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edition, published in three volumes, 1768 1771. 

ten 17771784. 

eighteen 1788 1797. 

twenty 1801 1810. 

twenty 1815 1817. 

twenty 1823 1824. 

twenty-one ' 1830 1842. 

twenty-two 1853 1860. 

twenty-five 1875 1889. 
ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903. 

published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911. 


in all countries subscribing to the 
Bern Convention 


of the 

All rights reserved 










Cambridge, England: 
at the University Press 

New York, 35 West 32nd Street 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911, 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company 



Professor of Zoology, and Director of the Institute of Zoology in the University-^ Nemertina (in part). 
of Utrecht. Author of Nemertines. I 

A. Ca. ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S. I Numbers, Partition of. 

See the biographical article : CAYLEY, ARTHUR. 

A. E. S. ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. J JJematoda (in part); 

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University, i Nematomorpna; 

Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History. I- Nemertina (in part). 


Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' Nicholas, Henry; 

College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- -j Northumberland, John Dudley, 

1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of duke of. 

England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. I 


See the biographical article : GEIKIE, SIR ARCHIBALD. \ 

r Mutian; 


Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester. US ' 

1 Myconius, Oswald. 

Nnn n|ot nn icm a n 
M 80 ? 1 " 0111 l I* 


See the biographical article: HARNACK, ADOLF. \ 

A. H.-S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINBLER, C.I.E. f W | eh ,. 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. \ m 

A. J. G. REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D. f Nestorians (f part); 

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent) NestOHUS (in part); 
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of | New Jerusalem Church; 
Mysore Educational Service. [ Nicholas of Basel. 

A. L. ANDREW LANG, LL.D. f Mytholop; 

See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW. Name (Local and Personal 


Trinity College, Cambridge; Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Formerly Assistant -I Negligence. 

Reader in Common Law under the Council of Legal Education. 

A. M. CL AGNES MURIEL CLAY (Mrs Edward Wilde). (" 

Late Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-editor of Sources of-{ Municipium. 
Roman History, 133-70 B.C. l_ 

( Nestor; 

Nidiflcation (in part); 

A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. ., . Vn ^ . 

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. tmgaie, fi lay. 

Nutcracker; Nuthatch; 

[ Oeydrome. 


President, South African Medical Congress, 1893. Author of South African Studies ; 

&c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical I w a tal (in hn.rf) 

practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, ' 

and Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 



Emeritus Professor of Midwifery, Edinburgh University. Dean of the Faculty of -I Obstetrics. 
Medicine and Professor in the University, 1870-1905. 


Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Fellow of Trinity College, \ Nebula. 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributions, appears in the final volume. 






A. S. P.-P. 

A. Ts. 

A. W. H.* 
A. W. Hu. 


S. R 

B. S. P. 

B. W.* 

C. F. M. B. 

C. H. Ha. 
C. H. W. J. 

C. K. S. 
C. M. 

C. Mi. 

C. R. B. 

C. S. S. 

D. B. Ma. 
D. F. T. 
D. G. H. 



Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford J Mysticism. 
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. 
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos ; The Philosophical Radicals ; &c. 


Member of the French Chamber of Deputies. Contributor to Vol. xi. of theH Napoleon III. 
Cambridge Modern History. Author of Le second Empire, &c. I 


Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. 

Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900 

I Nonjurors. 


Rector of Bow Church, Cheapside, London. Formerly Librarian of the National J 
Liberal Club. Author of Life of Cardinal Manning. Editor of Newman's Lives 1 
of the English Saints ; &c. I 


Trustee of National Portrait Gallery. Hon. Secretary of Society for Protection 
of Ancient Buildings; Vice-Chairman of National Trust. Junior Lord of the' 
Treasury, 1903-1905. M.P. for Chorley division of Lanes from 1895. Son and 
heir of the 26th earl of Crawford. 

Museums of Art.. 



Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of 
London, and Port of London Authority. President of the Society of Chemical " 
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of 
Institute of Chemistry. Author of Cantor Lectures on Petroleum; Petroleum and 
its Products; Chemical Technology; &c. 



Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge. 


Author of The Hudson's Bay Company ; The Romance of Canada ; &c. 


Managing Director of The Times. Correspondent in Egypt, 1865-1890. Author of 
Khedives and Pashas; From Pharaoh to Fellah; &c. 

j Norway: Early History. 


JJubar Pasha. 

Author of ) Nineveh. 

CARLTON HUNTLY HAYES, A.M., PH.D. r iis/.i.i., m ru 

Assistant Professor of History at Columbia University, New York City. Member J * las ' m " IV 
of the American Historical Association. [ (popes). 


Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Canon of Norwich. 
Assyrian Deeds and Documents. 


Editor of the Sphere. Author of Charlotte Bronte and her Circle; The Brontes :J * 
Life and Letters ; &c. [ Illustrated Papers. 


Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik < Nicaea, Council of. 
im Zeitalter Gregor VII. ; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstlhums ; &c. [ 


Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900, and 1902- 


Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of J Neustria. 
Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux. 


Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow J . 

of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. ] Nlkltin; 

Author of Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. [ Norden, John. 


Professor of Physiology, University of Liverpool. Foreign Member of Academies J Mnclim Ihn 
of Rome, Vienna, Brussels, Gottingen, &c. Author of The Integrative Action of] 
the Nervous System. |_ 


Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author of J mr.,-,1,. _ nl i 
Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; Selec-} rauscle 
lions from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c. [_ 


Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The 
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical 


Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis 1899 and 
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 



D. H. 
D. M. W. 

D. N. P. 

D. Wr. 

E. A. F. 
E. B. T. 
E. F. S. 


E. Gr. 

E. H. M. 
Ed. M. 

E. N.-R. 
E. Pr. 

E. P. C. 
E. R. L. 

E. S. G. 
E. Wa. 

E. W. H.* 

F. E. B. 

F. G. M. B. 
F. G. P. 


Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 
Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c. 

{Napoleonic Campaigns: 
Naval Operations; 
Navarino, Battle of; Navy; 
Nelson; Nile, Battle of the. 


Extra Groom-in-Waiting to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Depart- 
ment of The Times, 1891-1899. Joint-editor of new volumes (loth edition) of the { Nihilism. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the Egyptian Question; 
The Web of Empire; &c. 


Regius Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Super- I 

intendent of Research Laboratory of Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh. T Nutrition. 

Biological Fellow of Edinburgh University, 1884. Author of Essentials of Human I 

Physiology; &c. 

Translated the History of Nepaul, from the Parbatiya, with an " Introductory -| Nepal (in part). 

Sketch of the Country and People of Nepaul." L 


See the biographical article: FREEMAN, E. A. \ Nobility; Normans. 


See the biographical article: TYLOR, EDWARD BURNETT. 


Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. 
Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects, 
of Bell's " Cathedral '' Series. 


See the biographical article : GOSSE, EDMUND. 


Member of n llt ,i,o,>*,, 
Joint-editor 1 lnk aesy. 


See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY. 

: Norton, Thomas; 
J Norway: Norwegian Literature; 
[ Novel. 

'. Mycenae; Naucratis. 

Librarian of the Royal 

Geographical -j Nyasa. 




Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 
Society, London. 


University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. 


Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des 
Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme. 

EUSTACE NEVILLE-ROLFE, C.V.O. (1845-1908). -f Nanles 

Formerly H.M. Consul-General at Naples. Author of Naples in the 'Nineties; &c. \ ' 


Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. 
Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Com- 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon 
Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Editor of Letters 
of a Portuguese Nun ; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea ; &c. 


Grieve Lecturer in Chemical Physiology, University of Glasgow. 


Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. President of the British Association, 1906. 
Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College, London, 
1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 1891-1898. 
Director of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum, 1898-1907. 
Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1905. 
Author of Degeneration; The Advancement of Science; The Kingdom of Man; &c. 


Fellow and Librarian of Merton College, Oxford. Aldrichian Demonstrator of Com- 
parative Anatomy, University Museum, Oxford. 

REV. EDMOND WARRE, M.A., D.D., D.C.L., C.B., C.V.O. 

Provost of Eton. Hon. Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. Headmaster of Eton 
College, 1884-1905. Author of Grammar of Rowing; &c. 

Narses (King of Persia). 

| Nutrition (in part). 

Mussel (in part). 



SIR EDWARD WALTER HAMILTON, G.C.B., K.C.V.O. (1847-1908). r v .. . n 

Joint Permanent Secretary to H.M. Treasury, 1902-1908. Author of National J " onal " 
Debt Conversion and Redemption. Conversions (in part). 


Prosector of the Zoological Society, London. Formerly Lecturer in Biology at 
Guy's Hospital, London. Naturalist to "Challenger" Expedition Commission, 
1882-1884. Author of Text-Book of Zoogeography; Animal Coloration; &c. 


Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. 


Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 

... ,. -, 

lematooa (in part). 

r M uscu i ar system- 

-, . 

Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. 1 Nerve; 
Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. L Nervous System. 



Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of 
Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Senior Censor, Student, Tutor -i Numantia. 
and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford, 1891-1907. Author of Monographs on 
Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c. 


Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and J 
Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial | 
German Archaeological Institute. L 

F. L. L. LADY LUGARD. f Nassarawa; 

See the biographical article: LUGARD, SIR F. J. D. \ Nigeria. 

F. N. M. COL. FREDERIC NATUSCH MAUDE, C.B. (" jj aDO i eon i c 

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the~{ f,... 
World's Policy; The Leipzig Campaign ; The Jena Campaign; &c. L ** 

F. R. C. FRANK R. CANA. ("Natal (in part); Niger; 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. \ Nile (in part). 


Assistant Director, British School of Archaeology, Athens. Fellow of King's^ Mysia. 
College, Cambridge. Browne's Medallist, 1901. [_ 


Physician to Charing Cross Hospital, London. Pathologist to the London County J Neuralgia; Neurasthenia; 
Asylums. Fullerian Professor of Physiology, Royal Institution. Editor of Archives | Neuropathology. 
of Neurology. I 


Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture. University of Oxford. . 
Fellow of Oriel College; Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathedral, 
Edinburgh. Formerly Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. L 


Professor of Mathematics, University College of N. Wales, Bangor, 1884-1896. 4 Number. 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. L 


Member of Board of Advice to Agent-General for Victoria. Formerly Editor and 

Proprietor of the Melbourne Herald. Secretary, Colonial Committee of Royal Com- -\ New South Wales: History. 

mission to Paris Exhibition, 1900. Secretary to Commissioners for Victoria at the 

Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia and Melbourne. 


Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909- J w ,, . , 
1910. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British Case in the j letnerianos. 
British Guiana- Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian Boundary Arbitrations. [ 


Assistant in the Department of Coins, British Museum. Corresponding Member of I v um j sma tics 
the German and Austrian Archaeological Institutes. Author of Coins of Ancient"] 
Sicily ; Historical Greek Coins ; Historical Roman Coins ; &c. L 


Rector of Sutton Sandy, Bedfordshire. Lecturer in Faculty of Theology, Uni- J Nahum 
versity of Oxford. 1908-1909. Author of Short Introduction to Literature of the Old | 
Testament; &c. t 


Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: -I Neuroptera. 
their Structure and Life. 


Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden J. Northampton, Assize of. 
Society. [ 


Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. President of the American Geological Society, J wj aeara 
1892-1893 and 1909-1910. Formerly Special Lecturer at Cornell, Columbia and 1 
Johns Hopkins Universities. Author of Glaciers and Glaciation ; &c. L 

G. W. T. REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. r-vi j._ rn, u - - 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old J HaDl? 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. ( Nawawl; Nosairis. 


Keeper of Coins and Medals, British Museum. Treasurer of the Egypt Exploration I 

Fund. Vice-President of the Royal Numismatic Society. Author of Coins of the'] Numismatics (in part). 

Roman Republic ; &c. 

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A. f National Debt <i 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the llth edition of -| H 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the loth edition. [ newspapers. 


Inventor of the Cooke Photographic Lenses. Author of A System of Applied Optics. \ Objective. 


Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of J Nasir Khosrau; 
Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, 1 NizamL 
London (Clarendon Press) ; &c. 


H. F. G. HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, F.R.S., PH.D. fvMii.. HT / j i- i 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author \ * 
of " Amphibia and Reptiles," in the Cambridge Natural History. I tton. 


See the biographical article : PELHAM, HENRY FRANCIS. \ "' 


Vice-Consul for Norway in London. Author of The Constitution of the Kingdom of-< Norway: History, 1814-1007. 
Norway; &c. L 


Librarian and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer in i Norns. 
Scandinavian. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions. 


Balliol College, Oxford. Professor of History and Director of University Extension, j Necker (in -barf) 
University of California. Author of History of the French Revolution ; Modern ] 
European History ; &c. 


Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; formerly Tutor and Lecturer. Smith's ^ Newton, Sir Isaac. 
Prizeman, 1865. Editor of the Pitt Press Euclid. L 

H. N. D. HENRY NEWTON DICKSON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S. f 

Professor of Geography at University College, Reading. Formerly Vice-President, J Morth Sea; 
Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Oxford University, j Norwegian Sea. 
Author of Meteorology ; Elements of Weather and Climate ; &c. L 


Director of British Rainfall Organization. Formerly President of the Royal 
Meteorological Society. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographical Society. Hon. 

Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Budapest, St . 
Petersburg, Amsterdam, &c. British Delegate to International Conference on the 
Exploration of the Sea at Christiania, 1901. Author of The Realm of Nature; The 
Clyde Sea Area; The English Lakes; The International Geography. Editor of 
British Rainfall. 

Ocean and Oceanography. 




Author of Idola Theatri ; The Idea of a Free Church ; Personal Idealism. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, J Murimuth* Nennius. 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins ; Charlemagne. 


Officiating Agent to the Governor-General of India for Baluchistan, 1898-1900. < Nepal (in part). 
Resident at Nepal, 1891-1900. I. 


Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, J _. .. . ,. .. 

Oxford, 1901. Author of "Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthrop- 1 Oaoian (in part). 
ology," in Mansfield College Essays; &c. L 

L A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. (" Nachmanides; 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, I m a j ara . 
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera- \ " " 
ture; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages. {. "asi. 

J. A. C. SIR JOSEPH ARCHER CROWE, K.C.M.G. /- u.,,, *-, c~ n ^\ 

See the biographical article : CROWE, SIR JOSEPH ARCHER. \ H( ' er ' V n f art >- 

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.Sc. (Lond.). f Mncphoiiraiir- 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of -{ rau!>l ' ne *"* 
The Geology of Building Stones. I Neocomian. 


Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Athos, or the Mountain of the Monks ; &c. \ Nl istonans ( P art >- 


Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, New College, Edinburgh. Editor < Numbers, BOOK of. 
of Book of Numbers in the " Polychrome " Bible; &c. L 


King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. J Nicholas (King of Monte- 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 1 neern) 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. [ 


Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and_ Literature, Liverpool University. 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. J Nunez de Arce. 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of 
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. L 

J. Hd. JOHN HOLLINGSHEAD (1827-1904). (* 

Founder of the Gaiety Theatre, London. Member of Theatrical Licensing Reform -| Music Halls. 
Committee, 1866 and 1892. Author of Gaiety Chronicles; &c. [ 

J. H. F. JOHN HENRY FREESE, M.A. [ Name: Gree * and &"*an 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Names; 

I Noricum. 

J. H. H. JOHN HENRY Mn>DLET9N, M.A., LITT.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). r 

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director Mural TWoratinn fi -hurt)- 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South J " U6COra 
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; 
Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. 



Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and\ Neville (Family). 
Pedigree. I 

J. Holl. R. JOHN HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., Lixx.D. (" 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge Uni- J M ann i onn i 
versity Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic \ * a P' eon 
Studies ; The Development of the European Nations ; The Life of Pitt ; &c. 

3. Ja. JOSEPH JACOBS, Lrrr.D. 

Professor of English Literature in the New York Jewish Theological Seminary of I 
America. Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Corre- 1 Nethinim. 
spending Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Author of Jews of 
Angevin England; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c. 

3. J. Lr. JOSEPH JACKSON LISTER, M.A., F.R.S. f M yce tozoa. 

Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 


Director of Armagh Observatory. Author of Planetary Systems from Tholes to { Observatory. 
Kepler; &c. I 

J. M. By. J. M. BRYDON. f Nfisfl pi d 

Architect of Chelsea Town Hall and Polytechnic, &c. \ w 


Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London -! ^ , . N 

College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. [ Neoplaionism (in part). 


Canon Residentiary, P. E. Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in J Nejef ; 
the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, ] Nippur. 
1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates. I 


Principal Emeritus, United College (L.M.S. and F.F.M.A.), Antananarivo, Mada- J ___ ux 
gascar. Member de 1'Academie Malgache. Author of Madagascar and its People; ] nossl " De> 
Madagascar before the Conquest; A Madagascar Bibliography; &c. I 


Assistant-editor of the edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Joint-editor of -< Nestorius (in part). 
the Encyclopaedia Biblica. [_ 

J.S.P. JOHN SMITH FLETT, DSc.F.G.S f Mylonite; Napoleonite; 

Petrographer to H.M. Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology ml M.-I.. Wan i,.]i n - c uon ;* . 

Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsbv 1 5C *' We P hell ne-Syenite, 

Medallist of the Geological Society of London. [ Nephehmtes; Obsidian. 

J. S. K. JOHN SCOTT KELTIE, LL.D., F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot.). 

Secretary, Royal Geographical Society. Knight of Swedish Order of North Star. 

Commander of the Norwegian Order of St Olaf. Hon. Member, Geographical^ National Debt (in part). 

Societies of Paris, Berlin, Rome, &c. Editor of Statesman's Year Book. Editor of I 

the Geographical Journal. 
J. T. Be. JOHN THOMAS BEALBY. rNikolayev (in part); 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical i Nizhniy-Novgorod (in part); 

Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. [Novgorod (in part). 

J. T. C. JOSEPH THOMAS CUNNINGHAM, M.A., F.Z.S. fiviiiccoi c A/, 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly) ?T~ 
Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in | Nautilus; 
The University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. [ Octopus. 

JAMES THOMSON SHOTWELL, Pn.D. f M.-I,..,, / .,-,,1 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. \ a 

J. T. S.* 


All Souls' Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln -J Navigation Laws. 

J. W.* JAMES WARD, LL.D. f . 

See the biographical article: WARD, JAMES. >m - 


Professor of International Law, Cambridge, 1888-1908. One of the Members for 

United Kingdom of International Court of Arbitration under the Hague Convention, J Naturalization. 

1900-1906. Author of A Treatise on Private International Law, or the Conflict of 

Laws; Chapters on the Principles of International Law; part i. " Peace "; part ii. 


Professor of Geology at the University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and I New South Wales: Geology; 

Mineralogy in the University of Melbourne, 1900-1904. Author of The Dead Heart 1 "New Zealand: Geology, 
of Australia; &c. 


Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Formerly President of the Cambridge J H aD ; er John 
Philosophical Society, and the Royal Astronomical Society. Editor of Messenger ] 
of Mathematics and the Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. {. 

K. S. KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER. f M u . sic * ! , Box; 

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the'} Na " Violin; 
Orchestra. . L Nay; Oboe (in part). 


L. J. S. LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A. f Muscovite* 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of j M . ,. 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Minera- 1 ne ' 

logical Magazine. [ Niccolite. 


Fellow and Senior Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford University Lecturer in Classical J M f 
Archaeology; Wilde Lecturer in Comparative Religion. Corresponding Member 1 y sl *ry. 
of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Evolution of Religion ; &c. I 


Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent I .. 

in East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906, Philadelphia, 1907, ] "aples, Kingdom Of. 

and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c. L 


King's College, Cambridge. Assistant in Department of Egyptian and Assyrian j Mj nnllr . T/.. TV,;.,... v 
Antiquities, British Museum; Lecturer in Assyrian at King's College and London 1 
University. Author of The Seven Tablets of Creation ; &c. I 

M. Ja. MORRIS JASTROW, PH.D. fltfohn- Nor<ral- Ninih- 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion { * mD) 

of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c. L " usKu ; Oannes. 


Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. -I Nauarchia. 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. 


Founder of the Daily Mail; Chief Proprietor of The Times, and other papers and I Newspapers: Price of Ncws- 
periodicals. Chairman of the Associated Newspapers, Ltd., and the Amalgamated 1 papers. 
Press, Ltd. L 

N. D. M. NEWTON DENNISON MERENESS, A.M., PH.D. f jj ew York (in 

Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Province. \ 

0. J. R. H. OSBERT JOHN RADCLIFFE HOWARTH, M.A. f Nnrwav rw -/,*,.,, ,*,j 

Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the 1 ao **' . wgrapny a 
British Association. I Statistics. 

Professor of Geography in the University of Kiel, and Lecturer in the Imperial \ Ocean and Oceanography (in 
Naval Academy. Author of Handbuch der Ozeanographie. part) . 

f New Siberia Archipelago; 

See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, PRINCE P. A. j Nizhniy-Novgorod (in part); 

{ Novgorod (in part). 

See the biographical article : GARDNER, PERCY. |_ Myron. 

P. Gi. PETER GILES, M.A., LL.D., Lrrr.D. I" 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University I N. 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 1 O. 
logical Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology. 


Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. ] Neer, Van der (in part). 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c. 


Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly J , T>I. i r *; 

of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian 1 Morwa y* Physical Geography. 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Keyser's Comparative Geology. I 


Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly H.M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary De- 
limitation, and Superintendent, Survey of India. Served with Tirah Expeditionary 
Force, 1897-1898; Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission, Pamirs, 1895; &c. 


Lieut.-Colonel. Formerly Chief Commissioner, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Hon. -| Nicobar Islands. 
Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Joint-author of Andamanese Language; &c. [ 

R. G. RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D., D.C.L. f Newman, Francis William; 

See the biographical article: GARNETT, RICHARD. \Newton, Sir C. T. 


Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James's < Murray Lord George 
Gazette, London. 

R. L.* RICHARD LYDEKKER, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. f Muntjac; 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of J M us ir Ox- 
Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer\ , . ' 
of All Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. I Mylodon. 


Archivist of the department of Tarn et Garonne. Author of Histoire du comte du -j Normandy. 
Maine au X. et au XI. siecle. 

R. S. P. 


R. N. B. ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909). f 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the -aAHae^-u- Nonean uonc- 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, J "* en> Hans > 

1613-1725 ; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 Nikon. 

to 1706; &c. 

i * 


Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry, University of Cambridge. I ij e i. u i ar Thpnrv 
Director of the Cambridge Observatory and Fellow of King's College. Royal j neDUla neory. 
Astronomer of Ireland, 1874-1892. Author of The Story of the Heavens; &c. 

REGINALD STUART POOLE, LL.D. Jw,, m i.... / ,\ 

See the biographical article : POOLE, REGINALD STUART. \ Numismatics (in part) . 


Professor of Physical Geography, Cornell University. Special Field Assistant of the -j New York (in part). 
U.S. Geological Survey. Author of Physical Geography of New York State. [_ 


Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 

Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and J Nabataeans (in part) ; 
Aramaic, London University, 19041908. Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 1904 ] Nazarite (in part) 
1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Law of Moses and the Code of 
Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient [ 
Palestine; &c. 


See the biographical article, IDDESLEIGH, ist Earl of. \ 

S. H. V.* SYDNEY HOWARD VINES, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S. f 

Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, J Naegeli. 
Oxford. Hon. Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. Fellow of the University of 1 
London. Author of Student's Text Book of Botany; &c. 


Professor of Indian Philology in the University of Christiania. Officier de 1'Academie J MundSs. 
Frangaise. Author of Stamavidhana Brahmana ; The Karpuramanjari ; Munda j 
and Dravidian. 

S. N. SIMON NEWCOMB, D.Sc., LL.D. f __. - D , A 

See the biographical article : NEWCOMB, SIMON. \ Neptu 

T. As. THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., LITT.D. f Nemorensis Lacus; Nepi; 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Nola; Nomentana, Via; 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the-| Nomentum; Nora; Norba; 
Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography of Novara; Nuceria Alfaterna; 
the Roman Campagna. [ Nuoro 


Agent-General for New South Wales. Government Statistician, New South Wales, J New South Wales: 
1886-1905. Author of Wealth and Progress of New South Wales; Statistical Account | Geography and Statistics, 
of Australia and New Zealand; &c. L 


Trinity College, Dublin. I Octroi. 


Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. Sec. Anthropo- -j Negro (in part). 
logical Society. (. 

T. Ba. SIR THOMAS BARCLAY. r H.,,*--!-*,,. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of . 

the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of\ North Sea Fisheries Conven- 

International Practice and Diplomacy ; &c. M. P. for Blackburn, 1910. [ tion. 


Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. \ NeO-Caesarea, Synod Of. 


See the biographical article : HODGHN, THOMAS. \ NarS6S ^ Roman General >- 


Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent, Frontier. Surveys, India, 1892-) North- West Frontier Pro- 
1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Perso- 1 ., 
Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; &c. L 


Principal and Professor of Church History, United Free Church College, Glasgow. { Occam, William of. 
Author of Life of Luther ; &c. L 


Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali 

Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal -{ Nagarjuna; Nikaya. 
Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; 
Early Buddhism ; Buddhist India ; Dialogues of the Buddha ; &c. L 


Principal of the Conservatoire Royal de Musique at Brussels. Chevalier of the < Oboe (in part). 
Legion of Honour. 


Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphine; The Range of J Neuchatel. 
the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in 
History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 ; &c. L 

W. A. P. WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A. f Murat- Nibeluneenlied- 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, < 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c. L Nlcnol S I (of Russia). 

W. Bl. WILLIAM BLAIN, C.B. (d. 1908). f National Debt: Conversions 

Principal Clerk and First Treasury Officer of Accounts, 1903-1908. \ (in part). 

W. Cr. WALTER CRANE. f Mnral narnratinn (in t>n.rt\ 

See the biographical article : CRANE, WALTER. \ M 


Governing Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation,-^ Nile (in part). 
Egypt. Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt, 1904-1908. L 


Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, \ f 4nce ' 

London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). |_ Obscenity. 


Censor of Non-Collegiate Students, Cambridge. Fellow and Lecturer of King's J Norway: History 
College. Author of " Scandinavia," in Vol. xi. of the Cambridge Modern History. 1 


Chief Statistician, United States Census Bureau. Professor of Social Science and 

Statistics, Cornell University. Member of the American Social Science Association ! Negro (United States). 
and Secretary of the American Economical Association. Author of The Divorce 
Problem: A Study in Statistics; Social Statistics of the United States; &c. I 


H.M. Geological Survey. Author of The Gold-Bearing Rocks of the S. Transvaal; 4 Natal: Geology. 
Mineral Wealth of Africa; The Geology of Coal and Coal-mining; &c. 



Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. I Nimrod; 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge ; Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth 1 Noah 
College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c. I 


See the biographical article: FLOWER, SIR W. H. 1 


Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of Saturday Review, 1883-1894. Author of -j Mussel, Alfred de. 
Lectures on French Poets; Impressions of Henry Irving; &c. 


Director of the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburg. President of the American Association "j Museums of Science, 
of Museums, 1907-1909. Editor of Annals and Memoirs of Carnegie Museum. I 


Professor of History in Louisiana State University. Author of Documentary -| Nullification. 
History of Reconstruction ; &c. 


Professor of Colonial History, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly J W nw Rrnnciik 
Beit Lecturer in Colonial History, Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy 1 ' ew BrunswlcK 
Council (Canadian Series). L 

W. Mo. WILLIAM MORRIS. /M,,I T\- *-/ 

See the biographical article : MORRIS, WILLIAM. \ Mural Decoratl <" (* 


Professor of Geology in Harvard University. Formerly Professor of Physical i North America. 
Geography. Author of Physical Geography ; &c. 


See the biographical article: ROSSETTI, DANTE G. \ munu0t 

W. 0. M. WILLIAM O'CONNOR MORRIS (d. 1904). 

Formerly Judge of County Courts, Ireland; and Professor of Law to the King's J nTnnnnll Daniel 
Inns, Dublin. Author of Great Commanders of Modern Times; Irish History] ' uallel ' 

Ireland, 1798-1898; &c. L 


Director of London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner 
for New Zealand, 1896-1909. Minister of Education, Labour, and Justice, New-^ New Zealand. 
Zealand, 1891-1896. Author of The Long White Cloud: a History of New Zealand; 


Professor of Chemistry and Physics, Ordnance College, Woolwich. Formerly J Nitrnzlvpprin 
Professor of Chemistry and Physics, R.M.A., Woolwich. Part-author of Valentin- 1 
Hodgkinson's Practical Chemistry; &c. L 


iV . r\. I"l j 

W. R. M.* 
W. R. S. 

W. S. IVl. 

W. T. A. 
W. W. R.* 



Formerly Professor of Russian and other Slavonic Languages in the University of I ,,_*,.,. 

.Oxford. Author of Russia; Slavonic^ neslor - 

Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution 
Literature; &c. 


Captain, R.N. Formerly Lecturer at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Author 
of Treatise on Navigation and Nautical Astronomy; &c. 


See the biographical article : SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON. 


Secretary to the Carnegie Trust of the Scottish Universities. Formerly Professor 
of English, University College, Dundee. Author of Lectures on Literature; &c. 



Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 


t Navigation. 

f Nabataeans (in part) ; 
I Nazarite (in part) ; 
1 Numeral; 
I Obadiah (in part). 

I Occleve. 

| New York (in part). 
Nimes, Councils of. 














New Caledonia. 

Newcastle, Dukes of. 
New England. 
New Guinea. 
New Hampshire. 
New Hebrides. 
New Jersey. 
New Mexico. 
New Orleans. 
New York City. 




Nightingale, Florence. 




Norfolk, Earls and Dukes 


Northampton, Earls and 

Marquesses of. 
North Carolina. 

North Dakota. 
Northumberland, Earls and 

Dukes of. 
Novaya Zemlya. 
Oates, Titus. 




French politician, was born at Lumigny, in the department of 
Seine-et-Marne, on the 28th of February 1841. He entered the 
army, saw much service in Algeria (1862), and took part in 
the fighting around Metz in 1870. On the surrender of Metz, 
he was sent as a prisoner of war to Aix-la-Chapelle, whence he 
returned in time to assist at the capture of Paris from the 
Commune. A fervent Roman Catholic, he devoted himself 
to advocating a patriarch type of Christian Socialism. His elo- 
quence made him the most prominent member of the Cercles 
Catholiques d'Ouvriers, and his attacks on Republican social 
policy at last evoked a prohibition from the minister of war. 
He thereupon resigned his commission (Nov. 1875), and in the 
following February stood as Royalist and Catholic candidate 
for Pontivy. The influence of the Church was exerted to secure 
his election, and the pope during its progress sent him the order 
of St Gregory. He was returned, but the election was declared 
invalid. He was re-elected, however, in the following August, 
and for many years was the most conspicuous leader of the 
anti-Republican party. " We form," he said on one occasion, 
'' the irreconcilable Counter-Revolution." As far back as 1878 he 
had declared himself opposed to universal suffrage, a declaration 
that lost him his seat from 1879 to 1881. He spoke strongly 
against the expulsion of the French princes, and it was chiefly 
through his influence that the support of the Royalist party was 
given to General Boulanger. But as a faithful Catholic he obeyed 
the encyclical of 1892, and declared his readiness to rally to a 
Republican government, provided that it respected religion. 
In the following January he received from the pope a letter 
commending his action, and encouraging him in his social 
reforms. He was defeated at the general election of that 
year, but in 1894 was returned for Finistere (Morlaix). In 
1897 he succeeded Jules Simon as a member of the French 
Academy. This honour he owed to the purity of style 
and remarkable eloquence of his speeches, which, with a few 
pamphlets, form the bulk of his published work. In Ma voca- 
tion sociale (1908) he wrote an explanation and justification of 
his career. 

MUN, THOMAS (1571-1641), English writer on economics, 
was the third son of John Mun, mercer, of London. He began 
by engaging in Mediterranean trade, and afterwards settled 
down in London, amassing a large fortune. He was a member 
of the committee of the East India Company and of the standing 
commission on trade appointed in 1622. In 1621 Mun published 
A Discourse of Trade from England unto the East Indies. But 
it is by his England's Treasure by Forraign Trade that he is 
nx. i 

remembered in his history of economics. Although written 
possibly about 1630, it was not given to the public until 1664, 
when it was " published for the Common good by his son John," 
and dedicated to Thomas, earl of Southampton, lord high 
treasurer. In it we find for the first time a clear statement of 
the theory of the balance of trade. 

MUNCHAUSEN, BARON. This name is famous in literary 
history on account of the amusingly mendacious stories known as 
the Adventures of Baron Munchausen. In 1785 a little shilling 
book of 49 pages was published in London (as we know from the 
Critical Review for December 1785), called Baron Munchausen' s 
Narrative of his Marvellous Travels and Campaigns in Russia. 
No copy is known to exist, but a second edition (apparently 
identical) was printed at Oxford early in 1786. The publisher 
of both these editions was a certain Smith, and he then sold it 
to another bookseller named Kearsley, who brought out in 
1786 an enlarged edition (the additions to which were stated in 
the 7th edition not to be by the original author), with illustra- 
tions under the title of Gulliver Reviv'd: the Singular Travels, 
Campaigns, Voyages, and Sporting Adventures of Baron Munnik- 
houson, commonly pronounced Munchaitsen; as he relates them 
over a bottle when surrounded by his friends. Four editions 
rapidly succeeded, and a free German translation by the poet 
Gottfried August Burger, from the fifth edition, was printed 
at Gottingen in 1786. The seventh English edition (1793), 
which is the usual text, has the moral sub-title, Or the Vice of 
Lying properly exposed, and had further new additions. In 1 792 a 
Sequel appeared, dedicated to James Bruce, the African traveller, 
whose Travels to Discover the Nile (1790) had led to incredulity 
and ridicule. As time went on Munchausen increased in popu- 
larity and was translated into many languages. Continuations 
were published, and new illustrations provided (e.g. by T. 
Rowlandson, 1809; A. Crowquill, 1859; A. Cruikshank, 1869; the 
French artist Richard, 1878; Gustave Dore, 1862; W. Strang 
and J. B. Clark, 1895). The theme of Baron Munchausen, 
the " drawer of the long-bow " par excellence, has become part 
of the common stock of the world's story-telling. 

The original author was at first unknown, and until 1824 
he was generally identified with Burger, who made the .German 
translation of 1786. But Burger's biographer, Karl von Rein- 
hard, in the Berlin Gesellschafter of November 1824, set the 
matter at rest by stating that the real author was Rudolf Erich 
Raspe (q.v.). Raspe had apparently become acquainted at 
Gottingen with Hieronymus Karl Friedrich, Freiherr von 
Miinchhausen, of Bodenwerder in Hanover. This Freiherr von 
Miinchhausen (1720-1797) had been in the Russian service and 


served against the Turks, and on retiring in 1760 he lived on 
his estates at Bodenwerder and used to amuse himself and his 
friends, and puzzle the quidnuncs and the dull-witted, by 
relating extraordinary instances of his prowess as soldier and 
sportsman. His stories became a byword among his circle, 
and Raspe, when hard up f^r a living in London, utilized the 
suggestion for his little brochure. But his narrative owed much 
also to such sources, known to Raspe, as Heinrich Bebel's 
Facetiae bebelianae (1508), J. P. Lange's Ddiciae academicae 
(1665), a section of which is called Mendacia ridicula, 
Castiglione's Cortcgiano (1528), the Travels of the Finkenritter, 
attributed to Lorenz von Lauterbach in the i6th century, and 
other works of this sort. Raspe can only be held responsible 
for the nucleus of the book; the additions were made by book- 
sellers' hacks, from such sources as Lucian's Vera historia, or 
the Voyages imaginaires (1787), while suggestions were taken 
from Baron de Toll's Memoirs (Eng. Irans. 1785), the conlem- 
porary aeronaulical feats of Montgolfier and Blanchard, and any 
topical " sensations " of the moment, such as Bruce's explora- 
tions in Africa. Munchausen is thus a medley, as we have 
it, a classical instance of the fanlastical mendacious literary 

See the introduction by T. Seccombe to Lawrence and Bullen's 
edition of 1895. Adolf Ellisen, whose father visited Freiherr von 
Mtinchhausen in 1795 and found him very uncommunicative, brought 
out a German edition in 1849, with a valuable essay on pseudology 
in general. There is useful material in Carl Muller-Fraureuth's Die 
edition of Burger's translation (1890). 


FREIHERR VON (1806-1871), Austrian poet and dramatist (who 
wrote under the pseudonym " Friedrich Halm >; ), was born al 
Cracow on Ihe 2nd of April 1806, the son of a districl judge. 
Educaled al firsl al a private school in Vienna, he afterwards 
altended lectures al Ihe university, and in 1826, at the early 
age of twenty, married and entered Ihe governmenl service. 
In 1840 he became Regierungsral, in 1845 Hofrat and custodian 
of the royal library, in 1861 life member of the Austrian Herren- 
haus (upper chamber), and from 1869 to 1871 was inlendanl 
of the two court Iheatres in Vienna. He died at Hulteldorf 
near Vienna on the 2 2nd of May 1871. Miinch-Bellinghausen's 
dramas, among them notably Griseldis (1835; publ. 1837; nth 
ed., 1896), Der Adept (1836; publ. 1838), Camoens (1838), Der 
Sohn der WUdnis (1842; loth ed., 1896), and Der Fechter von 
Ravenna (1854; publ. 1857; 6lh ed., 1894), are dislinguished by 
elegance of language, melodious versification and clever construc- 
tion, and were for a lime exceedingly popular. 

His poems, Gedichle, were published in Stuttgart, 1850 (new ed., 
Vienna. 1877). His works, Santliche Werke, were published in 
eight volumes (1856-1864), to which four posthumous volumes were 
added in 1872. Ausgewdhlte Werke, ed. by A. Schlossar, 4 vols. 
(1904). See F. Pachler, Jugend und Lehrjahre des Dichters F. Halm 
(1877); J. Simiani, Gedenkblatter an F. Halm (1873). Halm's 
correspondence with Enk von der Burg has been published by 
R. Schachinger (1890). 

MUNCIE, a city and the county-seal of Delaware counly, 
Indiana, U.S.A., on Ihe West Fork of Ihe While river, about 
57 m. N.E. of Indianapolis. Pop. (1880), 5210; (1800), 11,345; 
(1900) 20,942, of whom 1235 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 
24,005. It is served by the Cenlral Indiana, Ihe Chicago, 
Cincinnali & Louisville, Ihe Cleveland, Cincinnali, Chicago & 
Si Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, Ihe Forl 
Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville, and the Lake Erie & Western 
railways, and by Ihe Indiana Union Traction, the Dayton & 
Muncie Traction, and the Muncie & Portland Traction (eleclric 
inler-urban) railways. The cily is buill on level ground (allitude 
950 ft.), and has an altractive residential section. It is one 
of the principal manufacturing centres in Indiana, owing largely 
lo ils silualion in Ihe natural gas belt. In 1900 and in 1905 
it was the largest producer of glass and glassware in Ihe 
Uniled States, the value of its product in 1905 being $2,344,462. 
Muncie (named after the Munsee Indians, one of the Ihree 
principal divisions of Ihe Dela wares) was settled about 1833 
and was chartered as a city in 1865. 

MUNDAS. The Munda (Munda) family is the least numerous 
of the linguistic families of India. It comprises several dialects 
spoken in the two Chota Nagpur plateaux, the adjoining districls 
of Madras and Ihe Central Provinces, and in the Mahadeo hills. 
The number of speakers of Ihe various dialects, according to 
the census of 1901, are as follow: Santali, 1,795,113; Mundari, 
460,744; Bhumij, 111,304; Birhar, 526; Koda, 23,873; Ho, 
371,860; Tun, 3880; Asuri, 4894; Korwa, 16,442; Korku, 87,675; 
Kharia, 82,506; Juang, 10,853; Savara, 157,136; Gadaba, 37,230; 
total, 3,164,036. Santali, Mundari, Bhumij, Birhar, Koda, Ho, 
Tun, Asuri and Korwa are only siighlly differing forms of one 
and Ihe same language, which can be called Kherwari, a name 
borrowed from Santali Iradition. Kherwari is the principal 
Munda language, and quite 88% of all Ihe speakers of Munda 
longues belong lo it. The Korwa dialect, spoken in the western 
part of Chota Nagpur, connects Kherwari with the remaining 
Munda languages. Of Ihese il is mosl closely relaled lo the 
Kurku language of the Mahadeo hills in Ihe Cenlral Provinces. 
Kurku, in ils lurn, in important poinls agrees with Kharia and 
Juang, and Kharia leads over to Savara and Gadaba. The 
Iwo lasl-menlioned forms of speech, which are spoken in the 
north-easl of Ihe Madras Presidency, have been much influenced 
by Dravidian languages. 

The Munda dialecls are nol in sole possession of Ihe lerrilory 
where Ihey are spoken. They are, as a rule, only found in Ihe 
hills and jungles, while Ihe plains and valleys are inhabiled by 
people speaking some Aryan language. When brought into 
close contacl with Aryan tongues the Munda forms of speech are 
apt to give way, and in the course of time they have been 
partly superseded by Aryan dialecls. There are accordingly 
some Aryanized Iribes in norlhern India who have formerly 
belonged lo Ihe Munda slock. Such are Ihe Cheros of Behar 
and Chota Nagpur, the Kherwars, who are found in the same 
localities, in Mirzapur and elsewhere, the Savaras, who formerly 
extended as far north as Shahabad, and others. It seems 
possible lo Irace an old Munda element in some Tibeto-Burman 
dialecls spoken in Ihe Himalayas from Bashahr easlwards. 

By race the Mundas are Dravidians, and their language was 
likewise long considered as a member of Ihe Dravidian family. 
Max Muller was the first to dislinguish the two families. He 
also coined the name Munda for the smaller of them, which has 
later on often been spoken of under other denominations, such as 
Kolarian and Kherwarian. The Dravidian race is generally 
considered as the aboriginal population of soulhern India. The 
Mundas, who do nol appear lo have extended much farther 
towards the south than at presenl, must have mixed with 
the Dravidians from very early times. The so-called Nahali 
dialed of Ihe Mahadeo hills seems lo have been originally a 
Munda form of speech which has come under Dravidian influ- 
ence, and finally passed under Ihe spell of Aryan longues. The 
same is perhaps the case with the numerous dialects spoken by 
Ihe Bhils. Al all evenls, Munda languages have apparently 
been spoken over a wide area in central and north India. They 
were Ihen early superseded by Dravidian and Aryan dialecls, 
and al Ihe present day only scanty remnanls are found in the 
hills and jungles of Bengal and the Cenlral Provinces. 

Though Ihe Munda family is not connected wilh any olher 
languages in India proper, it does not form an isolaled group. It 
belongs to a widely spread family, which extends from India in 
the west to Easter Island in the easlern Pacific in Ihe easl. In 
Ihe first place, we find a connected language spoken by the 
Khasis of the Khasi hills in Assam. Then follow the Mon- 
Khmer languages of Farther India, Ihe dialecls spoken by Ihe 
aboriginal inhabilants of the Malay Peninsula, the Nancowry 
of Ihe Nicobars, and, finally, Ihe numerous dialecls of Auslro- 
nesia, viz. Indonesic, Melanesic, Polynesic, and so on. Among 
Ihe various members of Ihis vast group the Munda languages 
are most closely related to the Mon-Khmer family of Farther 
India. Kurku, Kharia, Juang, Savara and Gadaba are more 
closely related lo lhal family lhan is Kherwari, the principal 
Munda form of speech. 

We do not know if the Mundas enlered India from wilhoul. 


If so, they can only have immigrated from the east. At all 
events they must have been settled in India from a very early 
period. The Sabaras, the ancestors of the Savaras, are already 
mentioned in old Vedic literature. The Munda languages 
seem to have been influenced by Dravidian and Aryan forms 
of speech. In most characteristics, however, they differ widely 
from the neighbouring tongues. 

The Munda languages abound in vowels, and also possess a richly 
developed system of consonants. Like the Dravidian languages, 
they avoid beginning a word with more than one consonant. While 
those latter forms of speech shrink from pronouncing a short conso- 
nant at the end of words, the Mundas have the opposite tendency, 
viz. to shorten such sounds still more. The usual stopped consonants 
viz. k, c (i.e. English ch), t and p are formed by stopping the 
current of breath at different points in the mouth, and then letting it 
pass out with a kind of explosion. In the Munda language this 
operation can be abruptly checked half-way, so that the breath does 
not touch the organs of speech in passing out. The result is a sound 
that makes an abrupt impression on the ear, and has been described 
as an abrupt tone. Such sounds are common in the Munda languages. 
They are usually written k', c', t' and p'. Similar sounds are also 
found in the Mon-Khmer languages and in Indo-Chinese. 

The vowels of consecutive syllables to a certain extent approach 
each other in sound. Thus in Kherwari the open sounds a (nearly 
English a in all) and a (the a in care) agree with each other and not 
with the corresponding close sounds o (the o in pole) and e (the e in 
pen). The Santali passive suffix ok' accordingly becomes dk' after 
a or d ; compare sdn-dk', go, but dal-ok', to be struck. 

Words are formed from monosyllabic bases by means of various 
additions, suffixes (such as are added after the base), prefixes (which 

Precede the base) and infixes (which are inserted into the base itself), 
uffixes play a great r61e in the inflexion of words, while prefixes and 
infixes are of greater importance as formative additions. Compare 
Kurku k-on, Savara on, son ; Kharia ro-mong, Kherwari mu, nose ; 
Santali bar, to fear; bo-to-r, fear; dal, to strike; da-pa-l, to strike each 

The various classes of words are not clearly distinguished. The 
same base can often be used as a noun, an adjective or a verb. The 
words simply denote some being, object, quality, action or the like, 
but they do not tell us how they are conceived. 

Inflexion is effected in the usual agglutinative way by means of 
additions which are " glued " or joined to the unchanged base. 
In many respects, however, Munda inflexion has struck out peculiar 
lines. Thus there is no grammatical distinction of gender. Nouns 
can be divided into two classes, viz. those that denote animate 
beings and those that denote inanimate objects respectively. There 
are three numbers the singular, the dual and the plural. On the 
other hand, there are no real cases, at least in the most typical 
Munda, languages. The direct and the indirect object are indicated 
by means of certain additions to the verb. Certain relations in 
time and space, however, are indicated by means of suffixes, which 
have probably from the beginning been separate words with a definite 
meaning. The genitive, which can be considered as an adjective 
preceding the governing word, is often derived from such forms 
denoting locality. Compare Santali hdr-rd, in a man; Mr-ran, of 
a man. 

Higher numbers are counted in twenties, and not in tens as in the 
Dravidian languages. 

The pronouns abound in different forms. Thus there are double 
sets of the dual and the plural of the pronoun of the first person, one 
including and the other excluding the person addressed. The Rev. 
A. Nottrott aptly illustrates the importance of this distinction by 
remarking how it is necessary to use the exclusive form if telling the 
servant that " we shall dine at seven." Otherwise the speaker will 
invite the servant to partake of the meal. In addition to the usual 
personal pronouns there are also short forms, used as suffixes and 
infixes, which denote a direct object, an indirect object, or a genitive. 
There is a corresponding richness in the case of demonstrative 
pronouns. Thus the pronoun " that " in Santali has different forms 
to denote a living being, an inanimate object, something seen, some- 
thing heard, and so on. On the other hand, there is no relative 
pronoun, the want being supplied by the use of indefinite forms of the 
verbal bases, which can in this connexion be called relative participles. 

The most characteristic feature of Munda grammar is the verb, 
especially in Kherwari. Every independent word can perform the 
function of a verb, and every verbal form can, in its turn, be used as a 
noun or an adjective. The bases of the different tenses can there- 
fore be described as indifferent words which can be used as a noun, 
as an adjective, and as a verb, but which are in reality none of them. 
Each denotes simply the root meaning as modified by time. Thus 
in Santali the base ddl-ket', struck, which is formed from the base 
dal, by adding the suffix kef of the active past, can be used as a noun 
(compare dal-ket'-ko, strikers, those that struck), as an adjective 
(compare dal-ket'-hdr, struck man, the man that struck), and as a 
verb. In the last case it is necessary to add an a if the action really 
takes place; thus, dal-kef-a, somebody struck. 

It has already been remarked that the cases of the direct and 
indirect object are indicated by adding forms of the personal 

pronouns to the verb. Such pronominal affixes are inserted before 
the assertive particle a. Thus the affix denoting a direct object of the 
third person singular is e, and by inserting it in dal-kef-a we arrive 
at a form dal-ked-e-a, somebody struck him. Similar affixes can be 
added to denote that the object or subject of an action belongs to 
somebody. Thus Santali hap&n-in-e dal-ket'-tako-tin-a, son-my-he 
struck-theirs-mine, my son who belongs to me struck theirs. 

In a sentence such as har kord-e dal-ked-e-a, man boy-he struck- 
him, the man struck the boy, the Santals first put together the ideas 
man, boy, and a striking in the past. Then the e tells us that the 
striking affects the boy, and finally the -a indicates that the whole 
action really takes place. It will be seen that a single verbal form 
in this way often corresponds to a whole sentence or a series of sen- 
tences in other languages. If we add that the most developed 
Munda languages possess different bases for the active, the middle 
and the passive, that there are different causal, intensive and recipro- 
cal bases, which are conjugated throughout, and that the person of 
the subject is often indicated in the verb, it will be understood that 
Munda conjugation presents a somewhat bewildering aspect. It 
is, however, quite regular throughout, and once the mind becomes 
accustomed to these peculiarities, they do not present any difficulty 
to the understanding. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Max Muller, Letter to Chevalier Bunsen on the 
Classification of the Turanian Languages. Reprint from Chr. K. J. 
Bunsen, Christianity and Mankind, vol. iii. (London, 1854), 
especially pp. 175 and sqq.; Friedrich Muller, Grundriss der Sprach- 
vnssenschaft, vol. iii. part i. (Wien, 1884), pp. 106 and sqq., vol. iv. 
part i. (Wien, 1888), p. 229; Sten Konow, Munda and Dravidian 
Languages " in Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India, iv. i and teq. 
(Calcutta, 1906). (S. K.) 

MUNDAY (or MONDAY), ANTHONY (c. 1553-1633), English 
dramatist and miscellaneous writer, son of Christopher Monday, 
a London draper, was born in 1553-1554. He had already 
appeared on the stage when in 1576 he bound himself 
apprentice for eight years to John Allde, the stationer, an 
engagement from which he was speedily released, for in 
1578 he was in Rome. In the opening b'nes of his English 
Romayne Lyfe (1582) he avers that in going abroad he 
was actuated solely by a desire to see strange countries and 
to learn foreign languages; but he must be regarded, if 
not as a spy sent to report on the English Jesuit College in 
Rome, as a journalist who meant to make literary capital out of 
the designs of the English Catholics resident in France and 
Italy. He says that he and his companion, Thomas Nowell, 
were robbed of all they possessed on the road from Boulogne to 
Amiens, where they were kindly received by an English priest, 
who entrusted them with letters to be delivered in Reims. 
These they handed over to the English ambassador in Paris, 
where under a false name, as the son of a well-known English 
Catholic, Munday gained recommendations which secured his 
reception at the English College in Rome. He was treated with 
special kindness by the rector, Dr Morris, for the sake of his 
supposed father. He gives a detailed account of the routine of 
the place, of the dispute between the English and Welsh students, 
of the carnival at Rome, and finally of the martyrdom of Richard 
Atkins (? 1 559-1 581). He returned to England in 1 578-1 579, and 
became an actor again, being a member of the Earl of Oxford's 
company between 1579 and 1584. In a Catholic tract entitled 

A True Reporte of the death of M. Campion (1581), Munday 

is accused of having deceived his master Allde, a charge which 
he refuted by publishing Allde's signed declaration to the con- 
trary, and he is also said to have been hissed off the stage. He 
was one of the chief witnesses against Edmund Campion and 
his associates, and wrote about this time five anti-popish 
pamphlets, among them the savage and bigoted tract entitled A 

Discoverie of Edmund Campion and his Confederates whereto 

is added the execution of Edmund Campion, Raphe Sherwin, and 
Alexander Brian, the first part of which was read aloud from 
the scaffold at Campion's death in December 1581. His political 
services against the Catholics were rewarded in 1584 by the post 
of messenger to her Majesty's chamber, and from this time he 
seems to have ceased to appear on the stage. In 1 598-1 599, when 
he travelled with the earl of Pembroke's men in the Low 
Countries, it was in the capacity of playwright to furbish up old 
plays. He devoted himself to writing for the booksellers and 
the theatres, compiling religious works, translating Amadis de 
Gaule and other French romances, and putting words to popular 
airs. He was the chief pageant-writer for the City from 1605 


to 1616, and it is likely that he supplied most of the pageants 
between 1592 and 1605, of which no authentic record has been 
kept. It is by these entertainments of his, which rivalled in 
success those of Ben Jonson and Middleton, that he won his 
greatest fame; but of all the achievements of his versatile talent 
the only one that was noted in his epitaph in St Stephens, 
Coleman Street, London, where he was buried on the loth of 
August 1633, was his enlarged edition (1618) of Stow's Survey of 
London. In some of his pageants he signs himself " citizen and 
draper of London," and in his later years he is said to have 
followed his father's trade. 

Of the eighteen plays between the dates of 1584 and 1602 which 
are assigned to Munday in collaboration with Henry Chettle, Michael 
Dray ton, Thomas Dekker and other dramatists, only four are extant. 
John a Kent and John a Cumber, dated 1595, is supposed to be the 
same as Wiseman of West Chester, produced by the Admiral's men 
at the Rae Theatre on the 2nd of December 1 594. A ballad of British 
Sidanen, on which it may have been founded, was entered at 
Stationers' Ha'.l in 1579. The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntingdon, 
afterwards called Re-bin Hood of merrie Sherwodde (acted in February 
! 599) was followed in the same month by a second part, The Death 
of Robert Earl of Huntingdon (printed 1601), in which he collaborated 
with Henry Chettle. Munday also had a share with Michael Dray- 
ton, Robert Wilson and Richard Hathway in the First Part of the 
history of the life of Sir John Oldcastle (acted 1599), which was 
printed in 1600, with the name of William Shakespeare, which was 
speedily withdrawn, on the title page. William Webbe (Discourse 
of English Poetrie, 1586) praised him for his pastorals, of which there 
remains only the title, Sweet Sobs and Amorous Complaints of Shep- 
herds and Nymphs; and Francis Meres (Palladis Tamia, 1598) gives 
him among dramatic writers the exaggerated praise of being " our 
best plotter." Ben Jonson ridiculed him in The Case is Altered 
as Antonio Balladino, pageant poet. Munday's works usuaUy 
appeared under his own name, but he sometimes used the pseudonym 
of " Lazarus Piot." A. H. Bullen identifies him with the Shepherd 
Tony " who contributed " Beauty sat bathing by a spring " and six 
other lyrics to England's Helicon (ed. Bullen, 1899, p. 15). 

The completest account of Anthony Munday is T. Seccombe's 
article in the Diet. Nat. Biog. A life and bibliography are prefixed 
to the Shakespeare Society s reprint of John a Kent and John a 
Cumber (ed. J. P. Collier, 1851). His two " Robin Hood " plays 
were edited by J. P. Collier in Old Plays (1828), and his English 
Romayne Lyfe was printed in the Harleian Miscellany, vii. 136 seq. 
(ed. Park, 1811). For an account of his city pageants see F. W. 
Fairholt, Lord Mayor's Pageants (Percy Soc., No. 38, 1843). 

MUNDELLA, ANTHONY JOHN (1825-1897), English educa- 
tional and industrial reformer, of Italian extraction, was born at 
Leicester in 1825. After a few years spent at an elementary 
school, he was apprenticed to a hosier at the age of eleven; He 
afterwards became successful in business in Nottingham, filled 
several civic offices, and was known for his philanthropy. He 
was sheriff of Nottingham in 1853, and in 1859 organized the 
first courts of arbitration for the settlement of disputes between 
masters and men. In November 1868 he was returned to 
parliament for Sheffield as an advanced Liberal. He represented 
that constituency until November 1885, when he was returned 
for the Brightside division of Sheffield, which he continued to 
represent until his death. In the Gladstone ministry of 1880 
Mundella was vice-president of the council, and shortly after- 
wards was nominated fourth charity commissioner for England 
and Wales. In February 1886 he was appointed president 
of the board of trade, with a seat in the cabinet, and was sworn 
a member of the privy council. In August 1892, when the 
Liberals again came into power, Mundella was again appointed 
president of the board of trade, and he continued in this 
position until 1894, when he resigned office. His resignation 
was brought about by his connexion with a financial company 
which went into liquidation in circumstances calling for the 
official intervention of the board of trade. However innocent 
his own connexion with the company was, it involved him in 
unpleasant public discussion, and his position became untenable. 
Having made a close study of the educational systems of Germany 
and Switzerland, Mundella was an early advocate of compulsory 
education in England. He rendered valuable service in con- 
nexion with the Elementary Education Act of 1870, and the 
educational code of 1882, which became known as the " Mundella 
Code," marked a new departure in the regulation of public 
elementary schools and the conditions of the Government 

grants. To his initiative was chiefly due the Factory Act 
of 1875, which established a ten-hours day for women and 
children in textile factories; and the Conspiracy Act, which 
removed certain restrictions on trade unions. It was he 
also who established the labour department of the board of 
trade and founded the Labour Gazette. He introduced and 
passed bills for the better protection of women and children in 
brickyards and for the limitation of their labours in factories; 
and he effected substantial improvements in the Mines Regula- 
tion Bill, and was the author of much other useful legislation. 
In recognition of his efforts, a marble bust of himself, by Boehm, 
subscribed for by 80,000 factory workers, chiefly women and 
children, was presented to Mrs Mundella. He died in London 
on the 2ist of July 1897. 

MUNDEN, JOSEPH SHEPHERD (1758-1832), English actor, 
was the son of a London poulterer, and ran away from home 
to join a strolling company. He had a long provincial experience 
as actor and manager. His first London appearance was in 
1790 at Covent Garden, where he practically remained until 
1811, becoming the leading comedian of his day. In 1813 he 
was at Drury Lane. He retired in 1824, and died on the 6th 
of February 1832. 

MUNDEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of 
Hanover, picturesquely situated at the confluence of the Fulda 
and the Werra, 21 m. N.E. of Cassel by rail. Pop. (1905), 
10,755. It is an ancient place, municipal rights having been 
granted to it in 1 247. A few ruins of its former walls still survive. 
The large Lutheran church of St Blasius (i4th-i5th centuries) 
contains the sarcophagus of Duke Eric of Brunswick-Calenberg 
(d. 1540). The 13th-century Church of St Aegidius was injured 
in the siege of 1625-26 but was subsequently restored. There is 
a new Roman Catholic church (1895). The town hall (1619), 
and the ducal castle, built by Duke Eric II. about 1570, and 
rebuilt in 1898, are the principal secular buildings. In the 
latter is the municipal museum. There are various small 
industries and a trade in timber. Miinden,often called " Hanno- 
versch-Munden " (i.e. Hanoverian MUnden), to distinguish it 
from Prussian Minden, was founded by the landgraves of 
Thuringia, and passed in 1247 to the house of Brunswick. It 
was for a time the residence of the dukes of Brunswick-Liineburg. 
In 1626 it was destroyed by Tilly. 

See Willigerod, Geschichte von Miinden (Gottingen, 1808); and 
Henze, Fiihrer durch Miinden und Umgegend (Munden, 1900). 

MUNDRUCUS, a tribe of South American Indians, one of the 
most powerful tribes on the Amazon. In 1788 they completely 
defeated their ancient enemies the Murasi After 1803 they 
lived at peace with the Brazilians, and many are civilized. 

MUNDT, THEODOR (1808-1861), German author, was born 
at Potsdam on the igth of September 1808. Having studied 
philology and philosophy at Berlin, he settled in 1832 at Leipzig, 
as a journalist, and was subjected to a rigorous police supervision. 
In 1839 he married Klara Mtiller (1814-1873), who under the 
name of Luise Miihlbach became a popular novelist, and he 
removed in the same year to Berlin. Here his intention of 
entering upon an academical career was for a time thwarted 
by his collision with the Prussian press laws. In 1842, however, 
he was permitted to establish himself as privatdocent. In 1848 
he was appointed professor of literature and history in Breslau, 
and in 1850 ordinary professor and librarian in Berlin; there he 
died on the 3oth of November 1861. Mundt wrote extensively 
on aesthetic subjects, and as a critic he had considerable influence 
in his time. Prominent among his works are Die Kunst der 
deutschen Prosa (1837); Geschichte der Liter atur der Gegerrwart 
(1840); Aesthetik; die Idee der Schonheit und des Kunstwerks im 
Lichte unserer Zeit (1845, new ed. 1868); Die Gotterwelt der 
alien Vdlker (1846, new ed. 1854). He also wrote several 
historical novels; Thomas Milnzer (1841); Mendoza, der Voter 
der Schelmen (1847) and Die Matadore (1850). But perhaps 
Mundt's chief title to fame was his part in the emancipation of 
women, a theme which he elaborated in his Madonna, Unter- 
haltungen mil einer Heiligen (1835). 


MUNICH (Ger. Miinchen), a city of Germany, capital of 
the kingdom of Bavaria, and the third largest town in the 
German Empire. It is situated on an elevated plain, on the 
river Isar, 25 m. N. of the foot-hills of the Alps, about midway 
between Strassburg and Vienna. Owing to its lofty site (1700 ft. 
above the sea) and the proximity of the Alps, the climate is 
changeable, and its mean annual temperature, 49 to 50 F., 
is little higher than that of many places much farther to the 
north. The annual rainfall is nearly 30 in. Munich lies at 
the centre of an important network of railways connecting 
it directly with Strassburg (for Paris), Cologne, Leipzig, Berlin, 
Rosenheim (for Vienna) and Innsbruck (for Italy via the Brenner 
pass), which converge in a central station. 

Munich is divided into twenty-four municipal districts, nine- 
teen of which, including the old town, lie on the left bank of the 
Isar, while the suburban districts of Au, Haidhausen, Giesing, 
Bogenhausen and Ramersdorf are on the opposite bank. The 
old town, containing many narrow and irregular streets, forms a 
semicircle with its diameter towards the river, while round 
its periphery has sprung up the greater part of modern Munich, 
including the handsome Maximilian and Ludwig districts. 
The walls with which Munich was formerly surrounded have 
been pulled down, but some of the gates have been left. The 
most interesting is the Isartor and the Karlstor, restored in 
1835 and adorned with frescoes. The Siegestor (or gate of 
victory) is a modern imitation of the arch of Constantine at 
Rome, while the stately Propylaea, built in 1854-1862, is a 
reproduction of the gates of the Athenian Acropolis. 

Munich owes its architectural magnificence largely to Louis I. 
of Bavaria, who ascended the throne in 1825, and his successors; 
while its collections of art entitle it to rank with Dresden and 
Berlin. Most of the modern buildings have been erected after 
celebrated prototypes of other countries and eras, so that, as 
has been said by Moriz Carriere, a walk through Munich affords 
a picture of the architecture and art of two thousand years. 
In carrying out his plans Louis I. was seconded by the architect 
Leo von Klenze, while the external decorations of painting and 
sculpture were mainly designed by Peter von Cornelius, Wilhelm 
von Kaulbach and Schwanthaler. As opportunity offers, the 
narrow streets of the older city are converted into broad, straight 
boulevards, lined with palatial mansions and public buildings. 
The hygienic improvement effected by these changes, and by 
a new and excellent water supply, is shown by the mortality 
averages 40-4 per thousand in 1871-1875, 30-4 per thousand 
in 1881-1885, and 20-5 per thousand in 1903-1904. The archi- 
tectural style which has been principally followed in the later 
public buildings, among them the law courts, finished in 1897, 
the German bank, St Martin's hospital, as well as in numerous 
private dwellings, is the Italian and French Rococo, or Renais- 
sance, adapted to the traditions of Munich architecture in the 
1 7th and i8th centuries. A large proportion of the most notable 
buildings in Munich are in two streets, the Ludwigstrasse and 
the Maximilianstrasse, the creations of the monarchs whose 
names they bear. The former, three-quarters of a mile long 
and 40 yds. wide, chiefly contains buildings in the Renaissance 
style by Friedrich von Gartner. The most striking of these are 
the palaces of Duke Max and of Prince Luitpold; the Odeon, a 
large building for concerts, adorned with frescoes and marble 
busts; the war office; the royal library, in the Florentine palatial 
style; the Ludwigskirche, a successful reproduction of the 
Italian Romanesque style, built in 1829-1844, and containing 
a huge fresco of the Last Judgment by Cornelius; the blind 
asylum; and, lastly, the university. At one end this street is 
terminated by the Siegestor, while at the other is the Feldher- 
renhalle (or hall of the marshals), a copy of the Loggia dei Lanzi 
at Florence, containing statues of Tilly and Wrede by Schwan- 
thaler. Adjacent is the church of the Theatines, an imposing 
though somewhat over-ornamented example of the Italian 
Rococo style; it contains the royal burial vault. In the Maxi- 
milianstrasse, which extends from Haidhausen on the right bank 
of the Isar to the Max- Joseph Platz, King Maximilian II. tried 
to introduce an entirely novel style of domestic architecture, 

formed by the combination of older forms. At the east end it 
is closed by the Maximilianeum, an extensive and imposing 
edifice, adorned externally with large sculptural groups and 
internally with huge paintings representing the chief scenes in 
the history of the world. Descending the street, towards the 
west are passed in succession the old buildings of the Bavarian 
national museum, the government buildings in which the Com- 
posite style of Maximilian has been most consistently carried 
out, and the mint. On the north side of the Max- Joseph Platz 
lies the royal palace, consisting of the Alte Residenz, the 
Konigsbau, and the Festsaalbau. The Alte Residenz dates 
from 1601 to 1616; its apartments are handsomely fitted up 
in the Rococo style, and the private chapel and the treasury 
contain several crowns and many other interesting and valuable 
objects. The Festsaalbau, erected by Klenze in the Italian 
Renaissance style, is adorned with mural paintings and sculp- 
tures, while the Konigsbau, a reduced copy of the Pitti Palace 
at Florence, contains a series of admirable frescoes from the 
Niebelungenlied by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld. Adjoining 
.the palace are two theatres, the Residenz or private theatre, 
and the handsome Hof theater, accommodating 2500 spectators. 
The Allerheiligen-Hofkirche, or court-church, is in the Byzantine 
style, with a Romanesque facade. 

The Ludwigstrasse and the Maximilianstrasse both end at 
no great distance from the Frauenplatz in the centre of the old 
town. On this square stands the Frauenkirche, the cathedral 
church of the archbishop of Munich-Freising, with its lofty cupola 
capped towers dominating the whole town. It is imposing from 
its size, and interesting as one of the few examples of indigenous 
Munich art. On the adjacent Marienplatz are the old town- 
hall, dating from the I4th century and restored in 1865, and 
the new town-hall, the latter a magnificent modern Gothic 
erection, freely embellished with statues, frescoes, and stained- 
glass windows, and enlarged in 1900-1905. The column in the 
centre of the square was erected in 1638, to commemorate the 
defeat of the Protestants near Prague by the Bavarians during 
the Thirty Years' War. 

Among the other churches of Munich the chief place is due to 
St Boniface's, an admirable copy of an early Christian basilica. 
It is adorned with a cycle of religious paintings by Heinrich 
von Hess (1798-1863), and the dome is supported by sixty- 
four monoliths of grey Tyrolese marble. The parish church of 
Au, in the Early Gothic style, contains gigantic stained-glass 
windows and some excellent wood-carving; and the church 
of St John in Haidhausen is another fine Gothic structure. 
St Michael's in the Renaissance style, erected for the Jesuits in 
1583-1595, contains the monument of Eugene Beauharnais by 
Thorwaldsen. The facade is divided into storeys, and the 
general effect is by no means ecclesiastical. St Peter's is inter- 
esting as the oldest church in Munich (i2th century), though no 
trace of the original basilica remains. Among newer churches 
the most noticeable are the Evangelical church of St Luke, a 
Transitional building, with an imposing dome, finished in 1896, 
and the Gothic parochial church of the Giesing suburb, with a 
tower 312 ft. high and rich interior decorations (1866-1884). 

The valuable collections of art are enshrined in handsome 
buildings, mostly in the Maximilian suburb on the north side 
of the town. The old Pinakothek, erected by Klenze in 1826- 
1836, and somewhat resembling the Vatican, is embellished 
externally with frescoes by Cornelius and with statues of twenty- 
four celebrated painters from sketches by Schwanthaler. It 
contains a valuable and extensive collection of pictures by the 
earlier masters, the chief treasures being the early German 
and Flemish works and the unusually numerous examples of 
Rubens. It also affords accommodation to more than 300,000 
engravings, over 20,000 drawings, and a large collection of 
vases. Opposite stands the new Pinakothek, built 1846-1853, 
the frescoes on which, designed by Kaulbach, show the effects of 
wind and weather. It is devoted to works by painters of the 
last century, among which Karl Rottmann's Greek landscapes 
are perhaps the most important. The Glyptothek, a building by 
Klenze in the Ionic style, and adorned with several groups and 


single statues, contains a valuable series of sculptures, extending 
from Assyrian and Egyptian monuments down to works by 
Thorwaldsen and other modern masters. The celebrated 
Aeginetan marbles preserved here were found in the island of 
Aegina in 1811. Opposite the Glyptothek stands the exhibition 
building, in the Corinthian style, it was finished in 1845, and is 
used for periodic exhibitions of art. In addition to the museum 
of plaster casts, the Antiquarium (a collection of Egyptian, Greek 
and Roman antiquities under the roof of the new Pinakothek) 
and the Maillinger collection, connected with the historical 
museum, Munich also contains several private galleries. Fore- 
most among these stand the Schack Gallery, bequeathed by 
the founder, Count Adolph von Schack, to the emperor William 
II. in 1894, rich in works by modern German masters, and the 
Lotzbeck collection of sculptures and paintings. Other struc- 
tures and institutions are the new buildings of the art association ; 
the academy of the plastic arts (1874-1885), in the Renaissance 
style; and the royal arsenal (Zeughaus) with the military 
museum. The Schwanthaler museum contains models of most 
of the great sculptor's works. 

The immense scientific collection in the Bavarian national 
museum, illustrative of the march of progress from the Roman 
period down tp the present day, compares in completeness 
with the similar collections at South Kensington and the Musee 
de Cluny. The building which now houses this collection was 
erected in 1894-1900. On the walls is a series of well-executed 
frescoes of scenes from Bavarian history, occupying a space of 
16,000 sq. ft. The ethnographical museum, the cabinet of 
coins, and the collections of fossils, minerals, and physical 
and optical instruments, are also worthy of mention. The art 
union, the oldest and roost extensive in Germany, possesses a 
good collection of modern works. The chief place among the 
scientific institutions is due to the academy of science, founded 
in 1759. The royal library contains over 1,300,000 printed 
volumes and 30,000 manuscripts. The observatory is equipped 
with instruments by the celebrated Josef Fraunhofer. 

At the head of the educational institutions of Munich stands 
the university, founded at Ingolstadt in 1472, removed to 
Landshut in 1800, and transferred thence to Mumch in 1826. 
In addition to the four usual faculties there is a fifth of political 
economy. In connexion with the university are medical and 
other schools, a priests' seminary, and a library of 300,000 
volumes. The polytechnic institute (Technische Hochschule) in 
1899 acquired the privilege of conferring the degree of doctor 
of technical science. Munich contains several gymnasia or 
grammar-schools, a military academy, a veterinary college, an 
agricultural college, a school for architects and builders, and 
several other technical schools, and a conservatory of music. 
The general prison in the suburb of Au is considered a model 
of its kind; and there is also a large military prison. Among 
other public buildings, the crystal palace (Glas-palast), 765 ft. 
in length, erected for the great exhibition of 1854, is now used, 
as occasion requires, for temporary exhibitions. The Wittelsbach 
palace, built in 1843-1850, in the Early English Pointed style, is 
one of the residences of the royal family. Among the numerous 
monuments with which the squares and streets are adorned, 
the most important are the colossal statue of Maximilian II. 
in the Maximilianstrasse, the equestrian statues of Louis I. and 
the elector Maximilian I., the obelisk erected to the 30.000 
Bavarians who perished in Napoleon's expedition to Moscow, 
the Wittelsbach fountain (1895), the monument commemorative 
of -the peace of 1871, and the marble statue of Justus Liebig, 
the chemist, set up in 1883. 

The English garden (Englischer Garten), to the north-east of 
the town, is 600 acres in extent, and was laid out by Count 
Rumford in imitation of an English park. On the opposite bank 
of the Isar, above and below the Maximilianeum, extend the 
Gasteig promenades, commanding fine views of the town. To 
the south-west of the town is the Theresienwiese, a large common 
where the popular festival is celebrated in October. Here is 
situated the Ruhmeshalle or hall of fame, a Doric colonnade 
containing busts of eminent Bavarians. In front of it is a 

colossal bronze statue of Bavaria, 170 ft. high, designed by 
Schwanthaler. The botanical garden, with its large palm-house, 
the Hofgarten, surrounded with arcades containing frescoes of 
Greek landscapes by Rottmann, and the Maximilian park to 
the east of the Isar, complete the list of public parks. 

The population of Munich in 1905 was 538,393. The per- 
manent garrison numbers about 10,000 men. Of the population, 
84% are Roman Catholic, 14% Protestants, and 2% Jews. 

Munich is the seat of the archbishop of Munich-Freising 
and of the general Protestant consistory for Bavaria. About 
twenty newspapers are published here, including the Allgemeine 
Zeitung. Some of the festivals of the Roman Church are cele- 
brated with considerable pomp; and the people also cling to 
various national fetes, such as the Metzgersprung, the Schaffler- 
tanz, and the great October festival. 

Munich has long been celebrated for its artistic handicrafts, 
such as bronze-founding, glass- staining, silversmith's work, and 
wood-carving, while the astronomical instruments of Fraunhofer 
and the mathematical instruments of Traugott Lieberecht von 
Ertel (1778-1858) are also widely known. Lithography, which 
was invented at Munich at the end of the i8th century, is 
extensively practised here. The other industrial products 
include wall-paper, railway plant, machinery, gloves and 
artificial flowers. The most characteristic industry, however, 
is brewing. Four important markets are held at Munich 
annually. The city is served by an extensive electric tramway 

History. The Villa Munichen or Forum ad monachos, so 
called from the monkish owners of the ground on which it lay, 
was first called into prominence by Duke Henry the Lion, who 
established a mint here in 1158, and made it the emporium for 
the salt coming from Hallein and Reichenhall. The Bavarian 
dukes of the Wittelsbach house occasionally resided at Munich, 
and in 1255 Duke Louis made it his capital, having previously 
surrounded it with walls and a moat. The town was almost 
entirely destroyed by fire in 1327, after which the emperor Louis 
the Bavarian, in recognition of the loyalty of the citizens, 
rebuilt it very much on the scale it retained down to the beginning 
of the 1 9th century. Among the succeeding rulers those who did 
most for the town in the erection of handsome buildings and the 
foundation of schools and scientific institutions were Albert V., 
William V., Maximilian I., Max Joseph and Charles Theodore. 
In 1632 Munich was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, and in 
1705, and again in 1742, it was in possession of the Austrians. 
In 1791 the fortifications were razed. 

Munich's importance in the' history of art is entirely of modern 
growth, and may be dated from the acquisition of the Aeginetan 
marbles by Louis I., then crown prince, in 1812. Among the 
eminent artists of this period whose names are more or less 
identified with Munich were Leo von Klenze (1784-1864), 
Joseph Daniel Ohlmiiller (1791-1839), Friedrich von Gartner 
(1792-1847), and Georg Friedrich Ziebland (1800-1873), the 
architects; Peter von Cornelius (1783-1867), Wilhelm von Kaul- 
bach (1804-1874), Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872), 
and Karl Rottmann, the painters; and Ludwig von Schwanthaler, 
the sculptor. Munich is still the leading school of painting in 
Germany, but the romanticism of the earlier masters has been 
abandoned for drawing and colouring of a realistic character. 
Karl von Piloty (1826-1886) and Wilhelm Diez (1839-1907) long 
stood at the head of this school. 

See Mittheilungcn de.s statistischen Bureaus der Stadt Munchen (vols. 
i.-v., 1875-1882); Sold, Munchen mil seinen Umgebungen (1854); 
Reber, Bautechnischer Fiihrer durch die Stadt Munchen (1876) ; Daniel, 
Handbuch der Geographic (new ed., 1895); Prantl, Geschichte der 
Ludwig- Maximilians Universitat (Munich, 1872); Goering, 30 Jahre 
Munchen (Munich, 1904); von Ammon, Die Gegend von Munchen 

sologisch geschildert (Munich, 1895); Kronegg, Illustrierte Geschichte 
er Stadt Munchen (Munich, 1903); the Jahrbuch fur Munchener 
Geschichte, edited by Reinhardstottner and Trautmann (Munich, 
1887-1894); Aufleger and Trautmann, Alt-Miinchen in Bild und 
Wort (Munich, 1895) ; Rohmeder, Munchen als Handelsstadt (Munich, 
1905); H. Tinsch, Das Stadtrecht von Munchen (Bamberg, 1891); 
F. Pecht, Geschichte der munchener Kunst im 19 Jahrhundert (Munich, 
1888) ; and Trautwein, Fiihrer durch Munchen (2Othed., 1906). There 
is an English book on Munich by H..R. Wadleigh (1910). 


MUNICIPALITY, a modern term (derived from Lat. muni- 
cipium; see below), now used both for a city or town which 
is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, 
and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation 
in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and 
of superior members, as aldermen and councillors, together with 
the simple corporators, who are represented by the governing 
body; it acts as a person by its common seal, and has a perpetual 
succession, with power to hold lands subject to the restrictions 
of the Mortmain laws; and it can sue or be sued. Where 
necessary for its primary objects, every corporation has power 
to make by-laws and to enforce them by penalties, provided they 
are not unjust or unreasonable or otherwise inconsistent with 
the objects of the charter or other instrument of foundation. 

FINANCE, &c., and for details of the functions of the municipal 
government see the sections under the general headings of the 
different countries and the sections on the history of these countries. 

MUNICIPIUM (Lat. munus, a duty or privilege, capere, to 
take), in ancient Rome, the term applied primarily to a status, 
a certain relation between individuals or communities and the 
Roman state; subsequently and in ordinary usage to a com- 
munity, standing in such a relation to Rome. Whether the 
name signifies the taking up of burdens or the acceptance of 
privileges is a disputed point. But as ancient authorities are 
unanimous in giving munus in this connexion the sense of 
" duty " or " service," it is probable that the chief feature 
of municipality was the performance of certain services to 
Rome. 1 This view is confirmed by all that we know about 
the towns to which the name was applied in republican times. 
The status had its origin in the conferment of citizenship upon 
Tusculum in 381 B.C. (Livy vi. 26; cf. Cic. pro Plane. 8, 19), 
and was widely extended in the settlement made by Rome at 
the close of the Latin War in 338 B.C. (see ROME, History). 
Italian towns were then divided into three classes: (i) Coloniae 
civium Romanorum, whose members had all the rights of citizen- 
ship; (2) municipia, which received partial citizenship; (3) foeder- 
alae civitates (including the so-called Latin colonies), which 
remained entirely separate from Rome, and stood in relations 
with her which were separately arranged by her for each state by 
treaty (foedus). The munitipia stood in very different degrees 
of dependence on Rome. Some, such as Fundi (Livy viii. 14; 
cf. ibid. 19), enjoyed a local self-government only limited in the 
matter of jurisdiction; others, such as Anagnia (Livy ix. 43; 
Festus, de verb, signification, s.v. " municipium," p. 127, ed. 
Muller), were governed directly from Rome. But they all had 
certain features in common. Their citizens were called upon 
to pay the same dues and perform the same service in the legions 
as full Roman citizens, but were deprived of the chief privileges 
of citizenship, those of voting in the Comitia (jus suffragii), and 
of holding Roman magistracies (jus honorum). It would also 
appear from Festus (op. cit. s.v. praefectura, p. 233) that juris- 
diction was entrusted in every municipium to praefecti juri 
dicundo sent out from Rome to represent the Praetor Urbanus. 2 
The conferment of municipality can therefore hardly have been 
regarded as other than an imposing of burdens, even in the 
case of those cities which retained control of their own affairs. 
But after the close of the second Punic War, when Rome had 
become the chief power, not only in Italy, but in all the neigh- 
bouring lands round the Mediterranean, we can trace a growing 
tendency among the Italian cities to regard citizenship of this 
great state as a privilege, and to claim complete citizenship as 
a reward of their services in helping to build up the Roman 
power. During the 2nd century B.C. the jus suffragii and jus 
honorum were conferred upon numerous municipia (Livy xxxviii. 
36, 37), whose citizens were then enrolled in the Roman tribes. 
They can have exercised their public rights but seldom, owing to 
their distance from Rome; but the consulships of C. Marius, 

1 For a contrary view, however, see Marquardt, Rom. Staatsverw. 
i. p. 26, n. 2 (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1881), and authorities there cited. 

1 For a different view see Willems, Droit public romain, p. 381 
(Louvain, 1874). 

a municeps of Arpinum (between 107 and 100 B.C.), and the 
strength of the support given to Tiberius Gracchus in the 
assembly by the voters from Italian towns (133 B.C.) show what 
an important influence the members of these municipia could 
occasionally exercise over Roman politics. The cities thus 
privileged, however, though receiving complete Roman citizen- 
ship, were not, as the logic of public law might seem to demand, 
incorporated in Rome, but continued to exist as independent 
urban units; and this anomaly survived in the municipal system 
which was developed, on the basis of these grants of citizen- 
ship, after the Social War. That system recognized the municeps 
as at once a citizen of a self-governing city community, and 
a member of the city of Rome, his dual capacity being illustrated 
by his right of voting both in the election of Roman magistrates 
and in the election of magistrates for his cwn town. 

The result of the Social War which broke out in 91 B.C. 
(see ROME: History) was the establishment of a new uniform 
municipality throughout Italy, and the obliteration of any 
important distinction between the three classes established 
after the Latin War. By the Lex Julia of 90 B.C. and the 
Lex Plautia Papiria of 89 B.C. every town in Italy which made 
application in due form received the complete citizenship. 
The term municipium was no longer confined to a particular 
class of Italian towns but was adopted as a convenient name 
for all urban communities of Roman citizens in Italy. The 
organization of a municipal system, which should regulate the 
governments of all these towns on a uniform basis, and define 
their relation to the Roman government, was probably the work 
of Sulla, who certainly gave great impetus to the foundation 
in the provinces of citizen colonies, which were the earliest 
municipia outside Italy, and enjoyed the same status as the 
Italian towns. Julius Caesar extended the sphere of the Roman 
municipal system by his enfranchisement of Cisalpine Gaul, 
and the consequent inclusion of all the towns of that region 
in the category of municipia. He seems also to have given 
a more definite organization to the municipia as a whole. But, 
excepting those in Cisalpine Gaul, the municipal system still 
embraced no towns outside Italy other than the citizen colonies. 
Augustus and his successors adopted the practice of granting 
to existing towns in the provinces either the full citizenship, 
or a partial ciiritas known as the jus Latii. This partial civitas 
does not seem to have been entirely replaced, as in Italy, by 
the grant of full privileges to the communities possessing it, 
and the distinction survived for some time in the provinces 
between coloniae, municipia juris Romani, and municipia juris 
Latini. But the uniform system of administration gradually 
adopted in all three classes rendered the distinction entirely 
unimportant, and the general term municipium is used of all 
alike. The incorporation of existing towns, hitherto non-Roman, 
in the uniform municipal system of the principate took place 
mainly in the eastern part of the Empire, where Greek civiliza- 
tion had long fostered urban life. In the west city commu- 
nities rapidly sprang up under direct Roman influence. The 
development of towns of the municipal type on the sites where 
legions occupied permanent quarters can be traced in several 
of the western provinces; and it cannot be doubted that this 
development became the rule wherever a body of Roman 
subjects settled down together for any purpose and permanently 
occupied a region. At any rate by the end of the ist century 
of the principate municipia are numerous in the western as 
well as the eastern half of the Empire, and the towns are every- 
where centres of Roman influence. 

Of the internal life of the municipia very little is known 
before the Empire. For the period after Julius Caesar, however, 
we have two important sources of information. A series of 
municipal laws gives us a detailed knowledge of the constitution 
imposed, with slight variations, on all the municipia; and a 
host of private inscriptions gives particulars of their social life. 

The municipal constitution of the ist century of the principate 
is based upon the type of government common to Greece and 
Rome from earliest times. , The government of each town 
consists of magistrates, senate and assembly, and is entirely 



independent of the Roman government except in certain cases 
of higher civil jurisdiction, which come under the direct cog- 
nisance of the praetor urbanus at Rome. On the other hand, 
each community is bound to perform certain services to the 
Imperial government, such as the contribution of men and 
horses for military service, the maintenance of the imperial 
post through its neighbourhood, and the occasional entertain- 
ment of Roman officials or billeting of soldiers. The citizens 
were of two classes: (i) cives, whether by birth, naturalization 
or emancipation, (2) incolae, who enjoyed a partial citizenship 
based on domicile for a certain period. Both classes were 
liable to civic burdens, but the incolae had none of the privi- 
leges of citizenship except a limited right of voting. The 
citizens were grouped in either tribes or curiae, and accordingly 
the assembly sometimes bore the name of Comitia Tributa, 
sometimes that of Comitia Curiata. The theoretical powers 
of these comitia were extensive both in the election of magis- 
trates and in legislation. But the growing influence of the 
senate over elections on the one hand, and on the other hand the 
increasing reluctance of leading citizens to become candidates 
for office (see below), gradually made popular election a mere 
form. The senatorial recommendation of the necessary number 
of candidates seems to have been merely ratified in the comitia; 
and a Spanish municipal law of the ist century makes special 
provision for occasions on which an insufficient number of 
candidates are forthcoming. In Italy, however, the reality of 
popular elections seems to have survived to a later date. The 
inscriptions at Pompeii, for instance, give evidence of keenly 
contested elections in the 2nd century. The local senate, or 
curia, always exercised an important influence on municipal 
politics. Its members formed the local nobility, and at an 
early date special privileges were granted by Rome to provincials 
who were senators in their native towns. For the composition, 
powers, and history of the provincial senate see DECURIO. 
The magistrates were elected annually, and were six in number, 
forming three pairs of colleagues. The highest magistrates 
were the Ilviri (Duoviri) juri dicundo, who had charge, as their 
name implies, of all local jurisdiction, and presided over the 
assembly. Candidates for this office were required to be over 
25 years of age, to have held one of the minor magistracies, 
and to possess all the qualifications required of members of the 
local senate (see DECURIO). Next in dignity were the Hviri 
aediles, who had charge -of the roads and public buildings, the 
games and the corn-supply, and exercised police control through- 
out the town. They appear to have been regarded as sub- 
ordinate colleagues (collegae minores) of the Hviri juri dicundo, 
and in some towns at least to have had the right to convene 
and preside over the comitia in the absence of the latter. Indeed 
many inscriptions speak of IVviri (Quatluorviri) consisting of 
two IVviri juri dicundo and two IVviri aediles; but in the 
majority of cases the former are regarded as distinct and 
superior magistrates. The two quaestores, who appear to have 
controlled finance in a large number of municipia, cannot be 
traced in others; and it is probable that in the municipia, as 
at Rome, the quaestorship was locally instituted, as need arose, 
to relieve the supreme magistrates of excessive business. Other 
municipal magistrates frequently referred to in the inscriptions 
are the quinquennales and praefecti. The quinquennales super- 
seded the Ilviri or IVviri juri dicundo every five years, and 
differed from them only in possessing, in addition to their other 
powers, those exercised in Rome before the time of Sulla by the 
censors. Two classes of praefecti are found in the municipalities 
under the Empire, both of which are to be distinguished from 
the officials who bore that name in the municipia before the 
Social War. The first class consists of those praefecti who were 
nominated as temporary delegates by the Ilviri, when through 
illness or compulsory absence they were unable to discharge 
the duties of their office. The second class, referred to in 
inscriptions by the name of praefecti ab decurionibus creati 
lege Petronia, seem to have been appointed by the local senate 
in case of a complete absence of higher magistrates, such as 
would have led in Rome to the appointment of an interrex. 

From a social point of view the municipia of the Roman Empire 
may be treated under three heads: (i) as centres of local self- 
government, (2) as religious centres, (3) as industrial centres, (i) 
The chief feature of the local government of the towns is the wide- 
spread activity of the municipal authorities in improving the general 
conditions of life in the town. In the municipalities, as in Rome, 
provision was made out of the public funds for feeding the poorest 

Eart of the population, and providing a supply of corn which could 
e bought Dy ordinary citizens at a moderate price. In Pliny's 
time there existed in many towns public schools controlled by the 
municipal authorities, concerning which Pliny remarks that they 
were a source of considerable disturbance in the town at the times 
when it was necessary to appoint teachers. He himself encouraged 
the establishment of another kind of municipal school at Como, 
where the leading townspeople subscribed for the maintenance of 
the school, and the control, including the appointment of teachers, 
remained in the hands of the subscribers. Physicians seem to have 
been maintained in many towns at the public expense. The water- 
supply was also provided out of the municipal budget, and controlled 
by magistrates, appointed for the purpose. To enable it to bear the 
expense involved in all these undertakings, the local treasury was 
generally assisted by large benefactions, either in money or in works, 
from individual citizens; but direct taxation for municipal purposes 
was hardly ever resorted to. The treasury was filled out of the 

Eroceeds of the landed possessions of the community, especially such 
uitful sources of revenue as mines and quarries, and out of import 
and export duties. It was occasionally subsidized by the emperor 
on occasions of sudden and exceptional calamity. 

2. The chief feature in the religious life of the towns was the 
important position they occupied as centres for the cult of the 
emperor. Caesar-worship as an organized cult developed sponta- 
neously in many provincial towns during the reign of Augustus, 
and was fostered by him and his successors as a means of promoting 
in these centres of vigour and prosperity a strong loyalty to Rome 
and the emperor, which was one of the firmest supports of the latter's 
power. The order of Augustales, officials appointed to regulate the 
worship of the emperor in the towns, occupied a position of dignity 
and importance in provincial society. It was composed of the lead- 
ing and the wealthiest men among the lower classes of the popula- 
tion. By the organization of the order on these lines Augustus 
secured the double object of maintaining Caesar-worship in all the 
most vigorous centres of provincial life, and attracting to himself 
and his successors the special devotion of the industrial class which 
had its origin in the municipia of the Roman Empire, and has become 
the greatest political force in modern Europe. 

3. The development of this free industrial class is the chief feature 
of the municipia considered as centres of industry and handicraft. 
The rise to power of the equestrian order in Rome during the last 
century of the Republic had to some extent modified the old Roman 
principle that trade and commerce were beneath the dignity of 
the governing class; but long after the fall of the Republic the aristo- 
cratic notion survived in Rome that industry and handicrafts were 
only fit for slaves. In the provincial towns, however, this idea was 
rapidly disappearing in the early years of the Empire, and even in 
the country towns of Italy the inscriptions give evidence not much 
later of the existence of a large and nourishing free industrial class, 
proud of its occupation, and bound together by a strong esprit de 
corps. Already the members of this class show a strong tendency 
to bind themselves together in gilds (collegia, sodalitates) , and the 
existence of countless associations of the kind is revealed by the 
inscriptions. The formation of societies for religious and other 
purposes was frequent at Rome from the earliest times in all classes 
of the free population. After the time of Sulla these societies were 
regarded by the government with suspicion, mainly on account of the 
political uses to which they were turned, and various measures were 
passed for their suppression in Rome and Italy. This policy was 
continued by the early emperors and extended to the whole Empire, 
but in spite of opposition the gilds in the provincial towns grew and 
flourished. The ostensible objects of nearly all such collegia of which 
we have any knowledge were twofold, the maintenance of the 
worship of some god, and provision for the performance of proper 
funerary rights for its members. But under cover of these two main 
objects, the only two purposes for which such combinations were 
allowed under the Empire, associations of all kinds grew up. The 
organization of the gilds was based on that of the municipality. 
Each elected its officers and treasurers at an annual meeting, and 
every five years a revision of the list of members was held, correspond- 
ing to that of the senators held quinquennially by the city magis- 
trates. It is doubtful how far these societies served to organize 
and improve particular industries. There is no evidence to show 
that any societies during the first three centuries consisted solely 
of workers at a single craft. But there can be little doubt that the 
later craft gilds were a development, through the industrial gilds 
of the provincial towns, of one of the most ancient features of Roman 

Remarkable concord seems generally to have existed in the 
municipia between the various classes of the population. This 
is accounted for partly by the strong civic feeling which formed 
a bond of unity stronger than most sources of friction, and 


partly to the general prosperity of the towns, which removed 
any acute discontent. The wealthy citizen seems always to 
have had to bear heavy financial burdens, and to have enjoyed 
in return a dignity and an actual political preponderance which 
made the general character of municipal constitutions distinctly 

The policy adopted by the early emperors of encouraging, 
within the limits of a uniform system, the independence and 
civic patriotism of the towns, was superseded in the 3rd and 
4th centuries by a deliberate effort to use the towns as instru- 
ments of the imperial government, under the direct control of 
the emperor or his representatives in the provinces. This 
policy was accompanied by a gradual decay of civic feeling and 
municipal enterprise, which showed itself mainly in the un- 
willingness of the townsmen to become candidates for local 
magistracies, or to take up the burdens entailed in membership of 
the municipal senate. Popular control of the local government 
of the towns was ceasing to be a reality as early as the end of 
the ist century of the Empire. Two centuries later local 
government was a mere form. And the self-governing com- 
munities of the middle ages were a restoration, rather than a 
development, of the flourishing and independent municipalities 
of the age of Augustus and his immediate successors. 

AUTHORITIES. C. Bruns, Fontes juris romani, c. III., No. 18, 
and c. IV. (Freiburg, 1893), for Municipal Laws and references to 
Mommsen's commentary in C.I.L. ; E. Kuhn, Stadtische u. burgerliche 
Verfasxung des rom. Reichs (Leipzig, 1864): Marquardt, Romische 
Staatsverwaltung, I. i. (Leipzig, 1881); Toutain. in Daremberg- 
Saglio Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques el romaines, s.v. " Munici- 
pium "; S. Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, c. 2 
and 3 (London, 1904). For the gilds see Mommsen, De collegiis el 
sodaliciis Romanorum (Keil, 1843); Liebenam, Geschichte u. Organi- 
sation des rom. Vereinswesens (Leipzig, 1890). (A. M. CL.) 

MUNIMENT, a word chiefly used in the plural, as a collective 
term for the documents, charters, title-deeds, &c. relating to 
the property, rights and privileges of a coiporation, such as a 
college, a family or private person, and kept as " evidences " 
for defending the same. Hence the medieval usage of the word 
munimenlum, in classical Latin, a defence, fortification, from 
munire, to defend. 

protectorate on the Guinea Coast, West Africa, rectangular 
in form, with an area of about 9800 sq. m. and an estimated 
population of 150,000. The protectorate extends inland about 
125 miles and is bounded W. by the Atlantic, N. by the German 
colony of Cameroon, E. and S. by French Congo. The coast- 
line, 75 m. long, stretches from the mouth of the Campo in 
2 10' N. to the mouth of the Muni in i N., on the north arm 
of Corisco Bay. The small islands of Corisco ((?..), Elobey 
Grande, Elobey Chico and Bana in Corisco Bay also belong 
to Spain. 

From the estuary of the Campo the coast trends S.S.W. in 
a series of shallow indentations, until at the bold bluff of Cape 
San Juan it turns eastward and forms Corisco Bay. The coast 
plain, from 12 to 25 m. wide, is succeeded by the foot-hills of 
the Crystal Mountains, which traverse the country in a north 
to south direction. These are a table-land, from which rise 
granitic hills 700 to 1200 ft. above the geueral level, which is 
about 2500 ft. above the sea. The mountainous region, which 
extends inland beyond the Spanish frontier, contains many 
narrow valleys and marshy depressions. The greater part of 
the country forms the basin of the river Benito, which, rising 
in French Congo a little east of the frontier, flows through the 
centre of the Spanish protectorate and enters the sea, after a 
course of 300 m., about midway between the Campo and Muni 
estuaries. The southern bank of the lower course of the Campo 
and the northern bank of the lower course of the Muni, form 
part of the protectorate. The mouths of the Campo and 
Benito are obstructed by sand bars, whereas the channel leading 
to the Muni is some 36 ft. deep and the river itself is more than 
double that depth. It is from this superiority of access that 
the country has been named after the Muni River. The course 
of all the rivers is obstructed by rapids in their descent from 

the table-land to the plain. The greater part of the country 
is covered with dense primeval forest. This forest growth is 
due to the fertility of the soil and the great rainfall, Spanish 
Guinea with the neighbouring Cameroon country possessing 
one of the heaviest rain records of the world. The humidity 
of the climate joined to the excessive heat (the average tempera- 
ture is 78 F.) makes the climate trying. In the eastern parts 
of the protectorate the forest is succeeded by more open country. 
Among the most common trees are oil-palms, rubber-trees, ebony 
and mahogany. The forests are the home of monkeys and of 
innumerable birds and insects, often of gorgeous colouring. 
In the north-east of the country elephants are numerous. 

The inhabitants are Bantu-Negroid, the largest tribe repre- 
sented being the Fang (q.v.), called by the Spaniards Pamues. 
They are immigrants from the Congo basin and have pushed 
before them the tribes, such as the Benga, which now occupy 
the coast-lands. The villages of the Fang are usually placed 
on the top of small hills. They cultivate the yam, banana and 
manioc, and are expert fishers and hunters. The European 
settlements are confined to the coast. There are trading stations 
at the mouths of the Campo, Benito and Muni rivers, at Bata, 
midway between the Campo and Benito, and on Elobey Chico. 
There are cocoa, coffee and other plantations, but the chief 
trade is in natural products, rubber, palm oil and palm kernels, 
and timber. Cotton goods and alcohol are the principal imports. 
Trade is largely in the hands of British and German firms. The 
annual value of the trade in 1903-1906 was about 100,000. 

Spain became possessed of Fernando Po at the end of the 
i8tb century, and Spanish traders somewhat later established 
" factories " on the neighbouring coasts' of the mainland, but 
no permanent occupation appears to have been contemplated. 
During the igth century a number of treaties were concluded 
betv/een Spanish naval officers and the chiefs of the lower 
Guinea coast, and when the partition of Africa was in progress 
Spain laid claim to the territory between the Campo river and 
the Gabun. Germany and France also claimed the territory, 
but in 1885 Germany withdrew in favour of France. After 
protracted negotiations between France and Spain a treaty 
was signed in June 1900 by which France acknowledged Spanish 
sovereignty over the coast region between the Campo and 
Muni rivers and the hinterland as far east as 11 20' E. of 
Greenwich, receiving in return concessions from Spain in the 
Sahara (see Rio DE ORC), and the right of pre-emption over 
Spain's West African possessions. In 1901-1902 the eastern 
frontier was delimited, being modified in accordance with 
natural features. The newly acquired territories were placed 
under the superintendence of the governor-general of Fernando 
Po, sub-governors being stationed at Bata, Elobey Chico and 

See R. Beltran y R6zpide, La Guinea espanola (Madrid, 1901), 
and Guinea continental espanola (Madrid, 1903); H. Lorin, "Lea 
colonies espagnoles du golfe de Guinee " in Quest, dip. et col., vol. 
xxi. (1906); E. L. Perea, " Estado actual de los territories espafioles 
de Guinea " in Revisia de geog. colon, y mercantil (Madrid, 1905) ; J. B. 
Roche, Aupays des Pahouins (Paris, 1904). A good map compiled 
by E. d'Almonte on the scale of 1 :2oo,ooo was published in Madrid 
in 1903. Consult also the works cited under FERNANDO Po. 

MUNKACS, a town of Hungary, in the county of Bereg, 
220 m. E.N.E. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900), 13,640. It 
is situated on the Latorcza river, and on the outskirts of the 
East Beskides mountains, where the hills touch the plains. Its 
most noteworthy buildings are the Greek Catholic cathedral 
and the beautiful castle of Count Schonborn. In the vicinity, 
on a steep hill 580 ft. high, stands the old fort of Munkacs, 
which played an important part in Hungarian history, and was 
especially famous for its heroic defence by Helene Zrinyi, wife 
of Emeric Tokoli and mother of Francis Rakoczy II., for three 
years against the Austrians (1685-1688). It was afterwards 
used as a prison. Ypsilanti, the hero of Greek liberty, and 
Kazinczy, the regenerator of Hungarian letters, were confined in 
it. According to tradition, it was near Munkacs that the 
Hungarians, towards the end of the gth century, entered the 
country. In 1896 in the fort was built one of the " millennial 



monuments " established at seven different points of the 

MUNKACSY, MICHAEL VON (1844-1900), Hungarian painter, 
whose real name was MICHAEL (MISKA) LEO LIEB, was the third 
son of Michael Lieb, a collector of salt-tax in Munkacs, Hungary, 
and of Cacilia Rock. He was born in that town on the 2oth 
of February 1844. In 1848 his father was arrested at Miskolcz 
for complicity in the Hungarian revolution, and died shortly 
after his release; a little earlier he had also lost his mother, 
and became dependent upon the charity of relations, of whom 
an uncle, Rock, became mainly responsible for his maintenance 
and education. He was apprenticed to a carpenter, Langi, in 
1855, but shortly afterwards made the acquaintance of the 
painters Fischer and Szamossy, whom he accompanied to Arad 
in 1858. From them he received his first real instruction in 
art. He worked mainly at Budapest during 1863-1865, and 
at this time first adopted, from patriotic motives, the name by 
which he is always known. In 1865 he visited Vienna, returning 
to Budapest in the following year, and went thence to Munich, 
where he contributed a few drawings to the Fliegende Blatter. 
About the end of 1867 he was working at Dusseldorf, where he 
was much influenced by Ludwig Knaus, and painted (1868- 
1869) his first picture of importance, " The Last Day of a 
Condemned Prisoner," which was exhibited in the Paris Salon 
in 1870, and obtained for him a mMaille unique and a very 
considerable reputation. He had already paid a short visit to 
Paris in 1867, but on the 25th of January 1872 he took up his 
permanent abode in that city, and remained there during the 
rest of his working life. Munkacsy's other chief pictures are 
" Milton dictating Paradise Lost to his Daughters " (Paris 
Exhibition, 1878), " Christ before Pilate " (1881), " Golgotha " 
(1883), " The Death of Mozart " (1884), " Arpad, chief of the 
Magyars, taking possession of Hungary," painted for the new 
House of Parliament in Budapest, and exhibited at the Salon 
in 1893, and " Ecce Homo." He had hardly completed the 
latter work when a malady of the brain overtook him, and he 
died on the 3Oth of April 1900, at Endenich, near Bonn. Just 
before his last illness he had been offered the directorship of 
the Hungarian State Gallery at Budapest. Munkacsy's masterly 
characterization, force and power of dramatic composition 
secured him a great vogue for his works, but it is doubtful if 
his reputation will be maintained at the level it reached during 
his lifetime. " Christ before Pilate " and " Golgotha " were sold 
for 32,000 and 35,000 respectively to an American buyer. 
Munkacsy received the following awards for his work exhibited 
at Paris: Medal, 1870, Medal, 2nd class; Legion of Honour, 
1877; Medal of Honour, 1878; Officer of the Legion, 1878; Grand 
Prix, Exhibition of 1889; Commander of the Legion, 1889. 

