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ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ABRAMS CREEK 
IN THE GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS 
NATIONAL PARK 

MANAGEMENT REPORT NO. 28 



U.S. DEPARTMENT of the INTERIOR 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



SOUTHEAST REGION 



NATURAL SCIENCE & RESEARC 





ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ABRAMS CREEK 
IN THE GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS 
NATIONAL PARK 

MANAGEMENT REPORT NO. 28 



OCTOBER 1978 



Raymond C. Mathews, Jr. 
Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Southeast Region 
Uplands Field Research Laboratory 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
Twin Creeks Area 
Gatlinburg, TN 37738 



ABSTRACT 

Abrams Creek represents a unique resources management problem within 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Because of the management 
program in Cades Cove and past land practices, the quality of 
water in Abrams Creek has existed in a degraded state for many 
years. The National Park Service developed a land management 
program in 1967 designed to maintain the historic integrity of 
Cades Cove. The open aspect of the farm fields and meadows in 
Cades Cove were to be preserved as a background for interpreting 
the historic structures and features of the pioneer culture as it 
existed when the park was established. To maintain the fields in 
an efficient manner, the park allowed leasees to harvest hay and 
graze cattle under special use permits. This program is still 
used at the present time but is currently being reconsidered by 
park management due to the impacts of cattle and hay harvesting on 
the Abrams Creek drainage. 

Cattle grazing in Cades Cove has increased streambank erosion, 
siltation, nutrient enrichment, temperature regimes, eutrophication, 
and productivity in Abrams Creek. This study investigated the 
water quality of Abrams Creek using chemical - physical parameters, 
benthic macroinvertebrate community structure analyses, fish 
population surveys, periphytic diatom indicators, and enteric 



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bacterial contamination analyses. These analyses showed that 
Abrams Creek improved ecologically since the reduction of the Cades 
Cove cattle herd from 1,200 to 500 head and a fencing program that 
excludes cattle from all but a few select watering and wading sites 
on Abrams Creek and its tributaries. A program to reduce streambank 
erosion by planting seedlings was not successful due to heavy deer 
browsing and hoof damage by cattle. Nevertheless, the water 
quality of Abrams Creek is probably better than it has been for 
many years. Yet, there is room for more improvement while still 
maintaining the historical features of the Cove. 



11 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

LIST OF FIGURES iv 

LIST OF TABLES vi 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix 

INTRODUCTION 1 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 10 

RESULTS 34 

DISCUSSION Ill 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 140 

LITERATURE CITED 149 

APPENDIX 155 



li l 



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LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure Page 

1 Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) . 2 

2 Abrams Creek and Tributaries, Cades Cove, 

GRSM 3 

3 Cades Cove Area 4 

4 Sampling Schematic 13 

5 Typical fecal colif orm/f ecal 

streptococcus bacterial (FC/FS) ratios ... 31 

6 Turbidity 41 

7 Suspended solids 42 

8 Conductivity 43 

9 Total acidity 44 

10 Total alkalinity 45 

11 Total hardness 46 

12 Nitrate (N0 3 ) 47 

13 Ortho-Phosphate (PO^) 48 

14 B0D 5 49 

15 pH 50 

16 Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) 51 

17 Volume of flow 52 

18 Fishery dynamics (abundance) for 

selected stations on Abrams Creek 90 

19 Fishery dynamics (biomass) for 

selected stations on Abrams Creek 91 

20 Total coliform bacteria 96 

21 Fecal coliform bacteria 97 



IV 



Figure Page 

22 Fecal colif orm/f ecal streptococcus 

(FC/FS) bacterial ratios 98 

23 Fecal colif orm/f ecal streptococcus 

(FC/FS) bacterial ratios 99 

24 Re coram ended limits of total fecal 
coliform bacteria 100 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table Page 

1 Historical sketch of the management and 
management-oriented research program in 
the Abrams Creek watershed 9 



2 Chemical - physical parameters and 
instrumentation or methods used for analysis ... 12 

3 Analysis of variance (F-test) for comparisons 
of satellite-associated water quality data 

and ground-proof checks for Abrams Creek 40 

Summary of benthic macroinvertebrate community 
analyses for collections at each sampling 
station from Abrams and Mill Creeks : 

4 April 1974 59 

5 July 1974 60 

6 February 1977 61 

7 March 1977 63 

8 May 1977 65 

9 July 1977 67 

Importance values of major taxa collected at 
each station from Abrams and Mill Creeks: 

10 April 1974 69 

11 July 1974 70 

12 February 1977 71 

13 March 1977 72 

14 May 1977 73 

15 July 1977 74 

16 Ranges (R) and averages (x) of benthic 
macroinvertebrate community analysis for 
collections of ecological zones from Abrams 

and Mill Creeks - 1974 and 1977 75 

vi 



\ 

I 

i 



Table Page 

17 Similarity indices (SI) between benthic 
communities, Abrams Creek, April thru July, 

1974 77 

18 Similarity indices (SI) between benthic 
communities, Abrams Creek, February thru 

July, 1977 78 

19 Analysis of variance (F-test) for comparisons 
of macro invertebrate community parameters for 
Abrams Creek 79 

20 Checklist of the benthic macroinvertebrates 
collected from Abrams Creek, all months: 

April through July 1974 81 

21 Checklist of benthic macroinvertebrates 
collected from Abrams Creek, all months: 

February through July 1977 85 

22 Species list of fish captured from Abrams 

Creek - August through September 1977 89 

23 Fishery survey of Abrams Creek - July 1972 

through August 1974 92 

24 Fishery survey of Abrams Creek - August 

through September, 1977 93 

25 Fecal streptococcus colonies per 100 
milliliters of water sampled at selected 
stations on Abrams Creek and tributaries, 

1977 101 

26 Fecal coliform colonies per 100 
millileters of water sampled at selected 
sations on Abrams Creek and tributaries, 

1977 102 

27 Total coliform colonies per 100 
milliliters of water sampled at selected 
stations on Abrams Creek and 

tributaries, 1977 103 

Abrams Creek diatom data - May 1977. Those 

with a relative abundance of 5 percent or 

greater are listed for each collection 106 



VI 1 



Table Page 

29 Abrams Creek diatom data - June 1977. 
Those with a relative abundance of 

5 percent or greater are listed for 

each collection 107 

30 Ecological profile of diatoms 
collected from Abrams Creek - IJLay 

through June, 1977 108 



vm 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I wish to thank all those persons who assisted in this project. 
Several agencies and universities were involved in the program: 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Tennessee Water Quality Control, 
Tennessee Valley Authority, Tennessee Technological University, 
and the University of Tennessee. 

Special thanks are due to Jackie Klausmeyer, who assisted with 
field collections and laboratory analysis throughout the survey. 
Wayne Williams was instrumental in setting up a water quality 
laboratory and offering advice on chemical - physical procedures. 
Lynda Powell and David Rector spent many hours picking and sorting 
benthic organisms and assisted in field collections. 

Allan Kelly and Pete Crittenden helped with field work, provided 
much-needed equipment, and offered helpful advice. David Etnier, 
Bruce Bauer, Bill Wolfe, and Noel Burkhead helped with identification 
of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates. Parley Winger offered 
helpful advice and lent equipment for field collections. Bill 
Winn, Eric Morgan, and Jim Jardosky provided assistance with 
computer application of the benthos program. Kathy Cheap, Dick 
Bryant, Maryanne Merritt, Eric Grigsley, Bill Dickenson, David 
Silsbee, Gary Larson, Polly Rooker, John Harris, Bruce Bauer, 



IX 



Douglas Peterson, Susan Bratton, and others helped with the fish 
electroshocking survey. 

Raymond Herrmann and Susan Bratton provided logistical support 
and advice throughout the project. Susan Bratton identified the 
need for an intensive ecological survey of Abrams Creek. Ray 
Burge provided technical support to the satellite telemetry 
program under the direction of Raymond Herrmann. 

Mike Meyers and Frank Claibo, who have been responsible for 
resource management in Cades Cove, helped relate to the many 
aspects of management of the Cove. Rex Caughron, who owns the 
cattle in Cades Cove, identified many aspects of cattle management 
there despite the effect this report might have on his livelihood. 

Special thanks to the entire Uplands Laboratory staff, who reviewed 
the manuscript and gave many helpful suggestions. 

Finally, I would like to express my appreciation to my wife, 
Theresa, who helped with initial field collections as well as 
picking and sorting benthic macroinvertebrates and gave support 
and encouragement throughout the survey. 



INTRODUCTION 

Abrams Creek is located in the western portion of the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park (Fig. 1). The creek flows in a 
westerly direction, passing through Cades Cove before draining 
into Chilhowee Lake on the border of the park (Fig. 2). The 
stream flows for about six miles in the Cove (Fig. 3) , 
passing through pasture areas and dropping approximately 250 
feet in elevation. 

Cades Cove is a historical pastoral area of about 1,800 acres in 
the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Before the Cove was 
opened to settlement, it was part of the Cherokee Indian Nation 
and remained undeveloped. Dense forest probably prevented or 

slowed the meandering rate of Abrams Creek through the Cove. 
The Cove was homesteaded in 1821 by pioneers attracted to the 

area because, unlike most of the land in the Smoky Mountains, it 

was flat and relatively fertile. The trees in the Cove were 

removed by burning and girdling and then replaced with crops 

and orchards. Cattle were kept at the Cove in winter, but they 

were grazed in summer on open fields (balds) on the tops of 

mountains adjacent to the Cove. The pioneer community which 

developed in the Cove had a peak population of 685 people in 1850. 

Extensive logging operations in Cades Cove were dominated by 

the Little River Lumber Company after the turn of the century 

(1908 - 1936). They logged up all major streams draining into 



CHILHOWEE 
LAKE 




QALDERWO 
LAKE 



FIGURE 1. GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK, SHOWING 



ABRAMS CREEK, CADES COVE AREA, AND ADJACENT RESERVOIRS 



FIGURE 2 ABRAMS CREEK AND TRIBUTARIES , CADES COVE 
G.S.M.N.P, SHOWING SAMPLE STATIONS* 




* SATELLITE STATION INDICATED BY © 



FIGURE 3 CADES COVE AREA SHOWING CAMPGROUND. 
PICNIC AREA, RESIDENCES, SEWAGE LAGOON , CABLE 
MILL, WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY, PASTURES AND 
ROADS 




Road 
Unpavad Roaa 

Stream 
— m-k «. a a Pasture 



the Cove, accelerating erosion and siltation in the watershed 
(Murless and Stallings, 1973). The pioneer community and all 
logging operations were abandoned when the Cove came under the 
jurisdiction of the National Park Service as part of the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park in 1936 (Shields 1977). 

Since the Park Service assumed managerial responsibilities for 
Cades Cove, Abrams Creek and its tributaries have been the subject 
of several management and management-oriented research programs 
(Table 1). In 1937, sheet and gully erosion in the Cove was 
attributed to heavy rainfall, improper farming, and overgrazing. 
To combat these problems, stream banks were sloped and mulched. 
But it was not until 1946 that a land management plan for the 
Cove was developed by the National Park Service in cooperation 
with the Soil Conservation Service. For about 20 years this 
program resulted in some stream channels cleared of trees 
and shrubs, while others were straightened. These actions did 
not entirely solve the erosion problems, however. 

In 1967 a new park management program was developed for Cades 
Cove. The objective of the program was to maintain the open 
aspect of the fields in order to provide a background for 
interpretation of the historic structures and features of the 
pioneer culture that existed prior to the establishment of the 



park. In order to maintain the fields in an efficient manner, 
the park allowed leasees to grow hay and graze cattle under 
special use permits, using good range and farm management and 
soil conservation practices. This program is still in use. It 
includes periodic soil sampling, fertilization, seeding and 
renovation, control of cattle grazing, rotation control of winter 
feeding, and field moving. 

Even with the constraints and controls of the 1967 management plan 
for the Cove, it was obvious in the early 1970' s that the water 
quality of Abrams Creek was greatly reduced during its passage 
through the Cove. One of the most obvious changes in the water 
quality was turbidity. Kelly (1974) reported that the turbidity 
levels of the creek and some of its tributaries in the Cove were 
at levels considered detrimental to the native aquatic life 
occurring in the creek. 

In 1975 a further stream and soil management program was 
developed for Cades Cove by the National Park Service. This 
program involved seeding and mulching of numerous eroded areas 
and the removal of numerous uprooted trees, brush, and debris 
from the creek, as well as minor stream alignment. The effect 
of this management program on the water quality of Abrams Creek 
was not investigated. 



Even with the reduction in the number of cattle and restrictions 
on the number of points of entry to the creek by cattle, it was 
obvious that defecation and urination by the animals into the 
creek at the watering sites could reduce the water quality from 
inputs of nutrients and enteric bacteria. As part of the overall 
survey of backcountry water quality of the streams and springs 
in the park, Silsbee et al. (1976) estimated numbers of enteric 
bacteria (fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus) from water 
samples taken from Abrams Creek and some of its tributaries. 
The results of the study provided sufficient evidence that the 
enteric bacterial water quality of Abrams Creek in the Cove was 
not typical of such water quality of other streams in the park. 
The major source of these bacteria was attributed to the cattle, 
although deer, wild European boar, horses, and other mammals 
probably contributed to the contamination. 

As a result of Kelly's (1974) and Silsbee's (1976) reports, the 
permittees, at the request of the National Park Service, erected 
fencing along the channel banks of the main creek and tributaries 
in the Cove in 1973 and reduced the number of cattle from 1,200 
to 500 head in 1976. These efforts were directed at reducing 
the number of cattle wading and drinking in the creek and inducing 
cattle to enter the creek and tributaries at specific watering 
sites. Streambank erosion and enteric bacterial loads resulting 
from cattle activity were thereby greatly reduced. 



Based upon the results of these reports and general observations 
that the water quality of Abrams Creek was still adversely impacted 
during its passage through the Cove, the present survey of the 
water quality of Abrams Creek and some of its tributaries was 
conducted in 1977. The objectives of this study of Abrams Creek 
and some of its tributaries were to: 

(1) Monitor physical and chemical features, 

(2) Determine the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate 
community, 

(3) Determine the bacteriological water quality and define 
problem areas, 

(4) Correlate fish distributions and population structure 
(species) with water quality, and 

(5) Monitor the algal periphyton (diatoms) community. 



Table 1. Historical sketch of the management and management- 
oriented research programs in the Abrams Creek watershed 

1937 Use of mulch and bank sloping in erosion control by National 
Park Service 



1946 Land management plan developed by Soil Conservation Service 



1959 Reclamation of lower Abrams Creek (i.e., Abrams Falls to 

Chilhowee Lake) sport fishery by use of toxicant (rotenone) 
administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 



1967 New park management program developed for Cades Cove 

1968 Study on "Comparative ecology of streams in Cades Cove" 
by Maryville College 



1972 Water quality survey of Abrams Creek and tributaries by 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 



1973 Fencing program to exclude cattle from Abrams Creek and 
tributaries 



1975 Stream and soil management program developed for Cades Cove 



1976 Bacteriological water quality survey of Abrams Creek and 

tributaries by National Park Service, Uplands Field Research 
Laboratory. Cattle reduced from 1,201) to 500 head in Cades Cove, 



1977 Water quality survey of Abrams Creek and tributaries by 
National Park Service, Uplands Field Research Laboratory 
(present study) 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Physical and Chemical 

Physical and chemical features of Abrams Creek and selected 
tributaries were determined monthly from February to July 1977 
at 37 sites by submerging plastic (polyethylene) or amberglass 
containers below the water surface at midstream. The samples 
were transported to the laboratory on ice and generally analyzed 
within 24 hours. The parameters monitored are listed in Table 2. 
Temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen were analyzed 
in the field. Stream volume (cubic feet per second) was 
calculated from flow rates (feet per second) taken at 0.6 stream 
depth and stream width at particular sites. Acidity is a method 
of expressing the capacity of water to donate protons and gives 
an indication of the water's corrosiveness . Acidity is caused by 
carbon dioxide in the water, tannic acid, and hydrolyzing 
inorganic salts as ferrous and/or aluminum sulfate. The acidity 
of natural waters is normally very low (< 20 milligrams per liter) 
Alkalinity refers to the capacity or water to neutralize acids 
and is usually imparted by the bicarbonate, carbonate, and 
hydroxide components of natural or treated water supplies. 
Natural surface waters usually contain less alkalinity than 
sewage or wastewater samples. The hardness of water is defined 
as the amount of calcium and magnesium present. Although iron, 

10 



aluminum, manganese, strontium, zinc, and hydrogen ions are 
capable of producing hardness, high concentrations of these ions 
are not commonly found in natural waters (American Public Health 
Association 1975) such as Abrams Creek. High levels of nitrate 
in water indicate biological wastes in the final stages of 
stabilization (American Public Health Association 1975) . Nitrate- 
rich effluents discharged into receiving waters can degrade water 
quality by encouraging excessive algal growth. Biological oxygen 
demand (BOD) is an empirical measurement of the oxygen requirements 
of sewage. The test results are used to calculate the effect of 
waste discharges on the oxygen resources of the receiving waters. 

The amount of settleable solids in streams gives an empirical 
estimate of another aspect of water quality. Settleable solids 
may cover bottom-dwelling organisms, trout, and other fish nests, 
as well as destroy habitat by filling spaces between rocks in 
riffles and pools. During flooding or high flow conditions, 
settleable solids may become entrained in the flow and 
substantially contribute to turbidity. Turbidity occurs in 
most surface waters as the result of suspended clay, silt, finely 
divided organic and inorganic matter, plankton, and other micro- 
organisms. Turbidity should not exceed 10 Jackson Turbidity 
Units (JTU) in cold water streams (Federal Water Pollution Control 
Administration 1968) . 



11 



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12 




SAMPLING SCHEMATIC 

FOR TEMPORAL AND SPACIAL COMPARISON 

OF CHEMICAL" PHYSICAL AND BlOTlC COMF 

IN REFERENCE. STRESSED. AND RECOVERY AREAS 



Recovery stations 



Conductivity is a numerical expression of the ability of water 
to conduct electric current. This number depends on the 
total concentration of the ionized substances dissolved in the 
water and the temperature at which the measurement is made. 

Temperature levels and fluctuations affect the composition and 
distribution of fish, algae, and bottom fauna of streams and is 
influenced by turbidity, suspended solids, streamside vegetation, 
etc. The degree of streamside vegetation influences the amount 
of solar radiation reaching a stream and thus also influences the 
water temperature. 

The basic sampling design was oriented towards temporal and spatial 
comparison of chemical - physical and biotic components in 
reference (stations 1-2), stressed (stations 3-15 and 23 - 37, 
and recovery (stations 17 - 22) areas (Fig. 4). Water samples 
could not be collected at some sample sites during all sampling 
periods, however, especially at the smallest tributaries during 
winter and summer, owing to insufficient stream flows. In addition, 
a control station (16) on Mill Creek was sampled for comparison to 
station 15 on Abrams Creek. Both streams were of similar size, 
substrate composition, and drainage area. Mill Creek, however, is 
not influenced by cattle activity and by groundwater flow through 
limestone strata. 



14 



Biological 

Quantitative and qualitative benthic macroinvertebrate samples 
were collected at 37 sites in February, March, May, and July 1977. 
Quantitative samples were taken in triplicate at each site using a 
square foot Surber sampler (0.093 square meter) with a 1,024 micron 
mesh net (Surber 1970). The organisms were collected by washing the 
largest rocks enclosed by the sampler, removing these rocks, and 
stirring the remaining bottom substrate by hand to a depth of 3 to 
8 centimeters. Qualitative samples were taken during most of the 
sampling periods in an attempt to collect all species present at 
each sampling area. These samples were collected by kicking the 
bottom substrate for one minute and collecting the organisms in a 
Turtox long-handled bottom net (46 by 20 by 25.4 centimeters) with 
a pore size of 1,270 microns. All benthic macroinvertebrate samples 
were preserved in 10 percent formalin at the time of collection. 

In the laboratory, each sample was washed in a series of U. S. 
Standard Sieves Nos. 30 (595 micron opening), 40 (420 micron 
opening), and 60 (250 micron opening), transferred to a white 
sorting tray; separated from the debris using the sugar floatation 
technique described by Anderson (1959); and then picked. The 
picked organisms were preserved in a solution containing 95 
percent ethanol, 1 percent formalin, and 1 percent glycerine. 
Organisms were later identified to the lowest practical taxonomic 

15 



level, using appropriate taxonomic literature, and enumerated. Wet 
weights of individual taxa were obtained by removing the organisms 
from the final preservative, placing them on paper towels for 
approximately two minutes, and then determining their weight to the 
nearest 0.1 milligram on an analytical balance (Torbal, Model EA - 1) . 
Several taxonomic keys were used to identify the organisms; 
however, the most frequently used references were Parrish (1975), 
Usinger (1956), Pennak (1953), Ward and Whipple (1959), Ross (1944), 
and Needham et al. (1935). A checklist of benthic macroinvertebrate 
taxa was compiled for the study area. Qualitative samples were 
processed in a similar manner to the Surber samples except that 
the organisms were neither counted nor weighed. 



Because of the general lack of mobility in benthic macroinvertebrates, 
these organisms are good indicators of the water quality of streams 
at different locations (EPA 1974). Generally, undisturbed waters 
support diverse benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Heavily 
polluted waters, however, will support only a few species since the 
pollutant(s) eliminate many intolerant species, leaving only the most 
tolerant species. The surviving species usually increase in density 
in response to organic enrichment as well as to reduced interspecific 
competition and predation pressures. The reduction of diversity and 
evenness (see below) in distribution of individuals among the species 
in a polluted system results in a simplified and unstable community 



16 



(Cairns and Dickson 1971). But as a pollutant is neutralized in 
a stream downstream from its source, benthic macroinvor tebrat e 
communities begin to recover and diversity increases. Tbe usual 
order of disappearance and reappearance on a sensitivity scale 
of particular taxa of bentbic macroinvertebrates in a clean water 
stream downstream from a pollution source is shown below (after 
Environmental Protection Agency 1974) : 



Increasing 
Water 
Quality 
Deterioration 



c 
o 

to 

"D 

L. 

o> 
<u 
Q 



Stonef lies 

Mayflies 

Caddisf lies 

Amphipods 

Isopods 

Midges 

Oligochaetes 



Increasing 
Water 
Quality 
Improvement 



In this case, degradation was sufficient to eliminate all taxa 
except oligochaetes before neutralization processes improved the 
water quality and permitted pollution-intolerant species to inhabit 
the stream. In cases where water quality degradation was not as 
severe, the changes in taxa would not be expected to be as great as 
in the above example. 

In order to assess benthic macroinvertebrate community structures 
in Abrams Creek along its course from Anthony Ridge to Abrou Palls, 
the following methods of analyses were used: 



17 



(1 

(2 
(3 
(4 
(5 
(6 
(7 
(8 
(9 
(10 



Number and weight (wet weight of organisms per square meter) 

Number of taxa (S) 

Macroinvertebrate distribution 

Index of similarity (SI) 

Importance values (IV) 

Diversity (H) and (d) 

Evenness (J) 

Redundance (R) 

Equitability based on d (e) 

Equitability based on H (e') 



The number and wet weight of organisms at each sample site per 
square meter were collected by multiplying values per square foot 
by a conversion factor of 10.764. The number of taxa present at 
each station and their distribution within the study area are based 
upon both quantitative and qualitative samples. 

Similarities in taxa between benthic communities at particular sample 
stations and at multiple sample stations within two sections of the 
stream were evaluated on an annual basis using two indices of 
similarity (SI), calculated as follows: 

SI = 2C 



A + B 
where A = number of species occurring at sampling station X 
B = number of species occurring at sampling station Y 
C = number of species common to both sampling stations X and Y 



18 



and 



SI -- N(C) 
A + B 



where A - number of species occurring at sampling station X 

(representing all stations in an ecological region) 

B = number of species occurring at sampling station Y 
(representing all stations in an ecological region) 

C = number of species common to both sampling sections X and Y 

N = number of stations in sections X and Y 



The values range from to 1. The closer the value to 1, the greater 
the similarity of faunas. Although some bias may be introduced by 
the second SI formula due to the variable number of stations used in 
the computation, it provides a technique by which the various 
ecological regions (reference, stress, recovery, and control) can be 
compared. 

Importance values (IV), modified from Cottam and Curtis (1956), were 
calculated for each taxon occurring in the quantitative samples each 
month. Importance values were calculated as follows: 

IV = % number + % weight 
where number = number of organisms in the "-th" species 
weight = weight of organisms in the "- th" species 

These importance values indicate the relative contribution, in number 
and weight, of each taxon to the community. The higher the inportance 
value, the greater the contribution of that taxon to the connunitv. 
The maximum obtainable importance value is 200.00. 

