met 
Sergeant Major Alford McMichael, the Ma- 
rines' highest-ranked enlisted official, a bald 

African-American gentleman with the pos- 
ture of a ballet dancer and the body- fat content 
of a brick. Anyone could read the look on 
their faces. For Satnick it was a bizarre carni- 
val, a wild curiosity. For Bassler it was, possi- 
bly, the future. 

"That place was intense," says Bassler. "As 
an ROTC cadet, I felt like a bug there, but 
being there makes you realize what a crucial 
part the Pentagon plays in the policy world. It 
seems like it would be real easy to not even 
think about the civilian world in a place like 
that. " 

"I thought the general was such a cute old 
man," says Satnick, still impressed by Dake's 
square jaw and great hair but not intimidated 
in the least. "I don't know if he should have 
that much faith in us, though. Look at Duke 
students in general. We are supposed to be 
the young elite — and how many of us are on 
top of foreign policy or national security 
issues? How many of us even read a newspa- 
per other than The Chronicle! Once we leave 
here, most of us will have no understanding 
of the military, yet some of us will end up in 
government. If I were in the military, I don't 
know if I would fully trust civilians to make 
the best decisions." ■ 

Kicklighter '86 is a freelance writer and former 
U.S. Marine Corps captain. 

TKe test Of Summet For TKe Best Of StudENts 

i Ahead. Academically gifted and high-achieving 
students from around the world will spend next summer 
expanding their academic and physical horizons, here in the 
heart of the Blue Ridge Mountains. 

Academics and Fun. Mix pre-calculus and creative 
writing with swimming and rock climbing. Combine classes 
in history or computer technology with white-water rafting 
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March -April 2000 




efore unleashing his celebrated can- 
dor, Francis Newton, professor of clas- 
sics at Duke from 1968 to 1998, wears 
a wide, wry grin — part exasperation, part dis- 
gusted amusement. John Geyssen Ph.D. '92 
of the classics department at the University of 
New Brunswick reflects that "it was almost a 
pleasure to be criticized in that genteel 
Southern manner. " 

Having taken four courses with Professor 
Newton and having had him oversee my senior 
honors thesis, I myself grew quite accustomed 
to that genteel Southern criticism and can 
report that the key word in Geyssen's quote is 
"almost." During my four years at Duke (and 
for a few afterwards), Newton censured me 
quite explicitly on everything ranging from 
not eating breakfast to insufficient prepara- 
tion for class to lack of focus in considering 
my post-Duke future to allowing emotion to 
supersede more important practical matters. 
Yet it is through such constructive reproach 
that he has articulated an unwavering com- 
mitment, both personal and academic, to 
countless students. 

On the occasion of his retirement, Newton 
was honored last November with a sympo- 
sium, Eius Dignitatis Cultores, which gave stu- 
dents, friends, colleagues, and family the 
chance to thank him formally for this com- 
mitment. We came together in appreciation 
of his work, including his high expectations 
and his dynamic classroom presentations. 
Although many of his Medieval Latin stu- 
dents may have forgotten the intricacies of 
the texts we studied, few can forget our awe 
at his strong, rich, steady rendering of Me- 
dieval Latin hymns booming over the class, 
interrupted only by his pleasantly stern admo- 
nition to sing more loudly. One former stu- 
dent describes the effect as "magical in a way, 
as if for a moment the Gothic buildings were 
more than just a fagade and we could have 
been anywhere and anywhen. " 

But Newton's renown as a teacher is best evi- 
denced in his enduringly popular "Myth in Lit- 
erature" course. He developed the course, which 
often carried a wait list, to augment interest 

in the classics, specifically among students 
who would otherwise never consider enrolling 
in a classics course. Toward this end, he ex- 
panded the texts of the course, "challenging 
himself to understand and to incorporate new 
theoretical approaches to literature," as for- 
mer department chair Mary T. Boatwright says. 

In addition to reading the primary mytho- 
logical accounts of Homer, Hesiod, and Ovid, 
among others, students considered Jung, Freud, 
and Levi-Strauss in an examination of the 
theories and psychology of myth, and they dis- 
cussed W.B. Yeats and George Will when 
exploring the hero typology. Newton's com- 
mitment to all students, whether they were 
majors or just had an ancillary interest in clas- 
sics, exemplified his integrity toward his mis- 
sion as a teacher. 

His students, whether undergraduate non- 
majors in his "Myth" course or doctoral can- 
didates preparing their theses under his direc- 
tion, carry the model of his amiability and 
humanity well beyond the confines of his 
classes. Jeremy Prager '98, who only took one 
class with Newton, describes how they met in 
Monte Cassino, when Newton gave him a 
tour of the town below and the monastery 
above: "I will never forget the kindness and 
interest in teaching that these acts revealed. " 
He concludes with an unrelated but equally 
revealing comment: "Dr. Newton is still the 
only teacher who ever asked to read other 
papers I had written." 

Geyssen says it was Newton who "helped 
me recognize the human spirit that lies be- 
hind the printed word." Roberta Stewart 
Ph.D. '87, acting chair of Dartmouth's clas- 
sics department, remembers how he taught 
"that the greatest tribute a student could give 
to a teacher was to move beyond that teacher's 
particular ideas, indeed to disagree with one's 
teacher — if the student moved beyond the 
teacher's ideas, the teacher was a good teacher. 
The intellectual humility, indeed the personal 

humility, remains with me to this day and has 
set a standard for me in my own research and 
teaching. " 

Mary Jane Morrow '80, Ph.D. '99, now in 
the history department at the University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, summarizes 
Newton's lesson from a teacher's point of 
view: "I do remember his gift for being able to 
be tough and compassionate at the 'right' 
times. His standards and expectations were 
the highest, yet he knew how to bring a stu- 
dent along if she or he was in a tough spot. 
Now that I am teaching, I realize how hard 
that balance is to achieve, but Dr. Newton's 
example stays before me when I am unsure 
how to handle difficult situations. " 

Newton, still teaching as a professor emeri- 
tus, possesses the singular courage that all great 
teachers possess: to issue challenges and to 
trust their students to rise to those challenges. 
For his part, he will impart the necessary tools 
and information, whether in or out of the 
classroom; but the commitment he requires is 
reciprocal. Students must hold up their end 
of the bargain; if they do not, he makes cer- 
tain to remind them. Still, he remains un- 
flinchingly compassionate and committed to 
the well-being of his students, whether that 
means coaching them along or leveling an 
honest assessment of their work. 

As a teacher, to echo Morrow, I have dis- 
covered the difficulty in striking that balance 
with students. Challenges are rarely met with 
initial enthusiasm. But I persist as he did with 
me, presuming, not without some trepidation, 
that my students will come to understand, as 
I did, the commitment and respect inherent 
in such challenges. Either way, I thank him 
for the courage to believe in me, and the re- 
spect to trust that I will rise to his challenges. 
His commitment to me has helped make me 
the teacher I am today. The closing of his 
graduation note to me, dated May 14, 1995, 
embodies my debt to him: "Perhaps the best 
wish I could form for you would be that [the 
combination of teaching and research] will 
bring you something like the satisfaction that 
it has brought me." 

Indeed, Professor Newton, thanks to you, 
it has. ■ 

DeHoratius '95 teaches in the classics depart- 
ment at Wayland High School in Wayland, Mas- 





Guest speaker Gail Goestenkors, 
women's basketball coach, tipped 
off the fall meeting of the Duke 
Alumni Association in October at a Friday 
luncheon. She discussed her team's successful 
1998-99 season, this year's players, and what 
lay ahead for the current season. 

The plenary session was highlighted by the 
DAA president's report, in which Gwynne A. 
Young 71 recounted meetings and discussions 
with Duke president Nannerl O. Keohane and 
top administrators. Alumni Affairs director 
M. Laney Funderburk Jr. '60 introduced new 
board members, student leaders, and new 
members of the alumni staff: Rachel Davies 
72, A.M. '89, assistant director for lifelong 
learning and travel; and Kim Koster, features 
editor for Duke Magazine. He also reported on 
the 23 percent growth this year of DAA funds 
from the life membership endowment and 
Duke credit-card royalties. Robert Shepard, 
vice president for University Development, 
reported on the Campaign for Duke, and 
Annual Giving director Sterly Wilder '83 
gave an equally positive report on giving lev- 
els in the new fiscal year. 

Political science professor Peter Lange, the 
newly appointed provost, addressed the board 
on his plans to lead a new strategic planning 
effort for the university. 

After Saturday's Duke-Georgia Tech football 
game, Funderburk gave a tour of the new Wilson 
Recreation Center. At dinner that evening, 
Gillian Einstein, 1999 recipient of the DAA- 
sponsored Alumni Distinguished Undergrad- 
uate Teaching Award, was the guest speaker. 

At the Sunday morning board meeting, Uni- 
versity Archivist William E. King '61, A.M. '63, 
Ph.D. 70 presented a "historical moment" on 
the Duke family. In light of a new statue dedi- 
cated on East Campus to honor Benjamin N. 
Duke, King pointed out that this son of Wash- 
ington and brother of James B. held the dis- 
tinction of being the longest-serving trustee of 
Trinity College and Duke. His gifts to Trinity 
at the turn of the century represented about a 
third of the college's budget. 

John A. Schwarz III '56, the DAA's immedi- 

n April 18, thoughts will turn to a private 
viewing of "Rodin: Sculpture from the Iris 
and B. Gerald Cantor Collection and ad- 
ditional works" at the North Carolina Museum of 
Art in Raleigh. Sponsored by the Duke Alumni Life- 
long Learning Program and the Duke Club of the 
Triangle, this is the premiere event of a year-long 
schedule of special receptions and art exhibits at ma- 
jor national galleries for Duke alumni and friends. 
Other special showings come on June 17, when 

the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C., is 
the site for an evening with the collected works 
of Norman Rockwell; July 15, the Van Gogh 
show at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts; and 
November 14, Van Gogh at the Philadelphia 
Museum of Art. Alumni in these cities will 
receive invitations by mail. For information, 
contact Rachel Davies '72, A.M. '89, assistant 
director for Lifelong Learning and Travel, 
(919) 681-6216; 

March -April 2000 21 

ate past president and alumni trustee for 
1999-2000, reported on various matters dis- 
cussed at the trustees' meetings. He noted that 
DUMAC (Duke Management Company), 
which handles the university's investments, 
was one of the top five performers among the 
top fifty university endowments. 

Committee chairs issued the following re- 

Awards and Recognition. Gary D. Mel- 
chionni 72, J.D. '81 announced that his com- 
mittee had reviewed the Distinguished Alumni 
Award nominations and would make a rec- 
ommendation to the executive committee for 
the 2000 recipient. 

Electronic Communications. Wilton D. Al- 
ston B.S.E. '81 said that all of the committee's 
1998-99 objectives had been met: lifetime 
e-mail address, an alumni e-mail directory, 
and the transition to the 
website that expanded alumni services. The 
committee is looking toward more website en- 
hancements, improved design, and increased 
functions, such as online dues-paying and 
event registration. He thanked Ken Weil 
B.S.E. '82 for his participation as a consultant 
at the meeting. 

Community Service. N. Page Murray III '85 
reported that the proposed new staff commu- 
nity-service coordinator position was still on 
hold. In addition to arranging a community- 
service project for the board when it meets in 
May, he is designing a related website. He also 
wants to have community- service opportuni- 
ties visible during April's reunion weekend, 
and to involve other campus groups and 
alumni leaders in local projects. 

External Relations. Cedric D. Jones '82, a co- 
chair with Michele Miller Sales 78, J.D. '81, 
reported on meetings with athletics director 
Joe Alleva and John Piva, senior vice president 
for alumni and development, to link alumni, 
students, faculty, and administrators. He an- 
nounced two committee goals: cataloging events 
open to alumni, and targeting young alumni 
for enhanced programming and activity. 


Three alumni clubs — the Duke Club of 
Washington, the Duke Club of Southern 
California, and the Duke Club of the 
Triangle — were chosen in 1999 to receive the 
first Community Service Awards sponsored 
by the Duke Alumni Association. Established 
by the DAA's Awards and Recognition Com- 
mittee, these awards will be presented each 
year to alumni clubs in the field that have 
excelled in community outreach. 

In 1989, the Duke Club of Washington es- 
tablished the Adopt-a-School Project at the 


Today the basement level 
of Union West houses the 
offices of Auxiliary 
Services, the Duke Barbershop, 
and the Mary Lou Williams 
Cultural Center. The hallway 
barely fits an earlier characteri- 
sation of it as "the university's 
Main Street, a veritable beehive 
of activity from early morning 
until late at night". . . . 

Before the opening of the 
Bryan Center [in 1982]. ..the 
center of West Campus activity 
was the Union basement "Dope 
Shop." The unusual name often 
caused quizzical looks, includ- 
ing those of John F. Kennedy, 
who stopped for a hamburger 
on the way to a Page Audi- 
torium lecture the night before 
he announced his candidacy for 
president of the United States. 

Years ago, "dope" was a 
Southern slang term for a cola 
drink, perhaps due to the belief 
that Coca-Cola contained a 

small amount of cocaine. The 
term was used on campus from 
at least before World War I, 
when enterprising students 
opened a shop for candy and 
tobacco in Epworth and later 
Aycock dormitories. The most 
popular drink in the West Cam- 
pus Dope Shop was a delicious, 
thick milkshake. Quick service 
was the main appeal, but at var- 
ious times the store had booths 
for socializing and a pool table 
and juke box as well.... 

Next door was the University 
Store, selling everything a 
student needed, from school 
supplies to slide rules to exami- 
nation "blue books." In Sep- 
tember 1972, male students 
were surprised to discover items 
like Cosmopolitan and hair spray 
in "their" store as women 
moved into West Campus resi- 
dence halls for the first time. 

In former years, the clothing 
portion of the store was known 

as the Haberdashery, a place 
"with the well-dressed universi- 
ty man in mind." Gradually, 
Duke-imprinted items took 
over as tastes changed and for- 
mal attire gave way to more 
casual dress.... 

The barbershop carried on a 
campus tradition dating from 
1912, when the college first 
employed two experienced bar- 
bers. In 1941, the West Campus 
shop kept six barbers and two 
shoeshine boys busy. It too 
changed with the times, em- 
ploying the first African-Ameri- 
can barber in 1969 and the first 
woman in 1972. The slogan 
"where friends meet for better 
service" remains true today as 
this part of "Main Street" con- 
tinues in the same location. 

— excerpted from If Gargoyles 

Could Talk: Sketches of Duke 

University by William E. King 


university archivist 

Fifties fizz: jerking sodas at the center of West Campus activity 

Ludlow-Taylor Elementary School. This na- 
tionally recognized program was the model 
for all such ventures. DCW members served 
as tutors, activity planners, and positive role 
models to stimulate and involve students in 
learning, creativity, recreation, and commu- 
nity identity. Lisa Barnes Lampman 78 is the 
club's current president. 

The Duke Club of Southern California, 
using the DCW model, established an adopt- 
a- school project in 1992 at the Pio Pico School 
in Los Angeles. The club overcame issues of 
timing, liability, finances, teacher participa- 
tion, and maintaining momentum to set up a 
program that still thrives today. Eva Herbst 
Davis '87 was the club's president at the time 

and a force behind the project. 

The Duke Club of the Triangle helped 
Durham's Rogers-Herr Middle School take 
Shakespeare on the road in 1997. After a per- 
formance by members of the school's sixth 
grade for local elementary- school children was 
brought to the attention of Alumni Affairs' 
alumni clubs program director Bert Fisher 
'80, he approached the club about sponsoring 
a performance out of town. Club president 
Charles H. Wilson '5 1 made it a club project, 
overseeing the logistics of getting sixteen 
j sixth-graders to Washington, D.C., to perform 
I in the lab theater of the Kennedy Center be- 
fore an audience of 200 sixth graders from 
area elementary schools. 



WRITE: Class Notes Editor, Duke Magazine, 
614 Chapel Dr., Durham, N.C. 27708-0570 
FAX: (919) 681-1659 (typed only, please) 
E-MAIL: dukemag(g 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Alumni Records, 
614 Chapel Dr. Annex, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. 
Please include mailing label. Or e-mail address 
changes to: 

NOTICE: Because of the volume of class 
note material we receive and the long 
lead time required for typesetting, design, 
and printing, your submission may not 
appear for two to three issues. Alumni 
are urged to include spouses' names 
in marriage and birth announcements. 
We do not record engagements. 

30s, 40s & 50s 

Harold K. Terry '36 writes that he visited Duke's 
alumni office while attending his 1932 Mangum High 
School reunion. Others attending were Hazel 
Mangum Stubbs '36 of Durham and Thomas 
Franklin '36 of Goldsboro, N.C. While away from his 
home in Miami, he also visited William Crawford 
'36 of Quincy, Fla.; Gerald Cooper '36, Ph.D. '39, 
M.D. '50, a physician at the Centers for Disease 
Control in Atlanta; Jim Henry '36 of Highlands, 
N.C; and Ike Terry '51 of Bahama, N.C. 

Theodore Thomas Kozlowski A.M. '41, Ph.D. 
'47 is the co-author of Growth Control in Woody Plants 
and Physiology ofWooaS Plants. He lives in Carlsbad, 
Calif. ' 

Lester Bernard Luborsky A.M. '43, Ph.D. '45 
was awarded the American Psychological Foundation's 
Gold Medal for his lifetime of contributions to psychol- 
ogy. He lives in Philadelphia. 

Robert E. Willoughby '45, a minister, is the 
author of Christian Mandates jor a New Millennium: 
Essays of a Religious and Social Liberal, published by 
Fithian Press of Santa Barbara, Calif. He lives in 
Lakeland, Fla. 

'49 was appointed 
by Gov. Jim Hunt to serve on the N.C. State Com- 
munity College board of directors until July 2005. He 
lives in Statesville, N.C. 

G. "Benny" Steele '50, B.S.E.E. '53 ended 
his ten-year-long retirement to become the assistant to 
the president at Bethel College in McKenzie, Tenn. 

Abraham I. Gordon J.D. '54, an attorney and 
partner in the firm Gordon &. Scalo, was appointed 
vice president of the global sen-ice organization of 
Rotary International through June 2000. He and his 
wife, Marilyn, live in Fairfield, Conn., and have two 
children and three grandchildren. 

Bryant Lawrence B.S.M.E. '55 and Katharine 
"Missy" Boaz Lawrence '58 write that they have 
retired. He worked in aerospace engineering and she 
worked in early childhood education. They live in New 
Smyrna Beach, Fla., near two daughters and six grand- 

O. Charlie Chewning Jr. '57, former president of 
the Duke Alumni Association, was elected vice president 
of the N.C. State Board of Certified Public Accountant 

Examiners. He and his wife, Ruth, have three daughters 
and five grandchildren and live in Raleigh. 

Robert A. Hohner '57, A.M. '63, Ph.D. '65 
teaches American history at the University of Western 
Ontario in Canada. His book, Prohibition and Politics, a 
biography of Bishop James Cannon Jr., the southern 
United Methodist churchman, politician, and temper- 
ance reformer, was published by the University of 
South Carolina Press. He and his wife, Kay Stewart 
'58, live in London, Ontario. 

K. Quick B.D. '58 was presented the Stanley 
S. Kresge award by the Detroit Rotary Club for exem- 
plary leadership in southeast Michigan and to recognize 
his 25 years serving the community as senior pastor of 
Metropolitan United Methodist Church in Detroit. 

Stephen G. Young '58, vice president of the 
CONSOL Coal Group, was elected to a two-year term 
as chairman of the board of the W. Va. High Technology 
Consortium Foundation, a nonprofit organization 
involved in research, development, and education 
projects. He lives in Pittsburgh. 

Kay Newell-Locke '59 was commissioned as a 

chaplain at Morristown Memorial Hospital in 
Morristown, N.J. 

MARRIAGES: Nelson Pointer Jackson '53 to 

Earlene Poole Kistler '60 on Sept. 9. Residence: 

Thomas Gnuse B.S.E.E. '60, president 
of HTG Investment Advisors of New Canaan, Conn., 
was selected to be a part of a new Internet investment 
service,, which is being 
launched by Microsoft and DALBAR. He and his wife 
Jeanne, live in New Canaan, Conn. 

Thomas M. Davidson LL.B. '62 is president and 
managing director of Davidson Capital Group, which 
has expanded and relocated its headquarters in 
McLean, Va. He lives in Bethesda, Md. 

Carol Anne Kann Fowler '62, an attorney, was 
named counsel of the firm Sutherland, Asbill & 
Brennan in Atlanta, where she focuses on exempt 
and health-care law. 

Clark G. Reynolds A.M. '63, Ph.D. '64 was honored 
as the first faculty member at South Carolina's College 
of Charleston and its graduate school, the University of 
Charleston, to receive both the Distinguished Teaching 
Award and the Distinguished Research Award. He has 
also been designated Distinguished Professor of History- 
He and his wife, Connie Caine Reynolds '63, live 
in Mt. Pleasant, S.C. 

Clarissa Camfield Thomasson '64 completed 
Reconstracting Hi/lsfcoroiigh, the sequel to her first novel, 
Defending Hillsborough, a historical fiction based on her 
great-great grandmother and family in Hillsborough, 
N.C, at the end of the Civil War. 

Susan Rackelman Pierce '65, who has worked 
as a fiber artist for the last 20 years, was honored by 
the Museum of American Art at the Smithsonian 
Institution, which purchased her quilt, "Dinner at 
Aunt Tilly's," for the permanent collection of the 
Renwick Gallery. She lives in Rockville, Md. 

Pender M. McCarter '68 was elected secretary- 
treasurer of the Public Relations Society of America 
(PRSA) College of Fellows, a member-at-large on the 
PRSA Association Section Executive Committee, and 

3a Suke 

in gnur 


Traditionally, bequests have been 

a significant source of Duke's 

financial support. Your bequest to 

Duke will help to ensure Duke's 

continued strength and 

academic excellence. 

High federal estate tax rates 

significantly lower the cost of 

making a bequest to Duke. 

Join more than 2,100 other Duke 
alumni and friends as a member 
of the Heritage Society, an honor- 
ary circle of University alumni and 
friends who have planned an 
estate gift to Duke. 

To learn more about the 

Heritage Society and how to 

make a bequest gift to Duke, 

please contact: 

Duke University 

Office of Planned Giving 

Box 90606 

2127 Campus Drive 

Durham, NC 27708-0606 

919-681-0464 (Phone) 
919-684-9731 (Fax) (Email) (Web) 

March -April 2000 23 

a U.S. Council representative to the International 
Public Relations Association, based in London. He is 
director of communications and public relations at 
IEEE-USA, the professional career and technology 
policy arm of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics 
Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) in Washington, D.C. 

Worth H. Weller '68 is the author of two new books, 
Under the Hood: Unmasking the Modem K'u Klux Klan 
and Conflict in Chiapas: Understanding the Modem Mayan 
World. His third book, The Road to Rio Banco.-Nicaragiw 
Be/ore and After the Contra War, will be published in 
early 2001. 

MARRIAGES: Earlene Poole Kistler '60 to 
Nelson Pointer Jackson '53 on Sept. 9. 
Residence: Durham. 

Taffy Cannon 70, M.A.T 71, a mystery writer, is 
the author of Guns and Roses, the first in her new series 
of Irish Eyes Travel mysteries that features Roxanne 
Prescott, a former cop, now tour director. The book, 
published by Perseverance Press, is set in Colonial 
Williamsburg. She lives in Carlsbad, Calif. 

H. Nelson Ph.D. 70, professor and chair 
of the Mercer University School of Medicine department 
of psychiatry and behavioral science in Macon, Ga., 
was elected president of the Georgia Psychiatric 
Physicians Association, the Georgia affiliate of the 
American Psychiatric Association. 

Pamela Brooks Gann J.D. 73, the former dean 
of Duke's law school, was inaugurated as the fourth 
president of Claremont McKenna College on Oct. 23 
in Claremont, Calif. 

Andrew E. Grigsby 73, partner in Hinshaw & Cul- , 
bertson in Miami, Fla., was appointed by Gov. Jeb Bush 
to serve a four-year term on the Judicial Nominating 
Commission for the Third District Court of Appeals, 
which includes Miami-Dade and Monroe c 

Gard W. Otis 73, professor of environmental biolo- 
gy at the University of Guelph in Guelph, Ontario, 
Canada, was presented with the Hambleton award by 
the Eastern Apiculture Society in recognition of his 
excellence in the field of bee research. 

Philip A. Pfaffly J.D. 73, a partner in the Min- 
neapolis firm Robins, Miller & Ciresi, was honored as 
among the Minnesota lawyers worthy of the distinction 
Leading American Attorney, as indicated by a poll of 
his peers conducted by American Research Corp. 

Alan S. Currie 74, chief financial officer of the 
insurance agency Arthur A. Watson & Co., was 
appointed chair of the Connecticut Society of Certified 
Public Accountants' Member Benefits Committee in 
Manchester, Conn. 

74, a composer and vocalist who 
also plays several musical instruments, has released her 
first CD, Spirit Journey, from Amberlight Productions. 
She lives in Saratoga, Calif. 

r Ph.D. 74 tetired in June after 37 
years in public education, including 25 years as principal 
of Rockingham (N.C) Junior High School, where he 
helped established a fine arts program for the students. 

Bruce Giles Wolff M.D. 74, professor of surgery at 
the Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minn., and 
consultant in colon and rectal surgery at the Mayo 
Clinic, was elected to the executive council of the 
American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons for 
1999-2000. He was named among the "Best Doctors in 
America" in 1992 and 1994 and the earned the Shipley- 
Award of the Southern Surgical Association in 1994. 


While New 
York muse- 
ums garner 
national headlines for 
what transpires inside 
and outside their hal- 
lowed halls, Joan Klimo 
'55 keeps her focus on 
the museum store. 

In December 1998, 
Klimo's series "The 
Americans" was in- 
stalled in the Whitney 
Museum Store. Con- 
ceived to complement 
an exhibition of the 
works of Duane Han- 
sen, Klimo's hand-made 
dolls, according to the 
store, depict "average 
Americans in a variety 
of sizes, shapes, and 

The Whitney exhibit 
was just one in a string 
of successes for the 
veteran artist and de- 
signer. After graduating 
from Duke, Klimo spent 
two years teaching art 
and biology at a Win- 
ston-Salem high school 
before moving on to 
magazine work in New 
York. At Harper's Ba- 
zaar, she met the famed 
designer and photogra- 
pher Alexey Brodo- 
vitch, whom she calls 
"the father of modern 
graphics." After two 
years under his tutelage, 
Klimo moved on to be 
the assistant art direc- 
tor at Family Circle and 
then to be art director 
at Bride's Magazine. 

Klimo says the next 
ten years, from the 
mid-1960s to the mid- 
1970s, were "the best 
years of my life, besides 
Duke." She worked in 
Paris and Milan for an 
impressive array of 
publications (Marie 
Claire, Hie, Marie France) 
and designers (Charles 
Jourdan, Christian Dior, 
Celine). She designed 
shoes, swimwear, lin- 
gerie, and, significant 
to her current work, 

"They never asked 
if I'd done any of it 
before," she says, "but 
they gave me the open 
door anyway." Klimo 
says she enjoyed what 
she perceived as a "re- 
spect for creative peo- 

Klimo: from dolls to books 
pie" in Europe, some- 
thing she has not seen 
strongly exhibited in 
the United States. 