See F. Walther Ilges, " M. von Munkacsy," Kiinstler Mono- 
graphieji (1899); C. Sedelmeyer, Christ before Pilate (Paris, 1886); 
I. Beavington Atkinson, " Michael Munkacsy," Magazine of Art 
(1881). (E. F. S.) 

Russian soldier and statesman, was born at Neuenhuntorf, in 
Oldenburg, in 1683, and at an early age entered the French 
service. Thence he transferred successively to the armies of 
Hesse-Darmstadt and of Saxony, and finally, with the rank of 
general-in-chief and the title of count, he joined the army of 
Peter II. of Russia. In 1732 he became field-marshal and 
president of the council of war. In this post he did good 
service in the re-organization of the Russian army, and founded 
the cadet corps which was destined to supply the future genera- 
tions of officers. In 1 734 he took Danzig, and with 1 736 began 
the Turkish campaigns which made Munnich's reputation as a 
soldier. Working along the shores of the Black Sea from the 
Crimea, he took Ochakov after a celebrated siege in 1737, and 
in 1739 won the battle of Stavutschina, and took Khotin (or 
Choczim), and established himself firmly in Moldavia. Marshal 
Miinnich now began to take an active part in political affairs, 
the particular tone of which was given by his rivalry with Biron, 
or Bieren, duke of Courland. But his activity was brought to 
a close by the revolution of 1741; he was arrested on his way 
to the frontier, and condemned to death. Brought out for 

execution, and withdrawn from the scaffold, he was later sent to 
Siberia, where he remained fcr several years, until the accession 
of Peter III. brought about his release in 1762. Catherine II., 
who soon displaced Peter, employed the old field-marshal 
as director-general of the Baltic ports. He died in 1767. Feld- 
marschall Miinnich was a fine soldier of the professional type, 
and many future commanders, notably Louden and Lacy, 
served their apprenticeship at Ochakov and Khotin. As a 
statesman he is regarded as the founder of Russian Philhellenism. 
He had the grade of count of the Holy Roman Empire. The 
Russian 37th Dragoons bear his name. 

He wrote an bauche pour donner une idee de la forme de V empire 
"~e Russie (Leipzig, 1774), and his voluminous diaries have appeared 
in various publications Herrmann, Beitrage zur Geschichte des russi- 
schen Reichs (Leipzig. 1843). See Hempel, Leben Miinnichs (Bremen. 
1742); Halem, Geschichte des F. M. Grafen Miinnich (Oldenburg^ 
1803 ; 2nd ed., 1838) ; Kostomarov, Feldmarschall Miinnich (Russische 
Geschichte inBiographien,v. 2). 

MUNRO, SIR HECTOR (1726-1805), British general, son of 
Hugh Munro of Novar, in Cromarty, was born in 1726, and 
entered the army in 1749. He went to Bombay in 1761, in 
command of the Sgth regiment, and in that year effected the 
surrender of Mahe from the French. Later, when in command of 
the Bengal army, he suppressed a mutiny of sepoys at Patna, 
and on the 23rd of October 1764 won the victory of Buxar 
against Shuja-ud-Dowlah, the nawab wazir of Oudh, and Mir 
Kasim, which ranks amongst the most decisive battles ever 
fought in India. Returning home, he became in 1768 M.P. 
for the Inverness Burghs, which he continued to represent in 
parliament for more than thirty years, though a considerable 
portion of this period was spent in India, whither he returned 
in 1778 to take command of the Madras army. In that year 
he took Pondicherry from the French, but in 1780 he was defeated 
by Hyder Ali near Conjeeveram, and forced to fall back on 
St Thomas's Mount. There Sir Eyre Coote took over command 
of the army, and in 1781 won a signal victory against Hyder Ali 
at Porto Novo, where Munro was in command of the right 
division. Negapatam was taken by Munro in November of 
the same year; and in 1782 he returned to England. He died on 
the 27th of December 1805. 

MUNRO, HUGH ANDREW JOHNSTONS (1810-1885), British 
scholar, was born at Elgin on the igth of October 1819. He 
was educated at Shrewsbury school, where he was one of 
Kennedy's first pupils, and proceeded to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1838. He became scholar of his college in 1840, 
second classic and first chancellor's medallist in 1842, and 
fellow of his college in 1843. He became classical lecturer at 
Trinity College, and in 1869 was elected to the newly-founded 
chair of Latin at Cambridge, but resigned it in 1872. The 
great work on which his reputation is mainly based is his 
edition of Lucretius, the fruit of the labour of many years (text 
only, i vol., 1860; text, commentary and translation, 2 vols., 
1864). As a textual critic his knowledge was profound and 
his judgment unrivalled; and he made close archaeological 
studies by frequent travels in Italy and Greece. In 1867 he 
published an improved text of Aetna with commentary, and 
in the following year a text of Horace with critical introduction, 
illustrated by specimens of ancient gems selected by C. W. King. 
His knowledge and taste are nowhere better shown than in his 
Criticisms and Elucidations of Catullus (1878). He was a master 
of the art of Greek and Latin verse composition. His contri- 
butions to the famous volume of Shrewsbury verse, Sabrinae 
corolla, are among the most remarkable of a remarkable collec- 
tion. His Translations into Latin and Greek Verse were privately 
printed in 1884. Like his translations into English, they are 
characterized by minute fidelity to the original, but never cease 
to be idiomatic. He died at Rome on the 3Oth of March 1885. 

See Memoir by J. D. Duff, prefixed to a re-issue of the trans, of 
Lucretius in " Bohn's Classical Library " ('908). 

MUNRO, MONEO or MONROE, ROBERT (d. c. 1680), Scots 
general, was a member of a well-known family in Ross-shire, 
the Munroes of Foulis. With several of his kinsmen he served 
in the continental wars under Gustavus Adolphus; and he 



appears to have returned to Scotland about 1638, and to have 
taken some part in the early incidents of the Scottish rebellion 
against Charles I. In 1642 he went to Ireland, nominally as 
second in command under Alexander Leslie, but in fact in chief 
command of the Scottish contingent against the Catholic rebels. 
After taking and plundering Newry in April 1642, and ineffec- 
tually attempting to subdue Sir Phelim O'Neill, Munro succeeded 
in taking prisoner the earl of Antrim at Dunluce. The arrival 
of Owen Roe O'Neill in Ireland strengthened the cause of the 
rebels (see O'NEILL), and Munro, who was poorly supplied with 
provisions and war materials, showed little activity. Moreover, 
the civil war in England was now creating confusion among parties 
in Ireland, and the king was anxious to come to terms with 
the Catholic rebels, and to enlist them on his own behalf against 
the parliament. The duke of Ormonde, Charles's lieutenant- 
general in Ireland, acting on the king's orders, signed a cessation 
of hostilities with the Catholics on the isth of September 1643, 
and exerted himself to despatch aid to Charles in England. 
Munro in Ulster, holding his commission from the Scottish 
parliament, did not recognize the armistice, and his troops 
accepted the solemn league and covenant, in which they were 
joined by many English soldiers who left Ormonde to join him. 
In April 1644 the English parliament entrusted Munro with the 
command of all the forces in Ulster, both English and Scots. 
He thereupon seized Belfast, made a raid into the Pale, and 
unsuccessfully attempted to gain possession of Dundalk and 
Drogheda. His force was weakened by the necessity for sending 
troops to Scotland to withstand Montrose; while Owen Roe 
O'Neill was strengthened by receiving supplies from Spain and 
the pope. On the sth of June 1646 was fought the battle of 
Benburb, on the Blackwater, where O'Neill routed Munro, but 
suffered him to withdraw in safety to Carrickfergus. In 1647 
Ormonde was compelled to come to terms with the English 
parliament, who sent commissioners to Dublin in June of that 
year. The Scots under Munro refused to surrender Carrick- 
fergus and Belfast when ordered by the parliament to return 
to Scotland, and Munro was superseded by the appointment of 
Monk to the chief command in Ireknd. In September 1648 
Carrickfergus was delivered over to Monk by treachery, and 
Munro was taken prisoner. He was committed to the Tower 
of London, where he remained a prisoner for five years. In 
1654 he was permitted by Cromwell to reside in Ireland, where 
he had estates in right of his wife, who was the widow of Viscount 
Montgomery of Ardes. Munro continued to live quietly near 
Comber, Co. Down, for many years, and probably died there 
about 1680. He was in part the original of Dugald Dalgetty in 
Sir Walter Scott's Legend of Montrose. 

See Thomas Carte, History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde 
(6 vols., Oxford, 1851); Sir J. T. Gilbert, Contemporary History of 
Affairs in Ireland 1641-1652 (3 vols., Dublin, 1879-1880) and 
History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland (7 vols., 
Dublin, 1882-1891); John Spalding, Memorials of the Troubles in 
Scotland and England (2 vols., Aberdeen, 1850); The Montgomery 
MSS., 1603-1703, edited by G. Hill (Belfast, 1869); Sir Walter 
Scott, The Legend of Montrose, author's preface. 

MUNRO, SIR THOMAS (1761-1827), Anglo-Indian soldier and 
statesman, was born at Glasgow on the 27th of May 1761, the 
son of a merchant. Educated at Glasgow University, he was 
at first intended to enter his father's business, but in 1789 he 
was appointed to an infantry cadetship in Madras. He served 
with his regiment during the hard-fought war against Hyder 
Ali (1780-83), and again in the first campaign against Tippoo 
(1790-92). He was then chosen as one of four military 
officers to administer the Baramahal, part of the territory 
acquired from Tippoo, where he remained for seven years, 
learning the principles of revenue survey and assessment which 
he afterwards applied throughout the presidency of Madras. 
After the final downfall of Tippoo in 1799, he spent a short time 
restoring order in Kanara; and then for another seven years 
(1800-1807) he was placed in charge of the northern districts 
" ceded " by the nizam of Hyderabad, where he introduced 
the ryotwari system of land revenue. After a long furlough 
in England, during which he gave valuable evidence upon 

matters connected with the renewal of the company's charter, 
he returned to Madras in 1814 with special instructions to reform 
the judicial and police systems. On the outbreak of the Pindari 
War in 1817, he was appointed as brigadier-general to command 
the reserve division formed to reduce the southern territories of 
the Peshwa. Of his signal services on this occasion Canning 
said in the House of Commons: " He went into the field with 
not more than five or six hundred men, of whom a very small pro- 
portion were Europeans. . . . Nine forts were surrendered to him 
or taken by assault on his way; and at the end of a silent and 
scarcely observed progress he emerged . . . leaving everything 
secure and tranquil behind him." In 1820 he was appointed 
governor of Madras, where he founded the systems of revenue 
assessment and general administration which substantially 
remain to the present day. His official minutes, published by 
Sir A. Arbuthnot, form a manual of experience and advice for 
the modern civilian. He died of cholera on the 6th of July 1827, 
while on tour in the " ceded " districts, where his name is preserved 
by more than one memorial. An equestrian statue of him, by 
Chantrey, stands in Madras city. 

See biographies by G. R. Gleig (1830), Sir A. Arbuthnot (1881) 
and J. Bradshaw (1894). 

MUNSHI, or MOONSHI, the Urdu name of a writer or secretary, 
used in India of the native language teachers or secretaries 
employed by Europeans. 

MUNSTER, GEORG, COUNT zu (1776-1844), German palae- 
ontologist, was born on the i7th of February 1776. He formed 
a famous collection of fossils, which was ultimately secured by the 
Bavarian state, and formed the nucleus of the palaeontological 
museum at Munich. Count Miinster assisted Goldfuss in his 
great work Petrefacta Germaniae. He died at Bayreuth on the 
23rd of December 1844. 

MUNSTER, SEBASTIAN (1489-1552), German geographer, 
mathematician and Hebraist, was born at Ingelheim in the 
Palatinate. After studying at Heidelberg and Tubingen, he 
entered the Franciscan order, but abandoned it for Luther- 
anism about 1529. Shortly afterwards he was appointed court 
preacher at Heidelberg, where he also lectured in Hebrew and 
Old Testament exegesis. From 1536 he taught at Basel, where 
he published his Cosmographia universalis in 1544, and where 
he died of the plague on the 23rd of May 1552. A disciple 
of Elias Levita, he was the first German to edit the Hebrew 
Bible (2 vols., fol., Basel, 1534-1535); this edition was accom- 
panied by a new Latin translation and a large number of anno- 
tations. He published more than one Hebrew grammar, and 
was the first to prepare a Grammatica chaldaica (Basel, 1527). 
His lexicographical labours included a Dictionarium chaldaicum 
(1527), and a Dictionarium trilingue, of Latin, Greek and 
Hebrew (1530). But his most important work was his Cosmo- 
graphia, which also appeared in German as a Beschreibung oiler 
Lander, the first detailed, scientific and popular description of 
the world in Munster's native language, as well as a supreme 
effort of geographical study and literature in the Reformation 
period. In this Miinster was assisted by more than one hundred 
and twenty collaborators. 

The most valued edition of the Cosmographia or Beschreibung 
is that of 1550, especially prized for its portraits and its city and 
costume pictures. Besides the works mentioned above we may 
notice Munster's Germaniae descriptio of 1530, his Novus orbis of 
1532, his Mappa Europae of 1536, his Rhaelia of 1538, his editions 
of Solinus, Mela and Ptolemy in 1538-1540 and among non- 

g:ographical treatises his Horologiographia, 1531, on dialling (see 
IAL), his Organum uranicum of 1536 on the planetary motions, and 
his Rudimenta mathematica of 1551. His published maps numbered 

See V. Hantzsch, Sebastian Miinster (1898), in vol. xviii. of the 
Publications of the Royal Society of Sciences of Saxony, Historical- 
Philological Section). 

MUNSTER, a town of Germany, in the district of Upper 
Alsace, 16 m. from Colmar by rail, and at the foot of the Vosges 
Mountains. Pop. (1905), 6078. Its principal industries are 
spinning, weaving and bleaching. The town owes its origin 
to a Benedictine abbey, which was founded in the yth century, 
and at one time it was a free city of the empire. In its 



neighbourhood is the ruin of Schwarzenberg. The Ministerial, 
or Gregoriental, which is watered by the river Fecht, is famous 
for its cheese. 

See Rathgeber, Milnster-im-Gregoriental (Strassburg, 1874) and 
F. Hecker, Die Stadt und das Tal zu Miinster im St Gregoriental 
(Munster, 1890). 

MUNSTER, a town of Germany, capital of the Prussian pro- 
vince of Westphalia, and formerly the capital of an important 
bishopric. It lies in a sandy plain on the Dortmund-Ems canal, 
at the junction of several railways, 107 m. S.W. of Bremen 
on the line to Cologne. Pop. (1885), 44,060; (1905) 81,468. 
The town preserves its medieval character, especially in the 
" Prinzipal-Markt " and other squares, with their lofty gabled 
houses and arcades. The fortifications were dismantled during 
the 1 8th century, their place being taken by gardens and prome- 
nades. Of the many churches of Munster the most important 
is the cathedral, one of the most striking in Germany, although 
disfigured by modern decorations. It was rebuilt in the i3th 
and I4th centuries, and exhibits a combination of Romanesque 
and Gothic forms; its chapter-house is specially fine. The 
beautiful Gothic church of St Lambert (i4th century) was 
largely rebuilt after 1868; on its tower, which is 312 ft. in height, 
hang three iron cages in which the bodies of John of Leiden 
and two of his followers were exposed in 1536. The church of 
St Ludger, erected in the Romanesque style about 1170, was 
extended in the Gothic style about 200 years later; it has a 
tower with a picturesque lantern. The church of St Maurice, 
founded about 1070, was rebuilt during the igth century, and 
the Gothic church of Our Lady dates from the i4th century. 
Other noteworthy buildings are the town-hall, a fine Gothic 
building of the i4th century, and the Stadtkeller, which contains 
a collection of early German paintings. The room in the town- 
hall called the Friedens Saal, in which the peace of Westphalia 
was signed in October 1648, contains portraits of many ambas- 
sadors and princes who were present at the ceremony. The 
Schloss, built in 1767, was formerly the residence of bishops of 
Munster. The private houses, many of which were the winter 
residences of the nobility of Westphalia, are admirable examples 
of German domestic architecture in the i6th, i7th and i8th 
centuries. The university of Munster, founded after the Seven 
Years' War and closed at the beginning of the igth century, 
was reopened as an academy in 1818, and again attained the 
rank of a university in 1902. It possesses faculties of theology, 
philosophy and law. In connexion with it are botanical and 
zoological gardens, several scientific collections, and a library of 
1 20,000 volumes. Munster is the seat of a Roman Catholic 
bishop and of the administrative and judicial authorities of 
Westphalia, and is the headquarters of an army corps. The 
Westphalian society of antiquaries and several other learned 
bodies also have their headquarters here. Industries include 
weaving, dyeing, brewing and printing, and the manufacture of 
furniture and machines. There is a brisk trade in cattle, grain 
and other products of the neighbourhood. 

History. Munster is first mentioned about the year 800, 
when Charlemagne made it the residence of Ludger, the newly- 
appointed bishop of the Saxons. Owing to its distance from 
any available river or important highway, the growth of the 
settlement round the monasterium was slow, and it was not 
until after 1186 that it received a charter, the name Munster 
Having supplanted the original name of Mimegardevoord about 
a century earlier. During the I3th and I4th centuries the 
town was one of the most prominent members of the Hanseatic 
League. At the time of the Reformation the citizens were 
inclined to adopt the Protestant doctrines, but the excesses 
of the Anabaptists led in 1535 to the armed intervention of 
the bishop and to the forcible suppression of all divergence 
from the older faith. The Thirty Years' War, during which 
Munster suffered much from the Protestant armies, was ter- 
minated by the peace of Westphalia, sometimes called the peace 
of Munster, because it was signed here on the 24th of October 
1648. The authority of the bishops, who seldom resided at 
Munster, was usually somewhat limited, but in 1661 Bishop 

Christoph Bernhard von Galen took the place by force, built a 
citadel, and deprived the citizens of many of their privileges. 
During the Seven Years' War Munster was occupied both 
by the French and by their foes. Towards the close of the 
1 8th century the town was recognized as one of the intellectual 
centres of Germany. 

The bishopric of Munster embraced an area of about 2500 sq. m. 
and contained about 350,000 inhabitants. Its bishops, who 
resided generally at Ahaus, were princes of the empire. In 
the 1 7th century Bishop Galen, with his army of 20,000 men. 
was so powerful that his alliance was sought by Charles II. of 
England and other European sovereigns. The bishopric was 
secularized and its lands annexed to Prussia in 1803. 

See Geisberg, Merkwiirdigkeiten der Stadt Munster (1877) ; Erhard, 
Geschichte Munslers (1837); A.Tibus, Die Stadt Miinster (Munster, 
1882); Hellinghaus, Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte der 
Stadt Munster (Munster, 1898); Pieper, Die alte Universitiit Munster 
1773-1818 (Munster, 1902). See also Tucking, Geschichte des Stifts 
Munster unter C. B. von Galen (Munster, 1865). 

MUNSTER, a province of Ireland occupying the S.W. part of 
the island. It includes the counties Clare, Tipperary, Limerick, 
Kerry, Cork and Waterford (q.v. for topography, &c.). After 
the occupation of Ireland by the Milesians, Munster (Mumha) 
became nominally a provincial kingdom; but as the territory was 
divided between two families there was constant friction and 
it was not until 237 that Oliol Olum established himself as king 
over the whole. In 248 he divided his kingdom between his 
two sons, giving Desmond (q.v., Des-Mumha) to Eoghan and 
Thomond (Tuadh-Mumha) or north Munster to Cormac. He 
also stipulated that the rank of king of Munster should belong 
in turn to their descendants. In this way the kingship of 
Munster survived until 1194; but there were kings of Desmond 
and Thomond down to the i6th century. Munster was originally 
of the same extent as the present province, excepting that it 
included the district of Ely, which belonged to the O'Carrols 
and formed a part of the present King's County. During the 
1 6th century, however, Thomond was for a time included in 
Connaught, being declared a county under the name of Clare 
(q.v.) by Sir Henry Sidney. Part of Munster had been included 
in the system of shiring generally attributed to King John. In 
1570 a provincial presidency of Munster (as of Connaught) 
was established by Sidney, Sir John Perrot being the first 
president, and lasted until 1672. Under Perrot a practically 
new shiring was carried out. 

MUNSTER AM STEIN, a watering-place of Germany, in the 
Prussian Rhine province, on the Nahe, 2^ m. S. of Kreuznach, 
on the railway from Bingerbriick to Strassburg. Pop. (1905), 
915. Above the village are the ruins of the castle of Rhein- 
grafenstein (i2th century), formerly a seat of the count palatine 
of the Rhine, which was destroyed by the French in 1689, and 
those of the castle of Ebernburg, the ancestral seat of the lords 
of Sickingen, and the birthplace of Franz von Sickingen, the 
famous landsknecht captain and protector of Ulrich von Hutten, 
to whom a monument was erected on the slope near the ruins 
in 1889. The spa (saline and carbonate springs), specific in 
cases of feminine disorders, is visited by about 5000 patients 

See Welsch, Das Sol- und Thermalbad Munster am Stein (Kreuz- 
nach, 1886) and Messer, Fiihrer durch Bad Kreuznach und Munster 
am Stein (Kreuznach, 1905). 

MUNSTERBERG, HUGO ( 1 863- ) , German-American psycho- 
physiologist, was born at Danzig. Having been extraordinary 
professor at Freiburg-im-Breisgau, he became in 1892 pro- 
fessor of psychology at Harvard University. Among his more 
important works are Beitriige zur experimentellen Psychologic 
(4 vols., Freiburg, 1889-1892); Psychology and Life (New 
York, 1899); Grundzuge der Psychologic (Leipzig, 1900); 
American Traits from the Point of View of a German (Boston, 
1901); Die Amerikaner (several ed.; Eng. trans. 1904); Science 
and Idealism (New York, 1906); Philosophic der Werte (Leipzig, 
1908); Aus Deulsch-Amerika (Berlin, 1908); Psychology and 
Crime (New York, 1908). He has been prominently identified 
with the modern developments of experimental psychology 


(see PSYCHOLOGY), and his sociological writings display the 
acuteness of a German philosophic mind as applied to the study 
of American life and manners. 

MUNSTERBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian pro- 
vince of Silesia, on the Ohlau, 36 m. by rail S. of Breslau. Pop. 
(1905), 8475. It is partly surrounded by medieval walls. It 
has manufactures of drain-pipes and fireproof bricks; there are 
also sulphur springs. Miinsterberg was formerly the capital 
of the principality of the same name, which existed from the 
I4th century down to 1791, when it was purchased by the 
Prussian crown. Near the town is the former Cistercian abbey 
of Heinrichau. 

MUNTANER, RAMON '(1265-1336?), Catalan historian, was 
born at Peralada (Catalonia) in 1265. The chief events of his 
career are recorded in his chronicle. He accompanied Roger de 
Flor to Sicily in 1300, was present at the siege of Messina, 
served in the expedition of the Almogavares against Asia Minor, 
and became the first governor of Gallipoli. Later he was 
appointed governor of Jerba or Zerbi, an island in the Gulf of 
Gabes, and finally entered the service of the infante of Majorca. 
On the isth of May 1325 (some editions give the year 1335) he 
began his Chronica, o descripcio dels jets, e hazanas del inclyt 
rey Don laume Primer, in obedience, as he says, to the express 
command of God who appeared to him in a vision. Muntaner's 
book, which was first printed at Valencia in 1558, is the chief 
authority for the events of his period, and his narrative, though 
occasionally prolix, uncritical and egotistical, is faithful and 
vivid. He is said to have died in 1336. 

His chronicle is most accessible in the edition published by Karl 
Lanz at Stuttgart in 1844. 

MUNTJAC, the Indian name of a small deer typifying the 
genus Cerndus, all the members of which are indigenous to the 
southern and eastern parts of Asia and the adjacent islands, 
and are separated by marked characters from all their allies. 
For the distinctive features of the genus see DEER. As regards 
general characteristics, all muntjacs are small compared with 
the majority of deer, and have long bodies and rather short 
limbs and neck. The antlers of the bucks are small and simple; 

The Indian Muntjac (Cervulus muntjac). 

the main stem or beam, after giving off a short brow-tine, in- 
clining backwards and upwards, being unbranched and pointed, 
and when fully developed curving inwards and somewhat down- 
wards at the tip. These small antlers are supported upon 
pedicles, or processes of the frontal bones, longer than in any 
other deer, the front edges of these being continued downwards 
as strong ridges passing along the sides of the face above the 
eyes. From this feature the name rib-faced deer has been 
suggested for the muntjac. The upper canine teeth of the males 
are large and sharp, projecting outside the mouth as tusks, and 
loosely implanted in their sockets. In the females they are 
much smaller. 

Muntjacs are solitary animals, even two being rarely seen 
together. They are fond of hilly ground covered with forests, 
in the dense thickets of which they pass most of their time, only 
coming to the skirts of the woods at morning and evening to 
graze. They carry the head and neck low and the hind-quarters 
high, their action in running being peculiar and not elegant, 
somewhat resembling the pace of a sheep. Though with no 
power of sustained speed or extensive leaping, they are remark- 
able for flexibility of body and facility of creeping through 
tangled underwood. A popular name with Indian sportsmen 
is " barking deer," on account of the alarm-cry a kind of short 
shrill bark, like that of a fox, but louder. When attacked by 
dogs, the males use their sharp canine teeth, which inflict deep 
and even dangerous wounds. 

In" the Indian muntjac the height of the buck is from 20 tc 22 in.; 
allied types, some of which have received distinct names, occur in 
Burma and the Malay Peninsula and Islands. Among these, the 
Burmese C. muntjac grandicornis is noteworthy on account of its 
large antlers. The Tibetan muntjac (C. lachrymans) , from Moupin 
in eastern Tibet and Hangchow in China, is somewhat smaller than 
the Indian animal, with a bright reddish-brown coat. The smallest 
member of the genus (C. reevest) occurs in southern China and has a 
reddish-chestnut coat, speckled with yellowish grey and a black 
band down the nape. The Tenasserim muntjac (C. feae), about the 
size of the Indian species, is closely allied to the hairy-fronted 
muntjac (C. crinifrons) of eastern China, but lacks the tuft of hair 
on the forehead. The last-mentioned species, by its frontal tuft, 
small rounded ears, general brown coloration, and minute antlers, 
connects the typical muntjacs with the small tufted deer or tufted 
muntjacs of the genus Elaphodus of eastern China and Tibet. These 
last have coarse bristly hair of a purplish-brown colour with light 
markings, very large head-tufts, almost concealing the minute 
antlers, of which the pedicles do not extend as ribs down the face. 
They include E. cephalophus of Tibet, E. michianus of Ningpo, and 
E. ichangensis of the mountains of Ichang. (R. L.*) 

MUNZER, THOMAS (c. 1480-1525), German religious enthu- 
siast, was born at Stolberg in the Harz near the end of the 1 5th 
century, and educated at Leipzig and Frankfort, graduating is 
theology. He held preaching appointments in various places, 
but his restless nature prevented him from remaining in one 
position for any length of time. In 1520 he became a preacher 
at the church of St Mary, Zwickau, and his rude eloquence, 
together with his attacks on the monks, soon raised him to 
influence. Aided by Nicholas Storch, he formed a society the 
principles of which were akin to those of the Taborites, and 
claimed that he was under the direct influence of the Holy 
Spirit. His zeal for the purification of the Church by casting 
out all unbelievers brought him into conflict with the governing 
body of the town, and he was compelled to leave Zwickau. He 
then went to Prague, where his preaching won numerous ad- 
herents, but his violent language brought about his expulsion 
from this city also. At Easter 1523 Miinzer came to Allstedt, 
and was soon appointed preacher at the church of St John, 
where he made extensive alterations in the services. His 
violence, however, aroused the hostility of Luther, in retaliation 
for which Miinzer denounced the Wittenberg teaching. His 
preaching soon produced an uproar in Allstedt, and after holding 
his own for some time he left the town and went to Miihlhausen, 
where Heinrich Pfeiffer was already preaching doctrines similar 
to his own. The union of Miinzer and Pfeiffer caused a disturb- 
ance in this city and both were expelled. Miinzer went to 
Nuremberg, where he issued a writing against Luther, who had 
been mainly instrumental in bringing about his expulsion from 
Saxony. About this time his teaching became still more violent. 
He denounced established governments, and advocated common 
ownership of the means of life. After a tour in south Germany 
he returned to Miihlhausen, overthrew the governing body of 
the city, and established a communistic theocracy. The 
Peasants' War had already broken out in various parts of 
Germany; and as the peasantry around Miihlhausen were imbued 
with Miinzer's teaching, he collected a large body of men to 
plunder the surrounding country. He established his camp at 
Frankenhausen; but on the isth of May 1525 the peasants were 
dispersed by Philip, landgrave of Hesse, who captured Mtinzer 
and executed him on the 27th at Miihlhausen. Before his 


death he is said to have written a letter admitting the justice of 
his sentence. 

His Aussgetriickte Emplossung des falschen Glaubens has been 
edited by R. Jordan (Muhlhausen, 1901), and a life of Munzer, 
Die Histori von Thome Muntzer des Anfengers der duringischen 
Uffrur, has been attributed to Philip Melanchthon (Hagenau, 1525). 
See G. T. Strobel, Leben, Schriften und Lehren Thomd Miinlzers 
(Nuremberg, 1795); J. K. Seidemann, Thomas Munzer (Leipzig, 
1842); O. Merx, Thomas Munzer und Heinrich Pfeiffer (Gottingen, 
1889) ; G. Wolfrau, Thomas Munzer in Allstedt (Jena, 1852). 

MUNZINGER, WERNER (1832-1875), Swiss linguist and 
traveller, was born at Olten in Switzerland, on the 2ist of April 
1832. After studying natural science, Oriental languages and 
history, at Bern, Munich and Paris, he went to Egypt in 1852 
and spent a year in Cairo perfecting himself in Arabic. Entering 
a French mercantile house, he went as leader of a trading expe- 
dition to various parts of the Red Sea, fixing his quarters at 
Massawa, where he acted as French consul. In 1855 he removed 
to Keren, the chief town of the Bogos, in the north of Abyssinia, 
which country he explored during the next six years. In 1861 
he joined the expedition under T. von Heuglin to Central Africa, 
but separated from him in November in northern Abyssinia, 
proceeding along the Gash and Atbara to Khartum. Thence, 
having meantime succeeded Heuglin as leader of the expedition, 
he travelled in 1862 to Kordofan, failing, however, in his attempt 
to reach Darfur and Wadai. After a short stay in Europe in 
1863, Munzinger returned to the north and north-east border- 
lands of Abyssinia, and in 1865, the year of the annexation of 
Massawa by Egypt, was appointed British consul at that town. 
He rendered valuable aid to the Abyssinian expedition of 
1867-68, among other things exploring the almost unknown 
Afar country. In acknowledgment of his services he received the 
C.B. In 1868 he was appointed French consul at Massawa, and 
in 1871 was named by the khedive Ismail governor of that town 
with the title of bey. In 1870, with Captain S. B. Miles, Mun- 
zinger visited southern Arabia. As governor of Massawa he 
annexed to Egypt the Bogos and Hamasen provinces of northern 
Abyssinia, and in 1872 was made pasha and governor-general 
of the eastern Sudan. It is believed that it was on his advice 
that Ismail sanctioned the Abyssinian enterprise, but on the war 
assuming larger proportions in 1875 the command of the Egyptian 
troops in northern Abyssinia was taken from Munzinger, who was 
selected to command a small expedition intended to open up 
communication with Menelek, king of Shoa, then at enmity with 
the negus Johannes (King John) and a potential ally of Egypt. 
Leaving Tajura Bay on the 27th of October 1875 Munzinger 
started for Ankober with a force of 350 men, being accompanied 
by an envoy from Menelek. The desert country to be traversed 
was in the hands of hostile tribes, and on reaching Lake Aussa 
the expedition was attacked during the night by Gallas Mun- 
zinger, with his wife and nearly all his companions, being 

Munzinger's contributions to the knowledge of the country, 
people and languages of north-eastern Africa are of solid value. 
See Proc. R.G.S., vol. xiii.; Journ. R.G.S., vols. xxxix., xli. and xlvi. 
(obituary notice); Petermanns Mitteilungen for 1858, 1867, 1872 
et seq. ; Dietschi and Weber, Werner Munzinger, ein Lebensbild 
(1875); J- v - Keller-Zschokke, Werner Munzinger Pasha (1890). 
Munzinger published the following works: Vber die Sitten und das 
Recht der Bogos (1859); Ostafrikanische Studien (1864; 2nd ed., 1883; 
his most valuable book) ; Die deutsche Expedition in Ostafrika (1865) ; 
Vocabulaire de la langue de Tigre (1865), besides papers in the geo- 
graphical serials referred to, and a memoir on the northern borders 
of Abyssinia in the Zeitschrift fur allgemeine Erdkunde, new series, 
vol. ih. 

MURAD, or AMURATH, the name of five Ottoman sultans. 

MURAD I., surnamed Khudavendighiar (1310-1389), was the 
son of Orkhan and the Greek princess Nilofer, and succeeded 
his father in 1359. He was the first Turkish monarch to obtain 
a definite footing in Europe, and his main object throughout 
his career was to extend the European dominions of Turkey. 
The revolts of the prince of Caramania interfered with the 
realization of this plan, and trouble was caused from this quarter 
more than once during his reign until the decisive battle of Konia 
(1387), when the power of the prince of Caramania was broken. 

The state of Europe facilitated Murad's projects: civil war and 
anarchy prevailed in most of the countries of Central Europe, 
where the feudal system was at its last gasp ( and the small 
Balkan states were divided by mutual jealousies. The capture 
of Adrianople, followed by other conquests, brought about a 
coalition under the king of Hungary against Murad, but his able 
lieutenant Lalashahin, the first beylerbey of Rumelia, defeated 
the allies at the battle of the Maritsa in 1363. In 1366 the 
king of Servia was defeated at Samakov and forced to pay 
tribute. Kustendil, Philippopolis and Nish fell into the hands, 
of the Turks; a renewal of the war in 1381 led to the capture 
of Sofia two years later. Europe was now aroused; Lazar, 
king of Servia, formed an alliance with the Albanians, the 
Hungarians and the Moldavians against the Turks. Murad 
hastened back to Europe and met his enemies on the field of 
Kossovo (1389). Victory finally inclined to the side of the 
Turks. When the rout of the Christians was complete, a Servian 
named Milosh Kabilovich penetrated to Murad's tent on pretence 
of communicating an important secret to the sultan, and stabbed 
the conqueror. Murad was of independent character and 
remarkable intelligence. He was fond of pleasure and luxury, 
cruel and cunning. Long relegated to the command of a distant 
province in Asia, while his brother Suleiman occupied an enviable 
post in Europe, he became revengeful; thus he exercised great 
cruelty in the repression of the rebellion of his son Prince Sauji, 
the first instance of a sultan's son taking arms against his father. 
Murad transferred the Ottoman capital from Brusa to Adrianople, 
where he built a palace and added many embellishments to 
the town. The development of the feudal system of timars and 
ziamets and its extension to Europe was largely his work. 

MURAD II. (1403-1451) succeeded his father Mahommed I. 
in 1421. The attempt of his uncle Prince Mustafa to usurp 
the throne, supported as it was by the Greeks, gave trouble at 
the outset of his reign, and led to the unsuccessful siege of 
Constantinople in 1422. Murad maintained a long struggle 
against the Bosnians and Hungarians, in the course cf which 
Turkey sustained many severe reverses through the valour oi 
Janos Hunyadi. Accordingly in 1444 he concluded a treaty at 
Szegedin for ten years, by which he renounced all claim to Servia 
and recognized George Brancovich as its king. Shortly after 
this, being deeply affected by the death of his eldest son Prince 
Ala-ud-din, he abdicated in favour of Mahommed, his second 
son, then fourteen years of age. But the treacherous attack, in 
violation of treaty, by the Christian powers, imposing too hard 
a task on the inexperienced young sovereign, Murad returned 
from his retirement at Magnesia, crushed his faithless enemies 
at the battle of Varna (Novemebr 10, 1444), and again withdrew 
to Magnesia. A revolt of the janissaries induced him to return 
to power, and he spent the remaining six years of his life in 
warfare in Europe, defeating Hunyadi at Kossovo (October 
17-19, 1448). He died at Adrianople in 1451, and was buried 
at Brusa. By some considered as a fanatical devotee, and by 
others as given up to mysticism, he is generally described as 
kind and gentle in disposition, and devoted to the interests of 
his country. 

MURAD III. (1546-1595), was the eldest son of Selim II., 
and succeeded his father in 1574. His accession marks the 
definite beginning of the decline of the Ottoman power, which 
had only been maintained under Selim II. by the genius of the 
all-powerful grand vizier Mahommed Sokolli. For, though 
Sokolli remained in office until his assassination in October 1578, 
his authority was undermined by the harem influences, which 
with Murad III. were supreme. Of these the most powerful 
was that of the sultan's chief wife, named Safie (the pure), a 
beautiful Venetian of the noble family of Baffo, whose father 
had been governor of Corfu, and who had been captured as a 
child by Turkish corsairs and sold into the harem. This lady, 
in spite of the sultan's sensuality and of the efforts, temporarily 
successful, to supplant her in his favour, retained her ascendancy 
over him to the last. Murad had none of the qualities of a 
ruler. He was good-natured, though cruel enough on occasion: 
his accession had been marked by the murder, according to the 


custom then established, of his five brothers. His will-power 
had early been undermined by the opium habit, and was further 
weakened by the sensual excesses that ultimately killed him. 
Nor had he any taste for rule; his days were spent in the society 
of musicians, buffoons and poets, and he himself dabbled in 
verse-making of a mystic tendency. 

His one attempt at reform, the order forbidding the sale of 
intoxicants so as to stop the growing intemperance of the 
janissaries, broke down on the opposition of the soldiery. He 
was the first sultan to share personally in the proceeds of the 
corruption which was undermining the state, realizing especially 
large sums by the sale of offices. This corruption was fatally 
apparent in the army, the feudal basis of which was sapped by 
the confiscation of fiefs for the benefit of nominees of favourites 
of the harem, and by the intrusion, through the same influences 
of foreigners and rayahs into the corps of janissaries, of which 
the discipline became more and more relaxed and the temper 
increasingly turbulent. In view of this general demoralization 
not even the victorious outcome of the campaigns in Georgia, 
the Crimea, Daghestan, Yemen and Persia (1578-1590) could 
prevent the decay of the Ottoman power; indeed, by weakening 
the Mussulman states, they hastened the process, since they 
facilitated the advance of Russia to the Black Sea and the 

Murad, who had welcomed the Persian War as a good oppor- 
tunity for ridding himself of the presence of the janissaries, 
whom he dreaded, had soon cause to fear their triumphant 
return. Incensed by the debasing of the coinage, which robbed 
them of part of their pay, they invaded the Divan clamouring 
for the heads of the sultan's favourite, the beylerbey of Rumelia, 
and of the defterdar (finance minister), which were thrown to 
them (April 3, 1589). This was the first time that the janissaries 
had invaded the palace: a precedent to be too often followed. 
The outbreak of another European war in 1592 gave the sultan 
an opportunity of ridding himself of their presence. Murad died 
in 1595, leaving to his successor a legacy of war and anarchy. 

It was under Murad III. that England's relations with the 
Porte began. Negotiations were opened in 1579 with Queen 
Elizabeth through certain British merchants; in 1580 the first 
Capitulations with England were signed; in 1583 William 
Harebone, the first British ambassador to the Porte, arrived 
at Constantinople, and in 1593 commercial Capitulations were 
signed with England granting the same privileges as those 
enjoyed by the French. (See CAPITULATIONS.) 

MURAD IV. (1611-1640) was the son of Sultan Ahmed I., 
and succeeded his uncle Mustafa I. in 1623. For the first nine 
years of his reign his youth prevented him from taking more than 
an observer's part in affairs. But the lessons thus learnt were 
sufficiently striking to mould his whole character and policy. 
The minority of the sultan gave full play to the anarchic elements 
in the state; the soldiery, spahis and janissaries, conscious of 
their power and reckless through impunity, rose in revolt 
whenever the whim seized them, demanding privileges and the 
heads of those who displeased them, not sparing even the 
sultan's favourites. In 1631 the spahis of Asia Minor rose in 
revolt, in protest against the deposition of the grand vizier 
Khosrev: their representatives crowded to Constantinople, 
stoned the new grand vizier, Hafiz, in the court of the palace, 
and pursued the sultan himself into the inner apartments, 
clamouring for seventeen heads of his advisers and favourites, 
on penalty of his own deposition. Hafiz was surrendered, a 
voluntary martyr; other ministers were deposed; Mustafa 
Pasha, aga of the janissaries, was saved by his own troops. 
But Mura-d was now beginning to assert himself. Khosrev was 
executed in Asia Minor by his orders; a plot of the spahis to 
depose him was frustrated by the loyalty of Koes Mahommed, 
aga of the janissaries, and of the spahi Rum Mahommed 
(Mahommed the Greek); and on the 2gth of May 1632, by a 
successful personal appeal to the loyalty of the janissaries, 
Murad crushed the rebels, whom he surrounded in the Hippo- 
drome. At the age of twenty he found himself possessed of 
effective autocratic power. 

His severity has remained legendary. Death was the penalty 
for the least offence, and no past services as Koes Mahommed 
was to find to his cost were admitted in extenuation. The use 
of tobacco, coffee, opium and wine were forbidden on pain 
of death; eighteen persons are said to have been put to death in 
a single day for infringing this rule. During his whole reign, 
indeed, supposed offenders against the sultan's authority were 
done to death, singly or in thousands. The tale of his victims is 
said to have exceeded 100,000. 

But if he was the most cruel, Murad was also one of the most 
manly, of the later sultans. He was of gigantic strength, which 
he maintained by constant physical exercises. He was also 
fond of hunting, and for this reason usually lived at Adrianople. 
He broke through the alleged tradition, bequeathed by Suleiman 
the Magnificent to his successors, that the sultan should not 
command the troops in person, and took command in the 
Persian war which led to the capture of Bagdad (1638) and the 
conclusion of an honourable peace (May 7, 1639). Early in 1640 
he died, barely twenty-nine years of age. The cause of his death 
was acute gout brought on by excessive drinking. In spite of 
his drunkenness, however, Murad was a bigoted Sunni, and the 
main cause of his campaign against Persia was his desire to 
extirpate the Shia heresy. In the intervals of his campaignings 
and cruelties the sultan would amuse his entourage by exhibit- 
ing feats of strength, or compose verses, some of which were 
published under the pseudonym of Muradi. 

See, for details of the lives of the above, J. von Hammer-Purgstall, 
Geschichte des osmanischen Retches (Pest, 1840), where further 
authorities are cited. 

MURAD V. (1840-1904), eldest son of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, 
was born on the 2ist of September 1840. On the accession of 
his uncle Abd-ul-Aziz, Prince Mahommed Murad Effendi 
as he was then called was deprived of all share in public 
affairs and imprisoned, owing to his opposition to the sultan's 
plan for altering the order of succession. On the deposition of 
Abd-ul-Aziz on the 3oth of May 1876, Murad was haled from his 
prison by a mob of softas and soldiers of the " Young Turkey " 
party under Suleiman Pasha, and proclaimed " emperor by the 
grace of God and the will of the people." Three months later, 
however, his health, undermined by his long confinement, gave 
way; and on the 313! of August he was deposed to make room 
for his younger brother, Abd-ul-Hamid II. He was kept in 
confinement in the Cheragan palace till his death on the zgth of 
August 1904. 

See Keratry, Mourad V., prince, sultan, prisonnier d'ftat 1840- 
1876 (Paris, 1878); Djemaleddin Bey, Sultan Murad V., the Turkish 
Dynasty Mystery, 1876-1895 (London, 1895). 

MURAENA, the name of an eel common in the Mediterranean, 
and highly esteemed by the ancient Romans; it was afterwards 

Muraena picta, from the Indo- Pacific. 

applied to the whole genus of fishes to which the Mediterranean 
species belongs, and which is abundantly represented in tropical 
and sub-tropical seas, especially in rocky parts or on coral reefs. 
Some ninety species are known. In the majority a long fin 
runs from the head along the back, round the tail to the vent, 



but all are destitute of pectoral and ventral fins. The skin is 
scaleless and smooth, in many species ornamented with varied 
and bright colours, so that these fishes are frequently mistaken 
for snakes. The mouth is wide, the jaws strong and armed with 
formidable, generally sharply pointed, teeth, which enable the 
Muraena not only to seize its prey (which chiefly consists of 
other fishes) but also to inflict serious, and sometimes danger- 
ous, wounds on its enemies. It attacks persons who approach 
its places of concealment in shallow water, and is feared by 

Some of the tropical Muraenas exceed a length of 10 ft., but 
most of the species, among them the Mediterranean species, 
attain to only half that length. The latter, the " morena " of 
the Italians and the Muraena Helena of ichthyologists, was 
considered by the ancient Romans to be one of the greatest 
delicacies, and was kept in large ponds and aquaria. It is not 
confined to the coasts of southern Europe, but is spread over the 
Indian Ocean, and is not uncommon on the coasts of Australia. 
Its body is generally of a rich brown, marked with large yellowish 
spots, each of which contains smaller brown spots. 

MURAL DECORATION, a general term for the art of ornament- 
ing wall surfaces. There is scarcely one of the numerous 
branches of decorative art which has not at some time or other 
been applied to this purpose. 1 For what may be called the 
practical or furnishing point of view, see WALL-COVERINGS. 
Here the subject is treated rather as part of the history of art. 

x. Reliefs sculptured in Marble or Stone. This is the oldest 
method of wall-decoration, of which numerous examples exist. 
The tombs and temples of Egypt are rich in this kind of mural 
ornament of various dates, extending over nearly 5000 years. 
These sculptures are, as a rule, carved in low relief; in many cases 
they are " counter-sunk," that is, the most projecting parts of 
the figures do not extend beyond the flat surface of the ground. 
Some unfinished reliefs discovered in the rock-cut tombs of 
Thebes show the manner in which the sculptor set to work. 
The plain surface of the stone was marked out by red lines into a 
number of squares of equal size. The use of this was probably 
twofold: first, as a guide in enlarging the design from a small 
drawing, a method still commonly practised; second, to help the 
artist to draw his figures with just proportions, following the 
strict canons which were laid down by the Egyptians. No 
excessive realism or individuality of style arising from a careful 
study of the life-model was permitted. 2 When the surface had 
been covered with these squares, the artist drew with a brush 
dipped in red the outlines of his relief, and then cut round them 
with his chisel. 

When the relief was finished, it was, as a rule, entirely painted 
over with much minuteness and great variety of colours. More 
rarely the ground was left the natural tint of the stone or marble, 
and only the figures and hieroglyphs painted. In the case of 
sculpture in hard basalt or granite the painting appears often 
to have been omitted altogether. The absence of perspective 
effects and the severe self-restraint of the sculptors in the matter 
of composition show a sense of artistic fitness in this kind of 
decoration. That the rigidity of these sculptured pictures did 
not arise from want of skill or observation of nature on the part 
of the artists is apparent when we examine their representations 
of birds and animals; the special characteristics of each creature 
and species were unerringly caught by the ancient Egyptian, 
and reproduced in stone or colour, in a half-symbolic way, 
suggesting those peculiarities of form, plumage, or movement 
which are the " differentia " of each, other ideas bearing less 
directly on the point being eliminated. 

The subjects of these mural sculptures are endless; almost 
every possible incident in man's life here or beyond the grave 
is reproduced with the closest detail. The tomb of Tih at 
Sakkarah (about 4500 B.C.) has some of the finest and earliest 
specimens of these mural sculptures, especially rich in illustra- 

TILES; also EGYPT; Art and Archaeology; GREEK ART; ROMAN ART; 

1 During the earliest times more than 4000 years before our era 
there appear to have been exceptions to this rule. 

lions of the domestic life and occupations of the Egyptians. 
The latter tombs, as a rule, have sculptures depicting the religious 
ritual and belief of the people, and the temples combine these 
hieratic subjects with the history of the reigns and victor'es of 
the Egyptian kings. 

The above remarks as to style and manner of execution may 
be applied also to the wall-sculptures from the royal palaces of 
Nineveh and Babylon, the finest of which are shown by inscrip- 
tions to date from the time of Sennacherib to that of Sardana- 
palus (from 705 to 625 B.C.). These are carved in low relief with 
almost gem-like delicacy of detail on enormous slabs of white 
marble. The sacred subjects, generally representing the king 
worshipping one of the numerous Assyrian gods, are mostly 
large, often colossal in scale. The other subjects, illustrating 
the life and amusements of the king, his prowess in war or 
hunting, or long processions of prisoners and tribute-bearers 
coming to do him homage, are generally smaller and in some cases 
very minute in scale (fig. i). The arrangement of these reliefs 

FIG. i. -Assyrian Relief, on a Marble Wall-slab from the Palace 
of Sardanapalus at Nineveh. 

in long horizontal bands, and their reserved conventional treat- 
ment are somewhat similar to those of ancient Egypt, but they 
show a closer attention to anatomical truth and a greater 
love for dramatic effect than any of the Egyptian reliefs. As in 
the art of Egypt, birds and animals are treated with greater 
realism than human figures. A relief in the British Museum, 
representing a lioness wounded by an arrow in her spine and 
dragging helplessly her paralysed hind legs, affords an example 
of wonderful truth and pathos. Remarkable technical skill is 
shown in all these sculptures by the way in which the sculptors 
have obtained the utmost amount of effect with the smallest 
possible amount of relief, in this respect calling strongly to mind 
a similar peculiarity in the work of the Florentine Donatello. 

The palace at Mashita on the hajj road in Moab, built by the 
Sasanian Chosroes II. (A.D. 614-627), is ornamented on the 
exterior with beautiful surface sculpture in stone. The designs 
are of peculiar interest as forming a link between Assyrian and 
Byzantine art, and they are not remotely connected with the 
decoration on Moslem buildings of comparatively modern 
date. 3 

Especially in Italy during the middle ages a similar treatment 

* Among the Mashita carvings occurs that oldest and most widely 
spread of all forms of Aryan ornament the sacred tree between two 
animals. The sculptured slab over the " lion-gate " at Mycenae 
has the other common variety of this motive^ the fire-altar between 
the beasts. These designs, occasionally varied by figures of human 
worshippers instead of the beasts, survived long after their meaning 
had been forgotten; even down to the present day they frequently 
appear on carpets and other textiles of Oriental manufacture. 


of marble in low relief was frequently used for wall-decoration. 
The most notable example is the beautiful series of reliefs on the 
west front of Orvieto Cathedral, the work of Giovanni Pisano and 
his pupils in the early part of the i4th century. These are small 
reliefs, illustrative of the Old and New Testaments, of graceful 
design and skilful execution. A growth of branching foliage 
serves to unite and frame the tiers of subjects. 

Of a widely different class, but of considerable importance in 
the history of mural decoration, are the beautiful reliefs, sculp- 
tured in stone and marble, with which Moslem buildings in 
many parts of the world are ornamented. These are mostly 
geometrical patterns of great intricacy, which cover large 
surfaces, frequently broken up into panels by bands of more 
flowing ornament or Arabic inscriptions. The mosques of 
Cairo, India and Persia, and the domestic Moslem buildings of 
Spain are extremely rich in this method of decoration. In 
western Europe, especially during the isth century, stone 
panelled-work with rich tracery formed a large part of the scheme 
of decoration in all the more splendid buildings. Akin to this, 
though without actual relief, is the stone tracery inlaid flush 
into rough flint walls which was a mode of ornament largely 
used for enriching the exteriors of churches in the counties of 
Norfolk and Suffolk. It is almost peculiar to that district, and 
is an example of the skill and taste with which the medieval 
builders adapted their method of ornamentation to the materials 
in hand. 

2. Marble Veneer. Another widely used method of mural 
decoration has been the application of thin marble linings to 
wall-surfaces, the decorative effect being produced by the natural 
beauty of the marble itself and not by sculptured reliefs. One of 
the oldest buildings in the world, the so-called " Temple of the 
Sphinx " among the Giza pyramids, is built of great blocks of 
granite, the inside of the rooms being lined with slabs of semi- 
transparent African alabaster about 3 in. thick. In the ist cen- 
tury thin veneers of richly coloured marbles were largely used 
by the Romans to decorate brick and stone walls. Pliny (H. N. 
xxxvi. 6) speaks of this practice as being a new and degenerate 
invention in his time. Many examples exist at Pompeii and in 
other Roman buildings. Numerous Byzantine churches, such 
as St Saviour's at Constantinople, and St George's, Thessalonica, 
have the lower part of the internal walls richly ornamented in 
this way. It was commonly used to form a dado, the upper part 
of the building being covered with mosaic. The cathedral of 
Monreale and other Siculo-Norman buildings owe a great deal 
of their splendour to these linings of richly variegated marbles. 
In most cases the main surface is of light-coloured marble or 
alabaster, inlaid bands of darker tint or coloured mosaic being 
used to divide the surface into panels. The peculiar Italian- 
Gothic of northern and central Italy during the I4th and isth 
centuries, and at Venice some centuries earlier, relied greatly 
for its effects on this treatment of marble. St Mark's at Venice 
and the cathedral of Florence are magnificent examples of this 
work used externally. Both inside and out most of the richest 
examples of Moslem architecture owe much to this method of 
decoration; the mosques and palaces of India and Persia are in 
many cases completely lined with the most brilliant sorts of 
marble of contrasting tints. 

3. Wall-Linings of Glazed Bricks or Tiles. This is a very 
important class of decoration, and from its almost imperishable 
nature, its richness of colour, and its brilliance of surface is 
capable of producing a splendour of effect only rivalled by glass 
mosaics. In the less important form that of bricks modelled 
or stamped in relief with figures and inscriptions, and then coated 
with a brilliant colour in siliceous enamel it was largely used 
by the ancient Egyptians and Assyrians as well as by the later 
Sasanians of Persia. In the nth and 1 2th centuries the Moslems 
of Persia brought this art to great perfection, and used it on a 
large scale, chiefly, though not invariably, for internal walls. 
The main surfaces were covered by thick earthenware tiles, 
overlaid with a white enamel. These were not rectangular, but 
of various shapes, mostly some form of a star, arranged so as to 
fit closely together. Delicate and minute patterns were then 

painted on the tiles, after the first firing, in a copper-like colour 
with strong metallic lustre, produced by the deoxidization of 
a metallic salt in the process of the second firing. Bands and 
friezes with Arabic inscriptions, modelled boldly in high relief, 
were used to break up the monotony of the surface. In these, 
as a rule, the projecting letters were painted blue, and the flat 
ground enriched with very minute patterns in the lustre-colour. 
This combination of bold relief and delicate painting produces 
great vigour and richness of effect, equally telling whether viewed 
in the mass or closely examined tile by tile. In the i5th century 
lustre-colours, though still largely employed for plates, vases and 
other vessels, especially in Spain, were little used for tiles; and 
another class of ware, rich in the variety and brilliance of its 
colours, was extensively used by Moslem builders all over the 
Mahommedan world. The most sumptuous sorts of tiles used 
for wall-coverings are those of the so-called " Rhodian " and 
Damascene wares, the work of Persian potters at many places. 
Those made at Rhodes are coarsely executed in comparison with 
the produce of the older potteries at Isfahan and Damascus 
(see CERAMICS). These are rectangular tiles of earthenware, 
covered with a white " slip," and painted in brilliant colours with 
slight conventionalized representations of various flowers, 
especially the rose, the hyacinth and the carnation. The red 
used is applied in considerable body, so as to stand out in slight 
relief. Another class of design is more geometrical, forming 
regular repeats; but the most beautiful compositions are those 
in which the natural growth of trees and flowers is imitated, the 
branches and blossoms spreading over a large surface covered by 
hundreds of tiles without any repetition. One of the finest 
examples is the " Mecca wall " in the mosque of Ibrahim Agha, 
Cairo; and other Egyptian mosques are adorned in the same way 
(fig. 2). Another variety, the special production of Damascus, 

FIG. 2. One of the Wall-tiles from the Mosque of Ibrahim 
Agha, Cairo. (10 in. square.) 

has the design almost entirely executed in blue. It was about 
A.D. 1600, in the reign of Shah Abbas I., that this class of pottery 
was brought to greatest perfection, and it is in Persia that the 
most magnificent examples are found, dating from the izth to 
the 1 7th centuries. The most remarkable examples for beauty 
and extent are the mosque at Tabriz, built by Ah' Khoja in the 
1 2th century, the ruined tomb of Sultan Khodabend (A.D. 1303- 
1316) at Sultaniyas, the palace of Shah Abbas I. and the tomb 
of Abbas II. (d. A.D. 1666) at Isfahan, all of which buildings are 
covered almost entirely inside and out. 

Another important class of wall-tiles are those manufactured 
by the Spanish Moors, called " azulejos," especially during the 
1 4th century. These are in a very different style, being designed 



to suggest or imitate mosaic. They have intricate inter- 
lacing geometrical patterns marked out by lines in slight 
relief; brilliant enamel colours were then burned into the tile, 
the projecting lines forming boundaries for the pigments. A 
rich effect is produced by this combination of relief apd colour. 
They are mainly used for dadoes about 4 ft. high, often sur- 
mounted by a band of tiles with painted inscriptions. The 
Alhambra and Generalife Palaces at Granada, begun in the 
I3th century, but mainly built and decorated by Yusuf I. and 
Mahommed V. (A.D. 1333-1391), and the Alcazar at Seville have 
the most beautiful examples of these " azulejos." The latter 
building chiefly owes its decorations to Pedro the Cruel (A.D. 
1364), who employed Moorish workmen for its tile-coverings 
and other ornaments. Many other buildings in southern Spain 
are enriched in the same way, some as late as the i6th century. 

Almost peculiar to Spain are a variety of wall-tile the work of 
Italians in the i6th and I7th centuries. These are effective, 
though rather coarsely painted, and have a rich yellow as the 
predominant colour. The Casa de Pilatos and Isabel's Chapel 
in the Alcazar Palace, both at Seville, have the best specimens 
of these, dating about the year 1 500. In other Western countries 
tiles have been used more for pavements than for wall-decoration. 

4. Wall-Coverings of Hard Stucco, frequently enriched with 
Reliefs. The Greeks and Romans possessed the secret of making 
a hard kind of stucco, creamy in colour, and capable of receiving 
a polish like that of marble; it would stand exposure to the 
weather. Those of the early Greek temples which were built, 
not of marble, but of stone, such as the Doric temples at Aegina, 
Phigaleia, Paestum and Agrigentum, were all entirely coated 
inside and out with this material, an admirable surface for the 
further polychromatic decoration with which all Greek buildings 
seem to have been ornamented. Another highly artistic use 
of stucco among the Greeks and Romans, for the interiors of 
buildings, consisted in covering the walls and vaults with a 
smooth coat, on which while still wet the outlines of figures, 

FIG. 3. Modelled Stucco Wall-Relief, from a Tomb in Magna 
Graecia. (About half full size.) 

groups and other ornaments were sketched with a point; more 
stucco was then applied in lumps and rapidly modelled into 
delicate relief before it had time to set. Some tombs in Magna 
Graecia of the 4th century B.C. are decorated in this way with 

figures of nymphs, cupids, animals and wreaths, all of which are 
models of grace and elegance, and remarkable for the dexterous 
way in which a few rapid touches of the modelling tool or thumb 
have produced a work of the highest artistic beauty (fig. 3). 
Roman specimens of this sort of decoration are common, fine 
examples have been found in the baths of Titus and numerous 
tombs near Rome, as well as in many of the houses of Pompeii. 

FIG. 4. Stucco Wall-Relief, from the Alhambra. 

These are mostly executed with great skill and frequently 
with good taste, though in some cases, especially at Pompeii, 
elaborate architectural compositions with awkward attempts at 
effects of violent perspective, modelled in slight relief on flat 
wall-surfaces, produce an unpleasing effect. Other Pompeian 
examples, where the surface is divided into flat panels, each 
containing a figure or group, have great merit for their delicate 
richness, v/ithout offending against the canons of wall-decoration, 
one of the first conditions of which is that no attempt should be 
made to disguise the fact of its being a solid wall and a flat 

The Moslem architects of the middle ages made great use of 
stucco ornament both for external and internal walls. The 
stucco is modelled in high or low relief in great variety of geo- 
metrical patterns, alternating with bands of more flowing 
ornament or long Arabic inscriptions. Many of their buildings, 
such as the mosque of Tulun at Cairo (A.D. 879), owe nearly all 
their beauty to this fine stucco work, the purely architectural 
shell of the structure being often simple and devoid of ornament. 
These stucco reliefs were, as a rule, further decorated with 
delicate painting in gold and colours. The Moorish tower at 
Segovia in Spain is a good example of this class of ornament used 
externally. With the exception of a few bands of brick and the 
stone quoins at the angles, the whole exterior of the tower is 
covered with a network of stucco reliefs in simple geometrical 
patterns. The Alhambra at Granada and the Alcazar at Seville 
have the richest examples of this work. The lower part of the 
walls is lined with marble or tiles to a height of about 4 ft. and 
above that in many cases the whole surface is encrusted with 
these reliefs, the varied surface of which, by producing endless 
gradations of shadow, takes away any possible harshness from 
the brilliance of the gold and colours (fig. 4). 

During the i6th century, and even earlier, stucco wall-reliefs 
were used with considerable skill and decorative effect in Italy, 
England and other Western countries. Perhaps the most graceful 


examples are the reliefs with which Vasari in the i6th century 
encrusted pillars and other parts of the court in the Florentine 
Palazzo Vecchio, built of plain stone by Michelozzo in 1454. 
Some are of flowing vines and other plants winding spirally 
round the columns. The English examples of this work are 
effectively designed, though coarser in execution. The outside 
of a half-timbered house in the market-place at Newark-upon- 
Trent has high reliefs in stucco of canopied figures, dating from 
the end of the isth century. The counties of Essex and Suffolk 
are rich in examples of this work used externally; and many 
16th-century houses in England have fine internal stucco 
decoration, especially Hardwicke Hall (Derbyshire), one of the 
rooms of which has the upper part of the wall enriched with 
life-sized stucco figures in high relief, forming a deep frieze all 

5. Sgraffito. This is a variety of stucco work used chiefly in 
Italy from the i6th century downwards, and employed only for 
exteriors of buildings, especially the palaces of Tuscany and 
northern Italy. The wall is covered with a coat of stucco made 
black by an admixture of charcoal; over this a second thin coat 
of white stucco is laid. When it is all hard the design is produced 
by cutting and scratching away the white skin, so as to show the 
black under-coat. Thus the drawing appears in black on a white 
ground. This work is effective at a distance, as it requires a 
bold style of handling, in which the shadows are indicated by 
cross-hatched lines more or less near together. 1 Flowing ara- 
besques mixed with grotesque figures occur most frequently in 
sgraffito. In recent years the sgraffito method has been revived; 
and the result of Mr Moody's experiments may be seen on the 
east wall of the Royal College of Science in Exhibition Road, 

6. Stamped Leather. This was a magnificent and expensive 
form of wall-hanging, chiefly used during the i6th and lyth 
centuries. Skins, generally of goats or calves, were well tanned 
and cut into rectangular shapes. They were then covered with 

FIG. 5. Italian Stamped Leather; i6th century, 
silver leaf, which was varnished with a transparent yellow lacquer 
making the silver look like gold. The skins were then stamped 
or embossed with patterns in relief, formed by heavy pressure 
from metal dies, one in relief and the other sunk. The reliefs 
were then painted by hand in many colours, generally brilliant 
1 A good description of the process is given by Vasari, Tre arti del 
disegno, cap. xxvi. 

in tone. Italy and Spain (especially Cordova) were important 
seats of this manufacture; and in the 17th century a large 
quantity was produced in France. Fig. 5 gives a good example 
of Italian stamped leather of the i6th century. In England, 
chiefly at Norwich, this manufacture was carried on in the 
1 7th and i8th centuries. In durability and richness of effect 
stamped leather surpasses most other forms of movable wall- 

7. Painted Cloth. Another form of wall-hanging, used most 
largely during the isth and i6th centuries, and in a less extensive 
way a good deal earlier, is canvas painted to imitate tapestry. 
English medieval inventories both of ecclesiastical and domestic 
goods frequently contain items such as these: " stayned cloths 
for hangings," " paynted cloths with stories and batailes," or 
" paynted cloths of beyond sea work," or " of Flaunder's work." 
Many good artists working at Ghent and Bruges during the first 
half of the isth century produced fine work of this class, as well 
as designs for real tapestry. Several of the great Italian artists 
devoted their skill in composition and invention to the painting 
of these wall-hangings. The most important existing example 
is the series of paintings of the triumph of Julius Caesar executed 
by Andrea Mantegna (1485-1492) for Ludovico Gonzaga, duke 
of Mantua, and now at Hampton Court. These are usually, 
but wrongly, called " cartoons," as if they were designs meant 
to be executed in tapestry; this is not the case, as the paintings 
themselves were used as wall-hangings. They are nine in number 
and each compartment, 9 ft. square, was separated from the next 
by a pilaster. They form a continuous procession, with life- 
sized figures, remarkable for their composition, drawing and 
delicate colouring the latter unfortunately much disguised by 
" restoration." Like most of these painted wall-hangings, 
they are executed in tempera, and rather thinly painted, so 
that the pigment might not crack off through the cloth falling 
slightly into folds. Another remarkable series of painted cloth 
hangings are those at Reims Cathedral. In some cases dyes 
were used for this work. A MS. of the isth century gives 
receipts for " painted cloth," showing that sometimes they were 
dyed in a manner similar to those Indian stuffs which were 
afterwards printed, and are now called chintzes. These 
receipts are for real dyes, not for pigments, and among them 
is the earliest known description of the process called "setting" 
the woad or indigo vat, as well as a receipt for removing or 
" discharging " the colour from a cloth already dyed. Another 
method employed was a sort of " encaustic " process; the cloth 
was rubbed all over with wax, and then painted in tempera; 
heat was then applied so that the colours sank into the melting 
wax, and were thus firmly fixed upon the cloth. 

8. Printed Hangings and Wail-Papers. The printing of 
various textiles with dye-colours and mordants is probably one 
of the most ancient arts. Pliny (H. N. xxxv.) describes a 
dyeing process employed by the ancient Egyptians, in which 
the pattern was probably formed by printing from blocks. 
Various methods have been used for this work wood blocks in 
relief, engraved metal plates, stencil plates and even hand- 
painting; frequently two or more of these methods have 
been employed for the same pattern. The use of printed stuffs 
is of great antiquity among the Hindus and Chinese, and 
was certainly practised in western Europe in the I3th century, 
and perhaps earlier. The Victoria and Albert Museum has 
13th-century specimens of block-printed silk made in Sicily, of 
beautiful design. Towards the end of the i4th century a 
great deal of block-printed linen was made in Flanders, and 
largely imported into England. 

Wall-papers did not come into common use in Europe till the 
1 8th century, though they appear to have been used much 
earlier by the Chinese. A few rare examples exist in England 
which may be as early as the i6th century; these are imitations, 
generally in flock, of the fine old Florentine and Genoese cut 
velvets, and hence the style of the design in no way shows the 
date of the wall-paper, the same traditional patterns being 
reproduced for many years with little or no change. Machinery 
enabling paper to be made in long strips was not invented till 



the end of the i8th century, and up to that time wall-papers 
were printed on small square pieces of hand-made paper, difficult 
to hang, disfigured by numerous joints, and comparatively 
costly; on these accounts wall-papers were slow in superseding 
the older modes of mural decoration. A little work by Jackson 
of Battersea, printed in London in 1744, throws some light on 
the use of wall-papers at that time. He gives reduced copies 
of his designs, mostly taken from Italian pictures or antique 
sculpture during his residence in Venice. Instead of flowing 
patterns covering the wall, his designs are all pictures land- 
scapes, architectural scenes or statues treated as panels, with 
plain paper or painting between. They are all printed in oil, 
with wooden blocks worked with a rolling press, apparently an 
invention of his own. They are all in the worst possible taste, 
and yet are offered as great improvements on the Chinese papers 
which he says were then in fashion. Fig. 6 is a good English 

FIG. 6. Early 18th-century Wail-Paper. (22 in. wide.) 
example of 18th-century wall-paper printed on squares of stout 
hand-made paper 22 in. wide. The design is apparently copied 
from an Indian chintz. 

In the iQth century in England, a great advance in the 
designing of wall-papers was made by William Morris and his 

9. Painting. This is naturally the most important and the 
most widely used of all forms of wall-decoration, as well as 
perhaps the earliest. 

Egypt (see EGYPT: Art and Archaeology) is the chief store- 
house of ancient specimens of this, as of almost all the arts. 
Owing to the intimate connexion between the 
platings, sculpture and painting of early times, the remarks 
above as to subjects and treatment under the head 
of Egyptian wall-sculpture will to a great extent apply also to 
the paintings. It is an important fact, which testifies to the 
antiquity of Egyptian civilization, that the earliest paintings, 
dating more than 4000 years before our era, are also the cleverest 
both in drawing and execution. In later times the influence of 
Egyptian art, especially in painting, was important even among 

distant nations. In the 6th century B.C. Egyptian colonists, 
introduced by Cambyses into Persepolis, influenced the painting 
and sculpture of the great Persian Empire and throughout the 
valley of the Euphrates. In a lesser degree the art of Babylon 
and Nineveh had felt considerable Egyptian influence several 
centuries earlier. The same influence affected the early art of 
the Greeks and the Etrurians, and it was not till the middle of 
the 5th century B.C. that the further development and perfecting 
of art in Greece obliterated the old traces of Egyptian mannerism. 
After the death of Alexander the Great, when Egypt came into 
the possession of the Lagidae (320 B.C.), the tide of influence 
flowed the other way, and Greek art modified though it did not 
seriously alter the characteristics of Egyptian painting and 
sculpture, which retained much of their early formalism and 
severity. Yet the increased sense of beauty, especially in the 
human face, derived from the Greeks was counterbalanced by 
loss of vigour; art under the Ptolemies became a dull copy ism 
of earlier traditions. 

The general scheme of mural painting in the buildings of 
ancient Egypt was complete and magnificent. Columns, 
mouldings and other architectural features were enriched with 
patterns in brilliant colours; the fiat wall -spaces were covered 
with figure-subjects, generally in horizontal bands, and the 
ceilings were ornamented with sacred symbols, such as the vulture 
or painted blue and studded with gold stars to symbolize the 
sky. The wall-paintings are executed in tempera on a thin skin 

(Taken from Lottie's Ride in Egypt.) 

FIG. 7. Egyptian Wall-Painting of the Ancient Empire 
in the Bulak Museum. 

of fine lime, laid over the brick, stone or marble to form a smooth 
and slightly absorbent coat to receive the pigments, which were 
most brilliant in tone and of great variety of tint. Not employing 
fresco, the Egyptian artists were not restricted to " earth colours," 
but occasionally used purples, pinks and greens which would 
have been destroyed by fresh lime. The blue used is very 
beautiful, and is generally laid on in considerable body it is 
frequently a " smalt " or deep-blue glass, coloured by copper 
oxide, finely powdered. Red and yellow ochre, carbon-black, 
and powdered chalk-white are most largely used. Though in 
the paintings of animals and birds considerable realism is often 
seen (fig. 7), yet for human figures certain conventional colours 
are employed, e.g. white for females' flesh, red for the males, or 
black to indicate people of negro race. Heads are painted in 
profile, and little or no shading is used. Considerable knowledge 
of harmony is shown in the arrangement of the colours; and 
otherwise harsh combinations of tints are softened and brought 
into keeping by thin separating lines of white or yellow. Though 
at first sight the general colouring, if seen in a museum, may 
appear crude, yet it should be remembered that the internal 
paintings were much softened by the dim light in Egyptian 
buildings, and those outside were subdued by contrast with the 
brilliant sunshine under which they were always seen. 

The rock-cut sepulchres of the Etrurians supply the only 
existing specimens of their mural painting; and, unlike the 
tombs of Egypt, only a small proportion appear to BtruKM 
have been decorated in this way. The actual dates p a i a ti ag . 
of these paintings are very uncertain, but they range 
possibly from about the 8th century B.C. down to almost the 
Christian era. The tombs which possess these paintings are 



mostly square-shaped rooms, with slightly-arched or gabled roofs, 
excavated in soft sandstone or tufa hillsides. The earlier ones 
show Egyptian influence in drawing and in composition : they 
are broadly designed with flat unshaded tints, the faces in profile, 
except the eyes, which are drawn as if seen in front. Colours, as 
in Egypt, are used conventionally male flesh red, white or 
pale yellow for the females, black for demons. In one respect 
these paintings differ from those of the Egyptians; few colours 
are used red, brown, and yellow ochres, carbon-black, lime or 
chalk-white, and occasionally blue are the only pigments. The 
rock-walls are prepared by being covered with a thin skin of 
lime stucco, and lime or chalk is mixed in small quantities with 
all the colours; hence the restriction to " earth pigments," made 
necessary by the dampness of these subterranean chambers. 
The process employed was in fact a kind of fresco, though the 
stucco ground was not applied in small patches only sufficient 
for the day's work; the dampness of the rock was enough to 
keep the stucco skin moist, and so allow the necessary infiltration 
of colour from the surface. Many of these paintings when first 
discovered were fresh in tint and uninjured by time, but they are 
soon dulled by exposure to light. In the course of centuries 
great changes of style naturally took place; the early Egyptian 
influence, probably brought to Etruria through the Phoenician 
traders, was succeeded by an even more strongly-marked Greek 
influence at first archaic and stiff, then developing into great 
beauty of drawing, and finally yielding to the Roman spirit, as 
the degradation of Greek art advanced under their powerful but 
inartistic Roman conquerors. 

Throughout this succession of styles Egyptian, Greek and 
Graeco-Roman there runs a distinct undercurrent of individu- 
ality due to the Etruscans themselves. This appears not only 
in the drawing but also in the choice of subjects. In addition 
to pictures of banquets with musicians and dancers, hunting 
and racing scenes, the workshops of different craftsmen and other 
domestic subjects, all thoroughly Hellenic in sentiment, other 
paintings occur which are very un-Greek in feeling. These 
represent the judgment and punishment of souls in a future life. 
Mantus, Charun and other infernal deities of the Rasena, 
hideous in aspect and armed with hammers, or furies depicted 
as black-bearded demons winged and brandishing live snakes, 
terrify or torture shrinking human souls. Others, not the earliest 
in date, represent human sacrifices, such as those at the tomb of 
Patroclus a class of subjects which, though Homeric, appears 
rarely to have been selected by Greek painters. The constant 
import into Etruria of large quantities of fine Greek painted 
vases appears to have contributed to keep up the supremacy of 
Hellenic influence during many centuries, and by their artistic 
superiority to have prevented the development of a more original 
and native school of art. Though we now know Etruscan 
painting only from the tombs, yet Pliny mentions (H . N. xxxv. 3) 
that fine wall-paintings existed in his time, with colours yet 
fresh, on the walls of ruined temples at Ardea and Lanuvium, 
executed, he says, before the founding of Rome. As before men- 
tioned, the actual dates of the existing paintings are uncertain. 
It cannot therefore be asserted that any existing specimens are 
much older than 600 B.C., though some, especially at Veii, 
certainly appear to have the characteristics of more remote 
antiquity. The most important of these paintings have been 
discovered in the cemeteries of Veii, Caere, Tarquinii, Vulci, 
Cervetri and other Etruscan cities. 

Even in Egypt the use of colour does not appear to have been 
more universal than it was among the Greeks (see GREEK ART), 
Greek w ^ a PP ue d ' lt freely to their marble statues and 
Paiatiag. reliefs, the whole of their buildings inside and out, 
as well as for the decoration of flat wall-surfaces. 
They appear to have cared little for pure form, and not to have 
valued the delicate ivory-like tint and beautiful texture of their 
fine Pentelic and Parian marbles, except as a ground for coloured 
ornament. A whole class of artists, called A-yaX/jdmoi' tyKavarai, 
were occupied in colouring marble sculpture, and their services 
were very highly valued. 1 In seme cases, probably for the sake of 

1 This process, circumlitio, is mentioned by Pliny (H. N. xxxv. 40). 

hiding the joints and getting a more absorbent surface, the 
marble, however pure and fine in texture, was covered with a 
thin skin of stucco made of mixed lime and powdered marble. 
An alabaster sarcophagus, found in a tomb near Corneto, and 
now in the Etruscan museum at Florence, is decorated outside 
with beautiful purely Greek paintings, executed on a stucco 
skin as hard and smooth as the alabaster. The pictures represent 
combats of the Greeks and Amazons. The colouring, though 
rather brilliant, is simply treated, and the figures are kept 
strictly to one plane without any attempt at complicated 
perspective. Other valuable specimens of Greek art, found at 
Herculaneum and now in the Naples Museum, are some small 
paintings, one of girls playing with dice, another of Theseus and 
the Minotaur. These are painted with miniature-like delicacy on 
the bare surface of marble slabs; they are almost monochromatic, 
and are of the highest beauty both in drawing and in gradations 
of shadow quite unlike any of the Greek vase-paintings. The 
first-mentioned painting is signed AAEEANAPOS A6HNAI02. 
It is probable that the strictly archaic paintings of the Greeks, 
such as those of Polygnotus in the 5th century B.C., executed 
with few and simple colours, had much resemblance to those on 
vases, but Pliny is wrong when he asserts that, till the time of 
Apelles (c. 350-310 B.C.), the Greek painters only used black, 
white, red and yellow. 2 Judging from the peculiar way in which 
the Greeks and their imitators the Romans used the names of 
colours, it appears that they paid more attention to tones and 
relations of colour than to actual hues. Thus most Greek and 
Latin colour-names are now untranslatable. Homer's " wine- 
like sea " (olvoi/), Sophocles's " wine-coloured ivy " ((Ed. Col.), 
and Horace's " purpureus olor " probably refer less to what we 
should call colour than to the chromatic strength of the various 
objects and their more or less strong powers of reflecting light, 
either in motion or when at rest. Nor have we any word like 
Virgil's " flavus," which could be applied both to a lady's hair 
and to the leaf of an olive-tree. 3 

During the best periods of Greek art the favourite classes of 
subjects were scenes from poetry, especially Homer and con- 
temporary history. The names TnvaKoOriia] and trroa iromXij 
were given to many public buildings from their walls being 
covered with paintings. Additional interest was given to the 
historical subjects by the introduction of portraits; e.g. in the 
great picture of the battle of Marathon (490 B.C.), on the walls of 
the errod irotKtXij in Athens, portraits were given of the Greek 
generals Miltiades, Callimachus, and others. This picture was 
painted about forty years after the battle by Polygnotus and 
Micon. One of the earliest pictures recorded by Pliny (xxxv. 8) 
represented a battle of the Magnesians (c. 716 B.C.); it was 
painted by Bularchus, a Lydian artist, and bought at a high 
price by King Candaules. Many other important Greek 
historical paintings are mentioned by Pausanias and earlier 
writers. The Pompeian mosaic of the defeat of the Persians by 
Alexander is probably a Romanized copy from some celebrated 
Greek painting; it obviously was not designed for mosaic 

Landscape painting appears to have been unknown among the 
Greeks, even as a background to figure-subjects. The poems 
especially of Homer and Sophocles show that this was not through 
want of appreciation of the beauties of nature, but partly, 
probably, because the main object of Greek painting was to tell 
some definite story, and also from their just sense of artistic 
fitness, which prevented them from attempting in their mural 
decorations to disguise the flat solidity of the walls by delusive 
effects of aerial perspective and distance. 

It is interesting to note that even in the time of Alexander 
the Great the somewhat archaic works of the earlier painters 
were still appreciated. In particular Aristotle praises Polygnotus, 

* Pliny's remarks on subjects such as this should be received with 
caution. He was neither a scientific archaeologist nor a practical 

s So also a meaning unlike ours is attached to Greek technical 
words by rivm they meant, not " tone," but the gradations of 
light and shade, and by ApiMty/i the relations of colour. See Pliny, 
H. N. xxxv. 5 ; and Ruskin, Mod. Painters, pt. iv. cap. 13. 



both for his power of combining truth with idealization 
in his portraits and for his skill in depicting men's mental 
characteristics; on this account he calls him 6 i70o7P<i</>os. 
Lucian too praises Polygnotus alike for his grace, drawing and 
colouring. Later painters, such as Zeuxis and Apelles, appear 
to have produced easel pictures more than mural paintings, 
and these, being easy to move, were mostly carried off to Rome 
by the early emperors. Hence Pausanias, who visited Greece 
in the time of Hadrian, mentions but few works of the later 
artists. Owing to the lack of existing specimens of Greek 
painting it would be idle to attempt an account of their technical 
methods, but no doubt those employed by the Romans described 
below were derived with the rest of their art from the Greeks. 
Speaking of their stucco, Pliny refers its superiority over that 
made by the Romans to the fact that it was always made of 
lime at least three years old, and that it was well mixed and 
pounded in a mortar before being laid on the wall; he is here 
speaking of the thick stucco in many coats, not of the thin skin 
mentioned above as being laid on marble. Greek mural painting, 
like their sculpture, was chiefly used to decorate temples and 
public buildings, and comparatively rarely either for tombs 1 or 
private buildings at least in the days of their early republican 

A large number of Roman mural paintings (see also ROMAN 
ART) now exist, of which many were discovered in the private 
houses and baths of Pompeii, nearly all dating 
Painting, between A.D. 63, when the city was ruined by an 
earthquake, and A.D. 79, when it was buried by 
Vesuvius. A catalogue of these and similar paintings from Hercu- 
laneum and Stabiae, compiled by Professor Helbig, comprises 1 966 
specimens. The excavations in the baths of Titus and other 
ancient buildings in Rome, made in the early part of the i6th 
century, excited the keenest interest and admiration among the 
painters of that time, and largely influenced the later art of the 
Renaissance. These paintings, especially the " grotesques " 
or fanciful patterns of scroll-work and pilasters mixed with 
semi-realistic foliage and figures of boys, animals and birds, 
designed with great freedom of touch and inventive power, seem 
to have fascinated Raphael during his later period, and many of 
his pupils and contemporaries. The " loggie " of the Vatican 
and of the Farnesina palace are full of carefully studied 
16th-century reproductions of these highly decorative paintings. 
The excavations in Rome have brought to light some mural 
paintings of the ist century A.D., perhaps superior in execution 
even to the best of the Pompeian series (see Plate). 

The range of subjects found in Roman mural paintings is large 
mythology, religious ceremonies, genre, still life and even 
landscape (the latter generally on a small scale, and treated in an 
artificial and purely decorative way), and lastly history. Pliny 
mentions several large and important historical paintings, such 
as those with which Valerius Maximus Messala decorated the 
walls of the Curia Hostilia, to commemorate his own victory over 
Hiero II. and the Carthaginians in Sicily in the 3rd century B.C. 
The earliest Roman painting recorded by Pliny was by Fabius, 
surnamed Pictor, on the walls of the temple of Salus, executed 
about 300 B.C. (H.N. xxxv. 4). 

Pliny (xxxv. i) laments the fact that the wealthy Romans 
of his time preferred the costly splendours of marble and por- 
phyry wall-linings to the more artistic decoration of paintings 
by good artists. Historical painting seems then to have gone 
out of fashion; among the numerous specimens now existing 
few from Pompeii represent historical subjects; one has the 
scene of Massinissa and Sophonisba before Scipio, and another 
of a riot between the people of Pompeii and Nocera, which 
happened 59 A.D. 

Mythological scenes, chiefly from Greek sources, occur most 
frequently: the myths of Eros and Dionysus are especial 
favourites. Only five or six relate to purely Roman mythology. 

1 One instance only of a tomb-painting is mentioned by Pausanias 
(vii. 22). Some fine specimens have been discovered in the Crimea, 
but not of a very early date; see Stephani, Compte rendu, &c., 
(St Petersburg, 1878), &c. 

We have reason to think that some at least of the Pompeian 
pictures are copies, probably at third or fourth hand, from 
celebrated Greek originals. The frequently repeated subjects 
of Medea meditating the murder of her children and Iphigenia 
at the shrine of the Tauric Artemis suggest that the motive 
and composition were taken from the originals of these subjects 
by Timanthes. Those of lo and Argus, the finest example of 
which is in the Palatine " villa of Livia " and of Andromeda 
and Perseus, often repeated on Pompeian walls, may be from 
the originals by Nicias. 

In many cases these mural paintings are of high artistic 
merit, though they are probably not the work of the most 
distinguished painters of the time, but rather of a humbler 
class of decorators, who reproduced, without much original 
invention, stock designs out of some pattern-book. They 
are, however, all remarkable for the rapid skill and extreme 
" verve " and freedom of hand with which the designs are, as 
it were, flung on to the walls with few but effective touches. 
Though in some cases the motive and composition are superior 
to the execution, yet many of the paintings are remarkable 
both for their realistic truth and technical skill. The great 
painting of Ceres from Pompeii, now in the Naples Museum, 
is a work of the highest merit. 

In the usual scheme of decoration the broad wall-surfaces are 
broken up into a series of panels by pilasters, columns, or other 
architectural forms. Some of the panels contain pictures with 
figure-subjects; others have conventional ornament, or hanging 
festoons of fruit and flowers. The lower part of the wall is 
painted one plain colour, forming a dado; the upper part some- 
times has a well-designed frieze of flowing ornaments. In the 
better class of painted walls the whole is kept flat in treatment, 
and is free from too great subdivision, but in many cases great 
want of taste is shown by the introduction of violent effects of 
architectural perspective, and the space is broken up by ccm- 
plicated schemes of design, studded with pictures in varying 
scales which have little relation to their surroundings. The 
colouring is on the whole pleasant and harmonious unlike the 
usual chromo-lithographic copies. Black, yellow, or a rich deep 
red are the favourite colours for the main ground of the walls, 
the pictures in the panels being treated separately, each with its 
own background. 

An interesting series of early Christian mural paintings exists 
in various catacombs, especially those of Rome and Naples. 
They are of value both as an important link in the Egrly 
history of art and also as throwing light on the Christian 
mental state of the early Christians, which was dis- Painting la 
tinctly influenced by the older faith. Thus in the ltaly ' 
earlier paintings of about the 4th century we find Christ repre- 
sented as a beardless youth, beautiful as the artist could make 
him, with a lingering tradition of Greek idealization, in no degree 
like the " Man of Sorrows " of medieval painters, but rather 
a kind of genius of Christianity in whose fair outward form 
the peace and purity of the new faith were visibly symbolized, 
just as certain distinct attributes were typified in the persons 
of the gods of ancient Greece. The favourite early subject, 
" Christ the Good Shepherd " (fig. 8), is represented as Orpheus 
playing on his lyre to a circle of beasts, the pagan origin of the 
picture being shown by the Phrygian cap and by the presence of 
lions, panthers and other incongruous animals among the listen- 
ing sheep. In other cases Christ is depicted standing with a sheep 
borne on His shoulders like Hermes Criophoros or Hermes 
Psychopompos favourite Greek subjects, especially the former, 
a statue of which Pausanias (ix. 22) mentions as existing at 
Tanagra in Boeotia. Here again the pagan origin of the type 
is shown by the presence in the catacomb paintings of the pan- 
pipes and pedum, special attributes of Hermes, but quite foreign 
to the notion of Christ. Though in a degraded form, a good 
deal survives in some of these paintings, especially in the earlier 
ones, of the old classical grace of composition and beauty of 
drawing, notably in the above-mentioned representations where 
old models were copied without any adaptation to their new 
meaning. Those of the sth and 6th centuries follow the classical 




lines, though in a rapidly deteriorating style, until the introduc- 
tion of a foreign the Byzantine element, which created a 
fresh starting-point on different lines. The old naturalism and 
survival of classical freedom of drawing is replaced by stiff, 
conventionally hieratic types, superior in dignity and strength 
to the feeble compositions produced by the degradation into 
which the native art of Rome had fallen. The designs of this 
second period of Christian art are similar to those of the mosaics, 

FIG. 8. Painted Vault from the Catacombs of St.Callixtus, Rome. 
In the centre Orpheus, to represent Christ the Good Shepherd, 
and round are smaller paintings of various types of Christ. 

such as many at Ravenna, and also to the magnificently illumi- 
nated MSS. For some centuries there was little change or 
development in this Byzantine style of art, so that it is impossible 
in most cases to be sure from internal evidence of the date of 
any painting. This to some extent applies also to the works 
of the earlier or pagan school, though, roughly speaking, it may 
be said that the least meritorious pictures are the latest in 

These catacomb paintings range over a long space of time; 
some may possibly be of the ist or 2nd century, e.g. those 
in the cemetery of Domitilla, Rome; others are as late as the 
oth century, e.g. some full-length figures of St Cornelius and 
St Cyprian in the catacomb of St Callixtus, under which earlier 
paintings may be traced. In execution they somewhat resemble 
the Etruscan tomb-paintings; the walls of the catacomb passages 
and chambers, excavated in soft tufa, are covered with a thin 
skin of white stucco, and on that the mural and ceiling paintings 
are simply executed in earth colours. The favourite subjects 
of the earliest paintings are scenes from the Old Testament 
which were supposed to typify events in the life of Christ, such 
as the sacrifice of Isaac (Christ's death), Jonah and the whale 
(the Resurrection), Moses striking the rock, or pointing to the 
manna (Christ the water of life, and the Eucharist), and many 
others. The later paintings deal more with later subjects, 
either events in Christ's life or figures of saints and the miracles 
they performed. A fine series of these exists in the iower church 
of S. Clemente in Rome, apparently dating from the 6th to the 
loth centuries; among these are representations of the passion 
and death of Christ subjects never chosen by the earlier 
Christians, except as dimly foreshadowed by the Old Testament 
types. When Christ Himself is depicted in the early catacomb 
paintings it is in glory and power, not in His human weakness and 

Other early Italian paintings exist on the walls of the church 
of the Tre Fontane near Rome, and in the Capella di S. Urbano 
alia Caffarella, executed in the early part of the nth century. 
The atrium of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome, and the church 
of the Quattro Santi Incoronati have mural paintings of the 

first half of the I3th century, which show no artistic improve- 
ment over those at S. Clemente four or five centuries older. 

It was not in fact till the second half cf the I3th century 
that stiff traditional Byzantine forms and colouring began 
to be superseded by the revival of native art in Italy by 
the painters of Florence, Pisa and Siena. During the fiist 
thirteen centuries of the Christian era mural painting appears 
to have been for the most part confined to the repre- 
sentation of sacred subjects. It is remarkable that during 
the earlier centuries council after council of the Christian 
Church forbade the painting of figure-subjects, and especially 
those of any Person of the Trinity; but in vain. In spite 
of the zeal of bishops and others, who sometimes with their 
own hands defaced the pictures of Christ on the walls of 
the churches, in spite of threats of excommunication, the for- 
bidden paintings by degrees became more numerous, till the walls 
of almost every church throughout Christendom were decorated 
with whole series of pictured stories. The useless prohibition 
was becoming obsolete when, towards the end of the 4th century, 
the learned Paulinus, bishop of Nola, ordered the two basilicas 
which he had built at Fondi and Nola to be adorned with wall- 
paintings of sacred subjects, with the special object, as he says, 
of instructing and refining the ignorant and drunken people. 
These painted histories were in fact the books of the unlearned, 
and we can now hardly realize their value as the chief mode of 
religious teaching in ages when none but the clergy could read 
or write. 

During the middle ages, just as long before among the ancient 
Greeks, coloured decoration was used in the widest possible 
manner not only for the adornment of flat walls, English 
but also for the enrichment of sculpture and all the Mural 
fittings and architectural features of buildings, P'fattag. 
whether the material to be painted was plaster, stone, marble 
or wood. It was only the damp and frosts of northern climates 
that to some extent limited the external use of colour to the less 
exposed parts of the outsides of buildings. The varying tints 
and texture of smoothly worked stone appear to have given no 
pleasure to the medieval eye; and in the rare cases in which the 
poverty of some country church prevented its walls from being 
adorned with painted ornaments or pictures the whole surface 
of the stonework inside, mouldings and carving as well as 
flat wall-spaces, was covered with a thin coat of whitewash. 
Internal rough stonework was invariably concealed by stucco, 
forming a smooth ground for possible future paintings. Un- 
happily a great proportion of mural paintings have been de- 
stroyed, though many in a more or less mutilated state still exist 
in England. It is difficult (and doubly so since the so-called 
" restoration " of most old buildings) to realize the splendour 
of effect once possessed by every important medieval church. 
From the tiled floor to the roof all was one mass of gold and 
colour. The brilliance of the mural paintings and richly 
coloured sculpture and mouldings was in harmony with the 
splendour of the oak-work screens, stalls, and roofs all 
decorated with gilding and painting, while the light, passing 
through stained glass, softened and helped to combine 
the whole into one mass of decorative effect. Colour was 
boldly applied everywhere, and thus the patchy effect was 
avoided which is so often the result of the modern timid and 
partial use of painted ornament. Even the figure-sculpture 
was painted in a strong and realistic manner, sometimes by a 
wax encaustic process, probably the same as the circumlitio 
of classical times. In the accounts for expenses in decorating 
Orvieto cathedral wax is a frequent item among the materials 
used for painting. In one place it is mentioned that wax was 
supplied to Andrea Pisano (in 1345) for the decoration of the 
beautiful reliefs in white marble on the lower part of the west 

From the nth to the i6th century the lower part of the walls, 
generally 6 to 8 ft. from the floor, was painted with a dado 
the favourite patterns till the I3th century being either a sort 
of sham masonry with a flower in each rectangular space 
(fig. 9), or a conventional representation of a curtain with 


iegula.1 folds stiffly treated, 
pictures with figure-subjects 


FIG. 9. Wall-Paintingof the I3th 
century. " Masonry pattern." 

Above this dado ranges of 
were painted in tiers one 
above the other, each picture 
frequently surrounded by a 
painted frame with arch and 
gable of architectural design. 
Painted bands of chevron or 
other geometrical ornament 
till the I3th century, and 
flowing ornament afterwards, 
usually divide the tiers of pic- 
tures horizontally and form the 
top and bottom boundaries of 
the dado. In the case of a 
church, the end walls usually 
have figures to a larger scale. 

On the east wall of the nave over the chancel arch there was 
generally a large painting of the " Doom " or Last Judgment. 
One of the commonest subjects is a colossal figure of St Chris- 
topher (fig. 10) usually on the nave wail opposite the principal 

FIG. 10. Wall-Painting of St Christopher. (Large life-size.) 

entrance selected because the sight of a picture of this saint 
was supposed to bring good luck for the rest of the day. Figures 
were also often painted on the jambs of the windows and on the 
piers and soffit of the arches, especially that opening into the 

The little Norman church at Kempley in Gloucestershire (date 
about noo) has perhaps the best-preserved specimen of the com- 
plete early decoration of a chancel. 1 The north and south walls 
are occupied by figures of the twelve apostles in architectural 
niches, six on each side. The east wall had single figures of saints 
at the sides of the central window, and the stone barrel vault is 
covered with a representation of St John's apocalyptic vision 
Christ in majesty surrounded by the evangelistic beasts, the seven 
candlesticks and other figures. The chancel arch itself and the 
jambs and mouldings of the windows have stiff geometrical designs, 
and over the arch, towards the nave, is a large picture of the 
" Doom." The whole scheme is very complete, no part of the 
internal plaster or stonework being undecorated with colour. 
Though the drawing is rude, the figures and their drapery are 
treated broadly and with dignity. Simple earth colours are used, 
painted in tempera on a plain white ground, which covers alike 
both the plaster of the rough walls and the smooth stone of the 
arches and jambs. 

In the I3th century the painters of England reached a high 
point of artistic power and technical skill, so that paintings were 
produced by native artists equal, if not superior, to those of 
the same period anywhere on the Continent. The central 
paintings on the walls of the chapter-house and on the retable 
of the high altar of Westminster Abbey are not surpassed by 

1 See Archoeologia, vol. xlvi. (1880). 

any of the smaller works even of such men as Cimabue and Duccio 
di Buoninsegna, who were living when these Westminster 
paintings were executed. Unhappily, partly through the 
poverty and anarchy brought about by the French wars and 
the Wars of the Roses, the development of art in England made 
little progress after the beginning of the I4th century, and it 

FIG. 1 1 . i sth-century English Painting St John the Evangelist. 

was not till a time when the renaissance of art in Italy had fallen 
into decay that its influence reached the British shores. In 
the 1 5th century some beautiful work, somewhat affected by 
Flemish influence, was produced in England (fig. n), chiefly 
in the form of figures painted on the oak panels of chancel 
and chapel screens, especially in Norfolk and Suffolk; but these 
cannot be said to rival the works of the Van Eycks and other 
painters of that time in Flanders. To return to the i^th 
century, the culminating period of English art in painting and 
sculpture, much was owed to Henry III.'s love for and patronage 
of the fine arts; he employed a large number of painters to 
decorate his various castles and palaces, especially the palace of 
Westminster, one large hall of which was known as the " painted 


chamber " from the rovvs of fine pictures with which its walls 
were covered. After the i3th century the " masonry pattern " 
was disused for the lower parts of walls, and the chevrony and 
other stiff patterns for the borders were replaced by more flowing 
designs. The character of the painted figures became less 
monumental in style; greater freedom of drawing and treatment 
was adopted, and they cease to recall the archaic majesty and 
grandeur of the Byzantine mosaics. 

It may be noted that during the I4th century wall-spaces 
unoccupied by figure-subjects were often covered by graceful 
flowing patterns, drawn with great 
freedom and rather avoiding geo- 
metrical repetition. Fig. 12, from 
the church of Stanley St Leonard's, 
Gloucestershire, is a good character- 
istic specimen of 14th-century decora- 
tion; it is on the walls of the chancel, 
filling up the spaces between the 
painted figures; the flowers are blue, 
and the lines red on a white ground. 
In some cases the motive of the 
design is taken from encaustic tiles, 
: * Bengeo Church, Herts, where 
tne wa U ls divided into squares, each 
containing an heraldic lion. This 
imitative notion occurs during all periods masonry, hanging 
curtains, tiles and architectural features such as niches and 
canopies being very frequently represented, though always 
in a simple decorative fashion with no attempt at actual 
deception not probably from any fixed principle that shams 
were wrong, but because the good taste of the medieval 
painters taught them that a flat unrealistic treatment gave 
the best and most decorative effect. Thus in the isth and 
1 6th centuries the commonest forms of unpictorial wall- 
decoration were various patterns taken from the beautiful 
damasks and cut velvets of Sicily, Florence, Genoa and other 
places in Italy, some form of the " pine-apple " or rather " arti- 
choke " pattern being the favourite (fig. 13), a design which, 

tury Wall-Painting. 

FIG. 13. 15th-century Wall-Painting, taken from a Genoese 

or Florentine velvet design. 

developed partly from Oriental sources, and coming to perfection 
at the end of the i$th century, was copied and reproduced in 
textiles, printed stuffs and wall-papers with but little change 
down to the present century a remarkable instance of survival 
in design. Fig. 14 is a specimen of isth-century English decora- 
tive painting, copied from a 14th-century Sicilian silk damask. 
Diapers, powderings with flowers, . sacred monograms and 
sprays of blossom were frequently used to ornament large 
surfaces in a simple way. Many of these are extremely beautiful 
(fig. IS)- 

Subjects of Medieval Wall- Paintings. In churches and domestic 
buildings alike the usual subjects represented on the walls were 
specially selected for their moral and religious teaching, either 

FIG. 14. 15th-century Wall-Painting, the design copied from 
a 13th-century Sicilian silk damask. 

stories from the Bible and Apocrypha, or from the lives of saints, 

or, lastly, symbolical representations setting forth some important 

theological truth, such as figures of virtues and vices, or the Scala 

humanae salyationis, showing the. perils and temptations of the 

human soul in its struggle to escape hell and gain paradise a rude 

foreshadowing of the great scheme worked out with such perfection 

by Dante in his Commedia. A fine example of this subject exists 

on the walls of Chaldon church, Surrey. 1 In the selection of saints 

for paintings in England, 

those of English origin are 

naturally most frequently 

represented, and different 

districts had certain local 

favourites. St Thomas of 

Canterbury was one of the 

most widely popular; but 

few examples now remain, 

owing to Henry VIII.'s 

special dislike to this saint 

and the strict orders that 

were issued for all pictures 

of him to be destroyed. 