19 



Several diversity indices were calculated for the benthic populations. 
Margalef (1956) proposed analysis of mixed species populations 
by methods derived from information theory. The main objective of 
information theory is to try to measure the amount of order (or 
disorder) contained in a system (Margalef 1958) . Four types of 
information might be collected regarding order in the community: 

(1) the number of species, (2) the number of individuals in 

each species, (3) the places occupied by individuals of each species, 
and (A) the places occupied by individuals as separate individuals 
(Krebs 1972). In most community work, only data of types (1) and 

(2) are obtained. All four were considered during this study , 
however, by using several types of indices which utilize two or 
more of these information sets in their formulation. 

Diversity is a measure of the difficulty of predicting the species 
of an individual selected at random from the population. The more 
species present in the community and the more equal their abundance, 
the greater the uncertainty (i.e., difficulty of prediction) and the 
greater the diversity (Wilhm and Dorris 1968) . 

Diversity values were calculated (by computer, Tennessee Technological 
University) from pooled quantitative samples at each station 
(monthly) . One of the indices used to describe the communities of 
benthic organisms, H (Brillouin 1962), was as follows: 



20 



H - I lo S ( HI 



) 



N n ! n !...n ! 
where N = total number of individuals 

n = number of individuals in the i'th species 

H serves as a measure of diversity (or information) per individual. 
The H values obtained range from zero to log of the number of 
species. The minimum value of H, zero, is obtained when all 
individuals belong to the same species. Conversely, the maximum of 
H is obtained when all individuals belong to different species. 

The Shannon-Wiener diversity index, d (Hurlbert 1971) was also used. 
It was calculated as follows: 

d=£ (N log N-[n log , n.) 

where N = total number of individuals 

n . = number of individuals in the "i" species 

1 

c = 3.321938 

The d index takes into account the richness of species as well as the 
distribution of individuals among the species. The range of values 
obtained varies from zero to log ? of the number of organisms. When 
all organisms belong to the same species, the value will equal zero, 
and when all individuals in the sample belong to different speci. . 
the maximum value is obtained. In other words, a greater number 
species increases species diversity, and a more even or equatnble 



21 



distribution among species will also increase species diversity. 
In unpolluted waters, d generally ranges between 3 and 4 whereas, 
in polluted water, d is generally less than 1 (Wilhm 1970). 
Yet, d lacks the sensitivity to demonstrate differences in 
streams in the southeastern U.S., where degradation is slight 
to moderate (Weber 1973). H values are generally interpreted 
in the same manner as d, but tend to have greater sensitivity 
to stream perturbation where small numbers of organisms are 
considered. Both indices were used in order to have a firm 
basis for interpreting water quality. H probably yields better 
insight into water quality in areas above Cades Cove, where 
there are small numbers of benthic organisms, and d in areas 
within and below the cove, where the number of benthic organisms 
is relatively large. Wilhm and Dorris (1968) found that diversity 
index values (d and H) less than 1 have been obtained in areas of 
heavy pollution, values of 1 to 3 in areas of moderate pollution, 
and values exceeding 3 in clean water areas. 

The dominance diversity index, J, was used to estimate the 
evenness of distribution of individuals among the species in 
communities in Abrams Creek. Evenness (Pielou 1966) was calculated 
using the following formula: 



J = 



log 2 S 
where S = number of species 

22 



A value of J near zero indicated that the communit\ . tainatftd 
by one or more species, whereas a value of 1 (maximum valm) 
indicated a uniform distribution of individuals exisu-d among 
the species. 

Equitibility (Lloyd and Ghelardi 1964) is a comparison of d 

(which gives e) or H (which gives e') with a maximum based on 

distribution obtained from the MacArthur (1957) broken stick 

model. The MacArthur model results in a distribution frequently 

observed in nature — one with a few relatively abundant species 

and increasing numbers of species represented by only a few 

individuals (Weber 1973). Sample data are not expected to conform 

to the MacArthur model, since it is only a yardstick against which 

the distribution of abundances is being compared. The formulas 

for calculating equitibility (e and e') are as follows: 

s' 
e = — 
s 

where s = number of species in sample 
s=10 (.339d) 

and 

s 

where s = number of species in sample 
( 339 H) 

The value (s') refers to the number of Bj COB a 

community that conforms to the MacArthur ■odel. Equltibilll 



calculated may range from to 1, except in unusual situations 
where the distribution in the sample is more equitable than the 
distribution resulting from the MacArthur model. Such an 
eventuality will result in values of (e) or (e') greater than 1, 
and this occasionally occurs in samples containing only a few 
specimens represented by several taxa (Weber 1973). Equitibility 
has been found to be very sensitive to even slight levels of 
degradation (Wilhm 1970) . Equitibility values generally range 
between 0.6 and 0.8 in southeastern streams known to be unaffected 
by oxygen-demanding wastes. Even slight levels of degradation have 
been found to reduce equitibility below 0.5 and generally to a range 
of 0.0 to 0.3 (Weber 1973). 

Redundancy (R) is an expression of the dominance of one or more 
species and is inversely proportional to the wealth (i.e., diversity) 
of species. It is calculated as follows (Brillouin 1962): 



R = Hmax-H 

Hmax-Hmin 



where Hmin =j| |log Nl - log (N-S+l) '. 



Hmax =- | log N! Slog K! - rlog (K+l) 

N 

K = greatest integer less than 11 



r = N - Ks 

H = Brillouin diversity index 



24 



N - Total number of organisms (individuals) 
S = Total number of species 

Redundancy ranges between and 1. The closer R is to zero, I 
less uniform (more diverse) the sample; whereas, the closer it 
is to 1, the more uniform (less diverse) the sample. 

Each of the 10 parameters described above was tested for 
statistical significance between stations, seasons, and years on 
Abrams Creek, using a two-way ANOVA test (Barr et al. 1976). The 
level of significance was P < .01. 

Since benthic macroinvertebrate populations exhibit a clumped or 
skewed distribution instead of the normal distribution required for 
many statistical analyses (Elliot 1971), the mean number and weight 
of organisms per square meter are transformed to normalize tin- 
distribution. This transformation was accomplished by log (X + ]), 
where X equals the mean number or mean wet weight of organisms p 
square meter. 



Fish 



An electroshocking survey of the fish In hbrm donducl 

during August - September 1977 by the Uplands Field rch 
Laboratory and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FU 



assistance group stationed at the Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park. Tiny Tiger backpack electroshockers (Model 5000-1, 350 
watts, 110 U T AC, 12 V6C) manufactured by D. W. Industries, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, were used. All fish collected were 
identified, weighed, and measured (total length) and most were 
returned unharmed to the stream. Some fish were retained from 
each station for a reference collection. 

The stream sections surveyed in the present work had been surveyed 
by the FWS in 197 3-74. One section was located in the reference 
zone (station 1), two were in the stress zone (stations 9 and 26), 
and three were in the recovery zone (stations 17, 18, and 19). 
Using the same techniques and procedures as the FWS, each section 
of the stream surveyed for fish was one-tenth mile (528 feet) in 
length. Block nets, one-fourth inch square mesh, were used to 
prevent downstream escapement from each survey section. Riffles 
of sufficient width and height to retard upstream escapement were 
utilized at each survey station. Depending on stream size, two 
to six backpack electroshockers were used to remove fish. The 
stream sections were shocked until no fish were captured. Stream 
sections were measured in length, the width was taken every 50 feet, 
and the results were averaged. 

The following formulas were used to estimate the number and weight 
of fish in each survey section: 



26 



Number fish captured i at 

Number fish per acre = factor (27.71) 

Acres sampled 

Weight (in lbs.) fish per acre = Average weight (in lbs.) x 

number of fish per acre 

where Acres = Average width (feet) x length (feet) 
43,000 feet per square acre 

Escapement Factor (used by the FWS) = 27.71 percent 

(Anonymous 19 70) 



Results of these studies provided criteria for estimating the 
extent or type of pollution involved in each survey area as 
described by Parrish (1970). The distribution and abundance of 
sport, forage, or rough fishes relative to their ecological 
requirements was used to assess the general "health" of fish 
communities in Abrams Creek. The structure of the fish populations 
in the reference, stressed, and recovery areas in 1973-74 and 1977 
were compared for changes in the numbers and biomass of sport , 
forage, and rough fish. Fish were superficially examined for 
disease and parasites, though most of the effort was directed 
towards trends in population structure. 

Periphytic Diatoms 

Heavy loads of suspended solids, alteration of thrrm.il r< 
resulting from removal of vegetation along th< aa, em Lc 
and inorganic enrichment from cattle and Other ai ild 



severely influence the composition and dynamics of the periphytic 
diatom communities in the Abrams Creek system. The periphytic 
diatom (i.e., occurring on, but not penetrating, the stream 
substrate or other submerged objects) communities are frequently 
a major source of primary production in small streams because 
turbulent, unidirectional flow restricts the establishment of 
planktonic algae populations. 

Some diatom species have broad tolerance ranges to environmental 
conditions and therefore these species may be found in a wide 
variety of habitats. Other species, however, have very limited 
tolerance ranges and these species are usually restricted to 
specific habitat types and environmental conditions. Therefore, 
determining the predominant species composing the diatom community 
at different locations along a stream provides a useful means of 
assessing changes in habitat and water quality along the course 
of the stream. In view of the suspected changes in water quality 
along the course of Abrams Creek, periphytic communities were 
examined qualitatively by removing samples from the surface of 
rocks at different stream sections during May and June of 1977. 
The samples were preserved in 4 percent formalin and forwarded to 
Dr. Rex Lowe, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, 
for identification and assessment of relative abundance. The 
ecological conditions under which the predominant species and the 



28 



communities exist were assessed, following the crit. lied 

by Lowe (1974) as well as conclusions drawn by Dr. Lowe's an., 
of the samples. 

Enteric Bacteria 

Silsbee et al. (1976) determined fecal coliform numbers and fecal 
streptococcus bacteria in Abrams Creek as part of an overall 
survey of the backcountry quality of streams in the park. One 
recommendation from that survey called for long term monitoring 
of Abrams Creek and tributaries to determine the bacteriological 
effects of any changes in the locations and sizes of cattle herds. 
Thus, a bacteriological survey was incorporated into this program 
for comparison of the bacterial quality of Abrams Creek and 
tributaries between the two surveys. 

The millipore membrane filtration method (Millipore Corporation 

1973) employed by Silsbee et al . (1976) was used for compnr.it 

purposes for estimating the numbers of fecal coliform and fecal 

streptococcus bacteria in the creek. Estimates of the number of 

total coliform bacteria were also made. Bacteriological water 

samples were collected once each month from May through Aw. 

at 37 stations on Abrams Creek and iribwt..: .:0 - 23). 

Some of the stations were located at Btrategi 

near a campground, picnic area, sewage lagoon. . mill, 

29 



and pastures. 

Water samples were collected in sterile polyurethane bottles and 
kept on ice until processed — less than six hours after samples 
were collected — in the laboratory. Total coliform plates were 
cultured on Endo broth for 24 hours at 35°C. Fecal coliforms were 
cultured on MF-C broth for 24 hours at 44. 5° C. Fecal streptococcus 
were cultured on KF streptococcus agar for 48 hours at 35 C. 
Thirty milliliters of stream water were filtered for total coliform 
plates and fecal coliform plates; 50 milliliters were filtered for 
fecal streptococcus plates. Following incubation, the colonies 
were counted under fluorescent illumination. Colonies were 
expressed as numbers per 100 milliliters of water. 

The ratio of fecal coliform to fecal streptococcus was used to 
determine if the source of bacterial contamination was from humans 
or from other mammals (Fig. 5). Ratios less than or equal to 0.7 
usually indicate pollution derived from livestock, wildlife, or 
poultry. Ratios greater than or equal to 4 indicate pollination 
derived from human wastes (i.e., defecation and urination). 
Ratios from 0.7 to 1.0 suggest a predominance of nonhuman animal 
wastes, and a ratio between 2 and 4 suggests a predominance of 
human wastes. Ratios between 1 and 2 are usually of "uncertain 



30 



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interpretation" (Geldreich 1969). Only samples in which the fecal 
streptococcus count was at least 100 were included in the 
analyses as suggested by Geldreich (1969). 

Compilation of monthly physical - chemical characteristics 
(Tables 1-7) and benthic macroinvertebrate checklists (Tables 
8 - 13) are contained in the Appendix. These data are summarized 
or graphically presented in the results section of the text. 
The graphics are designed so that mainstream (left side of page) 
and tributary (right side of page) station data are segregated 
for ease of examination (Figs. 6 - 17). Mainstream stations are 
oriented from upstream (left) to downstream (right) in the station 
data presentation for Abrams Creek, while Mill Creek (station 16) 
is separated to the right as a separate noncontiguous data point. 
The tributary stations are oriented left to right on the graphs 
from upst ream-to-downstream north ridge tributaries (southf acing) 
and then downstream-to-upstream south ridge tributaries (north 
facing) . After familiarization with station locations (Fig. 2) , 
this technique is very helpful for gradient analysis. Suspended 
solids (Fig. 7) and volume flow (Fig. 17) were taken for mainstream 
stations only. The following illustration shows the graphics 
design for field data: 



32 



LEGEND FOR CHEMICAL - PHYSICAL FIGURES NOS . 6 THROUGH 16 



FIGURE NUMBER 

PARAMETER 



c 



Mainstream 



Station Numbers 
Upstream a> Downstream 



Tributaries 



Station Numbe rs 

Upstream — a>Downilrt(m 

Downstream — 4 

Northridga 'Southrldge 

Southfacing | Northtacing 



• Upstream 



-♦ Month 



+ •♦- Month 

o— — — o Month 



Mainstream 



i 



c 
3 



Tributaries 



Station Numbers 



Station Number* 



53 



RESULTS 

Physical and Chemical Parameters 

The water temperature was observed to fluctuate directly with 
the ambient air temperature within certain ranges as influenced 
by seasonal weather changes (Tables 1-7). These ranges were, 
in addition, observed to substantially increase in Cades Cove 
from reference through stressed areas. Below the confluence 
of Mill Creek and the influence of Cool Spring Seeps in the lower 
portion of the Cove, the range of water temperatures was lower 
than in the Cove, though the average was slightly higher. The 
ranges (and averages) of water temperature (°C) in the ecological 
zones was as follows: 

Reference Stressed Recovery Control 

1-18 (11.7) 0-25 (13. A) 0-20 (13.6) 1-19 (13.0) 

The volume of flow of Abraras Creek increased during passage 
through Cades Cove from February to April. Reduced flow from 
tributaries to Abrams Creek and substantially lower water tables 
from late spring throughout the summer (Wayne Williams, GRSM 
sanitarian, personal communication) drastically alter the 
hydrologic regime in Abrams Creek in the Cove, however. The 
creek begins to enter the ground near stations 3 and 4. The 
subterranean water probably surfaces between station 26 and the 



34 



satellite telemetry station (Fig. 2, Table 7). As a result of 
the subterranean flow, portions of Abrams Creek in the middle of 
the Cove are reduced in flow, often lacking any surface flow. 
Below the confluence of Mill Creek, Abrams Creek is near riverine 
in nature (i.e., fourth order stream). Several tributaries on the 
north side (southfacing) of the Cove were dry in July, including 
Crooked Arm Branch, Harrison Branch, Martha's Branch, Feezell 
Branch, and parts of Tater Branch. > 

The turbidity of Abrams Creek was not as great in 1977 as it was 
in 1972-73. Only during the month of June (1977 survey) did 
turbidity exceed 10 Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU) in the 
mainstream of Abrams Creek. The turbidity of the tributary streams 
during 1977 was similar to the main creek except for a few 
isolated tributary stations on Martha's, Feezell, and Tater 
Branches, where the turbidity was at times exceptionally high; 
e.g., stations 7, 10, 23, and 24. 

The amount of suspended solids in Abrams Creek was generally 
greater at the downstream stations than at the upstream stations 
(Fig. 7). Furthermore, the amounts were generally greater in 
February, March, and April than in May, June, and July. Settleable 
solids did not contribute appreciably to the suspended solid Load 



35 



in Abrams Creek or tributaries (Appendix, Tables 1 - 6) . During 
each sampling period, the concentration of settleable solids at 
most stations was less than 0.1 milligram per liter. Only at 
stations 9, 10, 11, and 33 did concentrations of settleable solids 
exceed this level, ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 milligrams per liter. 

Reference area stations were typically low in conductivity, never 
exceeding 20 yMHOS per cubic centimeter (cm 3 ). The conductivity of 
Abrams Creek and tributaries within Cades Cove was lowest at stations 
located at the east end (upstream section) of the Cove relative 
to the rest of the study area (Figs. 2 and 8). The conductivity 
of the creek typically increased sharply at the far west end 
(downstream section) of the Cove (stations 15, 17, and 24) before 
decreasing to intermediate levels downstream from the Cove 
(stations 18 to 22) . 

Total acidity of Abrams Creek varied considerably between sample 
periods (Fig. 9) . The acidity was usually low (about 10 milligrams 
per liter) at stations 15 and 17, as compared to most of Abrams 
Creek. During July, the waters below the cove in Abrams Creek 
displayed no acidity at all. Tributary waters were fairly stable 
in acidity throughout the survey except for the months of February 
and July, when values were substantially less than the usual trend. 



36 



The total alkalinity of Abrams Creek and tributaries was high 
during April, May, June, and July relative to other months and 
other streams within the park. The highest levels were typically 
found at stations (e.g., 15 and 17) located at the east end of 
the Cove (Fig. 10) below spring seeps entering Abrams Creek and 
tributaries. During July, the alkalinity at most stations on 
Abrams Creek and tributaries was relatively high. 

Total hardness was lowest at stations in the east end of the Cove 
and on Anthony Creek (Fig. 11). Hardness was highest on Abrams 
Creek at stations 15, 17, and 18, being at relatively moderate 
levels at most downstream stations. Tributary stations 10 and 24 
tended to have a high hardness throughout the survey. 

Concentrations of nitrate were greater from February to April 
than from May to July in the mainstream and the tributaries 
(Fig. 12) . The concentrations were fairly consistent between 
stations at each sampling period. Nitrates were exceptionally 
high in concentration at stations 1, 8, 10, 20, and 30 in 
February, however. 

Ortho-phosphate concentrations were generally less than 0.1 
milligram per liter during all sampling periods (Fig. 13). 
Exceptionally high concentrations at mid-Cove sections of Abrams 
Creek (station 9) and just below the confluence of Abrams and 

37 



Mill Creeks (station 17) occurred during April and at tributary 
stations 13 and 30 during May. The station downstream from the 
sewage lagoon (no. 8) was very high in concentration in July 
while stations 2, 9, 13, and 17 were high in concentration in June. 
Bunting Creek (station 29) had consistently high concentrations 
as compared to the other tributary stations during February, 
March, April, and May. 

The Biological Oxygen Demand (B0D 5 ) of Abrams Creek water was highest 
in February and March (Fig. 14); however, high demands occurred at 
stations 4 and 8 during other months. The influence of the sewage 
lagoon in Cades Cove, the location of cattle pastures adjacent to 
Abrams Creek, and seasonal changes in temperature probably affect 
the BOD levels in Abrams Creek. 

The pH of Abrams Creek was generally acidic (ranging from 6.0 to 
6.9) from the upper portions of the study area to station 15 at the 
lower end of the Cove (Fig. 15 and Appendix, Table 7). Downstream 
from the Cove the pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.3 (Fig. 15). Tributary 
streams were usually slightly acidic except for the most downstream 
station on Feezell Branch (station 24), which was slightly alkaline 
during April, May, and July. 

Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) was at or near 100 percent saturation at 
most stations on Abrams Creek and on Mill Creek in the winter and 



38 



spring (Fig. 16). A severe D.O. depression (4.3 milligrams per 
liter) occurred during July at station 9 on Abrams Creek when 
flow through that area was reduced (Fig. 16). Many tributaries 
dried up in July. Several tributaries began showing reduced D.O. 
levels from April to July, especially station 5 (Crooked Arm 
Branch), station 6 (Harrison Branch), station 23 (Tater Branch), 
and station 24 (Feeze 11 Branch) . 

Water quality data reconnaissance from satellite telemetry systems 
in Abrams Creek appeared statistically comparable to that retrieved 
by field instrumentation (Table 3) . Significant differences did 
not exist below the 0.05 level between the two water analysis 
systems (i.e., satellite-associated telemetry instrumentation 
and ground truth water quality checks via portable field meters). 
Statistical analysis of data from the two systems indicates very 
highly significant differences (P < 0.001) for temporal changes 
in dissolved oxygen, temperature, and conductivity, and highly 
significant differences (P < 0.01) for such changes in pH data. 
The validity of data retrieved from satellite telemetry systems 
appeared sound and usable for interpretation of water quality in 
Abrams Creek. 



39 



Table 3. Analysis of Variance (F-Test) for Comparisons of 

Satellite-Associated Water Quality Data and Ground-Proof 
Checks for Abrams Creek 



Dependent 
Variable 

Dissolved 
Oxygen (D.O.) 



Temperature 



Sum of F R- Coefficient 
* Parameters Squares Value Square of Variance ** PR>F 



Time 


31.55 


407.10 


System 


0.01 


0.23 


Time 


97.67 


697.65 


System 


0.06 


3.93 



0.99 



0.99 



1.14 



0.76 



0.0001 
0.6491 



0.0001 
0.0756 



Conductivity 



Time 19,807.45 177.72 
System 0.05 0.00 



0.99 



2.78 



0.0001 
0.9503 



pH 



Time 
System 



3.15 

0.04 



6.59 
0.77 



0.87 



2.69 



0.0031 
0.4008 



*Parameters: Time refers to comparisons of data taken at different 

dates. System refers to the apparatus used in taking data, 



**PR>F: 



< 0.05 Significant difference 

< 0.01 Highly significant difference 

< 0.001 Very highly significant difference 



40 



FIGURE 6 

TURBIDITY 



41 



250. 

200. 

150 

100 
504 
30 

I 1 ° 

a 

K 

- 3 
2. 
1. 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

3 4 8 S 28 IS 17 18 19 20 21 22 18 

STATION NUMBER 



250 
200. 
150. 
100. 

sa 
sa 

1 10 

v 5 



4. 
3. 
2. 



1. o 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

5 8 7 K) 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 28 23 30 31 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 



February 

March 

April 




I 2 3 4 8 28 15 17 18 18 20 21 22 

STATION NUMBER 



Turbidity Levels at Selected Stations 
on Abrams and Mill Creeks 



250. 

200. 

150. 

100. 
504 
30. 

ia 

5. 
4 
3. 
2. 

1 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ' I I I I 

5 8 7 10 H 12 13 M 23 24 25 27 28 20 30 31 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 



May 

Juni 

July 



Turbidity Levels at Selected Stations 
on Abrams Creek Tributaries 



42 



FIGURE 7 

Suspended Solids 



0.169 - 



0.156 - 



0.143 - 



0.130 - 



0.117 - 



0.104 - 



0.091 - 



0.078 - 



0.06 5 - 



0.05 2 - 



0.039 - 



0.026 - 



0.013 - 




O 

A 
M 

M 

l \ 

l\ 

I 

i 



/ N 



\>^ 



-O 






o.oo — I — I — I — I — I — ' — i — I — I 

I 4 8 9 26 15 17 19 21 



* 




STATION NUMBER 



-• February 



March 

o -o April 



• • May 

h 4- j U n« 

O o July 



Suspended solids for Selected Stations on Abrams Creek (in mg/l) 



FIGURE 8 

CONDUCTIVITY 



43 



130. 



120. 



110. 



100. 



90 



60 

50 



20. 



10 




I I i I ' I I I I I I I I I I I I 
1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



m 



130. 
120. 
110. 
100. 

2 90 

u 

s M 

I 
1.70 

z 
- 60 

> 

I 50 

r- 

o 

g 40 
z 
o 
o 30 

20 

10 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 



m 



STATION NUMBER 



February 
March 
Aor 1 1 



130. 



120- 



110- 



100- 



90 



70 



50 



20 



10 




' I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 10 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



130 
120 

noj 

100 



2 90 

o 
co 80 

O 

|_70. 



50 



40. 



30 



20. 



10. 




| I I I I I I I I I I I I I ' I I I I I I 

5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 20 29 3031 32 S3 

STATION NUMBER 



May 

June 

July 



Conductivity of Selected Stations on 
Abrams and Mill Creeks 



Conductivity of Selected Stations on 
Abrams Creek Tributaries 



FIGURE 9 

TOTAL ACIDITY 



44 



150 
125. 
100 
75 
50 
45 
40 
35 
30 

25 

20 



2 15 




i i i i i i i i i i r i r i i i i i i 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 IS 17 18 19 20 21 22 10 

STATION NUMBER 



150 

125 

100. 

75 

50 

45 

40 

v 35 

' 30 

!■ 

J 20 

i 

i 15 

10 
5 



V 






.' 




' I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I 

5 8 7 K> 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 



February 

March 

April 



150 

125 

100. 

75. 

50. 

45 

40 

35. 