As part of her Italian 
experience — and re- 
lying on her early days 
as a former pre-med 
student — she designed 
a collage book on re- 
production, La Favola 
della Vita (The Fable of 
Life) for preschool-aged 
children. Another chil- 
dren's book, What Can I 
Do Today?, has appeared 
in five languages. 

After another decade 
of working for big-name 
firms in New York, Ann 
Taylor and Lord & Tay- 
lor among them, Klimo 
began concentrating on 
her own artistic ven- 
tures. She currently has 
licenses with both the 
Andy Warhol Founda- 
tion and the Salvador 
Dali Museum in St. 
Petersburg, Florida. She 
has designed pillows, 
dolls, and paperweights 
for the Dali Museum, 
featuring some of the 

to handbags, and a nod 
sketches to the Warhol 
Foundation, they 
weren't interested. 
Eventually, she was 
contracted to create 
dolls of the eccentric 
artist and eclectic 
handbags ranging in 
design from a two- 
scoop ice cream cone 
to a purple cat to a 
high-heel shoe. In addi- 
tion to being sold at the 
Andy Warhol Museum 
in Pittsburgh, her work 
will be incorporated 
into the wave of tech- 
nological innovations 
when it is subsequently 
sold via die Internet 
Klimo admits that 
not every aspect of art 
and design has come 
easily for her. She 
recalls how important 
it was for her to learn 
from an experienced 
mentor, and she la- 
ments what she views 
as the current lack of 
willing mentors who 

to Dali and Warhol 
can teach promising 
young artists and de- 
signers the more chal- 
lenging financial and 
business components 
of the art industry. 

Most young artists, 
she says, have the tech- 
nical skills to succeed. 
But when they face an 
industry in which "cre- 
ativity is judged by 
accountants and execu- 
tives, people who are 
not necessarily cre- 
ative," the results are 
often discouraging. 
"The business part of 
art is a hard road, and 
you have to learn it, 
but it's so hard to teach 
it to another person." 

In that way, Klimo 
has never forgotten her 
early experiences as a 
teacher. "Three-quar- 
ters of the joy of being 
in this business is train- 
ing people and watch- 
ing them succeed." 

— Scott Meisler '00 

bols from the Spanish 
painter's oeuirc — the 
melting clocks, distort- 
ed piano, and even the 
artist's famed handle- 
bar moustache itself. 
The contract with 
the Warhol Foundation 
is ironic, she says, be- 
cause she knew 
Warhol before he was 
famous: "I met Andy 
when he was drawing 
shoes at Harper's 
Bazaar." But when 
Klimo sent prospective 


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Dana Lee Dembrow 75 was elected chair of the 
Intergovernmental Affairs Committee of the Southern 
Legislative Conference. He is serving his fourth term in 
the Maryland State Legislature. 

75, who retired from 
the Marine Corps as a lieutenant colonel in 1995, 
joined the litigation group of the firm Block & Colluci 
as a partner. He and his wife, Miriam, and their four 
children live in Buffalo, N.Y. 

i Kline 75 is the author of Eleanor 
Hill, a young-adult novel about a girl growing up on 
the coast of North Carolina in 19 12. The hook was 
published by Front Street/Cricket Books. She lives in 
Mooresville, N.C. 

Leavell III Ph.D. 75 was named to a 
newly created endowed chair in history at Furman 
University in Greenville, S.C. 

Timothy M. Westmoreland 76 is director of 

the Center for Medicaid and State Operations at the 
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 
placing him at the head of Medicaid. He lives in 
Takoma Park, Md. 

lM.D. 77 is 

chair of anesthesiology at the Johns Hopkins Bayview 
Medical Center and vice chair for health systems affairs 
for the department of anesthesiology and critical care 
management at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. 
He was named president of the Johns Hopkins Bayview 
physicians and promoted to associate dean for clinical 
affairs at Hopkins' medical school. He and his wife, 
Nancy, a health-care consultant, have three sons and 
live in Hunt Valley, Md. 

Bruce H. Stern 77, an associate at Stark & Stark 
in Princeton, N.J., was named to the board of directors 
of the International Brain Injun - Association. He and 
his wife, Linda, live in Pennington, N.J. 

R. Ross Harris 78, M.B.A. '80 is senior vice presi- 
dent of Trone Advertising in Greensboro. She and her 
husband, Charles Saunders, live in Greensboro, N.C. 

Russell W. Hawkins Jr. M.F. 78 is municipal 
finance adviser for the U.S. Agency for the International 
Development (USAID) Mission in South Africa. In 
June, he was an international election observer, along 
with USAID South Africa mission director W. Stacy 
Rhodes A.M. '91, for the presidential elections there. 

James S. Savage 78, a partner at McFadden, 
Winner and Savage in Columbus, Ohio, was certified 
as a member of the Million Dollar Advocates Forum 
after achieving a settlement of more than a million 
dollars for a plaintiff. 

Raymond Seth Greenberg M.D. 79, vice presi- 
dent for academic affairs and provost at the Medical 
University of South Carolina, was elected president of 
the university. He lives in Sullivans Island, S.C. 

Preston L. McKever-Floyd M.Div. 79, professor 
in the department of philosophy and religion at Coastal 
Carolina University in Conway, S.C, delivered the fall 
lecture in his field's department at Clemson University. 

John Edwin "Ed" Turlington 79, former chief 
of staff to N.C. Gov. Jim Hunt, is the deputy campaign 
manager for the Bill Bradley tor President campaign. 
He and his wife, Maria, live in West Orange, N.J. 

MARRIAGES: R. Ross Harris 78, M.B.A. '80 to 
Charles W Saunders Jr. on Nov. 6. Residence: Greens- 
boro, N.C. . . .Sue Kurzrock 79 to Howard Robboy 
on Oct. 17. Residence: Mercer Island, Wash. 

Lisa A. Hook '80, who is a principal of New York 
City-based private equity firm Brera Capital Partners, 
was named to the board of directors of Time Warner 
Telecom, a leader in building fiber networks for 

'80, who has been working as a test 
scorer in San Antonio since 1995, is qualified to admin- 
ister the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the widely used 
personality inventory. She writes that one of her hobbies 
is volksmarching and that she has completed her 150th 
march. Her e-mail address is gweinrautg 

I Battle Collins '82 was appointed president 
and CEO of Lincoln Life and Annuity Co. of New York 
in Syracuse, N.Y. 

BIRTHS: Second daughter to I 
7 1 and Heather McCrone on Oct. 24. Named 
Aubrietta Meredith... First child to John Edwin 
Turlington 79 and Maria Turlington on Feb. 10, 
1999. Named John Edwin Jr. 

I Kohnen '82, chair of the com- 
mercial real estate client service department at the law 
firm Graydon, Head & Ritchey, was honored by the 
Business Courier in Cincinnati for her commitment to 
professional excellence and contributions to the 
Greater Cincinnati community. 

Bruce Gunnar Almquist '83 is general counsel, 
Europe and Africa, for Electronic Data Systems. He 
and his wife, Angela, and their son live near London, 

James J. Lindemann M.B.A. '83 was promoted to 
senior vice president of St. Louis-based Emerson Electric 
Co. He is responsible for Emerson's motors and appliance 
components business. He lives in Chesterfield, Mo. 

Don L. Mulligan '83, vice president of finance for 
Pillsbury International, writes that he and his wife, 
Diane, and their three children have relocated to 
Minneapolis from Florida and "are busy learning the 
joy of winter sports. " 


I L. Tisdale J.D. '83, a member of the law 
firm Willcox & Savage in Norfolk, Va., was appointed 
to the board of governors of the Administrative Law 
section of the Virginia State Bar. 

Robert Sanger Jacobs '84 is vice president of 
geology at Encore Acquistion Partners in Fort Worth, 


Texas. He writes that he and his wife, Amy, and their 
four children "represented Duke" in the Ron Panda 
Games at South of the Border for the turn-of-the- 
' celebration. 

Retirement may 
conjure up 
visions of lake- 
side golf courses, sandy 
beaches, and plenty of 
time for travel. But Sue 
Patterson '63 has taken 
a strikingly different 
approach. Since retiring 
from the Foreign Service 
three years ago, Patter- 
son has relocated to 
Guatemala, where she 
has put her substantial 
experience to various 
humanitarian uses. 

"I have seen many 
Foreign Service col- 
leagues and other con- 
temporaries flounder 
and begin to feel use- 
less when they retire," 
she says, "but it is criti- 
cal for me to feel in- 
volved in meaningful 

Patterson's varied 
career has been full of 
such activities. She 
joined the Peace Corps 
two years after gradua- 
tion and was sent to 
Colombia, where she 
did community devel- 
opment work. "This is 
the phase of my life 
that has probably been 
the most influential in 
my activities now, 
focused on helping 
poor women." 

After two and a half 
years in Chile, where 
her second daughter 
was born, she and her 
family moved to Iran. 
During that period she 
decided to enter the 
Foreign Service. Her 
first assignment, at the 
Iranian embassy, al- 
lowed her to organize a 
process through which 
Americans could adopt 
Iranian babies. She also 
ran the United States' 
first program to aid 
Kurdish refugees. 
"When I appear at 
the Pearly Gates," she 
quips, "these will be two 
items that might help 
me get into heaven." 

Between stints in 

Washington, D.C., 
when she worked at 
the Bureau for Latin 
American Affairs and 
the Bureau for Nar- 
cotic Affairs, Patterson 
served as consul in 
Milan and was sent to 
Guatemala as consul 
general. In Guatemala 
for the first time, she 
handled several highly 
publicized cases, in- 
cluding the murder of 
an American citizen 
and the alleged kidnap- 
ping and torture of 
Sister Diana Ortiz, 
which she believes was 
"a tragic hoax." Patter- 
son finished her career 
with three years as con- 
sul general in Florence, 
an interlude she de- 
scribes as "a fairy-tale 

Instead of settling 
for retirement, she con- 
tinues to serve where 
the need is greatest. 
She went to Kenya 
soon after the U.S. 
embassy in Nairobi was 
bombed and helped 
sort through the per- 
sonal and logistical 
chaos that ensued. She 
then returned to the 
challenges of Guate- 
mala as a developing 
nation. She is driven, 
she says, by her "partic- 
ular passion for trying 
to help extremely poor 

Involved with sever- 
al local organizations, 
she has helped women 
start their own busi- 
nesses, has started 
training courses for tra- 
ditional Mayan mid- 
wives, and has served 
on the board of the 
Guatemala textile 
museum. And she has 
been focusing more of 
her time on trying to 
effect change in such 
issues as family plan- 
ning and women's 
basic health and educa- 
tional needs. 

In 1999, she seren- 

A helping hand: Patterson, right, attuned to the 
needs of Guatemalan women 

dipitously discovered 
another way to use her 
organizing skills. 
Seeking assistance to 
pay for eight women's 
tubal ligation proce- 
dures, she recalls, "I 
wrote an e-mail to some 
thirty friends asking for 
a $35 contribution to 
pay the costs of one 
surgery, and instead of 
the $150 to $200 1 ex- 
pected, I have received 
almost $10,000." 

Patterson says she 
then realized that she 
had the responsibility 
to channel these in- 
coming funds to the 
needy women. She has 
since aligned with 
APROFAM, a private 
organization visible 
throughout Guatemala, 
funneling those pri- 
vately collected dollars 
to their work. 

While measures like 
tubal ligations are 
important, Patterson 
says her ultimate goal 
is "to work toward 

helping [women] post- 
pone pregnancies and 
space children," be- 
cause an extremely 
high birthrate is one of 
Guatemala's main 
problems. Combined 
with widespread illiter- 
acy, corruption, the 
strained coexistence of 
Mayan and Spanish 
dialects, and tenuous 
relations among the 
Catholic Church, the 
government, and the 
private sector, the 
country's elevated 
birthrate contributes to 
a daunting array of 

"Sometimes I get 
overwhelmed by the 
extent of the needs 
here and my limited 
ability to affect them," 
she says. "However, 
I believe that our 
Creator intends that 
each of us should grab 
the edge nearest us and 
try to address the needs 
of those who are placed 
in our path." 

—Scott Meiskr '00 

CD-ROMs and the Promises of a New Technobgy and 
co-editor ot Pa>su>naie Vit'us: Film. Ci'tfiition, and 
Emotion, both published in 1999. He and his wife, Pam, 
and their son live in Marietta, Ga. 

Christopher John Allabashi '85, who earned his 
M.B.A. at the University of Chicago's business school 
last June, works tor Bank of America in real estate 
investment banking. He lives in Charlotte, N.C. 

Teresa A. Helmlinger M.B.A. '85 was named the 
executive director of the Industrial Extension Service 
at North Carolina State University. She lives in 
Fuquay-Varina, N.C. 

'85, M.D. '89, who earned 
her master's in epidemiology at the Harvard School 
of Health, is a medical oncologist specializing in gyne- 
cological malignancies at Memorial Sloan-Kettering 
Cancer Center in New York City. She and her husband, 
physician Ted S:atrowski, live in Manhattan. 
Cynthia Burt Lafuente '85 joined Illinois Tool 
Works in Glenview, 111., as the director of tax planning. 
She lives in Wilmette, 111. 

Jeffrey Bruce Coopersmith '86 is an assistant 
U.S. attorney in Seattle, Wash. His wife, Stephanie 
Hunter Snow '87, is a King County deputy prose- 
cuting attorney in Seattle. They have two sons and live 
in Bellevue, Wash. 

Jessica Serell Erenbaum '86 is an attorney at 
the law firm Genovese, Lichtman, Joblove and Battista 
in Miami, Fla. She ;.ind her huskind, Lirry Erenbaum, 
and their daughter live in Plantation, Fla. 
Christopher Scott Litch MA. '86 is deputy 
executive director and general counsel with the 
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry in Chicago. 

Francis J. Mootz III A.M. '86, J.D. '86, a full-time 
faculty member at Western New England College School 
of Law, also teaches at Pennsylvania State University's 
Dickinson School of Law. 

Susan M. Donovan J.D. '87 joined the Birming- 
ham, Ala., law firm Bainbridge & Straus. 
Linda Joy Jacobs '87, who practiced law at 
Rinella & Rinella, has opened her own law office in 
Chicago. She will specialize in the areas of domestic 
relations and civil litigation. 

Ann Palmer Kendall '87, B.H.S. '89, M.H.S. '94 
is a physician assistant working in urgent care. Her 
husband, Michael W. Kendall '88, is an internist. 
They have two sons and live in Charlotte, N.C. 

James R. Koepke '87 is a radiologist at Virginia 
Radiology Associates. He and his wife, Jordan, live in 
Warrenton, Va. 

Barbara R. LentZ '87, who earned her law degree 
at the University of Michigan, is an associate in the 
law firm Blanco Tackabery Combs & Matamoros in 
Winston-Salem, N.C. 

Andrew Ominsky '87, an attorney with the firm 
Ominsky & Messa in Philadelphia, was named to the 
Appellate Courts Procedural Rules Committee of the 
Pennsylvania Supreme Court. He and his wife, Emma, 
have two children and live in Philadelphia. 

John J. Daly Jr. '88 is a physician with Carolina 
Radiology Associates. He and his wife, Mary 
Bodden Daly '88, have three children and live in 
Little River, S.C. 

Kathleen "Kate" Boyle Hopkins '88 is an 

information technology director at BellSouth. She and 
her husband, Casey, and their son live in Atlanta. 

Susan Berry '89, a clinical psychologist with the 
Susquehanna Health System in Williamsport, Pa., 
accepted the position of assistant professor in the 
psychology department of Lycoming College. 

March -April 2000 27 



're you looking for an unfor- 
gettable vacation or a weekend 
refresher, among people with similar inter- 
ests? Then come along for one or several of 
the many special excursions and alumni 
colleges that Duke Alumni Education and 
Travel has planned for 2000. 
There are holidays for all budgets and 
tastes and all arrangements are taken 
care of so you can experience a familiar 
or a new place without the worry often 
associated with travel planning. 
For more information just check on the 
request form which trips you would like 
to receive a brochure about and either 
send or fax it to us. We'll be happy to 
send the appropriate information as soon 
as it is available. 


You Are What You Eat A Guide 

to Diets, Herbs & Supplements 

Duke faculty and local experts will pro- 
vide guidance based on the latest evi- 
dence as we discuss a broad variety of 
diets, lifestyle and nutritional interven- 
tions, which are all components of an 
integrative approach to health. 

Exploring North Carolina's Outer Banks 

Orrin Pilkey will lead you on a jour- 
ney of the Outer Banks starting at 
Nag's Head and ending on 
Ocracoke Island. You'll meet local 
experts and scholars and learn the 
perils of the coastal erosion process 
to beaches and buildings as well as 
" " : solutions. 

Summer Academy 


Trinity Center, Salter Path, NC 

Session I: July 26 

21st Annual Duke Writers' Workshop 
Small study groups in Short Fiction, 
Novel, Poetry, and Children's Writing 

Session II: July 6 9 

Specialty workshops: Publishing, Screen- 
writing, Memoir and Beginning Fiction 

Summer Session for Duke Alumni 

For the first time, Duke alumni may take 
regular Summer Session undergraduate 
courses for HALF the regular tuition. 

Summer Youth Camps 


Residential and day programs 
for students in middle school 
and high school. 

The Panama Canal & the Treasures of 
Costa Rica 

January 13-21 
From $3,495 


Explore the unspoiled 
world of Costa Rica's 
mountain rainforests, 
fragile orchids and abun- 
dant wildlife. Make full tran- 
sit of the Panama Canal, one of the 
world's great engineering feats. 

Among the Great Whales: 
Baja California & the Sea of Cortez 

Aboard the 70-passenger Sea Lion, expe- 
rience the age-old migration patterns of 
whales amidst exceptional marine and 
bird life in one of the most exciting and 
unspoiled parts of our world, led by Duke 
marine biologist Andy Read. 

Village Life in the Italian Countryside 

Your base for this visit will be an authen- 
tic palazzo in Fiuggi, just 45 minutes 
from Rome. From there some of the 
places you'll visit include the Tivoli 
gardens, Hadrian's Villa, and Fumone, 
a pedestrian-only medieval town. 

Alumni College in Provence 

$2,395 PER PERSON 

This popular learning adventure takes you 
to the heart of Provence, a land of spec- 
tacular Roman monuments, architectural 
treasures and the beautiful scenery 
immortalized by Cezanne and Van Gogh. 

Village Life in Ireland 

Spend days filled with an invigorating 
mix of mental and physical activity sur- 
rounded by awe-inspiring vistas and 
Celtic history. You'll spend four nights in 
the historic town of Killarney and three 
in Dublin, the cultural capital of Ireland. 

Alumni College in Greece 

MARY 24-June 2 SOLD OUT 
June 14-23 
$2,295 per person 

Immerse yourself in the uniqueness of 
Greek life and culture on the island of 
Poros, an Aegean jewel located among 
the spectacular Saronic Gulf islands. 
You'll be less than an hour from 
Athens and close to several of the 
major historical sites on the mainland. 

Exploring the Art & Culture of Belgium 

Hans Van Miegrot of Duke's art histo- 
ry department will lead this special pro- 
gram for those who enjoy a wide range 
of cultural encounters. Based 
in the historic city of 
Ghent, you'll take day ^ 

trips to places such a 
Leiden, Bruges, 
Brussels, Melchelen 
and Antwerp, hear 
talks by leading schol- '^, « • 1 ' 
ars, and visit private col- 

The Romantic River Route 

While you're on the exclusively char- 
tered M.S. Switzerland II, discover 
the beauty of the Danube, Main and 
Rhine rivers. Visit medieval towns 
along the way, from Regensburg, 
Germany to the Swiss Alps. Venture 
into the Black Forest and explore 
Strasbourg, before completing your 
cruise in Basel, Switzerland. 

Kenya Safari 

Embark on a great adven- 
ture that stretches from 
the vast plains of the 
Maasai Mara to the 
rugged terrain of 
Samburu. You'll see 
animals as they are 
meant to be seen, in the 
wild and roaming free. 
Explore Kenya's vast wildlife 
reserves and enjoy some of the finest 
accommodations in East Africa. 



Sailing the Great Lakes 

On this remarkable voyage sail past pristine 
wilderness and visit quintessential water- 
front towns in the U.S. and Canada, on the 
new five-star LeLevant. Relive the colorful 
times of traders, surveyors and adventurers. 
Visit all five Great Lakes, and reconnect 
with the historic past, guided by Alex 
Roland from the Department of History. 

Discovering Eastern Germany: 
The New Berlin, Dresden & Weimar 

A deluxe tour that opens up the extra- 
ordinary riches of the former German 
Democratic Republic. Reunification has 
brought an astonishing resurgence to East 
Germany and it is rapidly becoming one 
of Europe's most fascinating destinations. 
Accommodations are in beautifully 
restored buildings and palaces. 

Village Life in Wales 

From first class Hotel Metropole in Lland- 
rindod Wells in mid- Wales you'll discover a 
country of unparalleled scenery, steeped in 
history and filled with lyrical voices. Day 
trips to Snowdonia, Bodnant Gardens, 
Caernarfon, Caerphilly and Powys castles 
will complement talks by Michael Moses 
of Duke's English Department. 

Historic Montreal & Quebec City Treasures of the Seine 


Join us for a taste of Europe with- 
out crossing the Atlantic as you 
explore Old World Quebec and 
cosmopolitan Montreal. Participants will 
have the rare opportunity for a private view- 
ing of From Renoir to Picasso, a collection 
of 81 masterpieces from Paris, appearing 
only in Montreal and Fort Worth. 

The Hidden Treasures 
of Northern Italy's Po River 

You'll begin with three days in Florence, 
amongst the treasures of the Italian 
Renaissance, followed by a cruise on 
Italy's scenic Po River, stopping in towns 
rich in history and culture. Finally, two 
days in remarkable Venice. 

The Oxford Experience 



This two-week program 
is designed to immerse you 
in centuries-old traditions of ^t\ ™ 
learning and community. In 
small groups lead by Oxford faculty, 
you'll learn, explore the English country- 
side and visit fascinating landmarks. 

After exploring London, journey across 
the Channel for a cruise along the 
world's most romantic river, stopping to 
explore impressionistic villages and 
ancient architecture, including 
Honfleur, Caudebec and Rouen. Your 
last two nights will be in Paris. 

Alumni College in Sorrento 

China & the Yangtse River 

On this exclusive Duke tour, experience 
some of China's most beautiful cities and 
towns, cruise down the lovely Yangtse 
River, and appreciate China's past and 
present through immersion in her unique 
culture. This will be a trip to remember! 

This new Alumni College will 
take you to southern Italy's 
province of Campania, full of 
scenic delights and pathways to 
antiquity. From your base in the gar- 
den town of Sorrento, you'll venture to 
Naples, the Amalfi Coast and the Isle of 
Capri, marveling at the natural wonders 
of this region. 

Egyptian Odyssey to the Upper Nile 

As you travel across the sands of 
time you'll enjoy vintage palace 
hotels in Cairo, Luxor, and Aswan, and 
then board the M.S. Kasr Ibrim for glo- 
rious days among the 
monuments of the 
Upper Nile. A 
cruise of Lake 
Nasser will provide 
access to rarely 
seen Nubian sites 
before you return to 
Cairo for the final 
days of this adventure. 

Visit us on the web at: www.dukealumni.coin 



For detailed brochures, please mail or fax this form to: Duke Educational Adventures, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 27708. Fax: 919-684-6022 

□ Alumni College in Greece 

□ Exploring the Art & Culture of 

□ The Romantic River Route 

□ Kenya Safari 

□ Sailing the Great Lakes 

□ Discovering Eastern Germany 

□ Village Life in Wales 

□ Historic Montreal & Quebec City 

□ The Hidden Treasures of Northern 
Italy's Po River 

□ The Oxford Experience 

□ China & the Yangtse River 

□ Treasures of the Seine 

□ Village Life in Sorrento 

□ Egyptian Odyssey to the Upper Nile 

□ You Are What You Eat: A Guide to 
Diets, Herbs & Supplements 

□ Exploring NC's Outer Banks 

□ Summer Academy 
□ Summer Session 

□ Summer Youth Camps 

□ The Panama Canal & the Treasures 
of Costa Rica 

□ Among the Great Whales 

□ Village Life in the Italian 

□ Alumni College in Provence 

□ Village Life in Ireland 

A Life Income 

Making Your 
Reunion Count 

More than 350 alumni 

receive a life income from 

their gifts to Duke. 

As your reunion rapidly 

approaches, please reflect 

upon the role a Duke 

education has 

played in your life. 

A life income gift is a 

wonderful way to 

commemorate your 

upcoming reunion, and 

it can be included 

as part of your class 

reunion gift. 

Please allow us 

to provide you with 

additional information: 

Duke University 

Office of Planned Giving 

Box 90606 

2127 Campus Drive 

Durham, NC 27708-0606 

919-681-0464 (Phone) 
919-684-9731 (Fax) (Email) (Web) 

eg" Davis M.TS. '89, who 
earned an M.Ed, at the University of Virginia, is grants 
manager at Louishurg College in Louisburg, N.C. 

Luciana Inge Marcial-Vincion '89 earned her 
master's in physiology at the University of Florida in 
1996. She and her husband, Chris, live in Key West, Fla. 

Jason Rosenfield '89, a visiting assistant professor 
of art history at Assumption College in Worcester, Mass., 
received his Ph.D. in art history at the Institute of Fine 
Arts at New York University in September. He and his 
wife, Karen Gottlieb '89, live in New York City. 

Paul D. Seeman '89, a Navy lieutenant commander, 
is on duty at the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery in 
Washington, D.C 

MARRIAGES: Martee Leigh Hensley '85, M.D. 
'89 to Ted Szatrowski on June 5. Residence: Man- 
hattan... James Robert Koepke '87 to Jordan 
Friel on Oct. 3, 1999. Residence: Warrenton, Va. . .. 
Jennifer Zeidman '89 to Gene Bloch on Oct. 23. 
Residence: New York City. 