For a similar reason most 

paintings of saintly popes 

were obliterated. 

Methods of Execution. 
Though Eraclius, who 
probably wrote before the 
loth century, mentions 
the use of an oil-medium, 
yet till about the I3th 
century mural paintings 
appear to have been exe- 
cuted in the most simple FlG i 5 ._p ow derings used in i 5 th- 
way, in tempera mainly century Wall Painting, 

with earth colours applied 

on dry stucco; even when a smooth stone surface was to be 
painted a thin coat of whitening or fine gesso was laid as a 
ground. In the 131(1 century, and perhaps earlier, oil was com- 
monly used both as a medium for the pigments and also to make 
a varnish to cover and fix tempera paintings. The Van Eycks 
introduced the use of dryers of a better kind than had yet been 
used, and so largely extended the application of oil-painting. 
Before their time it seems to have been the custom to dry wall- 
paintings laboriously by the use of charcoal braziers, if they were 
in a position where the sun could not shine upon them. This is 

'See Collections of Surrey Archaeol. Soc. vol. v. pt. ii. (1871). 



specially recorded in the valuable series of accounts for the expenses 
of wall-paintings in the royal palace of Westminster during the 
reign of Henry III., printed in Vetusta monumenta, vol. vi. (1842). 
All the materials used, including charcoal to dry the paintings and 
the wages paid to the artists, are given. The materials mentioned 
are plumbum album el rubeum, viridus, vermilio, synople, acre, 
azura, aurum, argentum, collis, oleum, vernix. 

Two foreign painters were employed Peter of Spain and William 
of Florence at sixpence a day, but the English painters seem to 

FIG. 16. Pattern in Stamped and Moulded Plaster, decorated with 
gilding and transparent colours; 15th-century work. (Full size.) 

have done most of the work and received higher pay. William, 
an English monk in the adjoining Benedictine abbey of West- 
minster, received two shillings "a day. Walter of Durham and 
various members of the Otho family, royal goldsmiths and moneyers, 
worked for many years on the adornment of Henry III.'s palace 
and were well paid for their skill. Some fragments of paintings 
from the royal chapel of St Stephen are now in the British 
Museum. They are delicate and carefully painted subjects from 
the Old Testament, in rich colours, each with explanatory inscrip- 
tion underneath. The scale is small, the figures being scarcely 
a foot high. Their method of execution is curious. First the 
smooth stone wall was covered with a coat of red, painted in oil, 
probably to keep back the damp; on that a thin skin of fine gesso 
(stucco) has been applied, and the outlines of the figures marked 
with a point; the whole of the background, crowns, borders of 
dresses, and other ornamental parts have then been modelled and 
stamped with very minute patterns in slight relief, impressed on 
the surface of the gesso while it was yet soft. The figures have then 
been painted, apparently in tempera, gold leaf has been applied 
to the stamped reliefs, and the whole has been covered with an oil 
varnish. It is difficult to realize the labour required to cover large 
halls such as the above chapel and the " painted chamber," the 
latter about 83 ft. by 27 ft., with this style of decoration. 

In many cases the grounds were entirely covered with shining 
.metal leaf, over which the paintings were executed; those parts, 
such as the draperies, where the metallic lustre was wanted, were 
painted in oil with transparent colours, while the flesh was painted 
in opaque tempera. The effect of the bright metal shining through 
the rich colouring is magnificent. This minuteness of much of the 
medieval wall-decoration is remarkable. Large wall-surfaces and 
intricate mouldings were often completely covered by elaborate 
gesso patterns in relief of almost microscopic delicacy (fig. 1 6). 
The cost of stamps for this is among the items in the Westminster 
accounts. These patterns when set and dry were further adorned 
with gold and colours. So also with the architectural painting; 
the artist was not content simply to pick out the various members 
of the mouldings in different colours, but he also frequently covered 
each bead or fillet with painted flowers and other patterns, as 
delicate as those in an illuminated MS. so minute and highly- 
finished that they are almost invisible at a little distance, but yet 
add greatly to the general richness of effect. All this is neglected 
in modern reproductions of medieval painting, in which both 
touch and colour are coarse and harsh caricatures of the old 
work, such as disfigure the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, and many 
cathedrals in France, Germany and England. Gold was never 
used in large quantities without the ground on which it was laid 

being broken up by some such delicate reliefs as that shown in 
fig. 16, so its effect was never dazzling, (W. Mo.; J. H. M.) 

Mural painting in England fell into disuse in the i6th century, 
until attempts to revive it were made in the igth century. 
For domestic purposes wood panelling, stamped leather, and 
tapestry were chiefly used as wall-coverings. In the reign of 
Henry VIII., probably in part through Holbein's influence, a 
rather coarse tempera wall-painting, German in style, appears 
to have been common. 1 A good example of arabesque painting 
of this period in black and white, rudely though boldly drawn 
and Holbeinesquein character, was discovered in 1881 behind the 
panelling in one of the canons' houses at Westminster. Other 
examples exist at Haddon Hall (Derbyshire) and elsewhere. 

Many efforts have been made in England to revive fresco 
painting. The Houses of Parliament bear witness to this, the 
principal works there being those of William Dyce and Daniel 
Maclise. That of G. F. Watts, whose easel work also is generally 
distinguished by its mural feeling, is full of serious purpose and 
dignity of conception. " Buono fresco " (the painting in tempera 
upon a freshly laid ground of plaster while wet), " spirit fresco " 
or Gambier-Parry method (the painting with a spirit medium 
upon a specially prepared plaster or canvas ground 2 ) , and "water- 
glass " painting (wherein the method is similar to water-colour 
painting on a prepared plastered wall, the painting when finished 
being covered with a chemical solution which hardens and 
protects the surface), have all been tried. Other processes are 
also in the experimental stage, such as that known as Keim's, 
which has been successfully tried by Mrs Merritt in a series of 
mural paintings in a church at Chilworth. Unless, however, 
some means can be found of enabling the actual painted wall 
to resist the natural dampness of the English climate, it does not 
seem likely that true fresco painting can ever be naturalized in 
Great Britain. Of two of the few modern artists entrusted 
with important mural work in England, Ford Madox Brown 
and Frederick J. Shields, the former distinguished especially for 
his fine series of mural paintings in the Manchester town-hall, in 
the later paintings there adopted the modern method of painting 
the design upon canvas in flat oil colour, using a wax medium, 
and afterwards affixing the canvas to the wall by means of white 
lead. This is a usual method with modern decorators. Mr 
Shields has painted the panels of his scheme of mural decoration 
in the chapel of the Ascension at Bayswater, London, also 
upon canvas in oils, and has adopted the method of fixing them 
to slabs of slate facing the waD so as to avoid the risk of damp 
from the wall itself. Friezes and frieze panels or ceilings in 
private houses are usually painted upon canvas in oil and affixed 
to the wall or inserted upon their strainers, like pictures in a 
frame. (Walter Crane has used fibrous plaster panels, painting in 
ordinary oil colours with turpentine as a medium, as in Redcross 
Hall.) Recently there has been a revival of tempera painting, 
and a group of painters are producing works on panel and canvas 
painted in tempera or fresco secco, with yolk of egg as a medium, 
according to the practice of the early Italian painters and the 
directions of Cennino Cennini. A pure luminous quality of 
colour is produced, valuable in mural decoration and also- 
durable, especially under varnish. (W. CR.) 

MURANO (anc. Ammariuno), an island in the Venetian lagoon 
abouj i m. north of Venice. It is 5 m. in circumference, 
and a large part of it is occupied by gardens. It contained 5436 
inhabitants in 1901, but was once much more populous than 
it is at present, its inhabitants numbering 30,000. It was a 
favourite resort of the Venetian nobility before they began to 
build their villas on the mainland; land in the isth and i6th 
centuries its gardens and casinos, of which some traces remain, 
were famous. It was here that the literary clubs of the Vigilanti, 
the Studiosi and the Occulti, used to meet. 

'Shakespeare, Henry IV., Part. II. act n. sc. i: " Falstaff. And 
for thy walls, a pretty slight drollery, or the story of the prodigal, 
or the German hunting in waterwork, is worth a thousand of these 
bed-hangings and these fly-bitten tapestries." 

1 It was in this method that the lunettes by Lord Leighton at the 
Victoria and Albert Museum were painted on the plaster wall. The 
same painter produced a fresco at Lyndhurst Church, Hants. 



The town is built upon one broad main canal, where the 
tidal current runs with great force, and upon several smaller 
ones. The cathedral, S. Donato, is a fine basilica, of the izth 
century. The pavement (of mi) is as richly inlaid as that of 
St Mark's, and the mosaics cf the tribune are remarkable. The 
exterior of the tribune is beautiful, and has been successfully 
restored. The church of St Peter the Martyr (1509) contains a 
fine picture by Gentile Bellini and other works, and S. Maria degli 
Angeli also contains several interesting pictures. Murano has 
from ancient times been celebrated for its glass manufactories. 
When and how the art was introduced is obscure, but there 
are notices of it as early as the nth century; and in 1250 Christo- 
foro Briani attempted the imitation of agate and chalcedony. 
From the labours of his pupil Miotto sprang that branch of 
the glass trade which is concerned with the imitation of gems. 
In the 1 5th century the first crystals were made, and in the 
1 7th the various gradations of coloured and iridescent glass 
were invented, together with the composition called " aventu- 
rine "; the manufacture of beads is now a main branch of the 
trade. The art of the glass-workers was taken under the 
protection of the Government in 1275, and regulated by a special 
code of laws and privileges; two fairs were held annually, and 
the export of all materials, such as alum and sand, which enter 
into the composition of glass was absolutely forbidden. With 
the decay of Venice the importance of the Murano glass-works 
declined; but A. Salviati (1816-1890) rediscovered many of the 
old processes, and eight firms are engaged in the trade, the 
most renewed being the Venezia Murano Company and Salviati. 
The municipal museum contains a collection of glass illustrating 
the history and progress of the art. 

The island of Murano was first peopled by the inhabitants 
of Altino. It originally enjoyed independence under the rule 
of its tribunes and judges, and was one of the twelve confederate 
islands of the lagoons. In the i2th century the doge Vital 
Micheli II. incorporated Murano in Venice and attached it to 
the Sestiere of S. Croce. From that date it was governed by 
a Venetian nobleman with the title of podesta whose office 
lasted sixteen months. Murano, however, retained its original 
constitution of a greater and a lesser council for the transaction 
of municipal business, and also the right to coin gold and silver 
as well as its judicial powers. The interests of the town 
were watched at the ducal palace by a nuncio and a solicitor; 
and this constitution remained in force till the fall of the 

See Venezia e le sue Lagune; Paoletti, II Fiore di Venezia; Bus- 
solin, Guida alle fabbriche vetrarie di Murano; Romania, Storia 
documentata di Venezia, i. 41. 

MURAS, a tribe of South-American Indians living on the 
Amazon, from the Madeira to the Purus. Formerly a powerful 
people, they were defeated by their neighbours the Mundrucus 
in 1788. They are now partly civilized. Each village has 
a chief whose office is hereditary, but he has little power. The 
Muras are among the lowest of all Amazonian tribes. 

MURAT, JOACHIM (1767-1815), king of Naples, younger 
son of an innkeeper at La Bastide-Fortuniere in the department 
of Lot, France, was born on the 25th of March 1767. Destined 
for the priesthood, he obtained a bursary at the college of Cahors, 
proceeding afterwards to the university of Toulouse, Tjhere 
he studied canon law. His vocation, however, was certainly 
not sacerdotal, and after dissipating his money he enlisted in a 
cavalry regiment. In 1789 he had attained the rank of martchal 
des logis, but in 1790 he was dismissed the regiment for in- 
subordination. After a period of idleness, he was enrolled, 
through the good offices of J. B. Cavaignac, in the new Constitu- 
tional Guard of Louis XVI. (1791). In Paris he gained a reputa- 
tion for his good looks, his swaggering attitude, and the violence 
of his revolutionary sentiments. On the 3Oth of May 1792, the 
guard having been disbanded, he was appointed sub-lieutenant 
in the 2ist Chasseurs a cheval, with which regiment he served 
in the Argonne and the Pyrenees, obtaining in the latter campaign 
the command of a squadron. After the gth Thermidor, however, 
and the proscription of the Jacobins, with whom he had 

conspicuously identified himself, he fell under suspicion and 
was recalled from the front. 

Returning to Paris (1795), he made the acquaintance of 
Napoleon Bonaparte, another young officer out of employment, 
who soon gained a complete ascendancy over his vain, ambitious 
and unstable nature. On the I3th Vendemiaire, when Bonaparte, 
commissioned by Barras, beat down with cannon the armed 
insurrection of the Paris sections against the Convention, Murat 
was his most active and courageous lieutenant, and was rewarded 
by the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 2 ist Chasseurs and the appoint- 
ment of first aide de camp to General Bonaparte in Italy. In 
the first battles of the famous campaign of 1796 Murat so 
distinguished himself that he was chosen to carry the captured 
flags to Paris. He was promoted to be general of brigade, and 
returned to Italy in time to be of essential service to Bonaparte 
at Bassano, Corona and Fort St Giorgio, where he was wounded. 
He was then sent on a diplomatic mission to Genoa, but returned 
in time to be present at Rivoli. In the advance into Tirol in 
the summer of 1797 he commanded the vanguard, and by his 
passage of the Tagliamento hurried on the preliminaries of 
Leoben. In 1798 he was for a short time commandant at Rome, 
and then accompanied Bonaparte to Egypt. At the battle 
of the Pyramids he led his first famous cavalry charge, and so 
distinguished himself in Syria that he was made general of 
division (October, 1 799). He returned to France with Bonaparte, 
and on the i8th Brumaire led into the orangery of Saint Cloud 
the sixty grenadiers whose appearance broke up the Council 
of Five Hundred. After the success of the coup d'ttat he was 
made commandant of the consular guard, and on the 2oth of 
January 1800 he married Caroline Bonaparte, youngest sister 
of the first consul. He commanded the French cavalry at 
the battle of Marengo, and was afterwards made governor in 
the Cisalpine Republic. As commander of the army of observa- 
tion in Tuscany he forced the Neapolitans to evacuate the Papal 
States and to accept the treaty of Florence (March 28, 1801). 
In January 1804 he was given the post of governor of Paris, 
and in this capacity appointed the military commission by which 
the due d'Enghien was tried and shot (March 20); in May he was 
made marshal of the empire; in February 1805 he was made 
grand admiral, with the title of prince, and invested with the 
grand eagle of the Legion of Honour. He commanded the 
cavalry of the Grand Army in the German campaign of 1805, 
and was sc conspicuous at Austerlitz that Napoleon made him 
grand duke of Berg and Cleves (March 15, 1806). He com- 
manded the cavalry at Jena, Eylau, and Friedland, and in 
1808 was made general-in-chief of the French aimies in Spain. 
He entered Madrid on the 25th of March, and on the 2nd of 
May suppressed an insurrection in the city. He did much to 
prepare the events which ended in the abdication of Charles IV. 
and Ferdinand VII. at Bayonne; but the hopes he had cherished 
of himself receiving the crown of Spain were disappointed. On 
the ist of August, however, he was appointed by Napoleon to 
the throne of Naples, vacated by the transference of Joseph 
Bonaparte to Spain. 

King Joachim Napoleon, as he styled himself, entered Naples 
in September, his handsome presence and open manner gaining 
him instantaneous popularity. Almost his first act as king 
was to attack Capri, which he wrested from the British; but, 
this done, he returned to Naples and devoted himself to establish- 
ing his kingship according to his ideas, a characteristic blend 
of the vulgarity of a fdnenu with the essential principles of 
the Revolution. He dazzled the lazzaroni with' the extravagant 
splendour of his costumes; he set up a sumptuous court, created 
a new nobility, nominated marshals. With an eye to the over- 
throw of his legitimate rival in Sicily, he organized a large army 
and even a fleet; but he also swept away the last relics of the 
effete feudal system and took efficient measures for suppressing 
brigandage. From the first his relations with Napoleon were 
strained. The emperor upbraided him sarcastically for his 
" monkey tricks " (singeries); Murat ascribed to the deliberate 
ill-will of the French generals who served with him, and even to 
Napoleon, the failure of his attack on Sicily in 1810. He resented 


his subordination to the emperor, and early began his pose as an 
Italian king by demanding the withdrawal of the French troops 
from Naples and naturalization as Neapolitans of all Frenchmen 
in the service of the state (1811). Napoleon, of course, met this 
demand with a curt refusal. A breach between the brothers- 
in-law was only averted by the Russian campaign of 1812 and 
Napoleon's invitation to Murat to take command of the cavalry 
in the Grand Army. This was a call which appealed to all 
his strongest military instincts, and he obeyed it. During the 
disastrous retreat he showed his usual headstrong courage; but 
in the middle of December he suddenly threw up his command 
and returned to Naples. The reason of this was the suspicion, 
which had been growing on him for two years past, that Napoleon 
was preparing for him the fate of the king of Holland, and that 
his own wife, Queen Caroline, was plotting with the emperor 
for his dethronement. To Marshal Davout, who pointed out to 
him that he was only king of Naples " by grace of the emperor 
and the blood of Frenchmen," he replied that he was king of 
Naples as the emperor of. Austria was emperor of Austria, and 
that he could do as he liked. He was, in fact, already dreaming 
of exchanging his position of a vassal king of the French Empire 
for that of a national Italian king. In the enthusiastic reception 
that awaited him on his return to Naples on the 4th of February 
there was nothing to dispel these illusions. All the Italian 
parties flocked round him, flattering and cajoling him: the 
patriots, because he seemed to them loyal and glorious enough 
to assume the task of Italian unification; the partisans of the dis- 
possessed princes, because they looked upon him as a convenient 
instrument and as simple enough to be made an easy dupe. 

From this moment dates the importance of Murat in the 
history of Europe during the next few years. He at once, 
without consulting his minister of foreign affairs, despatched 
Prince Cariati on a confidential mission to Vienna; if Austria 
would secure the renunciation of his rights by King Ferdinand 
and guarantee the possession of the kingdom of Naples to himself, 
he would place his army at her disposal and give up his claims 
to Sicily. Austria herself, however, had not as yet broken 
definitively with Napoleon, and before she openly joined the 
Grand Alliance, after the illusory congress of Prague, many 
things had happened to make Murat change his mind. He was 
offended by Napoleon's bitter letters and by tales of his slighting 
comments on himself; he was alarmed by the emperor's scarcely 
veiled threats; but after all he was a child of the Revolution 
and a born soldier, with all the soldier's instinct of loyalty to 
a great leader, and he grasped eagerly at any excuse for believing 
that Napoleon, in the event of victory, would maintain him 
on his throne. Then came the emperor's advance into Germany, 
supported as yet by his allies of the Rhenish Confederation. 
On the fatal field of Leipzig Murat once more faught on Napo- 
leon's side, leading the French squadrons with all his old valour 
and dash. But this crowning catastrophe was too much for 
his wavering faith. On the evening of the i6th of October, 
the first day of the battle, Metternich found means to open a 
separate negotiation with him: Great Britain and Austria 
would, in the event of Murat's withdrawal from Napoleon's 
army and refusal to send reinforcements to the viceroy of Italy, 
secure the cession to him of Naples by King Ferdinand, guarantee 
him in its possession, and obtain for him further advantages 
in Italy. To accept the Austrian advances seemed now his 
only chance of continuing to be a king. At Erfurt he asked 
and obtained the emperor's leave to return to Naples; " our 
adieux," he said, " were not over-cordial." 

He reached Naples on the 4th of November and at once 
informed the Austrian envoy of his wish to join the Allies, 
suggesting that the Papal States, with the exception of Rome 
and the surrounding district, should be made over to him as 
his reward. On the 3ist of December Count Neipperg, after- 
wards the lover of the empress Marie Louise, arrived at Naples 
with powers to treat. The result was the signature, on the nth 
of January 1814, of a treaty by which Austria guaranteed to 
Murat the throne of Naples and promised her good offices to 
secure the assent of the other Allies. Secret additional articles 

stipulated that Austria would use her good offices to secure the 
renunciation by Ferdinand of his rights to Naples, in return 
for an indemnity to hasten the conclusion of peace between 
Naples and Great Britain, and to augment the Neapolitan 
kingdom by territory embracing 400,000 souls at the expense 
of the states of the Church. 

The project of the treaty having been communicated to 
Castlereagh, he replied by expressing the willingness of the 
British government to conclude an armistice with " the person 
exercising the government of Naples " (Jan. 22), and this was 
accordingly signed on the 3rd of February by Bentinck. It 
was clear that Great Britain had no intention of ultimately 
recognizing Murat's right to reign. As for Austria, she would 
be certain that Murat's own folly would, sooner or later, give 
her an opportunity for repudiating her engagements. For the 
present the Neapolitan alliance would be invaluable to the Allies 
for the purpose of putting an end to the French dominion in 
Italy. The plot was all but spoilt by the prince royal of Sicily, 
who in an order of the day announced to his soldiers that their 
legitimate sovereign had not renounced his rights to the throne 
of Naples (Feb. 20); from the Austrian point of view it was 
compromised by a proclamation issued by Bentinck at Leghorn 
on the i4th of March, in which he called on the Italians to rise 
in support of the " great cause of their fatherland." From 
Dijon Castlereagh promptly wrote to Bentinck (April 3) to say 
that the proclamation of the prince of Sicily must be disavowed, 
and that if King Ferdinand did not behave properly Great 
Britain would recognize' Murat's title. A letter from Metternich 
to Marshal Bellegarde, of the same place and date, insisted 
that Bentinck 's operations must be altered; the last thing that 
Austria desired was an Italian national rising. 

It was, indeed, by this time clear to the allied powers that 
Murat's ambition had o'erleaped the bounds set for them. 
" Murat, a true son of the Revolution," wrote Metternich, 
in the same letter, " did not hesitate to form projects of con- 
quest when all his care should have been limited to simple 
calculations as to how to preserve his throne. ... He dreamed 
of a partition of Italy between him and us. ... When we refused 
to annex all Italy north of the Po, he saw that his calculations 
were wrong, but refused to abandon his ambitions. His attitude 
is most suspicious." " Press the restoration of the grand-duke 
in Tuscany," wrote Castlereagh to Bentinck; " this is the true 
touchstone of Murat's intentions. We must not suffer him to 
carry out his plan of extended dominion; but neither must 
we break with him and so abandon Austria to his augmented 

Meanwhile, Murat had formally broken with Napoleon, and 
on the i6th of January the French envoy quitted Naples. But 
the treason by which he hoped to save his throne was to make 
its loss inevitable. He had betrayed Napoleon, only to be made 
the cat's-paw of the Allies. Great Britain, even when con- 
descending to negotiate with him, had never recognized his 
title; she could afford to humour Austria by holding out hopes of 
ultimate recognition, in order to detach him from Napoleon; for 
Austria alone of the Allies was committed to him, and Castle- 
reagh well knew that, when occasion should arise, her obliga- 
tions would not be suffered to hamper her interests. With the 
downfall of Napoleon Murat's defection had served its turn; 
moreover, his equivocal conduct during the campaign in Italy 1 
had blunted the edge of whatever gratitude the powers may 
have been disposed to feel; his ambition to unite all Italy south 
of the Po under his crown was manifest, and the statesmen 
responsible for the re-establishment of European order were 
little likely to do violence to their legitimist principles in order 
to maintain on his throne a revolutionary sovereign who was 
proving himself so potent a centre of national unrest. 

At the very opening of the congress of Vienna Talleyrand, 
with astounding effrontery, affected not to know " the man " 

1 He had contributed to the defeats of the viceroy Prince Eugene 
in January and February 1814, but did not show any eagerness to 
press his victories to the advantage of the Allies, contenting himself 
with occupying the principality of Benevento. 



who had been casually referred to as " the king of Naples "; 
and he made it the prime object of his policy in the weeks that 
followed to secure the repudiation by the powers of Murat's 
title, and the restoration of the Bourbon king. The powers, 
indeed, were very ready to accept at least the principle of this 
policy. " Great Britain," wrote Castlereagh to Lord Liverpool 
on the 3rd of September from Geneva, " has no objection, but 
the reverse, to the restoration of the Bourbons in Naples." 1 
Prussia saw in Murat the protector of the malcontents in Italy. 2 
Alexander I. of Russia had no sympathy for any champion of 
Liberalism in Italy save himself. Austria confessed " sub 
sigillo " that she shared " His Most Christian Majesty's views 
as to the restoration of ancient dynasties." 3 The main difficul- 
ties in the way were Austria's treaty obligations and the means 
by which the desired result was to be obtained. 

Talleyrand knew well that Austria, in the long run, would 
break faith with Murat and prefer a docile Bourbon on the throne 
of Naples to this incalculable child of the Revolution; but he 
had his private reasons for desiring to " score off " Metternich, 
the continuance of whose quasidiplomatic liaison with Caroline 
Murat he rightly suspected. He proposed boldly that, since 
Austria, in view of the treaty of Jan. n, 1814, was naturally 
reluctant to undertake the task, the restored Bourbon king 
of France should be empowered to restore the Bourbon king of 
Naples by French arms, thus reviving once more the ancient 
Habsburg-Bourbon rivalry for dominion in Italy. 4 

Metternich, with characteristic skill, took advantage of this 
situation at once to checkmate France and to disembarrass 
Austria of its obligations to Murat. While secretly assuring 
Louis XVTII., through his confidant Blacas, that Austria was 
in favour of a Bourbon restoration in Naples, he formally 
intimated to Talleyrand that a French invasion of Italian soil 
would mean war with Austria. 6 To Murat, who had appealed 
to the treaty of 1814, and demanded a passage northward for 
the troops destined to oppose those of Louis XVIII., he explained 
that Austria, by her ultimatum to France, had already done all 
that was necessary, that any movement of the Neapolitan 
troops outside Naples would be a useless breach of the peace 
of Italy, and that it would be regarded as an attack on Austria 
and a rupture of the alliance. Murat's suspicions of Austrian 
sincerity were now confirmed; 6 he realized that there was no 
question now of his obtaining any extension of territory at the 
expense of the states of the Church, and that in the Italy as 
reconstructed at Vienna his own position would be intolerable. 
Thus the very motives which had led him to betray Napoleon 
now led him to break with Austria. He would secure his throne 
by proclaiming the cause of united Italy, chasing the Austrians 

1 P.O. Vienna Congress, vii. 

2 Mem. of Hardenberg, F.O. Cong. Pruss. Arch. 20. Aug. 14- 
June 15. 

3 Metternich to Bombelles. Jan. 13, 1815, enclosed in Castle- 
reagh to Liverpool of Jan. 25. F.O. Congr. Vienna, xi. 

4 Sorel, viii. 41 1 seq. 

' Cf. a " most secret " communication to be made to M. de Blacas 
(in Metternich to Bombelles, Vienna, Jan. 13, 1815). Murat's 
aggressive attitude, and the unrest in Italy, are largely due to the 
threatening attitude of France. . . . H.I.M. is not prepared to 
risk a rising of Italy under " the national flag." How will France 
coerce Naples? By sending an army into Italy across our states, 
which would thus become infected with revolutionary views? 
The emperor could not allow such an expedition. When Italy is 
settled and we will not allow Murat to keep the Marches . . . 
he will lose prestige, and then . . . will be the time for Austria to 
give effect to the views which, all the time, she shares with His 
Most Christian Majesty." (In Castlereagh to Liverpool, " private," 
Jan. 25, 1815. F.O. Vienna Congr. xi.) 

* That they were fully justified is clear from the following ex- 
tract from a letter of Metternich to Bombelles at Paris (dated 
Vienna, Jan. 13, 1815). " Whether Joachim or a Bourbon reigns 
at Naples is for us a very subordinate question. . . . When Europe 
is established on solid foundations the fate of Joachim will no longer 
be problematical, but do not let us risk destroying Austria and 
France and Europe, in order to solve this question at the worst 
moment it would be put on the tapis. . . . This is no business of 
the Congress, but let the Bourbon Powers declare that they maintain 
their claims." (In Castlereagh's private letter to Lord Liverpool, 
Jan. 15, 1815, F.O. Vienna Congr. xi.) 

from the peninsula, and establishing himself as a national 

To contemporary observers in the best position to judge 
the enterprise seemed by no means hopeless. Lord William 
Bentinck, the commander of the English forces in Italy, wrote 
to Castlereagh 7 that, " having seen more of Italy," he doubted 
whether the whole force of Austria would be able to expel Murat; 
" he has said clearly that he will raise the whole of Italy; and 
there is not a doubt that under the standard of Italian indepen- 
dence the whole of Italy will rally." This feeling, continued 
Bentinck, was due to the foolish and illiberal conduct of the 
restored sovereigns; the inhabitants of the states occupied by 
the Austrian troops were " discontented to a man "; even in Tus- 
cany " the same feeling and desire " universally prevailed. All 
the provinces, moreover, were full of unemployed officers and 
soldiers who, in spite of Murat's treason, would rally to his 
standard, especially as he would certainly first put himself into 
communication with Napoleon in Elba; while, so far as Bentinck 
could hear of the disposition of the French army, it would be 
" dangerous to assemble it anywhere or for any purpose." The 
urgency of the danger was, then, fully realized by the powers 
even before Napoleon's return from Elba; for they were well 
aware of Murat's correspondence with him. On the first news 
of Napoleon's landing in France, the British government wrote 
to Wellington 8 that this event together with " the proofs of 
Murat's treachery " had removed " all remaining scruples " on 
their part, and that they were now " prepared to enter into a 
concert for his removal," adding that Murat should, in the event 
of his resigning peaceably, receive " a pension and all considera- 
tion." The rapid triumph of Napoleon, however, altered this 
tone. " Bonaparte's successes have altered the situation," wrote 
Castlereagh to Wellington on the 24th, adding that Great Britain 
would enter into a treaty with Murat, if he would give guarantees 
" by a certain redistribution of his forces " and the like, and 
that in spite of Napoleon's success he would be " true to Europe." 
In a private letter enclosed Castlereagh suggested that Murat 
might send an auxiliary force to France, where " his personal 
presence would be unseemly." 9 

Clearly, had King Joachim played his cards well he had the 
game in his hands. But it was not in his nature to play them 
well. He should have made the most of the chastened temper 
of the Allies, either to secure favourable terms from them, or 
to hold them in play until Napoleon was ready to take the field. 
But his head had been turned by the flatteries of the " patriots"; 
he believed that all Italy would rally to his cause, and that alone 
he would be able to drive the " Germans " over the Alps, and 
thus, as king of united Italy, be in a position to treat on equal 
terms with Napoleon, should he prove victorious; and he 
determined to strike without delay. On the 23rd the news 
reached Metternich at Vienna that the Neapolitan troops were 
on the march to the frontier. The Allies at once decided to 
commission Austria to deal with Murat; in the event of whose 
defeat, Ferdinand IV. was to be restored to Naples, on promising 
a general amnesty and giving guarantees for a " reasonable " 
system of government. 10 

Meanwhile, in Naples itself there were signs enough that 
Murat's popularity had disappeared. In Calabria the indiscrimi- 
nate severity of General Manhes in suppressing brigandage had 
made the government hated; in the capital the general dis- 
affection had led to rigorous policing, while conscripts had to 
be dragged in chains to join their regiments. 11 In these circum- 
stances an outburst of national enthusiasm for King Joachim 
was hardly to be expected; and the campaign in effect proved a 
complete fiasco. Rome and Bologna were, indeed, occupied with- 
out serious opposition; but on the I2th of April Murat's forces 
received a check from the advancing Austrians at Ferrara and 
on the 2nd of May were completely routed at Tolentino. The 

7 Letter dated Florence, Jan. 7, 1815. F.O. Vienna Congr. xi. 

8 F.O. Vienna Congr. xii., Draft to Wellington dated March 12. 

9 F.O. Vienna Congr. xii. 

10 Ibid. Wellington to Castlereagh, Vienna, March 25. 

u F.O. Cong. xi. ; Munster to Castlereagh, Naples, Jan. 22. 


Austrians advanced on Naples, when Ferdinand IV. was duly 
restored, while Queen Caroline and her children were deported to 

Murat himself escaped to France, where his offer of service 
was contemptuously refused by Napoleon. He hid for a 
while near Toulon, with a price upon his head; then, after 
Waterloo, refusing an asylum in England, he set out for Corsica 
(August). Here he was joined by a few rash spirits who urged 
him to attempt to recover his kingdom. Though Metternich 
offered to allow him to join his wife at Trieste and to secure 
him a dignified position and a pension, he preferred to risk 
all on a final throw for power. On the 28th of September he 
sailed for Calabria with a flotilla of six vessels carrying some 
250 armed men. Four of his ships were scattered by a storm; 
one deserted him at the last moment, and on the 8th of October 
he landed at Pizzo with only 30 companions. Of the popular 
enthusiasm for his cause which he had been led to expect there 
was less than no sign, and after a short and unequal contest he 
was taken prisoner by a captain named Trenta-Capilli, whose 
brother had been executed by General Manhes. He was im- 
prisoned in the fort of Pizzo, and on the isth of October 1815 
was tried by court-martial, under a law of his own, for disturbing 
the public peace, and was sentenced to be shot in half an hour. 
After writing a touching letter of farewell to his wife and children, 
he bravely met his fate, and was buried at Pizzo. 

Though much good may be said of Murat as a king sincerely 
anxious for the welfare of his adopted country, his most abiding 
title to fame is that of the most dashing cavalry leader of the 
age. As a man he was rash, hot-tempered and impetuously 
brave; he was adored by his troopers who followed their 
idol, the " golden eagle," into the most terrible fire and against 
the most terrible odds. Napoleon lived to regret his refusal 
to accept his services during the Hundred Days, declaring that 
Murat's presence at Waterloo would have given more con- 
centrated power to the cavalry charges and might possibly have 
changed defeat into victory. 

By his wife Maria Annunciata Carolina Murat had two sons. 
The elder, NAPOLEON ACHII.LE MURAT (1801-1847), during his 
father's reign prince royal of the Two Sicilies, emigrated about 
1821 to America, and settled near Tallahassee, Florida, where 
in 1826-1838 he was postmaster. In 1826 he married a 
great-niece of Washington. He published Lettres d'un citoyen 
des Etats-Unis A un de ses amis d Europe (Paris, 1830); Esquisse 
morale et politique des Etats-Unis (ibid. 1832); and Exposition des 
principes du gouiiernement ripublicain lei qu'il a ete perfectionni en 
Amerique (ibid. 1833). He died in Florida on the isth of April 


1878), who was created prince of Ponte Corvo in 1813, lived 
with his mother in Austria after 1815, and in 1824 started to 
join his brother in America, but was shipwrecked on the coast 
of Spain and held for a while a prisoner. Arriving in 1823, 
two years later he married in Baltimore a rich American, 
Georgina Frazer (d.. 1879) ; but her fortune was lost, and for 
some years his wife supported herself and him by keeping a 
girls' school. After several abortive attempts to return to 
France, the revolution of 1848 at last gave him his opportunity. 
He was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly and of 
the Legislative Assembly (1849), was minister plenipotentiary 
at Turin from October 1849 to March 1850, and after the coup 
d'ttat of the 2nd of December 1851 was made a member of the 
consultative commission. On the proclamation of the Empire, 
he was recognized by Napoleon III. as a prince of the blood royal, 
with the title of Prince Murat, and, in addition to the payment 
of 2,000,000 fr. of debts, was given a^ income of 150,000 fr. 
As a member of the Senate he distinguished himself in 1861 
by supporting the temporal power of the pope, but otherwise 
he played no conspicuous part. The fall of the Empire in Sep- 
tember 1870 involved his retirement into private life. He died 
on the loth of April 1878, leaving three sons and two daughters, 
(i) Joachim, Prince Murat (1834-1901), in 1854 married Maley 
Berthier, daughter of the Prince de Wagram, who bore him a 

son, Joachim (b. 1856), who succeeded him as head of the family, 
and two daughters, of whom the younger, Anna (b. 1863), 
became the wife of the Austrian minister Count Goluchowski. 

(2) Achille (1847-1895), married Princess Dadian of Mingrelia. 

(3) Louis (b. 1851), married in 1873 to the widowed Princess 
Eudoxia Orbeliani (nee Somov), was for a time orderly officer 
to Charles XV.' of Sweden. (4) Caroline (b. 1832), married in 
1850 Baron Charles de Chassiron and in 1872 Mr John Garden 
(d. 1885). (5) Anna (b. 1841), married in 1865 Antoine de 
Noailles, due de Mouchy. 

AUTHORITIES. See A. Sorel, L'Europe el la r&vclution franfaise 
(8 yols., 1885-1892) passim, but especially vol. viii. for Murat's 
policy after the 1812; Helfert, Joachim Murat, seine letzten Kampfe 
und sein Ende (Vienna, 1878); G. Romano, Ricordi muratiani 
(Pavia, 1890); Correspondence de Joachim Murat, Juillet 1791- 
Juillet 1808, ed A. Lumbroso (Milan, 1899); Count Murat, Murat, 
lieutenant de I'empereur en Espagne (Paris, 1897); Guardione, 
Cioacchino Murat in Italia (Palermo, 1899); M. H. Weil, Prince 
Eugene et Murat (5 vols., Paris, 1901-1904) ; Chavenon and Saint- 
Yves, Joachim Murat (Paris, 1905); Lumbroso, L'Agonia di un 
regnp; Cioacchino Murat al Pizzo (Milan, 1904). See also the 
bibliography to NAPOLEON I. (W. A. P.) 

MURATORI, LUDOVICO ANTONIO (1672-1750), Italian 
scholar, historian and antiquary, was born of poor parents at 
Vignola in the duchy of Modena on the 2ist of October 1672. 
While young he attracted the attention of Father Bacchini, 
the librarian of the duke of Modena, by whom his literary tastes 
were turned toward historical and antiquarian research. Having 
taken minor orders in 1688, Muratori proceeded to his degree 
of doctor inutroquejurebelore 1694, was ordained priest in 1695 
and appointed by Count Carlo Borromeo one of the doctors 
of the Ambrosian library at Milan. From manuscripts now 
placed under his charge he made a selection of materials for 
several volumes (Anecdota), which he published with notes. 
The reputation he acquired was such that the duke of Modena 
offered him the situation of keeper of the public archives of the 
duchy. Muratori hesitated, until the offer of the additional 
post of librarian, on the resignation of Father Bacchini, deter- 
mined him in 1700 to return to Modena. The preparation of 
numerous valuable tracts on the history of Italy during the middle 
ages, and of dissertations and discussions on obscure points 
of historical and antiquarian interest, as well as the publication 
of his various philosophical, theological, legal, poetical and 
other works absorbed the greater part of his time. These 
brought him into communication with the most distinguished 
scholars of Italy, France and Germany. But they also exposed 
him in his later years to envy. His enemies spread abroad 
the rumour that the pope, Benedict XIV., had discovered in his 
writings passages savouring of heresy, even of atheism. Muratori 
appealed to the pope, repudiating the accusation. His Holiness 
assured him of his protection, and, without expressing his 
approbation of the opinions in question of the learned antiquary, 
freed him from the imputations of his enemies. Muratori 
died on the 23rd of January 1750, and was buried with much 
pomp in the church of Santa Maria di Pomposa, in connexion 
with which he had laboured as parish priest for many years. 
His remains were removed in 1774 to the church of St Augustin. 

Muratori is rightly regarded as the " father of Italian history." 
This is due to his great collection, Rerum italicarum scriptores, 
to which he devoted about fifteen years' work (1723-1738). 
The gathering together and editing some 25 huge folio 
volumes of texts was followed by a series of 75 dissertations 
on medieval Italy (Antiquitates italicae medii aevi, 1738-1742, 6 
vols. folio). To these he added a Novtts thesaurus inscriptionum 
(4 vols. , 1 739-1 743) , which was of great importance in the develop- 
ment of epigraphy. Then, anticipating the action of the learned 
societies of the igth century, he set about a popular treatment 
of the historical sources he had published. These Annali 
d' Italia (1744-1749) reached 12 volumes, but were imperfect and 
are of little value. In addition to this national enterprise 
(the Scriptores were published by the aid of the Societa palatina 
of Milan) Muratori published Anecdota ex ambrosianae biblio- 
thecaecodd. (2 vols. 4to, Milan, 1697, 1698; Padua, 1713); 
Anecdota graeca (3 vols. 4to, Padua, 1709); Antichita Estens 


(2 vols. fol., Modena, 1717); Vita e rime di F. Petrarca (1711), 
and Vita ed cpere di L. Castehetro (1727). 

In biblical scholarship Muratori is chiefly known as the dis- 
coverer of the so-called Muratorian Canon, the name given to a 
fragment (85 lines) of early Christian literature, which he found 
in 1740, embedded in an 8th-century codex which forms a 
compendium of theological tracts followed by the five early 
Christian creeds. The document contains a list of the books of 
the New Testament, a similar list concerning the Old Testament 
having apparently preceded it. It is in barbarous Latin which 
has probably been translated from original Greek the language 
prevailing in Christian Rome until c. 200. There is little doubt 
that it was composed in Rome and we may date it about the 
year 190. Lightfoot inclined to Hippolytus as its author. It 
is the earliest document known which enumerates the books in 

The first line of the fragment is broken and speaks of the 
Gospel of St Mark, but there is no doubt that its compiler 
knew also of St Matthew. Acts is ascribed to St Luke. He 
names thirteen letters of St Paul but says nothing of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews. The alleged letters of Paul to the Laodiceans 
and Alexandrians he rejects, " for gall must not be mixed with 
honey." The two Epistles of Peter and the Epistle of James 
are not referred to, but that of Jude and two of John are accepted. 
He includes the Apocalypse of John and also the Apocalypse 
of Peter. The Shtpherd of Hermas he rejects as not of apostolic 
origin, but this test of canonicity is not consistently applied 
for he allows the " Wisdom written by the friends of Solomon in 
his honour." He rejects the writings of the Gnostics Valentinus 
and Basilides, and of Montanus. 

The list is not an authoritative decree, but a private register 
of what the author considers the prevailing Christian sentiment 
in his neighbourhood. He notes certain differences among 
the Gospels, because not all the evangelists were eye-witnesses 
of the life of Jesus; yet Mark and Luke respectively have behind 
them the authority of Peter and of Paul, who is thus regarded 
as on a footing with the Twelve. The Fourth Gospel was 
written by John at the request of the other apostles and the 
bishops on the basis of a revelation made to Andrew. The 
letters of Paul are written to four individuals and to seven 
different churches, like the seven letters in the Apocalypse of 

It is interesting to notice the coincidence of his list with the 
evidence gained from Tertullian for Africa and from Irenaeus 
for Gaul and indirectly for Asia Minor. Before the year 200 
there was widespread agreement in the sacred body of apostolic 
writings read in Christian churches on the Lord's Day along with 
the Old Testament. 

Muratori's Letters, with a Life prefixed, were published by Lazzari, 
(2 vols., Venice, 1783). His nephew, F. G. Muratori, also wrote 
a Vita del celebre Ludov. Ant. Muratori (Venice, 1756). See also 
A. G. Spinelli " BibliographiadellelettereestampadiL. A. Muratori " 
in Bolletino dell' institute storico italiano (1888), and Carducci's 
preface to the new Scriptores. The Muratorian Canon is given 
in full with a translation in H. M. Gwatkin's Selections from Early 
Christian Writers. It is also published as No. I of H. Lietzmann's 
Kleine Tcxte fur theologische Vorlesungen (Bonn, 1902). See also 
Journal of Theological Studies, viii. 537. 

Russian statesman, was born on the igth of April 1845. He 
was the son of General Count Nicholas Muraviev (governor of 
Grodno), and grandson of the Count Michael Muraviev, who 
became notorious for his drastic measures in stamping out the 
Polish insurrection of 1863 in the Lithuanian provinces. He was 
educated at a secondary school at Poltava, and was for a short 
time at Heidelberg University. In 1864 he entered the chancel- 
lery of the minister for foreign affairs at St Petersburg, and was 
soon afterwards attached to the Russian legation at Stuttgart, 
where he attracted the notice of Queen Olga of Wiirttemberg. 
He was transferred to Berlin, then to Stockholm, and back 
again to Berlin. In 1877 he was second secretary at the Hague. 
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1878 he was a delegate of the 
Red Cross Society in charge of an ambulance train provided i 

by Queen Olga of Wiirttemberg. After the war he was succes- 
sively first secretary at Paris, chancellor of the embassy at Berlin, 
and then minister at Copenhagen. In Denmark he was brought 
much into contact with the imperial family, and on the death of 
Prince Lobanov in 1897 he was appointed by the Tsar Nicholas II. 
to be his minister of foreign affairs. The next three and a half 
years were a critical time for European diplomacy. The Chinese 
and Cretan questions were disturbing factors. As regards Crete, 
Count Muraviev's policy was vacillating; in China his hands were 
forced by Germany's action at Kiaochow. But he acted with 
singular Itgerete with regard at all events to his assurances to 
Great Britain respecting the leases of Port Arthur and Talienwan 
from China; he told the British ambassador that these would 
be " open ports," and afterwards essentially modified this 
pledge. When the Tsar Nicholas inaugurated the Peace Con- 
ference at the Hague, Count Muraviev extricated his country 
from a situation of some embarrassment; but when, subsequently, 
Russian ' agents in Manchuria and at Peking connived at the 
agitation which culminated in the Boxer rising of 1900, the 
relations of the responsible foreign minister with the tsar became 
strained. Muraviev died suddenly on the 2ist of June 1900, 
of apoplexy, brought on, it was said, by a stormy interview 
with the tsar. 

geologist, was born at Tarradale, in eastern Ross, Scotland, on 
the igth of February 1792. His father, Kenneth Murchison 
(d. 1796), came of an old Highland clan in west Ross-shire, and 
having been educated as a medical man, acquired a fortune in 
India; while stilt in the prime of life he returned to Scotland, 
where, marrying one of the Mackenzies of Fairburn, he purchased 
the estate of Tarradale and settled for a few years as a resident 
Highland landlord. Young Murchison left the Highlands when 
three years old, and at the age of seven was sent to the grammar 
school of Durham, where he remained for six years. He was then 
placed at the military college, Great Marlow, to be trained for 
the army. With some difficulty he passed the examinations, 
and at the age of fifteen was gazetted ensign in the 36th regiment. 
A year later (1808) he landed with Wellesley in Galicia, and was 
present at the actions of Rorica and Vimiera. Subsequently 
under Sir John Moore he took part in the retreat to Corunna 
and the final battle there. This was his only active service. 
The defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo seeming to close the prospect 
of advancement in the military profession, Murchison, after 
eight years of service, quitted the army, and married the daughter 
of General Hugonin, of Nursted House, Hampshire. With her 
he then spent rather more than two years on the Continent, 
particularly in Italy, where her cultivated tastes were of signal 
influence in guiding his pursuits. He threw himself with all the 
enthusiasm of his character into the study of art and antiquities, 
and for the first time in his life tasted the pleasures of truly 
intellectual pursuits. 

Returning to England in 1818, he sold his paternal property 
in Ross-shire and settled in England, where he took to field 
sports. He soon became one of the greatest fox-hunters in the 
midland counties; but at last, getting weary of such pursuits and 
meeting Sir Humphry Davy, who urged him to turn his energy 
to science, he was induced to attend lectures at the Royal 
Institution. This change in the current of his occupations 
was much helped by the sympathy of his wife, who, besides her 
artistic acquirements, took much interest in natural history. 
Eager and enthusiastic in whatever he undertook, he was fasci- 
nated by the young science of geology. He joined the Geological 
Society of London and soon showed himself one of its most 
active members, having as his colleagues there such men as 
Sedgwick, W. D. Conybeare, W. Buckland, W. H. Fitton and 
Lyell. Exploring with his wife the geology of the south of 
England, he devoted special attention to the rocks of the north- 
west of Sussex and the adjoining parts of Hants and Surrey, on 
which, aided by Fitton, he wrote his first scientific paper, read 
to the society in 1825. Though he had reached the age of thirty- 
two before he took any interest in science, he developed his 
taste and increased his knowledge so rapidly that in the first 


three years of his scientific career he had explored large parts 
of England and Scotland, had obtained materials for three 
important memoirs, as well as for two more written in conjunction 
with Sedgwick, and had risen to be a prominent member of the 
Geological Society and one of its two secretaries. Turning his 
attention for a little to Continental geology, he explored with 
Lyell the volcanic region of Auvergne, parts of southern France, 
northern Italy, Tirol and Switzerland. A little later, with 
Sedgwick as his companion, he attacked the difficult problem 
of the geological structure of the Alps, and their joint paper 
giving the results of their study will always be regarded as one of 
the classics in the literature of Alpine geology. 

It was in the year 1831 that Murchison found the field in which 
the chief work of his life was to be accomplished. Acting on 
a suggestion made to him by Buckland he betook himself to 
the borders of Wales, with the view of endeavouring to discover 
whether the greywacke rocks underlying the Old Red Sandstone 
could be grouped into a definite order of succession, as the 
Secondary rocks of England had been made to tell their story by 
William Smith. For several years he continued to work vigor- 
ously in that region. The result was the establishment of the 
Silurian system under which were grouped for the first time a 
remarkable series of formations, each replete with distinctive 
organic remains ol ' ;r than and very different from those of 
the other rocks of England. These researches, together with 
descriptions of the coal-fields and overlying formations in south 
Wales and the English border counties, were embodied in The 
Silurian System (London, 1839), a massive quarto in two parts, 
admirably illustrated with map, sections, pictorial views and 
plates of fossils. The full import of his discoveries was not at 
first perceived; but as years passed on the types of exigence 
brought to light by him from the rocks of the border counties 
of England and Wales were ascertained to belong to a geological 
period of which there are recognizable traces in almost all parts 
of the globe. Thus the term " Silurian," derived from the 
name of the old British tribe Silures, soon passed into the 
vocabulary of geologists in every country. 

The establishment of the Silurian system was followed by 
that of the Devonian system, an investigation in which, aided 
by the palaeontological assistance of W. Lonsdale, Sedgwick 
and Murchison were fellow-labourers, both in the south-west 
of England and in the Rhineland. Soon afterwards Murchison 
projected an important geological campaign in Russia with the 
view of extending to that part of the Continent the classification 
he had succeeded in elaborating for the older rocks of western 
Europe. He was accompanied by P. E. P. de Verneuil (1805- 
1873) and Count A. F. M. L. A. von Keyserling (1815-1891), in 
conjunction with whom he produced a magnificent work on 
Russia and the Ural Mountains. The publication of this mono- 
graph in 1845 completes the first and most active half of Murchi- 
son's scientific career. In 1846 he was knighted, and in the 
same year he presided over the meeting of the British Association 
at Southampton. During the later years of his life a large part 
of his time was devoted to the affairs of the Royal Geographical 
Society, of which he was in 1830 one of the founders, and he was 
president 1843-1845, 1851-1853, 1856-1859 and 1862-1871. So 
constant and active were his exertions on behalf of geographical 
exploration that to a large section of the contemporary public he 
was known rather as a geographer than a geologist. He particu- 
larly identified himself with the fortunes of David Livingstone 
in Africa, and did much to raise and keep alive the sympathy 
of his fellow-countrymen in the fate of that great explorer. 

The chief geological investigation of the last decade of his life 
was devoted to the Highlands of Scotland, where he believed 
he had succeeded in showing that the vast masses of crystalline 
schists, previously supposed to be part of what used to be termed 
the Primitive formations, were really not older than the Silurian 
period, for that underneath them lay beds of limestone and 
quartzite containing Lower Silurian (Cambrian) fossils. Subse- 
quent research, however, has shown that this infraposition of 
the fossiliferous rocks is not their original place, but has been 
brought about by a gigantic system of dislocations, whereby 

successive masses of the oldest gneisses have been torn up from 
below and thrust bodily over the younger formations. 

In 1855 Murchison was appointed director-general of the 
geological survey and director of the Royal School of Mines and 
the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, London, in 
succession to Sir Henry De la Beche, who had been the first to 
hold these offices. Official routine now occupied much of his 
time, but he found opportunity for the Highland researches 
just alluded to, and also for preparing successive editions of his 
work Siluria (1854, ed. 5, 1872), which was meant to present 
the main features of the original Silurian System together with 
a digest of subsequent discoveries, particularly of those which 
showed the extension of the Silurian classification into other 
countries. His official position gave him further opportunity 
for the exercise of those social functions for which he had always 
been distinguished, and which a considerable fortune inherited 
from near relatives on his mother's side enabled him to display 
on a greater scale. His house in Belgrave Square was one of the 
great centres where science, art, literature, politics and social 
eminence were brought together in friendly intercourse. In 
1863 he was made a K.C. B., and three years later was raised 
to the dignity of a baronet. The learned societies of his own 
country bestowed their highest rewards upon him: the Royal 
Society gave him the Copley medal, the Geological Society its 
Wollaston medal, and the Royal Society of Edinburgh its 
Brisbane medal. There was hardly a foreign scientific society 
of note which had not his name enrolled among its honorary 
members. The French Academy of Sciences awarded him the 
prix Cuvier, and elected him one of its eight foreign members in 
succession to Faraday. 

One of the closing public acts of Murchison's life was the 
founding of a chair of geology and mineralogy in the university 
of Edinburgh, for which he gave the sum of 6000, an annual 
sum of 200 being likewise provided by a vote in parliament for 
the endowment of the professorship. While the negotiations 
with the Government in regard to this subject were still in 
progress, Murchison was seized with a paralytic affection on 
2ist of November 1870. He rallied and was able to take 
interest in current affairs until the early autumn of the follow- 
ing year. After a brief attack of bronchitis he died on the 
22nd of October 1871. Under his will there was established 
the Murchison Medal and geological fund to be awarded 
annually by the council of the Geological Society in London. 

See the Life of Sir Roderick I. Murchison, by Sir A. Geikie (2 vols., 
1875)- (A. GE.) 

MURCIA, a maritime province of south-eastern Spain, bounded 
on the E. by Alicante, S.E. and S. by the Mediterranean Sea, W. 
by Almerfa and Granada and N. by Albacete. Pop. (1900), 
577,987; area, 4453 sq. m. The extent of coast is about 75 m.; 
from Cape Palos westwards to Villaricos Point (where Almeria 
begins) it is fringed by hills reaching their greatest elevation 
immediately east of Cartagena; northwards from Cape Palos 
to the Alicante boundary a low sandy tongue encloses the 
shallow lagoon called Mar Menor. Eastward from the Mar 
Menor and northward from Cartagena stretches the plain known 
as El Campo de Cartagena, but the surface of the rest of the 
province is diversified by ranges of hills, belonging to the same 
system as the Sierra Nevada, which connect the mountains of 
Almeria and Granada with those of Alicante. The general 
direction of these ranges is from south-west to north-east; they 
reach their highest point (5150 ft.) on the Sierra de Espufia, 
between the Mula and Sangonera valleys. They are rich in 
iron, copper, argentiferous lead, alum, sulphur, and saltpetre. 
Mineral springs occur at Mula, Archena (hot sulphur), and 
Alhama (hot chalybeate). The greater part of the province 
drains into the Mediterranean, chiefly by the Segura, which 
enters it in the north-west below Hellin in Albacete, and leaves 
it a little above Orihuela ip Alicante; within the province it 
receives on the left the Arroyo del Jua, and on the right the 
Caravaca, Quipar, Mula, and Sangonera. The smaller streams 
of Nogalte and Albujon fall directly into the Mediterranean and 
the Mar Menor respectively. The climate is hot and dry, and 



agriculture is largely dependent on irrigation, which, where 
practicable, has been carried on since the time of the Moors. 
Wheat, barley, maize, hemp, oil, and wine (the latter somewhat 
rough in quality) are produced; fruit, especially the orange, is 
abundant along the course of the Segura; mulberries for seri- 
culture are extensively grown around the capital; and the 
number of bees kept is exceptionally large. Esparto grass is 
gathered on the sandy tracts. The live stock consists chiefly of 
asses, mules, goats and pigs; horses, cattle and sheep being 
relatively few. Apart from agriculture, the principal industry 
is mining, which has its centre near Cartagena. Large quantities' 
of lead and esparto, as well as of zinc, iron and copper ores, and 
sulphur, are exported. The province is traversed by a railway 
which connects Murcia with Albacete and Valencia; from 
Alcantarilla there is a branch to Lorca and Baza. Near the 
capital and other large towns there are good roads, but the 
means of communication are defective in the remoter districts. 
This deficiency has somewhat retarded the development of 
mining, and, although it has been partly overcome by the 
construction of light railways, many rich deposits of ore remain 
unworked. The chief towns are Murcia, the capital, Cartagena, 
Lorca, La Uni6n, Mazarron, Yecla, Jumilla, Aguilas, Caravaca, 
Totana, Cieza, Mula, Moratalla, and Cehegin. Other towns 
with more than 7000 inhabitants are Alhama, Bulias. Fuente 
Alamo, Molina and Torre Pacheco. 

The province of Murcia was the first Spanish possession of 
the Carthaginians, by whom Nova Carthago was founded. The 
Romans included it in Hispania Tarraconensis. Under the 
Moors the province was known as Todmir, which included, 
according to Edrisi, the cities Murcia, Orihuela, Cartagena, 
Lorca, Mula and Chinchilla. The kingdom of Murcia, which 
came into independent existence after the fall of Omayyads 
(see CALIPHATE) included the present Albacete as well as Murcia. 
It became subject to the crown of Castile in the I3th century. 
Until 1833 the province of Murcia also included Albacete. 

MURCIA, the capital of the Spanish province of Murcia; 
on the river Segura, 25 m. W. of the Mediterranean Sea. Pop. 
(1900), 111,539. Murcia is connected by rail with all parts 
of Spain, and is an important industrial centre, sixth in respect 
of population among the cities of the kingdom. It has been an 
episcopal see since 1291. It is built nearly in the centre of a 
low-lying fertile plain, known as the huerta or garden of Murcia, 
which includes the valleys of the Segura and its right-hand tribu- 
tary the Sangonera, and is surrounded by mountains. Despite 
the proximity of the sea, the climate is subject to great varia- 
tions, the summer heat being severe, while frosts are common in 
winter. The city is built mainly on the left bank of the Segura, 
which curves north-eastward after receiving the Sangonera below 
Murcia, and falls into the Mediterranean about 30 m. N.E. A 
fine stone bridge of two arches gives access to the suburb of San 
Benito, which contains the bull-ring. As a rule the streets are 
broad, straight and planted with avenues of trees, but the 
Calle de Plateria and Calle de la Traperia, which contain many 
of the principal shops, are more characteristically Spanish, being 
lined with old-fashioned balconied houses, and so narrow that 
wheeled traffic is in most parts impossible. In summer these 
thoroughfares are shaded by awnings. The Malecon, or embank- 
ment, is a fine promenade skirting the left bank of the Segura; 
the river is here crossed by a weir and supplies power to several 
silk-mills. The principal square is the Arenal or Plaza de la 
Constituci6n, planted with orange trees and adjoining the 
Glorieta Park. The cathedral, dating from 1388-1467, is the 
work of many architects; in the main it is late Gothic, but a 
Renaissance dome and a tower 480 ft. high were added in 1521, 
while a Corinthian facade was erected in the i8th century. 
There are some good paintings and fine wood-carving in the 
interior. Other noteworthy buildings are the colleges of San 
Fulgencio and San Isidro, the bishops' palace, the hospital of 
San Juan de Dios, the Moorish Alhondiga, or grain warehouse, 
the buildings of the municipal and provincial councils and 
the Contraste, which is adorned with sculptured coats-of-arms, 
and was originally designed to contain standard weights and 

XIX. 2 

measures; it has become a picture-gallery. There are two 
training schools for teachers, a provincial institute and a museum. 
Since 1875 the industrial importance of Murcia has steadily 
increased. Mulberries (for silkworms), oranges and other fruits 
are largely cultivated in the huerta, and the silk industry, which 
dates from the period of Moorish rule, is still carried on. Manu- 
factures of woollen, linen and cotton goods, of saltpetre, flour, 
leather and hats, have been established in more modern times, 
and Murcia is the chief market for the agricultural produce of 
a large district. A numerous colony of gipsies has settled in the 
west of the city. 

Murcia was an Iberian town before the Punic Wars, but its 
name then, and under Roman cule, is not known, though some 
have tried to identify it with the Roman Vergilia. To the Moors, 
who took possession early in the 8th century, it was known as 
Medinat Mursiya. Edrisi described it in the i2th century as 
populous and strongly fortified. After the fall of the caliphate 
of Cordova it passed successively under the rule of Almeria, 
Toledo and Seville. In 1172 it was taken by the Almohades, and 
from 1223 to 1243 it became the capital of an independent 
kingdom. The Castilians took it at the end of this period, 
when large numbers of immigrants from north-eastern Spain 
and Provence settled in the town; French and Catalan names are 
still not uncommon. Moorish princes continued to rule in name 
over this mixed population, but in 1269 a rising against the 
suzerain, Alphonso the Wise, led to the final incorporation of 
Murcia (which then included the present province of Albacete) 
into the kingdom of Castile. During the War of the Spanish 
Succession Bishop Luis de Belluga defended the city against 
the archducal army by flooding the huerta. In 1810 and 1812 
it was attacked by the French under Marshal Soult. It suffered 
much from floods in 1651, 1879 and 1907, though the construc- 
tion of the Malecon has done much to keep the Segura within 
its own channel. In 1829 many buildings, including the 
cathedral, were damaged by an earthquake. 

MURDER, in law, the unlawful killing of a person with malice 
aforethought (see HOMICIDE). The O. Eng. morSor comes ulti- 
mately from the Indo-European root mar-, to die, which has 
also given Lat. mars, death, and all its derivatives in English, 
French and other Rom. languages; cf. Gr. |3por6$, for noprbs, 
mortal. The O. Eng. form, Latinized as murdrum, murtrum, 
whence Fr. meurtre, is represented in other Teutonic languages 
by a cognate form, e.g. Ger. Mord, Du. moord. 

MURDOCK, WILLIAM (1754-1839), British inventor, was 
born near the village of Auchinleck in Ayrshire on the 2 rst of 
August 1754. His father, John Murdoch (as the name is spelt 
in Scotland), was a millwright and miller, and William was 
brought up in the same occupation. In 1777 he entered the 
employment of Boulton & Watt in the Soho works at Birming- 
ham, and about two years afterwards he was sent to Cornwall to 
superintend the fitting of Watt's engines. It is said that while 
staying at Redruth he carried a series of experiments in the 
distillation of coal so far that in 1792 he was able to light his 
cottage and offices with gas, but the evidence is not conclusive. 
However, after his return to Birmingham about 1799, he made 
such progress in the discovery of practical methods for making, 
storing and purifying gas that in 1802 a portion of the exterior 
of the Soho factory was lighted with it in celebration of the peace 
of Amiens, and in the following year it -was brought into use 
for the interior. Murdock was also the inventor of important 
improvements in the steam-engine. He was the first to devise 
an oscillating engine, of which he made a model about 1784; in 
1786 he was busy somewhat to the annoyance of both Boulton 
and Watt with a steam carriage or road locomotive; and in 
1799 he invented the long D slide valve. He is also believed to 
have been the real deviser of the sun and planet motion patented 
by Watt in 1781. In addition his ingenuity was directed to 
the utilization of compressed air, and in 1803 he constructed 
a steam gun. He retired from business in 1830, and died at Soho 
on the isth of November 1839. 

At the celebration of the centenary of gas lighting in 1892, a bust 
of Murdock was unveiled by Lord Kelvin in the Wallace Monument. 



Stirling, and there is also a bust of him by Sir F. L. Chantrey at 
Handsworth Church, where he was buried. His " Account of the 
Application of Gas from Coal to Economical Purposes " appeared 
in the Phil. Trans, for 1808. 

MURE, SIR WILLIAM (1594-1657), Scottish writer, son of 
Sir William Mure of Rowallan, was born in 1594. His mother 
was Elizabeth, sister of the poet Alexander Montgomerie (q.v.). 
He was a member of the Scottish parliament in 1643, and took 
part in the English campaign of 1644. He was wounded at 
Marston Moor, but a month later was commanding a regiment 
at Newcastle. He died in 1657. He wrote Dido and Aeneas; 
a translation (1628) of Boyd of Trochrig's Latin Hecatombe 
Christiana; The True Crucifixe for True Catholikes (1629); a 
paraphrase of the Psalms; the Historic and Descent of the 
House of Rowallane; A Counter-buff to Lysimachus Nicanor; 
TheCry of Blood and of a Broken Covenant (1650); besides much 
miscellaneous verse and many sonnets. 

A complete edition of his works was edited by William Tough 
for the Scottish Text Society (2 vols., 1898). Mure's Lute-Book, 
a musical document of considerable interest, is preserved in the 
Laing collection of MSS. in the library of the university of 

MURE, WILLIAM (1799-1860), Scottish classical scholar, 
was born at Caldwell, Ayrshire, on the 9th of July 1799. He 
was educated at Westminster School and the universities of 
Edinburgh and Bcnn. From 1846 to 1855 he represented the 
county of Renfrew in parliament in the Conservative interest, 
and was lord rector of Glasgow University in 1847-1848. For 
many years he devoted his leisure to Greek 'studies, and in 
1850-1857 he published five volumes of a Critical History of 
the Language and Literature of Ancient Greece, which, though 
uncompleted and somewhat antiquated, is still useful. He died 
in London on the ist of April 1860. 

MURENA, the name of a Roman plebeian family from 
Lanuvium, belonging to the Licinian gens, said to be derived 
from the fondness of one of the family for lampreys (murenae) . 
The principal members of the family were Lucius Licinius 
Murena, who was defeated by Mithradates in Asia in 81 B.C., and 
his son Lucius Licinius Murena, who was defended by Cicero 
in 62 B.C. against a charge of bribery (Cic. Pro Murena). The 
son was for several years legate of Lucius Licinius Lucullus 
in the third Mithradatic War. In 65 he was praetor and made 
himself popular by the magnificence of the games provided by 
him. As administrator of Transalpine Gaul after his praetorship 
he gained the goodwill of both provincials and Romans by his 
impartiality. In 62 he was elected consul, but before entering 
upon office he was accused of bribery by Servius Sulpicius,an 
unsuccessful competitor, supported by Marcus Porcius Cato 
the younger and Servius Sulpicius Rufus, a famous jurist and 
son of the accuser. Murena was defended by Marcus Licinius 
Crassus (afterwards triumvir), Quintus Hortensius and Cicero, 
and acquitted, although it seems probable that he was guilty. 
During his consulship he passed a law {lex Junta Licinia) which 
enforced more strictly the provision of the lex Caecilia Didia 
that laws sjjould be promulgated three nundinae before they 
were proposed to the comitia, and further enacted that, in order 
to prevent forgery, a copy of every proposed statute should be 
deposited before witnesses in the aerarium. 

MURETUS, the Latinized name of MARC ANTOINE MURET 
(1526-1585), French humanist, who was born at Muret near 
Limoges on the i2th of April 1526. At the age of eighteen he 
attracted the notice of the elder Scaliger, and was invited to 
lecture in the archiepiscopal college at Auch. He afterwards 
taught Latin at Villeneuve, and then at Bordeaux. Some time 
before 1552 he delivered a course of lectures in the college of 
Cardinal Lemoine at Paris, which was largely attended, Henry 
II. and his queen being among his hearers. His success made him 
many enemies, and he was thrown into prison on a disgraceful 
charge, but released by the intervention of powerful friends. 
The same accusation was brought against him at Toulouse, and 
he only saved his life by timely flight. The records of the town 
show that he was burned in effigy as a Huguenot and as shame- 
fully immoral (1554). After a wandering and insecure life of 

some years in Italy, he received and accepted the invitation of 
the Cardinal Ippolyte d'Este to settle in Rome in 1559. In 
1561 he revisited France as a member of the cardinal's suite 
at the conference between Roman Catholics and Protestants held 
at Poissy. He returned to Rome in 1563. His lectures gained 
him a European reputation, and in 15 78 he received a tempting 
offer from the king of Poland to become teacher of jurisprudence 
in his new college at Cracow. Muretus, however, who about 
1576 had taken holy orders, was induced by the liberality of 
Gregory XIII. to remain in Rome, where he died on the 4th of 
June 1585. 

Complete editions of his works: editio princeps, Verona (1727- 
1730); by D. Ruhnken (1789), by C. H. Frotscher (1834-1841); 
two volumes of Scripta selecta, by J. Frey (1871); Variae lectiones, 
by F. A. Wolf and J. H. Fasi (1791-1828). Muretus edited a number 
of classical authors with learned and scholarly notes. His other 
works include Juvenilia et poemata varia, orationes and epistolae. 

See monograph by C. Dejob (Paris, 1881); J. E. Sandys, HisU 
Class. Schol., (2nd ed., 1908), ii. 148-152. 

MUREXIDE (NH^Cs^NsOe.HzO), the ammonium salt of 
purpuric acid. It may be prepared by heating alloxantin in 
ammonia gas to 100 C., or by boiling uramil with mercuric oxide 
(J. v. Liebig, F. Wohler, Ann., 1838, 26, 319), 2C 4 H6N 3 O 3 +O = 
NH4-C 8 H 4 N 6 O6+H 2 O. W. N. Hartley (Jour. Chem. Soc., 1905, 
87, 1791) found considerable difficulty in obtaining specimens 
of murexide sufficiently pure to give concordant results when 
examined by means of their absorption spectra, and conse- 
quently devised a new method of preparation for murexide. In 
this process alloxantin is dissolved in a large excess of boiling 
absolute alcohol, and dry ammonia gas is passed into the solution 
for about three hours. The solution is then filtered from the 
precipitated murexide, which is washed with absolute alcohol 
and dried. The salt obtained in this way is in the anhydrous 
state. It may also be prepared by digesting alloxan with 
alcoholic ammonia at about 78 C.; the purple solid so formed 
is easily soluble in water, and the solution produced is 
indistinguishable from one of murexide. 

On the constitution of murexide see also O. Piloty (Ann., 1904, 
333. 3); R. Mohlau (Ber., 1904, 37, 2686); and M. Slimmer and J. 
Stieglitz (Amer. Chem. Jour., 1904, 31, 661). 

MURFREESBORO, a city and the county-seat of Rutherford 
county, Tennessee, U.S.A., near the Stone River, 32 m. S.E. of 
Nashville. Pop. (1890), 3739; (1900), 3999 (2248 negroes); 
(1910), 4679. It is served by the Nashville Chattanooga & St 
Louis railway. It is in an agricultural region where cotton is 
an important crop, and has a considerable trade in red cedar, 
hardwood, cotton, livestock and grain; it has also various 
manufactures. At Murfreesboro are Soule College for girls 
(Methodist Episcopal South; 1852), Tennessee College for girls 
(Baptist, 1906), Mooney School for boys (1901), and Bradley 
Academy for negroes. Murfreesboro was settled in 1811; was 
incorporated in 1817, and from 1819 to 1825 was the capital 
of the state. It was named in honour of Colonel Hardy 
Murfree (1752-1809), a native of North Carolina, who served as 
an officer of North Carolina troops in the War of Independence, 
and after 1807 lived in Tennessee. About 2 m. west of the 
city the battle of Murfreesboro, or Stone River (q.v.), was 
fought on the 3ist of December 1862 and the 2nd of January 

MURGER, HENRY (1822-1861), French man of letters, was 
born in Paris on the 24th of March 1822. His father was a 
German concierge and a tailor. At the age of fifteen Murger was 
sent into a lawyer's office, but the occupation was uncongenial 
and his father's trade still more so; and he became secretary to 
Count Alexei Tolstoi. He published in 1843 a poem entitled 
Via dolorosa, but it made no mark. He also tried journalism, 
and the paper Le Castor, which figures in his Vie de Bohdme 
as having combined devotion to the interests of the hat trade 
with recondite philosophy and elegant literature, is said to have 
existed, though shortlived. In 1848 appeared the collected 
sketches called Scenes de la vie de BohZme.- This book describes 
the fortunes and misfortunes, the loves, studies, amusements 
and sufferings of a group of impecunious students, artists and 



men of letters, of whom Rodolphe represents Murger himself, 
while the others have been more or less positively identified. 
Murger, in fact, belonged to a clique of so-called Bohemians, the 
most remarkable of whom, besides himself, were Privat d'Angle- 
mont and Champfleury. La Vie de Boheme, arranged for the 
stage in collaboration with Theodore Barriere, was produced 
at the Varietes on the 22nd of November 1849, and was a 
triumphant success; it afterwards formed the basis of Puccini's 
opera, La Boheme (1898). From this time it was easy for 
Murger to live by journalism and general literature. He was 
introduced in 1851 to the Revue des deux mondes. But he was a 
slow, fastidious and capricious worker, and his years of hardship 
and dissipation had impaired his health. He published among 
other works Claude et Marianne in 1851 ; a comedy, Le Bonhomme 
Jadis in 1852; Le Pays Latin in 1852; Adeline Prolat (one of the 
most graceful and innocent if not the most original of his tales) 
in 1853; and Les Buveurs d'eau in 1855. This last, the most 
powerful of his books next to the Vie de Boheme, traces the fate 
of certain artists and students who, exaggerating their own 
powers and disdaining merely profitable work, come to an evil 
end not less rapidly than by dissipation. Some years before 
his death, which took place in a maison de sanle near Paris on 
the 28th of January 1861, Murger went to live at Marlotte, near 
Fontainebleau, and there he wrote an unequal book entitled 
Le Sabot rouge (1860), in which the character of the French 
peasant is uncomplimentarily treated. 

See an article by A. de Pontmartin in the Revue des deux mondes 
{October 1861). 

MURGHAB, a river of Afghanistan, which flows into Russian 
territory. It rises in the Firozkhoi highlands, the northern 
scarp of which is defined by the Band-i-Turkestan, and after 
traversing that plateau from east to west it turns north through 
deep defiles to Bala Murghab. Beyond this, in the neighbour- 
hood of Maruchak, it forms for a space the boundary-line between 
Afghan and Russian Turkestan; then joining the Kushk river 
at Pul-i-Khishti (Tash Kupri) it runs north to Merv, losing itself 
in the sands of the Merv desert after a course of about 450 m., 
its exact source being unknown. In the neighbourhood of 
Bala Murghab it is 50 yds. broad and some 3 ft. deep, with a 
rapid current. In the lower part of its course it is flanked by 
a remarkable network of canals. The ancient city of Merv, 
which was on its banks, was the great centre of medieval Arab 
trade, and Buddhist caves are found in the scarped cliffs of its 
right bank near Panjdeh. 

MURI, a province of the British protectorate of Northern 
Nigeria. It lies approximately between 9 and 11 40' E. and 
7 10' and 9 40' N. The river Benue divides it through its 
length, and the portion on the southern bank of the river is 
watered by streams flowing from the Cameroon region to the 
Benue. The province is bordered S. by Southern Nigeria, 
S.E. by German territory (Cameroon), E. by the province of 
Yola, N. by Bauchi, W. by Nassarawa and Bassa. The district 
of Katsena- Allah extends south of the Benue . considerably 
west of 9 E., the approximate limit of the remainder of the 
province. Muri has an area of 25,800 sq. m. and an estimated 
population of about 828,000. The province is rich in forest 
products and the Niger Company maintains trading stations 
on the river. Cotton is grown, and spinning thread, weaving 
and dyeing afford occupation to many thousands. The valley 
of the Benue has a climate generally unhealthy to Europeans, 
but there are places in the northern part of the province, such 
as the Fula settlement of Wase on a southern spur of the 
Murchison hills, where the higher altitude gives an excellent 
climate. Muri includes the ancient Jukon empire together with 
various small Fula states and a number of pagan tribes, among 
whom the Munshi, who extend into the provinces of Nassarawa 
and Bassa, are among the most turbulent. The Munshi occupy 
about 4000 sq. m. in the Katsena-Allah district. The pagan 
tribes in the north of the province are lawless cannibals who by 
constant outrages and murders of traders long rendered the main 
trade route to Bauchi unsafe, and cut off the markets of the 
Benue valley and the Cameroon from the Hausa states. Only 

two routes, one via Wase and the other via Gatari, pass through 
this belt. In the south of the province a similar belt of hostile 
pagans closed the access to the Cameroon except by two routes, 
Takum and Beli. For Hausa traders to cross the Muri province 
was a work of such danger and expense that before the advent 
of British administration the attempt was seldom made. 

Muri came nominally under British control in 1900. The 
principal effort of the administration has been to control and 
open the trade routes. In 1904 an expedition against the 
northern cannibals resulted in the capture of their principal 
fortresses and the settlement and opening to trade of a large 
district, the various routes to the Benue being rendered safe. 
In 1905 an expedition against the Munshi, rendered necessary 
by an unprovoked attack on the Niger Company's station at 
Abinsi, had a good effect in reducing the riverain portion of 
this tribe to submission. The absence of any central native 
authority delayed the process of bringing the province under 
administrative control. Its government "has been organized 
on the same system as the rest of Northern Nigeria, and is under 
a British resident. It has been divided into three administrative 
divisions east, central and west with their respective head- 
quarters at Lau, Amar and Ibi. Provincial and native courts 
of justice have been established. The telegraph has been 
carried to the town of Muri. Muri is one of the provinces in 
which the slave trade was most active, and its position between 
German territory and the Hausa states rendered it in the early 
days of the British administration a favourite route for the 
smuggling of slaves. 

MURILLO, BARTOLOM6 ESTEBAN (1617-1682), Spanish 
painter, son of Caspar Esteban Murillo and Maria Perez, was 
born at Seville in 1617, probably at the end 1 of the year, as he 
was baptized on the first of January 1618. Esteban-Murillo 
appears to have been the compound surname of the father, 
but some inquirers consider that, in accordance with a frequent 
Andalusian custom, the painter assumed the surname of his 
maternal grandmother, Elvira Murillo, in addition to that of 
his father. His parents (the father an artisan of a humble 
class), having been struck with the sketches which the boy 
was accustomed to make, placed him under the care of their 
distant relative, Juan del Castillo, the painter. Juan, a correct 
draughtsman and dry colourist, taught him all the mechanical 
parts of his profession with extreme care, and Murillo proved 
himself an apt pupil. The artistic appliances of his master's 
studio were not abundant, and were often of the simplest kind. 
A few casts, some stray fragments of sculpture and a lay figure 
formed the principal aids available for the Sevillian student of 
art. A living model was a luxury generally beyond the means 
of the school, but on great occasions the youths would strip in 
turn and proffer an arm or a leg to be .studied by their fellows. 
Objects of still life, however, were much studied by Murillo, 
and he early learnt to hit off the ragged urchins of Seville. 
Murillo in a few years painted as well as his master, and as 
stiffly. His two pictures of the Virgin, executed during this 
period, show how thoroughly he had mastered the style, with all 
its defects. Castillo was a kind man, but his removal to Cadiz 
in 1639-1640 threw his favourite pupil upon his own resources. 
The fine school of Zurbaran was too expensive for the poor 
lad; his parents were either dead or too poor to help him, and 
he was compelled to earn his bread by painting rough pictures 
for the " feria " or public fair of Seville. The religious daubs 
exposed at that mart were generally of as low an order as the 
prices paid for them. A " pintura de la feria " (a picture for 
the fair) was a proverbial expression for an execrably bad one; 
yet the street painters who thronged the market-place with 
their "clumsy saints and unripe Madonnas " not unfrequently 
rose to be able and even famous artists. This rough-and-ready 
practice, partly for the market-place, partly for converts in 
Mexico and Peru, for whom Madonnas and popular saints 
were produced and shipped off by the dozen, doubtless increased 
Murillo's manual dexterity; but, if we may judge from the 
picture of the " Virgin and Child" shown in the Murillo-room at 
Seville as belonging to this period, he made little improvement 


in colouring or in general strength of design. Struck by the 
favourable change which travel had wrought upon the style 
of his brother artist Pedro de Moya, Murillo in 1642 resolved 
to make a journey to Flanders or Italy. Having bought a large 
quantity of canvas, he cut it into squares of different sizes, which 
he converted into pictures of a kind likely to sell. The American 
traders bought up his pieces, and he found himself sufficiently 
rich to carry out his design. He placed his sister, who was 
dependent on him, under the care of some friends, and without 
divulging his plans to any one set out for Madrid. On reaching 
the capital he waited on Velazquez, his fellow-townsman then 
at the summit of his fortune and asked for some introduc- 
tion to friends in Rome. The master liked the youth, and 
offered him lodging in his own house, and proposed to procure 
him admission to the royal galleries of the capital. Murillo 
accepted the offer, and here enjoyed the masterpieces of Italy 
and Flanders without travelling beyond the walls of Madrid. 
The next two years- were chiefly spent in copying from Ribera, 
Vandyck and Velazquez; and in 1644 he so astonished the latter 
with some of his efforts that they were submitted to the king 
and the court. His patron now urged him to go to Rome, 
and offered him letters to smooth his way; but Murillo preferred 
returning to his sister and his native Seville. 

The friars of the convent of San Francesco in Seville had 
about this time determined to adorn the walls of their small 
cloister in a manner worthy of their patron saint. But the 
brotherhood had no money; and after endless begging they found 
themselves incapable of employing an artist of name to execute 
the task. Murillo was needy, and offered his services; after 
balancing their own poverty against his obscurity the friars 
bade him begin. Murillo covered the walls with eleven large 
pictures of remarkable power and beauty displaying by turns 
the strong colouring of Ribera, the lifelike truthfulness of 
Velazquez, and the sweetness of Vandyck. Among them were 
to be found representations of San Francesco, of San Diego, of 
Santa Clara and of San Gil. These pictures were executed 
in his earliest style, commonly called his frio or cold style. It 
was based chiefly on Ribera and Caravaggio, and was dark with 
a decided outline. This rich collection is no longer in Seville; 
Marshal Soult carried off ten of the works. The fame of these 
productions soon got abroad, and " El Claustro Chico " swarmed 
daily with artists and critics. Murillo was no longer friendless 
and unknown. The rich and the noble of Seville overwhelmed 
him with their commissions and their praises. 

In 1648 Murillo married a wealthy lady of rank, Dona Beatriz 
de Cabrera y Sotomayor, of the neighbourhood of Seville, and 
his house soon became the favourite resort of artists and 
connoisseurs. About this time he was associated with the land- 
scape-painter Yriarte the two artists interchanging figures and 
landscapes for their respective works; but they did not finally 
agree, and the co-operation came to an end. Murillo now 
painted the well-known " Flight into Egypt," and shortly 
afterwards changed his earliest style of painting for his calido 
or warm style. His drawing was still well defined, but his 
outlines became softer and his figures rounder, and his colouring 
gained in warmth and transparency. His first picture of this 
style, according to Cean Bermudez, was a representation of 
" Our Lady of the Conception," and was painted in 1652 for 
the brotherhood of the True Cross; he received for it 2500 reals 
(26). In 1655 he executed his two famous paintings of " San 
Leandro " and " San Isidoro " at the order of Don Juan Federigo, 
archdeacon of Carmona, which are now in the cathedral of 
Seville. These are two noble portraits, finished with great care 
and admirable effect, but the critics complain of the figures 
being rather short. His next picture, the " Nativity of the 
Virgin," painted for the chapter, is regarded as one of the most 
delightful specimens of his calido style. In the following year 
(1656) the same body gave him an order for a vast picture of San 
Antonio de Padua, for which he received 10,000 reals (104). 
This is one of his most celebrated performances, and still hangs 
in the baptistery of the cathedral. It was " repaired " in 1833; 
the grandeur of the design, however, and the singular richness 

of the colouring may still be traced. The same year saw him 
engaged on four large semicircular pictures, designed by his 
friend and patron Don Justino Neve y Yevenes, to adorn the 
walls of the church of Santa Maria la Blanca. The first two 
(now in Madrid) were meant to illustrate the history of the 
Festival of Our Lady of the Snow, or the foundation of the 
Roman basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. The one represents 
the wealthy but childless Roman senator and his lady asleep 
and dreaming; the other exhibits the devout pair relating 
their dream to Pope Liberius. Of these two noble paintings 
the Dream is the finer, and in it is to be noticed the commence- 
ment of Murillo's third and last style, known as the vaporoso or 
vapoury. It should be noted, however, that the three styles 
are not strictly separable into date-periods; for the painter 
alternated the styles accordingly to his subject-matter or the 
mood of his inspiration, the calido being the most frequent. In 
the vaporoso method the well-marked outlines and careful 
drawing of his former styles disappear, the outlines are lost 
in the misty blending of the light and shade, and the general 
finish betrays more haste than was usual with Murillo. After 
many changes of fortune, these two pictures now hang in the 
Academy at Madrid. The remaining pieces executed for this 
small church were a " Virgin of the Conception " and a figure of 
" Faith." Soult laid his hands on these also, and they have not 
been recovered. 

In 1658 Murillo undertook and consummated a task which 
had hitherto baffled all the artists of Spain, and even royalty 
itself. This was the establishing of a public academy of art. By 
superior tact and good temper he overcame the vanity of Valdes 
Leal and the presumption of the younger Herrera, and secured 
their co-operation. The Academy of Seville was accordingly 
opened for the first time in January 1660, and Murillo and the 
second Herrera were chosen presidents. The former continued 
to direct it during the following year; but the calls of his studio 
induced him to leave it in other hands. It was then flourishing, 
but not for long. 

Passing over some half-length pictures of saints and a dark- 
haired Madonna, painted in 1668 for the chapter-room of the 
cathedral of his native city, we enter upon the most splendid 
period of Murillo's career. In 1661 Don Miguel Manara Vicen- 
telo de Leca, who had recently turned to a life of sanctity from 
one of the wildest profligacy, resolved to raise money for the 
restoration of the dilapidated Hospital de la Caridad, of whose 
pious gild he was himself a member. Manara commissioned 
his friend Murillo to paint eleven pictures for this edifice of San 
Jorge. Three of these pieces represented the " Annunciation," 
the " Infant Saviour," and the " Infant St John." The remaining 
eight are considered Murillo's masterpieces. They consist of 
" Moses striking the Rock," the " Return of the Prodigal," 
" Abraham receiving the Three Angels," the "Charity of San 
Juan de Dios," the " Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes," " Our 
Lord healing the Paralytic," " St Peter released from Prison by 
the Angel," and " St Elizabeth of Hungary." These works 
occupied the artist four years, and in 1674 he received for his 
eight great pictures 78,115 reals or about 800. The " Moses, " 
the " Loaves and Fishes," the " San Juan," and the three 
subjects which we have named first, are still at Seville; the 
French carried off the rest, but the " St Elizabeth " and the 
" Prodigal Son " are now back in Spain. For compass and 
vigour the " Moses " stands first; but the " Prodigal's Return " 
and the " St Elizabeth " were considered by Bermudez the 
most perfect of all as works of art. The front of this famous 
hospital was also indebted to the genius of Murillo; five large 
designs in blue glazed tiles were executed from his drawings. 
He had scarcely completed the undertakings for this edifice 
when his favourite Franciscans again solicited his aid. He 
accordingly executed some twenty paintings for the humble 
little church known as the Convent de los Capucinos. Seventeen 
of these Capuchin pictures are preserved in the Museum of 
Seville. Of these the " Charity of St Thomas of Villanueva " 
is reckoned the best. Murillo himself was wont to call it " su 
lienzo " (his own picture). Another little piece of extraordinary 



merit, which once hung in this church, is the " Virgin of the 
Napkin," believed to have been painted on a " servilleta " and 
presented to the cook of the Capuchin brotherhood as a memorial 
of the artist's pencil. 

In 1670 Murillo is said to have declined an invitation to court, 
preferring to labour among the brown coats of Seville. Eight 
years afterwards his friend the canon Justino again employed 
him to paint three pieces for the Hospital de los Venerables: 
the " Mystery of the Immaculate Conception," " St Peter 
Weeping," and the " Blessed Virgin." As a mark of esteem, 
Murillo next painted a full-length portrait of the canon. The 
spaniel at the feet of the priest has been known to call forth a 
snarl from a living dog. His portraits generally, though few, 
are of great beauty. Towards the close of his life Murillo 
executed a series of pictures illustrative of the life of " the 
glorious doctor " for the Augustinian convent at Seville. This 
brings us to the last work of the artist. Mounting a scaffolding 
one day at Cadiz (whither he had gone in 1681) to execute the 
higher parts of a large picture of the " Espousal of St Catherine," 
on which he was engaged for the Capuchins of that town, he 
stumbled, and fell so violently that he received a hurt from which 
he never recovered. The great picture was left unfinished, and 
the artist returned to Seville to die. He died as he had lived, 
a humble, pious, brave man, on the 3rd of April 1682 in the arms 
of the chevalier Pedro Nunez de Villavicencio, an intimate 
friend and one of his best pupils. Another of his numerous 
pupils was Sebastian Gomez, named " Murillo's Mulatto." 
Murillo left two sons (one of them at first an indifferent painter, 
afterwards a priest) and a daughter his wife having died 
before him. 

Murillo has always been one of the most popular of painters 
not in Spain alone. His works show great technical attainment 
without much style, and a strong feeling for ordinary nature 
and for truthful or sentimental expression without lofty beauty 
or ideal elevation. His ecstasies of Madonnas and Saints are 
the themes of some of his most celebrated achievements. Take 
as an example the " Immaculate Conception " (or " Assumption 
of the Virgin," for the titles may, with reference to Murillo's 
treatments of this subject, almost be interchanged) in the 
Louvre, a picture for which, on its sale from the Soult collection, 
one of the largest prices on record was given in 1852, some 
24,600. His subjects may be divided into two great groups 
the scenes from low life (which were a new experiment in Spanish 
art, so far as the subjects of children are concerned), and the 
Scriptural, legendary and religious works. The former, of 
which some salient specimens are in the Dulwich Gallery, are, 
although undoubtedly truthful, neither ingenious not sym- 
pathetic; sordid unsightliness and roguish squalor are their 
foundation. Works of this class belong mostly to the earlier 
years of Murillo's practice. The subjects in which the painter 
most excels are crowded compositions in which some act of 
saintliness, involving the ascetic or self-mortifying element, 
is being performed subjects which, while repulsive in some of 
their details, emphasize the broadly human and the expressly 
Catholic conceptions of life. A famous example is the picture, 
now in the Madrid Academy, of St Elizabeth of Hungary washing 
patients afflicted with the scab or itch, and hence commonly 
named " El Tinoso." Technically considered, it unites his three 
styles of painting, more especially the cold and the warm. His 
power of giving atmosphere to combined groups of figures is one 
of the marked characteristics of Murillo's art; and he may be said 
to have excelled in this respect all his predecessors or con- 
temporaries of whatever school. 

Seville must still be visited by persons who wish to study 
Murillo thoroughly. A large number of the works which used 
to adorn this city have, however, been transported else- 
whither. In the Prado Museum at Madrid are forty-five 
specimens of Murillo the " Infant Christ and the Baptist " 
(named " Los Nifios della Concha "), " St Ildefonso vested with 
a Chasuble by the Madonna," &c.; in the Museo della Trinidad, 
" Christ and the Virgin appearing to St Francis in a Cavern " 
(an immense composition), and various others. In the National 

Gallery, London, the chief example is the " Holy Family "; this 
was one of the master's latest works, painted in Cadiz. In 
public galleries in the United Kingdom there are altogether 
twenty-four examples by Murillo; in those of Spain, seventy-one. 
Murillo, who was the last pre-eminent painter of Seville, was 
an indefatigable and prolific worker, hardly leaving his painting- 
room save for his devotions in church; he realized large prices, 
according to the standard of his time, and made a great fortune. 
His character is recorded as amiable and soft, yet independent, 
subject also to sudden impulses, not unmixed with passion. 

See Stirling, Annals of the Artists of Spain (3 vols., London, 
1848); Richard Ford, Handbook for Spain (London, 1855); Curtis, 
Catalogue of the Works of Velasquez and Murillo (1883); L. Alfonso, 
Murillo, el hombre, &c. (1886); C. Justi, Murillo (illustrated, 
1892); P. Lefort, Murillo elfes eleves (1892); F. M. Tubino, Murillo, 
su epoca, &c. (1864; Eng. trans., 1879); Dr G. C. Williamson, 
Murillo (1902) ; C. S. Ricketts, Th* Prado (1903). (W. M. R.) 

MURIMUTH, ADAM (c. 1274-1347), English ecclesiastic and 
chronicler, was born in 1274 or 1275 and educated in the civil 
law at Oxford. Between 1312 and 1318 he practised in the 
papal curia at Avignon. Edward II. and Archbishop Winchelsey 
were among his clients, and his legal services secured for him 
canonries at Hereford and St Paul's, and the precentorship 
of Exeter Cathedral. In 1331 he retired to a country living 
(Wraysbury, Bucks), and devoted himself to writing the history 
of his own times. His Continuatio chronicarum, begun not 
earlier than 1325, starts from the year 1303, and was carried 
up to 1347, the year of his death. Meagre at first, it becomes 
fuller about 1340 and is specially valuable for the history of the 
French wars. Murimuth has no merits of style, and gives a 
bald narrative of events. But he incorporates many documents 
in the latter part of his book. The annals of St. Paul's which 
have been edited by Bishop Stubbs, are closely related to the 
work of Murimuth, but probably not from his pen. The 
Continuatio was carried on, after his death, by an anonymous 
writer to the year 1380. 

The only complete edition of the Continuatio chronicarum is that 
by E. M. Thompson (Rolls series, 1889). The preface to this edition, 
and to W. Stubbs's Chronicles of Edward I. and II., vol. i. (Rolls 
series, 1882), should be consulted. The anonymous continuation 
is printed in T. Hog's edition of Murimuth (Eng. Hist. Soc., London, 
1846). (H. W. C. D.) 

MURKER, THOMAS (1475-1537?), German satirist, was 
born on the 24th of December 1475 at Oberehnheim near Strass- 
burg. In 1490 he entered the order of Franciscan monks, and 
in 1495 began a wandering life, studying and then teaching and 
preaching in Freiburg-in-Breisgau, Paris, Cracow and Strassburg. 
The emperor Maximilian I. crowned him in 1505 poeta laureatus; 
in 1506, he was created doctor theologiae, and in 1513 was ap- 
pointed custodian of the Franciscan monastery in Strassburg, 
an office which, on account of a scurrilous publication, he was 
forced to vacate the following year. Late in life, in 1518, he 
began the study of jurisprudence at the university of Basel, 
and in 1519 took the degree of doctor juris. After journeys in 
Italy and England, he again settled in Strassburg, but, disturbed 
by the Reformation, sought an exile at Lucerne in Switzerland 
in 1526. In 1533 he was appointed priest of Oberehnheim, 
where he died in 1537, or, according to some accounts, in 1536. 
Murner was an energetic and passionate character, who made 
enemies wherever he went. There is not a trace of human 
kindness in his satires, which were directed against the cor- 
ruption of the times, the Reformation, and especially against 
Luther. His most powerful satire and the most virulent 
German satire of the period is Von dem grossen lulherischen 
Narren, wie ihn Dr Murner beschworen hat. Among others 
may be mentioned Die Narrenbeschworung (1512); Die Schelmen- 
zunft (1512); Die Gauchmatt, which treats of enamoured fools 
(1519), and a translation of Virgil's Aeneid (1515) dedicated to 
the emperor Maximilian I. Murner also wrote the humor- 
ous Chartiludium logicae (1507) and the Ludus studentum 
freiburgensium (1511), besides a translation of Justinian's 
Institutiones (1519). 

All Murner's more important works have been republished in 


critical editions; a selection was published by G. Balke in Kiirsch- 
ner's Deutsche Nationattiteratur (1890). Cf. W. Kawerau, Murner 
und die Kirche des Mittelalters (1890); and by the same writer, 
Murner und die deutsche Reformation (1891); also K. Ott, Uber 
Murners Verhdltniss zu Geiler (1896). 

MUROM, a town of Russia, in the government of Vladimir, 
on the craggy left bank of the Oka, close to its confluence with 
the Tesha, 108 m. by rail S.E. of the city of Vladimir. Pop. 
(1900), 12,874. Muron has an old cathedral. It is the chief 
entrepot for grain from the basin of the Ewer Oka, and carries 
on an active trade with Moscow and Nizhniy-Novgorod. It is 
famed, as in ancient times, for kitchen-gardens, especially for 
its cucumbers and seed for canaries. Its once famous tanneries 
have lost their importance, but the manufacture of linen has 
increased; it has also steam flour-mills, distilleries, manufac- 
tories of soap and of iron implements. 

MURPHY, ARTHUR (1727-1805), Irish actor and dramatist, 
son of a Dublin merchant, was born at Clomquin, Roscommon, 
on the 27th of December 1727. From 1738 to 1744, under 
the name of Arthur French, he was a student at the English 
college at St Omer. He entered the counting-house of a mer- 
chant at Cork on recommendation of his uncle, Jeffery French, 
in 1747. A refusal to go to Jamaica alienated French's interest, 
and Murphy exchanged his situation for one in London. By 
the autumn of 1752 he was publishing the Gray's Inn Journal, 
a periodical in the style of the Spectator. Two years later he 
became an actor, and appeared in the title-roles of Richard III. 
and Othello; as Biron in Southerne's Fatal Marriage; and as 
Osmyn in Congreve's Mourning Bride. His first farce, The 
Apprentice, was given at Drury Lane on the 2nd of January 
1756. It was followed, among other plays, by The Upholsterer 
(1757), The Orphan of China (1759), The Way to Keep Him 
(1760), All in the Wrong (1761), The Grecian Daughter (1772), 
and Know Your Own Mind (1777). These were almost all 
adaptations from the French, and were very successful, securing 
for their author both fame and wealth. .Murphy edited a 
political periodical, called the Test, in support of Henry Fox, by 
whose influence he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 
although he had been refused at the Middle Temple in 1757 
on account of his connexion with the stage. Murphy also 
wrote a biography of Fielding, an essay on the life and genius 
of Samuel Johnson and translations of Sallust and Tacitus. 
Towards the close of his life the office of a commissioner of 
bankrupts and a pension of 200 were conferred upon him 
by government. He died on the i8th of June 1805. 

MURPHY, JOHN FRANCIS (1853- ), American landscape 
painter, was born at Oswego, New York, on the nth of 
December 1853. He first exhibited at the National Academy 
of Design in 1876, and was made an associate in 1885 and a 
full academician two years later. He became a member of the 
Society of American Artists (1901) and of the American Water 
Color Society. 

MURPHY, ROBERT (1806-1843), British mathematician, the 
son of a poor shoemaker, was born at Mallow, in Ireland, in 
1806. At the age of thirteen, while working as an apprentice 
in his father's shop, he became known to certain gentlemen in 
the neighbourhood as a self-taught mathematician. Through 
their exertions, after attending a classical school in his native 
town, he was admitted to Caius College, Cambridge, in 1825. 
Third wrangler in 1829, he was elected in the same year a fellow 
of his college. A course of dissipation led him into debt; his 
fellowship was sequestered for the benefit of his creditors, and 
he was obliged to leave Cambridge in December 1832. After 
living for some time with his relations in Ireland, he repaired 
to London in 1836, a penniless literary adventurer. In 1838 
he became examiner in mathematics and physics at London 
University. He had already contributed several mathematical 
papers to the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions (1831-1836), 
Philosophical Magazine (1833-1842), and the Philosophical 
Transactions (1837), and had published Elementary Principles of 
the Theories of Electricity (1833). He now wrote for the " Library 
of Useful Knowledge " a Treatise on the Theory of Algebraical 
Equations (1839). He died on the i2th of March 1843. 

MURPHYSBORO, a city and the county-seat of Jackson 
county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the south part of the state, on the 
Big Muddy River, about 57 m. N. of Cairo. Pop. (1890), 3880; 
(1900), 6463, including 557 foreign-born and 456 negroes; (1910), 
7485. It is served by the Illinois Central, the Mobile & Ohio 
and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways. It is 
the centre for a farming region, in which there are deposits of 
coal, iron, lead and shale, and there are various manufactures 
in the city. Murphysboro was incorporated in 1867, and re- 
incorporated in 1875. 

MURRAIN (derived through O. Fr. marine, from Lat. mori, to 
die), a general term for various virulent diseases in domesticated 
animals, synonymous with plague or epizooty. The principal 
diseases are dealt with under RINDERPEST; PLEURO-PNEUMONIA; 

MURRAY (or MORAY), EARLS OF. The earldom of Moray was 
one of the seven original earldoms of Scotland, its lands corre- 
sponding roughly to the modern counties of Inverness and Ross. 
Little is known of the earls until about 1314, when Sir Thomas 
Randolph, a nephew of King Robert Bruce, was created earl 
of Moray (q.v.), and the Randolphs held the earldom until 1346, 
when the childless John Randolph, 3rd earl of this line and a 
soldier of repute, was killed at the battle of Neville's Cross. 
According to some authorities the earldom was then held by 
John's sister Agnes (c. 1312-1369) and her husband, Patrick 
Dunbar, earl of March or Dunbar (c. 1285-1368). However 
this may be, in 1359 an English prince, Henry Plantagenet, 
duke of Lancaster (d. 1361), was made earl of Moray by King 
David II.; but in 1372 John Dunbar (d. 1391), a graiftlson of 
Sir Thomas Randolph and a son-in-law of Robert II., obtained 
the earldom. The last of the Dunbar earls was James Dunbar, 
who was murdered in August 1429, and after this date his 
daughter Elizabeth and her husband, Archibald Douglas (d. 1455), 
called themselves earl and countess of Moray. 