30 

25. 

20 

15 

10 

5 



V 



V-t- 



"s 



V 



A 



V 




o l I I I I I I 

1 2 3 4 8 9 28 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 

STATION NUMBER 



Total Acidity for Selected Stations on 
Abrams and Mill Creeks 



150 
125 
100. 

75. 

50 

45. 

40 



« 35. 







V-+ 




o I I I I I I I I I T I I I I I l I I I I I I 

S 8 7 K> 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 



May 
June 
July 



Total Acidity for Selected Stations on 
Abrams Creek Tributaries 



FIGURE 10 

TOTAL ALKALINITY 



45 



200 

175 

150 

125. 

100. 

- 90 

| 80 

> 70 

I 60 

-J 
< 

5 50 




1 2 34 8 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 
STATION NUMBER 



200.. 
175. 
150 
125 
100 
90 



a so. 



70 



* 60 



50 
40 




TiTTlTTTTt i i 



5 6 7 10 1112 13 14 23 24 25 27 28 29 303132 33 
STATION NUMBER 



February 

March 

April 



200 
175. 
150. 
125 
100 
90 



o 80 



70 



60 



- 50 



* «° 



30 
20 
10. 




o I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I M 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



Total Alkalinity for Selected Stations 
on Abrams and Mill Creeks 



200. 
1754 
150 
125 
100 
_ 90 

-J 

i 80J 



> 70 
!60J 



50. 



-i 404 

< 



30 
20 

10J y 




May 
June 
July 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I M l 
5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 23 24 23 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 



Total Alkalinity for Selected Stations 
on Abrams Creek Tributaries 



FIGURE II 

Total Hardness 



46 




1 I I II l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 1T 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 




I I ! I I I I I I I I ' I . 

S 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 23 74 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 



STATION NUMBER 



+ -- 
O— • 



FEBRUARY 

MARCH 

APRIL 



140. 
130 
120. 
110 

^100 
i 90 

? 80 

CO 

i2 70J 



5 60 



j 50. 

< 

^40 



30 
20 

10J 




f-Y >•-*>. 



o i . I I I i i I I I I I I I I I I I I I M 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 l9 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



Total Hardness for Selected Stations 
on Abrams and Mill Creeks 




o M I 1 I I I I I I T \ T I m I l I i I I 

5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 23 24 2S 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 



STATION NUMBER 



MAY 

JUNE 

JULY 



Total Hardness for Selected Stations 
on Abrams Creek Tributaries 



FIGURE 12 



NITRATE (N0 3 ) 



47 



14 

13J 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8. 

7. 

6. 

5. 

4. 

3. 

2 

1 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I | | | | 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



U 1 

13 
U 
11. 
10 

8 
7. 
6. 
5 
4. 
3 




I I I | I f I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 
STATION NUMBER 



Nitrate Levels for Selected Stations 
on Abrams and Mill Creeks 




I I I I M'l I I I I I I I I I l l l 

5 6 7 10 1112 13 14 23 2*25 27 28 29 30 3132 33 

STATION NUMBER 



February 

March 

April 



14 1 

13. 

12 

11J 

10 



o 
z 5J 



A 



V. 



-*•- +- -+- 




W V 



-+-•-_•* 



v 



May 
Jun* 
July 



i i i i i i i i m T i t \ t i i i i i i 

5 6 7 IOII 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 26 29 30 3132 33 

STATION NUMBER 



Nitrate Levels for Selected Stations 
on Abrams Creek Tributaries 



FIGURE 13 



48 



ORTHO -PHOSPHATE (POJ 



0.70 
0.65 

0.60J 
0.55 

aso. 

0.45. 
5 0.40 
- 035, 

UJ 

i a30 

a. 

w 

2 0.25J 



o 020. 

i- 

o 0.15J 



0.10. 



005. 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 I7 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



0.70 
0.65 
0.60 
0.55. 

0.50 
0.45 

a 40 

0.35. 
0.30. 
025 
0.20. 
0.15 
0.10. 
0.05 




i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

5 6 7 K> 11 12 13 14 73 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 



STATION NUMBER 



February 

March 

April 



1.20 
1.15 
110 

aso. 

0.45 

^ 0.40. 

a 

- 0.35. 



< 0.30 

a 

eo 

° 025 

a. 

O 020 

i 

K 

o 0.15 



0.10. 
005. 




' I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I | 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



■n 




I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 

5 • 7 10 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 



May 
June 
July 



Ortho- phosphate Levels for Selected Stations 
on Abrams and Mill Creeks 



Ortho-phosphate Levels for Selected 
Stations on Abrams Creek Tributaries 



FIGURE 14 

B.O.D. 



49 




45 -• 

40 - 
35 



I 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 |7 18 19 20 22 
STATION NUMBER 

• • February 

«■ + March 

O o April 



,— . 


30 — 


-1 




s 




5 


25 — 


«W 




rT 




b 


20 — 


OD 






15 — 




10 — 




t i i i i i i i i i i I r 

I 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 

• •• May 

+ + jun« 

O— — O July 

Biological Oxygen Demand for Selected Stations on Abrams and 

Mill Creeks 



FIGURE 15 

pH LEVELS 



50 



14 

13. 

12. 

11 

10. 

9. 

8 

7 

6 

5. 

* 4 

3 

2 

1 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



14 
13 
12 
11 

10J 
9 
8 

7. 

6 

5. 

4 

3. 

2. 

1. 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 

1 7 3 4 8 9 20 1517 18 19 20 2122 16 

STATION NUMBER 



pH Levels for Selected Stations on 
Abrams and Mill Creeks 



14 
13. 

12 
11 
10 

9-i 

8 

7 
6 

5 



i 4 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

5 6 7 10 11 12 13 '4 23 24 25 27 28 29 3031 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 



February 

March 

April 



14 

13 

12 

11 

10. 

9, 

8 

7 

6 

5 



* 4 



3 
2 
1. 



*-r 



V-r- 




o I I I i i i I I I I I I I I I I I i i i i 

5 8 7 10 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 



May 

June 
July 



pH Levels for Selected Stations on 
Abrams Creek Tributaries 



51 



FIGURE 16 

DISSOLVED OXYGEN (DO.) 



14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6. 

5. 

4 

3 

2 




' ' I ' I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

1 2 3 4 8 £ 26 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 




3. 

2 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

1 2 3 4 8 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



Dissolved O2 at Selected Stations on 
Abrams and Mill Creeks 



14 
13 
12 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 

£ 6j 

a. 
a. 

5 

o" 

Q 4. 

3 
2 
1. 




+■ / ' 

l\ + / ' 



I N o--o' \a [ \ / V \ 



1 ' ' ' 1 ' 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 
February 
March 
April 




a. 

a. 

~ 5 

6 
o 4 

3. 
2. 

1. 



Il1llll l lllll1ll.il' 

5 6 7 » 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 

STATION NUMBER 

May 
June 
July 

Dissolved O2 at Selected Stations on 
Abrams Creek Tributaries 



52 



FIGURE 17 

Volume Flow 



450. 



400. 



350. 



o 300_ 

2 

o 
o 

UJ 

<" 250_ 



200. 



150_ 



o 1Q0_ 



50. 




4 8 9 26 15 

STATION NUMBER 



I 

17 



I 
18 



19 



n — r 

20 22 



I I I 1 



16 



• * February 

■I + March 

O -O Aprpl 



450 _. 



400_ 



350_ 



o300_ 



250_ 



200_ 



150_ 



3 100. 



50_ 




4 8 9 26 15 

STATION NUMBER 




19 20 22 



•• May 
"" f June 
-0 July 



Volume flow at Selected Stations of Abrams and Mill Creeks 



Biological 

Benthic Macroinvertebrate Distribution and Community Structure 

The benthic macroinvertebrate population was represented by 95 taxa 
in Abrams and Mill Creeks during the combined sampling periods of 
1974 and 1977: 54 taxa in 1974 and 91 in 1977. The 
macroinvertebrate community at reference zone stations during 
1974 (station 1) and 1977 (stations 1 and 2) was characterized by 
an abundant fauna with a diverse assemblage of taxa representing 
the orders Ephemeroptera , Plecoptera , Trichoptera , Coleoptera , 
Collembola , Megaloptera , Odonata, Diptera , and De capo da . In 
particular, pollution-sensitive Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera taxa 
(13 taxa in 1974, 21 taxa in 1977) were abundant and had high 
importance values (Tables 4 - 15, 20, and 21), with 11 taxa of 
mayflies and 10 taxa of stoneflies. But a reduction in the number 
of taxa representing these orders occurred at stations 9 and 26 
in the stressed area (4 taxa in 1974; 16 taxa in 1977) which 
represent sites of Abrams Creek in Cades Cove where the greatest 
cattle activity and streambank erosion were observed. The 
importance (values) of pollution-tolerant Diptera at these stations 
increased by severalfold over that at the reference area stations 
during both years. The recovery stations, 17, 18, 19, and 20, 
however, showed marked increases over stressed areas in the number 
of taxa (Tables 4-9) and the importance of pollution-sensitive 

53 



(organic) streambottom-dwelling organisms as represented by orders 
Ephemeroptera , Plecoptera , and Trichoptera (Tables 10 - 15) . The 
importance values of these pollution-sensitive orders tended to 
be greater in 1974 at stations 17 and 18, and in 1977 at station 19. 
Generally, the greatest standing crop (number and wet weight) of 
organisms and the number of taxa (S) was found in the recovery 
zone waters at stations 18 and 19 during both 1974 and 1977, with 
much higher values occurring for these parameters in 1977 than in 
1974 (Tables 4 - 9 and 16) . 

Comparisons between station 15 and the control station (16) revealed 
fluctuating compositions in benthic community structure (Tables 
4 - 15) . There was a substantial increase in the standing crop 
for station 15 from 1974 to 1977, while station 16 showed only 
a slight increase in this regard. 

The average values of the parameters used to examine the structure 

of the benthic macroinvertebrate community (Table 16) were 

relatively high in the reference area, indicating clean water 

conditions. In the stressed areas of Abrams Creek, the macrobenthic 

community was altered as indicated by depressed community structure 

values (especially number of taxa and diversity indices) (Table 16). 

In the recovery area, the community structure showed major 

increases in these values, reflecting the improved water quality. 

The most significant changes in benthic community structure and 

distribution from 1974 to 1977 were increases in the overall 

54 



standing crop at most stations, relative abundance, and importance 
values of pollution-sensitive Plecoptera and moderately sensitive 
Trichoptera . 

Similarities between benthic communities evaluated on an annual 
basis by use of the index of similarity (SI) revealed significant 
differences between the ecological areas sampled in 1974 and 1977 
(Tables 17 and 18). Perhaps the best indicators are those comparing 
the cumulative indices for stations in the various areas. The SI 
between reference and stressed areas was only 0.14 in 1974, but 
increased to 0.38 in 1977; the SI between stressed and recovery 
areas was 0.11 in 1974 and 0.38 in 1977. The SI between stressed 
and control areas was 0.10 in 1974 and 0.43 in 1977. The SI 
between control and recovery areas was 0.19 in 1974 and 0.62 in 
1977, which obviously indicates a much greater similarity of the 
areas during 1977. Also interesting to note is that the SI 
between stations 15 and 16 (control), the two stations comparatively 
analyzed as ecologically similar in regard to size and drainage 
area, increased from 0.59 in 1974 to 0.73 in 1977. Thus, 
substantial increases in the SI between all the ecological zones 
occurred from 1974 to 1977. 

Statistical analyses of selected macroinvertebrate community 
parameters (Table 19) indicated that significant (P < 0.05) 
differences occurred between mean number of organisms per square 



55 



meter for stations, seasons, and years; mean wet weight of 
organisms per square meter for stations and years; S for stations 
and seasons; d for stations and seasons; H for stations, seasons, 
and years; e' for seasons; and IV for stations and months. 
However, no significant differences (P>0.05) existed between 
J or e for stations, seasons, or years. 

Fish Distribution and Population Structure 

Twelve species of fish were collected from Abrams Creek at stations 
1, 8, 26, 17, 18, and 19 in 1977 (Table 22). They were categorized 
according to the economic classifications given by Lagler (1956) 
as to game, forage, or rough species. By assuming a density 
dependence between the trout and the other fish species, comparisons 
were made for abundances and biomasses between rainbow trout (the 
only game fish) and rough-forage fish, changes in the rainbow 
trout and rough-forage fish from upstream to downstream sampling 
stations, and changes between rainbow trout to changes in 
rough-forage fish populations between the surveys made at selected 
stations in 1973-74 and 1977 (Figs. 18 and 19; Tables 23 and 24). 
Since rainbow trout are sensitive to pollution, declines in 
their numbers and biomass were generally interpreted as being 
caused by declining water quality, although attention was 



56 



also given to changes in fishing pressure. Removal of rainbow 
trout during periods of higher fishing pressure was not a factor 
of changes in water quality and thus was considered in intrepretations 
drawn from fish population surveys. Increases in the rough-forage 
fish populations were interpreted to indicate increased 
productivity through organic loading and thus decreased water 
quality. Silt and sediment, however, probably decreased their 
populations. Turbidity was generally higher in 1974 than 1977, 
coinciding with a reduction in cattle from 1,200 to 500 head. 
The level of silt and sediment may also have been much greater in 
1974 than in 1977. This could have influenced the entire fish 
population in 1974, probably by decreasing numbers and biomass. 

The entire fishery was increased in numbers (fish per acre) and 
biomass (pounds per acre) from 1973-74 to 1977 (Figs. 18A and 
19A). The relative abundance and biomass of rainbow trout (Rt) 
compared to that of the combined composition of rough/ forage 
fish (R/F) showed a decline in Rt from the upstream reference 
area (station 1) to stressed areas in the cove (stations 8 and 
26), with subsequent increases in this relation in downstream 
recovery areas (stations 17, 18, and 19) below the Cove during 
both surveys (1973-74 and 1977) as shown in Figures 18A and 19A. 
The basic trend was relatively high numbers (fish per acre) and 
biomass (pounds per acre) of Rt in the reference area, declining 



57 



in stressed areas to small population levels and again increasing 
in the recovery area to similar levels as at the reference area. 
No Rt were found at station 26 in the Cove (Figs. 18B and 19B) . 

The abundance of fishes between 1973-74 and 1977 changed in 

several ways: a drastic decrease in Rt and slight increase in 

the R/F composition from station 1 to 8; a total depletion of Rt 
and drastic increase in R/F at station 26; a reoccurrence of 

Rt at station 17 and decrease in R/F; a decline in both Rt and 
R/F at station 18; and an increase in Rt at station 19 with no 
substantial change in the R/F composition (Fig. 18C). Biomass 
composition changes (Fig. 19C) indicated somewhat different 
proportions, reflecting differences between number and weight in 
the fish population structure. In this regard , there was a 
decrease in Rt biomass from stations 1 to 8, although not as 
drastic as the decline in abundance, and the R/F biomass 
slightly increased. At station 26 there were no Rt and the 
R/F biomass moderately increased. Rainbow trout reoccurred at 
station 26. A small decrease in Rt and slight decrease in R/F 
biomass occurred at Station 18. However, at station 19, while 
the Rt biomass increased in roughly the same proportion as 
abundance, the biomass of R/F declined sharply. 

Black spot (black grubs) cysts were prevalent on fish of all 
species at stations sampled in Cades Cove. No incidence of this 

58 



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<o 



CO 

oo 



CN 

o 



rO 



cm 
ro 



O 



00 
ro 



as 
oo 



oo 



CTn 






sD 
CN 



'J 



0\ 
CN1 



CN 

o 






o 

<3- 






oo 



ro 



l—l 

in 


CN 




<r 


On 


CN 

m 






Os 
CM 




CN 
CM 





a\ 


^D 


CN 


u~> 


o 


ro 


CN 


O 


» 


• 


• 


• 


H 


■— l 


CM 


ON 


CN 


r-. 


CN 


CM 






O 


ro 






\o 


i-H 






• 


• 






ro 


m 






CM 


<r 






i-H 








sO 


oo 






m 


r~» 



as 




rH 


m 


s£> 




v£> 


CM 


<T 




vO 


sO 


r-\ 




H 


as 


i-H 


sO 


as 


r~>. 


<* 


O 


as 


oo 


• 


• 


• 


• 


fH 


00 


o 


m 




ro 


00 


i-H 


v£> 




00 


CM 


O 




SD 


-* 


ro 




r~» 


m 






ro 


sD 



'J 



CM 



ro 
in 



o 

00 



ro 



CM 






*f 






3? CV 



00 

o 



CM 
O 



rt "d 



00 

o 



rH 


O 

as 


^o 


CM 

1— 1 


O 

CM 


in 



oo 
oo 



t-> 


rj 


o 




Ci) 


cj 


sj 


7j_ 


c| 


+J 


+J 


■-J 


O 


-V-> 


J3_ 


rj 


tj 


j- 1 


3 


O 


• J" 


^ 


+J 




<J 


£± 


.r J 


•n 


r J 


Cj 


3 


•o 


ri 


tJ 


^J 


-n 


X 


CD 


Cj 


ex 



o 
o 



as 

CM 



CM 
00 


o> 
o 


o 

1— 1 






ro 
CM 




ro 
CM 


oo 

ro 



00 




vD 


r^ 


m 




O 


ro 


• 




~. 


• 


-H 




CM 


m 




CM 


vC 


ro 




r-~ 


iH 


<r 




• 


• 


• 




CN 


SO 


r-i 



CM 





O 
r-. 






in 


CN 




sO 






oo 

rH 


ro 


ro 


H 

ON 


m 

ro 


sO 
<N 


ro 
ro 


vO 
CN 



cj 

p 



73 





t-l 




QJ 




X> 


r-» 


B 


r«. 


3 


o> 


5S 


H 






C 


JH 


o 


hJ 


■H 


3 


JJ 


>-] 


« 



Cfl 



kO 



OC 



qo 



c 

o 

X 
a) 
H 



<r 


co 


r^ 


O 


vO 


CT> 


o 


o 


CM 


co 


CM 


CO 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


co 


r~- 


cr> 


vO 


CO 


r^ 




rH 


eg 




CO 





o 



o 

Os 



CT> 

as 



in 



CM 



in 



oo 

CO 



CO 
CO 



as 
oo 



oo 


vO 


00 


m 


m 


vO 


m 


<r 


in 


.h 


<r 


CO 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


<r 


m 




m 


CM 

m 


•<r 



00 

OS 



o 
m 



-3- 

o> 



CM 
CNI 



as 



oo 

CM 



co 
m 



CM 
Csl 






m 



m 

CO 



as 

OS 



m 

•-i 



00 

as 



CM 
sO 



CO 



m 
o^ 



co 
oo 



o 



o 



^ 


i 




« 


^3 


•K> 


-Q 


*c$ 


3 

S 




§ 


o 




y 


<3 


s 


o 


o 


CJ 


■< 


o 


o 


» 



m 



o 



CM 
CM 



O 

co 



00 
00 



00 

in 



CM 



m 



CO 

oo 



CO 



o 

CM 



O 
CM 



00 



O 
Csl 



O 
CM 



CM 
CM 



CM 
CO 



m 



m 
o 



vO 





CO 


r~ 




CO 


CM 




O 


-H 




CO 


H 




T-t 






00 


SO 




as 


CM 




• 


• 




r^ 


as 




CM 


r-{ 


i-H 


<r 


as 


vO 


o 


Ol 


CM 


r^ 


CO 


CM 


r^ 


co 



o 
m 



o 
oo 



sO 

as 



CM 
CM 



o 

CO 



CO 

o 



CM 

CM 



CM 
CM 




o 
o 

CD 



o 
o 



o 
o 



o 



-d- 


vO 


i-H 


o 


m 


m 


«* 


co 


VD 


r^» 


as 


m 


CM 


CM 


<r 


vO 


vO 


vO 


as 


r-» 


r-~ 


i-H 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


r^ 


r->. 


o 




as 


iH 


.H 


CM 


iH 


vO 


CTv 






CO 

co 



as 



co 



m 

CM 



co 



as 



m 



co 



o 
o 



CO 



oo 



as 



co 
co 



o 

CM 



SX 
o 

o 



74 



Un 




O 




m 




c 




o 




■H 




4J 




CJ 




01 




rH 




rH 




o 




r ~> 




M 




o 




m 




CO 




•H 




DO 




S 




H 




CO 




C 




<«! 




>> 




u 




•H 




c 




3 




1 


r-. 


o 


r-» 


u 


on 




rH 


cu 




•u 


T3 


ro 


C 


5-i 


crj 


■J3 




0) 


<J- 


4J 


>>- 


)-i 


ON 


QJ 


rH 


l> 




C 


1 


•H 




o 


CO 


u 


X 


u 


cu 


(0 


0) 


g 


u 




c_) 


CJ 




•H 


rH 


x; 


rH 


4-1 


•H 


c 


£ 


cu 




CQ 


t> 




C 


IH 


CO 


O 






CO 


r*% 


B 


X 


CO 


v~-- 


V-i 




JQ 


w 


< 


<u 




oo 


a 


CO 


o 


u 


V-i 


<D 


<4-l 


> 




CO 


CD 




CU 


Td 


C 


c 


O 


CO 


OJ 


^ 


rH 


Pi 


CO 


^~^ 


O 




•H 


to 


M 


CU 


O 


00 rH 


C 


O 


CO 


O 


[2 


w 






vO 




rH 




cu 




rH 




X> 




CO 




H 





I 

3 



CU cfl 



OS 



>^ 

4J 

•H 

rH 

•H 

CO 
4J 

CO 

ul 

W 



CM 

O 

U 

u 

6C 

c 

•H 

t3 

C 
cO 



4-1 




O 






CO 


• 


X ^ 


o 


cd en 


a 


H ^ 




•u 




.£ 




60 




•H /-> 




CU^ 




& .e 


e 




CO 


4-1 W 


CU 


CU 


a 


13 ^ 



o 

CO r-4 

cu cu 

S C4 



rH 
CO 

o 

I -H CU 
O 00 C 
CJ O O 

WHN 



I 

r-l 

CU CU 

HH CJ 

cu d 

oa cu 



o 




o 




o 




o 




ON 




o 




r«. 




o 




o 




o 




00 




o 




• 


VO 


• 


■<!- 


• 


<• 


• 


CN 


• 


o 




in 


o 

i 


vO 


rH 

1 


vO 


tH 
1 


vo 


rH 

1 


on 


o 


vO 


rH 


vD 


1 

o 


O 


rH 

m 


o 


rH 

m 


d 


1 


o 


1 
ON 


o 


1 

ON 


o 



CO 




<N 




CN 




00 




m 




in 




vO 




r- 




r^ 




vO 




r^ 




r^. 




• 


vO 


• 


00 


• 


r-» 


• 


ON 


• 


■o- 




m 


o 

1 


vO 


o 

1 


vO 


o 

I 


vO 


o 

1 


m 


o 


vO 


o 


VO 


1 

en 


d 


m 


o 


m 


d 


1 

o 


o 


i 


o 


1 


o 


^D 




m 




m 




m 




en 




en 





o 




r^ 




o 




rH 




m 




H 




r«. 




vO 




r^ 




vO 




vO 




vO 




• 


CN 


• 


H 


• 


rH 


• 


00 


• 


vO 




ro 


o 


vO 


O 
1 


vO 


O 
1 


VO 


rH 
| 


on 


o 

I 


m 


rH 


vC 


1 


O 


ON 


O 


On 


O 


o- 


d 


1 

ON 


o 


1 

ON 


O 


m 




>cr 




<r 




r~ 




en 




en 





vO 


r^. 


r~- 


CN 


r^ 


CN 


O 


H 


rH 


CN 


O 


CN 


• CO 


• m 


• -d- 


• m 


• >* 


• iH 


rH ON 


rH ON 


rH ON 


rH rH 

| a 


rH r^ 


rH 00 


1 • 

On O 


# 

<f o 


-d- O 


O H 


m o 


m o 


r^- 


1-^ 


r~- 


rH 


<r 


-d- 



o 




00 




00 




CN 




rH 




iH 




in 




00 




00 




CN 




O 




O 






CN 


• 


00 


• 


ON 


• 


<r 


• 


ON 


• 


m 


CN 


00 


CN 


CN 


CN 
■ 


rH 


CN 
| 


00 


m 
i 


rH 


en 
■ 


o 


l 


rH 


ON 


CN 


i 
ON 


CN 


O 

m 


rH 


CN 
00 


CN 


i 
o 

m 


CN 



vO 




>* 




Sf 




en 




00 




00 




ON 




en 




co 




iH 




<r 




<r 






rH 


• 


CN 


• 


rH 


• 


r- 


• 


CN 


• 


m 


CN 


CO 


en 
i 


00 


en 
i 


r-~ 


en 
1 


o 


en 
1 


m 


en 
1 


<r 


1 

vO 


CN 


i 


CN 


i 


CN 


o 


CN 


r-~ 


CN 


r^ 


CN 


vO 




vO 




VO 




o 




CJN 




CJN 





o 


o 




o 


CN CO 


en 


rH 


en cjn 


1 rH 


l 


CN 


1 rH 


VO 


o 

rH 




vO 


ON 


vO 




vO 


vO 


00 




00 


. CN 


• 


O 


• vo 


CN VO 


1 


00 


r» iH 

1 . 