BIRTHS: First child and son to Bruce < 
Almquist '83 and Angela Almquist on June 10, 1998. 
Named Gunnar Christian... Fourth child and third 
daughter to Robert Sanger Jacobs '84 and Amy 
Jacobs on June 30. Named Audrey Sanger. . .Third 
child and first daughter to Thomas J. Gorman J.D. 
'85 and Nannette Gorman on June 5. Named Carolina 
Marie... Fourth son to John DeMatteo II B.S.E. '86 
and Kristine Gonzalez DeMatteo '87 on June 5. 
Named John Henry. . .First child to Jessica Serell 
Erenbaum '86 and Larry Erenbaum on Aug. 5. 
Named Rebecca Taylor. . .Second son to Michael 
Wayne Junkin '87 and Carolyn Middleton 
Plump '88 on April 28, 1999. Named Dylan Michael 
Junkin. . .Second son to Ann Palmer Kendall '87, 
B.H.S. '89, M.H.S. '94 and Michael William 
Kendall '88 on May 28, 1999. Named Ryan 
William... Second child and first son to Carol L. 
Smith '87 and Richard C. Moore on July 12. Named 
Benjamin Carvel Moore. . .Second son to Brian H. 
Whipple '87, M.B.A. '92 and Julie K. Whipple on 
Oct. 7. Named Wade Harrison. . . Third child and first 
son to Mary Bodden Daly '88 and John J. Daly 
Jr. '88 on Aug. 27. Named John Patrick. . .Third child 
and second daughter to Jeffrey Steven Hersh '88 
and Lora Berten Hersh '91 on March 25, 1999. 
Named Casey Ella. . .First child and son to Kathleen 
"Kate" Boyle Hopkins '88 and Case Dickson 
Hopkins III on Aug. 15. Named Matthew Case. . . 
Second son to Michael William Kendall '88 and 
Ann Palmer Kendall '87, B.H.S. '89, M.H.S. '94 
on May 28, 1999. Named Ryan William. . .Fourth child 
and first son to Martha Schauer Klinker J.D. '88 
and Mike Klinker on Aug. 17. Named Philip 
Michael. . .Second son to Carolyn Middleton 
Plump '88 and Michael Wayne Junkin '87 on 
April 28, 1999. Named Dylan Michael Junkin. . . 
Second child and first son to Karen Rosner 
Shapiro '88 and Timothy Shapiro on Jan. 21, 1999. 
Named Jordan Matthew... A son to I 
'89 and Mark Harkins on Aug. 25. Named Micah 
Trivers Harkins. 

Keir J. Beadling '90, an attorney, works for the 
litigation group Fenwick & West in Palo Alto, Calif. He 
and his wife, attorney Hilary Pierce, live in San Francisco. 

Geoffrey D. Dabelko '90 directs the Environmental 
Change and Security Project at the Woodrow Wilson 
International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. 
He and his wife, Kirsten, and their daughter live in 
Greenbelt, Md. 

Tod Christopher Hall '90, M.E.M. '95, an aquatic 
ecologist and Geographic Information Systems specialist 
with Patterson, Britton & Partners, is pursuing his 
Ph.D. at the University of Western Sydney. He and his 
partner, Craig Anderson, live in Sydney, Australia. 

Sally J. McDonald J.D. '90 practices labor and 
employment law and serves as the hiring partner at 
the Chicago office of Piper Marbury Rudnick & Wolfe. 
She and her husband, Rich Levin, and their son live 
in Chicago. 

Christopher C. Finger '91, who earned his 
Ph.D. in applied mathematics at Princeton University 
in 1996, is a partner in the RiskMetrics Group, a 
financial risk-management software firm that spun off 
from JP Morgan in 1998. He and his wife, Paige, live 
in Brooklyn. 

David Hackett '9 1 joined the Philadelphia law 
firm Saul, Ewing, Remick & Saul as an associate in the 
labor and employment department. He and his wife, 
Susan, live in Swarthmore, Pa. 

Sue Fisher Heilbronner M.PP '91, J.D. '91 writes 
that she "launched a new e-commerce venture selling 
cute, quality infant apparel for 'y2tots' and 'millennium 
moms.' The website is 

Kirsten Tucker Hohman '91 and her husband, 

Tim S. Hohman '91, both earned theirM.BA.. 
degrees at Georgetown University in December. She is 
a vice president of institutional equities at Deutsche 
Banc Alex. Brown in Baltimore and he is the govern- 
ment sales manager for Ariba, Inc. in Vienna, Va. They 
live in Bethesda, Md. 

W. Stacy Rhodes A.M. '91 is director of the U.S. 
Agency for the International Development Mission to 
South Africa. In June, he was an international election 
observer, along with USAID South Africa mission 
municipal finance adviser Russell W. Hawkins 
Jr. M.F. '78, for the presidential elections there. 

Paul T. Sweeney M.B.A. '91 is a director and senior 
research analyst in the equity research department of 
Salomon Smith Barney in New York. He and his wife, 
Karen, have three children and live in Summit, N.J. 

Christopher D. Horvath Ph.D. '92 was awarded 
tenure and promoted to associate professor of philosophy 
and biological sciences at Illinois State University in 
Normal, 111. 

Jason E. "Jake" Myers '92, who is a manager 
wiili (in. N'oirh Highland l ', ... a management and 
technology consulting firm, is pursuing his M.B.A. at 
Vanderbilt University's Owen School of Management. 
His wife, Jennifer Braden Myers '92, is completing 
her pediatric residency at Vanderbilt Children's 
Hospital. The couple lives in Nashville, Tenn. 

William Morgan "Trey" Pruitt III '92, who 
earned his M.B.A. at Stanford University's Graduate 
School of Business and his master's at Stanford's 
School of Education, is product manager for the 
Internet-based training company Docent. He and his 
wife, Suzanne, hiked the 212-mile John Muir trail in 
California in July. They live in Palo Alto, Calif. 

'93, who earned her Ph.D. 
in child clinical psychology at Pennsylvania State 
University in August, is a post-doctoral fellow at the 
University of California, Los Angeles. She and her 
husband, Deane, live in Los Angeles. 

Stephen I. Sgan '93 is a third-year medical resident 
in pathology at Emory University. He and his wife, 
Megan Elizabeth Fergus, live in Decatur, Ga. 

Brian C. Walsh '93 and his wife, Nancy . 
Walsh '93, both earned their law degrees at Harvard 
University in 1996. He practices bankruptcy law and 
commercial litigation at King & Spalding and she is a 


real estate attorney with Powell, Goldstein, Frazer & 
Murphy. They live in Atlanta. 

H. Lee Cheek Jr. M.Div. '94, a professor of political 
science and philosophy at Brewton-Parker College in 
Mt. Vernon, Ga., was named director of institutional 
research at the college. His wife, Kathy, is the college's 
theater director. 


John P. Cleveland M.T.S. '94 is pursuing his Ph.D. 
in the philosophy department at the New School for 
Social Research in New York City. He lives at the 
House in Manhattan. 

Graduating with 
a major in en- 
gineering is, as 
most past and present 
students will readily 
admit, a considerable 
challenge. For female 
students, however, the 
challenge seems to be 
even greater. National 
statistics show that 
fewer than one of 
every five engineering 
majors is a woman. 

Suzanne Franks 
Ph.D. '91 overcame the 
significant obstacles en 
route to her doctorate 
in biomedical engineer- 
ing. But she remem- 
bers the difficult years 
of graduate study as 
"not at all pleasant." 

Despite some nega- 
tive experiences, Franks 
has arrived at a positive 
outlook. After working 
as a researcher at cancer 
institutes in both Ger- 
many and the United 
States, she joined the 
pharmaceutical industry 
in 1997, including stints 
as both manager and 
medical writer with 
different companies. 

During those days, 
she used to jokingly tell 
her friends, "I just want 
to find a college of 
engineering where I 
can tell them, 'this is 
what you need to do.' " 
Consequently, when 
she was offered the 
position as director of 
the Women and En- 
gineering Science Pro- 
gram at Kansas State 
University, she enthusi- 
astically accepted. 

Trying to combat the 
disproportionate domi- 
nation of men in the 
sciences — especially in 
the engineering sciences 
— Franks divides her 
main tasks into two 
areas: recruitment and 
retention. One difficulty 
in recruiting women, 
she says, is the low pro- 
file of engineering jobs 

is much higher 
than that of their male 
counterparts, meaning, 
says Franks, "we're 
not doing a good job 
keeping the women 
that show up on our 

To that end, she is 
initiating a pilot peer- 
mentoring program for 
undergraduate stu- 
dents. Beginning next 
fall, first-year women 
will be paired with 
junior and senior 
women within their 
major, so the older stu- 
dents can help their 
younger partners adjust 

Deirdre Delisi '94 is policy adviser on international 
trade and transportation issues for the George W. Bush 
for President Campaign in Austin, Texas. 


in society. "As far as the 
public perception of 
engineers, it's not even 
distorted — it's non- 
existent." So she aims 
to "reach all the way 
down to the middle- 
school level. It's too 
late to wait until some- 
one's junior or senior 
year in high school." 

Recruitment at the 
lower level focuses on 
encouraging girls to re- 
main interested in the 
sciences by informing 
them about the wide- 
ranging academic and 
career options available 
— particularly through 
advanced science and 
mathematics courses. 
Studies show that, after 
the eighth grade, a 
large number of girls 
stop taking the science 
and math classes neces- 
sary for later success in 
the sciences. This sig- 
nificant drop-off, 
Franks says, might be 
avoided if the students 
understand that they 
can open future doors 
for themselves by stick- 
ing with the sciences. 

But without effective 
means of retaining 
students, recruitment 
efforts will prove insuf- 
ficient. The attrition 
rate for women in 

to the expectations of 
the curriculum and the 
life of an engineering 
student. Franks says 
she hopes that the fresh- 
men will eventually 
stay with it through 
their sophomore year. 
This type of program, 
which Franks says has 
been shown to be ex- 
tremely effective, is de- 
signed "to build a better 

my oudook in both 
positive and negative 
ways." One of the posi- 
tives was the course 
"Science and Feminism: 
Truth, Objectivity, and 
Knowledge," which she 
team-taught on the way 
to earning a graduate 
certificate in Women's 
Studies in 1990. 

While that course was 
more concerned with 

Franks: encouraging careers for young women 

in the science:; 

picture in the students' 
heads of the career 
they're training for." 

She is also working 
on what she calls an 
"electronic mentoring" 
program for upperclass 
students, in which, via 
websites like MentorNet 
and the Women in 
Engineering Programs 
and Advocate Network 
(, stu- 
dents can be paired 
with professional scien- 
tists and engineers 
working in industry. 

Reflecting on her 
own academic experi- 
ence, Franks says, "My 
time at Duke shaped 

theory, she says it shar- 
pened her thinking 
about curricular changes 
that can aid in the reten- 
tion of women students. 
Now she is fostering 
the idea of an introduc- 
tory course in the engi- 
neering sciences — a 
practical course de- 
signed not just to present 
factual material, but, 
by investigating the 
role of women in soci- 
ety and in the sciences 
particularly, "to help 
female students feel 
connected to their pro- 
spective profession." 

- Scott Meisler '00 

L. Horton '94, who earned his M.D. at the 
University of Buffalo School ot Medicine in May, is a 
resident in pediatrics at the University of Virginia 
Children's Medical Center in Charlottesville, Va. 

hr Hyde '94 is a medical student at 
Stanford University. She and her hushand, Peter, a 
Stanford graduate student, live in Palo Alto, Calif. 

Lara Benton Little '94, who received her M.L.S. 
at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro in 
December 1998, is the reference librarian at Pfeiffer 
College. She lives in Concord, N.C 

David Marks '94 is an associate specializing in 
telecommunications law at the firm Dow, Loonis and 
Albertson in Washington, D.C. 

Richard Spencer Renf row MBA. '94 joined 
Centura Bank in Wilson, N.C, as a financial services 
officer, responsible for commercial lending. 

Stacie I. Strong J.D. '94 won a place on the 
Cambridge University Women's Rowing Boat Club 
development squad, which competed at the Great 
Britain National Rowing Championships in Notting- 
ham and beat the Oxford University squad. Last fall, 
she declined an invitation to continue with the squad 
to devote her time to pursuing a Ph.D. in law. 

Christina H. Wang '94 is a counselor at law with the 
firm Porzio, Bromberg & Newman in Morristown, N.J. 

Scott G. Womack '94, who earned his M.D. at the 
Medical College of Virginia in May 1999, is an intern 
in internal medicine at the University of Texas, Health 
Science Center in Houston. 

Elizabeth M. Byron '95, who earned her master's 
in anthropology from the University of Florida in May 
1999, is currently living with the Tsamine' ethnic group 
in the Bolivian Amazon region doing fieldwork for her 
Ph.D. on health and illness. 

Ehrlich '95, who earned his M.D. at 
the State University of New York at Buffalo, is an intern 
at the Alton Oschner Medical Foundation in New 
Orleans. He plans to complete a residency in ophthal- 
mology at Louisiana State University in New Orleans. 

Jonathan Andrew Hudson '95 is a software 
engineer with Nortel Networks in the Research 
Triangle Park, as well as a journals marketing associate 
with Oxford University Press. He and his wife, 
Patricia Bowers Hudson '95, live in Durham. 

Rachel Luther '95 was promoted to manager in 
Ernst & Young consulting services. She is pursuing her 
M.B.A. at Duke's Fuqua School of Business. 

Matthew A. Ritchie M.Div. '95, a minister, is the 
senior development analyst for the International 
Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention. 
He lives in Richmond, Va. 

Jon Rosenwasser M.RE '95, who spent the last 
four years with the Democratic staff of the Senate 
Budget Committee, currently sits on the Council on 
Foreign Relations as an International Affairs Fellow. 
He will oversee a research project on the politics of the 
U.S. defense budget debate. 

Polly Parker Yeargan '95 was named market analyst 
for new business development at Envision, a Los 
Angeles company that provides clients with marketing 
advice in the areas of sports and entertainment. 

David Stephen Baxter '96, who earned his J.D. at 
Harvard University's law school in June, is an associate 
at the law firm Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts 
in New York City. 

William A. Boiler III B.S.E. '96 completed the Navy 
nuclear power training unit course at Naval Nuclear 
Training Command in Goose Creek, S.C., earning the 
designation of nuclear propulsion plant operator. 

March -April 2000 

I '96, who earned her J.D. at 
Georgetown University, is an associate in the real estate 
department of the Philadelphia law firm Schnader 
Harrison Segal & Lewis. 

Matthew Sample '96, a financial adviser for Paine - 
Webber in Northbrook, 111., is the vice president and 
youngest member ot the Northbrook Civic Association. 

Amy Schramm '96, who earned her law degree 
at the Columbia Law School, is an associate in the 
litigation department at Willkie Farr &. Gallagher in 
New York City. 

Lyndon K. Allin II '97, who will receive his master's 
at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service 
in May 2000, spent last winter visiting Adam Mezan 
'98 in Novosibirsk, Russia, and the following summer 
studying Romanian in Chisinau, Moldova. 

M.B.A. '97, Ford Europe's 
executive director of marketing since 1997, was named 
managing director of Jaguar. He will be in charge of the 
launch of the company's next new model, the X400 
saloon. He lives in Coventry, England. 
•Catherine Robinson '97 lives in Santiago, Chile, 
and works for Pacific Strategies, based in Menlo Park, 
Calif. In her job, she travels throughout Latin America. 
Elizabeth Greer Debruyn Weight M.E.M. '97 
has been appointed by Concern Worldwide as adviser 
to their national forestry program in Cambodia. Her 
organization works for voluntary relief and development 
around the world. 

: Bethea '97 works for Philip 
Morris USA in Richmond. His wife, Shea West 
Bethea '97, is a graduate student at the Medical 
College of Virginia. They live in Richmond. 

IZ '98, a Navy ensign, 
completed the officer indoctrination course at the 
Naval Station in Newport, R.I. 
Hillary Hunt Holmes '98 represents Kappa Kappa 
Gamma as a traveling consultant, aiding chapters 
around the country in organization and programming. 
Jenna-Ruth McGuire '98, a Navy ensign, com- 

pleted a six-month deployment in the Arabian Gulf 
aboard the destroyer USS Kinkaid, based in San Diego. 
Richard V. Spataro '98, a Navy ensign and 1994 
Franklin Academy graduate, served aboard the cruiser 
USS VeUa Gulf, deployed from Norfolk, Va. 
Alex Anthony Apotsos B.S.E. '99 is a Peace Corps 
volunteer in Mali, West Africa, where he will work with 
his community to help manage their water resources. 
Joy Haslam Calico Ph.D. '99 is assistant professor 
of musicology at Illinois Wesleyan University in 
Bloomington, 111. 

Tara Kumar '99 was selected by the Congressional 
Hunger Center to participate in the Mickey Leland 
Hunger Fellows Program, which annually provides 
20 promising leaders with training and experience in 
fighting hunger. She lives in Columbus, Ga. 
Ashley Alexandra LaForge MEM. '99 is a 
Peace Corps volunteer in Tanzania working as an 
environmental education instructor at local schools 
and in the community. 






MARRIAGES: Elizabeth Anne Cohen '90 to 

Scott McEwan Bryant on Sept. 5. Residence: Rochester, 
NY. . Daniel Scott Feldstein '90 to Stacey 
Anne Marshall '90 on Nov. 13. Residence: Philade- 
lphia. . .Christopher C. Finger '91 to Paige Secrest 
on Dec. 31, 1998. Residence: Brooklyn... Eric W. 
Johnson '92 to Lisa Gagnon on Oct. 16. Residence: 
Glastonbury, Conn. . ..Nancy L. Johnson '93 to 
Brian C. Walsh '93 on Oct. 23. Residence: Atlanta. . . 
Stephen I. Sgan '93 to Megan Elizabeth Fergus on 
Sept. 25. Residence: Decatur, Ga. . .Julie Beth Wargo 
'93 to Deane Aikins on July 17. Residence: Los Angeles. . . 
Pritha Chitkara '94 to Jeff Browning in an Indian 
ceremony on June 25 and an American ceremony on 
June 26. Residence: Birmingham, Ala.... Jonathan 
Hull Fish '94 to Traci Lyn Karlstad '96 on Sept. 
25. Residence: Durham... Jennifer Mohr '94 to 
Peter Hyde on Aug. 21 . Residence: Palo Alto, Calif. . . . 
Mary Hannah Sumner '94 to Armistead Burwell 
on July 10. Residence: Atlanta... Shoshana L. 
Bucolz '95 to Victor S. Miller on May 30, 1999. 
Residence: London, England. . Traci Lyn Karlstad 
'96 to Jonathan Hull Fish '94 on Sept. 25. 
Residence: Durham. . .Elizabeth Orso M.B.A. '98 
to Gray Coulton on July 4. Residence: Atlanta. 

BIRTHS: A daughter to Geoffrey D. Dabelko '90 

and Kirsten la Cour Dabelko on Nov. 3. Named Sofie 
la Cour. . .Second son to Sally J. McDonald J.D. 
'90 and Rich Levin on Oct. 22. Named Kyle Van Kirk 
Levin. . .Third child and second daughter to Lora 
Berten Hersh '91 and Jeffrey Steven Hersh 
'88 on March 25, 1999. Named Casey Ella. . .First child 
and daughter to Kristen Tucker Hohman '91 
and Timothy S. Hohman '91 on Oct. 31. Named Kath- 
arine Grace. . .First child and daughter to Susan 
Thompson Washburn '91 and Frederick Wash- 
burn on Sept. 29. Named Lilley Stott. . .First child to 
Daniel Foy '93 and Robin Foy on Aug. 10. Named 
William Parker. 


Clarence "Curly" Lee Harris '28 of Greensboro, 
N.C., on July 12. He was a past manager of nine 
FW Woolworth stores in Virginia and North Carolina, 
including Greensboro, where he was one of the key 
figures in the 1960 lunch-counter sit-ins. When he 
yielded to pressure to integrate, he insisted his own 
employees be the first black patrons served at the 
counter, according to the Greensboro News & Record. 
He retired as manager in 1969. A member of the Lions 
Club, he received the Melvin Jones Fellow Award, its 
highest humanitarian honor. He is survived by four 
children, including Patricia H. Barr '63; a sister; 
four grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren. 

Laura Deaton Ratchford '28 of Durham, on June 
12. She is survived by a daughter, a son, and several 

Farley '30 of Greenville, N.C., on April 1, 
1999. He is survived by a granddaughter, Jane F. 

Clyde Allison Page Fowlkes '30 on Jan. 2, 
1999. She is survived by a son. 

Robert G. Hayes Jr. '31 of Concord, N.C., on 
Nov. 12, 1998. A football player at Duke, he coached 
at Rutherford College and was athletics director at the 
Blue Ridge School for Boys. He was a Navy veteran 
of World War II, retiring with the rank of lieutenant 
commander. He was on the board of directors of 
Cannon Mills Co., president of Central Motor Lines 
of Kannapolis and Charlotte, and president of Central 
Distributing Co. for Shell Oil. He was president and 
chief executive officer of Kannapolis Publishing Co., 

which produced The Daily Independent, and a past 
member of Duke's board of trustees. He and his wife, 
Mariam Cannon Hayes, were philanthropists, supporting 
the Edgar Tufts Memorial Association, a group of 
institutions in Banner Elk that includes Grandfather 
Home for Children; Lees-McRae College, where an 
auditorium is named in his honor; and Charles A. 
Cannon Jr. Memorial Hospital. The couple also sup- 
ported UNC-Charlotte in the construction of the J.H. 
Barnhardt Student Activities Center, named for the 
husband of his younger sister. The university's new 
multi-purpose playing fields were named in honor of 
Robert and Mariam Hayes. He is survived by his wife, 
Mariam; a son, Robert "Robin" C. Hayes '67, 
and daughter-in-law, Barbara Weiland Hayes 
'67; two grandchildren, including Winslow Ann 
Hayes '94; and a brother. 

Jeter S. Ray LL.B. '32 of Deltona, Fla., on April 
28, 1998. He was an associate solicitor for the U.S. 
Department of Labor during the administrations of 
presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt through Richard M. 
Nixon. He practiced law in his hometown of Newport, 
Tenn., and served one term as a Democratic represen- 
tative to the Tennessee state house before moving to 
Washington, D.C. He retired in 1973. He is survived by 
his wife, Reva; two sons, a daughter; three grandchil- 
dren, including Donald Jeffrey Ray '90; and two 

'33 of 

Cortez, Fla., on Aug. 8. At Duke, she was a member of 
Pi Beta Phi. She is survived by a son, two daughters, 
seven grandchildren, and 11 great-grandchildren. 

Edwin Hale Thornhill '34, M.D. '38 of Raleigh, 
on June 29. During World War II, he was a captain and 
physician with the Army Medical Corps in London. 
In 1946, he began a practice in Raleigh as a specialist 
in ear, eye, nose, and throat. He is survived by two 
daughters, a brother, and five grandchildren. 

•Sr. '37 of Bailey, N.C., 
on Dec. 16, 1998. At Duke, he was a Pi Kappa Phi. 
He is survived by a daughter, Lane Farmer 
Schroeder '61. 

Philip K. Roesch '37 of Westwood, N.J., on Dec. 9, 
1998. He is survived by a son, Jeff. 

'38 of York, 

Pa., on June 30. At Duke, she was a member of Phi 
Beta Kappa and Delta Delta Delta. She taught first 
and second grades in the York city schools from 1947 
to 1979. She is survived by a son, a daughter, four 
grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. 

Robert L. Steenrod '38 of Barrington, N.J., on Jan. 
31, 1999. 

John N. Manbeck '39 of Lewistown, N.C., on Feb. 
12, 1999. A Navy veteran of World War II, he worked 
for 37 years at FMC, retiring as director of industrial 
relations for the American viscose division in 1976. 
He was a former president of the Lewistown Lions 
Club and a past chair of the American Red Cross. 
He is survived by a companion, Sharen Sawver; two 
daughters, including Deborah M. Lothman '70; 
a brother; a half-sister; and three grandchildren, 
including Katherine Anne Lothman '00. 

Rapp A.M. '40, Ph.D. '44 of Canandaigua, 
N.Y., on July 9. A historian, he held faculty and adminis- 
trative positions at a variety of colleges, including the 
University of Buffalo, SUN Y- Albany, and Nassau 
Community College, where he was a vice president, 
executive dean, and history professor. He helped start 
13 community colleges in New York and served as 
president of Onondaga Community College in Syra- 
cuse and the College of New Jersey. He had been 
Ontario County historian and the Canandaigua city 
historian. In 1998, he received the Foundation Award 

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March -April 2000 

A Charitable 

The Gift 
That Pays 

In exchange for a gift of 
$10,000 or more, Duke can 
offer you (or you and another 
named beneficiary) a fixed 
annual income for life. 

Your ages, your financial 
needs, and current interest 
rates determine the annuity 
rate Duke can offer. 




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Annuity rates are subject to 
change. Once your gift is made, 
the annuity rate remains fixed. 

Please allow us to send you 
a proposal by contacting: 

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Office of Planned Giving 

Box 90606 

2127 Campus Drive 

Durham, NC 27708-0606 

919-681-0464 (Phone) 
919-684-9731 (Fax) (Email) (Web) 

for contributions to higher education from Finger 
Lakes Community College. In 1999, he received the 
E.J. Winslow Local Government Historians' Award 
from New York's state historian for his three -volume 
video program "Chronicles of Ontario County. " He 
is survived by his wife, Margaret, seven children, a 
sister, and several grandchildren. 

Henry H. Russell Jr. '40 of South Miami-Dade, Fla., 
from complications of Alzheimer's disease. A real estate 
developer for more than 30 years in South Florida, he 
served on the executive board of the U.S. Golf Associa- 
tion and had chaired its greens committee. He is survived 
by his wife, Cynthia; three sons; and a granddaughter. 

Claiborne Young Stone '40 of Durham, on July 
23. An Army veteran of World War II, he was an 
operations supervisor with the Social Security Admin- 
istration until retiring. He is survived by two nieces. 

Bertha Toppin Schenley Thomas '40 of 

Atlantic City, N.J., on July 12. She was a former school 
teacher and vice president of Burkard Coal Co., a family 
business. She was a founding member of the Atlantic 
Performing Arts Center. She is survived by a stepson, 
two granddaughters, and a great-granddaughter. 

Jr. Ph.D. '41 of 
Ridge Spring, S.C., on July 30. He was an Air Force his- 
torian at Warner Robins Air Force Base. He is survived 
by his wife, Harriet; a daughter; a stepson; two sisters; 
five grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren. 

B.S.N./R.N. '41 of Charlotte, N.C., 
on May 16, 1999. A physician, she earned her M.D. at 
Wake Forest University's Bowman Gray medical school 
and served during World War II in the Army's 65th 
hospital unit in England. She was a staff physician at 
Black Mountain Sanatorium and retired from the . 
Black Mountain Center. She is survived by a son and 
two granddaughters. 

Betty Jenkins Hutchison '43 of Charlotte, N.C., 
on July 13. She was an administrative associate with 
the Presbyterian Association for nearly 30 years. She is 
survived by a niece and two nephews. 

Arthur Kenneth Saz Ph.D. '43 of Bethesda, Md., 
on Nov. 17, 1998. He was a professor and chairman 
emeritus of microbiology at Georgetown University 
Medical and Dental School and a leading authority in 
the field of antibiotic resistance research. He had been 
chief of the section on medical and physiological 
bacteriology in the infectious diseases laboratory of the 
National Institutes of Health. He is survived by his 
wife, Ruth; a daughter; a sister; and a brother. 

Terrell Smith Vick '43 of Richmond, Va., on Jan. 
25, 1999. At Duke, she was a member of Alpha Delta 
Pi. She had been a claims adjuster with Liberty Mutual 
and was a retired school teacher in the Henrico 
County school system. She is survived by her husband, 
Alfred; a daughter; a sister; and three grandchildren. 

Lome S. MacDonald '44 of Grosse Pointe, Mich., 
on Feb. 24, 1999. He is survived by his wife, Edna; and 
two brothers, Kenneth C. MacDonald '46 and 
Weldon B. MacDonald 50. 

Naldi Poe Klein '46 of Annapolis, Md., on July 4. 

Edythe Cannady Mims '46 of Thomas ville, Ga., 
on April 25, 1999. She is survived by her husband, 
Oscar M. Mims M.D. 45. 