The next family to bear this title was an illegitimate branch 
of the royal house of Stuart, James IV. creating his natural 
son, James Stuart (c. 1490-1544), earl of Moray. James died 
without sons, and after the title had been borne for a short time 
by George Gordon, 4th earl of Huntly (c. 1514-1562), who 
was killed at Corrichie in 1562, it was bestowed in 1562 by 
Mary Queen of Scots upon her half-brother, an illegitimate son 
of James V. This was the famous regent, James Stuart, earl 
of Moray, or Murray (see below), who was murdered in January 
1570; after this event a third James Stuart, who had married 
the regent's daughter Elizabeth (d. 1591), held the earldom. 
He, who was called the " bonny earl," was killed by his heredi- 
tary enemies, the Gordons, in February 1592, when his son James 
(d. 1638) succeeded to the title. The earldom of Moray has 
remained in the Stuart family since this date. Alexander, the 
4th earl (d. 1701), was secretary of state for Scotland from 1680 
to 1689; and in 1796 Francis, the 9th earl (1737-1810), was 
made a peer of the United Kingdom as Baron Stuart. 

See vol. vi. of Sir R. Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, new ed. by 
Sir J. B. Paul (1909). 

MURRAY, ALEXANDER STUART (1841-1904), British 
archaeologist, was born at Arbroath on the 8th of January 1841, 
and educated there, at Edinburgh high school and at the 
universities of Edinburgh and Berlin. In 1867 he entered the 
British Museum as an assistant in the department of Greek and 
Roman antiquities under Sir Charles Newton, whom he suc- 
ceeded in 1886. His younger brother, George Robert Milne 
Murray (b. 1858), was made keeper of the botanical department 
in 1895, the only instance of two brothers becoming heads of 
departments at the museum. In 1873 Dr Murray published a 
Manual of Mythology, and in the following year contributed to 
the Contemporary Review two articles one on the Homeric 
question which led to a friendship with Mr Gladstone, the 
other on Greek painters. In 1880-1883 he brought out his 
History of Greek Sculpture, which at once became a standard 
work. In 1886 he was selected by the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland to deliver the Rhind lectures on archaeology, out of 



which grew his Handbook of Greek Archaeology (1892). In 
1894-1896 Dr Murray directed some excavations in Cyprus 
undertaken by means of a bequest of 2000 from Miss Emma 
Tournour Turner. The objects obtained are described and 
illustrated in Excavations in Cyprus, published by the trustees 
of the museum in 1900. Among Dr Murray's other official 
publications are three folio volumes on Terra-cotta Sarcophagi, 
White Athenian Vases and Designs from Greek Vases. In 1898 
he wrote for the Portfolio a monograph on Greek bronzes, 
founded on lectures delivered at the Royal Academy in that 
year, and he contributed many articles on archaeology to 
standard publications. In recognition of his services to archaeo- 
logy he was made LL.D. of Glasgow University in 1887 and 
elected a corresponding member of the Berlin Academy of 
Sciences in 1900. He died in March 1904. 

MURRAY, DAVID (1840- ), Scottish painter, was born in 
Glasgow, and spent some years in commercial pursuits before 
he practised as an artist. He was elected an associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1891 and academician in 1905; and also 
became an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy and of 
the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours, and a member 
of the Royal Scottish Water Colour Society. He is a landscape 
painter of distinction, and two of his pictures, " My Love is 
gone a-sailing " (1884) and " In the Country of Constable " 
(1903), have been bought for the National Gallery of British 
Art. " Young Wheat," painted in 1890, is one of his most 
noteworthy works. 

English journalist, was born in 1824, the natural son of the 2nd 
duke of Buckingham. Educated at Magdalen Hall (Hertford 
College), Oxford, he entered the diplomatic service through the 
influence of Lord 'Palmerston, and in 1851 joined the British 
embassy at Vienna as attache. At the same time he agreed 
to act as Vienna correspondent of a London daily paper, a 
breach of the conventions of the British Foreign Office which 
cost him his post. In 1852 he was transferred to Hanover, 
and thence to Constantinople, and finally, in 1855, was made 
consul-general at Odessa. In 1868 he returned to England, 
and devoted himself to journalism. He contributed to the 
early numbers of Vanity Fair, and in 1869 founded a clever but 
abusive society paper, the Queen's Messenger. For a libel 
published in this paper Lord Carrington horsewhipped him 
on the doorstep of a London club. Murray was subsequently 
charged with perjury for denying on oath his authorship of the 
article. Remanded on bail, he escaped to Paris, where he 
subsequently lived, acting as correspondent of various London 
papers. In 1874 he helped Edmund Yates to found the World. 
Murray died at Passy on the aoth of December 1881. 

His score of books, several of which were translated into French 
and published in Paris, include French Pictures in English Chalk 
(1876-1878); The Roving Englishman in Turkey (1854); Men of the 
Second Empire (1872); Young Brown (1874); Sidelights on English 
Society (1881) ; and Under the Lens: Social Photographs (1885). 

MURRAY, LORD GEORGE (1694-1760), Scottish Jacobite 
general, fifth son of John, ist duke of Atholl, by his first wife, 
Catherine, daughter of the 3rd duke of Hamilton, was born 
at Huntingtower, near Perth, on the 4th of October 1694. 
He joined the army in Flanders in June 1712; in 1715, contrary 
to their father's wishes, he and his brothers, the marquis of 
Tullibardine and Lord Charles Murray, joined the Jacobite rebels 
under the earl of Mar, each brother commanding a regiment of 
men of Atholl. Lord Charles was taken prisoner at Preston, 
but after the collapse of the rising Lord George escaped with 
Tullibardine to South Uist, and thence to France. In 1719 
Murray took part in the Jacobite attempt in conjunction with 
the Spaniards in the western highlands, under the command of 
Tullibardine and the earl marischal, which terminated in " the 
affair of Glenshiel " on the roth of June, when he was wounded 
while commanding the right wing of the Jacobites. After 
hiding for some months in the highlands he reached Rotter- 
dam in May 1720. There is no evidence for the statement that 
Murray served in the Sardinian army, and little is known of his 

life on the continent till 1724, when he returned to Scotland, 
where in the following year he was granted a pardon. The duke 
of Atholl died in 1724 and was succeeded in the title by his second 
son James, owing to the attainder of Tullibardine; and Lord 
George leased from his brother the old family property of 
Tullibardine in Strathearn, where he lived till 1745. 

On the eve of the Jacobite rising of 1745 the duke of Perth 
made overtures to Lord George Murray on behalf of the 
Pretender; but even after the landing of Charles Edward in 
Scotland in July, accompanied by Tullibardine, Murray's attitude 
remained doubtful. He accompanied his brother the duke to 
Crieff on the 2ist of August to pay his respects to Sir John Cope, 
the commander of the government troops, and he permitted 
the duke to appoint him deputy-sheriff of Perthshire. It has 
been suggested that Murray acted with duplicity, but his 
hesitation was natural and genuine; and it was not till early in 
September, when Charles Edward was at Blair Castle, which had 
been vacated by the duke of Atholl on the prince's approach, 
that Murray decided to espouse the Stuart cause. He then 
wrote to his brother explaining that he did so for conscientious 
reasons, while realizing the risk of ruin it involved. On joining 
the Jacobite army Lord George received a commission as lieu- 
tenant-general, though the prince ostentatiously treated him 
with want of confidence; and he was flouted by the Irish adven- 
turers who were the Pretenderis trusted advisers. At Perth 
Lord George exerted himself with success to introduce discipline 
and organization in the army he was to command, and he gained 
the confidence of the highland levies, with whose habits and 
methods of fighting he was familiar. He also used his influence 
to prevent the exactions and arbitrary interference with civil 
rights which Charles was too ready to sanction on the advice of 
others. At Prestonpans, on the 2ist of September, Lord George, 
who led the Jacobite left wing in person, was practically com- 
mander-in-chief, and it was to his able generalship that the 
victory was mainly due. During the six weeks' occupation of 
Edinburgh he did useful work in the further organization and 
disciplining of the army. He opposed Charles's plan of invading 
England, and when his judgment was overruled he prevailed 
on the prince to march into Cumberland, which he knew to be 
favourable ground for highlander tactics, instead of advancing 
against General Wade, whose army was posted at Newcastle. 
He conducted the siege of Carlisle, but on the surrender of the 
town on the I4th of November he resigned his command on 
the ground that his authority had been insufficiently upheld by 
the prince, and he obtained permission to serve as a volunteer 
in the ranks of the Atholl levies. The dissatisfaction, however, 
of the army with the appointment of the duke of Perth to 
succeed him compelled Charles to reinstate Murray, who accord- 
ingly commanded the Jacobites in the march to Derby. Here 
on the sth of December a council was held at which Murray 
urged the necessity for retreat, owing to the failure of the English 
Jacobites to support the invasion and the absence of aid from 
France. As Murray was supported by the council the retreat 
was ordered, to the intense chagrin of Charles, who never forgave 
him; but the failure of the enterprise was mainly chargeable 
to Charles himself, and it was not without justice that Murray's 
aide de camp, the chevalier Johnstone, declared that " had 
Prince Charles slept during the whole of the expedition, and 
allowed Lord George Murray to act for him according to his 
own judgment, he would have found the crown of Great Britain 
on his head when he awoke." Lord George commanded the 
rear-guard during the retreat; and this task, rendered doubly 
dangerous by the proximity of Cumberland in the rear and Wade 
on the flank, was made still more difficult by the incapacity 
and petulance of the Pretender. By a skilfully fought rear- 
guard action at Clifton Moor, Lord George enabled the army to 
reach Carlisle safely and without loss of stores or war material; 
and on the 3rd of January 1746 the force entered Stirling, where 
they were joined by reinforcements from Perth. The prince 
laid siege to Stirling Castle, while Murray defeated General 
Hawley near Falkirk; but the losses of the Jacobites by sickness 
and desertion, and the approach of Cumberland, made retreat 


to the Highlands an immediate necessity, in which the prince 
was compelled to acquiesce; his resentment was such that he 
gave ear to groundless suggestions that Murray was a traitor, 
which the latter's failure to capture his brother's stronghold 
of Blair Castle did nothing to refute. 

In April 1746 the Jacobite army was in the neighbourhood 
of Inverness, and the prince decided to give battle to the duke 
of Cumberland. Charles took up a position on the left bank of 
the Nairn river at Culloden Moor, rejecting Lord George's Murray 
advice to select a much stronger position on the opposite bank. 
The battle of Culloden, where the Stuart cause was ruined, 
was fought on the i6th of April 1746. On the following day the 
duke of Cumberland intimated to his troops that " the public 
orders' of the rebels yesterday was to give us no quarter"; 
Hanoverian news-sheets printed what purported to be copies 
of such an order, and the historian James Ray and other con- 
temporary writers gave further currency to a calumny that has 
been repeated by modern authorities. Original copies of Lord 
George Murray's " orders at Culloden " are in existence, one of 
which is among Cumberland's own papers, while another was 
in the possession of Lord Hardwicke, the judge who tried the 
Jacobite peers in 1746, and they contain no injunction to refuse 
quarter. After the defeat Murray conducted a remnant of the 
Jacobite army to Ruthven, and prepared to organize further 
resistance. Prince Charles, however, had determined to aban- 
don the enterprise, and at Ruthven Lord George received an 
order dismissing him from the prince's service, to which he replied 
in a letter upbraiding Charles for his distrust and mismanage- 
ment. Charles's belief in the general's treachery was shared 
by several leading Jacobites, but there appears no ground for 
the suspicion. From the moment he threw in his lot with the 
exiled prince's cause Lord George Murray never deviated in his 
loyalty and devotion, and his generalship was deserving of the 
highest praise; but the discipline he enforced and jealousy of 
his authority made enemies of some of those to whom Charles 
was more inclined to listen than to the general who gave him 
sound but unwelcome advice. 

Murray escaped to the continent in December 1746, and was 
graciously received in Rome by the Old Pretender, who granted 
him a pension; but in the following year when he went to Paris 
Charles Edward refused to see him. Lord George lived at 
various places abroad until his death, which occurred at Medem- 
blik in Holland on the nth of October 1760. He married 
in 1728 Amelia, daughter and heiress of James Murray of 
Strowan and Glencarse, by whom he had three sons and two 
daughters. His eldest son John became 3rd duke of Atholl in 
1764; the two younger sons became lieutenant-general and 
vice-admiral respectively in the British service. 

See A Military History of Perthshire, ed. by the marchioness of 
Tullibardine (2 vols., London, 1908), containing a memoir of Lord 
George Murray and a facsimile copy of his orders at Culloden; 
The Atholl Chronicles, ed. by the duke of Atholl (privately printed) ; 
The Chevalier James de Johnstone, Memoirs of the Rebellion in 1745 
(jrd ed., London, 1822); James Ray, Compleat Historic of the Rebel- 
lion, 1745-1746 (London, 1754); Robert Patten, History of the late 
Rebellion (2nd ed., London, 1717); Memoirs of Sir John Murray of 
Brpughton, ed. by R. F. Bell (Edinburgh, 1898); Andrew Henderson, 
History of the Rebellion, 1745-1746 (2nd ed., London, 1748). 

(R. J- M.) 

MURRAY, JAMES (c. 1710-1794), British governor of Canada, 
was a younger son of Alexander Murray, 4th Lord Elibank 
(d. 1736). Having entered the British army, he served with the 
1 5th Foot in the West Indies, the Netherlands and Brittany, and 
became lieut.enant-colonel of this regiment by purchase in 1751. 
In 1757 he led his men to North America to take part in the 
war against France. He commanded a brigade at the siege of 
Louisburg, was one of Wolfe's three brigadiers in the expedition 
against Quebec, and commanded the left wing of the army in 
the famous battle in September 1759. After the British victory 
and the capture of the city, Murray was left in command of 
Quebec; having strengthened its fortifications and taken 
measures to improve the morale of his men, he defended it in 
April and May 1760 against the attacks of the French, who were 
soon compelled to raise the siege. The British troops had been 

decimated by disease, and it was only a remnant that Murray 
now led to join General Amherst at Montreal, and to be present 
when the last batch of French troops in Canada surrendered. 
In October 1760 he was appointed governor of Quebec, and he 
became governor of Canada after this country had been formally 
ceded to Great Britain in 1763. In this year he quelled a 
dangeious mutiny, and soon afterwards his alleged partiality for 
the interests of the French Canadians gave offence to the British 
settlers; they asked for his recall, and in 1766 he retired from his 
post. After an inquiry in the House of Lords, he was exonerated 
from the charges which had been brought against him. In 
1774 Murray was sent to Minorca as governor, and in 1781, 
while he was in charge of this island, he was besieged in Fort 
St Philip by a large force of French and Spaniards. After a 
stubborn resistance, which lasted nearly seven months, he was 
obliged to surrender the place; and on his return to England 
he was tried by a court-martial, at the instance of Sir William 
Draper, who had served under him in Minorca as lieutenant- 
governor. He was acquitted and he became a general in 1783. 
He died on the i8th of June 1794. Murray's only son was 
James Patrick Murray (1782-1834), a major-general and member 
of parliament. 

British lexicographer, was born at Denholm, near Hawick, 
Roxburghshire, and after a local elementary education proceeded 
to Edinburgh, and thence to the university of London, where 
he graduated B.A. in 1873. Sir James Murray, who received 
honorary degrees from several universities, both British and 
foreign, was engaged in scholastic work for thirty years, from 
1855 to 1885, chiefly at Hawick and Mill Hill. During this time 
his reputation as a philologist was increasing, and he was 
assistant examiner in English at the University of London from 
1875 to 1879 and president of the Philological Society of London 
from 1878 to 1880, and again from 1882 to 1884. It was in 
connexion with this society that he undertook the chief work 
of his life, the editing of the New English Dictionary, based on 
materials collected by the society. These materials, which had 
accumulated since 1857, when the society first projected the 
publication of a dictionary on philological principles, amounted 
to an enormous quantity, of which an idea may be formed from 
the fact that Dr Furnivall sent in " some ton and three-quarters 
of materials which had accumulated under his roof." After 
negotiations extending over a considerable period, the contracts 
between the society, the delegates of the Clarendon Press, and 
the editor, were signed on the ist of March 1879, and Murray 
began the examination and arrangement of the raw material, 
and the still more troublesome work of re-animating and main- 
taining the enthusiasm of " readers." In 1885 he removed from 
Mill Hill to Oxford, where his Scriptorium came to rank among 
the institutions of the University city. The first volume of 
the dictionary was printed at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 
in 1888. A full account of its beginning and the manner of 
working up the materials will be found in Murray 's presidential 
address to the Philological Society in 1879, while reports of 
its progress are given in the addresses by himself and other 
presidents in subsequent years. In addition to his work as a 
philologist, Murray was a frequent contributor to the transac- 
tions of the various antiquarian and archaeological societies of 
which he is a member; and he wrote the article on the English 
language for this Encyclopaedia. In 1885 he received the 
honorary degree of M.A. from Balliol College; he was an original 
fellow of the British Academy, and in 1908 he was knighted. 

1570), regent of Scotland, was an illegitimate son of James V. 
of Scotland by Margaret Erskine, daughter of John Erskine, 
earl of Mar. In 1538 he was appointed prior of the abbey of 
St Andrews in order that James V. might obtain possession of 
its funds. Educated at St Andrews University, he attacked, 
in September 1549, an English force which had made a descent 
on the Fife coast, and routed it with great slaughter. In 
addition to the priory of St Andrews, he received those also of 
Pittenweem and Macon in France, but manifested no vocation 


for a monastic life. The discourses of Knox, which he heard 
at Calder, won his approval, and shortly after the return of the 
reformer to Scotland in 1559, James Stuart left the party of the 
queen regent and joined the lords of the congregation, who 
resolved forcibly to abolish the Roman service. After the 
return of Queen Mary in 1561, he became her chief adviser, and 
his cautious firmness was for a time effectual in inducing her 
to adopt a policy of moderation towards the reformers. At the 
beginning of 1562 he was created earl of Murray, a dignity also 
held by George Gordon, earl of Huntly, who, however, had 
lost the queen's favour. Only a few days later he was made earl 
of Mar,*but as this title was claimed by John, Lord Erskine, 
Stuart resigned it and received a second grant of the earldom of 
Murray, Huntly by this time having been killed in battle. 
Henceforward he was known as the earl of Moray, the alternative 
Murray being a more modern and less correct variant. About 
this time the earl married Anne (d. 1583), daughter of William 
Keith, ist Earl Marischal. 

After the defeat and death of Huntly, the leader of the 
Catholic party, the policy of Murray met for a time with no 
obstacle, but he awakened the displeasure of the queen by his 
efforts in behalf of Knox when the latter was accused of high 
treason; and as he was also opposed to her marriage with 
Darnley, he was after that event declared an outlaw and took 
refuge in England. Returning to Scotland after the murder 
of Rizzio, he was pardoned by the queen. He contrived, 
however, to be away at the time of Darnley's assassination, 
and avoided the tangles of the marriage with Bothwell by going 
to France. After the abdication of Queen Mary at Lochleven, 
in July 1567, he was appointed regent of Scotland. When 
Mary escaped from Lochleven (May 2, 1568), the duke of Chatel- 
herault and other Catholic nobles rallied to her standard, 
but Murray and the Protestant lords gathered their adherents, 
defeated her forces at Langside, near Glasgow (May 13, 1568), 
and compelled her to flee to England. Murray displayed 
promptness in baffling Mary's schemes, suppressed the border 
thieves, and ruled firmly, resisting the temptation to place the 
crown on his own head. He observed the forms of personal 
piety; possibly he shared the zeal of the reformers, while he 
moderated their bigotry. But he reaped the fruits of the 
conspiracies which led to the murders of Rizzio and Darnley. 
He amassed too great a fortune from the estates of the Church 
to be deemed a pure reformer of its abuses. He pursued his 
sister with a calculated animosity which would not have spared 
her life had this been necessary to his end or been favoured by 
Elizabeth. The mode of producing the casket letters and 
the false charges added by Buchanan, deprive Murray of any 
claim to have been an honest accuser. His reluctance to charge 
Mary with complicity in the murder of Darnley was feigned, 
and his object was gained when he was allowed to table the 
accusation without being forced to prove it. Mary remained 
a captive under suspicion of the gravest guilt, while Murray 
ruled Scotland in her stead, supported by nobles who had taken 
part in the steps which ended in Bothwell's deed. During the 
year between his becoming regent and his death several events 
occurred for which he has been censured, but which were 
necessary for his security: the betrayal to Elizabeth of the duke 
of Norfolk and of the secret plot for the liberation of Mary; the 
imprisonment of the earl of Northumberland, who after the 
failure of his rising in the north of England had taken refuge 
in Scotland; and the charge brought against Maitland of Leth- 
ington of complicity in Darnley's murder. Lethington was 
committed to custody, but was rescued by Kirkaldy of Grange, 
who held the castle of Edinburgh, and while there " the chame- 
leon," as Buchanan named Maitland hi his famous invective, 
gained over those in the castle, including Kirkaldy. Murray 
was afraid to proceed with the charge on the day of trial, while 
Kirkaldy and Maitland held the castle, which became the 
stronghold of the deposed queen's party. It has been suspected 
that Maitland and Kirkaldy were cognizant of the design of 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh to murder Murray, for he had been 
with them in the castle. This has been ascribed to private 

vengeance for the ill-treat inent of his wife; but the feud of the 
Hamiltons with the regent is the most reasonable explanation. 
As he rode through Linlithgow Murray was shot on the 2ist of 
January 1570 from a window by Hamilton, who had made careful 
preparation for the murder and his own escape. He was buried 
in the south aisle of St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, amid general 
mourning. Knox preached the sermon and Buchanan furnished 
the epitaph, both panegyrics. The elder of his two daughters, 
Elizabeth, married James Stuart (d. 1592), son of James, ist 
Lord Doune, who succeeded to the earldom of Murray in right 
of his wife. 

The materials for the life of Murray are found in the records and 
documents of the time, prominent among which are the various 
Calendars of State Papers. Mention must also be made of the many 
books which treat of Mary, Queen of Scots, and of the histories of 
the time-^- especially J. A. Froude, History of England, and Andrew 
Lang, History of Scotland. 

MURRAY, JOHN, the name for several generations of a great 
firm of London publishers, founded by John McMurray (1745- 
I 793). a native of Edinburgh and a retired lieutenant of marines, 
who in 1768 bought the book business of William Sandby in 
Fleet Street, and, dropping the Scottish prefix, called himself 
John Murray. He was one of the twenty original proprietors 
of the Morning Chronicle, and started the monthly English 
Review (1783-1796). Among his publications were Mjtford's 
Greece, Langhorne's Plutarch's Lives, and the first part of Isaac 
D 'Israeli's Curiosities of Literature. He died on the 6th of 
November 1793. 

JOHN MURRAY (2) (1778-1843), his son, was then fifteen. 
During his minority the business was conducted by Samuel 
Highley, who was admitted a partner, but in 1803 the partner- 
ship was dissolved. Murray soon began to show the courage 
in literary speculation which earned for him later the name 
given him by Lord Byron of " the Anak of publishers." In 
1807 he took a share with Constable in publishing Marmion, 
and became part owner of the Edinburgh Review, although with 
the help of Canning he launched in opposition the Quarterly 
Review (Feb. 1809), with William Gifford as its editor, and Scott, 
Canning, Southey, Hookham Frere and John Wilson Croker 
among its earliest contributors. Murray was closely connected 
with Constable, but, to his distress, was compelled in 1813 to 
break this association on account of Constable's business methods, 
which, as he foresaw, led to disaster. In 1811 the first two 
cantos of Childe Harold were brought to Murray by R. C. Dallas, 
to whom Byron had presented them. Murray paid Dallas 
500 guineas for the copyright. In 1812 he bought the pub- 
lishing business of William Miller (1769-1844), and migrated to 
50, Albemarle Street. Literary London flocked to his house, and 
Murray became the centre of the publishing world. It was in 
his drawing-room that Scott and Byron first met, and here, in 
1824, after the death of Lord Byron, the MS. of his memoirs, 
considered by Gifford unfit for publication, was destroyed. 
A close friendship existed between Byron and his publisher, 
but for political reasons business relations ceased after the 
publication of the 5th canto of Don Juan. Murray paid Byron 
some 20,000 for his various poems. To Thomas Moore he 
gave nearly 5000 for writing the life of Byron, and to Crabbe 
3000 for Tales of the Hall. He died on the 27th of June 1843. 

His son, JOHN MURRAY (3) (1808-1892), inherited much of 
his business tact and judgment. " Murray's Handbooks " for 
travellers were issued under his editorship, and he himself wrote 
several volumes (see his article on the " Handbooks " in Murray's 
Magazine, November 1889). He published many books of 
travel; also Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, The Speaker's 
Commentary, Smith's Dictionaries; and works by Hallam, 
Gladstone, Lyell, Layard, Dean Stanley, Borrow, Darwin, Living- 
stone and Samuel Smiles. He died on the 2nd of April 1892, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son, JOHN MURRAY (4) (b. 1851), 
under whom, in association with his brother, A. H. Hallam 
Murray, the firm was continued. 

See Samuel Smiles, A Publisher and his Friends, Memoirs and 
Correspondence of the late John Murray . . . (1891), for the second 
John Murray; a series of three articles by F. Espinasse on " The 


House of Murray," in The Critic (Jan. 1860) ; and a paper by the 
same writer in Harper's New Monthly Magazine (Sept. 1885). See 
the Letters and Journals of Byron (ed. Prothero, 1898-1901). 

MURRAY, JOHN (1778-1820), Scottish chemist, was born at 
Edinburgh in 1778 and died there on the 22nd of July 1820. 
He graduated M.D. at St Andrews in 1814, and attained some 
reputation as a lecturer on chemistry and materia medica. He 
was an opponent of Sir Humphry Davy's theory of chlorine, 
supporting the view that the substance contained oxygen, and 
it was in the course of experiments made to disprove his argu- 
ments that Dr John Davy discovered phosgene or carbonyl 
chloride. He was a diligent writer of textbooks, including 
Elements of Chemistry (1801); Elements of Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy (1804), A System of Chemistry (1806), and (anony- 
mously) A Comparative View of the Huttonian and Neptunian 
Systems of Geology. He is sometimes confused with another 
John Murray (1786-1851), a popular lecturer at mechanics' 
institutes. The two men carried on a dispute about the inven- 
tion of a miners' safety lamp in the Phil. Mag. for 1817. 

MURRAY, SIR JOHN (1841- ), British geographer and 
naturalist, was born at Coburg, Ontario, Canada, on the 
3rd of March 1841, and after some years' local schooling studied 
in Scotland and on the Continent. He was then engaged for 
some years in natural history work at Bridge of Allan. In 
1868 he visited Spitsbergen on a whaler, and in 1872, when the 
voyage of the " Challenger " was projected, he was appointed 
one of the naturalists to the expedition. At the conclusion of 
the voyage he was made principal assistant in drawing up the 
scientific results, and in 1882 he became editor of the Reports, 
which were completed in 1896. He compiled a summary of the 
results, and was part-author of the Narrative of the Cruise and of 
the Report on Deep-sea Deposits. He also published numerous 
important papers on oceanography and marine biology. In 
1898 he was made K.C.B., and the received many distinctions 
from the chief scientific societies of the world. Apart from his 
work in connexion with the " Challenger " Reports, he went in 
1880 and 1882 on expeditions to explore the Faeroe Channel, 
and between 1882 and 1894 was the prime mover in various 
biological investigations in Scottish waters. In 1897, with 
the generous financial assistance of Mr Laurence Pullar and a 
staff of specialists, he began a bathymetrical survey of the 
fresh-water lochs of Scotland, the results of which, with a 
fine series of illustrations and maps, were published in 1910 
in six volumes. He took a leading part in the expedition 
which started in April 1910 for the physiological and biological 
investigation of the North Atlantic Ocean on the Norwegian 
vessel " Michael Sars." 

MURRAY, LINDLEY (1745-1826), Anglo-American gram- 
marian, was born at Swatara, Pennsylvania, on the 22nd of 
April 1745. His father, a Quaker, was a leading New York 
merchant. At the age of fourteen he was placed in his father's 
office, but he ran away to a school in Burlington, New Jersey. 
He was brought back to New York, but his arguments against 
a commercial career prevailed, and he was allowed to study 
law. On being called to the bar he practised successfully in 
New York. In 1783 he was able to retire, and in 1784 he left 
America for England. Settling at Holgate, near York, he 
devoted the rest of his life to literary pursuits. His first book 
was Power of Religion on the Mind (1787). In 1795 he issued 
his Grammar of the English Language. This was followed, 
among other analogous works, by English Exercises, and the 
English Reader. These books passed through several editions, 
and the Grammar was the standard textbook for fifty years 
throughout England and America. Lindley Murray died on 
the i6th of January 1826. 

See the Memoir o/_ the Life and Writings of Lindley Murray 
(partly autobiographical), by Elizabeth Frank (1826); Life of 
Murray, by W. H. Egle (New York, 1885). 

MURRAY (or MORAY), SIR ROBERT (c. 1600-1673), one- of 

the founders of the Royal Society, was the son of Sir Robert 

, Murray of Craigie, Ayrshire, and was born about the beginning 

of the i-7th century. In early life he served in the French army, 

and, winning the favour of Richelieu, rose to the rank of colonel. 

On the outbreak of the Civil War he returned to Scotland and 
collected recruits for the royal cause. The triumph of Ciomwell 
compelled him for a time to return to France, but he took part 
in the Scottish insurrection in favour of Charles II. in 1650, and 
was named lord justice clerk and a privy councillor. These 
appointments, which on account of the overthrow of the royal 
cause proved to be at the time only nominal, were confirmed at 
the Restoration in 1660. Soon after this Sir Robert Murray 
began to take a prominent part in the deliberations of a club 
instituted in London for the discussion of natural science, or, 
as it was then called, the " new philosophy." When it was 
proposed to obtain a charter for the society he undertook to 
interest the king in the matter, the result being that on the 
i5th of July 1662 the club was incorporated by charter under 
the designation of the Royal Society. Murray was its first 
president. He died in June 1673. 

MURRAY, the largest river in Australia. It rises in the 
Australian Alps in 36 40' S. and 147 E., and flowing north-west 
skirts the borders of New South Wales and Victoria until it 
passes into South Australia, shortly after which it bends south- 
ward into Lake Alexandrina, a shallow lagoon, whence it makes 
its way to the sea at Encounter Bay by a narrow opening at 
35 35' S. and 138 55' E. Near its source the Murray Gates, 
precipitous rocks, tower above it to the height of 3000 ft.; 
and the earlier part of its course is tortuous and uneven. 
Farther on it loses so much by evaporation in some parts as to 
become a series of pools. Its length till it debouches into Lake 
Alexandrina is 1120 m., its average breadth in summer is 240 ft., 
its average depth about i6ft.;and it drains an area of about 
270,000 sq. m. For small steamers it is navigable as far as 
Albury. Periodically it overflows, causing wide inundations. 
The principal tributaries of the Murray are those from New 
South Wales, including the Edward River, the united streams of 
the Murrumbidgee and Lachlan, and the Darling or Callewatta. 
In 1829 Captain Sturt traced the Murrumbidgee River till it 
debouched into the Murray, which he followed down to Lake 
Alexandrina, but he was compelled, after great hardships, to 
return without discovering its mouth. In 1831 Captain Barker, 
while attempting to discover this, was murdered by the natives. 

MURRAY COD (Oligorus macquariensis) , one of the largest 
of the numerous fresh-water Perciform fishes of Australia, and 
the most celebrated for its excellent flavour. It belongs to 
the family Serranidae. Its taxonomic affinities lie in the direc- 
tion of the perch and not of the cod family. The shape of the 
body is that of a perch, and the dorsal fin consists of a spinous 

Murray Cod. 

and rayed portion, the number of spines being eleven. The 
length of the spines varies with age, old individuals having 
shorter spines that is, a lower dorsal fin. The form of the 
head and the dentition also resemble those of a perch, but 
none of the bones of the head has a serrated margin. The 
scales are small. The colour varies in different localities; it 
is generally brownish, with a greenish tinge and numerous 
small dark green spots. As implied by the name, this fish has 
its headquarters in the Murray River and its tributaries, but it 
occurs also in the northern parts of New South Wales. It is the 
most important food fish of these rivers, and is said to attain 
a length of more than 3 ft. and a weight of 1 20 Ib. 

MURREE, a town and sanatorium of British India, in the 
Rawalpindi district of the Punjab, 7517 ft. above the sea. about 
five hours' journey by cart-road from Rawalpindi town, and 
the starting-point for Kashmir. The houses are built on the 



summit and sides of an irregular ridge, and command magnifi- 
cent views over forest-clad hills and deep valleys, studded with 
villages and cultivated fields, with the snow-covered peaks of 
Kashmir in the background. The population in 1901 was 1844;^ 
but these figures omit the summer visitors, who probably number 
10,000. The garrison generally consists of three mountain 
batteries. Since 1877 the summer offices of the provincial 
government have been transferred to Simla. The Murree 
brewery, one of the largest in India, is the chief industrial 
establishment. The Lawrence Military Asylum for the children 
of European soldiers is situated here. 

MURSHIDABAD, or MOORSHEEDABAD, a town and district 
of British India, in the Presidency division of Bengal. The 
administrative headquarters of the district are at Berhampur. 
The town of Murshidabad is on the left bank of the Bhagirathi 
or old sacred channel of the Ganges. Pop. (1901), 15,168. 
The city of Murshidabad was the latest Mahommedan capital 
of Bengal. In 1704 the nawab Murshid Kulia Khan changed 
the seat of government from Dacca to Maksudabad, which he 
called after his own name. The great family of Jagat Seth 
maintained their position as state bankers at Murshidabad 
from generation to generation. Even after the conquest of 
Bengal by the British, Murshidabad remained for some time 
the seat of administration. Warren Hastings removed the 
supreme civil and criminal courts to Calcutta in 1772, but in 
1775 the latter court was brought back to Murshidabad again. 
In 1 790, under Lord Cornwallis, the entire revenue and judicial 
staffs were fixed at Calcutta. The town is still the residence 
of the nawab, who ranks as the first nobleman of the province 
with the style of nawab bahadur of Murshidabad, instead of 
nawab nazim of Bengal. His palace, dating from 1837, is a 
magnificent building in Italian style. The city is crowded with 
other palaces, mosques, tombs, and gardens, and retains such 
industries as carving in ivory, gold and silver embroidery, and 
silk-weaving. A college is maintained for the education of the 
nawab 's family. 

The DISTRICT OF MURSHIDABAD has an area of 2143 sq. m. 
It is divided into two nearly equal portions by the Bhagirathi, 
the ancient channel of the Ganges. The tract to the west, 
known as the Rarh, consists of hard clay and nodular limestone. 
The general level is high, but interspersed with marshes and 
seamed by hill torrents. The Bagri or eastern half belongs to 
alluvial plains of eastern Bengal. There are few permanent 
swamps; but the whole country is low-lying, and liable to annual 
inundation. In the north-west are a few small detached hillocks, 
said to be of basaltic formation. Pop. (1901), 1,333,184, show- 
ing an increase of 6-6% in the decade. The principal industry 
is that of silk, formerly of much importance, and now revived 
with government assistance. A narrow-gauge railway crosses 
the district, from the East Indian line at Nalhati to Azimganj 
on the Bhagirathi, the home of many rich Jain merchants; and 
a branch of the Eastern Bengal railway has been opened. 

HUS, the name of a Roman family of the plebeian Decian 
gens, (i) PUBLICS DECIUS Mus won his first laurels in the 
Samnite War, when in 343 B.C., while serving as tribune of the 
soldiers, he rescued the Roman main army* frdm an apparently 
hopeless position (Livy vii. 34). In 340, as consul with T. 
Manlius Torquatus as colleague, he commanded in the Latin 
War. The decisive battle was fought near Mt Vesuvius. 
The consuls, in consequence of a dream, had agreed that the 
general whose troops first gave way should devote himself to 
destruction, and so ensure victory. The left wing under Decius 
became disordered, whereupon, repeating after the chief pontiff 
the solemn formula of self-devotion he dashed into the ranks 
of the Latins, and met his death (Livy viii. 9). (2) His son, 
also called PUBLIUS, consul for the fourth time in 295, followed 
the example of his father at the battle of Sentinum, when the 
left wing which he commanded was shaken by the Gauls (Livy 
x. 28). The story of the elder Decius is regarded by Mommsen 
as an unhistorical " doublette " of what is related on better 
authority of the son. 

MUSAEUS, the name of three Greek poets, (i) The first was 

a mythical seer and priest, the pupil or son of Orpheus, who was 
said to have been the founder of priestly poetry in Attica. 
According to Pausanias (i. 25) he was buried on the Museum hill, 
south-west of the Acropolis. He composed dedicatory and 
purificatory hymns and prose treatises, and oracular responses. 
These were collected and arranged in the time of Peisistratus 
by Onomacritus, who added interpolations. The mystic and 
oracular verses and customs of Attica, especially of Eleusis, 
are connected with his name (Herod, vii. 6; viii. 96; ix. 43). 
A Titanomachia and Theogonia are also attributed to him 
(G. Kinkel, Epicorum graecorum fragmenla, 1878). (2) The 
second was an Ephesian attached to the court of the kings of 
Pergamum, who wrote a Perseis, and poems on Eumenes and 
Attalus (Suidas, s.v.). (3) The third (called Grammaticus in 
all the MSS.) is of uncertain date, but probably belongs to the 
beginning of the 6th century A.D., as his style and metre are 
evidently modelled after Nonnus. He must have lived before 
Agathias (530-582) and is possibly to be identified with the 
friend of Procopius whose poem (340 hexameter lines) on the 
story of Hero and Leander is by far the most beautiful of the age 
(editions by F. Passow, 1810; G. H. Schafer, 1825; C. Dilthey, 
1874). The little love-poem Alpheus and Arethusa (Anthol. pal. 
ix. 362) is also ascribed to Musaeus. 

MUSA KHEL, a Pathan tribe on the Dera Ghazi Khan border 
of the Punjab province of India. They are of Kakar origin, 
numbering 4670 fighting men. They enter British territory 
by the Vihowa Pass, and carry on an extensive trade, but are 
not dependent on India for the necessaries of life. They are 
a peaceful and united race, and have been friendly to the British, 
but at enmity with the Khetrans and the Baluch tribes to the 
south of their country. In 1879 the Musa Khels and other 
Pathan tribes to the number of 5000 made a demonstration 
against Vihowa, but the town was reinforced and they dispersed. 
In 1884 they were punished, together with the Kakars, by the 
Zhob Valley Expedition. 

MUSA' US, JOHANN KARL AUGUST (1735-1787), German 
author, was born on the 29th of March 1735 at Jena, studied 
theology at the university, and would have become the pastor 
of a parish but for the resistance of some peasants, who objected 
that he had been known to dance. In 1760 to 1762 he published 
in three volumes his first work, Grandison der Zweite, afterwards 
(in 1781-1782) rewritten and issued with a new title, Der deutsche 
Grandison. The object of this book was to satirize Samuel 
Richardson's hero, who had many sentimental admirers in 
Germany. In 1763 Musaus was made master of the court pages 
at Weimar, and in 1769 he became professor at the Weimar 
gymnasium. His second book Physiognomische Reisen did not 
appear until 1778-1779. It was directed against Lavater, and 
attracted much favourable attention. In 1782 to 1786 he 
published his best work Volksmiirchen der Deutschen. Even 
in this series of tales, the substance of which Musaus collected 
among the people, he could not refrain from satire. The stories, 
therefore, lack the simplicity of genuine folk-lore. In 1785 
was issued Freund Heins Erscheinungen in Holbeins Manier by 
J. R. Schellenberg, with explanations in prose and verse by 
Musaus. A collection of stories entitled Straussfedern, of which 
a volume appeared in 1787, Musaus was prevented from com- 
pleting by his death on the 28th of October 1787. 

The Volksmiirchen have been frequently reprinted (Dusseldorf, 
1903, &c.). They were translated into French in 1844, and three 
of the stories are included in Carlyle's German Romance (1827); 
Musaus's Nachgelassene Scriften were edited by his relative, A. von 
Kotzebue (1791). See M. Miiller, /. K. A. Musaus (1867), and an 
essay by A. Stern in Beitrdge zur Literaturgeschichte des 18. Jahr- 
hunderts (1893). 

MUSCAT, MUSKAT or MASKAT, a town on the south-east 
coast of Arabia, capital of the province of Oman. Its value 
as a naval base is derived from its position, which commands 
the entrance to the Persian Gulf. The town of Gwadar, the 
chief port of Makr5n, belongs to Muscat, and by arrangement 
with the sultan the British occupy that port with a telegraph 
station of the Indo-Persian telegraph service. An Indian 
political residency is established at Muscat. In geographical 



position it is isolated from the interior of the continent. The 
mountains rise behind it in a rugged wall, across which no road 
exists. It is only from Matrah, a northern suburb shut off by 
an intervening spur which reaches to the sea, that land com- 
munication with the rest of Arabia can be maintained. Both 
Muscat and Matrah are defended from incursions on the land- 
ward side by a wall with towers at intervals. Muscat rose to 
importance with the Portuguese occupation of the Persian Gulf, 
and is noted for the extent of Portuguese ruins about it. Two 
lofty forts, of which the most easterly is called Jalali and the 
western Merani, occupy the summits of hills on either side the 
cove overlooking the town; and beyond them on the seaward 
side are two smaller defensive works called Sirat. All these 
are ruinous. A low sandy isthmus connects the rock and 
fortress of Jalali with the mainland, and upon this isthmus stands 
the British residency. The sultan's palace is a three-storeyed 
building near the centre of the town, a relic of Portuguese 
occupation, called by the Arabs El Jereza, a corruption of 
Igrezia (church). This term is probably derived from the chapel 
once attached to the buildings which formed the Portuguese 
governor's residence and factory. The bazaar is insignificant, 
and its most considerable trade appears to be in a sweetmeat 
prepared from the gluten of maize. Large quantities of dates 
are also exported. 

History. The early history of Muscat is the history of Portu- 
guese ascendancy in the Persian Gulf. When Albuquerque first 
burnt the place after destroying Karyat in 1508, Kalhat was 
the chief port of the coast and Muscat was comparatively 
unimportant. Kalhat was subsequently sacked and burnt, the 
great Arab mosque being destroyed, before Albuquerque returned 
to his ships, " giving many thanks to our Lord." From that 
date, through 114 years of Portuguese ascendancy, Muscat was 
held as a naval station and factory during a period of local 
revolts, Arab incursions, and Turkish invasion by sea; but it 
was not till 1622, when the Portuguese lost Hormuz, that Muscat 
became the headquarters of their fleet and the most important 
place held by them on the Arabian coast. In 1650 the Portu- 
guese were finally expelled from Oman. Muscat had been 
reduced previously by the humiliating terms imposed upon the 
garrison by the imam of Oman after a siege in 1648. For five 
years the Persians occupied Oman, but they disappeared in 
1741. Under the great ruler of Oman, Said ibn Sultan (1804- 
1856), the fortunes of Muscat attained their zenith; but on his 
death, when his kingdom was divided and the African possessions 
were parted from western Arabia, Muscat declined. In 1883- 
1884, when Turki was sultan, the town was unsuccessfully 
besieged by the Indabayin and Rehbayin tribes, led by Abdul 
Aziz, the brother of Turki. In 1885 Colonel Miles, resident at 
Muscat, made a tour through Oman, following the footsteps of 
Wellsted in 1835, and confirmed that traveller's report of 
the fertility and wealth of the province. In 1898 the French 
acquired the right to use Muscat as a coaling station. 

See Stiffe, " Trading Ports of Persian Gulf," vol. ix. Geog. Journal, 
and the political reports of the Indian government from the Persian 
Gulf. Colonel Miles's explorations in Oman will be found in vol. vii. 
Geog. Journal (1896). (T. H. H.*) 

MUSCATINE, a city and the county-seat of Muscatine county, 
Iowa, U.S.A., on the Mississippi river (here crossed by a wagon 
bridge), at the apex of the " great bend," in the south-east part 
of the state. Pop. (1890), 11,454; (1900), 14,073, of whom 
2352 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 16,178. It is served 
by the Chicago Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago Rock 
Island & Pacific, and the Muscatine North & South railways. 
It is built on high rocky bluffs, and is the centre of a pearl- 
button industry introduced in 1891 by J. F. Boepple, a German, 
the buttons being made from the shells of the fresh-water 
mussel found in the neighbourhood; and there are other manu- 
factures. Coal is mined in the vicinity, and near the city are 
large market-gardens, the water-melons growing on Muscatine 
Island (below the city) and sweet potatoes being their most 
important products. The municipality owns and operates the 
waterworks. Muscatine began as a trading-post in 1833. It 

was laid out in 1836, incorporated as a town under the name 
of Bloomington in 1839, and first chartered as a city, under its 
present name, in 1851. 

MUSCHELKALK, in geology, the middle member of the 
German Trias. It consists of a series of calcareous, marly 
and dolomitic beds which lie conformably between the Bunter 
and Keuper formations. The name Muschelkalk (Fr., calcaire 
coquillier; conchylien, formation of D'Orbigny) indicates a 
characteristic feature in this series, viz. the frequent occurrence 
of lenticular banks composed of fossil shells, remarkable in the 
midst of a singularly barren group. In its typical form the 
Muschelkalk is practically restricted to the German region 
and its immediate neighbourhood; it is found in Thuringia, 
Harz, Franconia, Hesse, Swabia. and the Saar and Alsace 
districts. Northward it extends into Silesia, Poland and Heligo- 
land. Representatives are found in the Alps, west and south 
of the Vosges, in Moravia, near Toulon and Montpellier, 
in Spain and Sardinia; in Rumania, Bosnia, Dalmatia, and 
beyond this into Asia in the Himalayas, China, Australia, 
California, and in North Africa (Constantine). From the nature 
of the deposits, as well as from the impoverished fauna, the 
Muschelkalk of the type area was probably laid down within 
a land-locked sea which, in the earlier portion of its existence, 
had only imperfect communications with the more open waters 
of the period. The more remote representatives of the formation 
were of course deposited in diverse conditions, and are only to 
be correlated through the presence of some of the Muschelkalk 

In the " German " area the Muschelkalk is from 250-350 ft. 
thick; it is readily divisible into three groups, of which the 
upper and lower are pale thin-bedded limestones with greenish- 
grey marls, the middle group being mainly composed of 
gypsiferous and saliniferous marls with dolomite. The Lower 
Muschelkalk consists, from below upwards, of the following 
rocks, the ochreous Wellen Dolomit, lower Wellen Kalk, upper 
Wellen Kalk (so called on account of the wavy character of the 
bedding) with beds of " Schaumkalk " (a porous cellular lime- 
stone), and Oolite and the Orbicularis beds (with Myophoria 
orbicularis) . In the Saar and Alsace districts and north Eifel, 
these beds take on a sandy aspect, the " Muschelsandstein." 
The Middle Muschelkalk or Anhydrite group, as already indi- 
cated, consists mainly of marls and dolomites with beds of 
anhydrite, gypsum and salt. The salt beds are worked at 
Hall, Friedrichshall, Heilbronn, Stettin and Erfurt. It is from 
this division that many of the mineral springs of Thuringia and 
south Germany obtain their saline contents. The cellular 
nature of much of the dolomite has given rise to the term 
" Zellendolomit." The Upper Muschelkalk (Hauptmuschelkalk, 
Friedrichshallkalk of von Alberti) consists of regular beds of 
shelly limestone alternating with beds of marl. The lower 
portion or " Trochitenkalk " is often composed entirely of the 
fragmentary stems of Encrinus liliiformis; higher up come the 
" Nodosus " beds with Ceratites compressus, C. nodosus, and 
C. semipartitus in ascending order. In Swabia and Franconia 
the highest beds are platy dolomites with Tringonodus Sander- 
gensis and the crustacean Bairdia. Stylolites are common in 
all the Muschelkalk limestones. The Alpine Muschelkalk differs 
in many respects from that of the type area, and shows a closer 
relationship with the Triassic Mediterranean sea; the more 
important local phases will be found tabulated in the article 

In addition to the fossils mentioned above, the following are 
Muschelkalk forms: Terebratulina vulgaris, Spiriferina Mantzeli 
and 5. hirsuta, Myophoria vulgaris, Rhynchotites hirundo, Ceratites 
Miinsteri, Ptychites studeri, Balatonites balatonicus, Aspidura scutel- 
lata, Daonella Lommeli, and in the Alpine region several rock- 
forming Algae, Bactryllium, Gyroporella, Diplopora, &c. 

(J. A. H.) 

MUSCLE AND NERVE (Physiology). 1 Among the properties 
of living material there is one, widely though not universally 
present in it, which forms the pre-eminent characteristic of 

'The anatomy of the muscles is dealt with under MUSCULAR 
SYSTEM, and of the nerves under NERVE and NERVOUS SYSTEM. 



muscular cells. This property is the liberation of some of 
the energy contained in the chemical compounds of the cells 

in such a way as to give mechanical work. The 

mechanical work is obtained by movement resulting 
from a change, it is supposed, in the elastic tension of the 
framework of the living cell. In the fibrils existing in the 
cell a sudden alteration of elasticity occurs, resulting in an 
increased tension on the points of attachment of the cell to the 
neighbouring elements of the tissue in which the cell is placed. 
These yield under the strain, and tne cell shortens between 
those points of its attachment. This shortening is called 

contraction. But the volume of the cell is not 
Mm'" " appreciably altered, despite the change of its shape, 

for its one diameter increases in proportion as its 
other is diminished. The manifestations of contractility by 
muscle are various in mode. By tonic contraction is meant 
a prolonged and equable state of tension which yields under 
analysis no element of intermittent character. This is mani- 
fested by the muscular walls of the hollow viscera and of the 
heart, where it is the expression of a continuous liberation of 
energy in process in the muscular tissue, the outcome of the 
latter's own intrinsic life, and largely independent of any con- 
nexion with the nervous system. The muscular wall of the 
blood-vessels also exhibits tonic contraction, which, however, 
seems to be mainly traceable to a continual excitation of the 
muscle cells by nervous influence conveyed to them along their 
nerves, and originating in the great vaso motor centre in the bulb. 
In the ordinary striped muscles of the skeletal musculature, e.g. 
gastrocnemius, tonic contraction obtains; but this, like the last 
mentioned, is not autochthonous in the muscles themselves; it 
is indirect and neural, and appears to be maintained reflexly. 
The receptive organs of the muscular sense and of the semi- 
circular canals are to be regarded as the sites of origin of this 
reflex tonus of the skeletal muscles. Striped muscles possessing 
an autochthonous tonus appear to be the various sphincter 

Another mode of manifestation of contractility by muscles 
is the rhythmic. A tendency to rhythmic contraction seems dis- 
coverable in almost all muscles. In some it is very marked, for 
example in some viscera, the spleen, the bladder, the ureter, the 
uterus, the intestine, and especially in the heart. In several of 
these it appears not unlikely that the recurrent explosive libera- 
tions of energy in the muscle tissue are not secondary to recurrent 
explosions in nerve cells, but are attributable to decompositions 
arising sua sponte in the chemical substances of the muscle cells 
themselves in the course of their living. Even small strips of 
the muscle of the heart, if taken immediately after the death of 
the animal, continue, when kept moist and warm and supplied 
with oxygen, to " beat " rhythmically for hours. Rhythmic 
contraction is also characteristic of certain groups of skeletal 
muscles, e.g. the respiratory. In these the rhythmic activity is, 
however, clearly secondary to rhythmic discharges of the nerve 
cells constituting the respiratory centre in the bulb. Such 
discharges descend the nerve fibres of the spinal cord, and through 
'the intermediation of various spinal nerve cells excite the 
respiratory muscles through their motor nerves. A form of 
contraction intermediate in character between the tonic and 
the rhythmic is met in the auricle of the heart of the toad. There 
slowly successive phases of increased and of diminished tonus 
regularly alternate, and upon them are superposed the rhythmic 
" beats " of the pulsating heart. 

" The beat," i.e. the short-lasting explosive contraction of 
the heart muscle, can be elicited by a single, even momentary, 
application of a stimulus, e.g. by an induction shock. Similarly, 
such a single stimulus elicits from a skeletal muscle a single 
" beat," or, as it is termed, a " twitch." In the heart muscle 
during a brief period after each beat, that is, after each 
single contraction of the rhythmic series, the muscle becomes 
inexcitable. It cannot then be excited to contract by any 
agent, though the inexcitable period is more brief for strong 
than for weak stimuli. But in the skeletal, voluntary or 
striped muscles a second stimulus succeeding a previous so 


quickly as to fall even during the continuance of the contraction 
excited by a first, elicits a second contraction. This second 
contraction starts from whatever phase of previous contraction 
the muscle may have reached at the time. A third stimulus 
excites a third additional contraction, a fourth a fourth, and so 
on. The increments of contraction become, however, less and 
less, until the succeeding stimuli serve merely to maintain, not 
to augment, the existing degree of contraction. We arrive thus 
by synthesis at a summation of " beats " or of simple contrac- 
tions in the compound, or " tetanic," or summed contraction of 
the skeletal muscles. The tetanic or summed contractions are 
more extensive than the simple, both in space and time, and 
liberate more energy, both as mechanical work and heat. The 
tension developed by their means in the muscle is many times 
greater than that developed by a simple twitch. 

Muscle cells respond by changes in their activity to changes 
in their environment, and thus are said to be " excitable." 
They are, however, less excitable than are the nerve 
cells which innervate them. The change which 
excites them is termed a stimulus. The least 
stimulus which suffices to excite is known as the stimulus of 
threshold value. In the case of the heart muscle this threshold 
stimulus evokes a beat as extensive as does the strongest 
stimulus; that is, the intensity of the stimulus, so long as it 
is above threshold value, is not a function of the amount of the 
muscular response. But in the ordinary skeletal muscles the 
amount of the muscular contraction is for a short range of 
quantities of stimulus (of above threshold value) proportioned 
to the intensity of the stimulus and increases with it. A value 
of stimulus, however, is soon reached which evokes a maximal 
contraction. Further increase of contraction does not follow 
further increase of the intensity of the stimulus above that 

Just as in a nerve fibre, when excited by a localized stimulus, 
the excited state spreads from the excited point to the adjacent 
unexcited ones, so in muscle the " contraction," when excited 
at a point, spreads to the adjacent uncontracted parts. Both 
in muscle and in nerve this spread is termed conduction. 
It is propagated along the muscle fibres of the skeletal muscles 
at a rate of about 3 metres per second. In the heart muscle 
it travels much more slowly. The disturbance travels as a 
wave of contraction, and the whole extent of the wave-like 
disturbance measures in ordinary muscles much more than the 
whole length of any single muscle fibre. That the excited state 
spreads only to previously unexcited portions of the muscle 
fibre shows that even in the skeletal variety of muscle there 
exists, though only for a very brief time, a period of inexcitability. 
The duration of this period is about yj"tr of a second in skeletal 

When muscle that has remained inactive for some time is 
excited by a series of single and equal stimuli succeeding at 
intervals too prolonged to cause summation the succeeding 
contractions exhibit progressive increase up to a certain degree. 
The tenth contraction usually exhibits the culmination of this 
so-called " staircase effect." The explanation may lie in the 
production of CO? in the muscle. That substance, in small 
doses, favours the contractile power of muscle. The muscle 
is a machine for utilizing the energy contained in its own chemical 
compounds. It is not surprising that the chemical substances 
produced in it by the decomposition of its living material should 
not be of a nature indifferent for muscular life. We find that 
if the series of excitations of the muscle be prolonged beyond 
the short stage of initial improvement, the contractions, after 
being well maintained for a time, later decline in force and 
speed, and ultimately dwindle even to vanishing point. This 
decline is said to be due to muscular fatigue. The muscle 
recovers on being allowed to rest unstimulated for a while, 
and more quickly on being washed with an innocuous but non- 
nutritious solution, such as -6%, NaCl in water. The washing 
seems to remove excreta of the muscle's own production, and 
the period of repose removes them perhaps by diffusion, perhaps 
by breaking them down into innocuous material. Since the 

4 6 



muscle produces lactic acids during activity, it has been sug- 
gested that acids are among the " fatigue substances " with 
which muscle poisons itself when deprived of circulating blood. 
Muscles when active seem to pour into the circulation substances 
which, of unknown chemical composition, are physiologically 
recognizable by their stimulant action on the respiratory nervous 
centre. The effect of the fatigue substances upon the contrac- 
tion of the tissue is manifest especially in the relaxation process. 
The contracted state, instead of rapidly subsiding after dis- 
continuance of the stimulus, slowly and only partially wears 
off, the muscle remaining in a condition of physiological 
" contracture." The alkaloid veratrin has a similar effect 
upon the contraction of muscle; it enormously delays the 
return from the contracted state, as also does epinephrin, an 
alkaloid extracted from the suprarenal gland. 

Nervous System. The work of Camillo Golgi (Pavia, 1885 
and onwards) on the minute structure of the nervous system has 
led to great alteration of doctrine in neural physi- 
ology. It had been held that the branches of the 
nerve cells, that is to say, the fine nerve fibres 
since all nerve fibres are nerve cell branches, and all nerve cell 
branches are nerve fibres which form a close felt-work in the 
nervous centres, there combined into a network actually con- 
tinuous throughout. This continuum was held to render possible 
conduction in all directions throughout the grey matter of the 
whole nervous system. The fact that conduction occurred 
preponderantly in certain directions was explained by appeal 
to a hypothetical resistance to conduction which, for reasons 
unascertained, lay less in some directions than in others. The 
intricate felt-work has by Golgi been ascertained to be a mere 
interlacement, not an actual anastomosis network; the branches 
springing from the various cells remain lifelong unattached and 
unjoined to any other than their own individual cell. Each 
neuron or nerve cell is a morphologically distinct and discrete 
unit connected functionally but not structurally with its neigh- 
bours, and leading its own life independently of the destiny of 
its neighbours. Among the properties of the neuron is con- 
ductivity in all directions. But when neurons are linked together 
it is found that nerve impulses will only pass from neuron A to 
neuron B, and not from neuron B to neuron A; that is, the 
transmission of the excited state or nervous impulse, although 
possible in each neuron both up and down its own cell branches, 
is possible from one nerve cell to another in one direction only. 
That direction is the direction in which the nerve impulses 
flow under the conditions of natural life. The synapse, therefore, 
as the place of meeting of one neuron with the next is called, 
is said to valve the nerve circuits. This determinate sense 
of the spread is called the law of forward direction. The synapse 
appears to be a weak spot in the chain of conduction, or rather 
to be a place which breaks down with comparative ease under 
stress, e.g. under effect of poisons. The axons of the motor 
neurons are, inasmuch as they are nerve fibres in nerve trunks, 
easily accessible to artificial stimuli. It can be demonstrated 
that they are practically indefatigable repeatedly stimulated 
by electrical currents, even through many hours, they, unlike 
muscle, continue to respond with unimpaired reaction. . 
^ et wnen the muscular contraction is taken as index 
of the response of the nerve, it is found that unmis- 
takable signs of fatigue appear even very soon after commence- 
ment of the excitation of the nerve, and the muscle ceases 
to give any contraction in response to stimuli applied indirectly to 
it through its nerve. But the muscle will, when excited directly, 
e.g. by direct application of electric currents, contract vigorously 
after all response on its part to the stimuli (nerve impulses) 
applied to it indirectly through its nerve has failed. The 
inference is that the "fatigue substances" generated in .the 
muscle fibres in the course of their prolonged contraction injure 
and paralyse the motor end plates, which are places of synapsis 
between nerve cell and muscle cell, even earlier than they harm 
the contractility of the muscle fibres themselves. The alkaloid 
curarin causes motor paralysis by attacking in a selective way 
this junction of motor nerve cell and striped muscular fibre. 

Non-myelinate nerve fibres are as resistant to fatigue as are 
the myelinate. 

The neuron is described as having a cell body or perikaryon 
from which the cell branches dendrites and axon extend^ 
and it is this perikaryon which, as its name implies, 
contains the nucleus. It forms the trophic centre of 
the cell, just as the nucleus-containing part of every 
cell is the trophic centre of the whole cell. Any part of the cell 
cut off from the nucleus-containing part dies down: this is as 
true of nerve cells as of amoeba, and in regard to the neuron 
it constitutes what is known as the Wallerian degeneration. 
On the other hand, in some neurons, after severance of the axon 
from the rest of the cell (spinal motor cell), the whole nerve 
cell as well as the severed axon degenerates, and may eventu- 
ally die and be removed. In the severed axon the degenera- 
tion is first evident in a breaking down of the naked nerve 
filaments of the motor end plate. A little later the breaking 
down of the whole axon, both axis cylinder and myelin sheath 
alike, seems to occur simultaneously throughout its entire 
length distal to the place of severance. The complex fat of 
the myelin becomes altered chemically, while the other com- 
ponents of the sheath break down. This death of the sheath as 
well as of the axis cylinder shows that it, like the axis cylinder, 
is a part of the nerve cell itself. 

In addition to the trophic influence exerted by each part 
of the neuron on its other parts, notably by the perikaryon 
on the cell branches, one neuron also in many instances in- 
fluences the nutrition of other neurons. When, for instance, 
the axons of the ganglion cells of the retina are severed by 
section of the optic nerve, and thus their influence upon the 
nerve cells of the visual cerebral centres is set aside, the nerve 
cells of those centres undergo secondary atrophy (Gadden's 
atrophy). They dwindle in size; they do not, however, die. 
Similarly, when the axons of the motor spinal cells are by 
severance of the nerve trunk of a muscle broken through, the 
muscle cells undergo " degeneration " dwindle, become fatty, 
and alter almost beyond recognition. This trophic influence 
which one neuron exerts upon others, or upon the cells of an 
extrinsic tissue, such as muscle, is exerted in that 
direction which is the one normally taken by the T a ! c ^ 

T * . . Activity of 

natural nerve impulses. It seems, especially in ^ eurong 
the case of the nexus between certain neurons, 
that the influence, loss of which endangers nutrition, is associ- 
ated with the occurrence of something more than merely the 
nervous impulses awakened from time to time in the leading 
nerve cell. The wave of change (nervous impulse) induced 
in a neuron by advent of a stimulus is after all only a sudden 
augmentation of an activity continuous within the neuron 
a transient accentuation of one (the disintegrative) phase of 
the metaboh'sm inherent in and inseparable from its life. The 
nervous impulse is, so to say, the sudden evanescent glow of an 
ember continuously black-hot. A continuous lesser " change " 
or stream of changes sets through the neuron, and is distributed 
by it to other neurons in the same direction and by the same 
synapses as are its nerve impulses. This gentle continuous 
activity of the neuron is called its tonus. In tracing the tonus 
of neurons to a source, one is always led link by link against 
the current of nerve force so to say, " up stream " to the 
first beginnings of the chain of neurons in the sensifacient surfaces 
of the body. From these, as in the eye, ear, and other sense 
organs, tonus is constantly initiated. Hence, when cut off 
from these sources, the nutrition of the neurons of various 
central mechanisms suffers. Thus the tonus of the motor 
neurons of the spinal cord is much lessened by rupture of the 
great afferent root cells which normally play upon them. 
A prominent and practically important illustration of neural 
tonus is given by the skeletal muscles. These muscles exhibit 
a certain constant condition of slight contraction, which dis- 
appears on severance of the nerve that innervates the muscle. 
It is a muscular tonus of central source consequent on 
the continual glow of excitement in the spinal motor neuron, 
whose outgoing end plays upon the muscle cells, whose ingoing 



end is played upon by other neurons spinal, cerebral and 

It is with the neural element of muscle tonus that tendon pheno- 
mena are intimately associated. The earliest-studied of these, the 
" knee-jerk," may serve as example of the class. It is a brief ex- 
tension of the limb at the knee-joint, due to a simple contraction of 
the extensor muscle, elicited by a tap or other short mechanical 
stimulus applied to the muscle fibres through the tendon of the 
muscle. The jerk is obtainable only from muscle fibres possessed 
of neural tonus. If the sensory nerves of the extensor muscle be 
severed, the "jerk " is lost. The brevity of the interval between 
the tap on the knee and the beginning of the resultant contraction 
of the muscle seems such as to exclude the possibility of reflex 
development. A little experience in observations on the knee-jerk 
imparts a notion of the average strength of the " jerk." Wide 
departures from the normal standard are met with and are sympto- 
matic of certain nervous conditions. Stretching of the muscles 
antagonistic to the extensors namely, of the flexor muscles 
reduces the jerk by inhibiting the extensor spinal nerve cells through 
the nervous impulses generated by the tense flexor muscles. Hence 
a favourable posture of the limb for eliciting the jerk is one ensuring 
relaxation of the hamstring muscles, as when the leg has been 
crossed upon the other. In sleep the jerk is diminished, in deep 
sleep quite abolished. Extreme bodily fatigue diminishes it. Con- 
versely, a cold bath increases it. The turning of attention towards 
the knee interferes with the jerk; hence the device of directing the 
person to perform vigorously some movement, which does not 
involve the muscles ot the lower limb, at the moment when the 
light blow is dealt upon the tendon. A slight degree of contraction 
of muscle seems the substratum of all attention. The direction of 
attention to the performance of some movement by the arm ensures 
that looseness and freedom from tension in the thigh muscles which 
is essential for the provocation of the jerk. The motor cells of 
the extensor muscles, when preoccupied by cerebral influence, 
appear refractory. T. Ziehen has noted exaltation of the jerk to 
follow extirpation of a cortical centre. 

Although the cell body or perikaryon of the neuron, with 

its contained nucleus, is essential for the maintenance of the 

life of the cell branches, it has become recognized 

Conduction .!_,, , ,. f t, 

la Neurons. ^" a *- t" e ac t ua ' process and function of con- 
duction " in many neurons can, and does, go on 
without the cell body being directly concerned in the conduction. 
S. Exner first showed, many years ago, that the nerve impulse 
travels through the spinal ganglion at the same speed as along 
the other parts of the nerve trunk that is, that it suffers no 
delay in transit through the perikarya of the afferent root- 
neurons. Bethe has succeeded in isolating their perikarya 
from certain of the afferent neurons of the antennule of 
Carcinus. The conduction through the amputated cell branches 
continues unimpaired for many hours. This indicates that 
the conjunction between the conducting substance of the 
dendrons and that of the axon can be effected without the 
intermediation of the cell body. But the proper nutntion 
of the conducting substance is indissolubly dependent on the 
cell branches being in continuity with the cell body and nucleus 
it contains. Evidence illustrating this nexus is found in the 
visible changes produced in the perikaryon by prolonged 
activity induced and maintained in the conducting branches 
of the cell. As a result the fatigued cells appear shrunken, 
and their reaction to staining reagents alters, thus showing 
chemical alteration. Most marked is the decrease in the 
volume of the nucleus, amounting even to 44% of the initial 
volume. In the myelinated cell branches of the neuron, that 
is, in the ordinary nerve fibres, no visible change has ever been 
demonstrated as the result of any normal activity, however 
great a striking contrast to the observations obtained on 
the perikarya. The chemical changes that accompany activity 
in the nerve fibre must be very small, for the production of 
COj is barely measurable, and no production of heat is 
observable as the result of the most forced tetanic activity. 

The nerve cells of the higher vertebrata, unlike their blood 
cells, their connective tissue cells, and even their muscle cells, 
Growth la early, and indeed in embryonic life, lose power of 
Nervous multiplication. The number of them formed is 
System. definitely closed at an early period of the individual 
life. Although, unlike so many other cells, thus early sterile for 
reproduction of their kind, they retain for longer than most cells 
a high power of individual growth. They continue to grow, and 

to thrust out new branches and to lengthen existing branches, 
for many years far into adult life. They similarly possess power 
to repair and to regenerate their cell branches where these are 
injured or destroyed by trauma or disease. This is the explana- 
tion of the repair of nerve trunks that have been severed, with 
consequent degeneration of the peripheral nerve fibres. As a 
rule, a longer time is required to restore the motor than the 
sensory functions of a nerve trunk. 

Whether examined by functional or by structural features, 
the conducting paths of the nervous system, traced from 
beginning to end, never terminate in the centres of 
that system, but pass through them. All ultimately 
emerge as efferent channels. Every efferent 
channel, after entrance in the central nervous system, sub- 
divides; of its subdivisions some pass to efferent channels 
soon, others pass further and further within the cord and brain 
before they finally reach channels of outlet. All the longest 
routes thus formed traverse late in their course the cortex of 
the cerebral hemisphere. It is this relatively huge development 
of cortex cerebri which is the pre-eminent structural character 
of man. This means that the number of " longest routes " 
in man is, as compared with lower animals, disproportionately 
great. In the lower animal forms there is no such nervous 
structure at all as the cortex cerebri. In the frog, lizard, and 
even bird, it is thin and poorly developed. In the marsupials 
it is more evident, and its excitation by electric currents evokes 
movements in the musculature of the crossed side of the body. 
Larger and thicker in the rabbit, when excited it gives rise in 
that animal to movements of the eyes and of the fore-limbs 
and neck; but it is only in much higher types, such as the 
dog, that the cortex yields, under experimental excitation, 
definitely localized foci, whence can be evoked movements 
of the fore-limb, hind-limb, neck, eyes, ears and fate. In 
the monkey the proportions it assumes are still greater, and 
the number of foci, for distinct movements of this and that 
member, indeed for the individual joints of each limb, are 
much more numerous, and together occupy a more extensive 
surface, though relatively to the total surface of the brain a 
smaller one. 

Experiment shows that in the manlike (anthropoid) apes the 
differentiation of the foci or "centres " of movement in the motor 
field of the cortex is even more minute. In them areas are found 
whence stimuli excite movements of this or that finger alone, 
of the upper lip without the lower, of the tip only of the tongue, 
or of one upper eyelid by itself. The movement evoked from 
a point of cortex is not always the same; its character is 
determined by movements evoked from neighbouring points 
of cortex immediately antecedently. Thus a point A will, when 
excited soon subsequent to point B, which latter yields pro- 
trusion of lips, itself yield lip-protrusion, whereas if excited 
after C, which yields lip-retraction, it will itself yield lip-retrac- 
tion. The movements obtained by point-to-point excitation 
of the cortex are often evidently imperfect as compared with 
natural movements that is, are only portions of complete 
normal movements. Thus among the tongue movements 
evoked by stigmatic stimulation of the cortex undeviated 
protrusion or retraction of the organ is not found. Again, 
from different points of the cortex the assumption of the 
requisite positions of the tongue, lips, cheeks, palate and 
epiglottis, as components in the act of sucking, can be pro- 
voked singly. Rarely can the whole action be provoked, and 
then only gradually, by prolonged and strong excitation 
of one of the requisite points, e.g. that for the tongue, with 
which the other points are functionally connected. Again, 
no single point in the cortex evokes the act of ocular converg- 
ence and fixation. All this means that the execution of natural 
movements employs simultaneous co-operative activity of a 
number of points in the motor fields on both sides of the brain 

The accompanying simple figure indicates better than any 
verbal description the topography of the main groups of foci 
in the motor field of a manlike ape (chimpanzee). It will be 


noted from it that there is no direct relation between the extent of 
a cortical area and the mass of muscles which it controls. 
The mass of muscles in the trunk is greater than in the leg, and 
in the leg is greater than in the arm, and in the arm is many times 
greater than in the face and head; yet for the last the cortical 
area is the most extensive of all, and for the first-named is 
the least extensive of all. 

The motor field of the cortex is, taken altogether, relatively 

to the size of the lower parts of the brain, larger in the anthropoid 
than in the inferior monkey brains. But in the anthropoid 

Anus <J vagina* 

**? :XMftL ty* 

Knee ''^'^^^/^'^y^^ ..Chest 


come to be furnished more and more with fibres that are fully 
myelinate. At the beginning of its history each is unprovided 
with myelinate nerve fibres. The excitable foci of the cerebral 
cortex are well myelinated long before the unexcitable are so. 
The regions of the cortex, whose conduction paths are early 
completed, may be arranged in groups by their connexions 
with sense-organs: eye-region, ear-region, skin and somaesthetic 
region, olfactory and taste region. The areas of intervening 

cortex, arriving at structural completion later than the above 
sense-spheres, are called by some association-spheres, to indicate 
the view that they contain the neural mechanisms of 
reactions (some have said " ideas ") associated with 
the sense perceptions elaborated in the several sense- 

The name " motor area " is given to that region 
of cortex whence, as D. Ferrier's investigations 
showed, motor reactions of the facial and Seasorl- 
limb muscles are regularly and easily motor 
evoked. This region is often called the &*"*. 
sensori-motor cortex, and the term somaesthetic has 
also been used and seems appropriate. It has been 
found that disturbance of sensation, as well as 
disturbance of movement, is often incurred by its 
injury. Patients in whom, for purposes of diagnosis, 
it has been electrically excited, describe, as the 
initial effect of the stimulation, tingling and obscure 
but locally-limited sensations, referred to the part 
whose muscles a moment later are thrown into 
co-ordinate activity. The distinction, therefore, 
between the movement of the eyeballs, elicited from 
the occipital (visual) cortex, and that of the hand, 
elicited from the cortex in the region of the central 

Sulciis cerUfaUs, sulcus (somaesthetic), is not a difference between 

cords. r1a.iticaion Mi** motor and sensory, for both are sensori-motor in the 

Diagram of the Topography of the Main Groups of Foci in the Motor Field nature of their reactions; the difference is only a 

of Chimpanzee. difference between the kind of sense and sense-organ 

brain still more increased even than the motor field are the great in the two cases, the muscular apparatus in each case being 


Eyelid . 


' Opening 

regions of the cortex outside that field, which yield no definite 
movements under electric excitation, and are for that reason 
known as " silent." The motor field, therefore, though absolutely 
larger, forms a smaller fraction of the whole cortex of the brain 
than in the lower forms. The statement that in the anthropoid 
(orang-outan) brain the groups of foci in the motor fields of the 
cortex are themselves separated one from another by sur- 
rounding inexcitable cortex, has been made and was one of 
great interest, but has not been confirmed by subsequent 
observation. That in man the excitable foci of the motor 
field are islanded in excitable surface similarly and even more 
extensively, was a natural inference, but it had its chief basis 
in the observations on the orang, now known to be erroneous. 

In the diagram there is indicated the situation of the cortical 
centres for movement of the vocal cords. Their situation is 
at the lower end of the motor field. That they should lie 
there is interesting, because that place is close to one known 
in man to be associated with management of the movements 
concerned in speech. When that area in man is injured, the 
ability to utter words is impaired. Not that there is paralysis 
of the muscles of speech, since these muscles can be used perfectly 
for all acts other than speech. The area in man is known as 
the motor centre for speech; in most persons it exists only in 
the left half of the brain and not in the right. In a similar way 
damage of a certain small portion of the temporal lobe of the 
brain produces loss of intelligent apprehension of words spoken, 
although there is no deafness and although words seen are 
perfectly apprehended. Another region, " the angular region," 
is similarly related to intelligent apprehension of words seen, 
though not of words heard. 

When this differentiation of cortex, with its highest expres- 
sion in man, is collated' with the development of the cortex 
as studied in the successive phases of its growth and ripening 
in the human infant, a suggestive analogy is obvious. The 
nervous paths in the brain and cord, as they attain completion, 

an appanage of the sensual. 

That the lower types of vertebrate, such as fish, e.g. carp, 
possess practically no cortex cerebri, and nevertheless execute 
" volitional " acts involving high co-ordination and suggesting 
the possession by them of associative memory, shows that for 
the existence of these phenomena the cortex cerebri is in them 
not essential. In the dog it has been proved that after removal 
from the animal of every vestige of its cortex cerebri, it still 
executes habitual acts of great motor complexity requiring 
extraordinarily delicate adjustment of muscular contraction. 
It can walk, run and feed; such an animal, on wounding its 
foot, will run on three legs, as will a normal dog under similar 
mischance. But signs of associative memory are almost, if 
not entirely, wanting. Throughout three years such a dog 
failed to learn that the attendant's lifting it from the cage at a 
certain hour was the preliminary circumstance of the feeding- 
hour; yet it did exhibit hunger, and would refuse further food 
when a sufficiency had been taken. In man, actually gross 
sensory defects follow even limited lesions of the cortex. Thus 
the rabbit and the dog are not absolutely blinded by removal 
of the entire cortex, but in man destruction of the occipital 
cortex produces total blindness, even to the extent that the 
pupil of the eye does not respond when light is flashed into 
the eye. 

Examination of the cerebellum by the method of Wallerian 
degeneration has shown that a large number of spinal and 
bulbar nerve cells send branches up into it. These 
seem to end, for the most, part, in the grey cortex 
of the median lobe, some, though not the majority, of 
them decussating across the median line. The organ seems 
also to receive many fibres from the parietal region of the 
cerebral hemisphere. From the organ there emerge fibres 
which cross to the opposite red nucleus, and directly or 
indirectly reach the thalamic region of the crossed hemi- 
sphere. The pons or middle peduncle, which was regarded, 




on the uncertain ground of naked-eye dissection of human 
anatomy, as commissural between the two lateral lobes of 
the cerebellum, is now known to constitute chiefly a cerebro- 
cerebellar decussating path. Certain cerebellar cells send 
processes down to the cell-group in the bulb known as the 
nucleus of Deiters, which latter projects fibres down the 
spinal cord. Whether there is any other or direct emergent 
path from the cerebellum into the spinal cord is a matter 
on which opinion is divided. 

Injuries of the cerebellum, if large, derange the power of 
executing movements, without producing any detectable 
derangement of sensation. The derangement gradually dis- 
appears, unless the damage to the organ be very wide. A 
reeling gait, oscillations of the body which impart a zigzag 
direction to the walk, difficulty in standing, owing to unsteadi- 
ness of limb, are common in cerebellar disease. On the other 
hand, congenital defect amounting to absence of one cerebellar 
hemisphere has been found to occasion practically no symptoms 
whatsoever. Not a hundredth part of the cerebellum has 
remained, and yet there has existed ability to stand, to walk, to 
handle and lift objects in a fairly normal way, without any trace 
of impairment of cutaneous or muscular sensitivity. The 
damage to the cerebellum must, it would seem, occur abruptly or 
quickly in order to occasion marked derangement of function, 
and then the derangement falls on the execution of movements. 
One aspect of this derangement, named by Luciani astasia, 
is a tremor heightened by or only appearing when the muscles 
enter upon action " intention tremor." Vertigo is a frequent 
result of cerebellar injury: animals indicate it by their actions; 
patients describe it. To interpret this vertigo, appeal must 
be made to disturbances, other than cerebellar, which like- 
wise occasion vertigo. These include, besides ocular squint, 
many spatial positions and movements unwonted to the body: 
the looking from a height, the gliding over ice, sea-travel, to 
some persons even travelling by train, or the covering of one 
eye. Common to all these conditions is the synchronous rise 
of perceptions of spatial relations between the self and the 
environment which have not, or have rarely, before arisen in 
synchronous combination. The tactual organs of the soles, and 
the muscular sense organs of limbs and trunk, are originating 
perceptions that indicate that the self is standing on the 
solid earth, yet the eyes are at the same time originating 
perceptions that indicate that the solid earth is far away 
below the standing self. The combination is hard to harmonize 
at first; it is at least not given as innately harmonized. Per- 
ceptions regarding the " me " are notoriously highly charged 
with " feeling," and the conflict occasions the feeling insuffi- 
ciently described as " giddiness." The cerebellum receives 
paths from most, if not from all, of the afferent roots. With 
certain of these it stands associated most closely, namely, 
with the vestibular, representing the sense organs which furnish 
data -for appreciation of positions and movements of the head, 
and with the channels, conveying centripetal impressions from 
the apparatus of skeletal movement. Disorder of the cere- 
bellum sets at variance, brings discord into, the space-percep- 
tions contributory to the movement. The body's movement 
becomes thus imperfectly adjusted to the spatial requirements 
of the act it would perform. 

In the physiological basis of sense exist many impressions 
which, apart from and devoid of psychical accompaniment, 
reflexly influence motor (muscular) innervation. It is with 
this sort of habitually apsychical reaction that the cerebellum 
is, it would seem, employed. That it is apparently devoid of 
psychical concomitant need not imply that the impressions 
concerned in it are crude and inelaborate. The seeming want 
of reaction of so much of the cerebellar structure under artificial 
stimulation, and the complex relay system revealed in the 
histology of the cerebellum, suggest that the impressions are 
elaborate. Its reaction preponderantly helps to secure co- 
ordinate innervation of the skeletal musculature, both for 
maintenance of attitude and for execution of movements. 

Sleep. The more obvious of the characters of sleep (q.v.) are 

essentially nervous. In deep sleep the threshold-value of the 
stimuli for the various senses is very greatly raised, rising 
rapidly during the first hour and a half of sleep, and then declining 
with gradually decreasing decrements. The muscles become less 
tense than in their waking state: their tonus is diminished, the 
upper eyelid falls, and the knee-jerk is in abeyance. The 
respiratory rhythm is less frequent and the breathing less deep; 
the heart-beat is less frequent; the secretions are less copious; 
the pupil is narrow; in the brain there exists arterial anaemia with 
venous congestion, so that the blood-flow there is less than in the 
waking state. 

It has been suggested that the gradual cumulative result 
of the activity of the nerve cells during the waking day is to 
load the brain tissue with " fatigue-substances " 
which clog the action of the cells, and thus periodi- s / eep . 
cally produce that loss of consciousness, &c., which 
is sleep. Such a drugging of tissue by its own excreta is known 
in muscular fatigue, but the fact that the depth of sleep progres- 
sively increases for an hour and more after its onset prevents 
complete explanation of sleep on similar lines. It has been 
urged that the neurons retract during sleep, and that thus at the 
synapses the gap between nerve cell and nerve cell becomes 
wider, or..t>jat the supporting cells expand between the nerve 
cells and tend to isolate the latter one from the other. Certain it is 
that in the course of the waking day a great number of stimuli 
play on the sense organs, and through these produce disintegra- 
tion of the living molecules of the central nervous system. 
Hence during the day the assimilatory processes of these cells 
are overbalanced by their wear and tear, and the end-result is 
that the cell attains an atomic condition less favourable to 
further disintegration than to reintegration. That phase of 
cell life which we are accustomed to call " active " is accompanied 
always by disintegration. When in the cell the assimilative 
processes exceed dissimilative, the external manifestations of 
energy are liable to cease or diminish. Sleep is not exhaustion 
of the neuron in the sense that prolonged activity has reduced 
its excitability to zero. The nerve cell just prior to sleep is still 
well capable of response to stimuli, although perhaps the thres- 
hold-value of the stimulus has become rather high, whereas after 
entrance upon sleep and continuance of sleep for several hours, 
and more, when all spur to the dissimilation process has been 
long withheld, the threshold-value of the sensory stimulus 
becomes enormously higher than before. The exciting cause 
of sleep is therefore no complete exhaustion of the available 
material of the cells, nor is it entirely any paralysing of them by 
their excreta. It is more probably abeyance of external function 
during a periodic internal assimilatory phase. 

Two processes conjoin to initiate the assimilatory phase. There 
is close interconnexion between the two aspects of the double 
activity that in physiological theory constitute the chemical life of 
protoplasm, between dissimilation and assimilation. Hering has 
long insisted on a self-regulative adjustment of the cell metabolism, 
so that action involves reaction, increased catabolism necessitates 
after-increase of anabolism. The long-continued incitement to 
catabolism of the waking day thus of itself predisposes the nerve 
cells towards rebound into the opposite phase; the increased cata- 
bolism due to the day's stimuli induces increase of anabolism, and 
though recuperation goes on to a large extent during the day itself, 
the recuperative process is slower than, and lags behind, the dis- 
integrative. Hence there occurs a cumulative effect, progressively 
increasing from the opening till the closing hours. The second 
factor inducing tiie assimilative change is the withdrawal of the 
nervous system from sensual stimulation. The eyes are closed, 
the maintenance.of posture by active contraction is replaced by the 
recumbent pose which can be maintained by static action and the 
mere mechanical consistence of the body, the ears are screened 
from noise in the quiet chamber, the skin from localized pressure 
by a soft, yielding couch. The effect of thus reducing the excitant 
action of the environment is to give consciousness over more to 
mere revivals by memory, and gradually consciousness lapses. A 
remarkable case is well authenticated, where, owing to disease, a 
young man had lost the use of all the senses save of one eye and of 
one ear. If these last channels were sealed, in two or three minutes' 
time he invariably fell asleep. 

If natural sleep is the expression of a phase of decreased excit- 
ability due to the setting in of a tide of anabolism in the cells of the 
nervous system, what is the action of narcotics ? They lower the 


external activities of the cells, but do they not at the same time 
lower the internal, reparative, assimilative activity of the cell that 
in natural sleep goes vigorously forward preparing the system for 
the next day's drain on energy? In most cases they seem to 


lower both the internal and the external activity of the 

nerve cells, to lessen the cell's entire metabolism, to 
reduce the speed of its whole chemical movement and life. Hence 
it is not surprising that often the refreshment, the recuperation, 
obtained from and felt after sleep induced by a drug amounts to 
nothing, or to worse than nothing. But very often refreshment 
is undoubtedly obtained from such narcotic sleep. It may be 
supposed that in the latter case the effect of the drug has been to 
ensure occurrence of that second predisposing factor mentioned 
above, of that withdrawal of sense impulses from the nerve centres 
that serves to usher in the state of sleep. In certain conditions it 
may be well worth while by means of narcotic drugs to close the 
portals of the senses for the sake of thus obtaining stillness in the 
chambers of the mind; their enforced quietude may induce a 
period in which natural rest and repair continue long after the 
initial unnatural arrest of vitality due to the drug itself has passed 

Hypnotism. The physiology of this group of " states " is, 
as regards the real understanding of their production, eminently 
vague (see also HYPNOTISM). The conditions which tend to in- 
duce them contain generally, as one element, constrained visual 
attention prolonged beyond ordinary duration. Symptoms 
attendant on the hypnotic state are closure of tht e eyelids by 
the hypnotizer without subsequent attempt to open them by 
the hypnotized subject; the pupils, instead of being constricted, 
as for near vision, dilate, and there sets in a condition superficially 
resembling sleep. But in natural sleep the action of all parts 
of the nervous system is subdued, whereas in the hypnotic the 
reactions of the lower, and some even of the higher, parts are 
exalted. Moreover, the reactions seem to follow the sense 
impressions with such fatality, that, as an inference, absence of 
will-power to control them or suppress them is suggested. This 
reflex activity with " paralysis of will " is characteristic of the 
somnambulistic state. The threshold-value of the stimuli 
adequate for the various senses may be extraordinarily lowered. 
Print of microscopic size may be read; a watch ticking in another 
room can be heard. Judgment of weight and texture of surface 
is exalted; thus a card can in a dark room be felt and then 
re-selected from the re-shuffled pack. Akin to this condition is 
that in which the power of maintaining muscular effort is in- 
creased; the individual may lie stiff with merely head and feet 
supported on two chairs; the limbs can be held outstretched for 
hours at a time. This is the cataleptic state, the phase of hypno- 
tism which the phenomena of so-called " animal hypnotism " 
resemble most. A frog or fowl or guinea-pig held in some 
unnatural pose, and retained so forcibly for a time, becomes 
" set " in that pose, or rather in a posture of partial recovery of 
the normal posture. In this state it remains motionless for 
various periods. This condition is more than usually readily 
induced when the cerebral hemispheres have been removed. 
The decerebrate monkey exhibits " cataleptoid " reflexes. 
Father A. Kircher's experimentum mirabile with the fowl and 
the chalk line succeeds best with the decerebrate hen. The 
^attitude may be described as due to prolonged, not very intense, 
.discharge from reflex centres that regulate posture and are 
iprobably intimately connected with the cerebellum. A sudden 
iintense sense stimulus usually suffices to end this tonic discharge. 
It completes the movement that has already set in but had been 
.checked, as it were, half-way, though tonically maintained. 
Coincidently with the persistence of the tonic contraction, the 
higher and volitional centres seem to lie under a spell of 
inhibition; their action, which would complete or cut short the 
posture-spasm, rests in abeyance. Suspension of cerebral 
influence exists even more markedly, of course, when the 
.cerebral hemispheres have been ablated. 

But a potent according to some, the most potent factor 
;in hypnotism, namely, suggestion, is unrepresented in the 
production of so-called animal hypnotism. We know that one 
idea suggests another, and that volitional movements are the 
outcome of ideation. If we assume that there is a material 
process at the basis of ideation, we may take the analogy of the 
concomitance between a spinal reflex movement and a skin 

sensation. The physical " touch " that initiates the psychical 
" touch " initiates, through the very same nerve channels, a 
reflex movement responsive to the physical " touch," just as the 
psychical " touch " may be considered also a response to the 
same physical event. But in the decapitated animal we have 
good arguments for belief that we get the reflex movement alone 
as response; the psychical touch drops out. Could we assume 
that there is in the adult man reflex machinery which is of higher 
order than the merely spinal, which employs much more complex 
motor mechanisms than 1 they, and is connected with a much 
wider range of sense organs; and could we assume that- this 
reflex machinery, although usually associated in its action with 
memorial and volitional processes, may in certain circumstances 
be sundered from these latter and unattendant on them may 
in fact continue in work when the higher processes are at a 
standstill then we might imagine a condition resembling that 
of the somnambulistic and cataleptic states of hypnotism. 

Such assumptions are not wholly unjustified. Actions of great 
complexity and delicacy of adjustment are daily executed by each 
of us without what is ordinarily understood as volition, and without 
more than a mere shred of memory attached thereto. To take 
one's watch from the pocket and look at it when from a familiar 
clock-tower a familiar bell strikes a familiar hour, is an instance of 
a habitual action initiated by a sense perception outside attentive 
consciousness. We may suddenly remember dimly afterwards that 
we have done so, and we quite fail to recall the difference between 
the watch time and the clock time. In many instances hypnotism 
seems to establish quickly reactions similar to such as usually 
result only from long and closely attentive practice. The sleeping 
mother rests undisturbed by the various noises of the house and 
street, but wakes at a slight murmur from her child. The ship's 
engineer, engaged in conversation with some visitor to the engine- 
room, talks apparently undisturbed by all the multifold noise and 
rattle of the machinery, but let the noise alter in some item which, 
though unnoticeable to the visitor, betokens importance to the 
trained ear, and his passive attention is in a moment caught. The 
warders at an asylum have been hypnotized to sleep by the bedside 
of dangerous patients, and " suggested " to awake the instant the 
patients attempt to get out of bed, sounds which had no import for 
them being inhibited by suggestion. Warders in this way worked 
all day and performed night duty also for months without showing 
fatigue. This is akin to the " repetition " which, read by the 
schoolboy last thing overnight, is on waking " known by heart." 
Most of us can wake somewhere about a desired although unusually 
early hour, if overnight we desire much to do so. 

Two theories of a physiological nature have been proposed 
to account for the separation of the complex reactions of 
these conditions of hypnotism from volition and from memory. 
R. P. H. Heidenhain's view is that the cortical centres of the 
hemisphere are inhibited by peculiar conditions attaching 
to the initiatory sense stimuli. W. T. Preyer's view is that the 
essential condition for initiation is fatigue of the will-power 
under a prolonged effort of undivided attention. 

Hypnotic somnambulism and hypnotic catalepsy are not {he 
only or the most profound changes of nervous condition that 
hypnosis can induce. The physiological derangement which 
is the basis of the abeyance of volition may, if hypnotism be 
profound, pass into more widespread derangement, exhibiting 
itself as the hypnotic lethargy. This is associated not only with 
paralysis of will but with profound anaesthesia. Proposals 
have been made to employ hypnotism as a method of producing 
anaesthesia for surgical purposes, but there are two grave 
objections to such employment. In order to produce a sufficient 
degree of hypnotic lethargy the subject must be made extremely 
susceptible, and this can only be done by repeated hypnotization. 
It is necessary to hypnotize patients every day for several weeks 
before they can be got into a degree of stupor sufficient to allow 
of the safe execution of a surgical operation. But the state 
itself, when reached, is at least as dangerous to life as is that 
produced by inhalation of ether, and it is more difficult to 
recover from. Moreover, by the processes the subject has gone 
through he has had those physiological activities upon which 
his volitional power depends excessively deranged, and not 
improbably permanently enfeebled. (C. S. S.) 

MUSCOVITE, a rock-forming mineral belonging to the mica 
group (see MICA). It is also known as potash-mica, being a 
potassium, hydrogen and'aluminium orthosilicate, 


As the common white mica obtainable in thin, transparent 
cleavage sheets of large size it was formerly used in Russia for 
window panes and known as " Muscovy glass "; hence the name 
muscovite, proposed by J. D. Dana in 1850. It crystallizes in 
the monoclinic system; distinctly developed crystals, however, 
are rare and have the form of rough six-sided prisms or plates: 
thin scales without definite crystal outlines are more common. 
The most prominent feature is the perfect cleavage parallel to 
t^ e basal plane (c in the figure), on 
which the lustre is pearly in character. 
jit "7 The hardness is 2-2 1, and the spec, 

grav. 2-8-2-9. The plane of the optic 
axes is perpendicular to the plane of 
symmetry and the acute bisectrix nearly normal to the cleavage; 
the optic axial angle is 60-70, and double refraction is strong 
and negative in sign. 

Muscovite frequently occurs as fine scaly to almost compact 
aggregates, especially when, as is often the case, it has resulted 
by the alteration of some other mineral, such as felspar, topaz, 
cyanite, &c.j several varieties depending on differences in 
structure have been distinguished. Fine scaly varieties are 
damourite, margarodite (from Gr. jia/xyapt-njj, a pearl), gilber- 
tite, sericite (from <njpt/cos, silky), &c. In sericite the fine scales 
are united in fibrous aggregates giving rise to a silky lustre: 
this variety is a common constituent of phyllites and sericite- 
schists. Oncosine (from oyKotns, intumescence) is a compact 
variety forming rounded aggregates, which swell up when 
heated before the blowpipe. Closely related to oncosine are several 
compact minerals, included together under the name pinite, 
which have resulted by the alteration of iolite, spodumene and 
other minerals. Other varieties depend on differences in 
chemical composition. Fuchsite or " chrome-mica " is a bright 
green muscovite containing chromium; it has been used as a 
decorative stone. Oellacherite is a variety containing some 
barium. In phengite there is more silica than usual, the com- 
position approximating to H 2 KAI 3 (Si3O 8 )3. 

Muscovite is of wide distribution and is the commonest of the 
micas. In igneous rocks it is found only in granite, never in 
volcanic rocks; but it is abundant hi gneiss and mica-schist, 
and in phyllites and clay-slates, where it has been formed at 
the expense of alkali-felspar by dynamo-metamorphic processes. 
In pegmatite-veins traversing granite, gneiss or mica-schist it 
occurs as large sheets of commercial value, and is mined in India, 
the United States and Brazil (see MICA), and to a limited extent, 
together with felspar, in southern Norway and in the Urals. 
Large sheets of muscovite were formerly obtained from Solovetsk 
Island, Archangel. (L. J. S.) 

MUSCULAR SYSTEM (Anatomy 1 ). The muscular tissue 
(Lat. musculus, from a fancied resemblance of certain muscles 
to a little mouse) is of three kinds: (i) voluntary or striped 
muscle; (2) involuntary or unstriped muscle, found in the skin, 
walls of hollow viscera, coats of blood and lymphatic vessels, &c. ; 
(3) heart muscle. The microscopical differences of these different 
kinds are discussed in the article on CONNECTIVE TISSUES. Here 
only the voluntary muscles, which are under the control of the 
will, are to be considered. 

The voluntary muscles form the red flesh of an animal, and 
are the structures by which one part of the body is moved at 
will upon another. Each muscle is said to have an origin and 
an insertion, the former being that attachment which is usually 
more fixed, the latter that which is more movable. This 
distinction, however, although convenient, is an arbitrary one, 
and an example may make this clear. If we take the pectoralis 
major, which is attached to the front of the chest on the one 
hand and to the upper part of the arm bone on the other, the 
effect of its contraction will obviously be to draw the arm towards 
the chest, so that its origin under ordinary circumstances is said 
to be from the chest while its insertion is into the arm; but if. 
in climbing a tree, the hand grasps a branch above, the muscular 
contraction will draw the chest towards the arm, and the latter 
will then become the origin. Generally, but not always, a 
1 For physiology, see MUSCLE AND NERVE. 

muscle is partly fleshy and partly tendinous; the fleshy contractile 
part is attached at one or both ends to cords or sheets of white 
fibrous tissue, which in some cases pass round pullies and so 
change the direction of the muscle's 
action. The other end of these cords 
or tendons is usually attached to the 
periosteum of bones, with which it 
blends. In some cases, when a 
tendon passes round a bony pulley, 
a sesamoid bone is developed in it 
which diminishes the effects of fric- 
tion. A good example of this is the 
patella in the tendon of the rectus 
femoris (fig. i, P.). 

Every muscle is supplied with blood 
vessels and lymphatics (fig. i, v, a, /), 
and also with one or more nerves. 
The nerve supply is very important 
both from a medical and a morpho- 
logical point of view. The approxi- 
mate attachments are also important, 
because unless they are realized 
the action of the muscle cannot be 
understood, but the exact attach- 
ments are perhaps laid too great stress 
on in the anatomical teaching of 
medical students. The study of the 
actions of muscles is, of course, a 
physiological one, but teaching the 
subject has been handed over to the 
anatomists, and the results have been 
in some respects unfortunate. Until 
very recently the anatomist studied 
only the dead body, and his one idea 
of demonstrating the action of a 
muscle was to expose and then to 
pull it, and whatever happened he 
said was the action of that muscle. 
It is now generally recognized that 
no movement is so simple that only 
one muscle is concerned in it, and that 
what a, muscle may do and what it 
really does do are not necessarily the 
same thing. As far as the deeper 
muscles are concerned, we still have 
onlythe anatomical method to depend 
upon, but with the superficial muscles it should be checked by 
causing a living person to perform certain movements and then 
studying which muscles take part in them. 

For a modern study of muscular actions, see C. E. Beevor's, 
Croonian Lectures for ipoj (London, 1904). 

Muscles have various shapes: they may be fusiform, as in fig. i,. 
conical, riband-like, or flattened into triangular or quadrilateral' 
sheets. They may also be attached to skin, cartilage or fascia, 
instead of to bone, while certain muscles surround openings, 
which they constrict and are called sphincters. The names of the- 
muscles have gradually grown up, and no settled plan has been, 
used in giving them. Sometimes, as in the coraco-brachialis and: 
thyro-hyoid, the name describes the origin and insertion of the 
muscle, and, no doubt, for the student of human anatomy this, 
is the most satisfactory plan, since by learning the name the 
approximate attachments are also learnt. Sometimes the name 
only indicates some peculiarity in the shape of the muscle and 
gives no clue to its position in the body or its attachments; 
examples of this are biceps, semitendinosus and pyriformis. 
Sometimes, as in the flexor carpi ulnaris and corrugator supercilii, 
the use of the muscle is shown. At other times the position in, 
the body is indicated, but not the attachments, as hi the tibialis: 
anticus and peroneus longus, while, at other times, as in the case 
of the pectineus, the name is only misleading. Fortunately the 
names of the describers themselves are very seldom applied to, 
muscles; among the few examples are Horner's muscle and the. 

FIG. i. The Rectus Mus- 
cle of the Thigh; to 
show the constituent 
parts of a muscle. 

R, The fleshy belly. 

to, Tendon of origin. 

ti, Tendon of insertion, 

n, Nerve of supply. 

a, Artery of supply. 

v. Vein. 

/, Lymphatic vessel. 

P, The patella. 


muscular band of Treitz. The German anatomists at the Basel 
conference lately proposed a uniform Latin and Greek nomencla- 
ture, which, though not altogether satisfactory, is gaining ground 
on the European continent. As there are some four hundred 

Epicranial aponeurosis ATTRAHENS AUREM 

transverse wrinkles in the forehead. The anterior, posterior and 
superior auricular muscles are present but are almost functionless 
in man. The orbicularis palpebrarum forms a sphincter round the 
eyelids, which it closes, though there is little doubt that parts of the 
muscle can act separately and cause various expressions. The side of 











Stenson's duct 


From A. M. Paterson, Cunningham's Text Book of Anatomy. 

FIG. 2. The Muscles of the Face and Scalp (muscles of expression). 

muscles on. each side of the body it will be impossible here to 
attempt more than a mere sketch of them; for the details the 
anatomical textbooks must be consulted. 

MUSCLES OF THE HEAD AND FACE (see fig. 2). The scalp is 
moved by a large flat muscle called the occipito-frontalis, which has 
two muscular bellies, the occipitalis and frontalis, and an intervening 
epicranial aponeurosis; this muscle moves the scalp and causes the 

the nose has several muscles, the actions of which are indicated by their 
names ; they are the compressor, two dilatores and the depressor aloe 
nasi, while the levator labii superioris et alae nasi sometimes goes to 
the nose. Raising the upper lip, in addition to the last named, are 
the levator labii superioris proprius and the levator anguli oris, while 
the zygomaticus major draws the angle of the mouth outward. The 
lower lip is depressed by the depressor labii inferioris and depressor 
anguli oris, while the orbicularis oris acts as a sphincter to the mouth. 

Epicranial aponeurosis 


Auriculo-temporal nerve 

Superficial temporal 


External carotid artery 

Internal literal ligament 

Posterior auricular artery 

Lingual nerve 

Mylo-hyoid nerve 

Parotid gland 

Inferior dental nerve 

Temporal branch of 

buccal nerve 
/ Temporal branches of 
f inferior maxillary nerve 

Posterior dental artery 
Posterior dental nerve 
Long buccal nerve 

Mental branch of inferior 
dental nerve 

From A. M. Paterson, Cunningham's Text Booh of Anatomy. 

FIG. 3. Pterygoid Region. 