1 


1 

00 


<r 


<r ^f 


m 


o 




in 



00 




rH 




rH 




o 




en 




en 




m 




CN 




CN 




en 


rH 


r^» 


m 


r^ 


<J 


vO 


CN 


ON 

1 


r~- 


ON 

1 


vO 


l 

m 


m 


o 


O 


O 


m 


en 


m 


m 


00 


m 


in 




en 


• 


>d- 


• 


<r 


in 




ON 




ON 




r^ 




en 




en 




<t 




r^ 




x: 




r^ 




r~~ 




4-1 





P4\X 



e4\X &\X 

75 



oo 




m 


CN 


CN 


en on 


1 


rH 


1 rH 


CN 




ON 

vO 


rH 




CN 


vD 




• 


• 


en 


oo en 


rH 


vO 


CO CO 


1 

in 


o 


rH en 


o 




rH rH 



CN 









P5|X 05|X 



m 




en 


CO 


I 


rH 


CN 




^O 




CN 




co 


CO 


co 
■ 


vD 


i 
m 


y-t 


O 


rH 



o 








r^- 








O 




r^ 


r^- 


m <3- 




oo o 


oo r^ 


rH rH 




• en 


• r*~ 


1 


1 


CN • 


1 <N • 


en r^ 


o 


rH VO 


en rH <f 


m r>. 


CO 


O vO 


m o en 


« 


• 


r, 0O 


„ r~~ 


rH 


rH 


CN 


rH CN 



J2 

4J 

o 

pa 



oi|x 



1 

c 


>. 





U 


T3 


c 


(b 


cd 


CrT 


T3 




on 




tn 




Cb 




c 




c: 




Hi 




> 




w 



a 
<r 

u 

c 

■H 

-u 
C 

rrj 



Crf 



>s 

•U 

•H 

H 

•H 

£i 

cfl 
4J 

cr 



•H 
K 
U 

CJ 

> 



o 

• X 

O CO CO 






a) 

c 

cO u 

OJ a) 



o 

B 

c 

CO M 
OJ QJ 



cO 

o 

•H li) 
GO C 
O O 

rH CM 



I 
> 

O 

u 
aj 
cd QJ 



& 



CM 




vt 




CNI 




CO 




rv 




00 




• 


•vl- 


• 


rv 


• 


tn 


o 


vO 


O 

1 


m 


o 

1 


m 


1 


O 


1 

o 


O 


o 


o 


in 




uo 




m 





o 


rv 


rv 


rv 


rv 


rv 


• in 


• O 


• 00 


O sO 


O rv 


O sO 


1 


• • 


1 


CO o 


co o 


co O 


m 


in 


in 



<r 


r-H 


i-H 


sO 


iv 


rv 


• in 


• as 


• CO 


o m 


o m 


o m 


CO o 


l"H O 


i-H O 


-cr 


<r 


<r 



rv 




CO 




CO 




a> 




o 




o 




• 


m 


• 


CM 


• 


o 


o 


rv 


i—i 
i 


oo 


l-l 

1 


oo 


i 

a-. 


o 


■ 
as 


o 


Os 


o 


m 




m 




m 





sO 


<r 


o- 


Iv 


•— i 


rH 


. OS 


• m 


• iv 


CM CO 


CO SO 


co m 


1 . 


1 


1 


CM CM 


00 CM 


CM CM 


m 


rv 


in 



C^ 




r*» 




iv 




o 




vO 




vO 




• 


m 


• 


<r 


• 


\C 


CO 
1 


rv 


to 


o 


CO 
1 


as 


1 

CO 


CM 


i 

CM 


co 


1 

co 


CM 


03 




o 




oo 





aI|X 



CM 



i-H 


vO 


vO 


co m 


CO SO 


CO SO 


1 CM 


1 CM 


1 CM 


r*. 


OS 


iv 



CM 

CO 


rv 
O 


rv 

O 


<r so 

rH OS 

i , 


CO Os 

m cm 


CO 00 

m -j- 


in in 


00 OS 
OS i-H 


m m 

•-H i-H 



CM 



CM 





in 


SO 




o> 


<t 




as 


rv 


1 


Sf 


00 


■ 


m 


in 




m 


SO 


SO 


CT> 


as 


i 

sO 


00 


— i 


1 

sO 


00 


as 


CTS 


CM 


so 


m 


rv 


<T 


Os 


p» 


CM 


• 


r> 


Os 


• 


00 


.— i 


• 


00 


— 1 


m 


* 




o 


#» 


« 


CO 


n 


n 


as 


r-l 




CO 


ro 


t-i 


as 


ro 


^H 


ro 






<r 






CO 






■s* 






rv 






-C 






p»« 






rv 






4-1 
O 

CO. 







a: IX 



<*|x 



CO 


CO 


CO 


in 


sO 


sO 


• rv 


• in 


• in 


o in 


o m 


o m 
i . 


m o 


00 o 


oo o 


m 


vj 


sf 



I-H 




vT 




<r 




rv 




rv 




rv 




• 


O 


• 


■— 1 


• 


O 


o 
■ 


rv 


O 

1 


rv 


o 

1 


rv 


i 

00 


O 


1 

sO 


O 


1 
SO 


o 


sD 




sO 




sO 





■H 




<r 




as 




vO 




sO 




sO 




« 


as 


• 


o 


• 


as 


O 
1 


m 


o 
■ 


sO 


o 

1 


m 


sC 


o 


i 


o 


1 


o 


m 




m 




m 





00 




m 




m 









iH 




iH 




• 


o 


• 


CM 


• 


H 


o 

1 


as 


i-H 
t 


as 


i-H 


as 


H 


o 


r- 


o 


r^ 


o 


CO 




SO 




so 





c 




SO 




o 




OO 




CM 




00 




• 


00 


• 


O 


• 


m 


OJ 
1 


>3- 


CO 
1 


SO 


CM 

1 


m 


1 

in 


CM 


1 

00 


CM 


1 

m 


CM 


.-H 




CM 




i-H 





CM 



CM 



SO 



CM 



sO 




as 




o 


CI 




oo 




00 


• 


as 


• 


in 


• 


l 


as 


CO 


i-H 


CO 


■ 


Csl 


I 

CM 


CO 


1 
CM 


r~ 




00 




|v 



CM 



CM 


in 


in 


cm as 


cm as 


cm as 


• i-H 


1 i-H 


1 r-H 





00 


00 


rv 


as 


as 


I"-. 


• 


• 


- sO 


rv. cm 


rv. r-v 


CO CM 


i-H in 


i-H l-v. 


l • 


I 


1 


in cm 


as rv. 


as m 


l-v. 


m 


m 



l 


as 


as 


1 


ro 


i-H 


^r 


a> 


vT 


a> 


r» 


rv 


m 


• 


• 


CO 


• 


• 


■ 


^H 


o 


• 


r-v 


o 


OO 


sO 


sO 


i-H 


o 


rv 


m 


vC 


vT 


o 


as 


in 


CM 






CO 






-t 






rv. 






tv 






fv. 







I CO sO 

vt rv co 
to 

• rv ro 

co O co 

m as m 

CM 



O 
CQ 



QSlX 



edlx 



ai|x 



Table 17. Similarity Indices .(SI) between Benthic Communities, 
Abrams Creek, April thru July, 1974. 





Stations 


*Ecological Areas 


Similarity 


Compared 


Compared 


Index (SI) 


2/26 


R/S 


0.66 


2/15 


R/S 


0.35 


2/17 


R/S 


0.64 


2/16 


R/C 


0.53 


26/15 


S/S 


0.31 


15/16 


S/C 


0.59 


16/17 


C/S 


0.53 


17/18 


S/R 1 


0.91 


18/19 


R 1 /R 1 


0.95 


2/26, 15, 17 


R/S 


0.14 


2/18, 19 


R/R 1 


0.41 


26, 15, 17/18, 19 


S/R 1 


0.11 


26, 15, 17/16 


S/C 


0.10 


18, 19/16 


rVc 


0.19 



*R (Reference), S (Stressed), R 1 (Recovery), C (Control) 



77 



Table 18. Similarity Indices (SI) between Benthic Communities, 
Abrams Creek, February thru July, 1977 



Stations 






Ecological Areas 


Compared 






Compared* 


1/2 


R/R 


1/8 






R/S 


1/9 






R/S 


1/18 






R/K 


1/20 






R/R 1 


1/16 






R/C 


2/8 






R/S 


2/15 






R/S 


2/17 






R/S 


2/26 






R/S 


8/9 






S/S 


9/26 






S/S 


26/15 






S/S 


15/16 






S/C 


16/17 






C/S 


17/18 






S/R 


18/19 






Rl/Rl 


19/20 






Rl/Rl 


20/16 






r!/c 


1, 2/8, 9 


, 26 


, 15, 17 


R/S 


1, 2/18, 


19, : 


20 


R/Rl 


1, 2/16 






R/C 


8, 9, 26, 


15, 


17/18, 




19, 20 






S/R 1 


8, 9, 26, 


15, 


17/16 


S/C 


18, 19, 20/16 




Rl/C 



Similarity 
Index (SI) 

0.81 
0.73 
0.69 
0.69 
0.67 
0.72 
0.77 
0.73 
0.74 
0.65 
0.70 
0.67 
0.57 
0.73 
0.83 
0.78 
0.72 
0.73 
0.66 
0.38 
0.50 
0.60 

0.38 
0.43 
0.62 



*R (Reference), S (Stressed), R (Recovery), C (Control) 



78 



Table 19. Analysis of Variance (F-Test) for Comparisons of 

Macroinvertebrate Community Parameters for Abrams Creek, 



Dependent 




Sum of 


F 


R- 


Coefficient 




variable 


Parameters 


squares 


Value 


Square 


of variance 


PR > F 


Number of 


Station 


17.68 


5.78 


0.63 


11.19 


0.0004* 


Organisms 


Season 


6.88 


6.74 






0.0038* 




Year 


2.22 


4.35 






0.0456* 


Wet weight 


Station 


21.64 


7.48 


0.71 


33.66 


0.0001* 




Season 


3.05 


3.16 






0.0570 




Year 


10.29 


21.34 






0.0001* 


Number of 


Station 


5.87 


9.73 


0.72 


10.58 


0.0001* 


Taxa (S) 


Season 


1.70 


8.45 






0.0012* 




Year 


0.12 


1.24 






0.2746 


d 


Station 


0.68 


8.73 


0.69 


8.63 


0.0001* 




Season 


0.15 


5.82 






0.0073* 




Year 


0.04 


3.07 






0.0900 


H 


Station 


0.94 


9.46 


0.72 


10.74 


0.0001* 




Season 


0.26 


7.70 






0.0020* 




Year 


0.09 


5.36 






0.0277* 


J 


Station 


0.05 


2.34 


0.38 


11.39 


0.0570 




Season 


0.00 


0.36 






0.6997 




Year 


0.01 


3.53 






0.0701 


R 


Station 

Season 

Year 


0.12 
0.01 
0.02 


11.90 

3.91 

11.12 


0.75 


8.56 


0.0001* 
0.0310* 
0.0023* 


e 


Station 

Season 

Year 


0.03 
0.04 
0.00 


0.63 
2.36 
0.02 


0.22 


15.67 


0.7072 
0.1114 
0.8940 



(Continued on next page) 



79 



Table 19 . Analysis of Variance (F-Test) for Comparisons of 

Macroinvertebrate Community Parameters for Abrams Creek ■- Cont 



Dependent 




Sum of 


F 


R- 


Coefficient 




variable 


Parameters 


squares 


Value 


Square 


of variance 


PR > F 


e' 


Station 


0.01 


0.49 


0.30 


9.03 


0.8095 




Season 


0.02 


4.75 






0.0161* 




Year 


0.00 


0.63 






0.4319 


IV 


Station 


7,980.71 


3.38 


0.64 




0.0005* 




Month 


8,673.68 


9.18 




37.71 


0.0001* 




Year 


322.90 


1.37 






0.2441 



*Significant difference (,<0.05) 



80 



Table 20. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams Creek. 

All Months - April through July 1974* 



Taxon 



Station No. 



15 16 17 18 19 20 



26 



N ema t amo rp h a 
Annelida 

Oligochaeta 
Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae 
Tipulidae 
kwtocha 
VZcAanota 
EnJcodOJux 
HzxaJjoma 
LonguAsLo 
PzdicMi 
li.pola. 
Simuliidae 

Pn.obimuJU.um 
Rhagionidae 

kXkojva* vaAizgcuta. 
Blepharoceridae 
BlupkaAjocdnn 
Tanyderidae 

PfiotoplaAa 
Tahanidae 
TahanuA 
Empididae 
Coleoptera 
Elmidae 
Wzii.oh.uh 
HzxacyllozpuA 
LcUama cutuA 

LWYILUA 
Option 2AVUA 

OuLLmYUMA 
PtwmolzAAXi 
Psephenidae 
EctopaAla 
F6 2.ph.znuA 



X 



X 



X 



X X X X X 
X X X X X 
X 



X 



X 



X 

X 



X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 
X 


X 

X 



X 

X 



X 
X 

X 



X 



*From Alan Kelly's collections, 



U.S. 
81 



Fish and Wildlife Service, GRSM 



Table 20. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams Creek - Cont. 

All Months: April through July 1974* 



Taxon 



Station No. 



15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



Ephemeroptera 
Ephemerellidae 

EphomoAoJULa 
Leptophlebiidae 

Habh.0phJLQ.b4.CL 

PaARlQ.ptophl.Qbia 
Caeninae 

COLQVlU 
Heptageniidae 

Anthhoplo.a 

CinygmuZa 

HQpta.go.nia. 

Ihon 

ULtkhogQna 

StQnonoma 
Siphlonuridae 

AmeZeAuA 

SiphZomihuA 
Baetidae 

SaoXU 

BaoXi&ca 

ConthoptiZum 

l6onyckia 

LQ.ptophJLQ.bia. 

PAQu.docJLoQ.on 
Ephemeridae 

EphomoAa 

HQxagQnia 
Megaloptera 
Corydalidae 

ChauLLodoA 
Sialidae 

Nig ho Vila 
Hemiptera 

Gerridae 
Odoaata 
Zygoptera 
Agrionidae 

Aghion 



x 



X 



X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



X 



X 



X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 



X 



82 



Table 20. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams Creek - Cont . 

All Months: April through July 1974 



Taxon Station No. 



15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



Anisoptera 
Gomphidae 
GomphuA 
LantkuA 

Hagzvu,iU> x 

Plecoptera 
Perlodidae 
VlptopoAta. 

li>OQQ,YlUU> X 

lAopeAla X X 

Pternarcidae 

PteAo nancy* X 

Perlidae 

AcAomvUbla x X 

V aJULQnoXLna. 
Peltoperlidae 

VoXtopQAla. 
Leuctridae 

Lmc&ui x 

Capniidae 

KlZocapviixi 
Taeniopterygidae 

RnjichyptQMi 
Chloroperlidae 

kllop&ila. X 

HtutapznZa. 

Nemouridae 

HamouAjOL 

TazvUopteAyx 
Trichoptera 

Rhyacophiladae 

Rhyacopklta 
Hydropsychidae 

kh.oA.0 psyche. 

Ck<zuma£opi>ych<L 

VlplzcOiona 

Hydnop^yohn 
Glossomatidae 

AgapztuA 

Gloii06oma 



83 



X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 




X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



X 











X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 


X 
X 

X 


X 


X 

X 




X 


X 


X 







Table 20. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams Creek - Cont. 

All Months: April through July 1974 



Taxon 



Station No. 



15 



16 17 18 19 



20 26 



Psych omyiidae 
Psycho my am. 
PolyceM&wpuA 
Goeridae 

Gozjw. 
Hydroptilidae 
MnotAyichla. 
QchAo&vLckta 
Limnephilidae 

Uz-ophyixxx 
Phryganeidae 
P<tlLo6tomL& 
Lepidos tomatidae 

Lzpi.do6toma 
Leptoceridae 
A/utfou,p6odeA 
lz.ptoo.dUia 
LzptoczAuA 
Philopotamidae 
CioAjimaMJui 
1k.zJjoyiu.Ul 
Brachycentridae 
MaIcaoa zma 
Crustacea 
Decapoda 
Astacidae 
CambaAuA 
Oiconz.c£zA 
Mollusca 
Gastropoda 
Prosobranchia 
Megogas tropoda 
Pleuroceridae 
GoviiobaAAj, 
Pulmonata 

Basommatophera 
Ancylidae 
¥zMvii>i>Aja. 



X X 

X X 

X X X X 



XXX 
X X 

XXX 



XXX 



84 



Table 21. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams Creek 

All Months: February through July 1977 





Taxon 










Statior 


t No. 












1 


2 


8 


9 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


26 


Nematomorpha 








X 
















Annelida 
























Oligochaeta 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Anthropoda 
























Insecta 
























Diptera 
























Chironmodidae 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Tipulidae 
























Antocka. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


V 


X 


X 


X 


VicAOiiota 
















X 








EHA.OC.QAJl 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 




X 




Haxcutoma 




X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 






LoyiquJiLo 








X 
















VosLLcXa. 














X 










Tipola. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Simuliidae 
























Vh.oi>vnuJUjum 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Rhagionidae 
























AAhojvLx vaAA.2.gata. 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




Blepharoceridae 
























ZIq.pWoaoc.qAjx 


X 


X 




















Tanyderidae 
























PswZoplaAa. 














X 










Tahanidae 
























TahanuA 


















X 






Empididae 




X 




















Collembola 






X 




X 




X 


X 








Coleoptera 
























Elmidae 


X 




X 


X 




X 




X 








WoJUlcMuA 
















X 


v 






H2xajC.ylZ0Q.puii> 


















X 






LaJxuAcuMu 


















X 






LunvuMA 










X 








v 




Option QAVUA 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 

x 




OvtimvujuA 


















v 


X 




VnomonoAia. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 

Y 




Psephenidae 














X 

X 




A 






EcJjopaAAja. 

?i> Q,pkQMXA 


X 
X 




X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 




Limnichidae 
























Limnichwi) 








X 

















85 



Table 21. Checklist of the benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams Creek - Cont . 

All Months: February through July 1977 



Station No, 



Ephemeroptera 
Ephemerellidae 

tphemeAeZZa 

Leptophlebiidae 

HabxopliZe.bZa 

VaJia. t ep to pklehla 
Caeninae 

CaeiUA 
Heptageniidae 

Axtliwyiea 

CLnygmuZa 

H 'dp tag e.nia 

ln.o 

RiXhxogena 

Stenonema 

Siphlonuridae 

AmeZeXuA 
SiphZonu/iuA 
Baetidae 
BaetXA 
EaejtUcR 
CzntAoptiZum 
1 6 onychia 
Le.ptopkle.bia. 
P6e.udocZoe.on 
Ephemeridae 
EphemeAR 
Hexagtnia 
Megaloptera 
Corydalidae 

Chavtiodu 
Sialidae 
Uignonia 
Hemiptera 
Gerridae 
Odonata 
Zygoptera 
Agrionidae 
kgtvLon 
Anisoptera 
Gomphidae 
GomphuA 
LanthuA 
Hage,niuA 



1 2 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



XXXXXXXXXXX 



X X X X 



XXX 



X 



X 







X 




















X 


X 




X 


X 


x. 










X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 










X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 








X 






X 


X 


X 









X 



86 



Table 21. 



Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams ureek - Cont. 

All Months: February through July 1977 



Plecoptera 
Perlodidae 

VlplopoALa 

lAogenui 

IboptihXa. 
Pteronarciolae 

?tQJionaAciji> 
Perlidae 

kcAOWllVUjOL 

Vcvtaqnatiyia 
Peltoperlidae 

VdLtopojiLa 
Leuctridae 

Capniidae 

kttocjipyujx 
Taeniopterygidae 

BsiRckypteAa. 
Chloroperlidae 

KlZoptnLa. 

UaAtapeAZa 
Nemouridae 

NzmouAa 

TamiopteAyx 
Trichoptera 

Rhyacophilidae 

RkycicophJMi 
Hy dropsy chidae 

kn.dtopi>ych<L 

Ckzumcuto psyche. 

V-lplzcXJiOYia. 

Hydn.op6yc.kt 

Vajiapsychu 
Glossosomatidae 

AgapeXuA 

GZo£6o&oma 
Psychomyiidae 

?6yckomyia 

Volycojnt/topuA 













Station 


No. 










1 


2 


8 


9 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 
X 


20 


26 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 
X 




X 
X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 

X 
X 


X 

X 
X 


X 
X 

X 


X 

X 


X 
X 

X 
X 


X 

X 
X 

X 


X 
X 

X 
X 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 



X X 

X X 



X 



X 



X X X X X 



X X 



X 

X 



XXX 















X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 

X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



X X 



Table 21. Checklist of the Benthic Hacroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams Creek - Cont. 

All Months: February through July 1977 

Station No. 



15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



Goeridae 

GOQAO. X XXX 

Hydroptilidae X 

Ne.otsU.chia X 

Oo.hAotAA.6via. X 

Limnephilidae 

N&opkylax X 

Pycnop&yche. x x x x x 

Phryganeidae 

PtLLo&tomii, X 

Lepidostomatidae 

Lcpido-btoma. X 

Leptoceridae 

kthni.p60d<ZA XXX X 

LzptocoJULa X X X X 

L&ptoceAuA X 
Philopotamidae 

ChAjncuVta. X X X X 

T<l2.ntovu.itf> 
Brachycentridae 

MicsiaA ma, 
Crustacea 
De capo da 
Astacidae 

CambaAuA XXX X X X X 

Mollusca 0n.dOVl2.cXU XX X X 

Gastropoda 

Prosobranchia 
Mesoqastropoda 
Pleuroceridae 

GovvLobaAiA XX XX 

Pulmonata 

Basomraatophera 
Ancylidae 

VoAAAJii>iil X X X X y 



88 



Table 22. Species List of Fish Captured from Abrams Creek - 

August through September 1977 





Common Name 


Scientific Name 


^Ecological Type 


Rainbow trout 


S&lmo gcuAdneAi 


Game 


Tennessee darter 


Etkzo6toma AimoteAim 


Forage 


Blacknose dace 


RkLnichthtjA cl&wXuZua 


Forage 


Rosyside dace 


ClinuAtomuA {fixdotoi.d.u> 


Forage 


Longnose dace 


RkLnichtkyi ccutaACLcXao. 


Forage 


River chub 


UoaomiA mlcAopogon 


Rough 


Creek chub 


ScmotLtui a£/wmaculcutuA 


Rough 


Northern 


HypontzLLum yiigsiicRftA 


Rough 


hogsucker 






White sucker 


CcutaAtomuA cummoAAoni 


Rough 


Warpaint shiner 


Uotswpu> COC.COge.nAj> 


Forage 


Stoneroller 


Compos toma anomatum 


Rough 


Tennessee 


NotswpJJ) lo.acA.oduA 


Forage 


shiner 







*From Lagler (1956) 



89 



0'9'3 - 1974 
• 1977 




50 100 150 200 250 300 

Rainbow trout Numbers (fish/acre) 



B. 



" 2500 
u 

10 

JB 

m 

£ 2000 

<n 

1 
a 
E 1500 

3 



= 1000- 

1 

■ 

if 500 





% Rainbow l<oui 

O Rough t Forage fiah 



8 26 17 18 19 

Station Number 



150 



120 



90 



■60 



30 



Z) 
Q> 

a 
o 

* 



z 

c 
3 



4- 




30 60 90 120 150 180 

Rainbow trout Numbers (fish /acre) 
FIGURE 18 

FISHERY DYNAMICS (POPULATION) FOR SELECTED STATIONS ON ABRAMS CREEK 

A. Comparison of Rainbow trout (Rl) to Rough and Forage fish (r/f) populations (f lsh/»cr.)for 1973-4 
and 1977 

B Change in Rt and R/F fish populations between the y,.„ 1973-4 and 1977 for salected stations 

C Comparison of change in Rt to change In R/F populations between the years 1973-4 and 1977 
for selected stations 



90 



A. ~ 



O 1973 - 1974 
• 1977 




10 20 30 40 50 60 

Rainbow trout Biomass (lbs) 




• Rainbow trout 
ORough & Forage fish 



8 26 17 18 19 

Station Number 



C. 30 .. 




Rainbow trout Biomass (lbs) 

FlGU RE 19 

FISHERY DYNAMICS (BIOMASS) FOR SELECTED STATIONS ON ABRAMS CREEK 

A Comparison of Rainbow trout (Rt) to Rough and Forage fish (R/F) biomass (lbs/acre) for 1973-4 
and 1977 

B. Change In Rt and R/F biomass between the years 1973-4 and 1977 for selected station* 

C Comparison of change In Rt to change In R/F biomass between the years 1973-4 and 1977 



91 





cu 




u 




u 




< 


x 


4-1 


to 


X 


•H 


OO 


Pm 


•H 




cu 


X! 