Margaret Elaine Wiland Stoops R.N. '47 of 
Cary, N.C., on Aug. 20. She founded a nonprofit home- 
maker health agency that provided aides to work with 
seniors living alone so they could avoid having to go to 
nursing homes. After having served as an aide to her 
district's U.S. representative, she was appointed in 1985 
by Gov. Jim Martin as director of the N.C. Division of 
Aging. She retired in 1991. She received the Raleigh 
Jaycees Distinguished Service Award for her volunteer 

work. She was a past president of the Western Wake 
Senior Center in Cary and a charter president for the 
resident's council at Windsor Point, where she lived. 
She is survived by a son, two step-sons, two daughters, 
12 grandchildren, and 11 great-grandchildren. 

Annie Irene Card well M.Ed. '48 of Roanoke, Va. 

C. Clark '48 of Lenoir, N.C, on May 8, 
1999. An Air Force veteran of World War II, he 
worked for Electrak Inc. and retired as its corporate 
controller. He was the first director of the Small 
Business Center at Caldwell Community College and 
Technical Institute. He is survived by his wife, Betty Jo; 
two sons; a daughter; and eight grandchildren. 

Joseph T. Lawless III B.S.E.E. '48 of Norfolk, 
Va., on Aug. 7. He served in the Navy Reserve until 
retiring in 1974 as a commander. He began working for 
the Army Corps of Engineers in 1949, where he was 
chief of dams and reservoirs and later chief of construc- 
tion and operations at Fort Norfolk, retiring in 1988. In 
1991, he was placed in the Fort Norfolk Gallery of 
Distinguished Engineers. He was a past president and 
treasurer of the board of directors of the James Barry 
Robinson Home. He is survived by his wife, Katharine; 
two sons; three brothers; and a sister. 

Edward M. Cavanaugh '51 of Vero Beach, Fla., on 
March 22, 1999. He was a Navy veteran of the Korean 
War. He had retired as football coach from the University 
of Rhode Island. He had been an assistant coach for 
Kansas State, Arizona, Utah State, the University of 
Miami, and the NFLs Buffalo Bills. He was a former 
head coach at Idaho State and the U.S. Military Academy 
at West Point, as well as a scout for the U.S. Football 
League. He is survived by his wife, Mary, and a sister. 

Raymond E. ConoverM.D '51 of Glen Ridge, 
N.J., on May 7, 1999. He is survived by his wife, Hana, 
and a daughter. 

Bobby F. Holland '51 of Wilmington, N.C, on 
Dec. 15. He is survived by a niece. 

Lucia Jenkins MacDonald R.N. '51 of Clinton, 

George Richard Morrow LL.B. '51 of Forest City, 
N.C, on June 13. 

D.C. "Jack" Nunn '51 of Marietta, Ga., on May 4, 

1999. At Duke, he was a member of Alpha Tau Omega. 
An Army veteran of the Korean War, he had retired 
from DeKalb Office Equipment Co. He was a past 
president of the Cobb County Genealogical Society 
and the Cheatham Hill Community Club, and a former 
district governor of the National Office Products 
Association. He is survived by his wife, Mary Ella; a 
daughter; his mother; and two grandchildren. 

Patricia Mackie Rockwood '53 of Savannah, 
Ga., on Jan. 1, 1999. At Duke, she was a member of 
Delta Delta Delta and Phi Beta Kappa. She later 
earned a registered nursing degree at Georgia State 
University and worked as a head nurse at Piedmont 
Hospital in Atlanta. She served on the women's board 
of directors of Bethesda Home for Boys and as a docent 
for the Green-Meldrim House. She is survived by her 
husband, John Rockwood Jr. '53; two daughters; 
and a grandson. 

James Warren Walker LL.B. 53 of Lake Ariel, 
Pa., on March 18, 1999. 

Albert Ray Knotts Jr. M.Div. '55 of Blackstone, 
Va., on June 28. He was a retired United Methodist 
minister who had served churches in the Richmond, 
Petersburg, Farmville, Roanoke, Danville, and 
Winchester districts. He is survived by his wife, Mable; 
three sons; eight grandchildren; a great-grandchild; 
and two sisters. 

E. Linthicum '55 of High Point, N.C, on 





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An Introduction Nttwak 

March -April 2000 35 

March 22, 1999. He is survived by his wife, Ann; and a 
sister, Joyce Linthicum Fox '51. 
Robert Lee Williamson '55 of Durham, on July 
10. An Army veteran, he worked for the Social 
Security Administration and was an accountant-for 
Hall-Wynne and Griffin, funeral homes in Durham 
and Pittsboro. He is survived by his wife, Betty; two 
sons; a daughter; and six grandchildren. 
Gertrude E. Wodock B.S.N.Ed. '55 of Lancaster, 
Pa., on May 31, 1999. 

Anne Marie Bryan M.A.T. '56 of Durham, N.C., 
on July 12. An associate professor emeritus of French at 
Duke, she had received a law degree from the Univer- 
sity of Paris, France. She is survived by a daughter and 
two grandchildren. 

Barbara Freeman Erlenbach '56ofMebane, 
N.C., on Oct. 18. A past president of the Margaret 
Brawley Club in Durham, she was a National Flower 
Show judge. She was a member of Daughters of the 
American Revolution, Alpha Psi sorority, and several 
quilting groups. She is survived by her husband, 
Philip E. Erlenbach '56; a daughter, Wendy 
Erlenbach Ransbury '85; two sons; and four 

David M. Bercaw A.M. '59 of Albuquerque, N.M., 
on May 5, 1999. He is survived by his wife, Sue 
Clark Bercaw M.Ed. '62. 

David L. Jordan '59 of Richmond, Va. 
Carolyn Barrington Grubbs MAT. '61 of 
Raleigh, N.C., in April 1999. 
William Kemp Strother III M.D. 62 of Dallas, 
Texas, on May 25, 1999, of a brain tumor. He had a pri- 
vate practice for 29 years and was vice chairman of the 
department of obstetrics and gynecology at Baylor 

University Medical Center from 1994 through 1998. 
He is survived by his wife, Carole, and two daughters. 

G. Thomas Pratt Jr. '67 of Los Angeles, on May 
9, 1999, of leukemia. At Duke, he was a member of 
Beta Theta Pi. He was an Army veteran of the Viet- 
nam War. He was vice president of Windward Capital 
Management Co. He is survived by his wife, Grace; 
and two sons. 

Elisabeth Saranec Petersen J.D. 72 of Chapel 
Hill, on July 26, of complications from lymphoma. She 
was a past president of the Durham Bar Association, a 
Middle District bankruptcy trustee, and a member of 
the board of the National Association of Bankruptcy 
Trustees. She is survived by two daughters, her mother, 
a sister, and a brother. 

James T. Cram B.H.S. 75 of Asheville, N.C., 
on July 11. He is survived by his wife, Margaret; and 
two sons. 

Stephen Paul Hondzinski 75 of New Britain, 
Conn., on July 16. He earned a law degree at Western 
New England College. In 1979, he was appointed to 
the State Board of Education. He is survived by a 

Kenneth "Robbie" Moore Jr. M.Div. 75 of 
Charlotte, N.C., on July 4. He is survived by his wife, 
Carole; and his parents. 

David Burton Patton 78 of Holden Beach, N.C., 
on Aug. 27. He was self-employed. He is survived by 
his wife, Linda Rehr Patton 77; and a brother. 

sa" Allan Smith '87 of Annapolis, 
Md., on June 18, of complications from a bone -marrow 
transplant for Hodgkin's disease. She had worked 
with the American Field Sen-ice, an international 
exchange student organization in New York, and in 

the Maryland State House. She is survived by her 
husband, Andrew; a son; a daughter; her parents; 
and three brothers. 

Jan Lynette White M.Div. '89 of Granbury, Texas, 
on June 11. She was a United Methodist minister at 
St. Paul United Methodist Church in Cleburne and 
the Blum United Methodist Church. She is survived 
by her mother and two brothers. 

Admissions Director Persons 

The director of admissions for the Woman's College 
at Duke from 1945 to 1971, Elizabeth Anderson 
Persons '22, A.M. 78, died July 8 at her Durham 
home. She was 97. 

She taught English at Carr Junior High School in 
Durham while earning her master's in history. After a 
fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania, she 
returned to Duke as a house counselor at the Woman's 
College. She became assistant dean of the Woman's 
College, dean of freshmen, and then director of 
admissions for the Woman's College. Trinity College 
and the Woman's College merged in 1972. 

She is survived by her husband, Walter Scott 
"Jack" Persons Jr. '32, a former swimming and 
lacrosse coach and physical education professor; a son, 
Walter S. Persons III '67; a grandson; and 
nephews W. Banks Anderson (Housestaff'57, 
'62), E. Everett Anderson MD. '58, Charles A. 
Anderson '68, and W. Holt Anderson II '67. 
Math Professor Carlitz 
The James B. Duke Professor of Mathematics from 
1932 to 1977, Leonard Carlitz, died in Pittsburgh on 
September 17. He was 92. 

His 770 publications on number theory and 
related topics appeared in 110 different professional 

He is survived by two sons and two granddaughters. 


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It was early August, yet I could see 
my breath in the air. Chill winds 
blasted from the north and, at 
night, frigid fog crept in from the 
polar ice that lay offshore. No won- 
der the vegetation huddles low to 
the ground here, afraid to stick its 
neck out into some of the most 
severe weather on Earth. Even the bright pur- 
ple fireweed, standing several feet tall a few 
hundred miles to the south, lies low. 

An unusual place, it would seem, to look 
for dinosaurs. 

For all of Alaska's mountain majesty and 
thundering glaciers, the state's vast North 
Slope struck me immediately as a strangely 
subdued place, akin to the wide plains of 
Wyoming, where I live and work as a newspa- 







per reporter. In truth, it's barely a slope at 
all — instead, it's a broad, flat apron, stretch- 
ing north from the Brooks Range hundreds of 
miles to the Arctic Ocean. It's larger than 
some eastern states, though, of course, it has 
far fewer people. Lakes and rivers held at the 
surface by permafrost only a few feet below 
keep it deep green, and the only topographic 
features are occasional ice blisters known as 
pingoes and the high bluffs along the Colville 
River, the North Slope's main drainage. 

In July and August, I spent two weeks 
camped out on the Colville, writing real-time 
stories for Discovery Channel Online about a 
dinosaur dig led by the University of Alaska 
on what is truly the last frontier for dinosaurs, 
science, and people. During the day I dug 
dinosaurs, and at night, under the dim mid- 

March -April 2000 37 

night sun, I huddled inside my tent, typing on 
a solar-powered laptop computer and beam- 
ing stories and digital photographs to Wash- 
ington, D.C., via satellite phone. What had 
struck me first as a barren landscape, devoid 
of both color and life, grew during those two 
grueling weeks into a wondrous place full of 
as much character, mystery, and intrigue as 
the grand creatures that roamed it during the 
Late Cretaceous, the twilight of the dinosaur 
era about 67 million years ago. 












My Alaskan journey 
began with a flight 
to Fairbanks, home 
to the University of 
Alaska, deep in the 
heart of the state. 
Organizing our- 
selves and our bar- 
rels and boxes full of food and other supplies 
there, our party of about a dozen scientists 
and volunteers then drove north along the 
Alaskan oil pipeline, through the 
sky-scratching Brooks Range to 
the twin oil cities of Deadhorse 
and Prudhoe Bay, which are built 
almost entirely of squat, modular 
buildings that look as if they 
showed up temporarily but stayed 
forever. Thick, insulated doors 
resemble those on industrial-sized 
refrigerators and lock with the 
same heavy metal latches, though 
these are meant to keep the cold 
out, not in. 

A ponytailed bush pilot named 
Walt finally breezed in on "Alaska 
time" — seven hours late, but still 
welcome. As we loaded the black 
Cessna that digging crews know 
as "Darth Vader," we followed the 
golden rule of flying in Alaska: 
always pack your tent and sleep- 

ing bag first. If you crash on the tundra, you'll 
need them to survive. 

We taxied onto the runway and the control 
tower quickly gave the go-ahead, with a cau- 
tion: "Migratory waterfowl and caribou in the 
vicinity. " Taking off to the west, we headed 
for a gravel bar along the Colville River that 
University of California-Berkeley paleontolo- 
gists had years ago named Poverty Bar, be- 
cause it is barren of almost all resources 
except dust and mosquitoes. Even the few 
willows and purple fireweed that struggle to 
hold their place among the river-worn rocks 
of this wind-whipped bar seem like interlop- 
ers from another world. 

I first spotted Poverty Bar from the plane 
when I saw a couple of bright tents sliding 
beneath us, the first glint of color on an oth- 
erwise endless stretch of green tundra. Walt 
banked and set us down on what turned out 
to be a surprisingly smooth surface of hard- 
packed rocks. Storms in the Brooks Range 
had driven the river up quickly in the previ- 
ous days, flooding the bar and washing away 
a sturdy shelter digging teams had used to 
escape the rain and bugs. But the river had 
dropped by the time we arrived and caribou 
tracks dotted the fresh mud along shore. 

We would learn to curse this mud for grab- 
bing at our feet and clinging to our boots like 
cement as we trudged to the fossil quarries 
downriver each day. But the treks were well 

That dinosaurs reveled in such terrain — 
which would have been warmer at the time 
but still featuring long, chilly, and dark win- 
ters — says much about the creatures them- 
selves. It says they were not obsolete animals 
that simply wallowed in the swamps, living 
the easy life. Instead, they were bold, adapt- 
able, and intelligent animals that colonized 
even the far corners of the planet during their 
long reign on Earth — a reign that lasted 
many hundreds of times longer than ours has 
so far. 

Geologists searching for oil far above the 
Arctic Circle first came across dinosaur 
remains in the 1960s, but it took decades for 
anyone to realize what they were. Nobody ex- 
pected the ancient beasts so often depicted in 
tropical jungles to have lived so far north, and 
early collectors assumed the bones belonged 
to much more recently extinct mammoths or 
mastodons. It has become clear only during 
the last ten years that dinosaurs stomped 
across the North Slope — and in great abun- 
dance, judging by the number and diversity of 
chocolate-toned bones we found falling out 
of the bluffs along the Colville. The freezing 
and thawing of permafrost near the surface 
had broken up some of the remains, but others 
appeared as intact as the day the dinosaurs 
died, so smooth they glinted in the sunlight 
like burnished wood. 


If paleontologists I know 
could reach back in time to 
the age of the dinosaurs, the 
first thing they would probably 
do would be: Take a dinosaur's 

Very carefully, of course. 

There are three big dinosaur 
questions. Did they give rise to 
birds? (Almost certainly.) What 
killed them off? (A change in 
climate and perhaps a meteor.) 
Were they warm-blooded? This 
last one goes directly to the 
even bigger question of what 
kind of animals they were and 
how they lived. 

It's an important question for 
the same reasons that the differ- 
ences between us warm-bloods 
and cold-blooded lizards are 
important: We stick together in 
families, they don't; we give 
birth to live young, most of 
them don't; we breathe faster, 
and eat more; we're generally 
smarter (no offense, snakes); 
and thanks to our internal heat- 
ing systems, we can survive just 
about anywhere on Earth, while 
reptiles that depend on the sun 

A case in point: You don't 
find lizards or snakes in the 
Arctic. But you do find dino- 
saurs. This in itself suggests 
there was something markedly 
different between dinosaurs and 
modern reptiles. But what? 

Since there's no way to ship a 
thermometer through a time 
machine, paleontologists must 
look for other clues about the 
temperatures of dinosaur blood. 
They look, for instance, at 
dinosaurs' lack of nasal tur- 
binates, normally a sign of high 
breathing rates, high metabo- 
lism, and warm-bloodedness. 
We have nasal turbinates. So 
do birds. 

They look at the microscopic 
structure of dinosaur bone, 
which suggests high blood flow 
and warm blood. They also look 
at oxygen isotopes in dinosaur 
bone, which suggest that 
dinosaurs maintained fairly uni- 
form body temperatures, anoth- 
er hint of warm blood— or a 
possible byproduct of many 
dinosaurs' large size. 

And they look at dinosaur 
tracks, which in some cases 

show evidence that dinosaurs 
hunted in packs. Have you ever 
seen lizards hunt in packs? 

If the picture seems less than 
clear, it's because there really is 
no clear picture of whether 
dinosaurs were warm-blooded 
or cold-blooded. At least not 
yet. They seem to have behaved 
in many ways like warm-blood- 
ed animals. But they certainly 
were not just like us. Many 
paleontologists now believe 
they boasted some kind of inter- 
mediate metabolism that 
allowed them to lead active 
lives without the sophisticated 
infrastructure found in warm- 
blooded mammals today. 

Keep in mind that it would 
have been easier to stay warm 
during the dinosaur era, when 
Montana had the climate of pre- 
sent-day Louisiana. 

All this brings us to one obvi- 
ous but still remarkable conclu- 
sion: Next time you visit the 
museum, take a close look at 
the dinosaurs, because Earth 
has never seen anything like 
them before or since. 

— Michael MUstein '88 


worth it, because we were soon lying on the 
icy cold ground, scratching the bones of dino- 
saurs out of the earth that had entombed 
them for so many millions of years. We worked 
under the watchful eyes of Roland Gangloff, a 
University of Alaska paleontologist who has 
worked on the North Slope for about ten 
years and has learned to measure his success 
incrementally. The digging season lasts little 
more than a month or two in Alaska, so an 
excavation that in Montana might be done in 

amphibians in Alaska, both then and now. Or 
maybe they evolved some kind of insulation 
— feathers, perhaps? But an ultimate twist 
remains to puzzle scientists: If dinosaurs could 
survive the polar chill, why couldn't they sur- 
vive the cooler climate that would have fol- 
lowed the meteor impact blamed for doing 
the dinosaurs in? 

Perhaps bits and pieces of the answers will 
lie in bone beds along the Colville River. Ron 
Mancil, an Eskimo member of our digging team, 

The array of dinosaur bones and teeth we 
collected, along with footprints discovered 
farther up the Colville, prove to Gangloff and 
many of his fellow scientists that many of the 
dinosaurs originating in Asia, including the 
ceratopsians and forerunners of Tyrannosaurus 
rex, traveled across a land bridge, including 
what is now Alaska, into North America and 
then down into the Interior West, where they 
flourished. We owe the fantastic fossil beds of 
the American West, containing our precious 

a summer may take two or more years so much 
farther north. 

Most of the bones we found belonged to 
juvenile hadrosaurs, or duckbill dinosaurs simi- 
lar to those excavated in parts of Montana. 
That they were youngsters is very telling. It's 
unlikely that such young dinosaurs would 
have migrated long distances to escape the 
Alaskan winters, which were not nearly as 
harsh during the Late Cretaceous as now, but 
which still would have brought months of 
darkness, freezing temperatures, and snow. 
Something — perhaps a herd's attempt at 
crossing a rushing river — separated the weaker 
juveniles from the tougher adults and carried 
the youngsters to their death. We also found 
the still razor-sharp teeth of small predatory 
dinosaurs, which had probably gnawed on the 
remains of the unfortunate juvenile duckbills 
in what must have been a horrific scene of 
mass prehistoric death. 

The dig raises a larger question about find- 
ing young dinosaurs in Alaska. If they did not 
migrate south to bear young and likewise 
escape the polar weather of their times, then 
they must have learned to live with it. This 
step of logic leads to an image of dinosaurs as 
much more resilient beasts than we've long 
given them credit for. Perhaps they developed 
warm blood supplies to ward off the cold that 
must be responsible for the lack of reptiles and 

proved to have an incredible nose for fossils, 
happening upon them during his long walks 
up and down the river. We had journeyed 
upstream to look for additional pieces of 
Pachycephalosaurus, a thick-skulled dinosaur 
found for the first time in Alaska this year, 
when Ron summoned us up the shore. He 
pointed out a stretch of beach almost entirely 
covered by the red and brown bones of big 
dinosaurs — perhaps horned ceratopsians, like 
the well-known Triceratops of the American 

In Ron's warm presence, it was difficult not 
to begin mentally assembling the bones and 
thinking of them not as petrified remains, but 
as part of a living, breathing creature that 
struggled against the odds just as we do. He 
constantly reminded us that some dinosaurs 
did in fact survive the great extinction at the 
end of the Cretaceous, about 65 million years 
ago, taking to the sky as the birds that still 
soar above us today. One day in the midst of 
digging, Ron led an impromptu blessing cere- 
mony in the quarries, lighting sweetgrass and 
sage and fanning it with an eagle's feather. 

"With respect for all life, past and present," 
he intoned. "People say this is just science, it's 
just a dig. But this is really a graveyard of an- 
cient creatures that lived on this Earth a whole 
lot longer than we have. They deserve just as 
much respect as we do. " 


T rex and Triceratops, to the intercontinental 
conduit that Alaska once provided. 

After two weeks dodging mosquitoes and 
bundling up against the frigid polar fog that 
crept up the Colville from the offshore ice 
shelf each night, we motored downstream 
through breakers to the Eskimo village of 
Nuiqsut. I wandered the town where the 
ground is so thoroughly frozen that there is 
no common plumbing or sewer system. Fish 
hung on racks, drying in the sun; caribou 
heads and carcasses adorned front yards. Al- 
though Eskimos had long traveled up and 
down the Colville, hunting along the way, 
they had never established a permanent set- 
tlement there — not until 1973, that is, when 
the government required Natives on the 
North Slope to claim seven incorporated 
communities if they were to share in the set- 
tlement of Native claims. 

Many Eskimos set off from their homes in 
Barrow and the few other established towns 
to build three towns, including Nuiqsut, from 
the ground up. The first winter they lived in 
tents, a time that the Nuiqsut pioneers, their 
faces creased by weather, years, and character, 

March -April 2000 39 

speak of as the greatest adventure of their 
lives. And there is indeed something about an 
opportunity to pioneer, to probe a frontier 
where few have gone before, that seems to 
stir the spirit. The Eskimos clearly felt it when 
they first settled Nuiqsut. I felt it when my 
plane swooped in over Poverty Bar. And I'm 
sure the dinosaurs felt it in at least some rudi- 
mentary way when they pushed their bound- 
aries far to the north and came to dominate 
one more corner of the Earth. 

Our final order of busi- 
ness in Alaska was 
the airborne rescue 
of what may be a 
new breed of horned 
dinosaurs known as 
pachyrhinosaurs. A 
boat engine break- 
down had kept our team from collecting the 
beast's 400-pound skull as planned, but leav- 
ing it in place until the following season 
would have surely spelled disaster, as winter 
ice and spring flooding could easily chew it 
up. So with a helicopter on loan from ARCO 
and additional support from Discovery On- 
line, we raced back up the Colville, which 
glistened in the summer sun like a weaving of 
gold lace. 

The pilot dropped five of us off and while 
we clambered down the bluff to the skull's 
perch along the river's edge, he hovered over- 









head, blasting us with air like an oversized 
fan. We muscled the coffee-table-sized fossil 
into a sling that burly paleontologist Kevin 
May attached to a cable beneath the heli- 
copter, which then hoisted the ancient crea- 
ture's head high into the air and sped on its 
way back to the University of Alaska museum, 
where May and others will probably spend 
years prying loose its secrets. 

My brief stint in Alaska could never match 
the challenge of living in the Arctic year- 
round, either today or in the milder climate 
when the dinosaurs ruled. But at least I got a 
taste of it. And now I want to go back to the 
Far North, to the mosquitoes, the cold, the 
beautiful if plain terrain, and, of course, the 
original pioneers — the dinosaurs. ■ 

Milstein '88, a reporter for the Billings Gazette 
and a freelance contributor to science and natu- 
ral-history magazines, is a member of the Duke 
Magazine Editorial Advisory Board. His original 
reports on this expedition are available at www. 

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Thomas LaBean builds 
computers, but not the 
usual metallic, electrical 
kind. Rather, his com- 
puters are soft, wet, and 
molecular. He switches 
on his latest model by 
donning protective rub- 
ber gloves and pouring a liquid neurotoxin 
into a clear plastic container. The postdoctor- 
al researcher then adds another chemical 
that converts the liquid into a grayish translu- 
cent gel. Now begins the "computing." 

LaBean fills small wells lining the top of the 
container with tiny droplets of DNA. He low- 
ers the entire apparatus into a larger chamber, 
attaches electrodes, and switches on an elec- 
tric current that forces the various charged 
DNA molecules to migrate slowly from the 
wells down through the slab of gel — a sepa- 











ration procedure known as electrophoresis. 
As the molecules from each well migrate, they 
segregate according to their different weights. 
And when their journey ends after a couple 
of hours, LaBean adds a DNA-binding dye 
that allows him to detect the separated DNA 
as vertical ranks of faint blue smudges. To 
LaBean, the different groups of smudges rep- 
resent distinct mathematical digits. 

With his ponytail, earring, and oval Ben 
Franklin-style, wire-rimmed glasses, he is as 
young and up-to-the-minute as his field of 
biomolecular computing (BMC) . His work and 
that of his colleagues is nothing short of revo- 
lutionary, promising to exploit the concept of 
"massively parallel" computing by enlisting 
vast numbers of DNA molecules in a test 
tube to join forces in simultaneous calcula- 
tions of complex computing problems. 

A structural biologist with a Ph.D. in bio- 

March-April 2000 

chemistry, LaBean first came to Duke to work 
in the medical center laboratories of protein 
chemists David and Jane Richardson. There 
he designed new kinds of proteins to study 
how these complex molecules fold from their 
initial string-like form when first synthesized 
in cells into the globular shapes that as en- 
zymes catalyze cellular reactions. Such pro- 
tein-folding, a central puzzle of biology, was 
the subject of LaBean's doctoral dissertation. 
Now, however, he has found himself tem- 
porarily assigned to the very different realm of 
the computer science department as a DNA 
jockey — thanks to John Reif, a computer sci- 
ence professor who secured funding to bring 
him there. He has a special need for LaBean's 

much broader effort by researchers worldwide 
to shrink computing elements from the cur- 
rent size of millionths of a meter to that of 
atoms or molecules. It's an effort that will 
produce machines even more amazing than 
exist today, with the next decades bringing 
powerful computers costing mere pennies 
that find their way into just about every 
device made by humans. 

Reif and LaBean emphasize, however, that 
their DNA computers are specialized devices, 
and that they don't expect to become house- 
hold names on the order of Microsoft mogul 
Bill Gates or Apple founder Steve Jobs. "We're 
certainly not going to have biomolecular com- 
puters on our desktops," Reif says emphati- 

and Wisconsin. "It's a highly unconventional 
way of doing computing, but it's very excit- 
ing," says Reif. 

The object of all these experts' interest — 
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid — is the spi- 
ral-staircase-shaped molecule of life. DNA 
contained in the chromosomes within each 
cell of every plant and animal reproduces it- 
self each time the cell divides, passing itself to 
the next generation. DNAs "backbone" strands 
consist of various combinations of four differ- 
ent chemical "bases," usually abbreviated as 
A (adenine), T (thymine), G (guanine), and 
C (cytosine) . The DNA molecule is usually 
double -stranded and "complementary," with 
the As on one strand naturally bonding like 

talents as a structural biologist, because Reif 
has launched a daring project to use DNA 
molecules as computing elements, particularly 
elements that work in parallel. 