The buccinator muscle in the substance of the cheeks rises from the 
upper and lower jaws and runs forward to blend with the orbicularis 
oris. All the foregoing are known as muscles of expression and all 
are supplied by the seventh or facial nerve. The temporal muscle 
at the side of the cranium (fig. 3) and the masseter (fig. 2), which 
rises from the zygoma, close the mouth, since both are inserted into 
the ramus of the mandible ; while, rising from the pterygoid plates, 
are the external and internal pterygoid muscles (fig. 3), the former of 
which pulls forward the condyle, and so the whole mandible, while 
the latter helps to close the mouth by acting on the angle of the lower 
jaw. This group of muscles forms the masticatory set, all of which 
are supplied by the third division of the fifth nerve. For the 
muscles of the orbit, see EYE ; for those of the soft palate and pharynx, 
see PHARYNX; and for those of the tongue, see TONGUE. 

both triangles to the hyoid bone Where it passes deep to the 
sterno-mastoid it has a central tendon which is bound to the first 
rib by a loop of cervical fascia. Rising from the styloid process are 
three muscles, the stylo-glossus, stylo-hyoid and stylo-pharyngeus, 
the names of which indicate their attachments. Covering these 
muscles of the anterior triangle is a thin sheet, close to the skin, 
called the platysma, the upper fibres of which run back from the 
mouth over the cheek and are named the risorius (fig. 2) ; this sheet 
is one of the few remnants in man of the ski musculature or panni- 
culus carnosus of lower Mammals. With regard to the nerve supply 
of the anterior triangle muscles, all those which go to the tongue 
are supplied by the hypoglossal or twelfth cranial nerve while the 
muscles below the hyoid bone are apparently supplied from this 
nerve but really from the upper cervical nerves (see NERVE, 










From A. M. Paterson, Cunningham's Text Book of Anatomy. 

FIG. 4. The Triangles of the Neck (muscles). 

MUSCLES OF THE NECK (fig. 4). Just below the mandible is the 
digastric, which, as its name shows, has two bellies and a central 
tendon; the anterior belly, supplied by the fifth nerve, is attached to 
the mandible near the symphysis, the posterior supplied by the 
seventh of the mastoid process, while the central tendon is bound 
to the hyoid bone. Stretching across from one side of the lower jaw 
to the other and forming a floor to the mouth is the mylo-hyoid muscle ; 
posteriorly this reaches the hyoid bone, and in the mid-line has a 
tendinous raphe separating the two halves of the muscle. Rising 
from the manubrium sterni and inner part of the clavicle is the 
sterno-deido-mastoid, which is inserted into the mastoid process and 
superior curved lines of the occipital bone; when it contracts it 
makes the face look over the opposite shoulder, and it is supplied 
by the spinal accessory nerve as well as by branches from the 
cervical plexus. It is an important surgical landmark, and forms a 
diagonal across the quadrilateral outline of the side of the neck, 
dividing it into an anterior triangle with its apex downward and a 
posterior with its apex upward. In the anterior triangle the relative 
positions of the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage and sternum should 
be realized, and then the hyo-glossus, thyro-hyoid, sterno-hyoid and 
sterno-thyroid muscles are explained by their names. The omo-hyoid 
muscle rises from the upper border of the scapula and runs across 

CRANIAL; and NERVE, SPINAL). The posterior triangle is formed 
by the sterno-mastoid in front, the trapezius behind, and the clavicle 
below; in its floor from above downward part of the following muscles 
are seen: complexus, splenius, levator anguli scapulae, scalenus 
medius and scalenus anticus. Sometimes a small piece of the 
scalenus posticus is caught sight of behind the scalenus medius. The 
splenius rotates the head to its own side, the levator anguli scapulae 
raises the upper angle of the scapula, while the three scalenes run 
from the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and fix or 
raise the upper ribs. The trapezius (fig. 5) arises from the spines 
of the thoracic vertebrae and the ligamentum nuchae, and is inserted 
into the outer third of the clavicle and the spine of the scapula; it is 
used in shrugging the shoulders and in drawing the upper part of the 
scapula toward the mid-dorsal line. Its nerve supply is the spinal 
accessory and third and fourth cervical nerves. When the super- 
ficial muscles and complexus are removed from the hack of the neck, 
the sub-occipital triangle is seen beneath the occipital bone. Exter- 
nally it is bounded by the superior oblique, running from the trans- 
verse process of the atlas to the lateral part of the occipital bone, 
internally by the rectus capilis poslicus major, passing from the spine 
of the axis to the lateral part of the occipital bone, and inferiorly by 
the inferior oblique joining the spine of the axis to the transverse 



process of the atlas. These muscles move the head on the atlas 
and the atlas on the axis. They are supplied by the posterior branch 
of the first cervical nerve. 

MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK. The trapezius has already been de- 
scribed as a superficial muscle of the upper part of the back; in the 
loin region the latissimus dorsi (fig. 5) is the superficial muscle, its 
origin being from the lower thoracic spines, lower ribs and lumbar 










forming the semispinalis and multifidus spinae muscles. The 
latissimus dorsi and rhomboids, are supplied by branches of the 
brachial plexus of nerves, while the deeper muscles get their nerves- 
from the posterior primary divisions of the spinal nerves (see NERVE, 
SPINAL). On the anterior part of the thoracic region the pectoralis 
major runs from the clavicle, sternum and ribs, to the humerus (fig. 6) ; 
deep to this is the pectoralis minor, passing from the upper ribs to- 



Fascia over gluteus 
maxim us 








Gluteal fascia 
Fascia over gluteus 
maximus (cut) 


From A. M. Paterson, Cunningham's Tat Book of Anatomy. 

FIG. 5. Superficial Muscles of the Back. 

fascia, and it i inserted into the upper part of the arm bone or 
humerus. When the trapezius is cut, the rhomboid muscles (major 
and minor) passing from the upper thoracic spines to the vertebral 
border of the scapula are seen, and deep to these is the serralus 
ppsticus superior passing from nearly the same spines to the upper 
ribs. On reflecting the latissimus dorsi the serratus posticus inferior 
is seen running from the lower thoracic spines to the lower ribs. 
When these muscles are removed the great mass of the erector spinae 
is exposed, familiar to every one as the upper cut of the sirloin or ribs 
of beef ; it runs all the way up the dorsal side of the vertebral column 
from the pelvis to the occiput, the complexus already mentioned 
being its extension to the head. It 13 longitudinally segmented 
jnto many different bundles to which special names are given, and it 
is attached to the various vertebrae and ribs as it goes up, thus 
straightening the spinal column. Deep to the erector spinae are 
found shorter bundles passing from one vertebra to another and 

the coracoid process. The serratus magnus is a large muscle rising 
by serrations from the upper eight ribs, and running back to the 
vertebral border of the scapula, which it draws forward as in the 
fencer's lunge. Between the ribs are the external and internal inter- 
costal muscles; the former beginning at the tubercle and ending at 
the junctions of the ribs with their cartilages, while the latter only 
begin at the angle of the ribs but are prolonged on to the sternum, so 
that an interchondral as well as an intercostal part of each muscle 
is recognized. The fibres of the external intercostals run downward 
and forward, those of the internal downward and backward (see 
RESPIRATION). The abdominal walls are formed of three sheets 
of muscle, of which the most superficial or external oblique (fig. 6) 
is attached to the outer surfaces of the lower ribs; its fibres run 
downward and forward to the pelvis and mid-line of the abdomen, 
the middle one or internal oblique is on the same plane as the ribs, 
and its fibres run downward and backward, while the transversalis 



is attached to the deep surfaces of the ribs, and its fibres run horizon- 
tally forward. Below, all these muscles are attached to the crest of 
the ilium and to Poupart's ligament, which is really the lower free 
edge of the external oblique, while, behind, the two deeper ones, 
at all events, blend with the fascia lumborum. As they approach 
the mid-ventral line they become aponeurotic and form the sheath 
of the rectus. The rectus abdominis (fig. 6) is a flat muscular band 
which runs up on each side of the linea alba or mid-ventral line of the 
abdomen from the pubis to the ribs and sternum. This muscle 
has certain tendinous intersections or lineae transversae, the positions 


rotating muscles pass from the scapula to the upper end of the 
humerus; these are the subscapularis passing in front of the shoulder 
joint, the supraspinatus above the joint, and the infraspinatus and 
teres minor behind. The teres major (fig. 5) comes from near the 
lower angle of the scapula, and is inserted with the latissimus dorsi 
into the front of the surgical neck of the humerus. The coraco- 
brachialis (fig. 7) passes from the coracoid process to the middle of 
the humerus in front of the shoulder joint, while the brachialis 
anticus passes in front of the elbow from the humerus to the coronoid 
process of the ulna. Passing in front of both shoulder and elbow is 


MAJOR (divided) 



sternal part 

Sheath of rectus 


Poupart's ligament 
Extemal abdominal ring 

Triangular fascia 

v- \ 

From A. M. Paterson, Cunningham's Tact Book of Anatomy. 

FIG. 6. Anterior Muscles of the Trunk. 

of which are noticed in the article ANATOMY (Superficial and A rtistic) , 
and the morphology of which is referred to later. In front of the 
lowest part of the rectus is sometimes a small triangular muscle 
called the pyramidalis. The quadratus lumborum is a muscle at the 
back of the abdominal wall which runs between the last rib and the 
crest of the ilium. In front of the bodies of the vertebrae is a 
preyertebral or hypaxial musculature, of which the rectus capitis 
anticus major and minor muscles and longus colli in the neck and the 
psoas in the loins form the chief parts, the latter being familiar as 
the undercut of the sirloin of beef, while the pelvis is closed below by 
a muscular floor formed by the levator ani and coccygeus muscles. 
The diaphragm is explained in a separate article. 

MUSCLESOF THE UPPER EXTREMITY. The deltoid (seefigs.7and8) 
is the muscle which forms the shoulder cap and is used in abducting 
the arm to a right angle with the trunk; it runs from the clavicle, 
acromial process and spine of the scapula, to the middle of the 
humerus, and is supplied by the circumflex nerve. Several short 

the biceps (fig. 7), the long head of which rises from the tap of the 
glenoid cavity inside the joint, while the short head comes from the 
coracoid process. The insertion is into the tubercle of the radius. 
These three muscles are ail supplied by the same (musculo-cutaneous) 
nerve. At the back of the arm is the triceps (fig. 8) which passes 
behind both shoulder and elbow joints and is the great extensor 
muscle of them; its long head rises from just below the glenoid 
cavity of the scapula, while the inner and outer heads come from the 
back of the humerus. It is inserted into the olecranon process of 
the u'.na and is supplied by the musculo-spinal nerve. The muscles 
of the front of the forearm form superficial and deep sets (see fig. 7). 
Most of the superficial muscles come from the internal condyle of 
the humerus. From without inward they are the pronator radii 
teres going to the radius, the flexor carpi radialis to the base of the 
index metacarpa) bone, the palmaris longus to the palmar fascia, 
the flexor subhmis digitorum to the middle phalanges of the fingers, 
and the flexor carpi ulnaris to the pisiform bone. The important 


points of practical interest about these muscles are noticed in the 
article ANATOMY (Superficial and Artistic). In addition to these 
the brachio-radialis is a flexor of the forearm, though it arises from 
the outer supracondylar ridge of the humerus. It is supplied by the 
musculo-spiral nerve, the flexor carpi ulnaris by the ulnar, the rest 
by the median. The deep muscles of the front of the forearm consist 
of the flexor longus pollicis running from the radius to the terminal 
phalanx of the thumb, the flexor profundus digitorum from the ulna 
to the terminal phalanges of the fingers, and the pronator quadratus 



Axillary artery 

cutaneous nerve 
Median nerve 
(outer head) 
Median nerve 
(inner head) 






TRICEPS (inner bead) 

Musculo-cutaneous nerve 
Musculo-spiral nerve 



Radial artery (cut) 



Radial artery (cut) 

Anterior annular 

Ulnar nerve 

Semflunar fascia of biceps 

Deep fascia of forearm 



Ulnar artery 

Ulnar nerve 

From A, M. Paterson, Cunningham's Text Book of Analomf. 
FIG. 7. Superficial Muscles on the Front of the Arm and Forearm. 

passing across from the lower third of the ulna to the same amount 
of the radius. These three muscles are supplied by the anterior 
interosseous branch of the median nerve, but the flexor profundus 
digitorum has an extra twig from the ulnar. The extensor muscles 
at the back of the forearm are also divided into superficial and deep 
sets (see fig. 8). The former rise from the region of the external 
condyle of the humerus, and consist of the extensor carpi radialis 
longior and brevior inserted into the index and medius metacarpal 
bones, the extensor communis digitorum to the middle and distal 

phalanges of the fingers, the extensor minimi digiti, the extensor carpi 
ulnaris passing to the metatarsal bone of the minimus, and the 
supinator brevis wrapping round the neck of the radius to which it 
is inserted. The aconeus which runs from the external condyle to 
the olecranon process is really a part of the triceps. The deep 
muscles rise from the posterior surfaces of the radius and ulna, and 
are the extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis, the name of which gives its 
insertion, the extensor brevis pollicis to the proximal phalanx, and 
the extensor longus pollicis to the distal phalanx of the thumb, while 






External intermuscular septum 


Ulnar nerve 



Deep fascia of forearm 





Posterior annular ligament 

From A. M. Paterson, Cunningham's Text Book of Anatomy. 
FIG. 8. The Muscles on the Back of the Arm, Forearm and Hand. 

the extensor indicts joins the extensor communis slip to the index 
finger; all these posterior muscles are supplied by the posterior 
interosseous nerve. In front and behind the wrist the tendons are 
bound down by the anterior and posterior annular ligaments, while 
on the flexor surface of each finger is a strong fibrous sheath or theca 
for the flexor tendons. The ball of the thumb is occupied by short 
muscles called the thenar group, while hypnthenar muscles are found 
in the ball of the little finger. The four tumbrical muscles (fig. 9. ) 
run from the flexor profundus digitorum tendons to those of the 



extensor communis between the heads of the metacarpal bones, 
while, rising from the shafts of these bones, are the three palmar 
and four dorsal interosseous muscles (fig. 9, e) which also are inserted 
into the extensor tendons. The two outer lumbricals and the 
thenar muscles are supplied by the median nerve; all the other hand 
muscles by the ulnar. 

MUSCLES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY. On the front of the thigh 
the quadriceps extensor muscles are the most important: there are 
four of these, the rectus femoris (fig. l) with its straight and reflected 
heads rising from just above the acetabulum, the crureus, deep to 
this, from the front of the femur, and the vastus externus and internus 
wrapping round the femur on each side from the linea aspera. All 
these are inserted into the patella, or rather the patella is a sesamoid 
bone developed where their common tendon passes round the lower 

FIG. 9. Tendons attached to a Finger. 

a, The extensor tendon. e. An interosseous muscle. 

b, Deep flexor. /, Tendinous expansion from the lum- 

c, Superficial flexor. brical and interosseous muscles 

d, A lumbrical muscle. joining the extensor tendon. 

end of the femur when the knee is bent. The distal part of this 
tendon, which passes from the patella to the tubercle of the tibia, 
is the ligamentum patellae. The sartorius is a long riband-like 
muscle running from the anterior superior spine of the ilium to the 
inner surface of the tibia, obliquely across the front of the thigh. 
It forms the outer boundary of Scarpa's triangle, the inner limit of 
which is the adductor longus and the base Poupart's ligament. 
The floor is formed by the iliacus from the iliac fossa of the pelvis, 
which joins the psoas, to be inserted with it into the lesser trochanter, 
and by the pectineus running from the upper ramus of the pubis to 
just below the insertion of the last muscles. The adductor muscles, 
longus, brevis and magnus, all rise from the subpubic arch, and are 
inserted into the linea aspera of the femur, so that they draw the 
femur toward the middle line. The gracilis (fig. 10) is part of the 
adductor mass, though its insertion is into the upper part of the 
tibia. The extensor muscles of the front of the thigh are supplied 
by the anterior crural nerve, but the adductor group on the inner 
side from the obturator. The pectineus is often supplied from both 
sources. On the back of the thigh the gluteus maximus (figs. 5 and 
lo) plays an important part in determining man's outline (see 
ANATOMY : Superficial and Artistic). It rises from the sacral region, 
and is inserted into the upper part of the femur and the deep fascia 
of the thigh, which is very thick and is known as the fascia lata ; 
the muscle is a great extensor of the hip and raises the body from the 
stooping position. The gluteus medius rises from the ilium, above the 
hip joint, and passes to the great trochanter; it abducts the hip and 
enables the body to be balanced on one leg, as in taking a step for- 
ward. The gluteus minimus is covered by the last muscle, and passes 
from the ilium to the front of the great trochanter, thus rotating the 
hip joint inward. Some of its anterior fibres are sometimes separate 
from the rest, and are then called the scansorius (see JOINTS). 
When the gluteus maximus is removed, a number of short externally 
rotating muscles are seen, rising from the pelvis and inserted into 
the great trochanter (fig. 10) ; these are, from above downward, the 
pyriformis, gemellus superior, obturator internus, gemellus inferior 
and quadratus femoris. They are all supplied by special branches of 
the sacral plexus. On cutting the quadratus femoris a good deal of 
the obturator externus can be seen, coming from the outer surface 
of the obturator membrane and passing to the digital fossa of the 
great trochanter. Unlike the rest of this group, it is supplied by the 
obturator nerve. Coming from the anterior part of the crest of the 
ilium is the tensor fasciae femoris, which is inserted into the fascia 
lata, as is part of the gh'teus maximus, and the thickened band of 
fascia which runs down the outer side of the thigh from these to the 
head of the tibia is known as the ilio tibial band. The tensor fasciae 
femoris, gluteus medius and minimus, are supplied by the superior 
gluteal nerve, the gluteus maximus by the inferior gluteal. At the 
back of the thigh are the hamstrings rising from the tuberosity of the 
ischium (fig. 10); these are the semimembranosusandsemitendinosus, 
passing to the inner part of the upper end of the tibia and forming 
the internal hamstrings, and the biceps femoris or external hamstring, 
which has an extra head from the shaft of the femur and is inserted 
into the head of the fibula. These muscles are supplied by the great 
sciatic nerve and extend the hip joint while they flex the knee. In 
the leg, as distinguished from the thigh, are three groups of muscles, 
anterior, external and posterior. The anterior group (fig. n) all 
come from the front of the tibia and fibula, and consist of the 
extensor longus digitorum, extending the middle and distal phalanges 
of the four outer toes, the extensor proprius hallucis, extending the 

big toe, and the peroneus tertius, a purely human muscle inserted 
into the base of the fifth metatarsal bone. All these are supplied by 
the anterior tibial nerve. 

The external group comprises the peroneus longus and brevis, 
rising from the outer surface of the fibula and inserted into the 
tarsus (fig. n), the longus tendon passing across the sole to the base 
of the first metatarsal bone, the brevis to the base of the fifth 
metatarsal. These are supplied by the musculo-cutaneous nerve. 






BICEPS (short 

Tibial nerve 

(along with 
peroneal nerve) 



From A. M. Pateison, Cunningham's Text Book of Anatomy. 

FTG. 10. The Muscles on the Back of the Thigh. 

The posterior group is- divided into a superficial and a deep set. 
The superficial is composed of the gastrocnemius, the two heads of 
which rise from the two condyles of the femur, the soleus, which rises 
from the upper parts of the back of the tibia and fibula, the plantaris, 
which comes from just above the external condyle of the femur, 
and the popliltus which, although on a deeper plane, really belongs 
to this group and rises by a tendon from the outer condyle while its 
fleshy part is inserted into the upper part of the back of the tibia. 
The gastrocnemius and soleus unite to form the tendo Achillis, which 
is attached to the posterior part of the calcaneum, while the plantaris 
runs separately as a very thin tendon to the same place. These 
muscles are supplied by the internal popliteal nerve. The deep set 
is formed by three muscles which rise from the posterior surf aces of 
the tibia and fibula, the flexor longus digitorum,'the tibialis posticus, 


and the flexor longus hallucis from within outward. Their tendons 
all pass into the sole, that of the flexor longus digitorum being 
inserted into the terminal phalanges of the four outer toes, the flexor 
longus hallucis into the terminal phalanx of the big toe, while the 
tibialis posticus sends expansions to most of the tarsal bones. The 
nerve supply of this group is the posterior tibial. On the dorsum of 
the foot is the extensor brevis digitorum (fig. 1 1), which helps to extend 




Lower portion of 

anterior anm___ 







From A. M. Paterson, Cunningham's Text Book of Anatomy. 
FIG. II. Muscles of the Front of the Right Leg and Dorsum 
of the Foot. 

the four inner toes, while in the sole are four layers of short muscles, 
the most superficial of which consists of the abductor hallucis, the 
flexor brevis digitorum, and the abductor minimi digiti, the names of 
which indicate their attachments. The second layer is formed by 
muscles which are attached to the flexor longus digitorum tendon ; 
they are the accessorius, running forward to the tendon from the 
lower surface of the calcaneum, and the four lumbricales, which rise 
from the tendon after jt has split for the four toes and pass 
between the toes to be inserted into the tendons of the extensor 
longus digitorum on the dorsum. The third layer comprises the 
flexor brevis hallucis, adductor obliauus and adductor transversus 
hallucis and the flexor brevis minimi digiti. The fourth layer contains 
the three plantar and four dorsal interosseous murcles, rising from 
the metatarsal bones and inserted into the proximal phalanges 
and extensor tendons in such a way that the plantar muscles draw 
the toes towards the line of the second toe while the dorsal draw 
them away from that line. Of these sole muscles the flexor brevis 
digitorum, flexor brevis hallucis, abductor hallucis and the innermost 
lumbrical are supplied by the internal plantar nerve, while all the 
rest are supplied by the external plantar. 


The. development of the muscular system is partly known from 
the results of direct observation, and partly inferred from the study 
of the part of the nervous system whence the innervation is derived. 
The unstriped muscle is formed from the mesenchyme cells of the 
somatic and splanchnic layers of the mesoderm (see EMBRYOLOGY), 
but never, as far as we know, from the mesodermic somites. The 
heart muscle is also developed from mesenchymal cells, though the 
changes producing its feebly striped fibres are more complicated. 
The skeletal or real striped muscles are derived either from the meso- 
dermic somites or from the branchial arches. As the mesodermic 
somites are placed on each side of the neural canal in the early 
embryo, it is obvious that the greater part of the trunk musculature 
spreads gradually round the body from the dorsal to the ventral 
side and consists of a series of plates called myotomes (fig. 12). The 
muscle fibres in these plates run in the long a*is of the embryo, and 
are at first separated from those of the two neighbouring plates by 
thin fibrous intervals called myocommata. In some cases these 

From A. M. Paterson, Cunningham's Text Book of Anatomy. 
FIG. 12. Scheme to Illustrate the Disposition of the Myotomes 

in the Embryo in Relation to the Head, Trunk and Limbs. 
A, B, C, First three cephalic myotomes. 
N, 1,2, 3, 4, Last persisting cephalic myotomes. 
C, T, L, S, Co., The myotomes of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, 

sacral and caudal regions. 

I., II., III., IV., V., VI., VII., VIII., IX., X., XL, XII., Refer to 
the cranial nerves and the structures with which they may be 
embryologically associated. 

myocommata persist and even become ossified, as in the ribs, but 
more usually they disappear early, and the myotomes then unite with 
one another to form a great muscular sheet. In the whole length of the 
trunk a longitudinal cleavage at right angles to the surface occurs, 
splitting the musculature into a dorsal and ventral part, supplied 
respectively by the dorsal and ventral primary divisions of the spinal 
nerves. F_rom the dorsal part the various muscles of the erector 
spinae series are derived by further longitudinal cleavages either 
tangential or at right angles to the surface, while the ventral part 
is again longitudinally split into mesial and lateral portions. A 
transverse section of the trunk at this stage, therefore, would show 
the cut ends of three longitudinal strips of muscle: (i) a mesial 
ventral, from which the rectus, pyramidalis sterno-hyoid, omo- 
hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles are derived ; (2) a lateral ventral, 
forming the flat muscles of the abdomen, intercostals and part of 
the sternomastoid and trapezius; and (3) the dorsal portion already 
noticed. The mesial ventral part is remarkable for the persistence 
of remnants of myocommata in it, forming the lineae transversae 
of the rectus and the central tendon of the omo-hyoid. The lateral 
part in the abdominal region splits tangentially into three layers, 



the external and internal oblique and the transversalis, the fibres 
of which become differently directed. In the thoracic region the 
intercostals probably indicate a further tangential splitting of the 
middle or internal oblique layer, because the external oblique is 
continued headward superficially to the ribs and the transversalis 
deeply to them. The more cephalic part of the external oblique 
layer probably disappears by a process of pressure or crowding out 
owing to the encroachment of the serratus magnus, a muscle which 
its nerve supply indicates is derived from the lower cervical myo- 
tomes. The deeper parts of the lateral mass of muscles spread to 
the ventral surface of the bodies of the vertebrae, and form the 
hypaxial muscles such as the psoas, longus colli and recti capitis 
antici. The nerve supply indicates that the lowest myotomes taking 
part in the formation of the abdominal walls are those supplied by 
the first and second lumbar nerves, and are represented by the 
cremaster muscle in the scrotum. In the perineum, however, the 
third and fourth sacral myotomes are represented, and these muscles 
are differentiated largely from the primitive sphincter which sur- 
rounds the cloacal orifice, though partly from vestigial tail muscles 
(see P. Thompson, Journ. Anal, and Phys., vol. xxxv; and R. H. 
Paramore, Lancet, May 21, 1910). In the head no distinct myotomes 
have been demonstrated in the mammalian embryo, but as they are 
present in more lowly vertebrates, it is probable that their develop- 
ment has been slurred over, a process often found in the embryology 
of the higher forms. Probably nine cephalic myotomes originally 
existed; of which the first gives rise to the eye muscles supplied by 
the third nerve, the second to the superior oblique muscle supplied 
by the fourth nerve, and the 'third to the external rectus supplied by 
the sixth nerve. The fourth, fifth and sixth myotomes are sup- 
pressed, but the seventh, eighth and ninth possibly form the muscles 
of the tongue supplied by the twelfth cranial nerve. 

Turning now to the branchial arches, the first branchiomere is 
innervated by the fifth cranial nerve, and to it belong the masseter, 
temporal, pterygoids, anterior belly of the digastric, mylo-hyoid, 
tensor tympam and tensor palati, while from the second branchio- 
mere, supplied by the seventh or facial nerve, all the facial muscles 
of expression and the stylo-hyoid and posterior belly of the digastric 
are derived, as well as the platysma, which is one of the few remnants 
of the panniculus carnosus or skin musculature of the lower mam- 
mals. From the third branchiomere, the nerve of which is the ninth 
or glossopharyngeal, the stylo-pharyngeus and upper part of the 
pharyngeal constrictors are formed, while the fourth and fifth gill 
arches give rise to the muscles of the larynx and the lower part of 
the constrictors supplied by the vagus or tenth nerve. It is possible 
that parts of the sterno-mastoid and trapezius are also branchial 
in their origin, since they are supplied by the spinal accessory or 
eleventh nerve, but this is unsettled. The limb musculature is 
usually regarded as a sleeve-like outpushing of the external oblique 
stratum of the lateral ventral musculature of the trunk, and it is 
believed that parts of several myotomes are in this way pushed out 
in the growth of the limb bud. This process actually occurs in the 
lower vertebrates, and the nerve supplies provide strong presumptive 
evidence .that this is the real phylogenetic history of the higher forms, 
though direct observation shows that the limb muscles of mammals 
are formed from the central mesoderm of the limb and at first are 
quite distinct from the myotomes of the trunk. A possible explana- 
tion of the difficulty is that this is another example of the slurring 
over of stages in phytogeny, but this is one of many obscure morpho- 
logical points. The muscles of each limb are divided into a dorsal 
and ventral series, supplied by dorsal and ventral secondary divisions 
of the nerves in the limb plexuses, and these correspond to the original 
position of the limbs as they grow out from the embryo, so that in 
the upper extremity the back of the arm, forearm and dorsum of the 
hand are dorsal, while in the lower the dorsal surface is the front of 
the thigh and leg and the dorsum of the foot. 

For further details see Development of the Human Body, by J. P. 
McMurrich (London, 1906), and the writings of L. Bolk, Morphol. 
Jahrb. vols. xxi-xxv. 

Comparitive Anatomy. 

In the acrania (e.g. amphioxus) the simple arrangement of myo- 
tomes and myocommata seen in the early human embryo is perma- 
nent. The myotomes or muscle plates are < shaped, with their 
apices pointing towards the head end, each being supplied by its 
own spinal nerve. In the fishes this arrangement is largely persis- 
tent, but each limb of the < is bent on itself, so that the myotomes 
have now the shape of a , the central angle of which corresponds 
to the lateral line of the fish. In the abdominal region, however, 
the myotomes fuse and rudiments of the recti and obhqui abdominis 
muscles of higher types are seen. In other regions too, such as the 
fins of fish and the tongue of the Cyclostomata (lamprey), specialized 
muscular bundles are separated off and are coincident with the 
acquirement of movements of these parts in different directions. 
In the Amphibia the limb musculature becomes much more complex 
as the joints are formed, and many of the muscles can be homologized 
with those of mammals, though this is by no means always the case, 
while, in the abdominal region, a superficial delaminatipn occurs, 
so that in many forms a superficial and deep rectus abdominis occurs 
as well as a cutaneus abdominis .delaminated from the external 
oblique. It is probable that this delamination is the precursor of 

the panniculus carnosus or skin musculature of mammals. The 
branchial musculature also becomes much more complex, and the 
mylo-hyoid muscle, derived from the first branchial arch and lying 
beneath the floor of the mouth, is very noticeable and of great 
importance in breathing. 

In the reptiles further differentiation of the muscles is seen, and 
with the acquirement of costal respiration the external and internal 
intercostals are formed by a delamination of the internal oblique 
stratum. In the dorsal region several of the longitudinal muscles 
which together make up the erector spinae are distinct, and a very 
definite sphincter cloacae is formed round and cloacal aperture. 
In mammals certain muscles vary in their attachments or presence 
and absence in different orders, sub-orders and families, so that, 
were it not for the large amount of technical knowledge required 
in recognizing them, they might be useful from a classificatory point 
of view. There is, however, a greater gap between the musculature 
of Man and that of the other Primates than there is between many 
different orders, and this is usually traceable either directly or 
indirectly to the assumption of the erect position. 

The chief causes which produce changes of musculature are: 
(i) splitting, (2) fusion, (3) suppression either partial or complete, 
(4) shifting of origin, (5) shifting of insertion, (6) new formation, 
(7) transference of part of one muscle to another. In many of these 
cases the nerve supply gives an important clue to the change which 
has been effected. Splitting of a muscular mass is often the result 
of one part of a muscle being used separately, and a good example 
of this is the deep flexor mass of the forearm. In the lower mammals 
this mass rises from the flexor surface of the radius and ulna, and 
supplies tendons to the terminal phalanges of all five digits, but in 
man the thumb is used separately, and, in response to this, that 
partf the mass which goes to the thumb is completely split off into 
a separate muscle, the flexor longus pollicis. The process, however, 
is going farther, for we have acquired the habit of using our index 
finger alone for many purposes, and the index slip of the flexor 
profundus digitorum is in us almost as distinct a muscle as the flexor 
longus pollicis. Fusion may be either collateral or longitudinal. 
The former is seen in the case of the flexor carpi ulnaris. In many 
mammals (e.g. the dog), there are two muscles inserted separately 
into the pisiform bone, one rising from the internal condyle of the 
humerus, the other from the olecranon process, but in many others 
(e.g. man) the two muscles have fused. Longitudinal fusion is seen 
in the digastric, where the anterior belly is part of the first (man- 
dibular) branchial arch and the posterior of the second or hyoid arch ; 
in this case, as one would expect, the anterior belly is supplied by 
the fifth nerve and the posterior by the seventh. Partial suppression 
of a muscle is seen in the rhomboid sheet; in the lower mammals 
this rises from the head, neck and anterior (cephalic) thoracic spines, 
but in man the head and most of the neck part is completely sup- 
pressed. Complete suppression of a muscle is exemplified in the 
omo-trachelian, a muscle which runs from the cervical vertebrae 
to the acromian process and fixes the scapula for the strong action 
of the triceps in pronograde mammals; in man this strong action 
of the triceps is no longer needed for progression, and the fixing 
muscle has disappeared. Shifting of origin is seen in the short head 
of the biceps femoris. This in many lower mammals (e.g. rabbit) 
is a muscle running from the tail to the lower leg; in many others 
(e.g. monkeys and man) the origin has slipped down to the femur, 
and in the great anteater it is evident that the agitator caudae has 
been used as a muscle slide, because the short head of the biceps 
or tenuissimus has once been found rising from the surface of this 
muscle. Shifting of an insertion is not nearly as common as shifting 
of an origin; it is seen, however, in the peroneus tertius of man, in 
which part of the extensor longus digitorum has acquired a new 
attachment to the base of the fifth metatarsal bone. The new 
formation of a muscle is seen in the stylo-hyoideus alter, an occasional 
human muscle; in this the stylo-hyoid ligament has been converted 
into a muscle. The transference of part of one muscle to another 
is well shown by the human adductor magnus; here the fibres which 
pass from the tuber ischii to the condyle of the femur have a nerve 
supply from the great sciatic instead of the obturator, and in most 
lower mammals are a separate part of the hamstrings known as the 

For further details see Bronn's Classen und Ordnungen des Thicr- 
reichs; " The Muscles of Mammals," by F. G. Parsons, Jour. Anat. 
and Phys. xxxii. 428; also accounts of the musculature of mammals, 
by Windle and Parsons, in Proc. Zool. Soc. (1894, seq.); Humphry, 
Observations in Myology (1874). (F. G. P.) 

MUSES, THE (Gr. MoDow, the thinkers), in Greek myth- 
ology, originally nymphs of springs, then goddesses of song, and, 
later, of the different kinds of poetry and of the arts and sciences 
generally. In Homer, who says nothing definite as to their 
names or number, they are simply goddesses of song, who dwell 
among the gods on Olympus, where they sing at their banquets 
under the leadership of Apollo Musagetes. According to Hesiod 
(Theog. 77), who first gives the usually accepted names and 
number, they were the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, the 
personification of memory; others made them children of 



Uranus and Gaea. Three older Muses (Mneme, Melete, Aoide) 
were sometimes distinguished, whose worship was said to have 
been introduced by the Aloidae on Mt Helicon (Pausanias ix. 29). 
It is probable that three was the original number of the 
Muses, which was increased to nine owing to their arrangement 
in three groups of three in the sacred choruses. Round the 
altar of Zeus they sing of the origin of the world, of gods and men, 
of the glorious deeds of Zeus; they also honour the great heroes; 
and celebrate the marriages of Cadmus and Peleus, and the 
death of Achilles. As goddesses of song they protect those who 
recognize their superiority, but punish the arrogant such as 
Thamyris, the Thracian bard, who for having boasted himself 
their equal was deprived of sight and the power of song. From 
their connexion with Apollo and their original nature as inspiring 
nymphs of springs they also possess the gift of prophecy. They 
are closely related to Dionysus, to whose festivals dramatic 
poetry owed its origin and development. The worship of the 
Muses had two chief seats on the northern slope of Mt 
Olympus in Pieria, and on the slope of Mt Helicon near 
Ascra and Thespiae in Boeotia. Their favourite haunts were the 
springs of Castalia, Aganippe and Hippocrene. From Boeotia 
their cult gradually spread over Greece. As the goddesses who 
presided over the nine principal departments of letters, their 
names and attributes were: Calliope, epic poetry (wax tablet and 
pencil); Euterpe, lyric poetry (the double flute); Erato, rotic 
poetry (a small lyre) ; Melpomene, tragedy (tragic mask and ivy 
wreath); Thalia, comedy (comic mask and ivy wreath); Poly- 
hymnia (or Polymnia), sacred hymns (veiled, and in an attitude 
of thought); Terpsichore, choral song and the dance (the lyre); 
Clio, history (a scroll); Urania, astronomy (a celestial globe). 
To these Arethusa was added as the muse of pastoral poetry. 
The Roman poets identified the Greek Muses with the Italian 
Camenae (or Casmenae), prophetic nymphs of springs and god- 
desses of birth, who possessed a grove near the Porta Capena 
at Rome. One of the most famous of these was Egeria, the 
counsellor of King Numa. 

See H. Deiters, Ueber die Verehrung der Musen bei den Griechen 
(1868); P. Decharme, Les Muses (i8fc); J. H. Krause, Die Musen 
(1871); F. Rodiger, Die Musen (1875); O. Navarre in Daremberg 
and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites, and O. Bie in Roscher's 
Lexikon der Mythologie, the latter chiefly for representations of the 
Muses in art. 

MUSET, COLIN (fl. 1200), French trouvere, was poet and 
musician, and made his living by wandering from castle to castle 
singing his own songs. These are not confined to the praise of 
the conventional love that formed the usual topic of the trouveres, 
but contain many details of a singer's life. Colin shows naive 
gratitude for presents in kind from his patrons, and recommends 
a poet repulsed by a cruel mistress to find consolation in the 
bans morceaux qu'on mange devant un grand feu. One of his 
patrons was Agnes de Bar, duchess of Lorraine (d. 1226). 

See'Hist. lilt, de la France, xxiii. 547-553 ; also a thesis, De Nicolas 
Museto (1893), by J. Bedier. 

MUSEUMS OF ART. 1 The later igth century was remarkable 
for the growth and development of museums, both in Great 
Britain and abroad. This growth, as Professor Stanley Jevons 
predicted, synchronizes with the advancement of education. 
Public museums are now universally required; old institutions 
have been greatly improved, and many new ones have been 
founded. The British parliament has passed statutes conferring 
upon local authorities the power to levy rates for library and 
museum purposes, while on the continent of Europe the collection 
and exhibition of objects of antiquity and art has become a 
recognized duty of the state and municipality alike. 

A sketch of the history of museums in general is given below, 
under MUSEUMS OF SCIENCE. The modern museum of art differs 
essentially from its earlier prototypes. The aimless collection 
of curiosities and bric-a-brac, brought together without method 

1 Under the term " museum " (Gr. novaflov, temple of the muses) 
we accept the ordinary distinction, by which it covers a collection of 
all so_rts of art objects, while an art gallery (q.v.) confines itself 
practically to pictures. 

or system, was the feature of certain famous collections in by- 
gone days, of which the Tradescant Museum, formed in the i7th 
century, was a good example. This museum was a miscellany 
without didactic value; it contributed nothing to the advance- 
ment of art; its arrangement was unscientific, and the public 
gained little or no advantage from its existence. The modern 
museum, on the other hand, should be organized for the public 
good, and should be a fruitful source of amusement and instruc- 
tion to the whole community. Even when Dr Waagen described 
the collections of England, about 1840, private individuals 
figured chiefly among the owners of art treasures. Nowadays in 
making a record of this nature the collections belonging to the 
public would attract most attention. This fact is becoming more 
obvious every year. Not only are acquisitions of great value 
constantly made, but the principles of museum administration 
and development are being more closely defined. What Sir 
William Flower, an eminent authority, called the " new museum 
idea " (Essays on Museums, p. 37) is pervading the treatment of 
all the chief museums of the world. Briefly stated, the new 
principle of museum development first enunciated in 1870, but 
now beginning to receive general support is that the first aim of 
public collections shall be education, and their second recreation. 
To be of teaching value, museum arrangement and classification 
must be carefully studied. Acquisitions must be added to their 
proper sections; random purchase of " curios " must be avoided. 
Attention must be given to the proper display and cataloguing 
of the exhibits, to their housing and preservation, to the lighting, 
comfort and ventilation of the galleries. Furthermore, facilities 
must be allowed to those who wish to make special study of 
the objects on view. "A museum is like a living organism: 
it requires continual and tender care; it must grow, or it will 
perish " (Flower, p. 13). 

Great progress has been made in the classification of objects, 
a highly important branch of museum work. There are three 
possible systems namely, by date, by material and 
by nationality. It has been found possible to tl ^f 
combine the systems to some extent; for instance, 
in the ivory department of the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
South Kensington, London, where the broad classification is 
by material, the objects being further subdivided according to 
their age, and in a minor degree according to their nationality. 
But as yet there is no general preference of one system to another. 
Moreover, the principles of classification are not easily laid down; 
e.g. musical instruments: should they be included in art exhibits 
or in the ethnographical section to which they also pertain? 
Broadly speaking, objects must be classified according to the 
quality (apart from their nature) for which they are most remark- 
able. Thus a musket or bass viol of the i6th century, inlaid 
with ivory and highly decorated, would be properly included in 
the art section, whereas a 'common flute or weapon, noteworthy 
for nothing but its interest as an instrument of music or destruc- 
tion, would be suitably classified as ethnographic. In England, 
at any rate, there is no uniformity of practice in this respect, 
and though it is to be hoped that the ruling desire to classify 
according to strict scientific rules may not become too preva- 
lent, it would nevertheless be a distinct advantage if, in one or 
more of the British museums, some attempt were made to 
illustrate the growth of domestic arts and crafts according to 
classification by date. Examples of this classification in Munich, 
Amsterdam, Basel, Zurich and elsewhere afford excellent lessons 
of history and art, a series of rooms being fitted up to show 
in chronological order the home life of our ancestors. In the 
National Museum of Bavaria (Munich) there is a superb suite of 
rooms illustrating the progress of art from Merovingian times 
down to the igth century. Thus classification, though studied, 
must not check the elasticity of art museums; it should not be 
allowed to interfere with the mobility of the exhibits that is to 
say, it should always be possible to withdraw specimens for the 
closer inspection of students, and also to send examples on loan 
to other museums and schools of art an invaluable system long 
in vogue at the Victoria and Albert Museum, and one which 
should be still more widely adopted. An axiom of museum law 



is that the exhibits shall be properly shown. " The value of a 
museum is to be tested by the treatment of its contents " 
(Flower, p. 24). But in many museums the chief hindrance to 
study and enjoyment is overcrowding of exhibits. Although 
a truism, it is necessary to state that each object should be 
properly seen, cleaned and safeguarded; but all over the world 
this rule is forgotten. The rapid acquisition of objects is one 
cause of overcrowding, but a faulty appreciation of the didactic 
purpose of the collection is more frequently responsible. 

In Great Britain, museum progress is satisfactory. Visitors 
are numbered by millions, access is now permitted on Sundays 

and week-days alike, and entrance fees are being con- 
*sistently reduced; in this the contrast between Great 

Britain and some foreign countries is singular. A 
generation or so ago the national collections of Italy used to be 
always open to the public. Pay-days, however, were gradually 
established, with the result that the chief collections are now 
only visible without payment on Sundays. In Dresden payment 
is obligatory five days a week. The British Museum never 
charges for admission. On the other hand, the increase in 
continental collections is more rapid than in Great Britain, where 
acquisitions are only made by gift, purchase or bequest. In 
other European countries enormous collections have been 
obtained by revolutions and conquest, by dynastic changes, and 
by secularizing religious foundations. Some of the chief 
treasures of provincial museums in France were spoils of the 
Napoleonic armies, though the great bulk of this loot was returned 
in 1815 to the original owners. In Italy the conversion of a 
monastery into a museum is a simple process, the Dominican 
house of San Marco in Florence offering a typical example. A 
further stimulus to the foundation of museums on the continent 
is the comparative ease with which old buildings are obtained 
and adapted for the collections. Thus the Germanisches Museum 
of Nuremberg is a secularized church and convent ; the enormous 
collections belonging to the town of Ravenna are housed in an 
old Camaldulensian monastery. At Louvain and Florence 
municipal palaces of great beauty are used; at Nlmes a famous 
Roman temple; at Urbino the grand ducal palace, and so on. 
There are, however, certain disadvantages in securing both 
building and collection ready-made, and the special care devoted 
to museums in Great Britain can be traced to the fact that their 
cost to the community is considerable. Immense sums have 
been spent on the buildings alone, nearly a million sterling being 
devoted to the new buildings for the Victoria and Albert Museum 
in London. Had it been possible to secure them without such 
an outlay the collections themselves would have been much 
increased, though in this increase itself there would have been a 
danger, prevalent but not yet fully realized in other countries, 
of crowding the vacant space with specimens of inferior quality. 
The result is that fine things are badly seen owing to the masses 
of second-rate examples; moreover, the ample space available 
induces the authorities to remove works of art from their original 
places, in order to add them to the museums. Thus the statue 
of St George by Donatello has been taken from the church of Or 
San Michele at Florence (on the plea of danger from exposure), 
and is now placed in a museum where, being dwarfed and under 
cover, its chief artistic value is lost. The desire to make financial 
profit from works of art is a direct cause of the modern museum 
movement in Italy. One result is to displace and thus depreciate 
many works of art, beautiful in their original places, but quite 
insignificant Vhen put into a museum. Another result is that, 
owing to high entrance fees, the humbler class of Italians can 
rarely see the art treasures of their own country. There are 
other collections, akin to art museums, which would best be 
called biographical museums. They illustrate the life and work 
of great artists or authors. Of these the most notable are the 
museums commemorating Diirer at Nuremberg, Beethoven at 
Bonn, Thorwaldsen at Copenhagen, Shakespeare at Stratford 
and Michelangelo at Florence. The sacristies of cathedrals often 
contain ecclesiastical objects of great value, and are shown 
to the public as museums. Cologne, Aachen, Milan, Monza and 
Reims have famous treasuries. Many Italian cathedrals have 

small museums attached to them, usually known as " Opera del 

United Kingdom. The influence and reputation of the British 
Museum are so great that its original purpose, as stated in the 
preamble of the act by which it was founded (1753, 
c. 22), may be quoted: " Whereas all arts and sciences Museum. 
have a connexion with each other, and discoveries 
in natural philosophy and other branches of speculative know- 
ledge, for the advancement and improvement whereof the said 
museum or collection was intended, do, or may in many instances 
give help and success to the most useful experiments and under- 
takings . . ." The "said museum " above mentioned referred 
to the collection of Sir Hans Sloane, to be purchased under the 
act just quoted. Sir Hans Sloane is therein stated, " through 
the course of many years, with great labour and expense, to 
have gathered together whatever could be procured, either in 
our own or foreign countries, that was rare and curious." In 
order to buy his collections and found the museum a lottery of 
300,000 was authorized, divided into 50,000 tickets, the prizes 
varying from 10 to 10,000. Provision was made for the 
adequate housing of Sir Robert Cotton's books, already bought in 
1700 (12 and 13 Will. III. c. 7). This act secured for the nation 
the famous Cottonian manuscripts, "of great use and service for 
the knowledge and preservation of our constitution, both in 
church and state." Sir Robert's grandson had preserved the 
collection with great care, and was willing that it should not be 
" disposed of or embeziled," and that it should be preserved for 
public use and advantage. This act also sets forth the oath to 
be sworn by the keeper, and deals with the appointment of 
trustees. This is still the method of internal government at the 
British Museum, and additions to the Board of Trustees are made 
by statute, as in 1824, in acknowledgment of a bequest. The 
trustees are of three classes: (a) three principal trustees, namely 
the Primate, the Lord Chancellor and the Speaker; (b) general 
trustees, entitled ex officio to the position in virtue of ministerial 
office; (c) family, bequest and nominated trustees. A standing 
committee of the trustees meets regularly at the museum for the 
transaction of business. The great departments of the museum 
(apart from the scientific and zoological collections, now placed 
in the museum in Cromwell Road, South Kensington) are of 
printed books, MSS., Oriental books, prints and drawings, 
Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities, British and medieval 
antiquities, coins and medals. Each of these eight departments 
is under a keeper, with an expert staff of subordinates, the head 
executive officer of the whole museum being styled director and 
chief librarian. The museum has been enriched by bequests 
of great importance, especially in the library. Recent legacies 
have included the porcelain bequeathed by Sir Wollaston Franks, 
and the valuable collection of works of art (chiefly enamels and 
gold-smithery) known as the Waddesdon bequest a legacy of 
Baron F. de Rothschild. The most important group of acquisi- 
tion by purchase in the history of the museum is the series of 
Greek sculptures known as the Elgin Marbles, bought by act of 
parliament (56 Geo. Ill, c. 99). 

There are four national museums controlled by the Board of 
Education, until recently styled the Department of Science and 
Art. The chief of these is the Victoria and Albert Museums of 
Museum at South Kensington. This museum has a theBoaraof 
dependency at Bethnal Green, the Dublin and ^d"""' "- 
Edinburgh museums having been now removed from its direct 
charge. There is also a museum of practical geology in Jermyn 
Street, containing valuable specimens of pottery and majolica. 
The Victoria and Albert Museum owed its inception to the 
Exhibition of 1851, from the surplus funds of which 12 acres of 
land were bought in South Kensington. First known as the 
Department of Practical Art, the museum rapidly established 
itself on a broad basis. Acquisitions of whole collections and 
unique specimens were accumulated. In 1857 the Sheepshanks 
gallery of pictures was presented; in 1879 the India Office trans- 
ferred to the department the collection of Oriental art formerly 
belonging to the East India Company; in 1882 the Jones bequest 
of French furniture and decorative art (1740-1810) was received; 


in 1884 the Patent Museum was handed over to the department. 
Books, prints, MSS. and drawings were bequeathed by the Rev. 
A. Dyce and Mr John Forster. Meanwhile, gifts and purchases 
had combined to make the collection one of the most important 
in Europe. The chief features may be summarized as consisting 
of pictures, including the Raphael cartoons lent by the king; 
textiles, silks and tapestry; ceramics and enamels; ivory and 
plastic art, metal, furniture and Oriental collections. The 
guiding principle of the museum is the illustration of art applied 
to industry. Beauty and decorative attraction is perhaps the 
chief characteristic of the exhibits here, whereas the British 
Museum is largely archaeological. With this object in view, 
the museum possesses numerous reproductions of famous 
art treasures: casts, facsimiles and electrotypes, some of 
them so well contrived as to be almost indistinguishable 
from the originals. An art library with 75,000 volumes 
and 25,000 prints and photographs is at the disposal of 
students, and an art school is also attached to the museum. 
The museum does considerable work among provincial schools 
of art and museums, " circulation " being its function in 
this connexion. Works of art are sent on temporary loan to 
local museums, where they are exhibited for certain periods 
and on being withdrawn are replaced by fresh examples. The 
subordinate museum of the Beard of Education at Bethnal 
Green and that at Edinburgh call for no comment, their contents 
being of slender value. The Dublin Museum, though now 
controlled by the Irish Department, may be mentioned here as 
having been founded and worked by the Board of Education. 
Apart from the fact that it is one of the most suitably housed 
and organized museums in the British Isles, it is remarkable for 
its priceless collection of Celtic antiquities, belonging to the 
Royal Irish Academy, and transferred to the Kildare Street 
Museum in 1890. Among its most famous specimens of early 
Irish art may be mentioned the shrine and bell of St Patrick, 
the Tara brooch, the cross of Cong and the Ardagh chalice. The 
series of bronze and stone implements is most perfect, while 
the jewels, gold ornaments, torques, fibulae, diadems, and so 
forth are such that, were it possible again to extend the galleries 
(thus allowing further classification and exhibition space), the 
collection would surpass the Danish National Museum at 
Copenhagen, its chief rival in Europe. 

The famous collections of Sir Richard Wallace (d. 1890) having 
been bequeathed to the British nation by his widow, the public 
other nas acc l u i re<: l a magnificent gallery of pictures, 
National together with a quantity of works of art, so important 
and Quasi- as to make it necessary to include Hertford House 
among national museums. French art predominates, 
and the examples of bronze, furniture, and porcelain 
are as fine as those to be seen in the Louvre. Hertford House, 
however, also contains a most remarkable collection of armour, 
and the examples of Italian faience, enamels, bijouterie, &c., 
are of first-rate interest. The universities of Cambridge and 
Oxford have museums, the latter including the Ashmolean collec- 
tions, a valuable bequest of majolica from D. Fortnum, and some 
important classical statuary, now in the Taylorian Gallery. 
Christ Church has a small museum and picture gallery. Trinity 
College, Dublin, has a miniature archaeological collection, 
containing some fine examples of early Irish art. The National 
Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, controlled by the Board of 
Manufactures, was formed by the Scottish Society of Antiquaries, 
and has a comprehensive collection of Scottish objects, lay and 
religious. The Tower of London contains armour of historic 
and artistic interest, and the Royal College of Music has an 
invaluable collection of musical instruments, presented by Mr 
George Donaldson. Art museums are also to be found in several 
public schools in the United Kingdom. 

The Museums Act of 1845 enabled town councils to found and 
maintain museums. This act was superseded by another passed 
Munid I ' n 1 ^S I k v ^ r William Ewart, which in its turn has 
Museurns. been replaced by amending statutes passed in 1855, 
1866, 1868 and 1885. The Museums and Gymna- 
siums Act of 1891 sanctioned the provision and maintenance of 

museums for the reception of local antiquities and other objects 
of interest, and allows a jd. rate, irrespective of other acts. 
Boroughs have also the right to levy special rates under private 
municipal acts, Oldham affording a case in point. Civic museums 
must still be considered to be in their infancy. Although 
the movement is now firmly established in municipal enterprise, 
the collections, taken as a whole, are still somewhat nondescript. 
In many cases collections have been handed over by local 
societies, particularly in geology, zoology and other scientific 
departments. There are about twelve museums in which Roman 
antiquities are noticeable, among them being Leicester, and the 
Civic Museum of London, at the Guildhall. British and Anglo- 
Saxon relics are important features at Sheffield and Liverpool; 
in the former case owing to the Bateman collection acquired in 
1876; while the Mayer collection presented to the latter city 
contains a highly important series of carved ivories. At Salford, 
Glasgow and Manchester industrial art is the chief feature of the 
collections. Birmingham, with perhaps the finest provincial 
collection of industrial art, is supported by the rates to the extent 
of 4200 a year. Its collections (including here, as in the majority 
of great towns, an important gallery of paintings) are entirely 
derived from gifts and bequests. Birmingham has made a 
reputation for special exhibitions of works of art lent for a time 
to the corporation. These loan exhibitions, about which 
occasional lectures are given, and of which cheap illustrated 
catalogues are issued, have largely contributed to the great 
popularity and efficiency of the museum. Liverpool, Preston, 
Derby and Sheffield owe their fine museum buildings to private 
generosity. Other towns have museums which are chiefly 
supported by subscriptions, e.g. Chester and Newcastle, where 
there is a fine collection of work by Bewick the engraver. At 
Exeter the library, museum, and art gallery, together with 
schools of science and art, are combined in one building. Other 
towns may be noted as having art museums: Stockport, Notting- 
ham (Wedgwood collection), Leeds, Bootle, Swansea, Bradford, 
Northampton (British archaeology), and Windsor. There are 
museums at Belfast, Larne, Kilkenny and Armagh. The cost 
of the civic museum, being generally computed with the mainten- 
ance of the free library, is not easily obtained. In many cases 
the librarian is also curator of the museum; elsewhere no curator 
at all is appointed, his work being done by a caretaker. In 
some museums there is no classification or cataloguing and 
the value of existing collections is impaired both by careless 
treatment and by the too ready acceptance of worthless 
gifts; often enough the museums are governed by committees 
of the corporation whose interest and experience are not 

Foreign Museums. Art museums are far more numerous 
on the continent of Europe than in England. In Germany 
progress has been very striking, their educational aspect being 
closely studied. In Italy public collections, which are ten times 
more numerous than in England, are chiefly regarded as financial 
assets. The best examples of classification are to be found 
abroad, at Vienna, Amsterdam, Ziirich, Munich and Gizeh in 
Egypt. The Musee Carnavalet, the historical collection of the 
city of Paris, is the most perfect civic museum in the world. 
The buildings in which the objects can be most easily studied are 
those of Naples, Berlin and Vienna. The value of the aggregate 
collections in any single country of the great powers, Russia 
excepted, probably exceeds the value of British collections. At 
the same time, it must be remembered that mas'ses of foreign 
collections represent expropriations by the city and the state, 
together with the inheritance of royal and semi-royal collectors. 
In Germany and Italy, for instance, there are at least a dozen 
towns which at one time were capitals of principalities. In 
some countries the public holds over works of art the pre-emptive 
right of purchase. In Italy, under the law known as the Editto 
Pacca, it is illegal to export the more famous works of art. 
Speaking generally, the cost of maintaining municipal museums 
abroad is very small, many being without expert or highly-paid 
officials, while admission fees are often considerable. Nowhere 
in the United Kingdom are the collections neglected in a manner 


through which certain towns in Italy and Spain have gained an 
unenviable name. 

Berlin and Vienna have collections of untold richness, and the 
public are freely admitted. Berlin, besides its picture gallery 
di-rmanv an d architectural museum, has a collection of Christian 
and antiquities in the university. The old museum, a 

Austria. royal foundation, is renowned for its classical sculp- 
ture and a remarkable collection of medieval statuary, in 
which Italian art is well represented. The new museum is 
also noteworthy for Greek marbles, and contains bronzes and 
engravings, together with one of the most typical collections of 
Egyptian art. Schliemann's discoveries are housed in the 
Ethnographic Museum. The Museum of Art and Industry, 
closely similar in object and arrangement to the Victoria and 
Albert Museum in London, contains collections of the same 
character enamels, furniture, ceramics, &c. Vienna also has 
one of these museums (Kunstgewerbe), in which the great value 
of the examples is enhanced by their judicious arrangement. 
The Historical Museum of this city is interesting, and the 
Imperial Museum (of which the structure corresponds almost 
exactly with a plan of an ideal museum designed by Sir William 
Flower) is one of the most comprehensive extant, containing 
armour of world-wide fame and the choicest specimens of indus- 
trial art. Prague, Innsbruck and Budapest are respectively 
the homes of the national museums of Bohemia, Tirol and 
Hungary. The National Museum of Bavaria (Munich) has been 
completed, and its exhibition rooms, 100 in number, show the 
most recent methods of classification, Nuremberg, with upwards 
of eighty rooms, being its only rival in southern Germany. 
Mainz and Trier have Roman antiquities. Hamburg, Leip/ig and 
Breslau have good " Kunstgewerbe " collections. In Dresden 
there are four great museums the Johanneum, the Albertinum, 
the Zwinger and the Griine Gewolbe in which opulent art can 
best be appreciated ; the porcelain of the Dresden galleries is 
superb, and few branches of art are unrepresented. Gotha is 
remarkable for its ceramics, Brunswick for enamels (in the 
ducal cabinet). Museums of minor importance exist at Hanover, 
Ulm, Wurzburg, Danzig and Ltibeck. 

The central museum of France, the Louvre, was founded 
as a public institution during the Revolutionary period. It 
contains the collections of Francois I., Louis XIV., 
and the Napoleons. Many works of art have been 
added to it from royal palaces, and collections formed by dis- 
tinguished connoisseurs (Campana, Sauvageot, La Caze) have 
been incorporated in it. The Greek sculpture, including the 
Venus of Melos and the Nike of Samothrace, is of pre-eminent 
fame. Other departments are well furnished, and from a 
technical point of view the manner in which the officials have 
overcome structural difficulties in adapting the palace to the 
needs of an art museum is most instructive. The Cluny 
Museum, bought by the city in 1842, ^.nd subsequently 
transferred to the state, supplements the medieval collections 
of the Louvre, being a storehouse of select works of art. It 
suffers, however, from being overcrowded, while for purposes 
of study it is badly lighted. At the same time the Maison 
Cluny is a well-furnished house, decorated with admirable 
things, and as such has a special didactic value of its own, 
corresponding in this respect with Hertford House and the 
Poldi-Pezzoli Gallery at Milan collections which are more than 
museums, since they show in the best manner the adaptation of 
artistic taste to domestic life. ^The French provincial museums 
are numerous and important. Twenty-two were established 
early in the igth century, and received 1000 pictures as gifts 
from the state, numbers of which were not returned in 1815 to 
the countries whence they were taken. The best of these 
museiyns are at Lyons; at Dijon, where the tombs of Jean sans 
Peur and Philip the Bold are preserved; at Amiens, where the 
capital Musee de Picardie was built in 1850; at Marseilles and at 
Bayeux, where the " Tapestry " is well exhibited. The collec- 
tions of Lille, Bordeaux, Toulouse, and Avignon are also impor- 
tant. The objects shown in these museums are chiefly local 
gleanings, consisting largely of church plate, furniture, together 


with sculpture, carved wood, and pottery, nearly everything 
being French in origin. In many towns Roman antiquities and 
early Christian relics are preserved (e.g. Autun, Nlmes, Aries 
and Luxeuil). Other collections controlled by municipalities 
are kept at Rouen, Douai, Montpellier, Chartres (14th-century 
sculptures), Grenoble, Toulon, Ajaccio, Epinal (Carolingian 
objects), Besancon, Bourges, Le Mans (with the remarkable 
enamel of Geoffrey of Anjou), Nancy, Aix and in many other 
towns. As a rule, the public is admitted free of charge, special 
courtesy being shown to foreigners. In many cases the collections 
are ill cared for and uncatalogued, and little money is provided 
for acquisitions in the civic museums; indeed, in this respect the 
great national institutions contrast unfavourably with British 
establishments, to which purchase grants are regularly made. 

The national, civic and papalmuseumsofltalyare sonumerous 
that a few only can be mentioned. The best arranged and best 
classified collection is the Museo Nazionale at Naples, 
containing many thousand examples of Roman 
art, chiefly obtained from the immediate neighbourhood. For 
historical importance it ranks as primus inter pares with the 
collections of Rome and the Vatican. It is, however, the only 
great Italian museum where scientific treatment is consistently 
adopted. Other museums of purely classical art are found at 
Syracuse, Cagliari and Palermo. Etruscan art is best displayed 
at Arezzo, Perugia (in the university), Cortona, Florence (Museo 
Archeologico), Volterra and the Vatican. The Florentine 
museums are of great importance, consisting of the archaeological 
museum of antique bronzes, Egyptian art, and a great number of 
tapestries. The Museo Nazionale, housed in the Bargello (A.D. 
1260), is the central depository of Tuscan art. Numerous 
examples of Delia Robbia ware have been gathered together, 
and are fixed to the walls in a manner and position which reduce 
their value to a minimum. The plastic arts of Tuscany are 
represented by Donatello, Verrocchio, Ghiberti, and Cellini, 
while the Carrand collection of ivories, pictures, and varied 
medieval specimens is of much interest. This museum, like so 
many others, is becoming seriously overcrowded, to the lasting 
detriment of churches, market-places, and streets, whence these 
works ofartarebeingruthlesslyremoved. The public is admitted 
free one day a week, and the receipts are devoted to art and 
antiquarian purposes (" tasse . . . destinate . . . alia conver- 
sazione dei monumenti, all' ampliamento 'degli scavi, ed' all' 
incremento dei instituti . . . nella citta." Law of 1875, 5). 
The museums of Rome are numerous, the Vatican alone contain- 
ing at least six Museo Clementino, of classical art, with the 
Laocoon, the Apollo Belvedere, and other masterpieces; the 
Chiaramonti, also of classical sculpture; the Gallery of Inscrip- 
tions; the Egyptian, the Etruscan and the Christian museums. 
The last is an extensive collection corresponding with another 
papal museum in the Lateran Palace, also known as the Christian 
Museum (founded 1843), an d remarkable for its sarcophagi and 
relics from the catacombs. The Lateran has also a second 
museum known as the Museo Profano. 'Museums belonging 
to the state are equally remarkable. The Kircher Museum deals 
with prehistoric art, and contains the " Preneste Hoard." The 
Museo Nazionale (by the Baths of Diocletian), the Museo Capi- 
tolino, and the Palazzo dei Conservatori contain innumerable 
specimens of the finest classical art, vases, bronzes, mosaics, 
and statuary, Greek as well as Roman. Among provincial 
museums there are few which do not possess at least one or two 
objects of signal merit. Thus Brescia, besides a medieval 
collection, has a famous bronze Victory. Pesaro, Urbino, and 
the Museo Correr at Venice have admirable examples of majolica; 
Milan, Pisa and Genoa have general archaeology combined with 
a good proportion of mediocrity. The civic museum of Bologna 
is comprehensive and well arranged, having Egyptian, classical, 
and Etruscan collections, besides many things dating from the 
" Bella Epoca " of Italian art. At Ravenna alone can the 
Byzantine art of Italy be properly understood, and it is most 
deplorable that the superb collections in its fine galleries should 
remain uncatalogued and neglected. Turin, Siena, Padua, and 
other towns have civic museums. 



The Ryks Museum at Amsterdam, containing the national 
collections of Holland, is a modern building in which a series 
Belgium of historical rooms are furnished to show at a glance 
and the artistic progress of the Dutch at any given period. 

Holland. Nine rooms are also devoted to the chronological 
display of ecclesiastical art. Besides the famous paintings, this 
museum (the sole drawback of which is the number of rooms 
which have no top light) contains a library, many engravings, a 
comprehensive exhibit of armour, costume, metal-work, and a 
department of maritime craftsmanship. Arnhem and Haarlem 
have municipal collections. At Leiden the university maintains 
a scholarly collection of antiquities. The Hague and Rotterdam 
have also museums, but everything in Holland is subordinated 
to the development of the great central depository at Amsterdam, 
to which examples are sent from all parts of the country. In 
Belgium the chief museum, that of ancient industrial art, is at 
Brussels. It contains many pieces of medieval church furniture 
and decoration, but in this respect differs only in size from the 
civic museums of Ghent and Luxemburg and the Archbishop's 
Museum at Utrecht. In Brussels, however, there is a good show 
of Prankish and Carolingian objects. The city of Antwerp 
maintains the Musee Plantin, a printing establishment which has 
survived almost intact, and presents one of the most charming 
and instructive museums in the world. As a whole, the 
museums of Belgium are disappointing, though, per contra, the 
churches are of enhanced interest, not having been pillaged for 
the benefit of museums. 

New museums are being founded in Russia every year. 
Kharkoff and Odessa (the university) have already large collec- 
tions, and in the most remote parts of Siberia it is 
curious to find carefully chosen collections. Krasno- 
yarsk has 12,000 specimens, a storehouse of Buriat art. Irkutsk 
the capital, Tobolsk, Tomsk (university), Khabarovsk, and 
Yakutsk have now museums. In these Russian art naturally 
predominates. It is only at Moscow and St Petersburg that 
Western art is found. The Hermitage Palace in the latter city 
contains a selection of medieval objects of fabulous value, there 
being no less than forty early ivories. But from a national point 
of view these collections are insignificant when compared with 
the gold and silver objects illustrating the primitive arts and 
ornament of Scythia, Crimea and Caucasia, the high standard 
attained proving an advanced stage of manual skill. At Moscow 
(historical museum) the stone and metal relics are scarcely less 
interesting. There is also a museum of industrial art, the speci- 
mens of which are not of unusual value, but being analogous to 
the Kunstgewerbe movement in Germany, it exercises a whole- 
some influence upon the designers who study in its schools. 

American museums are not committed to traditional systems, 
and scientific treatment is allowed its fullest scope. They exist 
in great numbers, and though in some cases their 
exhibits are chiefly ethnographic, a far wider range 
of art objects is rapidly being secured. The National Museum 
at Washington, a branch of the Smithsonian Institution (q.v.), 
while notable for its American historical and ethnological 
exhibits, has the National Gallery of Art. The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art (held by trustees for the benefit of the city 
of New York) has in the Cesnola collection the most complete 
series of Cypriot art objects. It has also departments of coins, 
Greek sculpture and general examples of European and American 
art. The Museum of Fine Arts at Boston is very comprehensive, 
and has a remarkable collection of ceramics, together with good 
reproductions of antique art. There are museums at St 
Louis, Chicago, Pittsburg, Brooklyn, Cincinnati, Buffalo and 
Washington, as well as Montreal in Canada; and the universities 
of Harvard, Chicago, Pennsylvania and Yale have important 

The Swiss National Museum is situated at Zurich, and though 

of medium size (50 rooms), it is a model of arrangement and 

organization. Besides the special feature of rooms 

Countries, illustrating the historical progress of art, its collection 

of stained glass is important. Basel also (historical 

museum) is but little inferior in contents or system to the Zurich 


establishment. Geneva has three collections. Lausanne holds 
the museum of the canton, and Bern has a municipal collection. 
All these institutions are well supported financially, and are 
much appreciated by the Swiss public. The art museums of 
Stockholm, Christiania and Copenhagen rank high for their 
intrinsic excellence, but still more for their scientific and didactic 
value. Stockholm has three museums: that of the Royal 
Palace, a collection of costume and armour; the Northern 
Museum, a large collection of domestic art; the National 
Museum, containing the prehistoric collections, gold ornaments, 
&c., classified in a brilliant manner. The National Museum 
of Denmark at Copenhagen is in this respect even more famous, 
being probably the second national collection in the world. The 
arrangement of this collection leaves little to be desired, and it 
is to be regretted that some British collections, in themselves of 
immense value, cannot be shown, as at Copenhagen, in a manner 
which would display their great merits to the fullest degree. 
There is also at Copenhagen a remarkable collection of antique 
busts (Gamle Glyptotek), and the Thorwaldsen Museum con- 
nected with the sculptor of that name. Norse antiquities are 
at Christiania (the university) and Bergen. Athens has three 
museums, all devoted to Greek art: that of the Acropolis, that 
of the Archaeological Society (vases and terra-cotta) and the 
National Museum of Antiquities. The state owns all discoveries 
and these are accumulated at the capital, so that local museums 
scarcely exist. The collections, which rapidly increase, are of 
great importance, though as yet they cannot vie with the 
aggregate in other European countries. The Museum of 
Egyptian Antiquities (Cairo), founded by Mariette Bey at Bulak, 
afterwards removed to the Giza palace and developed by Maspero, 
is housed in a large building erected in 1902, well classified, and 
liberally supported with money and fresh acquisitions. Minor 
museums exist at Carthage and Tunis. At Constantinople the 
Turkish Museum contains some good classical sculpture and a 
great deal of rubbish. The Museo del Prado and the Archaeo- 
logical Museum at Madrid are the chief Spanish collections, 
containing numerous classical objects and many specimens of 
Moorish and early Spanish art. In Spain museums are badly 
kept, and their contents are of indifferent value. The museums 
of the chief provinces are situated at Barcelona, Valencia, 
Granada and Seville. Cadiz and Cordova have also sadly 
neglected civic collections. The National Museum of Portugal at 
Lisbon requires no special comment. The progress of Japan 
is noticeable in its museums as in its industrial enterprise. The 
National Museum(Weno Park, Tokyo) is large and well arranged 
in a new building of Western architecture. Kioto and Nara 
have excellent museums, exclusively of Oriental art, and two or 
three other towns have smaller establishments, including com- 
mercial museums. There are several museums in India, the 
chief one being at Calcutta, devoted to Indian antiquities. 

The best history *pf museums can be found in the prefaces and 
introductions to their official catalogues, but the following works 
will be useful for reference: Annual Reports presented to Parliament 
(official) of British Museum and Board of Education; Civil Service 
Estimates, Class IV., annually presented to Parliament; Second 
Report of Select Committee of House of Commons on Museums of 
Science and Art Department (official; I vol., 1898); Annual Reports 
of the Museum Association (London) ; Edward Edwards, The Fine 
Arts in England (London, 1840); Professor Stanley Jevons, " Use 
and Abuse of Museums," printed in Methods of Social Reform 
(London, 1882); Report of Committee on Provincial Museums. 
Report of British Association (London, 1887); Thos. Greenwood, 
Museums and Art Galleries (London, 1888); Professor Brown Goode, 
Museums of the Future, Report on" the National Museum for 1889 
(Washington, 1891) ; Principles of Museum Administration; Report of 
Museum Association (London, 1895) ; Mariotti, La Legislazione delle 
belle arti. (Rome, 1892); L. B6nedite, Rapport sur r organisation 
. . . dans les musees de la Grande Bretagne (official; Paris, 1895); 
Sir William Flower, Essays on Museums (London, 1898); Le Gallerie 
nazionali italiane (3 vols., Rome, 1894); D. Murray, Museums: 
Their History and Use, with Bibliography and List of Museums in 
the United Kingdom (3 vols., 1904). (B.) 

MUSEUMS OF SCIENCE. The ideal museum should cover 
the whole field of human knowledge. It should teach the 
truths of all the sciences, including anthropology, the science 
which deals with man and all his works in every age. All the 


sciences and all the arts are correlated. The wide separation 
of collections illustrative of the arts (see MUSEUMS OF ART above) 
from those illustrative of the sciences, and their treatment as 
if belonging to a wholly different sphere, is arbitrary. Such 
separation, which is to-day the rule rather than the exception, 
is due to the circumstances of the origin of many collections, 
or in other cases to the limitations imposed by poverty or lack 
of space. Many of the national museums of continental Europe 
had their beginnings in collections privately acquired by 
monarchs, who, at a time when the modern sciences were in their 
infancy, entertained themselves by assembling objects which 
appealed to their love of the beautiful and the curious. The 
pictures, marbles, bronzes and bric-a-brac of the palace became 
the nucleus of the museum of to-day, and in some notable cases 
the palace itself was converted into a museum. In a few instances 
these museums, in which works of art had the first place, have 
been enriched and supplemented by collections illustrative of 
the advancing sciences of a later date, but in a majority of cases 
these collections have remained what they were at the outset, 
mere exponents of human handicraft in one or the other, or all 
of its various departments. Some recent great foundations 
have copied the more or less defective models of the past, and 
museums devoted exclusively to the illustration of one or the 
other narrow segment of knowledge will no doubt continue to 
be multiplied, and in spite of their limited range, will do much 
good. A notable illustration of the influence of lack of space 
in bringing about a separation of anthropological collections 
from collections illustrative of other sciences is afforded by the 
national collection in London. For many years the collections 
of the British Museum, literary, artistic and scientific, were 
assembled in ideal relationship in Bloomsbury, but at last the 
accumulation of treasure became so vast and the difficulties of 
administration were so pressing that a separation was decided 
upon, and the natural history collections were finally removed 
to the separate museum in Cromwell Road, South Kensington. 
But the student of museums can never fail to regret that the 
necessities of space and financial considerations compelled this 
separation, which in a measure destroyed the ideal relationship 
which had for so many years obtained. 

The ancient world knew nothing of museums in the modern 
sense of the term. There were collections of paintings and 
statuary in the temples and palaces of Greece and Rome; the 
homes of the wealthy were everywhere adorned by works of art; 
curious objects of natural history were often brought from afar, 
as the skins of the female gorillas, which Hanno after his voyage 
on the west coast of Africa hung up in the temple of Astarte at 
Carthage; Alexander the Great granted to his illustrious teacher, 
Aristotle, a large sum of money for use in his scientific researches, 
sent him natural history collections from conquered lands, and 
put at his service thousands of men to collect specimens, upon 
which he based his work on natural history; the museum of 
Alexandria, which included within its keeping the Alexandrian 
library, was a great university composed of a number of associated 
colleges; but there was nowhere in all the ancient world an 
institution which exactly corresponded in its scope and purpose 
to the modern museum. The term " museum," after the 
burning of the great institution of Alexandria, appears to have 
fallen into disuse from the 4th to the i?th century, and the idea 
which the word represented slipped from the minds of men. 

The revival of learning in the i5th century was accompanied 
by an awakening of interest in classical antiquity, and many 
persons laboured eagerly upon the collection of memorials of 
the past. Statuary, inscriptions, gems, coins, medals and manu- 
scripts were assembled by the wealthy and the learned. The 
leaders in this movement were presently followed by others who 
devoted themselves to the search for minerals, plants and curious 
animals. Among the more famous early collectors of objects 
of natural history may be mentioned Georg Agricola (1490-1555), 
who has been styled " the father of mineralogy." By his 
labours the elector Augustus of Saxony was induced to establish 
the Kunst und Naturalien Kantmer, which has since expanded 
into the various museums at Dresden. One of his contempo- 
xrx. 3 

raries was Conrad Gesner of Zurich (1516-1565), " the German 
Pliny," whose writings are still resorted to by the curious. 
Others whose names are familiar were Pierre Belon (1517-1564), 
professor at the College de France; Andrea Cesalpini (1510-1603), 
whose herbarium is still preserved at Florence; Ulissi Aldrovandi 
(1522-1605), remnants of whose collections still exist at Bologna; 
Ole Worm (1588-1654), a Danish physician, after whom the so- 
called " Wormian bones " of the skull are named, and who was 
one of the first to cultivate what is now known as the science 
of prehistoric archaeology. At a later date the collection of 
Albert Seba (1665-1736) of Amsterdam became famous, and 
was purchased by Peter the Great in 1716, and removed to 
St Petersburg. In Great Britain among early collectors were 
the two Tradescants; Sir John Woodward (1665-1728), a portion 
of whose collections, bequeathed by him to Cambridge University 
is still preserved there in the Woodwardian or Geological Museum ; 
Sir James Balfour (1600-1657), and Sir Andrew Balfour (1630- 
1694), whose work was continued in part by Sir Robert Sibbald 
(1641-1722). The first person to elaborate and present to modern 
minds the thought of an institution which should assemble 
within its walls the things which, men wish to see and study was 
Bacon, who in his New Atlantis (1627) broadly sketched the 
outline of a great national museum of science and art. 

The first surviving scientific museum established upon a 
substantial basis was the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, 
founded by Elias Ashmole. The original collection had been 
made by the Tradescants, father and son, gardeners who were 
in the employment of the duke of Buckingham and later of King 
Charles I. and his queen; it consisted of " twelve cartloads of 
curiosities," principally from Virginia and Algiers, which the 
younger Tradescant bequeathed to Ashmole, and which, after 
much litigation with Tradescant's widow, he gave to Oxford 
upon condition that a suitable building should be provided. 
This was done in 1682 after plans by Sir Christopher Wren. 
Ashmole in his diary makes record, on the I7th of February 
1683, that " the last load of my rareties was sent to the barge, 
and this afternoon I relapsed into the gout." 

The establishment of the German academy of Naturae 
Curiosi in 1652, of the Royal Society of London in 1660, and of 
the Academic des Sciences of Paris in 1666, imparted a powerful 
impulse to scientific investigation, which was reflected not only 
in the labours of a multitude of persons who undertook the 
formation of private scientific collections, but in the initiation 
by crowned heads of movements looking toward the formation 
of national collections, many of which, having their beginnings 
in the latter half of the i7th century and the early years of the 
1 8th century, survive to the present day. 

The most famous of all English collectors in his time was 
Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), whose vast collection, acquired at 
a great outlay of money, and including the collections of Petiver, 
Courten, Merret, Plukenet, and Buddie all of which he had 
purchased was by his will bequeathed to the British nation on 
condition that parliament should pay to his heirs the sum of 
20,000, a sum far less than that which he had expended upon it, 
and representing, it is sdld, only the value of the coins which it 
contained. Sloane was a man who might justly have said of 
himself " humani nihil a me alienum puto "; and his collection 
attested the catholicity of his tastes and the breadth of his 
scientific appetencies. The bequest of Sloane was accepted 
upon the terms of his will, and, together with the library of 
George II., which had likewise been bequeathed to the nation, 
was thrown open to the public at Bloomsbury in 1759 as the 
British Museum. As showing the great advances which have 
occurred in the administration of museums since that day, the 
following extract taken from A Guide- Book to the General 
Contents of the British Museum, published in 1761, is interest- 
ing: ". . . fifteen persons are allowed to view it in one Company, 
the Time allotted is two Hours; and when any Number not 
exceeding fifteen are inclined to see it, they must send a List of 
their Christian and Sirnames, Additions, and Places of Abode, to 
the Porter's Lodge, in order to their being entered in the Book; 
in a few Days the respective Tickets will be made out, specifying 



the Day and Hour in which they are to come, which, on being 
sent for, are delivered. If by any Accident some of the Parties 
are prevented from coming, it is proper they send their 
Ticket back to the Lodge, as nobody can be admitted with it 
but themselves. It is to be remarked that the fewer Names there 
are in a List, the sooner they are likely to be admitted to see it." 

The establishment of the British Museum was coincident in 
time with the development of the systematic study of nature, 
of which Linnaeus was at that time the most distinguished 
exponent. The modern sciences, the wonderful triumphs of 
which have revolutionized the world, were just emerging from 
their infancy. Museums were speedily found to furnish the 
best agency for preserving the records of advancing knowledge, 
so far as these consisted of the materials upon which the investi- 
gator had laboured. In a short time it became customary for 
the student, either during his lifetime or at his death, to entrust 
to the permanent custody of museums the collections upon 
which he had based his studies and observations. Museums were 
thenceforth rapidly multiplied, and came to be universally 
regarded as proper repositories for scientific collections of all 
kinds. But the use of museums as repositories of the collec- 
tions of the learned came presently to be associated with their 
use as seats of original investigation and research. Collections 
of new and rare objects which had not yet received attentive 
study came into their possession. Voyages of exploration 
into unknown lands, undertaken at public or private expense, 
added continually to their treasures. The comparison of newer 
collections with older collections which had been already made 
the subject of study, was undertaken. New truths were thus 
ascertained. A body of students was attracted to the museums, 
who in a few years by their investigations began not only to add 
to the sum of human knowledge, but by their publications to 
shed lustre upon the institutions with which they were connected. 
The spirit of inquiry was wisely fostered by private and public 
munificence, and museums as centres for the diffusion of scientific 
truth came to hold a well-recognized position. Later still, 
about the middle of the ipth century, when the importance of 
popular education and the necessity of popularizing knowledge 
came to be more thoroughly recognized than it had heretofore 
been, museums were found to be peculiarly adapted in certain 
respects for the promotion of the culture of the masses. They 
became under the new impulse not merely repositories of scientific 
records and seats of original research, but powerful educational 
agencies, in which by object lessons the most important truths of 
science were capable of being pleasantly imparted to multitudes. 
The old narrow restrictions were thrown down. Their doors 
were freely opened to the people, and at the beginning of the 
zoth century the movement for the establishment of museums 
assumed a magnitude scarcely, if at all, less than the movement 
on behalf of the diffusion of popular knowledge through public 
libraries. While great national museums have been founded and 
all the large municipalities of the world through private or civic 
gifts have established museums within their limits, a multitude 
of lesser towns, and even in some cases villages, have established 
museums, and museums as adjuncts of universities, colleges and 
high schools have come to be recognized as almost indispensable. 
The movement has assumed its greatest proportions in Great 
Britain and her colonies, Germany, and the United States of 
America, although in many other lands it has already advanced 

There are now in existence in the world, exclusive of museums 
of art, not less than 2000 scientific museums which possess in 
themselves elements of permanence, some of which are splendidly 
supported by public munificence, and a number of which have 
been richly endowed by private benefactions. 

Great Britain and Ireland. The greatest museum in London 
is the British Museum. The natural history department at 
South Kensington, with its wealth of types deposited there, 
constitutes the most important collection of the kind in the 
world. The Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street 
contains a beautiful and well-arranged collection of minerals 
and a very complete series of specimens illustrative of the 

petrography and the invertebrate paleontology of the British 
Islands. The botanical collections at Kew are classic, and are 
as rich in types as are the zoological collections of the British 
Museum. The Hunterian Museum of the Royal College of 
Surgeons contains a notable assemblage of specimens illustrating 
anatomy, both human and comparative, as well as pathology. 
In London also a number of private owners possess large collec- 
tions of natural history specimens, principally ornithological, 
entomological and conchological, in some instances destined to 
find a final resting place in the national collection. One of the 
most important of these great collections is that formed by F. 
Ducane Godman, whose work on the fauna of middle America, 
entitled Biologia centrali-americana, is an enduring monument 
to his learning and generosity. The Hon. Walter Rothschild 
has accumulated at Tring one of the largest and most important 
natural history collections which has ever been assembled by a 
single individual. It is particularly rich in rare species which 
are either already extinct or verging upon extinction, and the 
ornithological and entomological collections are vast in extent 
and rich in types. Lord Walsingham has at his country seat, 
Merton Hall, near Thetford, the largest and most perfect 
collection of the microlepidoptera of the world which is in 

The Ashmolean Museum and the University Museum at Oxford, 
and the Woodwardian Museum and the University Museum at 
Cambridge, are remarkable collections. The Free Public Museum 
at Liverpool is in some respects one of the finest and most 
successfully arranged museums in Great Britain. It contains 
a great wealth of important scientific material, and is rich in 
types, particularly of birds. The Manchester Museum of Owens 
College and the museum in Sheffield have in recent years 
accomplished much for the cause of science and popular educa- 
tion. The Bristol Museum has latterly achieved considerable 
growth and has become a centre of much enlightened activity. 
The Royal Scottish Museum, the herbarium of the Royal 
Botanical Garden, and the collections of the Challenger Expe- 
dition Office in Edinburgh, are worthy of particular mention. 
The museum of the university of Glasgow and the Glasgow 
Museum contain valuable collections. The museum of St 
Andrews University is very rich in, material illustrating marine 
zoology, and so also are the collections of University College at 
Dundee. The Science and Art Museum of Dublin and the 
Public Museum of Belfast, in addition to the works of art which 
they contain, possess scientific collections of importance. 

There are also in Great Britain and Ireland some two hundred 
smaller museums, in which there are collections which cannot be 
overlooked by specialists, more particularly by those interested 
in geology, paleontology and archaeology. 

India. The Indian Museum, the Geological Museum of the 
Geological Survey of India, and the herbarium of the Royal Botanic 
Garden in Calcutta, are richly endowed with collections illustrating 
the natural history of Hindostan and adjacent countries. The 
finest collection of the vertebrate fossils of the Siwalik Hills is that 
found in the Indian Museum. The Victoria and Albert Museum in 
Bombay and the Government Museum in Madras are institutions 
of importance. 

Australia. The Queensland Museum, and the museum of the 
Geological Survey of Queensland located in Brisbane, and the 
National Museum at Melbourne, Victoria, represent important 
beginnings. Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, is the centre 
of considerable scientific activity. The museums connected with 
the university of Sydney, the museum of the Geological Survey of 
New South Wales, and the Australian Museum, all possess valuable 
collections. The museum at Adelaide is noteworthy. 

New Zealand. Good collections are found in the Otago Museum, 
Dunedin, the Canterbury Museum at Christ Church, the Auckland 
Museum at Auckland, and the Colonial Museum at Wellington. 

South Africa. The South African Museum at Capetown is a 
flourishing and important institution, which has done excellent 
work in the field of South African zoology. A museum has been 
established at Durban, Natal, which gives evidence of vitality. 

Egypt. Archaeological studies overshadow all others in the land 
of the Nile, and the splendid collections of the great museum of 
antiquities at Cairo find nothing to parallel them in the domain of 
the purely natural sciences. A geological museum was, however, 
established in the autumn of 1903, and in view of recent remarkable 
paleontological discoveries in Egypt possesses brilliant opportunities. 



Canada. In connexion with the Universite Laval in Quebec, 
the McGill University in Montreal, and the university of Toronto 
in Ontario, beginnings of significance have been made. The Peter 
Redpath Museum of McGilT College contains important collections 
in all branches of natural history, more particularly botany. 
The provincial museum at Victoria, British Columbia, is growing m 
importance. A movement has been begun to establish at Ottawa 
a museum which shall in a sense be for the Dominion a national 

France. Paris abounds in institutions for the promotion of culture. 
In possession of many of the institutions of learning, such as the Ecole 
Nationals Superieure des Mines, the Inslitut National Agronomique, 
and the various learned societies, are collections of greater or less 
importance which must be consulted at times by specialists in the 
various sciences. The Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in the Jardin 
des Plantes is the most comprehensive and important collection of 
its kind in the French metropolis, and while not as rich in types as 
the British Museum, nevertheless contains a vast assemblage of 
classic specimens reflecting the labours of former generations of 
French naturalists. Unfortunately, much of the best material, 
consisting of the types of species obtained by the naturalists of 
French voyages of exploration, have been too long exposed to the 
intense light which fills the great building and have become bleached 
and faded to a great degree. The zeal to popularize knowledge by 
the display of specimens has conflicted with the purpose to preserve 
the records of science, a fact which French naturalists themselves 
universally admit. As in England, so also in France, there are a 
number of virtuosi, who have amassed fine private collections. 
One of the very largest and finest of all the entomological collections 
of the world is that at Rennes, belonging to the brothers Oberthiir, 
upon which they have expended princely sums. The Museum des 
Sciences Naturelles of Lyons is in some respects an important 

Belgium. Brussels has been called " a city of museums." The 
Musee du Congo and the Musee Royal d'Histoire Naturelle du Belgique 
are the two most important institutions from the standpoint of the 
naturalist. The former is rich in ethnographic and zoological material 
brought from the Congo Free State, and the latter contains very 
important paleontological collections. 

Holland. The zoological museum of the Koninklijk Zoologisch 
Genootschap, affiliated with the university at Amsterdam, is well 
known. The royal museums connected with the university of 
Leiden are centres of much scientific activity. 

Denmark. The National Museum at Copenhagen is particularly 
rich in Scandinavian and Danish antiquities. 

Sweden. In Stockholm, the capital, the Nordiska Museet is 
devoted to Scandinavian ethnology, and the Naturhistoriska Riks- 
Museum is rich in paleontological, botanical and archaeological 
collections. Great scientific treasures are also contained in the 
museums connected with the university of Upsala. 

Norway. Classic collections especially interesting to the student 
of marine zoology are contained in the university of Christiania. 

Germany, Germany is rich in museums, some of which are of 
very great importance. The Museum fur Naturkunde, the ethno- 
graphical museum, the anthropological museum, the mineralogical 
museum and the agricultural museum in Berlin are noble institutions, 
the first mentioned being particularly rich in classical collections. 
Hamburg boasts an excellent natural history musei-m and ethno- 
graphical museum, the Museum Godeffroy and the Museum Umlauff. 
There are a number of important private collections in Hamburg. 
The municipal museum in Bremen is important from the standpoint 
of the naturalist and ethnologist. The Roemer Museum at Hildes- 
heim is one of the best provincial museums in Germany. Dresden 
even more justly than Brussels may be called "a city of museums," 
and the mineralogical, archaeological, zoological and anthropological 
museums are exceedingly important from the standpoint of the 
naturalist. Here also in private hands is the greatest collection 
of palaearctic lepidoptera in Europe, belonging to the heirs of Dr 
Otto Staudinger. The ethnographical museum at Leipzig is rich 
in collections brought together from South and Central America. 
The natural history museum, the anatomical museum and the ethno- 
graphical museum in Munich are important institutions, the first 
mentioned being particularly rich in paleontological treasures. 
The natural history museum of Stuttgart is likewise noted for 
its important paleontological collections. The Senckenbergische 
Naturforsckende Gesellschaft museum at Frankfort-on-the-Main 
contains a very important collection of ethnographical, zoological 
and botanical material. The museum of the university at Bonn, 
and more particularly the anatomical museum, are noteworthy. 
In connexion with almost all the German universities and in almost 
all the larger towns and cities are to be found museums, in many of 
which there are important assemblages illustrating not only the 
natural history of the immediate neighbourhood, but in a multitude 
of cases containing important material collected in foreign lands. 
One of the most interesting of the smaller museums lately established 
is that at Liibeck, a model in its way for a provincial museum. 

Austro-Hungary. The Imperial Natural HistoryMuseum inVienna 
is one of the noblest institutions of its kind in Europe, and possesses 
one of the finest mineralogical collections in the world. It is rich 
also in botanical and conchological collections. There are important 

ethnographical and anthropological collections at Budapest. The 
natural history collections of the Bohemian national museum at 
Prague are well arranged, though not remarkably extensive. 

Russia. The Rumiantsof Museum in Moscow possesses splendid 
buildings, with a library of over 700,000 volumes in addition to 
splendid artistic treasures, and is rich in natural history specimens. 
It is one of the most magnificent foundations of its kind in Europe. 
There are a number of magnificent museums in St Petersburg which 
contain stores of important material. Foremost among these is 
the museum of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, rich in collec- 
tions illustrating the zoology, paleontology and ethnology, not only 
of the Russian Empire, but also of foreign lands. There are a number 
of provincial museums in the larger cities of Russia which are growing 
in importance. 

Italy. Italy is rich in museums of art, but natural history 
collections are not as strongly represented as in other lands. Con- 
nected with the various universities are collections which possess 
more or less importance from the standpoint of the specialist. 
The Museo Civico di Storia Naturale at Genoa, and the collections 
preserved at the marine biological station at Naples, have most 
interest for the zoologist. 

Spain. There are no natural history collections of first importance 
in Spain, though at all the universities there are minor collections, 
which are in some instances creditably cared for and arranged. 

Portugal. The natural history museum at Lisbon contains 
important ornithological treasures. 

Eastern Asia. The awakening of the empire of Japan has resulted 
among other things in the cultivation of the modern sciences, and 
there are a number of scientific students, mostly trained in European 
and American universities, who are doing excellent work in the 
biological and allied sciences. Very creditable beginnings have been 
made in connexion with the Imperial University at Tokio for the 
establishment of a museum of natural history. At Shanghai there 
is a collection, gathered by the Chinese branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, which is in a decadent state, but contains much good 
material. Otherwise as yet the movement to establish museums has 
not laid strong hold upon the inhabitants of eastern Asia. At 
Batavia in Java, and at Manila in the Philippine Islands, there are 
found the nuclei of important collections. 

United States. The movement to establish museums in the 
United States is comparatively recent. One of the very earliest 
collections (1802), which, however, was soon dispersed, was 
made by Charles Willson Peale (q.v.). The Academy of Natural 
Sciences in Philadelphia, established in 1812, is the oldest society 
for the promotion of the natural sciences in the United States. 
It possesses a very important library and some most excellent 
collections, and is rich in ornithological, conchological and 
botanical types. The city of Philadelphia also points with pride 
to the free museum of archaeology connected with the university 
of Pennsylvania, and to the Philadelphia museums, the latter 
museums of commerce, but which incidentally do much to pro- 
mote scientific knowledge, especially in the domain of ethnology, 
botany and mineralogy. The Wistar Institute of Anatomy 
is well endowed and organized. The zoological museum at 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, is associated 
with the names of Louis and Alexander Agassiz, the former of 
whom by his learning and activity as a collector, and the latter 
by his munificent gifts, as well as by his important researches, 
not only created the institution, but made it a potent agency 
for the advancement of science. The Peabody Museum of 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, likewise connected with 
Harvard University, is one of the greatest institutions of its 
kind in the New World. The Essex Institute at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, is noteworthy. The Butterfield Museum, Dartmouth 
College, Hanover, New Hampshire, and the Fairbanks Museum 
of Natural Science (1891) at St Johnsbury, Vermont, are im- 
portant modern institutions. In the museum of Amherst 
College are preserved the types of the birds described by J. J. 
Audubon, the shells described by C. B. Adams, the mineralogical 
collections of Charles Upham Shepard, and the paleontological 
collections of President Hitchcock. In Springfield (1898) 
and Worcester, Massachusetts, there are excellent museums. 
The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut, contains much of the paleontological 
material described by Professor O. C. Marsh. The New 
York State Museum at Albany is important from a geological 
and paleontological standpoint. The American Museum of 
Natural History in New York City, founded in 1869, provision 
for the growth and enlargement of which upon a scale of the 



Gallery of 

Gallery of Birds 


Pittsburg, Penn.,U.S.A. 

Plan of First Floor. 


A. Main Entrance to Institute 

B. Entrance to Main Auditorium 

C. Main Entrance to Library 

1. Administration Rooms of Institute 

2. Public Comfort Rooms 

3. Administrative Rooms of Library 

1 Children's] 
1 Children's Library 








! 3 


1 MI 



Open Court 



O fc-; 

Loan Department of 

Open Court 


Gallery of Useful Arts 
Ceramics, etc. 


3 3 


31 Greenroom of p j f " ij Greenroom 

I Auditorium t**" *" ""I Auditoriui 


Gallery of 

The width of the front of the building 
ia 400 feet; Its depth over all exceeds 
6 00 feet 

Emery Walkw K. 



utmost magnificence has been made, is liberally -supported 
both by public and private munificence. The ethnographical, 
paleontological and archaeological material gathered within 
its walls is immense in extent and superbly displayed. The 
museum of the New York botanical garden in Bronx Park is 
a worthy rival to the museums at Kew. The Brooklyn Institute 
of Arts and Sciences combines with collections illustrative of 
the arts excellent collections of natural history, many of which 
are classic. 

The United States National Museum at Washington, under 
the control of the Smithsonian Institution, of which it is a depart- 
ment, has been made the repository for many years past of the 
scientific and artistic collections coming into the possession of 
the government. The growth of the material entrusted to its 
keeping has, more particularly in recent years, been enormous, 
and the collections have wholly outgrown the space provided 
in the original building, built for it during the incumbency 
of Professor Spencer F. Baird as secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. The congress of the United States has in recent 
years made provision for the erection of a new building upon 
the Mall in Washington, to which the natural history collections 
are ultimately to be transferred, the old buildings to be retained 
for the display of collections illustrating the progress of the arts, 
until replaced by a building of better construction for the same 
purpose. The United States National Museum has published 
a great deal, and has become one of the most important agencies 
for the diffusion of scientific knowledge in the country. It is 
liberally supported by the government, and makes use of the 
scientific men connected with all the various departments of 
activity under government control as agents for research. The 
collections of the United States Geological Survey, as well as 
many of the more important scientific collections made by the 
Department of Agriculture, are deposited here. 

As-the result of the great Columbian international exposition, 
which took place in 1893, a movement originated in the city of 
Chicago, where the exposition was held, to form a permanent 
collection of large proportions. The great building in which 
the international exposition of the fine arts was displayed 
was preserved as the temporary home for the new museum. 
Marshall Field contributed $1,000,000 to the furtherance of 
the enterprise, and in his honour the institution was called 
" The Field Columbian Museum." The growth of this 
institution was very rapid, and Mr. Field, at his death, in 
1906, bequeathed to the museum $8,000,000, half to be 
applied to the erection of a new building, the other half to consti- 
tute an endowment fund, in addition to the revenues derived 
from the endowment already existing. The city of Chicago 
provides liberally for the support of the museum, the name 
of which, in the spring of 1906, was changed to " The Field 
Museum of Natural History. '' The city of St Louis has taken 
steps, as the result of the international exposition of 1904, to 
emulate the example of Chicago, and the St Louis Pubb'c Museum 
was founded under hopeful auspices in 1905. 

Probably the most magnificent foundation for the advance- 
ment of science and art in America which has as yet been created 
is the Carnegie Institute in the city of Pittsburg. The Carnegie 
Institute is a complex of institutions, consisting of a museum 
of art, a museum of science, and a school for the education of 
youth in the elements of technology. Affiliated with the 
museums of art and science, and under the same roof, is the 
Central Free Library of Pittsburg. The buildings erected 
for the accommodation of the institute, at the entrance to 
Schenley Park, cost $8,000,000, and Mr Andrew Carnegie 
provided liberally for the endowment of the museums of art 
and science and the technical school, leaving to the city of 
Pittsburg the maintenance of the general library. The natural 
history collections contained in the museum of science, although 
the institution was only founded in 1896, are large and 
important, and are particularly rich in mineralogy, geology, 
paleontology, botany and zoology. The entomological collections 
are among the most important in the new world. The concho- 
logical collections are vast, and the paleontological collections 

are among the most important in America. The great Bayet 
collection is the largest and most complete collection represent- 
ing European paleontology in America. The Carnegie Museum 
contains natural history collections aggregating over 1,500,000 
specimens, which cost approximately 125,000, and these are 
growing rapidly. The ethnological collections, particularly 
those illustrating the Indians of the plains, and the archaeological 
collections, representing the cultures more particularly of Costa 
Rica and of Colombia, are large. 

in connexion with almost all the American colleges and 
universities there are museums of more or less importance. 
The Bernice Pauahi Bishop museum at Honolulu is an institution 
established by private munificence, which is doing excellent 
work in the field of Polynesian ethnology and zoology. 

Other American Countrits. The national museum in the city of 
Mexico has in recent years been receiving intelligent encouragement 
and support both from the government and by private individuals, 
and is coming to be an institution of much importance. National 
museums have been established at the capitals of most of the Central 
American and South American states. Some of them represent 
considerable progress, but most of them are in a somewhat languish- 
ing condition. Notable exceptions are the national museum in 
Rio de Janeiro, the Museu Paraense (Museu Goeldi), at Para, the 
Museu Paulista at Sao Paulo, and the national museum in Buenos 
Aires. The latter institution is particularly rich in paleontological 
collections. There is an excellent museum at Valparaiso in Chile, 
which in recent years has been doing good work. (W. J. H.) 

MUSGRAVE, SAMUEL (1732-1780), English classical scholar 
and physician, was born at Washfield, in Devonshire, on the 
zgth of September 1732. Educated at Oxford and elected 
to a Radcliffe travelling fellowship, he spent several years 
abroad. In 1766 he settled at Exeter, but not meeting with 
professional success removed to Plymouth. He ruined his 
prospects, however, by the publication of a pamphlet in the 
form of an address to the people of Devonshire, in which he 
accused certain members of the English ministry of having been 
bribed by the French government to conclude the peace of 1763, 
and declared that the Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont, French 
minister plenipotentiary to England, had in his possession 
documents which would prove the truth of his assertion. De 
Beaumont repudiated all knowledge of any such transaction 
and of Musgrave himself, and the House of Commons in 1770 
decided that the charge was unsubstantiated. Thus discredited, 
Musgrave gained a precarious living in London by his pen until 
his death, in reduced circumstances, on the 5th of July 1780. 
He wrote several medical works, now forgotten ; and his edition 
of Euripides (1778) was a considerable advance on that of Joshua 

See W. Munk, Roll of the Royal College of Physicians, ii. (1878). 