3: 


oo 


1 


3 




O 


o 


t*! 


2: 









~^_ 






X! 






-^ 






X 






x: 




x 




u 


X 






CO 






x: 




CU 


CO 




CU 


CO 




CO 




5-i 


Cfl 




cu 


•H 




cu 


CO 




u 


•H 




U 


•H 




•H 




a 


•H 




u 


4-1 




r4 


•H 




CJ 


4-( 




o 


4-1 




4H 




cO 


4-1 




o 
CO 






o 
cd 


4-1 




CO 


. 




cO 


. 




X 




x: 


. 






CO 




"""v. 


• 




X 


CO 




x: 


CO 




00 




CO 


CO 




X 


X 




X 


CO 




CO 


rQ 




CO 


XI 




3 


4J 


•H 


X 




CO 


rH 




CO 


XI 




•H 


rH 




•H 


rH 




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parasite was found at the other sample stations. Exposed portions 
of epithelium behind the opercle flap were evident in some 
rainbow trout taken at the upper Cove, station 8. Mucous 
accumulations from epithelial tissue were also quite high in 
these exposed areas behind the opercle flap, indicating irritation, 
probabl -ilt and sediments. 

Bacteriological Dynamics 

The numbers of total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal 
streptococcus bacteria were variable along the main stream from 
the most upstream station (1) to the base station (22) (Figs. 20 
and 21; Tables 25 - 27). This variability also occurred between 
r'le periods. 

The numbers of total coliforms increased (Fig. 21; Table 27), in 
general, once the stream entered the Cove (station 3). With the 
exceptions of the high counts at stations 4 and 15 in June, the 
highest counts in the Cove typically were found at stations 34 , 
9, and 26 (except when the creek was dry at station 26). In May 
and August the numbers of these bacteria at stations downstream 
from the Cove were reduced, frequently to levels comparable to 
those of the uppermost stations (1 and 2). But in June and July, 
numbers either increased or remained at levels comparable to the 
highest numbers found in the Cove. 



94 



The lowest numbers of fecal coliform (Fig. 21; Table 26) were 
generally found at stations 1 to 8 and from stations 15 to 22. 
The greatest numbers of this bacteria were found at stations 34, 
9, and 26. The highest counts occurred in May. In June, the 
numbers of bacteria were elevated from stations 15 to 22 as compared 
to counts at these stations in other months. 

In May, the numbers of fecal streptococcus (Table 25) were less 
than 200 per 100 milliliters from the headwaters to station 22, 
except for a count of about 625 at station 9. The counts in June 
were typically greater than those found in May, particularly in 
the Cove and stations downstream from the Cove. In July, the 
counts generally decreased from station 1 to station 9 (Abrams 
Creek, was dry at station 26) and then decreased again at the 
downstream stations. In August, the counts were similar to those 
found in May, except the highest count, about 600, occurred at 
station 18. The ratio of fecal coliforms to fecal streptococcus 
for all sample periods (Figs. 22 and 23) was conspicuously above 3 
at stations 34, 9, and 26, except for station 26 when it was dry. 
At other stations the index was less than 1.5. 

The numbers of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal 
streptococcus bacteria in the tributaries varied greatly, often 
without apparent explanation (Figs. 20 and 21; Tables 25 - 27). 
Nonetheless, tributaries along the south side of Abrams Creek 

95 



FIGURE 20 

TOTAL COLIFORM 



8400,, 
7800. 
7200. 

6600. 

600CL 

5400. 

4m 

4200. 

360J- 

3000. 

2400. 

1800. 

1200. 

1000- 

60Q. 




j H I I M I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 

12 3 4 834 8 2j| 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



Total Coliform for Selected Stations 
on Abrams and Mill Creeks 



840Q_ 

7800. 

7200_ 

6600. 

6000_ 

5400. 



5000- 

4 8 00. 



4200. 
3600. 
3000 
2400. 
1800. 



1200. 
1000. 

600. 




o' I I I | I I I I I I I | I I I I I I I I I 

5 31 32 30 £ 33 J 283% 10 y 12 28 13 14 2^7 2524 23 36 37 

Station number w 



may 

JUNE 

july 1977 

AUGUST 
DRY STATION 



Total Coliform for Selected Stations 
on Abrams Creek Tributaries 



No Total Coliform information available for these Stations in 1976 



96 



FIGURE 21 

Fecal Coliform 



97 



6000 
5000. 
4000. 
3000. 
2000. 
1000. 

5 800. 

o 
o 
- 700. 

oc 
uj 

°- 600. 

C/) 

o 50 °- 

d 

U 400. 
300. 
200 
100. 



r-TTl 



a I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I V 

1 2 34 8 34 9 2615171819 2021 22 16 

STATION NUMBER 



6000- 

5000. 

4000 

3000. 

2000. 

1000. 

_i ^- 

5 800. 

o 
o 
" 700_ 

cr 

UJ 

°~ 600. 

CO 
UJ 

1 b0 °- 

_i 
O 
O 400_ 

300_ 

200_ 

100_ 



-^ 



I I I I I I [ I I I I I I I I I I I I I 
5 31 32 30 6 33 7 29 3510 11 12 28 13 14 27 25 24 23 36 37 

STATION NUMBER 



• MAY - no data 
O JUNE 



'+ JULY 
£i AUGUST 



1976 




o T-i i > 1 1 ' t i i t m r i i 

1 2 3 4 8 34 9 2615 17 18 192021 22 18 



STATION NUMBER 



-• MAY 
fj JUNE 
-♦ JULY 



Total Fecal Coliform for Selected Stations 
on Abrams and Mill Creeks 



6000 _, 

5000. 

4000. 

3000. 

2000. 

1000. 




5 31 32 30 

* 



-r*4- 



6 33 7 29 J51jp y 12 2813 14 J7 2524 23 3637 

* * STATION NUMBER 

1977 



A AUGUST 

* DRY STATION 



Total Fecal Coliform for Selected Stations 
on Abrams Creek Tributaries 



FIGURE 22 

F.C./ F.S. 



RATIOS 



98 



7J) -. 

6.5 
6.0. 
5.5. 
5.0. 
4.5- 
4.0 
« 1 51 

o ■ J *°-l 

< 

tr 3.0L 

u: 2 .5. 

d 

^' 2.0. 

1.5. 

1.0. 

.5. 



TT t i T iiiiiiii t iiiiir 

1 2 3 4 8 34 9 261517 18 19 20 21 22 16 

STATION NUMBERS 



7A- 
6 .5. 

64 

5.5. 

5.0. 

43. 

4.0. 

3.5- 



< 3.0. 

or. 



S 2.54 

d 

u: 2. 



1.5. 

1.0. 

.5 



1 TTf 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

5 31 32 30 6 33 7 29 35 10 11 12 28 13 14 27 25 24 23 3637 

STATION NUMBERS 



JUNE 
JULY 



unreliable data 



1976 




STATION NUMBERS 



PC. /F.S. Ratios for Selected Stations 
on Abrams and Mill Creeks 



24.5. 



11.S_j 
11.0.J 



5.5. 






1 1 




5.0. 






1 1 
1 1 




4.5. 






1 1 

1 1 




4.0. 






1 1 
1 1 




S »- 






1 1 
1 1 




l- 
< 
<r 3.0- 






1 1 
1 1 




u-* 2A. 






1 1 
1 1 




6 

m 2.o_ 






10 1 

1 A' 




1.5. 






/ 1 1 

1 I 




1«0. 






/ 1 

i v 




A. 




wV 




m 





iTtTr 


1 rTTT 


1 1 1 TT 


TTYTtt 



-• MAY 

-O JUNE 

+ JULY 



5 31 32 30 6 33 7 29 35 10 11 12 2813 14 27 2924 23 36 37 

• • . « . » . S \ . » 

STATION NUMBERS 



DRY STATION 
unreliable data 



1977 



AUGUST 

FC./F. S. Ratios for Selected Stations 
on Abrams Creek Tributaries 



FIGURE 23 



FC./F.S. RATIOS 



99 




1 2 3 4 8 34 9 26 15 17 18 19 20 22 

STATION NUMBER 



• • 

♦ ^ 

o 



7.0 
65. 
6.0. 
55. 
50. 
4.5. 
§4.0. 

r- 

i 3.5. 

in 

^ 30. 

o 
^2.5 

2 0. 

15. 

10 

5. 




7.0 
6.5 

60 
5.5. 
5 0. 
4.5. 

to 

4.0 

i- 
< 

1 3.5 



"- 3.0. 

O 

u- 2.5 



2 
1.5. 
10 



5 31 32 30 6 33 7 29 35 10 11 12 2813 14 27 25 24 2336 37 

static Number* • 

1977 



May 

May -unreliable ratios 

June 

Station Ory 



\ 



v*V 



25 
20 
15 

10-1 
5To 

4.5 
g 4.0 

CO 

00 

22.5 

2.0 

1.5 

1.0. 

.5 



fTT l f I I I 

1 2 3 4 8 34 9 2% 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 

STATION NUMBER 



rrn 



\ 



♦ ♦ 



FC./F.S. Ratio for Selected 
on Abrams and Mill Creeks 



July 

Auoutt 

August - unreliable ratio* 

Stations 



1 i rrr ii if mm iKiYnr r 

a" ".rjt < MaHr , « ■-"«-•■— 

• Ory »taiton In July 1 Q 7 7 

A Ory station in August 

F.C./ FS. Ratio for Selected Stations 
on Abrams Creek Tributaries 







© 
















' 


Z 




E 


n 

CO 
CO 


o 


o 
o 
o 




o 
o 
o 




i_ 






UJ 




o 


E 




T— 




lO 




o 






< 




o 




Nl 




\J 




to 






0. 

UJ. 

Q 




E 




















UJ 




o 














o 






UJ 
CO 


Jiform 
ssee).* 


<♦— 




















CO 


o 

a 


jQ 




o 




O 
O 




cd 

(0 

o 






Ul 

z 
z 

UJ 

h- 


O c 


tO 


CO 


o 


o 

CM 




O 

T- 




*^ 






Q 


c 
o 


o 


<D 




M 




NJ 




a> 






z 
< 




Q 












a> 






tn 


o 
















o 






h« 


2. ° 
















CD 






05 
















S_/ ^"N, 


■oS 
















*-» 






>■ °° 
^ CD 


C (0 
















O 






Z _ 


(0 •*-< 




ja> 












c 






UJ ^ 


_ w 










o 










O I 


(0 »*- 




.O 




o 




o 
o 

d 

T- 

M 




2 


CD 
O) 




< h- 

_i 


ts of Tot 
ements o 


E 

o 
o 


CO 
CO 

E 
a. 


T" 


o 

CM 
NJ 






3 
O 
.C 
CO 

w 

o 

> 


k. 

to 

JC 
o 

CO 
T3 




z < 

o w 

— X 
h- 

° O 
Ul _ 

1- -1 

O CD 

cr => 
a. a. 

-J u. 
< O 


Limi 
equir 


E 

k. 

o 

•*> 














(D 

x: 




i_ 


















O) 

c 




H 


"S « 


o 


a> 












E 


• 


Z 
Ul 


0) -- 
T3 ^ 
C O 
d) (1) 


o 

"c5 


n 

CO 


o 


o 
o 
o 




o 
o 
o 




o 


> 

CD 
O 




5 

Z 

o 


E a 
c co 


*-> 
|2 


Q 




T- 




m 
M 




o 
o 


CD 

k. 




cr 

> 

z 


o o 






















UJ 


o co 
























cr * 


^^^^^^ 




















CO 




















D 






•a 


















• 




c »_ 




— 












O 


<t 




to <j) 
(1) (0 




O) 


> 










H 


CM 
UJ 


o k_ 


ZZ 


c 

E 


k. 

to +i 
■o o 


•E o) 


(D 


CD 


c 

CD 


o 

z 


Q) 


^ * 


to CO »r 


E 


5 w IK 


« «= 


■+-> 


CO 


3 


Q 


QC 


<D *- 


(0 _ 


z o « 

Q- O ^ 




O ■*- <D 


(0 — 


to 


CD 
(7) 




CE 
O 
O 
O 




o CO 


o o 


co 


O C m 
CD O £ 

CO O £ 


O -C 


CD 


>*- 
<*- 

LU 


u. 




















< 

• 



100 



Table 25. Fecal Streptococcus Colonies per 100 Milliliters of Water 
Sampled at Stations on Abrams Creek and Tributaries, 1977 



STATION 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 



MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUGUST 


128 


276 


1,000 


263 


138 


314 


702 


80 


140 


400 


970 


223 


198 


322 


606 


303 


DRY 


582 


DRY 


DRY 


DRY 


312 


DRY 


117 


DRY 


486 


DRY 


DRY 


198 


822 


864 


213 


642 


554 


206 


227 


DRY 


lb8 


DRY 


DRY 


1,264 


1,040 


DRY 


613 


DRY 


420 


DRY 


263 


134 


1,554 


1,298 


123 


972 


230 


1,128 


277 


98 


790 


538 


323 


74 


262 


1,460 


190 


136 


588 


1,104 


157 


50 


742 


1,200 


557 


52 


550 


1,092 


133 


62 


454 


1,980 


107 


32 


452 


1,712 


137 


74 


522 


1,704 


140 


DRY 


354 


DRY 


DRY 


130 


2,664 


450 


DRY 


143 


602 


1,348 


377 


60 


336 


DRY 


DRY 


636 


676 


1,164 


DRY 


540 


1,130 


590 


277 


484 


28b 


160 


103 


294 


672 


56U 


313 


218 


1,296 


1,320 


260 


248 


230 


2,132 


323 


DRY 


272 


374 


67 


416 


766 


360 


157 


250 


1,112 


DRY 


DRY 


174 


864 


738 


233 


134 


112 


l,b00 


180 



101 



Table 26. Fecal Coliform Colonies per 100 Milliliters of Water 
Sampled at Stations on Abrams Creek and Tributaries, 
1977 



STATION 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 



MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUGUST 


7 


3 





70 


7 


17 


40 


40 


33 


80 


87 


147 


23 


223 


137 


247 


DRY 


93 


DRY 


DRY 


DRY 


7 


DRY 


13 


DRY 


53 


DRY 


DRY 


87 


107 


43 


60 


2,553 


1,900 


1,057 


1,037 


DRY 


13 


DRY 


DRY 


177 


340 


DRY 


150 


DRY 


133 


DRY 


97 


13 


50 


10 


13 


63 


33 


7 


20 


263 


520 


20 


330 


53 


40 


10 


93 


183 


600 


110 


123 


57 


670 


30 


180 


43 


550 


23 


113 


10 


530 


87 


73 


23 


493 


153 


57 


77 


480 


70 


53 


DRY 


67 


DRY 


DRY 


56 


223 


10 


DRY 


31 


140 


43 


70 


2,160 


1,010 


DRY 


DRY 


90 


133 


387 


DRY 


293 


2,613 


340 


3,270 


83 


13 





10 


70 


17 


20 


20 


50 


10 


10 


37 


77 


17 


60 


93 


DRY 


233 


280 


1,647 


2,227 


533 


1,817 


637 


93 


517 


DRY 


DRY 


3 


33 


28 


13 


5 


13 





37 



102 



Table 27. 


Total Coliform Colonies 


per 100 milliliters of 


Wat pr 




Sampled at 


Stations on Abrams Creek 


and Tributaries. 




1977 








— V 


STATION 




MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUGUST 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 




463 


363 


667 


303 




660 


547 


667 


480 




1,500 


473 


1,213 


973 




1,046 


3,013 


1,110 


770 




DRY 


2,567 


DRY 


DRY 


6 




DRY 


620 


DRY 


410 


7 




DRY 


623 


DRY 


DRY 


8 




827 


1,530 


1,140 


903 


9 




3,400 


1,387 


1,573 


2,200 


10 




DRY 


440 


DRY 


DRY 


11 




540 


1,237 


DRY 


1,533 


12 




DRY 


657 


DRY 


1,253 


13 




597 


3,767 


807 


317 


14 




953 


423 


1,307 


640 


15 




806 


4,267 


1,113 


567 


16 




547 


767 


1,453 


500 


17 




1,140 


4,217 


1,320 


617 


18 




740 


7,673 


3,300 


553 


19 




570 


3,923 


2,233 


1,040 


20 




423 


4,480 


2,367 


610 


21 




410 


3,180 


2,567 


573 


22 




643 


4,940 


1,833 


700 


23 




DRY 


2,320 




DRY 


24 




1,486 


2,420 


1,833 


DRY 


25 




352 


333 


267 


870 


26 




2,500 


2,450 


DRY 


DRY 


27 




1,983 


1,470 


4,400 


DRY 


28 




720 


2,400 


2,567 


6,933 


29 




1,426 


567 


877 


1,290 


30 




2,206 


367 


1,107 


480 


31 




1,200 


1,333 


1,867 


737 


32 




1,186 


1,133 


3,200 


847 


33 




DRY 


3.113 


5,133 


3,467 


34 




2,016 


3,833 


3,300 


930 


35 




260 


3,733 


DRY 


DRY 


36 




543 


387 


803 


463 


37 




1,276 


283 


1,333 


383 



103 



typically had greater numbers of these bacteria than north side 
streams, this being particularly true for total coliforms and fecal 
coliforms . 

The fecal coliform to fecal streptococcus ratios were nearly always 
less than 1 in the tributaries (Figs. 22 and 23). Stations 28 and 
33 had a ratio greater than 5 in August, however. 

Periphytic Diatom Community Structure 

Twelve species of periphytic diatoms were collected from the seven 
sampling stations on Abrams Creek in May and June 1977 (Tables 28 
and 29). Eleven of these species were present every month. 
Fragilaria vaucheria occurred in relatively high abundance at 
stations 9 and 26 during May but was not represented at any 
station during June. 

Eunotia rhomboidea a nd Navicula contenta f . biceps were the 
predominant species at station 1, the reference area for this 
survey. Gomphonema parvulum a nd Synedra ulna were the most 
abundant species at station 3. This station was above the area 
of cattle influence and the sewage lagoon but was located directly 
below a picnic area adjacent to the stream (Figs. 2 and 3). 
Station 4 was adjacent to the sewage lagoon, and Achnanthes sp . and 



104 



Synedra ulna were the most abundant species. At station 9, 
directly below the sewage lagoon and in the area of cattle 
watering, Fragilaria vaucheria and Meridion circulare were the 
most representative species. Fragilaria vaurcheria and Meridion 
were the most abundant species at station 26 (located at the 
lower cove below cattle pasture but not a watering site) . Station 
15, located just before Abrams Creek exits the Cove, was most 
represented by Meridion circulare and Synedra ulna . Together, 
stations 9, 26, and 15 made up the stressed area relative to cattle 
activity. Station 18 was the recovery station located below the 
confluence of Mill Creek; Diatoma hiemale var. mesodon was in 
greatest abundance there. Therefore, determining the predominant 
species composing the diatom community at different locations along 
Abrams Creek provided a useful means of assessing changes in 
habitat and water quality along the course of the stream. 



105 



Table 28. Abrams Creek Diatom Data - May 1977. Those with a 
relative aoundance or five percent or greater are 
listed for each collection. 



Station Number Taxon 

1 *Eunotia hkomboidca 

Viaioma hicmatc var . meAodon 
lhVXA.di.OYl cin.culah.2. 
MavicuZa contcnia f . bi.ce.p4 

3 *Gompkonzmci pa/ivulum 

SyncdAa ulna 

Viaioma kimalc var. m&bodon 

kch.Yia.niku sp. 

4 * AchnanikzA sp. 

GompkoYiojma. pa/ivulum 
Syncdna ulna 

9 *FstagiZaAia vau.ch.2Aia 

Gompkonema pativuium 
Synechia ulna 

26 *FwgilaAia vau.ch.2Aia 

Syn2.dna ulna. 
McloiiAXL vaAiam, 

15 *M2Ai.dixin ciAculaAc 

Gompkonma paAvulum 
Viaioma hicmate var. mc&odon 

18 *Viaioma hi2malz var. mc&odon 

Syncd/ia ulna 



*Taxon with greatest relative abundance 



106 



Table 29. Abrams Creek Diatom Data - June 1977. Tnose with a 
relative abundance of five percent or greater are 
listed for each collection. 



Station Number Taxon 

1 *Mav^ciita. conianta f. bi.c2.p6 

Vi.aX.oma. kizmoJiz. var. moAodon 
IhviidLon CAAculasie. 
KcknantkoA sp. 
Eunoti.a nkomboi.d<m. 

3 *SynzdJia ulna. 

MoJvLdlon CAAcutaAe. 
Gompkonoma. pasivuZum 
Kckyia.Yith.QA sp. 

4 *Syne,a%a. ulna. 

Mavi.cuZa mutica var. itigma 
?AjinulaAia sp. 
Gompkonema paAvuJLum 

9 *MeJvldLon cJjicixtaAc 

Vlcuboma. faLemaJLe, var. moAodon 
Gomphomma. paAcutum 
SyncdAa ulna 
EunaJxa sp. 

26 *M&Udlon cAAculaAe. 

15 *Syne.dAa ulna. 

Gompkonma paAcuZum 

18 *\k<LLobiAa. vaxia.nA 

Syncd/ia atna 



*Taxon with greatest relative abundance 



107 



Table 30. Ecological Profile of Diatoms Collected from 
Abrams Creek - May through June, ±977 




ECOLOGICAL 
PARAMETERS 



Acidobiontic 



Acidophilous 



Indifferent 



X X 



o< Alkaliphilous 



X X 



X X 



Alkalibiontic 



c Eutrophic 

•h Mesotrophic 

u - 



X 



X X 



■u Oligotrophic 
g Dystrophic 



Polyhalobous 



Euhalobous 



Mesohalobous 



alpha range 



beta range 



G 
O 

•H 

O 
i-H 
CO 



Oligohalobous 



halophilous 



indifferent 



X X X X 



X 



X 



halophobous 



Euryhalobous 



Polysaprobic 



Mesosaprobic 



alpha range 



beta range 



CD 
•H 
43 

O 

U 

g< Saproxenous 
M Saprophobic 



X 



Oligosaprobic 



X 



Saprophilic 



Limnobiontic 



Limnophilous 



JJ Indifferent 



X 



u Rheophilous 



Rheobiontic 



X 



108 



Table 30. Ecological Profile of Diatoms Collected from 
Aorams Creek - May through June 1977 - Cont. 




cd 

•U 
•H 

cd 



cd 
o 



■u 
cd 
•u 
•H 

.0 

cd 

« 

o 

•H 

•i-l 
O 
CJ 

a 



cd 

C • 

04-J 

cd-H 

CO 



ECOLOGICAL 
PARAMETERS 



Marine 



Estuary 



Lake 



Pond 



X 



River 



Spring and Stream 



X 



Aerophilous 



Other 



Euplanktonic 



Tychoplanktonic 



Periphytic 



epipelic 



epilithic 



epidendric 



epizooic 



epiphytic 



attached 



unattached 



Winter 



Spring 



Summer 



Fall 



Euthermal 



>-i Mesothermal 

3 

■u Oligothermal 

cd a 

u 

QJ 
(X 

B 
1) 
H 



Stenothermal 



Metathermal 
Eurythermal 



Undesignated 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



109 



Table 30. Ecological Profile of Diatoms Collected from 
Abrams Creek - May through June, 1977 - Cont. 



Geographical distribution and additional comments: 

a = M&vldcon caACuZoaz: 

Cosmopolitan; seldom in the tropics; calciphilous; an 
indicator of high oxygen concentration. 

b = Navi-cubta conzenta f. b-iczpi: 

Cosmopolitan; polyoxybiontic 

c = Gomphonma paAvatum: 

Cosmopolitan; a facultative nitrogen hetereograph 
and may be a pollution indicator; the great adaptability 
of this species accounts for its variability; calcium 
and iron indifrerent. 

d = SynzdAa. utna: 

Cosmopolitan; great ecological span; prefers dirty water; 
calcium indifferent; it is unsuitable as an ecological 
indicator. 

e = AccLnzheA species: 

Requires high oxygen concentration; cosmopolitan; 
euryphotic; does not seem to appear in large numbers 
under conditions of heavy organic enricnment. 

f = F ' fiaQiLdhAJx vauckeAiae.: 

Cosmopolitan; may prefer flowing, well-aerated water. 

g = MoJLobAjux. v-inidayi!>: 

Cosmopolitan; euryoxybiontic; indifferent to iron 
concentration; probably an obligate nitrogen neterotroph; 
has an extraordinary large ecological span which on one 
hand has massive growths in eutrophic waters in summer 
and on the other hand, large growths in katharobic water 
in January and February. 

h = Viatoma. h^vmaZz: 

Cosmopolitan; alkaliphilous to alkalibiontic; oligohalobous; 
saproxenous; oligothermal and stenothermal. 