A Duke professor since 1986, Reif has had 
a long history of interest in building more 
powerful computers. He has designed special 
computer chips of the conventional silicon 
kind that each contained 128 different com- 
puter processors designed to work in parallel. 
Large numbers of those chips were assembled 
into "Blitzen," a NASA-funded machine he 
designed that was envisioned to become a hat- 
box-sized supercomputer, small and light 
enough to be launched into orbit. 

Both Reif and LaBean see the DNA mole- 
cule itself as the basis for a new type of mas- 
sively parallel computer. Like Blitzen, but with 
many, many more processors to draw on, bio- 
molecular computers would find solutions 
that elude the most powerful conventional 
machines by dividing a problem into parts to 
be simultaneously calculated by trillions of 
different computing elements: DNA itself. 
Such computers would work by rearranging 
their molecular conformations in solution, 
something that comes naturally. Their work 
with DNA-based computing exemplifies a 

cally. "The goal of DNA computing is really 
not to compete with conventional computing, 
but to assist in certain specialized tasks." Reif 
says it is more likely that eventual applications 
may be in such areas as interpreting informa- 
tion in biological and medical research. BMC 
techniques might be employed in studying 
natural DNA extracted from blood or tissues. 
Extra information- encoding DNA strands 
could be attached to the natural DNA, pro- 
viding what Reif calls "wet databases. " The 
encoded information might include the So- 
cial Security number of the person whose 
DNA was sampled, the cell type, and the date 
of the extraction. 

Other scientists and mathematicians share 
the two Duke scientists' vision. Reif, in fact, is 
director of the National Consortium in Bio- 
molecular Computing and its Applications. 
The effort is a ten- university BMC research 
endeavor funded by $2.7 million from the De- 
fense Advance Research Projects Adminis- 
tration and the National Science Foundation. 
Consortium participants work at the California 
Institute of Technology, Duke, Mt. Sinai Medi- 
cal School, New York University, Princeton 
University, and the universities of Delaware, 
Pennsylvania, Rochester, Southern California, 

complementary puzzle pieces to the T's on 
the other strand. Similarly, the G's on one 
strand fit with the C's on the other. The 
inherited blueprints called genes consist of 
different arrangements of these bases along 
vast stretches of DNA. These genes code for 
proteins that, after synthesis and folding, be- 
come the workhorse enzymes that carry out 
life's processes. 

The concept behind DNA computing is 
that the DNA bases could be manipulated to 
solve certain massive mathematical problems 
much faster, while consuming far less energy, 
than is possible with conventional silicon 
microchips. Such electronic computers work 
by rapidly switching millions of microscopic 
integrated circuits that make up each chip. 
The integer 1 is logged each time one of these 
micros witches turn "on," and a is denoted 
by each "off" switch. Using only these binary 
states, digital computers can be manipulated 
with very sophisticated symbolic logic to do 
all the tricks of the digital trade — from word 
processing a document to modeling the mo- 
tions of vast galaxies of stars. The fact that 
their transistors switch on and off with blind- 
ing speeds makes conventional computers 
seem mind-bogglingly proficient. And yet, in 


a way, their processing is basically no more 
complicated than working an abacus or 
counting on one's fingers. 

BMC mimics the actions of electronic 
computers by using each of the four DNA 
bases as integers. Using a DNA strand for 
computing also depends on the DNA mole- 
cule's complementarity — the fact that sin- 
gle-stranded DNA tends to stick selectively 
to its complementary strand. A DNA mole- 
cule with the sequence ACGATC is likely to 
"anneal" with a TGCTAG. 

The first landmark proof that such DNA 
properties could be enlisted to solve problems 
came in a 1994 scientific paper by University of 
Southern California mathematician and com- 
puter scientist Leonard Adleman. He described 
how he could use DNA molecules to solve 
the infamously difficult "traveling salesman 
problem. " That problem demanded calculat- 
ing the most efficient route out of fourteen 
allowed scheduled air routes required for a 
salesman to take in order to visit seven cities 
only once each, with an itinerary that begins 
in Atlanta and ends in Detroit. 

To demonstrate DNA's ability to compute, 
Adleman's research team randomly designat- 
ed different single -stranded combinations of 
As, C's, G's, and T's as DNA "names" repre- 
senting each of seven cities that the hypothet- 
ical traveling salesman needed to visit. 
Another set of single -stranded DNA was 
constructed to represent each of fourteen pos- 
sible air routes between the cities, with "flight 
numbers" composed of DNA bases coding for 
the departure and destination city names. 

The investigators then combined all the 
DNA city names and flight numbers in a test 
tube, where combinations stuck together to 
form double -stranded DNA molecules whose 
patterns represented the solution to his prob- 
lem. In essence, those DNA pieces acted like 
submicroscopic computer processors in- 
teracting simultaneously to arrive at solu- 
tions — in other words, massive parallelism. 

Using common analytical techniques, Adle- 
man's team weeded all the wrong or imperfect 
matches out of this symbolic alphabet soup 
(actually many millions of individual mole- 
cules) . Analysis of the coding of the perfect 
matches gave them their answer — the ideal 
travel routes. While Adleman concedes that 
his particular example could be solved using 
conventional computing, he contends that 
BMC has the potential to handle much more 
challenging traveling-salesman problems and 
other computational conundrums currently 
beyond the reach of the most powerful super- 

Reif explains the basis of the technique's 
power: "The system is massively parallel, with, 
for example, a quart of weak DNA solution 
able to hold a million trillion different DNA 
strands, each one the equivalent of a computer 

processor. Even assuming that each calculating 
operation took several minutes to complete, 
such a DNA computer could perform a thou- 
sand trillion operations per second. In com- 
parison, a conventional work station might 
achieve a few hundred operations a second. 
And even a conventional supercomputer might 
achieve close to a trillion, still 1 ,000 times less 
than the capacity of BMC. " All that compu- 
tational power, he calculates, could be had for 
much less energy consumption than current 
electronic computers require. 

But Reif is a scientist, not a computer sales- 
man, so he is quick to dash cold water on his 
own promising projections. For starters, he 
says, the error rate in BMC computation can 
be one percent or more. After 
all, DNA molecules are the 
tools of nature, and nature is 
imperfect. DNA computing is 
also currently ponderous. Adle- 
man's own proof-of-concept 
demonstration — by no means 
an attempt to solve a real su- 
percomputer-defying, traveling- 
salesman problem — called for 
repeated additions of chemi- 
cals, heatings and coolings of 
solutions, and, in one step, 
throwing in tiny DNA- coated 
iron balls. The especially tedi- 
ous final screening process took 
an entire day, Adleman com- 
plained in a Scientific Ameri- 
can article. 

Nevertheless, Reif says, bio- 
molecular computing might offer the poten- 
tial to handle much more challenging 
"search" problems beyond the reach of even 
the most powerful current supercomputers. 
However, he and his colleagues have calcu- 
lated that there are limits to the size of a 
"search" problem that DNA computing can 
solve. They say the computational limit is 
about "100 or so variables." Beyond that 
point, the number of DNA strands involved 
in the operation gets out of control. "It's not 
that I'm pessimistic," he says. "It's just that at 
some point it doesn't scale any further. " 

While Reif says BMCs have limited appli- 
cation to search-type problems, much more 
development must be done before the true 
promise can be understood. That's why his 
team and the other consortium members 
have pooled their efforts in the three -year, 
federally supported project that ends this 
year. "Biomolecular computation is an area of 
great potential due to the massive parallelism 
available at the molecular scale," Reif wrote 
in his successful funding proposal. "However, 
a realistic assessment must also take into 
account that research in this area possesses 
considerable risk, due to its lack of maturity." 

As the DNA computing field matures, var- 



iomolecular computing (BMC)-using 
nature's molecules to mimic silicon- 
based circuitry to perform mathematical 
calculations — is just one example of experimental 
technologies that will merge computing with 
biology and also yield molecule-sized processors. 

Tiny electronic computers, called neural 
implants, are already being inserted into the 
brains of those who suffer from multiple sclerosis 
and Parkinson's disease in efforts to alleviate 
their symptoms. People with severe hearing loss 
can benefit from another electronic device, the 
cochlear implant, which is placed in the inner 
ear and adjusted by electronic signals from out- 
side the body. Emory University scientists have 
implanted a microchip into the brain of a stroke 
victim, al- 
lowing him to 
use his brain 


his paralysis 






by moving a 
cursor across 
a computer 

predict that 
only decades 
into this 
century such 
neural im- 
plants will 
advance to 
the point 
where friends 
who live in 
places will be 
able to meet 
"virtually" for compellingly real, shared electron- 
ic vacations (say, on a game preserve in Mozam- 
bique), without actually going anywhere. 

Electronic computer circuits also continue to 
shrink drastically as microchip makers improve 
the process of "photolithography," by which 
they use light and chemicals to etch circuitry on 
silicon. Such advances as using shorter wave- 
lengths of light to create finer circuitry will 
produce transistors at the lower limit of size — 
about one-thousandth the width of a human 
hair. The resulting computers, of course, will 
be thousands of times more powerful. 

But that's nowhere near the end of the line 
for microcircuitry. Other researchers are learning 
to use chemical process to make electronic 
switches the size of molecules. These infinitesi- 
mally small gadgets include "quantum dots," 
molecular arrays that can trap individual 
electrons and use them as computer switches; 
bacterial pigments that could serve as optical 
computer switches, altering their configuration 
in response to light pulses; tiny crystals that 
could optically store immense amounts of 
computer data in their structure; and "nano- 
mechanical logic gates," submicroscopic 
beams or filaments an atom wide that could be 
physically moved to carry out logic operations. 

With such stunning advances in their toolkits, 
computer engineers confidently predict that 
the next few decades will see personal computers 
operating 100 billion times faster than they do 

March -April 2000 43 

ious teams are tackling different parts of the 
challenge to invent entirely new ways of com- 
puting. An extreme example is the Mt. Sinai 
proposal to use microorganisms such as bacte- 
ria for computation. This concept of "cellular 
computing" would involve harnessing as com- 
puting devices the natural processes by which 
bacteria create proteins from DNA blueprints. 
The research teams are also exploring 
whether DNA functions better while comput- 
ing free in solution or attached to a surface 
where the reactions can be better controlled. 
To explore the behavior of attached DNA, 
Duke chemist Michael Pirrung, an expert in 

conducting huge numbers of simultaneous re- 
actions on the surfaces of silicon microchips, 
is planning collaborations with Reif. And, last 
January, consortium participants at the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin reported using DNA strands 
attached to a gold-plated glass surface to solve 
a problem with sixteen possible answers. 

Reif and his colleagues are also developing 
more efficient rules or algorithms for DNA 
computing. Former graduate student Ashish 
Gehani and current graduate student Guan- 
gwei Yuan M.S. '97 are developing a software 
simulator for BMC computation that re- 
searchers could use to try out various DNA 

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computing strategies before going "wet" with 
actual DNA. 

Much of Reif and LaBean's BMC work cen- 
ters on the computer science concept called 
"tiling": assembling strands of DNA like so 
many Lego blocks into rectangular shapes, or 
"tiles. " Tiling would help solve a major problem 
with using existing DNA molecules for com- 
puting: Molecules tend to latch together 
wrongly, creating invalid solutions that have 
to be weeded out. The far more complex DNA 
tiles would possess surfaces like intricate con- 
glomerations of Legos that would have no 
choice but to fit with the right complementary 
partner to form a valid solution to a problem. 

The tiling research builds on work by other 
collaborators in the multi-university effort, 
Caltech researcher Erik Winfree and long- 
time NYU chemist Nadrian Seeman, whom 
LaBean describes as a kind of DNA construc- 
tional chemical engineer. 

The notion of applying Seeman's DNA 
structural engineering to computation, first 
suggested by Winfree, builds on proposals by 
theoreticians in the 1960s that it was possible to 
do computing using large numbers of domi- 
no-like tiles with colored edges. Rather than 
electrical switches flipping on and off, inte- 
gers might be signaled by various arrangements 
of tiles laid out on a surface. 

Seeman and Winfree shrank the tiling the- 
ory to molecule size, proposing to build com- 
putational tiles out of DNA strands arranged 
so that the attractions between complementary 
bases holds each tile together. These tiles would 
also have "sticky ends," places where a short 
stretch of DNA bases is left dangling and 
unpaired. Because they are unpaired, those 
dangling bases will naturally stick to the "right" 
unpaired complementary sequence dangling 
from the end of another tile. So far, LaBean 
and Reif are starting simply, collaborating on 
tiling strategies to do simple addition. 

Computing is not the only technical possi- 
bility for DNA molecules, say Reif and LaBean. 
They are also exploring the use of self-assem- 
bling DNA to construct molecule-sized ma- 
chines such as a "DNA motor." LaBean is 
collaborating with a Pennsylvania State Uni- 
versity scientist to make DNA into a molecu- 
lar "goldsmith," attaching microscopic gold 
particles to self-assembling DNA molecules. 
In the process of assembling, the DNA would 
line up the particles to form exceptionally 
thin gold wire. The gold wire could then be 
used in electronic applications, perhaps in 
even more miniaturized computer circuitry of 
the conventional kind. 

Computers, then, would become even more 
powerful, and even more biological — a curi- 
ous merging of man and machine. ■ 

Basgall is senior science writer for Duke's Office 
of Research Communications. 




Something extraordinary was 
added to last fall's version of 
the FOCUS program "Athens 
in the Golden Age" — Athens 
itself. Thanks to the generous 
gift of an anonymous donor 
and supplementary support 
from Duke's vice provost for 
international affairs, four faculty members, 
twenty-five first-year students, and FOCUS 
administrator Babs Wise spent fall break ex- 
ploring ancient and modern Athens. FOCUS 
programs are meant to integrate learning from 
a number of perspectives. Nothing could have 
integrated our students' experience of Greek 
history and culture better or to more lasting 
effect than this hands- (and eyes- and feet-) on 
experience of the places we spent the rest of 
the term reading, thinking, and talking about. 
The quest for inexpensive air tickets left us 
with a nine-hour layover in New York, which 
we happily filled with a trip to the Metro- 








politan Museum of Art. Two expert and won- 
derfully communicative curators, Joan Mertens 
and Elizabeth Milliker, gave us a perfect pre- 
lude to our adventure — a private tour of the 
brilliantly reinstalled Greek collection. 

For the rest of the trip we guided ourselves. 
The four professors, who were teaching courses 
on ancient art, history, philosophy, and drama, 
contributed their knowledge at each site, and 
students from the art course added to the 
shared feast with reports on particular mon- 
uments. We stayed at a little hotel — the 
Aphrodite on Apollo Street — in the Plaka, 
the old quarter that nestles at the foot of the 
Acropolis, and were able to explore all the main 
sites in the city by foot. A day trip brought us 
to Delphi, the great oracular shrine of Apollo 
perched on the slopes of Mount Parnassus, 
and still a place of awe and magical beauty. 

We walked where Socrates walked and 
dodged oncoming traffic as in any modern city. 
We wandered from the theater where Sopho- 

March -April 2000 45 

cles presented his tragedies and the meeting 
place where Pericles addressed the citizen as- 
sembly to cafes and restaurants to sample 
tzaziki and baklava. The past in all its com- 
plexity emerged from the sights and smells of 
Greece today. An experience of this kind can- 
not be readily summarized, but something of 
its spirit and meaning emerges from these 
excerpts from the essays that our students 
wrote on their return. 

— Peter Burian 

Burian, professor of classical studies, leads the 
FOCUS program on "Athens in the Golden Age. " 

We have done what the Athenians have 
DONE. We have risen with the noise of the 
waking city. We have ascended the hill to 
sacred Delphi and looked down on the ma- 
jesty of the valley below. We have marveled at 
the sunset over the city and relaxed in the 
evening cool. We have walked through the 
streets arm-in-arm with our friends and let 
our laughter rise to the heavens. We have lived 
a moment of our lives in Athens. By creating 
our own stories there, we have deepened our 
understanding of the Greek story. 

— Krista Bentz 

The karyatids — now on display protec- 
tively in the Acropolis Museum — were 
gracefully formed, though exposure to acid 
rain had withered away some sculpted details. 
Even through the glass case, they had a re- 
markable presence. Their faces, so perfectly hu- 
man, projected a breathtaking immortality. 

The other sculptures that captivated me 
were the koroi, crudely carved out of massive 
blocks of stone, yet maintaining the grace and 
form of Greek art. With their unbelievable 
hamstrings and truly chiseled bodies, they 
looked like colossal athletes with command- 
ing stances. Their enormous weight was care- 
fully and delicately balanced between the two 
feet, and still they had a fierce vigilance about 
them. They looked like, if threatened, they 
would be able to move quite well. 

— Elizabeth Brown 

Despite renovations by the Romans and 
OTHER GENERATIONS, the Theater of Dionysos 
still resembles its fifth-century B.C. form. We 
have discussed and laughed at and argued 
over Aristophanes' plays and his intentions 
for a month and a half in Professor Burian's 
class, and then we moved beyond the analysis 
of plays and historical characters to experi- 
ence the original environment. 

It was important to me to grasp that I was in 
the place that drew people from miles around, 
to realize that we were two feet from the stage 
where people with fantastic costumes and 
masks satirized Athenian politics and rela- 
tionships. Facing the stage, I was in awe of the 


Athens in the Golden Age" is one of four- 
teen Duke FOCUS programs to be 
offered this coming fall. FOCUS, a 
somewhat artificial acronym, stands for "First- 
Year Opportunity for Comprehensive, Unified 
Study," and is geared to first-semester freshmen 
who apply to the program of their choice — 
ranging from "Exploring the Mind" to "Diver- 
sity and Identity." One new program for next 


fall will center on refugees of the world, and in 
so doing will include a service-learning compo- 
nent. About a quarter of the freshman class 
ends up FOCUSed. 

The program's faculty director, Duke history 
professor Seymour Mauskopf, says FOCUS is 
distinguished by several intellectual qualities: 
"interdisciplinary learning," since each program 
is organized around a common theme, which is 
examined from the vantage points of faculty 
members in different disciplines; "small-group 
learning," since the courses are all taught as 
seminars, and students get to know their profes- 
sors as intellectual collaborators, in part through 
weekly dinners; and "shared learning," since 
students in a particular program live in the 
same residence hall (though they don't room 
with other FOCUS students). 

As Mauskopf puts it, FOCUS is "as much a 
social experience as it is an intellectual experi- 
ence." Through their FOCUS peers, students 
find a ready-made support network as they 
enter Duke. And they find professors who 
take a strong interest in their development. 
Frequendy, students keep up those professorial 
connections through their undergraduate years, 
looking to them as intellectual mentors and as 
guides through independent-research experi- 

And while FOCUS students are steeped in 
intensive interdisciplinary learning, Mauskopf 
says FOCUS professors also benefit. They find 
their teaching and scholarship enriched by deep 
and sustained interactions with students and 
colleagues alike. 

fifh, y 

view of Athens as well, as we looked across 
the city with the looming Acropolis. We joked 
about how anyone would be able to concen- 
trate with such beautiful distractions as these. 
When we started to explore the setting, 
climbing to the highest seats and above the 
theater onto the side of the Acropolis' base, it 
was possible to fully appreciate the size of the 
theater — and to fully appreciate the actors' 
ability to project their voices to the upper seats. 
From my new vantage I was able to see all parts 
of a play coming together, imagining the cho- 
rus moving around the stage with Trygaios 
flying on his beetle or Strepsiades burning the 

— Emily Kelly 

None of our buildings evokes the same 
power as the Greek Parthenon. Our tech- 
nology suppresses creativity. We no longer 
have to worry about how we're going to move 
a piece of marble that weighs ten tons or how 
we're going to slightly curve the base of a 
building so that massiveness is reduced and 
the floor echoes the lay of the land. Now we 
have cranes and bulldozers, access to any sort 
of material desired. 

— Christine Gesick 

Some of the best things about Athens are 
the old, narrow alleyways with shops on both 
sides that have dogs and mopeds and the oc- 
casional car weaving their ways around the 


streams of people. I'm sure we were staying in a 
fairly touristy area, but the street scenes seemed 
genuine. Filled with countless boutiques and 
restaurants and coffee shops, they are as much 
a part of Athens as the Acropolis, albeit con- 
siderably less impressive and longstanding. 

— Sarah Pinkerton 

The center of the world lies deep in the 
HEART OF GREECE, locked safely between twin 
towers of rock and the majestic blue of the 
Aegean Sea. Flowing from the base of this 


earthly center are rolling foothills, bathed in a 
misty green haze. It is in this place that Zeus 
shakes his hand, rolling thunder across the 
nation; it is in this place that Athena bickers 
with Hera; most importantly, it is in this place 
that Apollo imparts his divine wisdom to the 
humans groveling in his temple. It is in this 
place, hundreds of miles from Athens, that 
Athenian life was centered. 

It is easy to see why the Athenian people 
imagined the gods imparting their divine wis- 
dom and power from a location such as Del- 
phi. Inherent in the natural setting of the city 
is a reverence so powerful that it is easily de- 
tected today, thousands of years after its power 
captured the hearts of the Athenians of the 
fifth century B.C. Nestled into this divine lo- 
cation are monuments that reflect every im- 
portant facet of Athenian life, from religion 
to athletic prowess. While each of these mon- 
uments expresses an important piece of an- 
cient Greek history and offers a clue as to the 
true nature of the Athenians' society, it was 
not these testaments that provided me with 
the most insight into the culture of ancient 
Athens. It was, rather, the beauty of the loca- 
tion chosen as the most sacred of Greek sites. 

Ancient Athenian culture was founded up- 
on a belief in the omnipotence of the gods, who 
often appeared in tandem with their respective 
natural elements. Zeus punished humans with 
the thunderbolt; Poseidon swirled and calmed 

the vast seas at will. The respect of the Athe- 
nians for their gods was transferred into a re- 
spect for the elements of the natural world; the 
Athenians lived in awe of the world around 

— Kimberly Meyer 

Athens first hit me in a profusion of sound 
AND COLOR, surprising me with its high popu- 
lation density and cheerfully busy demeanor. I 
had imagined it to be less urban. Perhaps that 
came from studying ancient Athens — I found 
it hard at first to reconcile the idea of fifth- 
century B.C. Athens with Athens in 1999. 

After a day in the city, however, I grew to see 
the pragmosyne that so often characterized the 
ancient Athenians. Today's Athenians have en- 
ergy that seems to drive them on relentlessly; 
they are warm and very friendly, often pulling 
you into a sideways hug after a round of bar- 

Although I'm learning about ancient 
Athens, I wanted to be able to compare the 
old with the new, and pick out traces of the 
former from within the latter. The ruins of the 
Acropolis, the agora, the Theater of Dionysos, 
and the hill of Pnyx provided me with insights 
into how the polls of Athens used to work. I 
could also get a tangible idea of the distances 
between historical spots. It surprised me that 
nearly all Athenians citizens traveled on foot 

to the Pnyx for weekly assemblies. Standing at 
the top of the hill and being able to see Athens 
for miles around made me aware of the vast- 
ness of this city; the untidy modern buildings 
must have replaced a conglomeration of equal- 
ly tightly-packed ancient buildings. 

Delphi fit more with my self-made reality. It 
has none of Athens' density, but a quiet natu- 
ral majesty. As the bus drove up along the 
rolling hills, we saw an old woman herding 
goats on an isolated slope. The oracle was set 
high in the mountains — a sign of its neces- 
sary inaccessibility, which I only truly under- 
stand after walking so far to reach it. A lot of 
investment went into consultations with the 
oracle; Delphi is very remote from Greek 
cities, not least of all Athens itself. 

—Po Chin Tan 


the Acropolis until the last day; every 
day and night, we had to look up at the 
Acropolis looming over the entire city. And 
each time the distant sight made you wonder 
what it looked like up close. By the time we'd 
actually made it to the Propylaia, the gate of 
the Acropolis, I'd already decided that there 
was no way the Parthenon would meet expec- 
tations. I was dead wrong. 

— Edward Bauer 




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March -April 2000 47 


The issue of student drinking has re- 
turned to the front burner, with the 
November death of an undergraduate, 
several hospitalizations early in the spring 
semester, and the February suspension of two 
greek organizations pending an investigation 
into allegations of excessive drinking. 

The November death of Pratt School of 
Engineering junior Raheem Bath followed 
a week- long hospitalization; the cause of death 
was reported as pneumonia. In February, ad- 
ministrators confirmed that Bath's death was 
alcohol-related, caused by a fatal bacterial in- 
fection that started when the student drank 
too much, passed out, and inhaled his own 

The revelation came after several other alco- 
hol-related hospitalizations, including another 
student who caught pneumonia after aspirating 
her vomit, and after the suspension of Pi Beta 
Phi sorority and Phi Kappa Psi fraternity fol- 
lowing a February mixer held by the two orga- 
nizations. That mixer resulted in allegations 

of excessive drinking and the potential endan- 
germent of students, as did Pi Phi's bid night 
in late January. 

Administrators are expressing concern about 
the apparent upsurge in alcohol-related prob- 
lems on campus. "Does [our] climate in some 
way say to students that drinking until you 
lose control, consciousness... is not only ac- 
ceptable, but it's cool, it's the thing to do?" 
Sue Wasiolek 76, M.H.A. 78, LL.M. '93, as- 
sistant vice president for student affairs, asked 
in an article in The Chronicle. 

In that same article, Duke president Nan- 
nerl O. Keohane said she was worried that cer- 
tain segments of student life might perpetuate 
risky alcohol-related behavior. "Certainly, at 
Duke and elsewhere, at least some greek or- 
ganizations — [though] surely not all — have a 
well-founded reputation for encouraging ex- 
cessive drinking, either as a rite of passage, or 
as a proof of comradeship, or just because it 
has become the familiar thing to do," she 
said. "Working with greek leaders here and 
elsewhere, we need to change that. " 

Interfraternity Council president Ken Collins 
'99 acknowledged to The Chronicle that the 
greek system does help contribute to hazardous 

environments for undergraduates. Pledges in 
particular "are looking to members who may 
not be responsible to dictate what their be- 
havior will be," he said. "You have people who 
may otherwise fall into the safe category of 
drinking, but [who] tell themselves that they're 
doing it just to get through the hoops of 
pledging." Jeanine Atkinson, a substance -abuse 
specialist at Duke, told The Chronicle that 
both greek and non-greek students use alco- 
hol as a social enabler, trying to be "part of the 
popular set. " 

According to The Chronicle, Keohane told 
the board of trustees of Bath's death confiden- 
tially in December, and included it in a formal 
report to the board in February after the ac- 
knowledgment of the cause of death became 
public. Students and administrators alike plan 
to use the string of alcohol-related incidents 
to raise campus awareness. In an interview 
with The Chronicle, John Burness, senior vice 
president for public affairs and government 
relations, said discussing the issue openly was 
the first step in better prevention. "This has 
been an accident waiting to happen," he said 
of Bath's death. "The accident has now hap- 
pened. Let's talk." 

When a record-break- 
ing winter storm hit 
North Carolina at the 
end of January, it left as much as 
twenty inches of snow behind 
and paralyzed the area. Roads 
were closed, store shelves were 
emptied, and businesses and 
governments lost millions of 
dollars in revenues and clean-up 
^ costs. At Duke, snow removal 
Bj 5 cost $80,000, and classes had 
fli to be canceled for three and a 
J& t half days. 

dents, who were set free to sled in 
Duke Gardens, cross-country ski 
between East and West Campus, 
and build such snow sculptures 
as a replica of Rodin's "The 
Thinker" and a model of Duke 
Chapel. But the unexpected win- 
ter freedom came at a cost, as 
Provost Peter Lange announced 
that missed classes would be 
made up on a weekend schedule. 