MUSH, the chief town of a sanjak of the same name of the 
Bitlis vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, and an important military 
station. It is situated at the mouth of a gorge in the mountains 
on the south side of the plain, the surrounding hills being covered 
with vineyards and some oak scrub. There are few good houses; 
the streets are ill-paved and winding, while the place and its 
surroundings are extremely dirty. The castle, of which there 
are some remains, is said to have been built by Mushig, an 
Armenian king of the province Daron, who founded the town. 
A khan, with two stone lions (Arab or Seljuk) in bas-relief, 
deserves notice, but the bazaar is poor, although pretty 
embroidered caps are produced. Good roads lead to Erzerum 
and Bitlis. There are 1400 inhabitants, consisting of Kurds 
and Armenians, about equally divided. The climate is healthy 
but cold in winter, with a heavy snow fall. Mush is the seat 
of the Gregorian and Roman Catholic Armenian bishops and 
some American mission schools. Some miles to the west at 
the edge of the plain is the celebrated monastery of Surp 
Garabed or St John the Baptist, an important place of Armenian 

Mush plain, 35 m. long by 12 broad, is very fertile, growing 
wheat and tobacco, and is dotted with many thriving Armenian 
villages. The Murad or eastern Euphrates traverses the western 
end of the plain and disappears into a narrow mountain gorge 
there. Vineyards are numerous and a fair wine is produced. 


Wood is scarce and the usual fuel is tezek or dried cow-dung. 
There are several sulphur springs, and earthquakes are frequent 
and sometimes severe. It was on the plain of Mush that 
Xenophon first made acquaintance with Armenian houses, 
which have little changed since his day. 

MUSHROOM. 1 There are few more useful, more easily 
recognized, or more delicious members of the vegetable kingdom 
than the common mushroom, known botanically as Agaricus 
campestris (or Psalliota, campestris). It grows in short grass 
in the temperate regions of all parts of the world. Many 
edible fungi depend upon minute and often obscure botanical 
characters for their determination, and may readily be con- 
founded with worthless or poisonous species; but that is not the 
case with the common mushroom, for, although several other 
species of Agaricus somewhat closely approach it in form and 
colour, yet the true mushroom, if sound and freshly gathered, may 
be distinguished from all other fungi with great ease. It almost 
invariably grows in rich, open, breezy pastures, in places where 
the grass is kept short by the grazing of horses, herds and flocks. 
Although this plant is popularly termed the " meadow mush- 
room," it never as a rule grows in meadows. It never grows in 
wet boggy places, never in woods, or on or about stumps of trees. 
An exceptional specimen or an uncommon variety may sometimes 
be seen in the above-mentioned abnormal places, but the best, 
the true, and common variety of the table is the produce of short, 
upland, wind-swept pastures. A true mushroom is never large in 
size; its cap very seldom exceeds 4, at most 5 in. in diameter. 
The large examples measuring from 6 to 9 or more in. across 
the cap belong to Agaricus arvensis, called from its large size and 
coarse texture the horse mushroom, which grows in meadows 
and damp shady places, and though generally wholesome is 
coarse and sometimes indigestible. The mushroom usually 
grown in gardens or hot-beds, in cellars, sheds, &c., is a distinct 
variety known as Agaricus hortensis. On being cut or broken the 
flesh of a true mushroom remains white or nearly so, the flesh 
of the coarser horse mushroom changes to buff or sometimes to 
dark brown. To summarize the characters of a true mushroom 
it grows only in pastures; it is of small size, dry, and with 
unchangeable flesh; the cap has a frill; the gills are free from the 
stem, the spores brown-black or deep purple-black in colour, 
and the stem solid or slightly pithy. When all these char- 
acters are taken together no other mushroom-like fungus 
and nearly a thousand species grow in Britain can be con- 
founded with it. 

The parts of a mushroom consist chiefly of stem and cap; the stem 
has a clothy ring round its middle, and the cap is furnished under- 
neath with numerous radiating coloured gills. Fig. I (i) represents 
a section through an infant mushroom, (2) a mature example, 
and (3) a longitudinal section through a fully developed mushroom. 
The cap D, E is fleshy, firm and white within, never thin and watery ; 
externally it is pale brown, dry, often slightly silky or floccose, 
never viscid. The cuticle of a mushroom readily peels away from 
the flesh beneath, as shown at F. The cap has a narrow dependent 
margin or frill, as shown at G, and in section at H ; this dependent 
frill originates in the rupture of a delicate continuous wrapper, 
which in the infancy of the mushroom entirely wraps the young 
plant; it is shown in its continuous state at j, and at the moment 
of rupture at K. The gills underneath the cap L, M, N are at first 
white, then rose-coloured, at length brown-black. A point of great 
importance is to be noted in the attachment of the gills near the stem 
at o, P ; the gills in the true mushroom are (as shown) usually more 
or less free from the stem, they never grow boldly against it or run 
down it; they may sometimes just touch the spot where the stem 
joins the bottom of the cap, but never more; there is usually a slight 
channel, as at p, all round the top of the stem. When a mushroom 
is perfectly ripe and the gills are brown-black in colour, they throw 
down a thick dusty deposit of fine brown-black or purple-black 
spores ; it is essential to note the colour. The spores on germination 
make a white felted mat, more or less dense, of mycelium; this, 
when compacted with dry, half-decomposed dung, is the mushroom 
spawn of gardeners. The stem is firm, slightly pithy up the middle, 
but never hollow; it _ bears a floccose ring near its middle, as 
illustrated at Q, Q; this ring originates by the rupture of the thin 
general wrapper x of the infant plant. 

Like all widely spread and much-cultivated plants, the edible 
*The earlier 15th-century form of the word was musseroun, 

muscheron, &c., and was adapted from the French mousseron, which 

is generally connected with moutse, moss. 

mushroom has numerous varieties, and it differs in different 
places and under different modes of culture in much the same 
way as our kitchen-garden plants differ from the type they have 
been derived from, and from each other. In some instances 
these differences are so marked that they have led some 
botanists to regard as distinct species many forms usually 
esteemed by others as varieties only. 

FIG. i. Pasture Mushroom (Agaricus campestris). 

A small variety of the common mushroom found in pastures has 
been named A. pratensis; it differs from the type in having a pale 
reddish-brown scaly top, and the flesh on being cut or broken 
changes to pale rose-colour. A variety still more marked, with a 
darker brown cap and the flesh changing to a deeper rose, and 
sometimes blood-red, has been described as A. rufescens. The 
well-known compact variety of mushroom-growers, with its white 
cap and dull purplish clay-coloured gills, is A. hortensis. Two 
sub-varieties of this have been described under the names of A. 
Buchanani and A. elongatus, and other distinct forms are known to 
botanists. A variety also grows in woods named A. silvicola; this 
can only be distinguished from the pasture mushroom by its elongated 
bulbous stem antfits externally smooth cap. There is also a fungus 
well known to botanists and cultivators which appears to be inter- 
mediate between the pasture variety and the wood variety, named 
A. vaporarius. The large rank horse mushroom, now generally 
referred to as A. arvensis, is probably a variety of the pasture mush- 
room; it grows in rings in woody places and under trees and hedges 
in meadows; it has a large scaly round cap, and the flesh quickly 
changes to buff or brown when cut or broken ; the stem too is hollow. 
An unusually scaly form of this has been described as A.-viUaticus 
and another as A. augustus. 

A species, described by Berkeley and Broome as distinct from 
both the pasture mushroom and horse mushroom, has been pub- 
lished under the name of A. elvensis. This grows under oaks, in 
clusters a most unusual character for the mushroom, and is said 
to be excellent for the table. An allied fungus peculiar to woods, 
with a less fleshy cap than the true mushroom, with hollow stem, 
and strong odour, has been described as a close ally of the pasture 
mushroom under the name of A. silvaticus; its qualities for the table 
have not been recorded. 

Many instances are on record of symptoms of poisoning, and 
even death, having followed the consumption of plants which have 
passed as true mushrooms; these cases have probably arisen from 
the examples consumed being in a state of decay, or from some mis- 
take as to the species eaten. It should always be specially noted 
whether the fungi to be consumed are in a fresh and wholesome 
condition, otherwise they act as a poison in precisely the same way 
as does any other semi-putrid vegetable. Many instances are on 
record where mushroom-beds have been invaded by a growth of 
strange fungi and the true mushrooms have been ousted to the advan- 
tage of the new-comers. When mushrooms are gathered for sale 
by persons unacquainted with the different species mistakes are of 
frequent _ occurrence. A very common spurious mushroom in 
markets is A. velutinus, a slender, ringless, hollow-stemmed, black- 
gilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it 
is about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in all its parts and far 
more brittle ; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the 
cap when fresh. Another spurious mushroom, and equally common 
in dealers' baskets, is A. lacrymabundus; this grows in the same posi- 
tions as the last, and is somewhat fleshier and more like a true mush- 
room; it has a hollow stem and a slight ring, the gills are black-brown' 
mottled and generally studded with tear-like drops of moisture. 
In both these species the gills distinctly touch and grow on to the 
stem. Besides these there are numerous other black-gilled species 
which find a place in baskets some species far too small to bear 


7 1 

any resemblance to a mushroom, others large and deliquescent, 

f:nerally belonging to the stump- and dung-borne genus Coprinus. 
he true mushroom itself is to a great extent a dung-borne species, 
therefore mushroom-beds are always liable to an invasion from other 
dung-borne forms. The spores of all fungi are constantly floating 
about in the air, and when the spores of dung-infesting species 
alight on a mushroom-bed they find a nidus already prepared that 
exactly suits them; and if the spawn of the new-comer becomes 
more profuse than that of the mushroom the stranger takes up his 
position at the expense of the mushroom. There is also a fungus 
named Xylaria vaporaria, which sometimes fixes itself on mushroom- 
beds and produces such an enormous quantity of string-like spawn 
that the entire destruction of the bed results. This spawn is some- 
times so profuse that it is pulled out of the beds in enormous masses 
and carted away in barrows. 

Sometimes cases of poisoning follow the consumption of what 
have really appeared to gardeners to be true bed-mushrooms, and 
to country folks as small horse mushrooms. The case is made more 
complicated by the fact that these highly poisonous forms now and 
then appear upon mushroom-beds to the exclusion of the mush- 
rooms. This dangerous counterfeit is A . fastibilis, or sometimes A . 
crustuliniformis, a close ally if not indeed a mere variety of the first. 
A description of one will do for both, A. fastibilis being a little the 
more slender of the two. Both have fleshy caps, whitish, moist and 
clammy to the touch ; instead of a pleasant odour, they have a dis- 
agreeable one; the stems are ringless, or nearly so; and the gills, 
which are palish-clay-brown, distinctly touch and grow on to the 
solid or pithy stem. These two fungi usually grow in woods, but 
sometimes in hedges and in shady places in meadows, or even, as has 
been said, as invaders on mushroom-beds. The pale clay-coloured 
gills, offensive odour, and clammy or even viscid top are decisive 
characters. A reference to the accompanying illustration (fig. 2), 
which is about one-half natural size, will give a good idea of A. 
fastibilis; the difference in the nature of the attachment of the gills 
near the stem is seen at R, the absence of a true ring at s, and of a 
pendent frill at x. The colour, with the exception of the gills, is 
not unlike that of the mushroom. In determining fungi no single 
character must be relied upon as conclusive, but all the characters 
must be taken together. Sometimes a beautiful, somewhat slender, 
fungus peculiar to stumps in woods is mistaken for the mushroom in 
A. cervinus; it has a tall, solid, white, ringless stem and somewhat 
thin brown cap, furnished underneath with beautiful rose-coloured 
gills, which are free from the stem as in the mushroom, and which 

FIG. 2. Poisonous Mushroom (Agaricus fastibilis). 

never turn black. It is probably a poisonous plant, belonging, as it 
does, to a dangerous cohort. Many other species of Agaricus more 
or less resemble A. campestris, notably some of the plants found 
under the sub-genera Lepiota, Volvaria, Pholiota and Psalliota; 
but when the characters are noted they may all with a little care 
be easily distinguished from each other. The better plan is to 
discard at once all fungi which have not been gathered from open 
pastures; by this act alone more than nine-tenths of worthless and 
poisonous species will be excluded. 

In cases of poisoning by mushrooms immediate medical advice 
should be secured. The dangerous principle is a narcotic, and the 
symptoms are usually great nausea, drowsiness, stupor and pains 
in the joints. A good palliative is sweet oil; this will allay any 
corrosive irritation of the throat and stomach, and at the same 
time cause vomiting. 

Paris mushrooms are cultivated in enormous quantities in dark 
underground cellars at a depth of from 60 to 160 ft. from the surface. 
The stable manure is taken into the tortuous passages of these cellars, 
and the spawn introduced from masses of dry dung where it occurs 
naturally. In France mushroom-growers do not use the compact 
blocks or bricks of spawn so familiar in England, but much smaller 
flakes or " leaves " of dry dung in which the spawn or mycelium can 
be seen to exist. Less manure is used in these cellars than we 
generally see in the mushroom-houses of England, and the surface 
of each bed is covered with about an inch of fine white stony soil. 
The beds are kept artificially moist by the application of water 
brought from the surface, and the different galleries bear crops in 
succession. As one is exhausted another is in full bearing, so that 

by a systematic arrangement a single proprietor wiH send to the 
surface from 300 Ib to 3000 Ib of mushrooms per day. The passages 
sometimes extend over several miles, the beds sometimes occupying 
over 20 m., and, as there are many proprietors of cellars, the produce 
of mushrooms is so large that not only is Paris fully supplied, but 
vast quantities are forwarded to the different large towns of Europe; 
the mushrooms are not allowed to reach the fully expanded condi- 
tion, but are gathered in a large button state, the whole growth of 
the mushroom being removed and the hole left in the manure 
covered with fine earth. The beds remain in bearing for six or 
eight months, and then the spent manure is taken to the surface 
again for garden and field purposes. The equable temperature of 
these cellars and their freedom from draught is one cause of their 
great success; to this must be added the natural virgin spawn, 
for by continually using spawn taken from mushroom-producing 
beds the potency for reproduction is weakened. The beds produce 
mushrooms in about six weeks after this spawning. 

The common mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is propagated by 
spores, the fine black dust seen to be thrown off when a mature speci- 
men is laid on white paper or a white dish ; these give rise to what 
is known as the " spawn " or mycelium, which consists of whitish 
threads permeating dried dung or similar substances, and which, 
when planted in a proper medium, runs through the mass, and even- 
tually develops the fructification known as the mushroom. This 
'spawn may be obtained from old pastures, or decayed mushroom 
beds, and is purchased from nurserymen in the form of bricks 
charged with the mycelium, and technically known as mushroom 
spawn. When once obtained, it may be indefinitely preserved. 
It may be produced by placing quantities of horse-dung saturated 
with the urine of horses, especially of stud horses, with alternate 
layers of rich earth, and covering the whole with straw, to_ exclude 
rain and air; the spawn commonly appears in the heap in about 
two months afterwards. The droppings of stall-fed horses, or of 
such as have been kept on dry food, should be made use of. 

The old method of growing mushrooms in ridges out of doors, or 
on prepared beds either level or sloping from a back wall in sheds or 
cellars, may generally be adopted with success. The beds are formed 
of horse-droppings which have been slightly fermented and frequently 
turned, and may be made 2 or 3 ft. broad and of any length. A layer 
of dung about 8 or 10 in. thick is first deposited, and covered with a 
light dryish earth to the depth of 2 in. ; and two similar layers with 
similar coverings are added, the whole being made narrower as it 
advances in height. When the bed is finished, it is covered with 
straw to protect it from rain, and also from parching influences. 
In about ten days, when the mass is milkwarm, the bed will be 
ready for spawning, which consists of inserting small pieces of spawn 
bricks into the sloping sides of the bed, about 6 in. asunder. A layer 
of fine earth is then placed over the whole, and well beaten down, 
and the surface is covered with a thick coat of straw. When the 
weather is temperate, mushrooms will appear in about a month after 
the bed has been made, but at other times a much longer period may 
elapse. The principal things to be attended to are to preserve a 
moderate state of moisture and a proper mild degree of warmth; 
and the treatment must vary according to the season. 

These ordinary ridge beds furnish a good supply towards the end 
of summer, and in autumn. To command a regular supply, how- 
ever, at all seasons, the use of a mushroom-house will be Found very 
convenient. The material employed in all cases is the droppings of 
horses, which should be collected fresh, and spread out in thin layers 
in a dry place, a portion of the short litter being retained well mois- 
tened by horse-urine. It should then be thrown together in ridges 
and frequently turned, so as to be kept in an incipient state of fer- 
mentation, a little dryish friable loam being mixed with it to retain 
the ammonia given off by the dung. With this or a mixture of 
horse-dung, loam, old mushroom-bed dung, and half-decayed leaves, 
the beds are built up in successive layers of about 3 in. thick, each 
layer being beaten firm, until the bed is 9 or 10 in. thick. If the heat 
exceeds 80", holes should be made to moderate the fermentation. 
The beds are to be spawned when the heat moderates, and the surface 
is then covered with a sprinkling of warmed loam, which after 
a few days is made up to a thickness of 2 in., and well beaten down. 
The beds made partly of old mushroom-bed dung often contain 
sufficient spawn to yield a crop, without the introduction of brick or 
cake spawn, but it is advisable to spawn them in the regular way. 
The spawn should be introduced an inch or two below the surface 
when the heat has declined to about 75, indeed the bed ought never 
to exceed 80. The surface is to be afterwards covered with hay or 
litter. The atmospheric temperature should range from 60 to 65 
till the mushrooms appear, when it may drop a few degrees, but not 
lower than 55. If the beds require watering, water of about 80 
should be used, and it is preferable to moisten the covering of litter 
rather than the surface 01 the beds themselves. It is also beneficial, 
especially in the case of partially exhausted beds, to water with a 
dilute solution of nitre. For a winter supply the beds should be 
made towards the end of August, and the end of October. Slugs 
and woodlice are the worst enemies of mushroom crops. 

The Fairy-ring Champignon. This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, 
is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, 
although it is well known and frequently used both in a fresh and in 
a dry state in England. It is totally different in appearance from the 


pasture mushroom, and, like it, its characters are so distinct that 
there is hardly a possibility of making a mistake when its peculiari- 
ties are once comprehended. It has more than one advantage 
over the meadow mushroom in its extreme commonness, its profuse 
growth, the length of the season in which it may be gathered, the 
total absence of varietal forms, its adaptability for being dried and 
preserved for years, and its persistent delicious taste. It is by many 
esteemed as the best of all the edible fungi found in Great Britain. 
Like the mushroom, it grows in short open pastures and amongst 
the short grass of open roadsides; sometimes it appears on lawns, 
but it never occurs in woods or in damp shady places. Its natural 
habit is to grow in rings, and the grassy fairy-rings so frequent 
amongst the short grass of downs and pastures in the spring are 
generally caused by the nitrogenous manure applied to the soil 
in the previous autumn by the decay of a circle of these fungi. Many 
other fungi in addition to the fairy-ring champignon grow in circles, 
so that this habit must merely be taken with its other characters in 
cases of doubt. 

A glance at the illustration (fig. 3) will show how entirely the fairy- 
ring champignon differs from the mushroom. In the first place, it 

FIG. 3. The Fairy-ring Champignon (Marasmius oreades). 

is about one-half the size of a mushroom, and whitish-buff in every 
part, the gills always retaining this colour and never becoming 
salmon-coloured, brown or black. The stem is ;solid and corky, 
much more solid than the flesh of the cap, and perfectly smooth, 
never being furnished with the slightest trace of a ring. The buff- 
gills are far apart (v), and in this they greatly differ from the some- 
what crowded gills of the mushroom; the junction of the gills with 
the stem (w) also differs in character from the similar junction in the 
mushroom. The mushroom is a semi-deliquescent fungus which 
rapidly falls into putridity in decay, whilst the champignon dries 
up into a leathery substance in the sun, but speedily revives and takes 
its original form again after the first shower. To this character the 
fungus owes its generic name (Marasmius) as well as one of its most 
valuable qualities for the table, for examples may be gathered from 
June to November, and if carefully dried may be hung on strings 
for culinary purposes and preserved without deterioration for several 
years; indeed, many persons assert that the rich flavour of these 
fungi increases with years. Champignons are highly esteemed (and 
especially is this the case abroad) for adding a most delicious flavour 
to stews, soups and gravies. 

A fungus which may carelessly be mistaken for the mushroom is 
M . peronatus, but this grows in woods amongst dead leaves, and has a 
hairy base to the stem and a somewhat acrid taste. Another is M. 
urens ; this also generally grows in woods, but the gills are not nearly 
so deep, they soon become brownish, the stem is downy, and the taste 
is acrid. An Agaricus named A. dryophilus has sometimes been 
gathered in mistake for the champignon, but this too grows in woods 
where the champignon never grows ; it has a hollow instead of a solid 
stem, gills crowded together instead of far apart, and flesh very 
tender and brittle instead of tough. A small esculent ally of the 
champignon, named M. scovodonius, is sometimes found in pastures 
in Great Britain; this is largely consumed on the Continent, where 
it is esteemed for its powerful flavour of garlic. In England, where, 
garlic is not used to a large extent, this fungus is not sought for. 
Another small and common species, M. porreus, is pervaded with a 
garlic flavour to an equal extent with the last. A third species, 
M. alliaceus, is also strongly impregnated with the scent and taste 
of onions or garlic. Two species, M. impudicus and M. foetidus, 
are in all stages of growth highly foetid. The curious little edible 
Agaricus esculentus, although placed under the sub-genus Collybia, 
is allied by its structure to Marasmius. It is a small bitter species 
common in upland pastures and fir plantations early in the season. 
Although not gathered for the table in England, it is greatly prized 
in some parts of the Continent. 

MUSIC. The Greek juouffiK^ (sc. TX"?), from which this 
word is derived, was used very widely to embrace all those 
arts over which the Nine Muses (Mouaai) were held to preside. 
Contrasted with 7iywcumK^ (gymnastic) it included those 
branches of education concerned with the development of the 
mind as opposed to the body. Thus such widely different arts 
and sciences as mathematics, astronomy, poetry and literature 

generally, and even reading and writing would all fall under 
tiovaiKrj, besides the singing and setting of lyric poetry. On 
the educational value of music in the foimation of character 
the philosophers laid chief stress, and this biased their aesthetic 
analysis. 'Ap/iowa (harmony), or appoviKri (sc. Tt\vri), rather 
than fiowM'ht was the name given by the Greeks to the art of 
arranging sounds for the purpose of creating a definite aesthetic 
impression, with which this article deals. 


i. Introduction. As a mature and independent art music 
is unknown except in the modern forms realized by Western 
civilization; ancient music, and the non-European music of the 
present day, being (with insignificant exceptions of a character 
which confirms the generalization) invariably an adjunct of poetry 
or dance, in so far as it is recognizable as an art at all. The 
modern art of music is in a unique position; for, while its language 
has'been wholly created by art, this language is yet so perfectly 
organized as to be in itself natural; so that though the music 
of one age or style may be at first unintelligible to a listener 
who is accustomed to another style, and though the listener 
may help himself by acquiring information as to the char- 
acteristics and meaning of the new style, he will best learn to 
understand it by merely divesting his mind of prejudices and 
allowing the music to make itself intelligible by its own self- 
consistency. The understanding of music thus finally depends 
neither upon t*ehnical knowledge nor upon convention, but 
upon the listener's immediate and familiar experience of it; 
an experience which technical knowledge and custom can of 
course aid him to acquire more rapidly, as they strengthen 
his memory and enable him to fix impressions by naming 

Beyond certain elementary facts of acoustics (see SOUND), 
modern music shows no direct connexion with nature inde- 
pendently of art; indeed, it is already art that determines the 
selection of these elementary acoustic facts, just as in painting 
art determines the selection of those facts that come under the 
cognizance of optics. 1 In music, however, the purely acoustic 
principles are incomparably fewer and simpler than the optical 
principles of painting, and their artistic interaction transforms 
them into something no less remote from the laboratory 
experiments of acoustic science than from the unorganized 
sounds of nature. The result is that while the ordinary non- 
artistic experiences of sight afford so much material for plastic 
art that the vulgar conception of good painting is that it is 
deceptively like nature, the ordinary non-artistic experience 
of sound has so little in common with music that musical 
realism is, with rare though popular exceptions, generally 
regarded as an eccentricity. 

This contrast between music and plastic art may be partly 
explained by the mental work undergone, during the earliest 
infancy both of the race and of the individual, in interpreting 
sensations of space. When a baby learns the shape of objects 
by taking them in his hands, and gradually advances to the 
discovery that his toes belong to him, he goes through an 
amount of work that is quite forgotten by the adult, and its 
complexity and difficulty has perhaps only been fully realized 
through the experience of persons who have been born blind 
but have acquired sight at a mature age by an operation. Such 
work gives the facts of normal adult vision an amount of organic 
principle that makes them admirable raw material for art. 
The power of distinguishing sensations of sound is associated 
with no such mental skill, and is no more complex than the 
power of distinguishing colours. On the other hand, sound 
is the principal medium by which most of the higher animals 
both express and excite emotion; and hence, though until 

1 Thus Chinese and Japanese art has attained high organization 
without the aid of a veracious perspective; while, on the other hand, 
its carefully formulated decorative principles, though not realistic, 
certainly rest on an optical and physiological basis. Again, many 
modern impressionists justify their methods by an appeal to pheno- 
mena of complementary colour which earlier artists possibly did not 
perceive and certainly did not select as artistic materials. 




codified into human speech it does not give any raw material 
for art, yet so powerful are its primitive effects that music 
(in the laird-song sense of sound indulged in for its own attractive- 
ness) is as long prior to language as the brilliant colours of 
animals and flowers are prior to painting (see SONG). Again, 
sound as a warning or a menace is eminently important in the 
history of tLe instinct of self-preservation; and, above all, its 
production is instantaneous and instinctive. 

AH these facts, while they tend to make musical expression 
an early phenomenon in the history of life, are extremely 
unfavourable to the early development of musical art. They 
invested the first musical attempts with a mysterious power 
over listener and musician, by re-awakening instincts more 
powerful, because more ancient and necessary, than any that 
could ever have been appealed to by so deliberate a process 
as that of drawing on a flat surface a series of lines calculated 
to remind the eye of the appearance of solid objects in space. 
It is hardly surprising that music long remained as imperfect 
as its legendary powers were portentous, even in the hands of 
so supremely artistic a race as that of classical Greece; and what- 
ever wonder this backwardness might still arouse in us vanishes 
when we realize the extreme difficulty of the process by which 
the principles of the modern art were established. 

2. Non-harmonic and Greek Music. Archaic music is of 
two kinds the unwritten, or spontaneous, and the recorded, 
or scientific. The earliest musical art-problems were far too 
difficult for conscious analysis, but by no means always beyond 
the reach of a lucky hit from an inspired singer; and thus folk- 
music often shows real beauty where the more systematic music 
of the time is merely arbitrary. Moreover, folk-music and the 
present music of barbarous and civilized non-European races 
furnish the study of musical origins with material analogous to 
that given by the present manners and customs of different races 
in the study of social evolution and ancient history. We may 
mention as examples the accurate comparison of the musical 
scales of non-European races undertaken by A. J. Ellis {On 
the Musical Scales of Various Nations, 1885); the parallel 
researches and acute and cautious reasoning of his friend and 
- collaborator, A. J. Hipkins (Ddrian and Phrygian reconsidered 
from a Non-harmonic Point of View, 1902); and, perhaps most 
of all, the study of Japanese music, with its remarkable if 
uncertain signs of the beginning of a harmonic tendency, its 
logical coherence, and its affinity to Western scales, points 
in which it seems to show a great advance upon the Chinese 
music from which most of it is derived (Music and Musical 
Instruments of Japan, by J. F. Piggott, 1893). The reader will 
find detailed accounts of ancient Greek music in the article 
on that subject in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians 
(new ed., ii. 223) and in Monro's Modes of Ancient Greek Music 
(Clarendon Press, 1894), while both the Greek music itself, 
and the steps by which it passed through Graeco-Roman and 
early Christian phases to become the foundation of the modern 
art, are traced as clearly as is consistent with accuracy in 
The Oxford History of Music, vol. i., by Professor Wooldridge. 
Sir Hubert Parry's Evolution of the Art of Music (" International 
Scientific Series," originally published under the title of The 
Art of Music) presents the main lines of the evolution of modern 
musical ideas in the clearest and most readable form yet 

Sir Hubert Parry illustrates in this work the artificiality of 
our modern musical conceptions by the word " cadence," 
which to a modern musician belies its etymology, since it 
normally means for him no " falling " close but a pair of final 
chords rising from dominant to tonic. Moreover, in consequence 
of our harmonic notions we think of scales as constructed from 
the bottom upwards; and even in the above-mentioned article 
in Grove's Dictionary all the Greek scales are, from sheer force 
of habit, written upwards. But the ancient and, almost 
universally, the primitive idea of music is like that of speech, 
in which most inflections are in fact cadences, while rising 
inflexions express less usual sentiments, such as surprise or 
interrogation. Again, our modern musical idea of " high " 

and " low " is probably derived from a sense of greater and less 
vocal effort; and it has been much stimulated by our harmonic 
sense, which has necessitated a range of sounds incomparably 
greater than those employed in any non-harmonic system. 
The Greeks derived their use of the terms from the position 
of notes on their instruments; and the Greek hypate was what 
we should call the lowest note of the mode, while nete was the 
highest. Sir George Macfarren has pointed out (Ericy. Brit., 
9th ed., art. " Music ") that Boethius (c. A.D. 500) already fell 
into the trap and turned the Greek modes upside down. * 

Another radical though less grotesque misconception was 
also already well exploded by Macfarren ; but it still frequently 
survives at the present day, since the study of non-harmonic 
scales is, with the best of intentions, apt rather to encourage 
than to dispel it. The more we realize the importance of 
differences in position of intervals of various sizes, as producing 
differences of character in scales, the more irresistible is the 
temptation to regard the ancient Greek modes as differing from 
each other in this way. And the temptation becomes greater 
instead of less when we have succeeded in thinking away our 
modern harmonic notions. Modern harmonization enormously 
increases the differences of expression between modes of which 
the melodic intervals are different, but it does this in a fashion 
that draws the attention almost entirely away from these 
differences of interval; and without harmony we find it extremely 
difficult to distinguish one mode from another, unless it be 
by this different arrangement of intervals. Nevertheless, all 
the evidence irresistibly tends to the conclusion that while the 
three Greek genera diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic 
were scales differing in intervals, the Greek modes were a series 
of scales identical in arrangement of interval, and differing, 
like our modern keys, only in pitch. The three genera were 
applied to all these modes or keys, and we have no difficulty 
in understanding their modifying effects. But the only clue 
we have to the mental process by which in a preharmonic age 
different characteristics can be ascribed to scales identical in 
all but pitch, is to be found in the limited compass of Greek 
musical sounds, corresponding as it does to the evident sensitive- 
ness of the Greek ear to differences in vocal effort. We have 
only to observe the compass of the Greek scale to see that in 
the most esteemed modes it is much more the compass of speaking 
than of singing voices. Modern singing is normally at a much 
higher pitch than that of the speaking voice, but there is no 
natural reason, outside the peculiar nature of modern music, 
why this should be so. It is highly probable that all modern 
singing would strike a classical Greek ear as an outcry; and 
in any case such variations of pitch as are inconsiderable in 
modern singing are extremely emphatic in the speaking voice,, 
so that they might well make all the difference to an ear un- 
accustomed to organized sound beyond the speaking compass. 
Again, much that Aristoxenus and other ancient authorities 
say of the character of the modes (or keys) tends to confirm 
the view that that character depends upon the position of the 
mese or keynote within the general compass. Thus Aristotle 
(Politics, v. (viii.) 7, 1342 b. 20) states that certain low-pitched 
modes suit the voices of old men, and thus we may conjecture 
that even the position of tones and semitones might in the 
Dorian and Phrygian modes bring the bolder portion of the 
scale in all three genera into the best regions of the average 
young voice, while the Ionian and Lydian might lead the voice 
to dwell more upon semitones and enharmonic intervals, and 
so account for the heroic character of the former and the sensual 
character of the latter (Plato, Republic, 398 to 400). 

Of the Greek genera, the chromatic and enharmonic (especially 

1 It is worth adding that in the i6th century the great contrapun- 
tal composer Costanzo Porta had been led by doubts on the subject 
to the wonderful conclusion that ancient Greek music was poly- 
phonic, and so constructed as to be invertible ; in illustration of which 
theory he and Vincentino composed four-part motets in each of the 
Greek genera (diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic), Porta's being 
constructed like the I2th and I3th fugues in Bach's Kunst der Fuge 
so as to be equally euphonious when sung upside down! (See 
Hawkins's History of Music, i. 112.) 




the latter) show very clearly the origin of so many primitive 
scales in the interval of the downward fourth. That interval 
'(e.g. from C to G) is believed to be the earliest melodic relation- 
ship which the ear learnt to fix; and most of the primitive scales 
were formed by the accretion of auxiliary notes at the bottom 
of this interval, and the addition of a similar interval, with 
similar accretions, below the former. In this way a pentatonic 
scale, like that of so many Scotch melodies, can easily be formed 
(thus, C, A, G; F, D, C) ; and though some primitive scales seem 
to have been on the nucleus of the rising fifth,' while the Siamese 
now use two scales of which not a single note within the octave 
can be accounted for by any known principle, still we may 
consider that for general historic purposes the above example 
is typical. The Greeks divided their downward fourth into 
four notes, called a tetrachord; and by an elaborate system of 
linking tetrachords together they gave their scale a compass 
of two octaves. The enharmonic tetrachord, being the most 
ancient, gathered the lower three notes very closely to the 
bottom, leaving the second note no less than a major third 
from the top, thus C,Ab, G', G; (where G' stands for a note 
between Ab and G). The chromatic tetrachord was C, Bbb, 
Ab, G; and the diatonic tetrachord was C, Bb, Ab, G. It is this 
last that has become the foundation of modern music, and the 
Greeks themselves soon preferred it to the other genera and 
found a scientific basis for it. In the first place they noticed 
that its notes (and, 'less easily, the notes of the chromatic scale) 
could be connected by a series of those intervals which they 
recognized as concordant. These were, the fourth; its converse, 
or inversion, the fifth; and the octave. The notes of the enhar- 
monic tetrachord could not be connected by any such series. 
In the articles on HARMONY and SOUND account is given of 
the historic and scientific foundations of the modern conception 
of concord; and although this harmonic conception applies 
to simultaneous notes, while the Greeks concerned themselves 
only with successive notes, it is nevertheless permissible to 
regard the Greek sense of concord in successive notes as con- 
taining the germ of our harmonic sense. The stability of the 
diatonic scale was assured as early as the 6th century B.C. when 
Pythagoras discovered (if he did not learn from Egypt or India) 
the extremely simple mathematical proportions of its intervals. 
And this discovery was of unique importance, as fixing the 
intervals by a criterion that could never be obscured by the 
changes of taste and custom otherwise inevitable in music that 
has no conscious harmonic principles to guide it. At the same 
time, the foundation of a music as yet immature and ancillary 
to drama, on an acoustic science ancillary to a priori mathe- 
matics, was not without disadvantage to the art; and it is 
arguable that the great difficulty with which during the 
medieval beginnings of modern harmony the concords of the 
third and sixth were rationalized may have been increased by 
the fact that the Pythagorean system left these intervals con- 
siderably out of tune. In preharmonic times mathematics 
could not direct even the most observant ear to the study of 
those phenomena of upper partials of which Helmholtz, in 
1863, was the first to explain the significance; and thus though 
the Greeks knew the difference between a major and minor 
tone, on which half the question depended, they could not 
possibly arrive at the modern reasons for adding both kinds 
of tone in order to make the major third. (See SOUND.) 

Here we must digress in order to illustrate what is implied 
by our modern harmonic sense; for the difference that this 
makes to our whole musical consciousness is by no means uni- 
versally realized. Music, as we now understand it, expresses 
itself in the interaction of three elements rhythm, melody and 
harmony. The first two are obviously as ancient as human 
consciousness itself. Without the third a musical art of per- 
manent value and intelligibility has not been known to attain 
independent existence. With harmony music assumes the 
existence of a kind of space in three dimensions, none of which 
can subsist without at least implying the others. When we 
hear an unaccompanied melody we cannot help interpreting 
it in the light of its most probable harmonies. Hence, when 

it does not imply consistent harmonies it seems to us quaint 
or strange; because, unless it is very remote from our harmonic 
conceptions, it at least implies at any given moment some 
simple harmony which in the next moment it contradicts. 
Thus our inferences as to the expression intended by music 
that has not come under European influence are unsafe, and 
the pleasure we take in such music is capricious. The effort of 
thinking away our harmonic preconceptions is probably the 
most violent piece of mental gymnastics in all artistic experience, 
and furnishes much excuse for a sceptical attitude as to the 
artistic value of preharmonic music, which has at all events 
never become even partially independent of poetry and dance. 
Thus the rhythm of classical Greek music seems to have been 
entirely identical with that of verse, and its beauty and ex- 
pression appreciated in virtue of that identity. From the modern 
musical point of view the rhythm of words is limited to a merely 
monotonous uniformity of flow, with minute undulations which 
are musically chaotic (see RHYTHM). The example of Greek 
tragedy, with the reports of its all-pervading music (in many 
cases, as in that of Aeschylus, composed by the dramatist 
himself) could not fail to fire the imaginations of modern pioneers 
and reformers of opera; and Monteverde, Gluck and Wagner 
convinced themselves and their contemporaries that their work 
was, amongst other things, a revival of Greek tragedy. But all 
that is known of Greek music shows that it represents no such 
modern ideas, as far as their really musical aspect is concerned. 
It represents, rather, an organization of the rise and fall of the 
voice, no doubt as elaborate and artistic as the organization 
of verse, no doubt powerful in heightening the emotional and 
dramatic effect of words and action, but in no way essential 
to the understanding or the organization of the works which it 
adorned. The classical Greek preference for the diatonic scale 
indicates a latent harmonic sense and also that temperance 
which is at the foundation of the general Greek sense of beauty; 
but, beyond this and similar generalities, all the research in the 
world will not enable us to understand the Greek musician's 
mind. Non-harmonic music is a world of two dimensions, and 
we must now inquire how men came to rise from this " flat kind " 
to the solid world of sound in which Palestrina, Bach, Beethoven 
and Wagner live. 

3. Harmonic Origins. Although the simultaneous blending 
of different sounds was never seriously contemplated by the 
Greeks, yet in classical times they were fond of singing with 
high and low voices in octaves. This was called magadizing, 
from the name of an instrument on which playing in octaves 
was rendered easy by means of a bridge that divided the strings 
at two-thirds of their length. While the practice was esteemed 
for the beauty of the blending of different voices, it was tolerated 
only because of the peculiar effect of identity furnished by 
the different notes of the octave, and no other interval was so 
used by the Greeks. In the article on HARMONY the degrees of 
identity-in-difference which characterize the simpler harmonic 
intervals are analysed, and the main steps are indicated by which 
the more complicated medieval magadizing uses of the fourth 
and fifth (the symphonia, diaphonia or organum of Hucbald) 
gave way (partly by their own interchange and partly through 
experiments in the introduction of ornaments and variety) 
to the modern conception of harmony as consisting of voices 
or parts that move independently to the exclusion of such parallel 
motion. In The Oxjord History of Music, vols. i. and ii., will 
be found abundant examples of every stage of the process, 
which begins with the organum or diaphony that prevailed 
until the death of Guido of Arezzo (about 1050) and passes 
through the discant, or measured music, of the I3th century, 
in which rhythm is first organized on a sufficiently firm basis to 
enable voices to sing contrasted rhythms simultaneously, 
while the new harmonic criterion of the independence of parts 
more and more displaces and shows its opposition to the old 
criterion of parallelism. 

The most extraordinary example of these conflicting principles 
is the famous rota " Sumer is icumen in," a 13th-century round 
in four parts on a canonic ground-bass in two. Recent researches 




have brought to light a number of works in the forms of motet, 
conductus, rondel (neither the later rondo nor the round, but a 
kind of triple counterpoint), which show that " Sumer is icumen 
in " contains no unique technical feature; but no work within 
two centuries of its date attains a style so nearly intelligible 
to modern ears. Its richness and firmness of harmony are 
such that the frequent use of consecutive fifths and octaves, 
in strict accordance with 13th-century principles, has to our 
ears all the effect of a series of grammatical blunders, so sharply 
does it contrast with the smooth counterpoint of the rest. In 
what light this smooth counterpoint struck contemporaries, 
or how its author (who may or may not be the writer of the 
Reading MS., John of Fornsete) arrived at it, is not clear, 
though W. S. Rockstro's amusing article, " Sumer is icumen 
in," in Grove's Dictionary, is very plausible. All that we know is 
that music in England in the I3th century must have been at 
a comparatively high state of development; and we may also 
conjecture that the tuneful character of this wonderful rota 
has something in common with the unwritten but famous 
songs of the aristocratic troubadours, or trouveres, of the izth 
and i3th centuries, who, while disdaining to practise the art of 
accompaniment or the art of scientific and written music, 
undoubtedly set the fashion in melody, and, being themselves 
poets as well as singers, formed the current notions as to the 
relations between musical and poetic rhythm. The music 
of Adam de la Hale, surnamed Le Bossu d' Arras (c. 1230-1288), 
shows the transformation of the troubadour into the learned 
musician; and, nearly a century later, the more ambitious 
efforts of a greater French poet (like his contemporary Petrarca, 
one of Chaucer's models in poetic technique), Guillaume de 
Machault (fl. 1350), mark a further technical advance, though they 
are not appreciably more intelligible to the modern ear. 

In the next century we find an Englishman, John Dunstable, 
who had as early as 1437 acquired a European reputation; 
while his works were so soon lost sight of that until recently 
he was almost a legendary character, sometimes revered as the 
" inventor " of counterpoint, and once or twice even identified 
with St Dunstan! Recently a great deal of his work has come 
to light, and it shows us (especially when taken in connexion 
with the fact that the early Netherlandish master, G. Dufay, 
did not die until 1474, twenty-one years after Dunstable) that 
English counterpoint was fully capable of showing the composers 
of the Netherlands the path by which they were to reach the 
art of the " Golden age." In such examples of Dunstable's work 
as that appended to the article " Dunstable " in Grove's 
Dictionary (new ed., i. 744) we see music approaching a style 
more or less consistently intelligible to a modern ear; and in 
English Carols of the z^th Century (1891) several two-part 
compositions of the period, in a style resembling Dunstable's, 
have been made accessible to modern readers and filled out into 
four-part music by the editor " in accordance with the rules 
of the time." And though it may be doubted whether Mr 
Rockstro's skill would not have been held in the 1 5th century to 
savour overmuch of the Black Art, still the success of his attempt 
shows that the musical conceptions he is dealing with are no 
longer radically different from those of our modern musical 

4. The Golden Age. The struggle towards the realization 
of mature musical art seems incredibly slow when we do not 
realize its difficulty, and wonderfully rapid as soon as we attempt 
to imagine the effort of first forming those harmonic conceptions 
which are second nature to us. Even at the time of Dunstable 
and Dufay the development of the contrapuntal idea of inde- 
pendence of parts had not yet so transformed the harmonic 
consciousness that the ancient parallelisms or consecutive 
fourths and fifths that were the backbone of discant could 
be seen in their true light as contradictory to the contrapuntal 
method. By the beginning of the i6th century, however, the 
laws of counterpoint were substantially fixed; practice was 
for a while imperfect, and aims still uncertain, but skill was 
increasing and soon became marvellous; and in 16th-century 
music we leave the archaic world altogether. Henceforth music 

may show various phenomena of crudeness, decadence and 
transition, but its transition-periods will always derive light 
from the past, whatever the darkness of the future. 

In the best music of the i6th century we have no need of 
research or mental gymnastics, beyond what is necessary in 
all art to secure intelligent presentation and attention. Its 
materials show us the " three dimensions " of music in their 
simplest state of perfect balance. Rhythm, emancipated from 
the tyranny of verse, is free to co-ordinate and contrast a multi- 
tude of melodies which by the very independence of their flow 
produce a mass of harmony that passes from concord to concord 
through ordered varieties of transitional discord. The criterion 
of discord is no longer that of mere harshness, but is modified 
by the conception of the simplicity or remoteness of the steps 
by which the flux of independent simultaneous melodies passes 
from one concord, or point of repose, to another. When the 
music reaches a climax, or its final conclusion, the point of 
repose is, of course, greatly emphasized. It is accordingly the 
" cadences " or full closes of 16th-century music that show 
the greatest resemblance to the harmonic ideas of the present 
day; and it is also at these points that certain notes were most 
frequently raised so as to modify the ecclesiastical modes which 
are derived more or less directly from the melodic diatonic 
scale of the Greeks, and misnamed, according to inevitable 
medieval misconceptions, after the Greek modes. 1 

In other passages our modern ears, when unaccustomed to 
the style, feel that the harmony is strange and lacking in definite 
direction; and we are apt to form the hasty conclusion that the 
mode is an archaic survival. A more familiar acquaintance 
with the art soon shows that its shifting and vague modulations 
are no mere survival of a scale inadequate for any but melodic 
purposes, but the natural result of a state of things in which only 
two species of chord are available as points of repose at all. If 
no successions of such chords were given prominence, except those 
that define key according to modern notions based upon a much 
greater variety of harmony, the resulting monotony and triviality 
would be intolerable. Moreover, there is in this music just 
as much and no more of formal antithesis and sequence as its 
harmony will suffice to hold together. Lastly, we shall find, 
on comparing the masterpieces of the period with works of 
inferior rank, that in the masterpieces the most archaic modal 
features are expressive, varied and beautiful; while in the inferior 
works they are often avoided in favour of ordinary modern 
ideas, and, when they occur, are always accidental and monoto- 
nous, although in strict conformity with the rules of the time. 
The consistent limitations of harmony, form and rhythm have 
the further consequence that the only artistic music possible 
within them is purely vocal. The use of instruments is little 
more than a necessary evil for the support of voices in case of 
insufficient opportunity for practice; and although the origins 
of instrumental music are already of some artistic interest in 
the 1 6th century, we must leave them out of our account if our 
object is to present mature artistic ideas in proper proportions. 

The principles of 16th-century art-forms are discussed in 
more detail in the article on CONTRAPUNTAL FORMS. Here we 
will treat the formal criteria on a general basis; especially as 
with art on such simple principles the distinction between one 
art-form and another is apt to be either too external or too 
subtle for stability. With music there is a stronger probability 
than in any other art that merely mechanical devices will be 
self-evident, and thus they may become either dangerous or 
effective. With the masters of the Netherlands they speedily 
became both. Two adjacent groups of illustrations in Burney's 

1 The technical nature of the subject forbids us to discuss the 
origin and characteristics of the great Ambrosian and Gregorian 
collections of melodic church music on which nearly all medieval 
and 16th-century polyphony was based, and from which the ecclesi- 
astical modes were derived. Professor Wooldridge in The Oxford 
History of Music, i. 20-44, has shown- the continuity of this early 
Christian music with the Graeco- Roman music, and the origin of its 
modes in the Ptolemaic modification (c. A.D. 150) of the Greek 
diatonic scale; while a recent defence of the ecclesiastical tradi- 
tion of a revision by St Gregory will be found in the article on 
" Gregorian music " in Grove's Dictionary (new ed.), ii. 235. 

7 6 



History of Music will show on the one hand the astonishing 
way in which early polyphonic composers learnt to " dance 
in fetters," and, on the other hand, tne expressive power that 
they attained by that discipline. Burney quotes from the 
venerable 15th-century master Okeghem, or Okenheim, some 
canons so designed as to be singable in all modes. They are 
by no means extreme cases of the ingenuity which Okenheim 
and his pupils often employed; but though they are not very 
valuable artistically (and are not even correctly deciphered 
by Burney) 1 they prove that mechanical principles may be a 
help rather than a hindrance to the attainment of a smooth 
and plastic style. Burney most appropriately follows them 
with Josquin Des Pres's wonderful Deploralion de Jehan Okenheim, 
in which the tenor sings the plain chant of the Requiem a degree 
below its proper pitch, while the other voices sing a pastoral 
dirge in French. The device of transposing the plain chant a 
note lower, and making the tenor sing it in that position through- 
out the whole piece, is obviously as mechanical as any form of 
acrostic: but it is happily calculated to impress our ears, even 
though, unlike Josquin's contemporaries, most of us are not 
familiar with the plain chant in its normal position; because 
it alters the position of all the semitones and gives the chant 
a plaintive minor character which is no less impressive in itself 
than as a contrast to the orthodox form. And the harmonic 
superstructure is as fine an instance of the expressive possibilities 
of the church modes at their apogee from modern tonality as 
could be found anywhere. A still nobler example, which we 
may perhaps acclaim as the earliest really sublime masterpiece 
in music, is Josquin's Miserere, which is accessible in a modern 
edition. In this monumental work one of the tenor parts is 
called Vagans, because it sings the burden Miserere mei Deus 
at regular intervals, in an almost monotonous wailing figure, 
wandering through each successive degree of the scale throughout 
the composition- The effect, aided as it is by consummate 
rhetorical power in every detail of the surrounding mass of 
harmony and counterpoint, is extremely expressive; and the 
device lends itself to every shade of feeling in the works of the 
greatest of all Netherland masters, Orlando di Lasso. Palestrina 
is less fond of it. Like all more obvious formal devices it is 
crowded out of his Roman art by the exquisite subtlety of his 
sense of proportion, and the exalted spirituality of his style 
which, while it allows him to set the letters of the Hebrew alphabet 
in the Lamentations of Jeremiah in much the same spirit as 
that in which they would be treated in an illuminated Bible, 
forbids him to stimulate a sense of form that might distract 
the mind from the sense of mystery and awe proper to objects 
of devout contemplation. Yet in one of his greatest motets, 
Tribularer si nescirem, the burden of Josquin's Miserere appears 
with the same treatment and purpose as in its prototype. 

But with the lesser Flemish masters, and sometimes with 
the greatest, such mechanical principles often became not only 
inexpressive but absolutely destructive to musical effect. The 
ingenuity necessary to make the stubborn material of music 
plastic was not so easily attainable as the ingenuity necessary 
to turn music into a mathematical game; and when Palestrina was 
in his prime the inferior composers so outnumbered the masters 
to whom music was a devout language, and so degraded the 
art, not only by ousting genuine musical expression but by 
foisting secular tunes and words into the church services, that 
one of the minor questions with which the Council of Trent 
was concerned was whether polyphonic church music should be 
totally abolished with other abuses, or whether it was capable 
of reform. Legendary history relates that Palestrina submitted 
for judgment three masses of which the Missa papae Marcelli 
proved to be so sublime that it was henceforth accepted as the 
ideal church music (see PALESTRINA). This tale is difficult to 
reconcile with the chronology of Palestrina's works, but there is 
no doubt that Palestrina was officially recognized by the Church 
as a bulwark against bad taste. But we must not allow 
this to mislead us as to the value of church music before 

' * The correct version will be found in The Oxford History of Music, 
ii. 215. 

Palestrina. Nor must we follow the example of Baini, who, 
in his detestation of what he is pleased to call fiammingo squalore, 
views with uncritical suspicion any work in which Palestrina 
does not confine himself to strictly Italian methods of expression. 
A notion still prevails that Josquin represents counterpoint in 
an anatomical perfection into which Palestrina was the first 
to breathe life and soul. This gives an altogether inadequate 
idea of 16th-century music. Palestrina brought the century to a 
glorious close and is undoubtedly its greatest master, but he 
is primus inter pares; and in every part of Europe music was 
represented, even before the middle of the century, by masters 
who have every claim to immortality that sincerity of aim, 
completeness of range, and depth and perfection of style can 
give. It has been rightly called the golden age of music, and 
our chronological table at the end of this article gives but an 
inadequate idea of the number of its masters whom no lover 
of music ought to neglect. It is not exclusively an age of church 
music. It is also the age of madrigals, both secular and spiritual ; 
and, small as was its range of expression, there has been no 
period in musical art when the distinctions between secular and 
ecclesiastical style were more accurately maintained by the great 
masters, as is abundantly shown by the test cases in which 
masses of the best period have been based on secular themes. 

5. The Monadic Resolution and its Results. Like all golden 
ages, that of music vanished at the first appearance of a knowledge 
beyond its limitations. The first and simplest realization of 
mature art is widespread and nourishes a veritable army of great 
men; its masterpieces are innumerable, and its organization 
is so complete that no narrowness or specialization can be felt 
in the nature of its limitations. Yet these are exceedingly 
close, and the most modest attempt to widen them may have 
disastrous results. Many experiments were tried before Pales- 
trina's death and throughout the century, notably by the 
elder and younger Gabrieli. Perhaps Palestrina himself is 
the only great composer of the time who never violates the 
principles of his art. Orlando di Lasso, unlike Palestrina, 
wrote almost as much secular as sacred music, and in his youth 
indulged in many eccentricities in a chromatic style which he 
afterwards learnt to detest. But if experiments are to revolu- 
tionize art it is necessary that their novelty shall already embody 
some artistic principle of coherence. No such principle will 
avail to connect the Phrygian mode with a chord containing A$; 
and, however proud the youthful Orlando di Lasso may be at 
being the first to write A#, neither his early chromatic experiments 
nor those of Cipriano di Rore, which he admired so much, left 
a mark on musical history. They appealed to nothing deeper 
than a desire for sensational variety of harmony; and, while 
they carried the successions of chords far beyond the limits 
of the modes, they brought no new elements into the chords 

By the beginning of the I7th century the true revolutionary 
principles were vigorously at work, and the powerful genius 
of Monteverde speedily made it impossible for men of impres- 
sionable artistic temper to continue to work in the old 
style when such vast new regions of thought lay open to 
them. In the year of Palestrina's death, 1594, Monteverde pub- 
lished, in his third book of madrigals, works in which without 
going irrevocably beyond the letter of 16th-century law he showed 
far more zeal for emotional expression than sense of euphony. 
In 1 599 he published madrigals in which his means of expression 
involve harmonic principles altogether incompatible with 16th- 
century ideas. But he soon ceased to place confidence in the 
madrigal as an adequate art-form for his new ideals of expression, 
and he found an unlimited field in musical drama. Dramatic 
music received its first stimulus from a group of Florentine 
dilettanti, who aspired amongst other things to revive the ideals of 
Greek tragedy. Under their auspices the first true opera 
ever performed in public, Jacopo Peri's Euridice, appeared in 
1600. Monteverde found the conditions of dramatic music 
more favourable to his experiments than those of choral music, 
in which both voices and ears are at their highest sensibility 




to discord. Instruments do not blend like voices; and players, 
producing their notes by more mechanical means, have not 
the singer's difficulty in making combinations which the ear 
does not readily understand. 

The one difficulty of the new art was fatal: there were no 
limitations. When Monteverde introduced his unprepared 
discords, the effect upon musical style was like that of intro- 
ducing modern metaphors into classical Greek. There were 
no harmonic principles to control the new material, except 
those which just sufficed to hold together the pure loth-century 
style; and that style depended on an exquisite continuity of 
flow which was incompatible with any rigidity either of har- 
mony or rhythm. Accordingly there were also no rhythmic 
principles to hold Monteverde's work together, except such 
as could be borrowed from types of secular and popular music 
that had hitherto been beneath serious attention. If the i7th 
century seems almost devoid of great musical names it is not 
for want of incessant musical activity. The task of organizing 
new resources into a consistent language was too gigantic to 
be accomplished within three generations. Its fascinating 
dramatic suggestiveness and incalculable range disguised for 
those who first undertook it the fact that the new art was as 
difficult and elementary in its beginnings as the very beginning 
of harmony itself in the I3th and i4th centuries. And the 
most beautiful compositions at the beginning of the I7th century 
are rather those which show the decadence of 16th-century art 
than those in which the new principles were most consistently 
adopted. Thus the madrigals of Monteverde, though often 
dull and always rough, contain more music than his operas. 
On the other hand, almost until the middle of the xyth century 
great men were not wanting who still carried on the pure 
polyphonic style. Their asceticism denotes a spirit less compre- 
hensive than that of the great artists for whom the golden age 
was a natural environment; but in parts of the world where the 
new influences did not yet prevail even this is not the case, 
and a composer like Orlando Gibbons, who died in 1625, is 
well worthy to be ranked with the great Italian and Flemish 
masters of the preceding century. 

But the main task of composers of the iyth century lay 
elsewhere; and if the result of their steady attention to it was 
trivial in comparison with the glories of the past, it at least 
led to the glories of the greater world organized by Bach and 
Handel. The early monodists, Monteverde and his fellows, 
directed attention to the right quarter in attempting to express 
emotion by means of single voices supported by instruments; 
but the formless declamation of their dramatic writings soon 
proved too monotonous for permanent interest, and such method 
as it showed became permanent only by being codified into 
the formulas of recitative, which are, for the most part, very 
happy idealizations of speech-cadence, and which accordingly 
survive as dramatic elements in music at the present day, 
though, like all rhetorical figures, they have often lost meaning 
from careless use. 1 It was all very well to revolutionize current 
conceptions of harmony, so that chords were no longer considered, 
as in the days of pure polyphony, to be the result of so many 
independent melodies. But in art, as elsewhere, new thought 
eventually shows itself as an addition to, not a substitute for, 
the wisdom of ages. Moreover, it is a mistake, though one 
endorsed by high authorities, to suppose that the 16th-century 
composers did not appreciate the beauty of successions of chords 
apart from polyphonic design. On the contrary, Palestrina 
and Orlando di Lasso themselves are the greatest masters the 
world has ever seen of a style which depends wholly on the 
beauty of masses of harmony, entirely devoid of polyphonic 
detail, and held together by a delicately balanced rhythm in 
which obvious symmetry is as carefully avoided as it is in the 
successions of chords themselves. Nevertheless, the monody 
of the 1 7th century is radically different in principle, not only 
because ^ chords are used which were an outrage on i6th- 

1 The " invention " of recitative is frequently ascribed to this or 
that monodist, with as little room for dispute as when we ascribe 
the invention of clothes to Adam and Eve. All monody was recita- 
tive, if only from inability to organize melodies. 

century ears, but because the fundamental idea is that of a 
solo voice declaiming phrases of paramount emotional interest, 
and supported by instruments that play such chords as will 
heighten the poignancy of the voice. And the first advance 
made on this chaotic monody consisted, not in the reintroduction 
of vitality into the texture of the harmonies, but in giving formal 
symmetry and balance to the vocal surface. This involved the 
strengthening of the harmonic system, so that it could carry 
the new discords as parts of an intelligible scheme, and not 
merely as uncontrollable expressions of emotion. In other words, 
the chief energies of the successors of the monodists were devoted 
to the establishment of the modern key-system; a system in 
comparison with which the subtle variety of modal concord 
sounded vague and ill-balanced, until the new key-system 
itself was so safely established that Bach and Beethoven could 
once more appreciate and use essentially modal successions of 
chords in their true meaning. 

The second advance of the monodic movement was in the 
cultivation of the solo voice. This developed together with 
the cultivation of the violin, the most capable and expressive 
of the instruments used to support it. Monteverde already 
knew how to make interesting experiments with violins, such 
as directing them to play pizzicato, and accompanying an excited 
description of a duel by rapidly repeated strokes on a major 
chord, followed by sustained dying harmonies in the minor. 
By the middle of the century violin music is fairly common, 
and the distinction between Sonata da chiesa and Sonata da 
camera appears (see SONATA). But the cultivation of instru- 
mental technique had also a great effect on that of the voice; 
and Italian vocal technique soon developed into a monstrosity 
that so corrupted musical taste as not only to blind the contem- 
poraries of Bach and Handel to the greatness of their choral 
art, but, in Handel's case, actually to swamp a great deal of 
his best work. The balance between a solo voice and a group 
of instruments was, however, successfully cultivated together 
with the modern key-system and melodic form; with the result 
that the classical aria, a highly effective art-form, took shape. 
This, while it totally destroyed the dramatic character of opera 
for the next hundred years, yet did good service in furnishing 
a reasonably effective means of musical expression which could 
encourage composers and listeners to continue cultivating the 
art until the day of small things was past. The operatic aria, 
as matured by Alessandro Scarlatti, is at its worst a fine oppor- 
tunity for a gorgeously dressed singer to display feats of vocal 
gymnastics, either on a concert platform, or in scenery worthy 
of the Drury Lane pantomime. At its best it is a beautiful 
means of expression for the devout fervour of Bach and Handel. 
At all times it paralyses dramatic action, and no more ironic 
revenge has ever overtaken iconoclastic reformers than the 
historic development by which the purely dramatic declama- 
tion of the monodists settled down into a series of about thirty 
successive displays of vocalization, designed on rigidly musical 
conventions, and produced under spectacular conditions by 
artificial sopranos as the highest ideal of music-drama. 

The principal new art-forms of the I7th century are then, 
firstly, the aria (not the opera, which was merely a spectacular 
condition under which people consented to listen to some thirty 
arias in succession); and, secondly, the polyphonic instrumental 
forms, of which those of the suite or sonata da camera were 
mainly derived from the necessity for ballet music in the opera 
(and hence greatly stimulated by the taste of the French court 
under Louis XIV.), while those of the sonata da chiesa were also 
inspired by a renaissance of interest in polyphonic texture. 
The sonata da chiesa soon settled into a conventionality only 
less inert than that of the aria because violin technique had 
wider possibilities than vocal; but when Lulli settled in France 
and raised to a higher level of effect the operatic style suggested 
by Cambert, he brought with him justr enough of the new instru- 
mental polyphony to make his typical form of French overture 
(with its slow introduction in dotted rhythm, and its quasi-fugal 
allegro) worthy of the important place it occupies in Bach's and 
Handel's art. 



Meanwhile great though subordinate activity was also shown 
in the evolution of a new choral music dependent upon an instru- 
mental accompaniment of more complex function than that of 
mere support. This, in the hands of the Neapolitan masters, 
was destined to lead straight to the early choral music of Mozart 
and Haydn, both of whom, especially Mozart, subsequently 
learnt its greater possibilities from the study of Handel. But the 
most striking choral art of the time came from the Germans, 
who never showed that thoughtless acquiescence in the easiest 
means of effect which was already the bane of Italian art. 
Consequently, while the German output of the iyth century fails 
to show that rapid attainment of modest maturity which gives 
much Italian music of the period a permanent if slight artistic 
value, there is, in spite of much harshness, a stream of noble 
polyphonic effort in both organ and choral music in Germany 
from the time of H. Schiitz (who was born in 1585 and who was a 
great friend and admirer of Monteverde) to that of Bach and 
Handel just a century later. Nor was Germany inactive in the 
dramatic line, and the i yth-century Italian efforts in comic opera, 
which are so interesting and so unjustly neglected by historians, 
found a parallel, before Handel's maturity, in the work of 
R. Keiser, and may be traced through him in Handel's first 
opera, Almira. 

The best proof of the insufficiency of 17th-century resources 
is to be found in the almost tragic blending of genius and failure 
shown by our English church music of the Restoration. The 
works of Pelham Humfrey and Blow already show the qualities 
which with Purcell seem at almost any given moment to amount 
to those of the highest genius, while hardly a single work has 
any coherence as a whole. The patchiness of Purcell's music 
was, no doubt, increased by the influence of French taste then 
predominant at court. When Pelham Humfrey was sixteen, 
King Charles II., as Sir Hubert Parry remarks, " achieved the 
characteristic and subtle stroke of humour of sending him over 
to France to study the methods of the most celebrated composer 
of theatrical music of the time in order to learn how to compose 
English church music." Yet it is impossible to see how such 
ideas as Purcell's could have been presented in more than French 
continuity of flow by means of any designs less powerful than 
those of Bach and Handel. Purcell's ideas are, like those of 
all great artists, at least sixty years in advance of the normal 
intellect of the time. But they are unfortunately equally in 
advance of the only technical resources then conceivable; and 
Purcell, though one of the greatest contrapuntists that ever 
lived, is probably the only instance in music of a man of really 
high genius born out of due time. Musical talent was certainly 
as common in the lyth century as at any other time; and if we 
ask why, unless we are justified in counting Purcell as a tragic 
exception, the whole century shows not one name in the first 
artistic rank, the answer must be that, after all, artistic talent 
is far more common than the interaction of environment and 
character necessary to direct it to perfect artistic results. 

6. Bach and Handel. It was not until the i8th century had 
begun that two men of the highest genius could find in music a 
worthy expression of their grasp of life. Bach and Handel were 
born within a month of each other, in 1685, and in the same part 
of Saxony. Both inherited the tradition of polyphonic effort 
that the German organists and choral writers had steadily 
maintained throughout the lyth century; and both profited by 
the Italian methods that were penetrating Germany. In Bach's 
case it was the Italian art-forms that appealed to his sense of 
design. Their style did not affect him, but he saw every possi- 
bility which the forms contained, and studied them the more 
assiduously because they were not, like polyphonic texture, his 
birthright. In recitative his own distinctively German style 
attained an intensity and freedom of expression which is one of 
the most moving things in art. Nevertheless, if he handled 
recitative in his own way it was not for want of acquaintance 
with the Italian formulas, nor even because he despised them; 
for in his only two extant Italian works the scraps of recitative 
are strictly in accordance with Italian convention, and the 
arias show (when we allow for their family likeness with Bach's 

normal style) the most careful modelling upon Italian forms. 
Again, as is well known, Bach arranged with copious additions 
and alterations many concertos by Vivaldi (together with some 
which though passing under Vivaldi's name are really by German 
contemporaries); and, while thus taking every opportunity of 
assimilating Italian influences in instrumental as well as in vocal 
music, he was no less alive to the importance of the French 
overture and suite forms. Moreover, he is very clear as to where 
his ideas come from, and extremely careful to maintain every 
art-form in its integrity. Yet his style remains his own through- 
out, and the first impression of its resemblance to that of his 
German contemporaries diminishes the more the period is studied. 
Bach's art thus forms one of the most perfectly systematic 
and complete records a life's work has ever achieved. His 
art-forms might be arranged in a sort of biological scheme, and 
their interaction and genealogy has a clearness which might 
almost be an object of envy to men of science even if Bach had 
not demonstrated every detail of it by those wonderful re- 
writings of his own works which we have described elsewhere 
(see BACH). 

Handel's methods were as different from Bach's as his circum- 
stances. He soon left Germany and, while he never betrayed 
his birthright as a great choral writer, he quickly absorbed the 
Italian style so thoroughly as to become practically an Italian. 
He also adopted the Italian forms, but not, like Bach, from any 
profound sense of their possible place in artistic system. To 
him they were effective, and that was all. He did not trouble 
himself about the permanent idea that might underlie an art- 
form and typify its expression. He has no notion of a form as 
anything higher than a rough means of holding music together 
and maintaining its flow; but he and Bach, alone among their 
contemporaries, have an unfailing sense of all that is necessary 
to secure this end. They worked from opposite points of view: 
Bach develops his art from within, until its detail, like that of 
Beethoven's last works, becomes dazzling with the glory of the 
whole design; Handel at his best is inspired by a magnificent 
scheme, in the execution of which he need condescend to finish 
of detail only so long as his inspiration does not hasten to the 
next design. Nevertheless it is to the immense sweep and 
breadth of Handel's choral style, and its emotional force, that all 
subsequent composers owe their first access to the larger and 
less mechanical resources of music. (See HANDEL.) 

7. The Symphonic Classes. After the death of Bach and 
Handel another change of view, like that Copernican revolution 
for which Kant sighed in philosophy, was necessary for the 
further development of music. Once again it consisted in an 
inversion of the relation between form and texture. But, 
whereas at the beginning of the lyth century the revolution 
consisted mainly in directing attention to chords as, so to speak, 
harmonic lumps, instead of moments in a flux of simultaneous 
melodies; in the later half of the i8th century the revolution 
concerned the larger musical outlines, and was not complicated 
by the discovery of new harmonic resources. On the contrary, 
it led to an extreme simplicity of harmony. The art of Bach 
and Handel had given perfect vitality to the forms developed 
in the i8th century, but chiefly by means of the reinfusion of 
polyphonic life. The formal aspects (that is, those that decree 
the shapes of aria and suite-movement and the balance and 
contrasts of such choruses as are not fugues) are, after all, of 
secondary importance; the real centre of Bach's and Handel's 
technical and intellectual activity is the polyphony; and the 
more the external shape occupies the foreground the more the 
work assumes the character of light music. In the article 
SONATA FORMS we show how this state of things was altered, 
and attention is there drawn to the dramatic power of a music 
in which the form is technically prior to the texture. And it 
is not difficult to understand that Gluck's reform of opera would 
have been a sheer impossibility if he had not dealt with music 
in the sonata style, which is capable of changing its character 
as it unfolds its designs. 

The new period of transition was neither so long nor so inter- 
esting as that of the lyth century. The contrast between the 




squalid beginnings of the new art and the glories of Bach and 
Handel is almost as great as that between the monodists and 
Palestrina, but it appeals far less to our sympathies, because it 
seems like a contrast between noble sincerity and idle elegance. 
The new art seems so easy-going and empty that it conceals 
from us the necessity of the sympathetic historical insight for 
which the painful experiments of the monodists almost seem to 
cry aloud. And its boldest rhetorical experiments, such as the 
fantasias of Philipp Emanuel Bach, show a security of harmony 
which, together with the very vividness of their realization of 
modern ideas, must appear to a modern listener more like the 
hollow rhetoric of a decadent than the prophetic inspiration 
of a pioneer. And, just as in the lyth century, so in the time 
before Haydn and Mozart, the work that is most valuable artis- 
tically tends to be that which is of less importance historically. 
The cultivation of the shape of music at the expense of its texture 
was destined to lead to greater things than polyphonic art had 
ever dreamt of; but no living art could be achieved until the 
texture was brought once more into vital, if subordinate, relation 
to the shape. Thus, far more interesting artistically than the 
epoch-making earlier pianoforte works of Philipp Emanuel Bach 
are his historically less fruitful oratorios, and his symphonies, 
and the rich polyphonic modifications of the new principles 
in the best works of his elder brother Friedemann. Yet the tran- 
sition-period is hardly second in historic importance to that of 
the lyth century; and we may gather from it even more direct 
hints as to the meaning of the tendencies of our own day. 

As in the lyth century, so in the i8th the composers and 
critics of Haydn's youth, not knowing what to make of the new 
tendencies, and conscious rather of the difference between new 
and old ideas than of the true nature of either, took refuge in 
speculations about the emotional and external expression of 
music; and when artistic power and balance fail it is very con- 
venient to go outside the limits of the art and explain failure 
away by external ideas. Fortunately the external ideas were 
capable of serious organic function through the medium of opera, 
and in that art-form music was passing out of the hands of 
Italians and assuming artistic and dramatic life under Gluck. 
The metaphysical and literary speculation which overwhelmed 
musical criticism at this time, and which produced paper warfares 
and musical party-feuds such as that 'between the Gluckists 
and the Piccinists, at all events had this advantage over the 
Wagnerian and anti-Wagnerian controversies of the last genera- 
tion and the disputes about the legitimate function of instru- 
mental music at the present day that it was speculation applied 
exclusively to an art-form in which literary questions were 
directly concerned, an art-form which moreover had up to that 
time been the grave of all the music composers chose to put 
into it. But as soon as music once more attained to consistent 
principles all these discussions became but a memory. If Gluck's 
music had not been more musical as well as more dramatic than 
Piccini's, all its foreshadowing of Wagnerian principles would 
have availed it no more than it availed Monteverde. 

When the new art found symphonic expression in Haydn and 
Mozart, it became music pure and simple, and yet had no more 
difficulty than painting or poetry in dealing with external 
ideas, when these were naturally brought into it by the human 
voice or the conditions of dramatic action. It had once more 
become an art which need reject or accept nothing on artificial or 
extraneous grounds. Beethoven soon showed how gigantic the 
scale and range of the sonata style could be, and how tremendous 
was its effect on the possibilities of vocal music, both dramatic 
and choral. No revolution was needed to accomplish this. 
The style was perfectly formed, and for the first and so far the 
only time in musical history a mature art of small range opened 
out into an equally perfect one of gigantic range, without a 
moment of decadence or destruction. The chief glory of the 
art that culminates in Beethoven is, of course, the instrumental 
music, all of which comes under the head of the sonata-forms 

Meanwhile Mozart raised comic opera, both Italian and 
German, to a height which has never since been approached 

within the classical limits, and from which the operas of Rossini 
and his successors show a decadence so deplorable that if 
" classical music " means " high art " we must say that classical 
opera buffa begins and ends in Mozart. But Gluck, finding his 
dramatic ideas -encouraged by the eminent theatrical sensibilities 
of the French, had already given French opera a stimulus 
towards the expression of tragic emotion which made the classics 
of the French operatic school well worthy to inspire Beethoven 
to his one noble operatic effort and Weber to the greatest works 
of his life. Cherubini, though no more a Frenchman than 
Gluck, was Gluck's successor in the French classical school of 
dramatic music. His operas, like his church music, account for 
Beethoven's touching estimation of him as the greatest composer 
of the time. In them his melodies, elsewhere curiously cold and 
prosaic, glow with the warmth of a true classic; and his tact in 
developing, accelerating and suspending a dramatic climax is 
second only to Mozart's. Scarcely inferior to Cherubini in 
mastery and dignity, far more lovable in temperament, and 
weakened only by inequality of invention, Mehul deserves a far 
higher place in musical history than is generally accorded him. 
His most famous work, Joseph, is of more historical importance 
than his others, but it is by no means his best from a purely 
musical point of view, though its Biblical subject impelled 
Me'hul to make extremely successful experiments in " local 
colour " which had probably considerable influence upon 
Weber, whose admiration of the work was boundless. One 
thing is certain, that the romantic opera of Weber owes much 
of its inspiration to the opera comique of these masters. 1 

8. From Beethoven to Wagner. After Beethoven comes 
what is commonly though vaguely described as the " romantic " 
movement. In its essentials it amounts to little more than 
this, that musicians found new and prouder titles for a very 
ancient and universal division of parties. The one party set up 
a convenient scheme of form based upon the average procedure 
of all the writers of sonatas except Haydn and Beethoven, 
which scheme they chose to call classical; while the other party 
devoted itself to the search for new materials and new means of 
expression. The classicists, if so they may be called, did not 
quite approve of Beethoven; and while there is much justification 
for the charge that has been brought against them of reducing 
the sonata-form to a kind of game, they have for that very 
reason no real claim to be considered inheritors of classical 
traditions. The true classical method is that in which matter 
and form are so united that it is impossible to say which is 
prior to the other. The pseudo-classics are the artists who set 
up a form conveniently like the average classical form, and fill 
it with something conveniently like the average classical matter, 
with just such difference as will seem like an advance in brilliance 
and range. The romanticists are the artists who realize such a 
difference between their matter and that of previous art as impels 
them to find new forms for it, or at all events to alter the old 
forms considerably. But if they are successful the difference 
between their work and that of the true classics becomes merely 
external; they are classics in a new art-form. As, however, 
this is as rare as true classical art is at the best of times, romanti- 
cism tends to mean little more than the difference between an 
unstable artist who cannot master his material and an artist 
who can, whether on trje pseudo-classical or the true classical 
plane. The term " romantic opera " has helped us to regard 
Weber as a romanticist in that sphere, but when we call his instru- 
mental works " romantic " the term ceases to have really 
valuable meaning. As applied to pieces like the Concertstiick, 
the Invitation a la danse, and other pieces of which the external 
subject is known either from Weber's letters or from the titles 
of the pieces themselves, the term means simply " programme- 
music " such as we have seen to be characteristic of any stage 
in which the art is imperfectly mastered. Weber's programme- 
music shows no advance on Beethoven in the illustrative 
resources of the art; and the application of the term " romantic " 

1 We must remember in this connexion that the term Optra 
comique means simply opera with spoken dialogue, and has nothing 
to do with the comic idea. 




to his interesting and in many places beautiful pianoforte 
sonatas has no definite ground except the brilliance of his piano- 
forte technique and the helplessness in matters of design (and 
occasionally even of harmony) that drives him to violent and 
operatic outbreaks. 

Schubert also lends some colour to the opposition between 
romantic and classical by his weakness in large instrumental 
designs, but his sense of form was too vital for his defective 
training to warp his mind from the true classical spirit; and the 
new elements he introduced into instrumental music, though not 
ratified by concentration and unity of design, were almost always 
the fruits of true inspiration and never mere struggles to escape 
from a difficulty. His talent for purely instrumental music was 
incomparably higher than Weber's, while that for stage-drama, 
as shown in the most ambitious of his numerous operas, Fierra- 
bras, was almost nil. But he is the first and perhaps the greatest 
classical song writer. It was Beethoven's work on a larger 
scale that so increased the possibilities of handling remote 
harmonic sequences and rich instrumental and rhythmic effects 
as to prepare for Schubert a world in which music, no less than 
literature, was full of suggestions for that concentrated expres- 
sion of a single emotion which distinguishes true lyric art. And, 
whatever the defects of Schubert's treatment of larger forms, 
his construction of small forms which can be compassed by a 
single melody or group of melodies is unsurpassable and is truly 
classical in spirit and result. 

Schumann had neither Schubert's native talent for larger 
form nor the irresponsible spirit which allowed Schubert to 
handle it uncritically. Nor had he the astounding lightness 
of touch and perfect balance of style with which Chopin con- 
trolled the most wayward imagination that has ever found 
expression in the pianoforte lyric. But he had a deep sense of 
melodic beauty, a mastery of polyphonic expression which 
for all its unorthodox tendency was second only to that of the 
greatest classics, and an epigrammatic fancy which enabled 
him to devise highly artistic forms of music never since imitated 
with success though often unintelligently copied. In his songs 
and pianoforte lyrics his romantic ideas found perfectly mature 
expression. Throughout his life he was inspired by a deep 
reverence which, while it prevented him from attempting to 
handle classical forms with a technique which he felt to be 
inadequate, at the same time impelled him as he grew older to 
devise forms on a large scale externally resembling them. The 
German lyric poetry, which he so perfectly set to music, strength- 
ened him in his tendency to present his materials in an epi- 
grammatic and antithetic manner; and, when he took to writing 
orchestral and chamber music, the extension of the principles 
of this style to the designing of large spaces in rigid sequence 
furnished him with a means of attaining great dignity and weight 
of climax in a form which, though neither classical nor strictly 
natural, was at all events more true in its relationship to his 
matter than that of the pseudo-classics such as Hummel or even 
Spohr. Towards the end of his short life, before darkness 
settled upon his mind, he rose perhaps to his greatest height as 
regards solemnity of inspiration, though none of his later works 
can compare with his early lyrics for artistic perfection. Be this 
as it may, his last choral works, especially the latter parts of 
Faust (which, unlike the first part, was written before his powers 
failed), show that the sense of beauty and polyphonic life with 
which he began his career was always increasing; and if he was 
led to substitute an artificial and ascetic for a natural and 
classical solution of the difficulties of the larger art-forms it was 
only because of his insight into artistic ideals which he felt to be 
beyond his attainment. He shared with Mendelssohn the inevit- 
able misunderstanding of those contemporaries who grouped 
all music under one or other of the two heads, Classical and 

There is good reason to believe that Mendelssohn died before 
he had more than begun to show his power, though this may be 
denied by critics who have not thought of comparing Handel's 
career up to the age at which Mendelssohn's ceased. And his 
mastery, resting, like Handel's, on the experience of a boyhood 

comparable only to Mozart's, was far too easy to induce him 
as a critic to reconcile the idea of high talent with distressing 
intellectual and technical failure. This same mastery also 
tended to discredit his own work, both as performer and composer, 
in the estimation of those whose experience encouraged them 
to hope that imperfection and over-excitement were infallible 
signs of genius. And as his facility actually did co-operate with 
the tendencies of the times to deflect much of his work into 
pseudo-classical channels, while nevertheless his independence 
of form and style kept him at all times at a higher level of 
interest and variety than any mere pseudo-classic, it is not to be 
wondered that his reputation became a formidable object of 
jealousy to those apostles of new ideas who felt that their own 
works were not likely to make way against academic opposition 
unless they called journalism to their aid. 

Nothing has more confused, hindered and embittered the 
careers of Wagner and Liszt and their disciples than the paper 
warfare which they did everything in their power to encourage. 
No doubt it had a useful purpose, and, as nothing affords a 
greater field for intrigue than the production of operas, it is at 
least possible that the gigantic and unprecedentedly expensive 
works of Wagner might not even at the present day have 
obtained a hearing if Wagner himself had been a tactful and 
reticent man and his partisans had all been discreet lovers and 
practisers of art. As to Wagner's achievement there is now no 
important difference of opinion. It has survived all attacks 
as the most monumental result music has achieved with the aid 
of other arts. Its antecedents must be sought in many very 
remote regions. The rediscovery, by Mendelssohn, of the choral 
works of Bach, after a century of oblivion, revealed the possi- 
bilities of polyphonic expression in a grandeur which even 
Handel rarely suggested; and inspired Mendelssohn with impor- 
tant ideas in the designing of oratorios as wholes. The complete 
fusion of polyphonic method with external and harmonic design 
had, under the same stimulus, been carried a step further than 
Beethoven by means of Schumann's more concentrated harmonic 
and lyric expression. That wildest of all romanticists, Berlioz, 
though he had less polyphonic sense than any composer who 
ever before or since attained distinction, nevertheless revealed 
important new possibilities in his unique imagination in orches- 
tral colour. The breaking down of the barriers that check 
continuity in classical opera was already indicated by Weber, 
in whose Euryanthe the movements frequently run one into the 
other, while at least twenty different themes are discoverable 
in the opera, recurring, like the Wagnerian leit-motif, in apt 
transformation and logical association with definite incidents 
and persons. 

But many things undreamed of by Weber were necessary to 
complete the breakdown of the classical barriers; for the whole 
pace of musical motion had to be emancipated from the influence 
of instrumental ideas. This was the most colossal reformation 
ever attempted by a man of real artistic balance; and even the 
undoubted, though unpolished, dramatic genius shown in Wag- 
ner's libretti (the first in which a great composer and dramatist 
are one) is but a small thing in comparison with the musical 
problems which Wagner overcomes with a success immeasur- 
ably outweighing any defects his less perfect literary mastery 
allowed to remain in his dramatic structure and poetic diction. 
Apart from the squabbles of Wagnerian and anti-Wagnerian 
journalism, the chief difficulty of his supporters and antagonists 
really lay in this question of the pace of the music and the 
consequent breadth of harmony and design. The opening of 
the Walkiire, in which, before the curtain rises, the sound of 
driving rain is reproduced by very simple sequences that take 
sixteen long bars to move a single step, does not, as instrumental 
music, compare favourably for terseness and variety with the 
first twenty bars of the thunderstorm in Beethoven's Pastoral 
Symphony, where at least four different incidents faithfully 
portray not only the first drops of rain and the distant thunder, 
but all the feelings of depression and apprehension which they 
inspire, besides carrying the listener rapidly through three 
different keys in chromatic sequence. But Beethoven's storm 




is idealized, in its whole rise and fall, within a space of five 
minutes. Wagner's task is to select five real minutes near the 
end of the storm and to treat them with no greater variety than 
the action of the drama demands. When we have learnt to 
dissociate our minds from irrelevant ideas of an earlier instru- 
mental art, we find that Wagner's broad spaces contain all that 
is necessary. Art on a large scale will always seem to have 
empty spaces, so long as we expect to find in it the kind of detail 
appropriate to art on a smaller scale. 

Wagner's new harmonic resources are of similar and more 
complex but not less legitimate origin. In Derfliegende Hollander 
they are, like his wider rhythmic sweep, imperfectly digested; 
in fact, much of his work before the Meistersinger is, in patches, 
debased by the influence of Meyerbeer. But in his later works 
the more closely his harmonic language is studied the more 
conclusively does it show itself to be a logical and mastered 
thing. His treatment of key is, of course, adapted to a state 
of things in which the designs are far too long for the mind to 
attach any importance to the works ending in the key in which 
it began. To compare Wagner's key-system with that of a 
symphony is like comparing the perspective anrl-composition 
of a panorama with the perspective and composition of an easel 
picture. Indeed the differences are precisely analogous in the 
two cases; and Wagner's sense of harmony and key turns out 
on investigation to be the classical sense truly adapted to its 
new conditions. For this very reason it is in detail quite irrele- 
vant to symphonic art; and there was nothing anti-Wagnerian 
in the reasons why Brahms had so little to do with it in his 
music, although every circumstance of the personal controversies 
and thinly disguised persecutions of Brahms's youth were enough 
to give any upholder of classical symphonic art a rooted prejudice 
to everything bearing the name of " romantic." 

Side by side with Wagner many enthusiasts place Liszt; and 
it is indisputable that Liszt had in mind a larger and slower flow 
of musical sequence closely akin to Wagner's, and, no doubt, 
partly independent of it; and moreover, that one of Liszt's 
aims was to apply this to instrumental music. Also his mastery 
and poetic power as a pianoforte player were faithfully reflected 
in his later treatment of the orchestra, and ensured an extra- 
ordinary rhetorical plausibility for anything he chose to say. 
But neither the princely magnanimity of his personal character, 
which showed itself in his generosity alike to struggling artists 
and to his opponents, nor the great stimulus he gave (both by 
his compositions and his unceasing personal efforts and encour- 
agement) to new musical ideas on romantic lines, ought at this 
time of day to blind us to the hollowness and essential vulgarity 
of. his style. These unfortunate qualities did not secure for his 
compositions immediate popular acceptance; for they were 
outweighed by the true novelty of his aims. But recently they 
have given his symphonic poems an attractiveness which, while 
it has galvanized a belated interest in those works, has made 
many critics blind to their historical importance as the founda- 
tion of new forms which have undergone a development of 
sensational brilliance under Richard Strauss. 

Meanwhile the party politics of modern music did much to 
distract public attention from the works of Brahms, who 
carried on the true classical method of the sonata-forms in his 
orchestral and chamber music, while he was no less great and 
original as a writer of songs and choral music of all kinds. He 
also developed the pianoforte lyric and widened its range. 
Without losing its characteristic unity it assumed a freedom and 
largeness of expression hitherto only attained in sonatas. Hence, 
however, Brahms's work, like Bach's, seemed, from its continuity 
with the classical forms, to look backward rather than forward. 
Indeed Brahms's reputation is in many quarters that of an 
academic reactionary; just as Bach's was, even at a time when 
the word " academic " was held to be rather a title of honour 
than of reproach. When the contemporary standpoints of 
criticism are established by the production of works of art in 
which the new elements shall no longer be at war with one another 
and with the whole, perhaps it will be recognized once more that 
the idea of progress has no value as a critical standard unless 

it is strictly applied to that principle by which every work of 
art must differ in every part of its form from every other 
work, precisely as far as its material differs and no further. 
Then, perhaps, as the conservative Bach after a hundred years 
of neglect revealed himself as the most profoundly modern force 
in the music of the ipth century, while that of his gifted and 
progressive sons became a forgotten fashion as soon as their 
goal was attained by greater masters, so may the musical epoch 
that seems now to have closed be remembered by posterity as 
the age, not of Wagner and the pioneer Liszt, but the age of 
Wagner and Brahms. 

It will also in all probability be remembered as the age in 
which the performer ceased to be necessarily the intellectual 
inferior of the composer and musical scholar. With the excep- 
tion of Wagner and Berlioz every great composer, since Palestrina 
sang in the papal choir, has paid his way as a performer; but 
Joseph Joachim was the first who threw the whole mind of a 
great composer into the career of an interpreter; and the example 
set by him, Billow, Clara Schumann and Jenny Lind, though 
followed by very few other artists, sufficed to dispel for ever 
the old association of the musical performer with the mounte- 

Joachim's influence on Brahms was incalculable. The two 
composers met at the time when new musical tendencies were 
beginning to arouse violent controversy. At the age of twenty- 
one Joachim had produced in his Hungarian Concerto a work of 
high classical mastery and great nobility, and his technique in 
form and texture was then considerably in advance of Brahms's. 
For some years Joachim and Brahms interchanged contrapuntal 
exercises, and many of the greatest and most perfect of Brahms's 
earlier works owe much to Joachim's criticism. Yet it is 
impossible to regret that Joachim did not himself carry on as 
a composer the work he so nobly began, when we realize the 
enormous influence of his playing in the history of modern music. 
By it we have become familiar with a standard of truthfulness 
in performance which all the generous efforts of Wagner and 
Liszt could hardly have rendered independent of their own 
special propaganda. And by it the record of classical music has 
been made a matter of genuine public knowledge, with a unique 
freedom from those popularizing tendencies which invest vulgar 
error with the authority of academic truth. 

In this respect there is a real change in the nature of modern 
musical culture. No serious composer at the present day would 
dedicate a great work to an artist who, like F. Clement, for whom 
Beethoven wrote his Violin Concerto, would perform the work 
in two portions and between them play a sonata for the violin 
on one string with the violin upside down. But it is hardly 
true that Wagner and Liszt produced a real alteration in the 
standard of general culture among musicians. Their work, 
especially Wagner's, appealed, like Gluck's, to many specific 
literary and philosophical interests, and they themselves were 
brilliant talkers; but music will always remain the most self- 
centred of the arts, and men of true culture will measure the 
depth and range of the musician's mind by the spontaneity 
and truthfulness of his musical expression rather than by his 
volubility on other subjects. The greatest musicians have not 
often been masters of more than one language; but they have 
always been men of true culture. Their humanity has been 
illuminated by the constant presence of ideals which their 
artistic mastery keeps in touch with reality. 


Pythagoras, c. 582-500 B.C. Determines the ratios of the diatonic 

Aristoxenus, /. 320 B.C. Our chief authority on classical Greek 

Ptolemy, fl. A.D. 130. Astronomer, geographer, mathematician 

and writer on music. Reforms the Greek modes so as to prepare 

the way for the ecclesiastical modes. 
St Ambrose. Arranges the Ambrosian tones of church music, 

A.D. 384. 
Hucbald, c. 840-930. Systematizer of Diaphonia or Organum 

(cailed by him Symphonia), and inventor of a simple and in- 
genious notation which did not survive him. 



Guido of Arezzo, c. 990-1050. Theorist and systematizer of musical 
notation and solmization. 

Franco of Cologne, nth century author of treatises on musical 
rhythm. Works under the name of Franco appear at dates 
and places which have led to the assumption of the existence of 
three different authors, who, however, have been partly 
explained away again; and the nth century is sometimes called 
the Franconian period of discant. 

Discantus positio vulgaris. An anonymous treatise written before 
1 150; is said to contain the earliest rules for " measured music," 
i.e. for music in which different voices can sing different rhythms. 

The Reading MS., c. 1240 (British Museum, MS. Harl.,978, fol. lib.), 
contains the rota Sumer is icumen in." 

Walter Odington, fl. 1280. English writer on music, and composer. 

Adam de la Hale, 1230-1288 ) Connecting-links between the trouba- 

Machault, yZ. 1350 Jdoursand the archaic contrapuntists. 

John Dunstable, died 1453. English contrapuntal composer. 

G. Dufay, died 1474. Netherland contrapuntal composer. 

(These two are the principal founders of artistic counterpoint.) 

Josquin Des Pres, 1445-1521. The first great composer. 


[In the following list when a name is not qualified as " church 
composer " or " madrigalist," the composer is equally great in both 
lines ; but the qualification must not be taken as exclusive.] 

Netherland Masters. 
J. Arcadelt, c. 1514-1560. Madrigalist. 
Clemens non Papa, died before 1558. 
Orlando di Lasso, born between 1520 and 1530; died 1594. 
Jan P. Sweelinck, 1562-1621. Organist, theorist and church com- 

French Masters. 

E. Genet, surnamed Carpentrasso, fl. 1520. Church composer. 
C. Goudimel. Killed in the massacre of Lyons, 1572. 

Italian Masters. 
Palestrina, c. 1525-1594. 
L. Marenzio, c. 1560; died 1599. 

Anerio, Felice c. 1560-1630, and G. Francesco, c. 1567-1620, brothers. 
Church composers. 

Spanish Masters. 

C. Morales, 1512-1553 ~) _, . . . , , 

F. Guerrero, c. 1528-1599 I Exclusively church com- 
T. L. de Victoria or Vittoria, fl. 1580 J PO^ TS - 

English Masters. 

T. Tallis, c. 1515; died 1585. Church composer. 
W. Byrd, 1542 or 1543-1623. Greatest as church composer. 
J. Wilbye,^. 1600. Madrigalist. 
T. Morley, fl. 1590. Theorist and madrigalist. 
Orlando Gibbons, 1583-1625. 

German Masters. 
I. Handl, or Callus, c. 1550-1591. 
Hans Leo Hasler or Hassler, 1564-1612. Church composer. 

G. Aichinger, c. 1565-1628. Church composer. 


Cavalieri's La Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpo, posthumously 
produced in 1600. The first oratorio, one of the first works 
dependent on instrumental accompaniment, and one of the 
first with a " figured bass " indicating by figures what chords 
are to be used. 

Peri's Euridice, 1600. The first opera. 

Monteverde, 1567-1643. Great pioneer of modern harmony. 

H. Schtitz, 1585-1672. Combines monodic and polyphonic prin- 
ciples in German church music and Italian madrigal. 

G. Frescobaldi, 1583-1644. Organ composer. 

Alessandro Scarlatti, 1659-1725. Founder of the aria-form of 
Handelian opera, anal of the Neapolitan school of composition. 

J. B. Lulli, 1633-1687. The first classic of French opera. 

H. Purcell, c. 1658; died 1695. 

A. Corelli, 1653-1713. The first classic of the violin in the forms 
of suite (or sonata da camera), sonata da chiesa and concerto. 

F. Couperin, 1668-1733. French composer of suites (ordres) and much 

addicted to giving fanciful titles to his pieces which are some- 
times " programme music " in fact as well as name. 
J. P. Rameau, 1683-1764. French opera writer, harpsichordist and 

D. Buxtehude, 1637-1707. 
J. S. Bach, 1685-1750. 

G. F. Handel, 1685-1759. 

Domenico Scarlatti, 1685-1757, son of Alessandro. Harpsichord 

virtuoso and master of a special early type of sonata. 
K. Philipp Emanuel Bach, 1714-1788, third son of Sebastian Bach. 

The principal pioneer of the sonata style. 
C. W. Gluck, 1714-1787. Reformer of opera, and the first classic of 

essentially dramatic music. 
F. J. Haydn, 1732-1809. 

W. A. Mozart, 1756-1791. 
Beethoven, 1770-1827. 

Cherubini, 1760-1842. A classic of French opera and of church 


[In this list the only qualifications given are those of which the 
complex conditions of modern art make definition easy as well as 
desirable; and, as throughout this table, the definitions must not 
be taken as exclusive. The choice of names is, however, guided 
by the different developments represented: thus accounting for 
glaring omissions and artistic disproportions.] 
Weber, 1786-1826. Master of romantic opera. 
Schubert, 1797-1828. The classic of song. 
Mendelssohn, 1809-1847. 

Chopin, 1809-1849. Composer of pianoforte lyrics. 
Berlioz, 1803-1869. Master of impressionist orchestration. 
Schumann, 1810-1856. 

Wagner, 1813-1883. Achieves absolute union of music with drama. 
Liszt, 181 1-1886. Pianoforte virtuoso and pioneer of the symphonic 


Bruckner, 1824-1896. The symphonist of the Wagnerian party. 
Brahms, 18331897. Classical symphonic and lyric composer. 
Joachim, 18311907. Violinist, composer and teacher. Brahms's 

chief fellow-worker in continuing the classical tradition. 
TschaikovsL^v. 1840-1893. 
Dvorak, 1841-1904. 

Richard Strauss, 1864- Development of the symphonic 

poem. (D. F. T.) 


Under separate biographical headings, the work of the chief 
modern composers in different countries is dealt with; and here it 
will be sufficient to indicate the general current of the art, and to 
mention some of the more prominent among recent composers. 

Germany. On the death of Brahms, the great German composers 
seemed, at the close of the igth century, to have left no successor. 
Such merely epigonal figures as A. Bungert (b. 1846) and Cyrill 
Kistler (18481907) could not be regarded as important; and E. 
Humperdinck's (b. 1854) striking success with Hansel und Gretel 
(1893) was a solitary triumph in a limited genre. The outstanding 
figure, at the opening of the 2Oth century, was Richard Strauss (g..) ; 
but it was not so much now in composition, as in the high excel- 
lence of executive art, that Germany still kept up her hegemony in 
European music, by her schools, her great conductors and instru- 
mentalists, and her devotion as a nation to the production of musical 

France. From the earliest days of their music, the French have 
had the enviable power of assimilating the great innovations which 
were originated in other countries, without losing their habit of 
warmly appreciating that which their own countrymen produce. 
That which happened with the Netherlandish composers of the 
l6th century, and with Lulli in the I7th, was repeated, more or 
less exactly, with Rossini in the early part of the igth century and 
with Wagner at its close. During the last quarter of the igth 
century all that is represented by the once-adored name of Gounod 
was discarded in favour of a style as different as possible from his. 
The change was mainly due to the Belgian musician, C6sar Auguste 
Franck (1822-1890), who established a kind of informal school of 
symphonic and orchestral composition, as opposed to the con- 
ventional methods pursued at the Paris Conservatoire. Massenet 
was left as almost the only representative of the older school, and 
from Edouard Lalo (1823-1892) to G. Charpentier (b. 1860), all 
the younger composers of France adopted the newer style. With 
these may be mentioned Alfred Bruneau (b. 1857), and Gabriel 
Faur6 (b.. 1845). Camille Saint-Saens (b. 1835), however, remained 
the chief representative of the sound school of composition, if only 
by reason of his greater command of resources of every kind and 
his success in all forms of music. Among the newer school of 
composers the most original unquestionably was Debussy (}..), 
and among others may be mentioned Ernest Reyer (b. 1823), the 
author of some ambitious and sterling operas; F. L. V. de Joncieres 
(b. 1839), an enthusiastic follower of Wagner, and a composer of 
merit; Emanuel Chabrier (18411894), a man of extraordinary 
gift, who wrote one of the finest operas comiques of modern times, 
Le Roi malgre lui (1887) ; Charles Marie Widor (b. 1845), an earnest 
musician of great accomplishment; and yincent d'Indy (b. 1851), a 
strongly original writer, alike in dramatic, orchestral and chamber 
compositions. In the class of lighter music, which yet lies above 
the level of opera bouffe, mention must be made of Leo Delibes 
(1836-1891) and Andr6 Messager (b. 1855). In describing the 
state of music in France, it would be wrong to pass over the work 
done by the great conductors of various popular orchestral concerts, 
such as Jules E. Pasdeloup (1819-1887), Chas. Lamoureux (1834- 
1899), and Judas [Edouard] Colonne (b. 1838). 

Italy. In Italy during the last quarter of the igth century 
many important changes took place. The later development in 
the style ot Verdi (q.v.) was only completed in Otello (1887) and 
Falstaf (1893), while his last composition, the four beautiful sacred 
vocal works, show how very far he had advanced in reverence, 



solidity of style and impressiveness, from the time when he wrote 
his earlier operas. And Arrigo Bpito's Mefistofele had an immense 
influence on modern Italian music. Among the writers of " abso- 
lute " music the most illustrious are G. Sgambati (b. 1843) and 
G. Martucci (b. 1856), the latter's symphony in D minor being a 
fine work. Meanwhile a younger operatic school was growing up, 
of which the first production was the Flora mirabtiis of Spiro 
Samara (b. 1861), given in 1886. Its culmination was in the 
Cavalleria rusticana (1890) of Pietro Mascagni (b. 1863), the 
Pagliacci (1892) of R. Leoncavallo (b. 1858), and the operas of 
Giacomo Puccini (b. 1858), notably Le Villi (1884), Manon Lescaut 
(1893), La Boheme (1896), Tosca (1900), and Madama Butterfly 
(1904). The oratorios of Don Lorenzo Perosi (b. 1872) had an inter- 
esting influence on the church music of Italy, (see PALESTRINA). 

Russia. The new Russian school of music originated with M. A. 
Balakirev (b. 1836), who was instrumental in founding the Free 
School of Music at St Petersburg, and who introduced the music 
of Berlioz and Liszt into Russia; he instilled the principles of 
"advanced" music into A. P. Borodin (1834-1887), C. A. Cui 
(b. 1835), M. P. Moussorgsky (1839-1881), and N. A. Rimsky- 
Korsakov (1844-1908), all of whom, as usual with Russian com- 
posers, were, strictly speaking, amateurs in music, having some 
other profession in the absence of any possible opportunity for 
making money out of music in Russia. The most remarkable 
man among their contemporaries was undoubtedly Tschaikovsky 
(q.v.). A. Liadov (b. 1855) excels as a writer for the pianoforte, 
and A. Glazounov (b. 1865) has composed a number of fine orchestral 

United States. Of the older American composers, only John 
Knowles Paine (d. 1906) and Dudley Buck (d. 1909), both born in 
1839, and Benjamin Johnson Lang (18371909), need be mentioned. 
Paine, professor of music at Harvard University, and composer 
of oratorios, orchestral music, &c., ranks with the advanced school 
of romantic composers. Dudley Buck was one of the first American 
composers whose names were known in Europe; and if his numerous 
cantatas and church music do not reach a very high standard accord- 
ing to modern ideas, he did much to conquer the general apathy 
with regard to the existence of original music in the States. Lang, 
prominent as organist and conductor, also became distinguished as 
a composer. George Whitefield Chadwick (b. 1854) has produced 
many orchestral and vocal works of original merit. Though the 
works of Clayton Johns (b. 1857) are less ambitious, they have 
won more popularity in Europe, and his songs, like those of Arthur 
Foote (b. 1853), Reginald De Koven(b. 1859), and Ethelbert Nevin 
(18621901), are widely known. Edward Alexander McDowell 
(q.v.) may be regarded as the most original modern American 
composer. Walter Johannes Damrosch (b. 1862), the eminent 
conductor of the New York Symphony Orchestra, and of various 
operatic undertakings, has established his position as an original 
and poetic composer, not only by his opera, The Scarlet Letter, but 
by such song^s as the intensely dramatic " Danny Deever." Dr 
Horatio William Parker's (b. 1863) oratorio settings of the hymn 
" Hora novissima " and of "The Wanderer's Psalm " are deservedly 
popular. Their masterly workmanship and his power of expression 
in sacred music mark him as a distinct personality. Numerous 
orchestral as well as vocal works have not been heard out of America, 
but a group of songs, newly set to the words of familiar old English 
ditties, have obtained great success. Mrs H. H. A. Beach, the 
youngest of the prominent composers of the United States and an 
accomplished pia'nist, has attained a high reputation as a writer 
in all the more ambitious forms of music. Many of her songs and 
anthems have obtained wide popularity. The achievements of the 
United States are, however, less marked in the production of new 
composers than in the attention which has been paid to musical 
education and appreciation generally. Henry E. Krehbiel (b. 1854), 
the well-known critic, was especially prominent in drawing American 
attention to Wagner and Brahms. The New York Opera has been 
made a centre for the finest artists of the day, and the symphony 
concerts at Boston and Chicago have been unrivalled for excellence. 
It is worthy of note that no country has produced a greater number 
of the most eminent of recent singers. Mesdames E. Eames, 
Nordica, Minnie Hauck, Susan Strong, Suzanne Adams, Sybil 
Sanderson, Esther Palliser, Evangeline Florence, and very many 
more among leading sopranos, with Messrs E. E. Oudin, D. Bispham 
and Denis O'Sullivan, to name but three out of the host of excellent 
male artists, proved the natural ability of the Americans in vocal 
music; and it might also be said that the more notable English- 
speaking pupils of the various excellent French schools of voice- 
production are American with hardly an exception. 