110 



DISCUSSION 

Cades Cove is an important and controversial management problem in 
the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. From one point of view, 
the cattle maintained in the Cove help fulfill, in part, the 
preservation of pioneer culture, as well as National Park Service 
policy to maintain certain areas as historic settings. As stated 
in the Resources Management Plan for the Great Smoky Mountains 
National Park, III-D-1 (National Park Service 1969) the primary 
purpose of managing the cattle in Cades Cove is to preserve the 
characteristic feature of pioneer culture as nearly as possible in 
the condition that existed when the park was established. The open 
landscape of meadow and field is thus maintained against the natural 
succession of forest and thicket. The overall objective of the plan 
is to maintain the open aspect rather than an authentic forest stage 
composition. The environmental impacts which develop as a result of 
this plan are interrelated with the natural phenomena which affect 
Abrams Creek . 

Before developing an understanding of the present physical and 
chemical features of Abrams Creek, some information about the 
physical conditions of the creek in the Cove needs to be addressed. 
The gradient of the creek is similar to other major creeks in the 
park except for that portion of its passage through Cades Cove. 
Here the gradient is very low and, even with a forested landscape 
which existed before the settlers arrived, it could be expected that 



111 



the low gradient would favor meandering. Such meandering and the 
limestone bedrock would be expected to alter the water quality of 
the creek. The clearing of the land by the settlers increased the 
exposure of the creek to solar radiation by removing shade and, when 
combined with farming, cattle grazing and watering, the water quality 
of the creek was undoubtedly further altered. Evidence for such 
changes in water quality were still evident in this study. 

It should be emphasized that the treatment effect of cattle in 
Cades Cove is difficult to sort out from present data, since the 
water quality of Abrams Creek would be expected to change during 
the passage through the Cove since (1) the stream morphology and 
geology changes in the Cove; (2) the water quality of Abrams Creek 
without the effects of cattle is not known; and (3) the impact of 
other free- ranging mammals on the system is not known. The magnitude 
of improvements of water quality between Kelly's (1974) survey in 1972 
1974 and this study (1977), however, strongly suggests that removal of 
700 cattle in 1976 and fencing in 1973 improved the water quality of 
Abrams Creek. 

Geologically, Cades Cove was formed by erosion of rocks of the pre- 
Cambrian Ocoee series, principally composed of quartz, feldspar, and 
slate (King et al. 1968), which overlie Ordovician limestones and 
sbales in reversed position caused by the development of the "Great 
Smoky Overthrust" (Keith 1927). 



112 



Erosion succeeded in breeching the overthrust sheet in the 
Cove area, thereby creating a "window" through which overridden 
Ordovician rock is now exposed (King and Stupka 1950) . Limestone 
is soluable and poorly resistant to erosion under the climatic 
conditions of the region and therefore has apparently provided 
for subterranean flow in the Cove. 

The physical and chemical characteristics of Abrams Creek in 
the Cove are substantially altered by subterranean flow. In 
Abrams Creek at the upper end of the Cove, variable amounts of the 
flow is diverted underground. During very dry periods in the 
summer, portions of Abrams Creek have no surface flow, leaving 
only standing pools and dry stream beds. The diverted ground 
water flows through an underground limestone strata, where 
it is buffered. Since Abrams Creek is slightly acidic above 
the Cove, probably resulting from organic acids (especially 
tannic acid) derived from the heavily forested drainage and 
because the composition of the Cove soils and streambed substrate 
is mainly derived from the alluvial depositions of the surrounding 
Cades Sandstone of the Ocoee Series (Stewart Myhr, Tenn. Dept. of 
Conservation, Div. of Geology, Knoxville, TN, pers. communication), 
which are typically acidic (Cain 1931), the physical - chemical 
changes incurred by the diverted water are substantial. The water 



re-emerges into Abrams Creek via springs and seeps at the lower 
end of the Cove. Changes in the character of the surface flow 
below this area also result in changes in the faunal composition 
in Abrams Creek. Thus, other alterations (natural or manmade) to 
the watershed must be interpreted in relation to these 
circumstances . 

One of the obvious alterations of water quality of Abrams Creek 
in Cades Cove is turbidity. This change in the creek alters its 
aesthetic appeal, but it also causes changes in the water temperature 
and erosional capacity of the creek. Water temperature increases 
because the particulates in a stream absorb and transfer solar 
heat to the stream (Cordone and Kelly 1960; Aitken 1936). Due to 
this action, increased turbidity and siltation loads in Abrams 
Creek are probably responsible in part for the increased 
temperature of the creek in the Cove. The exposure to solar 
radiation also influences the temperature of the creek in the 
Cove. 

Turbidity and suspended solid levels were especially high during 
June and coincided with moderate stream flow and large numbers of 
cattle watering and wading in stream sections for long periods of 
time in response to hot temperatures and insect pests observed on 
the cattle. Suspended solids generally remained high during the 
entire study at stations (especially 9 and 26) where cattle had 

114 



severely eroded streambanks as observed during watering and/or 
wading periods. 

Very low levels of suspended solids and turbidity occur in Abrams 
Creek upstream from the Cove except in winter and early spring, 
when anchor ice probably causes shearing of stream substrate, and 
the flow is high. Suspended solids were highest in concentration 
for all of Abrams Creek during this period, which may also have 
resulted from shearing anchor ice. Loosened soil which fell into 
the creek from the freezing - thawing process on the numerous 
vegetatively denuded streamsides along Abrams Creek in the Cove 
is an additional source of sediment in winter. The natural 
meandering characteristics of the creek in the Cove is probably 
the major reason for bank erosion since the stream was straightened 
and sloped in the Cove in 1946. Bank erosion has probably been 
accelerated from these physical modifications of the creek. Fences 
erected along Abrams Creek in the Cove in 1976 are already in 
jeopardy of collapsing into the creek due to such channel displacement 

Additional sediment sources arose when hoof damage to streambanks 
occurred were cattle entered and exited watering and wading sites. 
There are eight such sites on the mainstream of Abrams Creek, 
representing about 20 percent of the streambanks within Cades Cove. 
Other sites occur on tributaries to Abrams Creek in the Cove. Roots 
of trees and shrubs were cut and grass was trampled by cattle, 



115 



leaving little or no vegetation to stabilize the channel. 
Furthermore, the dense deer population in Cades Cove, estimated to 
be at least 160 head by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency in 
1975, resulted in heavy browsing and loss of vegetative growth on 
stream banks. Trees planted along Abrams Creek to help reduce 
erosion failed because of almost complete loss of these trees by 
deer browsing. Ground hogs were also observed living in burrows 
dug in or near streambanks, thus reducing soil stability and 
probably adding to the sedimentation - siltation problem. 

Erosion of Cades Sandstone formation from ridges around the 
western portion of Cades Cove deposited by alluvial processes in 
the Cove break down into fine sediments and silt in Abrams 
Creek, according to Stewart Myhr (Tenn. Dept. of Conservation, 
Div. of Geology, Knoxville, TN, pers. communication). High 
loads of silt and sediment (Fig. 7) were observed in Abrams 
Creek and tributaries, often seen inundating riffles, filling 
pools, and accumulating behind debris traps. The impact of 
these materials on the creek and the organisms living in the creek 
are not well understood. Nevertheless, sediment and silt can 
limit the supply of dissolved oxygen in the stream through the 
destruction of photosynthetic organisms (Cordone and Kelly 1960) 
and through its effect of decreasing benthic decomposition 
(Dunham 1958, Phelps 1944). Cairns (1967) noted that heavy or 



116 



irritating concentrations of silt can interfere with gill 
movements in fish, thus affecting the circulation in capillaries. 
Cairns (1967) stated that high concentrations of silt can cause 
fish to produce large quantities of mucous which might be torn 
away, exposing large portions of epithelium to the invasion of 
parasites. Such exposed layers of epithelial tissue and large 
amounts of mucous around the gills were evident on the rainbow 
trout taken in the upper cove section of Abrams Creek (station 8). 
No trout were captured in the lower Cove section of Abrams Creek 
(station 26). These conditions may have been influenced by 
siltation in this area of Abrams Creek. 

Furthermore, in a small stream such as Abrams Creek in the Cove, 
where most fish reside in the pools, any processes which add 
sufficient sediment to a stream to reduce riffle and pool areas 
or volumes will probably reduce the carrying capacity of the 
stream for fish. As a general rule, the density of fish will 
decline in direct proportion as the area or volume of a riffle 
or pool declines (assuming productivity is not increased (Bjornn 
1974). Piffle areas in Abrams Creek downstream of Cades Cove 
are also supporting growths of pasture grasses which were probably 
dislodged and transported downstream from the Cove. These grasses 
hold the collected silt and sediment, which further adds to 
habitat loss for fish. Pasture grasses growing in riffle areas 
will prohahly he a persistent problem in Abrams Creek. 



1 17 



Sediment or silt in sufficient amounts to fill the interstitial 
spaces between larger substrate materials will reduce the winter 
capacity of streams for fish. Small amounts of sediment or silt 
added to limited areas of mountain streams in Idaho during short 
periods, however, caused only limited temporary impacts on 
aquatic life in a study conducted by Bjornn (1974). Bjornn 
(1969) also indicated, however, that when fine sediments comprise 
more than 20 to 30 percent of the riffle material, as may be the 
case in Abrams Creek and tributaries, they become detrimental to 
the survival of trout. 

Among the indirect effects of stream turbidity upon fish are 
injury or destruction of fish eggs, spawning sites, food supply, 
and young fish. Hobbs (1937), in a study of reproduction in 
rainbow trout, found that the majority of losses in different 
streams and in different redds of the same stream were attributed 
to sediment. He noted that where the redds were clean, losses 
were slight, and where the redds were dirty (i.e., silt and 
sediment laden), losses were heavy. Spawning habitat for trout 
in Abrams Creek through the Cove i s probably nonexistent due 
to silt coverage on suitable substrate. Rainbow trout redds 
were found above and below the Cove, but not within the perimeter 
of the Cove, although drifting trout eggs were found in lower Cove 
sections of Abrams Creek. The eggs appeared to be dead or 
infertile. In areas of Abrams Creek which typically go dry during 



118 



the summer (e.g., stations 9 and 26), no trout were captured or 
observed but rough and forage fish were abundant during normal 
flow periods. 

McCrimmon (1954), using fingerling trout, studied the effects 
of sediment upon fish-habitats and populations. He found that 
the extent of bottom sedimentation determined the amount of suitable 
shelter available to trout and thus influenced the extent of 
predation. As the sediment destroyed the shelter, the mortality of 
the young fry by predation increased. Sediment may be the factor 
limiting the number of catchable-size trout in many small streams, 
for even though abundant fingerlings are produced and riffle areas 
are kept clean by current velocity, sediment deposited in pools 
and runs fill in the spaces between boulders and rubble, reducing 
shelter for trout. This action can significantly increase 
predation pressure on the trout, since they are rendered more 
vulnerable to capture (Cordone and Kelly 1960). An established 
standard for sediment levels carried by or deposited in a stream 
has not been determined for all streams in general. Sediment 
levels carried in the water of Abrams Creek did not appear high 
during normal flow, although deposits on the streambed may have 
been substantial. If so, transport downstream during high flow 
resulting from storm activity may have caused a significant 
impact on fish habitats and populations as described above. 



119 



Temperature, dissolved oxygen, flow, and pH may also have affected 
the distribution of trout in Abrams Creek. Rainbow trout ( Salmo 
gairdneri) tolerate water temperatures from about 0°C. to over 
26°C. However, they prefer temperatures below 21°C. (Calhoun 
1966), which compares favorably with Abrams Creek and tributaries, 
which ranged between 0°C. and 25 C. (Tables 1-6). Rainbow 
prefer well-oxygenated water but can survive at very low oxygen 
levels (Calhoun 1966) . The dissolved oxygen levels of Abrams 
Creek were generally well-oxygenated (except during summer) 
though widely varied between A. 3 and 12.0 milligrams per liter. 
Low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the summer may have 
affected the capability of trout to utilize Cove portions of 
Abrams Creek and tributaries (Fig. 16). Low flow periods during 
the summer with associated diverted ground flow of portions of 
Abrams Creek within the Cove probably created an unfavorable 
habitat for trout. Some sections of Abrams Creek within the 
Cove during very dry periods of the summer completely dried up, 
leaving no habitat for fish. Rainbow do well in waters of varying 
pH, reportedly found in waters ranging from 5.8 to 9.5 (Calhoun 
1966). The pH of Abrams Creek was variable, ranging between 
5.8 and 8.3 (Fig. 15), but this also would not be considered 
limiting to trout tolerance. 

The fish community in Abrams Creek generally increased in abundance 
and biomass between 1973-74 and 1977. Much of this improvement 

120 



probably resulted from reduced siltation, turbidity, and summer 
water temperatures, but a lessening of fishing pressure also 
contributed to the improvement. Since 1974, fishing pressure has 
decreased by about half because the creel limit was reduced from 5 
to A and the size limits were increased. The size limit of 
rainbow trout in Abrams Creek upstream from the Cove (this section 
more often referred to as Anthony Creek) increased from 7 to 9 
inches. Downstream from the Cove (generally referred to as Big 
Abrams Creek) and in the Cove itself, the size limit was increased 
from 7 to 12 inches. These fishing regulations were placed in 
effect in April of 1975. Previous to that date the regulations 
had not been changed for at least 15 years (Allan Kelly, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, personal communication) . 

In a stream, the basic food supply for higher organisms is 
bacteria, algae, fungi, and insects. After introduction of silt, 
as much as a 90 percent reduction in these aquatic organisms 
has been observed (Zierbell and Knox 1957; Cordone and Pennoyer 
1960) . The reduction of bottom-dwelling invertebrates obviously 
has a severe effect upon trout populations as well as other 
fish species which feed on aquatic invertebrates. Rainbow trout 
eat a wide variety of foods, depending primarily on availability, 
which in turn depends on such factors as water quality, 
season, and size of fish. A compilation of the findings 
of studies indicates that immature and adult aquatic insects 



121 



(principally caddisf lies, mayflies, and dipterans), zooplankton, 
terrestrial insects, and fish are usually the most significant 
foods, though their relative importance varies greatly between 
waters and seasons. Oligochaetes, mollusks, fish eggs, amphipods, 
and algae head the list of foods eaten less extensively (Bundick 
and Cooper 1956, Hazzard 1935, Idyll 1942, Metzelaar 1929, Needham 
1935, and Rawson and Elsey 1950). These food items were generally 
more prevalent in Cove sections of Abrams Creek, whereas preferred 
food items such as mayflies and caddisflies predominated in areas 
outside the Cove. 

The density of aquatic insects (drift and benthos) is smaller 

in riffles of natural streams with large amounts of sediment. 

In addition, species diversity indices of benthic insects usually 

decline immediately following sedimentation, but with short 

term loads, the indices usually show recovery within a few weeks 

(Bjornn 1974). Diversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates 

declined in the Cove, probably resulting from the multiple 

stresses applied from siltation, sedimentation, nutrif ication, 

organic loading, and altered temperature regimes. Diversity 

changes were perhaps not as drastic as expected in transition 

through the ecological zones, considering the considerable 

differences in the chemical - physical nature of the water in 

the various zones resulting from natural (especially stream 

channel meandering) and man-altered (especially cattle grazing 

and sewage treatment system) changes in the stream. 

122 



The erosion of sandstone sediments into Abrams Creek and 
tributaries derived from erosion off surrounding mountains 
composed of Cades Sandstone (King et al. 1968) was reflected 
in conductivity levels. Increases in conductivity occurred in 
Abrams Creek and tributaries within Cades Cove. The addition 
of these sandstone constituents, principally feldspar, quartz, 
and slate (King et al. 1968), to the water increases the 
osmotic pressure of the water. Also, the influence of emerging 
ground flow via spring seeps into Abrams Creek (e. g., station 
26) at the lower end of Cades Cove was considerable, averaging 
74 yhmos per cm 3 and ranging from 10 - 132 uhmos per cm 3 . Most 
park waters, as well as the section of Abrams Creek upstream 
from the Cove, rarely exceed 20 yhmos per cubic centimeter (cm 3 ) . 
Thus the osmotic stress imposed upon the system may be substantial 
based on conditions outside of this area (i.e., low conductivity 
and thus low osmotic pressure) which the aquatic organisms in 
other stream areas of Abrams Creek are adapted to (McKee and 
Wolf 1963; Hart et al. 1945). Movement of aquatic organisms 
through this area may be somewhat limited by these sudden changes 
in water quality. Coinciding with increased conductivity in the 
area of ground water seepage into Abrams Creek, the alkalinity 
and hardness also increased. The alkalinity undoubtedly increased 
as a result of the carbonate input from the limestone during 
groundflow, which also caused the acidity to decrease. Increased 
hardness was undoubtedly related to the input of calcium and 



123 



magnesium from the limestone groundflow. Increased hardness in 
Cove sections of Abrams Creek above the influence of the spring 
seeps was probably derived from the erosion of Cades Sandstone, 
especially the mineral feldspar constitutent, into Abrams Creek. 

Natural streams undergo continual change with time through the 
forces of solution, erosion, and deposition, with associated 
changes in fish fauna that follow from a newly formed cutting, 
tumbling stream through to the old-age stage, characterized 
by sluggishness and meandering near base level. Man has altered 
the natural pattern of the Abrams Creek drainage, for example, 
through land clearing, farming, channelization, sewage treatment 
outfalls, and cattle grazing. These practices have undoubtedly 
changed the natural conditions in the creek. Increased 
temperature regimes, nutrient enrichment, and changes in the 
benthic macroinvertebrate composition (i.e., food items) are 
some of the alterations resulting in Abrams Creek within the 
Cove. It is not known, however, to what extent these changes 
influenced the fish species composition in Abrams Creek in the 
Cove because the creek meandered before it was straightened and 
was often dry during summers in some areas. In the Cove, the 
creek may not have been much of a trout stream once the land 
was cleared of timber. 

The prevalence of black spot (parasitic digenetic trematodes) 
in the Cove fishery may be more closely correlated to the open 



124 



nature of the Cove than to organic loading and nutrif ication 
because such terrain provides good access for foraging on 
infected fish by hosts of the parasites; e.g., birds and mammals 
(Don Estes, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Coop. Fishery 
Research Unit, Tennessee Tech. Univ., Cookeville, TN, personal 
communication) . Black spots are cysts containing the resting 
metacercariae of worms, which for the most part belong to the 
strigeids. The life cycles of these parasites vary considerably 
in the different species but tend to follow the same general 
pattern. The infected fish are devoured by fish-eating birds 
and mammals, most likely Kingfishers and raccoons in the Cove. 
The parasites are then liberated in the intestine, where they 
mature and produce the eggs which eventually pass out in the 
feces of the host. In water, these eggs hatch into miracidia, 
which must find and penetrate certain species of snails, such 
as Ferrissia , which were common in the Cove. After multiplying 
in the snail for several generations, they emerge as cercariae, 
which penetrate underneath the scales or into the muscles of 
fish (Davis 1953). Black spot is not considered to be a serious 
threat to fish unless present in very large numbers, which was not 
the case in the Abrams Creek fishery. The pigmented cysts, 
however, degrade the appearance of fish, resulting in an aesthetic 
impact, particularly for trout fishermen. 

The reference area section of Abrams Creek is a nutrient- 
limited system, as are most park waters, which results in a low 

125 



level of productivity. Since increased productivity generally 
results in greater abundance of organisms, a factor 
incorporated into the diversity formulas, these indices 
tended to be increased in the Cove stressed areas and lessened 
in the reference areas of Abrams Creek. The number of different 
species, however, also incorporated into the diversity index 
formulation, declined substantially in the stressed areas as 
expected due to their intolerance of many of the impacts imposed 
upon the system. The number of species was greater in the 
reference area because of the clean water quality and complexity 
of the undisturbed substrate (boulder, rock, and sand substrate) . 
This tended to increase the value of the diversity indices in the 
reference area and decrease it in the stressed area. 

Diversity indices and standing crop values in recovery areas 
exceeded those found in reference areas. This was probably 
due to the riverine nature of recovery area waters as a complex 
substrate and more abundant habitat was provided there, as well 
as nutrient influx from the cove. So the aspect of both number 
of individual organisms and species was enhanced in the recovery 
area. 

Cattle defecation in Cades Cove undoubtedly provides nutrient 
loading to Abrams Creek. This was not, however, reflected in 
the concentrations of nitrate and ortho-phosphate, which were 



126 



at levels relatively consistent in concentration throughout 
Abrams Creek. The reason for this occurrence is attributed to 
these nutrients being assimilated by the increased abundance 
and biomass (i.e., standing crop) of some types of aquatic 
organisms in Cove sections of Abrams Creek through various pathways 
in the food chain. Periphytic diatoms were observed to be more 
prevalent in the Cove and just below the confluence of Mill 
Creek than in other sections of Abrams Creek. The standing 
crop of benthic macro invertebrates and fish increased sharply 
from the upstream reference areas through the Cove stressed 
areas. The aquatic faunal composition changes were less 
dramatic in transition from the Cove through downstream recovery 
areas, though increased diversity and standing crop did occur 
in the benthic community. The standing crop (number and biomass) 
of fish in the recovery area, however, was less than in the Cove. 
The concentrations of nutrients showed peaks well above the trend 
at certain stations in Abrams Creek. These appear correlated to 
possible waste water leaching from the Cove sewage lagoon to 
Abrams Creek and to the septic outfall from the residence in 
the Cove (Cades Branch) not connected into the sewage treatment 
facility. Other sources, generally less profound, were related 
to human activity during seasonal use (May 15 - October 15) 
of the picnic ground above the Cove, to untypically large numbers 
of cattle watering and wading in a small tributary to Abrams 
Creek (Feezel Branch), and to heavy year-around hog activity 



127 



observed in and around Tater Branch as indicated by rooting 
disturbance. Some instances of relatively high nutrient 
concentrations, such as on Stony Branch entering Abrams Creek 
below the Cove, are not understood. It is generally accepted 
that animal wastes are major contributors of nitrogen and 
phosphorous in agriculatural land runoff (Holt et al. 1970; 
Holt 1971; and Robbins et al. 1971). Grazing cattle reportedly 
produce about 17.60 kilograms per year per animal of total 
phosphorous and 57.47 kilograms per year per animal of total 
nitrogen (Omernik 1977). In this aspect, cattle nutrient 
production far exceeds that of other common farm animals (hogs, 
sheep, and poultry) according to Omernik (1977). An estimate 
of the total nutrient production available for export can, 
therefore, be determined for the overall cattle densities 
(i.e., animal units per acre). The cattle herd (1,200 head) 
in Cades Cove during 1974 thus produced about 21,120 kilograms 
of total phosphorous and 68,988 kilograms of total nitrogen, 
while during this study (1977) the herd (500 head) produced 
about 8,800 kilograms of total phosphorous and 28,745 kilograms 
of total nitrogen. A considerable difference in nutrient 
enrichment and eutrophication therefore existed between the 
two study periods. Of course, the exact amount of nutrient 
export to Abrams Creek drainage would be difficult to determine. 
Omernik (1977) showed that total phosphorous export is about 
2.9 times greater for predominantly agricultural land than 



128 



for predominantly forest lands, and total nitrogen is 2.8 
times greater. Regarding the inorganic forms, orthophosphorous 
export from agricultural watersheds is 2.3 times greater than 
from forested watersheds, whereas the difference in inorganic 
nitrogen export is over 13 times greater. Inorganic nitrogen 
concentrations are, on the average, reported to be 39 times 
greater in streams draining agricultural watersheds than they 
are in streams draining forest areas (Omernik 1977). 

Differences in wildlife nutrient exports in forested systems, 
compared to cattle exports in agricultural lands, varies 
considerably on the basis of land uses (i.e., agricultural 

vs. forested watersheds) according to Omernik (1977). For 
this reason, the reduction of cattle from 1,200 to 500 head 
in Cades Cove (i.e., change in land use category) would be 
expected to result in substantial changes in the aquatic faunal 
composition. As expected, benthic macro invertebrate and fish 
communities in Cove and downstream recovery sections of Abrams 
Creek showed significant improvement between the surveys conducted 
in 1973-74 and 1977. This is most easily evaluated in terms 
of the Similarity Indices (SI) between the different (four) 
ecological areas of the two survey years. These indices clearly 
showed that less abrupt changes between reference, stressed, 
recovery, and control areas existed in 1977 than in 1974. 
Obviously, the more closely the stressed area approaches similar 



129 



species composition with other ecological areas, the more 
improvement is assumed in the water quality. Because of natural 
differences in the ecological areas, SI would be different 
even without pollution; however, the trends are very meaningful 
in the interpretation of water quality changes. Community 
structure analyses on the benthic community reflect a pristine 
reference area, disturbed Cove area, a zone of recovery from 
stressed conditions in the Cove, and a relatively undisturbed 
control area. The composition of the benthic taxonomic 
assemblages showed similar results as more sensitive species 
became less represented in abundance and importance value 
(IV) from undisturbed upstream sections through the Cove, and 
then improved downstream from the Cove. 