That schedule slates make-up 
sessions for various weekends 

throughout the spring, avoiding 
spring break, basketball tourna- 
ments, and reading periods. 
Some professors have moved 
the make-up classes to unused 
lab sessions, and others have 
made alternative assignments or 
other arrangements. 

Despite student complaints 
about the scheduling, a Chronicle 
story reported attendance 
around 80 percent after the first 
weekend of make-up classes. 



Duke board of trustees vice chair 
Harold L. "Spike" Yoh Jr. B.S.M.E. 
'58 will become the new chair of the 
board, and Paula Phillips Burger '67, A.M. 74 
and James Raphael Gavin III M.D. 75 have 
been elected to the board, all with terms 
beginning in July. Senior Justin Fairfax is the 
new Young Trustee. 

A trustee since 1991, Yoh succeeds Randall 
L. Tobias, chairman emeritus of Eli Lilly and 
Company, who is retiring from the board. 
"Spike is the right person to lead this board," 
Tobias says. "He is an outstanding leader and 
has a great understanding of the challenges 
that the university faces, as well as the oppor- 
tunities that exist. " 

Yoh says he sees those opportunities looming 
large. "The world is rapidly evolving. Break- 
throughs in research, medicine, global com- 
munications, and other fields make this a very 
exciting time for higher education in general, 
and for Duke in particular. " 

Yoh, his wife, Mary Milus Yoh '59, their five 
children, and a daughter-in-law collectively 
hold nine degrees from Duke. Yoh has received 
several awards from the university, including 
the Charles A. Dukes Award for Outstanding 
Service (1996), the Blue Devil Award (1986), 
and the Engineering Distinguished Alumni 
Award (1983). 

Burger, vice provost for academic affairs 
and international programs at Johns Hopkins 
University, is a former Duke administrator 
who served as dean of women at the Woman's 
College (1970-72), assistant dean of Trinity 
College (1972-74), vice provost for academic 
services (1986-92), and executive vice pro- 
vost (1992-93). She was also an adjunct pro- 
fessor in the political science department 
from 1986 to 1993. 

Burger, who received the Duke University 
Award for Merit in 1989, has served on the 
boards of directors of the Duke Alumni As- 
sociation, The Women's Center, and the 
American Schools of Oriental Research. She 
has been a member of the Council on Wom- 
en's Studies and on the executive committee 
of the Annual Fund. 

Gavin is a senior scientific officer for the 
Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Chevy 
Chase, Maryland. He is a past president of 
the American Diabetes Association, a na- 
tional program director and trustee of the 
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and an 
officer in the U.S. Public Health Service. A 
1966 graduate of Livingstone College in Salis- 
bury, North Carolina, he was inducted into 
the National Black College Alumni Hall of 
Fame in 1998. He was honored as internist of 
the year by the National Medical Association 


Several months after Duke 
Medical Center went 
through a four-day 
closing of clinical trials and a 
thorough review of human sub- 
ject testing policies ("Managing 
a Medical Makeover," Septem- 
ber-October 1999), the top two 
medical center officials have 
put that experience to use, 
suggesting a streamlining of 
the government's oversight 


Ralph Snyderman, chancellor 
for health affairs, and Edward 
Holmes, dean of the medical 
school, say protection of people 
who participate in clinical trials 
should be a top priority, but that 
simplifying the protection pro- 
cess could benefit everyone 
involved. In a policy forum arti- 
cle published in a recent issue 
of the journal Science, Snyderman 
and Holmes recommend the 
government's multiple human 
protection oversight responsibil- 
ities be centralized into one of- 
fice, and that current regulations 
be reviewed and overhauled. 

"We endorse oversight me- 
chanisms that protect research 
subjects to the maximum degree 
possible," the two say in the 
article. "Nonetheless, it is our 
view that regulatory and com- 
pliance mechanisms are overly 
complex, difficult to interpret, 
and, at times, redundant. 

"Given the expansion of 
clinical research, it is time for a 
comprehensive review of sub- 
ject protection legislation and 
oversight that was developed in 
a far different era. The goal 
should be an effective, simpli- 
fied system that is understand- 
able, that works, and that is 
adaptable to change." 

The federal Office of 
Protection from Research Risks 
(OPRR) governs clinical trials, 
overseeing the actions of indi- 
vidual facilities' Institutional 
Review Boards. The system is 
decades old, and Snyderman 
and Holmes say, while it might 
have worked in 1974, when 
Duke's IRB examined 400 
research protocols, it is less 
effective today, when approxi- 

mately 2,200 protocols are 
reviewed each year. 

They contend that "increas- 
ingly complex and cosdy over- 
sight mechanisms" can impede 
the ability of researchers to con- 
duct clinical investigations. The 
article offers recommendations 
to streamline the system, mak- 
ing it more efficient and more 
effective, including: 

• A comprehensive and 
broadly based review of federal 
regulations to protect human 
subjects, with the goal of creat- 
ing a single set of effective regu- 

• Delegation of oversight for 
all clinical research subject pro- 
tection to a single federal agen- 
cy with a single reporting mech- 
anism, regardless of funding 

• Consideration of ongoing 
certification of IRB members 
and clinical investigators, and 
accreditation of institutions; 

• Inclusion of infrastructure 
costs for human subject protec- 
tion in the indirect cost recov- 
ery for federal and privately 
funded research; 

• Development of rational 
guidelines pertaining to poten- 
tial conflict of interest for physi- 
cians enrolling patients into 
clinical trials with links to phar- 
maceutical companies. 

in 1997, and as outstanding clinician in the 
field of diabetes by the American Diabetes 
Association in 1990. In 1999, Duke's School of 
Medicine awarded him the Distinguished 
Alumni Award. 

Fairfax, a public policy major from Wash- 
ington, D.C., has served as a resident adviser 
and as president of Alpha Phi Alpha fraterni- 
ty. He is a program coordinator for the Big 
Brother mentorship program, and president 
of the National Panhellenic Council, which 
governs minority greek organizations. He has 
worked as a congressional intern and as a 
researcher at Harvard Law School. 


Transformations are taking place through- 
out Durham's Walltown community, as 
grassroots efforts begin to revitalize the 

Walltown Neighborhood Ministries, an 
alliance of several local churches, has turned 

the former Knox Street Grocery into its head- 
quarters, enabling the organization to provide 
support to residents and other community 
groups from a central location. The building, 
which will be leased to Walltown Neighbor- 
hood Ministries free of charge, was purchased 
last year by the Self-Help Credit Union, and 
was renovated through a grant from Duke's 
Office of Community Affairs. 

As the Knox Street Grocery, the building 
was once a neighborhood trouble spot. Now, 
however, The Reverend Robert Daniels, pas- 
tor of St. John's Missionary Baptist Church, 
sees the center as a "symbol of the transfor- 
mation that we believe is already taking place 
in the Walltown neighborhood. " 

Other recent physical changes in the neigh- 
borhood include the renovation of the former 
Walltown Elementary School, which now 
houses both St. James Baptist Church and a 
new charter school; the renovation and sale 
of twenty-nine homes by Selt-Help, with fi- 
nancing from a $2-million, Duke-established 
loan fund; four other homes ready for sale 
and plans to renovate and sell twenty more; 
and home-building by Habitat for Humanity. 

March -April 2000 49 

The board of directors of Walltown Neigh- 
borhood Ministries works with the Duke 
Divinity School to oversee the three-year 
Walltown Families and Children Initiative, 
funded by a first-year grant from The Duke 
Endowment. The project includes neighbor- 
hood-based programs for children (after- 
school mentoring), young families (parent 
education and support), the elderly (trans- 
portation and health services) , community 
identity (a history project in conjunction 
with Duke's Center for Documentary 
Studies), and the neighborhood's churches 
(community chaplaincy with seminarians 
from Duke Divinity School) . 

Walltown is one of twelve neighborhoods in 
the Duke -Durham Neighborhood Partnership 
Initiative, a collaborative effort that includes 
community and economic development, edu- 
cation initiatives, health care, and affordable 
housing. The initiative has recently received 
another grant from The Duke Endowment to 
staff the West End Teen Center. 

For information, visit the Office of Com- 
munity Affairs website at 


Less than three years after starting a 
search for genes that confer a risk of de- 
veloping autism, Duke geneticist Mar- 
garet Pericak-Vance and her colleagues have 
found evidence of two defects that might be 
linked to the complex combination of behav- 
iors called autistic spectrum disorder. 

Such behaviors include failure to make eye 
contact, social withdrawal, lack of language, 
and such repetitive behaviors as rocking or 
head banging. Doctors believe the disorder 
begins during development of the brain, 
potentially before birth, and that those affect- 
ed are prevented from accurate processing of 
sensory information from their environment. 

Pericak-Vance, director of Duke's Center 
for Human Genetics and lead investigator of 
the autism genetic studies at Duke, worked 
with her team to locate defects in tiny sec- 
tions of chromosomes 15 and 7. Their work 
has also yielded evidence of a genetic mecha- 
nism that hides the effect of some genes. "You 
could say we have it narrowed down to a line- 
up of good suspects, but we still can't finger 
the culprit until we get direct evidence," ac- 
cording to Pericak-Vance. "In this case, that 
most likely will be more than one gene. It will 
probably include variations of many genes 
that, in combination, interact to result in au- 
tistic behavior. Those details will come with 
continued research of our suspect genes." 

Autism is a complex disease, affecting be- 

tween two and ten of every 10,000 people — 
making it the third most common develop- 
mental disability. It is hoped that genetic 
studies will facilitate simpler identification of 
the disease. The research was supported by 
Duke's Center for Human Genetics, the Na- 
tional Alliance of Autism Research, and the 
National Institutes of Health. 

For information on autism, visit the Na- 
tional Alliance of Autism Research website at 


Fourteen Old Master paintings valued at 
approximately $2.5 million, including 
The Feast of Herod from the studio of 
seventeenth-century Flemish painter Peter 
Paul Rubens, have been given to the Duke 
University Museum of Art. The paintings had 
been on loan to the museum since 1994. 

The gift was made in honor of Marilyn 
Mailman Segal, a developmental psychologist 
and dean emeritus of the Family and School 
Center at Nova Southeastern University, by 
her son, Richard, and her daughters Betty, 
Patti, Debbie, and Wendy. The works came 
from the family's Seavest Collection, and in- 
clude Italian, Flemish, German, and Dutch 
paintings from the late fourteenth to early 
eighteenth century. 

"We feel very fortunate that these splendid 
works of art will be at the museum permanently, 
and are honored that the Segal children chose 
to recognize their mother in such a mean- 


ingful and inspirational manner," says DUMA 
director Michael Mezzatesta. "Thanks to the 
Segal family, the museum has a solid core of 
outstanding paintings that cover more than 
four centuries of European art and history. " 

Also, photo-realist painter Don Eddy is the 
subject of a retrospective showing at the 
museum through May 21. "Don Eddy: From 
Logic to Mystery," featuring thirty-five paint- 
ings from 1970 to the present, was organized by 

Scholars often describe Eddy as one of the 
leading American photo-realists. Among the 
museums displaying his work are the Guggen- 
heim Museum in New York City, the Whitney 
Museum of American Art, the Cleveland 
Museum of Art, Belgium's Utrecht Museum, 
and Colombia's Museo de Arts Moderno. 

After its DUMA run, the exhibition will 
travel to the Boca Raton Museum of Art in 
Florida and the New Orleans Contemporary 
Art Center. For information, visit the DUMA 
website at 


Thomas A. Langford B.D. '54, Ph.D. '58, 
a former dean of the Divinity School 
and former provost of the university, 
died of heart failure at his Durham home on 
February 13. He was seventy. 

As an administrator, Langford served Duke 
during an important period of change. He 
guided the Divinity School through a time of 
growth, and as provost helped the university 
respond to a series of tight budgets caused by 
declining government support, escalating costs, 
and an increasing need for financial aid. 

Langford was provost when Nannerl O. 
Keohane was sworn in as president. Keohane 
called Langford a "most amazing mentor, ad- 
viser, and guide. I relied enormously on his 
judgment, what we should focus on as we set 
our priorities. I was very fortunate that he was 
in the provost's office when I got to Duke." 

Langford joined Duke's faculty in 1956, 
teaching in the department of religion and in 
the Divinity School. He served as chair of the 
religion department, and from 1971 to 1981 
was dean of the Divinity School. In 1984, he 
became vice provost for academic affairs; he 
was appointed interim provost in 1990 and 
then provost in 1991. Langford stepped down 
as provost in 1994 to return to the classroom, 
retiring from the Divinity School in 1997. In 
1998, he delivered the eulogy for former Duke 
president Terry Sanford. He was also the re- 
cipient of the University Medal of Distin- 
guished Meritorious Service. 

Langford is survived by his wife, Ann Marie 
Daniel Langford, and four sons. 



Forty-two performances will highlight 
the American Dance Festival's sixty- 
seventh season, including sixteen works 
specifically commissioned for the festival, 
during its June 8-July 22 run. 

The 2000 season, Landmarks & Landscape™, 
marks the beginning of a two-year celebration 
of the groundbreaking choreographers of mo- 
dern dance. Among those presenting ADF- 
commissioned works are the Mark Morris 
Dance Group; North Carolina native Mark 
Dendy, performing the world premiere of his 
dance drama Bible Stories; Twyla Tharp Dance, 
with jazz percussionist and composer Donald 
Knaack; and Jane Comfort & Company, per- 
forming the dance/opera Asphalt in their 
ADF debut. 

Among the commissioned works are the 
winners of the Doris Duke Millennium Awards 
for Modern Dance and Jazz Music Collabo- 
rations, sponsored with the Kennedy Center, 
and the annual Doris Duke Awards for New 
Work. Other performances will come from the 
Martha Graham Dance Company, which opens 
the season; Pilobolus Dance Theatre, winners 
of the 2000 Scripps/ADF Award; and the Paul 
Taylor Dance Company, closing the series. 

Education plays a major role in the ADF 
season. There will be both a Six- Week School 
for trained dancers aged sixteen and older, 
and a Four- Week School for Young Dancers 
for students between the ages of twelve and 
sixteen. There will also be three professional 
workshops, internships, and scholarships avail- 
able. Special lectures and discussions will take 
place during the season, both independent of 
the works and accompanying each perfor- 

For information about the 2000 American 
Dance Festival, call (919) 684-6402, or visit the 
website at www.AmericanDanceFestival. org. 


The closest emergency room, rather than 
a primary- care practice, might be the 
best place for patients experiencing pos- 
sible stroke symptoms, according to a Duke 
Medical Center study. 

Thirty-two percent of patients visiting their 
primary- care physician with initial complaints 
characteristic of strokes or transient ischemic 
attacks (mini-strokes) were neither hospital- 
ized nor prescribed specialized tests, though 
those doctors did call for specialist consulta- 
tions in 45 percent of cases. 
Duke neurologist Larry Goldstein presented 


the results of his team's study at the Ameri- 
can Heart Association's twenty-fifth Interna- 
tional Stroke Conference in February, saying 
his findings "showed that primary-care physi- 
cians often didn't take actions that could 
potentially prevent a much larger stroke in 
the future. " 

The early and often apparently minor symp- 
toms of stroke or mini-stroke are strong pre- 
dictors of more severe events, Goldstein says. 
Early detection enables physicians to use 
treatments to lower the risk of a major stroke, 
whether with medication or surgery. "Based 
on the current results, we need to stress the 
need for urgent evaluation of patients pre- 
senting to their primary- care physician with 
symptoms of cerebrovascular disease," he says. 
"Clearly, there needs to be more education 
about the diagnostic and treatment options 
available for people at risk for stroke. " 

Goldstein says the study did not look at the 
reasons for the primary- care physicians' deci- 
sions, but all patients included in the research 
were diagnosed by the primary-care physician 
as having a stroke or mini-stroke. Until re- 
cently, there were very few treatment options 
for patients suffering a major stroke. With new 
medications, though, physicians can treat 

and even reverse stroke damage if action is 
taken within three hours of the onset of symp- 

The common symptoms of stroke include 
sudden onset of slurred speech, difficulty walk- 
ing, weakness on one side ot the body, blind- 
ness in one eye, or double vision. Each year, 
more than 700,000 Americans suffer a stroke; 
of those, more than 150,000 will die, making 
stroke the third leading cause of death and a 
leading cause of adult disability. 


The Duke Endowment has awarded Duke 
$8 million in gifts for financial aid and 
scholarships. The gifts include $4 mil- 
lion for the B.N. Duke Scholarship program, 
$2.5 million in permanent endowment for the 
Angier B. Duke Scholarship program, $1 mil- 
lion in a challenge grant for need-based 
scholarships, and $500,000 for financial aid 
for graduate and professional students. 

Ten B.N. Duke scholarships are given each 
year to entering students from North and 
South Carolina. Formerly, a B.N. Duke cov- 
ered 75 percent of tuition costs; this gift fully 
funds the B.N. Duke program and allows 
scholarships to cover the entire cost of four 
years of tuition. 

For information on Duke tuition and schol- 
arships, visit 
sions/ finaid.htm. For information on The Duke 
Endowment, visit 


IV patients who take fewer pills tend 
to fare better than patients with more 
complex medication requirements, a 
Duke study has indicated. Based on an analy- 
sis of more than 3,000 patients in triple -drug 
combination trials, researchers speculate that 
patients with fewer pills are more likely to ad- 
here to their medication regimen and thus 
receive the greatest benefits of therapy. 

The simplest of regimens called for patients 
to take as few as four pills each day, while 
more complicated regimens involved taking 
as many as sixteen pills at different times dur- 
ing the day, some with food and some on an 
empty stomach. 

"The results of the current study would 
seem to emphasize the importance of devel- 
oping drug regimes that are simple, potent, 
and easy for patients to take," says John Bart- 
lett, director of clinical research at Duke's 
Center for AIDS Research. Bartlett says that 

March -April 2000 


while the study was not specifically designed 
to link improved patient adherence to the 
drug protocol with better treatment outcomes, 
it affirmed clinical experience and showed a 
"strong and statistically significant correla- 
tion between the number of pills and the suc- 
cess of the regimen. " 


I Eugene J. McDonald, president of Duke 
Management Co. (DUMAC) and Duke's 
chief investment officer, will step down from 
the post he has held for ten years. McDonald, 
who is also the university's executive vice 
president for asset management, will leave 
June 30 for a sabbatical leave, followed by 
retirement. He joined the university in 1977 
as vice president for government relations 
and university counsel, becoming executive 
vice president for finance and administration 
in 1985. In 1990, he was tapped to lead the 
newly created DUMAC to manage university 

* Lewis Siegel has been reappointed as vice 
provost and dean of the Graduate School for 
his third five-year term. He will also continue 
as interim vice provost for research until a 
new vice provost for research is selected. He 
came to Duke in 1966 as a National Institutes 
of Health postdoctoral fellow in biochemistry 
and joined the faculty two years later. He 
became a full professor in 1983, and his first 
appointment as dean of the graduate school 
came in 1991. 

| Kevin Schulman, associate professor of 
medicine at Duke's medical school, has been 
named faculty director of Health Sector 
Management at the Fuqua School of Busi- 
ness. He will hold joint appointments at both 
schools, will continue to hold appointments 
in the Center for Clinical Health Policy and 
the Durham Veterans Administration Health 
Services Research Unit, and will continue to 
serve as director of the Center for Clinical and 
Genetic Economics. A graduate of the New 
York University's medical school, he com- 
pleted his M.B. A. at the University of Penn- 
sylvania's Wharton School of Business. 

* Robert Korstad, assistant professor of 
public policy studies and history, and director 
of the Hart Leadership Program at the San- 
ford Institute of Public Policy, will be faculty 
director of the B.N. Duke Scholars Program. 
The faculty director works with the under- 
graduate admissions office to select scholar- 
ship recipients and to develop programs on 
and off campus that allow students to develop 
leadership capabilities. 



Thinking and acting both 
globally and locally, senior 
Matt Reisman could just 
as easily spend next year in the 
Ivory Coast doing research as in 
North Carolina doing commu- 
nity-organizing work for a refu- 
gee relief agency. Reisman came 
to Duke intent upon a history 
major. In the spring of his fresh- 
man year, a seminar with geog- 
rapher Martin Lewis changed 
all that "After that class, I 
decided I wanted to be in what- 
ever department he was in," he 
says, "and I also realized my 
interests were wider than histo- 
ry alone. I wanted a contempo- 
rary perspective on the world." 

Students in the Comparative 
Area Studies program choose 
a primary and secondary area 
of the world (in Reisman's 
case, sub-Saharan Africa and 
Western Europe), supplement- 
ing those studies with core 
coursework in geography, poli- 
tics, and economics, and work 
in a language of their primary 
area. Reisman has looked at 
one specific human phenome- 
non (migration) in two very dif- 
ferent contexts (Croatia and 
Madagascar) through several 
lenses (foreign student, ethnog- 
rapher, and relief worker). 

After two years of course- 
work and one summer spent 
working in a hospital emergen- 
cy room, he found himself in 
Knin, Croatia — "a tiny town of 
several thousand in the middle 
of nowhere" — during the sum- 
mer of 1998. His stint there was 
part of Duke's Service Oppor- 
tunities in Leadership program, 
the service-learning arm of the 
Sanford Institute of Public 

He describes Knin, the for- 
mer capital of a breakaway Serb 
state within Croatia, as "over- 
run, shelled beyond recogni- 
tion, and empty." During the 
war, its residents had mostly 
fled to Serbia proper and the 
Serb portions of Bosnia. Reis- 
man's work there with a global 
refugee assistance non-govern- 
mental organization (NGO) was 
in line with the larger U.S. poli- 
cy objective of "trying to bring 
refugees back to their homes by 
offering economic assistance 
and reconstruction assistance." 

"The first month," he says, "I 
basically spent going between 
NGO offices doing liaison 
work, trying to get statistics on 
how many people had already 
returned. And it wasn't what I 
wanted." Looking for direct 

contact with the people he was 
living among, he proposed to his 
supervisor a refugee-needs 
assessment survey that would 
ask "what these people wanted, 
how they viewed their future 
there, and what factors they had 
considered in making the deci- 
sion to return home." 

The result? Reisman, a trans- 
lator, and a driver spent three 
weeks traveling the county, 
conducting anonymous inter- 
views with more than seventy- 
five returned Serbs. He says he 
savored not only the contribu- 
tion he was making to his NGO, 
but also "the experience of 
going to [the refugees'] houses, 
hearing their stories, sharing 
meals with them." By the end 
of two months, he discovered 
his passion for engaging global 
issues on a personal scale. 

Before even leaving for 
Croatia, Reisman had decided 
to spend the spring semester of 
his junior year in Madagascar. 
"Madagascar is unique in the 
world for its culture, because 
it's a synthesis of Arab and 
African influences with the 
Polynesian and Southeast Asian 
cultures of its original settlers as 
its base. It has this incredible 
fusion of cultures, and at the 
same time, I'd get to use my 

In Madagascar, Reisman 
was part of a program in 
cultural history and geology at 
the School for International 
Training. The school runs col- 
lege study-abroad programs, 
mainly in developing countries, 
that combine coursework with 
village-based homestays and 
independent research time. 

Reisman was set loose with 
a few contacts and the little 
Malagasy he picked up living in 

the capital of Antananarivo — 
with a month to produce a 
research paper. He envisioned 
the project as "looking at devel- 
opment from the perspective of 
the people who were most af- 
fected by [its] challenges," so he 
ended up going to two fishing 
villages on the northern coast. 
After just nine days back in 
the U.S., he left his Tallahassee 
home again, this time for the 
less exotic but equally demand- 
ing Service Opportunities in 
Leadership destination: Char- 
lotte, North Carolina. He was 
put in charge of a new project 
to survey the needs of the city's 
community of refugees — mostly 
Bosnians, Southeast Asians, and 
West Africans — "trying to pre- 
sent a picture of them to my 
host organization so that they 
could tailor and publicize their 

As he looks to future possibil- 
ities, Reisman is guided by a 
desire to combine direct service 
work, scholarly research, and 
policy planning concerning 
development, which he defines 
as "the degree of choice which 
people in a society have in 
determining their own destiny." 

"We are incredibly privileged 
because we have to bemoan the 
question, 'What am I going to 
do with my life?' In Madagascar, 
that question is not even fath- 
omable to 99 percent of the 
population. They know what 
they're going to do with their 
life — they have to make a living. 
Eighty percent of people there 
are agricultural, and they'll live 
in that village and work the 
land. The others in the cities 
just have to get by." 

—Philip Tinari '01 



Continued from page 1 3 

on to finish the Bryan Center exploration, with 
the Alpine Atrium. 

An invitingly airy space, the Atrium wins 
plaudits for the student-friendly atmosphere. 
Maggie, though, is amazed that the sprinkling 
of students there can really get their studying 
done. "The bright lights, the music, the noise 
of the blender — it would all make me crazy." 
Perhaps because it makes some students crazy, 
the prominent computer station, labeled 
"Cafemail," isn't busy. Even if they're not 
plugged into their e-mail accounts, students 
are plugged into their futures with table tents 
that advertise "Career Center Happenings. " 

We're greeted by an exuberant food worker, 
Diana Connor, who was celebrated as Duke's 
person of the year in The Chronicle's monthly 
magazine supplement. She touts this as "a 
great place to relax and communicate — that's 
the whole Duke community. " I decide to relax 
with a fruit scone; the others, after contem- 
plating the plastic-wrapped sandwiches, the 
salads, and the smoothies bar, share a caramel 
pecan bun. Gary doesn't delight in the des- 
sert: "They don't know how to make sticky 
buns in the South. " This concoction is baked 
with glazing added later, he observes, rather 
than all the flavor being baked into it. The 
fruit scone is quite crumbly. But as any Anglo- 
phile knows, Americans just don't reckon well 
with the idea of the scone, which should re- 
semble something organic rather than some- 
thing pastry-like. 

As we pick out our selections, Gary muses 
about the convenience that students now en- 
joy. The Alpine Atrium is open until mid- 
night; Chinese-hungry students can find Han's 
beckoning until nine o'clock. That's a change 
from the student days of yore. "If I got hungry 
at night, well, good luck. I had to find a car or 
go to the vending machines. " Maggie finds an 
unsettling change in the prevalence of dispos- 
able utensils. From the evening's encounter 
at the Great Hall, she had been carrying 
around her original set of knife and fork. But 
a campus setting can be uncivil when it comes 
to silverware theft, she acknowledges. 