United Kingdom. English music requires more detailed notice, 
if only because of the striking change in the national feeling with 
regard to it. The nation had been accustomed for so long to 
consider music as an exotic, that, notwithstanding the glories of 
the older schools of English music, the amount of attention paid to 
everything that came from abroad, and the rich treasures of tradi- 
tional ancTdistinctively English music scattered through the country, 
the majority of educated people adhered to the common belief that 
England was not a musical country. The beauty and the enormous 
quantity of traditional Irish music, the enthusiasm created in 
Scotland by trumpery songs written in what was supposed to be 

an imitation of the Scottish style, the existence of the Welsh 
Eisteddfodau, were admitted facts; but England was supposed to 
have had no share in these gifts of nature or art, and the vogue of 
foreign music, from Italian opera to classical symphonies, was held 
as evidence of her poverty, instead of being partly the reason of 
the national sterility. In the successive periods during which the 
music of Handel and Mendelssohn respectively had been held as 
all-sufficient for right-thinking musicians, success could only be 
attained, if at all, by those English musicians who deliberately set 
themselves to copy the style of these great masters; the few men 
who had the determination to resist the popular movement were 
either confined, like the Wesleys, to one branch of music in which 
some originality of thought was still allowed that of the Church, 
or, like Henry Hugo Pierson in the days of the Mendelssohn worship, 
were driven to seek abroad the recognition they could not obtain 
at home. For a time it seemed as if the great vogue of Gounod 
would exalt him into a third artistic despot; but no native com- 
poser had even the energy to imitate his Faust; and, by the date 
of The Redemption (1882) and Mors et vita (1885), a renaissance of 
English music had already begun. 

For a generation up to the 'eighties the affairs of foreign opera 
in England were rather depressing; the rival houses presided over 
by the impresarios Frederick Gye (1810-1878) and Colonel J. H. 
Mapleson (1828-1901) had been going from bad to worse; the 
traditions of what were called " the palmy days " had been for- 
gotten, and with the retirement of Christine Nilsson in 1881, and 
the death of Therese J. A. Tietjens in 1877, the race of the great 
queens of song seemed to have come to an end. It is true that 
Mme Patti was_ in the plenitude of her fame and powers, but the 
number of her impersonations, perfect as they were, was so small 
that she alone could not support the weight of an opera season, 
and her terms made it impossible for any manager to make both 
ends meet unless the rest of the company were chosen on the 
principle enunciated by the husband of Mme Catalan!, " Ma femme 
et quatre ou cinq poupees." Mme Albani (b. 1851) had made her 
name famous, but the most important part of her artistic career 
was yet to come. She had already brought Tannhduser and 
Lohengrin into notice, but in Italian versions, as was then usual; 
and the great vogue of Wagner's operas did not begin until the series 
of Wagner concerts given at the Royal Albert Hall in 1877 with 
the object of collecting funds for the preservation of the Bayreuth 
scheme, which after the production of the Nibelungen trilogy in 
1876 had become involved in serious financial difficulties. The 
two seasons of German opera at Drury Lane under Dr Hans Richter 
(b. 1843) in 1882 and 1884, and the production of the trijogy at 
Her Majesty's in 1882, under Angelo Neumann's managership, first 
taught stay-at-home Englishmen what Wagner really was, and an 
Italian opera as such {i.e. with Italian as the exclusive language 
employed and the old " star " system in full swing) ceased to exist 
as a regular institution a few years after that. The revival of 
public interest in the opera only took place after Mr (afterwards 
Sir) Augustus Harris (1852-1896) had started his series of operas 
at Drury Lane in 1887. In the following season Harris took 
Covent Garden, and since that time the opera has been restored 
to greater public favour than it ever enjoyed, at all events since the 
days of Jenny Lind. The clever manager saw that the public 
was tired of operas arranged to suit the views of the prima donna 
and no one else, and he cast the works he produced, among which 
were Un Ballo in maschera and Les Huguenots, with due attention 
to every part. The brothers Jean and Edouard de Reszke, both 
of whom had appeared in London before the former as a baritone 
and the latter during the seasons 1880-1884 were even stronger 
attractions to the musical public of the time than the various 
leading sopranos, among whom were Mme Albani, Miss M. Mac- 
intyre, Mme Melba, Frau Sucher and Mme Nordica, during the 
earlier seasons, and Mme Eames, Mile Ravogli, MM. Lassalle and 
P. H. Plancon, and many other Parisian favourites later. As 
time went on, the excellent custom obtained of giving each work 
in the language in which it was written, and among the distinguished 
German artists who were added to the company were Frau M. 
Ternina, Frau E. Schumann-Heink, Frau Lilli Lehmann and many 
more. Since Harris's death in 1896 the traditions started by him 
were on the whole well maintained, and as a sign of the difference 
between the present and the former position of English composers, 
it may be mentioned that two operas by F. H. Cowen, Signa and 
Harold, and two by Stanford, The Veiled Prophet and Much Ado 
about Nothing, were produced. To Signer Lago, a manager of 
more enterprise than good fortune, belongs the credit of reviving 
Gluck's Orfeo (with the masterly impersonation of the principal 
character by Mile Giulia Ravogli), and of bringing out Cavalleria 
rusticana, Tschaikovsky's Eugen Onegin and other works. 

If it be just to name one institution and one man as the creator 
of such an atmosphere as allowed the genius of English composers 
to flourish, then that honour must be paid to the Crystal Palace 
and August Manns, the conductor of its Saturday concerts. At 
first engaged as sub-conductor, under a certain Schallehn, at the 
building which was the lasting result of the Great Exhibition of 
1851, he became director of the music in 1855; so for the better 
part of half a century his influence was exerted on behalf of the 
best music of all schools, and especially in lavour of anything of 



English growth. Through evil report and good report he supported 
his convictions, and for many years he introduced one English 
composer after another to a fame which they would have found it 
hard to gain without his help and that of Sir George Grove, his 
loyal supporter. In 1862, when Arthur Sullivan had lust returned 
from his studies in Leipzig, his Tempest music was produced at the 
Crystal Palace, and it is beyond question that it was this success 
and that of the succeeding works from the same hand which first 
showed Englishmen that music worth listening to might be pro- 
duced by an English hand. Sullivan reached the highest point of 
his achievement in The Golden Legend (1886), his most important 
contribution to the music of the renaissance. An important part 
of the Crystal Palace music was that the concerts did not follow, 
but led, popular taste; the works of Schubert, Schumann and 
many other great masters were given constantly, and the whole 
repertory of classical music was gone through, so that a constant 
attendant at these concerts would have become acquainted with 
the whole range of the best class of music. From 1859 onwards 
the classical chamber-music could be heard at the Popujar Concerts 
started by Arthur Chappell, and for many years their repertory 
was not less catholic than that of the Crystal Palace undertaking; 
that in later times the habit increased to a lamentable extent of 
choosing only the " favourite " (i.e. hackneyed) works of the great 
masters does not lessen the educational value of the older concerts. 
The lovers of the newer developments of music were always more 
fully satisfied at the concerts of the Musical Union, a body founded 
by John Ella in 1844, which lasted until 1880. From 1879 onwards 
the visits of Hans Richter, the conductor, were a feature of the 
musical season, and the importance of his work, not only in spread- 
ing a love of Wagner's music, but in regard to every other branch 
of the best orchestral music, cannot be exaggerated. Like the 
popular concerts, the Richter concerts somewhat fell away in 
later years from their original purpose, and their managers were 
led by the popularity of certain pieces to give too little variety. 
The importance of Richter's work was in bringing forward the finest 
English music in the years when the masters of the renaissance 
were young and untried. Here were to be heard the orchestral 
works of Sir Hubert Parry, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, Sir A. 
Campbell Mackenzie and Dr F. H. Cowen; and the names of these 
composers were thus brought into notice much more effectually 
than could have been the case in other surroundings. Meanwhile 
outside London the work of the renaissance was being carried on, 
notably at Cambridge, where by the amalgamation of various 
smaller societies with the University Musical Society, Stanford 
created in 1875 a splendid institution which did much to foster a 
love of the best music for many years; and at Oxford, where private 
meetings in the rooms of Hubert Parry brought about the institu- 
tion of the Musical Club, which has borne fruit in many ways, 
though only in the direction of chamber-music. The Bach Choir, 
founded by Mr Arthur Duke Coleridge in 1875, and conducted for 
the first ten years of its existence by Mr Otto Goldschmidt and 
subsequently by Professor Stanford, worked on purely uncommercial 
lines ever since its foundation, and besides many important works 
of Bach, it brought forward most important compositions by 
Englishmen, and had a prominent share in the work of the renais- 
sance. Parry's earlier compositions had a certain austerity in 
them which, while it commanded the homage of the cultivated few, 
prevented their obtaining wide popularity; and it was not until 
the date of his choral setting of Milton's Ode at a Solemn Mustek 
that he found his true vein. In this and its many successors, 
produced at the autumn festivals, though very rarely given in 
London, there was a nobility of utterance, a sublimity of concep- 
tion, a mastery of resource, that far surpass anything accomplished 
in England since the days of Purcell; while his " Symphonic Varia- 
tions " for orchestra, and at least two of his symphonies, exhibit 
his command of the modern modifications of classical forms in 
great perfection. Like Parry, Stanford first caught the ear of the 
public at large with a choral work, the stirring ballad-setting of 
Tennyson's Revenge; and in all his earlier and later works alike, 
which include compositions in every form, he shows himself a 
supreme master of effect ; in dramatic or lyrical handling of voices, 
in orchestral and chamber-music, his sense of beauty is unfailing, 
and while his ideas have real distinction, his treatment of them is 
nearly always the chief interest of his works. The work of the 
musical renaissance has been more beneficially fostered by these 
two masters than by any other individuals, through the medium 
. of the Royal College of Music. In 1876 the National Training 
School of Music was opened with Sullivan as principal; he was 
succeeded by Sir John Stainer in 1881, and the circumstance that 
such artists as Mr Eugen d' Albert and Mr Frederic Cliff e received 
there the foundation of their musical education is the only important 
fact connected with the institution, which in 1882 was succeeded 
by the Royal College of Music, under the directorship of Sir George 
Grove, and with Parry and Stanford as professors of composition. 
In 1894 Parry succeeded to the directorship, and before and after 
this date work of the best educational kind was done in all branches 
of the art, but most of all in the important branch of composition. 
Mackenzie's place among the masters of the renaissance is assured 
by his romantic compositions for orchestra such as La Belle dame 
sans merci and the two " Scottish Rhapsodies "; some of his choral 

works, such as the oratorios, show some tendency to fall back into 
the conventionalities from which the renaissance movement was an 
effort to escape: but in The Cottar's Saturday Night; The Story of 
Sayid; Veni, Creator Spiritus, and many other things, not except- 
ing the opera Colomba or the witty " Britannia " overture, he shows 
no lack of spontaneity or power. As principal of the Royal Academy 
of Music (he succeeded Macfarren in 1888) he revived the former 
glories of the school, and the excellent plan by which it and the Royal 
College unite their forces in the examinations of the Associated 
Board is largely due to his initiative. The opera just mentioned 
was the first of the modern series of English operas brought out 
from 1883 onwards by the Carl Rosa company during its tenure 
of Drury Lane Theatre: at the time it seemed as though English 
opera had a chance of getting permanently established, but the 
enterprise, being a purely private and individual one, failed to have 
a lasting effect upon the art of the country, and after the production 
of two operas by Mackenzie, two by Arthur Goring Thomas, one 
by F. Corder, two by Cowen and one by Stanford, the artistic 
work of the company grew gradually less and less important. In 
spite of the strong influence of French ideals and methods, the music 
of Arthur Goring Thomas was remarkable for individuality and 
charm ; in any other country his beautiful opera Esmeralda would 
have formed part of the regular repertory; and his orchestral 
suites, cantatas and a multitude of graceful and original songs, 
remain as evidence that if his career had been prolonged, the art 
of England might have been enriched by some masterpiece it would 
not willingly have let die. After a youth of extraordinary pre 
cocity, and a number of variously successful attempts in the more 
ambitious and more serious branches of the art, Cowen found his 
chief success in the treatment of fanciful or fairy subjects, whether 
in cantatas or orchestral works; here he is without a rival, and his 
ideas are uniformly graceful, excellently treated and wonderfully 
effective. His second tenure of the post of conductor of the Phil- 
harmonic Society showed him to be a highly accomplished conductor. 

In regard to English opera two more undertakings deserve to be 
recorded. In 1891 the Royal English Opera House was opened 
with Sullivan's Ivanhoe, a work written especially for the occasion, 
the absence of anything like a repertory, and the retention of this 
one work in the bills for a period far longer than its attractions 
could warrant, brought the inevitable result, and shortly after the 
production of a charming French comic opera the theatre was 
turned into the Palace Music Hall. The charming and thoroughly 
characteristic Shamus O'Brien of Stanford was successfully pro- 
duced in 1896 at the Opera Comique theatre. This work brought 
into public prominence the conductor Mr Henry J. Wood (b. 1870), 
who exercised a powerful influence on the art of the country by 
means of his orchestra, which was constantly to be heard at the 
Queen's Hall, and which attained, by continual performance 
together, a degree of perfection before unknown in England. It 
achieved an important work in bringing music within the reach of 
all classes at the Promenade Concerts given through each summer, 
as well as by means of the Symphony Concerts at other seasons. 

The movement thus started by Mr Wood increased and spread 
remarkably in later years. His training of the Queen's Hall 
Orchestra was characterized by a thoroughness and severity pre- 
viously unknown in English orchestras. This was partly made 
possible by the admirable business organization which fostered 
the movement in its earlier years; so many concerts were guaranteed 
that it was possible to give the players engagements which included 
a large amount of rehearsing. The result was soon apparent, not 
only in the raising of the standard of orchestral playing, but also 
in the higher and more intelligent standard of criticism to which 
performances were subjected both by experts and by the general 
public. The public taste in London for symphonic music grew so 
rapidly as to encourage the establishment of other bodies of players, 
until in 1910 there were five first-class professional orchestras 
giving concerts regularly in London the Philharmonic Society, 
the Queen's Hall Orchestra, the London Symphony Orchestra 
(described by Dr Hans Richter as " the finest orchestra in the 
world "), the New Symphony Orchestra under Mr Landon Ronald 
(b. 1873), a composer and conductor of striking ability, and Mr 
Thomas Beecham s Orchestra. Mr Beecham, who had come rapidly 
to the front as a musical enthusiast and conductor, paid special 
attention to the work of British composers. Manchester, Birming- 
ham, Liverpool and Edinburgh, had their own orchestras; and it 
might be said that the whole of the United Kingdom was now 
permeated with a taste for and a knowledge of orchestral music. 
The effect of this development has influenced the whole of the musical 
life of England. The symphony and the symphonic poem have 
taken the place so long held by the oratorio in popular taste; and 
English composers of any merit or ability find it possible to get 
a hearing for orchestral work which at the end of the igth century- 
would have had to remain unperformed and unheard. The result 
has been the r?pid development of a school of English orchestral 
comppsers-^-a school of considerable achievement and still greater 

The new school of English writers contains many names of 
skilled composers. Sir Edward Elgar established his reputation 
by his vigorous Caractacus and the grandiose imaginings of his 
Dream of Gerontius, as by orchestral and chamber compositions of 



decided merit and individuality, and by being the composer of a 
symphony which attained greater and wider fame than any similar 
work since the symphonies of Tschaikovsky. Mr Edward German 
(b. 1862) won great success as a writer of incidental music for plays, 
and in various lighter forms of music, for which his great skill in 
orchestration and his knowledge of effect stand him in good stead. 
The quality of Mr Frederic Cliffe's orchestral works is extremely 
high. Dr Arthur Somervell (b. 1863), who succeeded Stainer as 
musical adviser to the Board of Education, first came into promi- 
nence as a composer of a number of charming songs, notably a 
fine song-cycle from Tennyson's Maud, but his Mass and various 
orchestral works and cantatas and pianoforte pieces show his 
conspicuous ability in other forms. Various compositions written 
by Mr Hamish MacCunn (b. 1868), while still a student at the 
Royal College of Music, were received with acclamation; but his 
later work was not of equal value, though his operas Jeanie 
Deans and Diarmid were successful. Mr Granville Bantock 
(b. 1868), an ardent supporter of the most advanced music, has 
written many fine things for orchestra, and Mr William Wallace 
(b. 1861), in various orchestral pieces played at the Crystal Palace 
and elsewhere, and in such things as his " Freebooter " songs, has 
shown strong individuality and imagination. Mr Arthur Hinton 
(b. 1869) has produced things of fanciful beauty and quaint origi- 
nality. Miss Ethel M. Smyth, whose Mass was given at the Royal 
Albert Hall in most favourable conditions, had her opera Fantasia 
produced at Weimar and Carlsruhe, and Der Wald at Covent 
Garden. Miss Maud Valerie White's graceful and expressive songs 
brought her compositions into wide popularity; and Mme Liza 
Lehmann made a new reputation by her cycles of songs after 
her retirement from the profession of a singer. The first part of 
Mr S. Coleridge-Taylor's (b. 1875) Hiawatha scenes was performed 
while he was still a student at the Royal College, and so great was 
its popularity that the third part of the trilogy was commissioned 
for performance by the Royal Choral Society. Mr Cyril Scott is 
a composer who aims high, though with a somewhat strained 
originality. Dr H. VValford Davies (b. 1869) and W. Y. Hurlstone 
(1876-1906) excel in the serious kind of chamber-music and use the 
classic forms with notable skill; and Mr R. Vaughan Williams, in 
his songs and other works, has shown perhaps the most conspicuous 
talent among all of the younger school. 

English executive musicians have never suffered from foreign 
competition in the same degree as English composers, and the 
success of such singers as Miss Anna Williams, Miss Macintyre, 
Miss Marie Brema, Miss Clara Butt, Miss Agnes Nicholls, Messrs 
Santley, Edward Lloyd, Ben Davies, Plunket Greene and Ffrangcon 
Davies; or of such pianists as Miss Fanny Davies and Mr Leonard 
Borwick, is but a continuance of the tradition of British excellence. 

The scientific study of the music of the past has more and more 
decidedly taken its place as a branch of musical education; the 
learned writings of VV. S. Rockstro (1823-1895), many of them 
made public first in the Encyclopaedia Britannica and Grove's 
Dictionary of Music, made the subject clear to many who had been 
groping in the dark before; and the actual performance of old 
music has been undertaken not only by the Bach Choir, but by the 
Magpie Madrigal Society under Mr Lionel Benson's able direction. 
In vocal and instrumental music alike the musical side of the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1885 did excellent work in its historical 
concerts; and in that branch of archaeology which is concerned 
with the structure and restoration of olcf musical instruments, 
important work has been done by Mr A. J. Hipkins (1826-1903; 
so long connected with the firm of Broad wood), the Rev. F. W. 
Galpin. Arnold Dolmetsch and others. The formation of the 
Folk-Song Society in 1899 drew attention to the importance and 
extent of English traditional music, and did much to popularize 
it with singers of the present day. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Among encyclopaedic dictionaries of music 
Sir George Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1878- 
1889; new ed. by J. A. Fuller Maitland, 1904-1908), takes the first 
place among publications in English^ while Robert Eitner's (d. 1905) 
monumental Quellenlexikon (1900-1904), in German, is an authority 
of the first rank. Among other modern works of value on various 
accounts may be mentioned F. J. Fetis's Biographic universelle des 
musiciens (2nd ed., 1860-1865; supplement by A. Pougin, 1878); 
G. Schilling's Encyklopddie der gesammten musikalischen Wissen- 
schaft (1835-1838); Mendel and Reissmann's Musikalisches Con- 
versations-lexikon (2nd ed., 1883); H. Riemann's Musik-lexikon 
(5th ed., 1900; also an Eng. trans., with additions, by J. S. Shed- 
lock); the American Cyclopaedia of Music and Musicians (1889 
1891) ; and the Oxford History of Music (1901-1905). The literature 
of music generally is enormous, but the following selected list of 
works on various aspects may be useful : 

Aesthetics, Theory, &c. H. Ehrlich, Die Musik-Aesthetik in ihrer 
Entwickelung von Kant bis auf die Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1882); E. 
Hanslick, The Beautiful in Music (London, 1891); R. Wallaschek, 
Aesthetik der Tonkunst (Stuttgart, 1886); R. Pohl, Die Hohenzilge 
der musikalischen Entwickelung (Leipzig, 1888); A. Schnez, Die 
Geheimnisse der Tonkunst (Stuttgart, 1891); I. A. Zahm, Sound and 
Music (Chicago, 1892); C. Bellaique, Psychologie musicale( Paris, 
1893); W. Pole, Philosophy of Music (vol. xi. of the English and 
Foreign Philosophical Library, 1895); M. Seybel, Schopenhauers 

Metaphysik der Musik (Leipzig, 1895); L. Lacombe, Philosophie et 
musique (Paris, 1896); Sir C. H. H. Parry, The Evolution of the Art 
of Music (London, 1897); H. Riemann, Prdludien untf Studien 
(Frankfort, 1896); Geschic hie der Musiktheorie im IX. -XIX. Jahr- 
hundert (Leipzig, 1898); Systemalische Modulationslehre (Hamburg, 
1887) ; J. C. Lobe, Lehrbuch der musikalischen Komposition (Leipzig, 
1884); A. B. Marx, Die Lehre von der musikalischen Komposition 
(Leipzig, 1887, 1890); M. L. C. Cherubini, Theorie des Kontra- 
punktes und der Fuge (Cologne, 1896); Sir J. F. Bridge and F. J. 
Sawyer, A Course of Harmony (London, 1899) ; E. Prout, Counter- 
point (London, 1890); Double Counterpoint and Canon (London, 
1893); Musical Form (London, 1893); Applied Forms (London, 
1895); B. Widmann, Die strengen Fornten der Musik (Leipzig, 
1882); S. Jadassohn, Die Formen in den Werken der Tonkunst 
(Leipzig, 1885); M. Steinitzer, Psychologische Wirkungen der musik- 
alischen Formen (Munich, 1885); J. Combarieu, Theorie du rhythme 
dans la composition moderne d'apres la doctrine antique (Paris, 
1897); P. Goetschius, Homophonic Forms of Musical Composition 
(New York, 1898) ; William Wallace, The Threshold of Music (1007). 

English Music. W. Nagel, Geschichte der Musik in England 
(Strassburg, 1894); H. Davey, History of English Music (London, 
1895); F. J. Crcwest, The Story of British Music (London, 1896); 
S. Vautyn, L'Evolution de la musique en Angleterre (Brussels, 1900); 
Ernest Walker, English Music (1907). 

America. W. S. B. Mathews, A Hundred Years of Music in 
America (Chicago, 1889); L. C. Elson, The National Music of 
America and its Sources (Boston, 1900) ; T. Baker, Uber die Musik 
der nord-amerikanischen Wilden (Leipzig, 1882). 

France. H. Laroix, La Musique fran^aise (Paris, 1891); N. M. 
Schletterer, Studien zur Geschichte der franzosischen Musik (Berlin, 
1884-1885) ; T. Galino, La Musique fran^aise au moyen dge (Leipzig, 
1890); A. Ccgnard, De la Musique en France depuis Rameau (Paris, 
1891); G. Servieres, La Musique franfaise moderne (Paris, 1897). 

Germany. W. Baeumker, Geschichte der Tonkunst in Deutschland 
bis zur Reformation (Freiburg, 1881); O. Ebben, Der volksthumliche 
deutsche Mannergesang (Tubingen, 1887); L. Meinardus, Die deutsche 
Tonkunst; A. Soubies, Histoire de la musique allemande (Paris, 1896). 

Italy. O. Chilesotti, / nostri maestri del passato (Milan, 1882); 
V. Lee, 77 Settecento in Italia (Milan, 1881); G. Masutto, / Maestri 
di musica italiani del secolo XIX. (Venice, 1882). 

Russia. A. Soubies, Histoire de la musique en Russie (Paris, 

Scandinavia. A. Gronvoed, Norske Musikere (Christiania, 
1883); C. Valentin, Studien uber die schwedischen Volksmelodien 

(Leipzig, 1885). 
Spain.]. F. 
1887); J. Tort y Daniel, Noticia musical del " Lied " 6 CanQO cata- 

Riafio, Notes on Early Spanish Music (London, 

lana (Barcelona, 1892); A. Soubies, Hist, de la mus. en Espagne 

Switzerland. A. Niggli, La Musique dans la Suisse allemande 
(1900); F. Held, La Musique dans la Suisse romande (1900); A. 
Soubies, Hist, de la mus. dans la Suisse (1899). 

Church Music. F. L. Humphreys, The Evolution of Church 
Music (New York, 1898); E. L. Taunton, History of Church Music 
(London, 1887); A. Morsch, Der italienische Kirchengesang bis 
Palestrina (Berlin, 1887); G. Masutto, Delia Musica sacra in Italia, 
(Venice, 1889) ; G. Felix, Palestrina et la musique sacree (Bruges, 
1895); R. v. Liliencron, Liturgisch-musikalische Geschichte der 
evangelischen Gottesdienste (Schleswig, 1893). 

Instruments (see also the separate articles on each). L. Arrigoni, 
Organografia ossia descrizione degli instrumenti musicali antichi 
.(Milan, 1881) ; F. Boudoin, La Musique hislorique (Paris, 1886); 
A. Jacquot, Etude de I'art instrumental. Dictionnaire des instru- 
ments de musique (Paris, 1886) ; H. Boddington, Catalogue of Musical 
Instruments illustrative of the History of the Pianoforte (Manchester 
1888); M. E. Brown, Musical Instruments and their Homes (New 
York, 1888); A. J. Hipkins, Musical Instruments: Historic, Rare 
and Unique (Edinburgh, 1888); W. Lynd, Account of Ancient 
Musical Instruments and their Development (London, 1897); J. 
Weiss, Die musikalischen Instrumente in den heiligen Schriften des 
Alien Testaments (Graz, 1895) ; E. Travers, Les Instruments de 
musique au xiv. siecle (Paris, 1882); E. A. v. Hasselt, L' Anatomic 
des instruments de musique (Brussels, 1899); E. W. Verney, Siamese 
Musical Instruments (London, 1888); C. R. Day, Music and Musical 
Instruments of Southern India (London, 1891); D. G. Brinton, 
Native American Stringed Musical Instruments (1897); I. Ruehl- 
mann, Die Geschichte der Bogeninstrumente (Brunswick, 1882); 
F. di Caffarelli, Gli Strumenti ad area e la musica da camera (Milan, 
1894); Kathleen Schlesinger, Instruments of the Orchestra (1910). 

Conducting. W. R. Wagner, On Conducting (London, 1887); 
M. Kufferath, L' Art de diriger Vorchestre (Paris, 1891); F. Wein- 
gartner, Uber das Dirigiren (Berlin, 1896). 

Biography. IP. Hueffer, The Great Musicians (London, 1881 
1884) ; F. Clement, Les Grands musiciens (Paris, 1882) ; C. E. Bourne, 
The Great Composers (London, 1887); G. T. Ferris, Great Musical 
Composers; Sir C. H. H. Parry, Studies of Great Composers (London, 
1887); A. A. Ernouf, Compositeurs celebres (Paris, 1888); F. T. 
Bennassi-Desplantes, Les Musiciens celebres (Limoges, 1889); 
A. Haunedruche, Les Musiciens et compositeurs franfais , (Paris, 
1890); N. H. Dole, A Score of Famous Composers (New York, 



1891); L. T. Morris, Famous Musical Composers (London, 1891); 
H. de Bremont, The World of Music (London, 1892); J. K. Paine, 
Famous Composers and their Works (Boston, 1892-1893); E. Polko, 
Meister der Tonkunst (Wiesbaden, 1897); R. F. Sharp, Makers of 
Music (London, 1898); L. Nohl, Mosaik Denksteine aus dem Leben 
beriihmter Tonkunstler (Leipzig, 1899); T. Baker, A Biographical 
Dictionary of Musicians (New York, 1900); M.Charles, Zeitgenos- 
sische Tondichter (Leipzig, 1888); A. Jullien, Musiciens d'aujourd'hui 
(Paris, 1892). 

MUSICAL-BOX, an instrument for producing by mechanical 
means tunes or pieces of music. The modern musical-box is 
an elaboration of the elegant toy musical snuff-box in vogue 
during the i8th century. The notes or musical sounds are pro- 
duced by the vibration of steel teeth or springs cut in a comb or 
flat plate of steel, reinforced by the harmonics generated in the 
solid steel back of the comb. The teeth are graduated in length 
from end to end of the comb or plate, the longer teeth giving the 
deeper notes; and the individual teeth are accurately attuned, 
where necessary, by filing or loading with lead. Each tone and 
semitone in the scale is represented by three or four separate 
teeth in the comb, to permit of successive repetitions of the same 
note when required by the music. The teeth are acted upon and 
musical vibrations produced by the revolution of a brass cylinder 
studded with projecting pins, which, as they move round, raise 
and release the proper teeth at due intervals according to the 
nature of the music. A single revolution of the cylinder com- 
pletes the performance of each of the several pieces of music for 
which the apparatus is set, but upon the same cylinder there may 
be inserted pins for performing as many as thirty-six separate 
airs. This is accomplished by making both the points of the 
teeth and the projecting pins which raise them very fine, so that 
a very small change in the position of the cylinder is sufficient 
to bring an entirely distinct set of pins in contact with the teeth. 
In the more elaborate musical-boxes the cylinders are removable, 
and may be replaced by others containing distinct sets of music. 
In these also there are combinations of bell, drum, cymbal and 
triangle effects, &c. The revolving motion of the cylinder is 
effected by a spring and clock-work which on some modern instru- 
ments will work continuously for an hour and a half without 
winding, and the rate of revolution is regulated by a fly regulator. 
The headquarters of the musical-box trade is Geneva, where the 
manufacture gives employment to thousands of persons. 

The musical-box is a type of numerous instruments for producing 
musical effects by mechanical means, in all of which a revolving 
cylinder or barrel studded with pins is the governing feature. The 
position of the pins on the barrel is determined by two considera- 
tions: those of pitch and of time or rhythm. The degrees of 
pitch or semitones of the scales are in the direction of the length 
of the cylinder, while those of time, or the beats in the bars, are in 
the path of the revolution of the cylinder. The action of the pins 
is practically the same for all barrel instruments; each pin serves to 
raise some part of the mechanism for one note at the exact moment 
and for the exact duration of time required by the music to be 
played, after which, passing along with the revolution of the 
cylinder, it ceases to act. The principle of the barrel operating 
by friction, by percussion or by wind on reeds, pipes or strings 
governs carillons or musical bells, barrel organs, mechanical flutes, 
celestial voices, harmoniphones, violin-pianos and the orchestrions 
and polyphons in which a combination of all orchestral effects is 
attempted. In the case of wind instruments, such as flutes, 
trumpets, oboes, clarinets, imitated in the more complex orches- 
trions, the pins raise levers which open the valves admitting air, 
compressed by mechanical bellows, to various kinds of flue-pipes, 
and to others fitted with beating and free reeds. The sticks used 
for striking bells, drums, cymbals and triangles are set in motion 
in a similar manner. A fine set of full-page drawings, published at 
Frankfort in i6is, 1 makes the whole working of the pinned barrel 
quite clear, and establishes the exact relation of the pins to the 
music produced by the barrel so unmistakably that some bars of 
the piece of music set on the cylinder can be made out. The 
prototype of the 19th-century musical-box is to be found in the 
Netherlands where during the ijth century the dukes of Burgundy 
encouraged the invention of ingenious mechanical musical 
curiosities such as " organs which played of themselves," musical 
snuff-boxes, singing birds, curious clocks, &c. A principle of more 
recent introduction than the studded cylinder consists of sheets 
of perforated paper or card, somewhat similar to the Jacquard 
apparatus for weaving. The perforations correspond in position 
and length to the pitch and duration of the note they represent, 

1 See S. de Caus, Les forces mouvantes; and article BARREL ORGAN. 

and as the web or long sheet of paper passes over the instrument 
the perforated holes are brought in proper position and sequence 
under the influence of the suction or pressure cf air from a bellows, 
and thereby the notes are either directly acted on, as in the case of 
reed instruments, or the opening and closing of valves set in motion 
levers or liberate springs which govern special notes. The United 
States are the original home of the instruments controlled by 
perforated paper known as orguinettes, organinas, melodeons, &c. 
All these instruments are being gradually replaced in popular 
favour by the piano-players and the gramophone. (K. S.) 

MUSICAL NOTATION, a pictorial method of representing 
sounds to the ear through the medium of the eye. It is probable 
that the earliest attempts at notation were made by the Hindus 
and Chinese, from whom the legacy was transferred to Greece. 
The exact nature of the Greek notation is a subject of dispute, 
different explanations assigning 1680, 1620, 990, or 138 signals 
to their alphabetical method of delineation. To Boethius we 
owe the certainty that the Greek notation was not adopted by 
the Latins, although it is not certain whether he was the first 
to apply the fifteen letters of the Roman alphabet to the scale 
of sounds included within the two octaves, or whether he was 
only the first to make record of that application. The reduction 
of the scale to the octave is ascribed to St Gregory, as also the 
naming of the seven notes, but it is not safe to assume that such 
an ascription is accurate or final. Indications of a scheme of 
notation based, not on the alphabet, but on the use of dashes, 
hooks, curves, dots and strokes are found to exist as early as 
the 6th century, while specimens in illustration of this different 
method do not appear until the 8th. The origin of these signs, 
known as neumes (vtvuara, or nods), is the full stop (punctus), 
the comma (virga), and the mound or undulating line (dims), 
the first indicating a short sound, the second a long sound, and 
the third a group of two notes. The musical intervals were 
suggested by the distance of these signals from the words of the 
text. The variety of neumes employed at different times, and 
the fluctuations due to handwriting, have made them extremely 
difficult to decipher. In the loth century a marked advance 
is shown by the use of a red line traced horizontally above the 
text to give the singer a fixed note (F = fa), thus helping him to 
approximate the intervals. To this was added a second line in 
yellow (for C = ut), and finally a staff arose from the further 
addition of two black lines over these. The difficulty of the 
subject is complicated for the student by the fact that an 
incredible variety of notations coexisted at one period, all more 
or less representing attempts in the direction of the modern 
system. A variety of experiments resulted in the assignment 
of the four-lined staff to sacred music and of the five-lined staff 
to secular music. The yellow and red colours were replaced 
by the use of the letters F and C (fa and ut) on the lines. This 
use of letters to indicate clef is forestalled in a manuscript of 
Guido of Arezzo's Micrologus, dating from the i2th century, in 
which is the famous hymn to St John, printed with neumes on 
a staff of three lines (see Guroo OF AREZZO). The use of letters 
for indicating clefs has survived to the present day, our clef 
signatures being modified forms of the letters C, F and G, which 
have passed through a multitude of shapes. Before the lath 
century there is no trace of a measured notation (i.e. of a 
numerical time division separating the component parts of a 
piece of music). It is at the time of Franco of Cologne 2 that 
measured music takes its rise, together with the black notation 
in place of neumes, which disappeared altogether by the end of 
the i4th century. Writing four hundred years after St Gregory, 
Cottonius complains bitterly of the defects in the system of 
neumes: " The same marks which Master Trudo sang as 
thirds, were sung as fourths by Master Albinus; while Master 
Salomo asserts that fifths are the notes meant, so at last there 
were as many methods of singing as teachers of the art." Pos- 
sibly the reckless multiplication of lines in the staff may have 
contributed to the obscurity of which Cottonius complains. 
In the black notation, which led to the modern system, the 
square note with a tail fl) is the long sound; the square note 

1 The principles of Franco are found in the treatises of Walter 
Odington, a monk of Evesham who became archbishop of Canterbury 
in 1228. 


without a tail () is the breve; and the lozenge shape (4) is the 
semibreve. In a later development there were added the double 
long ^ and the minum (fl). The breve, according to Franco of 
Cologne, was the unit of measure. The development of a fixed 
time division was further continued by Philippe de Vitry. It 
has been noted with well-founded astonishment that at this time 
the double time (i.e. two to the bar) was unknown, in spite of 
this being the time used in marching and also illustrated in the 
process of breathing. Triple time (i.e. three to the bar) was 
regarded as the most perfect because it was indivisible. It was 
as if there lay some mysterious enchantment in a number that 
could not be divided into equal portions without the fraction. 
" Triple time, " says Jean de Muris, " is called perfect, according 
to Franco, a man of much skill in his art, because it hath its name 
from the Blessed Trinity which is pure and true perfection." 
Vitry championed the rights of imperfect time and invented 
signs to distinguish the two. The perfect circle O represented 
the perfect or triple time; the half circle C the imperfect or 
double-time. This C has survived in modern notation to 
indicate four-time, which is twice double-time; when crossed ([ 
it means double-time. The method of dividing into perfect 
and imperfect was described as prolation. The addition of a 
point to the circle or semi-circle (0 ( ) indicated major pro- 
lation; its absence, minor prolation. The substitution of 
white for black notation began with the first year of the I4th 
century and was fully established in the I5th century. 

It has already been shown how the earlier form of alphabetical 
notation was gradually superseded by one based on the attempt 
to represent the relative height and depth of sounds pictorially. 
The alphabetical nomenclature, however, became inextricably 
associated with the pictorial system. The two conceptions 
reinforced each other; and from the hexachordal scale, endowed 
with the solmization of ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la which was a 
device for identifying notes by their names when talked of, 
rather than by their positions when seen on a page of music 
arose the use of what are now known as accidentals. Of these 
it may here be said that the flat originated from the necessity 
of sinking the B of the scale in order to form a hexachord on 
the note F in such a way as to cause the semitone to fall in the 
right place which in the case of all hexachords was between 
the third and fourth notes. This softened B was written in a 
rounded form thus: b (rotundum), while the original B remained 
square thus: [3 (quadrum). The original conception of the sharp 
was to cross or lattice the square B, by which it was shown that 
it was neither to be softened nor to remain unchanged. The 
flat, which originated in the loth century, appears to have been 
of far earlier date than the sharp, the invention of which has 
been ascribed to Josquin Des Pres (1450-1521). The B-sharp 
was called B cancellatum, the cross being formed thus %. The 
use of key signatures constructed out of these signs of sharp and 
flat was of comparatively late introduction. The key signature 
states at the beginning of a piece of music the sharps and flats 
which it contains within the scale in which it is written. It is a 
device to avoid repeating the sign of sharp and flat with every 
fresh occasion of their occurring. The exact distinction between 
what were accidental sharps or flats, and what were sharps or 
flats in the key, was still undetermined in the time of Handel, 
who wrote the Suite in E containing the " Harmonious Black- 
smith " with three sharps instead of four. The double bb (some- 
times written \> or /3) and the double sharp X (sometimes 
written ^, ^ or :$ ) are Conventions of a much later date, 
called into existence by the demands of modern music, while 
the sign of natural (t|) is the outcome of the original B quadra- 
tion or square B (3. 

The systems known as Tonic Sol Fa and the Galin-Paris- 
Cheve methods do not belong to the subject of notation, as they 
are ingenious mechanical substitutes for the experimentally devel- 
oped systems analysed above. The basis of these substitutes 
is the reference of all notes to key relationship and not to pitch. 

AUTHORITIES. E. David and M. Lussy, Hisioire de la notation 
musicale (Paris, 1882); H. Riemann, Notenschrift und Notendruck 
(1896) ; C. F. Abdy Williams, The Story of Notation (1903) ; Robert 

Eitner, Bibliographic der musik. Sammelwerke des 16. und 17. Jahr- 
hunderts (Berlin, 1877) ; Friedrich Chrysander, " Abriss einer 
Geschichte des Musikdrucks vom I5--I9. Jahrh.," Allgemeine musik- 
alische Zeitung (Leipzig, 1879, Nos. n-i6); W. H. James Weale, 
A Descriptive Catalogue of Rare Manuscripts and Printed Works, 
chiefly Liturgical (Historical Music Loan Exhibition, Albert Hall, 
London, January-October, 1885); (London, 1886); W. Barclay 
Squire, " Notes on Early Music Printing," in the Zeitschrift biblio- 
graphica, p. IX. S. 99-122 (London, 1896); Grove's Diet, of Music. 

MUSIC HALLS. The "variety theatre" or "music-hall" 
of to-day developed out of the " saloon theatres " which existed 
in London about 1830-1840; they owed their form and existence 
to the restrictive action of the " patent " theatres at that time. 
These theatres had the exclusive right of representing what was 
broadly called the "legitimate drama," which ranged from 
Shakespeare to Monk Lewis, and from Sheridan and Goldsmith 
to Kotzebue and Alderman Birch of Cornhill, citizen and poet, 
and the founder of the turtle-soup trade. The patent houses 
defended their rights when they were attacked by the " minor " 
and " saloon " theatres, but they often acted in the spirit of 
the dog in the manger. While they pursued up to fine and 
even imprisonment the poachers on their dramatic preserves, 
they too often neglected the " legitimate drama " for the 
supposed meretricious attractions offered by their illegitimate 
competitors. The British theatre gravitated naturally to the 
inn or tavern. The tavern was the source of life and heat, and 
warmed all social gatherings. The inn galleries offered rather 
rough stages, before the Shakespeare and Alleyn playhouses 
were built. The inn yards were often made as comfortable as 
possible for the " groundlings " by layers of straw, but the tavern 
character of the auditorium was never concealed. Excisable 
liquor was always obtainable, and the superior members of the 
audience, who chose to pay for seats at the side of the stage or 
platform (like the " avant-scene " boxes at a Parisian theatre), 
were allowed to smoke Raleigh's Virginian weed, then a novel 
luxury. This was, of course, the first germ of a " smoking- 

While the drama progressed as a recognized public entertain- 
ment in England, and was provided with its own buildings in the 
town, or certain booths at the fairs, the Crown exercised its 
patronage in favour of certain individuals, giving them power 
to set up playhouses at any time in any parts of London and 
Westminster. The first and most important grant was made by 
Charles II. to his " trusty and well-beloved " Thomas Killigrew 
" and Sir William Davenant." This was a personal grant, not 
connected with any particular sites or buildings, and is known 
in theatrical history as the " Killigrew and Davenant patent." 
Killigrew was the author of several unsuccessful plays, and Sir 
William Davenant, said to be an illegitimate chUd of William 
Shakespeare, was a stage manager of great daring and genius. 
Charles II. had strong theatrical leanings, and had helped to 
arrange the court ballets at Versailles for Louis XIV. The 
Killigrew and Davenant patent in course of time descended, 
after a fashion, to the Theatres Royal, Covent Garden and Drury 
Lane, and was and still is the chief legal authority governing 
these theatres. The " minor " and outlying playhouses were 
carried on under the Music and Dancing Act of George II., and 
the annual licences were granted by the local magistrates. 

The theatre proper having emancipated itself from the inn or 
tavern, it was now the turn of the inn or tavern to develop into 
an independent place of amusement, and to lay the foundation 
of that enormous middle-class and lower middle-class institution 
of interest which we agree to term the music hall. It rose from 
the most modest, humble and obscure beginning from the 
public-house bar-parlour, and its weekly " sing-songs," chiefly 
supported by voluntary talent from the "harmonic meetings" 
of the " long-room " upstairs, generally used as a Foresters' or 
Masonic club-room, where one or two professional singers were 
engaged and a regular chairman was appointed, to the " assem- 
bly-room " entertainments at certain hotels, where private balls 
and school festivals formed part of an irregular series. The 
district " tea-garden," which was then an agreeable feature of 
suburban life the suburbs being next door to the city and the 
country next door to the suburbs was the first to show dramatic 



ambition, and to erect in some portion of its limited but leafy 
grounds a lath-and-plaster stage large enough for about eight 
people to move upon without incurring the danger of falling 
off into the adjoining fish pond and fountain. A few classical 
statues in plaster, always slightly mutilated, gave an educational 
tone to the place, and with a few coloured oil-lamps hung amongst 
the bushes the proprietor felt he had gone as near the " Royal 
Vauxhall Gardens '' as possible for the small charge of a sixpenny 
refreshment ticket. There were degrees of quality, of course, 
amongst these places, which answered to the German beer- 
gardens, though with inferior music. The Beulah Spa at 
Norwood, the White Conduit House at Pentonville, the York- 
shire Stingo in the Marylebone Road, the Monster at Pimlico, 
the St Helena at Rotherhithe, the Globe at Mile End, the Red 
Cow at Dalston, the Highbury Barn at Highbury, the Manor 
House at Mare Street, Hackney, the Rosemary Branch at 
Hoxton, and other rus-in-urbe retreats, were up to the level of 
their time, if rarely beyond it. 

The suspended animation of the law the one Georgian act, 
which was mainly passed to check the singing of Jacobite songs 
in the tap-rooms and tea-gardens of the little London of 1730, 
when the whole population of the United Kingdom was only 
about six millions encouraged the growth eventually of a 
number of " saloon theatres " in various London districts, 
which were allowed under the head of "Music and Dancing" 
to go as far on the light dramatic road as the patent theatres 
thought proper to permit. The 25 Geo. II. c. 36, which in later 
days was still the only act under which the music halls of forty 
millions and more of people were licensed, was always liberally 
interpreted, as long as it kept clear of politics. 

The " saloon theatres," always being taverns or attached to 
taverns, created a public who liked to mix its dramatic amuse- 
ments with smoking and light refreshments. The principal 
" saloons " were the Emngham in the Whitechapel Road, the 
Bower in the Lower Marsh, Lambeth, the Albert at Islington, 
the Britannia at Hoxton, the Grecian in the City Road, the 
Union in Shoreditch, the Stingo at Paddington and several 
others of less importance. All these places had good com- 
panies, especially in the winter, and many of' them nourished 
leading actors of exceptional merit. The dramas were chiefly 
rough adaptations from the contemporary French stage, 
occasionally flying as high as Alexandre Dumas the elder and 
Victor Hugo. Actors of real tragic power lived, worked and 
died in this confined area. Some went to America, and acquired 
fame and fortune; and among others, Frederick Robson, who 
was trained at the Grecian, first when it was the leading 
saloon theatre and afterwards when it became the leading music 
hall (a distinction with little difference), fought his way to the 
front after the abolition of the " patent rights " and was accepted 
as the greatest tragi-comic actor of his time. The Grecian 
saloon theatre, better known perhaps, with its pleasure garden 
or yard, as the Eagle Tavern, City Road, which formed the 
material of one of Charles Dickens's Sketches by Boz, was a place 
managed with much taste, enterprise and discretion by its pro- 
prietor, Mr Rouse. It was the " saloon " where the one and only 
attempt, with limited means, was ever made to import almost 
all the original repertory of the Opera Comique in Paris, with the 
result that many musical works were presented to a sixpenny 
audience that had never been heard before nor since in England. 
Auber, Herold, Adolphe Adam, Boieldieu, Gretry, Donizetti, 
Bellini, Rossini and a host of others gave some sort of advanced 
musical education, through the Grecian, to a rather depressing 
part of London, long before board schools were established. 
The saloon theatres rarely offended the patent houses, and when 
they did the law was soon put in motion to show that Shake- 
speare could not be represented with impunity. The Union 
Saloon in Shoreditch, then under the direction of Mr Samuel 
Lane, who afterwards, with his wife, Mrs Sara Lane, at the 
Britannia Saloon, became the leading local theatrical manager 
of his day, was tempted in 1834 to give a performance of Othello. 
It was " raided " by the then rather " new police," and all the 
actors, servants, audience, directors and musicians were taken 

into custody and marched off to Worship Street police station, 
confined for the remainder of the night, and fined and warned 
in the morning. The same and only law still exists for those 
who are helping to keep a " disorderly house," but there are no 
holders of exclusive dramatic patent rights to set it in motion. 
The abolition of this privileged monopoly was effected about this 
time by a combination of distinguished literary men and drama- 
tists, who were convinced, from observation and experience, that 
the patent theatres had failed to nurse the higher drama, while 
interfering with the beneficial freedom of public amusements. 

The effect of Covent Garden and Drury Lane on the art of 
acting had resulted chiefly in limiting the market for theatrical 
employment, with a consequent all-round reduction of salaries. 
They kept the Lyceum Theatre (or English Opera House) for 
years in the position of a music hall, giving sometimes two 
performances a night, like a " gaff " in the New Cut or White- 
chapel. They had not destroyed the " star " system, and 
Edmund Kean and the boy Betty the " Infant Roscius " 
were able to command sensational rewards. In the end Charles 
Dickens, Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Sir Thomas Noon Talfourd 
and others got the patents abolished, and the first step towards 
free trade in the drama was secured. 

The effect of this change was to draw attention to the " saloon 
theatres," where during the performances smoking, drinking, 
and even eating were allowed hi the auditorium. An act was 
soon passed, known as the Theatres Act (1843), appointing a 
censor of stage-plays, and placing the London theatres under 
the control of a Crown officer, changing with ministries. This 
was the lord chamberlain for the time being. The lord chamber- 
lain of this period drew a hard-and-fast line between theatres 
under his control, where no smoking and drinking were allowed 
" in front," and theatres or halls where the old habits and customs 
of the audience were not to be interfered with. These latter 
were to go under the jurisdiction of the local magistrates, 
or other licensing authorities, under the 25 Geo. II. c. 36 the 
Music and Dancing Act and so far a divorce was decreed 
between the taverns and the playhouses. The lord chamberlain 
eventually made certain concessions. Refreshment bars were 
allowed at the lord chamberlain's theatres in unobstrusive 
positions, victualled under a special act of William IV., and 
private smoking-rooms were allowed at most theatres on appli- 
cation. All this implied that stage plays were to be kept free 
from open smoking and drinking, and miscellaneous entertain- 
ments were to enjoy their old social freedom. The position was 
accepted by those " saloon theatres " which were not tempted 
to become lord chamberlain houses, and the others, with many 
additions, started the first music halls. 

Amongst the first of these halls, and certainly the very first 
as far as intelligent management was concerned, was the Can- 
terbury in the Lower Marsh, Lambeth, which was next door 
to the old Bower Saloon, then transformed into a " minor 
theatre." The Canterbury sprang from the usual tavern 
germ, its creator being Mr Charles Morton, who honourably 
earned the name of the " doyen of the music halls." It justified 
its title by cultivating the best class of music, and exposed the 
prejudice and unfairness of Planche's sarcasm in a Haymarket 
burlesque " most music hall most melancholy." Mr Charles 
Morton added pictorial art to his other attractions, and obtained 
the support of Punch, which stamped the Canterbury as the 
" Royal Academy over the water." At this time by a mere 
accident Gounod's great opera of Faust, through defective inter- 
national registration, fell into the public domain in England and 
became common property. The Canterbury, not daring 
to present it with scenery, costumes and action, for fear of the 
Stage-play Act, gave what was called " An Operatic Selection," 
the singers standing in plain dresses in a row, like pupils at a 
school examination or a chorus in an oratorio at Exeter Hall. 
The music was well rendered by a thoroughly competent com- 
pany, night after night, for a long period, so that by the time 
the opera attracted the tardy attention of the two principal 
opera managers at Her Majesty's Theatre in the Haymarket 
and Covent Garden Theatre, the tunes most popular were being' 



whistled by the " man in the street," the " boy in the gutter " 
and the tradesman waiting at the door for orders. 

With the Canterbury Hall, and its brother the Oxford 
in Oxford Street a converted inn and coaching yard built 
and managed on the same lines by Mr Charles Morton, the 
music halls were well started. They had imitators in every 
direction some large, some small, and some with architectural 
pretensions, but all anxious to attract the public by cheap 
prices and physical comforts not attainable at any of the 
regular theatres. 

With the growth and improvement of these " Halls," the few 
old cellar " singing-rooms " gradually disappeared. Evans's 
in Covent Garden was the last to go. Rhodes's, or the 
Cyder Cellars in Maiden Lane, at the back of the Adelphi 
Theatre; the Coal Hole, in the Strand, which now forms 
the site of Terry's Theatre; the Doctor Johnson, in Fleet 
Street (oddly enough, within the precincts of the City of London) 
disappeared one by one, and with them the compound material 
for Thackeray's picture of " The Cave of Harmony." This 
" Cave," like Dickens's " Old Curiosity Shop," was drawn 
from the features of many places. To do the " cellars " a little 
justice, they represented the manners of a past time heavy 
suppers and heavy drinks, and the freedom of their songs and 
recitations was partly due to the fact that the audience and 
the actors were always composed of men. Thackeray clung 
to Evans's to the last. It was his nightly " chapel of 
ease " to the adjoining Garrick Club. In its old age it became 
decent, and ladies were admitted to a private gallery, behind 
screens and a convent grille. Before its death, and its revival 
in another form as a sporting club, it admitted ladies both on 
and off the stage, and became an ordinary music hall. 

The rise and progress of the London music halls naturally 
excited a good deal of attention and jealousy on the part of 
the regular theatres, and this was increased when the first 
Great Variety Theatre was opened in Leicester Square. 
The building was the finest example of Moorish architec- 
ture on a large scale ever erected in England. It was burnt 
down in the 'eighties, and the present theatre was built in 
its place. Originally it was " The Panopticon," a palace of 
" recreative science," started under the most distinguished 
direction on the old polytechnic institution lines, and with 
ample capital. It was a commercial failure, and after being 
tried as an " American Circus," it was turned into a great 
variety theatre, the greatest of its kind in Europe, under the 
name of the Alhambra Palace. Its founder was Mr E.T. Smith, 
the energetic theatrical manager, and its developer was Mr 
Frederick Strange, who came full of spirit and money from 
the Crystal Palace. He produced in 1865 an ambitious ballet 
the Dagger Ballet from Auber's Enfant prodigue, which had 
been seen at Drury Lane Theatre in 1851, translated as " Azae'l." 

The Alhambra was prosecuted in the superior courts for 
infringing the Stage-play Act the 6 & 7 Viet. c. 68. The 
case is in the law reports Wigan v. Strange; the ostensible 
plaintiffs being the well-known actors and managers Horace 
Wigan and Benjamin Webster, supported by J. B. Buckstone, 
and many other theatrical managers. A long trial before 
eminent judges, with eminent counsel on both sides, produced 
a decision which was not very satisfactory, and far from final. 
It held that, as far as the entertainment went, according to 
the evidence tendered, it was not a ballet representing any 
distinct story or coherent action, but it might have been a 
" divertissement " a term suggested in the course of the 
trial. A short time after this a pantomime scene was pro- 
duced at the same theatre, called Where's the Police? 
which had a clown, a pantaloon, a columbine and a harlequin, 
with other familiar characters, a mob, a street and even the 
traditional red-hot poker. This inspired proceedings by the 
same plaintiffs before a police magistrate at Marlborough Street, 
who inflicted the full penalties 20 a performance for 12 
performances, and costs. An appeal was made to the West- 
minster quarter sessions, supported by Serjeant Ballantine 
and opposed by Mr Hardinge Giffard (afterwards Lord Chan- 

cellor Halsbury), and the conviction was confirmed. Being 
heard at quarter sessions, there is no record in the law reports. 

These and other prosecutions suggested the institution of 
a parliamentary inquiry, and a House of Commons select 
committee was appointed in 1866, at the instigation of the 
music halls and variety theatres. The committee devoted 
much time to the inquiry, and examined many witnesses 
amongst the rest Lord Sydney, the lord chamberlain, who 
had no personal objection to undertake the control of these 
comparatively young places of amusement and recreation. 
Much of the evidence was directed against the Stage-play Act, 
as the difficulty appeared to be to define what was not a stage 
play. Lord Denman, Mr Justice Byles, and other eminent 
judges seemed to think that any song, action or recitation 
that excited the emotions might be pinned as a stage-play, 
and that the old definition " the representation of any action 
by a person (or persons) acting, and not in the form of narration " 
could be supported in the then state of the law in any of 
the higher courts. The variety theatres on this occasion were 
encouraged by what had just occurred at the time in France. 
Napoleon III., acting under the advice of M. Miche! Chevalier, 
passed a decree known as La LibertS des IheStres, which 
fixed the status of the Parisian and other music halls. Operettas, 
ballets of action, ballets, vaudevilles, pantomimes and all light 
pieces were allowed, and the managers were no longer legally 
confined to songs and acrobatic performances. The report 
of the select committee of 1866, signed by the chairman, Mr 
(afterwards Viscount) Goschen, was in favour of granting the 
variety theatres and music halls the privileges they asked for, 
which were those enjoyed in France and other countries. 

Parliamentary interference and the introduction of several 
private bills in the House of Commons, which came to nothing, 
checked, if they did not altogether stop, the prosecutions. The 
variety theatres advanced in every direction in number and im- 
portance. Ballets grew in splendour and coherency. The lighting 
and ventilation, the comfort and decoration of the various 
" palaces " (as many of them were now called) improved, 
and the public, as usual, were the gainers. Population in- 
creased, and the six millions of 1730 became forty millions 
and more. The same and only act (25 Geo. II. c. 36), adequate 
or inadequate, still remained. London is defined as' the 
" administrative county of London," and its area the 
zo-miles radius is mapped out. The Metropolitan Board 
of Works retired or was discharged, and the London County 
Council was created and has taken its place. The London 
County Council, with extended power over structures and 
structural alterations, acquired the licensing of variety theatres 
and music halls from the local magistrates (the Middlesex, 
Surrey, Tower Hamlets and other magistrates) within 
the administrative county of London. The L. C. C. examine 
and enforce their powers. They have been advised that 
they can separate a music from a dancing licence if they like, 
and that when they grant the united licence the dancing 
means the dancing of paid performers on a stage, and not the 
dancing of the audience on a platform or floor, as at the short- 
lived but elegant Cremorne Gardens, or an old-time " Casino." 
They are also advised that they can withhold licences, unless 
the applicants agree not to apply for a drink licence to the local 
magistrates sitting in brewster sessions, who still retain their 
control over the liquor trade. Theatre licences are often with- 
held unless a similar promise is made the drink authority in 
this case being the Excise, empowered by the Act of William IV. 
( 5 &6 Will. IV. c. 39, s. 7). 

The spread of so-called " sketches " a kind of condensed 
drama or farce in the variety theatres, and the action of the 
London County Council in trying to check the extension of 
refreshment licences to these establishments, with other grounds 
of discontent on the part of managers (individuals or " limited 
companies "), led to the appointment of a second select com- 
mittee of the House of Commons in 1892 and the production 
of another blue-book. The same ground was gone over, and 
the same objections were raised against a licensing authority 

9 o 


which is elected by public votes, only exists for three years 
before another election is due, and can give no guarantee for 
the continuity of its judgments. The consensus of opinion 
(as in 1866) was in favour of a state official, responsible to 
parliament like the Home Office or the Board of Trade the 
preference being given to the lord chamberlain and his staff, 
who know much about theatres and theatrical business. The 
chairman of the committee was the Hon. David Plunkett (after- 
wards Lord Rathmore), and the report in spirit was the same 
as the one of 1866. Three forms of licence were suggested: 
one for theatres proper, one for music halls, and one for concert 

Though the rise and progress of the music hall and variety 
theatre interest is one of the most extraordinary facts of the 
last half of the igth century, the business has little or no 
corporate organization, and there is nothing like a complete 
registration of the various properties throughout the United 
Kingdom. In London the " London Entertainments Pro- 
tection Association," which has the command of a weekly 
paper called the Music Hall and Theatre Review, looks after 
its interests. In London alone over five millions sterling of 
capital is said to be invested in these enterprises, employing 
80,000 persons of all grades, and entertaining during the year 
about 25,000,000 people. The annual applications for music 
licences in London alone are over 300. (J. HD.) 

HUSK (Med. Lat. muscus, late Gr. tiba\<K, possibly Pers. 
mushk, from Sansk. mushka, the scrotum), the name originally 
given to a perfume obtained from the strong-smelling substance 
secreted in a gland by the musk-deer (q.v.), and hence applied 
to other animals, and also to plants, possessing a similar odour. 
The variety which appears in commerce is a secretion of the 
musk-deer; but the odour is also emitted by the musk-ox and 
musk-rat of India and Europe, by the musk-duck (Biziura 
lobala) of West Australia, the musk-shrew, the musk-beetle 
(Calickroma moschala), the alligator of Central America, and by 
several other animals. In the vegetable kingdom it is present 
in the common musk (Mimulus moschatus), the musk- wood 
of the Guianas and West Indies (Guarea, spp.), and in the seeds 
of Hibiscus Abelmoschus (musk-seeds). To obtain the perfume 
from the musk-deer the animal is killed and the gland com- 
pletely removed, and dried, either in the sun, on a hot stone, 
or by immersion in hot oil. It appears in commerce as " musk 
in pod," i.e. the glands are entire, or as " musk in grain," in 
which the perfume has been extracted from its receptacle. 
Three kinds are recognized: (i) Tong-king, Chinese or Tibetan, 
imported from China, the most valued; (2) Assam or Nepal, 
less valuable; and (3) Karbardin or Russian (Siberian), imported 
from Central Asia by way of Russia, the least valuable and 
hardly admitting of adulteration. The Tong-king musk is 
exported in small, gaudily decorated caddies with tin or lead 
linings, wherein the perfume is sealed down; it is now usually 
transmitted direct by parcel post to the merchant. 

Good musk is of a dark purplish colour, dry, smooth and 
unctuous to the touch, and bitter in taste. It dissolves in boiling 
water to the extent of about one-half; alcohol takes up one-third 
of the substance, and ether and chloroform dissolve still less. 
A grain of musk will distinctly scent millions of cubic feet of 
air without any appreciable loss of weight, and its scent is not 
only more penetrating but more persistent than that of any 
other known substance. In addition to its odoriferous principle, 
it contains ammonia, cholesterin, fatty matter, a bitter resinous 
substance, and other animal principles. As a material in 
perfumery it is of the first importance, its powerful and enduring 
odour giving strength and permanency to the vegetable essences, 
so that it is an ingredient in many compounded perfumes. 

Artificial musk is a synthetic product, haying a similar odour to 
natural musk. It was obtained by Baur in 1888 by condensing 
toluene with isobutyl bromide in the presence of aluminium chloride, 
and nitrating the product. It is a symtrinitrp-^-butyl toluene. 
Many similar preparations have been made, and it appears that the 
odour depends upon the symmetry of the three nitro groups. 

MUSK-DEER (Moschus moschiferus) , an aberrant member 
of the deer family constituting the sub-family Ceruidae Moschinae 

(see DEER). Both sexes are devoid of antler appendage; 
but in this the musk-deer agrees with one genus of true deer 
(Hydrelaphus), and as in the latter, the upper canine teeth of 
the males are long and sabre-like, projecting below the chin, 
with the ends turned somewhat backwards. In size the musk- 
deer is rather less than the European roe-deer, being about 
20 in. high at the shoulder. Its limbs, especially the hinder 
pair, are long; and the feet remarkable for the great develop- 
ment of the lateral pair of hoofs and for the freedom of motion 

The Musk-deer (Moschus moschiferus). 

they all present, which must be of assistance to the animal 
in steadying it in its agile bounds among the crags of its native 
haunts. The ears are large, and the tail rudimentary. The 
hair covering the body is long, coarse, and of a peculiarly 
brittle and pith-like character, breaking easily; it is generally 
of a greyish-brown colour, sometimes inclined to yellowish-red, 
and often variegated with lighter patches. The musk-deer 
inhabits the forest districts in the Himalaya as far west as 
Gilgit, always, however, at great elevations being rarely 
found in summer below 8000 ft. above the sea-level, and ranging 
as high as the limits of the thickets of birch, rhododendron 
and juniper, among which it mostly conceals itself in the day- 
time. The range extends into Tibet, Siberia and north- 
western China; but the musk-deer of Kansu has been separated 
as a distinct species, under the name of M. sifanicus. Musk- 
deer are hardy, solitary and retiring animals, chiefly nocturnal 
in habits, and almost always found alone, rarely in pairs and 
never in herds. They are exceedingly active and surefooted, 
having perhaps no equal in traversing rocks and precipitous 
giound; and they feed on moss, grass, and leaves of the plants 
which grow on the mountains. 

Most mammals have certain portions of the skin specially 
modified and provided with glands secreting odorous and fatty 
substances characteristic of the particular species. The special 
gland of the musk-deer, which has made the animal so well 
known, and has proved the cause of unremitting persecution 
to its possessor, is found in the male only, and is a sac about 
the size of a small orange, situated beneath the skin of the 
abdomen, the orifice being immediately in front of the preputial 
aperture. The secretion with which the sac is filled is dark 
brown or chocolate in colour, and when fresh of the consistence 
of " moist gingerbread," but becoming dry and granular after 
keeping (see MUSK). The Kansu (M. sifanicus) differs from 
the typical species in having longer ears, which are black on 
the outer surface. 

MUSKEGON, a city and the county-seat of Muskegon 
county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Muskegon lake, an expansion 
of Muskegon river near its mouth, about 4 m. from Lake 
Michigan and 38 m. N.W. of Grand Rapids. Pop. (1890), 
22,702; (1900), 20,818, of whom 6236 were foreign-born; 


9 1 

(igio census) 24,062. It is served by the Grand Trunk, 
the Pere Marquette, the Grand Rapids & Indiana, and the 
Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muskegon (electric) railways, 
and by steamboat lines to Chicago, Milwaukee and other lake 
ports. There are several summer resorts in the vicinity. As 
the gifts of Charles H. Hackley (1837-1905), a rich lumberman, 
the city has an endowment fund to the public schools of about 
$2,000,000; a manual training school, which has an endowment 
of $600,000, and is one of the few endowed public schools in 
the United States; a public library, with an endowment of 
$275,000; a public hospital with a $600,000 endowment; and 
a poor fund endowment of $300,000. In Hackley Park there 
are statues of Lincoln and Farragut, and at the' Hackley School 
there is a statue of McKinley; all three are by C. H. Niehaus. 
The municipality owns and operates its water-works. Muskegon 
lake is 5 m. long and 15 m. wide, with a depth of 30 to 40 ft., 
and is ice-free throughout the year. The channel from Muskegon 
lake to Lake Michigan has been improved to a depth of 20 ft. 
and a width of 300 ft. by the Federal government since 1867. 
From Muskegon are shipped large quantities of lumber and 
market-garden produce, besides the numerous manufactures 
of the city. The total value of all factory products in 1904 
was $6,319,441 (39-6% more than in 1900), of which more 
than one-sixth was the value of lumber. A trading post was 
established here in 1812, but a permanent settlement was 
not established until 1834. Muskegon was laid out as a town 
in 1849, incorporated as a village in 1861, and chartered as a 
city in 1869. The name is probably derived from a Chippewa 
word, maskeg or muskeg, meaning " grassy bog," still used in 
that sense in north-western America. 

MUSKET (Fr. mousquet, Ger. Muskete, &c.), the term generally 
applied to the firearm of the infantry soldier from about 1550 
up to and even beyond the universal adoption of rifled small 
arms about 1850-1860. The word originally signified a male 
sparrowhawk (Italian moschetto, derived perhaps ultimately 
from Latin musca, a fly) and its application to the weapon may 
be explained by the practice of naming firearms after birds 
and beasts (cf. falcon, basilisk). Strictly speaking, the word 
is inapplicable both to the early hand-guns and to the arquebuses 
and calivers that superseded the hand-guns. The " musket " 
proper, introduced into the Spanish army by the duke of Alva, 
was much heavier and more powerful than the arquebus. Its 
bullet retained sufficient striking energy to stop a horse at 500 
and 600 yards from the muzzle. A writer in 1598 (quoted 
s.v. in the New English Dictionary) goes so far as to say 
that " One good musket may be accounted for two caUivers." 
Unlike the arquebus, it was fired from a rest, which the 
" musketeer " stuck into the ground in front of him. But 
during the ryth century the musket in use was so far improved 
that the rest could be dispensed with (see GUN). The musket 
was a matchlock, weapons with other forms of lock being 
distinguished as wheel-locks, firelocks, snaphances, &c., and 
soldiers were similarly distinguished as musketeers and fusiliers. 
On the disuse, about 1690-1695, of this form of firing mechanism, 
the term " musket " was, in France at least, for a time discon- 
tinued in favour of " fusil," or flint-lock, which thenceforward 
reigned supreme up to the introduction of a practicable per- 
cussion lock about 1830-1840. But the term " musket " 
survived the thing it originally represented, and was currently 
used for the firelock (and afterwards for the percussion weapon). 
To-day it is generically used for military firearms anterior to 
the modern rifle. The original meaning of the word musketry 
has remained almost unaltered since 1600; it signifies the fire of 
infantry small-arms (though for this " rifle fire " is now a far 
more usual term), and in particular the art of using them 
(see INFANTRY and RIFLE). Of the derivatives, the only one 
that is not self-explanatory is musketoon. This was a short, 
large-bore musket somewhat of the blunderbuss type, originally 
designed for the use of cavalry, but afterwards, in the i8th 
century, chiefly a domestic or coachman's weapon. 

MUSKHOGEAN STOCK, a North American Indian stock. The 
name is from that of the chief tribe of the Creek confederacy, 

the Muskogee. It includes the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, 
Seminoles and other tribes. Its territory was almost the 
whole state of Mississippi, western Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, 
Alabama, most of Georgia, and later nearly all Florida. Musk- 
hogean traditions assign the west and north-west as the original 
home of the stock.. Its history begins in 1527, on the first 
landing of the Spaniards on the Gulf Coast. The Muskhogean 
peoples were then settled agriculturists with an elaborate social 
organization, and living in villages, many of which were fortified 
(see INDIANS: North American). 

MUSKOGEE, a city and the county-seat of Muskogee county, 
Oklahoma, U.S.A., about 3 m. W. by S. of the confluence of the 
Verdigris, Neosho (or Grand) and Arkansas rivers, and about 
130 m. E.N.E. of Oklahoma City. Pop. (1900), 4154; (1907), 
14,418, of whom 4298 were negroes and 332 Indians; (1910), 25, 278. 
It is served by the St Louis & San Francisco, the Midland 
Valley, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the Missouri, 
Oklahoma & Gulf railways. Fort Gibson (pop. in 1910, 1344), 
about 5 m. N.E. on the Neosho, near its confluence with the 
Arkansas, is the head of steam-boat navigation of the 
Arkansas; if is the site of a former government fort and of a 
national cemetery. Muskogee is the seat of Spaulding Institute 
(M.E. Church, South) and Nazareth Institute (Roman Catholic), 
and at Bacone, about 2 m. north-east, is Indian University 
(Baptist, opened 1884). Muskogee is the commercial centre of 
an agricultural and stock-raising region, is surrounded by 
an oil and natural gas field of considerable extent producing 
a high grade of petroleum, and has a large oil refinery, railway 
shops (of the Midland Valley and the Missouri, Oklahoma & 
Gulf railways), cotton gins, cotton compresses, and cotton-seed 
oil and flour mills. The municipality owns and operates the 
water-works, the water supply being drawn from the Neosho 
river. Muskogee was founded about 1870, and became the 
chief town of the Creek Nation (Muskogee) and the metropolis 
and administrative centre of the former Indian Territory, 
being the headquarters of the Union Indian Agency to the 
Five Civilized Tribes, of the United States (Dawes) Commission 
to the Five Civilized Tribes, and of a Federal land office for 
the allotment of lands to the Creeks and Cherokees, and the 
seat of a Federal Court. The city was chartered in 1898; its 
area was enlarged in 1908, increasing its population. 

MUSK-OX, also known as musk-buffalo and musk-sheep, 
an Arctic American ruminant of the family Bovidae (q.v.), 
now representing a genus and sub-family by itself. Apparently 
the musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus) has little or no near relation- 
ship to either the oxen or the sheep; and it is not improbable 
that its affinities are with the Asiatic takin (Budorcas) and the 
extinct European Criotherium of the Pliocene of Samos. The 
musky odour from which the animal takes its name does not 
appear to be due to the secretion of any gland. 

In height a bull musk-ox stands about 5 ft. at the shoulder. 
The head is large and broad. The horns in old males have 
extremely broad bases, meeting in the middle line, and covering 
the brow and crown of the head. They are directed at first 
downwards by the side of the face, and then turn upwards 
and forwards, ending in the same plane as the eye. The basal 
half is dull white, oval in section and coarsely fibrous, the middle 
part smooth, shining and round, and the tip black. In females 
and young males the horns are smaller, and their bases separated 
by a space in the middle of the forehead. The ears are small, 
erect, pointed, and nearly concealed in the hair. The space 
between the nostrils and the upper lip is covered with short 
close hair, as in sheep and goats, without any trace of the bare 
muzzle of oxen. The greater part of the animal is covered with 
long brown hair, thick, matted and curly on the shoulders, 
so as to give the appearance of a hump, but elsewhere straight 
and hanging down that of the sides, back and haunches 
reaching as far as the middle of the legs and entirely concealing 
the very short tail. There is also a thick woolly under-fur, 
shed in summer, when the whole coat conies off in blanket-like 
masses. The hair on the lower jaw, throat and chest is long 
and straight, and hangs down like a beard or dewlap, though 


there is no loose fold of skin in this situation. The limbs are 
stout and short, terminating in unsymmetrical hoofs, the external 
being rounded, the internal pointed, and the sole partially 
covered with hair. 

Musk-oxen at the present day are confined to the most 
northern parts of North America, where they range over the 
rocky Barren Grounds between lat. 64 and the shores of the 
Arctic Sea. Its southern range is gradually contracting, and 
it appears that it is no longer met with west of the Mackenzie 
river, though formerly abundant as far as Eschscholtz Bay. 

The Musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus). 

Northwards and eastwards it extends through the Parry 
Islands and Grinnell Land to north Greenland, reaching on 
the west coast as far south as Melville Bay; and it also occurs 
at Sabine Island on the east coast. The Greenland animal is 
a distinct race (0. m. wardi), distinguished by white hair on 
the forehand; and it is suggested that the one from Grinnell 
Land forms a third race. As proved by the discovery of fossil 
remains, musk-oxen ranged during the Pleistocene period over 
northern Siberia and the plains of Germany and France, their 
bones occurring in river-deposits along with those of the rein- 
deer, mammoth, and woolly rhinoceros. They have also been 
found in Pleistocene gravels in several parts of England, as 
Maidenhead, Bromley, Freshfield near Bath, Barnwood near 
Gloucester, and in the brick-earth of the Thames valley at Cray- 
ford, Kent; while their remains also occur in Arctic America. 

Musk-oxen are gregarious in habit, assembling in herds of 
twenty or thirty head, or sometimes eighty or a hundred, in 
which there are seldom more than two or three full-grown 
males. They run with considerable speed, notwithstanding 
the shortness of their legs. They feed chiefly on grass, but 
also on moss, lichens and tender shoots of the willow and pine. 
The female brings forth one young in the end of May or begin- 
ning of June, after a gestation of nine months. The Swedish 
expedition to Greenland in 1899 found musk-oxen in herds 
of varying size some contained only a few individuals, and 
in one case there were sixty-seven. The peculiar musky odour 
was perceived from a distance of a hundred yards; but accord- 
ing to Professor Nathoist there was no musky taste or smell in 
the flesh if the carcase were cleaned immediately the animals 
were killed. 

Of late years musk-oxen have been exhibited alive in Europe; 
and two examples, one of which lived from 1899 till 1903, have 
been brought to England. The somewhat imperfect skull of an 
extinct species of musk-ox from the gravels of the Klondike has 
enabled Mr W. H. Osgood to make an important addition to our 
knowledge of this remarkable type of ruminant. The skull, which 
is probably that of a female, differs from the ordinary musk-ox by 
the much smaller and shorter horn-cores, which are widely separ- 
ated in the middle line of the skull, where there is a groove-like 
depression running the whole length of the forehead. The sockets 
of the eyes are also much less prominent, and the whole fore-part of 
the skull is proportionately longer. On account of these and other 
differences (for which the reader may refer to the original paper, 
published in vol. xlviii. of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections) 

its describer refers the Klondike skull to a new jjenus, with the 
title Symbos tyrrelli, the specific name being given in honour of its 
discoverer. This, however, is not all, for Mr Osgood points out 
that a skull discovered many years ago in the vicinity of Fort 
Gibson, Oklahoma, and then named Ovwos or Bootherium cavifrons, 
evidently belongs to the same genus. That skull indicates a bull, 
and the author suggests that it may possibly be the male of Symbos 
tyrrelli, although the wide separation of the localities made him 
hesitate to accept this view. Perhaps it would have been better 
had he done so, and taken the name Symbos cavifrons for the species. 
A third type of musk-ox skull is, however, known from North 
America, namely one from the celebrated Big-Bone Lick, Kentucky, 
on which the genus and species Bootherium bombifrons was estab- 
lished, which differs from all the others by its small size, convex 
forehead and rounded horn-cores, the latter being very widely 
separated, and arising from the sides of the skull. This specimen 
has been regarded as the female of Symbos cavifrons; but this 
view, as pointed out by Mr Osgood, is almost certainly incorrect, 
and it represents an entirely distinct form. 

This, however, is not the whole of the past history of the musk- 
ox group ; and in this connexion it may be mentioned that palaeonto- 
logical discoveries are gradually making it evident that the poverty 
of America in species of horned ruminants is to a great extent a 
feature of the present day, and that in past times it possessed a 
considerable number of representatives of this group. One of the 
latest additions to the list is a large sheep-like animal from a cave 
in California, apparently representing a new generic type, which 
has been described by E. L. Furlong in the publications of the 
University of California, under the name of Preptoceras sinclairi. 
It is represented by a nearly complete skeleton, and has doubly- 
curved horns and sheep-like teeth. In common with an allied 
ruminant from the same district, previously described as Eucera- 
therium, it seems probable that Preptoceras is related on the one 
hand to the musk-ox, and on the other to the Asiatic takin, while 
it is also supposed to have affinities with the sheep. If these 
extinct forms really serve to connect the takin with the musk-ox, 
their systematic importance will be very great. From a geographical 
point of view nothing is more likely, for the takin forms a type 
confined to Eastern Asia (Tibet and Szechuen), and it would be 
reasonable to expect that, like so many other peculiar forms from 
the same region, they should have representatives on the American 
side of the Pacific. (R. L.*) 

MUSK-RAT, or MUSQUASH, the name of a large North Ameri- 
can rat-like rodent mammal, technically known as Fiber zibe- 
thicus, and belonging to the mouse-tribe (Muridae). Aquatic 
in habits, this animal is related to the English water-rat and 
therefore included in the sub-family Microtinae (see VOLE). It 
is, however, of larger size, the head and body being about 1 2 in. 

The Musk-rat (Fiber zibelhicus). 

in length and the tail but little less. It is rather a heavily- 
built animal, with a broad head, no distinct neck, and short 
limbs, the eyes are small, and the ears project very little beyond 
the fur. The fore-limbs have four toes and a rudimentary 
thumb, all with claws; the hind limbs are larger, with five distinct 
toes, united by short webs at their bases. The tail is laterally 
compressed, nearly naked, and scaly. The hair much resembles 
that of a beaver, but is shorter; it consists of a thick soft under- 
fur, interspersed with longer stiff, glistening hairs, which oveilie 
and conceal the former, on the upper surface and sides of the 


body. The general colour is dark umber-brown, almost black 
on the back and grey below. The tail and naked parts of the 
feet are black. The musky odour from which it derives its 
name is due to the secretion of a large gland situated in the 
inguinal region, and present in both sexes. 

The ordinary musk-rat is one of several species of a genus 
peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities 
in the northern part of the continent, extending from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren 
grounds bordering the Arctic seas. It lives on the shores of 
lakes and rivers, swimming and diving with facility, feeding on 
the roots, stems and leaves of water-plants, or on fruits and 
vegetables which grow near the margin of the streams it inhabits. 
Musk-rats are most active at night, spending the greater part 
of the day concealed in their burrows in the bank, which consist 
of a chamber with numerous passages, all of which open under 
the surface of the water. For winter quarters they build more 
elaborate houses of conical or dome-like form, composed of 
sedges, grasses and similar materials plastered together with 
mud. As their fur is an important article of commerce, large 
numbers are annually killed, being either trapped or speared 
at the mouths of their holes. (See also RODENTIA.) 

MUSK-SHREW, a name for any species of the genus Crocidura 
of the family Soricidae (see INSECTIVORA). The term is generally 
used of the common grey musk-shrew (C. coerulea) of India. 
Dr Dobson believed this to be a semi-domesticated variety of the 
brown musk-shrew (C. murina), which he considered the original 
wild type. The head and body of a full-grown specimen measure 
about 6 in.; the tail is rather more than half that length; and 
bluish-grey is the usual colour of the fur, which is paler on the 
under surface. Dr Blanford states that the story of wine or beer 
becoming impregnated with a musky taint in consequence of 
this shrew passing over the bottles, is less credited in India 
than formerly owing to the discovery that liquors bottled in 
Europe and exported to India are not liable to be thus tainted. 

MUSLIM IBN AL-HAJJAJ, the Imam, the author of one of 
the two books of Mahommedan tradition called Sahih, " sound," 
was born at Nishapur at some uncertain date after A.D. 815 and 
died there in 875. Like al-Bukhari (?..), of whom he was a 
close and faithful friend, he gave himself to the collecting, sifting 
and arranging of traditions, travelling for the purpose as far as 
Egypt. It is plain that his sympathies were with the traditionalist 
school or opposed to that which sought to build up the system 
of canon law on a speculative basis (see MAHOMMEDAN LAW). 
But though he was a student and friend of Ahmad ibn Hanbal 
(q.v.) he did not go in traditionalism to the length of some, and 
he defended al-Bukhari when the latter was driven from Nishapur 
for icfusing to admit that the utterance (lafz) of the Koran by 
man was as uncreated as the Koran itself (see MAHOMMEDAN 
RELIGION; and Patton's Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 32 sqq.). His great 
collection of traditions is second in popularity only to that of 
al-Bukhari, and is commonly regarded as more accurate and 
reliable in details, especially names. His object was more to 
weed out illegitimate accretions than to furnish a traditional 
basis for a system of law. Therefore, though he arranged his 
material according to such a system, he did not add guiding 
rubrics, and he regularly brought together in one place the 
different parallel versions of the same tradition. His book is 
thus historically more useful, but legally less suggestive. His 
biographers give almost no details as to his life, and its early 
part was probably very obscure. One gives a list of as many 
as twenty works, but only his Sahih seems to have reached us. 

See further, de Slane's transl. of ibn Khallikan, iii. 348 sqq, and of 
Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomenes, ii. 470, 475; Goldziher, Muhammedan- 
ische Studien, ii. 245 sqq., 255 sqq.; Brockelmann, Geschichle der 
arab. Litt., \. 760 seq.; Macdonald, Development of Muslim Theology, 
80, 147 seq.; Dhahabi Tadhkira (edit, of Hyderabad), ii. 165 sqq. 

(D. B. MA.) 

MUSLIN (through Fr. mousseline from It. mussolino, diminu- 
tive of Mussolo, i.e. the town Mosul in Kurdistan) a light cotton 
cloth said to have been first made at Mosul, a city of Mesopo- 
tamia. Muslins have been largely made in various parts of 
India, whence they were imported to England towards the end 


of the 1 7th century. Some of these Indian muslins were very 
fine and costly. Among the specialties are Ami muslin, made 
in the Madras presidency, and Dacca muslin, made at Dacca 
in Bengal. Muslins of many kinds are now made in Europe 
and America, and the name is applied to both plain and fancy 
cloths, and to printed calicoes of light texture. Swiss muslin 
is a light variety, woven in stripes or figures, originally made 
in Switzerland. Book muslin is made in Scotland from very 
fine yarns. Mulls, jaconets, lenos, and other cloths exported 
to the East and elsewhere are sometimes described as muslins. 
Muslin is used for dresses, blinds, curtains, &c. 

HUSONIUS RUFUS, a Roman philosopher of the ist century 
A.D., was born in Etruria about A.D. 20-30. He fell under 
the ban of Nero owing to his ethical teachings, and was exiled 
to the island of Gyarus on a trumped-up charge of participation 
in Piso's conspiracy. He returned under Galba, and was the 
friend of Vitellius and Vespasian. It was he who dared to bring 
an accusation against P. Egnatius Celer (the Stoic philosopher 
whose evidence had condemned his patron and disciple Soranus) 
and who endeavoured to preach a doctrine of peace and good- 
will among the soldiers of Vespasian when they were advancing 
upon Rome. So highly was he esteemed in Rome that Vespasian 
made an exception in his case when all other philosophers were 
expelled from the city. As to his death, we know only that 
he was not living in the reign of Trajan. His philosophy, 
which is in most respects identical with that of his pupil, 
Epictetus, is marked by its strong practical tendency. Though 
he did not altogether neglect .logic and physics, he maintained 
that virtue is the only real aim of men. This virtue is not a 
thing of precept and theory but a practical, living reality. It 
is identical with philosophy in the true sense of the word, and 
the truly good man is also the true philosopher. 

Suidas attributes numerous works to him, amongst others a 
number of letters to Apollonius of Tyana. The jetters are certainly 
unauthentic; about the others there is no evidence. His views 
were collected by Claudius (or Valerius) Pollio, who wrote 'Aro- 
HvrjuovfbuaTa ^Aovtruviov TOV 4tXoff6<ov, from which Stobaeus 
obtained his information. See Ritter and Preller 477, 488, 489; 
Tacitus, Annals, xv. 71 and Histories, iii. 81 ; and compare articles 

MUSPRATT, JAMES (1793-1886), British chemical manu- 
facturer, was born in Dublin on the izth of August 1793. At 
the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a wholesale druggist, 
but his apprenticeship was terminated in 1810 by a quarrel 
with his master, and in 1812 he went to Spain to take part in 
the Peninsular War. Lack of influence prevented him from 
getting a commission in the cavalry, but he followed the British 
army on foot far into the interior, was laid up with fever at 
Madrid, and, narrowly escaping capture by the French, succeeded 
in making his way to Lisbon. There he joined the navy, but 
after taking part in the blockade of Brest he was led to desert, 
through the harshness of the discipline on the second of the two 
ships in which he served. Returning to Dublin about 1814, 
he began the manufacture of chemical products, such as hydro- 
chloric and acetic acids and turpentine, adding prussiate of 
potash a few years later. He also had in view the manufacture 
of alkali from common salt by the Leblanc process, but on the 
one hand he could not command the capital for the plant, and 
on the other saw that Dublin was not well situated for the experi- 
ment. In 1822 he went to Liverpool, which was at once a good 
port and within easy reach of salt and coal, and took a lease of 
an abandoned glass-works on the bank of the canal in Vauxhall 
Road. At first he confined himself to prussiate of potash, until 
in 1823, when the tax on salt was reduced from 153. to 2s. a 
bushel, his profits enabled him to erect lead-chambers for making 
the sulphuric acid necessary for the Leblanc process. In 1828 
he built works at St Helen's and in 1830 at Newton; at the latter 
place he was long harassed by litigation on account of the 
damage done by the hydrochloric acid emitted from his factory, 
and finally in 1850 he left it and started new works at Widnes 
and Flint. In 1834-1835, in conjunction with Charles Tennant, 
he purchased sulphur mines in Sicily, to provide the raw material 
for his sulphuric acid; but on the imposition of the Neapolitan 



government of a prohibitive duty on sulphur Muspratt found 
a substitute in iron pyrites, which was thus introduced as the 
raw material for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. He was 
always anxious to employ the best scientific advice available 
and to try every novelty that promised advantage. He was 
a close friend of Liebig, whose mineral manures were compounded 
at his works. He died at Seaforth Hall, near Liverpool, on the 
4th of May 1886. After his retirement in 1857 his business was 
continued in the hands of four of his ten children. 

His eldest son, JAMES SHERIDAN MUSPRATT (1821-1871), 
studied chemistry under Thomas Graham at Glasgow and 
London and under Liebig at Giessen, and in 1848 founded the 
Liverpool College of Chemistry, an institution for training 
chemists, of which he also acted as director. From 1854 to 
1860 he was occupied in preparing a dictionary of Chemistry . . . 
as applied and relating to the Arts and Manufactures, which 
was translated into German and Russian, and he published a 
translation of Plattner's treatise on the blow-pipe in 1845, and 
Outlines of Analysis in 1849. His original work included a 
research on the sulphites (1845), and the preparation of toluidine 
and nitro-aniline in 1845-1846 with A. W. Hofmann. 

natural philosopher, was born on the i4th of March 1692 at 
Leiden, where his father Johann Joosten van Musschenbroek 
(1660-1707) was a maker of physical apparatus. He studied 
at the university of his native city, where he was a pupil and 
friend of W. J. s'G. Gravesande. Graduating in 1715 with a 
dissertation, De aeris praesenlia in humoribus animdlium, Mus- 
schenbroek was appointed professor at Duisburg in 1719. In 
1723 he was promoted to the chair of natural philosophy and 
mathematics at Utrecht. In 1731 he declined an invitation 
to Copenhagen, and was promoted in consequence to the chair 
of astronomy at Utrecht in 1732. The attempt of George II. 
of England in 1737 to attract him to the newly-established 
university of Gottingen was also unsuccessful. At length, 
however, the claims of his native city overcame his resolution 
to remain at Utrecht, and he accepted the mathematical chair 
at Leiden in 1739, where, declining all offers from abroad, he 
remained till his death on the 9th of September 1761. 

His first important production was Epitome elementorum physico- 
malhematicorum (i2mo, Leiden, 1726) a work which was after- 
wards gradually altered as it passed through several editions, and 
which appeared at length (posthumously, ed. by Johann Lulofs, 
one of his colleagues as Leiden) in 1762, under the title of Introductio 
ad philosophiam naturalem. The Physicae experimentales et geo- 
metricae dissertaliones (1729) threw new light on magnetism, capillary 
attraction, and the cohesion of bodies. A Latin edition with notes 
(1731) of the Italian work Saggi di naturali esperienze fatte nell- 
I'Accademia del Cimento contained among many other investigations 
a description of a new instrument, the pyrometer, which Musschen- 
broek had invented, and of several experiments which he had made 
on the expansion of bodies by heat. Musschenbroek was also the 
author of Elementa physica (8vo, 1729), and his name is associated 
with the invention of the Leyden jar (q.v.). 

MUSSEL (O. Eng. muscle, Lat. musculus, diminutive of mus, 
mouse, applied to small sea fish and mussels), a term applied 
in England to two families of Lamellibranch Molluscs the 
marine Mytilacea, of which. the edible mussel, Mytilus edulis, 
is the representative; and the fresh- water Unionidae, of which 
the river mussel, Unio pictorum, and the swan mussel, Anodonta 
cygnea, are the common British examples. It is not obvious 
why these fresh-water forms have been associated popularly 
with the Mytilacea under the name mussel, unless it be on 
account of the frequently very dark colour of their shells. They 
are somewhat remote from the sea mussels in structure, and have 
not even a common economic importance. 

The sea mussel (Mylilus edulis) belongs to the second order 
of the class Lamellibranchia (<?..), namely the Filibranchia, 
distinguished by the comparatively free condition of the gill- 
filaments, which, whilst adhering to one another to form gill- 
plates, are yet not fused to one another by concrescence. It is 
also remarkable' for the small size of its foot and the large 
development of two glands in the foot the byssus-forming and 
the byssus-cementing glands. The byssus is a collection of 

horny threads by which the sea mussel (like many other Lamelli- 
branch or bivalve molluscs) fixes itself to stones, rocks or 
submerged wood, but is not a permanent means of attachment, 
since it can be discarded by the animal, which, after a certain 
amount of locomotion, again fixes itself by new secretion of 
byssus from the foot. Such movement is more frequent in 
young mussels than in the full-grown. Mytilus possesses no 
siphonal tube-like productions of the margin of the mantle-skirt, 
nor any notching of the same, representative of the siphons 
which are found in its fresh-water ally, the Dreissensia poly- 

Mytilus edulis is an exceedingly abundant and widely distri- 
buted form. It occurs on both sides of the northern Atlantic 
and in the Mediterranean basin. It presents varieties of form 
and colour according to the depth of water and other circum- 
stances of its habitat. Usually it is found on the British coast 
encrusting rocks exposed at low tides, or on the flat surfaces 
formed by sandbanks overlying clay, the latter kind of colonies 
being known locally as " scalps." Under these conditions it 
forms continuous masses of individuals closely packed together, 
sometimes extending over many acres of surface and numbering 
millions. The readiness with which the young Mytilus attaches 
itself to wicker-work is made the means of artificially cultivating 
and securing these molluscs for the market both in the Bay of 
Kiel in North Germany and at the mouth of the Somme and other 
spots on the coast of France. 

Natural scalps are subject to extreme vicissitudes: an area 
of many acres may be destroyed by a local change of current 
producing a deposit of sand or shingle over the scalp, or by 
exposure to frost at low tide in winter, or by accumulation of 
decomposing vegetable matter. The chief localities of natural 
scalps on the British coast are Morecambe Bay in Lancashire 
and the flat eastern shores, especially that of the Wash of Lincoln, 
and similar shallow bays. These scalps are in some cases in 
the hands of private owners, and the Fisheries Department has 
made arrangements by which some local authorities, e.g. the 
corporation of Boston, can lease layings to individuals for the 
purpose of artificial cultivation. 

The sea mussel is scarcely inferior in commercial value to the 
oyster. In 1873 the value of mussels exported from Antwerp 
alone to Paris to be used as human food was 280,000. In Britain 
their chief consumption is in the deep-sea line fishery, where they 
are held to be the most effective of all baits. Twenty-eight boats 
engaged in haddock-fishing at Eyemouth used between October 
1882 and May 1883 920 tons of mussels (about 47,000,000 in- 
dividuals), costing nearly 1800 to the fishermen, about one-half of 
which sum was expended on the carriage of the mussels. The 
quantity of mussels landed on Scottish coasts has decreased in 
recent years owing to the decline in the line fisheries. In 1896 
the quantity was over 243,000 cwts., valued at 14,950; in 1902 it 
was only 95,663 cwts., valued at 5976. In the statistics for England 
and Wales mussels are not separately distinguished. Many thou- 
sand tons of mussels are wastefully employed as manure by the 
farmers on lands adjoining scalp-producing coasts, as in Lancashire 
and Norfolk, three half-pence a bushel being the price quoted in 
such cases. It is a curious fact, illustrative of the ignorant pro- 
cedure and arbitrary fashions of fisher-folk, that on the Atlantic 
seaboard of the United States the sea mussel, Mytilus edulis, though 
common,, is not used as bait nor as food. Instead, the soft clam, 
Mya arenaria, a Lamellibranch not used by English or Norwegian 
fishermen, though abundant on their shores, is employed as bait 
by the fishermen to the extent of ij million bushels per annum, 
valued at 120,000. At the mouth of the river Conway in North 
Wales the sea mussel is crushed in large quantities in order to 
extract pearls of an inferior quality which are occasionally found 
in these as in other Lamellibranch molluscs (Gwyn Jeffreys). 

Mytilus edulis is considered of fair size for eating when it is 
2 in. in length, which size is attained in three years after the spat 
or young mussel has fixed itself. Under favourable circumstances 
it will grow much jarger than this, specimens being recorded of 
9 in. in length. It is very tolerant of fresh water, fattening best, 
as does the oyster, in water of density 1014 (the density of the water 
of the North Sea being 1026). Experiments made by removing 
mussels from salt water to brackish, and finally to quite fresh 
water show that it is even more tolerant of fresh water than the 
oyster; of thirty mussels so transferred all were alive after fifteen 
days. Mytilus edulis is occasionally poisonous, owing to conditions 
not satisfactorily determined. 

The fresh-water Mussels, Anodonta cygnea, Unio pictorum, 



and Unio margaritiferus belong to the order Eulamellibranchia 
of Lamellibranch Molluscs, in which the anterior and posterior 
adductor muscles are equally developed. An account of the 
anatomy of Anodon is given in the article LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 
Unio differs in no important point from Anodonta in internal 
structure. The family Unionidae, to which these genera belong, 
is of world-wide distribution, and its species occur only in ponds 
and rivers. A vast number of species arranged in several genera 
and sub-genera have been distinguished, but in the British 
Islands the three species above named are the only claimants to 
the title of "fresh- water mussel." 

Anodonta cygnea, the Pond Mussel or Swan Mussel, appears to be 
entirely without economic importance. Unio pictorum, the common 
river mussel (Thames), appears to owe its name to the fact that the 
shells were used at one time for holding water-colour paints as now 
shells of this species and of the sea mussel are used for holding 
gold and silver paint sold by artists' colourmen, but it has no other 
economic value. Unio margaritiferus, the pearl mussel, was at 
one time of considerable importance as a source of pearls, and the 
pearl mussel fishery is to this day carried on under peculiar state 
regulations in Sweden and Saxony, and other parts of the continent. 
In Scotland and Ireland the pearl mussel fishery was also of im- 
portance, but has altogether dwindled into insignificance since the 
opening up of commercial intercourse with the East and with the 
islands of the Pacific Ocean, whence finer and more abundant 
pearls than those of Unio margaritiferus are derived. 

In the last forty years of the 1 8th century pearls were exported 
from the Scotch fisheries to Paris to the value of 100,000; round 
pearls, the size of a pea, perfect in every respect, were worth 3 
or 4. The pearl mussel was formerly used as bait in the Aberdeen 
cod fishery. 

LITERATURE. For an account of the anatomy of Mytilus edulis 
the reader is referred to the treatise by Sabatier on that subject 
(Paris, 1875). The essay by Charles Harding on Molluscs used 
for Food or Bait, published by the committee of the London Inter- 
national Fisheries Exhibition (1883), may be consulted as to the 
economic questions connected with the sea mussel. The develop- 
ment of this species is described by Wilson in Fifth Ann. Rep. 
Scot. Fish. Board (1887). (E. R. L.; J. T. C.) 