At the confluence of Abrams and Mill Creeks (station 17), 
the BOD during February was 34.0 milligrams per liter, which 
exceeds the daily average effluent concentration limit of 
30.0 milligrams per liter for discharges to surface water 
courses in the State of Tennessee (Tennessee Department of 
Public Health, 1973) . The B0D 5 concentrations were building 
up to this level on a steady trend from station 9 in the middle 
of the Cove on downstream to station 17 just below the 
confluence, apparently reflecting increasing accumulation of 
organic waste throughout the Cove drainage. Below the confluence, 
the B0D 5 dropped off sharply as organic loading declined, 
dilution entered from Mill Creek, and stream processes presumably 

130 



assimilated the organic carbon. This area was, however, 

characterized by luxuriant growths of filamentous slime algae 

similar to aquatic ecosystems affected by municipal sewage 

effluents described by Keup (1966). During the summer, high 

BOD 5 concentrations at stations 8 and 9 were possibly due 

to a combination of organics derived from the sewage lagoon 

leachate, horses (about 40 head) maintained and rented at 

the Cove horseback-riding concession, and cattle located between 

these stations. The high bacterial counts which were typical 

of this area of the Cove supported derivation from these sources. 

Assuming seepage from the sewage lagoon does exist, it would 

be expected to have a greater influence during the summer than at 

other times, as the water table drops, low flow conditions prevail, 

and septic loading is increased by the large number of visitors to 

the area. The trend for B0D 5 concentrations declining from winter 

through summer is thought to be a factor of the change from dormant 

inactive states in the spring and summer Active organisms 

assimilate increased amounts of organics due to increased 

metabolic processes. As a consequence, the high levels of 

B0D 5 observed in the winter were not seen in the spring and 

summer, since much of the organics were tied up by aquatic 

organisms during the warmer seasons. Also, high flow conditions 

in the winter and spring would tend to carry more foreign 

sediment, including organic material, than low flow during the 

summer. 

131 



Algal communities in the reference area (station 1) indicated 
an undisturbed environment of high oxygen concentration and 
low organic enrichment. The character of the algal communities 
changed somewhat, even below the picnic ground (station 3), 
where Abrams Creek first enters the Cove. Pollution-tolerant 
species were more dominant in the community structure, including 
indicators of eutrophic conditions. This structure apparently 
resulted from the activities of heavy visitor usage on the stream, 
especially in the area of the picnic ground upstream. Conditions, 
however, did not indicate heavy organic enrichment, although 
facultative nitrogen heterotrophs and general pollution indicator 
species were present. 

At station 4, adjacent to the sewage lagoon, the situation changed 
to one favoring diatoms which are tolerant of varying stream flow 
regimes as well as moderate pollution and eutrophication, although 
organic enrichment was not characterized by ecological parameters 
represented by diatom species present at station 4. Highly 
variable stream flow regimes resulting from ground flow divergence 
of surface waters from Abrams Creek at and above this station 
resulted in the reophilus (i.e., characteristic of running water 
but found in standing water) species present. The eutrophic 
nature of the water at the station may also be influenced by the 
sewage lagoon and the horse pasturage upstream from the sewage lagoon. 



132 



In and around station 9, where cattle enter the stream 

for watering and wading, the diatom community indicates a 

zone where oxidation of organic matter is proceeding; the 

concentration of inorganic nutrients is high; and the water 

is generally turbid, eutrophic, and characterized by periods 

of both flowing and standing water regimes. During July the 

water in this area at times exists in stagnating pools until 

rainfall increases the volume of flow and flushes the system. 

Station 26 is also often characterized by stagnant pools or 

completely dry conditions during parts of the summer. As a 

consequence of this variable flow regime, some of the diatom 

species in the area of the stations (9 and 26) are among those 

usually found in pond and lake environments. The diatom 

community is characterized by eurythermal (i.e., occurring over 

a temperature range of 15° C. or greater) tolerance. It depicts 

an environment which is highly eutrophic, oxidizing heavy organic 

loads, and nitrogen enriched in the form of ammonia compounds. 

As Abrams Creek leaves the Cove (station 15) , another environmental 

component highly modifies the water, with abrupt changes in the 

productivity and community assemblage of diatoms. The ground water 

flow surfaces in areas upstream of this station, mainly by spring 

seeps entering the drainage. Waters which flowed through the underground 



133 



limestone strata were buffered as detected from elevated pH 
levels in the resurfacing waters. Changes in pH during June 
and July ranged from an average of 6.5 where surface flow was 
directed underground to an average of 8.4 at the resurfacing 
zone (as indicated by the satellite telemetry station downstream 
from station 26). The diatom community in this area was 
dominated by species alkaliphilous (i.e., occurring at a pH 
around 7, with best development over 7). It also indicated a 
eutrophic environment where oxidation of biodegradable compounds 
was complete and the concentration of inorganic nutrients was 
high. Massive algal blooms were observed at this station (15) 
and downstream to an area just below the confluence of Mill Creek 
and Abrams Creek (station 17) . This is thought to be a result of 
increased pH and temperature. Higher pH levels support more algae 
production, since carbon becomes more available in the form of 
carbonates and free carbon dioxide (Rex Lowe, Bowling Green State 
University, pers . communication). Carbonates were also 
undoubtedly abundant in this area (i.e., stations 15 and 17) 
from the input of the limestone during ground flow. As a general 
rule, alkaline waters support greater production of algae than 
acidic ones, such as characterized by most of Abrams Creek. 
The overall diatom community in the Cove was indicative of a 
eutrophic-nutrient enriched stream (Rex Lowe, Bowling Green State 
University, pers. communication). The diatom composition at 
station 18 in the recovery zone indicated improved water quality, 



134 



similar to that indicated by the benthic and fish communities at 
higher trophic levels. The diatom community at this station was 
dominated by species which were less tolerant of alterations of 
thermal regimes and more cosmopolitan in distribution, thus 
indicating moderate improvement. 

The purpose of the bacterial investigation was to estimate 
the numbers of three types of bacteria in Abrams Creek and 
tributaries. Water samples were collected monthly from May to 
August 1977 at 36 stations. The numbers of bacteria were variable 
between samples and sampling periods. 

One of the major contributions to the variation in bacterial 
counts undoubtedly originated from intermittent nonpoint sources 
of contamination by cattle and free-ranging mammals in the Cove 
and the Abrams Creek watershed. The difficulty of interpreting 
such introductions is that they occurred inconsistently. Such 
introductions resulted in high counts on some sampling dates 
but not on others at particular stations. 



135 



Much of the enteric bacteria contamination along certain portions 
of Abrams Creek probably originated from the large numbers of 
visitors. It is highly possible that the high ratios of fecal 
coliforms to fecal streptococcus bacteria (Figs. 22 and 23) at 
station 34, 9, and 26 originated from underground seepage from 
the sewage lagoon and contamination from numerous visitors 
observed along the road just upstream from station 34. 
Subterranean drainage from the lagoon is a possibility, since 
overflow from the lagoon occurred infrequently; this overflow 
is chlorinated and contains no live enteric bacteria (W. Williams, 
Park Sanitarian, National Park Service, personal communication). 
Subterranean drainage from the lagoon probably surfaces at springs 
located just upstream from station 34. 

Another factor influencing the bacterial counts in the streams in 
Cades Cove was precipitation. Heavy rainfall could have increased 
the distribution of enteric bacteria. This could be so even 
after the flow of the streams declined after the rainfall. The 
mechanisms by which this spread of bacteria occurred is not 
fully understood, however. 

Tributary streams along the south side of Cades Cove generally had 
higher bacteria counts than did north side streams. This was 
probably influenced by the greater contact of these streams with 



136 



pastures than the north side streams. Furthermore, the low ratios 
of fecal coliforms to fecal streptococcus bacteria at nearly all 
stations on the tributaries suggests that the main source of these 
bacteria originated from nonhuman sources. The abundance of cattle, 
deer, wild European hogs, skunks, squirrels, and ground hogs could 
be the primary sources of the enteric bacteria. In tne previous 
investigation, most of the ratios from Cades Cove fell into the 
animal range (80 percent) and none were clearly human according 
to Silsbee et al. (1976). 

The number of total coliform bacteria in Abrams Creek were often 
above levels recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
and Tennessee State standards for primary contact recreational 
waters (Fig. 24), a result similar to that found by Silsbee et 
al. in 1976. These bacteria appear to originate from several 
sources, including humans and other animals. 

An important question that evolved from this study was 
whether the reduction in the number of cattle at the Cove during 
1976 had any effects on the numbers of enteric bacteria in Abrams 
Creek in 1977. This question was examined by comparing counts 
of fecal coliform bacteria made in July 1976 (Silsbee et al.) and 
in July 1977 at nearly identical main stream sample stations (11) 
on Abrams Creek under very similar climatic conditions. Based 



137 



upon these data, the numbers of bacteria were significantly 
higher in 1976 than in 1977 (unpaired t-test, P < .05). These 
results occurred even though the number of visitors at the Cove 
in July 1977 was about four times higher than the number in July 
1976. Based upon these results and circumstances, it appeared 
that the reduction in the numbers of fecal coliforms was related 
to the decline of cattle in Abrams Creek in Cades Cove in July 1977. 



From a management standpoint, in determining actions to improve 
the water quality of Abrams Creek, the basic problem stems from a 
conflict of interest in park "natural" and "historical" area 
policy. Unaltered ecosystems are an essential part of our national 
parks. The purpose of the National Park Service, established as 
the administrative agency of the National Park system by the Act of 
August 25, 1916, is "to conserve the scenery and the natural and 
historical objects and the wildlife therein and to provide for the 
enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave 
them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations" (39 Stat. 
535) . Only through sound management strategies can the natural 
resources of our national parks be preserved and maintained for 
future generations. From a conservation viewpoint, the preservation 
of these fragile resources is crucial, since the wilderness of 



138 



our parks will serve as a baseline to which human manipulation of 
the environment (an unnatural process) can be measured. The 
National Park. Service has established procedures for treatment of 
archaeological, historical, and other cultural properties in 
conformity with the Historic Preservation Act of 1966, Executive 
Order 11593, and guidelines of the Advisory Council on Historic 
Preservation. The procedures adopted by the National Park 
Service require determination of the adverse effects only upon 
National Register property and not on the ecosystems of peripheral 
areas. In the future, a policy could be developed to deal with 
the effects of management practices in historical sections of 
national parks on adjacent natural areas before impacts develop. 



139 



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

(1) Abrams Creek within Cades Cove represents a unique resources 
management problem within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 
Erosion of the streambank was recognized by the National Park 
Service as a problem as early as 1937 and was attributed to 
heavy rainfall, improper farming, and overgrazing. A 
management program developed in cooperation with the Soil 
Conservation Service in 1946 resulted in some stream channels 
being cleared of trees and shrubs, while others were 
straightened. These actions did not solve the erosion 
problem. 

(2) The National Park Service developed its own management program 
in 1967. The objective of this program was to maintain the 
open aspect of the farm fields and meadows which provide a 
background for interpreting the historic structures and 
features of the pioneer culture as it existed when the park 
was established. To maintain these fields in an efficient 
manner, the park has allowed leasees to grow hay and graze 
cattle under special use permits. This program is still used 
at the present time, but is being reconsidered by park 
management due to the impact of cattle on the Abrams Creek 
drainage . 



140 



(3) A fencing program developed by the park in 1973 resulted in 
cattle being excluded from major portions of Abrams Creek 
and tributaries, with only specific sites left open for 
cattle to water and wade. This caused extensive streambank 
erosion in these areas and probably has not reduced all of 
the impact of cattle on Abrams Creek. In addition, some of 
these fence rows are falling into Abrams Creek as it meanders 
and cuts into banks. Nonetheless, vegetation is returning to 
many streambanks now protected from the cattle because of the 
fencing. In these areas, erosion appears to be reduced from 
previous levels. 

(4) The number of cattle grazing in Cades Cove was reduced from 
1,200 to 500 head in 1976 by order of the National Park 
Service in an effort to curtail the impact to Abrams Creek 
while still maintaining the land management program. The 
magnitude of improvements of water quality between Kelly's 
(1974) survey and this study (1977) strongly indicate that the 
cattle reduction improved the water quality. However, due 

to the complex interrelationship of factors affecting the 
Abrams Creek drainage, the treatment effect of cattle on 
water quality was difficult to sort out since (a) Abrams Creek 
has, since man's settlement of the area, meandered and caused 
bank erosion anyway — especially since the channel was 
straightened; (b) the water quality of Abrams Creek without 
the effect of cattle is not known; and (c) the impact of 



141 



other free-ranging mammals on the system has not been 
investigated. 

(5) The primary effect, of cattle grazing in Cades Cove was to 
increase streambank erosion and siltation. Other inputs to 
the creek from the cattle include nutrients and enteric 
bacteria. 

(6) During different stages of cultural development in Cades Cove, 
Abrams Creek undoubtedly experienced considerable changes 
from Anthony Ridge to Chilhowee Lake. Before the Cove was 
opened to settlement, it was part of the Cherokee Indian 
Nation and remained undeveloped. The dense forest in Cades 
Cove probably prevented or slowed the meandering rate in 
Abrams Creek. When settlers moved into the area around 1821, 
they gradually cleared the entire Cove by burning or girdling 
trees and planting crops and orchards. Cattle were grazed in 
the Cove during the winter and on the grassy balds high above 

the Cove during the summer. This action probably accelerated 
the meandering character of Abrams Creek. Since the Cove is 
still maintained in this open aspect, it is expected to 
continue its accelerated meandering until it is allowed to 
return to forest. Extensive logging operations in Cades Cove 
were dominated by the Little River Lumber Company after the 
turn of the century (1908 - 1936). They logged up all major 

streams draining into the Cove. Accelerated erosion, siltation, 



142 



and high turbidity loads resulted from these operations and 
probably caused extensive impacts to the Abrams Creek drainage. 
Trees are still being selectively cut in Cades Cove in order 
to maintain the open aspect, which allows more solar radiation 
to be received by Abrams Creek and results in less resistance 
to streambank erosion. 

(7) The physical and chemical characteristics of Abrams Creek in 
Cades Cove are substantially altered by subterranean flow. 
In Abrams Creek at the upper end of the Cove, variable amounts 
of flow are diverted underground. During very dry periods in 
the summer, portions of Abrams Creek have no surface flow, 
leaving standing pools and dry streambeds. The diverted ground 
water flows through an underground limestone strata, where it 
is buffered. Since the composition of the area soils and 
streambed is mainly derived from the alluvial depositions of 
the surrounding Cades sandstone of the Ocoee Series, which is 
typically acidic, the physical - chemical changes incurred by 
the diverted water are substantial. The water re-emerges into 
Abrams Creek via springs and seeps at the lower end of the Cove. 
Changes in the character of the surface flow below this area also 
result in changes in the faunal composition in Abrams Creek. 



143 



(8) The sewage treatment lagoons in Cades Cove, which serve the 
picnic, campground, maintenance area, and ranger residences 
above the Cove, could be contributing impacts to Abrams Creek. 
High bacterial counts with fecal coliform/ fecal streptococcus 
ratios indicative of derivation from human sources, BOD 5 
concentrations, and nutrient concentrations in the area of 
the sewage treatment lagoon system support the possible origin 
from the lagoon. Leachates from the lagoon system could 
easily enter Abrams Creek through the porous substrate in the 
Cove, where the extensive ground flow regime could transport 
to the surface flow. Assuming seepage from the sewage lagoon 
does exist, it would be expected to have its greatest impact 
during the summer when the water table drops, low flow 
conditions prevail, and septic loading is increased by the 
large number of visitors to the area. 

(9) Turbidity and suspended solids were high in Abrams Creek and its 
tributaries where large numbers of cattle typically water and 
wade for long periods of time, especially during the summer 

in response to hot temperatures and insect pests observed on 
the cattle. Very low levels of suspended solids and turbidity 
occur in Abrams Creek upstream from the Cove except in winter 
and early spring when anchor ice probably causes shearing of 
the stream substrate and the flow is high. Loosened soil 
which falls into the creek from the freezing - thawing 



144 



process on numerous vegetatively denuded streamsides is an 
additional source of sediment in winter. 

(10) Additional sediment sources arose from hoof damage to 

streambanks on Abrams Creek, which occurred where cattle 
entered and exited watering and wading sites. There are 
eight such sites on the mainstream of Abrams Creek, 
representing about 20 percent of the streambank within Cades 
Cove. Other sites occur on the tributaries to Abrams Creek 
in the Cove. Roots of trees and shrubs were cut and grass 
trampled by cattle, leaving little or no vegetation to 
stabilize the channel. Furthermore, the dense deer population 
in Cades Cove, estimated to be at least 160 head in 1975, 
resulted in heavy browsing and loss of vegetative growth on 
streambanks. Trees planted along Abrams Creek to help reduce 
erosion failed because of almost complete loss of these trees 
by deer browsing. Ground hogs were also observed living in 
burrows dug in or near streambanks, probably reducing soil 
stability and adding to the sedimentation - siltation problem. 

(11) The natural meandering characteristics of Abrams Creek in the 
Cove is probably the major reason for bank erosion since the 
stream was straightened and sloped in the Cove in 1946. Bank 
erosion has probably been accelerated from these physical 
modifications of the creek. Fences erected along Abrams Creek 



145 



in the Cove in 1976 are already in jeopardy of collapsing 
in many places into the creek due to such channel 
displacement. 

(12) In general, benthic macroinvertebrate communities in stressed 
regions were characterized by reductions from reference and 
recovery areas in the following parameters: number of taxa; 
importance (IV) of intolerant Ephemeroptera , Plecoptera , and 
Trichoptera ; and diversity (d and H) . 

(13) The benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Abrams Creek in 
Cades Cove were altered as compared to upstream reference and 
control area; however, substantial recovery occurred downstream. 
Recovery also occurred between 1973-74 and 1977 as a result of 
improved water quality in the stressed area. 

(14) Fish populations in stressed regions of Abrams Creek were 
characterized by reductions in the standing crop of rainbow 
trout, increased standing crops of rough and forage fish, 
exposed epithelial tissue behind opercle flaps in rainbow 
trout, and prevalence of black spot cyst on all species. 

(15) The rainbow trout population in Abrams Creek increased from 
1973-74 to 1977 as a result of improved water quality, 



146 



strict fishing regulations, and reduced fishing pressure. 
Low flow periods during the summer with associated diverted 
ground flow of portions of Abrams Creek within the Cove 
probably created an unfavorable habitat for trout. Some 
sections of Abrams Creek within the Cove, during very dry 
periods of summer, typically dry up, leaving no habitat 
for any fish. No trout were observed or captured in these 
sections during normal flow conditions. 

(16) Periphytic diatoms from Abrams Creek in the Cove indicated a 

eutrophic-nutrient-enriched stream system. Luxuriant growths 
of filamentous slime algae in Abrams Creek just below the Cove 

resulted from organic loading, nutrient enrichment, altered 
light regimes, and the effect of buffered subterranean flow. 

(17) Enteric bacterial contamination along portions of Abrams 
Creek and tributaries was heavy and at times at levels 
considered unacceptable to secondary contact (fishing) 
users of the stream. 

(18) The primary source of bacterial contamination was probably 
due largely to the abundance of cattle; however, probable 
subterranean drainage from the Cove sewage lagoon was also 
suspected to contribute heavily. Deer, wild European hogs, 
ground hogs, and other mammals were additional sources. 

147 



(19) Man has altered the natural ecosystem of the Abrams Creek 

drainage through land clearing, farming, channelization, sewage 
treatment outfalls, and cattle grazing. These practices have 
undoubtedly changed the natural conditions in the creek. 
Increased temperature regimes, nutrient enrichment, organic 
loading, accelerated streambank erosion, bacterial 
contamination, as well as alterations in the composition of 
diatoms, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish are some of the 
changes man has caused to Abrams Creek within Cades Cove. 
Through programs to limit cattle access to a few select 
watering and wading sites on Abrams Creek and its tributaries 
and a reduction of the Cades Cove cattle herd from 1,200 to 
500 head, much improvement has been made to the drainage. A 
program to reduce streambank erosion by planting seedlings 
has not been successful due to heavy deer browsing and hoof 
damage by cattle. Nevertheless, the water quality of Abrams 
Creek is probably better than it has been for many years. 
There is room for more improvement while still maintaining 
the historical features of the Cove. It is hoped that the 
improvements seen in Abrams Creek between 1974 and 1977 will 
serve as a baseline for formulating additional management 
programs in Cades Cove in order to further improve the system 
as deemed necessary. 



148 



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154 



APPENDIX 



155 



TABLES 1-6 
Chemical - Physical Parameters from Selected Stations 
of Abrams and Mill Creeks and Tributary Streams 

Months: February - July 

ABBREVIATIONS 



Sta. 


_ 


Station 


Turb. 


= 


Turbidity 


Temp. 


£3 


Temperature 


D. 0. 


= 


Dissolved Oxygen 


Acid. 


= 


Acidity 


Alk. 


= 


Alkalinity 


B0D 5 


= 


Biological Oxygen Demand (5 days) 


Susp . 


= 


Suspended 


Cond. 


= 


Conductivity 


Phos. 


= 


Phosphate 



156 



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171 



TABLE 8. Checklist of the Benthic Macro invertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks. 

APRIL 1974* 



Station No. 



8 9 15 16 17 18 19 



Nematamorpha 
Annelida 

Oligochaeta 
Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae 
Tipulidae 
Antocha 
VlcARYiota. 
EAAAceAa 
Hdxcutoma. 
Longu/U.0 

VndLCA.0. 

Tjjpota. 
Simuliidae 

?h.o&AjnuJLLum 
Rhagionidae 

Atk&viA vasU.2.Qcuta 
Blepharoceridae 

BZ&phcuioceAa 
Tanyderidae 

PtLotoplcua 
TahanLdae 

TakanuA 
Empididae 
Coleoptera 
Elmidae 

HoJLlchuA 

HzxoLcy&Lozpujb 

LcuttUA CuluA 

LimwLuA 

OptLOi, CAVU4 

QuLunwLuA 
Phomoh.ui,a. 
Psephenidae 
EcXopaxLa 
Vi> <Lph<Lniu> 



X 
X 



X 



20 26 



X X X X X 

X XXX 



X X 

X 

X X 



X 






X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


j, V 


X 



*From Alan Kelly's collections, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, GRSM 

172 



TABLE 8. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

APRIL 1974 



Taxon 



Ephemerop tera 
Ephemerellidae 

EpkmeAelZa. 

Leptophlebiidae 
HabhaphJLdola. 
VaAaJLOrptaphLohAji 

Caeninae 
CCL&VUA 

Heptageniidae 

AJiXhAoploR 

CAMygmula 

Hejptageyiia 

IHjOYI 

ZLtfowgcna. 

StwoYwma. 
S iphlonuridae 

AmzZntus 

S<LphZ<muA.uA 
Baetidae 

8a.e£c6 

8<xe£c6ca 

Cejv&wptULum 

I i> onychia 

luptapktobAM. 

PACudocljOcoft 
Ephemeridae 

EpkzmeAa 

H2,X£LQ<lYUJl 

Me galop tera 
Corydalidae 
ChauLLodeA 
Sialidae 

Hi-QrWYliOL 

Hemiptera 

Gerridae 
Odonata 
Zygoptera 
Agrionidae 
AgKlon 



Station No, 



1 2 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 



X X X X X 
X 



X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



X 



X 



X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 



173 



TABLE 8. Checklist of the Benthic Macro invertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks — Cont. 

APRIL 19 74 



Taxon 



Anisoptera 
Gomphidae 
GomphuA 
LaytfliuA 
Ha.gejU.uA 
Plecoptera 
Perlodidae 

VZpZopeALa 

lAogenuA 

lAopeJila 
Pternarcidae 

PteJionaAcyA 
Perlidae 

KcJionnuAAii 

PaAagifictlna. 
Peltoperlidae 

PoltopoJita 
Leuctridae 

LzuctAa 
Capniidae 

KtlOQ,<XpYUUX 

Taeniopterygidae 
Bnackyptojia. 

Chloroperlidae 
MljopQAla. 
HaAtwpojdjx. 

Nemouridae 

la.cyiioptoA.yx 

Trichoptera 

Pvhyacophilidae 
RkycLcopkiZa 

Hydropsy chidae 
KfictopAyohc 
Ch cumaXo pi yckc 
V-iplcctAona 
HydsiopAydw 
Gloss os omatidae 
Kga.pQX.UA 
GloAAOAoma. 