What better time to experience the civil 
and subdued Duke than on a Sunday morning? 
A few days later, we reassemble as a somewhat 
smaller Sunday team, minus Gary and with a 
time-wary Maggie, who has to meet an oven 
repairman at Brightleaf 905. We return to the 
Cambridge Inn, this time for Alpine Bagels 6k 
Brews. I recognize Kalman Bland, a religion 
professor, who walks out with bagel bag and 
briefcase — armed, I suppose, for a busy Sun- 
day in the office. The loud level of the music 
"impedes the conversation," Maggie says. I 
observe the clever self-advertisements: "Bagels 
so fresh they should be slapped"; and "We 

have a lot more fun than most kids our age," 
which, I guess, refers to the bagel-makers 
rather than the student patrons. "I can smell 
the onion bagels," says Maggie as we walk in. 
After that olfactory encounter, Maggie and 
I share an onion bagel with lox and cream 
cheese. I eat half of it with satisfaction, and 
I'm secretly sorry that she's intent on con- 
suming her half. Her latte is a bit too thin; she 









guesses it's made with two-percent milk. But 
it's thumbs-up for my fresh-squeezed orange 
juice. Scott declares this "my favorite place 
here," with particular praise for the grilled 
chicken Caesar salad. He says that weekdays 
between classes, Alpine is jammed with stu- 
dents. Maggie says the area "visually is pre- 
sented well," and that the servers are "very 
pleasant. " 

The owners of Alpine, a campus franchise 
operation, seem fervently customer- centered. 
A couple of days before, The Chronicle had 
published a letter from a sophomore com- 
plaining about his Alpine tuna-salad sandwich 
and a Dutch chocolate yogurt that "tasted 
more like chilled lard with a dash of vinegar." 
"Perhaps Alpine could do something about 
suppurating food," he advised. Alpine, in its 
published response, announced a special of- 
fering named for the offended undergraduate. 
"With any tuna sandwich, patrons will re- 
ceive a large Dutch chocolate yogurt, abso- 
lutely free. If the Duke community finds this 
food to be putrid, I will permanently 'suppu- 
rate' (kudos on that word; I bet you aced the 
verbal section of your SATs, didn't you?) 
those items from the menu. " 

Even on her Alpine high, Maggie worries 
that students who exist on bagel sandwiches, 

to say nothing of pizza- and sandwich-deliv- 
ery services, will be cheated nutritionally. 
"You can survive on that, but it's not what 
nutrition is all about. " 

Just before noon, our food tour lands us on 
East Campus, now a campus for freshmen and 
the site of the strict board plan that remains 
at Duke. Maggie doesn't recognize the East 
Campus Union where she once worked; it 
now houses The Marketplace, with its multi- 
plicity of serving areas. As it turns out, our 
visit is coinciding with a pre-Valentine's Day 
food celebration. "It's like a whole other plan- 
et over here," she says, as we navigate among 
the breads and rolls, cold cereals, yogurt bar, 
fresh fruit, salad bar, strawberry shortcake, 
and still-sleepy freshmen, at least one of whom 
appears to be dressed in pajamas. "Everything 
looks like it was just made, people are moving 
faster, and even the surfaces are brighter and 
shinier. You can squeeze your own juice. 
What can be fresher?" 

She stands admiringly in front of one of the 
food stations, noting that the assemblage of 
different-colored grains and vegetables is a 
commendable "attempt to make things look 
pleasing. " She was tempted to issue some in- 
structions to the sliced-roast carver, whose 
slicing was dicey; the meat seems to be shred- 
ding, but still "it's tasty," in her view. 

Maggie and I notice that Scott, for the first 
time in these food forays, is loading up his 
tray. "That's the best sign we've seen," she says. 

At this hour on a Sunday, it's easy to find a 
table; it has an "Eat for Health" table tent 
with the theme of minerals. "My poached 
eggs are perfectly cooked," declares Maggie. 
"And actually they're very hard to make." 
The posted menu describes her selection as 
"steak benedict with spicy Montreal hol- 
landaise cranberry and sage." Her scrambled 
eggs came out of "a four-gallon container," 
she speculates. But she's quick to add that 
scrambled-eggs production is notoriously 
labor-intensive. Scott and I both greedily fin- 
ish off our banana pancakes. Scott resists eat- 
ing his biscuit; Maggie takes it on, and finds 
the texture agreeable. 

Maggie heads back to her restaurant and 
the repairman. I ask her how many hours a 
week she puts into the business. "I keep it at 
eighty hours," she answers. While that hardly 
impresses me as a restrained commitment, she 
says "getting feedback at a constant rate al- 
lows you to feel good about what you're 
doing. If you're a professor, how many times 
will students stop you and say, you really had 
an impact on me?" 

Scott goes off to read some Yeats, who was 
not among the more food-obsessed Irish liter- 
ati. I realize that I have to ponder something of 
only casual interest to students: What's for din- 
ner? Of course, I can always Flex it on campus 
and find, I now know, some fresh broccoli. ■ 

March-April 2000 53 


The Trust: The Private and 
Powerful Family Behind The New 
York Times 

By Susan E. Tifft '73 and Alex S. ]ones. Little 
Brown, 1999. 780 pages. $29.95. 

Can a minor principality 
of journalism — a coun- 
ty-seat, family-owned 
daily, The Anniston Star 
— claim affinity with 
the emperor of world 
newspapers, The New 
The monarchy that has governed the Times 
doesn't mind, for one of the family's abiding 
values is to take the paper seriously, but not 
themselves. I first experienced this trait in the 
fall of 1967, when my class of Nieman Fellows 
at Harvard visited some of New York's great 
publishing houses and enjoyed a dinner at the 
Times. Exiting the elevator on the 14th floor, I 
introduced myself to the publisher, Arthur 
Ochs Sulzberger, saying, "Mr. Sulzberger, we're 
in the same kind of family business. I guess 
one day soon, I'll have the same title you have. 
But there's one difference. Your newspaper is 
so much taller. " He chuckled at my measure- 
ment of the vast difference in scale, treated 
me as an equal, and on several occasions went 
out of his way to show me kindness. 

Thanks to Susan Tifft and Alex Jones, we 
now know much more about "Punch" Sulz- 
berger, his son and successor, Arthur Jr., and 
all the four generations who built and have 
guided the paper — both affairs and other 
human frailties, and steely commitment to 
principle. After seven years of exhaustive re- 
search, Tifft and Jones — who share the Eugene 
Patterson Professorship at the Sanford Insti- 
tute's DeWitt Wallace Center for Communi- 
cations and Journalism — patiently crafted a 
seamless masterpiece, The Trust, a 780-page 
saga of the Times' ruling family. 

Their epic work begins with Adolph Ochs' 
journey from Chattanooga to New York in 
1896 — around the same time when my fami- 
ly's journalistic saga began. Ochs, a self-confi- 
dent, young Jewish man, bought a failing 
newspaper, rejected the standard formula of 
sensation-mongering, and turned fairness and 
objectivity into a successful marketing strate- 
gy. My grandfather, Thomas Wilburn Ayers, 
moved his medical practice and weekly news- 





Susan E. Tifft 
and Alex S. Jones 

paper, The Republican, to the bustling New 
South manufacturing town of Anniston and 
soon bought the town's original newspaper, 
The Daily Hot Blast. 

Adolph Ochs' path from the economically 
fragile Chattanooga Times to publishing success 
in competitive New York was perilous. He once 
pledged controlling stock for a $150,000 loan 
— fortunately his formula, "AH the news fit to 
print," succeeded. The quality, profitability, 
and influence of the Times spiraled upward. 

After Ochs' death, family solidarity was 
maintained by his daughter Iphigene, who be- 
came the matriarch during the regimes of her 
handsome husband, Arthur Hays Sulzberger; 
their son, Punch; and now Punch's son, Arthur 
Jr. Along the way, the family survived wars, 
strikes, and recessions, and has been tested in 
confrontations with presidents. The most seri- 
ous of these tests came from Punch's courage 
in publishing the truth about the Vietnam War 
in the Pentagon Papers. Punch faced cold fury 
from the Nixon White House, brushed off at- 
torneys who warned he was putting the paper 
at risk, and made his decision with what the 
authors describe as another-day-at-the-office 
diffidence. It was an act taken in the family 
tradition of tough-minded idealism. 

Ochs' contemporary, Grandfather Ayers, 
chose a different path. In 1901, he sold his pa- 
per and practice to become the first Southern 
Baptist medical missionary in China, arriving 
by oxcart in a small county in Shandong 
Province in the wake of the Boxer Rebellion. 
His son, my father, the late Harry M. Ayers, 

spent only the first few years of Grandfather's 
twenty- five -year tour in a China wracked by 
poverty, warlords, and civil wars. Back home, 
Dad and a friend bought The Hot Blast and, in 
1912, Dad combined it with The Evening Star. 
Surely it was Grandfather's example and the 
China experience that stamped the paper with 
its liberal, internationalist worldview, a phi- 
losophy that The Anniston Star continues to 
share with the much larger Times. 

The papers share bonds of pragmatic idealism 
as well. Ironically, it was the same idealistic 
virtues Ochs took to New York that doomed 
the family's cornerstone paper, The Chattanooga 
Times. Tifft and Jones touch on this story, 
which would shake any liberal-minded, quality- 
conscious Southern publisher with the queasy 
sensation of danger narrowly averted. The 
Chattanooga Times was run by Punch's bright, 
warm, funny, and principled sister, Ruth Holm- 
berg. Ruth and her family were cursed with a 
competition that the Star narrowly avoided: 
The Chattanooga Free-Press, launched in 1933 
by Roy MacDonald to promote his grocery 
chain. MacDonald was the kind of man who 
could proclaim proudly, "I am against pro- 
gress in all its forms. " While the Times hewed 
to the classic role of government watchdog 
and took stands of high-minded liberalism on 
racial questions, "Mr. Roy" pandered to readers' 
prejudices, ducked local controversies, filled 
the paper with civic-club speeches and birth- 
day parties. This was apparently what the 
community wanted; Free-Press circulation and 
revenues soared. On the death of MacDonald's 
son, the Times failed in its bid to buy the 
competition. Ruth's valiant and principled 
struggle was over. Both papers were sold to and 
merged into a chain. 

Though we cared keenly about the life and 
death in Tennessee, it is a family subplot in 
the epic tale of The Trust. That larger story is 
not finished. And those of us who care about 
newspapers of character and courage join in 
the authors' benediction to this generation's 
leader, Arthur Jr.: "He is bolstered by a family 
that has willingly sacrificed wealth and per- 
sonal ambition for the sake of the institution 
that is both their obligation and their glory." 
— Brandt Ayers 

Ayers is editor and publisher of the independent, 
family-owned Anniston Star, in Anniston, Ala- 



By Mariann Regan 
'64. Creative Arts 
Book Company. 278 
pages. $16.95 paper. 

As HMOs prolifer- 
ate and medical sci- 
ence advances, health 
care has become a hot 
topic for pundits and 
scholars alike. To this 
social discussion, Regan adds a satirical novel, 
depicting a large American city where a for- 
mula for warding off disease and extending 
life is passed anonymously to certain people 
by way of the Internet. When this formula 
comes under clinical scrutiny, the result is a 
series of health-cost debates, congressional 
hearings, a presidential commission, and a 
mysterious, unofficial "clinical" trial whose 
results may or may not be fully revealed. 

The Magical 
Years: A 

By Walter Benjamin 
Ph.D. '57. Beaver's 
Pond Press. 384 
pages. $24-95. 

In this memoir of 
growing up in rural 
Minnesota during the 
Great Depression, 
ethicist Benjamin recounts tales of childhood 
in a day when moral absolutes held sway. In 
telling stories of church life, farm work, hunt- 
ing, and family, he honors his small village 
community for sustaining values and nurtur- 
ing its inhabitants. 

Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, 
Slaves, and the Making of the 
American Revolution in Virginia 

By Woody Holton Ph.D. '90. University of 
North Carolina Press. 231 pages. $39.95 cloth; 
$15.95 paper. 

History professor Holton asks why wealthy, 
aristocratic plantation owners started a revo- 
lution against a society with which they had 
much in common, and concludes that when 
Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and 
other elite Virginians joined their peers from 
other colonies in declaring independence 
from Britain, they did so partly in response to 
grassroots rebellions against their own rule. 
Slaves, native Americans, and tobacco farm- 
ers reacted strongly against Virginia's boycott 
of trade with Britain in 1774, and by early 

1776, the gentry believed the only way to 
control the commonfolk in their colony was 
to remove Virginia from the British Empire. 
The narrative shows a new complexity to an 
old story, highlighting layers of sociology, poli- 
tics, and economics in the patriot-loyalist 

Television and 
the Struggle for 
Power in Russia 
By Ellen Mickiewicz. 
Duke University Press. 
372 pages. $19.95 

Mickiewicz, James 
R. Shepley Professor 
of Public Policy 
Studies and director of the DeWitt Wallace 
Center for Communications and Journalism 
at the Sanford Institute of Public Policy, has 
written extensively on the media and Russian 
and Soviet society. Changing Channels pro- 
vides insights into the relationship between 
the two, examining television viewing as an 
enormous influence on Russian life. 

The number of Russian viewers who rou- 
tinely watch the nightly news matches the 
number of Americans who tune in for such 
special events as the Super Bowl, making TV 
coverage a prized asset for which political 
leaders compete with intensity and sometimes 
violence. Her work describes the ways in which 
ordinary Russians have become savvy media 
critics, how they watch and analyze the news 
and cope with news manipulation and bias, 
and how as a result, television has become a 
lone emblem of believable authority connect- 
ing the disparate parts of a huge nation. 

She covers the period from state-controlled 
broadcasts at the end of the Soviet Union 
through an attempted coup against Gorba- 
chev, the war in Chechnya, the 1996 presi- 
dential election, and the economic collapse of 
1998, using firsthand research, opinion polls, 
and extensive interviews with key players, 
including Gorbachev. 

Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams 
and the Roots of Black Power 

By Timothy B. Tyson Ph.D. '94. University of 
North Carolina Press. 432 pages. $29.95. 

In the late 1950s, Robert F. Williams was pres- 
ident of the Monroe, North Carolina, branch 
of the NAACR In sharp contrast to the non- 
violent tactics of Martin Luther King Jr. and 
the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, 
however, Williams and his followers used ma- 
chine guns, dynamite, and Molotov cocktails 
to confront the Ku Klux Klan, and advocated 
"armed self-reliance" by black Southerners. 

In the 1960s, he was forced to flee to Cuba, 
where he broadcast "Radio Free Dixie," a pro- 
gram of black politics and music that reached 
as far as Los Angeles and New York. 

Tyson's examination of Williams' life and 
political philosophy ties together the civil- 
rights struggle of the South with Cold War 
geopolitics and the volatile sexual subtext of 
the movement. It shows the reaction of inde- 
pendent black politics, black cultural pride, 
and "armed self-reliance" working both with 
and against legal efforts and nonviolent pro- 
tests, and notes that, while the two sides are 
often portrayed as counterproductive and 
clashing, they were born together, grew to- 
gether, and worked toward the same ends. 

Visions of 
Glimpses of 
Our Land- 
scape's Legacy 
Simpson M.E '86. 
University of 
California Press. 
387 pages. $35. 

As the United 
States grew, it was 
transformed first from a wilderness to an 
agrarian landscape, then to a largely urban 
and suburban society. Simpson, a professor of 
architecture and natural resources at Ohio 
State University, describes this changing 
landscape in terms of nature itself and of the 
society that changed it, highlighting personal- 
ities, policies, and programs. He argues that 
because our egalitarian, reasoned landscape 
reflects our historical sense of separation from 
and superiority to the lawlessness of abun- 
dant nature, we are blind to the environmen- 
tal consequences of society's actions — a 
contradiction that has resulted in the ongo- 
ing tensions of the contemporary environ- 
mental debate, and one which could hold the 
solution to that debate. 

A Yemeni Passage 

By Derek Franck (Richard Christian Frarick 
76). Azimuth Press. 429 pages. $24-95. 

After receiving his Duke degree, Franck 
left the United States for Arabia, where he 
has worked and studied in the decades since. 
His experiences in Yemen and in other Mid- 
dle Eastern countries laid the groundwork for 
this novel, which incorporates history and 
traditions with literary and linguistic inven- 
tions of the author's imagination. Despite 
creative liberties, Franck researched his work 
carefully, placing the story within the histori- 
cal context of turmoil in eighteenth-century 
Yemen and retaining the rhythms of the 
Arabic language. 

March -April 2000 55 



Seattle contributed to the 
failure ef the World Trade 
Organization talks, should 
we expect global trade 
discussions to move in a 

The round of talks for which the 
trade ministers gathered in Seattle 
would have expanded the reach of 
the WTO to cover areas like agri- 
culture and services, areas in 
which the U.S. would gain by 
opening foreign markets, and, yes, 
textiles, an area in which develop- 
ing nations would gain. This need 
not be incompatible with strong 
international environmental, 
worker-rights, or other laws. 

The WTO has become a symbol 
of all that is wrong in the interna- 
tional economy. It has come to 
stand for irresponsible logging of 
rainforests, exploitation of workers 
in sweatshops, the loss of U.S. 
manufacturing jobs, and a host of 
other issues. These problems are 
real, they are indeed by-products 
of the international economy, and 
it is right to put them on the agen- 
da. But dismantling the WTO 
would not solve them. 

The real issue is not whether 
to have a WTO, but how to build 
an international system of labor, 
environmental, and human-rights 
standards as effective in these 
realms as the WTO is in trade. 
We should be talking about how 
to build on the WTO, not whether 
to knock it down. 

— Frederick Mayer, < 

icy and 

Despite President Clinton's 
rhetoric of concern for the 
protesters' issues, the official U.S. 
representatives present in Seattle 
were pushing for a free-trade 

agreement on forests that would 
have accelerated the loss of 
endangered tropical rainforests. 

The US. was also advocating 
removal of barriers to trade in 
genetically engineered products, 
despite recent studies document- 
ing serious concerns in the agri- 
cultural area (soil toxification and 
the killing of non- target insects 
like monarch butterflies), and 
despite the fact that there are no 
studies of the long-term impacts of 
a diet of such biotech food. 

The planners of the meeting 
ran into a stone wall, created in 
large part by the failure of earlier 
trade agreements to improve the 
well-being of people around the 
world. Instead of better conditions, 
millions of people have witnessed 
a worsening of living standards 
and the creation of secret courts 
and trade tribunals with the 
power to rule against a country's 
hard-fought environmental laws. 

Icwkwelder '64, 
nds el Hie Earth 

While undergraduates were contem- 
plating spring break, and even post- 
finals week, we decided to pester 
13 of them with a serious question: 
Has the call to boycott 

Carolina, because of the 
Confederate flag flying over 
the capitol, changed any of 
your vacation plans? 

Answers varied across the board 
and, incidentally, did not tend to 
divide at the Mason-Dixon Line. 
Nearly everyone agrees that 
Myrtle Beach is "too cold" and 
had not even considered it as a 
spring-break destination. (Others, 
like freshman Ravi Gupta and 
sophomore Melissa Berger, appar- 
ently do not find it cold enough, 
planning instead to make their 
way to the ski slopes of Colorado 
and elsewhere.) But, Duke 

Student Government, which 
voted to endorse the boycott, 
seems to have gotten students to 
think about the issue — and many 
to rethink their plans. 

Gupta says he would prefer to 
be better informed before making 
a decision to boycott, but he 
doesn't agree with South Caro- 
lina's actions: "It would definitely 
make me think twice" before visit- 
ing. Julian Woodruff, a senior, 
gives full support to the boycott 
and has decided to take DSG's 
suggestion and head north to 
Virginia Beach instead of Myrtle 
after finals are over. 

Freshman Steven Huey declares 
that calling for the boycott is the 
right of the NAACP, but that even 
while he himself would support 
the boycott, student government 
should not be involved in the issue. 

Others looked at the picture 
from a different angle, urging boy- 
cotters to consider the possible 
effects of their actions. Junior Pete 
Rawlinson, who will go to Myrtle 
Beach as planned at the end of 
the year, points out that the boy- 
cott will "just hurt local business" 
instead of serving its intended 
purpose. Senior Amanda Scovil 
also doesn't agree with "damaging 
the economy of the population" 
when the state government is the 

Northerners and Southerners 
alike were able to see the pro -flag 
side of the argument. One senior 
from New York, Denver Brown, 
says his South Carolina friends, 
whom he'll visit over spring break, 
feel that the Confederate flag is 
just "a symbol of the South. " This 
view paralleled that of Texan 
freshman Lindsay Harrison: "I 
understand how it can offend, but 
it's mainly a Southern pride thing 
to a lot of people. " And sopho- 
more Britton Crigler represents 
the opinion of his home state of 
South Carolina, saying the flag is 
"not a symbol of slavery," but of 
"rebellion. " 

Freshman Alison Haddock 
expresses concern for the boycott's 
potential effects on the Duke stu- 
dent body. She says it would be 
"sad to lose the [post-finals] tradi- 
tiorf'and that it is not worth the 
risk of dividing the students be- 
tween Virginia and Myrtle beaches. 

But, if anyone is still considering 
the Palmetto State as a spring or 
summer destination, first consult 
sophomore Melissa Berger. Hag or 
no, she advises against going to 
Myrtle Beach — "too skanky!" 
— compiled by Nathan Faulkner '03 

■ J, I I 

"We should have talked openly 
about this in December, bringing 
home the shocking import of this 
death as a cautionary tale for oth- 
ers, while the emotional wounds 
were still fresh." 

"Our purpose there was to be part 
of a general movement. We were 
there to allow students after us to 
go to schools wherever they want- 
ed to. Decades have seen the fruit 
of that struggle." 

began admitting black student* 

"We've got a health-care system for 
the haves and a sick-care system 
for the have-nots. It's cheaper to 1 
provide primary preventive health a 
care for everybody. " 



Blomquist Pavilion 

'11 " x 14" high definition color 
tographs of the Sarah P. Duke 
Sens are offered for the first time 
the official Gardens' photograph- 
er Ed Albrecht. He has captured the 
"beloved pergola at the height of its 
spring glory with a canopy of laven- 
der wisteria. The pergola is less fre- 
quently visited in the depths of win- 
ter but when frosted with ice and 
snow the scene is poetic. In the 

Culberson Asiatic Arboretum the 
Iris Bridge arches gracefully over 
water with a colony of purple iris 
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Cover; Duke Chapel stained-glass window, 
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While the most au courant consumer products were once available only to a few and 
at a premium, the past few years have seen a democratization of design 

THE DOCTOR AND THE DIVINE by Kirk Kicklighter 8 

Gradually, medical science has come to realize that spiritual questions are important 
to treating the whole person — and to issues of life and death 

CROSSING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE by Sarah Hardesty Bray 14 

They may be avid consumers of computers, but women aren't designing many of 
the new high-tech products, and they aren't among those deciding critical matters 
of technology policy 

HABITS FOR THE HEART by Robert]. Bliwise 41 

Experiencing the age of reinvention: an education in putting stress under control, 
eating intelligently, and exercising faithfully 



While liberating harbor porpoises from Canadian fishing corrals, marine biologists 

get a rare chance to study the mysteries of these elusive marine mammals 


Part epidemiologist and part social worker, a researcher translates an interest in the 
complexities of health care into public-policy suggestions 


Presidential musings on academic integrity 


News of the Duke Alumni Association, mini-profiles, class notes, a reunion portfolio 


Physical education, Jewish life, Utopian worlds, artistic additions 


A "kids-only" building, a West-Edens linking, a biological merging 


The lessons of Louis Armstrong, plus books in brief 


Seniors on taking stock and resuming a reading habit, an expert on the Gonzalez case 
and legal precedents 





T H € 

While Ihe most au courani con 

SUBSTANCC Products were| 
available only to a few and at a pre 
T the past few 
have seen a democratization of deB 



im Kosm 


Curvaceous office workstations that sur- 
round their users in a free -form fash- 
ion. Color-saturated hand tools for 
electricians. Computer hardware in 
flowing lines and bright colors, from 
Apple's iMac and iBook to Sun Mi- 
crosystem's Java unit and 3Com's Palm Pilot. 
Oral-B's grip-fitting, soft-gel-handled Cross- 
Action toothbrushes. These everyday items 
are among the samples on display at the first 
National Design Triennial, "Design Culture 
Now," presented by the Cooper-Hewitt Na- 
tional Design Museum in New York. 

Farther down Fifth Avenue, another design 
exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
examines "A Century of Design. " This spring 
it began with Art Nouveau and ran through 
1925; its current incarnation presents design 
from 1925 to 1950. The Met's retrospective 
discussed Art Nouveau as a stylistic movement 
in which artists and designers replaced the 
prevailing Victorian doctrine with organic and 
nature -based forms, "exploring new directions, 
whether realistic or abstract, exuberant or re- 

Creative concepts: Herbst 

Lazar Bell, the maker of 

"Zuzu's Petals," above, 

describes its digital assistant 

as a "cyber-creature," while 

a new toothbrush, right, 

brings form and function 

to a daily task 

strained, curvilinear or geometric." While Art 
Nouveau was more about style than substance, 
the words could apply to the works in the wood- 
paneled rooms of the 1898 Andrew Carnegie 
mansion that is home to the Cooper-Hewitt. 
Prowling through the Triennial, design crit- 
ic and author Edward Gomez '79 takes in its 
myriad design samples, recalling those pre- 
cepts of Art Nouveau as he thinks aloud. "In 
the nineteenth century, the British art critic 
and artist and aesthetician John Ruskin wrote 
very emphatically about the importance of 
nature as a source — the ultimate source — 
for the inspiration of the artist," says Gomez, 
walking around the display of "Zuzu's Petals," 
a handheld, personal digital assistant for stu- 
dents, with its electronic components coming 
together to form a colorful plastic flower in a 

| pot. "I think what we're 
1 1 seeing, with the comput- 
er we just saw, and the toothbrush, and the 
nonrectilinear, more economically conscious 
design work in this show, is a more conscious 
awareness of nature and the human body as a 
source, as a reference point. And that's very 
important, because there's a point at which 
classic modernist design becomes so preoccu- 
pied with purity of form, which is very geome- 
try-based, that it starts to refer more to its 
own sources, to its own aesthetic, as opposed 
to the outside world." 

This analysis is part of an ongoing conver- 
sation Gomez has been engaged in, both on 
this particular day and for several years — a 
thoughtful, intellectual take on a topic that 
has become hotter than hot. "Design" is now 
a buzzword, an intangible "something" that 
distinguishes one product from another, at- 
tracting attention and customers. Many vol- 
umes on product and industrial design were 
listed among the century-retrospective books 
that came out last year. Not long ago, the only 
publications featuring design trends and pro- 
ducts on their covers were art- or advertising- 
oriented, but now Time magazine has put a 
mass-media stamp on the concept, featuring 
"The Rebirth of Design" on its cover two 


weeks after the National Design Triennial 
opened. And while the most au courant con- 
sumer products were once available only to a 
few and at a premium, the past few years have 
seen a democratization of design, with the lat- 
est concepts — from teapots to toilet brushes 
— arriving at such mass-market retailers as 
Target and Ikea almost as quickly as at expen- 
sive and exclusive showrooms. 

Gomez has been tracking, documenting, 
and participating in design trends for many 
years, from the multiple perspectives of au- 
thor, teacher, critic, and designer. He earned a 
master's in communications design at New 
York's Pratt Institute, where he has taught in 
recent years. Once a senior editor at Metro- 
politan Home magazine, he has written on art 
and design for many publications, including 
ARTNews and The New York Times. He is 
contributing to a book that will accompany a 
retrospective of Yoko Ono's art and, from his 
design studio in Hudson, New York, he edits 
and publishes The Hudson River Herald, a 
small environmental-issues newspaper. 