MUSSELBURGH, a municipal and police burgh of Midlothian, 
Scotland, 55 m. E. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. 
Pop. (1901), 11,711. The burgh, which stretches for a mile 
along the south shore of the Firth of Forth, is intersected by the 
Esk and embraces the village of Fisherrow on the left bank of 
the river. Its original name is said to have been Eskmouth, its 
present one being derived from a bed of mussels at the mouth of 
the river. While preserving most of the ancient features of its 
High Street, the town has tended to become a suburb of the 
capital, its fine beach and golf course hastening this development. 
The public buildings include the town-hall (dating"from 1762 and 
altered in 1876), the tolbooth (1590), and the grammar school. 
Loretto School, one of the foremost public schools in Scotland, 
occupies the site of the chapel of Our Lady of Loretto, which 
was founded in 1534 by Thomas Duthie, a hermit from Mt 
Sinai. This was the favourite shrine of Mary of Guise, who 
betook herself hither at momentous crises in her history. The 
ist earl of Hertford destroyed it in 1544, and after it was rebuilt 
the Reformers demolished it again, some of its stones being 
used in erecting the tolbooth. In the west end of the town is 
Pinkie House, formerly a seat of the abbot of Dunfermline, 
but transformed in 1613 by Lord Seton. It is a fine example 
of a Jacobean mansion, with a beautiful fountain in the 
middle of the court-yard. The painted gallery, with an elabor- 
ate ceiling, too ft. long, was utilized as a hospital after the 
battle of Pinkie in 1547. Prince Charles Edward slept in it 
the night following the fight at Prestonpans (1745). Near 
the tolbooth stands the market cross, a stone column with 
a unicorn on the top supporting the burgh arms. At the 
west end of High Street is a statue of David Macbeth 
Moir (" Delta," 1798-1851), Musselburgh's most famous son. 
The antiquity of the town is placed beyond doubt by the 
Roman bridge across the Esk and the Roman remains found 
in its vicinity. The chief bridge, which carries the high road 
from Edinburgh to Berwick, was built by John Rennie in 
1807. The principal industries include paper-making, brewing, 
the making of nets and twine, bricks, tiles and pottery, 
tanning and oil-refining, besides saltworks and seed-crushing 

works. The fishery is confined to Fisherrow, where there is 
a good harbour. The Links are the scene every year of the 
Edinburgh race meetings and of those of the Royal Caledonian 
Hunt which are held every third year. Archery contests also 
take place at intervals under the auspices of the Royal Company 
of Archers. Most of the charitable institutions for instance, 
the convalescent home, fever hospital, home for girls and Red 
House home are situated at Inveresk, about ij m. up the Esk. 
About i m. south-east is the site of the battle of Pinkie, 
and 25 m. south-east, on the verge of Haddingtonshire, is 
Carberry Hill, where Mary surrendered to the lords of the 
Congregation in 1567, the spot being still known as Queen 
Mary's Mount. Musselburgh joins with Leith and Portobello 
(the Leith Burghs) in returning one member to parliament. 

poet, play- writer and novelist, was born on the nth of December 
1810 in a house in the middle of old Paris, near the H&tel Cluny. 
His father, Victor de Musset, who traced his descent back as far 
as 1 140, held several ministerial posts of importance. He brought 
out an edition of J. J. Rousseau's works in 1821, and followed 
it soon after with a volume on the Genevan's life and writing. 
In Alfred de Mussel's childhood there were various things 
which fostered his imaginative power. He and his brother 
Paul (born 1804, died 1880), who afterwards wrote a biography 
of Alfred, delighted in reading old romances together, and in 
assuming the characters of the heroes in those romances. But 
it was not until about 1826 that Musset gave any definite sign of 
the mental force which afterwards distinguished him. In the 
summer of 1827 he won the second prize (at the College Henri 
IV.) by an essay on "The Origin of our Feelings." In 1828, 
when Eugene Scribe, Joseph Duveyrier, who under the name of 
Melesville, was a prolific playwriter and sometimes collaborator 
with Scribe, and others of note were in the habit of coming 
to Mme de Mussel's house at Auteuil, where drawing-room 
plays and charades were constantly given, Musset, excited 
by this companionship, wrote his first poem. This, to judge 
from the exlracts preserved, was neither betler nor worse lhan 
much olher work of clever boys who may or may nol aflerwards 
turn out lo be possessed of genius. He took up the study of 
law, threw it over for that of medicine, which he could not 
endure, and ended by adopting no set profession. Shortly 
afler his firsl altempt in verse he was taken by Paul Foucher 
lo Viclor Hugo's house, where he mel such men as Alfred de 
Vigny, Prosper Merimee, Charles Nodier and Sainle-Beuve. It 
was under Hugo's influence, no doubl, lhal he composed a 
play. The scene was laid in Spain, and some lines, showing 
a marked advance upon his first effort, are preserved. In 
1828, when the war between Ihe classical and Ihe romanlic 
school of lileralure was growing daily more serious and exciling, 
Mussel had published some verses in a counlry newspaper, 
and boldly reciled some of his work lo Sainle-Beuve, who 
wrole of il to a friend, " There is amongst us a boy full of genius." 
At eighteen years old Mussel produced a Iranslation, with 
addilions of his own, of De Quincey's " Opium-Ealer." This 
was published by Mame, allracled no allenlion, and has been 
long oul of prinl. His firsl original volume was published in 
1829 under Ihe name of Contes d'Espagne et d'ltalie, had an 
immediale and slriking success, provoked biller opposition, 
and produced many unworthy imilalions. This volume con- 
lained, along wilh far belter and more importanl Ihings, a 
fanlaslic parody in verse on cerlain produclions of Ihe romanlic 
school, which made a deal of noise al Ihe time. This was the 
famous " Ballade a la lune " with its recurring comparison of 
the moon shining above a steeple to the dot over an i. It 
was, lo Mussel's delight, taken quite seriously by many worthy 

In December 1830 Musset was jusl Iwenly years old, and was 
already conscious of lhat curious double exislence wilhin him 
so frequenlly symbolized in his plays in Oclave and Clio 
for inslance (in Les Caprices de Marianne), who also sland for 
Ihe two camps, Ihe men of mailer and the men of feeling 
which he has elsewhere described as characlerislic of his 

9 6 


generation. At this date his piece the Nuit vinilienne was pro- 
duced by Harel, manager of the Odeon. The exact causes of its 
failure might now be far to seek; unlucky stage accidents had 
something to do with it, but there seems reason to believe that 
there was a strongly organized opposition. However this may 
be, the result was disastrous to the French stage; for it put a 
complete damper on the one poet who, as he afterwards showed 
both in theoretical and in practical writings, had the fine insight 
which took in at a glance the merits and defects both of the 
classical and of the romantic schools. Thus he was strong and 
keen to weld together the merits of both schools in a new method 
which, but for the fact that there has been no successor to grasp 
the wand which its originator wielded, might well be called the 
school of Mussel. The serious effect produced upon Musset 
by the failure of his Nuit vSnitienne is curiously illustrative of 
his character. A man of greater strength and with equal belief 
in his own genius might have gone on appealing to the public 
until he compelled them to hear him. Musset gave up the 
attempt in disgust, and waited until the public were eager to 
hear him without any invitation on his part. In the case of 
his finest plays this did not happen until after his death; but 
long before that he was fully recognized as a poet of the first 
rank and as an extraordinary master of character and language 
in prose writing. In his complete disgust with the stage after 
the failure above referred to there was no doubt something of 
a not ignoble pride, but there was something also of weakness 
of a kind of weakness out of which it must be said sprang some 
of his most exquisite work, some of the poems which could only 
have been written by a man who imagined himself the crushed 
victim of difficulties which were old enough in the experience of 
mankind, though for the moment new and strange to him. 

Musset now belonged, in a not very whole-hearted fashion, 
to the " Cenacle," but the connexion came to an end in 1832. 
In 1833 he published the volume called Un Spectacle dans un 
fauteuil. One of the most striking pieces in this " Namouna " 
was written at the publisher's request to fill up some empty 
space; and this fact is noteworthy when taken in conjunction 
with the horror which Musset afterwards so often expressed 
of doing anything like writing " to order " of writing, indeed, 
in any way or at any moment except when the inspiration 
or the fancy happened to seize him. The success of the 
volume seemed to be small in comparison with that of his Conies 
d'Espagne, but it led indirectly to Mussel's being engaged as a 
contributor to the Revue des deux mondes. In this he published, 
in April 1833, Andre del Sarto, and he followed this six weeks 
later with Les Caprices de Marianne. This play afterwards took 
and holds rank as one of the classical pieces in the repertory 
of the Theatre Franc,ais. Afler Ihe retirement in 1887 from 
the stage of the brilliant actor Delaunay the piece dropped 
out of the Francais repertory until it was replaced on the 
stage by M. Jules Claretie, administrator-general of the Comedie 
Franqaise, on the igth of January 1906. Les Caprices de 
Marianne affords a fine illuslration of the method referred to 
above, a method of which Musset gave somelhing like a definite 
explanation five years later. This explanation was also pub- 
lished in the Revue des deux mondes, and il sel forth thai Ihe 
war belween Ihe classical and Ihe romantic schools could never 
end in a definite victory for either school, nor was it desirable 
that it should so end. " It was time," Musset said, " for a third 
school which should unite the merits of each." And in Les 
Caprices de Marianne these merits are most curiously and happily 
combined. It has perhaps more of the Shakespearian qualily 
Ihe quality of artfully mingling Ihe terrible, the grotesque, and 
the high comedy lones which exisls more or less in all Mussel's 
long and more serious plays, than is found in any other of these. 
The piece is called a comedy, and il owes Ihis litle to its extra- 
ordinary brilliance of dialogue, truth of characterization, and 
swiftness in action, under which there is ever lalenl a sense of 
impending fale. Many of the qualilies indicated are found in 
others of Mussel's dramalic works and nolably in On ne badine 
pas avec I'amour, where the skill in insensibly preparing his 
hearers or readers through a succession of dazzling comedy 

scenes for the swift destruction of the end is very marked. 
But Les Caprices de Marianne is perhaps for this particular 
purpose of illuslralion Ihe mosl compacl and most typical of 

The appearance of Les Caprices de Marianne in the Revue 
(1833) was followed by thai of " Rolla," a symplom of Ihe 
maladie du siecle. Rolla, for all Ihe smack which is nol lo 
be denied of Werlherism, has yel a decided individually. 
The poem was wrilten at Ihe beginning of Mussel's liaison with 
George Sand, and in December 1833 Mussel slarled on Ihe un- 
forlunale journey lo Ilaly. Il was well known lhal Ihe ruplure 
of what was for a lime a mosl passionale altachment had a 
disastrous effect upon Musset, and brought out Ihe weakest 
side of his moral character. He was at first absolulely and 
complelely slruck down by Ihe blow. But it was not so well 
known unlil Paul de Musset pointed it out lhal Ihe passion 
expressed in the Nuit de decembre, written aboul Iwelve 
monlhs afler the journey to Italy, referred nol lo George 
Sand bul lo anolher and quile a differenl woman. The story 
of the Italian journey and its results are told under the guise 
of fiction from two points of view in the two volumes called 
respectively Elle et lui by George Sand, and Lui et elle by 
Paul de Mussel. As to the permanenl effecl on Alfred de 
Mussel, whose irresponsible gaiely was killed by Ihe breaking 
off of Ihe connexion, there can be no doubl. 

During Mussel's absence in Italy Fantasia was published in Ihe 
Revue, Lorenzaccio is said lo have been written al Venice, and 
nol long afler his relurn On ne badine pas avec I'amour was written 
and published in the Revue. In 1835 he produced Lucie, La Nuit 
de mai, La Ouenouille de Barberine, Le Chandelier, La Loi sur la 
presse, La Nuit de decembre, and La Confession d'un enfant du 
siecle, wherein is conlained what is probably a Irue accounl of 
Mussel's relations with George Sand. The Confession is excep- 
tionally inleresling as exhibiling Ihe poel's frame of mind al 
Ihe lime, and Ihe approach to a revulsion from the Bonaparlisl 
ideas amid which he had been brought up in his childhood. To 
Ihe supreme power of Napoleon he in Ihis work allribuled lhal 
moral sickness of Ihe lime which he described. " One man," 
he wrole, " absorbed the whole life of Europe; the resl of the 
human race slruggled lo fill Iheir lungs wilh Ihe air lhat he had 
breathed." When the emperor fell, " a ruined world was a 
resting-place for a generation weighled with care." The Con- 
fession is further importanl, aparl from ils high literary merit, 
as exhibiting in many passages the poet's lendency lo shun or 
wildly prolest against all lhal is disagreeable or difficull in human 
life a lendency lo which, however, much of his finesl work was 
due. To 1836 belong the Nuit d'aout, the Lettre a Lamartine, 
the Stances a la Malibran, the comedy // ne faut jurer de rien, 
and the beginning of the brillianl letters of Dupuis and Colonel 
on romanticism. II ne faut jurer de rien is as lypical of Mussel's 
comedy work as is Les Caprices de Marianne of Ihe work in which 
a lerrible falalily underlies Ihe brillianl dialogue and keen 
polished characterization. In 1837 was published Un Caprice, 
which afterwards found its way to the Paris stage by a curious 
road. Mme AUan-Despreaux, the aclress, heard of il in 
Si Pelersburg as a Russian piece. On asking for a French 
Iranslation of the play she received the volume Comedies et 
proverbes reprinted from the Revue des deux mondes. In 1837 
appeared also some of the Nouvelks. In 1839 Mussel began a 
romance called Le Poete dechu, of which the existing fragments 
are full of passion and insighl. In 1840 he passed through a 
period of feeling lhat the public did not recognize his genius 
as, indeed, they did nol and wrole a very short but very 
striking series of reflections headed wilh Ihe words "A Irente 
ans," which Paul de Musset published in his Life. In 1841 
there came out in Ihe Revue de Paris Mussel's " Le Rhin alle- 
mand," an answer to Becker's poem which appeared in the 
Revue des deux mondes. This fine war-song made a great deal 
of noise, and broughl lo the poet quanlilies of challenges from 
German officers. Belween Ihis dale and 1845 he wrole compara- 
lively little. In the lasl named year Ihe charming " proverbe " 
// faut qu'une porte soil ouverte ou fermee appeared. In 1847 



Un Caprice was produced at the Theatre Francais, and the 
employment in it of such a word as " rebonsoir " shocked some 
of the old school. But the success of the piece was immediate 
and marked. It increased Mussel's reputation with the public 
in a degree out of proportion to its intrinsic importance; 
and indeed freed him from the burden of depression caused by 
want of appreciation. In 1848 // ne faut jurer de rien was 
played at the Theatre Francais and the Chandelier at the Theatre 
Historique. Between this date and 1851 . Bettine was pro- 
duced on the stage and Carmosine written; and between this 
time and the date of his death, from an affection of the heart, 
on the 2nd of May 1857, the poet produced no large work of 

Alfred de Musset now holds the place which Sainte-Beuve 
first accorded, then denied, and then again accorded to him 
as a poet of the first rank. He had genius, though not genius 
of that strongest kind which its possessor can always keep in 
check. His own character worked both for and against his 
success as a writer. He inspired a strong personal affection in 
his contemporaries. His very weakness and his own conscious- 
ness of it produced such beautiful work as, to take one instance, 
the Nuit d'oclobre. His Nouvellesaxe extraordinarily brilliant; 
his poems are charged with passion, fancy and fine satiric power; 
in his plays he hit upon a method of his own, in which no one 
has dared or availed to follow him with any closeness. He 
was one of the first, most original, and in the end most successful 
of the first-rate writers included in the phrase " the 1830 period." 
The wilder side of his life has probably been exaggerated; and 
his brother Paul de Musset has given in his Biographic a striking 
testimony to the finer side of his character. In the later years 
of his life Musset was elected, not without opposition, a member 
of the French Academy. Besides the works above referred to, 
the Nouvelles et conies and the (Euvres posthumes, in which 
there is much of interest concerning the great tragic actress 
Rachel, should be specially mentioned. 

The biography of Alfred de Musset by his brother Paul, partial 
as it naturally is, is of great value. Alfred de Musset has afforded 
matter for many appreciations, and among these in English may be 
mentioned the sketch (1890) of C. F. Oliphant and the essay (1855) 
of F. T. Palgrave. See also the monograph by Arvfede Barme 
(Madame Vincens) in the " Grands ecrivains francais " series. 
Musset 's correspondence with George Sand was published intact for 
the first time in 1904. 

A monument to Alfred de Musset by Antonin Merci6, presented 
by M. Osiris, and erected on the Place du Theatre Francais, was 
duly " inaugurated " on the 24th of February 1906. The ceremony 
took place in the vestibule of the theatre, where speeches were 
delivered by Jules Claretie, Frangois Coppe'e and others, and 
Mounet-Sully recited a poem, written for the occasion by Maurice 
Magre. (W. H. P.) 

MUSSOORIE, or MASTJRI, a town and sanitarium of British 
India, in the Dehra Dun district of the United Provinces, about 
6600 ft. above the sea. Pop. (1901), 6461, rising to 15,000 in the 
hot season. It stands on a ridge of one of the lower Himalayan 
ranges, amid beautiful mountain scenery, and forms with 
Naini Tal the chief summer resort for European residents in the 
plains of the United Provinces. The view from Mussoorie 
over the valley of the Dun and across the Siwalik hills to the 
plains is very beautiful, as also is the view towards the north, 
which is bounded by the peaks of the snowy range. Mussoorie 
practically forms one station with Landaur, the convalescent 
depot for European troops, 7362 ft. above the sea. Some 
distance off, on the road to Simla, is the cantonment of Chakrata, 
7300 ft. It was formerly approached by road from Saharanpur 
in the plains, 58 m. distant, but in 1900 the railway was opened 
to Dehra, 21 m. by road. There are numerous schools for 
Europeans, including St George's college, the Philander-Smith 
institute, the Oak Grove school of the East Indian railway, and 
several Church of England and Roman Catholic institutions, 
together with a cathedral of the latter faith. The first brewery 
in India was established here in 1850. The town has botanical 
gardens, and is the summer headquarters of the Trigonometrical 

MUSTAFA RESHID PASHA (1800-1858), Turkish statesman 
and diplomatist, was born at Constantinople in 1800. He 
xix. 4 

entered the public service at an early age and rose rapidly, 
becoming ambassador at Paris in 1834 and in London 1836, 
minister for foreign affairs 1837, again ambassador in London 
1838, and in Paris 1841. Appointed vali of Adrianople in 
1843, he returned as ambassador to Paris in the same year. 
Between 1845 and 1857 he was six times grand vizier. One of 
the greatest and most brilliant statesmen of his time, thoroughly 
acquainted with European politics, and well versed in affairs, 
he was a convinced if somewhat too ardent partisan of reform 
and the principal author of the legislative remodelling of Turkish 
administrative methods known as the Tanzimat. His ability 
was recognized alike by friend and by foe. In the settlement 
of the Egyptian question in 1840, and during the Crimean War 
and the ensuing peace negotiations, he rendered valuable services 
to the state. 

MUSTANG, the wild or semi-wild horse of the prairies of 
America, the descendant of the horses imported by the Spaniards 
after the conquest in the i6th century (see HORSE). The word 
appears to be due to two Spanish words, meslrenco, or mostrenco, 
defined by Minsheu (1599) as " a strayer. " Mestrenco (now 
mesteno) means " wild, having no master," and appears to be 
derived from mesta, a grazier-association, which among other 
functions appropriated any wild cattle found with the herds. 

MUSTARD. The varieties of mustard-seed of commerce are 
produced from several species of the genus Brassica (a member 
of the natural order Cruciferae). Of these the principal are the 
black or brown mustard, Brassica nigra (Sinapis nigra), the 
white mustard, Brassica alba, and the Sarepta mustard, B. 
juncea. Both the white and black mustards are cultivated 
to some extent in various parts of England. The white is to 
be found in every garden as a salad plant; but it has come into 
increasing favour as a forage crop for sheep, and as a green 
manure, for which purpose it is ploughed down when about to 
come into flower. The black mustard is grown solely for its 
seeds, which yield the well-known condiment. The name of the 
condiment was in French mouslarde, mod. moutarde, as being made 
of the seeds of the plant pounded and mixed with must (Lat. 
mustum, i.e. unf ermented wine) . l The word was thus transferred 
to the plant itself. When white mustard is cultivated for its 
herbage it is sown usually in July or August, after some early 
crop has been removed. The land being brought into a fine 
tilth, the seed, at the rate of 12 Ib per acre, is sown broadcast, 
and covered in the way recommended for clover seeds. In 
about six weeks it is ready either for feeding off by sheep or for 
ploughing down as a preparative for wheat or barley. White 
mustard is not fastidious in regard to soil. When grown for 
a seed crop it is treated in the way about to be described for the 
other variety. For this purpose either kind requires a fertile 
soil, as it is an exhausting crop. The seed is sown in April, 
is once hoed in May, and requires no further culture. As soon as 
the pods have assumed a brown colour the crop is reaped and 
laid down in handfuls, which lie until dry enough for thrashing 
or stacking. In removing it from the ground it must be handled 
with great care, and carried to the thrashing-floor or stack on 
cloths, to avoid the loss of seed. The price depends much on 
its being saved in dry weather, as the quality suffers much 
from wet. This great evil attends its growth, that the seeds 
which are unavoidably shed in harvesting the crop remain in the 
soil, and stock it permanently with what proves a pestilent weed 
amongst future crops. 

White mustard is used as a small salad generally accompanied 
by garden cress while still in the seed leaf. To keep up a 
supply the seed should be sown every week or ten days. The 
sowings in the open ground may be made from March till October, 
earlier or later according to the season. The ground should 
be light and rich, and the situation warm and sheltered. Sow 
thickly in rows 6 in. apart, and slightly cover the seed, pressing 
the surface smooth with the back of the spade. When gathering 
the crop, cut the young plants off even with the ground, or pull 

1 There were two kinds of mustum, one the best for keeping, 
produced after the first treading of the grapes, and called mustum 
lixivum; the other, mustum tortivum, obtained from the mass of 
trodden grapes by the wine-press, was used for inferior purposes. 

9 8 


them up and cut off the roots, beginning at one end of a row. 
From October to March the seeds should be sown thickly in 
shallow boxes and placed in a warm house or frame, with a 
temperature not below 65. 

Brassica nigra occurs as a weed in waste and cultivated ground 
throughout England and the south of Scotland, but is a doubtful 
native. It is a large branching annual 2 to 3 ft. high with stiff, 
rather rough, stem and branches, dark green leaves ranging from 
Jyrate below to lanceolate above, short racemes of small bright 
yellow flowers one-third of an inch in diameter and narrow 
smooth pods. B. alba is more restricted to cultivated ground and 
has still less claim to be considered a native of Great Britain; 
it is distinguished from black mustard by its smaller size, larger 
flowers and seeds, and spreading rough hairy pods with a long 
curved beak. 

The peculiar pungency and odour to which mustard owes much of 
its value are due to an essential oil developed by the action of water 
on two peculiar chemical substances contained in the black seed. 
These bodies are a glucoside termed by its discoverers myronate of 
potassium, but since called sinigrin, CioHisKNSjOio, and an albumi- 
noid body, myrosin. The latter substance in presence of water 
acts as a ferment on sinigrin, splitting it up into the essential oil of 
mustard, a potassium salt, and sugar. It is worthy of remark that 
this reaction does not take place in presence of boiling water, and 
therefore it is not proper to use very hot water (above 120 F.) in 
the preparation of mustard. The explanation is that myrosin is 
decomposed by water above this temperature. Essential oil of 
mustard is in chemical constitution an isothiocyanate of allyl 
CaHjNCS. It is prepared artificially by a process, discovered by 
Zinzin, which consists in treating bromide of ally! with thiocyanate 
of ammonium and distilling the resultant thiocyanate of allyl. The 
seed of white mustard contains in place of sinigrin a peculiar gluco- 
side called sinalbin, Cail^Nsi^Oij, in several aspects analogous to 
sinigrin. In presence of water it is acted upon by myrosin, 
present also in white mustard, splitting it up into acrinyl isothio- 
cyanate, sulphate of sinapin and glucose. The first of these is a 
powerful rubefacient, whence white mustard, although yielding 
no volatile oil, forms a valuable material for plasters. The seeds 
of Brassica juncea have the same constitution and properties as black 
mustard, as a substitute for which they are extensively cultivated 
in southern Russia; the plant is also cultivated abundantly in India. 

Both as a table condiment and as a medicinal substance, mustard 
has been known from a very remote period. Under the name of 
rawv it was used by Hippocrates in medicine. The form in which 
table mustard is now sold in the United Kingdom dates from 1720, 
about which time Mrs Clements of Durham hit on the idea of grinding 
the seed in a mill and sifting the flour from the husk. The bright 
yellow farina thereby produced under the name of " Durham 
mustard " pleased the taste of George I., and rapidly attained wide 
popularity. As it is now prepared mustard consists essentially of 
a mixture of black and white farina in certain proportions. Several 
grades of pure mustard are made containing nothing but the farina 
of mustard-seed, the lower qualities having larger amounts of the 
white cheaper mustard; and corresponding grades of a mixed 
preparation of equal price, but containing certain proportions of 
wheaten or starch flour, are also prepared and sold as " mustard 
condiment." The mixture is free from the unmitigated bitterness 
and sharpness of flavour of pure mustard, and it keeps much better. 

The volatile oil distilled from black mustard seeds after maceration 
with water is official in the British Pharmacopeia under the title 
Oleum sinapis volatile. It is a yellowish or colourless pungent 
liquid, soluble only in about fifty parts of water, but readily so in 
ether and in alcohol. From it is prepared, with camphor, castor 
oil and alcohol, the linimentum sinapis. The official sinapis consists 
of black and white mustard seeds powdered and mixed. The advan- 
tage of mixture depends upon the fact that the white mustard seeds 
have an excess of the ferment myrosin, and the black, whilst some- 
what deficient in myrosin, yield a volatile body as compared with the 
fixed product of the white mustard seeds. From this mixture is 
prepared the charts, sinapis, which consists of cartridge paper covered 
with a mixture of the powder and the liquor caoutchouc, the fixed 
oil having first been removed by benzol, thus rendering the glucoside 
capable of being more easily decomposed by the ferment. 

Used internally as a condiment, mustard stimulates the salivary 
but not the gastric secretions. It increases the peristaltic move- 
ments of the stomach very markedly. One drachm to half an ounce 
of mustard in a tumblerful of warm water is an efficient emetic, 
acting directly upon the gastric sensory nerves, long before any of 
the drug could be absorbed so as to reach the emetic centre in the 
medulla oblongata. The heart and respiration are reflexly stimu- 
lated, mustard being thus the only stimulant emetic. Some few other 
emetics act without any appreciable depression, but in cases of 
poisoning with respiratory or cardiac failure mustard should never 
be forgotten. In contrast to this may be mentioned, amongst the 
external therapeutic applications of mustard, its frequent power of 
relieving vomiting when locally applied to the epigastrium. 

The uses of mustard leaves in the treatment of local pains are 
well known. When a marked counter-irritant action is needed, 
mustard is often preferable to cantharides in being more manageable 
and in causing a less degree of vesication ; but the cutaneous damage 
done by mustard usually takes longer to heal. A mustard sitz 
bath will often hasten and alleviate the initial stage of menstruation, 
and is sometimes used to expedite the appearance of the eruption 
in measles and scarlatina. The domestic remedy of hot water and 
mustard for children's feet in cases of cold or threatened cold may 
be of some use in drawing the blood to the surface and thus tending 
to prevent an excessive vascular dilatation in the nose or bronchi. 
The proportion of an ounce of mustard to a gallon of water is a fair 
one and easily remembered. But by far the most important 
therapeutic application of mustard is as a unique emetic. 

MUSTARD OILS, organic chemical compounds of general 
formula R-NCS. They may be prepared by the action of 
carbon bisulphide on primary amines in alcoholic or ethereal 
solution, the alkyl dithio-carbamic compounds formed being 
then precipitated with mercuric chloride, and the mercuric 
salts heated in aqueous solution, 

or the isocyanic esters may be heated with phosphorus penta- 
sulphide (A. Michael and G. Palmer, Amer. Chem. Jour., 1884, 
6, 257). They are colourless liquids with a very pungent irritating 
odour. They are readily oxidized, with production of the corre- 
sponding amine. Nascent hydrogen converts them into the 
amine, with simultaneous formation of thio-formaldehyde, 
RNCS+4H = R-NH 2 +HCSH. When heated with acids to 
100 C, they decompose with formation of the amine and libera- 
tion of carbon bisulphide and sulphuretted hydrogen. They 
combine directly with alcohols, mercaptans, ammonia, amines 
and with aldehyde ammonia. 

Methyl mustard oil, CH S NCS, melts at 35 C.and boils at nq C. 
Allyl mustard oil, CjHsNCS, is the principal constituent of the 
ordinary mustard oil obtained on distilling black mustard seeds. 
These seeds contain potassium myronate (CioHiaNSjOioK) which in 
presence of water is hydrolysed by the myrosin present in the seed, 

It may also be prepared by heating allyl sulphide with potassium 
sulphpcyanide. It is a colourless liquid boiling at 150-7 C. It 
combines directly with potassium bisulphite. Phenyl mustard oil, 
CeHsNCS, is obtained by boiling sulphocarbanilide with concentrated 
hydrochloric acid, some triohenylguanidine being formed at the same 
time. It is a colourless liquid boiling at 222 C. When heated 
with copper powder it yields benzonitrile. 

MUSTER (Mid. Eng. moslre, moustre, adapted from the similar 
O. Fr. forms; Lat. monstrare), originally an exhibition, show, 
review, an exhibition of strength, prowess or power. One of 
the meanings of this common Romanic word, viz. pattern, 
sample, is only used in commercial usage in English (e.g. in 
the cutlery trade), but it has passed into Teutonic languages, 
Ger. Muster, Du. mouster. The most general meaning is for the 
assembling of soldiers and sailors for inspection and review, and 
more particularly for the ascertainment and verification of the 
numbers on the roll. This use is seen in the Med. Lat. monstrum 
and monstratio, "recensio milUum" (Du Cange, Gloss, s.v.). In 
the "enlistment" system of army organization during the 
1 6th and lyth centuries, and later in certain special survivals, 
each regiment was " enlisted " by its colonel and reviewed 
by special officers, " muster-masters," who vouched for the 
members on the pay roll of the regiment representing its 
actual strength. This was a necessary precaution in the days 
when it was in the power of the commander of a unit to fill 
the muster roll with the names of fictitious men, known in the 
military slang of France and England as passe-volants and 
"faggots" respectively. The chief officer at headquarters 
was the muster-master-general, later commissary general of 
musters. In the United States the term is still commonly 
used, and a soldier is " mustered out " when he is officially 
discharged from military service. 

MUSURUS, MARCUS (c. 1470-1517), Greek scholar, was 
born at Rhithymna (Retimo) in Crete. At an early age he 
became a pupil of John Lascaris at Venice. In 1505 he was 
made professor of Greek at Padua, but when the university 
was closed in 1509 during the war of the league of Cambrai he 



returned to Venice, where he filled a similar post. In 1516 he 
was summoned to Rome by Leo X., who appointed him arch- 
bishop of Monemvasia (Malvasia) in the Peloponnese, but he died 
before he left Italy. Since 1493 Musurus had been associated 
with the famous printer Aldus Manutius, and belonged to 
the "Neacademia," a society founded by Manutius and other 
learned men for the promotion of Greek studies. Many of the 
Aldine classics were brought out under Musurus's supervision, 
and he is credited with the first editions of the scholia of Aristo- 
phanes (1498), Athenaeus (1514), Hesychius (1514), Pausanias 


See R. Menge's De M. Musuri vita studiis ingenio, in vol. 5 of 
M. Schmidt's edition of Hesychius (1868). 

MUTE (Lat. mutus, dumb), silent or incapable of speech. For 
the human physical incapacity see DEAF AND DUMB. In 
phonetics (q.ii.) a "mute" letter is one which (like p or g) repre- 
sents no individual sound. The name of "mutes" is given, for 
obvious reasons, to the undertaker's assistants at a funeral. In 
music a "mute" (Ital. sordino, from Lat. surdus, deaf) is a device 
for deadening the sound in an instrument by checking its vibra- 
tions. Its use is marked by the sign c.s. (con sordino), and its 
cessation by s.s. (senza sordino). In the case of the violin and 
other stringed instruments this object is attained by the use of a 
piece of brass, wood or ivory, so shaped as to fit on the bridge 
without touching the strings and hold it so tightly as to deaden 
or muffle the vibrations. In the case of brass wind instruments 
a leather, wooden or papier mache pad in the shape of a pear 
with a hole through it is placed in the bell of the instrument, 
by which the passage of the sound is impeded. The interference 
with the pitch of the instruments has led to the invention of 
elaborately constructed mutes. Players on the horn and 
trumpet frequently use the left hand as a mute. Drums are 
muted or "muffled" either by the pressure of the hand on the 
head, or by covering with cloth. In the side drum this is effected 
by the insertion of pieces of cloth between the membrane and the 
"snares," or by loosening the "snares." The muting of a 
pianoforte is obtained by the use of the soft-pedal. 

MUTIAN, KONRAD (1471-1526), German humanist, was 
born in Homberg on the isth of October 1471 of well-to-do 
parents named Mut, and was subsequently known as Konrad 
Mutianus Rufus, from his red hair. At Deventer under Alex- 
ander Hegius he had Erasmus as schoolfellow ; proceeding( 1486) to 
the university of Erfurt, he took the master's degree in 1492. 
From 1495 he travelled in Italy, taking the doctor's degree 
in canon law at Bologna. Returning in 1502, the landgraf of 
Hesse promoted him to high office. The post was not congenial ; 
he resigned it (1503) for a small salary as canonicus in Gotha. 
Mutian was a man of great influence in a select circle especially 
connected with the university of Erfurt, and known as the 
Mutianiscker Bund, which included Eoban Hess, Crotus 
Rubeanus, Justus Jonas and other leaders of independent 
thought. He had no public ambition; except in correspondence, 
and as an epigrammatist, he was no writer, but he furnished 
ideas to those who wrote. He may deserve the title which has 
been given him as "precursor of the Reformation," in so far as he 
desired the reform of the Church, but not the establishment 
of a rival. Like Erasmus, he was with Luther in his early 
stage, but deserted him in his later development. Though he 
had personally no hand in it, the Epistolae obscurorum virorum 
(due especially to Crotus Rubeanus) was the outcome of the 
Reuchlinists in his Bund. He died at Gotha on the 3<5th of 
March (Good Friday) 1526. 

See F. W. Kampschulte, Die Universitdt Erfurt (1858-1860); C. 
Krause, Eobanus Hessus (1879); L. Geiger, in Allgemeine Deutsche 
Biog. (1886) ; C. Krause, Der Briefwechsel des Mutianus Rufus (1885) ; 
another collection by K. Gillert (1890). (A. Go.*) 

MUTILATION (from Lat. mutilus, maimed). The wounding, 
maiming and disfiguring of the body is a practice common 
among savages and systematically pursued by many entire races. 
The varieties of mutilation are as numerous as the instances of 
it are widespread. Nearly every part of the body is the object 
of mutilation, and nearly every motive common to human 

beings vanity, religion, affection, prudence has acted in 
giving rise to what has been proved to be a custom of great 
antiquity. Some forms, such as tattooing and depilation, 
have stayed on as practices even after civilization has banished 
the more brutal types; and a curious fact is that analogous 
mutilations are found observed by races separated by vast 
distances, and proved to have had no relations with one another, 
at any rate in historic times. Ethnical mutilations have in 
certain races a great sociological value. It is only after sub- 
mission to some such operation that the youth is admitted to 
full tribal rights (see INITIATION). Tattooing, too, has a semi- 
religious importance, as when an individual bears a representa- 
tion of his totem on his body; and many mutilations are tribe 
marks, or brands used to know slaves. 

Mutilations may be divided into: (i) those of the skin; (2) of the 
face and head; (3) of the body and limbs; (4) of the teeth; (5) of the 
sexual organs. 

1. The principal form of skin-mutilation is tattooing (<?..), the 
ethnical importance of which is very great. A practice almost as 
common is depilation, or removal of hair. This is either by means 
of the razor, e.g. in Japan, by depilatories, or by tearing out the hairs 
separately, as among most savage peoples. The parts thus mutilated 
are usually the eyebrows, the face, the scalp and the pubic regions. 
Many African natives tear out all the body hair, some among them 
(e.g. the Bongos) using special pincers. Depilation is common, too, 
in the South Sea Islands. The Andaman islanders and the Boto- 
cudos of Brazil shave the body, using shell-edges and other primitive 

2. Mutilations of the face and head are usuajly restricted to the 
lips, ears, nose and cheeks. The lips are simply perforated or 
distended to an extraordinary degree. The Botocudos insert disks 
of wood into the lower lip. Lip-mutilations are common in North 
America, too, on the Mackenzie river and among the Aleutians. 
In Africa they are frequently practised. The Manganja women 
pierce the upper lips and introduce small metal shields or rings. 
The Mittu women bore the lower lip and thrust a wooden peg through. 
In other tribes little sticks of rock crystal are pushed through, 
which jingle together as the wearer -talks. The women of Senegal 
increase the natural thickness of the upper lip by pricking it repeat- 
edly until it is permanently inflamed and swollen. The ear, and 
particularly the lobe, is almost universally mutilated, from the ear- 
rings of the civilized West to the wooden disks of the Botocudos. 
The only peoples who are said not to wear any form of ear ornament 
are the Andaman islanders, the Neddahs, the Bushmen, the Fuegians 
and certain tribes of Sumatra. Ear mutilation in its most exag- 
gerated form is practised in Indo-China by the Mois of Annam and 
the Penangs of Cambodia, and in Borneo by the Dyaks. They 
extend the lobe by the insertion of wooden disks, and by metal 
rings and weights, until it sometimes reaches the shoulder. In 
Africa and Asia earrings sometimes weigh nearly half a pound. 
Livingstone said that the natives of the Zambesi distend the per- 
foration in the lobe to such a degree that the hand closed could be 
passed through. The Monbuttus thrust through a perforation in 
the body of the ear rolls of leaves, or of leather, or cigarettes. The 
Papuans, the inhabitants of the New Hebrides, and most Melanesian 
peoples carry all sorts of things in their ears, the New Caledonians 
using them as pipe-racks. Many races disfigure the nose with 
perforations. The young dandies of New Guinea bore holes through 
the septum and thrust through pieces of bone or flowers, a mutilation 
found, too, among New Zealanders, Australians, New Caledonians 
and other Polynesian races. In Africa the Bagas and Bongos hang 
metal rings and buckles on their noses; the Aleutians cords, bits 
of metal or amber. In women it is the side of the nose which is 
usually perforated; rings and jewelled pendants (as among Indian 
and Arabic women, the ancient Egyptians and Jews), or feathers, 
flowers, coral, &c. (as in Polynesia), being hung there. Only one 
side of the nose is usually perforated, and this is not always merely 
decorative. It may denote social position, as among the Ababdes 
in Africa, whose unmarried girls wear no rings in their noses. The 
male Kulus of the Himalaya wear a large ring in the left nos'ril. 
Malays and Polynesians sometimes deform the nose by enlarging 
its base, effecting this by compression of the nasal bones of the 
newly born. 

The cheeks are not so frequently mutilated. The people of the 
Aleutian and Kurile Islands bore holes through their cheeks and 
place in them the long hairs from the muzzles of seals. The Guaranis 
of South America wear feathers in the same manner. In some 
countries the top of the head or the skin behind the ears of children 
is burnt to preserve them from sickness, traces of which mutilation 
are said to be discoverable on some neolithic skulls; while some 
African tribes cut and prick the neck close to the ear. By many 
peoples the deformation of the skull was anciently practised. 
Herodotus, Hippocrates and Strabo mention such a custom among 
peoples of the Caspian and Crimea. Later similar practices were 
found existing among Chinese mendicant sects, some tribes of 
Turkestan, the Japanese priesthood, in Malaysia, Sumatra, Java and 



the south seas. In Europe it was not unknown. But the discovery 
of America brought to our knowledge those races which made a fine 
art of skull-deformities. At the present day the custom is still 
observed by the Haidas and Chinooks, and by certain tribes of Peru 
and on the Amazon, by the Kurds of Armenia, by certain Malay 
peoples, in the Solomon Islands and the New Hebrides. The 
reasons for this type of mutilation are uncertain. Probably the idea 
of distinguishing themselves from lower races was predominant in 
most cases, as for example in that of the Chinook Indians, who 
deformed the skull to distinguish themselves from their slaves. 
Or it may have been through a desire to give a ferocious appearance 
to their warriors. The deformation was always done at infancy, 
and often in the case of both sexes. It was, however, more usually 
reserved for boys, and sometimes for a single caste, as at Tahiti. 
Different methods prevailed: by bands, bandages, boards, com- 
presses of clay and sandbags, a continued pressure was applied to 
the half-formed cranial bones to give them the desired shape. 
Hand-kneading may also possibly have been employed. 

3. Mutilations of the body or limbs by maiming, lopping off or 
deforming, are far from rare. Certain races (Bushmen, Kaffirs 
and Hottentots) cut off the finger joints as a sign of mourning, 
especially for parents. The Tongans do the same, in the belief that 
the evil spirits which bring diseases into the body would escape by 
the wound. Diseased children are thus mutilated by them. Con- 
tempt for female timidity has caused a curious custom among the 
Gallas (Africa). They amputate the mammae of boys soon after 
birth, believing no warrior can possibly be brave who possesses 
them. The fashion of distorting the feet of Chinese ladies of high 
rank has been of long continuance and only recently prohibited. 

4. Mutilations of the teeth are among the most common and the 
most varied. They are by breaking, extracting, filing, inlaying or 
cutting away the crown of the teeth. Nearly every variety of dental 
mutilation is met with in Africa. In a tribe north-east of the Albert 
Nyanza it is usual to pry out with a piece of metal the four lower 
incisors in children of both sexes. The women of certain tribes on 
the Senegal force the growth of the upper incisors outwards so as 
to make them project beyond the lower lips. Many of the aboriginal 
tribes of Australia extract teeth, and at puberty the Australian boys 
have a tooth knocked out. The Eskimos of the Mackenzie River 
cut down the crown of the upper incisors so as not to resemble dogs. 
Some Malay races, too, are said to blacken their teeth because dogs 
have white teeth. This desire to be unlike animals seems to be at 
the bottom of many dental mutilations. Another reason is the wish 
to distinguish tribe from tribe. Thus some Papuans break their 
teeth in order to be unlike other Papuan tribes which they despise. 
In this way such practices become traditional. Finally, like many 
mutilations, those of the teeth are trials of endurance of physical 
pain, and take place at ceremonies of initiation and at puberty. 
The Mois (Stiengs) of Cochin-China break the two upper middle 
incisors with a flint. This is always ceremoniously done at puberty 
to the accompaniment of feasting and prayers for those mutilated, 
who will thus, it is thought, be preserved from sickness. Among 
Malay races the filing of teeth takes place with similar ceremony at 
puberty. In Java, Sumatra and Borneo the incisors are thinned 
down and shortened. Deep transverse grooves are also made with a 
file, a stone, bamboo or sand, and the teeth filed to a point. The 
Dyaks of Borneo make a small hole in the transverse groove and 
insert a pin of brass, which is hammered to a nail-head shape in the 
hollow, or they inlay the teeth with gold and other metals. The 
ancient Mexicans also inlaid the teeth with precious stones. 

5. Mutilations of the sexual organs are more ethnically important 
than any. They have played a great part in human history, and 
still have much significance in many countries. Their antiquity 
is undoubtedly great, and nearly all originate with the idea of 
initiation into full sexual life. The most important, circumcisjon 
(o.v.)t has been transformed into a religious rite. Infibulation 
(Lat. fibula, a clasp), or the attaching a ring, clasp, or buckle to the 
sexual organs, in females through the labia majora, in males through 
the prepuce, was an operation to preserve chastity very commonly 
practised in antiquity. At Rome it was in use; Strabo says it was 
prevalent in Arabia and in Egypt, and it is still native to those regions 
(Lane, Modern Egyptians, i. 73; Arabic Lexicon, s.v. " hafada "). 
Niebuhr heard that it was practised on both shores of the Persian 
Gulf and at Bagdad (Description de V Arabic, p. 70). It is common in 
Africa (see Sir H. H. Johnston. Kilimanjaro Expedition, 1886), but 
is there often replaced by an operation which consists in stitching 
the labia majora together when the girl is four or five years old. 
Castration is practised in the East to supply guards for harems, and 
was employed in Italy until the time of Pope Leo XIII. to provide 
" soprani ' for the papal choir ; it has also been voluntarily submitted 
to from religious motives (see EUNUCH). The operation has, 
however, been resorted to for other purposes. Thus in Africa it is 
said to have been used as a means of annihilating conquered tribes. 
The Hottentots and Bushmen, too, have the curious custom of 
removing one testicle when a boy is eight or nine years old, in the 
belief that this partial emasculation renders the victim fleeter of 
foot for the chase. The most dreadful of these mutilations is that 
practised by certain Australian tribes on their boys. It consists 
of cutting open and leaving exposed the whole length of the urethral 
canal and thus rendering sexual intercourse impossible. According 

to some authorities it is hatred of the white man and dread of slavery 
which are the reasons of this racial suicide. Among the Dyaks and 
in many of the Melanesian islands curious modes of ornamentation 
of the organs (such as the kalang) prevail, which are in the nature of 

Penal Use. Mutilation as a method of punishment was common 
in the criminal law of many ancient nations. In the earliest laws of 
England mutilation, maiming and dismemberment had a prominent 
place. " Men branded on the forehead, without hands, feet, or 
tongues, lived as examples of the danger which attended the com- 
mission of petty crimes and as a warning to all churls " (Pike's 
History of Crime in England, 1873). The Danes were more severe 
than the Saxons. Under their rules eyes were plucked out; noses, 
ears and upper lips cut off; scalps town away; and sometimes the 
whole body flayed alive. The earliest forest-laws of which there 
is record are those of Canute (1016). Under these, if a freedman 
offered violence to a keeper of the king's deer he was liable to lose 
freedom and property ; if a serf, he lost his right hand, and on a second 
offence was to die. One who killed a deer was either to have his 
eyes put out or lose his life. Under the first two Norman kings 
mutilation was the punishment for poaching. It was, however, not 
reserved for that, as during the reign of Henry I. some coiners were 
taken to Winchester, where their right hands were Ijpped off and 
they were castrated. Under the kings of the West Saxon dynasty 
the loss of hands had been a common penalty for coining (The 
Obsolete Punishments of Shropshire, by S. Meeson Morris). Morris 
quotes a case in John's reign at the Salop Assizes in 1203, where one 
Alice Crithecreche and others were accused of murdering an old 
woman at Lilleshall. Convicted of being accessory, Crithecreche 
was sentenced to death, but the penalty was altered to that of 
having her eyes plucked out. During the Tudor and Stuart periods 
mutilations were a common form of punishment extra-judicially 
inflicted by order of the privy council and the Star Chamber. There 
are said to be preserved at Playford Hall, Ipswich, instruments of 
Henry VIII. 's time for cutting off ears. This penalty appears to 
have been inflicted for not attending church. By an act of Henry 
VIII. (33 Hen. VIII. c. 12) the punishment for "striking in the 
king's court or house " was the loss of the right hand. For writing a 
tract on The Monstrous Regimen of Women a Nonconformist divine 
(Dr W. Stubbs) had his right hand lopped off. Among many cases 
of severe mutilations during Stuart times may be mentioned those 
of Prynne, Burton, Bastwick and Titus Gates. 

MUTINY (from an old verb " mutine," O. Fr. mutin, meutin, 
a sedition; cf. mod. Fr. entente; the original is the Late Lat. 
mota, commotion, from movere, to move), a resistance by force 
to recognized authority, an insurrection, especially applied to 
a sedition in any military or naval forces of the state. Such 
offences are dealt with by courts-martial. (See MILITARY LAW 

MUTSU, MUNEMITSU, COUNT (1842-1896), Japanese states- 
man, was born in 1842 in Wakayama. A vehement opponent 
of " clan government " that is, usurpation of administrative 
posts by men of two or three fiefs, an abuse which threatened 
to follow the overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate he con- 
spired to assist Saigo's rebellion and was imprisoned from 1878 
until 1883. While in prison he translated Bentham's Utilitarian- 
ism. In 1886, after a visit to Europe, he received a diplomatic 
appointment, and held the portfolio of foreign affairs during 
the China-Japan War (1894-95), being associated with Prince 
(then Count) Ito as peace plenipotentiary. He negotiated 
the first of the revised treaties (that with Great Britain), and 
for these various services he received the title of count. He 
died in Tokyo in 1896. His statue in bronze stands before the 
foreign office in Tokyo. 

was born on the 3rd of November 1852, succeeded his father, 
Osahito, the former emperor, in January 1867, and was crowned 
at Osaka on the 3ist of October 1868. The country was then 
in a ferment owing to the concessions which had been granted 
to foreigners by the preceding shogun lyemochi, who in 1854 
concluded a treaty with Commodore Perry by which it was 
agreed that certain ports should be open to foreign trade. 
This convention gave great offence to the more conservative 
daimios, and on their initiative the mikado suddenly decided 
to abolish the shogunate. This resolution was not carried out 
without strong opposition. The reigning shogun, Keiki, yielded 
to the decree, but many of his followers were not so complaisant, 
and it was only by force of arms that the new order of things 
was imposed on the country. The main object of those who 
had advocated the change was to lead to a reversion to the 



primitive condition of affairs, when the will of the mikado was 
absolute and when the presence in Japan of the hated foreigner 
was unknown. But the reactionary party was not to be allowed 
to monopolize revolutions. To their surprise and discomfiture, 
the powerful daimios of Satsuma and Choshu suddenly declared 
themselves to be in favour of opening the country to foreign 
intercourse, and of adopting many far-reaching reforms. With 
this movement Mutsu Hito was cordially in agreement, and of 
his own motion he invited the foreign representatives to an 
audience on the 23rd of March 1868. As Sir Harry Parkes, 
the British minister, was on his way to this assembly, he was 
attacked by a number of two-sworded samurai, who, but for 
his guard, would doubtless have succeeded in assassinating 
him. The outrage was regarded by the emperor and his minis- 
ters as a reflection on their honour, and they readily made all 
reparation within their power. While these agitations were 
afoot, the emperor, with his advisers, was maturing a political 
constitution which was to pave the way to the assumption by 
the emperor of direct personal rule. As a step in this direction, 
Mutsu Hito transferred his capital from Kioto to Yedo, the 
former seat of the shoguns' government, and marked the event 
by renaming the city Tokyo, or Eastern Capital. In 1869 the 
emperor paid a visit to his old capital, and there took as his 
imperial consort a princess of the house of Ichijo. In the same 
year Mutsu Hito bound himself by oath to institute certain 
reforms, the first of which was the establishment of a deliberative 
assembly. In this onward movement he was supported by the 
majority of the daimios, who in a supreme moment of patriotism 
surrendered their estates and privileges to their sovereign. This 
was the death-knell of the feudalism which had existed for so 
many centuries in Japan, and gave Mutsu Hito the free hand 
which he desired. A centralized bureaucracy took the place of 
the old system, and the nation moved rapidly along the road of 
progress. Everything European was eagerly adopted, even 
down to frock-coats and patent-leather boots for the officials. 
Torture was abolished (1873), and a judicial code, adapted from 
the Code Napoleon, was authorized. The first railway that 
from Yokohama to Tokyo was opened in 1872; the European 
calendar was adopted, and English was introduced into the 
curriculum of the common schools. In all these reforms Mutsu 
Hito took a leading part. But it was not to be expected that 
such sweeping changes could be effected without opposition, 
and thrice during the period between 1876 and 1884 the emperor 
had to face serious rebellious movements in the provinces. 
These he succeeded in suppressing; and even amid these pre- 
occupations he managed to inflict a check on his huge neighbour, 
the empire of China. As the government of this state declared 
that it was incapable of punishing certain Formosan pirates for 
outrages committed on Japanese ships (1874), Mutsu Hito 
landed a force on the island, and, having inflicted chastisement 
on the bandits, remained in possession of certain districts until 
the compensation demanded from Peking was paid. The un- 
paralleled advances which had been made by the government 
were now held by the emperor and his advisers to justify a 
demand for the revision of the foreign treaties, and negotiations 
were opened with this object. They failed, however, and the 
consequent disappointment gave rise to a strong reaction against 
everything foreign throughout the country. Foreigners were 
assaulted on the roads, and even the Russian cesarevich, after- 
wards the tsar Nicholas II., was attacked by would-be assassins 
in the streets of Tokyo. A renewed attempt to revise the 
treaties in 1894 was more successful, and in that year Great 
Britain led the way by concluding a revised treaty with Japan. 
Other nations followed, and by 1901 all those obnoxious clauses 
suggestive of political inferiority had finally disappeared from the 
treaties. In the same year (1894) war broke out with China, and 
Mutsu Hito, in common with his subjects, showed the greatest 
zeal for the campaign. He reviewed the troops as they left 
the shores of Japan for Korea and Manchuria, and personally 
distributed rewards to those who had won distinction. In 
the war with Russia, 1904-5, the same was the case, and it was 
to the virtues of their emperor that his generals loyally ascribed 

the Japanese victories. In his wise patriotism, as in all matters, 
Mutsu Hito always placed himself in the van of his countrymen. 
He led them out of the trammels of feudalism ; by his progressive 
rule he lived to see his country advanced to the first rank of 
nations; and he was the first Oriental sovereign to form an 
offensive and defensive alliance with a first-rate European 
power. In 1869 Mutsu Hito married Princess Haru, daughter 
of Ichijo Tadaka, a noble of the first rank. He has one son 
and several daughters, his heir-apparent being Yoshi Hito, who 
was born on the 3ist of August 1879, and married in 1900 
Princess Sada, daughter of Prince KujS, by whom he had three 
sons before 1909. Mutsu Hito adopted the epithet of Meiji, or 
" Enlightened Peace," as the nengo or title of his reign. Thus 
the year 1901, according to the Japanese calendar, was the 
34th year of Meiji. 

MUTTRA, or MATHURA, a city and district of British India 
in the Agra division of the United Provinces. The city is on the 
right bank of the Jumna, 30 m. above Agra; it is an important 
railway junction. Pop. (1901), 60,042. It is an ancient town, 
mentioned by Fa Hien as a centre of Buddhism about A.D. 400; 
his successor Hstian Tsang, about 650, states that it then con- 
tained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical 
temples. Muttra has suffered more from Mahommedan plunder 
than most towns of northern India. It was sacked by Mah- 
mud of Ghazni in 1017-18; about 1500 Sultan Sikandar Lodi 
utterly destroyed all the Hindu shrines, temples and images; 
and in 1636 Shah Jahan appointed a governor expressly to 
" stamp out idolatry." In 1669-70 Aurangzeb visited the city 
and continued the work of destruction. Muttra was again 
captured and plundered by Ahmad Shah with 25,000 Afghan 
cavalry in 1756. The town still forms a great centre of Hindu 
devotion, and large numbers of pilgrims flock annually to the 
festivals. The special cult of Krishna with which the neighbour- 
hood is associated seems to be of comparatively late date. 
Much of the prosperity of the town is due to the residence of a 
great family of seths or native bankers, who were conspicuously 
loyal during the Mutiny. Temples and bathing-stairs line the 
river bank. The majority are modern, but the mosque of 
Aurangzeb, on a lofty site, dates from 1669. Most of the public 
buildings are of white stone, handsomely carved. There are 
an American mission, a Roman Catholic church, a museum of 
antiquities, and a cantonment for a .British cavalry regiment. 
Cotton, paper and pilgrims' charms are the chief articles of 

The DISTRICT OF MUTTRA has an area of 1445 sq. m. It consists 
of an irregular strip of territory lying on both sides of the 
Jumna. The general level is only broken at the south-western 
angle by low ranges of limestone hills. The eastern half con- 
sists for the most part of a rich upland plain, abundantly irrigated 
by wells, rivers and canals, while the western portion, though 
rich in mythological association and antiquarian remains, is 
comparatively unfavoured by nature. For eight months of the 
year the Jumna shrinks to the dimensions of a mere rivulet, 
meandering through a waste of sand. During the rains, how- 
ever, it swells to a mighty stream, a mile or more in breadth. 
Formerly nearly the whole of Muttra consisted of pasture and 
woodland, but the roads constructed as relief works in 1837-1838 
have thrown open many large tracts of country, and the task 
of reclamation has since proceeded rapidly. The population 
in 1901 was 763,099, showing an increase of 7 % in the 
decade. The principal crops are millets, pulse, cotton, wheat, 
barley and sugar cane. The famine of 1878 was severely felt. 
The eastern half of the district is watered by the Agra canal, 
which is navigable, and the western half by branches of the 
Ganges canal. A branch of the Rajputana railway, from 
Achnera to Hathras, crosses the district; the chord line of the 
East India, from Agra to Delhi, traverses it from north to south ; 
and a new line, connecting with the Great Indian Peninsula, 
was opened in 1905. 

The central portion of Muttra district forms one of the most 
sacred spots in Hindu mythology. A circuit of 84 kos around 
Gokul and Brindaban bears the name of the Braj-Mandal, and 



carries with it many associations of earliest Aryan times. 
Here Krishna and his brother Balarama fed their cattle upon the 
plain; and numerous relics of antiquity in the towns of Muttra, 
Gobardhan, Gokul, Mahaban and Brindaban still attest the 
sanctity with which this holy tract was invested. During the 
Buddhist period Muttra became a centre of the new faith. 
After the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni the city fell into 
insignificance till the reign of Akbar; and thenceforward its 
history merges in that of the Jats of Bharatpur, until it again 
acquired separate individuality under Suraj Mai in the middle 
of the 1 8th century. The Bharatpur chiefs took an active part 
in the disturbances consequent on the declining power of the 
Mogul emperors, sometimes on the imperial side, and at others 
with the Mahrattas. The whole of Muttra passed under British 
rule in 1804. 

See F. S. Growse, Malhura (Allahabad, 1883). 

MUTULE (Lat. mutulus, a stay or bracket), in architecture 
the rectangular block under the soffit of the cornice of the Greek 
Doric temple, which is studded with guttae. It is supposed to 
represent the piece of timber through which the wooden pegs 
were driven in order to hold the rafter in position, and it follows 
the rake of the roof. In the Roman Doric order the mutule 
was horizontal, with sometimes a crowning fillet, so that it 
virtually fulfilled the purpose of the modillion in the Corinthian 

MUZAFFAR-ED-DlN, shah of Persia (1853-1907), the second 
son of Shah Nasr-ed-Dm, was born on the 25th of March 1853. 
He was in due course declared vali ahd, or heir-apparent, and 
invested with the governorship of Azerbaijan, but on the 
assassination of his father in 1896 it was feared that his elder 
brother, Zill-es-Sultan, the governor of Isfahan, might prove 
a dangerous rival, especially when it was remembered that 
Muzaffar-ed-Dln had been recalled to Teheran by his father upon 
his failure to suppress a Kurd rising in his province. The 
British and Russian governments, in order to avoid wide- 
spread disturbances, agreed however to give him their support. 
All opposition was thus obviated, and Muzaffar-ed-Din was 
duly enthroned on the 8th of June 1896, the Russian general 
Kosakowsky, commander of the Persian Cossacks, presiding over 
the ceremony with drawn sword. On this occasion the new 
shah announced the suppression of all purchase of civil and 
military posts, and then proceeded to remit in perpetuity all 
taxes on bread and meat, thus lightening the taxation on food, 
which had caused the only disturbances in the last reign. But 
whatever hopes may have been aroused by this auspicious 
beginning of the reign were soon dashed owing to the extrava- 
gance and profligacy of the court, which kept the treasury in 
a chronic state of depletion. Towards the end of 1896 the 
Amin-es-Sultan, who had been grand vizier during the last 
years of Nasr-ed-Dln's reign, was disgraced, and Muzaffar-ed- 
Dm announced his intention of being in future his own grand 
vizier. The Amin-ad-Dowla, a less masterful servant, took 
office with the lower title of prime minister. During his short 
administration an elaborate scheme of reforms was drawn up 
on paper, and remained on paper. The treasury continued 
empty, and in the spring of 1898 Amin-es-Sultan was recalled 
with the special object of filling it. The delay of the British 
government in sanctioning a loan in London gave Russia her 
opportunity. A Russian loan was followed by the establishment 
of a Russian bank at Teheran, and the vast expansion of 
Russian influence generally. At the beginning of 1900 a 
fresh gold loan was negotiated with Russia, and a few 
months later Muzaffar-ed-Din started on a tour in Europe 
by way of St Petersburg, where he was received with great 
state. He subsequently went to Paris to visit the Exhibition 
of 1900, and while there an attempt on his life was made 
by a madman named Francois Salson. In spite of this 
experience the shah so enjoyed his European tour that he 
determined to repeat it as soon as possible. By the end of 
1901 his treasury was again empty; but a fresh Russian loan 
replenished it and in 1902 he again came to Europe, paying 
on this occasion a state visit to England. On his way back 

he stopped at St Petersburg, and at a banquet given in his 
honour by the tsar toasts were exchanged of unmistakable 
significance. None the less, during his visit to King Edward VII. 
the shah had been profuse in his expressions of friendship for 
Great Britain, and in the spring of 1903 a special mission was 
sent to Teheran to invest him with the Order of the Garter. 

The shah's misguided policy had created widespread dis- 
affection in the country, and the brunt of popular disfavour 
fell on the atabeg (the title by which the Amin-es-Sultan was 
now known), who was once more disgraced in September 1903. 
The war with Japan now relaxed the Russian pressure on 
Teheran, and at the same time dried up the source of supplies; 
and the clergy, giving voice to the general misery and discontent, 
grew more and more outspoken in their denunciations of the 
shah's misrule. Nevertheless Muzaffar-ed-Dm defied public 
opinion by making another journey to Europe in 1905; but, 
though received with the customary distinction at St Petersburg, 
he failed to obtain further supplies. In the summer of 1906 
popular discontent culminated in extraordinary demonstrations 
at Teheran, which practically amounted to a general strike. 
The shah was forced to yield, and proclaimed a liberal con- 
stitution, the first parliament being opened by him on the I2th 
of October 1906. Muzaffar-ed-Din died on the 8th of January 
1907, being succeeded by his son Mahommed Ali Mirza. 

MUZAFFARGARH, a town and district of British India, 
in the Multan division of the Punjab. The town is near the 
right bank of the river Chenab, and has a railway station. 
Pop. (1901), 4018. Its fort and a mosque were built by Nawab 
Muzaffar Khan in 1794-1796. 

The DISTRICT or MUZAFFARGARH occupies the lower end of 
the Sind-Sagar Doab. Area, 3635 sq. m. In the northern 
half of the district is the wild thai or central desert, an arid 
elevated tract with a width of 40 m. in the extreme north, 
which gradually contracts until it disappears about 10 m. 
south of Muzaffargarh town. Although apparently a table-land, 
it is really composed of separate sandhills, with intermediate 
valleys lying at a lower level than that of the Indus, and at 
times flooded. The towns stand on high sites or are protected 
by embankments; but the villages scattered over the lowlands 
are exposed to annual inundations, during which the people 
abandon their grass-built huts, and take refuge on wooden 
platforms attached to each house. Throughout the cold weather 
large herds of camels, belonging chiefly to the Povindah 
merchants of Afghanistan, graze upon the sandy waste. 

The district possesses hardly any distinct annals of its own, 
having always formed part of Multan (?..). The population 
in 1901 was 405,656, showing an increase of 6-4% in the decade, 
due to the extension of irrigation. The principal crops are 
wheat, pulse, rice and indigo. The most important domestic 
animal is the camel. The district is crossed by the North- 
Western railway, and the boundary rivers are navigable, besides 
furnishing numerous irrigation channels, originally constructed 
under native rule. 

MUZAFFARNAGAR, a town and district of British India, 
in the Meerut division of the United Provinces. The town is 
790 ft. above the sea, and has a station on the North-Western 
railway. Pop. (1901), 23,444. It is an important trading centre 
and has a manufacture of blankets. It was founded about 1633 
by the son of Muzaffar Khan, Khan-i-Jahan, one of the famous 
Sayid family who rose to power under the emperor Shah Jahan. 

The DISTRICT OF MUZAFFARNAGAR has an area of 1666 sq. m. 
It lies near the northern extremity of the Doab or great alluvial 
plain between the Ganges and the Jumna, and shares to a large 
extent in the general monotony of that level region. A great 
portion is sandy and unfertile; but under irrigation the soil is 
rapidly improving, and in many places the villagers have 
succeeded in introducing a high state of cultivation. Before 
the opening of the canals Muzaffarnagar was liable to famines 
caused by drought; but the danger from this has been mini- 
mized by the spread of irrigation. It is traversed by four main 
canals, the Ganges, Anupshahr, Deoband and Eastern Jumna. 
Its trade is confined to the raw materials it produces. The 



climate of the district is comparatively cool, owing to the 
proximity of the hills; and the average annual rainfall is 33 in. 
The population in 1901 was- 877,188, showing an increase of 
13-5 % in the decade, which was a period of unexampled 
prosperity. The principal crops are wheat, pulse, cotton and 
sugar-cane. The district is crossed by the North-Western 
railway from Delhi to Saharanpur. 

Hindu tradition represents Muzaffarnagar as having formed a 
portion of the Pandava kingdom of the Mahdbharala; authentic 
history, however, dates from the time of the Moslem conquests 
in the i3th century, from which time it remained a dependency 
of the various Mahommedan dynasties which ruled at Delhi 
until the practical downfall of the Mogul Empire in the middle 
of the i8th century. In 1788 the district fell into the hands 
of the Mahrattas. After the fall of Aligarh, the whole Doab 
as far north as the Siwalik hills passed into the hands of the 
British without a blow, and Muzaffarnagar became part of 
Saharanpur. It was created a separate jurisdiction in 1824. 
During the Mutiny there was some disorder, chiefly occasioned 
by official weakness, but no severe fighting. 

See Muzaffarnagar District Gazetteer (Allahabad, 1903). 

MUZAFFARPUR, a town and district of British India, in the 
Patna division of Bengal. The town is on the right bank of 
the Little Gandak river, and has a railway station. Pop. (1901), 
45,617. The town is well laid out, and is an important centre 
of trade, being on the direct route from Patna to Nepal. It is 
the headquarters of the Behar Light Horse volunteer corps and 
has a college established in 1899. 

The DISTRICT OF MUZAFFARPUR has an area of 3035 sq. m. It 
was formed in January 1875 out of the great district of Tirhoot, 
which up to that time was the largest and most populous district 
of Lower Bengal. The district is an alluvial plain between the 
Ganges and the Great Gandak, the Baghmat and Little Gandak 
being the principal rivers within it. South of the Little Gandak 
the land is somewhat elevated, with depressions containing 
lakes toward the south-east. North of the Baghmat the land 
is lower and marshy, but is traversed by elevated dry ridges. 
The tract between the two rivers is lowest of all and liable to 
floods. Pop. (1901), 2,754,790, showing an increase of 1-5 % 
in the decade. Average density, 914 per sq. m., being exceeded 
in all India only by the neighbouring district of Saran. Indigo 
(superseded to some extent, owing to the fall in price, by sugar) 
and opium are largely grown. Rice is the chief grain crop, 
and cloth, carpets and pottery are manufactured. The district 
is traversed in several directions by the Tirhoot system of the 
Bengal and North-Western railway. It suffered from drought 
in 1873-1874, and again in 1897-1898. 

See Muzaffarpur District Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1907). 

MUZIANO, GIROLAMO (1528-1592), Italian painter, was 
born at Acquafredda, near Brescia, in 1528. Under Romanino, 
an imitator of Titian, he studied his art, designing and colouring 
according to the principles of the Venetian school. But it was 
not until he had left his native place, still in early youth, and 
had repaired to Rome about 1550, that he came into notice. 
There his pictures soon gained for him the surname of II Giovane 
de' paesi (the young man of the landscapes); chestnut-trees 
are predominant in these works. He next tried the more 
elevated style of historical painting. He imitated Michelangelo 
in giving great prominence to the anatomy of his figures, and 
became fond of painting persons emaciated by abstinence or 
even disease. His great picture of the " Resurrection of 
Lazarus " at once established his fame. Michelangelo praised 
it, and pronounced its author one of the first artists of that age. 
It was placed in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, but was 
afterwards transferred to the Quirinal Palace. Muziano, with 
dogged perseverance (at one time he shaved his head, so as not 
to be tempted to go out of doors), continued to proceed in the 
path on which he had entered. He grew excellent in depicting 
foreign and military costumes, and in introducing landscapes 
into his historical pieces after the manner of Titian. Mosaic 
working also occupied his attention while he was employed as 

superintendent at the Vatican; and it became under his hands 
a perfect imitation of painting. His ability and industry soon 
gained for him a handsome fortune. Part of this he expended 
in assisting to found the Academy of St Luke in Rome. He 
died in 1592, and was buried in the church of Santa Maria 

Many of Muziano's works are in the churches and palaces of 
Rome; he also worked in Oryieto and Loreto. In Santa Maria 
degli Angeli, Rome, is one of his chief works, " St Jerome preaching 
to Monks in the Desert " ; his " Circumcision " is in the church of the 
Gesu, his " Ascension " in the Araceli, and his " St Francis receiv- 
ing the Stigmata " in the church of the Conception. A picture by 
him, representing Christ washing the feet of His disciples, is in the 
cathedral of Reims. 

MUZZIOLI, GIOVANNI (1854-1894), Italian painter, was 
born in Modena, whither his family had removed from Castel- 
vetro, on the loth of February 1854. From the time that he 
began to attend the local academy at the age of thirteen he was 
recognized as a prodigy, and four years later, by the unanimous 
vote of the judges, he gained the Poletti scholarship entitling 
him to four years' residence in Rome and Florence. After his 
return to Modena, Muzzioli visited the Paris Exhibition, and 
there came under the influence of Sir L. Alma Tadema. His 
first important picture was " In the Temple of Bacchus " (1881); 
and his masterpiece, " The Funeral of Britannicus," was one of 
the chief successes of the Bologna Exhibition of 1888. From 
1878 to his death (August 5, 1894) Muzzioli lived in Florence, 
where he painted the altar-piece for the church of Castelvetro. 

See History of Modern Italian Art, by A. R. Willard (London, 

MWERU, a large lake of Eastern Central Africa, traversed 
by the Luapula or upper Congo. It lies 3000 ft. above the sea; 
measures about 76 m. in length by some 25 in breadth, and is 
roughly rectangular, the axis running from S.S.W. to N.N.E. 
It is cut a little south of its centre by 9 S. and through its 
N.E. corner passes 29 E. At the south end a shallow bay 
extends to 9 31' S. East of this, and some miles further north, 
the Luapula enters from a Vast marsh inundated at high water; 
it leaves the lake at the north-west corner, making a sharp bend 
to the west before assuming a northerly direction. Besides 
the Luapula, the principal influent is the Kalungwizi, from the 
east. Near the south end of the lake lies the island of Kilwa, 
about 8 m. in length, rising into plateaus 600 ft. above the 
lake. Here the air is cool and balmy, the soil dry, with short 
turf and clumps of shady trees, affording every requirement for 
a sanatorium. Mweru was reached by David Livingstone in 
1867, but its western shore was first explored in 1890 by Sir 
Alfred Sharpe, who two years later effected its circumnavigation. 
The eastern shores from the Luapula entrance to its exit, 
together with Kilwa Island, belong to British Central Africa; 
the western to the Belgian Congo. 

MYAUNGMYA, a district in the Irrawaddy division of lower 
Burma, formed in 1893 out of a portion of Bassein district, and 
reconstituted in 1903. It has an area of 2663 sq. m., and a 
population (1901) of 278,119, showing an increase of 49% in 
the decade and a density of 104 inhabitants to the square mile. 
Among the population were about 12,800 Christians, mostly 
Karens. The district is a deltaic tract, bordering south on the 
sea and traversed by many tidal creeks. Rice cultivation and 
fishing occupy practically all the inhabitants of the district. 
The town of Myaungmya had 4711 inhabitants in 1901. 

MYCENAE, one of the most ancient cities of Greece, was 
situated on a hill above the northern extremity of the fertile 
Argive plain nvxy "Apytos i7nro/36roto. Its situation is ex- 
ceedingly strong, and it commands all the roads leading from 
Corinth and Achaea into the Argive plain. The walls of Mycenae 
are the greatest monument that remains of the Heroic age 
in Greece; part of them is similar in style and doubtless con- 
temporary in date with the walls of the neighbouring town 
Tiryns. There can therefore be little doubt that the two 
towns were the strongholds of a single race, Tiryns commanding 
the sea-coast and Mycenae the inner country. Legend tells 
of the rivalry between the dynasties of the Pelopidae at Mycenae 



and of the Proetidae at Argos. In early historic times Argos 
had obtained the predominance. The Mycenaeans, who had 
temporarily regained their independence with the help of 
Sparta, fought on the Greek side at Plataea in 479 B.C. The 
long warfare between the two cities lasted till 468 B.C., when 
Mycenae was dismantled and its inhabitants dispersed. The 
city never revived; Strabo asserts that no trace of it remained 
in his time, but Pausanias describes the ruins. For the character 
of Mycenaean art and of the antiquities found at Mycenae 

The extant remains of the town of Mycenae are spread over 
the hill between the village of Charvati and the Acropolis. 
They consist of some traces of town walls and of houses, and 
of an early bridge over the stream to the east, on the road 
leading to the Heraeum. The walls of the Acropolis are in 

of thin slabs of stone set up on end, with others laid across the 
top of them; at the part of this enclosure nearest to the Lion 
Gate is an entrance. Some have" supposed the circle of slabs 
to be the retaining wall of a tumulus; but its structure is not 
solid enough for such a purpose, and it can hardly be anything 
but a sacred enclosure. It was within this circle that Dr H. 
Schliemann found the five graves that contained a marvellous 
wealth of gold ornaments and other objects; a sixth was sub- 
sequently found. Above one of the graves was a small circular 
altar, and there were also several sculptured slabs set up above 
them. The graves themselves were mere shafts sunk in the 
rock. Dr Schliemann identified them with the graves of 
Agamemnon, Cassandra, and their companions, which were 
shown to Pausanias within the walls; and there can be little 
doubt that they are the graves that gave rise to the tradition, 

Based on a plan in Schuchhardt's Scldicmann' s Excavations. 

FIG. i. Plan of the Citadel of Mycenae. 

the shape of an irregular triangle, and occupy a position of 
great natural strength between two valleys. They are preserved 
to a considerable height on all sides, except where the ravine 
is precipitous and they have been carried away by a landslip; 
they are for the most part built of irregular blocks of great 
size in the so-called " Cyclopian " style; but certain portions, 
notably that near the chief gate, are built in almost regular 
courses of squared stones; there are also some later repairs in 
polygonal masonry. The main entrance is called the Lion Gate, 
from the famous triangular relief which fills the space above 
its massive lintel. This represents two lions confronted, resting 
their front legs on a low altar-like structure on which is a 
pillar which stands between them. The device is a translation 
into stone of a type not uncommon in gem-cutter's and 
goldsmith's work of the " Mycenaean " age. The gate is 
approached by a road commanded on one side by the city wall, 
on the other by a projecting tower. There is also a postern 
gate on the north side of the wall, and at its eastern extremity 
are two apertures in the thickness of the wall. One of these 
leads out on to the rocks above the southern ravine, the other 
leads to a long staircase, completely concealed in the wall and 
the rocks, leading down to a subterranean well or spring. Just 
within the Lion Gate is a projection of the wall surrounding a 
curious circular enclosure, consisting of two concentric circles 

though the historical identity of the persons actually buried in 
them is a more difficult question. Outside the circle, especially 
to the south of it, numerous remains of houses of the Mycenaean 
age have been found, and others, terraced up at various levels, 
occupy almost the whole of the Acropolis. On the summit, 
approached by a well-preserved flight of steps, are the remains 
of a palace of the Mycenaean age, similar to that found at 
Tiryns, though not so complicated or extensive. Above them 
are the foundations of a Doric temple, probably dating from the 
last days of Mycenaean independence in the 5th century. 

Numerous graves have been found in the slopes of the hills 
adjoining the town of Mycenae. Most of these consist merely of 
a chamber, usually square, excavated in the rock, and approached 
by a " dromos " or horizontal approach in the side of a hill. 
They are sometimes provided with doorways faced with stucco, 
and these have painted ornamentation. Many of these tombs 
have been opened, and their contents are in the Athens museum. 
Another and much more conspicuous kind of tomb is that 
known as the beehive tomb. There are eight of them at Mycenae 
itself, and others in the neighbourhood. Some of them were 
visible in the time of Pausanias, who calls them the places 
where Atreus and his sons kept their treasures. There can, 
however, be no doubt that they were the tombs of princely 
families. The largest and best preserved of them, now 



commonly called the Treasury of Atreus, is just outside the Lion 
Gate. It consists of a circular domed chamber, nearly 50 ft. 
in diameter and in height; a smaller square chamber opens out 
of it. It is approached by a horizontal avenue 20 ft. wide and 
US ft- long, with side walls of squared stone sloping up to a 
height of 45 ft. The doorway was flanked with columns of 
alabaster, with rich spiral ornament, now in the British Museum; 
and the rest of the facade was very richly decorated, as may 
be seen from Chipiez's fine restoration. The inside of the 
vault was ornamented with attached bronze ornaments, but 
not, as is sometimes stated, entirely lined with bronze. It is 
generally supposed that these tombs, as well as those excavated 
in the rock, belong to a later date than the shaft-tombs on the 

See H. Schliemann, Mycenae (1879) I C. Schuchhardt, SMiemann's 
Excavations (Eng. trans., 1891) ; Chr. Tsountas, Mw^vai ai Miwiji'euKAj 
ToXtTK7AiAi(i893); Tsountas and Manatt, The Mycenaean Age (1897); 
Perrot and Chipiez, Histoire de I'art dans I'antiquite, vol. vi., L'art 
Myceneenne. Various reports in OpaxTutd TJJS Apx- iroipios and in 
'E$7)iutpis ip\tuoKoyi.K.ii. (E. GR.) 

MYCETOZOA (Myxomycetes, Schleimpilze) , in zoology, a 
group of organisms reproducing themselves by spores. These 
are produced in or on sporangia which are formed in the air 
and the spores are distributed by the currents of air. They 
thus differ from other spore-bearing members of the animal 
kingdom (which produce their spores while immersed in water 
or, in the case of parasites, within the fluids of their hosts), 
and resemble the Fungi and many of the lower green plants. 
In relation with this condition of their fructification the structures 
formed at the spore-bearing stage to contain or support the 
spores present a remarkable resemblance to the sporangia of 
certain groups of Fungi, from which, however, the Mycetozoa 
are essentially different. 

Although the sporangial and some other phases have long been 
known, and Fries had enumerated 192 species in 1829, the 
main features of their life-history were first worked out in 1859- 
1860 by de Bary (i and 2). He showed that in the Mycetozoa 
the spore hatches out as a mass of naked protoplasm which 
almost immediately assumes a free-swimming flagellate form 
(zoospore), that after multiplying by division this passes into an 
amoeboid phase, and that from such amoebae the plasmodia 
arise, though the mode of their origin was not ascertained by him. 

The plasmodium of the Mycetozoa is a mass of simple proto- 
plasm, without a differentiated envelope and endowed with 
the power of active locomotion. It penetrates the interstices 
of decaying vegetable matter, or, in the case of the species 
Badhamia utricularis, spreads as a film on the surface of living 
fungi; it may grow almost indefinitely in size, attaining under 
favourable conditions several feet in extent. It constitutes 
the dominant phase of the life-history. From the plasmodium 
the sporangia take their origin. It was Cienkowski who (in 
1863) contributed the important fact that the plasmodia arise 
by the fusion with one another of numbers of individuals in 
the amoeboid phase a mode of origin which is now generally 
recognized as an essential feature in the conception of a 
plasmodium, whether as occurring among the Mycetozoa or 
in other groups (7). De Bary clearly expressed the view that 
the life-history of the Mycetozoa shows them to belong not 
to the vegetable but to the animal kingdom. 

The individual sporangia of the Mycetozoa are, for the most 
part, minute structures, rarely attaining the size of a mustard- 
seed, though, in the composite form of aethalia, they may 
form cake-like masses an inch or more across (fig. 21). They are 
found, stalked or sessile, in small clusters or distributed by the 
thousand over a wide area many feet in diameter, on the bark 
of decaying trees, on dead leaves or sticks, in woods and shrub- 
beries, among the stems of plants on wet moors, and, generally, 
at the surface in localities where there is a substratum of decaying 
vegetable matter sufficiently moist to allow the plasmodium 
to live. Tan-heaps have long been known as a favourite habitat 
of Fuligo septica, the plasmodia of which, emerging in bright 
yellow masses at the surface prior to the sporangial (in this 
case aethalial) phase, are known as " flowers of tan." The 

film-like, expanded condition of the plasmodium, varying in 
colour in different species and traversed by a network of vein- 
like channels (fig. 5), has long been known. The plasmodial 
stage was at one time regarded as representing a distinct group 
of fungi, to which the generic name Mesenterica was applied. 
The species of Mycetozoa are widely distributed over the world in 
temperate and tropical latitudes where there is sufficient 
moisture for them to grow, and they must be regarded as not 
inconsiderable agents in the disintegrating processes of nature, 
by which complex organic substances are decomposed into 
simpler and more stable chemical groups. 

Classification. The Mycetozoa, as here understood, fall into 
three main divisions. The Endosporeae, in which the spores are 
contained within sporangia, form together with the Exosporeae, 
which bear their spores on the surface of sporophores, a natural 
group characterized by forming true plasmodia. They con- 
stitute the Euplasmodida. Standing apart from them is the 
small group of the mould-like Sorophora, in which the amoeboid 
individuals only come together immediately prior to spore- 
formation and do not completely fuse with one another. 

A number of other organisms living on vegetable and animal 
bodies, alive or dead, and leading an entirely aquatic life, are 
included by Zopf (31) under the Mycetozoa, as the " Monadina," 
in distinction from the " Eumycetozoa," consisting of the three 
groups above mentioned. The alliance of some of these (e.g. 
Protomonas) with the Mycetozoa is probable, and was accepted 
by de Bary, but the relations of other Monadina are obscure, 
and appear to be at least as close with the Heliozoa (with which 
many have in fact been^assed). The limits here adopted, 
following de Bary, include a group of organisms which, as 
shown by their life-history, belong to the animal stock, and yet 
alone among animals 1 they have acquired the habit, widely 
found in the ( vegetable kingdom, of developing and distributing 
their spores in air. 

Sub-class I. EUPLASMODIDA.* 

Division I. Endosporeae. 
Cohort i. Amaurosporales. 
Sub-cohort i. Calcarineae. 
Order i. Physaraceae. Genera: Badhamia, Physarum, Physarella, 

Trichamphora, Erionema, Cienkowskia, Fuligo, Craterium, 

Leocarpus, Chondrioderma, Diachaea. 
Order 2. Didymiaceae. Genera: Didymtum, Spumaria, Lepido- 


Sub-cohort 2. Araaurochaetineae. 
Order i. Stemonitaceae. Genera: Stemonitis, Comatricha, Ener- 

thenema, Echinostelium, Lamproderma, Clastoderma. 
Order 2. Amaurochaetaceae. Genera: Amaurochaete, Brefeldia. 
Cohort 2. Lamprospprales. 
Sub-cohort i. Anemineae. 
Order i. Heterodermaceae. Genera: Lindbladia, Cribraria, 


Order 2. Licaeceae. Genera : Licea, Orcadella. 
Order 3. Tubulinaceae. Genera: Tubulina, Siphoptychium, A Iwisia. 
Order 4. Reticulariaceae. Genera: Dictydiaethalium, Enteridium, 

Order 5. Lycogalaceae. Genus : Lycogala. 

Sub-cohort 2. Calonemineae. 
Order i. Trichiaceae. Genera: Trichia, Oligonema, Hemilrichia, 


Order 2. Arcyriaceae. Genera: A rcyria, Lac hnobolus, Perichaena. 
Order 3. Margaritaceae. Genera : Margarita, Dianema, Proto- 

trichia, Listerella. 

Division 2. Exosporeae. 
Order i. Ceratiomyxaceae. Genus: Ceratiomyxa. 

Sub-class 2. SOROPHORA. 
Order i. Guttulinaceae.. Genera: Copromyxa, Gutlulina, Guttu- 

Orders. Dictyosteliaceae. Genera: Dictyostelium, Acrasis, Poly- 


1 Bursulla, a member of Zopf's Monadina, likewise forms its spores 
in air. 

4 The classification of the Euplasmodida here given is that of A. 
and G. Lister (22), the outcome of a careful study of the group 
extending over more than twenty-five years. The writer of this 
article desires to express his indebtedness to the opportunities he 
has had of becoming familiar with the work of his father, Mr A. Lister, 
F.R.S., whose views on the affinities and life-history of the Mycetozoa 
he has endeavoured herein to summarize. 




After A. Lister. 





We may begin our survey of the life-history at the point where 
the spores, borne on currents of air, have settled among wet decaying 
vegetable matter. Shrunken when dry, they rapidly absorb water 

and resume the spherical 
shape which is found in 
nearly all species. Each 
is surrounded by a spore 
wall, sheltered by which 
the protoplasm, though 
losing moisture by drying, 
may remain alive for as 
many as four years. In 
several cases it has been 
found to give the chemical 
reaction of cellulose. It 
is smooth or variously 
sculptured according to 
the species. Within the 
protoplasm may be seen 
the nucleus, and one or 
more contractile vacuoles 
make their appearance. 

l.^Stages in the Hatching of the After the spore has lain 
Spores of Dtdymium difforme. in water for a pe riod 

a, The unruptured spore. varying from a few hours 

b. The protoplasmic contents of the spore to a day or two the wall 
emerging It contains a nucleus with bursts and the contained 
the (light) nucleolus, and a contractile protoplasm slips out and 
vacuole (shaded). lies free in the water as a 

c The same, free from the spore wall. minute colourless mass, 

d, Zoospore with nucleus at the base of presenting amoeboid 
the flageilum, and contractile vacuole. movements (fig I c) It 

e, A zoospore with pseudopodial processes soon assumes an elongated 
at the posterior end, to one of which pi r if or m shape, and a 
a bacillus adheres. Two digestive fl age llum is developed at 
vacuoles in the interior contain in- the narrow end, attaining 
gested bacilli. a length equal to the rest 

/, Amoeboid phase with retracted o f tne body. The minute 
nagellum. zoospore, thus equipped, 

swims away with a characteristic dancing motion. The proto- 
plasm is granular within but hyaline externally (fig. I, d). The 
nucleus, lying at the end of the body where it tapers into the 
flagellum, is limited by a definite wall and contains a nuclear 

network and a nucleolus. It often 
presents the appearance of being 
drawn out into a point towards the 
flagellum, and a bell-like structure 
[first described by Plenge (27)], 
staining more darkly than the rest 
of the protoplasm, extends from the 
base of the flagellum and invests 
the nucleus (fig. 2, a and c). The 
other end of the zoospore may be 
evenly rounded (fig. I, d) or it may 
be produced into short pseudo- 
podia (fig. I , e). By means of these 
the zoospore captures bacteria 
which are drawn into the body and 
FIG. 2 ZoospotesolBodhamw enc i osed in digestive vacuoles. A 
pamcea stained (X .650). contractile vacuole is also present 
In a and c the bell-like struc- near the hind end. Considerable 
ture investing the nucleus is movement may be observed among 
clearly seen. tne granules of the interior, and 

in the large zoospores of Amaurochaete atra this may amount to an 
actual streaming, though without the rhythm characteristic of the 
plasmodial stage. 

Other shapes may be temporarily assumed by the zoospore. 

Attaching itself to an object it 
may become amoeboid, either with 
(fig. I, /) or without (fig. 2, c) the 
temporary retraction of the flagel- 
lum; or it may take an elongated 
slug-like shape and creep with the 
flagellum extended in front, with 

FIG. 3. Three stages in the tactile and apparently exploratory 
division of the Zoospore of movements. 

Reticularia Lycoperdon (X That the zoospores of many 
1000). species of the Endosporeae feed on 

bacteria has been shown by A. 

Lister (18). New light has recently been thrown on the matter 
by Pinoy (26), who has worked chiefly with Sorophora, in which, 
as shown below, the active phase of the life-history is passed 

1 Figures i, 4, and 11-22 are from the British Museum Guide to 
the British Mycetozoa. The other figures are from Lankester's 
Treatise on Zoology, part I. Introduction and Protozoa. Fascicle I. 
Article Mycetozoa. 


After A. Lister. 

mainly in the state of isolated amoebae. Pinoy finds that the 
amoebae of this group live on particular species of bacteria, and that 
the presence of the latter is a necessary condition for the develop- 
ment of the Sorophora, and even (as has been recognized by other 
workers) for the hatching of their spores. Pinoy's results indicate, 
though not so conclusively, that bacteria are likewise the essential 
food of the Euplasmodida in the early phases of their life-history. 
The zoospores do, however, ingest other solid bodies, e.g. carmine 
granules (Saville Kent, 15). 

The zoospores multiply by binary fission, the flagellum being 
withdrawn and the nucleus undergoing mitotic division, with the 
formation of a well-marked achromatic spindle (fig. 3). 

It is probable that fission occurs more than once in the zoospore 
stage; but there is not satisfactory evidence to show how often 
it may be repeated. 2 

At this, as at other phases of the life-history, a resting stage 
may be assumed as the result of drying, but also from other and 
unknown causes. The flagel- 
ium is withdrawn and the 
protoplasm, becoming spheri- 
cal, secretes a cyst wall. The 
organism thus passes into the 
condition of a micrpcyst, from 
which when dry it may be 
awakened to renewed activity 
by wetting. 

At the end of the zoospore 
stage the organism finally 
withdraws its flagellum and 
assumes the amoeboid shape. 
It is now known as an amoe- 
bula. The amoebulae become 
endowed, as was first recog- 
nized by Cienkowski, with 
mutual attraction, and on After A. Lister, 
meeting fuse with one another. 

Fig. 4 represents a group of FlG - 4- Amoebulae of Dtdymium 
such amoebulae. Several difforme uniting to form a Plas- 
have already united to form medium. The common mass 
a common mass, to which contains digestive vacuoles (). 
others, still free, are con- The clear spherical bodies are 
verging. The protoplasmic microcysts and an empty spore- 
mass thus arising is the plas- she11 ls seen to the left - 
medium. The fusion between 

the protoplasmic bodies of the amoebulae which unite to form it is 
complete. Their nuclei may be traced for some time in the young 
plasmodium and no fusion between them has been observed at this 
stage (20). As the plasmodium increases in size by the addition of 
amoebulae the task of following the fate of the individual nuclei by 
direct observation becomes impossible. 

The appearance of an active plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis, 
which, as we have seen, lives and feeds on certain fungi, is shown in 
fig. 5. It consists of a film of protoplasm, of a bright yellow colour, 
varying in size up to a foot or more in diameter. It is traversed 
by a network of branching and anastomosing channels, which divide 
up and are gradually lost as they approach the margin where the 
protoplasm forms a uniform and lobate border. Elsewhere the 

FIG. 5. Part of the Plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis (X 8). 

main trunks of the network may lie free with little or no connecting 
film between them and their neighbours. The plasmodia of other 
species, which live in the interstices of decaying vegetable matter, 
are less easily observed, but on emerging on the surface prior to 

2 Pinoy states (26) that the spores of Spumaria alba, cultivated 
with bacteria on solid media, hatch out into amoebae, which under 
these conditions do not assume the flagellate stage. The amoeba 
from a spore was observed to give rise by three successive divisions 
to eight amoebulae. 



spore formation they present an essentially similar appearance. 
There is, however, great variety in the degree of concentration or 
expansion presented by plasmodia, in relation with food supply, 
moisture and other circumstances. The plasmodia move slowly 
about over or in the substratum, concentrating in regions where food 
supply is abundant, and leaving those where it is exhausted. 

On examining under the microscope a film which has spread over 
a cover-slip, the channels are seen to be streams of rapidly moving 
granular protoplasm. This movement is rhythmic in character, 
being directed alternately towards the margin of an advancing 
region of the plasmodium, and away from it. As a channel is 
watched the stream of granules is seen to become slower, and after 
a momentary pause to begin in the opposite direction. In an active 
plasmodium the duration of the flow in either direction varies from 
a minute and a half to two minutes, though it is always longer when 
in the direction of the general advance over the substratum. When 
the flow of the protoplasm is in this latter direction the border be- 
comes turgid, and lobes of hyaline protoplasm are seen (under a high 
magnification) to start forward, and soon to become filled with granu- 
lar contents. When the flow is reversed, the margin becomes thin 
from the drainage away of its contents. A delicate hyaline layer 
invests the plasmodium, and is apparently less fluid than the material 
flowing in the channels. The phenomena of the rhythmic movement 
of the protoplasm are not inconsistent with the view that they result 
from alternating contraction and relaxation of the outer layer in 
different regions of the plasmodium, but any dogmatic statement as 
to their causation appears at present inadvisable. 


.u*. ;*-'-: /\ 


FIG. 6. 

a. Part of a stained Plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis. 
n, Nuclei (X no). 

b. Nuclei, some in process of simple (amitotic) division (X 500). 

c. Part of a Plasmodium in which the nuclei are in simultaneous 

mitotic division. 
d-f, Other stages in this process (X 650). 

Minute contractile vacuoks may be seen in great numbers in the 
thin parts of the plasmodium between the channels. In stained 
preparations nuclei, varying (in Badhamia utricularis) from 2-5 to 
5 micrornillimeters in diameter, are found abundantly in the granular 
protoplasm (fig. 6, b). They contain a nuclear reticulum and one 
or more well-marked nucleoli. In any stained plasmodium some 
nuclei may be found, as shown in the figure b, which appear to be 
in some stage of simple (amitotic) division, and this is, presumably, 
the chief mode in which the number of the nuclei keeps pace with 
the rapidly growing plasmodium. There is, however, another mode 
of nuclear division in the plasmodium which has hitherto been 
observed in one recorded instance (19, p. 541), the mitotic (fig. 6, c-f), 
and this appears to befall all the nuclei of a plasmodium simul- 
taneously. What the relation of these two modes of nuclear division 
may be to the life-history is obscure. 

That the amitotic is the usual mode of nuclear division is indicated 
by the very frequent occurrence of these apparently dividing nuclei 
and also by the following experiment. A plasmodium of Badhamia 
utricularis spreading over pieces of the fungus Auricularia' was 
observed to increase in size about fourfold in fourteen hours, and 
during this time a small sample was removed and stained every 
quarter of an hour. The later stainings showed no diminution in 
the number of nuclei in proportion to the protoplasm, and yet none 
of the sample showed any sign of mitotic division (20, p. 9). It 
would appear therefore that the mode of increase of the nuclei during 
this period was amitotic. 

FIG. 7. Section 

Prowazek (28) has recently referred to nuclear stages, similar to 
those here regarded as of amitotic division, but has interpreted 
them as nuclear fusions. He does not, however, discuss the mode 
of multiplication of nuclei in the plasmodium. 

In the group of the Calcareae, granules of carbonate of lime are 
abundant in the plasmodia, and in all Mycetozoa other granules of 
undetermined nature are present. The colour of plasmodia varies 
in different species, and may be yellow, white, pink, purple or green. 
The colouring matter is in the form of minute drops, and in the 
Calcareae these invest the lime granules. 

Nutrition. The plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis, advancing 
over the pilei of suitable fungi, feeds on the superficial layer dissolving 
the walls of the hyphae (!<[) The protoplasm may be seen to 
contain abundant foreign bodies such as spores of fungi or sclerotium 
cysts (vide infra) which have been taken in and are undergoing 
digestion. It has been found experimentally (n) that pieces of 
coagulated proteids are likewise taken in and digested in vacuoles. 
On the other hand it has been found that plasmodia will live, 
ultimately producing sporangia, in nutrient solutions (o). 1 It would 
appear therefore that the nutrition of plasmodia is effected in part 
by the ingestion of solid foodstuffs, and in part by the absorption 
of material in solution, and that there is great variety in the com- 
plexity of the substances which serve as their food. 

Sclerotium. As the result of drought, the plasmodium, having 
become much denser by loss of water, passes into the sclerotial 
condition. Drawing together into a 
thickish layer, the protoplasm divides 
up into a number of distinct masses, 
each containing some 10 to 20 nuclei, 
and a cyst wall is excreted round each 
mass (fig. 7). The whole has now a 
hard brittle consistency. In this state 
the protoplasm will remain alive for 
two or three years. On the addition 
of water the cyst walls are ruptured .. 

and in part absorbed, their contents Plasmodium of Badhamia 
join together, and the active streaming utnculans when i passing into 
condition of the plasmodium is re- tne condition of sclerotium. 
sumed. It is to be noted, however, . The nuclei contained in 
that the sclerotial condition may be * he young sclerotial cysts, 
assumed under other conditions than dryness, and sclerotia may 
even be formed in water. 

The existence of the sclerotial stage affords a ready means of 
obtaining the plasmodium for experimental purposes. If a cultiva- 
tion of the plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis on suitable fungi 
(Stereum, Auricularia) is allowed to become partially dry the plas- 
modium draws together and would, if drying were continued, pass 
into the sclerotial stage on the fungus. If now strips of wet blotting- 
paper are placed so as to touch the plasmodium, the latter, attracted 
by the moisture, crawls on the blotting-paper. If this is now removed 
and allowed to dry rapidly, the plasmodium passes into sclerotium 
on it. 2 By this means the plasmodium is removed from the partially 
disintegrated and decayed fungus on which it has been feeding, and 
a clean sclerotium is obtained, which, as above stated, remains alive 
for years (21, p. 7). An easy method for obtaining small plasmodia 
for microscopic examination is to scatter small fragments, scraped 
from a piece of the hard sclerotium, over cover-slips wetted with 
rain-water and kept in a moist atmosphere. In twelve to twenty- 
four hours small plasmodia will be seen spreading on the cover-slips 
and these may be mounted for observation. 

The plasmodial stage ends by the formation of the sporangia. 
The plasmodium withdraws from the interstices of the material 
among which it has fed, and emerges on the surface in a diffuse or 
concentrated mass. In the case of Badhamia utricularis it may with- 
draw from the fungus on which it has been feeding, or change into 
sporangia on it. The mode of formation of the sporangia will be 
described in the case of Badhamia, some of the chief differences in 
the process and in the structure of the sporangia in other forms 
being subsequently noticed. 

When the change to sporangia begins the protoplasm of the 
plasmodium becomes gradually massed in discrete rounded lobes, 
about a half to one millimeter in diameter and scattered in clusters 
over the area occupied by the plasmodium. The reticulum of 
channels of the plasmodium becomes meanwhile less and less 
marked. When the whole of the protoplasm is drawn in to the 
lobes, the circulation ceases. The lobes are the young sporangia. 
Meanwhile foreign bodies, taken in with the food, are ejected, and 
the protoplasm secretes on its outer surface a pellicle of mucoid, 
transparent substance which dries as the sporangia ripen. This 
invests the young sporangia, and as they rise above the substratum 
falls together at their bases forming the stalks; extended over the 
substratum it forms the hypothallus, and in contact with the 
rounded surface of the sporangium it forms the sporangium-wall. 
While the sporangium-wall is formed externally a secretion of 

1 A solution which has thus been found favourable contains 
the following mineral salts: KH 2 PO, K 8 HPO 4 ,MgSO <> KNOj, 
CA (NOs)j, a free acid, and 5% of dextrine. 

* If the plasmodium is slowly dried it is very apt to pass into 



similar material occurs along branching and anastomosing tracts 
through the protoplasm of the sporangium, giving rise to the 
capilhtium. The greater part of the lime granules pass out of the 
protoplasm and are deposited in the capilhtium, which in the ripe 
sporangia of Badhamia is white and brittle with the contained lime 
(cf. fig. 8). In this genus some granules are found also in the 
sporangium-wall. Strasburger concludes that the sporangium-wall 
of Trichia is a modification of cellulose (29). 

FIG. 8. Sporangia of Badhamia panicea, some intact, others (to 
left) ruptured, exposing the black masses of spores and the 
capillitium. The latter is white with deposited lime granules. 
An empty sporangium is seen above (X 30). 

It has been stated (16), but the observation requires confirmation, 
that a fusion of the nuclei in pairs occurs early in the development 
of the sporangium. 

FIG. 9. Part of a section 
through a young Sporangium 
of Trichivaria, showing the 
mitotic division of the nuclei (n) 
prior to spore formation. 

c, Capillitium thread (X 650). 

At a later stage, after the capillitium is formed, the nuclei undergo a 
mitotic division which affects all the nuclei of a sporangium simul- 
taneously. This was first described by Strasburger (29). While it 

FIG. 10. Part of a section 
through a Sporangium of Trichia 
varia after the spores are formed 
(X 650). 

FIG. 12. Physarum nutans. 

a. Sporangia (X 9). 

b, Capillitium threads, with frag- 
ment of the sporangium-wall 
attached, lime knots at the 
junctions and spores (X no). 

is in progress the protoplasm of the sporangium divides., into succes- 
sively smaller masses, until each daughter nucleus is the centre of a 
single mass of protoplasm. 1 These nucleated masses are the young 

FIG. n. Badhamia utricularis. 

a, Sporangia (X 3i). 

b, Capillitium and cluster of 
spores (X 140). 

1 In some genera such as Arcyria and Trichia (illustrated in figs. 9 
and 10) the division of the protoplasm does not occur until the nuclei 
have undergone this division. The protoplasm then divides up 
about the daughter nuclei to form the spores. 

spores. A spore-wall is soon secreted and the sporangium has now 
resolved itself into a mass of spores, traversed by the strands of 
the capillitium and enclosed in a sporangium-wall, connected with 
the substratum by a stalk. As ripening proceeds, the wall becomes 
membranous and readily ruptures, and the dry spores may be carried 
abroad on the currents of air or washed out by rain. 

FIG. 13. Chondrioderma 

a, GroupofthreeSporangia(X9). 

b, Capillitium, fragment of spor- 
angium-wall and spores (X 

testa- FIG. 14. Cralerium peduncula- 

a, Two Sporangia, in one the lid 
has fallen away (X 10). 

b, Capillitium with lime knots 
and spores (X no). 

We may now review some of the main differences in structure 
presented by the sporangia. They may be stalked or sessile (fig. 
13). If the former, the stalk is usually, as in Badhamia utricularis, 

FIG. 15. Didymium effusum. 

a. Two Sporangia, one showing 
the columella and capillitium 
(X 12). 

b, Capillitium, fragment of spor- 
angium-wall with carbonate 

(x'isop)! 1 "^ 

the continuation of the sporangium-walls (figs, n and 12), but in 
Stemonitis and its allies (figs. 17 and 18) it is an axial structure. 
A central columella may project into the interior of the sporangium, 
either in stalked (fig. 15) or sessile (fig. 13) forms. 

FIG. 16. Lepidoderma tigrinum. 

c, Sporangium ( X 6) ; the crystal- 
line disks of lime are seen 
attached to the sporangium- 

b, Capillitium and spores (X 140). 

FIG. 17. Lamproderma irlaeum. 

a, Sporangia (X 2%). 

6, A Sporangium deprived of 
spores, showing the capillitium 
and remains of the sporangium- 
wall (X 25). 

FIG. 18. Stemonitis splendens. 

a, Group of Sporangia (nat. size). 

b, Portion of columella and capil- 
litium, the latter branching to 
form a superficial network 
(X 42)- 

The sporangium-wall may be most delicate and evanescent (fig. 1 7) , 
or consist of a superficial network of threads (fig. 18), which in 
Dictydium (fig. 19) present a beautifully regular arrangement. 

FIG. 19. Dictydium umblicatum. FIG. 20. Arcyria punicca. 

a. Group of Sporangia, nat. size, a, Group of Sporangia (X 2). 

b, A Sporangium after dispersion b, Capillitium (X 560). 
of the spores (X 20). c, Spore (X 560). 

In Chondrioderma (fig. 13) the wall is double, the inner layer being 
membranous, the outer thickly encrusted with lime granules. In 
Cralerium the upper part of the sporangium-wall is lid-like and falls 
away, leaving the spores in an open cup (fig. 14). 



The condition of the capiliitium is very various. In the Calcari- 
neae the lime may be generally distributed through it (fig. n), or 
aggregated at the nodes of the network