X 
X 

X 

X 



X 



X 
X 



Station No, 



15 



16 17 18 19 20 • 26 





X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




X 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 



X 



X 



X 



X 









X 




X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 







174 



TABLE 8. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

APRIL 19 74 



Taxon Station No. 



15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



Psychomyiidae 

VolLjCtZYltAOpULk X x 

Goeridae 

GoeAa X X X X X 

Hydroptilidae 

U<io&vlchJJi 

OchJwtJvickla 
Limnephilidae 

NzopkyZax 
Phryganeidae 

?tito6toma> 
Lepidos tomatidae 

Lzp-Ldoi>toma 
Leptoceridae 

Asutfavip&odeA 

L&ptoceZla 

LzptoaeAuA 
Philopotamidae 

ChMncinAa 

T>lQM)Yliub!> X XX 

Brachycentridae 
Mcc/uu <ma x 

Crustacea 

Decapoda XXX 

Astacidae 
CanbaAuA 

0n.C.OYl<LCX2A 
Mollusca 
Gastropoda 
Prosobranchia 
Mesogastropoda 
Pleuroceridae 
GowLobaAiA 
Pulmonata 

Basommatophera 
Ancylidae 



175 



TABLE 9. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected from 
Abrams and Mill Creeks. 

JULY 19 74* 



Taxon Station No. 



15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



Nema tamo rpha 

Annelida X X 

Oligochaeta X XX 

Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae X X X X X 

Tipulidae 

hxtooka X X X X 

VZcAanota 

EhX.OQ.eAO. X 

Hexatoma 
LonguAio 
Pe.dlcXa 

lAjpota X 

Simuliidae X 

?h.oi>imuLlum X 

Rhagionidae 

ktkQjLLX. \)<Vhl<LQOjjX X X 

Blepharoceridae 

Bte.phaAoe.eAa. X 

Tanyderidae 

Pn.otopZ.a6a 
Tahanidae 

TahanuA 
Empididae 
Coleoptera 
Elmidae 

HeLictM 

He.xacLjlZoe.puA> 
Laiiu,!>ciiluA 

Option eAvua> x x 

OuLLmvu.uA 

Vn.omoH.UAji X X 

Psephenidae 

EctopaAia X 

V6ephe.nuA X XX 



*From Alan Kelly's collections, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, GRSM 

176 



TABLE 9. Checklist of the Benthic Macro invertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

JULY 1974 



Taxon 



Anisoptera 
Gomphidae 

GomphuA 

LantkuA 

HagznluA 
Perlodidae 

VipZjop&nZa. 

lAogmuA 

lAopeAJta. 

Pteronarcidae 

P£2AnaAcy6 
Perlidae 

AcAomuunAJi 

Pcvuign&tina 
Peltoperlidae 

?2ltop2AZa 
Leuctridae 

LducJyui 

Capniidae 
AUtocapnAA. 

Taeniopterygidae 
BficickypZQAa 

Chloroperlidae 
kULopQAbx 
HaAtap&ita 

Nemouridae 
UnmoaAo. 

7 ' CKLYlioptQAijX 
Trichoptera 

Rhyacophilidae 

Rh yacophZla 
Hy dropsy chidae 

AsictopAyche. 

Chuumcutopb yckn 

Vipitcthovw. 

H y (inapt, ychz 

Glossosomatidae 
Agape^uA 
GtoAhoAoma, 



Station No. 



15 16 17 18 19 20 26 







X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 




X 


X 


X 
X 



X 



X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



177 



TABLE 9. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinverteb rates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks ~ Cont. 

JULY 1974 



Station No. 



Ephemeroptera 
Ephemerellidae 

Epk&meAelZa 

Leptophlebiidae 

Hahtiopkiohixi 

VaAaZzptophJizbia 
Caeninae 

CamiA 
Heptageniidae 

knXhxoplzn 

Cinifgrnata. 

Hzptagenia 

lA.on 

Hutfaiogma 

Stmomma 
Siphlonuridae 

AmeZeJm 

SAjphZonu/iuA 
Baetidae 

BantU 

BaoJuAca 

C&ntAoptiZum 

1 6 onychia. 

LfLptophtohia. 

P6zadocZocoyi 
Ephemeridae 

EpknmeAa 
Hzxagtyiia 
Megaloptera 
Corydalidae 
CkautLoddA 
Sialidae 
Nlg/iovUa 
Hemiptera 

Gerridae 
Odonata 
Zygoptera 
Agrionidae 
KqHajoyi 



1 2 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 



X X 



20 26 



X 



X X X X 

X 

X X X X 



XXX 

XXX 
X XX 



178 



TABLE 9. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

JULY 1974 



Psychomyiidae 
Vi>ycJn,omyAjx 
PolyczntAopuA 

Goeridae 

Q>o Via. 
Hydroptilidae 

N&o&vLcJuji 
OchAo&oLdvia. 
Limnephilidae 

Mtopkylax 
Phryganeidae 

VtitOi>tX)TMJi 

Lepidos tomatidae 

Lojptdabtoma. 
Leptoceridae 

Atlwlp&odeA 

LzptaaoZlci 

LzptoceAuA 

Philopo tamidae 

CkimoAfia 

TH2,Yl£0YlluA 
Brachycentridae 

HicAaAwa 
Crustacea 
Decapoda 
Astacidae 
CambaAuA 
QticonacteA 
lollusca 
Gastropoda 
Pro sob ranch ia 
Mesogas tropoda 
Pleuroceridae 
Pulmonata 
Bassomatophera 
Ancylidae 



Station No. 



15 16 17 18 



19 



20 26 



X 



X X 

X 
XXX 



XXX 



179 



TABLE 10. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks. 

FEBRUARY 1977 



Taxon 



Station No. 



1 2 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



Nematamorpha 
Annelida 

Oligochaeta 
Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae 
Tipulidae 
Avutocha 
V-icAanota 
EnioceJux 
Hcxcutoma. 
LonguAlo 
PzcLccla 
lipota. 
Simuliidae 

Pn.oiimLilA.um 
Rhagionidae 

hkkvu,x vcvii&gaXa 
Blepharoceridae 
BlzphtUioceAa 
Tanyderidae 

Pn.o to plaza 
Tahanidae 

coiiflfeas* 

Coleoptera 
Elmidae 

HeZlchuA 

HdxcLc.ylZoe.puA 

LatluA CuZuA 

LimnLuA 

Option QAVUA 

OuLimriLUA 
?n.orr\on.QAi.a 
Psephenidae 
EcXopanJja 

Pi>&pk<2,HUA 



x 

X 



XXX X 



X X X X X 
X X X X X 
X X 



X X 

X 



XXX 
X 



X 

X 



X 
X 



X 



X 

X 



XXX 

XXX 
XXX 
X 



X 



X 




X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 




X 



X X 

X X 



X X X X 



X X 



180 



TABLE 10 • Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

FEBRUARY 19 77 



Taxon 



Ephetaeroptera 
Ephemerellidae 

Epkm&ioJULa. 
Leptophlebiidae 

Habfwpktzbia 

PaAaJL2.ptophZe.b4ja. 
Caeninae 

Caznti 
Hep tageniidae 

KAtkAopLen. 

CinygmuZa 

He-ptagenZa 

Ikoyi 
PJMiAogeYia 

S te.no nema 
Siphlonuridae 

Am2JL2X.uA 

SZphZo nu/iuA 
Baetidae 

Ba2JJU 

BaetLi>ca 

CentAoptiZum 

l6onychia 

LeptophZebZa 

P&eudocZocon 
Ephemeridae 

EpkimQJw. 

HexagenZa 
Mega lop tera 
Corydalidae 

ChauZZodeA 
Sialidae 

NZgtionZa 

Hemiptera 

Gerridae 
Odonata 
Zygoptera 
Agrionidae 
AgAton 



Station No, 



1 2 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



XXXXXXXXXXX 



X X X X 



X 



X 

X X X X 
X 

X X X X 

X 



XXX 











X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 



X 



X 
X X 



X 

X 



X X 



X 



X X 

X 



XXX 



X X 



X X 



X X 



181 



TABLE 10. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

FEBRUARY 1977 



Taxon 



Anisoptera 
Gromphidae 
GomphuA 
LantkuA 
HagnwiuA 
Plecoptera 
Perlodidae 
VAjplop&iZa. 
l60g<LilUA 

l6op2Ata 
P teronarcidae 

P£eAonaAcy& 
Perlidae 

PctACLgneZLna 
Peltoperlidae 

VdLtopoAla. 
Leuctridae 

LuicZhR. 
Capniidae 

Attocapyila 
Taeniopterygidae 

Zhjxokyptvw. 
Chloroperlidae 

AllopeAJta 

Hcu>tapesila 
Nemouridae 

Nemo mux 

TaztvlopteAyx 
Trichoptera 

Rhyacophilidae 

RkyacophAlR 
Hy dropsy chidae 

Ah.c£opi>ych<i 

Ck<LumaJjopi> yoke 

ViplnatAoYia. 

Hyd/LopAychd 

Glossosomatidae 
Agap&tuA 

Gloi6o6oma 



X X 



Station No. 



1 2 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



X X X X X X X 

X X 

XX X 



X 


X 




X 


X 


X 
X 



X X 



XXX 



X 



X 



X 

X 
X 



X X 



X 



XXX 



X X 

X X 
X 



X X 



X X 



XXX XXXX XX 

XXXXXXXX XX 

XXXX XXX XX 



X 
X 
X 



182 



TABLE 10. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

FEBRUARY 1977 



Taxon Station No. 



1 2 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 

Psychomyiidae 

Vbyokomy-ia. X 

VolycoyvUwpuA x X XX 

Goeridae 

GOVUL X XX 

Hydroptilidae X 

Ne.o£>vLcKLa x 

OchAotAA-chia 
Limnephi li dae 

Nzopkylax x 

Phryganeidae 

Lepidostomatidae 

Lup-LdoAtoma 
Leptoceridae 

kthxip&odeA xxx 



LzptocelZa 

L<LptOdQJUX& 
Philopotamidae 

ChxmmaAa X 

Ttiojito viiuA 
Brachycentridae 

HteVLOi 2jna 
Crustacea 
Decapoda 
Astacidae 

CambaAuA X 

0hxiovuLcA8A 
Mollusca 
Gastropoda 
Prosobranchia 
Mesogastropoda 
Pleuroceridae 

Goyu.obca>-L& 

Pulmonata 
Basoramatophera 
Ancylidae 



X 



183 



TABLE 11. Checklist of the Benthic Ma croin vertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks. 

MARCH 19 77 



Taxon 



Station No. 



15 16 



17 



18 19 



26 



Nematamorpha 
Annelida 

Oligochaeta 

Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae 
Tipulidae 
Antocka 

Vi.CA0L¥l0ta 

Huxcutoma 

LongusU.o 

PudlcLa 

T^pata 
Simuliidae 

VnotximuLlum 
Rhagionidae 

ktkojtix va/iitigata 
Blepharoceridae 

BlqokaA.oc.2ACL 
Tanyderidae 

PtiatoplaAa 

Tahanidae 

TahanuA 
Empididae 
Collembola 
Coleoptera 

Elmidae 

HoJLLckuA 

HoxaayZZozpuA 

La£luA>c.uJLiii> 

Option QAVLL6 

OutunniLLi 

Vh.omoh.ui.a. 
Psephenidae 

EctopaA (a 

?i> upkcnuA 
Limnichidae 

Lar^nchai 



X X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X X X X 



X X X X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 















X 



X 



X 



X 

X 



X 
X 
X 



X 







X 


X 


X 


X 
X 




X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 



184 



TABLE 11. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

MARCH 1977 



Taxon 



1 2 



Station No. 



9 15 16 17 18 19 26 



Ephemeroptera 
Ephemerel lidae 

EphmoAnlZa. 
Leptophlebiidae 

Hahn.ophJLohi.CL 

Vcuuitnptophl.doi.ci 
Caeninae 

ZCULYUA 
Heptageniidae 

^nXhJwplza. 

CimjgmuJLa. 

HQjptn.QZ.yuji 

Iswn 

?JMvwQ<wa 

Stmonma 
S iphlonuridae 

SAjphZonuAuA 
Baetidae 
BaoXsti, 
BaeJjUca. 
CwtAoptLlum 
lAonyckia 
Lcptophtzbia 
Pa undo dto con 
Ephemeridae 
EpkejcnQAa 
Huxagojiia 
Megaloptra 
Corydalidae 

ChauLiodu 
Sialidae 
Hi^fioviia. 
Hemiptera 

Gerridae 
Odonata 
Zygoptera 
Agrionidae 
AgfUon 



XXX 



XXX 



X 



X 



X 



X X 



X 



X 



X 



X X X X X X 







X 






X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



X 
X 



X X X X 

X XX 



X 



X 



X 



X 

X 
X 

X 



X 

X X 



X 
X 

X 
X 



X 



185 



TABLE 11. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

MARCH 19 77 



Taxon 



Anistoptera 
Goraphldae 
GomphuA 
LantkuA 
HageniuA 
Plecoptera 
Perlodidae 
Vlplop&lta 
lAogmuA 
J.AopeAla 

P teranar cidae 
PtoAonaAcyA 

Perlidae 
AcAomiwla 
VaAagn&tina 

Peltoperla 
PzLtopoAta 

Leuctridae 
LztictAa. 

Capniidae 
ALtocapyiia 

Taeniopterygidae 
B^ackifpt^Aa 

Chloroperlidae 
AllopoAZa 
HaAtapoAla 

Nemouridae 
UzmouJw. 
TaeyuxipieAyx. 
Trichoptera 

Rhyacophilidae 
RkyacophJJta. 

Hy dropsy chidae 
kn.cJjopi>ych<i 
Cke,umcutop6 ycke. 
ViplzctAona 
Hydh.opi>yck<i 

Gloss omomatidae 
AgapeXuA 
GloAAomoma 



XXX 
X X X X 

XXX 

X X 

XXX 



X X X X 



X 



X 



Station No, 



15 



X 



X X X X X 

X 
X X X X X 



16 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 



17 



X 



X 
X 



X 
X 



X 

X 
X 



18 19 



X 



X 



X 



XXX 
X 



X 
X 

X 

X 



X 

X 
X 



X 



X 

X 
X 



26 



X 



X X 



X X X X X 



186 



TABLE 11. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinverteb rates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

MARCH 1977 



Taxon 



Psychomyiidae 

P&ycJiomyia 
Voly cent/to pus 
Goeridae 

G02Aj0L 
Hydroptilidae 

HzotxicJaJjOL 
OcJviotLckui 
Limnephilidae 

Uojopkylax 

FycnopAycke. 
Phryganeidae 

VkiZoAiomi!, 
Lepidostomatidae 

lup-idoitoma. 
Leptoceridae 

kthJblpi>o doA 

LaptoceUta. 

LcptocoAuA 
Philopotamidae 

ChJjnaJVia. 

TiQjtfo vU,um, 
Brachycentridae 

frUcJtaA ojna 
Crustacea 
Decapoda 
Astacidae 
CambaAuA 

0>lCOYl(L.Ct&> 
Mo 11 us ca 
Gastropoda 
Prosobranchia 
Mesogastropoda 
Pleuroceridae 
GoYiuobaAiA 
Pulmonata 
Basommatophera 
Ancylidae 



Station No 



15 16 17 18 



19 



26 



X 



X 



X 



X 

X 



X X 

X 

X 

X X 



X 



X X 



X 
X 



X 



X 



X 



X X 



187 



TABLE 12. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks. 

MAY 1977 



Taxon Station No. 

12 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 

Nematamorpha 
Annelida 

Oligochaeta XXXXXXX X 

Arthropod 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae XXXXXXXXX 

Tipulidae 
kntocka XXX X XXXX 

VtcAcmota X 

EhA.OCQA.CL X X 

Huxatoma XX XX 

LongiWlo 

Pz.cU.cua. X 

Tlpola. xxxx x x x 

Simuliidae 

?tio6-ur\uLLum X XXX X 

Rhagionidae 

ktk<VLLX VCVlAJLQOJjX X X 

Blepharoceridae 

BtqphaAoczta 

Tanyderidae 

PJwtapZaAa 

Tahanidae 
Takanm 

Empididae 
Collembola 
Coleoptera 

Elmidae X 



X 



He£tcu6 
HdxacylZcxipuA 
LcuU.ua cutu& 
Ljjmu.ut> 

0ptLO6 QAVUA XX XX X 

OiiLimviiui) 

Pswmoh&AJji X x 

Psephenidae X 

Ectopa/via X 

?&zphwu& xx xxxxxx 



188 



TABLE 12. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont . 

MAY 19 77 



Taxon 

Ephemerop tera 
Ephemerellidae 

Eph.2jm2A2lZa 
Leptophlebiidae 

Habn.ophJL2.bi.a. 

PaAat2.ptopkl2.bAji 
Caeninae 

Heptageniidae 

A/UivtoplexL 

CtnygmuZa 

Hdptageyuji 

IHjOYI 

PiXkK.og2na 
Stznomma 
Siphlonuridae 

Si.phJLonuJuxA 
Baetidae 

C2Jith.optitmm 
lAonycluji 
L2.ptophZ2.biA. 
P6 2.udocJLoc.on 
Epheneridae 
Eph.2m2Aa. 
Hexagejun 
Megaloptera 
Corydalidae 

CkauLLod2A 
Sialidae 
UigKOYiia 
Hemiptera 

Gerridae 
Odonata 
Zygoptera 
Agrionidae 
AgtUon 



Station No, 



XXX 



XXX 



XXX 



X X 



15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



X X X X X X X 



X 



X X 



X 










X 






X 




X 


X 
X 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 



X X X X 



X 



X 

X X 

X 

X X X X X X X 



X X 



X X 



189 



TABLE 12. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

MAY 1977 



Taxon Station No. 



12 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 

Anisoptera 
Gomphidae 

GomphuA X 

LantkuA 

Hclq&vujua 
Plecoptera 
Perlodidae 

VAjplopeAta 

lAogmuA 

liopeJiZa. xxxx xxxxxx 

Pteronarcidae 

PteJionahcyA X 

Perlidae 

AcAone.uAA.a X X X x 

PcihagneXina 
Peltoperlidae 

VzXX.ape.hLoi X 

Leuctridae 

LeucXhR XXX XXXXX X 

Capniidae 

AtlocapnXa XX X 

Taeniopterygidae 

BhackypteAa 
Chloroperlidae 

AltopeAla x x x 

HaAtapeAla x x 

Nemouridae 

NemouAa. X X 

JCLdYlioptQAljX 
Trichoptera 

Rhyacophilidae 

RkyacophXIa x XX XX 

Hy dropsy chidae 
Ah.cXop4yc.ke. 
Cke.umaXo psyche. xxxx X x X 



X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 




X 



VAJi3le.cXh.ona 

Hydhopi>yche. X X X x 

VahjOLAyche. 
Gloss osomatidae 
AgapeXuA 
GZo6606oma XXX XX 



190 





X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



X 



TABLE 12. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

MAY 1977 



Taxon Station No, 



15 16 17 18 19 20 26 



Psychomyiidae 
Vhyokomyia. 

VolyzantAopuA xxxxxxx xx 

Goeridae 

GoQJui 
Hydroptilidae 

U<LO&vLcKla. 

OdnJiotxicKla X 

Limnephilidae 

Ntopkylax 

PycnopAydm x x 

Phryganeidae x 

PtiloAto mu> 
Lepidostomatidae 

L&p^do&toma X 

Leptoceridae 

ktkhJjp6od<u> X 

L&ptoczZla X X 

Philopotamidae 

Brachycentridae 

Crustacea 
Decapoda 
Astacidae 

C0J7l6aAU6 X X XXX 

OlconzcitQA 
Mollusca 
Gastropoda 
Prosobranchia 
Mesogastropoda 
Pleuroceridae 
GoniobaA-ii, X x x x x x 

Pulmonata 
Basommatophera 
Ancylidae 

fWhihhiA. X 



191 



TABLE 12. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks- 

JULY 1977 



Taxon 



Nematamorpha 
Annelida 

QtlQOdhcLQjjCL X 

Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae X 

Tipulidae 
Antocha. X 

V-icAanota 

EAAXJC2AJX 

Hexcutoma 
LonguJvio 

?ddlCA,CL 

T-ipola 
Simuliidae 

Vnoi>AjnuLl[\m 
Rhagionidae 

ktkdhix \)ahJL2jj>a£a. X 
Blepharoceridae 

BlzpkaJioceAa 
Tanyderidae 

Pfw£opZcu>a 

Tahanidae 
TakanuA 

Empididae 
Coleoptera 
Elmidae 

HdLickuA 

H<Lxa.cylZo<ipuA 

LcuU.ua cutua, 

UjmvuMA 

Optio* eAvuA X 

OuJUjrwu.nA 

?K.omoh.&>Jjx X 

Psephenidae 

EcXopaJuxi X 

?£> <Lph(LYlUA X 



X 



X 



Station No. 



X X 



9 
X 
X 



X 



X 



X X 



15 16 17 18 



X 



X X X X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



19 20 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



192 



TABLE 13. Checklist of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks- Cont. 

JULY 19 77 



Taxon 



1 2 



Station No. 



9 15 16 17 18 19 20 



Epheme rop te r a 
Ephemerellidae 

Epkm&ieZla x 

Lep tophlebiidae 

WabnophLohixk. 

Pa/iaJldpto phJLobia. 
Caeninae 

Cazyuj) 
Heptageniidae 

AnXPisioplza 
CsLnygmuZa 

H ZptHQZVUM. 

Ifwn 

PJJhlO Q<LVWL 

Stznon&na 
S iphlonuridae 

S<LpktoYWJiu& 
Baetidae 

Ba<i£u>ca 
CzvutA-optLlum 
l&cmychJji 
Lzptopklzbia. 
Pizudoctozon 
Ephemeridae 
Ephzmzna 
Hzxagznia 
Megaloptera 
Corydalidae 

CkauLiodzi, X 

Sialidae 
NiQKOYila. 
Hemiptera 

Gerridae 
Odonata 
Zygoptera 
Agrionidae 



XXX 



X X X X 



X XXX 

XXXXX X X X X X 

X X X X 

xxxxxxxxxx 



X 



XXX 



X X X X 



XXXXXXXX 



X 



193 



TABLE 13- Checklist of the Benthic Macro invertebrates Collected 
from Abrams arid Mill Creeks - Cont. 

JULY 19 77 



Taxoii 

Anisoptera 
Gomphidae 
GompkuA 
LayuthuA 

HCLQUVUMA 
Plecoptera 
Perlodidae 

Viptopvila. 

ItogmuA 

liopeJiZa 
Pteronarcidae 

PtoAjonaAcyi 
Perlidae 

VaAaQYintina. 
Peltoperlidae 

VolXopQJita. 
Leuctridae 

LqjxqAjwl 
Capniidae 

ALtocapyuji 
Taeniopterygidae 

Bi&chypteAa 
Chloroperlidae 

AZZopeJila 

HaAtap&ilcL 
Nemouridae 

NqmouAjOL 

Taenia p£&iyx 
Trichoptera 

Rhyacophilidae 

Ryacapkita 
Hydropsychidae 

kn.c£o psyche. 

Cheumatop6 yoke, 

V-Lpl&cX/iona 

HydUiopA yoke, 
Glossosomatidae 

AgapeX.ua> 

G£o46oAoma 



Station No 



1 2 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 



X 



XXX 



X X 

XXX 



XXX 



X 



X 



X 



X X 



X X X X X X 



XXX XX 

X X X X X X 



X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



X 



194 



TABLE 13. Checklist of the Benthic Macro invertebrates Collected 
from Abrams and Mill Creeks - Cont. 

JULY 19 77 



Taxon Station No . 



1 2 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 

Psychomyiidae 

P&ychomijAji 

PolyczntAopuA X X XX 

Goeridae 

G02A£L 
Hydroptilidae 

Uzo&llcKux. 

OcJvw&isLckia 
Limnephilidae 

Mcopkytax 

Py empty eke, x x x 

Phryganeidae 

Ptitotto mU> 
Lepidos tomatidae 

Le.pi.doi>toma. 
Leptoceridae 

Ath/vlpiodoA 

LeptoeeZta X 

LeptoeeAua, 
Philopo tamidae 

ChunaJiAa 

TnzwtoviluA 
Brachycentridae 

hlLcAaAema. 
Crustacea 
Decapoda 
Astacidae 

CambaAuA X X X X X X X 

Qn.COYKMlX.QJ> X 

Mollusca 
Gastropoda 
Prosobranchia 
Mesogastropoda 
Pleuroceridae 

GoiiiobaAJJ, X X X X X X 

Pulmonata 
Bas omnia tophera 
Ancylidae 

FeAAAAAia X X 



195 

*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1979-642-546/631^ . Region 4.