All of these occupations and preoccupa- 
tions come up in a lengthy conversation at a 

small neighborhood diner in the Carnegie Hill 
neighborhood of New York's Upper East Side, 
just a few blocks from the Cooper-Hewitt. 
Gomez is clearly passionate about his sub- 
jects, intensely interested in the many ramifi- 
cations of developments in the design world, 
and spins out his thoughts in long, discursive 
sentences. From time to time he'll fork up a 
few leaves of his Greek salad, but that forkful is 
likely to remain suspended for a minute or two 
while he finishes making a point. Copies of the 
inaugural issue of The Hudson River Herald lie 
on the table with copies of design magazines, 
which he occasionally leafs through in search 
of something to illustrate his thoughts. 

Many of those thoughts have emerged from 
his most recently completed book project, which 
charts current developments in the topic at 
hand. The four-volume New Design series 
(Rockport, 1999) takes a global look at what 
Gomez considers to be some of the best work 
from Paris, Tokyo, London, and Los Angeles 
during the past several years. Each book has 
its own tone, mirroring that of each city — con- 
sumerism in Los Angeles, cultural concerns 
in Paris, pop elements in Tokyo, and a sense 

May-June 2000 

Gomez has been {racking, documenting, and 
participating in design trends for many years, 
from the multiple perspectives of author, 
teacher, critic, and designer. 

of an energetic hybrid of all three in London. 

When this is pointed out to Gomez, he re- 
sponds both as critic and teacher. "Imme- 
diately you hit upon something that I think 
design historians right now are watching with 
great interest. Given the prevalence of the 
computer, which has become the single most 
powerful tool in all the design arts, there's 
some concern among creative people that 
maybe the visual language of design will be- 
come more homogenized around the world," 
he says. "But local stylistic tradition and local 
aesthetic ideas are very strong and resilient 
sometimes, and the conditions in which design 
is produced still vary from place to place. " 

This idea of a local sensibility guarantees 
that the Paris book and the Tokyo book could 
never be mistaken for each other, and Gomez 
is keenly aware of the distinctive influences in 
each culture that keep design fresh and differ- 
ent from place to place. 

In New Design: Paris, for example, he notes 
in the introduction that there is a strong link 
between graphic design and fine art, with ad- 
vertising posters drawing attention to "every- 
thing from clothes and dairy products to film 
festivals and social services." Indeed, France 

has long been known for the affiche culturelle, 
the poster that announces cultural events; 
these posters continue to showcase the best 
of the country's graphic design work. 

New Design: Tokyo, on the other hand, ex- 
amines what Gomez calls "the strong and 
distinctive Japanese design sensibility," and 
particularly the impact felt on Japanese design 
when the Apple Macintosh was introduced in 
the 1980s. While designers around the world 
use the computer as a tool, "what Japanese 
designers do with it and bring to it may differ 
considerably" from Western designers, he writes. 
The energetic, pop-art use of color and ani- 
mation that sometimes looks like "daunting 
visual clutter" to the uninitiated Western eye 
can instead be completely clear to the Japan- 
ese audience. And what we see as irony might 
instead come from a pure sense of fun. 

Today's London is held up in its New Design 
entry as a source of creative energy and en- 
thusiasm that "is helping to build a vision of 
the much-ballyhooed 'new' Europe with more 
ingenuity and flair than even some longtime 
Britain-watchers may recognize," Gomez 
writes. Whether through the work of inven- 
tive typographers in the magazine field, the 

Looking four-ward: Each book in Gomez's series 
captures the distinct energy of its subject city 

thriving of post-graduate design programs and 
small design studios, or the support of govern- 
ment cultural initiatives, London design has 
helped "raise consciousness" on a public scale 
"about what visual communication, at its best, 
can and should be — and what it can and 
should do." 

Consumerism, in entertainment and mer- 
chandising, lies at the heart of New Design: 
Los Angeles. Bright labels for sacks of pancake 
mix or cosmetics bottles lie just pages away 
from trade -show displays and website ban- 
ners. Restaurant signage and catering compa- 
ny logotypes jostle up against CD packaging 
and television commercial layouts. In the j 
introduction, Gomez points out the hold the 
desktop computer now has on graphic design 
and the innovations it has enabled since the 
Macintosh was introduced and designers 
began blending "traditional (now old-fash- 


ioned) photomechanical techniques of print 
production with the new digital technology's 
abilities" to manipulate and compose text and 
images and pages. It is also taking design into 
the fourth dimension, as websites add time 
and motion to the artistic landscape of visual 

While the computer may enable new levels 
of creativity and cross-cultural discourse, Go- 
mez says it can sometimes cause a decline in 
overall aesthetic quality. "On the one hand, it's 
not true that just because you have a comput- 
er, you're instantly a graphic designer. On the 
other hand, the fact that the desktop com- 
puter now is as powerful as it is allows even 
the casual typist to create documents that 
include charts and graphs, photographic 
images, drawings, and color. In some ways it 
enables the individual in a way that typists at 


notes. You have to be at the top of your form. " 
Instead, what Gomez says he sees happening 
frequently is "people who think it's really cool 
to do something outrageous because of the 
dramatic, theatrical flair to it, and because the 
computer allows them to. But while it might 
look good, it can be very hollow, superficial." 
What's more, he says, not only does the com- 
puter allow designers to get away with this 
superficiality, but it can also reinforce a cre- 
ativity-stifling idea that there is just one way 
to achieve an effect. "Many times, the com- 
puter software that designers are using actually 
compels them to do certain things in a certain 
way," he says. "That's not to say you can't reap 
very creative rewards just from playing around 
with it — it's a tool, after all. But who's in 
charge, creatively? We're starting to see a lot of 
design that evokes the look of what designers 
have come to assume computer-generated de- 
should look like." 
Finally, Gomez says he sees design schools 
themselves as a possible part of the problem, 
bypassing technical skills or historical back- 
ground because "students now have to spend 
so much time learning to use the computer — 
learning the latest up-to-date software pro- 
grams for making graphic design. " 

There is an antidote, however: teaching 
students and full-fledged designers to realize 
that the computer is just one of the tools in their 
kit. "Before one can really make a good, artistic, 
effective, communicative statement in the 
language of graphic design, whether they use 
a computer or a pencil and a straight edge, they 
need the culture of design, what I call the cul- 
ture and the knowledge of design. That's why 
in design education we need to be including 
design history and design aesthetics as very, 
very core components of a design curriculum. " 

Gomez says this grounding in history and 
aesthetics should be accompanied by a con- 
tinued willingness to turn away from the 
computer during the design process. He uses 
one of the designers featured in New Design: 
London to illustrate his point. Ian Swift, a 
typographer and art director whose profes- 
sional name is Swifty, "talks about the distinc- 
tion between the analog and the digital, and 
he emphasizes that for him, the computer is 
indeed merely a tool. He's very capable of 
using it, and he recognizes its tremendous 
power. But he says he works out the bulk of 
his design on paper, and in his head, in hand- 
made sketches, whatever it takes, before 
going to the computer to execute the final 
version. He'll photocopy something — he'll 
photocopy it twenty times. He'll sit on it, step 
on it, rub it, smudge it. What he believes in is 
what I would call 'the touch of the hand.' " 

There are times when Swifty will bypass the 

Stylish service: Color saturation makes electrical 
tools from the Fluke Corporation stand out in an 
industrial crowd; attention to detail brings a hand- 
made feel to music industry ephemera 

the beginning of the century, when typewriters 
were still new, could never have imagined. 

"So, suddenly everybody is enabled, to a cer- 
tain degree, because of the tools. It becomes 
more imperative than ever to really prepare 
people who want to do professional- quality 
graphic design, to equip them with the know- 
ledge that they need to undertake that work. " 

What the leading talents in the book series 
have in common is a thorough understanding 
of the basics of design — knowing the rules 
before they begin breaking them. Gomez has 
taught such rules in his courses at Pratt, from 
centuries-old French guidelines for arranging 
type on a page to strict modernist principles 
about the use of color and space. "I compare it 
to a really good jazz musician," he says. "A good 
jazz musician improvising will sprinkle a piece 
with so-called 'blue notes' that are off-key but 
sound right in the context of whatever that per- 
formance might be. They sound perfect — 
they're not wrong notes, they're right wrong 
notes, and it's hard to play the right wrong 

May-June 2000 

computer altogether, says Gomez, and will cre- 
ate a logotype or typeface entirely by hand. 
"It's very simple, very beautiful, and it's that 
understanding of the power of simplicity that 
I think makes him a good designer. Part of that 
is intuitive — that's where the artistry comes 
through. But part of it is that he understands 
the technical concerns, such as composition, 
balance, weight, color, all these things. Those 
are skills. Those can be taught. " 

Swifty is collaborating on one of Gomez's 
other projects, a new series of books. "One of 
them is what I call 'the big book' — Spirit: The 
New Art of Design," he says. "Swifty is inter- 
preting my text visually, so the book is really 
going to be a visual essay. What I'm looking at 
is what I'm calling expressions of a new sense 
of humanism in the visual arts and design 
arts — art and design work that expresses 
some kind of spiritual value, that does reveal 
that 'touch of the hand,' that is unabashed in 
its presentation and celebration of craftsman- 
ship, technical skill, emotional expression, 
attention to spiritual values. 

"I'm interested in work that says something 
about or provokes some awareness of what it 
means to be human. And I say all that not as 
some kind of neoconservative reactionary 
who is dissing postmodernist critical theory, 
but as someone who feels that hardcore post- 
modernist critical theory, which has reigned 

supreme in the visual and design arts now for 
several decades, is exhausted. It has devolved 
into a merely superficial style — at least as it 
is practiced by the less design-literate creative 
people in the visual and design arts for whom 
it is nothing more than a style." 

New work contains "a lot of attention to 
the body. There's more and more overtly spir- 
itual references." And in Gomez's thinking, 
"spiritual" is not necessarily limited to "reli- 
gious." There is the idea of moral value, which 
includes responsibility and accuracy in com- 
municating a design, and also a more abstract 
but no less important notion of the artist's 
creation of beauty, and the audience's re- 
sponse to that creation. "I was walking out in 
this snowstorm, and a snowflake fell in my 
mouth and melted on my tongue," he says. 
"And I thought, wow, that's a haiku waiting to 
be written, and I was very moved by that 
poetic moment, and the awareness that I had 
at that moment of being alive. I know that 
sounds very hokey, but I was very simply aware 
of that, and I thought, where is the art that 
evokes that kind of experience that I just had? 
That snowflake, dissolving on my tongue as I 
walked across the street — show me something 
that gets that kind of response. Not another 
smirky, wise -guy, ironic commentary on how 
the mass media manipulates my thinking; I 
know that already. That's old news." 

Instead, Gomez envisions a new design 
frontier, a place where technical skills and 
that spiritual "touch of the hand" come 
together. "I would say that what's really cut- 
ting-edge now is not only well-versed and 
design-literate, coming from a strong knowl- 
edge of what design is and has been and can 
be, but in some cases bucks the prevailing 
trends, too — stylistically, technically, in terms 
of theory and in terms of attitude. " 

To illustrate this notion, he points to his 
work on The Hudson River Herald, the small 
newspaper he started publishing in response 
to the civic and environmental threats he saw 
to his hometown and the Hudson River 
Valley by a proposed cement plant. He says 
he designed the paper "very consciously to 
evoke the look of the eighteenth- century, 
nineteenth-century broadsheet. It's not com- 
pletely or intentionally a nostalgia trip, be- 
cause if you look at the design, it's a very con- 
temporary interpretation of a look that never 
intended to be 'a style.' I wanted to evoke the 
spirit of that community-based, community- 
service -oriented journalism, rooted in the tra- 
dition of the printer-publisher-writer- educa- 
tor- community servant- town crier, all of 
those rolled into one. Yet I wanted to update 
it for our times." 

That kind of update, a return to humanism 
that still looks toward the future, delights Go- 

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I'm interested 


work that 
something al 


o u 1 

awareness ot 
what it means 
be human." 

mez by turning up in much of 
the new work at the Cooper- 
Hewitt, where the Triennial 
does much to bear out his cur- 
rent thinking on what design 
should be trying to accom- 

At one point, he stands Or prOVOKCS SOIDe 
before a wall covered in busi- f 

ness cards, promotional mate- 
rials, and CD covers, the work 
of Arizona designer Bruce 
Licher for the band R.E.M. 
and others in the independent 
music industry, all looking like 
they'd come from a job-printer 
using an old letterpress. "See, this is interest- 
ing," he says, comparing the evocative, infor- 
mative yet comfortable feel of the publicity 
work with his goals and standards for his 
newspaper. He sees more evidence in numer- 
ous entries: architectural models from Auburn 
University's Rural Studio, where under- 
graduate architecture students work on pro- 
jects for low-income families while using na- 
tural or recycled materials and organic forms; 
rough-textured wall-panel studies from the 
redesign of the National Museum of American 
Folk Art, which Gomez calls "unabashed" and 
"adventuresome"; and the Web work of the 
design firm Funny Garbage, whose own web- 

site features compilations of 
sketches and scraps and 
scribbles in sourcebooks, 
bringing to mind the anal- 
ogous office -bulletin-board 
collages of design leg- 
ends Charles and Ray 

After a thorough im- 
mersion in the exhibit, 
Gomez walks a few rainy 
blocks to a nearby coffee 
shop, where he discusses 
the Triennial and its rele- 
vance to his current con- 
cerns. "It's encouraging in 
two senses. One, as a writer, because it vindi- 
cates my assumption, based on earlier 
research, that there's a story there. And, sec- 
ond, because on a personal level I want to see 
that the kind of work I'm interested in is 
indeed being produced. Because I think it's 
valuable and necessary, I'm glad to see that 
some people are exploring those themes and 
bringing work forward that explores those 
themes. " 

Sipping hot tea, he returns to the example 
of the complex shopping-cart prototype, with 
its lift-out baskets and comfortable use, and 
the other examples of ergonomic design em- 
bodied by everything from toothbrush to 

office chair. Paying attention to ergonomics, 
for instance, "was an attempt to be socially 
responsible, responsible to real human needs 
— which is valid because it's the flip side of 
design that comes from a more doctrinaire 
aesthetic point of view, that tries to make the 
designed object just about style." 

So, even as a first glance at the design tri- 
ennial echoes John Ruskin and the Metro- 
politan Museum's Art Nouveau exhibit in a 
celebration of the organic and the nature - 
influenced, design culture now has left super- 
ficial style far behind. The same colorful, 
curvy Swingline staplers and Oral-B tooth- 
brushes on display at the Cooper-Hewitt are 
available at every corner store. Apple's iMacs 
are found more and more on sleek office 
workstations. We buy Michael Graves-de- 
signed kitchenware at Target, climb into funky 
Volkswagens and Toyotas, make cookies with 
ergonomic Black and Decker hand mixers, 
and sit down to work and relax in body-em- 
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May-June 2000 





"Spiritual questions are too important to 

life and death to ignore any longer. 

Medicine has come to the slow realization 

that we really do have to treat the whole person. 


In matters of convenience and necessity, we 
tend to be accustomed to, and accepting of, 
the pervasive power of technology. That's 
certainly the case for medical care. In con- 
temporary culture, technology is the great 
healer, and when it comes to medical care, 
our faith in technology may trump our faith 
in faith. 

But thinking has shifted a bit, perhaps shifted 
back to earlier notions, since religious expres- 
sion was long considered basic to care for the 
sick and dying. Duke now has an Institute on 
Care at the End of Life, along with a Health 
and Nursing Ministries program. A third pro- 
gram, run by the Center for the Study of Re- 
ligion, Spirituality, and Health, probes whether 
religious faith helps us live longer, healthier 
lives, and explores whether faith can heal ill- 
ness. Why these programs, and why now? 
According to Harvey Cohen, chief of geri- 
atrics and director of Duke's Center for the 
Study of Aging and Human Development, the 
answer is profoundly simple. "Spiritual ques- 
tions are too important to life and death to 
ignore any longer. Medicine has come to the 
slow realization that we really do have to 
treat the whole person. " 

Treating the whole person, then, would in- 
clude religion as part of a patient treatment 
plan. But this is an idea that raises many ques- 
tions. Can we — or should we — use religious 
faith to heal or even prevent illness? In the 
context of twenty-first- century medicine, 
thinking about religious faith in such a way 
may seem archaic, even ignorant. Many 
physicians who are willing to accept discus- 
sions of faith at bedside would balk at using 
faith for treatment and prevention. That kind 
of thinking is for shamans and faith healers, 
they argue, and should be kept far away from 
the fluorescent-lit linoleum of modern hospi- 
tals. But Shelly Cole would say those naysay- 
ers are wrong. 

At thirty-five, Cole had suffered mental ill- 
ness most of her life. She was sexually abused 
as a child, and growing up, one of her prayers 
had been, "Lord, just let me go to sleep and 
die." She married, then divorced an abusive 

man who often threatened her with a .38 
revolver. Long bouts of depression prevented 
her from finishing a music degree at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In 
1995, she attempted suicide and was hospital- 
ized for a year. Doctors from Duke Medical 
Center prescribed increasing doses of antide- 
pressant medication, but Cole made only 
marginal progress. 

Finally, after ten months, Cole was granted 
a weekend pass from the hospital to attend a 
religious retreat with her sister. That weekend 
began a religious conversion that Cole says 
gave her insight into the meaning of her life- 
long pain. She became convinced that God 
had a plan for her to help others and, with a 
newfound hope and sense of purpose, her 
symptoms seemed to evaporate in a short 
time. Not long after her conversion, doctors 
released her from the hospital. She stopped 
taking antidepressants "cold turkey" and be- 
gan substituting long, meditative prayer and 
Scripture readings for the drugs. She experi- 
enced no withdrawal and no relapse. She 
joined a church and, in 1998, won its annual 
award for most active community volunteer. 
Today, Cole is convinced her chronic illness 
has been vanquished by faith. 

Did faith heal Shelly Cole? Psychiatrist 
Harold Koenig says it's definitely possible. 
Koenig has studied patients like Cole for 
nearly two decades, trying to determine the 
impact of religious life on physical and emo- 
tional health. He recently published his find- 
ings in the book The Healing Power of Faith: 
Science Explores Medicine's Last Great Frontier 
(Simon & Schuster, 1999). 

Koenig came to Duke in 1986 after training 
in family medicine at the University of Mis- 
souri. While at Missouri, he frequently en- 
countered patients whose strong religious faith 
seemed to affect them in surprising ways: An 
alcoholic he thought was beyond salvaging 
relied on faith to recover; an elderly couple 
enmeshed in marital difficulties found spiritu- 
al joy and closeness despite their problems. 
His conversations with such patients led him 
to renew his own commitment to God in his 

May-June 2000 

thirties. "I became more and more religious as 
I was listening to what people were saying. It 
made me think, 'This is something real' " 

As a medical researcher, he wanted to ex- 
plain the phenomenon in rigorous scientific 
terms. That quest became what he now consid- 
ers his life's work. But well into the mid- 1980s, 
there was still a high wall between science 
and religion, and Koenig says he was labeled 
as "something of a freak" for his research. 
Psychiatry in particular remained heavily 
influenced by Freud's view that religion was a 
crutch for people who couldn't deal with the 
reality of the world; or as psychologist Albert 
Ellis put it, "religious belief is akin to an emo- 
tional disturbance. ..a disease infested with 
'shoulds' and 'oughts' and admonitions of 
guilt. " Some colleagues told Koenig he was 
committing professional suicide. He saw him- 
self merely asking simple, practical questions. 

"I just wanted to bring to light what I 
thought was a truth," says Koenig. "How could 
you be a family doctor and not know what 
gave a patient's life meaning and purpose?" 

"In those days, residents and med students 
were taught that it was unethical to discuss re- 
ligion with patients," says David Larson, presi- 
dent of the National Institute for Healthcare 
Research, a nonprofit group dedicated to inves- 
tigating the religion-health connection. "There 
is still some nervousness even now, so this field 
needed a solid research. Harold has really set 
the standard in terms of quality and focus." 

Other prominent physician-researchers 
have studied spirituality's effect on health, 
including Herbert Benson of Harvard's Mind- 
Body Medical Institute and Larry Dossey, the 
author of Healing Words, a book on the power 
of prayer. Benson focuses on the body's physi- 
ological response to meditation and spiritual 
calm. Dossey invokes both Western and Eastern 
religion in his survey of prayer's role in healing. 
But under Koenig's direction, the Duke Cen- 
ter for the Study of Religion, Spirituality, and 
Health became the first to focus on the im- 
pact of traditional religious faith and practice. 

In the last fifteen years, Koenig has led 
more than twenty-five research projects and 
published scores of articles on the effects of 
religious life on health. During that time, 
numerous other investigators have hopped 
on the holy bandwagon. Only 7 percent of 
nearly 300 studies in the past fifteen years 
suggest evidence that religious practices harm 
health, mostly in cases where "faith-healing" 
congregations resist medical care. More than 
75 percent of the mounting body of research 
suggests that religion positively influences 
health. According to these groundbreaking 
findings, people of faith — those who regular- 
ly attend church services, pray, and read 
scripture — are: 

• More likely to have lower blood pressure 
and stronger immune systems; 


Future historians will judge 
the moral worth of the 
baby-boom generation by 
the way it cares for the sick, 
frail, and elderly, said Ira R. 
Byock, M.D., a panelist at the 
inaugural symposium of Duke's 
new Institute on Care at the 
End of Life. "Opening Doors: 
Access to Care at the End of 
Life" attracted more than 300 
participants from around the 
country in March. 

Unless this challenge is 
addressed, Byock foresees "a 
negative change in social and 
cultural history that will be as 
profound as the Dark Ages. We 
could potentially be looking at 
human warehouses that would 
make the nursing homes of 
today look like luxury hotels." 

Medical ethicist William F. 
May said the rise in medical 
costs — which, since World War 
II, have risen from 4.5 percent 
to 14 percent of the GNP — and 
the current shift to managed 
care means that doctors spend 
less time with patients, as litde 
as eight minutes in some set- 
tings. May called the result the 
"Disneyfication" of medicine. 
"Walt Disney's solution to the 
chronic costs of his theme 
parks — expensive real estate, 
equipment, personnel — was to 
process people fast The same 
thing is happening in our 
health-care system." Instead, 
May said, caregivers should 
strive to "honor each person's 
dying and accompany it" 

May listed three classical 
virtues requisite for that task: 
prudence, fidelity, and public 
spiritedness. Prudence, which 
he described as discernment or 
attentiveness, requires that both 
the patient and caregivers "take 
in what's out there to offer a fit- 
ting and appropriate response." 
Fidelity entails caregiving that is 
disinterested, a concept at odds 
with the marketplace. The care- 
givers' interests "should be 
trumped by the interests of the 
patient," as he put it "Doctors 
have tended to think of them- 
selves as Lone Rangers appear- 
ing out of nowhere and disap- 
pearing into nowhere in offer- 
ing their solitary services to help 
the patient" Public spiritedness 
calls for "health-care practition- 
ers who act in concert with oth- 
ers for the public good." 

The medical establishment 
itself is a major barrier to im- 
proving end-of-life care, said 
Kathleen M. Foley. An attend- 
ing neurologist in the Pain and 
Palliative Care Service at 
Memorial Sloan-Kettering 
Cancer Center in New York, 
Foley is also director of the 

Project on Death in America. 
"Physicians and all health-care 
professionals lack knowledge in 
the care of the dying," she told 
the "Opening Doors" audience. 
"We have very good data to sug- 
gest that they inadequately 
assess and treat pain, inade- 
quately assess and treat psycho- 
logical distress, and have litde 
understanding of the spiritual 
needs of patients." 

"Unless we can offer some 
sort of care and support for the 
family, as patients become sick- 
er and sicker, people and society 
are looking at ending life 
abruptly," said Nessa Coyle, a 
nurse who directs the Suppor- 
tive Care Program, Pain and 
Palliative Care Services, at Me- 
morial Sloan-Kettering. The 
care of very sick individuals is 
primarily provided by one or 
two people, usually women, she 
said. "What could be a time of 
growth and fulfillment and 
putting a life into perspective 
[instead] can become a very 
destructive period. Family 
members are exhausted because 
of lack of support, lack of un- 
derstanding of how to care for 
symptoms, lack of attention to 
details to the process of dying." 

Panelist Arthur Frank, a med- 
ical sociologist and cancer sur- 
vivor, said that managed care's 
shift of "more and more respon- 
sibility for the ill person onto 
the family, and utterly euphem- 
istically onto the community," 
comes- at an incredible cost 
"Now that society is organized 
into two-income families and 
nuclear-family housing, to off- 

load the care of the sick and 
elderly onto families is simply 

Research data reveal that a 
significant group of people lack 
access to hospice and palliative 
care, including minority groups, 
the elderly, those with less edu- 
cation, and those who are cog- 
nitively impaired. Panelist Judi 
Lund Person, president and 
chief executive officer of Hospice 
for the Carolinas, said that only 
20 percent of the U.S. population 
gets hospice care. Since death 
"happens to 100 percent of us," 
she said, "one of our challenges 
is to allow more people access." 

In the discussion, Duke's 
Karla Holloway, dean of the 
humanities and social sciences 
and professor of English and 
African-American literature, 
said the structure of the inter- 
disciplinary institute illustrates a 
comprehensive approach to 
"complex public-policy and cul- 
tural issues, as well as the medi- 
cal and ethical issues." 

The Institute on Care at the 
End of Life, based at the Di- 
vinity School, includes repre- 
sentatives of Duke's schools of 
medicine, nursing, and divinity, 
as well as the School of Social 
Work at the University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill and 
North Carolina Central Univer- 
sity in Durham. 

— Elisabeth Stagg 

Stagg is associate director of com- 
munications for Duke's Divinity 

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• Hospitalized much less often than non- 
religious people; 

• Less likely to suffer depression from 
stressful life events, and if they do, are more 
likely to recover; 

• More likely to live longer and be physi- 
cally healthier into later life, in part because 
religious people tend to avoid unhealthy ha- 
bits like alcohol and drug abuse or risky sexu- 
al behavior. 

Faith also seems to protect the elderly from 
cardiovascular disease and cancer. In terms of 
survival and longevity, Koenig says, "Religion 
may be as significant as not smoking. " 

Though the findings are impressive, crit- 
ics say it is still too early to conclude that 
faith is a medical elixir. "These types of 
studies do not demonstrate an absolute causal 
relationship," says Dan Blazer, dean of medi- 
cal education at Duke. "They really just give 
us correlations that provide good leads. " 

Skeptics argue that faith-health research 
studies are littered with too many "confounds," 
such factors as age, sex, socioeconomic status, 
education, and genetic differences that are 
never completely controlled for, despite the 
best experimental design. Keith Meador ad- 
mires Koenig as a colleague, but criticizes his 
research for ignoring subtle questions of con- 
text. "Take, for example, the form question: 
'Is religion important to you?' " says Meador, a 
psychiatry professor in the medical school 
and a professor of pastoral theology and medi- 
cine at the Duke Divinity School. "When a 
person in a cross-sectional survey says, 'Yes, 
religion is important to me,' how do you in- 
terpret that?" Meador proposes that such an- 
swers are meaningless without knowledge of a 
subject's history and environmental context. 
"Research is interpret